WorldWideScience

Sample records for e-scrap recycling harvesting

  1. ISASMELT™ for the Recycling of E-Scrap and Copper in the U.S. Case Study Example of a New Compact Recycling Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvear Flores, Gerardo R. F.; Nikolic, Stanko; Mackey, Phillip J.

    2014-05-01

    As living standards around the world improve and metal consumption increases, extracting raw materials will likely become more challenging in the future. Although already part of the general metal supply stream, metal recycling has to increase if we are to build a more sustainable society. With the recent widespread adoption of a range of consumer and industrial electronics, the recycling of the so-called electronic scrap ("e-scrap") has also increased in importance. One of the leading technologies for the recycling of e-scrap and copper scrap is the ISASMELT™ Top Submerged Lance technology. This article describes new opportunities for the U.S. recycling industry to yield full value from collected, sorted, and separated waste metals, in particular, e-scrap and lower grade copper scrap by the use of ISASMELT™ technology. The article includes the description of a case study example of a regional, compact ISASMELT™ plant in the United States treating a blend of e-scrap and copper scrap, having a total feed capacity of 75000 t/year of feed. Plants of higher or lower capacity are also discussed.

  2. A Pilot Assessment of Occupational Health Hazards in the US Electronic Scrap Recycling Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Diana M; Gong, Wei; Page, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) surveyed a randomly selected sample of electronic scrap (e-scrap) recycling facilities nationwide to characterize work processes, exposures, and controls. Despite multiple attempts to contact 278 facilities, only 47 responded (17% response rate). Surveyed facilities reported recycling a wide variety of electronics. The most common recycling processes were manual dismantling and sorting. Other processes included shredding, crushing, and automated separation. Many facilities reported that they had health and safety programs in place. However, some facilities reported the use of compressed air for cleaning, a practice that can lead to increased employee dust exposures, and some facilities allowed food and drinks in the production areas, a practice that can lead to ingestion of contaminants. Although our results may not be generalizable to all US e-scrap recycling facilities, they are informative regarding health and safety programs in the industry. We concluded that e-scrap recycling has the potential for a wide variety of occupational exposures particularly because of the frequent use of manual processes. On-site evaluations of e-scrap recyclers are needed to determine if reported work processes, practices, and controls are effective and meet current standards and guidelines. Educating the e-scrap recycling industry about health and safety best practices, specifically related to safe handling of metal dust, would help protect employees.

  3. Recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, J.J.; Calpin, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    As the recycling ethic takes hold at the state and municipal level, municipal officials and private contractors are working together to formulate and implement recycling programs. The questions - What is to be recycled? How should recyclables be separated and collected? Is intermediate processing beneficial? How can recyclables best be marketed? Should the public or private sector perform the service? What are the true costs? - are being addressed. Answers, however, are often different for large and small municipalities and regional versus individual municipal programs. While no one approach will be suitable for all applications, one can learn from the experiences of operating programs. The paper to be presented will describe two operating, recycling programs that are public and private cooperative efforts: one regional (11 communities in Bucks County, Pennsylvania); and one municipal (Quincy, Massachusetts). Information will be presented describing the recycling programs, economics, and performance

  4. Recycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre-Petersen, Maria

    2017-01-01

    knowledge and insight. The contributions are manifest in a range of epistemic artifacts, i.e. outcomes of my own experiments with recycled glass as well as a series of creative outcomes of collaborative activities. Through the creation of these works, my collaborators and I have developed tacit as well...

  5. Stormwater harvesting for irrigation purposes: an investigation of chemical quality of water recycled in pervious pavement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnadi, Ernest O; Newman, Alan P; Coupe, Stephen J; Mbanaso, Fredrick U

    2015-01-01

    Most available water resources in the world are used for agricultural irrigation. Whilst this level of water use is expected to increase due to rising world population and land use, available water resources are expected to become limited due to climate change and uneven rainfall distribution. Recycled stormwater has the potential to be used as an alternative source of irrigation water and part of sustainable water management strategy. This paper reports on a study to investigate whether a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) technique, known as the pervious pavements system (PPS) has the capability to recycle water that meets irrigation water quality standard. Furthermore, the experiment provided information on the impact of hydrocarbon (which was applied to simulate oil dripping from parked vehicles onto PPS), leaching of nutrients from different layers of the PPS and effects of nutrients (applied to enhance bioremediation) on the stormwater recycling efficiency of the PPS. A weekly dose of 6.23 × 10(-3) L of lubricating oil and single dose of 17.06 g of polymer coated controlled-release fertilizer granules were applied to the series of 710 mm × 360 mm model pervious pavement structure except the controls. Rainfall intensity of 7.4 mm/h was applied to the test models at the rate of 3 events per week. Analysis of the recycled water showed that PPS has the capability to recycle stormwater to a quality that meets the chemical standards for use in agricultural irrigation irrespective of the type of sub-base used. There is a potential benefit of nutrient availability in recycled water for plants, but care should be taken not to dispose of this water in natural water courses as it might result in eutrophication problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. MIMO with Energy Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Basciftci, Y. Ozan; Abdelaziz, Amr; Koksal, C. Emre

    2018-01-01

    We consider a Multiple Input Single Output (MISO) point-to-point communication system in which the transmitter is designed such that, each antenna can transmit information or harvest energy at any given point in time. We evaluate the achievable rate by such an energy-recycling MISO system under an average transmission power constraint. Our achievable scheme carefully switches the mode of the antennas between transmission and wireless harvesting, where most of the harvesting happens from the n...

  7. Linking Informal and Formal Electronics Recycling via an Interface Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Totoki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Informal recycling of electronics in the developing world has emerged as a new global environmental concern. The primary approach to address this problem has been command-and-control policies that ban informal recycling and international trade in electronic scrap. These bans are difficult to enforce and also have negative effects by reducing reuse of electronics, and employment for people in poverty. An alternate approach is to link informal and formal sectors so as to maintain economic activity while mitigating environmental damages. This article explores the idea of an interface organization that purchases components and waste from informal dismantlers and passes them on to formal processors. Environmental, economic and social implications of interface organizations are discussed. The main environmental questions to resolve are what e-scrap components should be targeted by the interface organization, i.e., circuit boards, wires, and/or plastic parts. Economically, when formal recycling is more profitable (e.g., for circuit boards, the interface organization is revenue positive. However, price subsidies are needed for copper wires and residual waste to incentivize informal dismantlers to turn in for formal processing. Socially, the potential for corruption and gaming of the system is critical and needs to be addressed.

  8. Unconventional recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, K.M.

    1996-05-01

    Despite advances made in recycling technology and markets for materials over the past few years, recycling at convention centers, particularly on the show floor itself, can be a vexing problem. Part of the problem lies in the fact that recycling at convention centers has more to do with logistics than it does with these industry trends. However, given the varied nature of convention centers, and the shows they book, a rigid approach to recycling at convention centers is not always feasible. Like the numerous different curbside programs serving communities across the country, what works for one convention center--and one show--many not work for another. These difficulties notwithstanding, more convention centers are offering recycling programs today, and more groups booking conventions these days have begun requesting recycling services.

  9. Tire Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  10. Material recycling; Recycling von Werkstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyerer, P. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT), Pfinztal-Berghausen (Germany)]|[Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kunststoffpruefung und Kunststoffkunde (IKP)

    1996-12-01

    Lasting economizing is the only peaceful possibility for ensuring human life on Earth. Recycling of materials only contributes to lasting economizing if less resources and energy are required than for primary materials. Materials which have been collected and sorted after products have been disassembled result in secondary, tertiary etc. products with virtually the same properties as the primary materials. Non-specific material cycles connected with large scale processes e.g. shredders, hydrogenation, mixed waste recycling result in recycled goods of interior quality and costs which are greater than those of the primary materials. In contrast to metals, paper and glass, synthetic materials from products (e.g. televisions, surfboards, cars, washing machines etc.) especially require and permit differentiated recycling paths. Production waste: For decades now the sorted production waste generated during production, has been reintroduced to the production process of new products at the production location itself if financially interesting. Production waste made of steel, aluminium, glass and paper must be returned to the balst furnace, melting house or slurry. Specific synthetic material cycles: E.g. SMC, PVC window frames and floors, PET bottles, polystyrene, PE and PP disposable syringes, HDPE fuel tanks, PA66 car suction pipes etc. Specific recycling processes: E.g. supercritical hydrooxidation for electronics waste and shredder light fraction alcoholysis for polyurethane. Non-specific recycling processes for organic raw materials: E.g. hydrogenation, high temperature gas generation, thermoselect process etc. Non-specific disposal procedures: E.g. shredders for synthetic materials (light fraction) lead to incineration or to the disposal site, because the costs for separating and sorting the mass synthetic materials are greater than the kilogram prices of the new materials. (orig./HW) [Deutsch] Nachhaltiges Wirtschaften ist die einzige friedliche Moeglichkeit

  11. Recycling Lesson Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaz, Abeer Ali

    2013-01-01

    This lesson plan designed for grade 2 students has the goal of teaching students about the environmental practice of recycling. Children will learn language words related to recycling such as: "we can recycle"/"we can't recycle" and how to avoid littering with such words as: "recycle paper" and/or "don't throw…

  12. Recycling Facilities - Land Recycling Cleanup Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Land Recycling Cleanup Location Land Recycling Cleanup Locations (LRCL) are divided into one or more sub-facilities categorized as media: Air, Contained Release or...

  13. Process Window for Direct Recycling of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene and High-Impact Polystyrene from Electrical and Electronic Equipment Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Yamila V; Barbosa, Silvia E

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess recycling process window of ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) and HIPS (High impact Polystyrene) from WEEE (waste from electrical and electronic equipment) through a final properties/structure screening study on their blends. Main motivation is to evaluate which amount of one plastic WEEE can be included into the other at least keeping their properties. In this sense, a wider margin of error during sorting could be admitted to obtain recycling materials with similar technological application of recycled ABS and HIPS by themselves. Results are discussed in terms of final blend structure, focusing in the interaction, within blends, of copolymers phases and fillers presents in WEEE. The comparative analysis of mechanical performance and morphology of HIPS/ABS blends indicates that the addition of 50wt% HIPS to ABS even improves 50% the elongation at break maintaining the strength. On the opposite, HIPS maintains its properties with 20wt% of ABS added. This study allows enlarging composition process window of recycling plastic WEEE for similar applications. This could be a sustainable way to improve benefit of e-scrap with low costs and easy processability. In consequence, social interest in the recycling of this kind of plastic scrap could be encourage from either ecological or economical points of view. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Recycling Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Environmental Resources, Harrisburg.

    This document contains lesson plans about recycling for teachers in grades K-12. Titles include: (1) "Waste--Where Does It Come From? Where Does It Go?" (2) "Litter Detectives," (3) "Classroom Paper Recycling," (4) "Recycling Survey," (5) "Disposal and Recycling Costs," (6) "Composting…

  15. Recycling of electronic scrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...

  16. Green Science: Revisiting Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling…

  17. Actinide recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.; Chang, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A multitude of studies and assessments of actinide partitioning and transmutation were carried out in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Probably the most comprehensive of these was a study coordinated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The conclusions of this study were that only rather weak economic and safety incentives existed for partitioning and transmuting the actinides for waste management purposes, due to the facts that (1) partitioning processes were complicated and expensive, and (2) the geologic repository was assumed to contain actinides for hundreds of thousands of years. Much has changed in the few years since then. A variety of developments now combine to warrant a renewed assessment of the actinide recycle. First of all, it has become increasingly difficult to provide to all parties the necessary assurance that the repository will contain essentially all radioactive materials until they have decayed. Assurance can almost certainly be provided to regulatory agencies by sound technical arguments, but it is difficult to convince the general public that the behavior of wastes stored in the ground can be modeled and predicted for even a few thousand years. From this point of view alone there would seem to be a clear benefit in reducing the long-term toxicity of the high-level wastes placed in the repository

  18. X-ray Fluorescence in Member States: Ghana. The Use of XRF for Contaminated Site Assessment in Ghana. 2. Estimation of Heavy Metals Contamination at Agbogbloshie E-scrap Yard Using EDXRF Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atiemo, S.M.; Ofosu, F.G.; Aboh, I.J. Kwame

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of the digital age has underscored the important role that electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) plays in a nation's socioeconomic development, including education, health delivery and communications, as well as global connectivity. In 2003 Ghana formulated its policy on information and communications technology (ICT) for accelerated development, with the understanding for instance, that Ghana's accelerated development would not be possible without an ICT-driven development agenda. The demand for EEE in Ghana grows by the day with a corresponding high rate of waste electrical and electronic (WEEE) generation. The WEEE industry in Ghana is a very vibrant one, growing at an amazing rate year after year. Ghana currently imports about 215 000 tonnes of electrical and electronic equipment per annum out of which an estimated 70% are second hand products. About 60-70% of the second hand products arrive in good working condition, 20-30% can be repaired or refurbished to get them functioning and 10-20% are junk and sent directly for the informal recycling. The Agbogbloshie scrap market in Accra came into the limelight following the publication of the report entitled 'Poisoning the Poor' by Greenpeace International. The report gave a damning revelation about the activities of scrap dealers and recyclers at the market. It was noted from the report that surface dust samples contained high concentrations of both heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants due to the unsafe and crude means of retrieving metals and components from the WEEE. This project was therefore designed to determine the heavy metal concentration of surface dust using the EDXRF and estimate the degree of contamination of the dust samples. Surface dust samples were collected from various vicinities within the scrap yard using the methods described above.

  19. Vivaldi Antenna for RF Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schneider

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting is a future technology for capturing ambient energy from the environment to be recycled to feed low-power devices. A planar antipodal Vivaldi antenna is presented for gathering energy from GSM, WLAN, UMTS and related applications. The designed antenna has the potential to be used in energy harvesting systems. Moreover, the antenna is suitable for UWB applications, because it operates according to FCC regulations (3.1 – 10.6 GHz. The designed antenna is printed on ARLON 600 substrate and operates in frequency band from 0.810 GHz up to more than 12 GHz. Experimental results show good conformity with simulated performance.

  20. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    hill, amanda; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits Møller

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...... the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...

  1. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  2. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    % for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...

  3. The recycling is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The recycling site currently situated near building 133 has been transferred to the car park of building 156. The site is identified by the sign “RECYCLING” and the above logo. In this new, more accessible site, you will find recycling bins for the following waste: PET (recyclable plastic bottles); Aluminium cans; Nespresso coffee capsules.  

  4. Chemical Recycle of Plastics

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Various chemical processes currently prevalent in the chemical industry for plastics recycling have been discussed. Possible future scenarios in chemical recycling have also been discussed. Also analyzed are the effects on the environment, the risks, costs and benefits of PVC recycling. Also listed are the various types of plastics and which plastics are safe to use and which not after rcycle

  5. Usage of Recycled Pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebru Tayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bottles are commonly used in beverage industry and can be reused after physical and chemical recycling processes. Usage areas of recycled PET have been developed rapidly. Although recycled PET is used in plastic industry, composite industry also provides usage alternatives of recycled PET. Textile is a suitable sector for recycling of some plastics made of polymers too. In this study, the recycling technologies and applications of waste PET bottles have been investigated and scientific works in this area have been summarized.

  6. Recycling of mixed plastic waste from electrical and electronic equipment. Added value by compatibilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Yamila V; Barbosa, Silvia E

    2016-07-01

    Plastic waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) grows up exponentially fast in the last two decades. Either consumption increase of technological products, like cellphones or computers, or the short lifetime of this products contributes to this rise generating an accumulation of specific plastic materials such ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene), HIPS (High impact Polystyrene), PC (Polycarbonate), among others. All of they can be recycled by themselves. However, to separate them by type is neither easy nor economically viable, then an alternative is recycling them together as a blend. Taking into account that could be a deterioration in final properties, to enhance phase adhesion and add value to a new plastic WEEE blend a compatibilization is needed. In this work, a systematical study of different compatibilizers for blends of HIPS and ABS from WEEE was performed. A screening analysis was carried out by adding two different compatibilizer concentration (2wt% and 20wt%) on a HIPS/ABS physical blend 80/20 proportion from plastic e-waste. Three copolymers were selected as possible compatibilizers by their possible affinity with initial plastic WEEE. A complete characterization of each WEEE was performed and compatibilization efficiency was evaluated by comparing either mechanical or morphological blends aspects. Considering blends analyzed in this work, the best performance was achieved by using 2% of styrene-acrylonitrile rubber, obtaining a compatibilized blend with double ultimate strength and modulus respect to the physical blend, and also improve mechanical properties of initial WEEE plastics. The proposed way is a promise route to improve benefit of e-scrap with sustainable, low costs and easy handling process. Consequently, social recycling interest will be encouraged by both ecological and economical points of view. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Wind energy harvesting with a piezoelectric harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Nan; Wang, Quan; Xie, Xiangdong

    2013-01-01

    An energy harvester comprising a cantilever attached to piezoelectric patches and a proof mass is developed for wind energy harvesting, from a cross wind-induced vibration of the cantilever, by the electromechanical coupling effect of piezoelectric materials. The vibration of the cantilever under the cross wind is induced by the air pressure owing to a vortex shedding phenomenon that occurs on the leeward side of the cantilever. To describe the energy harvesting process, a theoretical model considering the cross wind-induced vibration on the piezoelectric coupled cantilever energy harvester is developed, to calculate the charge and the voltage from the harvester. The influences of the length and location of the piezoelectric patches as well as the proof mass on the generated electric power are investigated. Results show that the total generated electric power can be as high as 2 W when the resonant frequency of the cantilever harvester is close to the vortex shedding frequency. Moreover, a value of total generated electric power up to 1.02 W can be practically realized for a cross wind with a variable wind velocity of 9–10 m s −1 by a harvester with a length of 1.2 m. This research facilitates an effective and compact wind energy harvesting device. (paper)

  8. The importance of recycling - Responsible recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Joens Petter

    2014-01-01

    7 times the total emissions from Sweden are saved each year by the recycling industry. It reduces CO 2 emissions and saves the environment. In fact it annually reduces global CO 2 emissions by 500 million tons, which is more than what is being emitted by the world wide aviation industry. Recycling of iron and steel saves 74% energy and reduces water and air pollution by respectively 76% and 86%, compared to primary production. It provides new raw materials and contributes to save energy. There's no sense in producing goods in a permanent material like plastics, that's supposed to be used only once. It's a huge waste of resources. Today the recycling industry provides half of the world's raw materials and this figure is set to increase. It's about environmentally sound management of resources. It's about plain common sense. There has to be a political willingness to facilitate recycling in every way. And from a corporate perspective social responsibility is becoming an increasingly important competitive edge. This is also a communication issue, it has to be a fact that is well known to the market when a company is doing valuable environmental work. We also need a well functioning global market with easy to understand regulations to facilitate global trade. The global demand for recycled materials should influence their collection and use. Fraud and theft has also to be kept at bay which calls for a close collaboration between organizations such as The International Chamber of Commerce, The International Trade Council and the International Maritime Bureau of the commercial crime services. Increasing recycling is the only way to go if we want to minimize our effect on the environment. We have to remember that recycling is essential for the environment. An increase would be a tremendous help to reduce the green house effect. Increasing recycling is not rocket science. We know how to do it, we just have to decide to go through with it

  9. Recycling of automotive aluminum

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Jirang; Roven, Hans Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    With the global warming of concern, the secondary aluminum stream is becoming an even more important component of aluminum production and is attractive because of its economic and environmental benefits. In this work, recycling of automotive aluminum is reviewed to highlight environmental benefits of aluminum recycling, use of aluminum alloys in automotive applications, automotive recycling process, and new technologies in aluminum scrap process. Literature survey shows that newly developed t...

  10. Recycling of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halaszovich, S.

    1988-01-01

    The paper reviews potentials and problems of disposal or recycling of concrete removed from nuclear installations. Due to the difficulties in determining radioactivity limits that are compatible with utilization of recycled material in practice, a method is proposed that takes into account inhalation of dusts, as occurring during the reprocessing or recycling of the concrete, for instance in road building. This method is based on the maximum permissible radioactivity uptake by inhalation of a nuclide mixture of unknown composition. (RB) [de

  11. Challenges in plastics recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann; Damgaard, Anders; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamin...

  12. Benchmarking survey for recycling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

    2005-06-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

  13. Post-harvest physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weather and management constraints, as well as the intended use of the harvested forage, all influence the forage harvest system selected by the producer. Generally, maximum retention of dry matter from harvested forage crops is achieved at moistures intermediate between the standing fresh crop and ...

  14. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  15. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  16. Carbon dioxide recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether is seen to offer a substantial route to renewable and environmentally carbon neutral fuels. One of the authors has championed the “Methanol Economy" in articles and a book. By recycling ambient CO2, the authors argue ...

  17. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  18. The Value of Recycling on Water Conservation 2nd Edition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bales, Shannon Nicole [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ludi-Herrera, Katlyn D. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is working to conserve water through recycling. This report will focus on the water conservation that has been accumulated through the recycling of paper, aluminum, copper, plastic, compost, and ceiling tiles. It will discuss the use of water in the process of harvesting, manufacturing, and recycling these materials. The way that water is conserved will be reviewed. From the stand point of SNL, it will discuss the amount of material that has been accumulated from 2012 through 2013 and how much water has been saved by recycling .

  19. Broadband pendulum energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Changwei; Wu, You; Zuo, Lei

    2016-09-01

    A novel electromagnetic pendulum energy harvester with mechanical motion rectifier (MMR) is proposed and investigated in this paper. MMR is a mechanism which rectifies the bidirectional swing motion of the pendulum into unidirectional rotation of the generator by using two one-way clutches in the gear system. In this paper, two prototypes of pendulum energy harvester with MMR and without MMR are designed and fabricated. The dynamic model of the proposed MMR pendulum energy harvester is established by considering the engagement and disengagement of the one way clutches. The simulation results show that the proposed MMR pendulum energy harvester has a larger output power at high frequencies comparing with non-MMR pendulum energy harvester which benefits from the disengagement of one-way clutch during pendulum vibration. Moreover, the proposed MMR pendulum energy harvester is broadband compare with non-MMR pendulum energy harvester, especially when the equivalent inertia is large. An experiment is also conducted to compare the energy harvesting performance of these two prototypes. A flywheel is attached at the end of the generator to make the disengagement more significant. The experiment results also verify that MMR pendulum energy harvester is broadband and has a larger output power at high frequency over the non-MMR pendulum energy harvester.

  20. Fog Harvesting with Harps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weiwei; Anderson, Mark J; Tulkoff, Joshua B; Kennedy, Brook S; Boreyko, Jonathan B

    2018-04-11

    Fog harvesting is a useful technique for obtaining fresh water in arid climates. The wire meshes currently utilized for fog harvesting suffer from dual constraints: coarse meshes cannot efficiently capture microscopic fog droplets, whereas fine meshes suffer from clogging issues. Here, we design and fabricate fog harvesters comprising an array of vertical wires, which we call "fog harps". Under controlled laboratory conditions, the fog-harvesting rates for fog harps with three different wire diameters were compared to conventional meshes of equivalent dimensions. As expected for the mesh structures, the mid-sized wires exhibited the largest fog collection rate, with a drop-off in performance for the fine or coarse meshes. In contrast, the fog-harvesting rate continually increased with decreasing wire diameter for the fog harps due to efficient droplet shedding that prevented clogging. This resulted in a 3-fold enhancement in the fog-harvesting rate for the harp design compared to an equivalent mesh.

  1. 1970 Washington timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian R. Wall

    1971-01-01

    Washington's 1970 timber harvest of 6.46 billion board feet was 7.8 percent below the near record harvest of 7 billion board feet established in 1969. Timber harvests on all public lands declined 13 percent with a 9.0-percent reduction in western Washington and a 22.9-percent drop in eastern Washington. State lands led the decline in public production with a 142-...

  2. Solvent recycle/recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffhausen, M.W.; Smith, D.L.; Ugaki, S.N.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes Phase I of the Solvent Recycle/Recovery Task of the DOE Chlorinated Solvent Substitution Program for the US Air Force by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG G Idaho, Inc., through the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The purpose of the task is to identify and test recovery and recycling technologies for proposed substitution solvents identified by the Biodegradable Solvent Substitution Program and the Alternative Solvents/Technologies for Paint Stripping Program with the overall objective of minimizing hazardous wastes. A literature search to identify recycle/recovery technologies and initial distillation studies has been conducted. 4 refs.

  3. The Compressor Recycle System

    OpenAIRE

    Barstad, Bjørn Ove

    2010-01-01

    The compressor recycle system is the main focus of this thesis. When the mass flow through a compressor becomes too low, the compressor can plunge into surge. Surge is a term that is used for axisymmetric oscillation through a compressor and is highly unwanted. The recycle system feeds compressed gas back to the intake when the mass flow becomes too low, and thereby act as a safety system.A mathematical model of the recycle system is extended and simulated in SIMULINK. The mathematical model ...

  4. Harvesting the radial artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitz, Arie; Osterday, Robert M; Brodman, Richard F

    2013-07-01

    The radial artery (RA) has emerged as an important arterial graft for coronary bypass surgery. With improving five-year patency rates and increasing uptake, great attention has been focused on the optimal conduit harvesting technique. We herein present our approach to RA harvesting. Prerequisites of a successful harvest include adherence to important anatomical landmarks, protection of the sensory innervation to the volar forearm, and meticulous handling of the RA branches. Regardless of the harvesting methodology chosen, adherence to a "no-touch" technique will optimize the patency and durability of the RA conduit.

  5. Dual recycling for GEO 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, H; Freise, A; Malec, M; Heinzel, G; Willke, B; Lueck, H; Strain, K A; Hough, J; Danzmann, K

    2004-01-01

    Dual recycling is the combination of signal recycling and power recycling; both optical techniques improve the shot-noise-limited sensitivity of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. In addition, signal recycling can reduce the loss of light power due to imperfect interference and allows us, in principle, to beat the standard quantum limit. The interferometric gravitational-wave detector GEO 600 is the first of the kilometre-scale detectors to use signal recycling. We have recently equipped the detector with a signal-recycling mirror with a transmittance of 1%. In this paper, we present details of the detector commissioning and the first locks of the dual-recycled interferometer

  6. Reduce, reuse and recycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Afrika, M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the internationally accepted waste management hierarchy (Sakai et al, 1996) into South African policy has changed the focus from “end of pipe” waste management towards waste minimisation (reuse, recycling and cleaner production...

  7. Recycling of used oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vipulanandan, C.; Ghurye, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on used oil which is a valuable resource that should be recycled. Recycling used oil saves energy and natural resources. Used oil can be reprocessed and used as fuel in industrial burners and boilers. Unfortunately, more than 400 million gallons/year of used oil is lost through widespread dumping, partly due to lack of effective recycling procedures. Although used oil is not currently a federally listed hazardous waste, the U.S. EPA has proposed to list it as a hazardous waste, which will make recycling of used oil even more attractive. Laboratory samples, representing used oil, were used for detailed parametric studies and to determine the limitation of extending some of the current physical separation techniques such as sedimentation and centrifuging developed for oil-water and solid-liquid separation

  8. Recycle or pollute?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guiking, F.C.T.

    1994-01-01

    When growing oil palms, quantities of crop residues are high, which means that recycling is laborious and options to absorb these byproducts are easily saturated. Burning or composting may have harmful environmental effects

  9. Recycling of Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Glass is used for many purposes, but in the waste system glass is predominantly found in terms of beverage and food containers with a relatively short lifetime before ending up in the waste. Furthermore there is a large amount of flat glass used in building materials which also ends up in the waste...... system; this glass though has a long lifetime before ending up in the waste. Altogether these product types add up to 82% of the production of the European glass industry (IPCC, 2001). Recycling of glass in terms of cleaning and refilling of bottles as well as the use of broken glass in the production...... of new glass containers is well established in the glass industry. This chapter describes briefly howglass is produced and howwaste glass is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of glass recycling....

  10. Recycling of Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Metals like iron and aluminium are produced from mineral ore and used for a range of products, some of which have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of municipal waste. Packaging in terms of cans, foils and containers are products with a short lifetime. Other products like...... appliances, vehicles and buildings, containing iron and aluminium metals, have long lifetimes before they end up in the waste stream. The recycling of production waste and postconsumer metals has a long history in the metal industry. Some metal smelters are today entirely based on scarp metals. This chapter...... describes briefly how iron and aluminium are produced and how scrap metal is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of metal recycling. Copper and other metals are also found in waste but in much smaller...

  11. The Recycler Electron Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Prost, L. R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-03-19

    The Recycler Electron cooler was the first (and so far, the only) cooler working at a relativistic energy (γ = 9.5). It was successfully developed in 1995-2004 and was in operation at Fermilab in 2005-2011, providing cooling of antiprotons in the Recycler ring. This paper describes the cooler, difficulties in achieving the required electron beam parameters and the ways to overcome them, cooling measurements, and details of operation.

  12. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 307-312

  13. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 307-312

  14. Recycling of nonmetallics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amey, E.B.; Kelly, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    The first factor determining recyclability is the composition of the material itself. Metals, for example, can be reused with little or no loss in quality. Paper and rubber, by this criterion, are less recyclable. Each time paper is recycled, some cellulose fibers are broken. Shorter fibers can mean weaker paper of perceived lower quality and value. Vulcanizing is an irreversible chemical process that precludes recycling rubber in its original form. Both materials may be reused in other applications often of lower value than the original one. To be recyclable, the discarded material must have a collection infrastructure at the source of waste generation, at a central collection site, or at curbside. The recovered material must also have a market. If it is priced noncompetitively or no market exists, if it does not meet specifications, or if it requires special technology investments which cannot be recovered through future sales, the recovered material may be stockpiled or discarded rather than recycled. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  15. 1974 Washington timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1976-01-01

    The 1974 timber harvest of 6.88 billion board feet declined 933 million board feet (11.9 percent) below the record 1973 harvest. Decreases occurred in almost all owner groups. In western Washington the decline was 856 million board feet (13.0 percent). In eastern Washington the decline was 76 million board feet (6.3 percent).

  16. 1970 Oregon timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian R. Wall

    1971-01-01

    The 1970 Oregon timber harvest of 7.98 billion board feet was the lowest recorded since the recession year of 1961 when 7.41 billion board feet of timber was produced. The 1970 log production figure was 12.8 percent below the 1969 harvest, the second consecutive year of declining production in Oregon.

  17. Rainwater Harvesting Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Erin; Benham, Brian Leslie, 1960-

    2014-01-01

    A properly designed, constructed, and maintained rainwater harvesting system can provide supplemental water in water-stressed areas and reduce downstream management and treatment. This publication reviews what rainwater harvesting is, why you would want to, and types of rainwater systems.

  18. Electromagnetic energy harvester for harvesting acoustic energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Farid U Khan

    Acoustics; energy harvesting; electromagnetic; Helmholtz resonator; sound pressure level; suspended coil. 1. Introduction. In the last few years, with the rapid developments in micro- scale sensors, microelectronics, ultra large scale of inte- gration (ULSI) and wireless communication networks, wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) ...

  19. Concrete produced with recycled aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. L. Tenório

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of the mechanical and durable properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC for using in concrete. The porosity of recycled coarse aggregates is known to influence the fresh and hardened concrete properties and these properties are related to the specific mass of the recycled coarse aggregates, which directly influences the mechanical properties of the concrete. The recycled aggregates were obtained from construction and demolition wastes (CDW, which were divided into recycled sand (fine and coarse aggregates. Besides this, a recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density was obtained by mixing the recycled aggregates of the CDW with the recycled aggregates of concrete wastes (CW. The concrete was produced in laboratory by combining three water-cement ratios, the ratios were used in agreement with NBR 6118 for structural concretes, with each recycled coarse aggregates and recycled sand or river sand, and the reference concrete was produced with natural aggregates. It was observed that recycled aggregates can be used in concrete with properties for structural concrete. In general, the use of recycled coarse aggregate in combination with recycled sand did not provide good results; but when the less porous was used, or the recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density, the properties of the concrete showed better results. Some RAC reached bigger strengths than the reference concrete.

  20. Bundling harvester; Nippukorjausharvesteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, K. [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The staring point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automatizing of the harvester, and automatized loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilization of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilized without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilization of wood-energy

  1. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  2. Japan's fuel recycling policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) has formulated Japanese nuclear fuel recycling plan for the next 20 years, based on the idea that the supply and demand of plutonium should be balanced mainly through the utilization of plutonium for LWRs. The plan was approved by AEC, and is to be incorporated in the 'Long term program for development and utilization of nuclear energy' up for revision next year. The report on 'Nuclear fuel recycling in Japan' by the committee is characterized by Japanese nuclear fuel recycling plan and the supply-demand situation for plutonium, the principle of the possession of plutonium not more than the demand in conformity with nuclear nonproliferation attitude, and the establishment of a domestic fabrication system of uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel. The total plutonium supply up to 2010 is estimated to be about 85 t, on the other hand, the demand will be 80-90 t. The treatment of plutonium is the key to the recycling and utilization of nuclear fuel. By around 2000, the private sector will commercialize the fabrication of the MOX fuel for LWRs at the annual rate of about 100 t. Commitment to nuclear nonproliferation, future nuclear fuel recycling program in Japan, MOX fuel fabrication system in Japan and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  3. Recycling of reprocessed uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randl, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    Since nuclear power was first exploited in the Federal Republic of Germany, the philosophy underlying the strategy of the nuclear fuel cycle has been to make optimum use of the resource potential of recovered uranium and plutonium within a closed fuel cycle. Apart from the weighty argument of reprocessing being an important step in the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes, permitting their optimum ecological conditioning after the reprocessing step and subsequent storage underground, another argument that, no doubt, carried weight was the possibility of reducing the demand of power plants for natural uranium. In recent years, strategies of recycling have emerged for reprocessed uranium. If that energy potential, too, is to be exploited by thermal recycling, it is appropriate to choose a slightly different method of recycling from the one for plutonium. While the first generation of reprocessed uranium fuel recycled in the reactor cuts down natural uranium requirement by some 15%, the recycling of a second generation of reprocessed, once more enriched uranium fuel helps only to save a further three per cent of natural uranium. Uranium of the second generation already carries uranium-232 isotope, causing production disturbances, and uranium-236 isotope, causing disturbances of the neutron balance in the reactor, in such amounts as to make further fabrication of uranium fuel elements inexpedient, even after mixing with natural uranium feed. (orig./UA) [de

  4. Influence of harvester type and harvesting time on quality of harvested chamomile

    OpenAIRE

    Pajić, Miloš B.; Pajić, Vesna S.; Ivanović, Sanjin M.; Oljača, Mićo V.; Gligorević, Kosta B.; Radojičić, Dušan R.; Dražić, Milan S.; Zlatanović, Ivan J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the result of studying effects of mechanical chamomile harvesting on yield and quality of harvested chamomile. Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita (L) Rausch.) was harvested at three time intervals (T1 - 240 days, T2 - 250 days and T3 - 260 days after sowing) by three conceptually different harvesters. The results achieved indicate that the harvester type significantly influences quality of harvested chamomile, whereas it is not influenced by chamo...

  5. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, for example, gutters, window frames, car parts and transportation boxes have long lifetimes and thus appear as waste only many years after they have been introduced on the market. Plastic is constantly being used for new products because of its attractive material properties: relatively cheap, easy to form......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  6. Mox fuels recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will firstly emphasis that the first recycling of plutonium is already an industrial reality in France thanks to the high degree of performance of La Hague and MELOX COGEMA's plants. Secondly, recycling of spent Mixed OXide fuel, as a complete MOX fuel cycle, will be demonstrated through the ability of the existing plants and services which have been designed to proceed with such fuels. Each step of the MOX fuel cycle concept will be presented: transportation, reception and storage at La Hague and steps of spent MOX fuel reprocessing. (author)

  7. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    of Reasoned Action (TRA) with regard to understanding recycling behaviour. Further, examples of misleading policy conclusions are discussed suggested that within the framework of cognitive psychology, Schwartz's model of altruistic behaviour offers a more satisfying starting point for understanding recycling...... of the balance of costs and benefits. Rather, they are a function of the person's moral beliefs, i.e., beliefs in what is the right or wrong thing to do. The paper gives a brief review of the literature with the intention of uncovering problems and shortcomings in the framework of the SEU-model and the Theory...

  8. Business Plan: Paper Recycling Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Muhammad; Askari, Sana; Salman, Muhammad; Askari, Sheba

    2008-01-01

    This Business Plan was written for Business Plan competition organized by Ministry of Youth Affairs Government of Pakistan. It explains the paper recycling business, its pros and cons, cost of paper recycling, plant options and feasibility.

  9. Recycling - Danish Waste Management Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis

    The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....

  10. Concrete produced with recycled aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Tenório, J. J. L.; Gomes, P. C. C.; Rodrigues, C. C.; Alencar, T. F. F. de

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the mechanical and durable properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) for using in concrete. The porosity of recycled coarse aggregates is known to influence the fresh and hardened concrete properties and these properties are related to the specific mass of the recycled coarse aggregates, which directly influences the mechanical properties of the concrete. The recycled aggregates were obtained from construction and demolition wastes (CDW), which were d...

  11. Recycling of the #5 polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthos, Marino

    2012-08-10

    Polypropylene (PP) is a widely used plastic with consumer applications ranging from food packaging to automotive parts, including car battery casings. To differentiate it from other recyclable plastics, it is designated as #5. Here, the factors contributing to PP recycling rates are briefly reviewed. Considerations include collection and separation efficiency, processing chemistry, and market dynamics for the products derived from recyclates.

  12. The Recycle Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Roger; And Others

    This guide provides lessons that enable students to learn how important it is for each of us to take care of the environment by minimizing the problems caused by too much trash. In the 10 lessons included here, students and their families learn how they can be part of the solution by practicing source reduction and by reusing, recycling, and…

  13. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study wa...

  14. Vehicle recycling regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in the EU is increasing continously. Around 75 percent of an ELV are recyclable metals. The forecast growth in the number of ELVs calls for regulation that aims to minimise the environmental impact of a car. Using Denmark as an example, this article...

  15. The Fernald Waste Recycling Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motl, G.P.

    1993-01-01

    Recycling is considered a critical component of the waste disposition strategy at the Fernald Plant. It is estimated that 33 million cubic feet of waste will be generated during the Fernald cleanup. Recycling some portion of this waste will not only conserve natural resources and disposal volume but will, even more significantly, support the preservation of existing disposition options such as off-site disposal or on-site storage. Recognizing the strategic implications of recycling, this paper outlines the criteria used at Fernald to make recycle decisions and highlights several of Fernald's current recycling initiatives

  16. Water harvest via dewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anna; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Lim, Hyuneui; Kim, Wan-Doo; Kim, Ho-Young

    2012-07-10

    Harvesting water from humid air via dewing can provide a viable solution to a water shortage problem where liquid-phase water is not available. Here we experimentally quantify the effects of wettability and geometry of the condensation substrate on the water harvest efficiency. Uniformly hydrophilic surfaces are found to exhibit higher rates of water condensation and collection than surfaces with lower wettability. This is in contrast to a fog basking method where the most efficient surface consists of hydrophilic islands surrounded by hydrophobic background. A thin drainage path in the lower portion of the condensation substrate is revealed to greatly enhance the water collection efficiency. The optimal surface conditions found in this work can be used to design a practical device that harvests water as its biological counterpart, a green tree frog, Litoria caerulea , does during the dry season in tropical northern Australia.

  17. Combine Harvester Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmann, Ole; Sørlie, James Arnold

    1999-01-01

    A simulator for training pilots in the operation of a modern high-tech combine harvester is presented. The new simulator application is based on DMI´s well-known DMS maritime simulator architecture. Two major challenges have been encountered in the development of the simulator: 1) interfacing...... the simulator software and the harvester hardware, and 2) the visual image generation system. Aims of the project have been to promote technology transfer from DMI´s maritime simulator to new application areas, to develop a state-of-the-art pilot training environment, and to utilise the state...

  18. Energy harvesting for microsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruichao Xu

    2012-05-15

    The purpose of this project is to design and fabricate piezoelectric energy harvesters based on integration of Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 (PZT) thick film technology and silicon microtechnology. The fabrication processes are carried out in close collaboration with Meggitt Sensing Systems (MSS) who has the unique expertise to screen print piezoelectric thick film layers, thus all screen printing steps are done by MSS while the silicon micromachining is carried out at Danchip facility at DTU. The presented energy harvesters are all based on using piezoelectric thick film operating in the 31-mode to generate power when strained. Three archetypes of the numerous fabricated energy harvesters will be presented in detail, they represent three major milestones in this project. The first energy harvester archetype has an unimorph cantilever beam, which consists of a 20 {mu}m silicon layer and 10-30 {mu}m screen printed PZT layer, anchored on a silicon frame at one end and attached to a silicon proof mass at the other. Electrodes will cover both side of the PZT layer, so the harvested energy can be collected electrically. The second archetype has a bimorph cantilever beam, which consists of two 15-35 {mu}m PZT layers, anchored on a silicon frame at the one end and attached to a silicon proof mass at the other. Electrodes are deposited below, between and above the two PZT layers. The root mean square (RMS) power output measured on this type of harvesters is as high as 37.1{mu}W at 1 g. The third archetype is similar to the first one, the screen printed PZT layer is replaced by a lead free piezoelectric material, (KxNa1-x)NbO3 (KNN). Some of the major challenges encountered during the development processes are bad adhesion, fragile structures and short circuiting through the PZT layer. All of which have being fully or partially solved in this project. The final energy harvesters are designed to be used in an energy harvester powered wireless sensing system. (Author)

  19. Algal recycling enhances algal productivity and settleability in Pediastrum boryanum pure cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jason B K; Craggs, Rupert J; Shilton, Andy N

    2015-12-15

    Recycling a portion of gravity harvested algae (i.e. algae and associated bacteria biomass) has been shown to improve both algal biomass productivity and harvest efficiency by maintaining the dominance of a rapidly-settleable colonial alga, Pediastrum boryanum in both pilot-scale wastewater treatment High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAP) and outdoor mesocosms. While algal recycling did not change the relative proportions of algae and bacteria in the HRAP culture, the contribution of the wastewater bacteria to the improved algal biomass productivity and settleability with the recycling was not certain and still required investigation. P. boryanum was therefore isolated from the HRAP and grown in pure culture on synthetic wastewater growth media under laboratory conditions. The influence of recycling on the productivity and settleability of the pure P. boryanum culture was then determined without wastewater bacteria present. Six 1 L P. boryanum cultures were grown over 30 days in a laboratory growth chamber simulating New Zealand summer conditions either with (Pr) or without (Pc) recycling of 10% of gravity harvested algae. The cultures with recycling (Pr) had higher algal productivity than the controls (Pc) when the cultures were operated at both 4 and 3 d hydraulic retention times by 11% and 38% respectively. Furthermore, algal recycling also improved 1 h settleability from ∼60% to ∼85% by increasing the average P. boryanum colony size due to the extended mean cell residence time and promoted formation of large algal bio-flocs (>500 μm diameter). These results demonstrate that the presence of wastewater bacteria was not necessary to improve algal productivity and settleability with algal recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Recycling phosphorus from wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Camilla Kjærulff

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient and a non-renewable resource of which the future supply to agriculture is challenged by limited and geopolitical unevenly distributed mineral P reserves. Recycling of P from waste is an important mean to minimise the dependence on the limited mineral P...... recycling options. The work of this PhD focused on the plant P availability of sewage sludge, a P-rich residue from wastewater treatment which is commonly applied to agricultural soil in Denmark. The overall objective of the PhD work was to evaluate the plant availability of P in sewage sludge and other...... wastewater-derived products, and to relate this to the availability from other P-containing waste products and mineral P fertiliser. This included aspects of development over time and soil accumulation, as well as effects of soil pH and the spatial distribution in soil. The P sources applied in this PhD work...

  1. COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelsea Hubbard

    2001-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D and D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness

  2. Usage of Recycled Pet

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyar, A. Ebru; Üstün, Sevcan

    2010-01-01

    The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PE...

  3. Usage of Recycled Pet

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ebru Tayyar; Sevcan Üstün

    2010-01-01

    The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bot...

  4. Recycling retention functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrable, K.W.; Chabot, G.E.; Johnson, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    Beginning with the concept of any number of physiologically meaningful compartments that recycle material with a central extracellular fluid compartment and considering various excretion pathways, we solve the differential equations describing the kinetics by the method of Laplace to obtain concise algebraic expressions for the retentions. These expressions contain both fundamental and eigenvalue rate constants; the eigenvalue rate constants are obtained from the solution of a polynomial incorporating the fundamental rate constants. Mathematically exact expressions that predict the biodistribution resulting from continuous uptakes are used to obtain very simple mathematically exact steady state expressions as well as approximate expressions applicable to any time. These steady state and approximate expressions contain only the fundamental rate constants; also, they include a recycling factor that describes the increase in the biodistributions because of recycling. To obtain the values of the fundamental rate constants, short term kinetics studies along with data on the long term distributions are suggested. Retention functions obtained in this way predict both the short term and long term distributions; they therefore are useful in the interpretation of bioassay data and in the estimation of internal doses

  5. Atmospheric water harvester

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-10

    Sep 10, 2017 ... ... involve condensation and precipitation. So, in order to examine the potential water in the atmosphere, atmospheric water harvester model was developed since it is one of the sustainable alternative water resources [6]. Normally, the atmosphere contains water in the form of water vapor, moisture and so ...

  6. 1975 Washington timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1977-01-01

    In 1975, the Washington timber harvest declined for the 2d year to 6.2 billion board feet, 10 percent below 1974, and the lowest level in 8 years. The decrease, which occurred on almost all ownerships, amounted to 561 million board feet in western Washington and 130 million board feet in eastern Washington.

  7. African Urban Harvest

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Much of the research in Chapter 9 was funded by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) through a grant to Urban Harvest and the Dalla Lana ...... Although the land of Yaoundé is being converted into real estate, as institutions of government expropriate land for civic use and the functions of urban life, ...

  8. Designing A General Deep Web Harvester by Harvestability Factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khelghati, Mohammadreza; Hiemstra, Djoerd; van Keulen, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    To make deep web data accessible, harvesters have a crucial role. Targeting different domains and websites enhances the need of a general-purpose harvester which can be applied to different settings and situations. To develop such a harvester, a large number of issues should be addressed. To have

  9. Why recycle? A comparison of recycling motivations in four communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, Joanne; Linn, Nancy; Burdge, Rabel J.

    1992-11-01

    Four Illinois communities with different sociode-mographic compositions and at various stages of planning for solid waste management were surveyed to determine the influence of sociodemographic variables and planning stages on the factors that motivate recycling behavior. A factor analysis of importance ratings of reasons for recycling and for not recycling yielded five factors interpreted as altruism, personal inconvenience, social influences, economic incentives, and household storage. The four communities were shown to be significantly different in multivariate analyses of the five motivational factors. However, attempts to explain these community differences with regression analyses, which predicted the motivational factors with dummy codes for planning stages, a measure of self-reported recycling behavior, and sociodemographic measures were unsatisfactory. Contrary to expectation, the solid waste management planning stages of the cities (curbside pickup, recycling dropoff center, and planning in progress) contributed only very slightly to the prediction of motivational factors for recycling. Community differences were better explained by different underlying motivational structures among the four communities. Altruistic reasons for recycling (e.g., conserving resources) composed the only factor which was similar across the four communities. This factor was also perceived to be the most important reason for recycling by respondents from all four communities. The results of the study supported the notion that convenient, voluntary recycling programs that rely on environmental concern and conscience for motivation are useful approaches to reducing waste.

  10. Wearable Biomechanical Energy Harvesting Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Man Choi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting has been attracting attention as a technology that is capable of replacing or supplementing a battery with the development of various mobile electronics. In environments where stable electrical supply is not possible, energy harvesting technology can guarantee an increased leisure and safety for human beings. Harvesting with several watts of power is essential for directly driving or efficiently charging mobile electronic devices such as laptops or cell phones. In this study, we reviewed energy harvesting technologies that harvest biomechanical energy from human motion such as foot strike, joint motion, and upper limb motion. They are classified based on the typical principle of kinetic energy harvesting: piezoelectric, triboelectric, and electromagnetic energy harvesting. We focused on the wearing position of high-power wearable biomechanical energy harvesters (WBEHs generating watt-level power. In addition, the features and future trends of the watt-level WBEHs are discussed.

  11. The influences of the recycle process on the bacterial community in a pilot scale microalgae raceway pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkelens, Mason; Ball, Andrew S; Lewis, David M

    2014-04-01

    The use of recycled media has been shown to be a necessary step within the lifecycle of microalgal biofuels for economic sustainability and reducing the water footprint. However the impact of the harvesting of microalgae on the bacterial load of the recycled water has yet to be investigated. Within this study PCR-DGGE and real-time PCR was used to evaluate the bacterial community dynamics within the recycled water following harvest and concentration steps for a pilot scale open pond system (120,000L), which was developed for the production of green crude oil from Tetraselmis sp. in hyper saline water. Two stages were used in the harvesting; Stage 1 electroflocculation, and Stage 2 centrifugation. Electroflocculation was shown to have little effect on the bacterial cell concentration. In contrast bacterial diversity and cell concentration within the centrifugation step was greatly reduced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recycle Glass in Foam Glass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The foam glass industry turn recycle glass into heat insulating building materials. The foaming process is relative insensitive to impurities in the recycle glass. It is therefore considered to play an important role in future glass recycling. We show and discuss trends of use of recycled glasses...... in foam glass industry and the supply sources and capacity of recycle glass....

  13. Dual recycling for GEO 600

    CERN Document Server

    Heinzel, G; Grote, H; Strain, K; Danzmann, K

    2002-01-01

    Dual recycling is the combination of power recycling and signal recycling. GEO 600, a German-British interferometric gravitational wave detector being built in Germany, has no arm cavities and needs to use dual recycling from the beginning, while the other interferometric detectors may use it at a later stage to enhance their sensitivity. The control scheme to be used in GEO 600 has been demonstrated at the Garching 30 m prototype. This paper summarizes those results and the adaptions necessary in order to apply the scheme for GEO 600.

  14. Waste collection systems for recyclables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Møller, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    and technical limitations are respected, and what will the environmental and economic consequences be? This was investigated in a case study of a municipal waste management system. Five scenarios with alternative collection systems for recyclables (paper, glass, metal and plastic packaging) were assessed...... at recycling centres was not recommendable because the recycling rate would decrease to 20%. In general, the results showed that enhancing recycling and avoiding incineration was recommendable because the environmental performance was improved in several impact categories. The municipal costs for collection...

  15. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  16. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  17. Piezoelectric energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, Christopher A

    2009-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials can be used to convert oscillatory mechanical energy into electrical energy. This technology, together with innovative mechanical coupling designs, can form the basis for harvesting energy from mechanical motion. Piezoelectric energy can be harvested to convert walking motion from the human body into electrical power. Recently four proof-of-concept Heel Strike Units were developed where each unit is essentially a small electric generator that utilizes piezoelectric elements to convert mechanical motion into electrical power in the form factor of the heel of a boot. The results of the testing and evaluation and the performance of this small electric generator are presented. The generator's conversion of mechanical motion into electrical power, the processes it goes through to produce useable power and commercial applications of the Heel Strike electric generator are discussed.

  18. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions. PMID:24618725

  19. Harvesting contaminants from liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T.; Hunter, Scott R.

    2016-05-31

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus allowing the contaminants to be harvested.

  20. Open-loop recycling: A LCA case study of PET bottle-to-fibre-recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the environmental impact of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle-to-fibre recycling using the methodology of life-cycle assessment (LCA). Four recycling cases, including mechanical recycling, semi-mechanical recycling, back-to-oligomer recycling and back-to-monomer recycling

  1. Behaviour of Recycled Coarse Aggregate Concrete: Age and Successive Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Kirtikanta; Pathappilly, Robin Davis; Sarkar, Pradip

    2016-06-01

    Recycled Coarse Aggregate (RCA) concrete construction technique can be called as `green concrete', as it minimizes the environmental hazard of the concrete waste disposal. Indian standard recommends target mean compressive strength of the conventional concrete in terms of water cement ratio ( w/ c). The present work is an attempt to study the behaviour of RCA concrete from two samples of parent concrete having different age group with regard to the relationship of compressive strength with water cement ratios. Number of recycling may influence the mechanical properties of RCA concrete. The influence of age and successive recycling on the properties such as capillary water absorption, drying shrinkage strain, air content, flexural strength and tensile splitting strength of the RCA concrete are examined. The relationship between compressive strength at different w/ c ratios obtained experimentally is investigated for the two parameters such as age of parent concrete and successive recycling. The recycled concrete using older recycled aggregate shows poor quality. While the compressive strength reduces with successive recycling gradually, the capillary water absorption increases abruptly, which leads to the conclusion that further recycling may not be advisable.

  2. Resources, recycle, and substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, R.G.

    A two-fold strategy appears necessary to ensure that the resource needs of the developed and developing nations are met. First, recycle and substitution must be encouraged in those instances where they do find application. Although these measures have limited applicability, they may be of vital importance in those instances where they do apply; in any event, they buy time. Second, practical and economical technologies must be developed to exploit the lower-grade and marginal ores and the oftentimes abundant but highly refractory ores, as well as to greatly increase the recovery of secondary elements present in the ores - elements whose form and amounts in the ores make them economically unrecoverable by themselves, but which are economically recoverable as by-products. It is often the case that if these elements are not recovered during the initial mining and milling operations, they are rendered unrecoverable, in a practical sense, forever. Furthermore, they may even become environmental pollutants. Specific examples of recovery from refractory ores, by-product recovery, and recycle are given. Also, some suggestions of substitutes for important resources are tabulated

  3. Achieving Resilience through Water Recycling in Peri-Urban Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Attwater

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pressures on urban, peri-urban and rural water and agricultural systems are increasingly complex with multiple interacting stresses and impacts. As a way of addressing these issues there has been increasing consideration as to how to build and manage resilience in these complex social-ecological systems. This paper presents a case study of the role of water recycling for agricultural use within the context of the peri-urban water cycle in Western Sydney, Australia. Building upon a description of the water cycle associated with water reclaimed from urban wastewater and stormwater harvesting; aspects which enhance resilience are identified and discussed. These include water resource security, avoidance of wastewater discharges to receiving waters, enhanced processes of landscape ecology, provision of ecosystem services, environmental risk management, local agricultural products and services, social values, livelihood opportunity, and the industrial ecology of recycled organics.

  4. Recycling Study Guide [Resource Packet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    This resource packet contains six documents developed by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources in order to help teachers infuse the environmental education topics of recycling and solid waste into social studies, art, English, health, mathematics, science, and environmental education classes. "Recycling Study Guide" contains 19…

  5. Recycling Solid Waste in Chattanooga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vredeveld, Ruth; Martin, Robin

    1973-01-01

    Students undertook a group project in collaboration with city officials to study garbage types in the community and possibilities of recycling solid wastes. Data collected from various sources revealed that public attitude was favorable for recycling efforts and that it was feasible economically. (PS)

  6. Recycling Pressure-Sensitive Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihui Guo; Larry Gwin; Carl Houtman; Mark Kroll; Steven J. Severtson

    2012-01-01

    The efficient control of contaminants such as metals, plastics, inks and adhesives during the processing of recovered paper products determines the profitability of recycling mills. In fact, it is arguably the most important technical obstacle in expanding the use of recycled paper.1-4 An especially challenging category of contaminants to manage...

  7. The Dynamic Earth: Recycling Naturally!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Allison, Elizabeth; Fowler, Lisa; Glaze, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This article begins with a thought-provoking question: What do you think of when you hear the term "recycle?" Many think about paper, glass, aluminum cans, landfills, and reducing waste by reusing some of these materials. How many of us ever consider the way the systems of Earth dynamically recycle its materials? In the following…

  8. Making sense of plastics recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bruggen, E.; Koster, R.P.; Rageart, K.; Cardon, L.; Moerman, M.; Blessing, E.

    2012-01-01

    Major benefits of plastics recycling are reduced depletion of non-renewable resources and reduction of world-wide waste. Traditional thermo-mechanical recycling causes reduction of mechanical properties for most thermoplastics. Down-cycled materials may nevertheless be suited for certain useful

  9. Enzyme recycling in lignocellulosic biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Pinelo, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    platform. Cellulases are the most important enzymes required in this process, but the complex nature of lignocellulose requires several other enzymes (hemicellulases and auxiliary enzymes) for efficient hydrolysis. Enzyme recycling increases the catalytic productivity of the enzymes by reusing them...... upscaled and tested in industrial settings, mainly because of many difficulties with recycling of enzymes from the complex lignocellulose hydrolyzate at industrially relevant conditions, i.e., high solids loadings. The challenges are associated with the large number of different enzymes required...... for efficient hydrolysis, enzyme stability, and the detrimental interaction between enzyme and lignin. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the various methods for enzyme recovery and recycling, for example recycling of free enzymes, readsorption to fresh material, recycling of solids, membrane...

  10. Technology options for future recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, T.

    2001-01-01

    Recycling of nuclear material is indispensable, not only for using valuable resources but also for reducing the debt which we may leave to the next generations. Advanced reprocessing technologies have been developed in several countries to deal with the diversification of nuclear fuels. Also technologies derived from reprocessing or other fuel cycle areas have continued to be developed in terms of recycling. Cost effectiveness and waste-free processing are increasingly important factors in the applicable of an alternate recycling policy. This paper introduces an example of the studies in this field conducted in some countries including Japan and considers the establishment of effective recycling methodologies taking into account the uncertainty of future recycling policy. (author)

  11. Space Plastic Recycling System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Techshot's proposed Space Plastic Recycler (SPR) is an automated closed loop plastic recycling system that allows the automated conversion of disposable ISS...

  12. Differential fat harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Torres Farr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Volume replacement with fillers is regularly performed with the use of diverse volumetric materials to correct different structures around the face, depending on the volume enhancement required and the thickness of the soft tissue envelope. Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is performed to place the correct fat parcel size for each target area, expanding the potential applications of fat. Methods: Sixty patients consecutively recruited on a first come basis undergone a facial fat grafting procedure, in private practice setting between March 2012 and October 2013. Fat grafting quantity and quality was predicted for each case. Differential harvesting was performed, with 2 fat parcels size. Processing was performed through washing. Fat infiltration was carried out through small cannulas or needles depending on the treated area. Outcomes were analysed both by the physicians and the patients at 7 days, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months through a perceived satisfaction questionnaire. Parameters considered were downtime or discomfort, skin benefits, volume restoration, reabsorption rate estimated and overall improvement. Results: Full facial differential fat grafting procedure lasted an average of 1.5-2.5 h. Average downtime was 3-4 days. Follow-up was performed to a minimum of 6 months. Both patient and physician overall satisfaction rates were mostly excellent. Adverse events like lumps or irregularities were not encountered. Conclusion: Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is a valid alternative, to expand the repertoire of fat use, allow a more homogeneous effect, reduce the potential complications, speed up the process, improve graft survival, and to enhance overall aesthetic outcome.

  13. Nanostructured piezoelectric energy harvesters

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, Joe

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a range of devices that use piezoelectricity to convert mechanical deformation into electrical energy and relates their output capabilities to a range of potential applications. Starting with a description of the fundamental principles and properties of piezo- and ferroelectric materials, where applications of bulk materials are well established, the book shows how nanostructures of these materials are being developed for energy harvesting applications. The authors show how a nanostructured device can be produced, and put in context some of the approaches that are being invest

  14. Energy harvesting for microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ruichao

    to the first one, the screen printed PZT layer is replaced by a lead free piezoelectric material, (KxNa1-x)NbO3 (KNN). Some of the major challenges encountered during the development processes are bad adhesion, fragile structures and short circuiting through the PZT layer. All which have being fully......The purpose of this project is to design and fabricate piezoelectric energy harvesters based on integration of Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 (PZT) thick film technology and silicon microtechnology. The fabrication processes are carried out in close collaboration with Meggitt Sensing Systems (MSS) who has...

  15. Micro energy harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Briand, Danick; Roundy, Shad

    2015-01-01

    With its inclusion of the fundamentals, systems and applications, this reference provides readers with the basics of micro energy conversion along with expert knowledge on system electronics and real-life microdevices. The authors address different aspects of energy harvesting at the micro scale with a focus on miniaturized and microfabricated devices. Along the way they provide an overview of the field by compiling knowledge on the design, materials development, device realization and aspects of system integration, covering emerging technologies, as well as applications in power management, e

  16. Actinide recycling in reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuesters, H.; Wiese, H.W.; Krieg, B.

    1995-01-01

    The objective is an assessment of the transmutation of long-lived actinides and fission products and the incineration of plutonium for reducing the risk potential of radioactive waste from reactors in comparison to direct waste disposal. The contribution gives an interim account on homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling of 'risk nuclides' in thermal and fast reactors. Important results: - A homogeneous 5 percent admixture of minor actinides (MA) from N4-PWRs to EFR fuel would allow a transmutation not only of the EFR MA, but in addition of the MA from 5 or 6 PWRs of equal power. However, the incineration is restricted by safety considerations. - LWR have only a very low MA incineration potential, due to their disadvantageous neutron capture/fission ratio. - In order to keep the Cm inventory at a low level, it is advantageous to concentrate the Am heterogeneously in particular fuel elements or rods. (orig./HP)

  17. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  18. Recycling management including transportation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricaud, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    The nuclear industry, at least in advanced countries such as Japan, France and other European countries, has developed for years a global strategy of fuel utilization which implies an extensive recycling and reuse of spent fuel. Such recycling strategies are now increasingly required from the industry in general by the various Governments and international organizations. Nuclear fuel recycling and waste management are the two faces of the same policy: the closed fuel cycle, whereby reprocessing of spent fuel makes available for recycling the energetic contents : uranium and plutonium, while segregating the real waste in categories for their specific treatment, conditioning, storage, transportation and final disposal. Plutonium recycling is performed through the fabrication of the so-called mixed oxide fuel (MOX), where fissile plutonium replaces the U 235 isotope used in UO 2 fuel. The international trade of nuclear materials and services, under close control of IAEA and other national and international organization, has let to the circulation of materials between the producers of uranium and enrichment fuel, fabrication, reprocessing and recycling services, and the customers worldwide. The industrial transport experience now accumulated shows an excellent record in terms of safety and quality. This communication will describe the current situation and future trends of the recycling route mainly through COGEMA industrial experience. 1 fig

  19. Multifunctional Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Anton, Steven Robert

    2011-01-01

    Energy harvesting technology has the ability to create autonomous, self-powered electronic systems that do not rely on battery power for their operation. The term energy harvesting describes the process of converting ambient energy surrounding a system into useful electrical energy through the use of a specific material or transducer. A widely studied form of energy harvesting involves the conversion of mechanical vibration energy into electrical energy using piezoelectric materials, which ...

  20. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  1. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  2. Thermoelectrics and its energy harvesting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rowe, David Michael

    2012-01-01

    .... It details the latest techniques for the preparation of thermoelectric materials employed in energy harvesting, together with advances in the thermoelectric characterisation of nanoscale material...

  3. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  4. You're a "What"? Recycling Coordinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2011-01-01

    Recycling coordinators supervise curbside and dropoff recycling programs for municipal governments or private firms. Today, recycling is mandatory in many communities. And advancements in collection and processing methods have helped to increase the quantity of materials for which the recycling coordinator is responsible. In some communities,…

  5. The Diffusion Effect of MSW Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tui Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to compare the recycling performance for some waste fractions selected including food waste, bulk waste, paper, metal products, plastics/rubber and glass products and then to develop some directions for the future improvements. The priority of each waste fraction for recycling is also analyzed by using an importance-performance analysis. Traditionally, the recycling rate that is calculated by the ratio of waste recycled to waste collected is used as an indicator to measure recycling performance. Due to a large variation among waste fractions in municipal solid waste (MSW, the recycling rate cannot reflect the actual recycling performance. The ceiling of recycling rate for each waste fraction estimated from the diffusion models is incorporated into a model to calculate recycling performance. The results show that (1 the diffusion effect exists significantly for the recycling of most recyclables but no evidence is found to support the diffusion effect for the recycling of food waste and bulk waste; (2 the recycling performance of waste metal products ranks the top, compared to waste paper, waste glass and other waste fractions; (3 furthermore, an importance-performance analysis (IPA is employed to analyze the priority of recycling programs and thus this paper suggests that the recycling of food waste should be seen as the most priority item to recycle.

  6. Recycling of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagstroem, Ingela

    1999-12-01

    Separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel is a part of the process of recycling fissile material. Extracting agents for partitioning the high level liquid waste (HLLW) from conventional PUREX reprocessing is studied. The CTH-process is based on three consecutive extraction cycles. In the first cycle protactinium, uranium, neptunium and plutonium are removed by extraction with di-2-ethylhexyl-phosphoric acid (HDEHP) from a 6 M nitric acid HLLW solution. Distribution ratios for actinides, fission products and corrosion products between HLLW and 1 M HDEHP in an aliphatic diluent have been investigated. To avoid addition of chemicals the acidity is reduced by a tributylphosphate (TBP) extraction cycle. The distribution ratios of elements present in HLLW have been measured between 50 % TBP in an aliphatic diluent and synthetic HLLW in range 0.1-6 M nitric acid. In the third extraction cycle americium and curium are extracted. To separate trivalent actinides from lanthanides a method based on selective stripping of the actinides from 1 M HDEHP is proposed. The aqueous phase containing ammonia, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and lactic acid is recycled in a closed loop after reextraction of the actinides into a second organic phase also containing 1 M HDEHP. Distribution ratios for americium and neodymium have been measured at varying DTPA and lactic acid concentrations and at varying pH. Nitrogen-donor reagents have been shown to have a potential to separate trivalent actinides from lanthanides. 2,2':6,2''-terpyridine as extractant follows the CHON-principle and can in synergy with 2-bromodecanoic acid separate americium from europium. Distribution ratios for americium and europium, in the range of 0.02-0.12 M nitric acid, between nitric acid and 0.02 M terpyridine with 1 M 2-bromodecanoic acid in tert-butylbenzene (TBB) was investigated. Comparison with other nitrogen-donor reagents show that increasing lipophilicity of the molecule, by substitution of

  7. Ship recycling and marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yen-Chiang; Wang, Nannan; Durak, Onur Sabri

    2010-09-01

    This paper discusses the historical background, structure and enforcement of the '2009 Hong Kong International Convention on the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships.' the 2009 Hong Kong Convention establishes control and enforcement instruments related to ship recycling, determining the control rights of Port States and the obligations of Flag States, Parties and recycling facilities under its jurisdiction. The Convention also controls the communication and exchange of information procedures, establishes a reporting system to be used upon the completion of recycling, and outlines an auditing system for detecting violations. The Convention, however, also contains some deficiencies. This paper concludes these deficiencies will eventually influence the final acceptance of this Convention by the international community. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Technology options for future recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, T.

    2000-01-01

    It goes without saying that recycling of nuclear material is indispensable, not only for the effective use of valuable resources but also to reduce the debt which we may leave to the next generations. Many developments in advanced reprocessing technologies have been carried out in several countries to deal with the diversification of nuclear fuels. Also technologies derived from reprocessing or other fuel cycle areas have continued to be developed in terms of recycling. Cost effectiveness and waste-free processing are increasingly important factors in the applicable of an alternate recycling policy. This paper introduces an example of the studies in this field, which has been conducted in Japan and considers the establishment of effective recycling methodologies taking into account the uncertainty of future policy. (authors)

  9. Energy harvesting water vehicle

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra

    2018-01-04

    An efficient energy harvesting (EEH) water vehicle is disclosed. The base of the EEH water vehicle is fabricated with rolling cylindrical drums that can rotate freely in the same direction of the water medium. The drums reduce the drag at the vehicle-water interface. This reduction in drag corresponds to an increase in speed and/or greater fuel efficiency. The mechanical energy of the rolling cylindrical drums is also transformed into electrical energy using an electricity producing device, such as a dynamo or an alternator. Thus, the efficiency of the vehicle is enhanced in two parallel modes: from the reduction in drag at the vehicle-water interface, and from capturing power from the rotational motion of the drums.

  10. A recycling molecular beam reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prada-Silva, G.; Haller, G.L.; Fenn, J.B.

    1974-01-01

    In a Recycling Molecular Beam Reactor, RMBR, a beam of reactant gas molecules is formed from a supersonic free jet. After collision with a target the molecules pass through the vacuum pumps and are returned to the nozzle source. Continuous recycling permits the integration of very small reaction probabilities into measurable conversions which can be analyzed by gas chromatography. Some preliminary experiments have been carried out on the isomerization of cyclopropane

  11. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  12. Power harvesting in helicopter rotorblades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Pieter; de Boer, Andries; Loendersloot, Richard; van der Hoogt, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Current power harvesting research has focused on bending beams and determining power output under a given excitation. For the European CleanSky – Green Rotor Craft project a tool is being developed which optimizes the piezoelectric material and placement thereof for power harvesting. It focuses on

  13. Impact of changes in broth composition on Chlorella vulgaris cultivation in a membrane photobioreactor (MPBR) with permeate recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discart, V; Bilad, M R; Marbelia, L; Vankelecom, I F J

    2014-01-01

    A membrane photobioreactor (MPBR) is a proven and very useful concept in which microalgae can be simultaneously cultivated and pre-harvested. However, the behavior with respect to accumulation of algogenic organic matter, including transparent exopolymeric particles (TEPs), counter ions and unassimilated nutrients due to the recycling of the medium is still unclear, even though the understanding of this behavior is essential for the optimization of microalgae processing. Therefore, the dynamics of these compounds, especially TEPs, during coupled cultivation and harvesting of Chlorella vulgaris in an MPBR with permeate recycle are addressed in this study. Results show that TEPs are secreted during algae cell growth, and that their presence is thus inevitable. In the system with permeate recycle, substances such as counter ions and unassimilated nutrients get accumulated in the system. This was proven to limit the algae growth, together with the occurrence of bioflocculation due to an increasing broth pH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F

  15. What can Recycling in Thermal Reactors Accomplish?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Piet; Gretchen E. Matthern; Jacob J. Jacobson

    2007-09-01

    Thermal recycle provides several potential benefits when used as stop-gap, mixed, or backup recycling to recycling in fast reactors. These three roles involve a mixture of thermal and fast recycling; fast reactors are required to some degree at some time. Stop-gap uses thermal reactors only until fast reactors are adequately deployed and until any thermal-recycle-only facilities have met their economic lifetime. Mixed uses thermal and fast reactors symbiotically for an extended period of time. Backup uses thermal reactors only if problems later develop in the fast reactor portion of a recycling system. Thermal recycle can also provide benefits when used as pure thermal recycling, with no intention to use fast reactors. However, long term, the pure thermal recycling approach is inadequate to meet several objectives.

  16. Auditing an intensive care unit recycling program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicki, Mark A; McGain, Forbes; O'Shea, Catherine J; Bates, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    The provision of health care has significant direct environmental effects such as energy and water use and waste production, and indirect effects, including manufacturing and transport of drugs and equipment. Recycling of hospital waste is one strategy to reduce waste disposed of as landfill, preserve resources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and potentially remain fiscally responsible. We began an intensive care unit recycling program, because a significant proportion of ICU waste was known to be recyclable. To determine the weight and proportion of ICU waste recycled, the proportion of incorrect waste disposal (including infectious waste contamination), the opportunity for further recycling and the financial effects of the recycling program. We weighed all waste and recyclables from an 11-bed ICU in an Australian metropolitan hospital for 7 non-consecutive days. As part of routine care, ICU waste was separated into general, infectious and recycling streams. Recycling streams were paper and cardboard, three plastics streams (polypropylene, mixed plastics and polyvinylchloride [PVC]) and commingled waste (steel, aluminium and some plastics). ICU waste from the waste and recycling bins was sorted into those five recycling streams, general waste and infectious waste. After sorting, the waste was weighed and examined. Recycling was classified as achieved (actual), potential and total. Potential recycling was defined as being acceptable to hospital protocol and local recycling programs. Direct and indirect financial costs, excluding labour, were examined. During the 7-day period, the total ICU waste was 505 kg: general waste, 222 kg (44%); infectious waste, 138 kg (27%); potentially recyclable waste, 145 kg (28%). Of the potentially recyclable waste, 70 kg (49%) was actually recycled (14% of the total ICU waste). In the infectious waste bins, 82% was truly infectious. There was no infectious contamination of the recycling streams. The PVC waste was 37% contaminated

  17. What can recycling in thermal reactors accomplish?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, Steven J.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Jacobson, Jacob J.

    2007-01-01

    Thermal recycle provides several potential benefits when used as stop-gap, mixed, or backup recycling to recycling in fast reactors. These three roles involve a mixture of thermal and fast recycling; fast reactors are required to some degree at some time. Stop-gap uses thermal reactors only until fast reactors are adequately deployed and until any thermal-recycle-only facilities have met their economic lifetime. Mixed uses thermal and fast reactors symbiotically for an extended period of time. Backup uses thermal reactors only if problems later develop in the fast reactor portion of a recycling system. Thermal recycle can also provide benefits when used as pure thermal recycling, with no intention to use fast reactors. However, long term, the pure thermal recycling approach is inadequate to meet several objectives. (authors)

  18. Waste material recycling: Assessment of contaminants limiting recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn

    , consumption and waste management stages within a product’s lifecycle (Figure 1). Hence, waste materials contain potentially hazardous chemicals that are unwanted in the new products made of the recycled raw materials. So far, the presence of such chemicals in materials for recycling has not been...... schemes and great potential for increase in recycling, respectively. The approach followed in the present work was developed and performed in four distinct steps. As step one, fractional composition of waste paper (30 fractions) and plastics (9 fractions) from households in Åbenrå municipality (Southern......, chemical analyses for quantification of a range of potential contaminants in paper (mineral oils, phenols, phthalates, polychlorinated biphenyls and toxic metals) and plastics (phthalates and brominated flame retardants) were done. The results indicated large variations in presence of chemical contaminants...

  19. A bountiful spring harvest

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Although we recently put the clocks forward and spring has officially begun, the view from my window looks more autumnal – befitting of the season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, rather than that of sowing seeds for the future. Which, in a way is appropriate. With the LHC paused, we are reaping a kind of harvest in the form of recognition for our efforts.   Two weeks ago, I was in Edinburgh, on behalf of everyone at CERN, to collect the Edinburgh medal, which we shared with Peter Higgs. I particularly like the citation for this honour: “The Edinburgh Medal is awarded each year to men and women of science and technology whose professional achievements are judged to have made a significant contribution to the understanding and well-being of humanity.” I like this, because it underlines a fact that needs to be shouted louder – that fundamental science does more than build the sum of human knowledge, it is also the foundation of human well-being. A few d...

  20. DWPF Recycle Evaporator Simulant Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, M

    2005-01-01

    Testing was performed to determine the feasibility and processing characteristics of an evaporation process to reduce the volume of the recycle stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The concentrated recycle would be returned to DWPF while the overhead condensate would be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Plant. Various blends of evaporator feed were tested using simulants developed from characterization of actual recycle streams from DWPF and input from DWPF-Engineering. The simulated feed was evaporated in laboratory scale apparatus to target a 30X volume reduction. Condensate and concentrate samples from each run were analyzed and the process characteristics (foaming, scaling, etc) were visually monitored during each run. The following conclusions were made from the testing: Concentration of the ''typical'' recycle stream in DWPF by 30X was feasible. The addition of DWTT recycle streams to the typical recycle stream raises the solids content of the evaporator feed considerably and lowers the amount of concentration that can be achieved. Foaming was noted during all evaporation tests and must be addressed prior to operation of the full-scale evaporator. Tests were conducted that identified Dow Corning 2210 as an antifoam candidate that warrants further evaluation. The condensate has the potential to exceed the ETP WAC for mercury, silicon, and TOC. Controlling the amount of equipment decontamination recycle in the evaporator blend would help meet the TOC limits. The evaporator condensate will be saturated with mercury and elemental mercury will collect in the evaporator condensate collection vessel. No scaling on heating surfaces was noted during the tests, but splatter onto the walls of the evaporation vessels led to a buildup of solids. These solids were difficult to remove with 2M nitric acid. Precipitation of solids was not noted during the testing. Some of the aluminum present in the recycle streams was converted from gibbsite to

  1. DWPF Recycle Evaporator Simulant Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M

    2005-04-05

    Testing was performed to determine the feasibility and processing characteristics of an evaporation process to reduce the volume of the recycle stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The concentrated recycle would be returned to DWPF while the overhead condensate would be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Plant. Various blends of evaporator feed were tested using simulants developed from characterization of actual recycle streams from DWPF and input from DWPF-Engineering. The simulated feed was evaporated in laboratory scale apparatus to target a 30X volume reduction. Condensate and concentrate samples from each run were analyzed and the process characteristics (foaming, scaling, etc) were visually monitored during each run. The following conclusions were made from the testing: Concentration of the ''typical'' recycle stream in DWPF by 30X was feasible. The addition of DWTT recycle streams to the typical recycle stream raises the solids content of the evaporator feed considerably and lowers the amount of concentration that can be achieved. Foaming was noted during all evaporation tests and must be addressed prior to operation of the full-scale evaporator. Tests were conducted that identified Dow Corning 2210 as an antifoam candidate that warrants further evaluation. The condensate has the potential to exceed the ETP WAC for mercury, silicon, and TOC. Controlling the amount of equipment decontamination recycle in the evaporator blend would help meet the TOC limits. The evaporator condensate will be saturated with mercury and elemental mercury will collect in the evaporator condensate collection vessel. No scaling on heating surfaces was noted during the tests, but splatter onto the walls of the evaporation vessels led to a buildup of solids. These solids were difficult to remove with 2M nitric acid. Precipitation of solids was not noted during the testing. Some of the aluminum present in the recycle streams was converted

  2. Mechanical harvesting of pumpkin seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Sito, Stjepan; Ivančan, Stjepan; Barković, Edi; Mucalo, Ana

    2009-01-01

    One of the key problems in production technology of pumpkin seed for oil production is mechanized harvesting and losses of seed during mechanical harvesting. The losses of pumpkin seed during mechanical harvesting at peripheral velocity of 1.57 m/s (optimally adjusted machine) were 4.4% for Gleisdorf species, 5.2% for Slovenska species and 7.8% for pumpkin with husk. The higher average losses of pumpkin seed with husk were caused by tight connection of seed and pumpkin fruit.

  3. Development of a chamomile harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detlef Ehlert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of chamomile results in increased biodiversity in farms and in additional income sources. To make the harvest of chamomile flowers more efficient, a three-year research project was funded. The aim was the development and investigation of a research prototype characterized by a high picking quality, low losses, productivity of 1 hectare per hour, and low costs. In the final phase of the project a selfpropelled harvester was tested, which provided the base for the future commercial manufacturing of the new harvester in small series.

  4. Recycling of polymers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatyev, Igor A; Thielemans, Wim; Vander Beke, Bob

    2014-06-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, easy to mold, and lightweight. These and many other advantages make them very promising candidates for commercial applications. In many areas, they have substantially suppressed traditional materials. However, the problem of recycling still is a major challenge. There are both technological and economic issues that restrain the progress in this field. Herein, a state-of-art overview of recycling is provided together with an outlook for the future by using popular polymers such as polyolefins, poly(vinyl chloride), polyurethane, and poly(ethylene terephthalate) as examples. Different types of recycling, primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, and biological recycling, are discussed together with related issues, such as compatibilization and cross-linking. There are various projects in the European Union on research and application of these recycling approaches; selected examples are provided in this article. Their progress is mirrored by granted patents, most of which have a very limited scope and narrowly cover certain technologies. Global introduction of waste utilization techniques to the polymer market is currently not fully developed, but has an enormous potential. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Energy harvesting on highway bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A concept for harvesting energy from the traffic-induced loadings on a highway bridge using piezoelectric : materials to generate electricity was explored through the prototype stage. A total of sixteen lead-zirconate : titanate (PZT) Type 5A piezoel...

  6. Controlling Light Harvesting with Light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gwizdala, M.S.; Berera, R.; Kirilovsky, D.; van Grondelle, R.; Kruger, T.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    When exposed to intense sunlight, all organisms performing oxygenic photosynthesis implement various photoprotective strategies to prevent potentially lethal photodamage. The rapidly responding photoprotective mechanisms, occurring in the light-harvesting pigment-protein antennae, take effect within

  7. Magnetic Nanocomposite Cilia Energy Harvester

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Asadullah

    2016-02-11

    An energy harvester capable of converting low frequency vibrations into electrical energy is presented. The operating principle, fabrication process and output characteristics at different frequencies are discussed. The harvester is realized by fabricating an array of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) - iron nanowire nanocomposite cilia on a planar coil array. Each coil element consists of 14 turns and occupies an area of 600 μm x 600μm. The cilia are arranged in a 12x5 array and each cilium is 250 μm wide and 2 mm long. The magnetic characteristics of the fabricated cilia indicate that the nanowires are well aligned inside of the nanocomposite, increasing the efficiency of energy harvesting. The energy harvester occupies an area of 66.96 mm2 and produces an output r.m.s voltage of 206.47μV, when excited by a 40 Hz vibration of 1 mm amplitude.

  8. Harvester operator learnig efficiency analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Malovrh, Špela; Košir, Boštjan; Krč, Janez

    2004-01-01

    The article considers the possibilities of training future harvester operators. The course of learning with a simulator is described and analysed on the first such example in Slovenia. The times of individual processes are measured in two candidates. The paper describes the operation of a learning simulator for work on the harvester Timberjack 1270 D and the proceedings of aone-week course. A comparison between candidates regarding the consumption oftime and number of damages to the virtual m...

  9. Recycling of plastics in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaki, K. [Clean Japan Center, Tokyo (Japan). PET Bottle Recycling Project Dept.

    1998-10-01

    The Clean Japan Center is an NGO concerned with recycling. This article presents an overview of methods for recyling products made of various types of plastic. A number of such methods are in use or being studied. Emphasis is given to the state of plastics recycling in Japan. The uses of waste plastics as materials in other industrials is outlined - these include waste plastics as a reducer in blast furnaces, replacing coke and pulverized coal; waste plastics as a source of heat in cement kilns as an alternative to pulverized coal; and waste plastics being incinerated to generate power. 3 figs.

  10. Process to recycle shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  11. The Recycling Solution: How I Increased Recycling on Dilworth Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The grandson of Fred Keller, one of the founders of behavior analysis, Jacob was 10 years old when he conducted the project for his elementary school science fair. We recently contacted Jacob to learn more about his project. He told us the inspiration came from a class field trip to the county recycling center, which included seeing video footage…

  12. Sustainability issues in circuit board recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech; Alting, Leo; Baldo, Gian Luca

    1995-01-01

    The resource recovery and environmental impact issues of printed circuit board recycling by secondary copper smelters are discussed. Guidelines concerning material selection for circuit board manufacture and concerning the recycling processes are given to enhance recovery efficiency and to lower...

  13. Long-term aging of recycled binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Asphalt pavement is Americas most recycled material. Eighty million tons of asphalt, nearly 80% of all milled asphalt pavement, : is recycled every year [1]. To effectively maintain its 40,000 miles of paved roads, the Florida Department of Transp...

  14. Recycled materials in Portland cement concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This report pertains to a comprehensive study involving the use of recycled materials in Portland cement concrete. Three different materials were studied including crushed glass (CG), street sweepings (SS), and recycled concrete (RC). Blast furnace s...

  15. Interpretation on Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is considering an interpretation of its regulations that would generally allow for recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue.

  16. 75 FR 71003 - America Recycles Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... help create green jobs, support a vibrant American recycling and refurbishing industry, and advance our clean energy economy. While we can celebrate the breadth of our successes on America Recycles Day, we...

  17. Performance evaluation of prototype mechanical cassava harvester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large-scale cassava harvesting, especially during the dry season, is a major constraint to its industrial demand and commercial production. Manual harvesting is slow and ... Results from field trials showed prototype harvesters weighing 268 – 310 kg can achieve optimum performance on ridged landforms. When harvested ...

  18. The Diffusion Effect of MSW Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Tui Chen; Fu-Chiang Yang; Shih-Heng Yu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the recycling performance for some waste fractions selected including food waste, bulk waste, paper, metal products, plastics/rubber and glass products and then to develop some directions for the future improvements. The priority of each waste fraction for recycling is also analyzed by using an importance-performance analysis. Traditionally, the recycling rate that is calculated by the ratio of waste recycled to waste collected is used as an indicator t...

  19. Proceedings of the waste recycling workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, R.E.; Thomas, A.F.; Ries, M.A. [eds.] [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Recorded are seventeen talks from five sessions at the workshop. FERMCO`s recycling program, state of the art recycling technology, and an integrated demonstration of deactivation, decommissioning and decommissioning are presented in the plenary session. In the concrete session, decontamination and recycling are discussed. In the transite session, regulations are considered along with recycling and decontamination. In the metals session, radioactive scrap metals are emphasized. And in the regulatory considerations and liabilities session, DOE and EPA viewpoints are discussed. (GHH)

  20. Recycling at Penn State's Beaver Stadium. "Recycle on the Go" Success Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    With a 13-year-old recycling program, The Pennsylvania State University's (Penn State) Beaver Stadium in the past diverted nearly 30 tons of recyclables per year from local landfills. A new initiative to promote recycling in the stadium's tailgating area has helped Penn State more than triple its old recycling record, collecting 112 tons in 2008.…

  1. Regular Recycling of Wood Ash to Prevent Waste Production (RecAsh). Technical Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lars E-mail: lars.t.andersson@skogsstyreslen.se

    2007-03-15

    At present, the extraction of harvest residues is predicted to increase in Sweden and Finland. As an effect of the intensified harvesting, the export of nutrients and acid buffering substances from the growth site is also increased. Wood ash could be used to compensate forest soils for such losses. Most wood fuel ash is today often deposited in landfills. If the wood ash is recycled, wood energy is produced without any significant waste production. Ash recycling would therefore contribute to decreasing the production of waste, and to maintaining the chemical quality of forest waters and biological productivity of forest soils in the long term. The project has developed, analysed and demonstrated two regular ash-recycling systems. It has also distributed knowledge gathered about motives for ash recycling as well as technical and administrative solutions through a range of media (handbooks, workshops, field demonstrations, reports, web page and information videos). Hopefully, the project will contribute to decreasing waste problems related to bio-energy production in the EU at large. The project has been organised as a separate structure at the beneficiary and divided in four geographically defined subprojects, one in Finland and three in Sweden (Central Sweden, Northern Sweden, and South-western Sweden). The work in each subproject has been lead by a subproject leader. Each subproject has organised a regional reference group. A project steering committee has been established consisting of senior officials from all concerned partners. The project had nine main tasks with the following main expected deliverables and output: 1. Development of two complete full-scale ash-recycling systems; 2. Production of handbooks of the ash recycling system; 3. Ash classification study to support national actions for recommendations; 4. Organise regional demonstrations of various technical options for ash treatment and spreading; 5. Organise national seminars and demonstrations of

  2. School Recycling Programs: A Handbook for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This brochure describes some of the many recycling program options that schools can implement in their communities. It focuses on implementing actual recycling projects as a way of teaching the importance and benefits of recycling. The text examines the solid waste crisis and why Americans cannot continue to possess a disposable mentality. It…

  3. Waste management considerations in HTGR recycle operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, D.T.; Shefcik, J.J.; Heath, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    Waste management considerations in the recycle of HTGR fuel are different from those encountered in the recycle of LWR fuel. The types of waste associated with HTGR recycle operations are discussed, and treatment methods for some of the wastes are described

  4. Recycling Technology: Can It Be Taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clum, James A.; Loper, Carl R., Jr.

    This paper describes the content of a seminar-type engineering course dealing with materials reutilization (recycling). The course, consisting of lecture and discussion by various faculty and outside experts as well as student presentations of research papers on recycling topics, is intended to investigate current areas in which recycling of…

  5. Recycled Office Paper: Why It Costs More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usherson, Judy

    1992-01-01

    Discusses obstacles to making recycled office paper cheaper. Explains how the economics of recycled office paper discourages recycling by commodity mills. Includes discussion of integrated and nonintegrated mills, commodity and specialty mills, specialty printing and writing mills, postconsumer material, supply and demand, and economic…

  6. 40 CFR 141.76 - Recycle provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recycle provisions. 141.76 Section 141...) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.76 Recycle provisions. (a... recycle spent filter backwash water, thickener supernatant, or liquids from dewatering processes must meet...

  7. Tire recycling technologies: What is the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; van Hoek, Johannes Wilhelmus; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Blume, Anke; Heideman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Recycling is a heavily discussed topic nowadays, and recycled tire material to be re-used for the same application is one of the spear points of current R&D activities. Regarding the immense amount of used tires, more than just one outlet for the recycled material is needed. Besides the commonly

  8. Recycling nutrients in algae biorefinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Alba, Laura; Vos, M.P.; Torri, C.; Fabbri, D.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Algal fuel cells: Repeated nutrient recycling is demonstrated by reusing the aqueous phase obtained from the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae. This is achieved, for the first time, by performing a complete set of four continuous growth–HTL cycles. Results show similar growth rates in

  9. The economics of plutonium recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.A.

    1977-11-01

    The individual cost components and the total fuel cycle costs for natural uranium and uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel cycles for CANDU-PHW reactors are discussed. A calculation is performed to establish the economic conditions under which plutonium recycle would be economically attractive. (auth)

  10. Controlling adhesive behavior during recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Jihui Guo; XinPing Wang; Steve Severtson; Mark Kroll; Mike Nowak

    2004-01-01

    Adhesives can be formulated to facilitate their removal by typical paper recycling unit operations. The investigations described in this paper are focused on determining fundamental properties that control particle size during pulping. While pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) with high elastic moduli tend to survive pulping with larger particles, facestock and...

  11. Project 'Recycling in ontwerp' afgesloten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goselink, E. (Erik); Meer, van der M. (Mariska)

    2013-01-01

    De hogescholen Saxion in Enschede en Windesheim in Zwolle organiseerden op 15 oktober 2013 een congres over recycling voor ontwerpers en ondernemers. Belangrijkste conclusie: gerecycled materiaal is prima bruikbaar bij nieuwe ontwerpen. Artikel verschenen in het vakblad Product van november 2013

  12. Materials Recycling: The Virtue of Necessity. Worldwatch Paper 56.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, William U.

    This report focuses on the necessity and advantages of recycling. Following an introduction, the report is divided into five sections, addressing respectively: the necessity of recycling; waste paper recycling; aluminum recycling; iron and steel recycling; and three steps to a "recycling society." These steps include: (1) requiring that consumers…

  13. heteroHarvest: Harvesting Information from Heterogeneous Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    The abundance of information regarding any topic makes the Internet a very good resource. Even though searching the Internet is very easy, what remains difficult is to automate the process of information extraction from the available online information due to the lack of structure and the diversity...... in the sharing methods. Most of the times, information is stored in different proprietary formats, complying with different standards and protocols which makes tasks like data mining and information harvesting very difficult. In this paper, an information harvesting tool (heteroHarvest) is presented...... with objectives to address these problems by filtering the useful information and then normalizing the information in a singular non hypertext format. Finally we describe the results of experimental evaluation. The results are found promising with an overall error rate equal to 6.5% across heterogeneous formats....

  14. Nuclear fuel cycle waste recycling technology deverlopment - Radioactive metal waste recycling technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Moon, Jei Kwon; Jung, Chong Hun; Park, Sang Yoon

    1998-08-01

    With relation to recycling of the radioactive metal wastes which are generated during operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the following were described in this report. 1. Analysis of the state of the art on the radioactive metal waste recycling technologies. 2. Economical assessment on the radioactive metal waste recycling. 3. Process development for radioactive metal waste recycling, A. Decontamination technologies for radioactive metal waste recycling. B. Decontamination waste treatment technologies, C. Residual radioactivity evaluation technologies. (author). 238 refs., 60 tabs., 79 figs

  15. A Hip Implant Energy Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancharoen, K.; Zhu, D.; Beeby, S. P.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a kinetic energy harvester designed to be embedded in a hip implant which aims to operate at a low frequency associated with body motion of patients. The prototype is designed based on the constrained volume available in a hip prosthesis and the challenge is to harvest energy from low frequency movements (< 1 Hz) which is an average frequency during free walking of a patient. The concept of magnetic-force-driven energy harvesting is applied to this prototype considering the hip movements during routine activities of patients. The magnetic field within the harvester was simulated using COMSOL. The simulated resonant frequency was around 30 Hz and the voltage induced in a coil was predicted to be 47.8 mV. A prototype of the energy harvester was fabricated and tested. A maximum open circuit voltage of 39.43 mV was obtained and the resonant frequency of 28 Hz was observed. Moreover, the power output of 0.96 μW was achieved with an optimum resistive load of 250Ω.

  16. An industry response to recycle 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motl, G.P.; Loiselle, V.

    1996-01-01

    The US DOE is expected to issue a policy early this year articulating DOE's position on the recycle of DOE radioactive scrap metal. In anticipation of this 'Recycle 2000' initiative, the nuclear industry has formed a new trade association called the Association of Radioactive Metal Recyclers (ARMR). This article describes the Recycle 2000 initiative, provides some background on the ARMR and its membership, and identifies industry views on the actions to be taken and issues to be resolved in Recycle 2000 is to become a reality

  17. Methods of Recycling, Properties and Applications of Recycled Thermoplastic Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Elena Grigore

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide an updated survey of the main thermoplastic polymers in order to obtain recyclable materials for various industrial and indoor applications. The synthesis approach significantly impacts the properties of such materials and these properties in turn have a significant impact on their applications. Due to the ideal properties of the thermoplastic polymers such as corrosion resistance, low density or user-friendly design, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years, becoming more used than aluminum or other metals. Also, recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today.

  18. Harvesting Information from Heterogeneous Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    The abundance of information regarding any topic makes the Internet a very good resource. Even though searching the Internet is very easy, what remains difficult is to automate the process of information extraction from the available online information due to the lack of structure and the diversity...... in the sharing methods. Most of the times, information is stored in different proprietary formats, complying with different standards and protocols which makes tasks like data mining and information harvesting very difficult. In this paper, an information harvesting tool (heteroHarvest) is presented...... with objectives to address these problems by filtering the useful information and then normalizing the information in a singular non hypertext format. We also discuss state of the art tools along with the shortcomings and present the results of an analysis carried out over different heterogeneous formats along...

  19. Computer Vision for Timber Harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg

    The goal of this thesis is to investigate computer vision methods for timber harvesting operations. The background for developing computer vision for timber harvesting is to document origin of timber and to collect qualitative and quantitative parameters concerning the timber for efficient harvest...... segments. The purpose of image segmentation is to make the basis for more advanced computer vision methods like object recognition and classification. Our second method concerns image classification and we present a method where we classify small timber samples to tree species based on Active Appearance...... to the development of the logTracker system the described methods have a general applicability making them useful for many other computer vision problems....

  20. Recycling and combustion are complementary; Recycling und Verbrennung bedingen einander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thome-Kozmiensky, Karl J. [vivis CONSULT GmbH, Nietwerder (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    In Germany, the waste management has developed to a medium position between supply and disposal. Numerous waste management companies also operate sorting plants, composting plants, biogas plants, wind power plants, biomass conversion plants and solar power plants. In addition to their traditional tasks, some companies of the energy sector are devoted to the energetic waste management and recycling. Nearly all companies have recognized this trend and have implemented the utilization of renewable energies including waste materials into their strategy.

  1. Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonjes, David J., E-mail: david.tonjes@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States); Waste Reduction and Management Institute, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); Center for Bioenergy Research and Development, Advanced Energy Research and Technology Center, Stony Brook University, 1000 Innovation Rd., Stony Brook, NY 11794-6044 (United States); Mallikarjun, Sreekanth, E-mail: sreekanth.mallikarjun@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets.

  2. Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonjes, David J.; Mallikarjun, Sreekanth

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets

  3. Innovative Vacuum Distillation for Magnesium Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tianbai; Li, Naiyi; Mei, Xiaoming; Yu, Alfred; Shang, Shixiang

    Magnesium recycling now becomes a very important subject as magnesium consumption increases fast around the world. All commonly used magnesium die-casting alloys can be recycled and recovered to the primary metal quality. The recycled materials may be comprised of biscuits, sprues, runners, flash, overflows, dross, sludge, scrap parts, and old parts that are returned from service, An innovative magnesium recycle method, vacuum distillation, is developed and proved out to be able to recycle magnesium scraps, especially machining chips, oily magnesium, smelting sludge, dross or the mixture. With this process at a specific temperature and environment condition, magnesium in scraps can be gasified and then solidified to become crystal magnesium crown. This `recycled' magnesium crown is collected and used as the raw material of magnesium alloys. The experimental results show the vacuum distillation is a feasible and plausible method to recycle magnesium. Further, the cost analysis will be addressed in this paper.

  4. Cantilever piezoelectric energy harvester with multiple cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S Srinivasulu Raju; M Umapathy; G Uma

    2015-01-01

    Energy harvesting employing piezoelectric materials in mechanical structures such as cantilever beams, plates, diaphragms, etc, has been an emerging area of research in recent years. The research in this area is also focused on structural tailoring to improve the harvested power from the energy harvesters. Towards this aim, this paper presents a method for improving the harvested power from a cantilever piezoelectric energy harvester by introducing multiple rectangular cavities. A generalized model for a piezoelectric energy harvester with multiple rectangular cavities at a single section and two sections is developed. A method is suggested to optimize the thickness of the cavities and the number of cavities required to generate a higher output voltage for a given cantilever beam structure. The performance of the optimized energy harvesters is evaluated analytically and through experimentation. The simulation and experimental results show that the performance of the energy harvester can be increased with multiple cavities compared to the harvester with a single cavity. (paper)

  5. Harvest of table olives by mechanical harvesting equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Gambella

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have evaluated the performance, of an electric comb equipped with five undulated fingers used for mechanized the harvesting of table olives. The first aim of the work was to test three different types of coating materials used for covering the fingers: Silicon (S, Vulcanized rubber (VR and Natural rubber (NR. The diameter of the coating materials tested were 7mm (D1, 14 mm (D2, 19 mm (D3 in order to evaluate the damage of different working conditions on the intact olives. During harvesting, silicon at 7mm and 14mm resulted in the largest percentage of undamaged the fruit (67% and 65%, natural rubber 63% and vulcanized rubber at the 54%. The second aim was to evaluate the combination, in terms of the best performance, of the machines used for mechanized harvesting of table olives. Several factors have been examined: undulating fingers variation thickness, different rotational speeds and different coating materials used to reduce the impact damage on olives. From the tests on olive tree we have determined that while plastic materials (S and (NR appear to have a positive role in harvest quality, the vibration transmitted to the operator’s hand is great from 6.48 m/s2 for S to 6.31 m/ s2 for NR and 2.92 m/s2 for VR, respect to the materials used.

  6. DWPF recycle minimization: Brainstorming session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, R.A.; Poirier, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The recycle stream from the DWPF constitutes a major source of water addition to the High Level Waste evaporator system. As now designed, the entire flow of 3.5 to 6.5 gal/min (at sign 25% and 75% attainment, respectively), or 2 gal/min during idling, flow to the 2H evaporator system (Tank 43). Substantial improvement in the HLW water balance and tank volume management is expected if the DWPF recycle to the HLW evaporator system can be significantly reduced. A task team has been appointed to study alternatives for reducing the flow to the HLW evaporator system and make recommendations for implementation and/or further study and evaluation. The brainstorming session detailed in this report was designed to produce the first cut options for the task team to further evaluate

  7. Recycling of used fission material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, K.

    1991-01-01

    One of the most important social obstructions for the final disposal of nuclear waste is the long lifetime of some radioactive nuclides. However there are new possibilities for recycling high-level radioactive wastes. By nuclear transformation the troublesome components in the waste, the actinides and the long-living fission products can be transformed into products with a shorter decay time. (author). 9 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  8. Comparison of recycling outcomes in three types of recycling collection units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ashley; Gregoire, Mary; Rasmussen, Heather; Witowich, Gretchen

    2013-03-01

    Commercial institutions have many factors to consider when implementing an effective recycling program. This study examined the effectiveness of three different types of recycling bins on recycling accuracy by determining the percent weight of recyclable material placed in the recycling bins, comparing the percent weight of recyclable material by type of container used, and examining whether a change in signage increased recycling accuracy. Data were collected over 6 weeks totaling 30 days from 3 different recycling bin types at a Midwest University medical center. Five bin locations for each bin type were used. Bags from these bins were collected, sorted into recyclable and non-recyclable material, and weighed. The percent recyclable material was calculated using these weights. Common contaminates found in the bins were napkins and paper towels, plastic food wrapping, plastic bags, and coffee cups. The results showed a significant difference in percent recyclable material between bin types and bin locations. Bin type 2 was found to have one bin location to be statistically different (p=0.048), which may have been due to lack of a trash bin next to the recycling bin in that location. Bin type 3 had significantly lower percent recyclable material (precycling bin and increased contamination due to the combination of commingled and paper into one bag. There was no significant change in percent recyclable material in recycling bins post signage change. These results suggest a signage change may not be an effective way, when used alone, to increase recycling compliance and accuracy. This study showed two or three-compartment bins located next to a trash bin may be the best bin type for recycling accuracy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lithium actinide recycle process demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.K.; Pierce, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Several pyrochemical processes have been developed in the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne Laboratory for recovery of actinide elements from LWR spent fuel. The lithium process was selected as the reference process from among the options. In this process the LWR oxide spent fuel is reduced by lithium at 650{degrees}C in the presence of molten LiCl. The Li{sub 2}O formed during the reduction process is soluble in the salt. The spent salt and lithium are recycled after the Li{sub 2}O is electrochemically reduced. The oxygen is liberated as CO{sub 2} at a carbon anode or oxygen at an inert anode. The reduced metal components of the LWR spent fuel are separated from the LiCL salt phase and introduced into an electrorefiner. The electrorefining step separates the uranium and transuranium (TRU) elements into two product streams. The uranium product, which comprises about 96% of the LWR spent fuel mass, may be enriched for recycle into the LWR fuel cycle, stored for future use in breeder reactors, or converted to a suitable form for disposal as waste. The TRU product can be recycled as fast reactor fuel or can be alloyed with constituents of the LWR cladding material to produce a stable waste form.

  10. Divertor retention for recycling impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieger, K.; Roth, J.; Fussmann, G.

    1992-01-01

    As an important issue for fusion devices with divertor configurations the retention capability for both recycling and non-recycling impurities receives increasing interest. In the case of recycling, gaseous, impurities the retention capability is usually investigated by means of short impurity gas puffs into the plasma vessel and the analysis of the time dependence of the observed line radiation. The detailed understanding of the impurity transport processes related to the retention capability of a certain divertor structure will require modelling of the experimental results with 2D or 3D transport code simulations. However, for the comparison of the global behavior of different configurations a much simpler description of the divertor retention in terms of global time constants may be sufficient. We will give a summary of experimental results from ASDEX for the dependence of the retention capability on parameters like divertor plasma density and temperature and the distance along field lines between main plasma and divertor. In addition we will compare some of these results with similar experiments on DIIID. (author) 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Wideband Piezomagnetoelastic Vibration Energy Harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2014-01-01

    softening effect. In linear operation (without magnets) the harvester generates a RMS power of 141 μW/g2 at 588 Hz with a relative bandwidth of 3.8% over a 100 kΩ load resistor. When operated with one magnet ideally positioned opposite the cantilever, a RMS power of 265 μW/g2 is generated at 270 Hz...

  12. Fluid Flow Nozzle Energy Harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkenmeyer, Phillip; Winn, Tyler; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Colonius, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Power generation schemes that could be used downhole in an oil well to produce about 1 Watt average power with long-life (decades) are actively being developed. A variety of proposed energy harvesting schemes could be used to extract energy from this environment but each of these has their own limitations that limit their practical use. Since vibrating piezoelectric structures are solid state and can be driven below their fatigue limit, harvesters based on these structures are capable of operating for very long lifetimes (decades); thereby, possibly overcoming a principle limitation of existing technology based on rotating turbo-machinery. An initial survey identified that spline nozzle configurations can be used to excite a vibrating piezoelectric structure in such a way as to convert the abundant flow energy into useful amounts of electrical power. This paper presents current flow energy harvesting designs and experimental results of specific spline nozzle/ bimorph design configurations which have generated suitable power per nozzle at or above well production analogous flow rates. Theoretical models for non-dimensional analysis and constitutive electromechanical model are also presented in this paper to optimize the flow harvesting system.

  13. Triboelectric effect in energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logothetis, I.; Vassiliadis, S.; Siores, E.

    2017-10-01

    With the development of wearable technology, much research has been undertaken in the field of flexible and stretchable electronics for use in interactive attire. The challenging problem wearable technology faces is the ability to provide energy whilst keeping the endproduct comfortable, light, ergonomic and nonintrusive. Energy harvesting, or energy scavenging as it is also known, is the process by which ambient energy is captured and converted into electric energy. The triboelectric effect converts mechanical energy into electrical energy based on the coupling effect of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction and is utilized as the basis for triboelectric generators (TEG). TEG’s are promising for energy harvesting due their high output power and efficiency in conjunction with simple and economical production. Due to the wide availability of materials and ease of integration, in order to produce the triboelectric effect such functional materials are effective for wearable energy harvesting systems. Flexible TEG’s can be built and embedded into attire, although a thorough understanding of the underlying principle of how TEG’s operate needs to be comprehended for the development and in incorporation in smart technical textiles. This paper presents results associated with TEG’S and discusses their suitability for energy harvesting in textiles structures.

  14. Harvest prediction in 'Algerie' loquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso, Juan J; Pérez, Mercedes; Alonso, Francisca; Cuevas, Julián

    2007-05-01

    Plant phenology is in great measure driven by air temperature. To forecast harvest time for 'Algerie' loquat accurately, the growing degree days (GDD) needed from bloom to ripening were determined using data from nine seasons. The methods proposed by Zalom et al. (Zalom FG, Goodell PB, Wilson LT, Barnett WW, Bentley W, Degree-days: the calculation and use of heat units in pest management, leaflet no 21373, Division Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California 10 pp, 1983) were compared as regards their ability to estimate heat summation based on hourly records. All the methods gave remarkably similar results for our cultivation area, although the double-sine method showed higher performance when temperatures were low. A base temperature of 3 degrees C is proposed for 'Algerie' loquat because it provides a coefficient of variation in GDD among seasons of below 5%, and because of its compatibility with loquat growth. Based on these determinations, 'Algerie' loquat requires 1,715 GDD from bloom to harvest; under our conditions this heat is accumulated over an average of 159 days. Our procedure permits the 'Algerie' harvest date to be estimated with a mean error of 4.4 days (Algerie' harvest under non-limiting growing conditions. However, GDD reflects the developmental rate in water-stressed trees better than calendar days. Trees under deficit irrigation during flower development required more time and more heat to ripen their fruits.

  15. Harvest prediction in `Algerie' loquat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso, Juan J.; Pérez, Mercedes; Alonso, Francisca; Cuevas, Julián

    2007-05-01

    Plant phenology is in great measure driven by air temperature. To forecast harvest time for ‘Algerie’ loquat accurately, the growing degree days (GDD) needed from bloom to ripening were determined using data from nine seasons. The methods proposed by Zalom et al. (Zalom FG, Goodell PB, Wilson LT, Barnett WW, Bentley W, Degree-days: the calculation and use of heat units in pest management, leaflet no 21373, Division Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California 10 pp, 1983) were compared as regards their ability to estimate heat summation based on hourly records. All the methods gave remarkably similar results for our cultivation area, although the double-sine method showed higher performance when temperatures were low. A base temperature of 3°C is proposed for ‘Algerie’ loquat because it provides a coefficient of variation in GDD among seasons of below 5%, and because of its compatibility with loquat growth. Based on these determinations, ‘Algerie’ loquat requires 1,715 GDD from bloom to harvest; under our conditions this heat is accumulated over an average of 159 days. Our procedure permits the ‘Algerie’ harvest date to be estimated with a mean error of 4.4 days (Algerie’ harvest under non-limiting growing conditions. However, GDD reflects the developmental rate in water-stressed trees better than calendar days. Trees under deficit irrigation during flower development required more time and more heat to ripen their fruits.

  16. Spring harvest of corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizotte, P.L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des sols et de genie agroalimentaire; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Corn stover is typically left behind in the field after grain harvest. Although part of the stover should remain in the field for soil organic matter renewal and erosion protection, half of the stover could be removed sustainably. This represents about one million t dry matter (DM) of stover per year in the province of Quebec. Stover harvested in the fall is very wet. While there are applications for wet stover, the available markets currently require a dry product. Preliminary measurements have shown that stover left in the field throughout the winter becomes very dry, and a considerable amount would still be harvestable in the spring. In the spring of 2009, corn stover was harvested at 2 sites, each subdivided into 2 parcels. The first parcel was cut and raked in the fall of 2008 (fall parcel), while the second parcel was cut and raked in spring 2009. Fibre from both parcels was baled in the spring 2009. At the first site, a large square baler was used in late April to produce bales measuring 0.8 m x 0.9 m x 1.8 m. On the second site a round baler was used in late May to produce bales of 1.2 m in width by 1.45 m in diameter. On the second site, a small square baler was also used to produce bales of 0.35 m x 0.45 m x 0.60 m (spring cutting only). With the large square baler, an average of 3.9 t DM/ha was harvested equally on the fall parcel and the spring parcel, representing a 48 per cent recovery of biomass based on stover yields.

  17. Nyala and Bushbuck II: A Harvesting Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Temple H.; Greeff, Johanna C.

    1999-01-01

    Adds a cropping or harvesting term to the animal overpopulation model developed in Part I of this article. Investigates various harvesting strategies that might suggest a solution to the overpopulation problem without actually culling any animals. (ASK)

  18. Heat Harvesting by Artificial Muscles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA emphasizes the need to implement energy harvesting in its future mission activities. By harvesting energy from the ambient surroundings, there is less...

  19. Energy harvesting devices for harvesting energy from terahertz electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novack, Steven D.; Kotter, Dale K.; Pinhero, Patrick J.

    2012-10-09

    Methods, devices and systems for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation are provided including harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation. In one embodiment, a device includes a substrate and one or more resonance elements disposed in or on the substrate. The resonance elements are configured to have a resonant frequency, for example, in at least one of the infrared, near-infrared and visible light spectra. A layer of conductive material may be disposed over a portion of the substrate to form a ground plane. An optical resonance gap or stand-off layer may be formed between the resonance elements and the ground plane. The optical resonance gap extends a distance between the resonance elements and the layer of conductive material approximately one-quarter wavelength of a wavelength of the at least one resonance element's resonant frequency. At least one energy transfer element may be associated with the at least one resonance element.

  20. Studies on recycled aggregates-based concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshvir, Major; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2006-06-01

    Reduced extraction of raw materials, reduced transportation cost, improved profits, reduced environmental impact and fast-depleting reserves of conventional natural aggregates has necessitated the use of recycling, in order to be able to conserve conventional natural aggregate. In this study various physical and mechanical properties of recycled concrete aggregates were examined. Recycled concrete aggregates are different from natural aggregates and concrete made from them has specific properties. The percentages of recycled concrete aggregates were varied and it was observed that properties such as compressive strength showed a decrease of up to 10% as the percentage of recycled concrete aggregates increased. Water absorption of recycled aggregates was found to be greater than natural aggregates, and this needs to be compensated during mix design.

  1. Coolant clean-up and recycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takao.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the service life of mechanical seals in a shaft sealing device, eliminate leakages and improve the safety by providing a recycle pump for feeding coolants to a coolant clean-up device upon reactor shut-down and adapting the pump treat only low temperature and low pressure coolants. Constitution: The system is adapted to partially take out coolants from the pipeways of a recycling pump upon normal operation and feed them to a clean-up device. Upon reactor shut-down, the recycle pump is stopped and coolants are extracted by the recycle pump for shut-down into the clean-up device. Since the coolants are not fed to the clean-up device by the recycle pump during normal operation as conducted so far, high temperature and high pressure coolants are not directly fed to the recycle pump, thereby enabling to avoid mechanical problems in the pump. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Waste energy harvesting mechanical and thermal energies

    CERN Document Server

    Ling Bing, Kong; Hng, Huey Hoon; Boey, Freddy; Zhang, Tianshu

    2014-01-01

    Waste Energy Harvesting overviews the latest progress in waste energy harvesting technologies, with specific focusing on waste thermal mechanical energies. Thermal energy harvesting technologies include thermoelectric effect, storage through phase change materials and pyroelectric effect. Waste mechanical energy harvesting technologies include piezoelectric (ferroelectric) effect with ferroelectric materials and nanogenerators. The book aims to strengthen the syllabus in energy, materials and physics and is well suitable for students and professionals in the fields.

  3. Sorting Recycled Trash: An Activity for Earth Day 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary E.; Harris, Harold H.

    2007-01-01

    Middle or high school students celebrate Earth Day on April 22, 2007 by participating in the activity to separate commingled recyclable trash to simulate sorting in a recycling center. Students would gain an appreciation for recyclable trash, after it is taken to a recycling center and learn about properties of recyclables.

  4. Toward a semi-mechanical harvesting platform system for harvesting blueberries with fresh-market quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major concerns related to harvesting blueberries for fresh market with over-the-row (OTR) harvesters are that the quality of the fruit harvested with OTR machines is generally low and ground loss is excessive. Machine-harvested blueberries have more internal bruise and usually soften rapidly in col...

  5. Nutrients removal from eucalyptus plantations by harvesting wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, M.

    1984-01-01

    Information about biomass production and nutrient removal by harvesting wood from three 10-year-old hybrid Eucalyptus (E. tereticornis) plantations in the Tarai Bhabar, Pilibhit and East Dehra Dun Divisions of Uttar Pradesh is discussed with reference to its implications for soil fertility. Data on DM distribution in sample trees, DM production in various tree components, average biomass production and productivity at different localities, and the accumulation of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in various parts of the standing crop are presented. The estimated wood production (u.b.) is 93, 187 kg/ha (992 trees/ha), 98, 683 kg/ha (1023 trees/ha) and 82, 804 kg/ha (1133 trees/ha) which is 69-74% of total above ground biomass. Of the total uptake 43-44% of N, 48 to 50% of P, 31-35% of K and 37-47% of Mg are removed by wood harvesting alone: 12 to 30% of the total uptake of various nutrients can be recycled by leaving the bark on the forest floor. 12 references.

  6. Thorium-U Recycle Facility (7930)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thorium-U Recycle Facility (7930), along with the Transuranic Processing Facility (7920). comprise the Radiochemical Engineering Development Complex. 7930 is a...

  7. Criterion 6, indicator 33 : recovery or recycling of forest products as a percentage of total forest products consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken Skog; James Howard; Rebecca. Westby

    2011-01-01

    This indicator shows the trend in recovering wood and paper for reuse in products in the United States. This reuse can hold down the need to harvest wood to meet U.S. consumption needs. The paper recycling rate (utilization rate in producing new paper) increased from 22% to 38% between 1970 and 1996, but then stabilized at 37% to 38% between 1996 and 2006. This rate...

  8. Fog-harvesting Mesh Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Chhatre, Shreerang S.; Srinivasan, Siddarth; Cohen, Robert E.; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2012-11-01

    Fog represents a large, untapped source of potable water, especially in arid climates. Various plants and animals use morphological as well as chemical features on their surfaces to harvest this precious resource. In this work, we investigate the influence of surface wettability, structural length scale, and relative openness of the weave on the fog harvesting ability of mesh surfaces. We choose simple woven meshes as a canonical family of model permeable surfaces due to the ability to systematically vary periodicity, porosity, mechanical robustness and ease of fabrication. We measure the fog collecting capacity of a set of meshes with a directed aqueous aerosol stream to simulate a natural foggy environment. Further, we strive to develop and test appropriate scalings and correlations that quantify the collection of water on the mesh surfaces. These design rules can be deployed as an a priori design chart for designing optimal performance meshes for given environmental/operating conditions.

  9. Fruit harvesting robots in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, N; Monta, M; Fujiura, T

    1996-01-01

    We have developed harvesting robots for tomato, petty-tomato, cucumber and grape in Japan. These robots mainly consist of manipulators, end-effectors, visual sensors and traveling devices. These mechanisms of the robot components were developed based on the physical properties of the work objects. The robots must work automatically by themselves in greenhouses or fields, since we are considering for one operator to tend several robots in the production system. The system is modeled after Japanese agriculture which is commonly seen to produce many kinds of crops in greenhouses and in many small fields intensively. Bioproduction in space is somewhat similar to the agricultural system in Japan, because few operators have to work in a small space. Employing robots for bioproduction in space is considered desirable in near future. The following is a description of the harvesting robots.

  10. Harvesting NASA's Common Metadata Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, D.; Mitchell, A. E.; Durbin, C.; Norton, J.

    2017-12-01

    As part of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), the Common Metadata Repository (CMR) stores metadata for over 30,000 datasets from both NASA and international providers along with over 300M granules. This metadata enables sub-second discovery and facilitates data access. While the CMR offers a robust temporal, spatial and keyword search functionality to the general public and international community, it is sometimes more desirable for international partners to harvest the CMR metadata and merge the CMR metadata into a partner's existing metadata repository. This poster will focus on best practices to follow when harvesting CMR metadata to ensure that any changes made to the CMR can also be updated in a partner's own repository. Additionally, since each partner has distinct metadata formats they are able to consume, the best practices will also include guidance on retrieving the metadata in the desired metadata format using CMR's Unified Metadata Model translation software.

  11. Forage Harvest and Transport Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J.; Downing, M.; Turhollow, A.

    1998-12-01

    An engineering-economic approach is used to calculate harvest, in-field transport, and over-the-road transport costs for hay as bales and modules, silage, and crop residues as bales and modules. Costs included are equipment depreciation interest; fuel, lube, and oil; repairs; insurance, housing, and taxes; and labor. Field preparation, pest control, fertilizer, land, and overhead are excluded from the costs calculated Equipment is constrained by power available, throughput or carrying capacity, and field speed.

  12. Population dynamics with symmetric and asymmetric harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ali

    2009-10-01

    Here $\\lambda, a, b, c$ and $L$ are positive constants with $0harvesting. Here $u$ is the population density, $\\frac{1}{\\lambda}$ is the diffusion coefficient and $c$ is the harvesting effort. In particular, model A corresponds to a symmetric harvesting case and model B to an asymmetric harvesting case. Our objective is to study the existence of positive solutions and also discuss the effects of harvesting. We will develop appropriate quadrature methods via which we will establish our results.

  13. Fermilab Recycler Collimation System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B. C. [Fermilab; Adamson, P. [Fermilab; Ainsworth, R. [Fermilab; Capista, D. [Fermilab; Hazelwood, K. [Fermilab; Kourbanis, I. [Fermilab; Mokhov, N. V. [Fermilab; Morris, D. K. [Fermilab; Murphy, M. [Fermilab; Sidorov, V. [Fermilab; Stern, E. [Fermilab; Tropin, I. [Fermilab; Yang, M-J. [Fermilab

    2016-10-04

    To provide 700 kW proton beams for neutrino production in the NuMI facility, we employ slip stacking in the Recycler with transfer to the Main Injector for recapture and acceleration. Slip stacking with 12 Booster batches per 1.33 sec cycle of the Main Injector has been implemented and briefly tested while extensive operation with 8 batches and 10 batches per MI cycle has been demonstrated. Operation in this mode since 2013 shows that loss localization is an essential component for long term operation. Beam loss in the Recycler will be localized in a collimation region with design capability for absorbing up to 2 kW of lost protons in a pair of 20-Ton collimators (absorbers). This system will employ a two stage collimation with a thin molybdenum scattering foil to define the bottom edge of both the injected and decelerated-for-slipping beams. Optimization and engineering design of the collimator components and radiation shielding are based on comprehensive MARS15 simulations predicting high collimation efficiency as well as tolerable levels of prompt and residual radiation. The system installation during the Fermilab 2016 facility shutdown will permit commissioning in the subsequent operating period.

  14. Feasibility of recycling rubber-modified paving materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    Recycling has proved to be a sound, economical method of conserving and reusing scarce material resources used in AC pavement construction. Considerable experience with recycling conventional AC mixtures indicates that the resulting recycled pavement...

  15. Effects of recycled shingles and increased RAP percentages : [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    As asphalt binder becomes more expensive, the use of recycled asphalt materials becomes : more attractive. Recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) and recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) offer a partial substitute for virgin aggregate and binder in asphalt pavem...

  16. [Analysis of residual volatiles in recycled polyethylene terephthalate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkado, Yuka; Kawamura, Yoko; Mutsuga, Motoh; Tamura, Hiro-omi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2005-02-01

    The residual volatiles in recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were analyzed using headspace/GC/MS. Recycled PET samples were made from PET bottles used for beverages, alcohol and soy sauce, and they were recycled in physical recycling plants, chemical recycling plants and superclean-like recycling trials. The physically recycled PET flakes contained small amounts of volatiles such as ethanol, limonene, 2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane, acetone, octanal and nonanal. Most of them originated from foods packed in bottles, and only 2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane was derived from polymer impurities. In contrast, the superclean-like or chemically recycled PET contained no detectable volatiles, like new PET pellets. The PET sheets shaped from physically recycled PET had no detectable volatiles. Not only the chemically and superclean-like recycled PET, but also the physically recycled PET contained no hazardous volatiles. It was concluded that there is no safety concern about volatiles in recycled PET, for the present use.

  17. Long-term aging of recycled binders : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    At 80 million tons a year representing more than 80% of all milled asphalt pavement : asphalt paving is Americas most recycled material. Asphalt can be recycled in place, which is : very cost effective; however, aging of recycled binder ca...

  18. Promoting Residential Recycling: An Alternative Policy Based on a Recycling Reward System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongzhe Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a reward system that uses a club good to promote recycling. In particular, we examine a context of incomplete information in which the administrator is unable to observe the resident’s attitude towards recycling. The results suggest that despite the lack of information, the administrator is able to induce all types of residents to recycle when the reward is sufficiently high. Furthermore, we show that education programs, technologies that help to reduce the residential recycling cost and penalties for garbage dumping are complementary tools that could also promote recycling.

  19. Recycling Primer: Getting Back to Basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connecticut State Dept. of Environmental Protection, Hartford.

    The disposal of garbage is a complex issue. Four strategies have been developed to attack the problem. They deal with: (1) waste reduction; (2) recycling; (3) energy recovery; and (4) land filling. This handbook emphasizes recycling as a method of handling the problem of dealing with solid wastes. Included are a list of the categories and uses of…

  20. Plutonium recycle concept for RCC - type PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonet, H.; Charlier, A.; Deramaix, P.; Vanderberg, C.

    1975-01-01

    Self-generated Pu recycling schemes in RCC-type PWRs have been defined. The main results of survey studies performed to compare the relative merits of various Pu recycle strategies and the merits of alternative solutions of the assembly design such as the Pu-island assembly or the all-Pu assembly are presented [fr

  1. The Effectiveness of Dutch Municipal Recycling Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dijkgraaf (Elbert); R.H.J.M. Gradus (Raymond)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The EU advocates a household waste recycling rate of more than 70%. Although the Netherlands already years ago invested in recycling policies heavily, this is still a large challenge as nowadays on average this rate is approximately 50% and nearly no municipalities

  2. Sustainability and the Recycling of Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Donna L.; Nilsen, Alleen Pace

    2011-01-01

    With the mention of "sustainability" and "recycling," most people think about reusing paper, plastic, metal, and glass, but what the authors discovered when they embarked on a word-study unit is that the sustainability movement has also brought about the recycling of words. The authors were team-teaching a language awareness class taken by…

  3. Linguistic Recycling and the Open Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Probal

    2001-01-01

    Examines linguistic recycling in the context of domestic Esperanto use. Argues that word-meaning recycling reflects the same fundamental principles as sentential recursion, and that a linguistics theoretically sensitive to these principles strengthens practical efforts towards the social goal of an open speech community. (Author/VWL)

  4. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

  5. Recycling of WEEE by magnetic density separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, B.; Giacometti, L.; Di Maio, F.; Rem, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces a new recycling method of WEEE: Magnetic Density Separation. By using this technology, both grade and recovery rate of recycled products are over 90%. Good separations are not only observed in relatively big WEEE samples, but also in samples with smaller sizes or electrical

  6. FLY ASH RECYCLE IN DRY SCRUBBING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes the effects of fly ash recycle in dry scrubbing. (Previous workers have shown that the recycle of product solids improves the utilization of slaked lime--Ca(OH)2--for sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal by spray dryers with bag filters.) In laboratory-scale experimen...

  7. India's ship recycling trade-off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.; Athanasopoulou, V.

    2014-01-01

    The special nature of India's steel industry lends particular importance to ship recycling as a source of scrap. Ship recycling in upgraded 'green' facilities can substitute other 'dirty' ironmaking processes, resulting in energy savings and air pollutant emission reductions for the Indian steel

  8. Recycling from endosomes to the plasma membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, E.M. van

    2001-01-01

    Summary V Chapter?Summary Many membrane proteins are, after endocytic uptake, efficiently recycled back to the plasma membrane. The aim of the studies presented in this thesis was to determine pathways and molecular mechanisms that are involved in recycling. Plasma membrane-derived clathrin-coated

  9. Rubber Recycling: Chemistry, Processing, and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myhre, M.; Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2012-01-01

    For both environmental and economic reasons, there is broad interest in recycling rubber and in the continued development of recycling technologies. The use of postindustrial materials is a fairly well-established and documented business. Much effort over the past decade has been put into dealing

  10. Kinetics of plasma flow in recycling region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraheninnikov, S.I.; Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol'zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow; Chodura, R.

    1994-01-01

    Kinetics of plasma flow in tokamak SOL plasma recycling region for large ratio of Coulomb mean free path, λ T , to neutral recycling length, L N , is considered. Such regimes are quite typical for both current tokamaks and ITER-like reactor conditions and can not be treated by fluid approximation. (orig.)

  11. Recycling of textiles: the South African scene *

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seugnet

    (1997) to investigate textile-recycling practices, was designed to investigate various aspects of textile recy- cling in South Africa. The framework correlates with the objectives for this study. The research framework and how these various as- pects of recycling of solid waste in the South African textile industry were tested will ...

  12. Dual-recycling channel management for WEEE with stochastic demand

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chuanfa; Feng, Lipan; Wang, Xuehong

    2014-01-01

    More and more enterprises collecting e-wastes through the online recycling channel as the rapidly improving of the customer acceptance of the online recycling channel. And they are facing a problem, however, that they have to offer a higher price in the online recycling channel than the traditional recycling channel as well as reducing the searching cost by using the online recycling channel. Base on that, we incorporate a detailed consumer recycling channel choice model where the collection ...

  13. WATER RESISTANCE OF RECYCLED PAPER PANEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rani Suryandono

    2017-06-01

    Alice Wisler (2015 Facts about Recycling Paper. http://greenliving.lovetoknow.com/Facts_About_Recycling_Paper. Accessed 2 April 2016 Clay Miller (2011 5 Benefits of Recycling Paper. http://www.ways2gogreenblog.com/2011/09/28/5-benefits-of-recycling-paper/. Accessed 10 May 2016 Hari Goyal (2015 Grades of Paper. http://www.paperonweb.com/grade.htm. Accessed 2 April 2016 Hari Goyal (2015 Properties of Paper. http://www.paperonweb.com/paperpro.htm. Accessed 2 April 2016 Kathryn Sukalich (2016 Everything You Need to Know about Paper Recycling. http://earth911.com/business-policy/business/paper-recycling-details-basics/. Accessed 15 July 2016 [U1] Larry West (2015 Why Recycle Paper. http://environment.about.com/od/recycling/a/The-Benefits-Of-Paper-Recycling-Why-Recycle-Paper.htm. Accesed 15 June 2016 Marie-Luise Blue (2008 The Advantages of Recycling Paper. http://education.seattlepi.com/advantages-recycling-paper-3440.html. Accessed 15 June 2016 Nina Spitzer (2009 http://www.sheknows.com/home-and-gardening/articles/810025/the-impact-of-disposable-coffee-cups-on-the-environment. Accessed 15 June 2016 Radio New Zealand (2010 Iwi not Giving Up Fight against Tasman Mill Discharges. http://www.radionz.co.nz/news/regional/64521/iwi-not-giving-up-fight-against-tasman-mill-discharges. Accessed 15 July 2016 Rick LeBlanc (2016 Paper Recycling Facts, Figures and Information Sources. https://www.thebalance.com/paper-recycling-facts-figures-and-information-sources-2877868?_ga=1.192832942.544061388.1477446686. Accesed 2 April 2016 Robinson Meyer (2016 Will More Newspapers Go Nonprofit? http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2016/01/newspapers-philadelphia-inquirer-daily-news-nonprofit-lol-taxes/423960/. Accessed 3 August 2016 School of Engineering at Darthmouth (2010 Forest and Paper Industry. http://engineering.dartmouth.edu/~d30345d/courses/engs171/Paper.pdf. Accessed 2 April 2016 T. Subramani, V. Angappan. (2015. Experimental Investigation of Papercrete Concrete

  14. Requirements for the recycling of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petts, M.

    1990-09-01

    The regulatory status of materials destined to be recycled is not always clear. There have been numerous questions from DOE Field Elements regarding the applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to certain materials that can be recycled. The Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division, has responded to questions relating to the RCRA regulations as they apply to materials that are recycled or are destined for recycling. Additional regulatory requirements for these materials may be promulgated upon the reauthorization of RCRA (e.g., regulation of used oil). Additional EH-23 information Briefs will be issued as these regulations develop. The Office of Environment, Safety and Health has convened a workshop to establish DOE's position on a number of issues associated with mixed waste and materials management, several relative to recycling

  15. The battery recycling loop: a European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, F.

    Restricting the loss of lead into the environment is essential and European legislation has reacted by requiring the recycling of lead/acid batteries. With the forecast of strong growth in the battery market over the next decade, secondary lead output will need to increase substantially to supply this demand. Battery recycling rates are vulnerable, however, to low lead prices and restrictive legislation. Effective recycling schemes are required to ensure maximum recovery and several are successfully in operation. Environmentally sound technology exists to recycle the lead and polypropylene components of batteries. A full range of lead and lead alloys are available to the battery industry from secondary material and now challenge primary products in most battery applications. It is important to optimize recycling efficiency and minimize environmental damage.

  16. Quantify the energy and environmental effects of using recycled asphalt and recycled concrete for pavement construction phase I : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the energy and environment impacts from using recycled materials : for highway construction. Specifically, when recycled asphalt pavement is re-used for producing hot mix : asphalt or when recycled concrete ...

  17. Design analysis: Understanding e-waste recycling by generation Y

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiao; Wakkary, Ron

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to understand e-waste recycling behavior of Generation Y. It presents a pilot study that explores this generation’s e-waste recycling practices, their attitudes towards ewaste recycling, and the barriers to e-waste recycling. The findings reveal the complexity of the actual e-waste recycling behavior, many participants in this study hold a positive attitude towards e-waste recycling, yet there is a shortage of convenient recycling options and e-waste recycling information. Bas...

  18. Is Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Economically Efficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Doron

    2007-12-01

    It has traditionally been argued that recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is usually not economically viable and that only when externalities, long-term dynamic considerations, and/or the entire product life cycle are taken into account, recycling becomes worthwhile from a social point of view. This article explores the results of a wide study conducted in Israel in the years 2000 2004. Our results reveal that recycling is optimal more often than usually claimed, even when externality considerations are ignored. The study is unique in the tools it uses to explore the efficiency of recycling: a computer-based simulation applied to an extensive database. We developed a simulation for assessing the costs of handling and treating MSW under different waste-management systems and used this simulation to explore possible cost reductions obtained by designating some of the waste (otherwise sent to landfill) to recycling. We ran the simulation on data from 79 municipalities in Israel that produce over 60% of MSW in Israel. For each municipality, we were able to arrive at an optimal method of waste management and compare the costs associated with 100% landfilling to the costs born by the municipality when some of the waste is recycled. Our results indicate that for 51% of the municipalities, it would be efficient to adopt recycling, even without accounting for externality costs. We found that by adopting recycling, municipalities would be able to reduce direct costs by an average of 11%. Through interviews conducted with representatives of municipalities, we were also able to identify obstacles to the utilization of recycling, answering in part the question of why actual recycling levels in Israel are lower than our model predicts they should be.

  19. Power Harvesting Capabilities of SHM Ultrasonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Delebarre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to show that classical Structural Health Monitoring ultrasonic sensors may provide some power harvesting capabilities from a wide variety of vibration sources. In other words, the authors developed an integrated piezoelectric energy harvesting sensor capable of operating a dual mode, that is, carrying out vibration power harvesting and Structural Health Monitoring. First, vibrations signals of an A380 aircraft recorded during different phases of flight are presented to show the need of a wideband piezoelectric energy harvester. Then, the voltage response of a piezoelectric power harvester bonded onto an aluminium cantilever plate and excited by an electromechanical shaker is measured. A finite element model of the energy harvester system is also presented. This model provides the voltage response of the harvester due to a mechanical excitation of the host structure and allows a better understanding of the energy harvesting process. In many cases, a good agreement with the experimental results is obtained. A power measurement also showed the ability of piezoelectric SHM sensors to harvest power over an extended frequency range present in spectra collected in aircrafts. This result could lead to numerous applications even though this kind of power harvester sensor has been initially designed to operate onboard aircrafts.

  20. Harvest and dynamics of duck populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedinger, James S.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    The role of harvest in the dynamics of waterfowl populations continues to be debated among scientists and managers. Our perception is that interested members of the public and some managers believe that harvest influences North American duck populations based on calls for more conservative harvest regulations. A recent review of harvest and population dynamics of North American mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) populations (Pöysä et al. 2004) reached similar conclusions. Because of the importance of this issue, we reviewed the evidence for an impact of harvest on duck populations. Our understanding of the effects of harvest is limited because harvest effects are typically confounded with those of population density; regulations are typically most liberal when populations are greatest. This problem also exists in the current Adaptive Harvest Management Program (Conn and Kendall 2004). Consequently, even where harvest appears additive to other mortality, this may be an artifact of ignoring effects of population density. Overall, we found no compelling evidence for strong additive effects of harvest on survival in duck populations that could not be explained by other factors.

  1. Applying New Technologies to Transform Blueberry Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiomi Takeda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the blueberry industry in the past three decades has been remarkably robust. However, a labor shortage for hand harvesting, increasingly higher labor costs, and low harvest efficiencies are becoming bottlenecks for sustainable development of the fresh market blueberry production. In this study, we evaluated semi-mechanical harvesting systems consisting of a harvest-aid platform with soft fruit catching surfaces that collected the fruit detached by portable, hand-held, pneumatic shakers. The softer fruit catching surfaces were not glued to the hard sub-surfaces of the harvest-aid platform, but suspended over them. Also, the ergonomic aspect of operating powered harvesting equipment was determined. The pneumatic shakers removed 3.5 to 15 times more fruit (g/min than by hand. Soft fruit catching surfaces reduced impact force and bruise damage. Fruit firmness was higher in fruit harvested by hand compared to that by pneumatic shakers in some cultivars. The bruise area was less than 8% in fruit harvested by hand and with semi-mechanical harvesting system. The percentage of blue, packable fruit harvested by pneumatic shakers comprised as much as 90% of the total, but less than that of hand-harvested fruit. The ergonomic analysis by electromyography showed that muscle strain in the back, shoulders, and forearms was low in workers operating the light-weight, pneumatic shakers that were tethered to the platform with a tool balancer. The new harvesting method can reduce the labor requirement to about 100 hour/hectare/year and help to mitigate the rising labor cost and shortage of workers for harvesting fresh-market quality blueberries.

  2. Harvesting dental stem cells - Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, P M; Manikandan, Ramanathan; Muthumurugan; Yoithapprabhunath, Thukanayakanpalayam Ragunathan; Sivakumar, Muniapillai

    2015-08-01

    Dental stem cells have recently become one of the widely researched areas in dentistry. Ever since the identification of stem cells from various dental tissues like deciduous teeth, dental papilla, periodontal ligament and third molars, storing them for future use for various clinical applications was being explored. Dental stem cells were harvested and isolated using various techniques by different investigators and laboratories. This article explains the technical aspects of preparing the patient, atraumatic and aseptic removal of the tooth and its safe transportation and preservation for future expansion.

  3. Reactor having coolant recycling pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Tadashi; Karatsuka, Shigeki; Yamamoto, Hajime.

    1991-01-01

    In a coolant recycling pump for an LMFBR type reactor, vertical grooves are formed to a static portion which surrounds a pump shaft as far as the lower end thereof. Sodium mists present in an annular gap of the pump shaft form a rotational flow, lose its centrifugal force at the grooved portion and are collected positively to the grooved portion. Further, since the rotational flow in the grooved channel is in a state of a cavity flow, the pressure is released in the grooved portion and a secondary eddy current is formed thereby providing a depressurized state. Accordingly, by a synergestic effect of the centrifugal force and the cavity flow, sodium mists can be recovered completely. (T.M.)

  4. Recycling of acetone by distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, D.L.; Campbell, B.A.; Phelan, J.E.; Harper, M.

    1992-09-01

    The Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) identifies spent acetone solvent as a listed hazardous waste. At Fernald, acetone has been spent that has been contaminated with radionuclides and therefore is identified as a mixed hazardous waste. At the time of this publication there is no available approved method of recycling or disposal of radioactively contaminated spent acetone solvent. The Consent Decree with the Ohio EPA and the Consent Agreement with the United States EPA was agreed upon for the long-term compliant storage of hazardous waste materials. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility for safely decontaminating spent acetone to background levels of radioactivity for reuse. It was postulated that through heat distillation, radionuclides could be isolated from the spent acetone

  5. Issues in recycling galvanized scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koros, P.J. [LTV Steel Co., Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Hellickson, D.A. [General Motors Corp., Detroit, MI (United States); Dudek, F.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-02-10

    The quality of the steel used for most galvanizing (and tinplate) applications makes scrap derived from their production and use a premier solid charge material for steelmaking. In 1989 the AISI created a Task Force to define the issues and to recommend technologically and economically sound approaches to assure continued, unhindered recyclability of the growing volume of galvanized scrap. The AISI program addressed the treatment of full-sized industrial bales of scrap. The current, on-going MRI (US)--Argonne National Laboratory program is focused on ``loose`` scrap from industrial and post-consumer sources. Results from these programs, issues of scrap management from source to steel melting, the choices for handling zinc in iron and steelmaking and the benefits/costs for removal of zinc (and lead) from scrap prior to melting in BOF and foundry operations are reviewed in this paper.

  6. Centralized consolidation/recycling center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St. Georges, L.T.; Poor, A.D.

    1995-05-01

    There are approximately 175 separate locations on the Hanford Site where dangerous waste is accumulated in hundreds of containers according to compatibility. Materials that are designated as waste could be kept from entering the waste stream by establishing collection points for these materials and wastes and then transporting them to a centralized consolidation/recycling center (hereinafter referred to as the consolidation center). Once there the materials would be prepared for offsite recycling. This document discusses the removal of batteries, partially full aerosol cans, and DOP light ballasts from the traditional waste management approach, which eliminates 89 satellite accumulation areas from the Hanford Site (43 for batteries, 33 for aerosols, and 13 for DOP ballasts). Eliminating these 89 satellite accumulation areas would reduce by hundreds the total number of containers shipped offsite as hazardous waste (due to the increase in containers when the wastes that are accumulated are segregated according to compatibility for final shipment). This new approach is in line with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) draft Universal Waste Rules for these open-quotes nuisanceclose quotes and common waste streams. Additionally, future reviews of other types of wastes that can be handled in this less restrictive and more cost-effective manner will occur as part of daily operations at the consolidation center. The Hanford Site has been identified as a laboratory for reinventing government by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Hazel O'Leary, and as a demonstration zone where open-quotes innovative ideas, processes and technologies can be created, tested and demonstrated.close quotes Additionally, DOE, EPA, and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) have agreed to cut Hanford cleanup costs by $1 billion over a 5-year period

  7. Analysis of the electric conductivity and pH behaviors in recycled drainage solution of rose cv. Charlotte plants grown in substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Yepes V

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In open soilless cropping systems contamination from nutrient lixiviation is generated making it necessary to design closed or semi-closed systems, which require the determination of the maximum saline levels in recycling solutions. In this study, the electric conductivity (EC and pH behaviors were analyzed in drainage solution intended for recycling in the crop; in addition, parameters were used to estimate nutrient availability for the plants in a substrate based cropping system. This research project was carried out under greenhouse conditions in the municipality of Mosquera (Colombia. Rose cv. Charlotte grafted on "Natal briar" stocks were used, sown in pots arranged on elevated beds, 15 m in length. This project was carried out using a split-plot design with sub-plots (with the substrate as the main plot and the recycling as the sub-plot, three kinds of substrate and three recycling percentages (0, 50, and 100%, for a total of 27 experimental units. Substrate mixtures based on burned rice husk and coconut fiber were used. Recycling during one harvest cycle of the roses did not show EC and pH values above those that are considered to have a negative impact on production; however, an increasing behavior in the EC and pH values was observed. Likewise, no significant differences between the 50 and 100% recycling were observed, which means 100% recycling can be used, optimizing nutrient use and water conservation

  8. Flow Energy Piezoelectric Bimorph Nozzle Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Walkemeyer, Phillip E. (Inventor); Hall, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Lee, Hyeong Jae (Inventor); Colonius, Tim (Inventor); Tosi, Phillipe (Inventor); Kim, Namhyo (Inventor); Sun, Kai (Inventor); Corbett, Thomas Gary (Inventor); Arrazola, Alvaro Jose (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A flow energy harvesting device having a harvester pipe includes a flow inlet that receives flow from a primary pipe, a flow outlet that returns the flow into the primary pipe, and a flow diverter within the harvester pipe having an inlet section coupled to the flow inlet, a flow constriction section coupled to the inlet section and positioned at a midpoint of the harvester pipe and having a spline shape with a substantially reduced flow opening size at a constriction point along the spline shape, and an outlet section coupled to the constriction section. The harvester pipe may further include a piezoelectric structure extending from the inlet section through the constriction section and point such that the fluid flow past the constriction point results in oscillatory pressure amplitude inducing vibrations in the piezoelectric structure sufficient to cause a direct piezoelectric effect and to generate electrical power for harvesting.

  9. Rooftop level rainwater harvesting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulsi, Hayssam; Traboulsi, Marwa

    2017-05-01

    Unfortunately, in Lebanon and other countries in the Middle East region, water becomes scarcer than ever before, and over the last decades the demand on domestic water has increased due to population and economic growth. Although rainwater harvesting is considered to be a safe and reliable alternative source for domestic water, the inconvenience or impracticalities related to the cost and space needed for the construction of ground or underground storage tanks makes this practice not widely common in rural areas and rarely implemented in urban cities. This paper introduces a new technique to rainwater harvesting which can be easily used in both rural and urban areas: it collects and stores rainwater directly in tanks already installed on building roofs and not necessarily in special ground or underground ones. If widely adopted in Lebanon, this technique could help in: (1) collecting around 23 MCM (70 % of the current deficit in the domestic water supply) of rainwater and thus increasing the available water per m2 of building by 0.4 m3 per year, (2) saving around 7 % of the amount of electric energy usually needed to pump water from an aquifer well and ground or underground tank, and (3) considerably reducing the rate of surface runoff of rainwater at the coastal zones where rainwater is not captured at all and goes directly to the sea.

  10. Secondary resources and recycling in developing economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghupathy, Lakshmi; Chaturvedi, Ashish

    2013-09-01

    Recycling of metals extends the efficient use of minerals and metals, reduces pressure on environment and results in major energy savings in comparison to primary production. In developing economies recycling had been an integral part of industrial activity and has become a major concern due to the handling of potentially hazardous material without any regard to the occupational health and safety (OH&S) needs. With rising awareness and interest from policy makers, the recycling scenario is changing and the large scale enterprises are entering the recycling sector. There is widespread expectation that these enterprises would use the Best Available Technologies (BAT) leading to better environment management and enhanced resource recovery. The major challenge is to enhance and integrate the activities of other stakeholders in the value chain to make recycling an economically viable and profitable enterprise. This paper is an attempt to propose a sustainable model for recycling in the developing economies through integration of the informal and formal sectors. The main objective is to augment the existing practices using a scientific approach and providing better technology without causing an economic imbalance to the present practices. In this paper studies on lead acid batteries and e-waste recycling in India are presented to evolve a model for "green economy". Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Management and recycling of electronic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanskanen, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the largest growing waste streams globally. Hence, for a sustainable environment and the economic recovery of valuable material for reuse, the efficient recycling of electronic scrap has been rendered indispensable, and must still be regarded as a major challenge for today’s society. In contrast to the well-established recycling of metallic scrap, it is much more complicated to recycle electronics products which have reached the end of their life as they contain many different types of material types integrated into each other. As illustrated primarily for the recycling of mobile phones, the efficient recycling of WEEE is not only a challenge for the recycling industry; it is also often a question of as-yet insufficient collection infrastructures and poor collection efficiencies, and a considerable lack of the consumer’s awareness for the potential of recycling electronics for the benefit of the environment, as well as for savings in energy and raw materials

  12. Optical Properties of Polypropylene upon Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice De Santis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years there has been an increasing interest in the possibility of recycling polymeric materials, using physical recycling. However, is it well known that polymers experience a depletion of all the properties upon recycling. These effects have been widely characterized in the literature for what concerns the mechanical or rheological properties. The changes of optical properties after recycling have been much less studied, even if, especially in food packaging, optical characteristics (above all the opacity are of extreme importance, and thus it is quite significant to assess the effect of recycling on these properties. In this work, the influence of recycling steps on the opacity of films of a commercial grade of isotactic polypropylene (i-PP was studied. The material was extruded several times to mimic the effect of recycling procedures. After extrusion, films were obtained by cooling samples of material at different cooling rates. The opacity of the obtained films was then measured and related to their crystallinity and morphology. It was found that opacity generally increases on increasing the amount of α phase and for the same amount of α phase on increasing the size of the spherulites.

  13. Optical Properties of Polypropylene upon Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years there has been an increasing interest in the possibility of recycling polymeric materials, using physical recycling. However, is it well known that polymers experience a depletion of all the properties upon recycling. These effects have been widely characterized in the literature for what concerns the mechanical or rheological properties. The changes of optical properties after recycling have been much less studied, even if, especially in food packaging, optical characteristics (above all the opacity) are of extreme importance, and thus it is quite significant to assess the effect of recycling on these properties. In this work, the influence of recycling steps on the opacity of films of a commercial grade of isotactic polypropylene (i-PP) was studied. The material was extruded several times to mimic the effect of recycling procedures. After extrusion, films were obtained by cooling samples of material at different cooling rates. The opacity of the obtained films was then measured and related to their crystallinity and morphology. It was found that opacity generally increases on increasing the amount of α phase and for the same amount of α phase on increasing the size of the spherulites. PMID:24288478

  14. Optical properties of polypropylene upon recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Felice; Pantani, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years there has been an increasing interest in the possibility of recycling polymeric materials, using physical recycling. However, is it well known that polymers experience a depletion of all the properties upon recycling. These effects have been widely characterized in the literature for what concerns the mechanical or rheological properties. The changes of optical properties after recycling have been much less studied, even if, especially in food packaging, optical characteristics (above all the opacity) are of extreme importance, and thus it is quite significant to assess the effect of recycling on these properties. In this work, the influence of recycling steps on the opacity of films of a commercial grade of isotactic polypropylene (i-PP) was studied. The material was extruded several times to mimic the effect of recycling procedures. After extrusion, films were obtained by cooling samples of material at different cooling rates. The opacity of the obtained films was then measured and related to their crystallinity and morphology. It was found that opacity generally increases on increasing the amount of α phase and for the same amount of α phase on increasing the size of the spherulites.

  15. Cost effectiveness of recycling: a systems model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonjes, David J; Mallikarjun, Sreekanth

    2013-11-01

    Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Energy harvesting through piezoelectricity - technology foresight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laumann, Felix; Sørensen, Mette Møller; Hansen, Tina Mølholm

    2017-01-01

    scientific articles. In contrast to this, is found a low level of ability to convert the technology from academia to commercialization. A decision making model is proposed including a requirement for better understanding of niches, niche definitions and configuration of energy harvesting design......Energy harvesting is important in designing low power intelligent networks, such as Internet-of-Things. Energy harvesting can ensure wireless and lossless energy supply to energy dependent technological solutions with independence of infrastructure. Electrical energy created through...

  17. Application of repair and maintenance management for SACIA L550-E scrap machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ign Dewanto; Tony R, Bambang L

    2013-01-01

    Scrap machines is one of the mechanical machines that serve to reduce the dimensions of the work piece or can also be used in manufacture of various surface which forms a straight, some square and some kind of groove. This machine is one of the means to provide service and repair facilities manufacture of nuclear component plant. Given the importance of this machine in the mechanical workshop equipment must be kept in prime condition. To support this it is necessary for the maintenance and repair maintenance of the machine is always ready to use and if there is damage, it must be repaired immediately so that the machine has long service life, efficient and effective manner. It required good maintenance management. (author)

  18. Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Vuckovic, Dusan; Di Mauro, Alessio

    2012-01-01

    Energy Harvesting comprises a promising solution to one of the key problems faced by battery-powered Wireless Sensor Networks, namely the limited nature of the energy supply (finite battery capacity). By harvesting energy from the surrounding environment, the sensors can have a continuous lifetime...... without any needs for battery recharge or replacement. However, energy harvesting introduces a change to the fundamental principles based on which WSNs are designed and realized. In this poster we sketch some of the key research challenges as well as our ongoing work in designing and realizing Wireless...... Sensor Networks with energy harvesting capability....

  19. Pyroelectric Quantum Well Energy Harvesters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the investigation of pyroelectric energy harvesters with enhanced efficiencies through quantum wells induced by a multilayer design.  Pyroelectric...

  20. Microelectronic circuit design for energy harvesting systems

    CERN Document Server

    Di Paolo Emilio, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the design of microelectronic circuits for energy harvesting, broadband energy conversion, new methods and technologies for energy conversion. The author also discusses the design of power management circuits and the implementation of voltage regulators. Coverage includes advanced methods in low and high power electronics, as well as principles of micro-scale design based on piezoelectric, electromagnetic and thermoelectric technologies with control and conditioning circuit design. Provides a single-source reference to energy harvesting and its applications; Serves as a practical guide to microelectronics design for energy harvesting, with application to mobile power supplies; Enables readers to develop energy harvesting systems for wearable/mobile electronics.

  1. Design of the Advanced LIGO recycling cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Muzammil A; Mueller, Guido

    2008-07-07

    The current LIGO detectors will undergo an upgrade which is expected to improve their sensitivity and bandwidth significantly. These advanced gravitational-wave detectors will employ stable recycling cavities to better confine their spatial eigenmodes instead of the currently installed marginally stable power recycling cavity. In this letter we describe the general layout of the recycling cavities and give specific values for a first possible design. We also address the issue of mode mismatch due to manufacturing tolerance of optical elements and present a passive compensation scheme based upon optimizing the distances between optical elements.

  2. Planning logistics network for recyclables collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratković Branislava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization, intensified industrialization, rise of income, and a more sophisticated form of consumerism are leading to an increase in the amount and toxicity of waste all over the world. Whether reused, recycled, incinerated or put into landfill sites, the management of household and industrial waste yield financial and environmental costs. This paper presents a modeling approach that can be used for designing one part of recycling logistics network through defining optimal locations of collection points, and possible optimal scheduling of vehicles for collecting recyclables. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR36005

  3. Crumb Rubber in cold recycled bituminous mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondi, Giulio; Tataranni, Piergiorgio; Pettinari, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Today recycling is one of the most innovative and interesting techniques for the rehabilitation of destressed road pavements. In recent years the increased interest in this process, has led to the development of various alternative methods for the recovery and the reuse of road bituminous materials....... Cold recycling is, among the recycling techniques, certainly the most studied and developed: it allows the recovering of bituminous material from an existing pavement without the addition of heat, whilst ensuring the creation of high quality bound base layers. A wide range of materials have been tested...

  4. Reusing recycled aggregates in structural concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Shicong

    The utilization of recycled aggregates in concrete can minimize environmental impact and reduce the consumption of natural resources in concrete applications. The aim of this thesis is to provide a scientific basis for the possible use of recycled aggregates in structure concrete by conducting a comprehensive programme of laboratory study to gain a better understanding of the mechanical, microstructure and durability properties of concrete produced with recycled aggregates. The study also explored possible techniques to of improve the properties of recycled aggregate concrete that is produced with high percentages (≧ 50%) of recycled aggregates. These techniques included: (a) using lower water-to-cement ratios in the concrete mix design; (b) using fly ash as a cement replacement or as an additional mineral admixture in the concrete mixes, and (c) precasting recycled aggregate concrete with steam curing regimes. The characteristics of the recycled aggregates produced both from laboratory and a commercially operated pilot construction and demolition (C&D) waste recycling plant were first studied. A mix proportioning procedure was then established to produce six series of concrete mixtures using different percentages of recycled coarse aggregates with and without the use of fly ash. The water-to-cement (binder) ratios of 0.55, 0.50, 0.45 and 0.40 were used. The fresh properties (including slump and bleeding) of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) were then quantified. The effects of fly ash on the fresh and hardened properties of RAC were then studied and compared with those RAC prepared with no fly ash addition. Furthermore, the effects of steam curing on the hardened properties of RAC were investigated. For micro-structural properties, the interfacial transition zones of the aggregates and the mortar/cement paste were analyzed by SEM and EDX-mapping. Moreover, a detailed set of results on the fracture properties for RAC were obtained. Based on the experimental

  5. Recycling carbon revenues: transforming costs into opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidyula, Manasvini; Alberola, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Governments worldwide generated $26 billion in 2015 in carbon pricing revenues. The benefits and co-benefits of carbon pricing can be enhanced by recycling carbon revenues. Revenue allocation decisions made by governments are vital as these revenues can help shift the narrative on carbon pricing from 'burden to benefit'. Existing carbon pricing schemes can provide useful feedback on revenue recycling. A well-positioned decision-making and governing framework is required to ensure the efficient recycling of carbon revenues

  6. Efficiency of recycling post-consumer plastic packages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzen, van E.U.T.; Jansen, M.; Brouwer, M.T.; Feil, A.; Molenveld, K.; Pretz, Th.

    2017-01-01

    The recycling of packaging waste is an important part of the EU circular economy package, with a political focus on raising the recycling targets for post-consumer plastic packaging waste (PPW). The recycling of PPW involves at least three steps; collection, sorting and mechanical recycling. In

  7. Harvesting energy from airflow with a michromachined piezoelectric harvester inside a Helmholtz resonator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matova, S.P.; Elfrink, R.; Vullers, R.J.M.; Schaijk, R. van

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report an airflow energy harvester that combines a piezoelectric energy harvester with a Helmholtz resonator. The resonator converts airflow energy to air oscillations which in turn are converted into electrical energy by a piezoelectric harvester. Two Helmholtz resonators with

  8. Effect of time of harvest, stage of fruit ripening, and post-harvest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds were extracted from half of the fruits harvested from each stage immediately after harvest while the other halves were stored at room temperature to ripen to the soft-red stage before seed extraction. Fruit weight in both cultivars decreased with plant age. Fruits harvested at the yellow-ripe stage produced the highest ...

  9. The effects of shelterwood harvesting on oak regeneration two years after harvest in southern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Downs; Roger A. Williams; Joni A. Downs

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the effects of two intensities of shelterwood harvesting (reduction of stocking levels to 50 and 70 percent of full stocking) on oak regeneration in southeastern Ohio 2 years after harvest. The main goal of this study is to develop an understanding of the relationship between residual stocking (harvesting intensity) and the successful release of...

  10. Modelling Recycling Targets:Achieving a 50% Recycling Rate for Household Waste in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, whereEU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency andrecycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of22% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This studyintegrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from whichstreams should b...

  11. Probabilistic Analysis of Structural Member from Recycled Aggregate Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broukalová, I.; Šeps, K.

    2017-09-01

    The paper aims at the topic of sustainable building concerning recycling of waste rubble concrete from demolition. Considering demands of maximising recycled aggregate use and minimising of cement consumption, composite from recycled concrete aggregate was proposed. The objective of the presented investigations was to verify feasibility of the recycled aggregate cement based fibre reinforced composite in a structural member. Reliability of wall from recycled aggregate fibre reinforced composite was assessed in a probabilistic analysis of a load-bearing capacity of the wall. The applicability of recycled aggregate fibre reinforced concrete in structural applications was demonstrated. The outcomes refer to issue of high scatter of material parameters of recycled aggregate concretes.

  12. Light Harvesting for Organic Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The field of organic photovoltaics has developed rapidly over the last 2 decades, and small solar cells with power conversion efficiencies of 13% have been demonstrated. Light absorbed in the organic layers forms tightly bound excitons that are split into free electrons and holes using heterojunctions of electron donor and acceptor materials, which are then extracted at electrodes to give useful electrical power. This review gives a concise description of the fundamental processes in photovoltaic devices, with the main emphasis on the characterization of energy transfer and its role in dictating device architecture, including multilayer planar heterojunctions, and on the factors that impact free carrier generation from dissociated excitons. We briefly discuss harvesting of triplet excitons, which now attracts substantial interest when used in conjunction with singlet fission. Finally, we introduce the techniques used by researchers for characterization and engineering of bulk heterojunctions to realize large photocurrents, and examine the formed morphology in three prototypical blends. PMID:27951633

  13. Benchmarking in municipal solid waste recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Doron; Khatib, Mahmood

    2010-11-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the recycling potential of municipalities in Israel, including population size and density, geographic location, current waste levels, and current waste management system. We employ a standard regression analysis in order to develop an econometric model to predict where potential for economically efficient recycling is highest. By applying this model to readily available data, it is possible to predict with close to 90% accuracy whether or not recycling will be economically efficient in any given municipality. Government agencies working to promote advanced waste management solutions have at their disposal only limited resources and budget, and so must concentrate their efforts where they will be most effective. The paper thus provides policy-makers with a powerful tool to help direct their efforts to promote recycling at those municipalities where it is indeed optimal. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The continued quest to better recycling behaviour

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, WF

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During 2010 a national survey on waste management service delivery and recycling behaviour amongst metropolitan households was conducted. WasteCon2010 conference attendees were also surveyed in parallel and on a voluntary basis. This paper reports...

  15. Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

  16. Performance of I-57 recycled concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In 1986-1987 the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) constructed a demonstration project on I-57 near Effingham, Illinois to evaluate the viability : of recycling an existing jointed reinforced concrete pavement for use as its primary aggreg...

  17. The feasibility of recycling contaminated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, K.W.; Corroon, W.; Parker, F.L.

    1999-01-01

    The changing mission of the Department of Energy along with the aging of many of its facilities has resulted in renewed emphasis on decontaminating and decommissioning surplus structures. Currently DOE is decontaminating some concrete and sending the clean material to C and D disposal facilities. In other instance, DOE is sending contaminated concrete to LLW disposal facilities. This paper examines the economic feasibility of decontaminating the concrete and recycling the rubble as clean aggregate. A probabilistic cost model was used to examine six potential recycling and disposal scenarios. The model predicted potential costs saving across the DOE complex of nearly one billion dollars. The ability of local markets to assimilate the recycled material was estimated for Washington, Idaho, Tennessee, New Mexico, and South Carolina. The relationships between a number of the economic model's variables were examined to develop operating ranges for initial managerial evaluation of recycling

  18. Solid Waste and Recycling Collection Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View the Town’s current collection schedule, including pick-up day and recycling week designation.The Town of Cary collects garbage weekly at the curb on the same...

  19. Proposal of recycling system for waste aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š. Valenčík

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduced work is focused on waste aluminum recycling process with objective to propose complex production system for recovering of aluminum and some aluminum alloys. Solution is supported by extended analysis concerning purpose, basis and system sequences for recyclation. Based on that, sources, possibilities and conditions for recycling are formed. This has been used in proposal of manufacturing system. The principle is the structural proposal of manufacturing system, which does not only differentiate the stage of aluminum melting process, but also related stages as gross separation, sizing, containerisation and batching, palletisation, stacking and some related operations. Production system respects technological specifications, requirements for rationalisation of manufacturing systems, technical and economical feasibility conditions and is considered in lower automation level. However production system solves complex problem of recycling of some types of aluminum, it improves flexibility, production, quality (melting by high enforcements and in protective atmosphere and extention of production (final products production.

  20. Irradiation performance of HTGR recycle fissile fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, F.J.; Long, E.L. Jr.

    1976-08-01

    The irradiation performance of candidate HTGR recycle fissile fuel under accelerated testing conditions is reviewed. Failure modes for coated-particle fuels are described, and the performance of candidate recycle fissile fuels is discussed in terms of these failure modes. The bases on which UO 2 and (Th,U)O 2 were rejected as candidate recycle fissile fuels are outlined, along with the bases on which the weak-acid resin (WAR)-derived fissile fuel was selected as the reference recycle kernel. Comparisons are made relative to the irradiation behavior of WAR-derived fuels of varying stoichiometry and conclusions are drawn about the optimum stoichiometry and the range of acceptable values. Plans for future testing in support of specification development, confirmation of the results of accelerated testing by real-time experiments, and improvement in fuel performance and reliability are described

  1. Hydrogen recycle modeling in transport codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    The hydrogen recycling models now used in Tokamak transport codes are reviewed and the method by which realistic recycling models are being added is discussed. Present models use arbitrary recycle coefficients and therefore do not model the actual recycling processes at the wall. A model for the hydrogen concentration in the wall serves two purposes: (1) it allows a better understanding of the density behavior in present gas puff, pellet, and neutral beam heating experiments; and (2) it allows one to extrapolate to long pulse devices such as EBT, ISX-C and reactors where the walls are observed or expected to saturate. Several wall models are presently being studied for inclusion in transport codes

  2. Organic household waste - incineration or recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has carried out a cost benefit analysis of the consequences of increasing recycling of organic household waste. In the cost benefit analysis both the economic consequences for the affected parties and the welfare-economic consequences for the society as a whole have been investigated. In the welfare-economic analysis the value of the environmental effects has been included. The analysis shows that it is more expensive for the society to recycle organic household waste by anaerobic digestion or central composting than by incineration. Incineration is the cheapest solution for the society, while central composting is the most expensive. Furthermore, technical studies have shown that there are only small environmental benefits connected with anaerobic digestion of organic waste compared with incineration of the waste. The primary reason for recycling being more expensive than incineration is the necessary, but cost-intensive, dual collection of the household waste. Treatment itself is cheaper for recycling compared to incinerating. (BA)

  3. Recycled concrete aggregate in portland cement concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Aggregates can be produced by crushing hydraulic cement concrete and are known as recycled concrete : aggregates (RCA). This report provides results from a New Jersey Department of Transportation study to identify : barriers to the use of RCA in new ...

  4. Recycled carpet materials for infrastructure applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop novel composite materials for infrastructure applications by recycling nylon based waste carpets. These novel composites have been proven to possess improved mechanical and sound barrier properties to meet...

  5. Recycling measurements in the Texas Experimental Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowan, W.L.; Klepper, C.C.; Patterson, D.M.; Richards, B.

    1987-01-01

    Recycling was investigated as a function of density, plasma current, and toroidal field in the Texas Experimental Tokamak, an ohmically heated, edge-fueled device with a full aperture poloidal limiter. Estimates for the recycling contribution to the plasma particle inventory were inferred from a particle accounting which employed measurements of the number of ionization events in the plasma and in the scrape-off layer, the total number of electrons in the plasma, and the neutral gas influx from the gas feed. Isotopic changeover experiments were used to further characterize recycling and to derive the contribution to the plasma particle inventory from the neutrals held both in the wall bulk and on the wall surface. A model was used to estimate the number of neutrals trapped in the wall as well as to examine the interactions of the major plasma participants in recycling - ions, fast neutrals, and slow neutrals. (orig.)

  6. 76 FR 71861 - America Recycles Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... processes that will drive our clean economy and create green jobs. These advances cut waste, preserve our... environmental quality, and laying the foundation for a 21st-century economy. America Recycles Day offers us an...

  7. Use of Recycled Plastics Versus Wood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Strotman, Scott

    1996-01-01

    .... With the recent introduction of recycled plastic "timbers," this efficient application is gaining popularity as a durable, long-lasting alternative to the creosote-treated timbers and pressurized...

  8. Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information

  9. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

    2010-03-22

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  10. Recycling Mentors: an intergenerational, service-learning program to promote recycling and environmental awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'abundo, Michelle L; Fugate-Whitlock, Elizabeth I; Fiala, Kelly A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of Recycling Mentors was to implement an intergenerational, service-learning program focused on promoting recycling and environmental awareness among students enrolled in Community Health (HEA 301) and Current Issues in Gerontology (GRN 440/540) and adults older than 60 years. Recycling Mentors was conducted in New Hanover County (NHC), North Carolina, where a moderate climate and coastal location attracts many tourists, retirees, and college students. A community like NHC is a good place to implement service-learning that educates both students and older adults about the benefits of recycling to individual health and the environment. During the Fall 2009 semester, undergraduate and graduate students completed institutional review board training and then conducted the program with older adults. The education component of Recycling Mentors included a pre/post survey, brochure, and scheduled visits. Overall, Recycling Mentors was positive service-learning experience with students identifying salient outcomes such as learning about recycling and the environment and working with older adults. In addition, teaching the education component of Recycling Mentors was good practice for students who will be the future health professionals. While service-learning and environmentally themed projects are common, a program that combines the 2 like Recycling Mentors is unique and has the potential to motivate individual change while positively impacting the local community and the environment.

  11. Length sensing and control of a Michelson interferometer with power recycling and twin signal recycling cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräf, Christian; Thüring, André; Vahlbruch, Henning; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman

    2013-03-11

    The techniques of power recycling and signal recycling have proven as key concepts to increase the sensitivity of large-scale gravitational wave detectors by independent resonant enhancement of light power and signal sidebands within the interferometer. Developing the latter concept further, twin signal recycling was proposed as an alternative to conventional detuned signal recycling. Twin signal recycling features the narrow-band sensitivity gain of conventional detuned signal recycling but furthermore facilitates the injection of squeezed states of light, increases the detector sensitivity over a wide frequency band and requires a less complex detection scheme for optimal signal readout. These benefits come at the expense of an additional recycling mirror, thus increasing the number of degrees of freedom in the interferometer which need to be controlled.In this article we describe the development of a length sensing and control scheme and its successful application to a tabletop-scale power recycled Michelson interferometer with twin signal recycling. We were able to lock the interferometer in all relevant longitudinal degrees of freedom and thus laid the foundation for further investigations of this interferometer configuration to evaluate its viability for the application in gravitational wave detectors.

  12. Defense Waste Processing Facility Recycle Stream Evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STONE, MICHAEL

    2006-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) stabilizes high level radioactive waste (HLW) by vitrification of the waste slurries. DWPF currently produces approximately five gallons of dilute recycle for each gallon of waste vitrified. This recycle stream is currently sent to the HLW tank farm at SRS where it is processed through the HLW evaporators with the concentrate eventually sent back to the DWPF for stabilization. Limitations of the HLW evaporators and storage space constraints in the tank farm have the potential to impact the operation of the DWPF and could limit the rate that HLW is stabilized. After an evaluation of various alternatives, installation of a dedicated evaporator for the DWPF recycle stream was selected for further evaluation. The recycle stream consists primarily of process condensates from the pretreatment and vitrification processes. Other recycle streams consist of process samples, sample line flushes, sump flushes, and cleaning solutions from the decontamination and filter dissolution processes. The condensate from the vitrification process contains some species, such as sulfate, that are not appreciably volatile at low temperature and could accumulate in the system if 100% of the evaporator concentrate was returned to DWPF. These species are currently removed as required by solids washing in the tank farm. The cleaning solutions are much higher in solids content than the other streams and are generated 5-6 times per year. The proposed evaporator would be required to concentrate the recycle stream by a factor of 30 to allow the concentrate to be recycled directly to the DWPF process, with a purge stream sent to the tank farm as required to prevent buildup of sulfate and similar species in the process. The overheads are required to meet stringent constraints to allow the condensate to be sent directly to an effluent treatment plant. The proposed evaporator would nearly de-couple the DWPF process from the

  13. Recycled aggregates concrete: aggregate and mix properties

    OpenAIRE

    González-Fonteboa, B.; Martínez-Abella, F.

    2005-01-01

    This study of structural concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate focuses on two issues: 1. The characterization of such aggregate on the Spanish market. This involved conducting standard tests to determine density, water absorption, grading, shape, flakiness and hardness. The results obtained show that, despite the considerable differences with respect to density and water absorption between these and natural aggregates, on the whole recycled aggregate is apt for use in concrete produc...

  14. New approaches for MOX multi-recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gain, T.; Bouvier, E.; Grosman, R.; Senentz, G.H.; Lelievre, F.; Bailly, F.; Brueziere, J. [AREVA NC, 1 place Jean Millier, Paris La Defense, 92084 (France); Murray, P. [AREVA Federal Services LLC, 4800 Hampden Lane, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Due to its low fissile content after irradiation, Pu from used MOX fuel is considered by some as not recyclable in LWR (Light Water Reactors). The point of this paper is hence to go back to those statements and provide a new analysis based on AREVA extended experience in the fields of fissile and fertile material management and optimized waste management. This is done using the current US fuel inventory as a case study. MOX Multi-recycling in LWRs is a closed cycle scenario where U and Pu management through reprocessing and recycling leads to a significant reduction of the used assemblies to be stored. The recycling of Pu in MOX fuel is moreover a way to maintain the self-protection of the Pu-bearing assemblies. With this scenario, Pu content is also reduced repetitively via a multi-recycling of MOX in LWRs. Simultaneously, {sup 238}Pu content decreases. All along this scenario, HLW (High-Level Radioactive Waste) vitrified canisters are produced and planned for deep geological disposal. Contrary to used fuel, HLW vitrified canisters do not contain proliferation materials. Moreover, the reprocessing of used fuel limits the space needed on current interim storage. With MOX multi-recycling in LWR, Pu isotopy needs to be managed carefully all along the scenario. The early introduction of a limited number of SFRs (Sodium Fast Reactors) can therefore be a real asset for the overall system. A few SFRs would be enough to improve the Pu isotopy from used LWR MOX fuel and provide a Pu-isotopy that could be mixed back with multi-recycled Pu from LWRs, hence increasing the Pu multi-recycling potential in LWRs.

  15. Plutonium recycle. In-core fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, F.; Berthet, A.; Le Bars, M.

    1985-01-01

    Plutonium recycle in France will concern a dozen of PWR 900 MWe controlled in gray mode till 1995. This paper presents the main characteristics of fuel management with plutonium recycle. The organization of management studies will be copied from this developed for classical management studies. Up these studies, a ''feasibility report'' aims at establishing at each stage of the fuel cycle, the impact of the utilization of fuel containing plutonium [fr

  16. Modern recycling methods in metallurgical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maj

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of environment caused by increased industrial activities is the main topic of discussions in Poland and in the world. The possibilities of waste recovery and recycling vary in different sectors of the industry, and the specific methods, developed and improved all the time, depend on the type of the waste. In this study, the attention has been focussed mainly on the waste from metallurgical industry and on the available techniques of its recycling

  17. Survey of metallurgical recycling processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemsler, J.P.

    1979-03-01

    In the year 2000, the US will consume about 3.2 x 10/sup 15/ Btu to produce the seven major nonferrous metals Al, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Mg, and Ti. Of this amount, 82% will be used in the production of Al. It is projected that 0.6 x 10/sup 15/ Btu will be saved by the recycle of secondary metals. Major opportunities for increasing the extent of recycle and thereby increasing the energy savings are discussed. An inherent feature in the energistics of recycle is that physical processes such as magnetic separation, density separations, melting, and in some instances vaporization are far less energy intensive than are chemical processes associated with dissolution and electrowinning. It is in the domain of scrap of complex composition and physical form, difficult to handle by existing technology, that opportunities exist for new chemical recycle technology. Recycle of scrap metal of adequate grade is currently achieved through pyrometallurgical processes which, in many cases, are not very energy intensive as compared with hydrometallurgical processes. Preliminary flowsheets are presented for the recovery of value metals from batteries considered for use in vehicular propulsion and load leveling applications. The battery types examined are lead/acid, nickel/zinc, nickel/iron, zinc/chlorine, lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide, and sodium/sulfur. A flow sheet has been outlined for an integrated hydrometallurgical process to treat low-grade copper scrap. A fully integrated hydrometallurgical process is outlined, and costs and energy consumption are derived, for recovering zinc metal from electric furnace flue dusts. Costs and energy are high and the process does not appear to warrant development at this time. Improvement in the recycle of magnesium is associated primarily with improved recycle in the Al industry where Mg is an important alloy additive. Ni and Ti recycle are associated with improved collection and sorting of stainless steel and specialty alloys.

  18. Plastic Recycling Experiments in Materials Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Waskom, Tommy L.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to introduce a series of plastic recycling experiments to students in materials-related courses such as materials science, material technology and materials testing. With the plastic recycling experiments, students not only can learn the fundamentals of plastic processing and properties as in conventional materials courses, but also can be exposed to the issue of materials life cycle and the impact on society and environment.

  19. The nonlinear relationship between paper recycling and primary pulp requirements : modeling paper production and recycling in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, Niels J.; Moll, Henri C.; Potting, Josepha

    Waste paper is suitable for recycling back into paper or for incineration for energy recovery. If waste paper is used for recycling, secondary pulp replaces virgin pulp. Fiber recycling is limited, however, because of physical constraints—particularly the breakage of fiber in the recycling

  20. Electrodynamic energy harvester for electrical transformer's ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    electromagnetic field. With an energy harvester one or more of these available energies can be converted into electrical energy for power requirements of WTSNs in electrical transformers. The integration of WTSN with an energy harvester can change the wireless node into a long lasting, self-powered wireless sensor unit.

  1. Automated harvesting of flowers and cuttings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosier, J.C.; Snel, R.; Goedvolk, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    The harvesting of flowers and cuttings can be considered as a skilled task. It takes weeks of training for the pickers to harvest quality cutting at the required production rate of one per second. The skill of the pickers is the ability to execute a number of functions within a short time. The

  2. Method for optimizing harvesting of crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    In order e.g. to optimize harvesting crops of the kind which may be self dried on a field prior to a harvesting step (116, 118), there is disclosed a method of providing a mobile unit (102) for working (114, 116, 118) the field with crops, equipping the mobile unit (102) with crop biomass measuring...

  3. Triple Hybrid Energy Harvesting Interface Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluşan, H.; Chamanian, S.; Pathirana, W. M. P. R.; Zorlu, Ö.; Muhtaroğlu, A.; Külah, H.

    2016-11-01

    This study presents a novel triple hybrid system that combines simultaneously generated power from thermoelectric (TE), vibration-based electromagnetic (EM) and piezoelectric (PZT) harvesters for a relatively high power supply capability. In the proposed solution each harvesting source utilizes a distinct power management circuit that generates a DC voltage suitable for combining the three parallel supplies. The circuits are designed and implemented in 180 nm standard CMOS technology, and are terminated with a schottky diode to avoid reverse current flow. The harvested AC signal from the EM harvester is rectified with a self-powered AC-DC doubler, which utilizes active diode structures to minimize the forward- bias voltage drop. The PZT interface electronics utilizes a negative voltage converter as the first stage, followed by synchronous power extraction and DC-to-DC conversion through internal switches, and an external inductor. The ultra-low voltage DC power harvested by the TE generator is stepped up through a charge-pump driven by an LC oscillator with fully- integrated center-tapped differential inductors. Test results indicate that hybrid energy harvesting circuit provides more than 1 V output for load resistances higher than 100 kΩ (10 μW) where the stand-alone harvesting circuits are not able to reach 1 V output. This is the first hybrid harvester circuit that simultaneously extracts energy from three independent sources, and delivers a single DC output.

  4. Applying new technologies to transform blueberry harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growth of the blueberry industry in the past three decades has been remarkable. However, labor shortage for hand harvesting, increasingly high labor costs, and low harvest efficiencies are becoming bottlenecks for sustainable development of the fresh market blueberry production. In this study ...

  5. MECHANICAL HARVESTING OF COFFEE IN HIGH SLOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIPE SANTINATO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian coffee farming is carried out both on flat and steep lands. In flat areas, mechanized operations are intensive; however, in steep slope areas, certain mechanized operations cannot be performed, such as harvesting. Based on this, the industry has developed machinery to harvest coffee in areas with up to 30% slope. However, harvesters have their efficiency and operational performance influenced by land slope. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the operational performance and harvesting efficiency of a steep-slope harvester under different situations, using different speed settings. The experiment was carried out in the county of Santo Antônio do Amparo, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using five coffee stands with 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% slope. Evaluations were performed with a self-propelled harvester (Electron, TDI®, Araguari, MG, Brazil at three rotation speeds (600, 800 and 1.000 rpm and two ground speeds (800 and 1.000 m h-1. The results showed the lower speed (800 m h-1 was suitable for 10% slope areas since the amount of fallen coffee berries. For areas of 20% slope, harvesting time was 21.6% longer than in flatter areas. Downtime varied from 10.66 to 29.18% total harvest due to a higher number of maneuvers.

  6. Harvesting Feminist Knowledge for Public Policy : Rebuilding ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Harvesting Feminist Knowledge for Public Policy : Rebuilding Progress. Couverture du livre Harvesting Feminist Knowledge for Public Policy : Rebuilding Progress. Directeur(s):. Devaki Jain et Diane Elson. Maison(s) d'édition: Sage, CRDI. 3 novembre 2011. ISBN : 9788132107415. 394 pages. e-ISBN : 9781552505458.

  7. Recycling ampersand incineration: Evaluating the choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denison, R.A.; Ruston, J.

    1993-01-01

    Conflicts between proponents of municipal solid waste incineration and advocates of recycling have escalated with efforts to reduce the volume of waste that ends up in landfills. Central to this debate is competition for materials that are both combustible and recyclable. Environmental and economic concerns also play a major role. This book, produced by the Environmental Defense Fund, compares recycling and incineration. It is intended for 'citizens, government officials, and business people who want to help resolve the solid-waste crisis.' The book is divided into three parts: recycling and incineration; health and environmental risk of incineration; and planning, public participation, and environmental review requirements. The book does an excellent job of discussing the benefits of recycling and the pitfalls of incineration. It provides helpful information for identifying questions that should be raised about incineration, but it does not raise similar queries about recycling. There is much worthwhile information here, but the book would be more useful if it identified critical issues for all waste reduction and management options

  8. Paper recycling framework, the "Wheel of Fiber".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervasti, Ilpo; Miranda, Ruben; Kauranen, Ilkka

    2016-06-01

    At present, there is no reliable method in use that unequivocally describes paper industry material flows and makes it possible to compare geographical regions with each other. A functioning paper industry Material Flow Account (MFA) that uses uniform terminology and standard definitions for terms and structures is necessary. Many of the presently used general level MFAs, which are called frameworks in this article, stress the importance of input and output flows but do not provide a uniform picture of material recycling. Paper industry is an example of a field in which recycling plays a key role. Additionally, terms related to paper industry recycling, such as collection rate, recycling rate, and utilization rate, are not defined uniformly across regions and time. Thus, reliably comparing material recycling activity between geographical regions or calculating any regional summaries is difficult or even impossible. The objective of this study is to give a partial solution to the problem of not having a reliable method in use that unequivocally describes paper industry material flows. This is done by introducing a new material flow framework for paper industry in which the flow and stage structure supports the use of uniform definitions for terms related to paper recycling. This new framework is termed the Detailed Wheel of Fiber. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Light recycling in solid state devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ling; Leutz, Ralf; Ries, Harald

    2005-09-01

    The idea of light recycling is rather simple. Assume that part of the light emitted by a light source is returned to the light source itself. If the light source does not completely absorb this light then the part which is not absorbed, is still available for further use. The hidden virtue of light recycling is that the recycled light is superposed in the same phase space (etendue) as the original radiation. Thus the average radiance of the source is increased albeit at the price of a reduction of total radiant power. This seems to violate the Second Law of Thermodynamics because the temperature of the radiation is related to the spectral radiance. Increasing the radiance amounts to reducing the entropy. However, radiating into free space is an irreversible process in which entropy is created. Light recycling reduces the entropy carried by the radiation by reducing the entropy production rate in the emission process itself. We show that the maximum radiance which can be achieved by light recycling is marked by the equilibrium radiance. The equilibrium luminescent spectrum diverges as photon energies approach the splitting of the quasi Fermi levels. The familiar spectrum of LEDs clearly does not diverge because the absorptivity/emissivity approaches zero in this regime. These features render light recycling particularly attractive. We report on preliminary laboratory measurements which show encouraging results.

  10. Low to high performance recycled cementitious materials: case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Etxeberria Larrañaga, Miren

    2015-01-01

    In this work, four real case studies using concrete produced with recycled aggregates are described. The four real cases carried out in Barcelona are: 1) Pavement filling with control low strength material (CLSM) employing fine recycled aggregates, 2) pervious recycled aggregate concrete employing coarse mixed recycled aggregates in the works undertaken at Cervantes park; 3) Concrete blocks produced employing recycled and slag aggregates as well as sea water for a new breakwater dyke and 4) R...

  11. Comparative Study on Mechanical Properties between Pure and Recycled Polypropylenes

    OpenAIRE

    Ariadne L. Juwono; Bernadeth Jong Hiong Jun

    2010-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is one type of thermoplastics that is widely used in our daily activities. A combination of the high demand and the easiness of recycling process, the recycled PP has been generally applied. In this study, the structure and the mechanical properties of the as-received PPs, recycled PPs, and commercial recycled PPs were compared, especially for cloth hanger application. DSC test results showed that recycling process did not cause a significant change to the material's meltin...

  12. [Harvesting microalgae via flocculation: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chun; Zhang, Xiaoyue; Zhao, Xinqing; Bai, Fengwu

    2015-02-01

    Microalgae have been identified as promising candidates for biorefinery of value-added molecules. The valuable products from microalgae include polyunsaturated fatty acids and pigments, clean and sustainable energy (e.g. biodiesel). Nevertheless, high cost for microalgae biomass harvesting has restricted the industrial application of microalgae. Flocculation, compared with other microalgae harvesting methods, has distinguished itself as a promising method with low cost and easy operation. Here, we reviewed the methods of microalgae harvesting using flocculation, including chemical flocculation, physical flocculation and biological flocculation, and the progress and prospect in bio-flocculation are especially focused. Harvesting microalgae via bio-flocculation, especially using bio-flocculant and microalgal strains that is self-flocculated, is one of the eco-friendly, cost-effective and efficient microalgae harvesting methods.

  13. A Miniature Coupled Bistable Vibration Energy Harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, D; Arthur, D C; Beeby, S P

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the design and test of a miniature coupled bistable vibration energy harvester. Operation of a bistable structure largely depends on vibration amplitude rather than frequency, which makes it very promising for wideband vibration energy harvesting applications. A coupled bistable structure consists of a pair of mobile magnets that create two potential wells and thus the bistable phenomenon. It requires lower excitation to trigger bistable operation compared to conventional bistable structures. Based on previous research, this work focused on miniaturisation of the coupled bistable structure for energy harvesting application. The proposed bistable energy harvester is a combination of a Duffing's nonlinear structure and a linear assisting resonator. Experimental results show that the output spectrum of the miniature coupled bistable vibration energy harvester was the superposition of several spectra. It had a higher maximum output power and a much greater bandwidth compared to simply the Duffing's structure without the assisting resonator

  14. Experimental measurement of energy harvesting with backpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelkova, Radka; Vala, David; Suranek, Pavel; Mahdal, Miroslav

    2017-08-01

    This article deals with the energy harvesting systems, especially the energy harvesting backpack, which appears as a convenient means for energy harvesting for mobile sensors power. Before starting the experiment, it was necessary to verify whether this energy will be sufficient to get acquainted with the human kinematics and analyze problematics itself. For this purpose there was used motion capture technology from Xsens. Measured data on the position of a particle moving man and back when walking, these data were then used for experimental realization of energy harvesting backpack and as input data to the simulation in Simulink, which brought us a comparison between theoretical assumptions and practical implementation. When measuring characteristics of energy harvesting system we have a problem with measurements on backpack solved when redoing of the hydraulic cylinder as a source of a suitable movement corresponding to the amplitude and frequency of human walk.

  15. Piezoelectric energy harvesting with parametric uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S F; Friswell, M I; Adhikari, S

    2010-01-01

    The design and analysis of energy harvesting devices is becoming increasing important in recent years. Most of the literature has focused on the deterministic analysis of these systems and the problem of uncertain parameters has received less attention. Energy harvesting devices exhibit parametric uncertainty due to errors in measurement, errors in modelling and variability in the parameters during manufacture. This paper investigates the effect of parametric uncertainty in the mechanical system on the harvested power, and derives approximate explicit formulae for the optimal electrical parameters that maximize the mean harvested power. The maximum of the mean harvested power decreases with increasing uncertainty, and the optimal frequency at which the maximum mean power occurs shifts. The effect of the parameter variance on the optimal electrical time constant and optimal coupling coefficient are reported. Monte Carlo based simulation results are used to further analyse the system under parametric uncertainty

  16. Assessing changes on poly(ethylene terephthalate) properties after recycling: Mechanical recycling in laboratory versus postconsumer recycled material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, María del Mar Castro, E-mail: quimcl02@udc.es [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Ares Pernas, Ana Isabel, E-mail: aares@udc.es [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Abad López, Ma José, E-mail: mjabad@udc.es [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); and others

    2014-10-15

    Keeping rheological, mechanical and thermal properties of virgin poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, is necessary to assure the quality of second-market applications. A comparative study of these properties has been undertaken in virgin, mechanical recycled and commercial recycled PET samples. Viscoelastic characterization was carried out by rheological measurements. Mechanical properties were estimated by tensile and Charpy impact strength tests. Thermal properties and crystallinity were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and a deconvolution procedure was applied to study the population of the different crystals. Molecular conformational changes related to crystallinity values were studied by FTIR spectroscopy. Variations in average molecular weight were predicted from rheology. Besides, the presence-absence of linear and cyclic oligomeric species was measured by mass spectrometry techniques, as MALDI-TOF. Mechanical recycled PET undergoes a significant decline in rheological, mechanical and thermal properties upon increasing the number of reprocessing steps. This is due to the cleavage of the ester bonds with reduction in molar mass and raise in cyclic oligomeric species, in particular [GT{sub c}]{sub n} and [GT{sub c}]{sub n}-G type. Chain shortening plus enrichment in trans conformers favour the crystallization process which occurs earlier and faster with modification in crystal populations. Additional physicochemical steps are necessary to preserve the main benefits of PET. - Highlights: • Combination of multiple techniques to characterize the effects of recycling in PET. • Cleavage of ester bonds reduced viscosity, Mw, toughness in mechanical recycled PET. • Virgin, mechanical recycled and commercial recycled PET differ in crystal populations. • Cyclic oligomers [GT{sub c}]{sub n} and [GT{sub c}]{sub n}-G increase from the fourth extrusion cycle onwards.

  17. Assessing changes on poly(ethylene terephthalate) properties after recycling: Mechanical recycling in laboratory versus postconsumer recycled material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López, María del Mar Castro; Ares Pernas, Ana Isabel; Abad López, Ma José

    2014-01-01

    Keeping rheological, mechanical and thermal properties of virgin poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, is necessary to assure the quality of second-market applications. A comparative study of these properties has been undertaken in virgin, mechanical recycled and commercial recycled PET samples. Viscoelastic characterization was carried out by rheological measurements. Mechanical properties were estimated by tensile and Charpy impact strength tests. Thermal properties and crystallinity were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and a deconvolution procedure was applied to study the population of the different crystals. Molecular conformational changes related to crystallinity values were studied by FTIR spectroscopy. Variations in average molecular weight were predicted from rheology. Besides, the presence-absence of linear and cyclic oligomeric species was measured by mass spectrometry techniques, as MALDI-TOF. Mechanical recycled PET undergoes a significant decline in rheological, mechanical and thermal properties upon increasing the number of reprocessing steps. This is due to the cleavage of the ester bonds with reduction in molar mass and raise in cyclic oligomeric species, in particular [GT c ] n and [GT c ] n -G type. Chain shortening plus enrichment in trans conformers favour the crystallization process which occurs earlier and faster with modification in crystal populations. Additional physicochemical steps are necessary to preserve the main benefits of PET. - Highlights: • Combination of multiple techniques to characterize the effects of recycling in PET. • Cleavage of ester bonds reduced viscosity, Mw, toughness in mechanical recycled PET. • Virgin, mechanical recycled and commercial recycled PET differ in crystal populations. • Cyclic oligomers [GT c ] n and [GT c ] n -G increase from the fourth extrusion cycle onwards

  18. The cost of grape mechanical harvesting is more economical than the manual harvest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingues Fabrício

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the costs of mechanical harvesting and grape manual in commercial property of “Santana do Livramento”, “Rio Grande do Sul” (RS – Brazil. The study was conducted commercial vineyard, over four years (2013–2016, throughout this period we evaluated 154.9 ha on the mechanical harvesting of grapes and; 366.7 ha on the grapes of manual harvesting; for both types of collection were recorded all costs thereof, including annual fixed fees (depreciation + maintenance, obtaining at the end the amount of crop expressed in real per hectare; also calculated the minimum required area vineyard justify mechanical harvesting. The cost of manual harvesting was 133.3% higher than the value obtained for the mechanical harvesting the studied time interval. Obtained the area of 41.92 ha, as the point of balance between the costs of manual and mechanical harvesting (equivalent costs, above this area (41.92 ha, grape mechanical harvest is economically justified. All conditions tested, it was concluded that preliminary cost per hectare of grape mechanical harvesting is lower than the cost per hectare of manual harvesting and vineyard areas plausible mechanical harvesting exceeding 41.92 ha, justify the use of the collection system grape mechanics.

  19. Post-harvest quality of fresh-marketed tomatoes as a function of harvest periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Marcos David

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Losses on tomato business chain start at harvest, a two-months period. At the beginning of the harvest, fruits concentrate at the basal part of the plant, then in the middle, and finally at the top, and undergo changes in diameter and maturity indexes as harvest progresses. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of handling at three different periods: (I 15 days, (II 30 days, and (III 45 days after the beginning of harvest. Tomatoes were ordinarily grown and harvested in to bamboo baskets, and transferred to plastics boxes. Fruits were classified according to ripening stage and diameter, and evaluated for mechanical damage and external defects caused by harvesting procedures. The time required for the harvest operation was measured; damage to fruits (% and weight loss (%, caused either in the field and/or during the harvesting process, were taken into consideration and related to the final quality of fruit after storage for 21 days. The same methodology was used all through the production and harvest cycle. The highest % fruit damage occurred during period II, a longer harvest time than the other two periods. Fruits not submitted to handling showed lower weight loss than handled fruits. Fruits harvested in period II and stored for 21 days showed higher losses due to mechanical injury.

  20. Harvesting energy from airflow with a michromachined piezoelectric harvester inside a Helmholtz resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matova, S P; Elfrink, R; Vullers, R J M; Van Schaijk, R

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report an airflow energy harvester that combines a piezoelectric energy harvester with a Helmholtz resonator. The resonator converts airflow energy to air oscillations which in turn are converted into electrical energy by a piezoelectric harvester. Two Helmholtz resonators with adjustable resonance frequencies have been designed—one with a solid bottom and one with membrane on the bottom. The resonance frequencies of the resonators were matched to the complementing piezoelectric harvesters during harvesting. The aim of the presented work is a feasibility study on using packaged piezoelectric energy harvesters with Helmholtz resonators for airflow energy harvesting. The maximum energy we were able to obtain was 42.2 µW at 20 m s −1

  1. Can macrophyte harvesting from eutrophic water close the loop on nutrient loss from agricultural land?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliam, Richard S; van Niekerk, Melanie A; Chadwick, David R; Cross, Paul; Hanley, Nick; Jones, Davey L; Vinten, Andy J A; Willby, Nigel; Oliver, David M

    2015-04-01

    Eutrophication is a major water pollution issue and can lead to excessive growth of aquatic plant biomass (APB). However, the assimilation of nutrients into APB provides a significant target for their recovery and reuse, and harvesting problematic APB in impacted freshwater bodies offers a complementary approach to aquatic restoration, which could potentially deliver multiple wider ecosystem benefits. This critical review provides an assessment of opportunities and risks linked to nutrient recovery from agriculturally impacted water-bodies through the harvesting of APB for recycling and reuse as fertilisers and soil amendments. By evaluating the economic, social, environmental and health-related dimensions of this resource recovery from 'waste' process we propose a research agenda for closing the loop on nutrient transfer from land to water. We identify that environmental benefits are rarely, if ever, prioritised as essential criteria for the exploitation of resources from waste and yet this is key for addressing the current imbalance that sees environmental managers routinely undervaluing the wider environmental benefits that may accrue beyond resource recovery. The approach we advocate for the recycling of 'waste' APB nutrients is to couple the remediation of eutrophic waters with the sustainable production of feed and fertiliser, whilst providing multiple downstream benefits and minimising environmental trade-offs. This integrated 'ecosystem services approach' has the potential to holistically close the loop on agricultural nutrient loss, and thus sustainably recover finite resources such as phosphorus from waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of harvest on waterfowl populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooch, Evan G.; Guillemain, Matthieu; Boomer, G Scott; Lebreton, Jean-Dominique; Nichols, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Change in the size of populations over space and time is, arguably, the motivation for much of pure and applied ecological research. The fundamental model for the dynamics of any population is straightforward: the net change in the abundance is the simple difference between the number of individuals entering the population and the number leaving the population, either or both of which may change in response to factors intrinsic and extrinsic to the population. While harvest of individuals from a population constitutes a clear extrinsic source of removal of individuals, the response of populations to harvest is frequently complex, reflecting an interaction of harvest with one or more population processes. Here we consider the role of these interactions, and factors influencing them, on the effective harvest management of waterfowl populations. We review historical ideas concerning harvest and discuss the relationship(s) between waterfowl life histories and the development and application of population models to inform harvest management. The influence of population structure (age, spatial) on derivation of optimal harvest strategies (with and without explicit consideration of various sources of uncertainty) is considered. In addition to population structure, we discuss how the optimal harvest strategy may be influenced by: 1) patterns of density-dependence in one or more vital rates, and 2) heterogeneity in vital rates among individuals within an age-sex-size class. Although derivation of the optimal harvest strategy for simple population models (with or without structure) is generally straightforward, there are several potential difficulties in application. In particular, uncertainty concerning the population structure at the time of harvest, and the ability to regulate the structure of the harvest itself, are significant complications. We therefore review the evidence of effects of harvest on waterfowl populations. Some of this evidence has

  3. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  4. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  5. MOX fuel recycling. Present status and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslan, Marc [AREVA Recycling Business Unit, BP93124, F-30203 Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    2009-06-15

    Recycling of the energy from the used fuel is compulsory for a sustainable development of nuclear renaissance. By 2030 the total amount of used fuel on our planet will have reached about 400 000 t. The potential amount of energy to recycle from this deposit represents about 8 billions of equivalent tons of petrol. Indeed, the recycling of the plutonium and uranium recovered from the used fuels represents important savings of natural uranium and avoid costs of enrichment. The global rate of recycling is about 20 %. The advantages of recycling have been demonstrated by the successful policy of recycling, for more than 30 years, in Europe: - in the first phase which lasts more than 18 years, the utility's number of spent assemblies is reduced by a factor of 8 (one MOX assembly requires the quantity of plutonium generated by 8 UOx assemblies) - in the final phase the final wastes volume is reduced by a factor of 5, after conditioning (vitrified fission products in stable matrix designed for final repository and compacted hulls and skulls) - the radio toxicity of these final wastes, is reduced by a factor of 10: the delay for radioactive decay is tremendously decreased and the level of natural radioactivity is reached within historic memory delays - recycling is a non proliferation policy: the overall quantity of available plutonium is mastered, the plutonium isotopy in the MOX is inappropriate for non civil purposes. Recycling excess weapon grade plutonium into MOX is the only solution chosen by the US administration in order to eliminate the stockpile of excess WG plutonium in the US. Recycling of MOX is an industrial reality in Europe with 35 reactors using MOX, with a satisfactory return of experience. Nowadays, MELOX, AREVA high throughput MOX manufacturing plant (licensed for 195 tHM/year) ensures the world's international demand for MOX with the highest level of quality of the products. The AREVA industrial treatment plant in La Hague (with a capacity

  6. Structural recycled concrete: utilization of recycled aggregate from construction and demolition wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaejos Gutierrez, P.; Sanchez de Juan, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to present the main results of CEDEX research works concerning the use of recycled aggregates for structural concretes. By way of conclusion, recommendations on the requirements of the recycled aggregates have been established, providing information about the influence of these aggregates on the properties of structural concrete. (Author)

  7. The fast-recycling receptor Megalin defines the apical recycling pathway of epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Bay, Andres E.; Schreiner, Ryan; Benedicto, Ignacio; Paz Marzolo, Maria; Banfelder, Jason; Weinstein, Alan M.; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique J.

    2016-01-01

    The basolateral recycling and transcytotic pathways of epithelial cells were previously defined using markers such as transferrin (TfR) and polymeric IgA (pIgR) receptors. In contrast, our knowledge of the apical recycling pathway remains fragmentary. Here we utilize quantitative live-imaging and mathematical modelling to outline the recycling pathway of Megalin (LRP-2), an apical receptor with key developmental and renal functions, in MDCK cells. We show that, like TfR, Megalin is a long-lived and fast-recycling receptor. Megalin enters polarized MDCK cells through segregated apical sorting endosomes and subsequently intersects the TfR and pIgR pathways at a perinuclear Rab11-negative compartment termed common recycling endosomes (CRE). Whereas TfR recycles to the basolateral membrane from CRE, Megalin, like pIgR, traffics to subapical Rab11-positive apical recycling endosomes (ARE) and reaches the apical membrane in a microtubule- and Rab11-dependent manner. Hence, Megalin defines the apical recycling pathway of epithelia, with CRE as its apical sorting station. PMID:27180806

  8. Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Recycling in ontwerp : 'State of the art' van de Nederlandse recycling industrie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottenberg, E. (Eliza); Goselink, E. (Erik)

    2013-01-01

    Dit boekje bevat de samenvatting van onderzoek dat is uitgevoerd binnen het project Recycling in Ontwerp (RiO). Op overzichtelijke wijze wordt inzicht gegeven in de verschillende uitkomsten van de onderzoeken binnen het thema recycling in ontwerp. Onderwerp van studie zijn onder andere de

  10. Recycling of Waste Streams of the Biotechnological Poly(hydroxyalkanoate Production by Haloferax mediterranei on Whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Koller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For manufacturing “bioplastics” such as poly(hydroxyalkanoates (PHA, the combination of utilization of inexpensive carbon sources with the application of robust microbial production strains is considered a decisive step to make this process more cost-efficient and sustainable. PHA production based on surplus whey from dairy industry was accomplished by the extremely halophile archaeon Haloferax mediterranei. After fermentative production of PHA-rich biomass and the subsequent cell harvest and downstream processing for PHA recovery, environmentally hazardous, highly saline residues, namely spent fermentation broth and cell debris, remain as residues. These waste streams were used for recycling experiments to assess their recyclability in subsequent production processes. It was demonstrated that spent fermentation broth can be used to replace a considerable part of fresh saline fermentation medium in subsequent production processes. In addition, 29% of the expensive yeast extract, needed as nitrogen and phosphate source for efficient cultivation of the microorganism, can be replaced by cell debris from prior cultivations. The presented study provides strategies to combine the reduction of costs for biomediated PHA production with minimizing ecological risks by recycling precarious waste streams. Overall, the presented work shall contribute to the quick economic success of these promising biomaterials.

  11. Sustainable cultivation of broadleaved trees in a recycling community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christersson, L.

    1996-01-01

    In the future, with problems of global warming and acidification and with an increasing need to recirculate wastes of the community in an ecologically acceptable and economically sound manner, the cultivation of broadleaved species (birch, aspen, poplar, alder and willow in particular) on suitable forest land and on former agricultural land is of utmost interest if following the recycling philosophy. The wood produced could be used primarily for short fibres and for energy. Also of interest is the production of methanol, biogas and electricity, chipboard and laminates, in the context of a forest industry concerned with the further development of the raw materials. The main advantages of cultivating fast-growing, broadleaved trees on former agricultural land are that: * in Sweden it has been shown possible to produce 10-12 tonnes of dry matter of woody biomass per hectare and year by cultivating willows and hybrid poplars, * in such plantations, the energy efficiency ratio will be 1 to 15-20, meaning that for every energy unit used, 15-20 can be harvested, and * some residual products from society, such as sludges, ashes, and wastewaters can be used as fertilizers in such plantations. 16 refs

  12. Energy implications of recycling packaging materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-03-01

    In 1992, Congress sought to rewrite the United States comprehensive solid waste legislation -- the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Commodity-specific recycling rates were proposed for consumer-goods packaging materials and newsprint We compare the impacts on energy, materials use, and landfill volume of recycling at those rates to the impacts for alternative methods of material disposition to determine the optimum for each material. After products have served their intended uses, there are several alternative paths for material disposition. These include reuse, recycling to the same product, recycling to a lower-valued product, combustion for energy recovery, incineration without energy recovery, and landfill. Only options considered to be environmentally sound are Included. Both houses of Congress specifically excluded combustion for energy recovery from counting towards the recovery goats, probably because combustion is viewed as a form of disposal and is therefore assumed to waste resources and have n environmental effects. However, co-combustion in coal-fired plants or combustion in appropriately pollution-controlled waste-to-energy plants Is safe, avoids landfill costs, and can displace fossil fuels. In some cases, more fossil fuels can be displaced by combustion than by recycling. We compare the alternative life-cycle energies to the energies for producing the products from virgin materials. Results depend on the material and on the objective to be achieved. There are trade-offs among possible goals. For instance, paper packaging recycling conserves trees but may require greater fossil-fuel input than virgin production. Therefore, the objectives for proposed legislation must be examined to see whether they can most effectively be achieved by mandated recycling rates or by other methods of disposition. The optimal choices for the United States may not necessarily be the same as those for Europe and other parts of the world.

  13. Entropy, recycling and macroeconomics of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    We propose a macroeconomic model for water quantity and quality supply multipliers derived by water recycling (Karakatsanis et al. 2013). Macroeconomic models that incorporate natural resource conservation have become increasingly important (European Commission et al. 2012). In addition, as an estimated 80% of globally used freshwater is not reused (United Nations 2012), under increasing population trends, water recycling becomes a solution of high priority. Recycling of water resources creates two major conservation effects: (1) conservation of water in reservoirs and aquifers and (2) conservation of ecosystem carrying capacity due to wastewater flux reduction. Statistical distribution properties of the recycling efficiencies -on both water quantity and quality- for each sector are of vital economic importance. Uncertainty and complexity of water reuse in sectors are statistically quantified by entropy. High entropy of recycling efficiency values signifies greater efficiency dispersion; which -in turn- may indicate the need for additional infrastructure for the statistical distribution's both shifting and concentration towards higher efficiencies that lead to higher supply multipliers. Keywords: Entropy, water recycling, water supply multipliers, conservation, recycling efficiencies, macroeconomics References 1. European Commission (EC), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), United Nations (UN) and World Bank (2012), System of Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA) Central Framework (White cover publication), United Nations Statistics Division 2. Karakatsanis, G., N. Mamassis, D. Koutsoyiannis and A. Efstratiades (2013), Entropy and reliability of water use via a statistical approach of scarcity, 5th EGU Leonardo Conference - Hydrofractals 2013 - STAHY '13, Kos Island, Greece, European Geosciences Union, International Association of Hydrological Sciences

  14. Rainwater harvesting state regulations and technical resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted in-depth research of state-level rainwater harvesting regulations for the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to help federal agencies strategically identify locations conducive to rainwater harvesting projects. Currently, rainwater harvesting is not regulated by the federal government but rather it is up to individual states to regulate the collection and use of rainwater. There is no centralized information on state-level regulations on rainwater harvesting maintained by a federal agency or outside organization. To fill this information gap, PNNL performed detailed internet searches for each state, which included state agencies, universities, Cooperative Extension Offices, city governments, and related organizations. The state-by-state information on rainwater harvesting regulations was compiled and assembled into an interactive map that is color coded by state regulations. The map provides a visual representation of the general types of rainwater harvesting policies across the country as well as general information on the state programs if applicable. The map allows the user to quickly discern where rainwater harvesting is supported and regulated by the state. This map will be available on the FEMP website by September 2015.

  15. Optical Sensing of Weed Infestations at Harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Barroso

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Kochia (Kochia scoparia L., Russian thistle (Salsola tragus L., and prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L. are economically important weeds infesting dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production systems in the western United States. Those weeds produce most of their seeds post-harvest. The objectives of this study were to determine the ability of an optical sensor, installed for on-the-go measurement of grain protein concentration, to detect the presence of green plant matter in flowing grain and assess the potential usefulness of this information for mapping weeds at harvest. Spectra of the grain stream were recorded continuously at a rate of 0.33 Hz during harvest of two spring wheat fields of 1.9 and 5.4 ha. All readings were georeferenced using a Global Positioning System (GPS receiver with 1 m positional accuracy. Chlorophyll of green plant matter was detectable in the red (638–710 nm waveband. Maps of the chlorophyll signal from both fields showed an overall agreement of 78.1% with reference maps, one constructed prior to harvest and the other at harvest time, both based on visual evaluations of the three green weed species conducted by experts. Information on weed distributions at harvest may be useful for controlling post-harvest using variable rate technology for herbicide applications.

  16. Bundling harvester; Harvennuspuun automaattisen nippukorjausharvesterin kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, K. [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The starting point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automating of the harvester, and automated loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilisation of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilised without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilisation of wood-energy. (orig.)

  17. Effects of Harvest Intensity on Production of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ghehsareh Ardestani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With regard to retrogression trend of rangelands in central Zagross, many native plant species are expected to be increasingly on the verge of extinction. Therefore, for proper rangeland management the optimum harvest intensity of important plant species is an essential factor for rehabilitation and recovery of native rangeland species. This research was aimed to study the response of four range species to clipping intensity on yield and regrowth and to determine the appropriate harvesting intensity to increase the stability and survival of four range species. Astragalus caragana, Astragalus cyclophyllon, Astragalus podolobus and Medicago sativa were planted in the college of natural resources greenhouse in Isfahan University of Technology campus, during 2013 growing season. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 3 levels: control, 60%, and 80% cuttings of plant stems at harvest times. Production of dry matter and stem heights were measured and evaluated. The results showed significant differences at α=1% among species, harvest intensity and interactions between species and harvest intensities. Based on these results, M. sativa and A. caragana are more tolerant to moderate and heavy grazing than two other species. Consequently, a harvesting intensity of 60% was recommended as the best allowable use of M. sativa and A. caragana. On the other hand, A. cyclophyllon and A. podolobus were more sensitive to harvest intensity. However, A. cyclophyllon and A. podolobus could not tolerate intensive grazing during the first growing season.

  18. Optical Sensing of Weed Infestations at Harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Judit; McCallum, John; Long, Dan

    2017-10-19

    Kochia ( Kochia scoparia L.), Russian thistle ( Salsola tragus L.), and prickly lettuce ( Lactuca serriola L.) are economically important weeds infesting dryland wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) production systems in the western United States. Those weeds produce most of their seeds post-harvest. The objectives of this study were to determine the ability of an optical sensor, installed for on-the-go measurement of grain protein concentration, to detect the presence of green plant matter in flowing grain and assess the potential usefulness of this information for mapping weeds at harvest. Spectra of the grain stream were recorded continuously at a rate of 0.33 Hz during harvest of two spring wheat fields of 1.9 and 5.4 ha. All readings were georeferenced using a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver with 1 m positional accuracy. Chlorophyll of green plant matter was detectable in the red (638-710 nm) waveband. Maps of the chlorophyll signal from both fields showed an overall agreement of 78.1% with reference maps, one constructed prior to harvest and the other at harvest time, both based on visual evaluations of the three green weed species conducted by experts. Information on weed distributions at harvest may be useful for controlling post-harvest using variable rate technology for herbicide applications.

  19. Recycling in the 90's - a shared responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Recycling means different things to different people. To consumers, recycling can mean putting out bottles and cans for curbside collection. To a product maker - a manufacturer of raw materials, fabricator of goods or products, or brand owner - recycling can mean reformulating goods to include recycled materials. To recycling service providers, recycling can mean providing cost-efficient collection services. To public policy makers in all levels of government recycling can mean establishing collection and utilization regulations. For recycling to work successfully, these diverse groups must work together and share responsibility for its success. Also, if recycling is to succeed on a large scale and over the long term, three critical points must be first addressed: These points are: approach, economics, and markets. These points are discussed

  20. The start of the harvest

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The first major particle physics summer conference has just started this week in Grenoble. After the Quark-Matter conference, the Europhysics Conference on High-Energy Physics marks the start of a promising harvest for the LHC experiments.   For the first time, the collaborations will be presenting their latest results based on all luminosity taken until end of June, which will provide more precise measurements in many areas. Thanks to the excellent performance of the LHC, the experiments have already accumulated a substantial quantity of data allowing them to push back the known limits and refine measurements in many fields ranging from b physics to the search for the Higgs boson and for dark matter. At the time of writing, the LHC collaborations are about to present these new results in an energy range which has never previously been explored. I have congratulated all the teams involved in getting the LHC into operation in record time with great efficiency. Today I would like to acknowledge the...

  1. Printability of papers recycled from toner and inkjet-printed papers after deinking and recycling processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademir, Arif; Aydemir, Cem; Tutak, Dogan; Aravamuthan, Raja

    2017-11-11

    In our contemporary world, while part of the fibers used in the paper industry is obtained from primary fibers such as wood and agricultural plants, the rest is obtained from secondary fibers from waste papers. To manufacture paper with high optical quality from fibers of recycled waste papers, these papers require deinking and bleaching of fibers at desired levels. High efficiency in removal of ink from paper mass during recycling, and hence deinkability, are especially crucial for the optical and printability quality of the ultimate manufactured paper. In the present study, deinkability and printability performance of digitally printed paper with toner or inkjet ink were compared for the postrecycling product. To that end, opaque 80 g/m2 office paper was digitally printed under standard printing conditions with laser toner or inkjet ink; then these sheets of paper were deinked by a deinking process based on the INGEDE method 11 p. After the deinking operation, the optical properties of the obtained recycled handsheets were compared with unprinted (reference) paper. Then the recycled paper was printed on once again under the same conditions as before with inkjet and laser printers, to monitor and measure printing color change before and after recycling, and differences in color universe. Recycling and printing performances of water-based inkjet and toner-based laser printed paper were obtained. The outcomes for laser-printed recycled paper were better than those for inkjet-printed recycled paper. Compared for luminosity Y, brightness, CIE a* and CIE b* values, paper recycled from laser-printed paper exhibited higher value than paper recycled from inkjet-printed paper.

  2. Crane harvesters for systematic wood clearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahler, G.

    1988-07-30

    Wood harvesting in methodical clearing areas has witnessed developments over the last thirty years that can be described for one thing with 'Shifting from short timber to long timber' and for the other with shifting part of the work to central places. Both approaches to make harvesting of thin wood more efficient have been intensively studied over this period by Grammel. Further, thin wood harvesting has lately gained in importance in terms of operational efficiency because more recent recommendations for forest management have very substantially increased intermediate returns at least temporarily.

  3. INEL metal recycle annual report, FY-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtold, T.E.

    1994-09-01

    In 1992, the mission of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was changed from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels to development of technologies for conditioning of spent nuclear fuels and other high-level wastes for disposal in a geologic repository. In addition, the Department of Energy (DOE) directed Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a program plan addressing the management of radioactive contaminated scrap metal (RSM) within the DOE complex. Based on discussions with the EM-30 organization, the INEL Metal Recycle program plan was developed to address all issues of RSM management. Major options considered for RSM management were engineered interim storage, land disposal as low-level waste, and beneficial reuse/recycle. From its inception, the Metal Recycle program has emphasized avoidance of storage and disposal costs through beneficial reuse of RSM. The Metal Recycle program plan includes three major activities: Site-by-site inventory of RSM resources; validation of technologies for conversion of RSM to usable products; and identification of parties prepared to participate in development of a RSM recycle business

  4. The unrivalled expertise for Pu recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, W.; Pouilloux, M.

    1997-01-01

    Relying on the outstanding performances of the reprocessing facilities and the growing fabrication facilities, the in-reactor Pu recycling program in France and in other European countries is steadily implemented and has reached full-scale industrial operation. The RCR strategy -Reprocessing, Conditioning and Recycling- developed by COGEMA is now a well proven industrial reality. In 1997, plutonium recycling through MOX fuel is a mature industry, with successful operational experience and large-scale fabrication plants. In this field, COGEMA is the main actor, on operating simultaneously three complete multidesign fuel production plants: MELOX plant (in Marcoule), CADARACHE plant and DESSEL plant (in Belgium). Present MOX production capacity available to COGEMA fits 175 tHM per year and will be extended to reach about 325 tHM in the year 2000, that will represent 75% of the total MOX fabrication capacity in Europe. The industrial mastery and the high production level in MOX production assured by high technology processes confers COGEMA an unrivalled expertise for Pu recycling. This allows COGEMA to be a major actor in Pu-based fuels in the coming second nuclear era with advanced fuel cycles. The paper depicts the steps of the progressive advance of COGEMA to reach the Pu recycling expertise. (author)

  5. Energy implications of glass-container recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L L; Mintz, M M [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This report addresses the question of whether glass-container recycling actually saves energy. Glass-container production in 1991 was 10{sup 7} tons, with cullet making up about 30% of the input to manufacture. Two-thirds of the cullet is postconsumer waste; the remainder is in-house scrap (rejects). Most of the glass recycled is made into new containers. Total primary energy consumption includes direct process-energy use by the industry (adjusted to account for the efficiency of fuel production) plus fuel and raw-material transportation and production energies; the grand total for 1991 is estimated to be about 168 {times} 10{sup 12} Btu. The total primary energy use decreases as the percent of glass recycled rises, but the maximum energy saved is only about 13%. If distance to the landfill is kept fixed and that to the recovery facility multiplied by about eight, to 100 mi, a break-even point is reached, and recycling saves no energy. Previous work has shown that to save energy when using glass bottles, reuse is the clear choice. Recycling of glass does not save much energy or valuable raw material and does not reduce air or water pollution significantly. The most important impacts are the small reduction of waste sent to the landfill and increased production rates at glass plants.

  6. Software recycling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HINKELMAN, K.C.

    1999-01-01

    The Hanford Site was the first Department of Energy (DOE) complex to recycle excess software rather than dispose of it in the landfill. This plan, which took over a year to complete, was reviewed for potential legal conflicts, which could arise from recycling rather than disposal of software. It was determined that recycling was an approved method of destruction and therefore did not conflict with any of the licensing agreements that Hanford had with the software manufacturers. The Hanford Recycling Program Coordinator combined efforts with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to recycle all Hanford software through a single contract, which went out for bid in January 1995. It was awarded to GreenDisk, Inc. located in Woodinville Washington and implemented in March 1995. The contract was later re-bid and awarded to EcoDisWGreenDisk in December 1998. The new contract included materials such as; software manuals, diskettes, tyvek wrapping, cardboard and paperboard packaging, compact disks (CDs), videotapes, reel-to-reel tapes, magnetic tapes, audio tapes, and many other types of media

  7. Harvest time and post-harvest quality of Fuyu persimmon treated before harvest with gibberellic acid and aminoetoxyvinilglycine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Ayub

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of gibberellic acid (GA3 and aminoetoxyvinilglycine (AVG applied in preharvest spraying, on the retardation of the harvest and on the quality of persimmon fruits cv. Fuyu. The experiment was carried in randomized complete block design. The treatments were: control, 136mgL-1 of AVG, 272 mgL-1 of AVG, 36mgL-1 of GA3, 72mgL-1 of GA3 and 136mgL-1 of AVG + 36mgL-1 of GA3, spraying 30 days before the first harvest. The fruits were harvested twice and stored at 4ºC. The chemical and physical evaluations of the fruits were carried out the date of the harvest and at intervals of 15 days followed by four days at 20ºC. In conclusion, the application of AVG (136mgL-1 or GA3 (72mgL-1 maintained the firmness of the fruits and delayed harvest by twenty days. However, fruits harvested in the initial state of ripening were more sensitive to chilling injury and were unable to support 15 days of storage at 4ºC. The plant growth regulators were not efficient in prolonged storage due to the fact that the concentration of sugars was lower in the treatments than in the control.

  8. Recycling of used aluminum beverage cans in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itou, Tatsuo [Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Both sales volume of aluminum cans and the recycling rate are remarkably increasing in Japan. In 1993, recycled can volume was 11.78 billion cans (116,258 metric tons) and its recycling rate 57.8 percent. Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, the leading manufacturer of aluminum cans in Japan, and their affiliated companies are very deeply involved in recycling used beverage cans (U.B.C) and recycling them back to can stock. In this paper, the author presents the following: (1) recent trends of beverage can consumption in Japan; (2) trend of aluminum cans and recycling rate in Japan; and (3) future of the aluminum can business in Japan.

  9. Development of an aeroelastic vibration power harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Matthew; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2009-03-01

    Aeroelastic vibration of structures represents a novel energy harvesting opportunity that may offer significant advantages over traditional wind power devices in many applications. Such a system could complement existing alternative energy sources by allowing for distributed power generation and placement in urban areas. The device configuration of a simple two degree aeroelastic system suitable for piezoelectric power harvesting is presented. The mechanical, electromechanical, and aerodynamic equations of motion governing the dynamics and electrical output of the system as a function of incident wind speed are derived. The response and current output of one design for a bench top scale harvester are simulated and presented. Finally, a strategy for expanding the operating envelope of the power harvester is proposed and discussed.

  10. Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Harvest

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Harvest. Mobilization protocol. G-CSF 10 mcg/Kg / day for 5 days. Pheresis. Cobe Spectra; Haemonetics mcs+. Enumeration. CD34 counts; Cfu-GM assays.

  11. Heat Harvesting by Artificial Muscles, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA emphasizes the need to implement energy harvesting in its future mission activities, as well as to conserve on energy and to enhance the sustainability of...

  12. Energy Harvesting Wireless Strain Networks, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prime Research LC (PPLC) and Virginia Tech (VT) propose to develop an energy harvesting wireless strain node technology that utilizes single-crystal piezoelectric...

  13. Recycling of steelmaking dusts: The Radust concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalkanen H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of dusts and other wastes of steelmaking is becoming to a necessity of two reasons: due to high contents of iron oxides dusts are valuable raw material for steelmaking and tightening environmental legislation makes the landfill disposal of wastes more expensive. Fine dust fractions from various stages of steelmaking route contain besides iron and carbon heavy metals especially zinc and lead and heavy hydrocarbons that are acceptable neither for landfill disposal nor for recycling back to processes without any spe4cial treatments. Some theoretical and practical aspects concerning high temperature treatments of steelmaking dusts for removal of hazardous components and production of clean high iron raw material for recycling is discussed in this paper. The Radust technology developed at Koverhar steelwork in Finland for treatment of the most problematic fine fractions of blast furnace and oxygen converter dusts is shortly presented and discussed.

  14. A utility analysis of MOX recycling policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaeffli, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The author presents the advantages of recycling of plutonium and uranium from spent reactor fuel assemblies as follows: natural uranium and enrichment savings, mixed oxide fuel (MOX) fuel assembly cost, MOX compatibility with plant operation, high burnups, spent MOX reprocessing, and non-proliferation aspects.Disadvantages of the recycling effort are noted as well: plutonium degradation with time, plutonium availability, in-core fuel management, administrative authorizations by the licensings authorities, US prior consent, and MOX fuel fabrication capacity. Putting the advantages and disadvantages in perspective, it is concluded that the recycling of MOX in light water reactors represents, under the current circumstances, the most appropriate way of making use of the available plutonium

  15. Erasing Data and Recycling of Optical Disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Fujita

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical disks, DVDs and CDs, are convenient recording media on which to safely store data for a long period of time. However, the complete data erasure from recorded media is also important for the security of the data. After erasure of data from optical disks, recycling the material is needed in order to recover the valuable components of the optical disks. Here, data erasure methods for optical disks are discussed in the view of material recycling. The main finding of the study is that the explosion of optical disks in water is a very suitable method for complete erasure of data on the disks as well as recycling of their materials.

  16. Genetic incorporation of recycled unnatural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wooseok; Kim, Sanggil; Jo, Kyubong; Lee, Hyun Soo

    2016-02-01

    The genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acids (UAAs) into proteins has been a useful tool for protein engineering. However, most UAAs are expensive, and the method requires a high concentration of UAAs, which has been a drawback of the technology, especially for large-scale applications. To address this problem, a method to recycle cultured UAAs was developed. The method is based on recycling a culture medium containing the UAA, in which some of essential nutrients were resupplemented after each culture cycle, and induction of protein expression was controlled with glucose. Under optimal conditions, five UAAs were recycled for up to seven rounds of expression without a decrease in expression level, cell density, or incorporation fidelity. This method can generally be applied to other UAAs; therefore, it is useful for reducing the cost of UAAs for genetic incorporation and helpful for expanding the use of the technology to industrial applications.

  17. Coir dust reinforced recycled polypropylene composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Bianca B. dos; Costa, Marysilvia F. da; Thire, Rossana M. da S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The environmental impacts caused by disposed plastics encourage the search for new alternatives. Recycling polymers leads to the degradation of their mechanical properties, which can be modified by the addition of fillers. In this paper, recycled polypropylene from plastic cups with 2%, 5% and 10% of coir dust were produced with and without the addition of additives. These composites were characterized by tensile tests, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy on the fracture surface. It was verified the effectiveness of the addition of coir dust in improving the elasticity modulus of recycled polypropylene besides the effectiveness of additives used in promoting the adhesion of the powder to the matrix. However, higher levels of coir dust caused the appearance of air bubbles inside the material, which contributed to its embrittlement. The addition of coir dust promoted a decrease in the degree of polypropylene crystallinity. (author)

  18. Scrap uranium recycling via electron beam melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKoon, R.

    1993-11-01

    A program is underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to recycle scrap uranium metal. Currently, much of the material from forging and machining processes is considered radioactive waste and is disposed of by oxidation and encapsulation at significant cost. In the recycling process, uranium and uranium alloys in various forms will be processed by electron beam melting and continuously cast into ingots meeting applicable specifications for virgin material. Existing vacuum processing facilities at LLNL are in compliance with all current federal and state environmental, safety and health regulations for the electron beam melting and vaporization of uranium metal. One of these facilities has been retrofitted with an auxiliary electron beam gun system, water-cooled hearth, crucible and ingot puller to create an electron beam melt furnace. In this furnace, basic process R ampersand D on uranium recycling will be performed with the goal of eventual transfer of this technology to a production facility

  19. Characterization of DWPF recycle condensate materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Adamson, D. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-04-01

    A Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Recycle Condensate Tank (RCT) sample was delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization with particular interest in the concentration of I-129, U-233, U-235, total U, and total Pu. Since a portion of Salt Batch 8 will contain DWPF recycle materials, the concentration of I-129 is important to understand for salt batch planning purposes. The chemical and physical characterizations are also needed as input to the interpretation of future work aimed at determining the propensity of the RCT material to foam, and methods to remediate any foaming potential. According to DWPF the Tank Farm 2H evaporator has experienced foaming while processing DWPF recycle materials. The characterization work on the RCT samples has been completed and is reported here.

  20. Reverse logistics for recycling: The customer service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis, E.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer service is a central concern in the logistics practice and a study topic in the forward logistics research. This article investigates the elements of customer service and their importance in reverse logistics for recycling. Since consumer is the first intervenient in any reverse system that aims to recycle household residues, the provision of an adequate customer service gains an increased importance. Applying multivariate statistical methods (exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and discriminant analysis to the data from a sample of 267 Portuguese citizens, this study identifies the levels of customer service in this reverse logistics chain and evaluates their relative importance in achieving consumers’ participation. The study finds that, as in forward logistics, the customer service in reverse channels for recycling also has a hard and a soft level, being the former more important than the later. The results of this research suggest important guidelines to improve such a complex logistics service.

  1. Comments on recycling and hydrogen inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipps, V.

    1987-01-01

    Recycling behavior in tokamaks with metals walls can be understood based on material parameters of diffusion constants, recombination rates, solubilities, etc. of hydrogen in metals. The expected recycling in fusion devices with carbon walls is believed to be determined by the saturation of graphite due to hydrogen impact. This would result in R 1 after a transient pumping with R < 1 and further change in the recycling would be only caused by temperature excursions of the walls. In contrast, present observations in tokamaks (JET, TFTR, TEXTOR) can not be explained by this simple picture. The final clarification of the observed phenomena is still open. The answer to this behavior will also drastically influence the expected tritium inventory in fusion machines

  2. Characterization of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Figure 3 [8]. The capacitor , C, represents the stiffness, the inductance, L, represents the mass, and the resistor, R, represents the damping of...harvester was determined to be equivalent to an 828 pF capacitor [9]. 13 IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The experimental results reported by Householder [8...Mounted on Mechanical Shaker The piezoelectric energy harvester, located in the center, was super -glued onto a brass plate with a 1 mm cavity

  3. Energy harvesting with functional materials and microsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Bhaskaran, Madhu; Iniewski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    For decades, people have searched for ways to harvest energy from natural sources. Lately, a desire to address the issue of global warming and climate change has popularized solar or photovoltaic technology, while piezoelectric technology is being developed to power handheld devices without batteries, and thermoelectric technology is being explored to convert wasted heat, such as in automobile engine combustion, into electricity. Featuring contributions from international researchers in both academics and industry, Energy Harvesting with Functional Materials and Microsystems explains the growi

  4. Harvest managements and cultural practices in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Gustavo Quassi de Castro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of trash from the mechanical harvest of green cane on sugarcane plantations promotes changes in the agricultural management, for example, in the mechanical cultural practices of ratoon cane in-between the rows and nitrogen (N fertilization. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of sugarcane in different harvest systems, associated to the mechanical cultural practices in interrows and N rates. The study was carried out on a sugarcane plantation in Sales Oliveira, São Paulo, Brazil, with the sugarcane variety SP81-3250, on soil classified as Acrudox, in a randomized block design with split-split plots and four replications. The main treatments consisted of harvest systems (harvesting green cane or burnt cane, the secondary treatment consisted of the mechanical cultural practices in the interrows and the tertiary treatments were N rates (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 160 kg ha-1, using ammonium nitrate (33 % N as N source. The harvest systems did not differ in sugarcane yield (tons of cane per hectare - TCH, but in burnt cane, the pol percent and total sugar recovery (TSR were higher. This could be explained by the higher quantity of plant impurities in the harvested raw material in the system without burning, which reduces the processing quality. Mechanical cultural practices in the interrows after harvest had no effect on cane yield and sugar quality, indicating that this operation can be omitted in areas with mechanical harvesting. The application of N fertilizer at rates of 88 and 144 kg ha-1 N, respectively, increased stalk height and TCH quadratically to the highest values for these variables. For the sugar yield per hectare (in pol %, N fertilization induced a linear increase.

  5. Dielectric loss against piezoelectric power harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Junrui; Shu-Hung Chung, Henry; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectricity is one of the most popular electromechanical transduction mechanisms for constructing kinetic energy harvesting systems. When a standard energy harvesting (SEH) interface circuit, i.e., bridge rectifier plus filter capacitor, is utilized for collecting piezoelectric power, the previous literature showed that the power conversion can be well predicted without much consideration for the effect of dielectric loss. Yet, as the conversion power gets higher by adopting power-boosting interface circuits, such as synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI), the neglect of dielectric loss might give rise to deviation in harvested power estimation. Given the continuous progress on power-boosting interface circuits, the role of dielectric loss in practical piezoelectric energy harvesting (PEH) systems should receive attention with better evaluation. Based on the integrated equivalent impedance network model, this fast track communication provides a comprehensive study on the susceptibility of harvested power in PEH systems under different conditions. It shows that, dielectric loss always counteracts piezoelectric power harvesting by causing charge leakage across piezoelectric capacitance. In particular, taking corresponding ideal lossless cases as references, the counteractive effect might be aggravated under one of the five conditions: larger dielectric loss tangent, lower vibration frequency, further away from resonance, weaker electromechanical coupling, or using power-boosting interface circuit. These relationships are valuable for the study of PEH systems, as they not only help explain the role of dielectric loss in piezoelectric power harvesting, but also add complementary insights for material, structure, excitation, and circuit considerations towards holistic evaluation and design for practical PEH systems. (fast track communications)

  6. HYBRID POWER HARVESTER USING ENGINE SOURCE

    OpenAIRE

    Meeran Mydeen, A.Ahmed; Inasu, Kelwin; Venkatesh, M.; Suthesh, C.

    2017-01-01

    In mainly we present a compact, multisource and battery-free energy harvesting from engine source. This battery free generator captures energy from its environment transient thermal gradients as a main source, and vibration as a secondary source allowing early biasing of the generator and stores this energy in ultra-capacitors .In this way, this multi-source architecture benefits from the synergy between energy scavenging and harvesting.

  7. Design study of advanced nuclear fuel recycle system. Conceptual study of recycle system using molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakehi, I.; Shirai, N.; Hatano, M.; Kajitani, M.; Yonezawa, S.; Kawai, T.; Kawamura, F.; Tobe, K.; Takahashi, K.

    1996-12-01

    For the purpose of developing the future nuclear fuel recycle system, the design study of the advanced nuclear fuel recycle system is being conducted. This report describes intermediate accomplishments in the conceptual system study of the advanced nuclear fuel recycle system. Fundamental concepts of this system is the recycle system using molten salt which intend to break through the conventional concepts of purex and pellet fuel system. Contents of studies in this period are as follows, 1)feasibility study of the process by Cd-cathode for nitride fuel, 2)application study for the molten salt of low melting point (AlCl3+organic salt), 3)research for decladding (advantage of decladding by heat treatment), 4)behavior of FPs in electrorefining (behavior of iodine and volatile FP chlorides, FPs behavior in chlorination), 5)criticality analysis in electrorefiner, 6)drawing of off-gas flow diagram, 7)drawing of process machinery concept (cathode processor, vibration packing), 8)evaluation for the amounts of the high level radioactive wastes, 9)quality of the recycle fuels (FPs contamination of recycle fuel), 10)conceptual study of in-cell handling system, 11)meaning of the advanced nuclear fuel recycle system. The conceptual system study will be completed in describing concepts of the system and discussing issues for the developments. (author)

  8. Electric vehicle recycling 2020: Key component power electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulach, Winfried; Schüler, Doris; Sellin, Guido; Elwert, Tobias; Schmid, Dieter; Goldmann, Daniel; Buchert, Matthias; Kammer, Ulrich

    2018-04-01

    Electromobility will play a key role in order to reach the specified ambitious greenhouse gas reduction targets in the German transport sector of 42% between 1990 and 2030. Subsequently, a significant rise in the sale of electric vehicles (EVs) is to be anticipated in future. The amount of EVs to be recycled will rise correspondingly after a delay. This includes the recyclable power electronics modules which are incorporated in every EV as an important component for energy management. Current recycling methods using car shredders and subsequent post shredder technologies show high recycling rates for the bulk metals but are still associated with high losses of precious and strategic metals such as gold, silver, platinum, palladium and tantalum. For this reason, the project 'Electric vehicle recycling 2020 - key component power electronics' developed an optimised recycling route for recycling power electronics modules from EVs which is also practicable in series production and can be implemented using standardised technology. This 'WEEE recycling route' involves the disassembly of the power electronics from the vehicle and a subsequent recycling in an electronic end-of-life equipment recycling plant. The developed recycling process is economical under the current conditions and raw material prices, even though it involves considerably higher costs than recycling using the car shredder. The life cycle assessment shows basically good results, both for the traditional car shredder route and the developed WEEE recycling route: the latter provides additional benefits from some higher recovery rates and corresponding credits.

  9. Attributes to facilitate e-waste recycling behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senawi Nur Hidayah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the set of attributes to facilitate electronic waste (e-waste behaviour among the community. E-waste disposal is increasing from year to year in parallel with increasing of global population. The short lifespan of electronics and poor e-waste recycling behaviour is among the main contributors to the steadily increasing of e-waste generated. Current recycling rate among the nation is lacking behind, which is only 10.5%. A questionnaire survey has been conducted among the students in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia to evaluate the current e-waste recycling practice. The results showed that majority of the respondents did not recycle their e-waste on campus. Aggressive efforts is needed to realize the country’s target of 20% recycling rate in year 2020, one of the effective paths is to minimize e-waste generation via active e-waste recycling behaviour among the community. Extensive literatures have been reviewed to classify the attributes to facilitate effective e-waste recycling among the community. Total of five attributes that identified in this study which are Convenience of E- waste Recycling Infrastruture and Services, E-waste Recycling Information, Incentives For E-waste Recycling, Reminder to Recycle E-waste And E-waste Recycling Infrastructure and Services. The set of attributes identified in this study may serve as guideline for the management in designing program to foster e-waste recycling behaviour among the community.

  10. Synergy of flocculation and flotation for microalgae harvesting using aluminium electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenqing; Zhu, Lin; Chen, Qiuwen; Lu, Ji; Pan, Gang; Hu, Liuming; Yi, Qitao

    2017-06-01

    Microalgae are often used as feedstock for renewable biofuel production and as pollutant up-takers for wastewater treatment; however, biomass harvesting still remains a challenge in field applications. In this study, electro-flocculation using aluminium electrolysis was tested as a method to collect Chlorella vulgaris. The electrolysis products were positively charged over a wide pH range below 9.5, which gave them a flocculation potential for negatively charged microalgae. As flocculants were in-situ generated and gradually released, microalgae flocs formed in a snowballing mode, resulting in the compaction of large flocs. When higher current density was applied, microalgae could be harvested more rapidly, although there was a trade-off between a higher energy use and more residual aluminium in the culture medium. Benefits of this flocculation method are twofold: the phosphate decrease in post-harvesting could improve nutrient removal in microalgae based wastewater treatment, while the ammonium increase may favor microalgae recovery for medium recycling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Recycle of radiologically contaminated austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imrich, K.J.; Leader, D.R.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy owns large quantities of radiologically contaminated austenitic stainless steel which could by recycled for reuse if appropriate release standards were in place. Unfortunately, current policy places the formulation of a release standard for USA industry years, if not decades, away. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and various university and industrial partners are participating in initiative to recycle previously contaminated austenitic stainless steels into containers for the storage and disposal of radioactive wastes. This paper describes laboratory scale experiments which demonstrated the decontamination and remelt of stainless steel which had been contaminated with radionuclides

  12. The value of recycling on water conservation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludi-Herrera, Katlyn D.

    2013-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is working to conserve water through recycling. This report will focus on the water conservation that has been accumulated through the recycling of paper, ceiling tiles, compost, and plastic. It will be discussed the use of water in the process of manufacturing these materials and the amount of water that is used. The way that water is conserved will be reviewed. From the stand point of SNL it will be discussed the amount of material that has been accumulated from 2010 to the first two quarters of 2013 and how much water this material has saved.

  13. Improving the competitiveness of green ship recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    The end of life of a ship is determined by its owner on the basis of various commercial and technical factors. Once decided to scrap a ship, almost all end-of-life (EOL) ships are sold to recycling yards for dismantling; except for a few which are converted into museums, hotels, storage, and artificial reefs. As the decision is a commercial one, the selection of a yard is predominantly based on the offer price, which depends on the location of the yard and the recycling process employed.Among...

  14. Utilities face pointless ban on plutonium recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smock, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. electric utility industry could lose a potential saving of $10 million per nuclear reactor per year if the new policy to defer spent nuclear fuel reprocessing is adopted. The heart of the policy is the hope that other countries will also forgo plutonium recycle. Some American leaders have conceded, though, that unilateral action by the U.S. will have almost no effect on weapons proliferation. In interviews with some foreign officials, EL and P learned that indeed Japan, Iran, and West Germany were not considering cessation of plutonium recycle in their countries

  15. Methanation process utilizing split cold gas recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajbl, Daniel G.; Lee, Bernard S.; Schora, Jr., Frank C.; Lam, Henry W.

    1976-07-06

    In the methanation of feed gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen in multiple stages, the feed gas, cold recycle gas and hot product gas is mixed in such proportions that the mixture is at a temperature sufficiently high to avoid carbonyl formation and to initiate the reaction and, so that upon complete reaction of the carbon monoxide and hydrogen, an excessive adiabatic temperature will not be reached. Catalyst damage by high or low temperatures is thereby avoided with a process that utilizes extraordinarily low recycle ratios and a minimum of investment in operating costs.

  16. Recovering valuable metals from recycled photovoltaic modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Youn Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Tran, Tam; Hong, Sung Kil; Kim, Myong Jun

    2014-07-01

    Recovering valuable metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, and Al has become a pressing issue as end-of-life photovoltaic modules need to be recycled in the near future to meet legislative requirements in most countries. Of major interest is the recovery and recycling of high-purity silicon (> 99.9%) for the production of wafers and semiconductors. The value of Si in crystalline-type photovoltaic modules is estimated to be -$95/kW at the 2012 metal price. At the current installed capacity of 30 GW/yr, the metal value in the PV modules represents valuable resources that should be recovered in the future. The recycling of end-of-life photovoltaic modules would supply > 88,000 and 207,000 tpa Si by 2040 and 2050, respectively. This represents more than 50% of the required Si for module fabrication. Experimental testwork on crystalline Si modules could recover a > 99.98%-grade Si product by HNO3/NaOH leaching to remove Al, Ag, and Ti and other metal ions from the doped Si. A further pyrometallurgical smelting at 1520 degrees C using CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slag mixture to scavenge the residual metals after acid leaching could finally produce > 99.998%-grade Si. A process based on HNO3/NaOH leaching and subsequent smelting is proposed for recycling Si from rejected or recycled photovoltaic modules. Implications: The photovoltaic industry is considering options of recycling PV modules to recover metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, Al, and others used in the manufacturing of the PV cells. This is to retain its "green" image and to comply with current legislations in several countries. An evaluation of potential resources made available from PV wastes and the technologies used for processing these materials is therefore of significant importance to the industry. Of interest are the costs of processing and the potential revenues gained from recycling, which should determine the viability of economic recycling of PV modules in the future.

  17. Self-protection in dry recycle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannum, W.H.; Wade, D.; Stanford, G.

    1995-01-01

    In response to the INFCE conclusions, the U.S. undertook development of a new dry fuel cycle. Dry recycle processes have been demonstrated to be feasible. Safeguarding such fuel cycles will be dramatically simpler than the PUREX fuel cycle. At every step of the processes, the materials meet the open-quotes spent-fuel standard.close quotes The scale is compatible with collocation of power reactors and their recycle facility, eliminating off-site transportation and storage of plutonium-bearing materials. Material diverted either covertly or overtly would be difficult (relative to material available by other means) to process into weapons feedstock

  18. Environmental decision making for recycling options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    1997-01-01

    A general method for finding new recycling alternatives in the metals producing industry is presented and tested on two printed wire board scrap cases. The underlying idea for the method is that complex scrap should be introduced in the matrix of man-made material flows at recipient points where...... the scrap constitutes the least enviromental problem and where resource recovery is largest. It is clearly shown with the two printed wire board scrap cases that the currently used copper recycling scenario is environmentally inferior to the tin and lead primary production scenarios....

  19. Radioactive metals disposal and recycling impact modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, N.W.; Lunn, R.J.; Belton, V.; Kockar, I.

    2014-01-01

    Screening life cycle assessment models developed to investigate hypothetical disposal and recycling options for the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor heat exchangers were used to generate more complex models addressing the main UK radioactive metals inventory. Both studies show there are significant environmental advantages in the metals recycling promoted by the current low level waste disposal policies, strategies and plans. Financial benefits from current metals treatment options are supported and offer even greater benefits when applied to the UK radioactive metals inventory as a whole. (authors)

  20. Improving Vibration Energy Harvesting Using Dynamic Magnifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almuatasim Alomari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the design and evaluation of vibration-based piezoelectric energy-harvesting devices based on a polyvinylidene fluoride unimorph cantilever beam attached to the front of a dynamic magnifier. Experimental studies of the electromechanical frequency response functions are studied for the first three resonance frequencies. An analytical analysis is undertaken by applying the chain matrix in order to predict output voltage and output power with respect to the vibration frequency. The proposed harvester was modeled using MATLAB software and COMSOL multi- physics to study the mode shapes and electrical output parameters. The voltage and power output of the energy harvester with a dynamic magnifier was 2.62 V and 13.68 mW, respectively at the resonance frequency of the second mode. The modeling approach provides a basis to design energy harvesters exploiting dynamic magnification for improved performance and bandwidth. The potential application of such energy harvesting devices in the transport sector include autonomous structural health monitoring systems that often include embedded sensors, data acquisition, wireless communication, and energy harvesting systems.

  1. Conceptual design of a chickpea harvesting header

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Golpira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the development of stripper headers is growing owing to the excessive losses of combine harvesters and costs of manually harvesting for chickpeas. The design of a new concept can enhance the mechanized process for chickpea harvesting. A modified stripper platform was designed, in which passive fingers with V-shape slots removes the pods from the anchored plant. The floating platform was accompanied by a reel to complete the harvesting header. Black-box modeling was used to redesign the functional operators of the header followed by an investigation of the system behavior. Physical models of the platform and reel were modified to determine the crucial variables of the header arrangement during field trials. The slot width was fixed at 40 mm, finger length at 40 mm, keyhole diameter at 10 mm and entrance width at 6 mm; the batted reel at peripheral diameter of 700 mm and speed at 50 rpm. A tractor-mounted experimental harvester was built to evaluate the work quality of the stripper header. The performance of the prototype was tested with respect to losses and results confirmed the efficiency of the modified stripper header for chickpea harvesting. Furthermore, the header with a 1.4 m working width produced the spot work rates of 0.42 ha h-1.

  2. Hybrid energy harvesting using active thermal backplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Dong-Gun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the concept of a new hybrid energy harvesting system by combing solar cells with magneto-thermoelectric generator (MTG, i.e., thermal energy harvesting). The silicon solar cell can easily reach high temperature under normal operating conditions. Thus the heated solar cell becomes rapidly less efficient as the temperature of solar cell rises. To increase the efficiency of the solar cell, air or water-based cooling system is used. To surpass conventional cooling devices requiring additional power as well as large working space for air/water collectors, we develop a new technology of pairing an active thermal backplane (ATB) to solar cell. The ATB design is based on MTG technology utilizing the physics of the 2nd order phase transition of active ferromagnetic materials. The MTG is cost-effective conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy and is fundamentally different from Seebeck TEG devices. The ATB (MTG) is in addition to being an energy conversion system, a very good conveyor of heat through both conduction and convection. Therefore, the ATB can provide dual-mode for the proposed hybrid energy harvesting. One is active convective and conductive cooling for heated solar cell. Another is active thermal energy harvesting from heat of solar cell. These novel hybrid energy harvesting device have potentially simultaneous energy conversion capability of solar and thermal energy into electricity. The results presented can be used for better understanding of hybrid energy harvesting system that can be integrated into commercial applications.

  3. Energy harvesting for dielectric elastomer sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iain A.; Illenberger, Patrin; O'Brien, Ben M.

    2016-04-01

    Soft and stretchy dielectric elastomer (DE) sensors can measure large strains on robotic devices and people. DE strain measurement requires electric energy to run the sensors. Energy is also required for information processing and telemetering of data to phone or computer. Batteries are expensive and recharging is inconvenient. One solution is to harvest energy from the strains that the sensor is exposed to. For this to work the harvester must also be wearable, soft, unobtrusive and profitable from the energy perspective; with more energy harvested than used for strain measurement. A promising way forward is to use the DE sensor as its own energy harvester. Our study indicates that it is feasible for a basic DE sensor to provide its own power to drive its own sensing signal. However telemetry and computation that are additional to this will require substantially more power than the sensing circuit. A strategy would involve keeping the number of Bluetooth data chirps low during the entire period of energy harvesting and to limit transmission to a fraction of the total time spent harvesting energy. There is much still to do to balance the energy budget. This will be a challenge but when we succeed it will open the door to autonomous DE multi-sensor systems without the requirement for battery recharge.

  4. Concrete recycling as a step towards environmental protection - an overview and evaluation of concrete recycling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kalinowska-Wichrowska

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the data on the state of natural aggregate resources and attention has been paid to the enormous scale of the production of concrete and produced rubble-concrete waste in the world. The methods of recycling concrete debris used in the world along with their subjective assessment are presented in the paper. The legal regulations on concrete recycling defined by the European Union and Polish law are briefly characterized. The use of an appropriately effective method of recycling concrete debris allows obtaining a high quality secondary aggregate, which can be reused for the production of new concrete and reduces the consumption of natural aggregates.

  5. EVALUATION OF RECYCLED PLASTIC LUMBER FOR MARINE APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents an evaluation of the recycled plastic materials (RPM) produced by California Recycling Company (CRC). This evaluation is performed under the Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program of the U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory...

  6. Quality control of recycled asphaltic concrete : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    This study examined the variations found in recycled asphaltic concrete mix based upon plant quality control data and verification testing. The data was collected from four recycled hot-mix projects constructed in 1981. All plant control and acceptan...

  7. Environmental suitability of recycled concrete aggregate in highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The use of recycled concrete aggregate materials in highway constructions as compared to the use of virgin : materials reduces virgin natural resource demands on the environment. In order to evaluate their potential use of : recycle materials in high...

  8. Evaluation of recycled concrete as aggregate in new concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluated the use of recycled concrete as coarse aggregate in new concrete pavements. : Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) produced from demolished pavements in three geographically dispersed locations in Washington state were used to perfo...

  9. Aluminum recycling in the United States in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkert, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    As one of a series of reports on metals recycling, this report discusses the flow of aluminum from production through its uses with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap) in 2000. This materials flow study includes a description of aluminum supply and demand factors for the United States to illustrate the extent of aluminum recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding the system of materials flow from source to ultimate disposition can assist in improving the management of natural resources in a manner that is compatible with sound environmental practices. In 2000, the old scrap recycling efficiency for aluminum was estimated to be 42 percent. Almost 60 percent of the aluminum that was recycled in 2000 came from new scrap, and the recycling rate was estimated to be 36 percent. The principal source of old scrap was recycled aluminum beverage cans.

  10. Sensing and controls for power-recycling of TAMA300

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, K

    2002-01-01

    Power recycling will soon be implemented on TAMA300. This paper gives motivation for the TAMA recycling experiment, discusses the planned length sensing/control system and considerations for the lock acquisition process.

  11. A Fundamental Metric for Metal Recycling Applied to Coated Magnesium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meskers, C.E.M.; Reuter, M.A.; Boin, U.; Kvithyld, A.

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental metric for the assessment of the recyclability and, hence, the sustainability of coated magnesium scrap is presented; this metric combines kinetics and thermodynamics. The recycling process, consisting of thermal decoating and remelting, was studied by thermogravimetry and differential

  12. PRN 94-2: Recycling Empty Aerosol Pesticide Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This notice offers registrants use of an optional label statement permitting recycling as an alternative to instructions to dispose of aerosol pesticide containers. Registrants may add a label reference to recycling the empty aerosol pesticide container.

  13. Cold-in-place recycling in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Cold in-place recycling (CIPR) is a continuous multi-step process in which the existing asphalt pavement is : recycled using specialized equipment that cold mills the asphaltic pavement and blends asphalt emulsion and : aggregate (if necessary) with ...

  14. Positrusion Filament Recycling System for ISS, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Positrusion ISS Recycler enables recycling of scrap and waste plastics into high-quality filament for 3D printers to enable sustainable in-situ manufacturing on...

  15. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) - Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2016 Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report aims to increase the understanding of the economic implications of material reuse and recycling. The report...

  16. Performance evaluation of subgrade stabilization with recycled materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-29

    Due to rising costs of good quality acceptable materials for remove/replace options and traditional : subgrade stabilization materials, MDOT is in need to identify potential recycled materials to treat : unacceptable subgrade soils. Use of recycled m...

  17. Harvesting electricity from human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulachan, Brindan; Singh, Sushil K; Philip, Deepu; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    continuously hydrating the polymer with water vapor, we prolonged the process. If this interesting aspect of polymer is exploited further and fine tuned, then it will open new avenues for development of sophisticated polymer-based systems, which could be used to harvest electricity from waste heat.

  18. Smart multi-application energy harvester using Arduino | Rizman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a Smart Multi-App Harvester Energy Using Arduino for energy harvesting. The system consists of a few mechanical parts such as solar, thermal plate and dynamo (for kinetic) to harvest the energy. The objectives of the project are to harvest the wasted energy from the mechanical parts and used it as a ...

  19. A Study on Home Appliance Recycling Law of Japan

    OpenAIRE

    許, 楊; Yang, XU

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of the recycling based society which reconciles the economy and the environment has received significant attention.The study focuses on the home appliance recycling law. Some used home appliances are treated legally, others are exported illegally. Therefore this paper clarifies the results of the application of the home appliance recycling law and tries to present elemental conditions to create the global recycling system of used home appliances.

  20. Solid waste recycling in Rajshahi city of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Q Hamidul; Hassan, K Mahbub; Haque, M Ehsanul

    2012-11-01

    Efficient recycling of solid wastes is now a global concern for a sustainable and environmentally sound management. In this study, traditional recycling pattern of solid waste was investigated in Rajshahi municipality which is the fourth largest city of Bangladesh. A questionnaire survey had been carried out in various recycle shops during April 2010 to January 2011. There were 140 recycle shops and most of them were located in the vicinity of Stadium market in Rajshahi. About 1906 people were found to be involved in recycling activities of the city. The major fraction of recycled wastes were sent to capital city Dhaka for further manufacture of different new products. Only a small amount of wastes, specially plastics, were processed in local recycle factories to produce small washing pots and bottle caps. Everyday, an estimated 28.13 tons of recycled solid wastes were handled in Rajshahi city area. This recycled portion accounted for 8.25% of the daily total generated wastes (341 ton d(-1)), 54.6% of total recyclable wastes (51.49 ton d(-1)) and 68.29% of readily recyclable wastes (41.19 ton d(-1)). Major recycled materials were found to be iron, glass, plastic, and papers. Only five factories were involved in preliminary processing of recyclable wastes. Collecting and processing secondary materials, manufacturing recycled-content products, and then buying recycled products created a circle or loop that ensured the overall success of recycling and generated a host of financial, environmental, and social returns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Workplace Waste Recycling Behaviour: A Meta-Analytical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Oke, Adekunle

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase waste recycling, many studies have been conducted to understand factors that may influence waste recycling behaviour. However, these studies have focused on household contexts rather than other waste generation contexts. As a result, this paper seeks to provide a detailed analysis of previous studies on workplace waste recycling behaviour. Drawing from different databases, 51 relevant studies on workplace waste recycling attitudes and behaviour were meta-analysed. Finding...

  2. EU mitigation potential of harvested wood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilli, Roberto; Fiorese, Giulia; Grassi, Giacomo

    2015-12-01

    The new rules for the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry sector under the Kyoto Protocol recognized the importance of Harvested Wood Products (HWP) in climate change mitigation. We used the Tier 2 method proposed in the 2013 IPCC KP Supplement to estimate emissions and removals from HWP from 1990 to 2030 in EU-28 countries with three future harvest scenarios (constant historical average, and +/-20% in 2030). For the historical period (2000-2012) our results are consistent with other studies, indicating a HWP sink equal on average to -44.0 Mt CO 2 yr -1 (about 10% of the sink by forest pools). Assuming a constant historical harvest scenario and future distribution of the total harvest among each commodity, the HWP sink decreases to -22.9 Mt CO 2 yr -1 in 2030. The increasing and decreasing harvest scenarios produced a HWP sink of -43.2 and -9.0 Mt CO 2 yr -1 in 2030, respectively. Other factors may play an important role on HWP sink, including: (i) the relative share of different wood products, and (ii) the combined effect of production, import and export on the domestic production of each commodity. Maintaining a constant historical harvest, the HWP sink will slowly tend to saturate, i.e. to approach zero in the long term. The current HWP sink will be maintained only by further increasing the current harvest; however, this will tend to reduce the current sink in forest biomass, at least in the short term. Overall, our results suggest that: (i) there is limited potential for additional HWP sink in the EU; (ii) the HWP mitigation potential should be analyzed in conjunction with other mitigation components (e.g. sink in forest biomass, energy and material substitution by wood).

  3. Microalgae harvesting and processing: a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelef, G.; Sukenik, A.; Green, M.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to present a discussion of the literature review performed on methods of harvesting microalgae. There is no single best method of harvesting microalgae. The choice of preferable harvesting technology depends on algae species, growth medium, algae production, end product, and production cost benefit. Algae size is an important factor since low-cost filtration procedures are presently applicable only for harvesting fairly large microalgae. Small microalgae should be flocculated into larger bodies that can be harvested by one of the methods mentioned above. However, the cells' mobility affects the flocculation process, and addition of nonresidual oxidants to stop the mobility should be considered to aid flocculation. The decision between sedimentation or flotation methods depends on the density difference between the algae cell and the growth medium. For oil-laden algae with low cell density, flotation technologies should be considered. Moreover, oxygen release from algae cells and oxygen supersaturation conditions in growth medium support the use of flotation methods. If high-quality algae are to be produced for human consumption, continuous harvesting by solid ejecting or nozzle-type disc centrifuges is recommended. These centrifuges can easily be cleaned and sterilized. They are suitable for all types of microalgae, but their high operating costs should be compared with the benefits from their use. Another basic criterion for selecting the suitable harvesting procedure is the final algae paste concentration required for the next process. Solids requirements up to 30% can be attained by established dewatering processes. For more concentrated solids, drying methods are required. The various systems for algae drying differ both in the extent of capital investment and the energy requirements. Selection of the drying method depends on the scale of operation and the use for which the dried product is intended.

  4. Aspects Concerning the Use of Recycled Concrete Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robu, I.; Mazilu, C.; Deju, R.

    2016-11-01

    Natural aggregates (gravel and crushed) are essential non-renewable resources which are used for infrastructure works and civil engineering. Using recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) is a matter of high priority in the construction industry worldwide. This paper presents a study on the use of recycled aggregates, from a concrete of specified class, to acquire new cement concrete with different percentages of recycled aggregates.

  5. environmental/economic analysis and recycling of wastes from air

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    (b) Consider the viability of pollution control through recycling. The Air Liquid Nigeria Ltd. is situated at Trans Amadi Industrial Layout in Port Harcourt. ..... Life span = 25 years. BENEFITS OF RECYCLING. 1) Revenue Accruable from Recycling. The plants consume a maximum of. 210 litres (10 drums) of lubricating oil per.

  6. Recycling of polyurethane foams: A strategy in waste management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... recycling. of polyurethane post consumer product as a means of waste reduction in our society is still grossly underutilised. This paper examines the current trend in recycling as a means of waste management and focuses on various methods of recycling polyurethane foams considering their application(s) to the Nigerian ...

  7. A Guide to Recycled Papers: Problems, Sources, and Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Katherine

    This guide explains what is involved in recycling paper. Some background history is presented on the use of recycled paper. Sources of use for this product are pointed out, especially instances where business and industry have found that recycled paper could be used in place of the virgin product. The major part of the guide consists of samples of…

  8. The level of recycling operations in Botswana | Ketlogetswe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a case study that evaluated the level of recycling operations in Botswana. Recycling operations are now recommended as effective waste management strategies for reducing the amount of municipal solid waste disposed at landfill sites. In assessing the level of recycling operations in Botswana, two ...

  9. Enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: Improved cellulase productivity by insoluble solids recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Noah Daniel; Börjesson, Johan; Pedersen, Lars Saaby

    2013-01-01

    To take advantage of this effect, the amount of solids recycled should be maximized, based on a given processes ability to deal with higher solids concentrations and volumes. Recycling of enzymes by recycling the insoluble solids fraction was thus shown to be an effective method to decrease enzym...

  10. Optimization of the Development of a Plastic Recycling Machine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Technology ... The performance test analysis carried out defines the characteristics of the machine and shows that at a speed of 268 rpm the machine functions effectively and efficiently in performing its task producing a high finishing recycling efficiency or recyclability of 97%, takes 2 minutes to recycle a ...

  11. Multiple recycling of fuel in prototype fast breeder reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In a thermal neutron reactor, multiple recycle of U–Pu fuel is not possible due to degradation of fissile content of Pu in just one recycle. In the FBR closed fuel cycle, possibility of multi-recycle has been recognized. In the present study, Pu-239 equivalence approach is used to demonstrate the feasibility of achieving ...

  12. Sustainability and training materials for in-place recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-22

    Hot and cold in-place recycling techniques recycle 100 percent of a hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavement, in place, during the maintenance/rehabilitation process. Numerous studies have shown in-place recycling to be a sustainable, cost-effective procedure ...

  13. Improving information recognition and performance of recycling chimneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durugbo, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and improve how recyclers (individuals carrying out the task of recycling) make use of visual cues to carryout recycling tasks in relation to 'recycling chimneys' (repositories for recycled waste). An initial task analysis was conducted through an activity sampling study and an eye tracking experiment using a mobile eye tracker to capture fixations of recyclers during recycling tasks. Following data collection using the eye tracker, a set of recommendations for improving information representation were then identified using the widely researched skills, rules, knowledge framework, and for a comparative study to assess the performance of improved interfaces for recycling chimneys based on Ecological Interface Design principles. Information representation on recycling chimneys determines how we recycle waste. This study describes an eco-ergonomics-based approach to improve the design of interfaces for recycling chimneys. The results are valuable for improving the performance of waste collection processes in terms of minimising contamination and increasing the quantity of recyclables.

  14. Ideas and Activities for Recycling Education for Grades K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Jerry B., Ed.; Olberding, April H., Ed.

    In June 1997, Tennessee Technological University's Center for Manufacturing Research conducted a one-week program on plastics recycling for science teachers. The purpose of the program was to increase the teachers' basic knowledge about the importance of recycling plastics and to better prepare the teachers for teaching recycling in the classroom.…

  15. Textiles and clothing sustainability recycled and upcycled textiles and fashion

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses in detail the concepts of recycling and upcycling and their implications for the textiles and fashion sector. In addition to the theoretical concepts, the book also presents various options for recycling and upcycling in textiles and fashion. Although recycling is a much-developed and widely used concept, upcycling is also gaining popularity in the sector.

  16. WINCO Metal Recycle annual report, FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtold, T.E. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    This report is a summary of the first year progress of the WINCO Metal Recycle Program. Efforts were directed towards assessment of radioactive scrap metal inventories, economics and concepts for recycling, technology development, and transfer of technology to the private sector. Seven DOE laboratories worked together to develop a means for characterizing scrap metal. Radioactive scrap metal generation rates were established for several of these laboratories. Initial cost estimates indicate that recycle may be preferable over burial if sufficient decontamination factors can be achieved during melt refining. Radiation levels of resulting ingots must be minimized in order to keep fabrication costs low. Industry has much of the expertise and capability to execute the recycling of radioactive scrap metal. While no single company can sort, melt, refine, roll and fabricate, a combination of two to three can complete this operation. The one process which requires development is in melt refining for removal of radionuclides other than uranium. WINCO is developing this capability in conjunction with academia and industry. This work will continue into FY-94.

  17. Aircraft Disposal and Recycle Cost Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, Ricky; Borsato, M.; Wognum, N.; Peruzzini, M.; Stjepandić, J.; Verhagen, W.J.C.

    2016-01-01

    The present study develops a method for the sake of evaluating Disposal and Recycle (D&R) cost in view of the increasing demand in aircraft retirement. Firstly, a process model is extracted. The subordinated cost elements are also identified. Next, the cost aggregations based on the D&R

  18. Multiple recycling of MOX in LWRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouvier, E.; Gain, T.; Senentz, G. H.; Lelievre, F.; Baily, F.; Murray, P.

    2012-07-01

    Plutonium from used MCX fuel still contains a significant quantity of fissile materials. This plutonium could hence be used to produce more energy and further decrease the total Pu inventory This opportunity has already been investigated by AREVA through the reprocessing of several used MCX fuels in the La Hague plant and the subsequent manufacturing of new MCX fuels in the MELCX plant AREVA has hence gained experience in the recycling of used MCX fuel and is now able to define different strategies to better manage the Pu isotopy of one used fuel inventory and foster the recyclability of the Pu present in MCX fuels through a multiple recycling of this fuel in LWRs. This Pu management offers interesting solutions to deal with current Pu inventory (whether in used fuel or in an oxide powder form). It also leads to new opportunities to ease used fuel management in interim, storage and nuclear waste management in disposals while preparing a transition with GenIV reactors As an illustration of such a new strategy, the paper presents a reachable scenario of multiple recycling of MCX fuel in LWRs, The implications of such a strategy in terms of Pu and waste management will be discussed through a careful look at the total radioactivity and decay heat of the remaining radionuclides compared to an once through strategy.

  19. Recycling U and Pu in LWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hualing.

    1986-01-01

    This article, from viewpoints of technical feasibility, safety evaluation and socioeconomic benefit-risk analysis, introduces and comments on history and status of recycling U and Pu in LWR, dealing with reactor, reprocessing, conversion and fuel element fabrication et al. Author has analysed LWR fuel cycle strategies in China and made a proposal

  20. Recovery of the secondary raw materials, recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter the recovery and recycling of secondary raw materials is explained. This chapter consists of the following parts: Paper and tetrapaks; Car wrecks; Scrap metal; Plastics; Used tires; Electrical and electronic equipment; Glass; Accumulators and batteries; Spent oil; Low-and non-waste technology.

  1. Improving the competitiveness of green ship recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    The end of life of a ship is determined by its owner on the basis of various commercial and technical factors. Once decided to scrap a ship, almost all end-of-life (EOL) ships are sold to recycling yards for dismantling; except for a few which are converted into museums, hotels, storage, and

  2. Viscoelastic behaviour of cold recycled asphalt mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizkova, Zuzana; Suda, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Behaviour of cold recycled mixes depends strongly on both the bituminous binder content (bituminous emulsion or foamed bitumen) and the hydraulic binder content (usually cement). In the case of cold recycled mixes rich in bitumen and with low hydraulic binder content, behaviour is close to the viscoelastic behaviour of traditional hot mix asphalt. With decreasing bituminous binder content together with increasing hydraulic binder content, mixes are characteristic with brittle behaviour, typical for concrete pavements or hydraulically bound layers. The behaviour of cold recycled mixes with low content of both types of binders is similar to behaviour of unbound materials. This paper is dedicated to analysing of the viscoelastic behaviour of the cold recycled mixes. Therefore, the tested mixes contained higher amount of the bituminous binder (both foamed bitumen and bituminous emulsion). The best way to characterize any viscoelastic material in a wide range of temperatures and frequencies is through the master curves. This paper includes interesting findings concerning the dependency of both parts of the complex modulus (elastic and viscous) on the testing frequency (which simulates the speed of heavy traffic passing) and on the testing temperature (which simulates the changing climate conditions a real pavement is subjected to).

  3. Evaluation of recycled asphaltic concrete : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This report describes a project in which approximately 6,200 tons (5,630 Mg) of asphaltic concrete were recycled through a conventional asphalt batch plant. During the construction of the project, a buildup of asphalt-coated fines occurred in the dry...

  4. Technology development for recycling of decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Lee, K. W.

    2010-04-01

    The scenarios for recycling or self-disposal of concrete wastes was established according to the regulatory requirements for clearance settled up in overseas countries as well as our country. Through the radiological safety assessment for those scenarios, the exposure rate for the workers and the public was evaluated to come up with the clearance level of radioactive nuclides. On the basis of the results, the necessary condition of the process equipment for a volume reduction and self-disposal was suggested toward recycling in non-nuclear field and limited recycling in nuclear filed. In order to satisfy the clearance level suggested from the assessment of the scenarios for recycling of dismantled concrete wastes, the processes for thermal crushing and mechanical grinding were optimized through the experiments on the characteristics of the thermal and mechanical treatment of concrete wastes generated from the KRR and UCP. As a consequence, the process which can be reduced the radioactive concrete waste volume by about 70% was established. And also, not only the originative integrated thermal crushing equipment in which the concrete wastes were crushed simultaneously with the thermal treatment but also the rotated paddle type impact crushing equipment were developed. An optimized stabilization processes which have the conditions for manufacturing cemented waste form containing the maximum content of fine concrete waste resulting the minimization of increase in volume of cemented waste form was established

  5. On recycling of nuclear fuel in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    In Japan, atomic energy has become to accomplish the important role in energy supply. Recently the interest in the protection of global environment heightened, and the anxiety on oil supply has been felt due to the circumstances in Mideast. Therefore, the importance of atomic energy as an energy source for hereafter increased, and the future plan of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan must be promoted on such viewpoint. At present in Japan, the construction of nuclear fuel cycle facilities is in progress in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture. The prototype FBR 'Monju' started the general functional test in May, this year. The transport of the plutonium reprocessed in U.K. and France to Japan will be carried out in near future. This report presents the concrete measures of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan from the long term viewpoint up to 2010. The necessity and meaning of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan, the effort related to nuclear nonproliferation, the plan of nuclear fuel recycling for hereafter in Japan, the organization of MOX fuel fabrication in Japan and abroad, the method of utilizing recovered uranium and the reprocessing of spent MOX fuel are described. (K.I.).

  6. Lead use and recycling at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losinski, S.J.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1995-08-01

    As part of DOE's efforts to develop a Department-wide management strategy for the use, reuse, and recycle of lead, DOE has requested that each site provide site-specific management and use practices for lead, specifically management and use information that responds to four specific questions of interest. This report provides the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's response to those areas of interest

  7. Chemical or feedstock recycling of WEEE products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, A.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews initiatives with regard to chemical or feedstock recycling of plastics waste from electrical and electronic products. eurostat estimates the amount of waste from electrical and electronic products that is collected is 2.2 million tonnes. Roughly 20% of this waste consists of

  8. Colleges Organize Campuswide Efforts to Recycle Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magner, Denise K.

    1989-01-01

    Spurred by soaring garbage-disposal costs and the closings of local landfills, colleges and universities are organizing campus wide recycling programs. The Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges will soon be adding the subject to its computerized list of information available to member colleges. (MLW)

  9. Successful approaches to recycling urban wood waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid Waste Association of North America

    2002-01-01

    This report presents eight case studies of successful urban wood waste recycling projects and businesses. These studies document the success of recovered products such as lumber and lumber products, mulch, boiler fuel, and alternative cover for landfills. Overall, wood waste accounts for about 17% of the total waste received at municipal solid waste landfills in the...

  10. Rethinking Recycling: An Oregon Waste Reduction Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Environmental Quality, Portland.

    This updated curriculum guide is designed to provide teachers of elementary school science with a set of activities on recycling and waste reduction. The curriculum has three sections: (1) Grades K-3 Lessons; (2) Grades 4-5 Lessons; and (3) Teacher's Resource Guide. It is designed to take students from an introduction to natural resources and…

  11. Field validation of recycled concrete fines usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The amount of recycled concrete fines permitted in concrete mixing water is limited by ASTM C 1602 to 5.0 percent of the mixing : water, by mass, in order to avoid detrimental effects on concrete properties. Depending upon the exact nature of the rec...

  12. Formability of recycled aluminium alloy 5017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillekens, W.H.; Sano, T.; Terasaki, M.; Matsuno, K.; Kals, J.A.G.

    1997-01-01

    Innovations in the production of consumer goods are increasingly driven by the necessity of energy and resource conservation. As one of the consequences, designing with respect to recycleability has become an important issue, this being particularly so for non-durable items. Exemplary for the

  13. Recycling of Aluminum from Fibre Metal Laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, G.; Xiao, Y.; Yang, Y.; Wang, J.; Sun, B.; Boom, R.

    2012-01-01

    Recycling of aluminum alloy scrap obtained from delaminated fibre metal laminates (FMLs) was studied through high temperature refining in the presence of a salt flux. The aluminum alloy scrap contains approximately mass fraction w(Cu) = 4.4%, w(Mg) = 1.1% and w(Mn) = 0.6% (2024 aluminum alloy). The

  14. Recycling of chemical hydrogen storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.F.; Davis, B.R.; Karan, K.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Light weight chemical hydrides such as sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and lithium borohydride (LiBH4) are promising hydrogen storage materials. They offer several advantages including high volumetric storage density, safe storage, practical storage and operating condition, controlled and rapid hydrogen release kinetics in alkaline aqueous media in the presence of catalysts. In addition, borate or borax, the reaction by-product, is environmentally friendly and can be directly disposed or recycled. One technical barrier for utilizing borohydrides as hydrogen storage material is their high production cost. Sodium borohydride currently costs $90 per kg while lithium borohydride costs $8000 per kg. For commercialization, new and improved technology to manufacture borohydrides must be developed - preferably by recycling borates. We are investigating different inorganic recycling routes for regenerating borohydrides from borates. In this paper, the results of a chlorination-based recycling route, incorporating multi-step reactions, will be discussed. Experiments were conducted to establish the efficiency of various steps of the selected regeneration process. The yields of desired products as a function of reaction temperature and composition were obtained from multi-phase batch reactor. Separation efficiency of desired product was also determined. The results obtained so far appear to be promising. (author)

  15. WINCO Metal Recycle annual report, FY 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtold, T.E.

    1993-12-01

    This report is a summary of the first year progress of the WINCO Metal Recycle Program. Efforts were directed towards assessment of radioactive scrap metal inventories, economics and concepts for recycling, technology development, and transfer of technology to the private sector. Seven DOE laboratories worked together to develop a means for characterizing scrap metal. Radioactive scrap metal generation rates were established for several of these laboratories. Initial cost estimates indicate that recycle may be preferable over burial if sufficient decontamination factors can be achieved during melt refining. Radiation levels of resulting ingots must be minimized in order to keep fabrication costs low. Industry has much of the expertise and capability to execute the recycling of radioactive scrap metal. While no single company can sort, melt, refine, roll and fabricate, a combination of two to three can complete this operation. The one process which requires development is in melt refining for removal of radionuclides other than uranium. WINCO is developing this capability in conjunction with academia and industry. This work will continue into FY-94

  16. Environmental decision making for recycling options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    1997-01-01

    A general method for finding new recycling alternatives in the metals producing industry is presented and tested on two printed wire board scrap cases. The underlying idea for the method is that complex scrap should be introduced in the matrix of man-made material flows at recipient points where ...

  17. Global recycling - waste trafficking in disguise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamuk, Bettina; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2007-01-01

    Recycling is used as cover for illegal exporting of hazardous wastes (waste trafficking). This happens in spite of international conventions and codes of good conduct. Additional rules and recommendations are suggested to initiatiate local and national action and compliance with international...

  18. Recycling and imaging of nuclear singlet hyperpolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pileio, Giuseppe; Bowen, Sean; Laustsen, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    observation of the same batch of polarized nuclei over a period of 30 min and more. We report a recycling protocol in which the enhanced nuclear polarization achieved by dissolution-DNP is observed with full intensity and then returned to singlet order. MRI experiments may be run on a portion of the available...

  19. Selective purge for hydrogenation reactor recycle loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2001-01-01

    Processes and apparatus for providing improved contaminant removal and hydrogen recovery in hydrogenation reactors, particularly in refineries and petrochemical plants. The improved contaminant removal is achieved by selective purging, by passing gases in the hydrogenation reactor recycle loop or purge stream across membranes selective in favor of the contaminant over hydrogen.

  20. Evaluation of hot in-place recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This report documents the construction of hot in-place recycled (HIPR) pavement on SR 542. : HIPR is a process by which rehabilitation of the existing HMA pavement occurs on site in one : operation. HIPR project selection, mix design, construction an...

  1. The A-B-C of recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Carl Folke

    A general framework for interpreting behaviour as co-determined by attitudes and structural conditions, developed by Guagnano, Stern, and Dietz for the field of environmental psychology but with general applicability, is used to identify determinants of consumers' recycling behaviour, more...

  2. Natural Borneol Recycling from Cinnamomum camphor chvar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To establish an efficient method to recycle natural borneol from Cinnamomum camphor chvar. Borneol oil residue. Methods: The fractions and raffinate of the oil residue of Cinnamomum camphor chvar. Borneol were obtained by fractional distillation, and analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization ...

  3. Power source device for reactor recycling pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimano, Kunio; Nakamura, Yoichi; Ozaki, Osamu.

    1996-01-01

    The device of the present invention prevents occurrence of an accident of a reactor forecast upon spontaneous power stoppage, loss of power source or trip of the reactor. Namely, a AC/DC converter and a DC/AC connector having an AC voltage frequency controller are connected in series between an AC (bus) in the plant and reactor recycling pumps. A DC voltage controller, a superconductive energy storing device and an excitation power source are connected to the input of the DC/AC converter. The control device receives signals of the spontaneous power stoppage, loss of power source or trip of the reactor to maintain the output voltage of the superconductive energy storing device to a predetermined value. Further, the ratio of AC power voltage and the frequency of AC voltage to be supplied to the reactor recycling pumps is constantly varied to control the flow rate of the pump to a predetermined value. With such procedures, a power source device for the reactor recycling pumps compact in size, easy for maintenance and having high reliability can be realized by adopting a static-type superconductive energy storing device as an auxiliary power source for the reactor recycling pumps. (I.S.)

  4. Recycled sand in lime-based mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidou, M; Anastasiou, E; Georgiadis Filikas, K

    2014-12-01

    The increasing awareness of the society about safe guarding heritage buildings and at the same time protecting the environment promotes strategies of combining principles of restoration with environmentally friendly materials and techniques. Along these lines, an experimental program was carried out in order to investigate the possibility of producing repair, lime-based mortars used in historic buildings incorporating secondary materials. The alternative material tested was recycled fine aggregates originating from mixed construction and demolition waste. Extensive tests on the raw materials have been performed and mortar mixtures were produced using different binding systems with natural, standard and recycled sand in order to compare their mechanical, physical and microstructure properties. The study reveals the improved behavior of lime mortars, even at early ages, due to the reaction of lime with the Al and Si constituents of the fine recycled sand. The role of the recycled sand was more beneficial in lime mortars rather than the lime-pozzolan or lime-pozzolan-cement mortars as a decrease in their performance was recorded in the latter cases due to the mortars' structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analyzing effective municipal solid waste recycling programs: the case of county-level MSW recycling performance in Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seejeen; Berry, Frances S

    2013-09-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling performance, both nationally and in Florida, USA, has shown little improvement during the past decade. This research examines variations in the MSW recycling program performance in Florida counties in an attempt to identify effective recycling programs. After reviewing trends in the MSW management literature, we conducted an empirical analysis using cross-sectional multiple regression analysis. The findings suggest that the convenience-based hypothesis was supported by showing that curbside recycling had a positive effect on MSW recycling performance. Financial (cost-saving) incentive-based hypotheses were partially supported meaning that individual level incentives can influence recycling performance. Citizen environmental concern was found to positively affect the amount of county recycling, while education and political affiliation yielded no significant results. In conclusion, this article discusses the implications of the findings for both academic research and practice of MSW recycling programs.

  6. A tale of five cities: Using recycling frameworks to analyse inclusive recycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinberg, Anne; Simpson, Michael

    2015-11-01

    'Recycling' is a source of much confusion, particularly when comparing solid waste systems in high-income countries with those in low- and middle-income countries. Few analysts can explain why the performance and structure of recycling appears to be so different in rich countries from poor ones, nor why well-meaning efforts to implement recycling so often fail. The analysis of policy drivers, and the Integrated Sustainable Waste Management (ISWM) framework, come close to an explanation.This article builds on these earlier works, focusing in on five cities profiled in the 2010 UN-Habitat publication (Scheinberg A, Wilson DC and Rodic L (2010) Solid Waste Management in the World's Cities. UN-Habitat's Third Global Report on the State of Water and Sanitation in the World's Cities. Newcastle-on-Tyne, UK: Earthscan Publications). Data from these cities and others provides the basis for developing a new tool to analyse inclusive recycling performance. The points of departure are the institutional and economic relationships between the service chain, the public obligation to remove waste, pollution, and other forms of disvalue, and the value chain, a system of private enterprises trading valuable materials and providing markets for recyclables. The methodological innovation is to use flows of materials and money as indicators of institutional relationships, and is an extension of process flow diagramming.The authors are using the term 'recycling framework analysis' to describe this new form of institutional analysis. The diagrams increase our understanding of the factors that contribute to high-performance inclusive recycling. By focusing on institutional relationships, the article seeks to improve analysis, planning, and ultimately, outcomes, of recycling interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. 75 FR 3888 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ...-0082; 91200-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AW67 Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the 2010 Season AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... Service, are reopening the public comment period on our proposed rule to establish migratory bird...

  8. Harvesting of short rotation coppice. Harvesting trials with a cut and storage system in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweier, J.; Becker, G.

    2012-11-01

    Short rotation coppice (SRC) harvesting techniques are available in Germany, but broad experience and knowledge about machine performance and the related effective costs of harvesting operations are still missing. This information is crucial, as harvesting costs strongly influence the economic performance of the overall supply chain. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to collect and analyze productivity data of different harvesting systems for SRC. The combined cut and chip system on the one hand and the cut and storage system on the other hand were studied by literature review. Several studies analyze the combined cut and chip systems and the reported machine productivities showed great variations. The average was 30 green tons per scheduled machine hour (gt smh{sup -1}). Few studies are analysing the cut and storage system. They report that machines still are under development and that further research is needed. Therefore, time studies of harvesting operations using the cut and storage system were carried out. Five trials were performed with the harvesting machine 'Stemster MK III' developed by Nordic Biomass. The share of productive working time was 85% and the average productivity was 21 gt smh{sup -1}. These results were compared with values from the literature. Resulting harvesting costs were calculated per oven dry ton (Euro odt{sup -1}). The advantages and disadvantages of both harvesting systems are highlighted. (orig.)

  9. 78 FR 75321 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... rulemaking. (2) You can make an appointment, during normal business hours, to view the comments and materials... opportunity to harvest migratory birds in a way that maintains the culture and traditional harvest of the... (gill) nets on the North Slope. Yellow-billed loons are culturally important to the Inupiat Eskimo of...

  10. Exposing and Harvesting Metadata Using the OAI Metadata Harvesting Protocol A Tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, Simeon

    2001-01-01

    In this article I outline the ideas behind the Open Archives Initiative metadata harvesting protocol (OAIMH), and attempt to clarify some common misconceptions. I then consider how the OAIMH protocol can be used to expose and harvest metadata. Perl code examples are given as practical illustration.

  11. Analog self-powered harvester achieving switching pause control to increase harvested energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makihara, Kanjuro; Asahina, Kei

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a self-powered analog controller circuit to increase the efficiency of electrical energy harvesting from vibrational energy using piezoelectric materials. Although the existing synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI) method is designed to produce efficient harvesting, its switching operation generates a vibration-suppression effect that reduces the harvested levels of electrical energy. To solve this problem, the authors proposed—in a previous paper—a switching method that takes this vibration-suppression effect into account. This method temporarily pauses the switching operation, allowing the recovery of the mechanical displacement and, therefore, of the piezoelectric voltage. In this paper, we propose a self-powered analog circuit to implement this switching control method. Self-powered vibration harvesting is achieved in this study by attaching a newly designed circuit to an existing analog controller for SSHI. This circuit aims to effectively implement the aforementioned new switching control strategy, where switching is paused in some vibration peaks, in order to allow motion recovery and a consequent increase in the harvested energy. Harvesting experiments performed using the proposed circuit reveal that the proposed method can increase the energy stored in the storage capacitor by a factor of 8.5 relative to the conventional SSHI circuit. This proposed technique is useful to increase the harvested energy especially for piezoelectric systems having large coupling factor.

  12. Following the fate of harvest-damaged trees 13 years after harvests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy G. Jensen; John M. Kabrick

    2014-01-01

    Logging damage to residual trees during harvest operations can reduce the future volume, quality, and value of wood products. Timber harvests in 1996 on the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) provided a rare opportunity to follow the fate of trees wounded by felling or by skidding with rubber-tired skidders.

  13. Design optimization of harvester head and actuation system of forest harvester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael R.; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is on the analysis and subsequent efficiency optimization of a forrest harvester. As basis for the optimization the existing machine has undergone substantial experimental testing with a view to determine the loading that the harvester head is subjected to and also the corresponding...

  14. Broadband piezoelectric energy harvesting using nonlinear magnetic forces; Bandbreitensteigerung von piezoelektrischen Energy Harvesting Systemen durch Magnetkraefte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westermann, Henrik; Neubauer, Marcus; Wallaschek, Joerg [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Dynamik und Schwingungen

    2012-07-15

    Using ambient energy by piezoelectric energy harvesting systems received much attention over the last years. Most vibration-based generators produce a sufficient power only if the transducer is excited in its resonance frequency. The use of magnetic forces suggests a promising strategy to increase the efficiency. This paper presents different ways for broadband piezoelectric energy harvesting using nonlinear magnetic forces. (orig.)

  15. 75 FR 18764 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... in the field and providing photo documentation of some portion of the harvest. In-season harvest... that one yellow-billed loon was found dead in a fishing net; one severely injured yellow-billed loon... biologists) from touching Steller's eiders (whether dead or injured) under any circumstances. The commenter...

  16. 76 FR 68263 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Gulf of Alaska roaded area, and Southeast Alaska were excluded from eligible subsistence harvest areas... Slope partners to conduct education, outreach, and harvest monitoring. In addition, the emergency... local, State, or tribal governments or private entities. The proposed rule does not have a significant...

  17. LED light recycling using double prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, George; Li, Kenneth

    2013-09-01

    A novel LED recycling scheme using double prisms is presented. Two identical triangular prisms with square bases, one cross-stacked on top of the other, are tight-fit into a mirrored light tunnel. The whole prism/light tunnel assembly is then mounted on top of a square LED source, whose emitting area is the same as that of the base plane of the said prism/light tunnel assembly. Each prism acts as a tapered-down light guide in one dimension, which selectively retro-reflects high angle light along that direction. The outer light tunnel serves as a mirrored wall that folds back any light that escapes outside the two prisms. For a given collection cone angle, the height of the two prisms is optimized using ASAP, a commercial ray-tracing software. Simulation and experimental results show promise in significantly increasing the brightness of the LED sources within the collection cone. Specifically for a 4x recycling ratio a 70% recycling gain in center illuminance has been achieved (i.e., illuminance measured in the forward direction). This scheme has advantages over previous recycling configurations due to its compactness and ease of mounting. For example, compared to Wavien's spherical reflector approach that has been previously published, the current recycling configuration is much smaller in size because instead of fitting a much larger mirrored reflector on top of the LED source, this time we're using a structure that has the same lateral dimensions as those of the LED source itself. Further improvement is also possible if optimization of various system parameters is carried out.

  18. Recycling of biological sludge for the fertilizing of soils cultivated with Lolium perenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morariu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been elaborated with the aim of justifying the high efficiency of in-situ slaughterhouse sludge recycling and its usage in Lolium perenne cultures. Stabilized slaughterhouse sludge was used to complete the high deficiency in nutrients of the poor terrains. Slaughterhouse sludge represents an excessive, final by product from a meat-processing unit in Western Romania. It contains 59.78-90.77% easily bio-degradable organic substances. Moreover, it has compounds containing nitrogen and phosphorus, total N=1.922-3.318%, total P=1107-1126mg•kg-1D.M. The experimental variants have been prepared, having the following characteristics: control variants of non-fertilized soils and variants of soils fertilized with slaughterhouse sludge, 50t•ha-1. The experimental variants used were arranged in a completely randomized block design, with three replicates each. The efficiency of fertilization with slaughterhouse sludge was a 30-35% rise in the quantity of grass harvested vs. the quantities harvested from the control variants. The quantity of Cd and Pb has been determined from the aerial parts of the harvested plants and they were below the maximum limit admitted by the sanitary regulations in Romania. Cr didn’t bio-accumulate in plants at a detection limit. The quantity of other metals determined from the aerial parts of the plants was low: i.e. <10mg•kg-1D.M. for Cu or Ni <50mg•kg-1D.M. for Zn, <150mg•kg-1D.M.for Mn. Green feed harvested from fields fertilized with slaughterhouse sludge can be part of animal nutrition.

  19. A novel bistable energy harvesting concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarselli, G; Nicassio, F; Pinto, F; Ciampa, F; Iervolino, O; Meo, M

    2016-01-01

    Bistable energy harvesting has become a major field of research due to some unique features for converting mechanical energy into electrical power. When properly loaded, bistable structures snap-through from one stable configuration to another, causing large strains and consequently power generation. Moreover, bistable structures can harvest energy across a broad-frequency bandwidth due to their nonlinear characteristics. Despite the fact that snap-through may be triggered regardless of the form or frequency of exciting vibration, the external force must reach a specific snap-through activation threshold value to trigger the transition from one stable state to another. This aspect is a limiting factor for realistic vibration energy harvesting application with bistable devices. This paper presents a novel power harvesting concept for bistable composites based on a ‘lever effect’ aimed at minimising the activation force to cause the snap through by choosing properly the bistable structures’ constraints. The concept was demonstrated with the help of numerical simulation and experimental testing. The results showed that the actuation force is one order of magnitude smaller (3%–6%) than the activation force of conventionally constrained bistable devices. In addition, it was shown that the output voltage was higher than the conventional configuration, leading to a significant increase in power generation. This novel concept could lead to a new generation of more efficient bistable energy harvesters for realistic vibration environments. (paper)

  20. Impulsive parametric damping in energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehrani, Maryam Ghandchi; Pumhoessel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an electro-mechanical system with a time-varying damper, which is capable of changing the damping coefficient impulsively, is considered. The effect of the impulsive parametric damping to the modal energy content of the mechanical system is investigated analytically as well as numerically. First, the governing differential equation is presented and then the solution of the system's response is obtained through numerical integration. The energy dissipated by the damper is then calculated to investigate the amount of the energy that can be harvested, and the results are compared with the results from a system without parametric impulses. It is shown, that the amount of the harvested energy can be increased by introducing parametric impulses. Then, an analytical formulation is derived for the system using Dirac-Delta impulses and the analytical results are validated with numerical simulations. The device is subjected to an initial condition and therefore is vibrating freely without any base excitation. This could be used for applications such as harvesting energy from the passage of a train, where the train vibration can introduce an initial velocity to the harvester and the energy can then be extracted from the free vibration of the harvester. (paper)

  1. A Galloping Energy Harvester with Attached Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denissenko, Petr; Khovanov, Igor; Tucker-Harvey, Sam

    2017-11-01

    Aeroelastic energy harvesters are a promising technology for the operation of wireless sensors and microelectromechanical systems, as well as providing the possibility of harvesting wind energy in applications were conventional wind turbines are ineffective, such as in highly turbulent flows, or unreliable, such as in harsh environmental conditions. The development of aeroelastic energy harvesters to date has focused on the flutter of airfoils, the galloping of prismatic structures, and the vortex induced vibrations. We present a novel type of galloping energy harvester with the flow becoming attached when the oscillation amplitude is high enough. With the flow attached, the harvester blade acts closer to an aerofoil than a bluff body, which results in a higher efficiency. The dynamics of a prototype device has been characterised experimentally with the use of a motion tracking system. The flow structure in the vicinity of the device has been studied using smoke visualisation and PIV measurements. A lumped parameter mathematical model has been developed and related to the experimental results.

  2. Assessment of rainwater harvesting potential using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Durgasrilakshmi; Ramamohan Reddy, K.; Vikas, Kola; Srinivas, N.; Vikas, G.

    2018-03-01

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is one of the best practices to overcome the scarcity of water. Rainwater harvesting involves collection and storage of rainwater locally through different technologies, for future use. It is also useful for livestock, groundwater recharge and for irrigation practices. Potential of rainwater harvesting refers to the capacity of an individual catchment that harnesses the water falling on the catchment during a particular year considering all rainy days. The present study deals with the identification of the study area boundary and marking it as a Polygon in Google Earth Pro Later, Rooftops of various house entities and roads were digitized using the Polygon command in Google Earth Pro. GIS technique is employed for locating boundaries of the study area and for calculating the areas of various types of rooftops and roads. With the application of GIS, it is possible to assess the total potential of water that can be harvested. The present study will enable us to identify the suitable type of water harvesting structure along with the number of structures required. It is extremely an ideal and effective solution to overcome the water crisis through water conservation in the study area.

  3. Nanoscale piezoelectric vibration energy harvester design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foruzande, Hamid Reza; Hajnayeb, Ali; Yaghootian, Amin

    2017-09-01

    Development of new nanoscale devices has increased the demand for new types of small-scale energy resources such as ambient vibrations energy harvesters. Among the vibration energy harvesters, piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs) can be easily miniaturized and fabricated in micro and nano scales. This change in the dimensions of a PEH leads to a change in its governing equations of motion, and consequently, the predicted harvested energy comparing to a macroscale PEH. In this research, effects of small scale dimensions on the nonlinear vibration and harvested voltage of a nanoscale PEH is studied. The PEH is modeled as a cantilever piezoelectric bimorph nanobeam with a tip mass, using the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory in conjunction with Hamilton's principle. A harmonic base excitation is applied as a model of the ambient vibrations. The nonlocal elasticity theory is used to consider the size effects in the developed model. The derived equations of motion are discretized using the assumed-modes method and solved using the method of multiple scales. Sensitivity analysis for the effect of different parameters of the system in addition to size effects is conducted. The results show the significance of nonlocal elasticity theory in the prediction of system dynamic nonlinear behavior. It is also observed that neglecting the size effects results in lower estimates of the PEH vibration amplitudes. The results pave the way for designing new nanoscale sensors in addition to PEHs.

  4. Refreshing Music: Fog Harvesting with Harps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weiwei; Anderson, Mark; Kennedy, Brook; Boreyko, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Fog harvesting is a useful technique for obtaining fresh water in arid climates. The wire meshes currently utilized for fog harvesting suffer from dual constraints: coarse meshes cannot efficiently capture fog, while fine meshes suffer from clogging issues. Here, we design a new type of fog harvester comprised of an array of vertical wires, which we call ``fog harps.'' To investigate the water collection efficiency, three fog harps were designed with different diameters (254 μm, 508 μm and 1.30 mm) but the same pitch-to-diameter ratio of 2. For comparison, three different size meshes were purchased with equivalent dimensions. As expected for the mesh structures, the mid-sized wires performed the best, with a drop-off in performance for the fine or coarse meshes. In contrast, the fog harvesting rate continually increased with decreasing wire diameter for the fog harps, due to its low hysteresis that prevented droplet clogging. This resulted in a 3-fold enhancement in the fog harvesting rate for the harp form factor compared to the mesh. The lack of a performance ceiling for the harps suggest that even greater enhancements could be achieved by scaling down to yet smaller sizes.

  5. MECHANIZED HARVESTING TESTS PERFORMED BY GRAPE HARVESTERS IN SUPER INTENSIVE OLIVE ORCHARD CULTIVATION IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro Giametta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Today also those countries boasting a century-old olive growing tradition have to look at the latest, most dynamic, non labour-intensive olive growing systems to abate production (notably, harvesting operations costs and remain competitive in a globalized market. This is why over the last few years super intensive olive orchard cultivation has been attracting a lot of interest on the part of olive growers all over the world as it accounts for an innovative model whereby olive groves are tailored to the special needs of grape harvesters. This paper reports the first results of experimental mechanical harvesting tests in a super-intensive olive cultivation. The study is intended to explore both productivity and work capacity of two of the most commonly used grape harvesters, Grégoire G120SW and New Holland Braud VX680, in a view to assessing their harvesting performance by a series of tests conducted in Spain. On the basis of the tests it was possible to verify that the machines are able to detach the almost all the drupes (more than 90%, with one only passage, and this independently of both size and location of drupes on the tree crown and of their maturity stage. Using these machines, two people can often carry out the whole harvest process: an operator driving the harvester and another person transferring the fruit from the harvester in the field to the olive oil mill for processing. With this system, the work speed is usually, in the best working conditions, about 1.7 km/hour and the average harvesting time is about 2.5-3 hours/ha. For the time being it is however impossible to draw definitive conclusions in terms of performance of the above cultivation systems and harvesting machines. Additional key observational studies are needed in the years to come to assess the efficiency of the entire model.

  6. Model institutional infrastructures for recycling of photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaven, S.J.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.

    1996-01-01

    How will photovoltaic modules (PVMS) be recycled at the end of their service lives? This question has technological and institutional components (Reaven, 1994a). The technological aspect concerns the physical means of recycling: what advantages and disadvantages of the several existing and emerging mechanical, thermal, and chemical recycling processes and facilities merit consideration? The institutional dimension refers to the arrangements for recycling: what are the operational and financial roles of the parties with an interest in PVM recycling? These parties include PVM manufacturers, trade organizations; distributors, and retailers; residential, commercial, and utility PVM users; waste collectors, transporters, reclaimers, and reclaimers; and governments.

  7. Platinum recycling in the United States in 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Henry E.

    2001-01-01

    In the United States, catalytic converters are the major source of secondary platinum for recycling. Other sources of platinum scrap include reforming and chemical process catalysts. The glass industry is a small but significant source of platinum scrap. In North America, it has been estimated that in 1998 more than 20,000 kilograms per year of platinum-group metals from automobile catalysts were available for recycling. In 1998, an estimated 7,690 kilograms of platinum were recycled in the United States. U.S. recycling efficiency was calculated to have been 76 percent in 1998; the recycling rate was estimated at 16 percent.

  8. Subwavelength resonant antennas enhancing electromagnetic energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumbe Tekam, Gabin; Ginis, Vincent; Seetharamdoo, Divitha; Danckaert, Jan

    2016-04-01

    In this work, an electromagnetic energy harvester operating at microwave frequencies is designed based on a cut- wire metasurface. This metamaterial is known to contain a quasistatic electric dipole resonator leading to a strong resonant electric response when illuminated by electromagnetic fields.1 Starting from an equivalent electrical circuit, we analytically design the parameters of the system to tune the resonance frequency of the harvester at the desired frequency band. Subsequently, we compare these results with numerical simulations, which have been obtained using finite elements numerical simulations. Finally, we optimize the design by investigating the best arrangement for energy harvesting by coupling in parallel and in series many single layers of cut-wire metasurfaces. We also discuss the implementation of different geometries and sizes of the cut-wire metasurface for achieving different center frequencies and bandwidths.

  9. Forest harvesting systems friendly to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waesterlund, I.; Hassan, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    The trend in forestry practices today in Europe and U.S.A. in general and Scandinavian countries in particular, is towards adapting systems based on landscape planning. Thus common harvesting equipment available on the market will have to be replaced to meet these tough demands. Environmentalists recommend that wood fiber should be harvested either by selection cutting or commercial thinning thus leaving the site undisturbed with no sign of machine traffic. This mandate will preserve ground water quality and assist in soil conservation. However, to meet the pulp and paper as well as saw mill industries demand for wood from this method of cutting (selection or commercial thinning), requires a thorough examination of our harvesting systems and techniques. This paper will discuss present and future machines that are friendly to the environment. Hypothetical designs and improvements of existing machine systems will be addressed and recommendations will be made for future research activities. 75 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  10. Architectures for wrist-worn energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantz, R.; Halim, M. A.; Xue, T.; Zhang, Q.; Gu, L.; Yang, K.; Roundy, S.

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports the simulation-based analysis of six dynamical structures with respect to their wrist-worn vibration energy harvesting capability. This work approaches the problem of maximizing energy harvesting potential at the wrist by considering multiple mechanical substructures; rotational and linear motion-based architectures are examined. Mathematical models are developed and experimentally corroborated. An optimization routine is applied to the proposed architectures to maximize average power output and allow for comparison. The addition of a linear spring element to the structures has the potential to improve power output; for example, in the case of rotational structures, a 211% improvement in power output was estimated under real walking excitation. The analysis concludes that a sprung rotational harvester architecture outperforms a sprung linear architecture by 66% when real walking data is used as input to the simulations.

  11. Improved algal harvesting using suspended air flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Patrick E; Brenneman, Kristine J; Jacobson, Arne E

    2009-07-01

    Current methods to remove algae from a liquid medium are energy intensive and expensive. This study characterized algae contained within a wastewater oxidation pond and sought to identify a more efficient harvesting technique. Analysis of oxidation pond wastewater revealed that algae, consisting primarily of Chlorella and Scenedesmus, composed approximately 80% of the solids inventory during the study period. Results demonstrated that suspended air flotation (SAF) could harvest algae with a lower air:solids (A/S) ratio, lower energy requirements, and higher loading rates compared to dissolved air flotation (DAF) (P plants by enabling cost effective means to reduce solids content of the final effluent. Furthermore, use of SAF to harvest commercially grown Chlorella and Scenedesmus may reduce manufacturing costs of algal-based products such as fuel, fertilizer, and fish food.

  12. Sustainable harvest of waterbirds: a global review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Niels

    of modern mankind. In many remote regions, waterbirds are still an important food resource. At the same time, sustainable utilization at all levels is regarded as a cornerstone in the conservation of nature. Sustainability is considered from the perspectives of two main fields: ecology and socio-economic...... (political) issues. Aspects of ecological sustainability include the harvest and other direct impacts on bird populations, here regarded as the hunting pressure. Socio-economic aspects include the active participation in nature conservation by local communities, motivated by the access to natural resources...... is poor or completely lacking, and very little information is available on the annual harvest and its impact on populations. In addition, international and flyway based co-ordination is lacking in many regions, and systems need to be developed in order to obtain reliable data on harvest rates in relation...

  13. Mandatory urban rainwater harvesting: learning from experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabe, Jeremy; Trowsdale, Sam; Mistry, Diveshkumar

    2012-01-01

    Rainwater harvesting is effectively mandated in several urban areas of New Zealand. To understand the costs and benefits of rainwater harvesting from an end-user perspective, semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 homeowners in northern Auckland affected by these regulations. Residents report differences in four aspects of urban rainwater infrastructure - security of supply, water quality, the learning process and financial costs - that could represent key values for public acceptance. When responses are examined from the perspective of experience that has built empirical knowledge, participants explained how their satisfaction with rainwater harvesting increased over time. We hypothesise that for those lacking experience, urban rainwater consumption is a function of empirical knowledge and has initially rising marginal utility. Regulation that recognises the costs of social learning is likely to be a more effective pathway towards maximising the social benefits associated with integrated urban water management.

  14. Energy harvesting devices, systems, and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, Dale K.

    2016-10-18

    Energy harvesting devices include a substrate and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to collect energy in the visible and infrared light spectra and to reradiate energy having a wavelength in the range of about 0.8 .mu.m to about 0.9 .mu.m. The resonance elements are arranged in groups of two or more resonance elements. Systems for harvesting electromagnetic radiation include a substrate, a plurality of resonance elements including a conductive material carried by the substrate, and a photovoltaic material coupled to the substrate and to at least one resonance element. The resonance elements are arranged in groups, such as in a dipole, a tripole, or a bowtie configuration. Methods for forming an energy harvesting device include forming groups of two or more discrete resonance elements in a substrate and coupling a photovoltaic material to the groups of discrete resonance elements.

  15. Evaluation of mechanical harvesting in viticulture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Zemánek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting by mashine was in CZ tested at bygones century (70th. Tests rekord were bad (high share of leaf, detritus of concrete column, losses of berries.Lasting fall of worker in agriculture and vehement growth floricultural surfaces – vineyard (somewhere 19.000 hectare, requires complex rationalization and mechanization of all works stages which needs needlework. Harvisting in viniculture needs perhaps 30% of all working time (200–250 o‘clock on 1 hectare. Incidence thereof begun most of bigger producers in our country with mechanical harvisting. Technical performance of this machines turn up. There are not available data about costs and their work quality.The benefit deal with classification of mechanical harvesting (juice adhering, berries lost, damage of vineyard transaction by the help of semi-trailer and self-propelled harvesters.

  16. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) - Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2016 Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report aims to increase the understanding of the economic implications of material reuse and recycling. The report shows that recycling and reuse of materials creates jobs, while also generating local and state tax revenues. The 2016 REI Report covers the economic activities of nine sectors: ferrous metals, nonferrous metals (aluminum), glass, paper, plastics, rubber, construction and demolition, electronics and organics (including food and yard trimmings). The 2016 REI Report builds on work from a 2001 REI study. In 2001, to encourage the development of an economic market for recycling, EPA supported the creation of a national Recycling Economic Information (REI) Project and the related REI report, based upon the work of several states and regions. The REI report was a ground breaking national study demonstrating the economic value of recycling and reuse to the U.S. economy. Compiled through a cooperative agreement with the National Recycling Coalition, the study confirmed what many have known for decades: there are significant economic benefits in recycling. The 2016 report focuses on the economic impacts of recycling rather than the environmental benefits, as the environmental benefits have been researched in detail. Accurately estimating the impact that recycling has on jobs, wages and taxes is important because the results can influence policy decisions and provide a more robust picture of recycling by a

  17. Mechanical and chemical recycling of solid plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragaert, Kim; Delva, Laurens; Van Geem, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    This review presents a comprehensive description of the current pathways for recycling of polymers, via both mechanical and chemical recycling. The principles of these recycling pathways are framed against current-day industrial reality, by discussing predominant industrial technologies, design strategies and recycling examples of specific waste streams. Starting with an overview on types of solid plastic waste (SPW) and their origins, the manuscript continues with a discussion on the different valorisation options for SPW. The section on mechanical recycling contains an overview of current sorting technologies, specific challenges for mechanical recycling such as thermo-mechanical or lifetime degradation and the immiscibility of polymer blends. It also includes some industrial examples such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) recycling, and SPW from post-consumer packaging, end-of-life vehicles or electr(on)ic devices. A separate section is dedicated to the relationship between design and recycling, emphasizing the role of concepts such as Design from Recycling. The section on chemical recycling collects a state-of-the-art on techniques such as chemolysis, pyrolysis, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrogen techniques and gasification. Additionally, this review discusses the main challenges (and some potential remedies) to these recycling strategies and ground them in the relevant polymer science, thus providing an academic angle as well as an applied one. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of recycling processes for clean rejected MOX fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khot, P.M.; Singh, G.; Shelke, B.K.; Surendra, B.; Yadav, M.K.; Mishra, A.K.; Afzal, Mohd.; Panakkal, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dry and wet (MWDD) methods were developed for 100% recycling of CRO (0.4–44% PuO 2 ). • Dry method showed higher productivity and comparable powder/product characteristics. • MWDD batches demonstrated improved powder/product characteristics to that of virgin. • Second/multiple recycling is possible with MWDD with better powder/product characteristics. • MWDD batches prepared by little milling showed better macroscopic homogeneity to that of virgin. - Abstract: The dry and wet recycling processes have been developed for 100% recycling of Clean Reject Oxide (CRO) generated during the fabrication of MOX fuel, as CRO contains significant amount of plutonium. Plutonium being strategic material need to be circumvented from its proliferation issues related to its storage for long period. It was difficult to recycle CRO containing higher Pu content even with multiple oxidation and reduction steps. The mechanical recycling comprising of jaw crushing and sieving has been coupled with thermal pulverization for recycling CRO with higher Pu content in dry recycling technique. In wet recycling, MicroWave Direct Denitration (MWDD) technique has been developed for 100% recycling of CRO. The powder prepared by dry and wet (MWDD) recycling techniques was characterized by XRD and BET techniques and their effects on the pellets were evaluated. (U,21%Pu)O 2 pellets fabricated from virgin powder and MWDD were characterized using optical microscopy and α-autoradiography and the results obtained were compared

  19. Addressing Criticality in Rare Earth Elements via Permanent Magnets Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nlebedim, I. C.; King, A. H.

    2018-02-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are critical for many advanced technologies and are faced with potential supply disruptions. Recycling of permanent magnets (PMs) can be good sources for REEs which can help minimize global dependence on freshly mined REEs, but PMs are rarely recycled. Recycling of PMs has been discussed with respect to improving REEs resource sustainability. Some challenges to be addressed in order to establish industrially deployable technologies for PMs recycling have also been discussed, including profitability, energy efficiency and environmental impacts. Key considerations for promoting circular economy via PMs recycling is proposed with the focus on deciding the target points in the supply chain at which the recycled products will be inserted. Important technical considerations for recycling different forms of waste PMs, including swarfs, slags, shredded and intact hard disk drives magnets, have been presented. The aspects of circular economy considered include reusing magnets, remanufacturing magnets and recovering of REEs from waste PMs.

  20. Sustaining the environment through recycling: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramayah, T; Lee, Jason Wai Chow; Lim, Shuwen

    2012-07-15

    This paper examines the determinants of recycling behaviour among 200 university students from the perspective of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Data was analysed using Structural Equation Modelling technique. Findings indicate that environmental awareness was significantly related to attitude towards recycling, whilst attitude and social norms had significant impact on recycling behaviour. However, convenience and cost of recycling were not significant reasons for recycling. The study has enhanced the understanding of the determinants of recycling behaviour and has implications for schools and governmental agencies in educating and encouraging positive recycling behaviour. It also confirms the appropriateness of the TPB in examining studies of this nature. Further suggestions for future research are offered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Recycling behaviour in healthcare: waste handling at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Joachim; Nunes, Katia R A

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the motivational factors for environmental behaviour in general, presenting a case study on recycling disposable plastics in hospitals. Results show that 90% of over 600 employees from six analysed hospitals in Germany reported that the recycling of disposable plastics on the wards makes sense from an environmental and economic point of view. The case study reports an assessment of recycling attitudes and problems of hospital staff, mainly nurses. Employees in eco-certified hospitals were much more satisfied and reported fewer problems with the recycling system. The gender effect was significant only for saving energy, while age correlated with nearly all reported pro-environmental behaviour at home. At work, the mere introduction of a recycling system was insufficient to achieve good recycling results. Based on the study findings, recommendations are given aimed at improving the safety and sustainability of the recycling system.

  2. Case studies in rural recycling. Public service report series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosper, S.D.; Hallenbeck, W.H.; Brenniman, G.R.

    1994-02-01

    Due to state planning requirements and federal landfill regulations, solid waste management in rural areas (particularly recycling) has received much attention in recent years. The growth of recycling during the 1980s occurred mainly in urban and suburban areas. Therefore, rural recycling is still a relatively new enterprise. This report presents several rural recycling case studies from Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, Tennessee, and Ontario, Canada to provide examples of successes and problems. This report also discusses the current issues of cooperative marketing of recyclables and municipal solid waste flow control. With respect to recycling, a rural region does not have ready access to markets for collected materials and has difficulty in generating easily marketable quantities of recyclables. (Copyright (c) 1994 The Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois.)

  3. The effects of harvest regulations on behaviors of duck hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Matthew T.; Powell, Larkin A.; Vrtiska, Mark P.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty exists as to how duck harvest regulations influence waterfowl hunter behavior. We used the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Parts Collection Survey to examine how harvest regulations affected behaviors of Central Flyway duck hunters. We stratified hunters into ranked groups based on seasonal harvest and identified three periods (1975–1984, 1988–1993, 2002–2011) that represented different harvest regulations (moderate, restrictive, and liberal, respectively; season length and daily bag limits smallest in restrictive seasons and largest in liberal seasons). We examined variability of seven measures of duck hunter behaviors across the periods: days harvesting ducks, daily harvest, hunter mobility, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) selectivity, gender selectivity, daily female mallard harvest, and timing of harvest. Hunters reported harvesting ducks on more days, at a higher efficiency, and in slightly more counties during liberal seasons relative to restrictive and moderate seasons. We provide evidence to suggest that future regulation change will affect hunter behaviors.

  4. Managing harvest and habitat as integrated components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osnas, Erik; Runge, Michael C.; Mattsson, Brady J.; Austin, Jane E.; Boomer, G. S.; Clark, R. G.; Devers, P.; Eadie, J. M.; Lonsdorf, E. V.; Tavernia, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, several important initiatives in the North American waterfowl management community called for an integrated approach to habitat and harvest management. The essence of the call for integration is that harvest and habitat management affect the same resources, yet exist as separate endeavours with very different regulatory contexts. A common modelling framework could help these management streams to better understand their mutual effects. Particularly, how does successful habitat management increase harvest potential? Also, how do regional habitat programmes and large-scale harvest strategies affect continental population sizes (a metric used to express habitat goals)? In the ensuing five years, several projects took on different aspects of these challenges. While all of these projects are still on-going, and are not yet sufficiently developed to produce guidance for management decisions, they have been influential in expanding the dialogue and producing some important emerging lessons. The first lesson has been that one of the more difficult aspects of integration is not the integration across decision contexts, but the integration across spatial and temporal scales. Habitat management occurs at local and regional scales. Harvest management decisions are made at a continental scale. How do these actions, taken at different scales, combine to influence waterfowl population dynamics at all scales? The second lesson has been that consideration of the interface of habitat and harvest management can generate important insights into the objectives underlying the decision context. Often the objectives are very complex and trade-off against one another. The third lesson follows from the second – if an understanding of the fundamental objectives is paramount, there is no escaping the need for a better understanding of human dimensions, specifically the desires of hunters and nonhunters and the role they play in conservation. In the end, the compelling question is

  5. Energy harvesting with piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Muensit, Nantakan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present the current state of knowledge in the field of energy harvesting using piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials. The book is addressed to students and academics engaged in research in the fields of energy harvesting, material sciences and engineering. Scientists and engineers who are working in the area of energy conservation and renewable energy resources should find it useful as well. Explanations of fundamental physical properties such as piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity are included to aid the understanding of the non-specialist. Specific technolo

  6. Materials in energy conversion, harvesting, and storage

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    First authored book to address materials' role in the quest for the next generation of energy materials Energy balance, efficiency, sustainability, and so on, are some of many facets of energy challenges covered in current research. However, there has not been a monograph that directly covers a spectrum of materials issues in the context of energy conversion, harvesting and storage. Addressing one of the most pressing problems of our time, Materials in Energy Conversion, Harvesting, and Storage illuminates the roles and performance requirements of materials in energy an

  7. Vibration Energy Harvesting Potential for Turbomachinery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian STOICESCU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The vibration energy harvesting process represents one of the research directions for increasing power efficiency of electric systems, increasing instrumentation nodes autonomy in hard to reach locations and decreasing total system mass by eliminating cables and higher-power adapters. Research based on the possibility of converting vibration energy into useful electric energy is used to evaluate the potential of its use on turbomachinery applications. Aspects such as the structure and characteristics of piezoelectric generators, harvesting networks, their setup and optimization, are considered. Finally, performance test results are shown using piezoelectric systems on a turbine engine.

  8. Electronically droplet energy harvesting using piezoelectric cantilevers

    KAUST Repository

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud Al

    2012-01-01

    A report is presented on free falling droplet energy harvesting using piezoelectric cantilevers. The harvester incorporates a multimorph clamped-free cantilever which is composed of five layers of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric thick films. During the impact, the droplet kinetic energy is transferred into the form of mechanical stress forcing the piezoelectric structure to vibrate. Experimental results show energy of 0.3 μJ per droplet. The scenario of moderate falling drop intensity, i.e. 230 drops per second, yields a total energy of 400 μJ. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

  9. Triboelectret-based aeroelastic flutter energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Matthias; Boisseau, Sebastien; Geisler, Matthias; Despesse, Ghislain; Reboud, Jean Luc

    2016-11-01

    This paper highlights some experimental results on several electrostatic membranes tested in a wind tunnel between 0 and 20m.s-1 for airflow energy harvesting. The main idea is to use the aeroelastic behavior of thin flexible films to induce simultaneously the capacitance variations and the polarization required by the triboelectric/electrostatic conversion. This technology provides thin and flexible devices and avoids the issue of electrets discharge. Our prototypes (energy harvesting chain, we have used a wireless sensor with temperature and acceleration measures coupled to a low power transmission (Bluetooth Low Energy) with reception on a smartphone.

  10. Near-field enhanced thermionic energy conversion for renewable energy recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghashami, Mohammad; Cho, Sung Kwon; Park, Keunhan

    2017-09-01

    This article proposes a new energy harvesting concept that greatly enhances thermionic power generation with high efficiency by exploiting the near-field enhancement of thermal radiation. The proposed near-field enhanced thermionic energy conversion (NETEC) system is uniquely configured with a low-bandgap semiconductor cathode separated from a thermal emitter with a subwavelength gap distance, such that a significant amount of electrons can be photoexcited by near-field thermal radiation to contribute to the enhancement of thermionic current density. We theoretically demonstrate that the NETEC system can generate electric power at a significantly lower temperature than the standard thermionic generator, and the energy conversion efficiency can exceed 40%. The obtained results reveal that near-field photoexcitation can enhance the thermionic power output by more than 10 times, making this hybrid system attractive for renewable energy recycling.

  11. Development of multi-functional combine harvester with grain harvesting and straw baling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Z.; Li, Y.; Cheng, C.

    2017-01-01

    The decomposition and burning of straw results in serious environmental pollution, and research is needed to improve strategies for straw collection to reduce pollution. This work presents an integrated design of multi-functional rice combine harvester that allows grain harvesting and straw baling. This multi-functional combine harvester could reduce the energy consumption required for rice harvesting and simplify the process of harvesting and baling. The transmission schematic, matching parameters and the rotation speed of threshing cylinder and square baler were designed and checked. Then the evaluation of grain threshing and straw baling were tested on a transverse threshing cylinders device tes rig and straw square bales compression test rig. The test results indicated that, with a feeding rate of 3.0 kg/s, the remaining straw flow rate at the discharge outlet was only 1.22 kg/s, which indicates a variable mass threshing process by the transverse threshing cylinder. Then the optimal diameter, length and rotating speed of multi-functional combine harvester transverse threshing cylinder were 554 mm, 1590 mm, and 850 r/min, respectively. The straw bale compression rotating speed of crank compression slider and piston was 95 r/min. Field trials by the multi-functional combine harvester formed bales with height×width×length of 40×50×54-63 cm, bale mass of 22.5 to 26.0 kg and bale density 206 to 216 kg/m3. This multi-functional combine harvester could be used for stem crops (such as rice, wheat and soybean) grain harvesting and straw square baling, which could reduce labor cost and power consumption.

  12. Development of multi-functional combine harvester with grain harvesting and straw baling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Z.; Li, Y.; Cheng, C.

    2017-09-01

    The decomposition and burning of straw results in serious environmental pollution, and research is needed to improve strategies for straw collection to reduce pollution. This work presents an integrated design of multi-functional rice combine harvester that allows grain harvesting and straw baling. This multi-functional combine harvester could reduce the energy consumption required for rice harvesting and simplify the process of harvesting and baling. The transmission schematic, matching parameters and the rotation speed of threshing cylinder and square baler were designed and checked. Then the evaluation of grain threshing and straw baling were tested on a transverse threshing cylinders device tes rig and straw square bales compression test rig. The test results indicated that, with a feeding rate of 3.0 kg/s, the remaining straw flow rate at the discharge outlet was only 1.22 kg/s, which indicates a variable mass threshing process by the transverse threshing cylinder. Then the optimal diameter, length and rotating speed of multi-functional combine harvester transverse threshing cylinder were 554 mm, 1590 mm, and 850 r/min, respectively. The straw bale compression rotating speed of crank compression slider and piston was 95 r/min. Field trials by the multi-functional combine harvester formed bales with height×width×length of 40×50×54-63 cm, bale mass of 22.5 to 26.0 kg and bale density 206 to 216 kg/m3. This multi-functional combine harvester could be used for stem crops (such as rice, wheat and soybean) grain harvesting and straw square baling, which could reduce labor cost and power consumption.

  13. Toward promotion of recycling electric and electronic devices; Denki denshi kiki no recycle no sokushin ni mukete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Measures for promotion of recycling electric and electronic devices are discussed and proposed. It is necessary to change the traditional framework of recycling in which local governments are required to play major roles. It is also necessary to set more clear responsibilities and expenses to be shared by the parties concerned, establish rules for recovering expenses to keep fairness among the parties concerned, and develop measures to promote smooth recovery and recycling of electric and electronic devices. The framework should be based on market principle, to introduce various types of competition, thereby reducing social expenses as far as possible. It is necessary for all parties to share responsibilities for establishing recycling type economic society; makers and importers should supply durable and recyclable products and implement recovery and recycling of the used products they supply to a required level, and, at the same time, consumers should release the used products in the recycling systems. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Nuclear power and recycling in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikegame, R.

    1996-12-31

    Japan has 49 nuclear power plants in operation contributing over 30% of the country`s electric power generation. Steadily improving operational performance has been accompanied by enhanced safety and economic performance. Two ABWR units, Kashiwazaki Kariwa units 6 and 7, have been constructed and the first of these is scheduled to begin commercial operation by the end of 1996. Japan sees nuclear power as an environmentally friendly energy option for the twenty-first century. Recycled uranium and plutonium from light water reactors are perceived as an important fuel requirement for the maintenance of the nuclear power programme and the commercial use of fast breeder reactors as desirable, despite the impact of the recent sodium leak accident at the prototype Monju reactor. Japanese efforts to establish a reprocessing and recycling system will assume increasing importance as time goes on. (UK).

  15. Recycling of solid wastes at kindergartens centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed R.M.S.R.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to conduct an activity on environmental awareness campaign at a kindergarten center, with the children age 4-6 years old. The activity included identify the various types of waste generated at the kindergarten and to realize the conservation practice by participating in simple waste management strategies and an explanation about recycling, reusing and reducing waste (3R. The activity provided the children more awareness about the importance of minimizing the plastic wastes. The activity had created an interesting experience to the young generation through practice activity and has given a light on the nature conservation along their growing years. It can be concluded that the awareness of environmental issues among children have risen up as noted by looking at students physical expression. Children have understood the potential to conserve nature from a simple action which is recycling. After the activity, children’s were able to identify and divide the rubbish.

  16. Fission reactor recycling pump handling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togasawa, Hiroshi; Komita, Hideo; Susuki, Shoji; Endo, Takio; Yamamoto, Tetsuzo; Takahashi, Hideaki; Saito, Noboru.

    1991-01-01

    This invention provides a device for handling a recycling pump in a nuclear reactor upon periodical inspections in a BWR type power plant. That is, in a handling device comprising a support for supporting components of a recycling pump, and a lifter for vertically moving the support below a motor case disposed passing through a reactor pressure vessel, a weight is disposed below the support. Then, the center of gravity of the components, the support and the entire weight is substantially aligned with the position for the support. With such a constitution, the components can be moved vertically to the motor case extremely safely, to remarkably suppress vibrations. Further, the operation safety can remarkably be improved by preventing turning down upon occurrence of earthquakes. Further, since vibration-proof jigs as in a prior art can be saved, operation efficiency can be improved. (I.S.)

  17. Microbial recycling of glycerol to biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Zhu, Zhi; Wang, Weihua; Lu, Xuefeng

    2013-12-01

    The sustainable supply of lipids is the bottleneck for current biodiesel production. Here microbial recycling of glycerol, byproduct of biodiesel production to biodiesel in engineered Escherichia coli strains was reported. The KC3 strain with capability of producing fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) from glucose was used as a starting strain to optimize fermentation conditions when using glycerol as sole carbon source. The YL15 strain overexpressing double copies of atfA gene displayed 1.7-fold increase of FAEE productivity compared to the KC3 strain. The titer of FAEE in YL15 strain reached to 813 mg L(-1) in minimum medium using glycerol as sole carbon source under optimized fermentation conditions. The titer of glycerol-based FAEE production can be significantly increased by both genetic modifications and fermentation optimization. Microbial recycling of glycerol to biodiesel expands carbon sources for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Transverse Instabilities in the Fermilab Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, L.R.; Burov, A.; Shemyakin, A.; Bhat, C.M.; Crisp, J.; Eddy, N.; /Fermilab

    2011-07-01

    Transverse instabilities of the antiproton beam have been observed in the Recycler ring soon after its commissioning. After installation of transverse dampers, the threshold for the instability limit increased significantly but the instability is still found to limit the brightness of the antiprotons extracted from the Recycler for Tevatron shots. In this paper, we describe observations of the instabilities during the extraction process as well as during dedicated studies. The measured instability threshold phase density agrees with the prediction of the rigid beam model within a factor of 2. Also, we conclude that the instability threshold can be significantly lowered for a bunch contained in a narrow and shallow potential well due to effective exclusion of the longitudinal tails from Landau damping.

  19. Economic assessment of plutonium recycle to LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This paper presents an economic evaluation of plutonium recycle in LWR's using published estimates of the cost of the various fuel cycle operations. Total, discounted and levelized fuel cycle costs are computed for four national nuclear power growth pattern scenarios; ''super large'' (>100GW(e) by 2000), ''large'' (60-70GW(e) by 2000) ''medium'' (20-25 GW(e) by 2000) and ''small'' (5-10GW(e) by 2000). It is concluded that in the ''super-large'' and ''large'' cases recycle of uranium and plutonium would have a slight economic advantage over the once-through cycle. In the ''medium'' and ''small'' cases there would be no economic advantage up to the year 2000. The uncertainty in unit fuel cycle costs is large compared with the differences between the two fuel cycles and different conclusions can easily be drawn based on different unit cost assumptions

  20. Recycling of greenhouse gases via methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Eliasson, B.; Kogelschatz, U. [ABB Corporate Research Center, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere can be mitigated by using direct control technologies (capture, disposal or chemical recycling). We report on carbon dioxide and methane recycling with other chemicals, especially with hydrogen and oxygen, to methanol. Methanol synthesis from CO{sub 2} is investigated on various catalysts at moderate pressures ({<=}30 bar) and temperatures ({<=}300{sup o}C). The catalysts show good methanol activities and selectivities. The conversion of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} to methanol is also studied in a silent electrical discharge at pressures of 1 to 4 bar and temperatures close to room temperature. Methanol yields are given for mixtures of CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} and also for CH{sub 4} and air mixtures. (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.