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Sample records for e-beam pumped krf

  1. Important technological problems with stable operation of electron beam pumped KrF excimer laser amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Ma Wei Yi; Hu Feng Ming; Shan Yu Sheng; Wang Nai Yan

    2002-01-01

    Some important technological problems with stable operation of the two-side electron beam pumped main amplifier used in the 'Heaven-1' high power KrF excimer laser system are described. They are the problems of the electric breakdown of the insulator support for water dielectric transmission lines, anode foil installation of large area electron beam diode, shape of Hibachi ribs that contact the pressure foil, and formation of diode post pulses and their damage to the anode foil and cathode emitter. Emphasis is put on the effect of different main-switch breakdown times on diode post pulses and the determination of the optimal breakdown time

  2. Spectral line competition in a coaxial e-beam pumped high pressure Ar/Xe laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, Y.F.; Lan, Y.F.; Peters, P.J.M.; Witteman, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    In order to study the kinetic mechanism of the e-beam pumped Ar/Xe laser, the temporal profiles of individual laser lines during multiline oscillation have been measured as a function of power deposition (1–12MW/cm3) and gas laser pressure (2–14 bar) using a short pulse (30 ns) coaxial electron beam

  3. Amplification of picosecond pulse by electron-beam pumped KrF laser amplifiers. Denshi beam reiki KrF laser zofukuki ni yoru piko byo pulse no zofuku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, I.; Tomie, T.; Owadano, Y.; Yano, M. (Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1991-08-20

    Experiments on the amplification of a picosecond pulse by electron-beam pumped KrF laser amplifiers were carried out for the purpose of its application to the field such as excitation light source for soft X-ray laser which requires large energy besides peak power. The picosecond pulse was amplified by a discharge pumped KrF amplifier and two electron-beam pumped KrF amplifiers(at the middle stage and the final stage). The energy of 4J, which was the largest energy for short pulse excimer laser so far, was obtained by these devices. About 90% of the window area of the final amplifier with 29cm diameter was filled by the input beam, and energy density of the picosecond beam reached 3.9 times saturation energy density. Measured energy of amplified spontaneous emission(ASE) showed good agreement with the theoretically estimated value. Most of ASE was derived from the discharge pumped laser as the first amplifier. As for the focused power density, the power density ratio of the picosecond pulse to ASE was estimated to be as large as 10{sup 5}. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Pressure and gap length dependence of gap breakdown voltage and discharge current of discharge-pumped KrF excimer laser. Hoden reiki KrF laser no zetsuen hakai den prime atsu to reiki denryu no atsuryoku, gap cho izon sei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yukimura, K.; Kawakami, H. (Doshisha Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Hitomi, K. (Kyoto Polytechnic College, Kyoto (Japan))

    1991-04-20

    On the gap destruction characteristics of UV-preionized discharge-pumped KrF excimer laser (charge transfer type) and the electric characteristics of the excited discharge, studies were made by changing the pressure (1.5-3 atm) and the discharge gap length (14-21 mm) of the discharge medium. (1) Gap breakdown voltage and the maximum current of the excited discharge give a similarity by a product of pressure and the gap length at the charge volatge. (2) Insulation breakdown of the gap occurs at the wave front of the applied voltage and the breakdown time gets delayed by the decreasing voltage applied. By setting the ionization index at constant value 20, the gap breakdown voltage is estimated at the error within 10%. (3) The relation between the maximum current, pressure and the gap length product changes the characteristics by the charge voltage of the primary condenser. With the result combined with the standardization of voltage/current of the excited discharge, the electric characteristics at the specific pressure and gap length can be readily known. 10 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Illuminating e-beam processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    This month's Processing column will explore electronic beam (e-beam) processing. E-beam processing uses a low energy form of irradiation and has emerged as a highly promising treatment for both food safety and quarantine purposes. It is also used to extend food shelf life. This column will review...

  6. Denton E-beam Evaporator #1

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Name: E-Beam Evap 1This is a dual e-beam/thermal evaporator for the deposition of metal and dielectric thin films. Materials available are: Ag, Al,...

  7. Denton E-beam Evaporator #2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Name: E-Beam Evap 2This is an electron gun evaporator for the deposition of metals and dielectrics thin films. Materials available are: Ag, Al, Au,...

  8. Advanced e-beam systems for manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Hans C.

    1992-07-01

    E-beam lithography systems are being employed as pattern generators in the semiconductor manufacturing process. The TV-like raster exposure of a scanning electron beam under computer control provides the resolution, flexibility, and accuracy needed for the generation of high density integrated circuit patterns. E-beam mask making has become the technology of choice, while e-beam direct writing on the wafer has remained largely a niche application. Here the throughput handicap of serial exposure presented an economic hurdle, which limited applications to exploratory research and prototyping rather than manufacturing--with few exceptions: IBM, for example, has applied its internally developed high-throughput EL-series systems worldwide in large scale manufacturing of ASIC-type bipolar logic products. The recent progress in state-of-the-art of manufacturing-oriented e-beam systems for mask making and direct writing, together with results achieved with these advanced systems, is the subject of this paper.

  9. Electra: Repetitively Pulsed Angularly Multiplexed KrF Laser System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolford, Matthew; Myers, Matthew; Giuliani, John; Sethian, John; Burns, Patrick; Hegeler, Frank; Jaynes, Reginald

    2008-11-01

    As in a full size fusion power plant beam line, Electra is a multistage laser amplifier system. The multistage amplifier system consists of a commercial discharge laser and two doubled sided electron beam pumped amplifiers. Angular multiplexing is used in the optical layout to provide pulse length control and to maximize laser extraction from the amplifiers. Two angularly multiplexed beams have extracted 30 J of KrF laser light with an aperture 8 x 10 cm^2, which is sufficient to extract over 500 J from the main amplifier and models agree. The main amplifier of Electra in oscillator mode has demonstrated single shot and rep-rate laser energies exceeding 700 J with 100 ns pulsewidth at 248 nm with an aperture 29 x 29 cm^2. Continuous operation of the KrF electron beam pumped oscillator has lasted for more than 2.5 hours without failure at 1 Hz and 2.5 Hz. The measured intensity and pulse energy for durations greater than thousand shots are consistent at measurable rep-rates of 1 Hz, 2.5 Hz and 5 Hz.

  10. Studies of E-Beam Pumped Molecular Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-29

    Lead Shielding Inconel Foil | v^ | Xe Arc Lamp LJ Reservoir igh-Pressure Gauge 1 Xenon Gas Bottle I To Vacuum System SA-1925-121 F’lURE 1...1000-watt Xe arc lamp placed on one side of the cell. Its defocusel output passed through an attenuator and 2537 % wide band (150 A) filter. The...Phys. 43, 3973 (1965). Ü BoM70 Boucique, R., and Mortier, P., J. Phys. D 3, 1905 (1970). CoM74 Collier, F., and Michon, M., L’Onde Electrique 54

  11. Resonant third harmonic generation of KrF laser in Ar gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, R. [Department of Experimental Physics, University of Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Dóm tér 9 (Hungary); Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Gen. S. Kaliskiego 2, 00–908 Warsaw (Poland); Barna, A. [Department of Experimental Physics, University of Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Dóm tér 9 (Hungary); Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, EURATOM Association HAS, 1121 Budapest, XII. Konkoly Thege Miklós út 29-33 (Hungary); Suta, T.; Földes, I. B. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, EURATOM Association HAS, 1121 Budapest, XII. Konkoly Thege Miklós út 29-33 (Hungary); Bohus, J.; Szatmári, S. [Department of Experimental Physics, University of Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Dóm tér 9 (Hungary); Mikołajczyk, J.; Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Gen. S. Kaliskiego 2, 00–908 Warsaw (Poland); Verona, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University “Tor Vergata”, Via Orazio Raimondo, 18–00173, Rome (Italy); Verona Rinati, G. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University “Tor Vergata”, Via Orazio Raimondo, 18–00173, Rome (Italy); Margarone, D. [Institute of Physics ASCR, v.v.i. (FZU), ELI-Beamlines Project, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Nowak, T. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, PAN, E. Radzikowskiego 152, 31–342 Cracow (Poland); and others

    2014-12-15

    Investigations of emission of harmonics from argon gas jet irradiated by 700 fs, 5 mJ pulses from a KrF laser are presented. Harmonics conversion was optimized by varying the experimental geometry and the nozzle size. For the collection of the harmonic radiation silicon and solar-blind diamond semiconductor detectors equipped with charge preamplifiers were applied. The possibility of using a single-crystal CVD diamond detector for separate measurement of the 3rd harmonic in the presence of a strong pumping radiation was explored. Our experiments show that the earlier suggested 0.7% conversion efficiency can really be obtained, but only in the case when phase matching is optimized with an elongated gas target length corresponding to the length of coherence.

  12. INDEPENDENT EVALUATION OF THE GAM EX5ALN MINIATURE LINE-NARROWED KRF EXCIMER LASER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Bookmark not defined. 2: Ex5ALN KrF laser wavelength study. The laser output was recorded at 248.7 nm relative to the Hg atomic emission at 253.7 nm...Error! Bookmark not defined. 3: Ex5ALN KrF laser pulse width versus accumulated pulses for 14 kV discharge at 100 Hz...Error! Bookmark not defined. 4: Ex5ALN KrF laser timing jitter of laser

  13. Electra: durable repetitively pulsed angularly multiplexed KrF laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolford, Matthew F.; Myers, Matthew C.; Giuliani, John L.; Sethian, John D.; Burns, Patrick M.; Hegeler, Frank; Jaynes, Reginald

    2008-02-01

    Electra is a repetitively pulsed, electron beam pumped Krypton Fluoride (KrF) laser at the Naval Research Laboratory that is developing the technologies that can meet the Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) requirements for durability, efficiency, and cost. The technologies developed on Electra should be directly scalable to a full size fusion power plant beam line. As in a full size fusion power plant beam line, Electra is a multistage laser amplifier system which, consists of a commercial discharge laser (LPX 305i, Lambda Physik), 175 keV electron beam pumped (40 ns flat-top) preamplifier, and 530 keV (100 ns flat-top) main amplifier. Angular multiplexing is used in the optical layout to provide pulse length control and to maximize laser extraction from the amplifiers. Single shot yield of 452 J has been extracted from the initial shots of the Electra laser system using a relatively low energy preamplifier laser beam. In rep-rate burst of 5 Hz for durations of one second a total energy of 1.585 kJ (average 317 J/pulse) has been attained. Total energy of 2.5 kJ has been attained over a two second period. For comparison, the main amplifier of Electra in oscillator mode has demonstrated at 2.5 Hz rep-rate average laser yield of 270 J over a 2 hour period.

  14. Hydrodynamic Expansion of Pellicles Caused by e-Beam Heating

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, D

    2000-01-01

    Placing a pellicle in front of a x-ray converter target for radiographic applications can confine the backstreaming ions and target plasma to a shorter channel so that the cumulative effect on e-beam focusing is reduced. The pellicle is subject to heating by e-beam since the pellicle is placed upstream of the target. The calculation of the hydrodynamic expansion, caused by the heating, using the radiation hydrodynamics code LASNEX is presented in this report. Calculations show that mylar pellicles disintegrate at the end of a multi-pulse intense e-beam while beryllium and carbon pellicles remain intact. The expansions for the kapton-carbon multi-layered targets are also examined. Hydrodynamic expansions for pellicles with various e-beam spot radii are calculated for DARHT-II beam parameters. All the simulation results indicate that the backstreaming ions can be stopped.

  15. Study of exploding type pumping x-ray laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashiro, Hidehiko; Tomie, Toshihisa [Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    We are proposing a new x-ray pumping scheme named 'Exploding type pumping scheme'. A plasma is produced from a very thin membrane which is irradiated by a short pulse laser. Effective heating and ionization of a plasma from membrane is evaluated from Si spectral lines and theoretically hydrodynamic simulation. Effect of ASE from KrF amplifiers is experimentally evaluated as a negligible level when a short pulse laser is well-synchronized. (author)

  16. High-power, highly stable KrF laser with a 4-kHz pulse repetition rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, V M; El' tsov, A V; Khristoforov, O B [State Research Center of Russian Federation ' Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research' , Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-31

    An electric-discharge KrF laser (248 nm) with an average output power of 300 W is developed and studied. A number of new design features are related to the use of a laser chamber based on an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic tube. A high power and pulse repetition rate are achieved by using a volume discharge with lateral preionisation by the UV radiation of a creeping discharge in the form of a homogeneous plasma sheet on the surface of a plane sapphire plate. Various generators for pumping the laser are studied. The maximum laser efficiency is 3.1%, the maximum laser energy is 160 mJ pulse{sup -1}, and the pulse duration at half maximum is 7.5 ns. In the case of long-term operation at a pulse repetition rate of 4 kHz and an output power of 300 W, high stability of laser output energy (σ ≤ 0.7%) is achieved using an all-solid-state pump system. (lasers)

  17. High-power, highly stable KrF laser with a 4-kHz pulse repetition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, V. M.; El'tsov, A. V.; Khristoforov, O. B.

    2015-08-01

    An electric-discharge KrF laser (248 nm) with an average output power of 300 W is developed and studied. A number of new design features are related to the use of a laser chamber based on an Al2O3 ceramic tube. A high power and pulse repetition rate are achieved by using a volume discharge with lateral preionisation by the UV radiation of a creeping discharge in the form of a homogeneous plasma sheet on the surface of a plane sapphire plate. Various generators for pumping the laser are studied. The maximum laser efficiency is 3.1%, the maximum laser energy is 160 mJ pulse-1, and the pulse duration at half maximum is 7.5 ns. In the case of long-term operation at a pulse repetition rate of 4 kHz and an output power of 300 W, high stability of laser output energy (σ <= 0.7%) is achieved using an all-solid-state pump system.

  18. Design optimization of single-main-amplifier KrF laser-fusion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D.B.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    KrF lasers appear to be a very promising laser fusion driver for commercial applications. The Large Amplifier Module for the Aurora Laser System at Los Alamos is the largest KrF laser in the world and is currently operating at 5 kJ with 10 to 15 kJ eventually expected. The next generation system is anticipated to be a single-main-amplifier system that generates approximately 100 kJ. This paper examines the cost and efficiency tradeoffs for a complete single-main-amplifier KrF laser fusion experimental facility. It has been found that a 7% efficient $310/joule complete laser-fusion system is possible by using large amplifier modules and high optical fluences.

  19. Combined e-beam lithography using different energies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krátký, Stanislav; Kolařík, Vladimír; Horáček, Miroslav; Meluzín, Petr; Král, Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 177, JUN (2017), s. 30-34 ISSN 0167-9317 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020233; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : grayscale e-beam lithography * mix and match process * absorbed energy density * resist sensitivity * micro-optical elements Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2016

  20. Evaluation of CP shape correction for e-beam writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Masahiro; Bunya, Keita; Isobe, Hideaki; Komami, Hideaki; Abe, Kenji; Kurokawa, Masaki; Yamada, Akio; Sakamoto, Kiichi; Nakamura, Takayuki; Kuwano, Kazusumi; Tateishi, Masahiro; Chau, Larry

    2012-11-01

    Character projection (CP) exposure has some advantages compared with variable shaped beam (VSB) system; (1) shot count reduction by printing complex patterns in one e-beam shot, (2) high pattern fidelity by using CP stencil. In this paper we address another advantage of CP exposure, namely the shape correction of CP stencil for cancelling the pattern deformation on the substrate. The deformation of CP printings is decomposed into some elements. They are CP stencil manufacturing error, proximity effect, beam blur of the e-beam writer and resist blur. The element caused by beam blur of e-beam writer can be predicted by measuring the total beam blur obtained from CD-dose curves. The pattern deformation was corrected by applying the shape correction software system of D2S. The corrected CP stencil of 22nm-node standard cell was manufactured and standard cell patterns were exposed. We confirmed that our shape correction method is the appropriate solution for correcting deformation issue of CP openings. The beam blur required for the 1X nm dimensions was predicted from the exposure results of standard cell patterns with applying shape correction and CD-dose curves. We simulated the optical system to realize the required beam blur. As a result, the next electron optics has the resolving capability of 1X nm dimension.

  1. Enhanced performance of a repetitively pulsed 130 mJ KrF laser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-05

    Jan 5, 2014 ... Studies related to the effect of pre-ionizer on laser output energy of a repetitively pulsed KrF laser are presented. The dependence of laser output energy, spectral width and beam spot homogeneity on pre-ionization parameters, namely its current and voltage rise time are reported here. Here, effectiveness ...

  2. KrF laser amplifier with phase-conjugate Brillouin retroreflectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, M C

    1982-09-01

    We have demonstrated the use of phase-conjugate stimulated Brillouin scattering mirrors to produce high-quality, short-pulse KrF laser beams from angular multiplexed and regenerative amplifiers. The mirror was also shown to isolate systems optically from amplifier spontaneous emission. Automatic alignment of targets using this mirror as a retroreflector was also demonstrated.

  3. Hierarchical e-beam proximity correction in mask making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Ulrich; Kalus, Christian K.; Rosenbusch, Anja; Jonckheere, Rik M.; Hourd, Andrew C.

    1996-05-01

    Both e-beam and optical proximity effects are still a major barrier in the transfer of an ULSI design from the CAD station to the printed result on wafer. Optical proximity effect correction (OPC) is shown to be a strong tool to improve the printing latitudes for i-line lithography of 0.35 micrometers feature sizes and below, but leads to fractal geometries around 0.1 micrometers (corresponding to 0.5 micrometers on a 5x reticle). This quantum leap in required minimum linewidth on the mask may urge mask makers to apply e-beam proximity effect correction (PEC), even more than a decrease in the reticle magnification from 5x to 4x (and further) would. For raster scan e-beams, which are typically used in mask making, correction by dose variation is not practical. Hence, PEC for these systems must be tackled by modifying the geometry of the design, in a way similar to OPC techniques. Both corrections must compromise between the accuracy achieved, which is dominated by the selected (correction and exposure) grid size, and the resulting throughput loss, caused by the use of a smaller grid size. Sigma-C now introduces a new algorithm, which enables the proximity effect correction by shape variation. It is included into CAPROX and supports hierarchy in the same manner as the other postprocessing operations. The exposure of the shape corrected pattern on a raster scan machine requires only one beam pass, whereas dose variation would require one pass for each dose. Exposures were made at IMEC and at Compugraphics. The first results on Leica EBMF10.5 and MEBES III are promising. The pure shape correction increases the line width uniformity and opens the process window for critical dimensions below 1 micrometers . Performance measurements show that the 64 Mb DRAM is a job of a few hours.

  4. The requirements for the future e-beam mask writer: statistical analysis of pattern accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hee; Choi, Jin; Kim, Hee Bom; Kim, Byung Gook; Cho, Han-Ku

    2011-11-01

    As semiconductor features shrink in size and pitch, the extreme control of CD uniformity, MTT and image placement is needed for mask fabrication with e-beam lithography. Among the many sources of CD and image placement error, the error resulting from e-beam mask writer becomes more important than before. CD and positioning error by e-beam mask writer is mainly related to the imperfection of e-beam deflection accuracy in optic system and the charging and contamination of column. To avoid these errors, the e-beam mask writer should be designed taking into account for these effects. However, the writing speed is considered for machine design with the highest priority, because the e-beam shot count is increased rapidly due to design shrink and aggressive OPC. The increment of shot count can make the pattern shift problem due to statistical issue resulting from e-beam deflection error and the total shot count in layout. And it affects the quality of CD and image placement too. In this report, the statistical approach on CD and image placement error caused by e-beam shot position error is presented. It is estimated for various writing conditions including the intrinsic e-beam positioning error of VSB writer. From the simulation study, the required e-beam shot position accuracy to avoid pattern shift problem in 22nm node and beyond is estimated taking into account for total shot count. And the required local CD uniformity is calculated for various e-beam writing conditions. The image placement error is also simulated for various conditions including e-beam writing field position error. Consequently, the requirements for the future e-beam mask writer and the writing conditions are discussed. And in terms of e-beam shot noise, LER caused by exposure dose and shot position error is studied for future e-beam mask writing for 22nm node and beyond.

  5. KrF excimer laser precision machining of hard and brittle ceramic biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yao-Xiong; Lu, Jian-Yi; Huang, Jin-Xia

    2014-06-01

    KrF excimer laser precision machining of porous hard-brittle ceramic biomaterials was studied to find a suitable way of machining the materials into various desired shapes and sizes without distorting their intrinsic structure and porosity. Calcium phosphate glass ceramics (CPGs) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were chosen for the study. It was found that KrF excimer laser can cut both CPGs and HA with high efficiency and precision. The ablation rates of CPGs and HA are respectively 0.081 µm/(pulse J cm(-2)) and 0.048 µm/(pulse  J cm(-2)), while their threshold fluences are individually 0.72 and 1.5 J cm(-2). The cutting quality (smoothness of the cut surface) is a function of laser repetition rate and cutting speed. The higher the repetition rate and lower the cutting speed, the better the cutting quality. A comparison between the cross sections of CPGs and HA cut using the excimer laser and using a conventional diamond cutting blade indicates that those cut by the excimer laser could retain their intrinsic porosity and geometry without distortion. In contrast, those cut by conventional machining had distorted geometry and most of their surface porosities were lost. Therefore, when cutting hard-brittle ceramic biomaterials to prepare scaffold and implant or when sectioning them for porosity evaluation, it is better to choose KrF excimer laser machining.

  6. Multi-shaped e-beam technology for mask writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramss, Juergen; Stoeckel, Arnd; Weidenmueller, Ulf; Doering, Hans-Joachim; Bloecker, Martin; Sczyrba, Martin; Finken, Michael; Wandel, Timo; Melzer, Detlef

    2010-09-01

    Photomask lithography for the 22nm technology node and beyond requires new approaches in equipment as well as mask design. Multi Shaped Beam technology (MSB) for photomask patterning using a matrix of small beamlets instead of just one shaped beam, is a very effective and evolutionary enhancement of the well established Variable Shaped Beam (VSB) technique. Its technical feasibility has been successfully demonstrated [2]. One advantage of MSB is the productivity gain over VSB with decreasing critical dimensions (CDs) and increasing levels of optical proximity correction (OPC) or for inverse lithography technology (ILT) and source mask optimization (SMO) solutions. This makes MSB an attractive alternative to VSB for photomask lithography at future technology nodes. The present paper describes in detail the working principles and advantages of MSB over VSB for photomask applications. MSB integrates the electron optical column, x/y stage and data path into an operational electron beam lithography system. Multi e-beam mask writer specific requirements concerning the computational lithography and their implementation are outlined here. Data preparation of aggressive OPC layouts, shot count reductions over VSB, data path architecture, write time simulation and several aspects of the exposure process sequence are also discussed. Analysis results of both the MSB processing and the write time of full 32nm and 22nm node critical layer mask layouts are presented as an example.

  7. Sterilization and strength of 70/30 polylactide cages: e-beam versus ethylene oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Theo H.; Thomas, Kevin A.; Hoogendoorn, Roel J. W.; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Helder, Marco N.; Wuisman, Paul I. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies on the degradation of 70/30 poly(L,DL-lactide) (PLDLLA) cages. To evaluate the effect of e-beam and ethylene oxide sterilization on degradation and strength. e-beam-sterilized PLDLLA cages were shown to maintain mechanical strength for at least 6 months during

  8. UV Raman spectroscopy of H2-air flames excited with a narrowband KrF laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, John A.

    1990-01-01

    Raman spectra of H2 and H2O in flames excited by a narrowband KrF excimer laser are reported. Observations are made over a porous-plug, flat-flame burner reacting H2 in air, fuel-rich with nitrogen dilution to control the temperature, and with an H2 diffusion flame. Measurements made from UV Raman spectra show good agreement with measurements made by other means, both for gas temperature and relative major species concentrations. Laser-induced fluorescence interferences arising from OH and O2 are observed in emission near the Raman spectra. These interferences do not preclude Raman measurements, however.

  9. Pulse shaping and energy storage capabilities of angularly multiplexed KrF laser fusion drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmberg, R. H.; Giuliani, J. L.; Schmitt, A. J.

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a rep-rated multibeam KrF laser driver design for the 500kJ Inertial Fusion test Facility (FTF) recently proposed by NRL, then models its optical pulse shaping capabilities using the ORESTES laser kinetics code. It describes a stable and reliable iteration technique for calculating the required precompensated input pulse shape that will achieve the desired output shape, even when the amplifiers are heavily saturated. It also describes how this precompensation technique could be experimentally implemented in real time on a reprated laser system. The simulations show that this multibeam system can achieve a high fidelity pulse shaping capability, even for a high gain shock ignition pulse whose final spike requires output intensities much higher than the ˜4MW/cm2 saturation levels associated with quasi-cw operation; i.e., they show that KrF can act as a storage medium even for pulsewidths of ˜1ns. For the chosen pulse, which gives a predicted fusion energy gain of ˜120, the simulations predict the FTF can deliver a total on-target energy of 428kJ, a peak spike power of 385TW, and amplified spontaneous emission prepulse contrast ratios IASE/Ilaser.

  10. Conceptual design of a KrF scaling module. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    A conceptual design of an angular multiplexed 50 kJ KrF laser module for Inertial Confinement Fusion is presented. Optical designs for encoding, beam packing and beam transfer between amplifier stages are developed; emphasis is placed on reducing prepulse problems and achieving acceptable optical quality. An axisymmetric optical design is identified as optimum in terms of simplicity, optical quality, cost and alignment. A kinetic code model was developed for the KrF amplifier and was used to derive scaling maps for the 50 kJ module. Attention was given to reducing parasitics, achieving acceptable extraction efficiency and accounting for amplified spontaneous emission effects. The size of the module is constrained by parasitic suppression and damage thresholds; the power gain is constrained by demanding 40% extraction efficiency in a double pass extraction geometry; and, the run time is constrained by the pulsed power technology (PFN or PFL) and acceptable values of g/sub 0/L. The bounds imposed on the design by the pulsed power technology were examined. Both PFLs and PFNs were considered along with their associated diode, hibachi and guide field requirements. A base line design for a 50 kJ module including amplifier staging, layout and overall size is discussed. Cost analysis and scaling for optical components, pulsed power technology and the guide field are also presented.

  11. Comparison of KrF and ArF excimer laser treatment of biopolymer surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaljaničová, I. [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Slepička, P., E-mail: petr.slepicka@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Heitz, J.; Barb, R.A. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Sajdl, P. [Department of Power Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Švorčík, V. [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-06-01

    Highlights: • The influence of ArF and KrF laser on biopolymer surface was determined. • ArF laser acts predominantly on biopolymer surface. • PHB roughness is increased similarly for both applied wavelengths. • Roughness of nanostructures can be precisely controlled. • ArF laser introduces nitrogen on PHB surface. - Abstract: The goal of this work was the investigation of the impact of two different excimer lasers on two biocompatible and biodegradable polymers (poly-L-lactide and poly hydroxybutyrate). Both polymers find usage in medical and pharmaceutical fields. The polymers were modified by KrF and ArF excimer lasers. Subsequently the impact on surface morphology, surface chemistry changes, and thermal properties was studied by means of confocal and AFM microscopy, FTIR and XPS spectroscopy and DSC calorimetry. Under the same conditions of laser treatment it was observed that ArF laser causes more significant changes on surface chemistry, surface morphology and pattern formation on the polymers under investigation. The data obtained in this work can be used for a wide range of possible applications, in tissue engineering or in combination with metallization in electronics, e.g. for biosensors.

  12. Using E-beam Mapping to Detect Coil Misalignment in NCSX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrickson, E.; Georgiyevskiy, A.; Rudakov, V.; Zarnstorff, M. C.

    2005-10-18

    Following assembly of the NCSX device, a program of e-beam mapping experiments is planned to validate the accuracy of the construction and assembly of the NCSX coil systems. To aid in the development of requirements for the e-beam mapping hardware and machine requirements, simulations of the e-beam mapping experiments, including various coil misalignments, have been done. The magnetic flux surface configuration was constructed using a numerical code, based on the Biot-Savart law, to calculate the magnetic field components and trace the field line trajectory many times around the torus. Magnetic surfaces are then mapped by recording the field line intersections with toroidal cross-sections of the magnetic system, much as in an actual e-beam mapping experiment.

  13. Sterilization and strength of 70/30 polylactide cages: e-beam versus ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Theo H; Thomas, Kevin A; Hoogendoorn, Roel J W; Strijkers, Gustav J; Helder, Marco N; Wuisman, Paul I J M

    2007-04-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies on the degradation of 70/30 poly(L,DL-lactide) (PLDLLA) cages. To evaluate the effect of e-beam and ethylene oxide sterilization on degradation and strength. e-beam-sterilized PLDLLA cages were shown to maintain mechanical strength for at least 6 months during degradation studies in vitro. Yet failure of the cages was observed after only 3 months in vivo. We hypothesized that degradation characteristics and mechanical strength could be improved by sterilizing the cages through ethylene oxide (EtO) instead of e-beam. PLDLLA cages were sterilized either by e-beam or EtO, and degraded in phosphate-buffered saline. Each month, cages were compressed until failure. Inherent viscosity was determined as a measure of degradation. For the in vivo evaluation, e-beam- or EtO-sterilized cages were implanted at L3-L4 in a standardized goat model. After 3 or 6 months, retrieved segments were scanned by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Also, inherent viscosity of the polymer was measured. e-beam sterilization strongly decreased inherent viscosity of PLDLLA compared with EtO sterilization, but initial strength was only affected marginally. After 6 months, the strength of the e-beam-sterilized cages dropped, while that of EtO-sterilized cages was maintained. Degradation in vivo was slightly faster than in vitro. In both groups, however, mechanical failure occurred at 3 months after implantation. Inherent viscosity decreases with degradation time, but strength only decreases when inherent viscosity is below a certain threshold. Above this threshold, mechanical strength is a property of the polymer and independent of inherent viscosity. e-beam sterilization strongly decreases inherent viscosity and thus advances mechanical degradation. EtO sterilization delays degradation but does not increase initial strength. Early failure of PLDLLA cages in the goat model thus is unrelated to sterilization method and requires further study.

  14. Single-shot measurement of subpicosecond KrF pulse width by three-photon fluorescence of the XeF visible transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarukura, N; Watanabe, M; Endoh, A; Watanabe, S

    1988-11-01

    The intensity of the XeF C-A transition induced by a subpicosecond KrF laser is shown to have a cubic dependence on KrF laser intensity. The third-order autocorrelation technique for measuring the duration of a single KrF subpicosecond pulse has been developed utilizing this visible transition. A pulse width of 220 fsec was successfully measured with a high contrast of ~10. The visible fluorescence is more useful to researchers than vacuum-UV fluorescences. Furthermore, this simple technique may be applied over a wide UV wavelength region from 204 to 306 nm.

  15. Applicability of KrF excimer laser induced fluorescence in sooting high-pressure flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildenbrandt, F.; Schulz, C.; Sick, V.; Jander, H.; Wagner, H.G.

    1999-07-01

    Laser-induced emissions obtained after excitation with a tunable KrF excimer laser at 248 nm were measured in well-defined sooting laminar high-pressure flames fueled with methane/air and ethylene/air up to 15 bar. A spectral analysis shows that Mie scattering, Raman scattering and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) signals can be used for detailed flame studies under sooting high-pressure conditions. Mie scattering is correlated with soot, Raman signals can be used to measure spatially-resolved major species concentrations as well as temperatures. A LIF-scheme to measure NO was found to be applicable even under these conditions. The broadband fluorescence in the range from 270 to 290 nm, usually discarded as background, correlates well with the total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) as measured via GC-MS methods. (orig.)

  16. Patterning of 90nm node flash contact hole with assist feature using KrF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Yeonah; Jun, Sungho; Choi, Jaeyoung; Choi, Kwangseon; Han, Jae-won; Wang, Kechang; McCarthy, John; Xiao, Guangming; Dai, Grace; Son, DongHwan; Zhou, Xin; Cecil, Thomas; Kim, David; Baik, KiHo

    2009-10-01

    Patterning of contact holes using KrF lithography system is one of the most challenging tasks for the sub-90nm technology node,. Contact hole patterns can be printed with a KrF lithography system using Off-Axis Illumination (OAI) such as Quasar or Quadrupole. However, such a source usually offers poor image contrast and poor depth of focus (DOF), especially for isolated contact holes. In addition to image contrast and DOF, circularity of hole shape is also an important parameter for device performance. Sub-resolution assist features (SRAF) can be used to improve the image contrast, DOF and circularity for isolated contact holes. Application of SRAFs, modifies the intensity profile of isolated features to be more like dense ones, improving the focal response of the isolated feature. The insertion of SRAFs in a contact design is most commonly done using rule-based scripting, where the initial rules for configuring the SRAFs are derived using a simulation tool to determining the distance of assist features to main feature, and the size and number of assist features to be used.. However in the case of random contact holes, rule-based SRAF placement is a nearly impossible task. To address this problem, an inverse lithography technique was successfully used to treat random contact holes. The impact of SRAF configuration on pattern profile, especially circularity and process margin, is demonstrated. It is also shown that the experimental data are easily predicted by calibrating aerial image simulation results. Finally, a methodology for optimizing SRAF rules using inverse lithography technology is described.

  17. Improvement of KrF contact layer by inverse lithography technology with assist feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Sungho; Shim, Yeon-Ah; Choi, Jaeyoung; Choi, Kwangsun; Han, Jae-won; Wang, Kechang; McCarthy, John; Xiao, Guangming; Dai, Grace; Son, DongHwan; Zhou, Xin; Cecil, Tom; Kim, David; Baik, KiHo

    2010-05-01

    Patterning of contact holes using KrF lithography system is one of the most challenging tasks for the sub-90nm technology node,. Contact hole patterns can be printed with a KrF lithography system using Off-Axis Illumination (OAI) such as Quasar or Quadrupole. However, such a source usually offers poor image contrast and poor depth of focus (DOF), especially for isolated contact holes. In addition to image contrast and DOF, circularity of hole shape is also an important parameter for device performance. Sub-resolution assist features (SRAF) can be used to improve the image contrast, DOF and circularity for isolated contact holes. Application of SRAFs, modifies the intensity profile of isolated features to be more like dense ones, improving the focal response of the isolated feature. The insertion of SRAFs in a contact design is most commonly done using rule-based scripting, where the initial rules for configuring the SRAFs are derived using a simulation tool to determining the distance of assist features to main feature, and the size and number of assist features to be used. However in the case of random contact holes, rule-based SRAF placement is a nearly impossible task. To address this problem, an inverse lithography technique was successfully used to treat random contact holes. The impact of SRAF configuration on pattern profile, especially circularity and process margin, is demonstrated. It is also shown that the experimental data are easily predicted by calibrating aerial image simulation results. Finally, a methodology for optimizing SRAF rules using inverse lithography technology is described.

  18. Mask writing time explosion and its effect on CD control in e-beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hee; Choi, Jin; Min, Seong Jun; Kim, Hee Bom; Kim, Byung Gook; Woo, Sang-Gyun; Cho, Han-Ku

    2010-05-01

    As semiconductor features shrink in size and pitch, the extreme control of CD uniformity and MTT is needed for mask fabrication with e-beam lithography. And because of huge shot density of data, the writing time of e-beam lithography for mask fabrication will be increased rapidly in future design node. The beam drift caused by charging of optic system and current density drift can affect the beam size, position and exposure dose stability. From the empirical data, those are the function of writing time. Although e-beam lithography tool has the correction function which can be applied during writing, there are remained errors after correction which result in CD uniformity error. According to the writing time increasing, the residual error of correction will be more important and give the limit of CD uniformity and MTT. In this study, we study the beam size and exposure dose error as a function of time. Those are mainly caused by charging and current density drift. And we present the predicted writing time of e-beam lithography below 32nm node and estimate its effect on CD control error. From the relation between writing time and CD control error, we achieve the limit of CD uniformity with e-beam mask writer. And we suggest the method to achieve required CD uniformity at 22nm node and beyond.

  19. Penis Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... appointment might be less involved. Choosing a penis pump Some penis pumps are available without a prescription, ... doesn't get caught in the ring. Penis pumps for penis enlargement Many advertisements in magazines and ...

  20. Krypton Gas for High Quality Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes Synthesis by KrF Excimer Laser Ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasim Al-Zanganawee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report for the first time the production of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs by KrF excimer laser ablation method under the krypton gas atmosphere. For the ablation experiment 450 mJ energy and 30 Hz repetition rate KrF excimer laser was used, and the target was prepared with the following composition: 0.6% Ni, 0.6% Co, and 98.8% C (atomic percentage. The ablation product was characterized by confocal Raman microspectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The SWCNTs obtained are a mixture of semiconducting and metallic types with narrow diameters distribution of 1.26 to 1.49 nm, are micrometers long, and contain low amount of graphite and amorphous carbon.

  1. Centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, HH

    1981-01-01

    Centrifugal Pumps describes the whole range of the centrifugal pump (mixed flow and axial flow pumps are dealt with more briefly), with emphasis on the development of the boiler feed pump. Organized into 46 chapters, this book discusses the general hydrodynamic principles, performance, dimensions, type number, flow, and efficiency of centrifugal pumps. This text also explains the pumps performance; entry conditions and cavitation; speed and dimensions for a given duty; and losses. Some chapters further describe centrifugal pump mechanical design, installation, monitoring, and maintenance. The

  2. Intrinsic efficiency and critical power deposition in the e-beam sustained Ar:Xe laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, H.; Botma, H.; Peters, P.J.M.; Witteman, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental investigations on an e-beam sustained near infrared Ar:Xe laser have been carried out to determine the intrinsic efficiency at optimized conditions. A parametric study at different sustainer currents reveals a maximum output energy depending on current density. Up to 8 bar the optimized

  3. The e-Beam Sustained Laser Technology for Space-based Doppler Wind Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. J.; Holman, W.; Robinson, R. J.; Schwarzenberger, P. M.; Smith, I. M.; Wallace, S.; Harris, M. R.; Willetts, D. V.; Kurzius, S. C.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of GEC Avionics activities relating to the Spaceborne Doppler Wind Lidar. In particular, the results of design studies into the use of an e-beam sustained CO2 laser for spaceborne applications, and experimental work on a test bed system are discussed.

  4. Active Stabilization of the Beam Pointing of a High- Power KrF Laser System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna1 A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An active beam-pointing stabilization system has been developed for a high-power KrF laser system to eliminate the long-term drift of the directional change of the beam in order to have a stable focusing to a high intensity. The control of the beam direction was achieved by a motor-driven mirror activated by an electric signal obtained by monitoring the position of the focus of the output beam. Instead of large sized UV-sensitive position sensitive detectors a simple arrangement with scatter plates and photodiodes are used to measure the directionality of the beam. After the beam stabilization the long-term residual deviation of the laser shots is ~14 μrad, which is comparable to the shot-to-shot variation of the beam (~12 μrad. This deviation is small enough to keep the focal spot size in a micrometer range when tightly focusing the beam using off-axis parabolic mirrors.

  5. Ripple polystyrene nano-pattern induced by KrF laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Slepicka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of excimer laser treatment of polystyrene surface was performed. The influence of laser fluence and number of laser pulses on surface chemistry and morphology was determined. The surface morphology and roughness were studied with atomic force microscopy. Surface wettability and aging studies were characterized by the water contact angle measurements. Surface oxygen concentration and chemistry were evaluated from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and zeta potential measurements. The optimal polystyrene treatment parameters for the most regular pattern were determined. The foils with optimal ripple pattern were subsequently sputtered with gold nano-layers of 100 nm thickness. It was found that the surface roughness of PS strongly depends on number of pulses. The aging study revealed that the higher contact angle achieve the samples treated with higher laser fluence. The deposition of gold nano-layer increases the surface roughness of nano-patterned surface. It was proved that the oxygen concentration is significantly influenced by the KrF laser exposure.

  6. Demonstration of lithography patterns using reflective e-beam direct write

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Regina; Sun, Jeff; Brodie, Alan; Petric, Paul; McCord, Mark; Ronse, Kurt; Haspeslagh, Luc; Vereecke, Bart

    2011-04-01

    Traditionally, e-beam direct write lithography has been too slow for most lithography applications. E-beam direct write lithography has been used for mask writing rather than wafer processing since the maximum blur requirements limit column beam current - which drives e-beam throughput. To print small features and a fine pitch with an e-beam tool requires a sacrifice in processing time unless one significantly increases the total number of beams on a single writing tool. Because of the uncertainty with regards to the optical lithography roadmap beyond the 22 nm technology node, the semiconductor equipment industry is in the process of designing and testing e-beam lithography tools with the potential for high volume wafer processing. For this work, we report on the development and current status of a new maskless, direct write e-beam lithography tool which has the potential for high volume lithography at and below the 22 nm technology node. A Reflective Electron Beam Lithography (REBL) tool is being developed for high throughput electron beam direct write maskless lithography. The system is targeting critical patterning steps at the 22 nm node and beyond at a capital cost equivalent to conventional lithography. Reflective Electron Beam Lithography incorporates a number of novel technologies to generate and expose lithographic patterns with a throughput and footprint comparable to current 193 nm immersion lithography systems. A patented, reflective electron optic or Digital Pattern Generator (DPG) enables the unique approach. The Digital Pattern Generator is a CMOS ASIC chip with an array of small, independently controllable lens elements (lenslets), which act as an array of electron mirrors. In this way, the REBL system is capable of generating the pattern to be written using massively parallel exposure by ~1 million beams at extremely high data rates (~ 1Tbps). A rotary stage concept using a rotating platen carrying multiple wafers optimizes the writing strategy of

  7. Implementing chemically amplified resist to 10kV raster e-beam process in photomask manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sook-Kyeong; Kim, Byung-Gook; Moon, Seong-Yong; Choi, Sung-Woon; Han, Woo-Sung

    2005-06-01

    CAR(Chemically amplified resist) is widely used in 50keV VSB (Variable Shaped Beam) e-beam process in photomask manufacturing due to its advantage of high sensitivity which gives to reduced writing time compared to non-CAR. The 10kV raster e-beam system, however, is spread out already worldwide and plays a important role till now in middle grade mask-making. Conventionally the non-CAR like ZEP7000 has been applied to the 10kV raster e-beam system and it gives good performance for raster scan e-beam system. In mass production, sometimes, maintaining two kinds of resist simultaneously of CAR and non-CAR are inefficient strategy to the mask house which has limited resources. This situation makes the authors to apply CAR to the 10kV raster e-beam process. Generally, the grid of 10kV raster e-beam(MEBES) is large and limited compared to the current VSB grid. Historically, many layout data is designed already based on the large limited grid and this gives to limited sizing value. Moreover, it is difficult to control exposure dose in raster e-beam system and control bias with develop time in CAR process. These situations make more difficult CAR application to raster e-beam system under the simple mask data preparation strategy. In this paper, some critical problems will be discussed in isofocal process making for raster scan e-beam system. Advantage and disadvantage will be also discussed through the comparison of basic parameters such as dose margin, develop margin, and the fogging effect between the CAR and non-CAR process in 10kV raster e-beam process.

  8. Comparative evaluation results of CMS replacement resist for e-beam reticle fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, H; Asakawa, K; Yokoya, Y; Wada, T

    1999-01-01

    Looking for a CMS replacement resist is an urgent assignment for e- beam reticle fabrication, which enables us to maintain flexibility of reticle fabrications. The CMS-EX series was discontinued in 1995, and its stored resin will be used up completely soon in this year 1999. We then tried to find a replacement resist, and examined commercially available resists SEL-N1000, SEL-N1100 and ZEN4400. We studied their behavior to post-spin baking temperature, in order to bring out their potential, by investigating isolated clear pattern fidelity in details as it was the most tough one to make by a negative-working resist. This paper describes our comparative evaluation results of commercially available negative-working resists to determine a CMS- EX-S replacement for e-beam reticle fabrication. (4 refs).

  9. Semi-commercial scale production of carrageenan plant growth promoter by E-beam technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Lucille V.; Dean, Giuseppe Filam O.; Magsino, Gil L.; Dela Cruz, Rafael Miguel M.; Tecson, Mariel G.; Abella, Matt Ezekiel S.; Hizon, Mark Gil S.

    2018-02-01

    The plant growth promoter (PGP) effect of different formulations of gamma-irradiated carrageenan solutions were tested on rice by foliar spraying. The best formulation was produced in large quantity for field application. Multilocation trials of around 1600 ha rice field in different regions of the Philippines indicated increase in yield of an average of around 20%. Increased resistance to tungro virus was also noted. Likewise, there was extensive root growth, increase in number of tillers, and development of sturdy stems that prevented lodging of rice plant. E-beam irradiation of carrageenan PGP was also studied to increase its throughput of production. Degradation of carrageenan by e-beam irradiation is inhibited by the formation of crosslinks. Optimisation by addition of hydrogen peroxide to improve degradation is discussed. A continuous flow liquid handling system has been fabricated to increase throughput of the carrageenan PGP. Using the optimized parameters, the system can produce a volume of approximately 1700 L/h.

  10. Development of a high power 2-MeV e-beam irradiation port

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Cheol; Cho, Sung Oh; Jeong, Young Uk; Kim, Sun Kook

    2001-01-01

    A electron beam irradiator for the 2-MeV electron accelerator has been developed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The irradiator is composed of the beamline, irradiation port, and e-beam monitoring system. The beamline is composed of two bending magnets, four solenoid magnets, two quadrupole magnets, and three steering magnets. The e-beam monitoring system is composed of a average current monitor, a beam position monitor, and an optical transition radiation monitor. The effective area of the irradiation port is 80 600 mm{sup 2}. The electron beam irradiator will be used for improvement of semiconductor performance, modification of polymer characteristics, sterilization of foods, treatment of waste water, etc.

  11. E-beam-Cure Fabrication of Polymer Fiber/Matrix Composites for Multifunctional Radiation Shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Jensen, Brian J.; Thibeault, Sheila A.; Hou, Tan-Hung; Saether, Erik; Glaessgen, Edward H.; Humes, Donald H.; Chang, Chie K.; Badavi, Francis F.; Kiefer, Rrichard L.; hide

    2004-01-01

    Aliphatic polymers were identified as optimum radiation polymeric shielding materials for building multifunctional structural elements. Conceptual damage-tolerant configurations of polyolefins have been proposed but many issues on the manufacture remain. In the present paper, we will investigate fabrication technologies with e-beam curing for inclusion of high-strength aliphatic polymer fibers into a highly cross-linked polyolefin matrix. A second stage of development is the fabrication methods for applying face sheets to aliphatic polymer closed-cell foams.

  12. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  13. Evaluation of ARAA steel E-beam welding characteristics for the fabrication of KO HCCR TBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jae Sung, E-mail: jsyoon2@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Research Energy Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk-Kwon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Research Energy Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyu In [Gentec Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • For confirming the evaluation of ARAA steel E-beam welding characteristics for the fabrication of KO HCCR TBM, the followings are performed. • E-beam welding in ARAA plate. • Evaluation for the penetration depth and beam width according to the E-beam welding current. • Performed micro-hardness and Charpy impact test after PWHT. • Determine the optimized PWHT condition. - Abstract: Korea has designed a helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) test blanket module (TBM), including a TBM shield, called a TBM set, that will be tested in ITER. Korean RAFM steel was developed as a structural material for the HCCR TBM, and advanced reduced activation alloy (ARAA) was selected as the primary candidate from various program alloys. Fabrication technologies for the HCCR TBM were developed using ARAA to provide the method and procedure for fabricating the TBM for testing in ITER based on RCC-MRx, which was selected as the design and fabrication code and standard for the HCCR TBM. To establish and optimize welding procedures for electron beam welding of an ARAA material, variations in welding current and speed were investigated. A series of performance tests was performed before and after post-weld heat treatment to evaluate the welded specimen under the determined welding conditions.

  14. E-Beam Capture Aid Drawing Based Modelling on Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, T.; Rahmat, A.; Redjeki, S.; Rahman, T.

    2017-09-01

    The objectives of this research are to find out how far Drawing-based Modeling assisted with E-Beam Capture could support student’s scientific reasoning skill using Drawing - based Modeling approach assisted with E-Beam Capture. The research design that is used for this research is the Pre-test and Post-test Design. The data collection of scientific reasoning skills is collected by giving multiple choice questions before and after the lesson. The data analysis of scientific reasoning skills is using scientific reasoning assessment rubric. The results show an improvement of student’s scientific reasoning in every indicator; an improvement in generativity which shows 2 students achieving high scores, 3 students in elaboration reasoning, 4 students in justification, 3 students in explanation, 3 students in logic coherency, 2 students in synthesis. The research result in student’s explanation reasoning has the highest number of students with high scores, which shows 20 students with high scores in the pre-test and 23 students in post-test and synthesis reasoning shows the lowest number, which shows 1 student in the pretest and 3 students in posttest. The research result gives the conclusion that Drawing-based Modeling approach assisted with E-Beam Capture could not yet support student’s scientific reasoning skills comprehensively.

  15. eBeam initiative survey reports confidence in EUV and multi-beam technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Aki; Willis, Jan

    2017-07-01

    A record 73 industry luminaries representing more than 30 different companies from across the semiconductor ecosystem participated in the 2016 eBeam Initiative perceptions survey. The eBeam Initiative also completed its second annual mask makers' survey with feedback from 10 captive and merchant photomask manufacturers. Among the results of the members' perception survey, respondents remained optimistic in the implementation of EUV lithography for semiconductor high-volume manufacturing (HVM), with confidence in EUV increasing over other next-generation lithography (NGL) techniques compared with last year's survey. In addition, expectations on the use of multi-beam technology for advanced photomask HVM by the end of 2018 continue to remain strong. Results from the eBeam Initiative's second annual mask makers' survey indicate several surprising trends on mask making related to write times, turn-around time (TAT) for mask manufacturing, resists, mask yields and other critical issues. The author will review the key findings and offer his viewpoint on their significance.

  16. Irradiation-Assisted Stress-Corrosion Cracking of Nitinol During eBeam Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stuart A.; Gause, Brock; Plumley, David; Drexel, Masao J.

    2012-12-01

    Medical device fractures during gamma and electron beam (eBeam) sterilization have been reported. Two common factors in these device fractures were a constraining force and the presence of fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP). This study investigated the effects of eBeam sterilization on constrained light-oxide nitinol wires in FEP. The goal was to recreate these fractures and determine their root cause. Superelastic nitinol wires were placed inside FEP tubes and constrained with nominal outer fiber strains of 10, 15, and 20%. These samples were then subjected to a range of eBeam sterilization doses up to 400 kGy and compared with unconstrained wires also subjected to sterilization. Fractures were observed at doses of >100 kGy. Analysis of the fracture surfaces indicated that the samples failed due to irradiation-assisted stress-corrosion cracking (IASCC). This same effect was also observed to occur with PTFE at 400 kGy. These results suggest that nitinol is susceptible to IASCC when in the presence of a constraining stress, fluorinated polymers, and irradiation.

  17. Fast and stable gratings inscription in POFs made of different materials with pulsed 248 nm KrF laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, C. A.F.; Min, R.; Leal, A.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents fiber Bragg grating (FBG) inscription with a pulsed 248 nm UV KrF laser in polymer optical fibers (POFs) made of different polymers, namely polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), cyclic-olefin polymer and co-polymer, and Polycarbonate. The inscribed gratings and the corresponding...... is more than 130 times. In addition, a reflectivity and a bandwidth close to or higher than the ones with the 325 nm laser were obtained. The polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (POFBGs) inscribed with the 248 nm laser setup present high stability with small variations in their central wavelength...

  18. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  19. Centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Gülich, Johann Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    This book gives an unparalleled, up-to-date, in-depth treatment of all kinds of flow phenomena encountered in centrifugal pumps including the complex interactions of fluid flow with vibrations and wear of materials. The scope includes all aspects of hydraulic design, 3D-flow phenomena and partload operation, cavitation, numerical flow calculations, hydraulic forces, pressure pulsations, noise, pump vibrations (notably bearing housing vibration diagnostics and remedies), pipe vibrations, pump characteristics and pump operation, design of intake structures, the effects of highly viscous flows, pumping of gas-liquid mixtures, hydraulic transport of solids, fatigue damage to impellers or diffusers, material selection under the aspects of fatigue, corrosion, erosion-corrosion or hydro-abrasive wear, pump selection, and hydraulic quality criteria. As a novelty, the 3rd ed. brings a fully analytical design method for radial impellers, which eliminates the arbitrary choices inherent to former design procedures. The d...

  20. Pumping life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitsel, Oleg; Dach, Ingrid; Hoffmann, Robert Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The name PUMPKIN may suggest a research centre focused on American Halloween traditions or the investigation of the growth of vegetables – however this would be misleading. Researchers at PUMPKIN, short for Centre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease, are in fact interested in a large family o......’. Here we illustrate that the pumping of ions means nothing less than the pumping of life....

  1. An optimal high contrast e-beam lithography process for the patterning of dense fin networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruleux-Cornu, F. [Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie, CNRS UMR 8520, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France)]. E-mail: frederique.fruleux@isen.fr; Penaud, J. [Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie, CNRS UMR 8520, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France); Dubois, E. [Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie, CNRS UMR 8520, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France); Francois, M. [Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie, CNRS UMR 8520, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France); Muller, M. [Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie, CNRS UMR 8520, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France)

    2006-07-15

    There are many difficulties to overcome towards the integration of 10 nm CMOS technology. One such major challenge is to keep a tight control of the leakage current of devices while increasing the current drive at a reduced supply voltage. In this context, multi-gated structures, which are used to control the transport in ultra-thin channel (e.g. FinFET), are a promising solution. A critical step during the fabrication process of a FinFET is the patterning of dense, high aspect ratio fins. High demand is therefore placed on e-beam lithography techniques to obtain narrow, sharp, densely packed resist lines. This paper presents a detailed study on the optimum e-beam exposure process using a negative tone e-beam resist, namely Hydrogen Silsesquioxane (HSQ). The impact of the pre-exposure bake temperature, of the Tetramethyl Ammonium Hydroxide (TMAH) concentration in development solution and of development time has been investigated. The standard process uses 2.38% TMAH as a developer, samples being pre-baked on a hotplate at a temperature between 150 and 220 deg. C for 2 min. By using a lower pre-bake temperature of 90 deg. C and a more concentrated TMAH solution dosed at 25%, a seven-fold improvement of contrast can be obtained in terms of contrast values. Cross sectional SEM views show fin networks with a pitch ranging from 40 nm to 200 nm. The line profiles are steep and an excellent uniformity is obtained across the whole network, even for lines located at the edge. Dense patterns are presented with lines as narrow as 15 nm and with a 25 nm space.

  2. Transformation Of Pattern Personality In E-Beam Lithography : A Conceptual Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopmans, F.; Froyen, E.; Jonckheere, R.

    1988-06-01

    This paper discusses the concept of pattern personality and its application to the characterization of different software and technological aspects in E-Beam direct write lithography. In this approach the personality of a pattern is related to a spectrum of the characteristic dimensions of a design. We explain simple techniques to obtain these spectra and indicate how they can be implied to predict and decide on the best writing strategy. Pattern personality is intended to be used as a compressed format that still contains enough information to base decisions on and compute the impact of processing steps on the pattern fidelity.

  3. A novel process control method for a TT-300 E-Beam/X-Ray system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorfer, Josef; Gallnböck-Wagner, Bernhard

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents some aspects of the process control method for a TT-300 E-Beam/X-Ray system at Mediscan, Austria. The novelty of the approach is the seamless integration of routine monitoring dosimetry with process data. This allows to calculate a parametric dose for each production unit and consequently a fine grain and holistic process performance monitoring. Process performance is documented in process control charts for the analysis of individual runs as well as historic trending of runs of specific process categories over a specified time range.

  4. Sub-20nm hybrid lithography using optical, pitch-division, and e-beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belledent, J.; Smayling, M.; Pradelles, J.; Pimenta-Barros, P.; Barnola, S.; Mage, L.; Icard, B.; Lapeyre, C.; Soulan, S.; Pain, L.

    2012-03-01

    A roadmap extending far beyond the current 22nm CMOS node has been presented several times. [1] This roadmap includes the use of a highly regular layout style which can be decomposed into "lines and cuts."[2] The "lines" can be done with existing optical immersion lithography and pitch division with self-aligned spacers.[3] The "cuts" can be done with either multiple exposures using immersion lithography, or a hybrid solution using either EUV or direct-write ebeam.[ 4] The choice for "cuts" will be driven by the availability of cost-effective, manufacturing-ready equipment and infrastructure. Optical lithography improvements have enabled scaling far beyond what was expected; for example, soft x-rays (aka EUV) were in the semiconductor roadmap as early as 1994 since optical resolution was not expected for sub-100nm features. However, steady improvements and innovations such as Excimer laser sources and immersion photolithography have allowed some manufacturers to build 22nm CMOS SOCs with single-exposure optical lithography. With the transition from random complex 2D shapes to regular 1D-patterns at 28nm, the "lines and cuts" approach can extend CMOS logic to at least the 7nm node. The spacer double patterning for lines and optical cuts patterning is expected to be used down to the 14nm node. In this study, we extend the scaling to 18nm half-pitch which is approximately the 10-11nm node using spacer pitch division and complementary e-beam lithography. For practical reasons, E-Beam lithography is used as well to expose the "mandrel" patterns that support the spacers. However, in a production mode, it might be cost effective to replace this step by a standard 193nm exposure and applying the spacer technique twice to divide the pitch by 3 or 4. The Metal-1 "cut" pattern is designed for a reasonably complex logic function with ~100k gates of combinatorial logic and flip-flops. Since the final conductor is defined by a Damascene process, the "cut" patterns become islands

  5. REAP (raster e-beam advanced process) using 50-kV raster e-beam system for sub-100-nm node mask technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Ki-Ho; Dean, Robert L.; Mueller, Mark; Lu, Maiying; Lem, Homer Y.; Osborne, Stephen; Abboud, Frank E.

    2002-07-01

    A chemically amplified resist (CAR) process has been recognized as an approach to meet the demanding critical dimension (CD) specifications of 100nm node technology and beyond. Recently, significant effort has been devoted to optimizing CAR materials, which offer the characteristics required for next generation photomask fabrication. In this paper, a process established with a positive-tone CAR from TOK and 50kV MEBES eXara system is discussed. This resist is developed for raster scan 50 kV e-beam systems. It has high contrast, good coating characteristics, good dry etch selectivity, and high environmental stability. The coating process is conducted in an environment with amine concentration less than 2 ppb. A nitrogen environment is provided during plate transfer steps. Resolution using a 60nm writing grid is 90nm line and space patterns. CD linearity is maintained down to 240nm for isolated lines or spaces by applying embedded proximity effect correction (emPEC). Optimizations of post-apply bake (PAB) and post-expose bake (PEB) time, temperature, and uniformity are completed to improve adhesion, coating uniformity, and resolution. A puddle develop process is optimized to improve line edge roughness, edge slope, and resolution. Dry etch process is optimized on a TetraT system to transfer the resist image into the chrome layer with minimum etch bias.

  6. Negative e-beam resists using for nano-imprint lithography and silicone mold fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, S. L.; T. V., Anil Kumar; Sheu, Gene; Yang, Shao-Ming; Chen, M. C.; Hong, C. S.

    2015-03-01

    Nano-imprinting technology, as one of the most promising fabrication technologies, has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for large-area replication up to wafer-level, with features down to nanometer scale. This study aims to develop capabilities in patterning nano structure using thermal nano-imprint lithography (NIL). 30nm Si molds are patterned by electron-beam lithography (EBL) using NEB22 A2 negative e-beam resist. The NEB22 A2 negative e-beam resist possess a variety of characteristics desirable for NIL, such as low viscosity, low bulk-volumetric shrinkage, high Young's modulus, high thermal stability, and excellent dry-etch resistance. The excellent oxygenetch resistance of the barrier material enables a final transfer pattern that is about three times higher than that of the original NIL mold. Based on these imprint on negative electron beam resist approach is used for pattern transfer into silicon substrates. The result is a high-resolution pattern with feature sizes in the range of nanometer to several microns.

  7. Primary processes in e-beam and laser lithographies for phase-shift mask manufacturing II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Masa-aki; Arai, Masumi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Moro-oka, Hisashi; Takahashi, Yoichi; Sano, Hisatake

    1993-03-01

    Two lithographic processes for phase-shift mask (PSM) manufacturing have been investigated. In particular, processes in E-beam (electron beam) lithography by use of a charge-dissipating layer of a conductive polymer are studied. Two commercial conductive polymers, TQV and ESPACER100, are found to work well for charge-dissipation. Three new resists along with CMS and EBR9 are evaluated regarding their properties necessary for patterning a shifter layer. Among them two new resists are demonstrated to be excellent. The effect of the number of data-blocks on the alignment accuracy is examined in delineation with a Hitachi HL-600, where each data-block has four fine-alignment marks. The examination suggests that the use of one or two data-blocks is practical. As to combination of writers for the Cr level and the shifter level, HL-600 - HL-600 gave better alignment accuracy than the other combinations, WW6000 - HL-600 and MEBES III - HL-600, did. The comparison between the E-beam and the laser writers is summarized.

  8. High speed e-beam lithography for gold nanoarray fabrication and use in nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Trasobares

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available E-beam lithography has been used for reliable and versatile fabrication of sub-15 nm single-crystal gold nanoarrays and led to convincing applications in nanotechnology. However, so far this technique was either too slow for centimeter to wafer-scale writing or fast enough with the so-called dot on the fly (DOTF technique but not optimized for sub-15 nm dots dimension. This prevents use of this technology for some applications and characterization techniques. Here, we show that the DOTF technique can be used without degradation in dots dimension. In addition, we propose two other techniques. The first one is an advanced conventional technique that goes five times faster than the conventional one. The second one relies on sequences defined before writing which enable versatility in e-beam patterns compared to the DOTF technique with same writing speed. By comparing the four different techniques, we evidence the limiting parameters for the writing speed. Wafer-scale fabrication of such arrays with 50 nm pitch allowed XPS analysis of a ferrocenylalkyl thiol self-assembled monolayer coated gold nanoarray.

  9. Enhanced performance of a repetitively pulsed 130 mJ KrF laser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-05

    Jan 5, 2014 ... will lead to an arc formation which is not desirable for uniform laser pumping. Therefore, ... plasma uniformity, which is ensured by an efficient pre-ionizer coupled to the laser sys- tem. In this short paper, ... On triggering the thyratron, the energy of the main storage capacitor bank is transferred to the peaking ...

  10. Development of a Silicon Based Electron Beam Transmission Window for Use in a KrF Excimer Laser System

    CERN Document Server

    Gentile, C A; Hartfield, J W; Hawryluk, R J; Hegeler, F; Heitzenroeder, P J; Jun, C H; Ku, L P; Lamarche, P H; Myers, M C; Parker, J J; Parsells, R F; Payen, M; Raftopoulos, S; Sethian, J D

    2002-01-01

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), in collaboration with the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), is currently investigating various novel materials (single crystal silicon, , and ) for use as electron-beam transmission windows in a KrF excimer laser system. The primary function of the window is to isolate the active medium (excimer gas) from the excitation mechanism (field-emission diodes). Chosen window geometry must accommodate electron energy transfer greater than 80% (750 keV), while maintaining structural integrity during mechanical load (1.3 to 2.0 atm base pressure differential, approximate 0.5 atm cyclic pressure amplitude, 5 Hz repetition rate) and thermal load across the entire hibachi area (approximate 0.9 W centre dot cm superscript ''-2''). In addition, the window must be chemically resistant to attack by fluorine free-radicals (hydrofluoric acid, secondary). In accordance with these structural, functional, and operational parameters, a 22.4 mm square silicon prototype window, coated w...

  11. Space Resolved XUV Spectroscopy and Shearing Interferometry from a 10 ps KrF Laser-Produced-Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, E. J.; Griem, H. R.; Elton, R. C.; Scott, H. A.; Moreno, J. C.

    1999-11-01

    We produced a plasma using 50 mJ, 10 ps pulses from a KrF laser on boron-carbide targets, with a focal spot size of ≈. 30 μm. We achieved an ≈ 30 μm spatial resolution (along the plasma axis) on spectra obtained using a crossed slit equipped 1 m grazing-incidence spectrograph. We added also a shearing interferometer with an air wedge [Sarkisov, G. S Instruments and Experimental Techniques Vol39, Iss. 5 ,727, 1996] to produce interferograms of the plasma with an ≈ 45 μm background fringe spacing. Correlations between estimated electron densities using both methods: interferometry and emission spectroscopy of Hidrogen and Helium-like Boron and Carbon, will be presented. We will also discuss comparisons between experimental spectra and predicted results using the atomic physics postprocessor CRETIN integrated with TOTAL, a line broadening code.

  12. Surface studies on benzophenone doped PDMS microstructures fabricated using KrF excimer laser direct write lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kant, Madhushree Bute; Shinde, Shashikant D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Bodas, Dhananjay [Centre for Nanobioscience, Agharkar Research Institute, Agharkar road, Pune 411004 (India); Patil, K.R. [Center for Materials Characterization, National Chemical Laboratories, Pune 411008 (India); Sathe, V.G. [UGC DAE Inter University Consortium, Indore 452017 (India); Adhi, K.P. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Gosavi, S.W., E-mail: swg@physics.unipune.ac.in [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)

    2014-09-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Use of KrF Laser micromachining for Lab-On-Chip applications at lower fluence. • Addition of Benzophenone in PDMS enhances its self development sensitivity. • Benzophenone helps efficient energy transfer for equal density of bond scissioning. • Correlation of chemical composition with laser dose and microstructure. • Microstructures with well defined clean sidewalls. - Abstract: This paper discusses microfabrication process for benzophenone doped polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using laser lithography. KrF excimer laser of 248 nm with 20 ns pulse width at repetition rate of 1 Hz was used for microfabrication of undoped and benzophenone doped PDMS. The doped-PDMS shows sensitivity below 365 nm, permitting processing under ambient light. The analysis of etch depth revealed that doped PDMS shows self developable sensitivity at lower fluence of ∼250 mJ/cm{sup 2}. The unexposed and exposed surface was studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Spectrocopic analysis indicated increase in C-O, C=O, Si-O{sub 3} and Si-O{sub 4} bonding at the expense of Si-C and Si-O{sub 2} bonds of PDMS. In case of laser exposed doped-PDMS, removal of benzophenone from probe depth of spectroscopy was observed. Whereas the surface morphology of exposed and unexposed doped-PDMS was observed to be same, indicating clean development of PDMS micropatterns. The present study indicates that addition of 3.0 wt.% benzophenone in PDMS enhance self development sensitivity of PDMS. The self developable results on doped-PDMS are quite encouraging for its potential use in point of care Lab-On-Chip applications, for fabricating micropatterns using direct write laser lithography technology.

  13. Impulse Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-17

    links the flywheel to a pusher shaft. The energy release is achieved when the planetary gear carrier is decelerated using a caliper brake . The...flywheel. Through a cam roller contact point between the pusher shaft and the cam raceway on the plunger; the rotational motion of the pusher shaft... brakes , a barrel type cam and follower, a piston pump, a reservoir, and a nozzle to assemble the inventive pump. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

  14. Investigation on depth resolved compositions of e-beam deposited ZrO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amol; Sinha, Mangalika; Gupta, R. K.; Modi, Mohammed H.

    2017-10-01

    In-depth compositional analysis of zirconium dioxide thin film deposited on GaAs substrate by e-beam evaporation has been carried out using non-destructive soft x-ray reflectivity (SXR) technique. The compositional details of the film are quantitatively estimated from the best fit of the optical constant profile derived from SXR measurements over 55-150 Å wavelength region. The SXR analysis reveals the film composition as 60% ZrO2, 20% Zr0.8O2.2 & 20% oxygen. The interface layer formed at film/substrate interface region is found to be comprised of 25% Ga2O3, 20% As2O3, 35% ZrO2 and 20% oxygen phases.

  15. The application of optical resolution enhancement technology and e-beam direct writing technology in microfabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yulin; Chen, Baoqin; Liu, Ming; Xu, Qiuxia; Xue, Lijun; Ren, Liming; Hu, Yong; Long, Shibing; Lu, Jing; Kang, Xiaohui; Li, Ling; Li, Jinru; Tang, Yueke

    2005-01-01

    The Micro-processing & Nano-technology Laboratory at the Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), is equipped with a GCA 3600F PG&3696, a JBX 6AII & JBX 5000LS EB, and an ETEC MEBES 4700S EB. For a long time we have been engaged in the research and manufacture on Optical Resolution Enhancement Technology (RET) and E-Beam Direct Writing Technology. In this paper the following technologies will be described: PSM, OPC EBDW,EPC,Match & Mixed Lithography technology. Through the application of RET in optical lithography system, we completed the 0.2 um pattern with the g line and I line light source, which is the necessary preparation for 100nm node with 193nm light source. By means of match & mixed lithography and nanofabrication technology, 20nm-50nm gate CMOS transistor and 100nm gate HEMT are successfully developed.

  16. Large patternable metal nanoparticle sheets by photo/e-beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Noboru; Wang, Pangpang; Okamoto, Koichi; Ryuzaki, Sou; Tamada, Kaoru

    2017-10-01

    Techniques for micro/nano-scale patterning of large metal nanoparticle sheets can potentially be used to realize high-performance photoelectronic devices because the sheets provide greatly enhanced electrical fields around the nanoparticles due to localized surface plasmon resonances. However, no single metal nanoparticle sheet currently exists with sufficient durability for conventional lithographical processes. Here, we report large photo and/or e-beam lithographic patternable metal nanoparticle sheets with improved durability by incorporating molecular cross-linked structures between nanoparticles. The cross-linked structures were easily formed by a one-step chemical reaction; immersing a single nanoparticle sheet consisting of core metals, to which capping molecules ionically bond, in a dithiol ethanol solution. The ligand exchange reaction processes were discussed in detail, and we demonstrated 20 μm wide line and space patterns, and a 170 nm wide line of the silver nanoparticle sheets.

  17. Emitter tailoring in ion implanted and e-beam annealed silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabilli, E.; Galloni, R.; Lulli, G.; Merli, P. G.; Nipoti, R.; Ostoja, P.; Rizzoli, R.; Servidori, M.; Susi, E.; Zignani, F.

    Ion implanted solar cells, with tailored emitters, have been analyzed both theoretically, by using a one dimensional computer model, and experimentally, in order to improve the collection efficiency by an increased electric field effect, and to decrease the negative influence of residual lattice damage. Annealing in the solid phase regime was performed by e-beam irradiations at power densities between 5 and 40 W/sq cm and times of exposure of 2s and 15s, and by furnace treatments. Electrical measurements and stripping were used, to detect the active dopant profile concentration and the majority carrier mobility profile in the implanted emitter region. X-ray double crystal diffractometry was used to obtain information on residual crystal strain after annealing. Experiments were performed in electronic grade silicon single crystals and preliminary results were also obtained on solar grade poly. Bulk life-time variations after thermal treatment were analyzed and correlated to the oxygen and carbon state in the crystal.

  18. Benchmarking the minimum Electron Beam (eBeam) dose required for the sterilization of space foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sohini S.; Wall, Kayley R.; Kerth, Chris R.; Pillai, Suresh D.

    2018-02-01

    As manned space missions extend in length, the safety, nutrition, acceptability, and shelf life of space foods are of paramount importance to NASA. Since food and mealtimes play a key role in reducing stress and boredom of prolonged missions, the quality of food in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, and aroma can have significant psychological ramifications on astronaut performance. The FDA, which oversees space foods, currently requires a minimum dose of 44 kGy for irradiated space foods. The underlying hypothesis was that commercial sterility of space foods could be achieved at a significantly lower dose, and this lowered dose would positively affect the shelf life of the product. Electron beam processed beef fajitas were used as an example NASA space food to benchmark the minimum eBeam dose required for sterility. A 15 kGy dose was able to achieve an approximately 10 log reduction in Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli bacteria, and a 5 log reduction in Clostridium sporogenes spores. Furthermore, accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT) to determine sensory and quality characteristics under various conditions was conducted. Using Multidimensional gas-chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (MDGC-O-MS), numerous volatiles were shown to be dependent on the dose applied to the product. Furthermore, concentrations of off -flavor aroma compounds such as dimethyl sulfide were decreased at the reduced 15 kGy dose. The results suggest that the combination of conventional cooking combined with eBeam processing (15 kGy) can achieve the safety and shelf-life objectives needed for long duration space-foods.

  19. Osseointegration of KrF laser hydroxylapatite films on Ti6A14V alloy by mini-pigs: loaded osseointegration of dental implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinek, Miroslav; Himmlova, Lucia; Grivas, Christos

    1999-05-01

    Aim of study was to evaluate osseointegration of the KrF laser hydroxyapatite coated titanium alloy Ti6Al4V dental implants. For deposition KrF excimer laser in stainless- steel deposition chamber was used. Thickness of HA films were round 1 μm . Mini-pigs were used in this investigation. Implants were placed vertically into the lower jaw. After 14 weeks unloaded osseointegration the metal ceramic crowns were inserted. the experimental animals were sacrificed (1 year post insertion). The vertical position of implants was controlled with a radiograph. Microscopical sections were cut and ground. Sections were viewed using microscope with CCD camera. 1 year osseointegration in lower jaw confirmed by all implants presence of newly formed bone around the all implants. Laser-deposited coating the layer of fibrous connective tissue was seen only seldom. In the control group (titamium implant without cover) the fibrous connective tissue was seen between implant and newly formed bone.

  20. Demonstration of electronic design automation flow for massively parallel e-beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Pieter; Belledent, Jérôme; Tranquillin, Céline; Figueiro, Thiago; Meunier, Stéfanie; Bayle, Sébastien; Fay, Aurélien; Milléquant, Matthieu; Icard, Beatrice; Wieland, Marco

    2014-07-01

    For proximity effect correction in 5 keV e-beam lithography, three elementary building blocks exist: dose modulation, geometry (size) modulation, and background dose addition. Combinations of these three methods are quantitatively compared in terms of throughput impact and process window (PW). In addition, overexposure in combination with negative bias results in PW enhancement at the cost of throughput. In proximity effect correction by over exposure (PEC-OE), the entire layout is set to fixed dose and geometry sizes are adjusted. In PEC-dose to size (DTS) both dose and geometry sizes are locally optimized. In PEC-background (BG), a background is added to correct the long-range part of the point spread function. In single e-beam tools (Gaussian or Shaped-beam), throughput heavily depends on the number of shots. In raster scan tools such as MAPPER Lithography's FLX 1200 (MATRIX platform) this is not the case and instead of pattern density, the maximum local dose on the wafer is limiting throughput. The smallest considered half-pitch is 28 nm, which may be considered the 14-nm node for Metal-1 and the 10-nm node for the Via-1 layer, achieved in a single exposure with e-beam lithography. For typical 28-nm-hp Metal-1 layouts, it was shown that dose latitudes (size of process window) of around 10% are realizable with available PEC methods. For 28-nm-hp Via-1 layouts this is even higher at 14% and up. When the layouts do not reach the highest densities (up to 10∶1 in this study), PEC-BG and PEC-OE provide the capability to trade throughput for dose latitude. At the highest densities, PEC-DTS is required for proximity correction, as this method adjusts both geometry edges and doses and will reduce the dose at the densest areas. For 28-nm-hp lines critical dimension (CD), hole&dot (CD) and line ends (edge placement error), the data path errors are typically 0.9, 1.0 and 0.7 nm (3σ) and below, respectively. There is not a clear data path performance difference between

  1. Electrokinetic pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hencken, Kenneth R.; Sartor, George B.

    2004-08-03

    An electrokinetic pump in which the porous dielectric medium of conventional electrokinetic pumps is replaced by a patterned microstructure. The patterned microstructure is fabricated by lithographic patterning and etching of a substrate and is formed by features arranged so as to create an array of microchannels. The microchannels have dimensions on the order of the pore spacing in a conventional porous dielectric medium. Embedded unitary electrodes are vapor deposited on either end of the channel structure to provide the electric field necessary for electroosmotic flow.

  2. MICRO-MATERIAL HANDLING EMPLOYING E-BEAM GENERATED TOPOGRAPHIES OF COPPER AND ALUMINIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matope

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper focuses on the employment of copper and aluminium in a micro-material handling system actuated by Van der Waals forces. Electron beam (e-beam evaporator deposited both materials on a silicon substrate at a rate of 0.6-1.2 Angstroms/second, vacuum pressure between 2x10-6 and 3x10-6mbar, and at a current less than 10mA. A Veeco NanoMan V Atomic Force Microscope with Nanoscope version 7.3 software was used to analyse the root mean square (rms surface roughnesses of the generated topographies. Rumpf-Rabinovich’s rms formula was used to determine the Van der Waals forces exerted by the surfaces. It was synthesised that an e-beam deposition of 7 minutes’ duration on both materials produced an optimum micro-material handling solution, with copper suitable for the pick-up position and aluminium for the placement position.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die fokus van die artikel is op die gebruik van koper en aluminium in ‘n mikromateriaalhanteringstelsel, aangedryf deur Van der Waalskragte. ‘n Elektronstraal-verdamper plaas albei materiale op ‘n silikonbasis teen ‘n tempo van 0.6-1.2 Angstrom/sekonde, vakuumdruk tussen 2x10-6 en 3x10-6mbar, en teen ‘n stroom van minder as 10mA. ‘n Veeco NanoMan V Atomic Force mikroskoop, met Nanoscope 7.3 program-matuur is gebruik om die wortel-gemiddelde-kwadraat (wgk oppervlak ruheid van die gegenereerde topografieë te analiseer. Rumpf-Rabinovich se wgk-formule is gebruik om die Van der Waalskrage wat deur die oppervlaktes uitgeoefen word te bepaal. Dit is vasgestel dat ‘n elektronstraalafsetting van 7 minute op albei materiale die optimale materiaalhanteringoplossing bied, met koper geskik vir die optelposisie en aluminium vir die plasingsposisie.

  3. Evolution of a Diffusion Channel in an Inhomogeneous Electric Field of the KrF-Laser Pump Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampol'skaya, S. A.; Yastremsky, A. G.; Panchenko, Yu. N.; Puchikin, A. V.; Bobrovnikov, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    The results of studying the 2D-simulation of evolution of a diffusion channel in the KrF-laser pump discharge initiated by the pin on the cathode surface are presented. It is shown that during the pump pulse, the inhomogeneity passes successively through three stages: a plasma spot on the cathode surface, a diffuse channel, and a high-conductivity channel. From the analysis of the dynamics of spatial distribution of spontaneous emission on the B0-X transition of the KrF molecule in such a discharge, it is obtained that the channel can work as an amplifying medium while the volumetric form of its glow is maintained. Despite the contraction of the channel into a narrow cord at the end of the pump pulse, the distribution of the radiation energy over the entire pulse has the shape of a torch with the width at the anode of 0.6 cm.

  4. Optimizing the e-beam profile of a single carbon nanotube field emission device for electric propulsion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Fujioka Mologni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies on field emission (FE arrays comprised of carbon nanotubes (CNT as an electron source for electric propulsion system show remarkably promising results. Design parameters for a carbon nanotube (CNT field-emission device operating on triode configuration were numerically simulated and optimized in order to enhance the e-beam focusing quality. An additional focus gate (FG was integrated to the device to control the profile of the emitted e-beam. An axisymmetric finite element model was developed to calculate the electric field distribution on the vacuum region and a modified Fowler-Nordheim (FN equation was used to evaluate the current density emission and the effective emitter area. Afterward, a FE simulation was employed in order to calculate the trajectory of the emitted electrons and define the electron-optical properties of the e-beam. The integration of the FG was fully investigated via computational intelligence techniques. The best performance device according to our simulations presents a collimated e-beam profile that suits well for field emission displays, magnetic field detection and electron microscopy. The automated computational design tool presented in this study strongly benefits the robust design of integrated electron-optical systems for vacuum field emission applications, including electrodynamic tethering and electric propulsion systems.

  5. Pumps; Pumpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Praktische Energiekunde e.V., Muenchen (Germany). Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft; Hellriegel, E. [Gesellschaft fuer Praktische Energiekunde e.V., Muenchen (Germany). Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft; Pfitzner, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Praktische Energiekunde e.V., Muenchen (Germany). Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft

    1994-11-01

    The technical features of commercial pump types are described with regard to their technical, energy-related and economic parameters, and characteristic data are presented in the form of data sheets. This is to provide a basis for a comparative assessment of different technologies and technical variants. The chapter `System specifications` describes the various fields of application of pumps and the resulting specific requirements. The design and function of the different pump types are described in `Technical description`. `System and plant description dscribes the design and adaptation of pumps, i.e. the adaptation of the plant data to the system requirements. `Data compilation` provides a survey of the types and systematics of the compiled data as well as a decision aid for selecting the pumps best suited to the various applications. The `Data sheet` section describes the structure and handling of the data sheets as well as the data contained therein. The data sheets are contained in the apapendix of this report. The section `General analysis` compares typical technical, energy-related and economic characteristics of the different pump types. This is to enable a rough comparison of pump types and to facilitate decisions. The chapter `Example` illustrates the use of the data sheets by means of a selected example. (orig./GL) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Arbeit hat zum Ziel, Technik seriengefertigter und marktgaengiger Pumpen in typisierter Form hinsichtlich ihrer technischen, energetischen und wirtschaftlichen Parameter zu beschreiben und ihre charakteristischen Kennwerte in Datenblaettern abzubilden. Damit wird ein grundlegendes Instrument fuer die vergleichende Beurteilung unterschiedlicher Techniken bzw. Technikvarianten hinsichtlich energetischer und wirtschaftlicher Kriterien geschaffen. Im Abschnitt `Systemanforderungen` erfolgt die Beschreibung der einzelnen Anwendungsbereiche fuer Pumpen mit den speziellen daraus resultierenden Anforderungen. Der Aufbau und

  6. Characterizing a multi-MeV e-beam induced plasma through visible spectroscopy and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Almeida, Thierry; Ribiere, Maxime; Maisonny, Rémi; Ritter, Sandra; Plouhinec, Damien; Auriel, Gérard

    2016-10-01

    High energy electrons interaction and propagation mechanisms in solid targets have a broad range of applications in high energy density physics. The latter include fast ignition for inertial fusion research, production of ultra-high mechanical stress levels, plasma interactions with e-beam particles in electron diodes, radiative hydrodynamic models...This paper presents the results from recent experiments conducted on the multi-MeV generator ASTERIX operated at CEA-Gramat. This high flux density electron beam was launched from an aluminum cathode onto an aluminum-tantalum target for voltage and current of 2.4 MeV and 55 kA, respectively. A set of optical diagnostics were fielded in all of the experiments, including a UV-visible spectrometers and a fast imaging. The imaging data obtained during the experiment allowed for the ablated species velocity to be determined. based on spectroscopic analysis, the light emission was attributed to aluminum and tantalum excited atoms and ions. The analysis of this time-integrated spectrum based on radiative transfer model clearly unveiled two distinct regions of the plasma over its expansion: a hot core surrounded by a cold vapor. A quantitative analysis of these results is presented.

  7. Preliminary study of e-beam processing as a phytosanitary treatment against Guignardia citricarpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Michel M.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Silveira, Ana P.M.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: villavic@ipen.br; Correa, Benedito [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas. Dept. de Micologia], e-mail: correabe@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Citrus black spot (CBS) is a fungal disease, caused by Guignardia citricarpa and affects practically all citrus species of economic importance, especially sweet oranges. It has become a serious, widespread problem for citrus production in South America. It causes lesions on citrus fruit peel and leaves and can induce fruit drop before maturity. Fruits from citrus areas affected by CBS represent a risk for introduction of this pathogen into new areas. European Community and United States severely limit importation of fresh citrus fruit from those countries were the disease is present. Various treatments have been explored to reduce the risk of introduction of CBS into countries that are currently free of this disease. E-beam processing has been successfully used to inactivate food spoilage microorganisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Ionizing radiation treatment has been known to extend the postharvest life of many tropical and subtropical fruits. Irradiation is the most recent commercial phytosanitary treatment for fresh commodities. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of electron beam processing on the viability of G. citricarpa. Isolated fungi from naturally infected oranges were irradiated with 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 kGy using an electron beam irradiator (Radiation Dynamics Co., model JOB-188, New York, USA). Irradiation appeared to be a useful alternative as a phytosanitary treatment to control citrus black spot dissemination. (author)

  8. Luminescence properties of pure and doped CaSO4 nanorods irradiated by 15 MeV e-beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Numan; Alharbi, Najlaa D.; Enani, Mohammad A.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium sulfate (CaSO4) doped with proper activators is a highly sensitive phosphor used in different fields mainly for radiation dosimetry, lighting and display applications. In this work pure and doped nanorods of CaSO4 were produced by the co-precipitation technique. Samples from this material doped with Ag, Cu, Dy, Eu and Tb were exposed to different doses of 15 MeV e-beam and studied for their thermoluminesence (TL) and photoluminescence (PL) properties. Color center formation leading to PL emissions were investigated before and after e-beam irradiation. The samples doped with rare earths elements (i.e. Dy, Eu and Tb) were observed to have thinner nanorods than the other samples and have higher absorption in the UV region. The Ag and Tb doped samples have poor TL response to e-beam, while those activated by Cu, Dy and Eu have strong glow peaks at around 123 °C. Quite linear response curves in the whole studied exposures i.e. 0.1-100 Gy were also observed in Cu and Dy doped samples. The PL results show that pure CaSO4 nanorods have active color centers without irradiation, which could be enriched/modified by these impurities mainly rare earths and further enhanced by e-beam irradiation. Eu3+ → Eu2+ conversion is clearly observed in Eu doped sample after e-beam irradiation. These results show that these nanorods might be useful in lighting and display devices development.

  9. Heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    Klíma, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Bakalářská práce popisuje a charakterizuje tepelné čerpadlo. Obsahuje souhrn jednotlivých druhů tepelných čerpadel z hlediska získávání energie, princip jejich funkce a popis odlišností mezi jednotlivými druhy kompresorů, použití pracovní látky a její vývin do budoucna. Závěrem je zde uveden můj vlastní názor na tepelné čerpadlo, které bych preferoval. Bachelor thesis describes and characterizes the heat pump. Summarizes the various types of heat pumps in terms of energy production, princi...

  10. E-beam lithography and optical near-field lithography: new prospects in fabrication of various grating structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Clausnitzer, Tina

    2003-12-01

    Today"s technologies available for the fabrication of micro structured optical elements are well developed for defined classes of structures. Techniques for very complex optical functions or for combinations of optical functions together with others are more or less in the level of research or labs. A promising approach for complex grating fabrication is the use of optical near field holography (NFH) and e-beam writing for unification of the advantages. The paper wants to show the potential of both techniques itself as well as the potential that arises from their teamwork. The paper demonstrates one and two dimensional gratings, chirped and unidirectional gratings fabricated by NFH using e-beam written masks. It shows also possibilities for the fabrication of gratings on binary, multilevel and continuous optical profiles.

  11. MICRO-MATERIAL HANDLING, EMPLOYING E-BEAM COATINGS OF COPPER AND SILVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matope

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Van der Waals forces and other adhesive forces impose great challenges on micro-material handling. Mechanical grippers fail to release micro-parts reliably because of them. This paper explores how the problematic Van der Waals forces may be used for micro-material handling purposes using surface roughnesses generated by e-beam coatings of copper and silver on silicon. An atomic force microscope, model Asylum MFP 3 D-Bio with version 6.22A software, was used to measure the forces exerted by the surfaces. A silver coating of 1.41 nm rms surface roughness value is found to exert the highest Van der Waals force, followed by a copper coating of 2.72 nm rms; a copper coating of 217 nm rms exerts the least force. This implies that, in a reliable micro-material handling system, these coatings are suitable for the interactive surfaces of the placement position, micro-gripper, and the pick-up position respectively.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Van der Waalskragte en ander bindingskragte hou steeds groot uitdagings in vir mikromateriaalhantering. As gevolg van hierdie bindingskragte stel meganiese gryptoerusting nie die mikro-partikels vry nie. Hierdie artikel ondersoek hoe die Van der Waalskragte gebruik kan word vir die mikro-materiaalhanteringsproses deur die gebruik van oppervlakgrofheid gegenereer deur ’n e-straal-laagbedekking van koper en silwer op silikon. ’n Atoomkrag mikroskoop, model Asylum MFP 3 D-Bio met weergawe 6.22A programmatuur, is gebruik om die kragte deur die oppervlakke uitgeoefen te meet. Daar is gevind dat ’n silwer laagbedekking met ’n oppervlakgrofheid van 1.41nm wortel-gemiddelde-kwadraat (wgk die hoogste Van der Waalskrag uitoefen, gevolg deur ’n koper laagbedekking met ’n oppervlakgrofheid van 2.72nm wgk; ’n koper laagbedekking met ’n grofheid van 217nm wgk het die kleinste krag uitgeoefen. Dit impliseer dat, vir ’n betroubare mikro-materiaalhanteringsisteem, hierdie laagbedekkings geskik

  12. Pump characteristics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Volk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Providing a wealth of information on pumps and pump systems, Pump Characteristics and Applications, Third Edition details how pump equipment is selected, sized, operated, maintained, and repaired. The book identifies the key components of pumps and pump accessories, introduces the basics of pump and system hydraulics as well as more advanced hydraulic topics, and details various pump types, as well as special materials on seals, motors, variable frequency drives, and other pump-related subjects. It uses example problems throughout the text, reinforcing the practical application of the formulae

  13. On the way to 1 Gb: demonstration of e-beam proximity effect correction for mask making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbusch, Anja; Kalus, Christian K.; Endo, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Yasuki; Endo, Akihiro

    1997-02-01

    The e-beam proximity effect is well known as one of the limiting factors in e-beam lithography. As features get smaller the need for e-beam proximity effect correction increases. There exist different approaches to cover these effects by varying dose or shape of the pattern layout during the exposure step. Whichever algorithm is used, the question of proximity effect correction gets more and more a performance problem for forefront applications like the 256 megabit and 1 gigabit chips. The correction approach has to handle large data volume in reasonable time. Key to overcome this hurdle is to include hierarchial data handling into the proximity correction algorithm, which involves hierarchical data structures as well as hierarchy reorganization methods. The goal of the present work is to perform all necessary steps in order to guarantee the accuracy of the exposure result for the 1 gigabit memory chip. One step of the preparation is the e-beam proximity correction for raster scan machines. With respect to proximity effect correction, raster scan machines have a severe drawback. The scanning speed is constant while writing the layout, i.e., dose variation is not applicable to compensate for the proximity effect. There is, however, the geometry which can be exploited as degree of freedom. Geometrical variations of the layout underlie many constraints such as neighboring features, the exposure grid of the e-beam tool and, but not least, writing time. The paper presents how to solve some of the major problems occurring when proximity effect correction becomes an unavoidable step in the mask making process. Power and application limits of proximity effect correction for raster scan machines are investigated. The exposure has been carried out on a MEBES 4500 system. Process latitude and line width linearity are presented. In addition, practical questions like file size increase due to proximity correction are investigated. Exposure results of uncorrected and corrected

  14. Types of Breast Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health and Consumer Devices Consumer Products Breast Pumps Types of Breast Pumps Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... a nipple and used for feeding a baby. Types of Breast Pumps There are three basic types ...

  15. Heat pump technology

    CERN Document Server

    Von Cube, Hans Ludwig; Goodall, E G A

    2013-01-01

    Heat Pump Technology discusses the history, underlying concepts, usage, and advancements in the use of heat pumps. The book covers topics such as the applications and types of heat pumps; thermodynamic principles involved in heat pumps such as internal energy, enthalpy, and exergy; and natural heat sources and energy storage. Also discussed are topics such as the importance of the heat pump in the energy industry; heat pump designs and systems; the development of heat pumps over time; and examples of practical everyday uses of heat pumps. The text is recommended for those who would like to kno

  16. H and Au diffusion in high mobility a-InGaZnO thin-film transistors via low temperature KrF excimer laser annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermundo, Juan Paolo S.; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Fujii, Mami N.; Ikenoue, Hiroshi; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2017-03-01

    We report the fabrication of high mobility amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) irradiated by a single shot of a 248 nm KrF excimer laser. Very high mobilities (μ) of up to 43.5 cm2/V s were obtained after the low temperature excimer laser annealing (ELA) process. ELA induces high temperatures primarily in the upper layers and maintains very low temperatures of less than 50 °C in the substrate region. Scanning Transmission Electron micrographs show no laser induced damage and clear interfaces after the laser irradiation. In addition, several characterization studies were performed to determine the μ improvement mechanism. The analysis of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy suggests incorporation of H mainly from the hybrid passivation layer into the channel. Moreover, Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy results show that Au diffused into the channel after ELA. Both KrF ELA-induced H and Au diffusion contributed to the higher μ. These results demonstrate that ELA can greatly enhance the electrical properties of a-IGZO TFTs for promising applications in large area, transparent, and flexible electronics.

  17. Osseointegration of loaded dental implant with KrF laser hydroxylapatite films on Ti6Al4V alloy by minipigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Himmlova, Lucia; Jelinek, Miroslav; Grivas, Christos

    2001-04-01

    This study was performed with the objective of evaluating osseointegration of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V dental implants coated with hydroxylapatite (HA) deposited by a KrF laser. For this a KrF excimer laser and stainless-steel deposition chamber were used. The thickness of the HA films was approximately 1 micrometers . IN this investigation experimental animals minipigs were used; the implants were placed vertically into the lower jaw. After 14 weeks of unloaded osseointegration, metal-ceramic crowns were inserted and, at the same time, fluorescent solution was injected into the experimental animals. Six months after insertion of crowns the animals were sacrificed. The vertical position of the implants was checked by a radiograph. Microscopic sections were cut and ground, and the sections were examined under polarized and fluorescent light using a microscope with a charge coupled device camera. The six month long osseointegration in the lower jaw has confirmed the presence of newly formed bone around all the implants. In the experimental group, which had a laser-deposited coating, the layer of fibrous connective tissue was seen only randomly. In the control group (titanium implant without a cover) the fibrous connective tissue between the implant and the newly formed bone was observed more frequently, but this difference was not significant.

  18. Multiple pump housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, II, Michael R.; Elliott; Christopher M.

    2010-03-23

    A fluid delivery system includes a first pump having a first drive assembly, a second pump having a second drive assembly, and a pump housing. At least a portion of each of the first and second pumps are located in the housing.

  19. Centrifugal pump handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pumps, Sulzer

    2010-01-01

    This long-awaited new edition is the complete reference for engineers and designers working on pump design and development or using centrifugal pumps in the field. This authoritative guide has been developed with access to the technical expertise of the leading centrifugal pump developer, Sulzer Pumps. In addition to providing the most comprehensive centrifugal pump theory and design reference with detailed material on cavitation, erosion, selection of materials, rotor vibration behavior and forces acting on pumps, the handbook also covers key pumping applications topics and operational

  20. Radiation-free superhydrophilic and antifogging properties of e-beam evaporated TiO2 films on glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlisi, Corrado; Palmisano, Giovanni

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we show the unique wettability properties of TiO2 thin films deposited by e-beam evaporation on glass and treated at 500 °C. The deposited materials exhibited compact non-porous structures and their non-UV activated superwetting behavior was characterized, emphasizing the better performance compared to the bare glass substrate and to a commercial self-cleaning glass (Pilkington Activ™) even in terms of antifogging and optical properties. The results demonstrate how the superhydrophilic character arises from the used deposition technique inducing a large amount of oxygen vacancies further boosted by the annealing treatment, allowing for the fabrication of a pioneering material in the area of multifunctional coatings. The superhydrophilic character was maintained even at an extremely small thickness (20 nm), similarly to the adhesion of the film to the glass substrate, as confirmed by ultrasound stress tests and the cross-cut test performed according to ISO 2409 standard. The photocatalytic activity of the e-beam evaporated film was also assessed by degradation of methanol, 2-propanol and toluene under UV light in a gas phase reactor and the performance was found to be in most cases superior compared to Pilkington Activ™.

  1. Hyperbranched poly(glycidol)/poly(ethylene oxide) crosslinked hydrogel for tissue engineering scaffold using e-beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto; Singh, Deepti; Huh, Pil Ho; Kim, Seong Cheol

    2016-01-01

    A microporous hydrogel scaffold was developed from hyperbranched poly(glycidol) (HPG) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) using electron beam (e-beam) induced cross-linking for tissue engineering applications. In this study, HPG was synthesized from glycidol using trimethylol propane as a core initiator and cross-linked hydrogels were made using 0, 10, 20, and 30% HPG with respect to PEO. The effects of %-HPG on the swelling ratio, cross-linking density, mechanical properties, morphology, degradation, and cytotoxicity of the hydrogel scaffolds were then investigated. Increasing the HPG content increased the pore size of the hydrogel scaffold, as well as the porosity, elongation at break, degree of degradation and swelling ratio. In contrast, the presence of HPG decreased the cross-linking density of the hydrogel. There was no significant difference in compressive modulus and tensile strength of all compositions. The pore size of hydrogel scaffolds could be easily tailored by controlling the content of HPG in the polymer blend. Evaluation of the cytotoxicity demonstrated that HPG/PEO hydrogel scaffold has potential for use as a matrix for cellular attachment and proliferation. These results indicate that cross-linked HPG/PEO hydrogel can function as a potential material for tissue engineering scaffolds. Moreover, a facile method to prepare hydrogel microporous scaffolds for tissue engineering by e-beam irradiation was developed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Evaluation of the sealing properties and TMA study of multilayer PA/PE film treated with e-beam radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Angel V.; Gargalaka Junior, Joao [UNIPAC Embalagens Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: angel.ortiz@unipacnet.com.br; joao.gargalaka@unipacnet.com.br; Wiebeck, Helio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica]. E-mail: hwiebeck@usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Multilayer films are widely used in the food industry as thermoforming as well as non thermoforming vacuum packaging. In this study a PA6/LDPE multilayer film underwent E-beam radiation and its sealing properties were evaluated over 3 years after the film was irradiated. Packaging materials have been widely processed by ionizing radiation in order to improve their chemical and physical properties and also for sterilization purposes. Basically, flexible packaging manufacturers apply specific radiation doses to promote cross-linking and scission of the polymeric chains and thus obtain alterations in certain properties. While enhancing a specific property, significant losses may result in others. We examined the effects of E-beam radiation on the sealing properties of the multilayer film irradiated with doses up to 127 kGy. Results showed that as doses go up, the sealing strength goes down. The TMA study shows that the softening/melting temperatures of the LDPE layer (sealing layer) varies according to the irradiation doses and helps explain the results of the sealing strength tests. (author)

  3. Pump element for a tube pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a tube pump comprising a tube and a pump element inserted in the tube, where the pump element comprises a rod element and a first and a second non-return valve member positioned a distance apart on the rod element. The valve members are oriented in the same direction...... portion acts to alternately close and open the valve members thereby generating a fluid flow through the tube. The invention further relates to a pump element comprising at least two non-return valve members connected by a rod element, and for insertion in an at least partly flexible tube in such tube...... pump as mentioned above, thereby acting to generate a fluid flow through the tube upon repeated deformation of the tube between the two valve members. The pump element may comprise a connecting part for coupling to another tube and may comprise a sealing part establishing a fluid tight connection...

  4. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tube feeding; PEG tube care; Feeding - gastrostomy tube - pump; G-tube - pump; Gastrostomy button - pump; Bard Button - pump; MIC-KEY - pump ... Gather supplies: Feeding pump (electronic or battery powered) Feeding ... pump (includes a feeding bag, drip chamber, roller clamp, ...

  5. Metallisation and Interconnection of e-Beam Evaporated Polycrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells on Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taekyun Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One inherent advantage of thin-film technology is the possibility of using monolithic integration for series interconnection of individual cells within large-area modules. Polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells do not rely on transparent conducting oxide layers as the high sheet conductivity of the emitter and BSF layers enables the lateral flow of current from the film to the metal contacts. This paper presents a new method for the fabrication of e-beam evaporated polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic minimodules on glass. The method involves electrically isolating minicells, by laser scribing, and then forming an isolation layer on each laser scribe. The main advantage of this metallisation is to have a single aluminium evaporation step for the formation of finger and busbar features, as well as for series interconnection.

  6. E-beam curing of epoxy-based blends in order to produce high-performance composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessi, S. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica dei Processi e dei Materiali (DICPM), Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)]. E-mail: Alessi@dicpm.unipa.it; Dispenza, C. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica dei Processi e dei Materiali (DICPM), Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca sui Materiali Compositi (CIRMAC) Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Fuochi, P.G. [Istituto per la Sintesi Organica e Fotoreattivita (ISOF), CNR, Via. P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Corda, U. [Istituto per la Sintesi Organica e Fotoreattivita (ISOF), CNR, Via. P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Lavalle, M. [Istituto per la Sintesi Organica e Fotoreattivita (ISOF), CNR, Via. P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Spadaro, G. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica dei Processi e dei Materiali (DICPM), Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca sui Materiali Compositi (CIRMAC) Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2007-08-15

    In this work, blends of a difunctional epoxy monomer and a thermoplastic toughening agent are E-beam irradiated at two different dose rates and two different total absorbed doses. The influence of the processing conditions on the thermal properties and on the morphology of the obtained matrices has been investigated. In particular, it is shown how the increase of the dose rate causes an increase of the temperature during irradiation, thus inducing a simultaneous thermal and radiation curing. On the contrary, at low-dose rate the system mainly undergoes to radiation curing, thus making the cured material very sensible to a post-irradiation thermal treatment with a significant improvement of the thermal properties.

  7. Insulin pump (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The catheter at the end of the insulin pump is inserted through a needle into the abdominal ... with diabetes. Dosage instructions are entered into the pump's small computer and the appropriate amount of insulin ...

  8. Proton pump inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are medicines that work by reducing the amount of stomach acid made by glands in ... Proton pump inhibitors are used to: Relieve symptoms of acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This is a ...

  9. Discharge-current characteristics in UV-preionized Kr/He, F2/He gas-mixtures and KrF excimer laser gas. Shigaisen yobi denri Kr/He, F2/He kongo kitai hoden oyobi KrF laser reiki hoden no denryu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, N.; Kawakami, H.; Yukimura, K. (Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan))

    1992-08-15

    In order to study effects of Kr and F2 on discharge characteristics of KrF excimer laser gas, gap phenomena in Kr/He and F2/He gas-mixtures were observed and discharge current (I[sub d]) was measured. In the range where Kr concentration was over 10% in Kr/He gas, in which production of filamentation as well as glow discharge started, discontinuous change in I[sub d] in the second or third half cycle was observed. According to the results of experiments and model analyses, it was considered that the discontinuity of the current showed the transition point to filamentation. When F2 concentration was in the range between 0.1 and 0.3% in F2/He mixture gas, filamentation and arc with glow were observed. Sine-waveform I[sub d] ended in the first half cycle, and began to flow again after cessation or had almost constant current due to arc and others. When F2 was over 0.4%, only are discharge was observed. It was thus found that F2 has a large effect on discharge characteristics of KrF laser gas. 18 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirol, Lance D.

    1988-01-01

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

  11. Proton-pump inhibitors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) work by binding irreversibly to the. H+/K+-ATPase pump of the parietal cell, leading to inhibition of acid production in approximately 70% of active pumps.1The result is a dramatic increase in gastric pH mitigating the deleterious effects of acid in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) and.

  12. HIGH ENERGY ELECTRON INJECTION (E-BEAM) TECHNOLOGY FOR THE EX-SITU TREATMENT OF MTBE-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Innovative Technology Evaluation Report documents the results of a demonstration of the high-energy electron injection (E-Beam) technology in application to groundwater contaminated with methyl t-butyl ether (MtBE) and with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)....

  13. Performance of a pump system for diode-pumped lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratan, Aurel; Fenic, Constantin G.; Dabu, Razvan V.; Herisanu, Nicolae A.; Luculescu, C.; Sporea, Dan G.; Dumitru, Gabriel; Iordache, Gheorghe

    1998-07-01

    We have developed a laser-diode pump system for continuous-wave end-pumping of Nd:YAG lasers. The pump system includes a pair of 1 W diode-arrays mounted in coaxial enclosures, a driver unit and the pump optics. The array wavelength was temperature tuned to achieve the maximum absorption of the pump radiation in the Nd:YAG crystal. The characteristics of the pump system are presented and the pump-beam profile is investigated.

  14. Impact of annealing on physical properties of e-beam evaporated polycrystalline CdO thin films for optoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Anuradha; Chander, S.; Dhaka, M. S.

    2017-04-01

    An impact of annealing on the physical properties of polycrystalline CdO thin films is carried out in this study. CdO thin films of thickness 650 nm were fabricated on glass and indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates employing e-beam evaporation technique. The pristine thin films were annealed in air atmosphere at 250 °C, 400 °C and 550 °C for one hour followed by investigation of structural, optical, electrical and morphological properties along with elemental composition using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, source meter, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. XRD patterns confirmed the polycrystalline nature and cubic structure (with space group Fm 3 bar m) of the films. The crystallographic parameters are calculated and found to be influenced by the post-air annealing treatment. The optical study shows that direct band gap is ranging from 1.98 eV to 2.18 eV and found to be decreased with post-annealing. The refractive index and optical conductivity are also increased with annealing temperature. The current-voltage characteristics show ohmic behaviour of the annealed films. The surface morphology is observed to be improved with annealing and grain-size is increased as well as EDS spectrum confirmed the presence of cadmium (Cd) and oxygen (O) in the deposited films.

  15. Evaluation of mechanical properties and DSC study of commercial multilayer PA/PE film treated with E-beam radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Angel V. [UNIPAC Embalagens Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: angel.ortiz@unipacnet.com; Moura, Esperidiana A.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: eabmoura@ipen.br; Coelho, Antonio C.V. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica]. E-mail: acvcoelh@usp.br

    2005-07-01

    Packaging materials have been widely processed by ionizing radiation in order to improve their chemical and physical properties and also for sterilization purposes. Basically, flexible packaging manufacturers apply specific radiation doses to promote cross-linking and scission of the polymeric chains and thus obtain alterations in certain properties of the material. While enhancing a specific property, significant losses may result in others. In this study, we examined the effects of E-beam radiation on a commercial multilayer PA6/LDPE based film, irradiated with doses up to 127 kGy. Food producers mostly use this structure as a thermoforming bottom web for processed meat products. Two weeks after irradiation, tensile strength and elongation of the film were analyzed. Both mechanical properties were again analyzed 18 months after irradiation took place. Significant changes of mechanical properties were observed specially 18 months after irradiation. Once cross-linking and scission are able to affect the material crystalline arrangement and consequently cause properties changes, a DSC ( Differential Scanning Calorimetry) study was carried out for doses up to 130 kGy in order to verify such changes. (author)

  16. Characterizations of the TiO{sub 2-x} films synthesized by e-beam evaporation for endovascular applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Zeng [Vacuum and Fluid Engineering Research Center, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Lee, In-Seop [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, and Atomic-scale Surface Science Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yoon-Jeong; Noh, In-Sup [Department of Chemical Engineering, Seoul National University of Technology, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Sung-Min, E-mail: inseop@yonsei.ac.k [Implantium Implant Institute, Seoul 135-879 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    Different chemical states of titanium oxide films were deposited on commercially pure Ti (CP Ti) by electron-beam evaporation at different oxygen flow rates to examine a possibility of their applications to endovascular stents. The surface morphology, chemical composition and crystal structure of the obtained titanium oxide films were analyzed by FE-SEM, XPS and XRD, respectively. As a function of the deposition parameters employed, the obtained titanium oxide films demonstrated different mixtures of anatase phase, Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO. By the formation of titanium oxide film on the CP Ti plate, the contact angle was decreased and the cellular activity of porcine aortic smooth muscle cells was increased. Post-deposition annealing was also found to be an important factor to achieve advantageous biocompatibility. When haemocompatibility was investigated by observing adhesion of blood platelets from platelet-rich plasma, less platelet adhesion was observed on titanium oxide films. These results indicated that titanium oxide film synthesized by e-beam evaporation could be applicable to coronary stents.

  17. Detection of pump degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented.

  18. A compact cryogenic pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gang; Caldwell, Shane; Clark, Jason A.; Gulick, Sidney; Hecht, Adam; Lascar, Daniel D.; Levand, Tony; Morgan, Graeme; Orford, Rodney; Savard, Guy; Sharma, Kumar S.; Van Schelt, Jonathon

    2016-04-01

    A centrifugal cryogenic pump has been designed at Argonne National Laboratory to circulate liquid nitrogen (LN2) in a closed circuit allowing the recovery of excess fluid. The pump can circulate LN2 at rates of 2-10 L/min, into a head of 0.5-3 m. Over four years of laboratory use the pump has proven capable of operating continuously for 50-100 days without maintenance.

  19. Optically pumped atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Happer, William; Walker, Thad

    2010-01-01

    Covering the most important knowledge on optical pumping of atoms, this ready reference is backed by numerous examples of modelling computation for optical pumped systems. The authors show for the first time that modern scientific computing software makes it practical to analyze the full, multilevel system of optically pumped atoms. To make the discussion less abstract, the authors have illustrated key points with sections of MATLAB codes. To make most effective use of contemporary mathematical software, it is especially useful to analyze optical pumping situations in the Liouville spa

  20. Champagne Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2004-01-01

    The term champagne heat pump denotes a developmental heat pump that exploits a cycle of absorption and desorption of carbon dioxide in an alcohol or other organic liquid. Whereas most heat pumps in common use in the United States are energized by mechanical compression, the champagne heat pump is energized by heating. The concept of heat pumps based on other absorption cycles energized by heat has been understood for years, but some of these heat pumps are outlawed in many areas because of the potential hazards posed by leakage of working fluids. For example, in the case of the water/ammonia cycle, there are potential hazards of toxicity and flammability. The organic-liquid/carbon dioxide absorption/desorption cycle of the champagne heat pump is similar to the water/ammonia cycle, but carbon dioxide is nontoxic and environmentally benign, and one can choose an alcohol or other organic liquid that is also relatively nontoxic and environmentally benign. Two candidate nonalcohol organic liquids are isobutyl acetate and amyl acetate. Although alcohols and many other organic liquids are flammable, they present little or no flammability hazard in the champagne heat pump because only the nonflammable carbon dioxide component of the refrigerant mixture is circulated to the evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, which are the only components of the heat pump in direct contact with air in habitable spaces.

  1. EFFECT OF OPTICAL FIBER HYDROGEN LOADING ON THE INSCRIPTION EFFICIENCY OF CHIRPED BRAGG GRATINGS BY MEANS OF KrF EXCIMER LASER RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Varzhel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.We present comparative results of the chirped Bragg gratings inscription efficiency in optical fiber of domestic production with and without low-temperature hydrogen loading. Method. Chirped fiber Bragg gratings inscription was made by the Talbot interferometer with chirped phase mask having a chirp rate of 2.3 nm/cm used for the laser beam amplitude separation. The excimer laser system Coherent COMPexPro 150T, working with the gas mixture KrF (248 nm, was used as the radiation source. In order to increase the UV photosensitivity, the optical fiber was placed in a chamber with hydrogen under a pressure of 10 MPa and kept there for 14 days at 40 °C. Main Results. The usage of the chirped phase mask in a Talbot interferometer scheme has made it possible to get a full width at half-maximum of the fiber Bragg grating reflection spectrum of 3.5 nm with induced diffraction structure length of 5 mm. By preliminary hydrogen loading of optical fiber the broad reflection spectrum fiber Bragg gratings with a reflectivity close to 100% has been inscribed. Practical Relevance. The resulting chirped fiber Bragg gratings can be used as dispersion compensators in optical fiber communications, as well as the reflective elements of distributed fiber-optic phase interferometric sensors.

  2. Band alignment and electrical investigations of ultra-thin Al2O3 on Si by E-beam evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Mondal, Sandip; Rao, K. S. R. Koteswara

    2017-05-01

    The continuous downscaling leads the search of high-κ gate dielectrics. The films amorphous in nature offered good mechanical flexibility, smooth surfaces and better uniformity associated with low leakage current density. In this work, ˜ 16 nm thick amorphous Al2O3 films on silicon substrate are fabricated by E-beam evaporation. The high value of refractive index (1.76) extracted from ellipsometry analysis directs the deposition of compact film. The AFM analysis reveal a flat surface with small RMS surface roughness 1.5 Å. The band gap is extracted from O1s electron loss spectra and was found 6.7 eV and band alignment of Al2O3/Si is derived from the UPS measurements. The films are incorporated in Metal - Insulator - Semiconductor (MIS) capacitor to perform the electrical measurement. The flat band voltage (VFB), dielectric constant (κ) and oxide trapped charges (Qot) extracted from high frequency (1 MHz) C-V curve are - 0.4 V, 8.4 and 2 × 1011 cm-2, respectively. The small flat band voltage - 0.4 V, narrow hysteresis and very little frequency dispersion suggest an exceptional good Al2O3/Si interface with small quantity of trapped charges in the oxide. The leakage current density was 4.27 × 10-8 A/cm2 at 1 V. The moderate dielectric constant and low leakage current density with ultra-smooth surface is quite useful towards its application in future CMOS and memory devices.

  3. Water Treatment Technology - Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on pumps provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pumps in plant and distribution systems, pump…

  4. Liquid Hydrogen Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-11-01

    S V 15 8 Inlet Nozzle Profile for Inducer Impeller 17 9 LH2 Pump Inl- Characteristics vs TSH 18 10 LH2 Test Pump Inlet Edge Loading, 2-Degree Turning...boundary condition. The inlet nozzle profile is shown in Figure 8. Inducer Diameter A parametric investigation was made to determine the optimum inlet

  5. Heat pump unit. Waermepumpenaggregat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gail, J.

    1984-11-29

    An internal combustion engine with an integrated heat pump and an electricity generator are combined in one engine housing. The internal combustion engine consists of a working cylinder parallel to the drive shaft with a double piston arrangement for swashplate operation, where at least the back of one piston works as the compressor of a heat pump. (orig.).

  6. Review of magnetohydrodynamic pump applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Habahbeh, O.M; Al-Saqqa, M; Safi, M; Abo Khater, T

    2016-01-01

    Magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) principle is an important interdisciplinary field. One of the most important applications of this effect is pumping of materials that are hard to pump using conventional pumps...

  7. Two-beam-current method for e-beam writing gray-scale masks and its application to high-resolution microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhou; Lee, Sing H

    2008-06-10

    A two-beam-current method is introduced for e-beam writing in the fabrication of gray-scale masks. Compared with the simpler single-current method, the two-beam-current method offers two important advantages: (a) it can achieve a much larger dynamic range for e-beam exposure; (b) the writing time for a gray-scale mask can be reduced when a large pattern is to be written. Here, the new method is first described in detail and its application to the fabrication of our new gray-scale mask is demonstrated. Then, the improved gray-scale masks were employed to fabricate large dynamic range, high-resolution micro-optical elements of less than a couple of micrometers depth, using deep ultraviolet lithography at 248 nm wavelength and an inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching system.

  8. Wetting and Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2 Nanotube Arrays Prepared via Anodic Oxidation of E-Beam Evaporated Ti Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Wook Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNAs are fabricated on quartz substrate by anodizing E-beam evaporated Ti films. E-beam evaporated Ti films are directly anodized at various anodizing voltages ranging from 20 to 45 V and their morphological, wetting, and photocatalytic properties are examined. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared TNAs is evaluated by the photodecomposition of methylene blue under UV illumination. The TNAs prepared at an anodizing voltage of 30 V have a high roughness of 30.1 nm and a low water contact angle of 7.5°, resulting in a high photocatalytic performance. The surface roughness of the TNAs is found to correlate inversely with the water contact angle. High roughness (i.e., high surface area, which leads to high hydrophilicity, is desirable for effective photocatalytic activity.

  9. Comparative study between REAP 200 and FEP171 CAR with 50-kV raster e-beam system for sub-100-nm technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Ki-Ho; Lem, Homer Y.; Dean, Robert L.; Osborne, Stephen; Mueller, Mark; Abboud, Frank E.

    2003-08-01

    In this paper, a process established with a positive-tone chemically amplified resist (CAR) from TOK REAP200 and Fujifilm Arch FEP171 and 50kV MEBES system is discussed. This TOK resist is developed for raster scan 50 kV e-beam systems. It has high contrast, good coating characteristics, good dry etch selectivity, and high environmental stability. In the mask industries, the most popular positive tone CAR is FEP171, which is a high activation energy type CAR. REAP (Raster E-beam Advanced Process) 200 is low activation energy type and new acetal protecting polymer. In this study, we compared to these different type resists in terms of contrast, PAB and PEB latitude, resist profile, footing, T-topping, PED stability, LER, Global CDU (Critical Dimension Uniformity) and resolution. The REAP200 Resist obtained 75nm isolated lines and spaces, 90nm dense patterns with vertical profile, and a good stability of delay time.

  10. Apparatus for Pumping a Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeyen, Robert Van; Reeh, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    A fluid pump has been developed for mechanically pumped fluid loops for spacecraft thermal control. Lynntech's technology utilizes a proprietary electrochemically driven pumping mechanism. Conventional rotodynamic and displacement pumps typically do not meet the stringent power and operational reliability requirements of space applications. Lynntech's developmental pump is a highly efficient solid-state pump with essentially no rotating or moving components (apart from metal bellows).

  11. Pumping machinery theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Badr, Hassan M

    2014-01-01

    Pumping Machinery Theory and Practice comprehensively covers the theoretical foundation and applications of pumping machinery. Key features: Covers characteristics of centrifugal pumps, axial flow pumps and displacement pumpsConsiders pumping machinery performance and operational-type problemsCovers advanced topics in pumping machinery including multiphase flow principles, and two and three-phase flow pumping systemsCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine efficiency and energy consumptionCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine effi

  12. Nuclear-pumped lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Prelas, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on Nuclear-Pumped Laser (NPL) technology and provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of NPLs, a review of research in the field, and exploration of large scale NPL system design and applications. Early chapters look at the fundamental properties of lasers, nuclear-pumping and nuclear reactions that may be used as drivers for nuclear-pumped lasers. The book goes on to explore the efficient transport of energy from the ionizing radiation to the laser medium and then the operational characteristics of existing nuclear-pumped lasers. Models based on Mathematica, explanations and a tutorial all assist the reader’s understanding of this technology. Later chapters consider the integration of the various systems involved in NPLs and the ways in which they can be used, including beyond the military agenda. As readers will discover, there are significant humanitarian applications for high energy/power lasers, such as deflecting asteroids, space propulsion, power transmission and mining....

  13. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.

    2014-10-09

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  14. Breastfeeding FAQs: Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... after maternity leave, try to start pumping a couple of weeks beforehand. If you wait until the day before you go back to work, you may be frustrated to find that your body doesn't respond to the ...

  15. An artificial molecular pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chuyang; McGonigal, Paul R.; Schneebeli, Severin T.; Li, Hao; Vermeulen, Nicolaas A.; Ke, Chenfeng; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2015-06-01

    Carrier proteins consume fuel in order to pump ions or molecules across cell membranes, creating concentration gradients. Their control over diffusion pathways, effected entirely through noncovalent bonding interactions, has inspired chemists to devise artificial systems that mimic their function. Here, we report a wholly artificial compound that acts on small molecules to create a gradient in their local concentration. It does so by using redox energy and precisely organized noncovalent bonding interactions to pump positively charged rings from solution and ensnare them around an oligomethylene chain, as part of a kinetically trapped entanglement. A redox-active viologen unit at the heart of a dumbbell-shaped molecular pump plays a dual role, first attracting and then repelling the rings during redox cycling, thereby enacting a flashing energy ratchet mechanism with a minimalistic design. Our artificial molecular pump performs work repetitively for two cycles of operation and drives rings away from equilibrium toward a higher local concentration.

  16. Absorption heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  17. Chiral Brownian heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    van den Broek, Martijn; Van den Broeck, Christian

    2008-01-01

    We present the exact analysis of a chiral Brownian motor and heat pump. Optimization of the construction predicts, for a nanoscale device, frequencies of the order of kHz and cooling rates of the order of femtojoule per second.

  18. Regenerative Hydride Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    Hydride heat pump features regenerative heating and single circulation loop. Counterflow heat exchangers accommodate different temperatures of FeTi and LaNi4.7Al0.3 subloops. Heating scheme increases efficiency.

  19. Chiral brownian heat pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, M; Van den Broeck, C

    2008-04-04

    We present the exact analysis of a chiral Brownian motor and heat pump. Optimization of the construction predicts, for a nanoscale device, frequencies of the order of kHz and cooling rates of the order of femtojoule per second.

  20. Chiral Brownian heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    Broek, M. van den; Broeck, C. Van Den

    2007-01-01

    We present the exact analysis of a chiral Brownian motor and heat pump. Optimization of the construction predicts, for a nanoscale device, frequencies of the order of kHz and cooling rates of the order of femtojoule per second.

  1. Species-resolved laser-probing investigations of the hydrodynamics of KrF excimer and copper vapor laser ablation processing of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventzek, Peter L. G.; Gilgenbach, Ronald M.; Ching, Chi H.; Lindley, R. A.

    1993-06-01

    Hydrodynamic phenomena from KrF excimer laser ablation (10-3-20 J/cm2) of polyimide, polyethyleneterephthalate, and aluminum are diagnosed by laser beam deflection, schlieren photography, shadowgraphy, laser-induced-fluorescence and dye-laser- resonance absorption photography (DLRAP). Experiments were performed in vacuum and gaseous environments (10-5 to 760 Torr). In vacuum, the DLRAP diagnostic shows species-resolved plume expansion which is consistent with that of a reflected rarefaction wave. Increasing the background gas pressure reveals the formation of sound/shock compared to CN in the laser-ablated polyimide (Vespel) plume/shock in inert (e.g. argon) and reactive (e.g. air) gases. At low pressures (less than 10 Torr) Al and CN species are in close contact with the shock front. As the pressure increases, the species front tends to recede, until at high pressures (over 200 Torr) the species are restrained to only a few mm above the target surface. After sufficient expansion, Al and CN are no longer detectable; only the shadowgraph of the hot gas plume remains. Since CN is observable in both inert and reactive environments, it can be concluded that CN is not a reaction product between the background gas and the ablated species. By way of comparison to excimer laser ablation processing of materials, copper vapor laser machined polyimide and polymethylmethacrylate (transparent to green and yellow copper vapor laser light) are also investigated. The two polymers are observed to have markedly different machined surfaces. Hydrodynamic effects for the copper vapor laser machined materials are investigated using HeNe laser beam deflection.

  2. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  3. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  4. Pump Assisted Heat Pipe

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Yoshiro; OSHIMA, Shigeto

    1987-01-01

    A labortory model of a pump assisted heat pipe has been fablicated and tested. An arterial heat pipe with axial grooves and a gear pump with a magnetic coupling have been developed for the model. The test has been carried out successfully. The reasonable thermal conductance has been obtained so far as the necessary working fluid flow rate is supplied. The necessary flow rate exceeds the theoretical one and the excess flow rate increases as the heat load increases.

  5. Molecular heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    Segal, Dvira; Nitzan, Abraham

    2005-01-01

    We propose a novel molecular device that pumps heat against a thermal gradient. The system consists of a molecular element connecting two thermal reservoirs that are characterized by different spectral properties. The pumping action is achieved by applying an external force that periodically modulates molecular levels. This modulation affects periodic oscillations of the internal temperature of the molecule and the strength of its coupling to each reservoir resulting in a net heat flow in the...

  6. Satellite Propellant Pump Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Veres, Joseph P.; Hah, Chunill; Nerone, Anthony L.; Cunningham, Cameron C.; Kraft, Thomas G.; Tavernelli, Paul F.; Fraser, Bryan

    2005-01-01

    NASA Glenn initiated a satellite propellant pump technology demonstration program. The goal was to demonstrate the technologies for a 60 percent efficient pump at 1 gpm flow rate and 500 psia pressure rise. The pump design and analysis used the in-house developed computer codes named PUMPA and HPUMP3D. The requirements lead to a 4-stage impeller type pump design with a tip diameter of 0.54 inches and a rotational speed of 57,000 rpm. Analyses indicated that flow cavitation was not a problem in the design. Since the flow was incompressible, the stages were identical. Only the 2-stage pump was designed, fabricated, assembled, and tested for demonstration. Water was selected as the surrogate fluid for hydrazine in this program. Complete mechanical design including stress and dynamic analyses were conducted. The pump was driven by an electric motor directly coupled to the impellers. Runs up to 57,000 rpm were conducted, where a pressure rise of 200 psia at a flow rate of 0.8 gpm was measured to validate the design effort.

  7. Energy efficiency in pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Durmus; Yagmur, E. Alptekin [TUBITAK-MRC, P.O. Box 21, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Yigit, K. Suleyman; Eren, A. Salih; Celik, Cenk [Engineering Faculty, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli (Turkey); Kilic, Fatma Canka [Department of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, Kocaeli University, Kullar, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, ''energy efficiency'' studies, done in a big industrial facility's pumps, are reported. For this purpose; the flow rate, pressure and temperature have been measured for each pump in different operating conditions and at maximum load. In addition, the electrical power drawn by the electric motor has been measured. The efficiencies of the existing pumps and electric motor have been calculated by using the measured data. Potential energy saving opportunities have been studied by taking into account the results of the calculations for each pump and electric motor. As a conclusion, improvements should be made each system. The required investment costs for these improvements have been determined, and simple payback periods have been calculated. The main energy saving opportunities result from: replacements of the existing low efficiency pumps, maintenance of the pumps whose efficiencies start to decline at certain range, replacements of high power electric motors with electric motors that have suitable power, usage of high efficiency electric motors and elimination of cavitation problems. (author)

  8. BIOMATERIALS FOR ROTARY BLOOD PUMPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOEVEREN, W

    Rotary blood pumps are used for cardiac assist and cardiopulmonary support since mechanical blood damage is less than with conventional roller pumps. The high shear rate in the rotary pump and the reduced anticoagulation of the patient during prolonged pumping enforces high demands on the

  9. Performance of Wind Pump Prototype

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mulu

    based on combined efficiency of the rotor and the reciprocating pump was used to estimate the performance of the wind pump. One year wind speed data collected at 10 m height was extrapolated to the wind pump hub height using wind shear coefficient. The model assumed balanced rotor power and reciprocating pump, ...

  10. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  11. Nuclear-driven flashlamp pumping of the atomic iodine laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, G.H.

    1992-03-01

    This report is a study of the atomic iodine laser pumped with nuclear- excited XeBr fluorescence. Preliminary experiments, conducted in the TRIGA reactor investigated the fluorescence of the excimer XeBr under nuclear pumping with {sup 10}B and {sup 3}He, for use as a flashlamp gas to stimulate the laser. These measurements included a determination of the fluorescence efficiency (light emitted in the wavelength region of interest, divided by energy deposited in the gas) of XeBr under nuclear pumping, with varying excimer mixtures. Maximum fluorescence efficiencies were approximately 1%. In order to better understand XeBr under nuclear excitation, a kinetics model of the system was prepared. The model generated the time-dependant concentrations of 20 reaction species for three pulse sizes, a TRIGA pulse, a fast burst reactor pulse, and an e-beam pulse. The modeling results predicted fluorescence efficiencies significantly higher (peak efficiencies of approximately 10%) than recorded in the fluorescence experiments. The cause of this discrepancy was not fully determined. A ray tracing computer model was also prepared to evaluate the efficiency with which nuclear-induced fluorescence generated in one cavity of a laser could be coupled into another cavity containing an iodine lasant. Finally, an experimental laser cell was constructed to verify that nuclear-induced XeBr fluorescence could be used to stimulate a laser. Lasing was achieved at 1.31 micron in the TRIGA using C{sub 3}F{sub 7}I, a common iodine lasant. Peak laser powers were approximately 20 mW. Measured flashlamp pump powers at threshold agreed well with literature values, as did lasant pressure dependency on laser operation.

  12. Heat driven pulse pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Steve M (Inventor); Martins, Mario S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A heat driven pulse pump includes a chamber having an inlet port, an outlet port, two check valves, a wick, and a heater. The chamber may include a plurality of grooves inside wall of the chamber. When heated within the chamber, a liquid to be pumped vaporizes and creates pressure head that expels the liquid through the outlet port. As liquid separating means, the wick, disposed within the chamber, is to allow, when saturated with the liquid, the passage of only liquid being forced by the pressure head in the chamber, preventing the vapor from exiting from the chamber through the outlet port. A plurality of grooves along the inside surface wall of the chamber can sustain the liquid, which is amount enough to produce vapor for the pressure head in the chamber. With only two simple moving parts, two check valves, the heat driven pulse pump can effectively function over the long lifetimes without maintenance or replacement. For continuous flow of the liquid to be pumped a plurality of pumps may be connected in parallel.

  13. Refraction of $e^-$ beams due to plasma lensing at a plasma-vacuum interface -- applied to beam deflection in a Copper cell with electrical RF-breakdown plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, Aakash A

    2014-01-01

    We formulate a possible description of the deflection of a relativistic $e^-$ beam in an inhomogeneous copper plasma, encountered by the beam when propagating through a accelerating cell that has undergone a high electric-field RF-breakdown. It is well known that an inhomogeneous plasma forms and may last for up to a few micro-seconds, until recombination in an accelerating structure where a field-emission triggers melting and ionization of RF-cell wall deformity. We present a preliminary model for the beam deflection due to collective plasma response based upon the beam density, plasma density and interaction length.

  14. Fabrication of metallic nanostructures of sub-20 nm with an optimized process of E-beam lithography and lift-off

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng

    2012-01-01

    A process consisting of e-beam lithography and lift-off was optimized to fabricate metallic nanostructures. This optimized process successfully produced gold and aluminum nanostructures with features size less than 20 nm. These structures range from simple parallel lines to complex photonic structures. Optical properties of gold split ring resonators (SRRs) were characterized with Raman spectroscopy. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) on SRRs was observed with 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MPy) as molecular probe and greatly enhanced Raman scattering was observed. Copyright © 2012 American Scientific Publishers.

  15. Miniature Lightweight Ion Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Mahadeva P.

    2010-01-01

    This design offers a larger surface area for pumping of active gases and reduces the mass of the pump by eliminating the additional vacuum enclosure. There are three main components to this ion pump: the cathode and anode pumping elements assembly, the vacuum enclosure (made completely of titanium and used as the cathode and maintained at ground potential) containing the assembly, and the external magnet. These components are generally put in a noble diode (or differential) configuration of the ion pump technology. In the present state of the art, there are two cathodes, one made of titanium and the other of tantalum. The anodes are made up of an array of stainless steel cylinders positioned between the two cathodes. All the elements of the pump are in a vacuum enclosure. After the reduction of pressure in this enclosure to a few microns, a voltage is applied between the cathode and the anode elements. Electrons generated by the ionization are accelerated toward the anodes that are confined in the anode space by the axial magnetic field. For the generation of the axial field along the anode elements, the magnet is designed in a C-configuration and is fabricated from rare earth magnetic materials (Nd-B-Fe or Sm-Co) possessing high energy product values, and the yoke is fabricated from the high permeability material (Hiperco-50A composed of Fe-Co-V). The electrons in this region collide with the gas molecules and generate their positive ions. These ions are accelerated into the cathode and eject cathode material (Ti). The neutral atoms deposit on the anode surfaces. Because of the chemical activity of Ti, the atoms combine with chemically active gas molecules (e.g. N2, O2, etc.) and remove them. New layers of Ti are continually deposited, and the pumping of active gases is thus accomplished. Pumping of the inert gases is accomplished by their burial several atomic layers deep into the cathode. However, they tend to re-emit if the entrapping lattice atoms are

  16. Pumping approximately integrable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Florian; Lenarčič, Zala; Rosch, Achim

    2017-06-01

    Weak perturbations can drive an interacting many-particle system far from its initial equilibrium state if one is able to pump into degrees of freedom approximately protected by conservation laws. This concept has for example been used to realize Bose-Einstein condensates of photons, magnons and excitons. Integrable quantum systems, like the one-dimensional Heisenberg model, are characterized by an infinite set of conservation laws. Here, we develop a theory of weakly driven integrable systems and show that pumping can induce large spin or heat currents even in the presence of integrability breaking perturbations, since it activates local and quasi-local approximate conserved quantities. The resulting steady state is qualitatively captured by a truncated generalized Gibbs ensemble with Lagrange parameters that depend on the structure but not on the overall amplitude of perturbations nor the initial state. We suggest to use spin-chain materials driven by terahertz radiation to realize integrability-based spin and heat pumps.

  17. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, P.A.

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  18. Heat pump planning handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bonin, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The Heat Pump Planning Handbook contains practical information and guidance on the design, planning and selection of heat pump systems, allowing engineers, designers, architects and construction specialists to compare a number of different systems and options. Including detailed descriptions of components and their functions and reflecting the current state of technology this guide contains sample tasks and solutions as well as new model calculations and planning evaluations. Also economic factors and alternative energy sources are covered, which are essential at a time of rising heat costs. T

  19. Towards an optofluidic pump?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile, Olivier; Emile, Janine

    2016-12-01

    Most of the vibrating mechanisms of optofluidic systems are based on local heating of membranes that induces liquid flow.We report here a new type of diaphragm pump in a liquid film based on the optical radiation pressure force. We modulate a low power laser that generates, at resonance, a symmetric vibration of a free standing soap film. The film lifetime strongly varies from 56 s at low power (2 mW) to 2 s at higher power (70 mW). Since the laser beam only acts mechanically on the interfaces, such a pump could be easily implemented on delicate microequipment on chips or in biological systems.

  20. Reactor coolant pump flywheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegan, John Raymond; Kreke, Francis Joseph; Casamassa, John Joseph

    2013-11-26

    A flywheel for a pump, and in particular a flywheel having a number of high density segments for use in a nuclear reactor coolant pump. The flywheel includes an inner member and an outer member. A number of high density segments are provided between the inner and outer members. The high density segments may be formed from a tungsten based alloy. A preselected gap is provided between each of the number of high density segments. The gap accommodates thermal expansion of each of the number of segments and resists the hoop stress effect/keystoning of the segments.

  1. Molecular heat pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Dvira; Nitzan, Abraham

    2006-02-01

    We propose a molecular device that pumps heat against a thermal gradient. The system consists of a molecular element connecting two thermal reservoirs that are characterized by different spectral properties. The pumping action is achieved by applying an external force that periodically modulates molecular levels. This modulation affects periodic oscillations of the internal temperature of the molecule and the strength of its coupling to each reservoir resulting in a net heat flow in the desired direction. The heat flow is examined in the slow and fast modulation limits and for different modulation wave forms, thus making it possible to optimize the device performance.

  2. Regenerative adsorbent heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system and at least a portion of the heat of adsorption. A series of at least four compressors containing an adsorbent is provided. A large amount of heat is transferred from compressor to compressor so that heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  3. Pump arrangement Comprising a Savety Valve

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, M.; Kruckow, J.

    2009-01-01

    A pump arrangement comprises a pump (20) having a pump inlet (22) and a pump outlet (24), which are designed to pump a fluid from the pump inlet to the pump outlet, and it further comprises a safety valve (40), which is disposed between the pump outlet (24) and an outlet (48) of the pump arrangement and comprises a valve set (42) and a valve cover (44). The valve seat, the pump outlet, and the pump inlet are structured in a first surface of a first single-piece part (14) of the pump arrangeme...

  4. PUMP ARRANGEMENT COMPRISING A SAFETY VALVE ARRANGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Martin; Wackerle, Martin

    2014-01-01

    A pump arrangement comprises a microfluidic pump (20) having a pump inlet (22) and a pump outlet (24), which is configured to pump a fluid from the pump inlet to the pump outlet, wherein the pump inlet (22) and an inlet (46) of the pump arrangement are fluidically connected. The pump arrangement further comprises a safety valve arrangement having first safety valve (40), the first safety valve (40) being arranged between the pump outlet (24) and an outlet (48) of the pump arrangement and comp...

  5. Lack of growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in temperature abuse of E-beam treated ready-to-eat (RTE) cooked ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, M C; Cambero, M I; Núñez, M; Medina, M; de la Hoz, L; Ordóñez, J A

    2010-09-01

    The behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in vacuum-packed cooked ham slices treated with an electron beam and stored at 4, 7 and 10 degrees C was investigated. Cooked ham slices were inoculated with L. monocytogenes and S. aureus and electron beam treated at 2 and 3 kGy. After treatment, a long temperature-dependent death phase was observed, followed by growth at a slower rate than in untreated samples. Assuming a hypothetical load of 10 cells/g or cm(2) of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus as an original contamination in an industrial situation, an E-beam treatment of vacuum-packed cooked ham slices at 2 kGy guarantees the microbiological safety of the product along its shelf life, even if a noticeable temperature (10 degrees C) abuse occur during its storage period. Likewise, the E-beam treatment gave rise to a substantial increase of the RTE cooked ham shelf life off-sensory features associated to the spoilage only were detected in non-treated samples (controls) after 8 and 18 days of storage at 10 degrees C and 7 degrees C, respectively. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of E-beam treatment on the chemistry and on the antioxidant activity of lycopene from dry tomato peel and tomato powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, M Carmen; Calvo, Marta M; Selgas, M Dolores; García, M Luisa; Erler, Katrin; Böhm, Volker; Catalano, Assunta; Simone, Rossella; Palozza, Paola

    2014-02-19

    Tomato powder (TP) and dry tomato peel (DTP) have been previously used in our laboratory as a source of lycopene to manufacture meat products ready-to-eat (RTE) submitted to E-beam irradiation with good technological and sensory results. Present work describes the studies performed in order to investigate the effect of radiation on chemical changes and antioxidant properties of lycopene. DTP and TP were irradiated (4 kGy). Changes on lycopene were analyzed by HPLC; inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS), possible modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) cascade, nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NP-κB) activation and expression of proteins involved in oxidation stress were analyzed in RAT-1 fibroblasts cell culture. Radiation reduced the content of all-E-lycopene and increased (Z)-lycopene, lycopene isomerization, and degradation being higher in DTP than in TP. E-Beam treatment increased the antioxidant ability of both DTP and TP in inhibiting spontaneous and H2O2-induced oxidative stress in cultured fibroblasts. Antioxidant activity was higher in DTP than in TP samples.

  7. Centrifugal blood pump 603

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Centrifugal blood pump 603 pressure obtained for real blood, as shown in figure 6, is a little higher than that for glycerin aqua Solution with the same viscosity as blood. This may indicate the effect of slight non-. Newtonian turbulent flow. The radial whirl motion of the impeller was observed by dual laser position sensors.

  8. Pump Flow Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Ingersoll-Rand Research, Inc.'s use of COSMIC's computer program MERIDL permits designers to evaluate performance and efficiency characteristics to be expected from the pump's impeller. It also provides information that enables a trained hydraulic engineer to make design improvements. Company was able to avoid the cost of developing new software and to improve some product design features.

  9. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-09-17

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

  10. Fuel Pumping System And Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Scott F.; Wang, Lifeng

    2005-12-13

    A fuel pumping system that includes a pump drive is provided. A first pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a first flow of pressurized fuel. A second pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a second flow of pressurized fuel. A first solenoid is operatively connected to the first pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the first flow of pressurized fuel. A second solenoid is operatively connected to the second pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the second flow of pressurized fuel.

  11. Orbital Liquid Oxygen Pump Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed work will develop a pump, which is based on two novel and unique design features. The first feature is a lobed pumping mechanism which operates with...

  12. Cavitation wear of pump impellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Szala

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation is a common phenomenon in pump systems, negatively influencing their operating parameters and components such as impellers and, thus, causing considerable financial losses. This paper explains the problem of cavitation and cavitation erosion. The causes of cavitation in pump systems are analyzed. A selection of centrifugal pump impellers damaged by cavitation erosion are presented and examined. The authors also discuss ways of preventing cavitation and cavitation erosion in pump systems. Finally, relevant conclusions are drawn.

  13. Mechanistic studies of sodium pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Larry D

    2008-08-01

    Sodium pump was the first ion pump discovered. A member of the family of active transporters that catalyze adenosine 5'-triphosphate hydrolysis by forming a phosphorylated enzyme intermediate, sodium pump couples the energy released to unequal countertransport of sodium and potassium ions. The ion gradient generated by the pump is important for a variety of secondary physiological processes ranging from metabolite transport to electrical excitation of nerve and muscle. Selected experiments relating structure to function are reviewed.

  14. Improving pumping system efficiency at coal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livoti, W.C.; McCandless, S.; Poltorak, R. [Baldor Electric Co. (United States)

    2009-03-15

    The industry must employ ultramodern technologies when building or upgrading power plant pumping systems thereby using fuels more efficiently. The article discusses the uses and efficiencies of positive displacement pumps, centrifugal pumps and multiple screw pumps. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  15. Small Scroll Pump for Cryogenic Liquids Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a compact, reliable, light weight, electrically driven pump capable of pumping cryogenic liquids, based on scroll pump technology. This pump will...

  16. Effects of low energy E-beam irradiation on graphene and graphene field effect transistors and raman metrology of graphene on split gate test structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gayathri S.

    2011-12-01

    Apart from its compelling performance in conventional nanoelectronic device geometries, graphene is an appropriate candidate to study certain interesting phenomenon (e.g. the Veselago lens effect) predicted on the basis of its linear electron dispersion relation. A key requirement for the observation of such phenomenon in graphene and for its use in conventional field-effect transistor (FET) devices is the need to minimize defects such as consisting of -- or resulting from -- adsorbates and lattice non-uniformities, and reduce deleterious substrate effects. Consequently the investigation of the origin and interaction of defects in the graphene lattice is essential to improve and tailor graphene-based device performance. In this thesis, optical spectroscopic studies on the influence of low-energy electron irradiation on adsorbate-induced defectivity and doping for substrate supported and suspended graphene were carried out along with spectroscopic and transport measurements on graphene FETs. A comparative investigation of the effects of single-step versus multi-step, low-energy electron irradiation (500 eV) on suspended, substrate supported graphene and on graphene FETs is reported. E-beam irradiation (single-step and multi-step) of substrate-supported graphene resulted in an increase in the Raman ID/IG ratio largely from hydrogenation due to radiolysis of the interfacial water layer between the graphene and the SiO2 substrate and from irradiated surface adsorbates. GFETs subjected to single and multi-step irradiation showed n-doping from CNP (charge neutrality point) shift of ˜ -8 and ˜ -16 V respectively. Correlation of this data with Raman analysis of suspended and supported graphene samples implied a strong role of the substrate and irradiation sequence in determining the level of doping. A correspondingly higher reduction in mobility per incident electron was also observed for GFETs subjected to multi-step irradiation compared to single step, in line with

  17. 21 CFR 880.5725 - Infusion pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infusion pump. 880.5725 Section 880.5725 Food and... Infusion pump. (a) Identification. An infusion pump is a device used in a health care facility to pump fluids into a patient in a controlled manner. The device may use a piston pump, a roller pump, or a...

  18. Pocket pumped image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotov, I.V., E-mail: kotov@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); O' Connor, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Murray, N. [Centre for Electronic Imaging, Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    The pocket pumping technique is used to detect small electron trap sites. These traps, if present, degrade CCD charge transfer efficiency. To reveal traps in the active area, a CCD is illuminated with a flat field and, before image is read out, accumulated charges are moved back and forth number of times in parallel direction. As charges are moved over a trap, an electron is removed from the original pocket and re-emitted in the following pocket. As process repeats one pocket gets depleted and the neighboring pocket gets excess of charges. As a result a “dipole” signal appears on the otherwise flat background level. The amplitude of the dipole signal depends on the trap pumping efficiency. This paper is focused on trap identification technique and particularly on new methods developed for this purpose. The sensor with bad segments was deliberately chosen for algorithms development and to demonstrate sensitivity and power of new methods in uncovering sensor defects.

  19. Solar-powered pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, C. C. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A solar powered pump particularly suited for intermittently delivering a stream of water is reported. The pump is characterized by a housing adapted to be seated in a source of water having a water discharge port disposed above the water line of the source, a sump including a valved inlet port through which water is introduced to the sump, disposed beneath the water line, a displacer supported for vertical reciprocation in said housing, an air passageway extended between the vertically spaced faces of the displacer, and a tipple disposed adjacent to the water discharge port adapted to be filled in response to a discharge of water from the housing. Air above a displacer is expanded in response to solar energy impinging on the housing and transferred into pressurizing relation with the sump for forcing water from the sump.

  20. Multiple source heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  1. Pioneering Heat Pump Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschliman, Dave [Indiana Inst. of Technology, Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Lubbehusen, Mike [Indiana Inst. of Technology, Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States)

    2015-06-30

    This project was initiated at a time when ground coupled heat pump systems in this region were limited in size and quantity. There were economic pressures with costs for natural gas and electric utilities that had many organizations considering ground coupled heat pumps; The research has added to the understanding of how ground temperatures fluctuate seasonally and how this affects the performance and operation of the heat pumps. This was done by using a series of temperature sensors buried within the middle of one of the vertical bore fields with sensors located at various depths below grade. Trending of the data showed that there is a lag in ground temperature with respect to air temperatures in the shoulder months, however as full cooling and heating season arrives, the heat rejection and heat extraction from the ground has a significant effect on the ground temps; Additionally it is better understood that while a large community geothermal bore field serving multiple buildings does provide a convenient central plant to use, it introduces complexity of not being able to easily model and predict how each building will contribute to the loads in real time. Additional controllers and programming were added to provide more insight into this real time load profile and allow for intelligent shedding of load via a dry cooler during cool nights in lieu of rejecting to the ground loop. This serves as a means to ‘condition’ the ground loop and mitigate thermal creep of the field, as is typically observed; and It has been observed when compared to traditional heating and cooling equipment, there is still a cost premium to use ground source heat pumps that is driven mostly by the cost for vertical bore holes. Horizontal loop systems are less costly to install, but do not perform as well in this climate zone for heating mode

  2. Nonazeotropic Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealker, David H.; Deming, Glenn

    1991-01-01

    Heat pump collects heat from water circulating in heat-rejection loop, raises temperature of collected heat, and transfers collected heat to water in separate pipe. Includes sealed motor/compressor with cooling coils, evaporator, and condenser, all mounted in outer housing. Gradients of temperature in evaporator and condenser increase heat-transfer efficiency of vapor-compression cycle. Intended to recover relatively-low-temperature waste heat and use it to make hot water.

  3. Hydride heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, James G.

    1977-01-01

    Method and apparatus for the use of hydrides to exhaust heat from one temperature source and deliver the thermal energy extracted for use at a higher temperature, thereby acting as a heat pump. For this purpose there are employed a pair of hydridable metal compounds having different characteristics working together in a closed pressure system employing a high temperature source to upgrade the heat supplied from a low temperature source.

  4. Stirling Engine Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Noboru

    Recent advances in the feasibility studies related to the Stirling engines and Stirling engine heat pumps which have been considered attractive due to their promising role in helping to solve the global environmental and energy problems,are reviewed. This article begins to describe the brief history of the Stirling engines and theoretical thermodynamic analysis of the Stirling cycle in order to understand several advantages on the Stirling engine. Furthermore,they could throw light on our question why the dream engines had not been promoted to practical applications during two hundred years. The present review shows that the Stirling engines with several unique advantages including 30 to 40% thermal efficiency and preferable exhaust characteristics,had been designed and constructed by recent tackling for the development of the advanced automobile and other applications using them. Based on the current state of art,it is being provided to push the Stirling engines combined with heat pumps based on the reversed Rankine cycle to the market. At present,however, many problems, especially for the durability, cost, and delicate engine parts must be enforced to solve. In addition,there are some possibilities which can increase the attractiveness of the Stirling engines and heat pumps. The review closes with suggestions for further research.

  5. Electrocentrifugal pumping; Bombeo electrocentrifugo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Perez, Guillermo; Medellin Otero, Hector [Instituto Mexicano del Peroleo (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    The exploitation of isolated oil deposits, in losing their own energy, enter a phase of secondary recovery. One of the technologies of new development in Mexico is the one of electrocentrifugal pumping , which consists of introducing the motor-pump as an integral part of the production pipe down to the well bottom and pumping directly up to central complexes, from where it is sent inland. In the present paper is intended to explain what this type of secondary recovery consists of. [Spanish] La explotacion de yacimientos aislados de petroleo, al perder su energia propia, entran en una fase de recuperacion secundaria. Una de las tecnologias de nuevo desarrollo en Mexico es la de bombeo electrocentrifugo, la cual consiste en introducir la motobomba como parte integral de la tuberia de produccion hasta el fondo del pozo y bombearlo directamente hasta los complejos centrales, de donde se envia a tierra. En el presente trabajo se pretende explicar en que consiste este tipo de recuperacion secundaria.

  6. A Magnetically Coupled Cryogenic Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Walter; Jumper, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Historically, cryogenic pumps used for propellant loading at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and other NASA Centers have a bellows mechanical seal and oil bath ball bearings, both of which can be problematic and require high maintenance. Because of the extremely low temperatures, the mechanical seals are made of special materials and design, have wearing surfaces, are subject to improper installation, and commonly are a potential leak path. The ball bearings are non-precision bearings [ABEC-1 (Annular Bearing Engineering Council)] and are lubricated using LOX compatible oil. This oil is compatible with the propellant to prevent explosions, but does not have good lubricating properties. Due to the poor lubricity, it has been a goal of the KSC cryogenics community for the last 15 years to develop a magnetically coupled pump, which would eliminate these two potential issues. A number of projects have been attempted, but none of the pumps was a success. An off-the-shelf magnetically coupled pump (typically used with corrosive fluids) was procured that has been used for hypergolic service at KSC. The KSC Cryogenics Test Lab (CTL) operated the pump in cryogenic LN2 as received to determine a baseline for modifications required. The pump bushing, bearings, and thrust rings failed, and the pump would not flow liquid (this is a typical failure mode that was experienced in the previous attempts). Using the knowledge gained over the years designing and building cryogenic pumps, the CTL determined alternative materials that would be suitable for use under the pump design conditions. The CTL procured alternative materials for the bearings (bronze, aluminum bronze, and glass filled PTFE) and machined new bearing bushings, sleeves, and thrust rings. The designed clearances among the bushings, sleeves, thrust rings, case, and case cover were altered once again using experience gained from previous cryogenic pump rebuilds and designs. The alternative material parts were assembled into

  7. Nanofabrication of super-high-aspect-ratio structures in hydrogen silsesquioxane from direct-write e-beam lithography and hot development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocola, L. E.; Tirumala, V. R.; Center for Nanoscale Materials; NIST

    2008-11-01

    Super-high-aspect-ratio structures (>10) in hydrogen silsesquioxane resist using direct write electron beam lithography at 100 kV and hot development and rinse are reported. Posts of 100 nm in width and 1.2 {micro}m tall have been successfully fabricated without the need of supercritical drying. Hot rinse solution with isopropyl alcohol has been used to reduce surface tension effects during drying. Dose absorption effects have been observed and modeled using known Monte Carlo models. These results indicate that for e-beam exposures of thick negative resists (>1 {micro}m), the bottom of the structures will have less cross-link density and therefore will be less stiff than the top. These results will have impact in the design of high-aspect-ratio structures that can be used in microelectromechanical system devices and high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates.

  8. Suppressed intermixing in InAlGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs and AlGaAs/GaAs quantum well heterostructures irradiated with a KrF excimer laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genest, J.; Dubowski, J.J.; Aimez, V. [Universite de Sherbrooke, Centre de recherche en Nanofabrication et Nanocaracteriasation (CRN2), Departement de Genie Electrique et Genie Informatique, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)

    2007-11-15

    The influence of gallium arsenide surface modification induced by irradiation with a KrF excimer laser on the magnitude of the quantum well (QW) intermixing effect has been investigated in InAlGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs QW heterostructures. The irradiation in an air environment with laser pulses of fluences between 60 and 100 mJ/cm{sup 2} has resulted in the formation of a gallium oxide-rich film at the surface. Following the annealing at 900 C, up to 35 nm suppression of the band gap blue shift was observed in all the laser irradiated samples when compared to the non-irradiated samples. The origin of suppression has been discussed in terms of stress controlled diffusion. (orig.)

  9. Experimental Study on Series Operation of Sliding Vane Pump and Centrifugal Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Li; Weiming Zhang; Ming Jiang; Zhengyang Li

    2013-01-01

    A platform for sliding vane pump and centrifugal pump tests is installed to study the series operation of them under different characteristics of pipeline. Firstly, the sliding vane pump and the centrifugal pump work independently, and the performance is recorded. Then, the two types of pumps are combined together, with the sliding vane pump acting as the feeding pump. Comparison is made between the performance of the independently working pump and the performance of series operation pump. Re...

  10. Supercritical waste oxidation pump investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurston, G.; Garcia, K.

    1993-02-01

    This report investigates the pumping techniques and pumping equipment that would be appropriate for a 5,000 gallon per day supercritical water oxidation waste disposal facility. The pumps must boost water, waste, and additives from atmospheric pressure to approximately 27.6 MPa (4,000 psia). The required flow ranges from 10 gpm to less than 0.1 gpm. For the higher flows, many commercial piston pumps are available. These pumps have packing and check-valves that will require periodic maintenance; probably at 2 to 6 month intervals. Several commercial diaphragm pumps were also discovered that could pump the higher flow rates. Diaphragm pumps have the advantage of not requiring dynamic seals. For the lower flows associated with the waste and additive materials, commercial diaphragm pumps. are available. Difficult to pump materials that are sticky, radioactive, or contain solids, could be injected with an accumulator using an inert gas as the driving mechanism. The information presented in this report serves as a spring board for trade studies and the development of equipment specifications.

  11. Problems of energy efficiency of pumps and pumping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tverdokhleb, I.; Kostyuk, A.; Sokolov, S.

    2017-08-01

    The total energy consumption of various types of pumps is significant and the energy saving potential in this area is also huge. The transition from consideration of the characteristics of a separate pump to the features of its operation with a drive, taking into account the operation in different modes in conditions of a specific hydraulic network, allows obtaining a much greater potential for reducing energy consumption, significantly increasing the efficiency and reliability of pumping equipment.

  12. Chemical heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Leonard

    1980-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  13. Proper Sizing of Circulation Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes the preliminary results from field tests of replacing various types of old pumps used for circulating water in heating systems in single- and double-family houses with new types of pumps. The tests were carried out in Denmark for the Danish Electricity Savings Trust......, but the results can be applied to Europe in general. Despite the small sample of houses involved in the test, 15 houses, some rather safe conclusions can be drawn from the results, which showed that newly developed pumps with power consumption around 5-8 W, can perform the task of circulating the water...... sufficiently to keep the houses satisfactorily warm during the heating season of the test. The old replaced pumps used 5-10 times more power. In Europe alone, a gradual replacement of the present vastly oversized pumps with such small but sufficient pumps can save the construction of 17 large power plants...

  14. Solar assisted heat pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Godbold, R; Paurine, A; Maidment, GG

    2016-01-01

    Solar Assisted Heat Pumps have the potential to provide low carbon heat for domestic hot water generation and low temperature heating. They have advantages over conventional solar thermal systems because they can generate heating and hot water during periods of low or zero solar, whist still maintain the advantage of not needing to be connected to the gas grid. They are simple in nature and can be installed in a wide range of applications. They are also currently uncommon in the UK so a thoro...

  15. Absorption heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  16. Centrifugal pumps and allied machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, HH

    1994-01-01

    This book will be of vital interest to all engineers and designers concerned with centrifugal pumps and turbines. Including statistical information derived from 20000 pumps and 700 turbines with capacities of 5gpm to 5000000gpm, this book offers the widest range and scope of information currently available. Statistical analyses suggest practical methods of increasing pump performance and provide valuable data for new design aspects.

  17. Mathematical model of heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    Pitron, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper different energy states of a heat pump are described. Equations used for mathematical description of the heat pump in the Matlab Simulink are presented. Created model is used to calculate the energy flows in the system according to different input parameters. The simulation involves an accumulation tank, which is controlled by individual input and output parameters. Simulation results have been compared with the experimental measured values on a heat pump in a laboratory.

  18. The terrestrial silica pump.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna C Carey

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si cycling controls atmospheric CO(2 concentrations and thus, the global climate, through three well-recognized means: chemical weathering of mineral silicates, occlusion of carbon (C to soil phytoliths, and the oceanic biological Si pump. In the latter, oceanic diatoms directly sequester 25.8 Gton C yr(-1, accounting for 43% of the total oceanic net primary production (NPP. However, another important link between C and Si cycling remains largely ignored, specifically the role of Si in terrestrial NPP. Here we show that 55% of terrestrial NPP (33 Gton C yr(-1 is due to active Si-accumulating vegetation, on par with the amount of C sequestered annually via marine diatoms. Our results suggest that similar to oceanic diatoms, the biological Si cycle of land plants also controls atmospheric CO(2 levels. In addition, we provide the first estimates of Si fixed in terrestrial vegetation by major global biome type, highlighting the ecosystems of most dynamic Si fixation. Projected global land use change will convert forests to agricultural lands, increasing the fixation of Si by land plants, and the magnitude of the terrestrial Si pump.

  19. Lasers with nuclear pumping

    CERN Document Server

    Melnikov, S P; Sizov, A N; Miley, George H

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the history of lasers with nuclear pumping (Nuclear Pumped Lasers, NPLs). This book showcases the most important results and stages of NPL development in The Russian Federal Nuclear Center (VNIIEF) as well as other Russian and international laboratories, including laboratories in the United States. The basic science and technology behind NPLs along with potential applications are covered throughout the book. As such, this book: ·         Contains a historical overview of the extensive information developed over the past 40 years of work on NPLs ·         Covers the most important results and stages of NPL development, not just in the Russian Federal Nuclear Center, VNIIEF, but also in other laboratories in Russia, the United States , and some other scattered international laboratories ·         Systematizes the fragmented information accumulated over these years of very active research and development As the first comprehensive discussion of NPLs, students, research...

  20. Heat pump apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Paul A.; Horowitz, Jeffrey S.

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  1. About Variable Speed Heating and Cooling Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Popovici

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work has the purpose of underlying the advantages of variable speed heating and cooling pumps use for the perspective of general and particular pumping costs and efficiency. The study approaches comparisons between constant flow pumps and variable flow pumps in different given situations and comparatively analyses the pumping costs.

  2. About Variable Speed Heating and Cooling Pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Popovici, Cătălin; Ignat, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The present work has the purpose of underlying the advantages of variable speed heating and cooling pumps use for the perspective of general and particular pumping costs and efficiency. The study approaches comparisons between constant flow pumps and variable flow pumps in different given situations and comparatively analyses the pumping costs.

  3. Design of Pumps for Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Olsen, Stefan; Bech, Thomas Nørgaard

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the development of two pumps for water hydraulic applications. The pumps are based on two different working principles: The Vane-type pump and the Gear-type pump. Emphasis is put on the considerations that should be made to account for water as the hydraulic fluid.......KEYWORDS: water, pump, design, vane, gear....

  4. The design of axial shaftless pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmirler, Michal; Netrebska, Hana

    The axial shaftless pump with a rotary casing has been proposed. The pump is unique in its small space requirements and the ability to draw a liquid with a high content of impurities and fibers. Modern motor with an external commutation was used to propel the pump rotor. The pump can be used for both pumping of liquids and marine propulsion.

  5. The design of axial shaftless pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmirler Michal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The axial shaftless pump with a rotary casing has been proposed. The pump is unique in its small space requirements and the ability to draw a liquid with a high content of impurities and fibers. Modern motor with an external commutation was used to propel the pump rotor. The pump can be used for both pumping of liquids and marine propulsion.

  6. CC Cryostat Vacuum Pumping Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, J.B.; /Fermilab

    1987-10-13

    This report calculates the effect of the conductances of the pumping lines on the pumping speeds of the vacuum pumps being used to pump the inner vessel, and annular space, vacuum tight during the CC Cryostat testing. Effective pumping speeds were calculated for various values of pressure via the above stated formulas (see calculations). Conductances of valves, elbows, and tees were calculated with the help of ref. 1, and the volumes of the inner vessel and annular space were calculated wtth the aid of ref. 2. The major results of these calculations follow. The attached graphs show the effective pumping speed vs. pressure, as well as the pressure vs. pumpdown time for both the inner vessel pumpdown and the annular space pumpdown. Many intervals of pressure were chosen in order to give a complete picture of the effects on the pumping speed, and pumpdown time. An important rule of thumb is that the effective pumping speed be close to the intrinsic pump speed in the region of interest for the best efficiency. With an infinite conductance, these quantities become equal. In the case of the annular space pumpdown. the effective pumping speed is within approximately 15% of the intrinsic pump speed for pressures down to 6000{mu}, and at that point, the conductance effects slow the system down and provide a 49% difference at 1000{mu}. To Improve these numbers, the line length must be shortened, or even better, the line diameter increased. As far as pumpdown time is concerned, the actual pumpdown was completed in a reasonable amount of time, and would have been even better if the pumping system did not lag due to a leaK and its repair time. The inner vessel pumpdown shows a pumpdown time near 1 hour to reach 100{mu} pressure. The effective pumping speed matches to within 10% of the intrinsic pump speed to 6000{mu}, and then the conductance effects become more important and provide a 41% difference at 1000{mu}. The actual pumpdown was completed in a reasonable amount of time

  7. Sodium pump localization in epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystriansky, Jason S; Kaplan, Jack H

    2007-12-01

    In epithelial cells, the sodium pump, in coordination with several other ion transporting proteins and channels, acts to regulate directional water and ion flux across the epithelial barrier. This function is dependant on the polarized localization of the sodium pump to a single plasma membrane domain. In most epithelial cell types the sodium pump is found in an exclusively basolateral position. Despite the clear importance of maintaining a polarized distribution of the sodium pump, surprisingly little is known about the specific mechanisms responsible for the targeting and trafficking of the sodium pump to the basolateral surface. We briefly discuss our current understanding of factors which may act to regulate the cellular distribution of the sodium pump, including the potential role of the sodium pump beta-subunit. Several previous, studies have suggested that the expression of the beta2 isoform (instead of beta1) may cause the apical localization of the sodium pump. This appeared to be confirmed by Wilson et al. Am J Pathol, 156: 253-268, 2000 who found that MDCK cells stably transfected with the beta2 subunit express the sodium pump at the apical surface. However, careful examination by Laughery et al.,Am J Physiol, 292: F1718-F1725, 2007, showed that the apical targeting of the pump was caused by the presence of butyrate in the cell growth media and was not due to the presence of the beta2 isoform. These findings are discussed below, along with potential explanations as to how butyrate may influence the polarity of the sodium pump in epithelial cells.

  8. E-Beam Irradiation for Improving the Microbiological Quality of Smoked Duck Meat with Minimum Effects on Physicochemical Properties During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Kyung-A; Arshad, Muhammad Sajid; Jo, Yunhee; Chung, Namhyeok; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2017-04-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effect of different doses (0, 1.5, 3, and 4.5 kGy) of e-beam irradiation on the quality parameters (pH, Hunter's parameter, and heme pigment) and stability qualifiers (peroxide value [POV], thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARSs], and total volatile basic nitrogen [TVBN]) of smoked duck meat during 40 d of storage under vacuum packaging at 4 °C. The initial populations of total bacteria (7.81 log CFU/g) and coliforms (5.68 log CFU/g) were reduced by approximately 2 to 5 log cycles with respect to irradiation doses. The results showed that pH, myoglobin, met-myoglobin, L* , a* , and b* showed significant differences with respect to different doses and storage intervals; a* and b* did not vary significantly because of storage. Higher pH was found in samples treated with 4.5 kGy at 40 d, while the minimum was observed in nonirradiated samples at day 0 of storage. Higher POV (2.31 ± 0.03 meq peroxide/kg) and TBARS (5.24 ± 0.03 mg MDA/kg) values were found in 4.5 kGy-treated smoked meat at 40 d and the lowest was reported in 0 kGy-treated meat at initiation of storage (0 d). However, irradiation suppressed TVBN during storage and higher TVBN (7.09 ± 0.32 mg/100 mL) was found in duck meat treated with 0 kGy at 40 d. The electronic nose (e-nose) effectively distinguished flavor profiles during the different storage intervals. The results showed that different sensory attributes did not vary significantly with respect to the dose of irradiation. We conclude that low dose of e-beam irradiation and vacuum packaging is beneficial for safety and shelf life extension without affecting the sensory characteristics of smoked duck meat. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. The Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, H.

    1983-01-01

    Three aspect of cellular calcium metabolism in animal cells was discussed including the importance of the plasma membrane in calcium homeostasis, experiments dealing with the actual mechanism of the calcium pump, and the function of the pump in relationship to the mitochondria and to the function of calmodulin in the intact cell.

  10. Performance of Wind Pump Prototype

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mulu

    Energy demand for water pumping has been growing in the country for both drinking water and irrigation. The source of energy for ... stroke pump yielded more water and its efficiency curve elevated smoothly and reached peak at about 10 m/s and ..... Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal. Democratic ...

  11. High Temperature Thermoacoustic Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijani, H.; Spoelstra, S. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-07-15

    Thermoacoustic technology can provide new types of heat pumps that can be deployed in different applications. Thermoacoustic heat pumps can for example be applied in dwellings to generate cooling or heating. Typically, space and water heating makes up about 60% of domestic and office energy consumption. The application of heat pumps can contribute to achieve energy savings and environmental benefits by reducing CO2 and NOx emissions. This paper presents the study of a laboratory scale thermoacoustic-Stirling heat pump operating between 10C and 80C which can be applied in domestics and offices. The heat pump is driven by a thermoacoustic-Stirling engine. The experimental results show that the heat pump pumps 250 W of heat at 60C at a drive ratio of 3.6 % and 200 W at 80C at a drive ratio of 3.5 %. The performance for both cases is about 40% of the Carnot performance. The design, construction, and performance measurements of the heat pump will be presented and discussed.

  12. Ion-Pumping Microbial Rhodopsins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki eKandori

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhodopsins are light-sensing proteins used in optogenetics. The word rhodopsin originates from the Greek words rhodo and opsis, indicating rose and sight, respectively. Although the classical meaning of rhodopsin is the red-colored pigment in our eyes, the modern meaning of rhodopsin encompasses photoactive proteins containing a retinal chromophore in animals and microbes. Animal and microbial rhodopsins possess 11-cis and all-trans retinal, respectively, to capture light in seven transmembrane α-helices, and photoisomerizations into all-trans and 13-cis forms, respectively, initiate each function. Ion-transporting proteins can be found in microbial rhodopsins, such as light-gated channels and light-driven pumps, which are the main tools in optogenetics. Light-driven pumps, such as archaeal H+ pump bacteriorhodopsin (BR and Cl- pump halorhodopsin (HR, were discovered in the 1970s, and their mechanism has been extensively studied. On the other hand, different kinds of H+ and Cl- pumps have been found in marine bacteria, such as proteorhodopsin (PR and Fulvimarina pelagi rhodopsin (FR, respectively. In addition, a light-driven Na+ pump was found, Krokinobacter eikastus rhodopsin 2 (KR2. These light-driven ion-pumping microbial rhodopsins are classified as DTD, TSA, DTE, NTQ and NDQ rhodopsins for BR, HR, PR, FR and KR2, respectively. Recent understanding of ion-pumping microbial rhodopsins is reviewed in this paper.

  13. In Vivo Assessment of Bone Ingrowth Potential of Three-Dimensional E-Beam Produced Implant Surfaces and the Effect of Additional Treatment by Acid Etching and Hydroxyapatite Coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, J.E.; Hannink, G.; Jurrius, A.M.G.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph; Buma, P.

    2012-01-01

    The bone ingrowth potential of three-dimensional E-beam-produced implant surfaces was examined by histology and compared to a porous plasma-sprayed control. The effects of acid etching and a hydroxyapatite (HA) coating were also evaluated by histology. Specimens were implanted in the distal femur of

  14. Microgravity contact pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Brian; Thiessen, David

    2002-11-01

    Phase separations by gravity are an integral part of the vast majority of macroscopic terrestrial chemical and metallurgical engineering processes. Captured droplets are an obvious workaround in microgravity or microscale environments. Either chambered liquid bridges or helical supports permit the easy conversion of macroscopic terrestrial processes such as distillation and stripping. Chambered systems pump by capillary forces and are extremely resistant to blowout or rupture. The chambering allows staged processes such as distillation. However, chambered systems require mechanical systems of valves and may be expensive to manufacture. Helical supports permit infinite near-open cylindrical volumes of fluid with a single interface, but cannot support flow rates as great as chambered systems. The two modes are characterized and compared.

  15. Electric fluid pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  16. Electric Turbo Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    NASA is working in junction with another company on the Electric Turbo Pump. Analysis of the impeller, including the blades, volute housing, and associated components, will take place in ANSYS. Contours of the deformed and stress were recorded to assess the parts. Campbell diagrams will be considered as mentioned to find the operating regions of the impeller and volute housing, more specifically what speed is ideal to ensure that the impeller does not begin to vibrate at a frequency that will break it. More than one material will be examined as per request by the designer to determine which material is more cost efficient, easy to machine, and can withstand the stress values that will be placed on it.

  17. Dual source heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Amir L.; Pietsch, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  18. Heat Pumps in Subarctic Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, Reynir Smari; Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur; Unnthorsson, Runar

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal heat pumps use the temperature difference between inside and outside areas to modify a refrigerant, either for heating or cooling. Doing so can lower the need for external heating energy for a household to some extent. The eventual impact depends on various factors, such as the external...... source for heating or cooling and the temperature difference. The use of geothermal heat pumps, and eventual benefits has not been studied in the context of frigid areas, such as in Iceland. In Iceland, only remote areas do not have access to district heating from geothermal energy where households may...... the Icelandic energy authority for the analysis. Findings show that a majority of households (83%) used between 20 and 50 MWh annually prior to installing a heat pump system (mean = 37.8 MWh). On average, households used approximately 26 MWh after installing a heat pump. When installing a small pump (5 to 9 k...

  19. Formation of the active medium in high-power repetitively pulsed gas lasers pumped by an electron-beam-controlled discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulaev, V. D.; Lysenko, S. L.

    2015-07-01

    A high-power repetitively pulsed e-beam-controlled discharge CO2 laser is simulated numerically; the simulation results are compared with experimental data. Optimal sizes and design of electrodes and configuration of the external magnetic field are found, which allow one to introduce no less than 90% electric pump energy into a specified volume of the active medium, including the active volume of a laser with an aperture of 110 × 110 cm. The results obtained can also be used to design other types of highpower gas lasers.

  20. Switchable field-tuned control of magnetic domain wall pinning along Co microwires by 3D e-beam lithographed structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco-Roldán, C., E-mail: c.blanco@cinn.es [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Avenida Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Centro de Investigación en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnología CINN (CSIC, Universidad de Oviedo), Avenida de la Vega 4-6, 33940 El Entrego (Spain); Quirós, C.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, G.; Vélez, M.; Martín, J.I.; Alameda, J.M. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Avenida Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Centro de Investigación en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnología CINN (CSIC, Universidad de Oviedo), Avenida de la Vega 4-6, 33940 El Entrego (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Three-dimensional magnetic circuits composed of Co microwires crossed by elevated Co bridges have been patterned on Si substrate by e-beam lithography and lift-off process. The lithographic procedure includes a double resist procedure that optimizes the shape of the bridge, so that 200 nm air gaps can be routinely achieved in between the wire and bridge elements. Microwire magnetization reversal processes have been analyzed by magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy with different remanent bridge configurations. When the Co bridge is magnetized along the in-plane direction parallel to the wire axis, its stray field induces a marked pinning effect on domain wall propagation along the wire below it, even without being in contact. Changing the sign of the remanent state of the bridge, domain wall pinning can be selected to occur in either the ascending or descending branches of the wire hysteresis loop. Thus, these wire-bridge 3D circuits provide a simple system for tunable domain wall pinning controllable through the pre-recorded bridge remanent state. - Highlights: • Electron beam lithography is used to fabricate a tridimensional magnetic circuit. • Proposed circuit is made of a Co bridge overcrossing a non-contacted Co microwire. • Domain wall propagation can be controlled by previous magnetization of the system. • Domain wall pinning in the wire depends on the applied magnetic field sign.

  1. Switchable field-tuned control of magnetic domain wall pinning along Co microwires by 3D e-beam lithographed structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Roldán, C.; Quirós, C.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, G.; Vélez, M.; Martín, J. I.; Alameda, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional magnetic circuits composed of Co microwires crossed by elevated Co bridges have been patterned on Si substrate by e-beam lithography and lift-off process. The lithographic procedure includes a double resist procedure that optimizes the shape of the bridge, so that 200 nm air gaps can be routinely achieved in between the wire and bridge elements. Microwire magnetization reversal processes have been analyzed by magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy with different remanent bridge configurations. When the Co bridge is magnetized along the in-plane direction parallel to the wire axis, its stray field induces a marked pinning effect on domain wall propagation along the wire below it, even without being in contact. Changing the sign of the remanent state of the bridge, domain wall pinning can be selected to occur in either the ascending or descending branches of the wire hysteresis loop. Thus, these wire-bridge 3D circuits provide a simple system for tunable domain wall pinning controllable through the pre-recorded bridge remanent state.

  2. Production data from a Leica ZBA31H+ shaped e-beam mask writer located at the Photronics facility, Manchester, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stephen; Loughran, Dominic; Osborne, Peter; Sixt, Pierre; Doering, Hans-Joachim

    1999-06-01

    The ZBA31H+) is a variable shaped spot, vector scan e- beam lithography system operating at 20 keV. The specified performance is designed to produce reticles to 250 nanometer design rules, and beyond. In November 98 the acceptance results of a newly installed Leica ZBA31H+), at Photonic Manchester, were presented in a paper at the VDE/VDI 15th European Conference on Mask Technology. This paper is a continuation of that work and presents data from a capability study carried out, on 4000 angstrom EBR9 HS31 resist. Analysis of: mean to target, uniformity, X/Y bias, isolated vs. dense linewidths, linearity, and registration performance of the tool is presented, and the effects of re- iterative develop on process capability compared. Theoretically, a shaped beam system has advantages over raster scan in terms of write time and edge definition capabilities. In this paper, comparative write times against an Etec Mebes 4500 system are included. The ZBA31H+) has to write very small polygons in order to image non-axial or non-45 degree features. The resulting effect on image quality and write time is investigated. In order to improve the fidelity of small OPC structures, Leica have investigated alternative writing strategies, and their results to data are presented here.

  3. High-frequency surface acoustic wave devices based on AlN/diamond layered structure realized using e-beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouar, M. B.; Elmazria, O.; Kirsch, P.; Alnot, P.; Mortet, V.; Tiusan, C.

    2007-06-01

    We report in this paper on the study and the realization of surface acoustic wave devices based on an AlN/diamond layered structure intended for the X band (8 GHz). Both x-ray diffraction and transmission electronic microscopy, used for characterization of the structural properties of the AlN/diamond structure, have shown (002) highly oriented sputtered AlN films on free-standing chemical vapor deposition diamond films. Surface roughness of the AlN/diamond structure was measured by atomic force microscopy and showed a very low surface roughness, less than 1 nm. Low surface roughness is very important to reduce the acoustic propagation losses. SAW devices operating in the range of 8 GHz were realized by the combination of the high velocity of the AlN/diamond layered structure and the high lateral resolution obtained using e-beam lithography (EBL). Due to high electrical resistivity of the AlN film, interdigital transducers with submicronic resolution were patterned by an adapted technological EBL process. The analysis of device performances in terms of electromechanical coupling coefficient and temperature stability was carried out and discussed. The dispersion of both parameters as a function of wavelength was experimentally determined, and showed the obtention of an electromechanical coupling coefficient up to 1.4% and a temperature coefficient of frequency varying between 9 and 20 ppm/°C. The dispersion curves of phase velocity were also analyzed and experimental results show a good agreement with theoretical calculations.

  4. Modeling and optimization of sensory changes and shelf-life in vacuum-packaged cooked ham treated by E-beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedito, J., E-mail: jjbenedi@tal.upv.e [Grupo de Analisis y Simulacion de Procesos Agroalimentarios, Departamento Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera S/n, E46022 Valencia (Spain); Cambero, M.I. [Departamento de Nutricion, Bromatologia y Tecnologia de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E28040 Madrid (Spain); Ortuno, C. [Grupo de Analisis y Simulacion de Procesos Agroalimentarios, Departamento Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera S/n, E46022 Valencia (Spain); Cabeza, M.C.; Ordonez, J.A.; Hoz, L. de la [Departamento de Nutricion, Bromatologia y Tecnologia de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    The E-beam irradiation of vacuum-packaged RTE cooked ham was carried out to establish the dose required to achieve the food safety objective (FSO) and to minimize changes in selected sensory attributes. Cooked ham was irradiated with doses ranging 1-4 kGy. After the treatment, the microbial inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes, the shelf-life of the product and some sensory attributes (appearance, odor, and flavor) were determined. The inactivation of L. monocytogenes was satisfactorily described by a first-order kinetics equation (R2=0.99). The influence of the irradiation dose on appearance, odor, and flavor was modeled through Gompertz (R2=0.99, for appearance) and Activation/Inactivation (R2=0.99, for odor and flavor) equations. A model was also developed to determine the shelf-life of irradiated cooked ham depending on the irradiation dose (R2>0.91). The dose that maximized the scores of the sensory attributes was 0.96 kGy resulting in an acceptable sensory quality for 80 days. It is possible to apply up to 2 kGy to ensure microbial safety, while provoking no significant changes in the above mentioned sensory attributes.

  5. Effects of film thickness on the linear and nonlinear refractive index of p-type SnO films deposited by e-beam evaporation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendy, Y. A.

    2017-12-01

    Tin monoxide (SnO) films of different thickness have been deposited onto glass substrates at vacuum pressure of ∼ 8 × 10-6 mbar using an e-beam evaporation system. A hot probe test revealed that the deposited films showed p-type conduction. The structure characterization and phase purity of the deposited films was confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The optical transmission and reflection spectra of the deposited films recorded in the wavelength range 190-2500 nm were used to calculate the optical constants employing the Murmann's exact equations. The refractive index dispersion was adequately described by the well-known effective-single-oscillator model proposed by Wemple-DiDomenico, whereby the dispersion parameters were calculated. The nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear optical susceptibility of the deposited films were successfully evaluated using the Miller empirical relations. The lattice dielectric constant and the carrier concentration to the effective mass ratio were also calculated as a function of film thickness using the Spitzer and Fan model. The variation of the optical band gap of the deposited films as a function of film thickness was also presented.

  6. Temperature rise in superfluid helium pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Peter

    1988-01-01

    The temperature rise of a fountain effect pump (FEP) and of a centrifugal pump (CP) are compared. Calculations and estimates presented here show that under the operating conditions expected during the resupply of superfluid helium in space, a centrifugal pump will produce a smaller temperature rise than will a fountain effect pump. The temperature rise for the FEP is calculated assuming an ideal pump, while the temperature rise of the CP is estimated from the measured performance of a prototype pump. As a result of this smaller temperature rise and of the different operating characteristics of the two types of pumps, transfers will be more effective using a centrifugal pump.

  7. Heat pumps for the home

    CERN Document Server

    Cantor, John

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, heat pumps have emerged as a promising new form of technology with a relatively low environmental impact. Moreover, they have presented householders with an opportunity to reduce their heating bills. Heat pumps can heat a building by 'pumping' heat from either the ground or the air outside: an intriguing process which utilizes principles that are somewhat analogous to those employed in the domestic refrigerator. Armed with the practical information contained in these pages, homeowners will have the necessary knowledge to take advantage of this potentially low-carbon t

  8. High Performance Space Pump Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PDT is proposing a High Performance Space Pump based upon an innovative design using several technologies. The design will use a two-stage impeller, high temperature...

  9. Transverse pumped laser amplifier architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramian, Andrew James; Manes, Kenneth; Deri, Robert; Erlandson, Al; Caird, John; Spaeth, Mary

    2013-07-09

    An optical gain architecture includes a pump source and a pump aperture. The architecture also includes a gain region including a gain element operable to amplify light at a laser wavelength. The gain region is characterized by a first side intersecting an optical path, a second side opposing the first side, a third side adjacent the first and second sides, and a fourth side opposing the third side. The architecture further includes a dichroic section disposed between the pump aperture and the first side of the gain region. The dichroic section is characterized by low reflectance at a pump wavelength and high reflectance at the laser wavelength. The architecture additionally includes a first cladding section proximate to the third side of the gain region and a second cladding section proximate to the fourth side of the gain region.

  10. Magnetic heat pump flow director

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Frank S. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A fluid flow director is disclosed. The director comprises a handle body and combed-teeth extending from one side of the body. The body can be formed of a clear plastic such as acrylic. The director can be used with heat exchangers such as a magnetic heat pump and can minimize the undesired mixing of fluid flows. The types of heat exchangers can encompass both heat pumps and refrigerators. The director can adjust the fluid flow of liquid or gas along desired flow directions. A method of applying the flow director within a magnetic heat pump application is also disclosed where the comb-teeth portions of the director are inserted into the fluid flow paths of the heat pump.

  11. ENERGY STAR Certified Pool Pumps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Pool Pumps that are effective as of February 15,...

  12. Influence of Nb content on the structural and optical properties of anatase TiO{sub 2} polycrystalline thin film by e-beam technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, A., E-mail: attaullah77@yahoo.com; Mahmood, Arshad; Aziz, Uzma; Rashid, Rashad; Raza, Qaiser; Ali, Zahid

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we report the structural and optical properties of Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films deposited by e-beam evaporation technique. After post annealing in air at 500 °C for 1 h, the samples were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, UV–Vis spectrophotometry and spectroscopic Ellipsometer. Both XRD and Raman analyses indicate that the films were crystallized into the polycrystalline anatase TiO{sub 2} structure. However it was observed that the crystallinity of the films decreases with the addition of Nb atoms and tends to become amorphous at 20% Nb content in TiO{sub 2} film. Moreover, no new phases such as Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, NbO{sub 2} or Nb metal were observed. The band gap energy was found to decrease with the increasing of Nb concentration which was verified by ellipsometric study. Ellipsomtric measurements also indicate that refractive index (n) of the films decreases while extinction coefficient (k) increases with the increasing of Nb content. All these analyses elucidate that the incorporation of Nb atom into TiO{sub 2} may tune the structural and optical properties of TiO{sub 2} thin films. - Highlights: • The addition of Nb into TiO{sub 2} film has strongly influenced its physical properties. • Anatase polycrystalline Nb:TiO{sub 2} films were grown up to 15% Nb content. • The film becomes an amorphous at 20% Nb doping. • Band gap energy of TiO{sub 2} film was decreased with increasing of Nb content in the film. • The Optical constants (n, k) of Nb:TiO{sub 2} film were varied as a function of Nb content.

  13. Effect of substrate temperature and post-annealing on the properties of CIGS thin films deposited using e-beam evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jieyi; Shen, Honglie; Zhai, Zihao; Li, Jinze; Wang, Wei; Shang, Huirong; Li, Yufang

    2016-12-01

    Cu(InGa)Se2 (CIGS) thin films were prepared using e-beam evaporation on a soda-lime glass substrate. The effect of substrate temperature and the difference between substrate temperature and post-annealing on the properties of the CIGS thin films and solar cells were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis-NIR and the Hall effect were used to characterize the structural properties, composition, morphology, optical properties and electrical properties of the as-prepared CIGS thin films, respectively. The results demonstrated that the photoelectric properties of CIGS thin films prepared at a substrate temperature of 300 °C were optimal, with an efficiency of 7.1%. As the substrate temperature increased to over 300 °C, element gallium tended to evaporate from the substrate, which resulted in the variation of the Cu/(In  +  Ga) and Ga/(In  +  Ga) ratios of the films. The post-annealing process with in situ annealing temperatures of 300 °C and 400 °C was also studied. The results indicated that the post-annealing process, unlike the process of direct deposition at certain substrate temperatures, was able to avoid the element loss. At 300 °C in situ post-annealing temperature, there formed a ‘polygon grains’ Cu2-x Se phase, which disappeared when the in situ post-annealing temperature rose to 400 °C. The XRD patterns revealed that the post-annealing process made the element diffusion in films more uniform. The post-treated sample with an in situ post-annealing temperature at 400 °C, as a result, showed the highest efficiency of 9.0%, accompanied by the highest open-circuit voltage, short circuit current and fill factor.

  14. Optically pumped polarized ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelenski, A.N.

    1995-12-31

    Polarization transfer collisions between protons, atomic hydrogen, or deuterium and optically pumped alkali-metal vapour are implemented in the high current optically pumped polarized ion source (OPPIS) and the laser driven source (LDS) of nuclear polarized atoms for target applications. The OPPIS technique overcomes the limitations on intensity of the conventional atomic beam source technique and meets the requirements of the new generation of polarization experiments at multi-GeV accelerators and colliders. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  15. White noise flashing Brownian pump

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Marin, A.; Sancho, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    A Brownian pump of particles powered by a stochastic flashing ratchet mechanism is studied. The pumping device is embedded in a finite region and bounded by particle reservoirs. In the steady state, we exactly calculate the spatial density profile, the concentration ratio between both reservoirs and the particle flux. A simple numerical scheme is presented allowing for the consistent evaluation of all such observable quantities.

  16. A laser pumped quantum discriminator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budkin, L.A.; Fateev, G.P.; Pikhtelev, A.I.; Puzanov, S.L.

    1984-01-01

    A method of laser pumping in a quantum discriminator employing alkaline metal vapors is investigated. A good qualitative correlation between computed and experimental relations of the quality parameter on the intensity of laser light is noted. It is demonstrated that the value of the quality parameter of the quantum discriminator with laser pumping may be increased by a factor of at least two compared to a traditional scheme.

  17. Switching model photovoltaic pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Wagdy R.; Abdul-Sadek Nour, M.

    Photovoltaic (PV) pumping systems are widely used due to their simplicity, high reliability and low cost. A directly-coupled PV pumping system is the most reliable and least-cost PV system. The d.c. motor-pump group is not, however, working at its optimum operating point. A battery buffered PV pumping system introduces a battery between the PV array and the d.c. motor-pump group to ensure that the motor-pump group is operating at its optimum point. The size of the battery storage depends on system economics. If the battery is fully charged while solar radiation is available, the battery will discharge through the load while the PV array is disconnected. Hence, a power loss takes place. To overcome the above mentioned difficulty, a switched mode PV pumping is proposed. When solar radiation is available and the battery is fully charged, the battery is disconnected and the d.c. motor-pump group is directly coupled to the PV array. To avoid excessive operating voltage for the motor, a part of the PV array is switched off to reduce the voltage. As a result, the energy loss is significantly eliminated. Detailed analysis of the proposed system shows that the discharged water increases by about 10% when compared with a conventional battery-buffered system. The system transient performance just after the switching moment shows that the system returns to a steady state in short period. The variations in the system parameters lie within 1% of the rated values.

  18. Natural gas vs. heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verrips, A.M.; Canney, W.A.

    Spokesmen for gas and electric utilities describe the relative merits of using natural gas and electric heat pumps. Both argue that their product is more economical and operates more efficiently than its competitor. Rising natural gas prices are responsible for making costs more competitive, although rates for both gas and electricity vary by region. The utilities also describe heat pump advantages in terms of installation ease and cost, reliability, maintenance, and thermal comfort. Both provide documentation to support their claims. 2 tables.

  19. 33 CFR 157.126 - Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.126 Pumps. (a) Crude oil must be supplied to the COW machines by COW system pumps or cargo pumps. (b) The pumps under paragraph...) A sufficient pressure and flow is supplied to allow the simultaneous operation of those COW machines...

  20. 33 CFR 183.524 - Fuel pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel pumps. 183.524 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.524 Fuel pumps. (a) Each diaphragm pump must not leak fuel from the pump if the primary diaphragm fails. (b) Each electrically...

  1. 14 CFR 29.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 29.991 Section 29.991... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.991 Fuel pumps. (a... operation except the engine served by that pump. (b) The following fuel pump installation requirements apply...

  2. 14 CFR 23.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 23.991 Section 23.991... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 23.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. For main pumps, the following apply: (1) For reciprocating engine...

  3. 14 CFR 25.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 25.991 Section 25.991... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. Each fuel pump required for proper engine operation, or required to meet the fuel system...

  4. Method for optimising the energy of pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skovmose Kallesøe, Carsten; De Persis, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    The method involves determining whether pumps (pu1, pu5) are directly assigned to loads (v1, v3) as pilot pumps (pu2, pu3) and hydraulically connected upstream of the pilot pumps. The upstream pumps are controlled with variable speed for energy optimization. Energy optimization circuits are selected

  5. METHOD FOR OPTIMIZING THE ENERGY OF PUMPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skovmose Kallesøe, Carsten; De Persis, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    The device for energy-optimization on operation of several centrifugal pumps controlled in rotational speed, in a hydraulic installation, begins firstly with determining which pumps as pilot pumps are assigned directly to a consumer and which pumps are hydraulically connected in series upstream of

  6. The abdominal circulatory pump.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Aliverti

    Full Text Available Blood in the splanchnic vasculature can be transferred to the extremities. We quantified such blood shifts in normal subjects by measuring trunk volume by optoelectronic plethysmography, simultaneously with changes in body volume by whole body plethysmography during contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Trunk volume changes with blood shifts, but body volume does not so that the blood volume shifted between trunk and extremities (Vbs is the difference between changes in trunk and body volume. This is so because both trunk and body volume change identically with breathing and gas expansion or compression. During tidal breathing Vbs was 50-75 ml with an ejection fraction of 4-6% and an output of 750-1500 ml/min. Step increases in abdominal pressure resulted in rapid emptying presumably from the liver with a time constant of 0.61+/-0.1SE sec. followed by slower flow from non-hepatic viscera. The filling time constant was 0.57+/-0.09SE sec. Splanchnic emptying shifted up to 650 ml blood. With emptying, the increased hepatic vein flow increases the blood pressure at its entry into the inferior vena cava (IVC and abolishes the pressure gradient producing flow between the femoral vein and the IVC inducing blood pooling in the legs. The findings are important for exercise because the larger the Vbs the greater the perfusion of locomotor muscles. During asystolic cardiac arrest we calculate that appropriate timing of abdominal compression could produce an output of 6 L/min. so that the abdominal circulatory pump might act as an auxiliary heart.

  7. Measure Guideline. Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A. [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States); Easley, S. [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provides a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  8. Measure Guideline: Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Easley, S.

    2012-05-01

    The report evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provide a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  9. Experimental Realization of a Quantum Spin Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, Susan; Potok, R.; M. Marcus, C.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate the operation of a quantum spin pump based on cyclic radio-frequency excitation of a GaAs quantum dot, including the ability to pump pure spin without pumping charge. The device takes advantage of bidirectional mesoscopic fluctuations of pumped current, made spin......-dependent by the application of an in-plane Zeeman field. Spin currents are measured by placing the pump in a focusing geometry with a spin-selective collector....

  10. Nuclear-driven flashlamp pumping of the atomic iodine laser. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, G.H.

    1992-03-01

    This report is a study of the atomic iodine laser pumped with nuclear- excited XeBr fluorescence. Preliminary experiments, conducted in the TRIGA reactor investigated the fluorescence of the excimer XeBr under nuclear pumping with {sup 10}B and {sup 3}He, for use as a flashlamp gas to stimulate the laser. These measurements included a determination of the fluorescence efficiency (light emitted in the wavelength region of interest, divided by energy deposited in the gas) of XeBr under nuclear pumping, with varying excimer mixtures. Maximum fluorescence efficiencies were approximately 1%. In order to better understand XeBr under nuclear excitation, a kinetics model of the system was prepared. The model generated the time-dependant concentrations of 20 reaction species for three pulse sizes, a TRIGA pulse, a fast burst reactor pulse, and an e-beam pulse. The modeling results predicted fluorescence efficiencies significantly higher (peak efficiencies of approximately 10%) than recorded in the fluorescence experiments. The cause of this discrepancy was not fully determined. A ray tracing computer model was also prepared to evaluate the efficiency with which nuclear-induced fluorescence generated in one cavity of a laser could be coupled into another cavity containing an iodine lasant. Finally, an experimental laser cell was constructed to verify that nuclear-induced XeBr fluorescence could be used to stimulate a laser. Lasing was achieved at 1.31 micron in the TRIGA using C{sub 3}F{sub 7}I, a common iodine lasant. Peak laser powers were approximately 20 mW. Measured flashlamp pump powers at threshold agreed well with literature values, as did lasant pressure dependency on laser operation.

  11. Vacuum pumping for controlled thermonuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.S.; Fisher, P.W.

    1976-01-01

    Thermonuclear reactors impose unique vacuum pumping problems involving very high pumping speeds, handling of hazardous materials (tritium), extreme cleanliness requirements, and quantitative recovery of pumped materials. Two principal pumping systems are required for a fusion reactor, a main vacuum system for evacuating the torus and a vacuum system for removing unaccelerated deuterium from neutral beam injectors. The first system must pump hydrogen isotopes and helium while the neutral beam system can operate by pumping only hydrogen isotopes (perhaps only deuterium). The most promising pumping techniques for both systems appear to be cryopumps, but different cryopumping techniques can be considered for each system. The main vacuum system will have to include cryosorption pumps cooled to 4.2/sup 0/K to pump helium, but the unburned deuterium-tritium and other impurities could be pumped with cryocondensation panels (4.2/sup 0/K) or cryosorption panels at higher temperatures. Since pumping speeds will be limited by conductance through the ducts and thermal shields, the pumping performance for both systems will be similar, and other factors such as refrigeration costs are likely to determine the choice. The vacuum pumping system for neutral beam injectors probably will not need to pump helium, and either condensation or higher temperature sorption pumps can be used.

  12. PUMPED LASER SYSTEM USING FEEDBACK TO PUMP MEANS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A laser system according to the invention comprises pump generating means (xO2, xO3) for generating at least a first and a second, preferably focused, pump beam, and lasing means (xO6, xO7) for emitting radiation by being appropriately pumped. The lasing means (xO6, xO7) is disposed in a first......-switch (xO8; x17, x18) is disposed in the first and the second resonator, so that the first beam and the second beam both pass a Q-switch (xO8; x17, x18). The laser system (x01 ) has an output (x13) generated from said first beam (x21) and said second beam (x22), and at least a part of said output (x13...

  13. Data preparation solution for e-beam multiple pass exposure: reaching sub-22nm nodes with a tool dedicated to 45 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Luc; Manakli, Serdar; Bayle, Sébastien; Choi, Kang-Hoon; Gutsch, Manuela; Pradelles, Jonathan; Bustos, Jessy

    2011-04-01

    . This work is done with "INSCALE®", the new data preparation software from ASELTA Nanographics. This data preparation flow is then applied on layouts down to the 22nm node. Comparisons with the standard dose modulation flow demonstrate that adding eRIFs significantly improves the process window and thus the resolution of e-beam tools. It also shows that the multiple pass exposure technique can be used as a specific correction method on large scale layouts.

  14. Microelectromechanical pump utilizing porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Jeffrey W [Albuquerque, NM; Stalford, Harold L [Norman, OK

    2011-07-19

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) pump is disclosed which includes a porous silicon region sandwiched between an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber. The porous silicon region is formed in a silicon substrate and contains a number of pores extending between the inlet and outlet chambers, with each pore having a cross-section dimension about equal to or smaller than a mean free path of a gas being pumped. A thermal gradient is provided along the length of each pore by a heat source which can be an electrical resistance heater or an integrated circuit (IC). A channel can be formed through the silicon substrate so that inlet and outlet ports can be formed on the same side of the substrate, or so that multiple MEM pumps can be connected in series to form a multi-stage MEM pump. The MEM pump has applications for use in gas-phase MEM chemical analysis systems, and can also be used for passive cooling of ICs.

  15. Heat pump cuts energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnwell, J.; Morris, C.P.

    1982-07-01

    It is shown how energy use can be cut by nearly half by using a heat pump installation in operation of a butane splitter. The technique has been used successfully for separation of other close boiling materials, i.e. ethane/ethylene, propane/propylene, and also for deisohexanizers. Compared to a conventional fractionator, the heat pump increases inside battery limit capital cost for which increase the payout time is less than one year. In this paper the effects of using a heat pump is evaluated as applied to a 35,000 bpsd butane splitter based on three alternative schemes: a conventional fractionation; overhead vapor recompression fractionation; and bottoms flash recompression fractionation. 2 refs.

  16. Diode pumped tunable dye laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdukova, O.; Gorbunkov, M.; Petukhov, V.; Semenov, M.

    2017-03-01

    A wavelength-tunable dye laser pumped by blue laser diodes (λ =445 nm) in a 200 ns pulsed mode has been developed. We used a 3-mirror cavity with transverse excitation and total internal reflection of laser beam in the active element. Tuning curves for 8 dyes in benzyl alcohol were measured in the range of 506-700 nm. Four dyes have their tuning range more than 60 nm, which is comparable to the tuning ranges of other dye lasers pumped by more expensive sources. The output energy obtained at the generation maximum of both DCM and coumarin 540A dyes was approximately 130 nJ while the pump energy was 2400 nJ.

  17. Optical pumping and xenon NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raftery, M. Daniel [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of xenon has become an important tool for investigating a wide variety of materials, especially those with high surface area. The sensitivity of its chemical shift to environment, and its chemical inertness and adsorption properties make xenon a particularly useful NMR probe. This work discusses the application of optical pumping to enhance the sensitivity of xenon NMR experiments, thereby allowing them to be used in the study of systems with lower surface area. A novel method of optically-pumping 129Xe in low magnetic field below an NMR spectrometer and subsequent transfer of the gas to high magnetic field is described. NMR studies of the highly polarized gas adsorbed onto powdered samples with low to moderate surface areas are now possible. For instance, NMR studies of optically-pumped xenon adsorbed onto polyacrylic acid show that xenon has a large interaction with the surface. By modeling the low temperature data in terms of a sticking probability and the gas phase xenon-xenon interaction, the diffusion coefficient for xenon at the surface of the polymer is determined. The sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping also allows the NMR observation of xenon thin films frozen onto the inner surfaces of different sample cells. The geometry of the thin films results in interesting line shapes that are due to the bulk magnetic susceptibility of xenon. Experiments are also described that combine optical pumping with optical detection for high sensitivity in low magnetic field to observe the quadrupoler evolution of 131 Xe spins at the surface of the pumping cells. In cells with macroscopic asymmetry, a residual quadrupolar interaction causes a splitting in the 131Xe NMR frequencies in bare Pyrex glass cells and cells with added hydrogen.

  18. Optical pumping and xenon NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raftery, M.D.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of xenon has become an important tool for investigating a wide variety of materials, especially those with high surface area. The sensitivity of its chemical shift to environment, and its chemical inertness and adsorption properties make xenon a particularly useful NMR probe. This work discusses the application of optical pumping to enhance the sensitivity of xenon NMR experiments, thereby allowing them to be used in the study of systems with lower surface area. A novel method of optically-pumping [sup 129]Xe in low magnetic field below an NMR spectrometer and subsequent transfer of the gas to high magnetic field is described. NMR studies of the highly polarized gas adsorbed onto powdered samples with low to moderate surface areas are now possible. For instance, NMR studies of optically-pumped xenon adsorbed onto polyacrylic acid show that xenon has a large interaction with the surface. By modeling the low temperature data in terms of a sticking probability and the gas phase xenon-xenon interaction, the diffusion coefficient for xenon at the surface of the polymer is determined. The sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping also allows the NMR observation of xenon thin films frozen onto the inner surfaces of different sample cells. The geometry of the thin films results in interesting line shapes that are due to the bulk magnetic susceptibility of xenon. Experiments are also described that combine optical pumping with optical detection for high sensitivity in low magnetic field to observe the quadrupoler evolution of 131 Xe spins at the surface of the pumping cells. In cells with macroscopic asymmetry, a residual quadrupolar interaction causes a splitting in the [sup 131]Xe NMR frequencies in bare Pyrex glass cells and cells with added hydrogen.

  19. Heat pumping in nanomechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrachea, Liliana; Chamon, Claudio; Mucciolo, Eduardo; Capaz, Rodrigo

    2011-03-01

    We propose using phonon pumping mechanism to transfer heat from a cold to a hot body. The mechanism is based on inducing a traveling modulation of the acoustic phonon velocity along the medium connecting the two bodies. This phonon pumping can cool nanomechanical systems without the need for active feedback. We have derived an estimate of the lowest achievable temperature. We have also analyzed this mechanism in the framework of simple one-dimensional microscopic models, which can be exactly solved with non-equilibrium Green function techniques. J. S. Guggenheim Memorial Foundation.

  20. Modeling of forward pump EDFA under pump power through MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev Kumar; Sharma, Reena

    2015-05-01

    Optical fiber loss is a limiting factor for high-speed optical network applications. However, the loss can be compensated by variety of optical amplifiers. Raman amplifier and EDFA amplifier are widely used in optical communication systems. There are certain advantages of EDFA over Raman amplifier like amplifying the signal at 1550 nm wavelength at which the fiber loss is minimum. Apart from that there is no pulse walk-off problem with an EDFA amplifier. With the advent of optical amplifiers like EDFA, it is feasible to achieve a high bit rate beyond terabits in optical network applications. In our study, a MATLAB simulink-based forward pumped EDFA (operating in C-band 1525-1565 nm) simulation platform has been devised to evaluate the following performance parameters like gain, noise figure, amplified spontaneous emission power variations of a forward pumped EDFA operating in C-band (1525-1565 nm) as functions of Er3+ fiber length, injected pump power, signal input power, and Er3+ doping density. The effect of an input pump power on gain and noise figure was illustrated graphically. It is possible to completely characterize and optimize the EDFA performance using our dynamic simulink test bed.

  1. Proton pump inhibitors and gastroenteritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Hassing (Robert); A. Verbon (Annelies); H. de Visser (Herman); A. Hofman (Albert); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAn association between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy and bacterial gastroenteritis has been suggested as well as contradicted. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the use of PPIs and occurrence of bacterial gastroenteritis in the prospective Rotterdam

  2. Novel Characteristics of Valveless Pumping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Stine; Ottesen, Johnny T.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the occurrence of valveless pumping in a fluidfilled system consisting of two open tanks connected by an elastic tube. We show that directional flow can be achieved by introducing a periodic pinching applied at an asymmetrical location along the tube, and that the flow dir...

  3. Novel 3D resist shaping process via e-beam lithography, with application for the formation of blased planar waveguide gratings and planar lenses on GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Louis C.; Kondek, Christine A.; Novembre, Anthony E.; McLane, George F.

    1995-06-01

    Planar waveguide gratings are finding applications in wide band signal processing for imaging and location radars. Advanced forms may take the form of a `blased' topology, in which height as well as line and space dimensioning are engineered. This allows more complicated beam steering and wave interaction along the grating, promising better control over efficiency and more diverse engineering application. Planar lenses are being investigated as a method of coupling optical signals to the substrate. Realizing these devices also requires modification of the host substrate in three dimensions and is a difficult technological hurdle. Inherently low contrast resists can be shaped with the aid of clever processing techniques and have been classically used to obtain smaller line widths than the lithography technique would have normally allowed. In this work we utilize an experimental negative tone resist formulation to realize three dimensional features on GaAs substrates. The negative tone resist of interest, P(SI-CMS)-20, is under development (AT&T Bell Labs, Murray Hill, NJ) as a high performance single component system to be used in the fabrication of x-ray masks. Its properties include high resolution and the more unusual ability to faithfully retain a post processed film thickness that is primarily dependent upon e-beam dose, while using a fixed post exposure processing methodology. A curve of film thickness retention versus dose is then selected to define a required post exposure processed film thickness. A nominal 200 nm thick film is first spun onto the GaAs host wafer and softbaked. A Leica EBMF-10.5 vector scan electron beam lithography tool working at 25 KeV beam energy is used for patterning. A saw tooth or step ramping in processed resist height may now be achieved with a series of single pass lines or small areal features of successively higher dose density. The minimum dose corresponds to the minimum incipient gel of the resist and clears the foot of the

  4. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.

  5. Human Aorta Is a Passive Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Niema; Gharib, Morteza

    2012-11-01

    Impedance pump is a simple valveless pumping mechanism that operates based on the principles of wave propagation and reflection. It has been shown in a zebrafish that a similar mechanism is responsible for the pumping action in the embryonic heart during early stages before valve formation. Recent studies suggest that the cardiovascular system is designed to take advantage of wave propagation and reflection phenomena in the arterial network. Our aim in this study was to examine if the human aorta is a passive pump working like an impedance pump. A hydraulic model with different compliant models of artificial aorta was used for series of in-vitro experiments. The hydraulic model includes a piston pump that generates the waves. Our result indicates that wave propagation and reflection can create pumping mechanism in a compliant aorta. Similar to an impedance pump, the net flow and the flow direction depends on the frequency of the waves, compliance of the aorta, and the piston stroke.

  6. Pierre Gorce working on a helium pump.

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    This type of pump was designed by Mario Morpurgo, to circulate liquid helium in superconducting magnets wound with hollow conductors. M. Morpurgo, Design and construction of a pump for liquid helium, CRYIOGENICS, February 1977, p. 91

  7. Outcome of Cardiac Rehabilitation Following Off-Pump Versus On-Pump Coronary Bypass Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Arefizadeh

    2017-05-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Regarding QOL and psychological status, there were no differences in the CR outcome between those who underwent off-pump bypass surgery and those who underwent on-pump surgery; nevertheless, the off-pump technique was superior to the on-pump method on METs improvement following CR.

  8. Off-pump versus on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting for ischaemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Christian H; Penninga, Luit; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is performed both without and with cardiopulmonary bypass, referred to as off-pump and on-pump CABG respectively. However, the preferable technique is unclear.......Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is performed both without and with cardiopulmonary bypass, referred to as off-pump and on-pump CABG respectively. However, the preferable technique is unclear....

  9. 46 CFR 108.471 - Water pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water pump. 108.471 Section 108.471 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.471 Water pump. Each water pump in a foam extinguishing...

  10. High-Capacity, Portable Firefighting Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ralph A.

    1988-01-01

    Report describes an evaluation of firefighting module that delivers water at 5,000 gal/min (320 L/s). Is compact, self-contained, portable water pump. Besides firefighting, module used for flood control, pumping water into large vessels, and pump water from sinking ships.

  11. 46 CFR 182.520 - Bilge pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Highly resistant to salt water, petroleum oil, heat, and vibration. (g) If a fixed hand pump is used to... chapter may serve as a fixed power bilge pump required by this subpart, provided it has the minimum flow... dedicated pump is driven by an independent source of power; and (3) The bilge system is permanently cross...

  12. Assessing the energy efficiency of pumps and pump units background and methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Bernd Stoffel, em Dr-Ing

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the Energy Efficiency of Pumps and Pump Units, developed in cooperation with Europump, is the first book available providing the background, methodology, and assessment tools for understanding and calculating energy efficiency for pumps and extended products (pumps+motors+drives). Responding to new EU requirements for pump efficiency, and US DOE exploratory work in setting pump energy efficiency guidelines, this book provides explanation, derivation, and illustration of PA and EPA methods for assessing energy efficiency. It surveys legislation related to pump energy eff

  13. Water Pump Development for the EVA PLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Michael; Kurwitz, Cable; Goldman, Jeff; Morris, Kim; Trevino, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the effort by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) and Honeywell for NASA to design, fabricate, and test a preflight prototype pump for use in the Extravehicular activity (EVA) portable life support subsystem (PLSS). Major design decisions were driven by the need to reduce the pump s mass, power, and volume compared to the existing PLSS pump. In addition, the pump will accommodate a much wider range of abnormal conditions than the existing pump, including vapor/gas bubbles and increased pressure drop when employed to cool two suits simultaneously. A positive displacement, external gear type pump was selected because it offers the most compact and highest efficiency solution over the required range of flow rates and pressure drops. An additional benefit of selecting a gear pump design is that it is self priming and capable of ingesting noncondensable gas without becoming "air locked." The chosen pump design consists of a 28 V DC, brushless, sealless, permanent magnet motor driven, external gear pump that utilizes a Honeywell development that eliminates the need for magnetic coupling. Although the planned flight unit will use a sensorless motor with custom designed controller, the preflight prototype to be provided for this project incorporates Hall effect sensors, allowing an interface with a readily available commercial motor controller. This design approach reduced the cost of this project and gives NASA more flexibility in future PLSS laboratory testing. The pump design was based on existing Honeywell designs, but incorporated features specifically for the PLSS application, including all of the key features of the flight pump. Testing at TEES will simulate the vacuum environment in which the flight pump will operate. Testing will verify that the pump meets design requirements for range of flow rates, pressure rise, power consumption, working fluid temperature, operating time, and restart capability. Pump testing is currently

  14. A Simplified Heat Pump Model for use in Solar Plus Heat Pump System Simulation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Perers, Bengt; Anderssen, Elsa; Nordman, Roger; Kovacs, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Solar plus heat pump systems are often very complex in design, with sometimes special heat pump arrangements and control. Therefore detailed heat pump models can give very slow system simulations and still not so accurate results compared to real heat pump performance in a system. The idea here is to start from a standard measured performance map of test points for a heat pump according to EN 14825 and then determine characteristic parameters for a simplified correlation based model of the he...

  15. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-03-31

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  16. Temperature Rises In Pumps For Superfluid Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses increases in temperature of superfluid helium in centrifugal and fountain-effect pumps. Intended for use in transfers of superfluid helium in outer space. Increases in temperature significantly affect losses during transfers and are important in selection of temperatures of supply tanks. Purpose of study, increase in temperature in fountain-effect pump calculated on basis of thermodynamic considerations, starting from assumption of ideal pump. Results of recent tests of ceramic material intended for use in such pumps support this assumption. Overall, centrifugal pumps more effective because it produces smaller rise in temperature.

  17. Automatic swirl angle measurements for pump intake design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fockert, A. de; Westende, J.M.C. van 't; Verhaart, F.I.H.

    2014-01-01

    Pre-swirl occurring in pump intake basins influences pump efficiency and lifetime. The exact effect on a pump depends on the pump design. In order to optimize the approach flow towards the pump, physical scale modelling is often applied following the guidelines formulated in pump intake design

  18. Geothermal Heat Pump Benchmarking Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-01-17

    A benchmarking study was conducted on behalf of the Department of Energy to determine the critical factors in successful utility geothermal heat pump programs. A Successful program is one that has achieved significant market penetration. Successfully marketing geothermal heat pumps has presented some major challenges to the utility industry. However, select utilities have developed programs that generate significant GHP sales. This benchmarking study concludes that there are three factors critical to the success of utility GHP marking programs: (1) Top management marketing commitment; (2) An understanding of the fundamentals of marketing and business development; and (3) An aggressive competitive posture. To generate significant GHP sales, competitive market forces must by used. However, because utilities have functioned only in a regulated arena, these companies and their leaders are unschooled in competitive business practices. Therefore, a lack of experience coupled with an intrinsically non-competitive culture yields an industry environment that impedes the generation of significant GHP sales in many, but not all, utilities.

  19. A regenerative elastocaloric heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan; Dallolio, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    A large fraction of global energy use is for refrigeration and air-conditioning, which could be decarbonized if efficient renewable energy technologies could be found. Vapour-compression technology remains the most widely used system to move heat up the temperature scale after more than 100 years...... a regenerative elastocaloric heat pump that exhibits a temperature span of 15.3 K on the water side with a corresponding specific heating power up to 800 W kg−1 and maximum COP (coefficient-of-performance) values of up to 7. The efficiency and specific heating power of this device exceeds those of other devices...... based on caloric effects. These results open up the possibility of using the elastocaloric effect in various cooling and heat-pumping applications....

  20. Taylor dispersion in peristaltic pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintillan, David; Chakrabarti, Brato

    2017-11-01

    The diffusivity of a Brownian tracer in unidirectional flow is generally enhanced due to shear by the classic phenomenon of Taylor dispersion. At long times, the average concentration of the tracer follows a simplified advection-diffusion equation with an effective shear-dependent dispersivity. In this work, we make use of Brenner's generalized Taylor theory for periodic domains to study dispersion in peristaltic pumping. In channels with small aspect ratios, asymptotic expansions are employed to obtain analytical expressions for the dispersivity at both small and high Peclet numbers. Channels of arbitrary aspect ratios are also considered using a boundary integral formulation for the flow coupled to a hyperbolic conservation equation for the effective dispersivity, which is solved by the finite-volume method. Our numerical results show good agreement with theoretical predictions and provide a basis for understanding passive scalar transport in peristaltic flow, for instance in the ureter or in microfluidic peristaltic pumps.

  1. Bidirectional resonant tunneling spin pump

    OpenAIRE

    Ting, David Z. -Y.; Cartoixà Soler, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    We propose a mechanism for achieving bidirectional spin pumping in conventional nonmagnetic semiconductorresonant tunnelingheterostructures under zero magnetic field. The device is designed specifically to take advantage of the special spin configuration described by the Rashba effect in asymmetric quantum wells. It induces the simultaneous flow of oppositely spin-polarized current components in opposite directions through spin-dependent resonant tunneling, and can thus generate significant l...

  2. Proton Pump Inhibitors and Gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2008-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are novel compounds that strongly inhibit the H+/K+-ATPase in the gastric parietal cells to cause profound suppression of acid secretion. Acid-generating ATPase, also known as vacuolar-type ATPase, is located in the lysozomes of leukocytes and osteoclasts and its activity is also reportedly influenced by treatment with PPIs. This concept is supported by the results of studies using autoradiography in which 3H-Lansoprazole uptake sites were clearly detected in the...

  3. Fluid pumping using magnetic cilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasoge, Srinivas; Ballard, Matt; Alexeev, Alexander; Hesketh, Peter; Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering Team

    2016-11-01

    Using experiments and computer simulations, we examine fluid pumping by artificial magnetic cilia fabricated using surface micromachining techniques. An asymmetry in forward and recovery strokes of the elastic cilia causes the net pumping in a creeping flow regime. We show this asymmetry in the ciliary strokes is due to the change in magnetization of the elastic cilia combined with viscous force due to the fluid. Specifically, the time scale for forward stroke is mostly governed by the magnetic forces, whereas the time scale for the recovery stroke is determined by the elastic and viscous forces. These different time scales result in different cilia deformation during forward and backward strokes which in turn lead to the asymmetry in the ciliary motion. To disclose the physics of magnetic cilia pumping we use a hybrid lattice Boltzmann and lattice spring method. We validate our model by comparing the simulation results with the experimental data. The results of our study will be useful to design microfluidic systems for fluid mixing and particle manipulation including different biological particles. USDA and NSF.

  4. Charge-pump voltage converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, John P [Albuquerque, NM; Christenson, Todd R [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  5. A parametric study for improving the centrifugal pump impeller for use in viscous fluid pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaeefard, M. H.; Tahani, M.; Khalkhali, A.; Ehghaghi, M. B.; Fallah, H.; Beglari, M.

    2013-02-01

    Essentially, performance of centrifugal pumps is affected when pumping viscous fluids. In this paper a new idea is proposed to overcome the undesirable effects of viscosity on the pump performance parameters. This idea based on this matter that one specific impeller can be designed, made and installed on the pump for pumping of one fluid with specific viscosity. Therefore a specific pump can be used for pumping of different fluids with different viscosity, by replacement of pump impeller. Replacement of the impeller is more cost effective in comparison to the replacement of the whole of the pump. Passage width and outlet angle of impeller are considered as design variables and the effects of such variables investigated using experimentally validated numerical model. The H-Q, P-Q and η-Q graphs are extracted experimentally for the improved impeller, which show good improvement in comparison with original impeller.

  6. Damages on pumps and systems the handbook for the operation of centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Merkle, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Damage on Pumps and Systems. The Handbook for the Operation of Centrifugal Pumps offers a combination of the theoretical basics and practical experience for the operation of circulation pumps in the engineering industry. Centrifugal pumps and systems are extremely vulnerable to damage from a variety of causes, but the resulting breakdown can be prevented by ensuring that these pumps and systems are operated properly. This book provides a total overview of operating centrifugal pumps, including condition monitoring, preventive maintenance, life cycle costs, energy savings and economic aspects. Extra emphasis is given to the potential damage to these pumps and systems, and what can be done to prevent breakdown. Addresses specific issues about pumping of metal chips, sand, abrasive dust and other solids in fluidsEmphasis on economic and efficiency aspects of predictive maintenance and condition monitoring Uses life cycle costs (LCC) to evaluate and calculate the costs of pumping systems

  7. An economic evaluation comparison of solar water pumping system with engine pumping system for rice cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treephak, Kasem; Thongpron, Jutturit; Somsak, Dhirasak; Saelao, Jeerawan; Patcharaprakiti, Nopporn

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we propose the design and economic evaluation of the water pumping systems for rice cultivation using solar energy, gasoline fuel and compare both systems. The design of the water and gasoline engine pumping system were evaluated. The gasoline fuel cost used in rice cultivation in an area of 1.6 acres. Under same conditions of water pumping system is replaced by the photovoltaic system which is composed of a solar panel, a converter and an electric motor pump which is compose of a direct current (DC) motor or an alternating current (AC) motor with an inverter. In addition, the battery is installed to increase the efficiency and productivity of rice cultivation. In order to verify, the simulation and economic evaluation of the storage energy battery system with batteries and without batteries are carried out. Finally the cost of four solar pumping systems was evaluated and compared with that of the gasoline pump. The results showed that the solar pumping system can be used to replace the gasoline water pumping system and DC solar pump has a payback less than 10 years. The systems that can payback the fastest is the DC solar pumping system without batteries storage system. The system the can payback the slowest is AC solar pumping system with batteries storage system. However, VAC motor pump of 220 V can be more easily maintained than the motor pump of 24 VDC and batteries back up system can supply a more stable power to the pump system.

  8. Study of nanostructure and ethanol vapor sensing performance of WO3 thin films deposited by e-beam evaporation method under different deposition angles: application in breath analysis devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amani, E.; Khojier, K.; Zoriasatain, S.

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of deposition angle on the crystallographic structure, surface morphology, porosity and subsequently ethanol vapor sensing performance of e-beam-evaporated WO3 thin films. The WO3 thin films were deposited by e-beam evaporation technique on SiO2/Si substrates under different deposition angles (0°, 30°, and 60°) and then post-annealed at 500 °C with a flow of oxygen for 4 h. Crystallographic structure and surface morphology of the samples were checked using X-ray diffraction method and atomic force microscopy, respectively. Physical adsorption isotherm was also used to measure the porosity and effective surface area of the samples. The electrical response of the samples was studied to different concentrations of ethanol vapor (10-50 ppm) at the temperature range of 140-260 °C and relative humidity of 80%. The results reveal that the WO3 thin film deposited under 30° angle shows more sensitivity to ethanol vapor than the other samples prepared in this work due to the more crystallinity, porosity, and effective surface area. The investigations also show that the sample deposited at 30° can be a good candidate as a breath analysis device at the operating temperature of 240 °C because of its high response, low detection limit, and reliability at high relative humidity.

  9. Numerical simulation of pump-intake vortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pump pre-swirl or uneven flow distribution in front of the pump can induce pump-intake vortices. These phenomena result in blockage of the impeller suction space, deterioration of efficiency, drop of head curve and earlier onset of cavitation. Real problematic case, where head curve drop was documented, is simulated using commercial CFD software. Computational simulation was carried out for three flow rates, which correspond to three operating regimes of the vertical pump. The domain consists of the pump sump, pump itself excluding the impeller and the delivery pipe. One-phase approach is applied, because the vortex cores were not filled with air during observation of the real pump operation. Numerical simulation identified two surface vortices and one bottom vortex. Their position and strength depend on the pump flow rate. Paper presents detail analysis of the flow field on the pump intake, discusses influence of the vortices on pump operation and suggests possible actions that should be taken to suppress the intake vortices.

  10. Numerical simulation of pump-intake vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Pavel; Klas, Roman

    2015-05-01

    Pump pre-swirl or uneven flow distribution in front of the pump can induce pump-intake vortices. These phenomena result in blockage of the impeller suction space, deterioration of efficiency, drop of head curve and earlier onset of cavitation. Real problematic case, where head curve drop was documented, is simulated using commercial CFD software. Computational simulation was carried out for three flow rates, which correspond to three operating regimes of the vertical pump. The domain consists of the pump sump, pump itself excluding the impeller and the delivery pipe. One-phase approach is applied, because the vortex cores were not filled with air during observation of the real pump operation. Numerical simulation identified two surface vortices and one bottom vortex. Their position and strength depend on the pump flow rate. Paper presents detail analysis of the flow field on the pump intake, discusses influence of the vortices on pump operation and suggests possible actions that should be taken to suppress the intake vortices.

  11. Paper pump for passive and programmable transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Hagen, Joshua A; Papautsky, Ian

    2013-01-01

    In microfluidic systems, a pump for fluid-driving is often necessary. To keep the size of microfluidic systems small, a pump that is small in size, light-weight and needs no external power source is advantageous. In this work, we present a passive, simple, ultra-low-cost, and easily controlled pumping method based on capillary action of paper that pumps fluid through conventional polymer-based microfluidic channels with steady flow rate. By using inexpensive cutting tools, paper can be shaped and placed at the outlet port of a conventional microfluidic channel, providing a wide range of pumping rates. A theoretical model was developed to describe the pumping mechanism and aid in the design of paper pumps. As we show, paper pumps can provide steady flow rates from 0.3 μl/s to 1.7 μl/s and can be cascaded to achieve programmable flow-rate tuning during the pumping process. We also successfully demonstrate transport of the most common biofluids (urine, serum, and blood). With these capabilities, the paper pump has the potential to become a powerful fluid-driving approach that will benefit the fielding of microfluidic systems for point-of-care applications.

  12. An experimental study on pump clogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isono, M.; Nohmi, M.; Uchida, H.; Kawai, M.; Kudo, H.; Kawahara, T.; Miyagawa, K.; Saito, S.

    2014-03-01

    For sewage pump that various foreign substance is flowed into, anti-clogging performance is a factor as important as pump efficiency in order to avoid clogging trouble by foreign substance. Many investigations about pump inner flow and pump efficiency estimation have been carried out conventionally in order to realize coexistence with anti-clogging performance and pump performance. And these results have been reflected in construction of the running water section design method. As a index of anti-clogging performance, "impeller passage diameter" which is diameter of spherical solid that can pass through the pump is used widely. And there are various type of the sewage pump which have large impeller passage diameter. However real cause of clog is not a solid, and it is fibrous material such as towel and clothes, vinyl and paper diaper. In most case these material accumulate in the pump, so that clog is occurred. In this study, for the purpose of quantification of anti-clogging performance against fibrous materials, the factor that affect to clogging of pump was investigated by pump model test using a string. The test is done based on Taguchi method. In this test, type of the pump model, diameter of the string, material of the string, length of the string and flow rate are selected for the factor, and the effect that they have on the clogging of the pump was investigated. As a result of this test, it was made clear that length of the string has a strong influence on the clogging of the pump. And from the result of this test, evaluation method of anti-clogging performance of the pump against fibrous material by using string was considered. According to the result of above test based on Taguchi method, it was assumed that quantification of anti-clogging performance against fibrous materials is possible by flowing plural strings into the pump and calculating the probability of passing. Plurality sewage pumps of different types were evaluated based on this assumption

  13. INVESTIGATION OF PERFORMANCE CURVES OF THREE STAGE DEEP WELL PUMPS

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa GÖLCÜ

    2002-01-01

    In literature, pumps which are known as vertical turbine pump (VTP) have been designed to work vertically. Today, they are known as deep well pumps. These pumps are especially used in narrow and very deep wells where the surface sources are insufficient. Therefore, it is necessary to select suitable stage number to benefit from deep well pumps efficiently. In this study, a new deep well pump has been designed and the performances of three stage deep well pumps have been investigated experimen...

  14. Outcome of Cardiac Rehabilitation Following Off-Pump Versus On-Pump Coronary Bypass Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefizadeh, Reza; Hariri, Seyed Yaser; Moghadam, Adel Johari

    2017-06-15

    A few studies have compared the cardiac rehabilitation (CR) outcome between those who undergo conventional on-pump bypass surgery and off-pump surgery. We compared this outcome among the patients differentiated by the On-pump and off-pump surgical procedures about cardiovascular variables and psychological status. This longitudinal study recruited 318 and 102 consecutive patients who had undergone CABG (on-pump surgery, n = 318 and off-pump surgery, n = 102) and been referred to the CR clinic. The off-pump surgery patients had more improvement in their metabolic equivalents (METs) value. The physical and mental components of health-related quality of life (QOL) (based on SF-36 questionnaire) as well as depression-anxiety (based on Costello-Comrey Depression and Anxiety Scale) were notably improved in the two study groups after the CR program, while changes in the QOL components scores and also depression-anxiety score were not different between the off-pump and on-pump techniques. Regarding QOL and psychological status, there were no differences in the CR outcome between those who underwent off-pump bypass surgery and those who underwent on-pump surgery; nevertheless, the off-pump technique was superior to the on-pump method on METs improvement following CR.

  15. SERCA pumps and human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovnanian, A

    2007-01-01

    Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum (SER) Ca2+ ATPases represent a highly conserved family of Ca2+ pumps which actively transport Ca2+ from the cytosol to the SER against a large concentration gradient. In humans, 3 genes (ATP2A1-3) generate multiple isoforms (SERCAla,b, SERCA2a-c, SECA3a-f) by developmental or tissue-specific alternative splicing. These pumps differ by their regulatory and kinetic properties, allowing for optimized function in the tissue where they are expressed. They play a central role in calcium signalling through regenerating SER Ca2+ stores, maintaining appropriate Ca2+ levels in this organelle and shaping cytosolic and nuclear Ca2+ variations which govern cell response. Defects in ATP2A1 encoding SERCA1 cause recessive Brody myopathy, mutations in ATP2A2 coding for SERCA2 underlie a dominant skin disease, Darier disease and its clinical variants. SERCA2a expression is reduced in heart failure in human and in mice models. Gene-targeting studies in mouse confirmed the expected function of these isoforms in some cases, but also resulted in unexpected phenotypes: SERCA1 null mutants die from respiratory failure, SERCA2 heterozygous mutant mice develop skin cancer with age and SERCA3 null mice display no diabetes. These unique phenotypes have provided invaluable information on the role of these pumps in specific tissues and species, and have improved our understanding of Ca2+ regulated processes in muscles, the heart and the skin in human and in mice. Although the understanding of the pathogenesis of these diseases is still incomplete, these recent advances hold the promise of improved knowledge on the disease processes and the identification of new targets for therapeutic interventions.

  16. Cotransporters as molecular water pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas; MacAulay, Nanna

    2002-01-01

    Molecular water pumps are membrane proteins of the cotransport type in which a flux of water is coupled to substrate fluxes by a mechanism within the protein. Free energy can be exchanged between the fluxes. Accordingly, the flux of water may be relatively independent of the external water chemical...... for such cotransport can be ruled out for both experimental and theoretical reasons. Indeed, substrate fluxes mediated by channels or ionophores generate much smaller water fluxes than those observed with cotransporters. Theoretical models, using reasonable values for the intracellular diffusion coefficient, indicate...

  17. Sideload vanes for fluid pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Scott R. (Inventor); Dills, Michael H. (Inventor); Rodriguez, Jose L. (Inventor); Tepool, John Eric (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A fluid pump assembly includes a rotatable component that can be rotated about an axis and a static vane assembly located adjacent to the rotatable component. The static vane assembly includes a circumferential surface axially spaced from the rotatable component, and one or more vanes extending from the circumferential surface toward the rotatable component. The one or more vanes are configured to produce a radial load on the rotatable component when the rotatable component is rotating about the axis and a fluid is present between the static vane assembly and the rotatable component.

  18. Carbon Dioxide Absorption Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A carbon dioxide absorption heat pump cycle is disclosed using a high pressure stage and a super-critical cooling stage to provide a non-toxic system. Using carbon dioxide gas as the working fluid in the system, the present invention desorbs the CO2 from an absorbent and cools the gas in the super-critical state to deliver heat thereby. The cooled CO2 gas is then expanded thereby providing cooling and is returned to an absorber for further cycling. Strategic use of heat exchangers can increase the efficiency and performance of the system.

  19. Absorption-heat-pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  20. The Hydraulic Ram (Or Impulse) Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The hydraulic impulse pump utilizes a fraction of the momentum of a flowing stream to lift a small portion of that water to a higher level. There it may be accumulated in an elevated cistern to provide sufficient water for several families, for the pump works 24 h a day with no additional source of energy. The operation of the pump is described,…

  1. Aspergillus arachnoiditis post intrathecal baclofen pump insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, V; Kavar, B; Hogg, M; Eisen, D P; Butzkueven, H

    2013-08-01

    This report describes an unusual fungal infection of an intrathecal baclofen pump which, to our knowledge, has not been reported previously. We describe a 39-year-old man with severe lower limb spasticity due to secondary progressive multiple sclerosis that was managed with insertion of an intrathecal baclofen pump. He subsequently presented with distinct neurological decline secondary to an intrathecal baclofen pump infection with Aspergillus terreus. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reciprocating Pump Systems for Space Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J C

    2004-06-10

    Small propellant pumps can reduce rocket hardware mass, while increasing chamber pressure to improve specific impulse. The maneuvering requirements for planetary ascent require an emphasis on mass, while those of orbiting spacecraft indicate that I{sub SP} should be prioritized during pump system development. Experimental efforts include initial testing with prototype lightweight components while raising pump efficiency to improve system I{sub SP}.

  3. Linear peristaltic pump based on electromagnetic actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddoui Lotfi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a study and design of a linear peristaltic pump are presented. A set of electromagnetic (solenoid actuators is used as the active tools to drag the liquid by crushing an elastic tube. The pump consists of six serially-connected electromagnetic actuators controlled via an electronic board. This may be considered as a simulated peristalsis action of intestines. The dynamic performances of the pump are investigated analytically and experimentally.

  4. The hydraulic ram (or impulse) pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2014-03-01

    The hydraulic impulse pump utilizes a fraction of the momentum of a flowing stream to lift a small portion of that water to a higher level. There it may be accumulated in an elevated cistern to provide sufficient water for several families, for the pump works 24 h a day with no additional source of energy. The operation of the pump is described, along with a working demonstration model constructed from plastic waste pipe and fittings.

  5. Pumped Storage and Potential Hydropower from Conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-02-25

    Th is Congressional Report, Pumped Storage Hydropower and Potential Hydropower from Conduits, addresses the technical flexibility that existing pumped storage facilities can provide to support intermittent renewable energy generation. This study considered potential upgrades or retrofit of these facilities, the technical potential of existing and new pumped storage facilities to provide grid reliability benefits, and the range of conduit hydropower opportunities available in the United States.

  6. A simplified heat pump model for use in solar plus heat pump system simulation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Andersen, Elsa; Nordman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Solar plus heat pump systems are often very complex in design, with sometimes special heat pump arrangements and control. Therefore detailed heat pump models can give very slow system simulations and still not so accurate results compared to real heat pump performance in a system. The idea here...... is to start from a standard measured performance map of test points for a heat pump according to EN 14825 and then determine characteristic parameters for a simplified correlation based model of the heat pump. By plotting heat pump test data in different ways including power input and output form and not only...... as COP, a simplified relation could be seen. By using the same methodology as in the EN 12975 QDT part in the collector test standard it could be shown that a very simple model could describe the heat pump test data very accurately, by identifying 4 parameters in the correlation equation found....

  7. Which Breast Pump for Which Mother: An Evidenced-Based Approach to Individualizing Breast Pump Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Paula P.; Patel, Aloka L.; Hoban, Rebecca; Engstrom, Janet L.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of new mothers in the United States use breast pumps in the first four months post-birth in order to achieve their personal human milk feeding goals. Although these mothers seek guidance from health care professionals with respect to the type and use of breast pumps, there are few evidence-based guidelines to guide this professional advice. This paper reviews the evidence to facilitate professional individualization of breast pump recommendations using three categories of literature: the infant as the gold standard to which the pump is compared; the degree of maternal breast pump dependency (e.g., the extent to which the breast pump replaces the infant for milk removal and mammary gland stimulation); and the stage of lactation for which the pump replaces the infant. This review can also serve to inform public and private payers with respect to individualizing breast pump type to mother-dyad characteristics. PMID:26914013

  8. Mechanical Blood Pumps for Cardiac Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akdis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac assist devices are classified into the traditional engineering categories of displacement and rotary pumps. Clinical use and indications of the various pump categories are outlined and a detailed description of currently available systems is given. The first part deals with extracorporeal as well as implantable ventricular assist devices (VAD of the displacement type and is followed by a section on current developments in the field of total artificial hearts (TAH. The second part covers the rotary pump category from cardiopulmonary bypass applications to implantable systems, including specific design aspects of radial, diagonal, and axial pumps.

  9. Fault Detection and Isolation in Centrifugal Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Carsten

    Centrifugal pumps are used in a variety of different applications, such as water supply, wastewater, and different industrial applications. Some pump installations are crucial for the applications to work. Failures can lead to substantial economic losses and can influence the life of many people...... is placed. The topic of this work is Fault Detection and Identification in centrifugal pumps. Different approaches are developed with special focus on robustness. Robustness with respect to disturbances, unknown parts of the system, and parameter variations are considered. All developed algorithms...... are tested on an industrial test setup, showing the usability of the algorithms on a real centrifugal pump....

  10. Electricity Market Optimization of Heat Pump Portfolio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom S.

    2013-01-01

    We consider a portfolio of domestic heat pumps controlled by an aggregator. The aggregator is able to adjust the consumption of the heat pumps without affecting the comfort in the houses and uses this ability to shift the main consumption to hours with low electricity prices. Further, the aggrega......We consider a portfolio of domestic heat pumps controlled by an aggregator. The aggregator is able to adjust the consumption of the heat pumps without affecting the comfort in the houses and uses this ability to shift the main consumption to hours with low electricity prices. Further...

  11. Pumping fluid mud: theoretical and experimental considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Berlamont, J.

    1989-01-01

    In many cases maintenance dredging in harbors and access channels could be much cheaper and easier if the deposited mud could be pumped using fixed equipment. Therefore the feasibility of pumping fluid mud was examined. It is found that homogeneous mud can be pumped efficiently up to densities of 1150 kgm-3 (for the Zeebrugge (Belgium) mud). For higher densities the influence radius of the pumps becomes very small. A 1-D model can be used to determine the static equilibrium slope and the equi...

  12. Method and system for small scale pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Insepov, Zeke [Darien, IL; Hassanein, Ahmed [Bolingbrook, IL

    2010-01-26

    The present invention relates generally to the field of small scale pumping and, more specifically, to a method and system for very small scale pumping media through microtubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for small scale pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more microtubes, the one or more tubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more tubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the tubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the tube.

  13. Absorption heat pump for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan; Simon, William E.; Warrier, Gopinath R.; Woramontri, Woranun

    1993-01-01

    In the first part, the performance of the Absorption Heat Pump (AHP) with water-sulfuric acid and water-magnesium chloride as two new refrigerant-absorbent fluid pairs was investigated. A model was proposed for the analysis of the new working pairs in a heat pump system, subject to different temperature lifts. Computer codes were developed to calculate the Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the system with the thermodynamic properties of the working fluids obtained from the literature. The study shows the potential of water-sulfuric acid as a satisfactory replacement for water-lithium bromide in the targeted temperature range. The performance of the AHP using water-magnesium chloride as refrigerant-absorbent pair does not compare well with those obtained using water-lithium bromide. The second part concentrated on the design and testing of a simple ElectroHydrodynamic (EHD) Pump. A theoretical design model based on continuum electromechanics was analyzed to predict the performance characteristics of the EHD pump to circulate the fluid in the absorption heat pump. A numerical method of solving the governing equations was established to predict the velocity profile, pressure - flow rate relationship and efficiency of the pump. The predicted operational characteristics of the EHD pump is comparable to that of turbomachinery hardware; however, the overall efficiency of the electromagnetic pump is much lower. An experimental investigation to verify the numerical results was conducted. The pressure - flow rate performance characteristics and overall efficiency of the pump obtained experimentally agree well with the theoretical model.

  14. Absorption heat pump for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan; Simon, William E.; Warrier, Gopinath R.; Woramontri, Woranun

    1993-12-01

    In the first part, the performance of the Absorption Heat Pump (AHP) with water-sulfuric acid and water-magnesium chloride as two new refrigerant-absorbent fluid pairs was investigated. A model was proposed for the analysis of the new working pairs in a heat pump system, subject to different temperature lifts. Computer codes were developed to calculate the Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the system with the thermodynamic properties of the working fluids obtained from the literature. The study shows the potential of water-sulfuric acid as a satisfactory replacement for water-lithium bromide in the targeted temperature range. The performance of the AHP using water-magnesium chloride as refrigerant-absorbent pair does not compare well with those obtained using water-lithium bromide. The second part concentrated on the design and testing of a simple ElectroHydrodynamic (EHD) Pump. A theoretical design model based on continuum electromechanics was analyzed to predict the performance characteristics of the EHD pump to circulate the fluid in the absorption heat pump. A numerical method of solving the governing equations was established to predict the velocity profile, pressure - flow rate relationship and efficiency of the pump. The predicted operational characteristics of the EHD pump is comparable to that of turbomachinery hardware; however, the overall efficiency of the electromagnetic pump is much lower. An experimental investigation to verify the numerical results was conducted. The pressure - flow rate performance characteristics and overall efficiency of the pump obtained experimentally agree well with the theoretical model.

  15. Is the second sodium pump electrogenic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L E; Rocafull, M A; Del Castillo, J R

    2013-01-01

    Transepithelial sodium transport is a process that involves active Na(+) transport at the basolateral membrane of the epithelial cell. This process is mediated by the Na(+)/K(+) pump, which exchanges 3 internal Na(+) by 2 external K(+) inducing a net charge movement and the second Na(+) pump, which transports Na(+) accompanied by Cl(-) and water. It has been suggested that this pump could also be electrogenic. Herein, we evaluated, in MDCK cells, the short-circuit current (Isc) generated by these Na(+) pumps at the basolateral membrane of the epithelial cells, using amphotericin B as an apical permeabilizing agent. In Cl(-)-containing media, Isc induced by amphotericin B is totally inhibited by ouabain, indicating that only the electrogenic Na(+)/K(+) pump is detectable in the presence of Cl(-). Electrogenicity of the second Na(+) pump can be demonstrated in Cl(-)-free media. The existence of a furosemide-sensitive component of Isc, in addition to an ouabain-sensitive one, was identified in absence of chloride. Passive Cl(-) movement associated with the function of the second Na(+) pump seems to be regulated by the pump itself. These results demonstrate that the second Na(+) pump is an electroneutral mechanism result from the stoichiometric movement of Na(+) and Cl(-) across the basolateral plasma membrane of the epithelial cell.

  16. Rotating and positive-displacement pumps for low-thrust rocket engines. Volume 1: Pump Evaluation and design. [of centrifugal pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgregor, C.; Csomor, A.

    1974-01-01

    Rotating and positive displacement pumps of various types were studied for pumping liquid fluorine for low-thrust, high-performance rocket engines. Included in the analysis were: centrifugal, pitot, Barske, Tesla, drag, gear, vane, axial piston, radial piston, diaphragm, and helirotor pump concepts. The centrifugal pump and the gear pump were selected and these were carried through detailed design and fabrication. Mechanical difficulties were encountered with the gear pump during the preliminary tests in Freon-12. Further testing and development was therefore limited to the centrifugal pump. Tests on the centrifugal pump were conducted in Freon-12 to determine the hydrodynamic performance and in liquid fluorine to demonstrate chemical compatibility.

  17. Proton pump inhibitors and osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjarne Nesgaard; Johansen, Per Birger; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review is to provide an update on recent advances in the evidence based on proton pump inhibitors (PPI) as a possible cause of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. This review focuses, in particular, on new studies published in the last 18 months and a di......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review is to provide an update on recent advances in the evidence based on proton pump inhibitors (PPI) as a possible cause of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. This review focuses, in particular, on new studies published in the last 18 months...... and a discussion of these findings and how this has influenced our understanding of this association, the clinical impact and the underlying pathophysiology. RECENT FINDINGS: New studies have further strengthened existing evidence linking use of PPIs to osteoporosis. Short-term use does not appear to pose a lower...... risk than long-term use. There is a continued lack of conclusive studies identifying the pathogenesis. Direct effects on calcium absorption or on osteoblast or osteoclast action cannot at present plausibly explain the mechanism. SUMMARY: The use of PPIs is a risk factor for development of osteoporosis...

  18. HSB 84A pumping test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, W.

    2000-03-06

    Two constant discharge, multiple well pumping tests were performed in the Congaree aquifer at the H-Area seepage basins during the weeks of April 30 through May 11. The purpose of the tests was to collect information that might determine the source of groundwater contamination in the Congaree aquifer and to estimate the hydraulic parameters of the aquifer. Transmissivity estimates from data collected in Test One ranged from 1,644 ft{sup 2}/day to 2,253 ft{sup 2}/day with an average of 2,013 ft{sup 2}/day and from 1,812 ft{sup 2}/day to 2,562 ft{sup 2}/day with an average of 2,269 ft{sup 2}/day in Test Two. Some leakage through the confining bed was apparent in the vicinity of observation well HSB 69A. This report includes the data collected, the analyses, results and interpretation of the pumping tests performed at HSB 84A. It should serve as a good baseline for future studies on the subject of contaminant migration in the Congaree aquifer on the Savannah River Site.

  19. Photoacoustic imaging of lymphatic pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbrich, Alex; Heinmiller, Andrew; Zemp, Roger J.

    2017-10-01

    The lymphatic system is responsible for fluid homeostasis and immune cell trafficking and has been implicated in several diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer metastasis. Despite its importance, the lack of suitable in vivo imaging techniques has hampered our understanding of the lymphatic system. This is, in part, due to the limited contrast of lymphatic fluids and structures. Photoacoustic imaging, in combination with optically absorbing dyes or nanoparticles, has great potential for noninvasively visualizing the lymphatic vessels deep in tissues. Multispectral photoacoustic imaging is capable of separating the components; however, the slow wavelength switching speed of most laser systems is inadequate for imaging lymphatic pumping without motion artifacts being introduced into the processed images. We investigate two approaches for visualizing lymphatic processes in vivo. First, single-wavelength differential photoacoustic imaging is used to visualize lymphatic pumping in the hindlimb of a mouse in real time. Second, a fast-switching multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging system was used to assess the propulsion profile of dyes through the lymphatics in real time. These approaches may have profound impacts in noninvasively characterizing and investigating the lymphatic system.

  20. A regenerative elastocaloric heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tušek, Jaka; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan; Dall'Olio, Stefano; Tušek, Janez; Pryds, Nini

    2016-10-01

    A large fraction of global energy use is for refrigeration and air-conditioning, which could be decarbonized if efficient renewable energy technologies could be found. Vapour-compression technology remains the most widely used system to move heat up the temperature scale after more than 100 years; however, caloric-based technologies (those using the magnetocaloric, electrocaloric, barocaloric or elastocaloric effect) have recently shown a significant potential as alternatives to replace this technology due to high efficiency and the use of green solid-state refrigerants. Here, we report a regenerative elastocaloric heat pump that exhibits a temperature span of 15.3 K on the water side with a corresponding specific heating power up to 800 W kg-1 and maximum COP (coefficient-of-performance) values of up to 7. The efficiency and specific heating power of this device exceeds those of other devices based on caloric effects. These results open up the possibility of using the elastocaloric effect in various cooling and heat-pumping applications.

  1. A straight path centrifugal blood pump concept in the Capiox centrifugal pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijima, T; Oshiyama, H; Horiuchi, K; Nogawa, A; Hamasaki, H; Amano, N; Nojiri, C; Fukasawa, H; Akutsu, T

    1993-07-01

    This article describes comparative studies of a newly developed "straight path" centrifugal pump (Capiox centrifugal pump) targeted for open-heart surgery and circulatory support. A unique straight path design of the rotor was very effective in reducing the pump's rotational speed and prime volume. This pump was evaluated for hydraulics, hemolysis, depriming characteristics, cavitation, and heat generation. Two commercially available centrifugal pumps, the Biomedicus cone-type pump and the Sarns 3M impeller-type pump, were used as controls. The new pump required the lowest pump speed to produce the same flow rates under the same pressure loads and demonstrated the lowest hemolysis and the lowest temperature rise with the outlet clamped. The air volume required to deprime the new pump was one-third to one-half that for the other pumps, and no sign of cavitation was observed even if a small amount of air was introduced to the pump inlet under a negative pressure of 200 mm Hg.

  2. Early outcome of off-pump versus on-pump coronary revascularization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The use of coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) or without CPB technique (off-pump) can be associated with different mortality and morbidity and their outcomes remain uncertain. The goal of this study was to evaluate the early outcome of on-pump versus off-pump CABG.

  3. 77 FR 2957 - Application for Manufacturing Authority, Liberty Pumps, Inc. (Submersible and Water Pumps...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Application for Manufacturing Authority, Liberty Pumps, Inc. (Submersible and... manufacturing authority on behalf of Liberty Pumps, Inc., located in Bergen, New York. The application was... regulations of the Board (15 CFR part 400). It was formally filed on January 12, 2012. The Liberty Pumps, Inc...

  4. Root cause analysis of pump valve failures of three membrane pump systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, L.J.; Eijk, A.; Hooft, L. van

    2014-01-01

    This paper will present the root cause analysis and the solution of fatigue failures of the pump valves of three membrane pump systems installed on a chemical plant of Momentive in Pernis, the Netherlands. The membrane pumps were installed approximately 30 years ago. Each system has encountered

  5. Principle and characteristics of heat pump air conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu

    2017-05-01

    The application of heat pump technology in building energy saving has been paid more and more attention. By analyzing the principle and characteristics of air source heat pump, ground source heat pump and water source heat pump, the problems and prospects of heat pump technology in China are pointed out.

  6. Features of rotary pump diagnostics without dismantling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergeev K. О.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In ship power plants, rotor pumps have become very popular providing the transfer of various viscous fluids: fuels, oils, etc. Like all ship's mechanisms, pumps need proper maintenance and monitoring of technical condition. The most expedient is maintenance and repair carried out according to the results of dismantling diagnosis. The methods of vibrodiagnostics are mostly widespread for the diagnosis of pumps. Vibrodiagnosis of rotary pumps has a number of features due to the nature and condition of pumped fluids. The norms of the Russian Maritime Register of Shipping are used for setting standards of vibration and diagnostics of the rotary pumps' technical condition. To clarify the features of vibration diagnostics of rotary pumps some measurements have been made on a special bench that simulates various modes of ship's pumps' operation: different pressure in the system and temperature of the pumped medium. As a result of measurements one-third octave and narrow-band vibration spectra of pumps have been obtained at various developed pressures and temperatures of the pumped fluid. The performed analysis has shown that the RMRS norms for diagnostics of ship rotary pumps have insufficient informative value inasmuch they do not take into account the dependence of the vibrational signal spectrum on the developed pressure and temperature of the pumped fluid. The nature of the received signals shows that the levels of a third-octave spectrum of the vibration velocity depend significantly on the temperature of the pumped fluids, this fact must be taken into account when applying the RMRS norms. The fluid temperature has a great influence on the nature of the narrow-band vibration acceleration spectrum in the area of medium frequencies, less influence – on the nature of the vibration velocity spectrum. The conclusions have been drawn about the advisability of using the narrow-band vibration spectra and the envelope spectra of the high

  7. Unintended Insulin Pump Delivery in Hyperbaric Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzi, Federico; Pintaudi, Basilio; Bonomo, Matteo; Garuti, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    Unintended pump insulin delivery was reported to occur as a consequence of decreased atmospheric pressure, probably mediated by air bubble formation and the expansion of existing bubbles. This observation has been used to explain some hypoglycemic episodes occurring in patients on insulin pump treatment in between 1 and 1 h 45 min after the flight takeoff. New models of insulin pumps have been introduced in the market, most of them are waterproof certified. It is not clear if in these new pumps the influence of atmospheric pressure changes on the insulin delivery is still present. Moreover, there are no evidences related to the insulin pump operations in hyperbaric conditions, like as during diving activities. Our aim is therefore to verify the eventual variation of insulin pump delivery determined by atmospheric pressure changes in hyperbaric conditions. Three new models of insulin pumps were tested in hyperbaric conditions at a flow rate of 2 U/h. Atmospheric pressure variation affected pump insulin release. An increase in the atmospheric pressure from 1 to 1.3 atmosphere (ATA) induced a decrease of pump basal insulin release (about -0.2 U/10 min); conversely, when the atmospheric pressure returned from 1.3 to 1 ATA, an unintended insulin delivery was observed (about +0.3 U/10 min). This phenomenon appeared to be independent of the insulin pump rate and dependent on the presence of air bubbles within the insulin tube setting and cartridge. Unintended insulin delivery driven by atmospheric pressure changes in hyperbaric conditions occurred in the new insulin pumps available. Patients should pay attention to possible variation of insulin rate during the flight or during diving activities.

  8. Pumping Optimization Model for Pump and Treat Systems - 15091

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, S.; Ivarson, Kristine A.; Karanovic, M.; Miller, Charles W.; Tonkin, M.

    2015-01-15

    Pump and Treat systems are being utilized to remediate contaminated groundwater in the Hanford 100 Areas adjacent to the Columbia River in Eastern Washington. Design of the systems was supported by a three-dimensional (3D) fate and transport model. This model provided sophisticated simulation capabilities but requires many hours to calculate results for each simulation considered. Many simulations are required to optimize system performance, so a two-dimensional (2D) model was created to reduce run time. The 2D model was developed as a equivalent-property version of the 3D model that derives boundary conditions and aquifer properties from the 3D model. It produces predictions that are very close to the 3D model predictions, allowing it to be used for comparative remedy analyses. Any potential system modifications identified by using the 2D version are verified for use by running the 3D model to confirm performance. The 2D model was incorporated into a comprehensive analysis system (the Pumping Optimization Model, POM) to simplify analysis of multiple simulations. It allows rapid turnaround by utilizing a graphical user interface that: 1 allows operators to create hypothetical scenarios for system operation, 2 feeds the input to the 2D fate and transport model, and 3 displays the scenario results to evaluate performance improvement. All of the above is accomplished within the user interface. Complex analyses can be completed within a few hours and multiple simulations can be compared side-by-side. The POM utilizes standard office computing equipment and established groundwater modeling software.

  9. PV water pumping: NEOS Corporation recent PV water pumping activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, C.

    1995-11-01

    NEOS Corporation has been very active in PV-powered water pumping, particularly with respect to electric utilities. Most of the recent activity has been through the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN). The PSN is an independent, not-for-profit organization comprised of all types of electric utilities: rural electric coops, public power districts, investor-owned utilities, and power marketing agencies. The PSN`s mission is to work pro-actively to promote utility involvement in PV through education and training. PV information is distributed by the PSN in three primary forms: (1) consultation with PSN technical service representatives: (2) literature generated by the PSN; and (3) literature published by other organizations. The PSN can also provide assistance to members in developing PV customer service programs. The PSN`s product support activities include consolidation of information on existing packaged PV systems and facilitation of the development of new PV product packages that meet utility-defined specifications for cost performance, and reliability. The PSN`s initial product support efforts will be focused on commercially available packaged PV systems for a variety of off-grid applications. In parallel with this effort, if no products exist that meet the PSN`s functional specifications, the PSN will initiate the second phase of product development support process by encouraging the development of new packaged systems. Through these services and product support activities, the PSN anticipates engaging all segments for the PV industry, thus providing benefits to PV systems suppliers as well as local PV service contractors.This paper describes field testing of pv power systems for water pumping.

  10. Challenges of nanostructure-integration in Fabry-Pérot interferometers as alternative to Bragg reflectors: an example for Match 1:1-, eBeam-, and nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helke, Christian; Hiller, Karla; Erben, Jens W.; Reuter, Danny; Meinig, Marco; Kurth, Steffen; Nowak, Christoph; Kleinjans, Herberth; Otto, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    We present nanostructured reflectors as alternative for well-known alternating layer stack reflectors for Fabry-Pérot Interferometers (FPI) for the use in miniaturized spectrometry systems. The addressed FPI is part of an online monitoring system for specific molecules by Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). Key part is the tunable FPI with nanostructured reflectors, which is fabricated with MEMS and NEMS technologies. Nanostructured Photonic Crystal (PhC) and Sub-Wavelength Grating (SWG) reflectors are developed. The PhC reflectors consisting of 400 nm thin moveable LP-CVD Si3N4 membranes with nanostructured holes realize an aperture of 1 mm with high reflectivity in the VIS range. The SWG reflectors are realized as nanostructured aluminum polygons on 150 nm thin LP-CVD Si3N4 membranes. The challenge in manufacturing of the PhC and SWG structures on 50 μm thin predefined silicon membrane areas is the thin wafer handling, because they are very fragile and tend to warp under their own weight. Further challenges such as delamination of the NIL-stamp from the wafer and eBeam resist homogeneity on the deflected thin silicon membranes for nanostructure replication as well as residual free resist layers for the followed RIE process and the match of the used Nanoimprint, 1:1 and eBeam lithography processes for the different layers have to be considered. The manufacturing and characterization of both alternative reflectors for prospective integration in VIS-FPIs on 6" wafers is described.

  11. A model of annular linear induction pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momozaki, Yoichi [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-27

    The present work explains how the magnetic field and the induced current are obtained when the distributed coils are powered by a 3 phase power supply.  From the magnetic field and the induced current, the thrust and the induction losses in the pump can be calculated to estimate the pump performance.

  12. Adiabatic pumping through interacting quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Splettstoesser, Janine; Governale, Michele; König, Jürgen; Fazio, Rosario

    2005-01-01

    We present a general formalism to study adiabatic pumping through interacting quantum dots. We derive a formula that relates the pumped charge to the local, instantaneous Green function of the dot. This formula is then applied to the infinite-U Anderson model both for weak and strong tunnel-coupling strengths.

  13. Minimum maintenance solar pump | Assefa | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A minimum maintenance solar pump (MMSP), Fig 1, has been simulated for Addis Ababa, taking solar meteorological data of global radiation, diffuse radiation and ambient air temperature as input to a computer program that has been developed. To increase the performance of the solar pump, by trapping the long-wave ...

  14. Numerical routine for magnetic heat pump cascading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filonenko, Konstantin; Lei, Tian; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    Heat pumps use low-temperature heat absorbed from the energy source to create temperature gradient (TG) across the energy sink. Magnetic heat pumps (MHP) can perform this function through operating active magnetic regeneration (AMR) cycle. For building heating, TGs of up to a few K might...

  15. 14 CFR 27.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 27.991 Section 27.991 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 27.991 Fuel pumps. Compliance with...

  16. Nonlinear Aspects of Heat Pump Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Najman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work attempts to answer the question: How much can we believe that the coefficient of performance provided by the manufacturer is correct, when a heat pump is required to face the real load coming from changes of temperature? The paper summarizes some basics of heat pump theory and describes the results of numerical models.

  17. Pumps for medium sized solar systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon

    1996-01-01

    The suitability of the electronically controlled circulation pump type UPE 2000 from Grundfos for large solar heating systems was elucidated.......The suitability of the electronically controlled circulation pump type UPE 2000 from Grundfos for large solar heating systems was elucidated....

  18. Fluid structure interaction in piston diaphragm pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rijswick, R.; Van Rhee, C.

    2013-01-01

    Piston diaphragm pumps are used world-wide for the transport of aggressive and/or abrasive fluids in the chemical, mining and mineral processing industries. Figure 1 shows a cross section of a piston diaphragm pump as is used in the mining and mineral processing industries for the transport of

  19. low pump power photonic crystal fibre amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Kristian G.; Broeng, Jes; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2003-01-01

    Designs of low pump power optical amplifiers, based on photonic crystal fibres are presented. The potential of these fibre amplifiers is investigated, and it is demonstrated that such amplifiers may deliver gains of more than 15 dB at 1550 nm with less than 1 mW of optical pump power....

  20. Piezo pump and pressurized circuit provided therewith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Es, Johannes; Wits, Wessel Willems

    2015-01-01

    A piezo pump for use in a pressurized circuit includes a pump chamber with an inlet provided with a one way inlet valve, for connection to a feeding line of the pressurized circuit and an outlet provided with a one way outlet valve, for connection to a discharge line of the pressurized circuit and a

  1. Piezoelectric pump and pressurised circuit provided therewith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Es, Johannes; Wits, Wessel Willems

    2015-01-01

    A piezoelectric pump for use in a pressurised circuit is provided, comprising a pump chamber (5) with an inlet (6) provided with a one way inlet valve (7), for connection to a feeding line (8) of the pressurised circuit and an outlet (9) provided with a one way outlet valve (10), for connection to a

  2. The organic carbon pump in the Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omta, A.W.; Bruggeman, J.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    The growth, sinking and remineralisation of phytoplankton constitute the soft-tissue carbon pump. Here we derive the expression for the strength of this carbon pump in terms of the nutrient utilisation and the carbon:nutrient ratio of plankton. Furthermore, we aim to determine how the physical

  3. ENERGY STAR Certified Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Geothermal Heat Pumps that are effective as of January 1, 2012. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=geo_heat.pr_crit_geo_heat_pumps

  4. Magnetic Heat Pump Containing Flow Diverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Frank S.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed magnetic heat pump contains flow diverters for suppression of undesired flows. If left unchecked, undesired flows mix substantial amounts of partially heated and partially cooled portions of working fluid, effectively causing leakage of heat from heated side to cooled side. By reducing leakage of heat, flow diverters increase energy efficiency of magnetic heat pump, potentially offering efficiency greater than compressor-driven refrigerator.

  5. [Interaction between clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsze, A.M.; Boer, A. de; Boot, H.; Deneer, V.H.; Heringa, M.; Mol, P.G.; Schalekamp, T.; Verduijn, M.M.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Comte, M. le

    2011-01-01

    The drug interaction between proton pump inhibitors and clopidogrel has been the subject of much study in recent years. Contradictory results regarding the effect of proton pump inhibitors on platelet reactivity and on clinical outcome in clopidogrel-treated patients have been reported in

  6. Microfluidic Pumps Containing Teflon [Trademark] AF Diaphragms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Peter; White, Victor; Grunthaner, Frank; Ikeda, Mike; Mathies, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Microfluidic pumps and valves based on pneumatically actuated diaphragms made of Teflon AF polymers are being developed for incorporation into laboratory-on-a-chip devices that must perform well over temperature ranges wider than those of prior diaphragm-based microfluidic pumps and valves. Other potential applications include implanted biomedical microfluidic devices, wherein the biocompatability of Teflon AF polymers would be highly advantageous. These pumps and valves have been demonstrated to function stably after cycling through temperatures from -125 to 120 C. These pumps and valves are intended to be successors to similar prior pumps and valves containing diaphragms made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) [commonly known as silicone rubber]. The PDMS-containing valves ae designed to function stably only within the temperature range from 5 to 80 C. Undesirably, PDMS membranes are somwehat porous and retain water. PDMS is especially unsuitable for use at temperatures below 0 C because the formation of ice crystals increases porosity and introduces microshear.

  7. Unitary air-to-air heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-07-01

    This technology evaluation covers commercially available unitary heat pumps ranging from nominal capacities of 1/sup 1///sub 2/ to 45 tons. The nominal COP of the heat pump models, selected as representative, vary from 2.4 to 2.9. Seasonal COPs for heat pump installations and single-family dwellings are reported to vary from 2.5 to 1.1, depending on climate. For cooling performance, the nominal EER's vary from 6.5 to 8.7. Representative part-load performance curves along with cost estimating and reliability data are provided to aid: (1) the systems design engineer to select suitably sized heat pumps based on life-cycle cost analyses, and (2) the computer programmer to develop a simulation code for heat pumps operating in an Integrated Community Energy System.

  8. Diode-side-pumped Alexandrite slab lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damzen, M J; Thomas, G M; Minassian, A

    2017-05-15

    We present the investigation of diode-side-pumping of Alexandrite slab lasers in a range of designs using linear cavity and grazing-incidence bounce cavity configurations. An Alexandrite slab laser cavity with double-pass side pumping produces 23.4 mJ free-running energy at 100 Hz rate with slope efficiency ~40% with respect to absorbed pump energy. In a slab laser with single-bounce geometry output power of 12.2 W is produced, and in a double-bounce configuration 6.5 W multimode and 4.5 W output in TEM 00 mode is produced. These first results of slab laser and amplifier designs in this paper highlight some of the potential strategies for power and energy scaling of Alexandrite using diode-side-pumped Alexandrite slab architectures with future availability of higher power red diode pumping.

  9. Pancreatic bicarbonate secretion involves two proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Wang, Jing; Henriksen, Katrine L.

    2011-01-01

    H(+)/HCO(3)(-) transporters, which depend on gradients created by the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. However, the model cannot fully account for high-bicarbonate concentrations, and other active transporters, i.e. pumps, have not been explored. Here we show that pancreatic ducts express functional gastric...... and non-gastric H(+)-K(+)-ATPases. We measured intracellular pH and secretion in small ducts isolated from rat pancreas and showed their sensitivity to H(+)-K(+) pump inhibitors and ion substitutions. Gastric and non-gastric H(+)-K(+) pumps were demonstrated on RNA and protein levels, and pumps were...... localized to the plasma membranes of pancreatic ducts. Quantitative analysis of H(+)/HCO(3)(-) and fluid transport shows that the H(+)-K(+) pumps can contribute to pancreatic secretion in several species. Our results call for revision of the bicarbonate transport physiology in pancreas, and most likely...

  10. Regulation of the cardiac sodium pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, W; Tulloch, L B; Shattock, M J; Calaghan, S C; Howie, J; Wypijewski, K J

    2013-04-01

    In cardiac muscle, the sarcolemmal sodium/potassium ATPase is the principal quantitative means of active transport at the myocyte cell surface, and its activity is essential for maintaining the trans-sarcolemmal sodium gradient that drives ion exchange and transport processes that are critical for cardiac function. The 72-residue phosphoprotein phospholemman regulates the sodium pump in the heart: unphosphorylated phospholemman inhibits the pump, and phospholemman phosphorylation increases pump activity. Phospholemman is subject to a remarkable plethora of post-translational modifications for such a small protein: the combination of three phosphorylation sites, two palmitoylation sites, and one glutathionylation site means that phospholemman integrates multiple signaling events to control the cardiac sodium pump. Since misregulation of cytosolic sodium contributes to contractile and metabolic dysfunction during cardiac failure, a complete understanding of the mechanisms that control the cardiac sodium pump is vital. This review explores our current understanding of these mechanisms.

  11. Development of a suction-pump-assisted thermal and electrical hybrid adsorption heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Yasuki; Sugiyama, Yukiteru; Kubota, Mitsuhiro [Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusaku, Nagoya City, Aichi ken 464-8603 (Japan); Watanabe, Fujio; Hasatani, Masanobu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aichi Institute of Technology, Yagusa-cho 470-0392 (Japan); Kobayashi, Noriyuki [Department of Ecotopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kanamori, Mitihito [Energy Applications Research and Development Center, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    2008-09-15

    In Japan, a tremendous amount of heat energy below 373 K is discharged into the atmosphere as waste heat, accounting for approximately 80% of the heat loss. The widespread utilization of such low-temperature heat energy leads to the establishment of a highly efficient energy utilization system. A closed adsorption heat pump (adsorption heat pump) is desirable for achieving the above mentioned system because it can generate cooling power below 283 K for air conditioning by utilizing the low-temperature heat energy as the regeneration heat source of the adsorbent. However, the cooling power and coefficient of performance of the conventional thermally operated adsorption heat pump significantly decrease with the regeneration temperature. We have proposed a suction-pump-assisted thermal and electrical hybrid adsorption heat pump. In this pump, a mechanical booster pump (MBP) is incorporated into the thermally operated silica gel-water-type adsorption heat pump for promoting water vapor transportation between an adsorber and an evaporator/condenser. We have experimentally studied the effect of the MBP power on the heat output performance of the adsorption heat pump. It has been demonstrated that the proposed pump can achieve a heat output performance 1.6 times that of the thermally operated adsorption heat pump. (author)

  12. Off-Pump Versus On-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Christian H; Steinbrüchel, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains the preferred treatment in patients with complex coronary artery disease. However, whether the procedure should be performed with or without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass, referred to as off-pump and on-pump CABG, is still up for debate....... Intuitively, avoidance of cardiopulmonary bypass seems beneficial as the systemic inflammatory response from extracorporeal circulation is omitted, but no single randomized trial has been able to prove off-pump CABG superior to on-pump CABG as regards the hard outcomes death, stroke or myocardial infarction....... In contrast, off-pump CABG is technically more challenging and may be associated with increased risk of incomplete revascularization. The purpose of the review is to summarize the current literature comparing outcomes of off-pump versus on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery....

  13. Low threshold, singly-resonant CW OPO pumped by an all-fiber pump source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Angus; Stafford, Ryan

    2006-01-23

    An oscillation threshold of 780mW has been demonstrated in a singly-resonant, continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator (CW SRO) using a fiber-amplified, distributed feedback (DFB) fiber laser as pump source. A linewidth of 1MHz was measured, and the idler frequency was fine-tuned by up to 130GHz by tuning the pump laser. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a single frequency CW SRO pumped by an all-fiber pump source, a reduction in threshold by a factor of three over previous 1- microm-pumped CW SROs, and a reduction by two orders of magnitude in the linewidth of CW SROs pumped by fiber pump sources.

  14. Pulsed laser facilities operating from UV to IR at the Gas Laser Lab of the Lebedev Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionin, Andrei; Kholin, Igor; Vasil'Ev, Boris; Zvorykin, Vladimir

    2003-05-01

    Pulsed laser facilities developed at the Gas Lasers Lab of the Lebedev Physics Institute and their applications for different laser-matter interactions are discussed. The lasers operating from UV to mid-IR spectral region are as follows: e-beam pumped KrF laser (λ= 0.248 μm) with output energy 100 J; e-beam sustained discharge CO2(10.6 μm) and fundamental band CO (5-6 μm) lasers with output energy up to ~1 kJ; overtone CO laser (2.5-4.2 μm) with output energy ~ 50 J and N2O laser (10.9 μm) with output energy of 100 J; optically pumped NH3 laser (11-14 μm). Special attention is paid to an e-beam sustained discharge Ar-Xe laser (1.73 μm ~ 100 J) as a potential candidate for a laser-propulsion facility. The high energy laser facilities are used for interaction of laser radiation with polymer materials, metals, graphite, rocks, etc.

  15. Energy efficient ammonia heat pump. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, Claus; Pijnenburg, B.; Schumann Grindorf, H. [Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus (Denmark); Christensen, Rolf [Alfa Laval, Lund (Sweden); Rasmussen, Bjarne D. [Grundfos, Bjerringbro (Denmark); Gram, S.; Fredborg Jakobsen, D. [Svedan Industri Koeleanlaeg, Greve (Denmark)

    2013-09-15

    The report describes the development of a highly effective ammonia heat pump. Heat pumps play an increasingly important role in the search for more effective use of energy in our society. Highly efficient heat pumps can contribute to reduced energy consumption and improved economy of the systems which they are a part of. An ammonia heat pump with high pressure reciprocating compressor and a novel split condenser was developed to prove potential for efficiency optimization. The split of the condenser in two parts can be utilized to obtain smaller temperature approaches and, thereby, improved heat pump efficiency at an equal heat exchanger area, when compared to the traditional solution with separate condenser and de-superheater. The split condenser design can also be exploited for heating a significant share of the total heating capacity to a temperature far above the condensing temperature. Furthermore, the prototype heat pump was equipped with a plate type evaporator combined with a U-turn separator with a minimum liquid height and a liquid pump with the purpose of creating optimum liquid circulation ratio for the highest possible heat transfer coefficients at the lowest possible pressure drop. The test results successfully confirmed the highest possible efficiency; a COP of 4.3 was obtained when heating water from 40 deg. C to 80 deg. C while operating with evaporating/condensing temperatures of +20 deg C/+73 deg C. (Author)

  16. New and future heat pump technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswick, F. A.

    It is not possible to say for sure what future heat pumps will look like, but there are some interesting possibilities. In the next five years, we are likely to see US heat pumps with two kinds of innovations: capacity modulation and charge control. Capacity modulation will be accomplished by variable-speed compressor motors. The objective of charge control is to keep the refrigerant charge in the system where it belongs for best performance; there are probably many ways to accomplish this. Charge control will improve efficiency and durability; capacity modulation will further improve efficiency and comfort. The Stirling cycle heat pump has several interesting advantages, but it is farther out in time. At present, we don't know how to make it as efficient as the conventional vapor-compression heat pump. Electric utility people should be aware that major advances are being made in gas-fired heat pumps which could provide strong competition in the future. However, even a gas-fired heat pump has a substantial auxiliary electric power requirement. The resources needed to develop advanced heat pumps are substantial and foreign competition will be intense. It will be important for utilities, manufacturers, and the federal government to work in close cooperation.

  17. Dielectric elastomer pump for artificial organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Amy E.; Rossiter, Jonathan M.; Walters, Peter J.; Ieropoulos, Ioannis A.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents a bio-inspired, dielectric elastomer (DE) based tubular pumping unit, developed for eventual use as a component of an artificial digestive tract onboard a microbial fuel cell powered robot (EcoBot). The pump effects fluid displacement by direct actuation of the tube wall as opposed to excitation by an external body. The actuator consists of a DE tube moulded from silicone, held in a negative pressure chamber, which is used for prestraining the tube. The pump is coupled with custom designed polymeric check valves in order to rectify the fluid flow and assess the performance of the unit. The valves exhibited the necessary low opening pressures required for use with the actuator. The tube's actuation characteristics were measured both with and without liquid in the system. Based on these data the optimal operating conditions for the pump are discussed. The pump and valve system has achieved flowrates in excess of 40μl/s. This radially contracting/expanding actuator element is the fundamental component of a peristaltic pump. This 'soft pump' concept is suitable for biomimetic robotic systems, or for the medical or food industries where hard contact with the delivered substrate may be undesirable. Future work will look at connecting multiple tubes in series in order to achieve peristalsis.

  18. Metabolomic profiling in patients undergoing Off-Pump or On-Pump coronary artery bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirov, H; Schwarzer, M; Neugebauer, S; Faerber, G; Diab, M; Doenst, T

    2017-04-05

    Coronary artery bypass surgery can be performed without (Off-Pump) or with cardiopulmonary bypass (On-Pump). Extracorporeal circulation and cardioplegic arrest may cause alterations in the plasma metabolome. We assessed metabolomic changes in patients undergoing On-Pump or Off-Pump coronary artery bypass surgery. We assessed five analyte classes (41 acylcarnitines, 14 amino acids, 92 glycerophospholipids, 15 sphingolipids, sugars, lactate) using a mass-spectrometry-based kit (Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ® p150) in paired arterial and coronary sinus blood obtained from 10 consecutive On-Pump and 10 Off-Pump patients. Cardioplegia for On-Pump was warm blood Calafiore. On-Pump outcomes were corrected for hemodilution through crystalloid priming. Demographic data were equal in both groups with normal ejection fraction, renal and liver function. Patients received 2.25 ± 0.64 bypass grafts. All postoperative courses were uneventful. Of 164 measured metabolites, only 13 (7.9%) were altered by cardiopulmonary bypass. We found more long-chain acylcarnitines Off-Pump and more short-chain acylcarnitines On-Pump. Glycerophospholipids showed lower concentrations On-Pump and arginine (as the only different amino acid) Off-Pump. Interestingly, plasma arginine (nitric oxide precursor) concentration at the end of surgery correlated inversely with postoperative vasopressor need (r = -0.7; p Pump surgery. Cardiopulmonary bypass and warm blood cardioplegia cause only minor changes to the metabolomic profile of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. The observed changes affected mainly acylcarnitines. In addition, there appears to be a relationship between arginine and vasopressor need after bypass surgery.

  19. Unitary water-to-air heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-10-01

    Performance and cost functions for nine unitary water-to-air heat pumps ranging in nominal size from /sup 1///sub 2/ to 26 tons are presented in mathematical form for easy use in heat pump computer simulations. COPs at nominal water source temperature of 60/sup 0/F range from 2.5 to 3.4 during the heating cycle; during the cooling cycle EERs range from 8.33 to 9.09 with 85/sup 0/F entering water source temperatures. The COP and EER values do not include water source pumping power or any energy requirements associated with a central heat source and heat rejection equipment.

  20. Vibration of safety injection pump motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wattrelos, D.

    1996-12-01

    This paper covers a fault encountered in the safety injection pump motors of the French 900 MWe unit nuclear power stations. This fault was not revealed either during the low pressure safety injection and containment spray system pump qualification tests under accident conditions or during the special tests on a test bench carried out to attempt to replicate the fault and to identify ways of remedying it. This constitutes a potential common mode of failure of the safety injection system and the containment spray system pumps. The vibration phenomena illustrate the importance of carrying out tests in the plants under conditions as close as possible to those of actual accident situations.

  1. Numerical routine for magnetic heat pump cascading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filonenko, Konstantin; Lei, Tian; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    Heat pumps use low-temperature heat absorbed from the energy source to create temperature gradient (TG) across the energy sink. Magnetic heat pumps (MHP) can perform this function through operating active magnetic regeneration (AMR) cycle. For building heating, TGs of up to a few K might...... and 3 K. Changing the number of MHPs, we optimized input parameters to achieve maximum heating powers. We have found that both maximum heating power and COP decrease together with number of heat pumps, but the TGs and the temperature span can be largely increased. References [1] M. Tahavori et al., “A...

  2. Proton pump inhibitors inhibit pancreatic secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jing; Barbuskaite, Dagne; Tozzi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    +/K+-ATPases are expressed and functional in human pancreatic ducts and whether proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have effect on those. Here we show that the gastric HKα1 and HKβ subunits (ATP4A; ATP4B) and non-gastric HKα2 subunits (ATP12A) of H+/K+-ATPases are expressed in human pancreatic cells. Pumps have similar...... localizations in duct cell monolayers (Capan-1) and human pancreas, and notably the gastric pumps are localized on the luminal membranes. In Capan-1 cells, PPIs inhibited recovery of intracellular pH from acidosis. Furthermore, in rats treated with PPIs, pancreatic secretion was inhibited but concentrations...

  3. Pump Damage in the Hanshin Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Osada

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available There was a severe earthquake in the southern area ofHyogo prefecture in Japan on January 17, 1995. In this paper the damage to pump facilities caused by the earthquake, based on field investigation results in the Hanshin (Osaka–Kobe area is reported. In particular a lot of damage was reported in the pumping facilities for sewage or drainage of storm sewage. This paper also presents recommendations for aseismic design of pump facilities based on the results of the survey.

  4. Continuous-flow pump model study: the effect on pump performance of pump characteristics and cardiovascular conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Gianfranco; Kozarski, Maciej; Fresiello, Libera; Di Molfetta, Arianna; Zieliński, Krzysztof; Górczyńska, Krystyna; Pałko, Krzysztof J; Darowski, Marek

    2013-06-01

    This model study evaluates the effect of pump characteristics and cardiovascular data on hemodynamics in atrio-aortic VAD assistance. The model includes a computational circulatory sub-model and an electrical sub-model representing two rotary blood pumps through their pressure-flow characteristics. The first is close to a pressure generator-PG (average flow sensitivity to pressure variations, -0.047 l mmHg(-1)); the second is closer to a flow generator-FG (average flow sensitivity to pressure variations, -0.0097 l mmHg(-1)). Interaction with VAD was achieved by means of two interfaces, behaving as impedance transformers. The model was verified by use of literature data and VAD onset conditions were used as a control for the experiments. Tests compared the two pumps, at constant pump speed, in different ventricular and circulatory conditions: maximum ventricular elastance (0.44-0.9 mmHg cm(-3)), systemic peripheral resistance (781-1200 g cm(-4) s(-1)), ventricular diastolic compliance C p (5-10-50 cm(3) mmHg(-1)), systemic arterial compliance (0.9-1.8 cm(3) mmHg(-1)). Analyzed variables were: arterial and venous pressures, flows, ventricular volume, external work, and surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE). The PG pump generated the highest SHE under almost all conditions, in particular for higher C p (+50 %). PG pump flow is also the most sensitive to E max and C p changes (-26 and -33 %, respectively). The FG pump generally guarantees higher external work reduction (54 %) and flow less dependent on circulatory and ventricular conditions. The results are evidence of the importance of pump speed regulation with changing ventricular conditions. The computational sub-model will be part of a hydro-numerical model, including autonomic controls, designed to test different VADs.

  5. Self-Pumping Active Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kun-Ta; Hishamunda, Jean Bernard; Fraden, Seth; Dogic, Zvonimir

    Isotropic active gels are the network which is consist of cross-linked building blocks and the structure of which changes randomly and isotropically with time. Dogic et. al. show that pairs of anti-parallel microtubules form extensile bundles, which merge, extend, and buckle. In an unconfined system, the dynamics of these bundles causes spontaneous turbulent-like flow driven by motion of microscopic molecular motors. We found that confining these active gels in a millimeter sized toroids causes a transition into a new dynamical state characterized by circulation currents persisting for hours until ATP is depleted. We show how toroid dimensions impact the properties of self-organized circular currents, how directions of circulation can be designed by engineering ratchet-shaped boundaries, and how circulations of connected toroids can be either synchronized or antisynchronized. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the flow rate in the circulation is independent of curvature and length of flow path. The flow rate persists for centimeters without decay, disregarding conventional pipe flow resistance. Such findings pave the path to self-pumping pipe transport and performing physical work with biological system.

  6. Discharge-pumped XUV source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jiri; Kolacek, Karel; Straus, Jaroslav; Frolov, Oleksandr

    2016-09-01

    We have built two experimental devices (CAPEX and CAPEX-U) working as XUV sources, which are based on the fast, pinching capillary discharge. On both these devices we have observed lasing at 46.9 nm (Ne-like Ar line). However, besides lasing at the above mentioned relatively long wavelength, they are also used for testing a possibility of amplification at the wavelengths below 20 nm that have more practical applications. Particularly, at present nitrogen-filled capillary (?4 mm x 90 mm) discharge is studied for the development of XUV (soft X-ray) laser based on recombination pumping scheme: the fully stripped nitrogen nuclei recombine to hydrogen-like atoms, where Balmer-alpha transition (wavelength 13.4 nm) is - according to theoretical predictions - capable of creating population inversion. The modified electrical parameters (peak current 60 kA with quarter period of 45 ns) meet the necessary theoretical conditions. The only question remains, if suitable pre-pulse can suppress the capillary-wall-ablation, which in all presently known cases has quashed the amplification. In this paper the recent results obtained from both these discharge systems (argon-, nitrogen-filled capillaries) will be presented. Acknowledgement: This work was performed under auspices and with the support of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (Contract 14-29772S) and of the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic (INGO contract LG15013).

  7. Solid state radiative heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1986-01-01

    A solid state radiative heat pump (10, 50, 70) operable at room temperature (300.degree. K.) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of charge carriers as compared to thermal equilibrium. In one form of the invention (10, 70) an infrared semiconductor photodiode (21, 71) is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention (50), a homogeneous semiconductor (51) is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation through the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-reflection layer (19) is coated into the active surface (13) of the semiconductor (11), the anti-reflection layer (19) having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor (11). In the second method, a passive layer (75) is spaced from the active surface (73) of the semiconductor (71) by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler (91) with a paraboloid reflecting surface (92) is in contact with the active surface (13, 53) of the semiconductor (11, 51), the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  8. Staged regenerative sorption heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system for cooling and heating a space. A sorbent is confined in a plurality of compressors of which at least four are first stage and at least four are second stage. The first stage operates over a first pressure region and the second stage over a second pressure region which is higher than the first. Sorbate from the first stage enters the second stage. The sorbate loop includes a condenser, expansion valve, evaporator and the compressors. A single sorbate loop can be employed for single-temperature-control such as air conditioning and heating. Two sorbate loops can be used for two-temperature-control as in a refrigerator and freezer. The evaporator temperatures control the freezer and refrigerator temperatures. Alternatively the refrigerator temperature can be cooled by the freezer with one sorbate loop. A heat transfer fluid is circulated in a closed loop which includes a radiator and the compressors. Low temperature heat is exhausted by the radiator. High temperature heat is added to the heat transfer fluid entering the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Heat is transferred from compressors which are sorbing vapor to the heat transfer fluid, and from the heat transfer fluid to the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Each compressor is subjected to the following phases, heating to its highest temperature, cooling down from its highest temperature, cooling to its lowest temperature, and warming up from its lowest temperature. The phases are repeated to complete a cycle and regenerate heat.

  9. Diode-laser-pump module with integrated signal ports for pumping amplifying fibers and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage-Leuchs,; Matthias, P [Woodinville, WA

    2009-05-26

    Apparatus and method for collimating pump light of a first wavelength from laser diode(s) into a collimated beam within an enclosure having first and second optical ports, directing pump light from the collimated beam to the first port; and directing signal light inside the enclosure between the first and second port. The signal and pump wavelengths are different. The enclosure provides a pump block having a first port that emits pump light to a gain fiber outside the enclosure and that also passes signal light either into or out of the enclosure, and another port that passes signal light either out of or into the enclosure. Some embodiments use a dichroic mirror to direct pump light to the first port and direct signal light between the first and second ports. Some embodiments include a wavelength-conversion device to change the wavelength of at least some of the signal light.

  10. ENERGY STAR Certified Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Geothermal Heat Pumps that are effective as of...

  11. High Pressure Pumps for Rocket Motors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barske, U. M

    1950-01-01

    .... A simplified type of open impeller centrifugal pump which has been operated successfully in some short and medium range rockets is recommended as the most suitable type at the present state of development...

  12. Hot Topics! Heat Pumps and Geothermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The recent rapid rises in the cost of energy has significantly increased interest in alternative energy sources. The author discusses the underlying principles of heat pumps and geothermal energy. Related activities for technology education students are included.

  13. Heat pumps in district heating networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian

    constraints limit the power plants. Efficient heat pumps can be used to decouple the constraints of electricity and heat production, while maintaining the high energy efficiency needed to match the politically agreed carbon emission goals. The requirements in terms of COP, location, capacity and economy...... are calculated using an energy system model which includes power plants, heat pumps and district heating consumption profiles. The model is developed with focus on accurate representation of the performance of the units in different locations and operating modes. The model can assist in investment decisions...... and strategic planning in the energy sector. The paper presents a case study of optimal implementation of heat pumps in the present energy system of the Copenhagen area. By introduction of the correct capacity of heat pumps, a 1,6 % reduction in fuel consumption for electricity and heat production can...

  14. Fasting in Ramadan with an insulin pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavadev, Jothydev

    2015-05-01

    A good majority of subjects with diabetes on insulin therapies observe fasting during Ramadan. The challenge for the physician and the patient is to manage diabetes without an interruption to fasting by avoiding hypoglycaemia and simultaneously ensuring that blood glucose remain at acceptable safe levels. Insulin Pumps differ from syringes and insulin pens in that it offers a variable basal rate, different type of boluses and associated calculators. The technological advances that pumps offer, help educated subjects pre-programme a reduced basal rate throughout the day. Pumps ensure avoidance of hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia and preserve quality of life and enhance confidence in patients during fasting. Due to multiple benefits, insulin pumps are considered the best delivery systems for insulin during the holy month of Ramadan, despite the prerequisites for its optimal output and cost concerns.

  15. Head pulsations in a centrifugal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiko, V. S.; Sotnyk, M. I.; Moskalenko, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    This article investigated the factors, which affect to the character of the head pulsations of a centrifugal pump. We investigated the dependence of the shape and depth of these pulsations from the operation mode of the pump. Was determined, that the head pulsations at the outlet of the impeller (pulsations on the blade passing frequency) cause head pulsations at the outlet of the pump, that have the same frequency, but differ in shape and depth. These pulsations depend on the design features of the flow-through part of the pump (from the ratio of hydraulic losses on the friction and losses on the vortex formation). A feature of the researches that were conducted is also the using of not only hydraulic but also electric modeling methods. It allows determining the values of the components of hydraulic losses.

  16. Submersible pumping system with heat transfer mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Daniel Francis Alan; Prenger, F. Coyne; Hill, Dallas D; Jankowski, Todd Andrew

    2014-04-15

    A submersible pumping system for downhole use in extracting fluids containing hydrocarbons from a well. In one embodiment, the pumping system comprises a rotary induction motor, a motor casing, one or more pump stages, and a cooling system. The rotary induction motor rotates a shaft about a longitudinal axis of rotation. The motor casing houses the rotary induction motor such that the rotary induction motor is held in fluid isolation from the fluid being extracted. The pump stages are attached to the shaft outside of the motor casing, and are configured to impart fluid being extracted from the well with an increased pressure. The cooling system is disposed at least partially within the motor casing, and transfers heat generated by operation of the rotary induction motor out of the motor casing.

  17. Intracavity interferometry using synchronously pumped OPO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadilová, Alena; Vyhlídal, David; Kubeček, Václav; Šulc, Jan; Navrátil, Petr

    2016-12-01

    The concept of system for intracavity interferometry based on the beat note detection in subharmonic synchronously intracavity pumped optical parametrical oscillator (OPO) is presented. The system consisted of SESAM-modelocked, picosecond, diode pumped Nd:YVO4 laser, operating at wavelength 1.06 μm and tunable linear intracavity pumped OPO based on MgO:PPLN crystal, widely tunable in 1.5 μm able to deliver two independent trains of picosecond pulses. The optical length of the OPO cavity was set to be exactly twice the pumping cavity length. In this configuration the OPO produces signal pulses with the same repetition frequency as the pump laser but the signal consists of two completely independent pulse trains. For purpose of pump probe measurements the setup signal with half repetition rate and scalable amplitude was derived from the OPO signal using RF signal divider, electropotical modulator and fiber amplifier. The impact of one pump beam on the sample is detected by one probing OPO train, the other OPO train is used as a reference. The beat note measured using the intracavity interferometer is proportional to phase modulation caused by the pump beam. The bandwidth of observed beat-note was less than 1 Hz (FWHM), it corresponds to a phase shift measurement error of less than 1.5 × 10-7 rad without any active stabilization. Such compact low-cost system could be used for ultra-sensitive phase-difference measurements (e.g. nonlinear refractive index measurement) for wide range of material especially in spectral range important for telecom applications.

  18. Small, submersible, centrifugal pump for liquid nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rustad, B.M.; Nielsen, A.; Passell, L.

    1965-01-01

    Full details are given of a pump designed to circulate several liters/min. It can be evacuated before use to exclude oxygen and may be used at pressures of several atmospheres.......Full details are given of a pump designed to circulate several liters/min. It can be evacuated before use to exclude oxygen and may be used at pressures of several atmospheres....

  19. A comparison of pumping speed measurement methods

    CERN Document Server

    Denison, D R

    1974-01-01

    A comparison of pumping speed measurement method was made using three types of apparatus. These were: (i) the Fischer-Mommsen system, developed at CERN in which the gas flow rate is measured by the pressure drop across an orifice of known conductance at the test vessel inlet and the pressure gauge is arrayed to serve as a molecular flux transducer, (ii) the three gauge system used by some pump manufacturers in which the gas flow rate is determined by measuring the pressure drop across a long tube whose conductance is calculated from its dimensions and (iii) the constant pressure/pipette system in which the time is measured to evacuate a known quantity of gas. A sputter-ion pump with Ti and Ta cathodes and 32 Penning cells was used as the test pump. The Fischer and Mommsen and pipette procedures gave good agreement for the pumping speeds of N/sub 2/ (within 1%) but allowance had to be made for mass discrimination in the gas flow through an orifice when air was pumped. The three gauge method consistently gave a...

  20. Vertical pump turbine oil environmental evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culver, G.

    1991-04-01

    In Oregon low-temperature geothermal injection well construction, siting and receiving formations requires approval by the Water Resources Department (OWRD). In addition, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (ODEQ) has regulations concerning injection. Conversations with the OWRD and ODEQ representatives indicated they were very concerned about the potential for contamination of the geothermal (and cooler but hydraulically connected) aquifers by oils and grease. Their primary concern was over the practice of putting paraffin, motor oils and other hydrocarbons in downhole heat exchanger (DHE) wells to prevent corrosion. They also expressed considerable concern about the use of oil in production well pumps since the fluids pumped would be injected. Oregon (and Idaho) prohibit the use of oil-lubricated pumps for public water supplies except in certain situations where non-toxic food-grade lubricants are used. Since enclosed-lineshaft oil-lubricated pumps are the mainstay of direct-use pumping equipment, the potential for restricting their use became a concern to the Geo-Heat Center staff. An investigation into alternative pump lubrication schemes and development of rebuttals to potential restrictions was proposed and approved as a contract task. (SM)

  1. Livestock water pumping with wind and solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent developments in pumping technologies have allowed for efficient use of renewable energies like wind and solar to power new pumps for remote water pumping. A helical type, positive displacement pump was developed a few years ago and recently modified to accept input from a variable power sourc...

  2. Routine sensor-augmented pump therapy in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Kirsten; Scaramuzza, Andrea; Bratina, Natasa

    2013-01-01

    Sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy can improve glycemic control, compared with multiple daily insulin injections or with insulin pump therapy alone, without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia.......Sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy can improve glycemic control, compared with multiple daily insulin injections or with insulin pump therapy alone, without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia....

  3. Pulsed pump: Thermal effects in solid state lasers under super ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 67; Issue 6. Pulsed ... Pulse pump; thermal effects; thermal lensing; phase shift; diode-pumped solid state laser; super-Gaussian pump profile. Abstract. Solid state laser (SSL) powers can be realistically scaled when pumped by a real, efficient and multimode pulse.

  4. Wind pump system FC 4000 measurement on a model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisko, J.

    1993-02-01

    Small electrical wind pump systems in developing countries, and in general, are described in addition to the wind pump system designated FC 4000. The latter system supports pump heads from 50 to 8 m in a frequency range of 43 - to 17 Hz. The results of measurements taken on the FC 4000 pump system are presented graphically. (AB)

  5. 21 CFR 870.4380 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control is a... control the speed of blood pumps used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. (b) Classification. Class II...

  6. DESIGN RULE FOR PUMPING DEVICES IN A LOOP POLYMERIZATION REACTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOZARYN, W; JANSSEN, LPBM; VANDIERENDONCK, LL

    The mutual influence on the pumping capacity of independently driven pumping-stirring devices in a polymerization loop reactor is presented. A simple method for the calculation of the minimum rotational speed for an axial pumping stirrer in relation to the pumping action of a helical ribbon is

  7. 46 CFR 64.89 - Cargo pump unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pump unit. 64.89 Section 64.89 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.89 Cargo pump unit. (a) A cargo pump unit that fills or...) The cargo pump power unit must be— (1) Diesel; (2) Hydraulic; (3) Pneumatic; or (4) Electric. (c) The...

  8. Development (design and systematization) of HMS Group pump ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tverdokhleb, I.; Yamburenko, V.

    2017-08-01

    The article reveals the need for pump range charts development for different applications and describes main principles used by HMS Group. Some modern approaches to pump selection are reviewed and highlighted the need for pump compliance with international standards and modern customer requirements. Even though pump design types are similar for different applications they need adjustment to specific requirements, which gets manufacturers develop their particular design for each pump range. Having wide pump ranges for different applications enables to create pump selection software, facilitating manufacturers to prepare high quality quotations in shortest time.

  9. Investigation of the structural properties of annealed CdIn2Te4/CdS thin film solar cells produced by the electron-beam evaporation (e-beam) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kırbaş, İbrahim; Karabacak, Rasim

    2017-10-01

    Thin film CdIn2Te4/CdS solar cells were deposited onto the ITO-coated glass substrate by electron beam evaporation (e-beam) technique, and the the effect of annealing on their structural properties is studied. The annealing was performed under nitrogen atmosphere for 1 h. The manufactured solar cells were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis. Crystallite size (D), inter-planer distance (d) and lattice constant (a) values were calculated for the thin film solar cell from XRD data. Annealed samples display well defined XRD patterns with three diffraction peaks. We observed increased peak intensity in the annealed films. EDAX analysis showed that only CdIn2Te4 is present in absorber layer and CdS is found in the window layer, but no impurity atoms are present the structure. It is observed that surface roughness of the annealed films incresed, according to SEM images. The I-V characteristics show that the current is increased for annealed thin films solar cells.

  10. Theory of one-element pumps for propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J.

    1974-01-01

    A basic theory for one-element propulsion pumps is developed. A limit to the obtainable efficiency is established and relationships among pump-performance parameters that result in the greatest efficiency are indicated. It is shown that the peripheral velocity of the pump is directly related to ship speed and some relationships between performance parameters and pump geometry are developed. Mathematical models of pump performance are included.

  11. Alignment and operability analysis of a vertical sodium pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, V.K.; Fair, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    With the objective of identifying important alignment features of pumps such as FFTF, HALLAM, EBR II, PNC, PHENIX, and CRBR, alignment of the vertical sodium pump for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) is investigated. The CRBRP pump includes a flexibly coupled pump shaft and motor shaft, two oil-film tilting-pad hydrodynamic radial bearings in the motor plus a vertical thrust bearing, and two sodium hydrostatic bearings straddling the double-suction centrifugal impeller in the pump.

  12. VENTRICLE ASSIST DEVICE: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE NONPULSATILE PUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Р. Itkin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly describes the history of the non-pulsating type blood pumps for ventricular assist circulation and heart-lung machine. Disclosed the main advantages of these pumps before pulsating type, especially for implantable systems development. However, disadvantages of these pumps and the directions of minimize or eliminate ones have shown. Specific examples of our implantable centrifugal and axial pump developments are presented. Declare the ways to further improve the pumps

  13. Noise and transmission performance improvement of broadband distributed Raman amplifier using bidirectional Raman pumping with dual order co-pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M A; Tan, M; Krzczanowicz, L; El-Taher, A E; Forysiak, W; Ania-Castañón, J D; Harper, P

    2017-10-30

    We demonstrate a low noise bidirectional broadband distributed Raman pumping scheme combining dual order co-propagated pumps without increasing the signal RIN level. The noise performance improvement is compared experimentally and numerically with conventional counter-pumping only and bidirectional pumping with only a 2nd order co-pump for a 70nm bandwidth and 61.5km distributed Raman amplifier. The proposed broadband pumping scheme shows 1.2dB maximum noise figure improvement and extends the long-haul transmission reach up to 6150km with a Q-factor improvement of ~0.7dB compared with counter-pumping only scheme.

  14. Patch pump versus conventional pump: postprandial glycemic excursions and the influence of wear time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijf, Yoeri M.; Arnolds, Sabine; Avogaro, Angelo; Benesch, Carsten; Bruttomesso, Daniela; Farret, Anne; Heinemann, Lutz; Place, Jerome; Renard, Eric; Scotton, Rachele; DeVries, J. Hans

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare blood glucose and plasma insulin profiles after bolus insulin infusion by a patch pump (PP) versus a conventional pump (CP), directly after placement and after Day 3 of use. Twenty patients with type 1 diabetes came in for two blocks of visits: one block of two

  15. Broadly Turnable Pump-Resonant Diode-Pumped CW PPLN OPO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alford, W.J.; Bowers, Mark S.; Raymond, T.D.; Seamans, J.F.

    1999-04-29

    We have observed low threshold operation of a broadly tunable (2.18-3.4 µm) pump-resonant cw periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) optical parametric oscillator (OPO). When pumped at 806 nm with 410 mW from a custom-built diode laser the OPO generated 20 mW of idler output at 3.3 µm.

  16. Unsteady Flow Analysis of Pump Mode Small Discharge Condition for a Francis Pump-turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoran, ZHAO; Yexiang, XIAO; Jincai, XU; Wei, XU; Jianbo, SUN; Zhengwei, WANG; Yangyang, YAO

    2016-11-01

    Unsteady flow phenomena, including vortex flow at runner inlet, helical backflow in the draft tube and numerous vortexes inside the guide vanes, can occur in pump-turbines under off design conditions at pump mode and can impact normal operation of pump-turbines. All of these phenomena cause serious pressure pulsation, which is quite different from cases in normal pump mode. There is also a difference of pressure pulsation frequency and amplitude in different place through the runner. This paper builds a whole flow passage of a model pump-turbine, simulates flow characteristics in runner by CFD technology, analyses pressure pulsation in the runner and explores the origin and mechanism of pressure pulsations. The SST-CC turbulence model is adopted to perform unsteady simulations of the pump-turbine under 0.46Q BEP small discharge condition at pump mode. Unsteady flow structures are proceeded combined with hydraulic loss and pressure amplitude spectra. The results indicates that there is complicated disordered flow inside the runner under 0.46Q BEP small discharge condition at pump mode, shows the amplitude and frequency characteristic of pressure pulsations through runner flow passage.

  17. Risk Factors of On-Pump Conversion during Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sung Sil; Bang, Jung Hee; Jeong, Sang Seok; Jeong, Jae Hwa; Woo, Jong Soo

    2017-10-01

    Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG) procedures can avoid the complications of an on-pump bypass. However, some cases unexpectedly require conversion to cardiopulmonary bypass during OPCABG. The risk factors associated with a sudden need for cardiopulmonary bypass were analyzed. This retrospective study included 283 subjects scheduled for OPCABG from 2001 to 2010. These were divided into an OPCABG group and an on-pump conversion group. Preoperative, operative, and postoperative variables were compared between the 2 groups. Of the 283 patients scheduled for OPCABG, 47 (16%) were switched to on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The mortality of the both the OPCABG and on-pump conversion groups was not significantly different. The major risk factors for conversion to on-pump CABG were congestive heart failure (CHF) (odds ratio [OR], 3.5; p=0.029), ejection fraction (EF) pump conversion, while preoperative BB administration could help prevent conversions from OPCABG to on-pump CABG.

  18. Magnetocaloric heat pump device, a heating or cooling system and a magnetocaloric heat pump assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides a magnetocaloric heat pump device, comprising a magnetocaloric bed; a magnetic field source, the magnetocaloric bed and the magnetic field source being arranged to move relative to each other so as to generate a magnetocaloric refrigeration cycle within the heat pump, wherein...

  19. Off-pump coronary revascularization attenuates transient renal damage compared with on-pump coronary revascularization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loef, BG; Epema, AH; Navis, G; Ebels, T; van Oeveren, W; Henning, RH

    Study objectives: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) represents a specific risk factor for renal damage during coronary, revascularization. The purpose of this study, was to compare the perioperative renal damage in patients undergoing on-pump and off-pump Coronary, surgery.. Design and patients: The

  20. Technical and Economic Working Domains of Industrial Heat Pumps: Part 1 - Vapour Compression Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2014-01-01

    the constraints of available refrigeration equipment and a requirement of a positive Net Present Value of the investment. The considered sink outlet temperature range is from 40 °C to 140 °C, but for the heat pumps considered in this paper, the upper limit is 100 °C. Five heat pumps are studied. For each set...

  1. Five-Year Outcomes after On-Pump and Off-Pump Coronary-Artery Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroyer, A Laurie; Hattler, Brack; Wagner, Todd H; Collins, Joseph F; Baltz, Janet H; Quin, Jacquelyn A; Almassi, G Hossein; Kozora, Elizabeth; Bakaeen, Faisal; Cleveland, Joseph C; Bishawi, Muath; Grover, Frederick L

    2017-08-17

    Coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery may be performed either with cardiopulmonary bypass (on pump) or without cardiopulmonary bypass (off pump). We report the 5-year clinical outcomes in patients who had been included in the Veterans Affairs trial of on-pump versus off-pump CABG. From February 2002 through June 2007, we randomly assigned 2203 patients at 18 medical centers to undergo either on-pump or off-pump CABG, with 1-year assessments completed by May 2008. The two primary 5-year outcomes were death from any cause and a composite outcome of major adverse cardiovascular events, defined as death from any cause, repeat revascularization (CABG or percutaneous coronary intervention), or nonfatal myocardial infarction. Secondary 5-year outcomes included death from cardiac causes, repeat revascularization, and nonfatal myocardial infarction. Primary outcomes were assessed at a P value of 0.05 or less, and secondary outcomes at a P value of 0.01 or less. The rate of death at 5 years was 15.2% in the off-pump group versus 11.9% in the on-pump group (relative risk, 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 1.58; P=0.02). The rate of major adverse cardiovascular events at 5 years was 31.0% in the off-pump group versus 27.1% in the on-pump group (relative risk, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.30; P=0.046). For the 5-year secondary outcomes, no significant differences were observed: for nonfatal myocardial infarction, the rate was 12.1% in the off-pump group and 9.6% in the on-pump group (P=0.05); for death from cardiac causes, the rate was 6.3% and 5.3%, respectively (P=0.29); for repeat revascularization, the rate was 13.1% and 11.9%, respectively (P=0.39); and for repeat CABG, the rate was 1.4% and 0.5%, respectively (P=0.02). In this randomized trial, off-pump CABG led to lower rates of 5-year survival and event-free survival than on-pump CABG. (Funded by the Department of Veterans Affairs Office of Research and Development Cooperative Studies Program and others

  2. Darrieus wind-turbine and pump performance for low-lift irrigation pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, L. J.; Sharif, M.

    1981-10-01

    In the Great Plains about 15 percent of the irrigation water pumped on farms comes from surface water sources; for the United States as a whole, the figure is about 22 percent. Because of forecast fuel shortages, there is a need to develop alternative energy sources such as wind power for surface water pumping. Specific objectives of this investigation were to: design and assemble a prototype wind powered pumping system for low lift irrigation pumping; determine performance of the prototype system; design and test an irrigation system using the wind powered prototype in a design and test an farm application; and determine the size combinations of wind turbines, tailwater pits, and temporary storage reservoirs needed for successful farm application of wind powered tailwater pumping systems in western Kansas. The power source selected was a two bladed, 6 m diameter, 9 m tall Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine with 0.10 solidity and 36.1 M(2) swept area.

  3. Using Variable Speed Control on Pump Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Aida Spahiu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pumps are one of the most common variable speed drive (VSD system applications and special interest has focused on improving their energy efficiency by using variable speed control instead of throttling or other less efficient flow control methods. Pumps are the single largest user of electricity in industry in the European Union, consuming 160 TWh per annum of electricity and accounting for 79 million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions [1]. Centrifugal pumps are the most likely pump style to provide a favorable return based on energy savings when applied with a variable speed drive. To help illustrate this, are conducted benchmark testing to document various head and flow scenarios and their corresponding effect on energy savings. Paper shows the relationship of static and friction head in the energy efficiency equation and the effect of motor, pump and VSD efficiencies. The received results are good reference points for engineers and managers of water sector in Albania to select the best prospects for maximizing efficiency and energy savings.

  4. Steam by-pass reciprocating rod pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterhouse, B. [Weatherford, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This article presented the design details of Weatherford's steam by-pass reciprocating rod rod pump which was designed to work under specific well conditions and individual applications, including Imperial Oil's Cold Lake bitumen recovery project located 230 km northeast of Edmonton, Alberta. Imperial Oil uses a cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) process to enhance bitumen recovery from the Clearwater oil sand reservoir. A typical wellbore reach can be up to 700 m and 80 degrees deviation at a target depth of 455 m TVD. These long well bore reaches along with high bottomhole angles and high produced fluid viscosities complicate the design of the artificial lift, which is essentially a modified conventional API pump. The hold-down section is a friction ring design incorporating stainless steel friction rings to provide positive holding force. The steam by-pass coupling is a reduced-diameter tube fitting between the API pump and the friction ring hold-down section. Three stages of the Imperial Cold Lake operation were described, namely the steam injection stage, soak phase stage and production stage. Typically, the steam by-pass pump is suspended in the tubing for the entire cycle. This presentation reviewed the operating steps of the pump, whose average run time in the field is about 15 months, depending on the potential for scaling or sand influx. tab., figs.

  5. Solar-powered turbocompressor heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landerman, A.M.; Biancardi, F.R.; Melikian, G.; Meader, M.D.; Kepler, C.E.; Anderson, T.J.; Sitler, J.W.

    1982-08-12

    The turbocompressor comprises a power turbine and a compressor turbine having respective rotors and on a common shaft, rotatably supported by bearings. A first working fluid is supplied by a power loop and is expanded in the turbine. A second working fluid is compressed in the turbine and is circulated in a heat pump loop. A lubricant is mixed with the second working fluid but is excluded from the first working fluid. The bearings are cooled and lubricated by a system which circulates the second working fluid and the intermixed lubricant through the bearings. Such system includes a pump, a thermostatic expansion valve for expanding the working fluid into the space between the bearings, and a return conduit system for withdrawing the expanded working fluid after it passes through the bearings and for returning the working fluid to the evaporator. A shaft seal excludes the lubricant from the power turbine. The power loop includes a float operable by liquid working fluid in the condenser for controlling a recirculation valve so as to maintain a minimum liquid level in the condenser, while causing a feed pump to pump most of the working fluid into the vapor generator. The heat pump compressor loop includes a float in the condenser for operating and expansion valve to maintain a minimum liquid working fluid level in the condenser while causing most of the working fluid to be expanded into the evaporator.

  6. Sodium pump regulation of locomotor control circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picton, Laurence D; Zhang, HongYan; Sillar, Keith T

    2017-08-01

    Sodium pumps are ubiquitously expressed membrane proteins that extrude three Na(+) ions in exchange for two K(+) ions, using ATP as an energy source. Recent studies have illuminated additional, dynamic roles for sodium pumps in regulating the excitability of neuronal networks in an activity-dependent fashion. We review their role in a novel form of short-term memory within rhythmic locomotor networks. The data we review derives mainly from recent studies on Xenopus tadpoles and neonatal mice. The role and underlying mechanisms of pump action broadly match previously published data from an invertebrate, the Drosophila larva. We therefore propose a highly conserved mechanism by which sodium pump activity increases following a bout of locomotion. This results in an ultraslow afterhyperpolarization (usAHP) of the membrane potential that lasts around 1 min, but which only occurs in around half the network neurons. This usAHP in turn alters network excitability so that network output is reduced in a locomotor interval-dependent manner. The pumps therefore confer on spinal locomotor networks a temporary memory trace of recent network performance. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. In vivo evaluation of centrifugal blood pump for cardiopulmonary bypass-Spiral Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cibele; da Silva, Bruno Utiyama; Leme, Juliana; Uebelhart, Beatriz; Dinkhuysen, Jarbas; Biscegli, José F; Andrade, Aron; Zavaglia, Cecília

    2013-11-01

    The Spiral Pump (SP), a centrifugal blood pump for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), has been developed at the Dante Pazzanese Institute of Cardiology/Adib Jatene Foundation laboratories, with support from Sintegra Company (Pompeia, Brazil). The SP is a disposable pump with an internal rotor-a conically shaped fuse with double entrance threads. This rotor is supported by two ball bearings, attached to a stainless steel shaft fixed to the housing base. Worm gears provide axial motion to the blood column, and the rotational motion of the conically shaped impeller generates a centrifugal pumping effect, improving pump efficiency without increasing hemolysis. In vitro tests were performed to evaluate the SP's hydrodynamic performance, and in vivo experiments were performed to evaluate hemodynamic impact during usual CPB. A commercially available centrifugal blood pump was used as reference. In vivo experiments were conducted in six male pigs weighing between 60 and 90 kg, placed on CPB for 6 h each. Blood samples were collected just before CPB (T0) and after every hour of CPB (T1-T6) for hemolysis determination and laboratory tests (hematological and biochemical). Values of blood pressure, mean flow, pump rotational speed, and corporeal temperature were recorded. Also, ergonomic conditions were recorded: presence of noise, difficulty in removing air bubbles, trouble in installing the pump in the drive module (console), and difficulties in mounting the CPB circuit. Comparing the laboratory and hemolysis results for the SP with those of the reference pump, we can conclude that there is no significant difference between the two devices. In addition, reports made by medical staff and perfusionists described a close similarity between the two devices. During in vivo experiments, the SP maintained blood flow and pressure at physiological levels, consistent with those applied in cardiac surgery with CPB, without presenting any malfunction. Also, the SP needed lower rotational

  8. Self Calibrating Flow Estimation in Waste Water Pumping Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose; Knudsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about where waste water is flowing in waste water networks is essential to optimize the operation of the network pumping stations. However, installation of flow sensors is expensive and requires regular maintenance. This paper proposes an alternative approach where the pumps and the waste...... water pit are used for estimating both the inflow and the pump flow of the pumping station. Due to the nature of waste water, the waste water pumps are heavily affected by wear and tear. To compensate for the wear of the pumps, the pump parameters, used for the flow estimation, are automatically...... calibrated. This calibration is done based on data batches stored at each pump cycle, hence makes the approach a self calibrating system. The approach is tested on a pumping station operating in a real waste water network....

  9. A light-driven sodium ion pump in marine bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Keiichi; Ono, Hikaru; Abe-Yoshizumi, Rei; Yoshizawa, Susumu; Ito, Hiroyasu; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Kandori, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Light-driven proton-pumping rhodopsins are widely distributed in many microorganisms. They convert sunlight energy into proton gradients that serve as energy source of the cell. Here we report a new functional class of a microbial rhodopsin, a light-driven sodium ion pump. We discover that the marine flavobacterium Krokinobacter eikastus possesses two rhodopsins, the first, KR1, being a prototypical proton pump, while the second, KR2, pumps sodium ions outward. Rhodopsin KR2 can also pump lithium ions, but converts to a proton pump when presented with potassium chloride or salts of larger cations. These data indicate that KR2 is a compatible sodium ion-proton pump, and spectroscopic analysis showed it binds sodium ions in its extracellular domain. These findings suggest that light-driven sodium pumps may be as important in situ as their proton-pumping counterparts.

  10. Pump power loss and heat generation in a pivot bearing-supported Gyro centrifugal pump (C1E3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, Y; Nakazawa, T; Makinouchi, K; Glueck, J; Ohara, Y; Benkowski, R J; Nosé, Y

    1996-07-01

    Pump power loss is defined as input power that is not used for the output work of the pump. Less pump power loss means a higher pump efficiency. A common opinion is that the pump power loss is closely related to heat generation of the pump, which may affect not only the endurance of pump materials, but also blood damage in a blood pump. In this study, the relationship between pump power loss and heat generation in centrifugal blood pumps was investigated using the pivot-bearing supported Gyro C1E3 pump (C1E3) and Bio-Medicus pump (BP-80) under four different total pressure heat/flow conditions. A single special torque measuring driver motor was used for operating both the C1E3 and BP-80 in the four conditions. The pump power loss was calculated from the measured motor torque and hydraulic power. The changes in blood temperature were measured while the pump was operated at room temperature (25 degrees C) to obtain the following findings: First, the C1E3 caused less pump power loss and less temperature increase in blood than the BP-80 in all clinical simulated conditions that were tested; and second, the pump power loss and heat generation had a linear correlation with temperature rise from 22 to 25 degrees C in both the C1E3 and BP-80. During this period, approximately 30% of the pump power loss was transformed to heat, independent of the centrifugal blood pump type, provided that heat conduction through the pump housing and tubing was negligible during this particular period.

  11. Losses in fountain-effect pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, P.

    1986-01-01

    Three loss mechanisms in fountain-effect pumps are identified and analyzed. Two of these mechanisms reduce the mechano-caloric effect, by reducing the mass transferred per unit heat input. The first loss mechanism of these losses is the result of normal fluid leakage through the pump. The second loss mechanism is the result of the finite separation between the porous plug and the heater. The third loss mechanism reduces the thermomechanical effect. It results from the Gorter-Mellink interaction within the porous plug. All three of these loss mechanisms are shown to reduce pump efficiency. They are then applied to an example to illustrate the relative significance of the three mechanisms.

  12. Cavitation pulse extraction and centrifugal pump analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hong Lind Shaoran [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China); Yu, Bo; Qing, Biao [Xihua University, Chengdu (China)

    2017-03-15

    This study extracted cavitation pulses from hydrophone signals sampled in a centrifugal pump and analyzed their characteristics. The modified and simplified Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) algorithm was proposed for extracting cavitation pulses from strong background noise. Experimental results showed that EMD can effectively suppress noise and obtain clear cavitation pulses, facilitating the identification of the number of pulses associated with the degree of cavitation. The cavitation characteristics were modeled to predict the value of incipient cavitation. Then, we proposed a method for detecting the wear of the impeller surface. That is, the information on the impeller surface of the centrifugal pump, including the roughness of the impeller surface and its wear trends, were quantified based on the net positive suction head available of incipient cavitation. The findings indicate that the proposed technique is suitable for condition monitoring of the pump.

  13. Water Hammer in Pumped Sewer Mains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    This publication is intended for students and engineers seeking an introduction to the problem of water transients in pumped sewer and water mains. This is a subject of increasing interest because of the development of larger and more integrated systems. Consideration of transients is essential...... for the structural design of pipelines and for the planning of the proper function of the systems. The text is written by Torben Larsen, who is a professor of environmental hydraulics at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University. Torben Larsen has many years of experience with computer simulations...... of transients in pumped pipeline systems. This present publication can be understood as the second and revised edition of the pamphlet ”Transients in pumped sewer mains” (2006) which was published as a technical report by The EVA committee under The Danish Water Pollution Committee (The Danish Society...

  14. Capillary pumped loop body heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Theodore D. (Inventor); Wren, deceased, Paul (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A capillary pumped loop for transferring heat from one body part to another body part, the capillary pumped loop comprising a capillary evaporator for vaporizing a liquid refrigerant by absorbing heat from a warm body part, a condenser for turning a vaporized refrigerant into a liquid by transferring heat from the vaporized liquid to a cool body part, a first tube section connecting an output port of the capillary evaporator to an input of the condenser, and a second tube section connecting an output of the condenser to an input port of the capillary evaporator. A wick may be provided within the condenser. A pump may be provided between the second tube section and the input port of the capillary evaporator. Additionally, an esternal heat source or heat sink may be utilized.

  15. Twin screw subsurface and surface multiphase pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dass, P. [CAN-K GROUP OF COMPANIES, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    A new subsurface twin screw multiphase pump has been developed to replace ESP and other artificial lift technologies. This technology has been under development for a few years, has been field tested and is now going for commercial applications. The subsurface twin screw technology consists of a pair of screws that do not touch and can be run with a top drive or submersible motor; and it carries a lot of benefits. This technology is easy to install and its low slippage makes it highly efficient with heavy oil. In addition twin screw multiphase pumps are capable of handling high viscosity fluids and thus their utilization can save water when used in thermal applications. It also induces savings of chemicals because asphaltenes do not break down easily as well as a reduction in SOR. The subsurface twin screw multiphase pump presented herein is an advanced technology which could be used in thermal applications.

  16. Pumping of drugs by P-glycoprotein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litman, Thomas; Skovsgaard, Torben; Stein, Wilfred D

    2003-01-01

    The apparent inhibition constant, Kapp, for the blockade of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) by four drugs, verapamil, cyclosporin A, XR9576 (tariquidar), and vinblastine, was measured by studying their ability to inhibit daunorubicin and calcein-AM efflux from four strains of Ehrlich cells with different...... levels of drug resistance and P-gp content. For daunorubicin as a transport substrate, Kapp was independent of [P-gp] for verapamil but increased strictly linearly with [P-gp] for vinblastine, cyclosporin A, and XR9576. A theoretical analysis of the kinetics of drug pumping and its reversal shows...... but rather, in serial, i.e., a drug that is pumped from the cytoplasmic phase has to pass the preemptive route upon leaving the cell. Our results are consistent with the Sauna-Ambudkar two-step model for pumping by P-gp. We suggest that the vinblastine/cyclosporin A/XR9576-binding site accepts daunorubicin...

  17. Optically-electrically pumped THz source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji-Saeed, Bahareh; Khoury, Jed; Buchwald, Walter; Woods, Charles; Wentzell, Sandra; Krejca, Brian; Kierstead, John

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a design for a widely tunable solid-state optically and electrically pumped THz source based on the Smith-Purcell free-electron laser. Our design consists of a thin dielectric layer sandwiched between an upper corrugated structure and a lower layer of thin metal, semiconductor, or high electron mobility material. The lower layer is for current streaming, which replaces the electron beam in the Smith-Purcell free-electron laser design. The upper layer consists of two micro-gratings for optical pumping, and a nano-grating to couple with electrical pumping in the lower layer. The optically generated surface plasmon waves from the upper layer and the electrically induced surface plasmon waves from the lower layer are then coupled. Emission enhancement occurs when the plasmonic waves in both layers are resonantly coupled.

  18. Natural Thermoelectric Heat Pump in Social Wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishay, Jacob S.; Pertsis, Vitaly; Rave, Eran; Goren, Alon; Bergman, David J.

    2003-05-01

    Photographs of wasps or hornets, taken with different temperature sensitive infrared cameras, reveal body temperatures that are sometimes significantly lower than the ambient temperature. This suggests that the hornets possess an intrinsic biological heat pump mechanism which can be used to achieve such cooling. Evidence is presented to substantiate this novel suggestion and to argue that the heat pump is most likely implemented by exploiting a thermoelectric effect in the hornet cuticle. Such a natural heat pump can conceivably also serve to cool the active hornet, engaged in daytime activities outside the nest at ambient temperatures exceeding 40 °C, to a body temperature that is low enough to allow its survival in extreme thermal conditions. It might also function as a means of raising the body temperature up to a level that enables the hornet to remain active even when the ambient temperature is as low as 10 °C.

  19. Pump Coastdown with the Submerged Flywheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyun-Gi; Seo, KyoungWoo; Kim, Seong Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Many research reactors are generally designed as open pool types in consideration of the heat removal of the nuclear fuels, reactor operation and accessibility. Reactor structure assembly is generally placed at the pool bottom as shown in Fig. 1. Primary cooling system pump circulates the coolant from the reactor structure to the heat exchanger in order to continuously remove the heat generated from the reactor core in the research reactor as shown in Fig. 1. The secondary cooling system releases the transferred heat to the atmosphere by the cooling tower. Coastdown flow rate of the primary cooling system pump with the submerged flywheel are calculated analytically in case of the accident situation. Coastdown flow rate is maintained until almost 80 sec when the pump stops normally. But, coastdown flow rate is rapidly decreased when the flywheel is submerged because of the friction load on the flywheel surface.

  20. Thermoeconomic comparison of industrial heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Christen Malte; Reinholdt, L.

    2011-01-01

    , limitations and design, a generic comparison is used. To establish the optimal individual temperature range of operation, a thermoeconomic evaluation is performed, with heat price as the decision parameter. Each individual heat pump is favourable in specific temperature intervals, which will vary according......Four natural working fluids in various heat pump cycles are expected to cover the heating range between 50oC and 150°C. The different thermodynamic cycles are the Condensing Vapour, Transcritical and Compression/Absorption. As the considered technologies have significant differences in application...... to the temperature lift between sink and source. At temperature lifts below 30°C the entire temperature range is covered. Exceeding this temperature lift, the range of sink temperatures is not completely covered above 125°C. Three of the heat pumps prove very cost competitive when compared to heating with natural...

  1. High-temperature heat-pump fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertinat, M. P.

    1988-05-01

    Heat pumps could be immensely useful in many industrial processes, but standard working fluids are unsuitable for the high temperatures involved. The ideal high-temperature heat-pump fluid should have a high (but not too high) critical temperature, a moderate critical pressure ( approximately=5.0 MPa) and a low (but not too low) boiling point. There are many organic fluids that do meet the above thermodynamic criteria The author's list of 250 contained dozens of them including many of the common laboratory solvents such as ethanol, ether and especially acetone. Unfortunately most of them are highly flammable. The ideal work fluid for high-temperature heat pumps will probably always remain elusive and water, despite its drawbacks will continue to be the best choice in most applications

  2. Hybrid Switch Reluctance Drives For Pump Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe

    The initial research problem is to investigate an alternative motor drive to the existing permanent magnet synchronous and brushless DC-motor drives for pump applications. A review of different motor types showed that a possible candidate for another low cost permanent magnet motor may be the sin......The initial research problem is to investigate an alternative motor drive to the existing permanent magnet synchronous and brushless DC-motor drives for pump applications. A review of different motor types showed that a possible candidate for another low cost permanent magnet motor may...... magnet motors. The focus of this thesis is regarding the design and control of a single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor (HSRM) intended to drive e.g. a centrifugal pump. A single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor was designed with a novel stator pole shaping method and a new arrangement...

  3. Frostless heat pump having thermal expansion valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang C [Knoxville, TN; Mei, Viung C [Oak Ridge, TN

    2002-10-22

    A heat pump system having an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant and further having a compressor, an interior heat exchanger, an exterior heat exchanger, a heat pump reversing valve, an accumulator, a thermal expansion valve having a remote sensing bulb disposed in heat transferable contact with the refrigerant piping section between said accumulator and said reversing valve, an outdoor temperature sensor, and a first means for heating said remote sensing bulb in response to said outdoor temperature sensor thereby opening said thermal expansion valve to raise suction pressure in order to mitigate defrosting of said exterior heat exchanger wherein said heat pump continues to operate in a heating mode.

  4. Natural thermoelectric heat pump in social wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishay, Jacob S; Pertsis, Vitaly; Rave, Eran; Goren, Alon; Bergman, David J

    2003-05-30

    Photographs of wasps or hornets, taken with different temperature sensitive infrared cameras, reveal body temperatures that are sometimes significantly lower than the ambient temperature. This suggests that the hornets possess an intrinsic biological heat pump mechanism which can be used to achieve such cooling. Evidence is presented to substantiate this novel suggestion and to argue that the heat pump is most likely implemented by exploiting a thermoelectric effect in the hornet cuticle. Such a natural heat pump can conceivably also serve to cool the active hornet, engaged in daytime activities outside the nest at ambient temperatures exceeding 40 degrees C, to a body temperature that is low enough to allow its survival in extreme thermal conditions. It might also function as a means of raising the body temperature up to a level that enables the hornet to remain active even when the ambient temperature is as low as 10 degrees C.

  5. Multifunctional Heat Pump Installation for Dairy Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the installation based on the approach using the integration of the carbon dioxide heat pump in pasteurization and cooling installation for milk and in installations for preparing of hot and "icy" water. The scheme differs from the prototype by the use of additional heat exchangers and of their connection to the main elements of the installation. A proposed technique of elements connection in the heat pump installation permits to compensate the effect of temperature of cold water supply source, which is low-grade heat source for the heat pump, on the quality the work of the installation. The design of the installation enables to compensate the impact of seasonal variation of water temperature. The installation ensures the COP = 5.3.

  6. Transient Analysis of a Magnetic Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, E. A.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental heat pump that uses a rare earth element as the refrigerant is modeled using NASTRAN. The refrigerant is a ferromagnetic metal whose temperature rises when a magnetic field is applied and falls when the magnetic field is removed. The heat pump is used as a refrigerator to remove heat from a reservoir and discharge it through a heat exchanger. In the NASTRAN model the components modeled are represented by one-dimensional ROD elements. Heat flow in the solids and fluid are analyzed. The problem is mildly nonlinear since the heat capacity of the refrigerant is temperature-dependent. One simulation run consists of a series of transient analyses, each representing one stroke of the heat pump. An auxiliary program was written that uses the results of one NASTRAN analysis to generate data for the next NASTRAN analysis.

  7. An environmental rating for heat pump equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, P.J.

    1992-12-31

    The major federal and state regulatory trends that may affect heat pump markets are reviewed. Then the confluence of federal and state regulation, and what that may mean for heat pump markets, is discussed. The conclusion reached, and therefore the assumption for the rest of the paper, is that state regulators will increasingly be managing the environmental impacts associated with alternative heating, cooling, and water heating methods within the framework of Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The input needs of IRP are reviewed, and some shortcomings of existing rating procedures for providing the IRP inputs are identified. Finally, the paper concludes with a brief suggestion on course of action.

  8. Spatial solitons in a pumped semiconductor resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranenko, V B; Weiss, C O; Stolz, W

    2001-10-15

    Bright and dark spatial solitons are observed in an optically pumped semiconductor resonator. The pumping allows us to reduce considerably the light intensity necessary for the existence of the solitons and alleviates thermal load problems. Experiments are found to agree qualitatively with calculations based on a simple large-aperture semiconductor resonator model. The role of the signs of the absorptive and reactive nonlinearities in soliton existence is discussed in relation to the nonlinear resonance effect, the tilted-wave mechanism of pattern formation, and the sign of the population inversion.

  9. An experimental verification of thermoacoustic heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Wence; Wang, Zhongyu; Zhang, Lulu; Li, Xiaochen; Pang, Zhi

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this project was to verify thermoacoustic heat pump effect as a way of harvesting energy from noisy. We built our experiment with loudspeaker, one-end closed tube and a stack inside the tube. In the experiment we recorded the temperatures both above and below the stack when the acoustic waves were set at different frequencies and different powers levels. It was concluded that acoustic wave could be applied to pump heat. As for the influence of frequency, at the tube’s first ...

  10. Ho:YLF pumped HBr laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, L R; Bollig, C; Esser, M J D; Campbell, R N; Jacobs, C; Preussler, D R

    2009-10-26

    A Ho:YLF laser pumped HBr molecular laser was developed that produced up to 2.5 mJ of energy in the 4 micron wavelength region. The Ho:YLF laser was fiber pumped using a commercial Tm:fibre laser. The Ho:YLF laser was operated in a single longitudinal mode via injection seeding with a narrow band diode laser which in turn was locked to one of the HBr transitions. The behavior of the HBr laser was described using a rate equation mathematical model and this was solved numerically. Good agreement both qualitatively and quantitatively between the model and experimental results was obtained.

  11. Current Injection Pumping of Organic Light Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-28

    MOT-OOO1AF I Current Injection Pumping of Organic Light Emitters Prepared by DI Jeffrey C. Buchholz E L ri: 8 James P. Stec OCT C "t989 Mary C...Schutte Micro -Optics Technologies, Inc. 8608 University Green #5 Middleton, WI 53562 28 September 1989 D,:?UqflON SA2". N’.’ _ Disuibunon Uanu-ted Contract...Title Report Date Current Injection Pumping of Organic Light Emitters 28 September 1989 Authors Jeffrey C. Buchholz, James P. Stec, Mary C. Schutte

  12. Proton Pumps: Mechanism of Action and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyi, Janos K.; Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in understanding molecular structures and mechanisms of action of proton pumps has paved the way to their novel applications in biotechnology. Proton pumps, in particular bacteriorhodopsin and ATP synthases, are capable of continuous, renewable conversion of light to chemical, mechanical or electrical energy, which can be used in macro- or nano-scale devices. The capability of protein systems incorporated into liposomes to generate ATP, which can be further used to drive chemical reactions, and to act as molecular motors has been already demonstrated. Other possible applications of such biochemical devices include targeted drug delivery and biocatalytic re actors. All these devices might prove superior to their inorganic alternatives.

  13. Hydride heat pump with heat regenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative hydride heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system. A series of at least four canisters containing a lower temperature performing hydride and a series of at least four canisters containing a higher temperature performing hydride is provided. Each canister contains a heat conductive passageway through which a heat transfer fluid is circulated so that sensible heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  14. Lunar base heat pump, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jeffrey H.; Harvey, A.; Lovell, T.; Walker, David H.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the Phase 1 process and analysis used to select a refrigerant and thermodynamic cycle as the basis of a vapor compression heat pump requiring a high temperature lift, then to perform a preliminary design to implement the selected concept, including major component selection. Use of a vapor compression heat pump versus other types was based on prior work performed for the Electric Power Research Institute. A high lift heat pump is needed to enable a thermal control system to remove heat down to 275 K from a habitable volume when the external thermal environment is severe. For example, a long-term lunar base habitat will reject heat from a space radiator to a 325 K environment. The first step in the selection process was to perform an optimization trade study, quantifying the effect of radiator operating temperature and heat pump efficiency on total system mass; then, select the radiator operating temperature corresponding to the lowest system mass. Total system mass included radiators, all heat pump components, and the power supply system. The study showed that lunar night operation, with no temperature lift, dictated the radiator size. To operate otherwise would require a high mass penalty to store power. With the defined radiation surface, and heat pump performances assumed to be from 40 percent to 60 percent of the Carnot ideal, the optimum heat rejection temperature ranged from 387 K to 377 K, as a function of heat pump performance. Refrigerant and thermodynamic cycles were then selected to best meet the previously determined design conditions. The system was then adapted as a ground-based prototype lifting temperature to 360 K (versus 385 K for flight unit) and using readily available commercial-grade components. Over 40 refrigerants, separated into wet and dry compression behavioral types, were considered in the selection process. Refrigerants were initially screened for acceptable critical temperature. The acceptable refrigerants were

  15. Synthetic Leaves: Pumping at Negative Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Tobias; Stroock, Abraham; Havenstrite, Karen

    2004-03-01

    A common process that is rarely considered in detail is the circulation of fluid in trees. As with most multi-cellular organisms, the internal convective transport of nutrients and the evacuation of waste are essential to their survival. What is unique to flowering plants is that the convectively transported fluid (water) is under tension. According to the Cohesion-Tension Theory (Dixon & Joly), this tension is induced by siphoning: capillary forces replenish water lost to evaporation at the air-water interface in leaves. Intermolecular forces between water molecules ensure that the column of water suspended from the air-water interface remains continuous. Integral to this passive pumping is a dynamic meniscus, which changes curvature and thereby the capillary pressure at the interface to allow the leaf to pump against variable loads as environmental conditions (convection, relative humidity) change. I will present our efforts to harness the capabilities of dynamic menisci in a synthetic system. We use hydraulic resistances as loads to assess the pumping ability of these systems and their susceptibility to cavitation. The goal is to understand the physico-chemical aspects of pumping in plants and the design constraints of vascular networks of leaves.

  16. Proton pump inhibitors affect the gut microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imhann, Floris; Bonder, Marc Jan; Vich Vila, Arnau; Fu, Jingyuan; Mujagic, Zlatan; Vork, Lisa; Feenstra, Ettje T.; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A; Cenit, Maria Carmen; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Dijkstra, Gerard; Franke, Lude; Xavier, Ramnik J; Jonkers, Daisy; Wijmenga, Cisca; Weersma, Rinse K; Zhernakova, Alexandra

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the top 10 most widely used drugs in the world. PPI use has been associated with an increased risk of enteric infections, most notably Clostridium difficile. The gut microbiome plays an important role in enteric infections, by resisting or

  17. Quantum Pumping and Adiabatic Transport in Nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, G.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis consists of a theoretical exploration of quantum transport phenomena and quantum dynamics in nanostructures. Specifically, we investigate adiabatic quantum pumping of charge in several novel types of nanostructures involving open quantum dots or graphene. For a bilayer of graphene we

  18. Chemical Stability of Telavancin in Elastomeric Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Sand, MSc

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that telavancin remains chemically stable when diluted in the Intermate Infusion System and the Homepump Eclipse elastomeric pumps and stored at 2°C to 8°C for up to 8 days protected from light at the concentration range and dilution schemes evaluated.

  19. [Treating diabetes with an insulin pump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantalone, Létitia; Lambert, Angélique

    2016-01-01

    The use of an insulin pump in the treatment of diabetes in children has constantly increased over the last 15 years. This intensive form of treatment results in better glycaemic control, the disappearance of severe hypoglycaemic episodes and greater comfort. The quality of life of the patients and their family is thereby vastly improved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Water Hammer in Pumped Sewer Mains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    This publication is intended for engineers seeking an introduction to the problem of water hammer in pumped pressure mains. This is a subject of increasing interest because of the development of larger and more integrated sewer systems. Consideration of water hammer is essential for structural...

  1. Rational designing of multistage centrifugal pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grokhovskii, D.V.

    1984-07-01

    This article considers a more rational approach to the increase of the rigidity of a rotor for a multistage centrifugal pump (MCP), which will enable a more rational design of the entire pump. An important problem in modern pump designing is the dynamic strength of the rotors of high-pressure MCPs. An equation is presented for the calculation of the hydrostatic forces in the slit seals between the stages (SSBS) of the MCP rotors, which increase the rigidity of the rotor. It is determined that the length of the SSBS decreases with increasing finishing roughness. The existence of a close relationship between the operational and the variable design parameters allow the computer-aided design of MCPs. It is concluded that the optimum mass, dimension, and vibroacoustic characteristics for high-pressure MCPs depend on the minimum radial gaps in the rotor seals, and the stages should not exceed four. The modern tendency in worldwide pump design is to significantly reduce the number of stages of high-pressure MCP for large power plants.

  2. Heat Pumps With Direct Expansion Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Sadasuke

    In this paper, the studies of heat pump systems using solar collectors as the evaporators, which have been done so far by reserchers, are reviwed. Usually, a solar collector without any cover is preferable to one with ac over because of the necessity of absorbing heat from the ambient air when the intensity of the solar energy on the collector is not enough. The performance of the collector depends on its area and the intensity of the convective heat transfer on the surface. Fins are fixed on the backside of the collector-surface or on the tube in which the refrigerant flows in order to increase the convective heat transfer. For the purpose of using a heat pump efficiently throughout year, a compressor with variable capacity is applied. The solar assisted heat pump can be used for air conditioning at night during the summer. Only a few groups of people have studied cooling by using solar assisted heat pump systems. In Japan, a kind of system for hot water supply has been produced commercially in a company and a kind of system for air conditioning has been installed in buildings commercially by another company.

  3. Absorption heat pump cycles with NH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Infante Ferreira, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs), as novel absorbents, draw considerable attention for their potential roles in replacing water or LiBr aqueous solutions in conventional NH3/H2O or H2O/LiBr absorption refrigeration or heat pump cycles. In this paper, performances of 9

  4. (AJST) EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF AIR LIFT PUMP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    25. Kumar E.A., Kumar K.R.V. and Ramayya A.V. (2003). Augumentation of Air Lift Pump Performance with. Tapered Upriser Pipe: An Experimental Study.IE(1). Journal MC. Vol. 84, pp 114-119. Nenes A., Assimacopoulos, Markatos N. and ...

  5. Open-Source Syringe Pump Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Bas; Hunt, Emily J.; Anzalone, Gerald C.; Pearce, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores a new open-source method for developing and manufacturing high-quality scientific equipment suitable for use in virtually any laboratory. A syringe pump was designed using freely available open-source computer aided design (CAD) software and manufactured using an open-source RepRap 3-D printer and readily available parts. The design, bill of materials and assembly instructions are globally available to anyone wishing to use them. Details are provided covering the use of the CAD software and the RepRap 3-D printer. The use of an open-source Rasberry Pi computer as a wireless control device is also illustrated. Performance of the syringe pump was assessed and the methods used for assessment are detailed. The cost of the entire system, including the controller and web-based control interface, is on the order of 5% or less than one would expect to pay for a commercial syringe pump having similar performance. The design should suit the needs of a given research activity requiring a syringe pump including carefully controlled dosing of reagents, pharmaceuticals, and delivery of viscous 3-D printer media among other applications. PMID:25229451

  6. 76 FR 34192 - Commercial and Industrial Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Industrial Technologies program by Energetics Incorporated... Part 431 RIN 1904-AC54 Commercial and Industrial Pumps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Charles Llenza, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable...

  7. Open-source syringe pump library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Bas; Hunt, Emily J; Anzalone, Gerald C; Pearce, Joshua M

    2014-01-01

    This article explores a new open-source method for developing and manufacturing high-quality scientific equipment suitable for use in virtually any laboratory. A syringe pump was designed using freely available open-source computer aided design (CAD) software and manufactured using an open-source RepRap 3-D printer and readily available parts. The design, bill of materials and assembly instructions are globally available to anyone wishing to use them. Details are provided covering the use of the CAD software and the RepRap 3-D printer. The use of an open-source Rasberry Pi computer as a wireless control device is also illustrated. Performance of the syringe pump was assessed and the methods used for assessment are detailed. The cost of the entire system, including the controller and web-based control interface, is on the order of 5% or less than one would expect to pay for a commercial syringe pump having similar performance. The design should suit the needs of a given research activity requiring a syringe pump including carefully controlled dosing of reagents, pharmaceuticals, and delivery of viscous 3-D printer media among other applications.

  8. Using the motor to monitor pump conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casada, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-12-01

    When the load of a mechanical device being driven by a motor changes, whether in response to changes in the overall process or changes in the performance of the driven device, the motor inherently responds. For induction motors, the current amplitude and phase angle change as the shaft load changes. By examining the details of these changes in amplitude and phase, load fluctuations of the driven device can be observed. The usefulness of the motor as a transducer to improve the understanding of devices with high torque fluctuations, such as positive displacement compressors and motor-operated valves, has been recognized and demonstrated for a number of years. On such devices as these, the spectrum of the motor current amplitude, phase, or power normally has certain characteristic peaks associated with various load components, such as the piston stroke or gear tooth meshing frequencies. Comparison and trending of the amplitudes of these peaks has been shown to provide some indication of their mechanical condition. For most centrifugal pumps, the load fluctuations are normally low in torque amplitude, and as a result, the motor experiences a correspondingly lower level of load fluctuation. However, both laboratory and field test data have demonstrated that the motor does provide insight into some important pump performance conditions, such as hydraulic stability and pump-to-motor alignment. Comparisons of other dynamic signals, such as vibration and pressure pulsation, to motor data for centrifugal pumps are provided. The effects of inadequate suction head, misalignment, mechanical and hydraulic unbalance on these signals are presented.

  9. NEG pumps can go to the extremes

    CERN Multimedia

    Manini, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    Non-evaporable getters are highly reactive materials, generally made of zirconium or titanium; NEG pumps are efficient and clean sinks for molecules and they regularly achieve pressures as low as 10¯11, or even 10¯13 mbar (½ page)

  10. Aggregated Control of Domestic Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten M.; Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom S.

    2013-01-01

    A challenge in Denmark in the near future is to balance the electrical grid due to a large increase in the renewable energy production mainly from wind turbines. In this work an aggregated control system using heat pumps in single family houses to help balancing the grid is investigated. The cont...

  11. Fluid pumping: Some exploratory numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ord, A.; Henley, S.

    The concept of fluid pumping evolved from considerations of fluid behaviour within and surrounding faults and shear zones, particularly associated with earthquake initiation and propagation. Further, the interpretation of specific vein textures as originating from a crack-seal mechanism requires precipitation of material during pumping cycles. We explore here a new simple model for fluid pumping initiating within a dilatant, pressure dependant material, and the mechanical consequences of such a model, including the predicted behaviour of a fluid within the SiO2-H2O system. Changes in various properties such as permeability and mechanical properties are allowed according to rules based on defined geological processes. For example, porosity may increase with increasing shear and dilatancy of the rock, and both porosity and permeability decrease when and where the rock ‘seals’ as a result of pressure decrease and the resultant precipitation of SiO2. Histories of any variable may be explored for any part of the model. We may therefore test in a quantitative manner hypotheses for fluid pumping, and the deposition of quartz, and ultimately gold, in a deforming rock mass. Through exploring the feedback links between deformation, fluid flow, chemical transport, thermal transfer, we have the opportunity to test conceptually and quantitatively the various hypotheses for the formation of world class ore deposits.

  12. Multi-Function Gas Fired Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdizadeh Momen, Ayyoub [ORNL; Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this project was to design a residential fuel fired heat pump and further improve efficiency in collaboration with an industry partner – Southwest Gas, the developer of the Nextaire commercial rooftop fuel-fired heat pump. Work started in late 2010. After extensive search for suitable engines, one manufactured by Marathon was selected. Several prototypes were designed and built over the following four years. Design changes were focused on lowering the cost of components and the cost of manufacturing. The design evolved to a final one that yielded the lowest cost. The final design also incorporates noise and vibration reduction measures that were verified to be effective through a customer survey. ETL certification is currently (as of November 2015) underway. Southwest Gas is currently in talks with GTI to reach an agreement through which GTI will assess the commercial viability and potential of the heat pump. Southwest Gas is searching for investors to manufacture the heat pump and introduce it to the market.

  13. Developing a Magnetocaloric Domestic Heat Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian R.H.

    2014-01-01

    beverage coolers, A/Cs for cars and electronics cooling. Devices for heating have not been extensively demonstrated. Here we consider a promising application of magnetocaloric heat pumps for domestic heating. The task of designing and building such a device is a multidisciplinary one encompassing materials...

  14. Modelling of Ammonia Heat Pump Desuperheaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stefan Wuust; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study of modelling desuperheating in ammonia heat pumps. Focus is on the temperature profile of the superheated refrigerant. Typically, the surface area of a heat exchanger is estimated using the Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) method. The assumption of this method...

  15. Centrifugal Pump Experiment for Chemical Engineering Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderslice, Nicholas; Oberto, Richard; Marrero, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a Centrifugal Pump Experiment that provided an experiential learning experience to chemical engineering undergraduates at the University of Missouri in the spring of 2010 in the Unit Operations Laboratory course. Lab equipment was used by senior students with computer-based data and control technology. In…

  16. Topological magnetoelectric pump in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Takahiro; Fujiwara, Takanori

    2017-11-01

    We study the topological pump for a lattice fermion model mainly in three spatial dimensions. We first calculate the U(1) current density for the Dirac model defined in continuous space-time to review the known results as well as to introduce some technical details convenient for the calculations of the lattice model. We next investigate the U(1) current density for a lattice fermion model, a variant of the Wilson-Dirac model. The model we introduce is defined on a lattice in space but in continuous time, which is suited for the study of the topological pump. For such a model, we derive the conserved U(1) current density and calculate it directly for the (1 +1 )-dimensional system as well as (3 +1 )-dimensional system in the limit of the small lattice constant. We find that the current includes a nontrivial lattice effect characterized by the Chern number, and therefore the pumped particle number is quantized by the topological reason. Finally, we study the topological temporal pump in 3 +1 dimensions by numerical calculations. We discuss the relationship between the second Chern number and the first Chern number, the bulk-edge correspondence, and the generalized Streda formula which enables us to compute the second Chern number using the spectral asymmetry.

  17. Heat pump having improved defrost system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang C.; Mei, Viung C.; Murphy, Richard W.

    1998-01-01

    A heat pump system includes, in an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant: a compressor; an interior heat exchanger; an exterior heat exchanger; an accumulator; and means for heating the accumulator in order to defrost the exterior heat exchanger.

  18. [Interaction between clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsze, Ankie M; de Boer, Anthonius; Boot, Henk; Deneer, Vera H M; Heringa, Mette; Mol, Peter G M; Schalekamp, Tom; Verduijn, Monique M; Verheugt, Freek W A; le Comte, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    The drug interaction between proton pump inhibitors and clopidogrel has been the subject of much study in recent years. Contradictory results regarding the effect of proton pump inhibitors on platelet reactivity and on clinical outcome in clopidogrel-treated patients have been reported in literature. Concomitant use of omeprazole and clopidogrel was found to decrease the exposure (AUC) to clopidogrel's active metabolite by 50% and to sharply increase platelet reactivity, as a result of inhibition by omeprazole of CYP2C19, a cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme. Pantoprazole has a much weaker effect on clopidogrel's pharmacokinetics and on platelet reactivity during concomitant use. The influence of the other proton pump inhibitors when used simultaneously with clopidogrel has not yet been investigated in adequately randomized studies. Regulatory agencies state that the combination of clopidogrel and the CYP2C19 inhibitors omeprazole and esomeprazole should be avoided. To date, there is no conclusive evidence of a clinically-relevant interaction between any of the proton pump inhibitors and clopidogrel.

  19. Operating characteristics of isocaloric fountain-effect pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Peter

    1988-01-01

    The governing equations of thermomechanical (fountain-effect) pumps are usually given for pumps operating at a constant temperature difference. These are the thermomechanical and mechanocaloric effects in which the pressure head and mass flow are independent of each other. Here, these equations are recast for a pump operating at a constant heat input (isocaloric). This form more closely represents how such pumps are likely to be used. Under these conditions, the pressure head and mass flow are shown to be related. For ideal pumps, the head and flow are related by a universal curve. For real pumps (those that have normal fluid leakage), a family of curves is developed. These curves approach the curve for an ideal pump at high flow rates. The isocaloric equations are also extended to multistage pumps.

  20. Testing new submersible pumps for proper sizing and reduced costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Toole, W.P.; O' Brien, J.B.

    1989-02-01

    This paper describes an ongoing program to improve overall submersible pump performance by Thums Long Beach Co., acting as contractor for the City of Long Beach, operator of the Long Beach Unit. Thums Long Beach Co. currently operates 700 submersible pump installations located on four manmade islands and one landfill pier location. The program began with spot testing of submersible pumps for Thums' use. It has evolved to 100% pump testing and the stipulation that only pumps with newly manufactured parts are acceptable. The primary goals of this program are to increase well production and to lower lifting costs. Critical to these goals is increasing the average length of run by using accurate pump-performance data to design equipment and by rejecting defective pumps before they are run. Increased production is realized from better designs. Lower lifting costs result from using more efficient pumps and a reduced frequency of pulling submersible equipment.

  1. Testing new submersible pumps for proper sizing and reduced costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Toole, W.P.; O' Brien, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing program to improve overall submersible pump performance by Thums Long Beach Company, acting as Contractor of the City of Long Beach, Operator of the Long Beach Unit. Thums Long Beach Company currently operates 700 submersible pump installations located on four man-made islands and one land fill pier location. The program began with spot testing of submersible pumps for Thums' use. It has evolved to 100 percent pump testing and the stipulation that only pumps with newly manufactured parts are acceptable. The primary goals of this program are to increase well production and lower lifting costs. Critical to these goals is increasing the average length of run by using accurate pump performance data to design equipment and by rejecting defective pumps before they are run. Increased production is realized from better designs. Lower lifting costs result from utilizing higher efficiency pumps and a reduced frequency of pulling submersible equipment.

  2. 40 CFR 63.1035 - Quality improvement program for pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... analysis does not identify use of superior performing pump seal technology or pumps that can be applied to... the ability to perform with leak rates below 10 percent in similar services, as having low probability...

  3. SUSTAINABILITY ASPECTS OF PROGRESSIVE CAVITY PUMPS USED IN OIL PRODUCTION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marius STAN

    2013-01-01

    Pump, sucker rod and tubing string wear is directly proportional to the number of revolutions,therefore the use of larger displacement pumps operated at lower speeds can significantly extend equipmentlife...

  4. Pistonless Pumps for Nanosat Launch and Sample Return Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal responds to the request for pumps for pressure-fed propulsion systems with a pistonless pump wherein a pressurant act directly on the propellant(s) in...

  5. Generation of synchronized signal and pump pulses for an optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    pass geometry in a grating pair based pulse stretcher unit. The pump pulse has been further amplified in a high gain regenerative amplifier. This amplified pulse was used as the pump in an optical parametric chirped pulse ...

  6. Leakage Flow Influence on SHF pump model performances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dupont, Patrick; Bayeul-Lainé, Annie-Claude; Dazin, Antoine; Bois, Gérard; Roussette, Olivier; Si, Qiaorui

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of leakage flow existing in SHF pump model on the analysis of internal flow behaviour inside the vane diffuser of the pump model performance using both experiments and calculations...

  7. Leakage Flow Influence on SHF pump model performances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dupont, Patrick; Bayeul-Lainé, Annie-Claude; Dazin, Antoine; Bois, Gérard; Roussette, Olivier; Si, Qiaorui

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of leakage flow existing in SHF pump model on the analysis of internal flow behaviour inside the vane diffuser of the pump model performance using both experiments and calculations...

  8. Off pump vs on pump coronary artery bypass grafting: Perioperative complications and early clinical outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman El Naggar

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Off pump CABG is safe and associated with good clinical outcome and can be considered alternative to conventional CABG as treatment modality for surgical coronary revascularization but this will need large scale study to establish this technique.

  9. Kinetic vs. Thermodynamic Control of Bacteriorhodopsin Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunner, Marilyn

    2011-03-01

    Bacteriorhodopsin is a transmembrane proton pump that converts light energy to a transmembrane electrochemical gradient. Retinal, bound in the center of the protein, absorbs light and isomerizes from the all-trans to 13-cis configuration. A series of conformational changes and proton transfers then restores the structure to the all-trans ground state while pumping one proton from the high pH cell interior to the low pH exterior, saving energy in an electrochemical gradient. Poorly understood gating elements control key steps where incorrect proton transfer would return the protein to the ground state without pumping. The gate's barrier height determines how much the pump leaks. Analysis of high-resolution structures trapped in different intermediates has produced ideas for how bacteriorhodopsin ensures pumping. There are two contrasting strategies, one primarily thermodynamic and the other relying on kinetic control to ensure that protons are moved uphill. With thermodynamic control, residue protonation states always remain in quasi-equilibrium. Relatively slow conformational changes shift the energy landscape modifying site pKas. Residues then change ionization remaining in equilibrium in each metastable intermediate. The sequence of intermediates imparts the directionality to the transfers. Alternatively, the direction of transfer is determined by the accessibility of low energy pathways so is thus is under kinetic control. We will discuss which steps in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle are under thermodynamic or under kinetic control. The role of three specific conformational changes (retinal isomerization, Arg82 reorientation and Glu194 and 204 separations) on the degree of proton transfer will be described. Supported by NFS MCB 1022208. Carried out with Yifan Song now at the University of Washington Department of Biochemistry.

  10. Recent Development in Hydrogen Peroxide Pumped Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledebuhr, A G; Antelman, D R; Dobie, D W; Gorman, T S; Jones, M S; Kordas, J F; McMahon, D H; Ng, L C; Nielsen, D P; Ormsby, A E; Pittenger, L C; Robinson, J A; Skulina, K M; Taylor, W G; Urone, D A; Wilson, B A

    2004-03-22

    This paper describes the development of a lightweight high performance pump-fed divert and attitude control system (DACS). Increased kinetic Kill Vehicles (KV) capabilities (higher .v and acceleration capability) will especially be needed for boost phase engagements where a lower mass KV DACS enables smaller overall interceptors. To increase KV performance while reducing the total DACS dry mass (<10 kg), requires a design approach that more closely emulates those found in large launch vehicles, where pump-fed propulsion enables high propellant-mass-fraction systems. Miniaturized reciprocating pumps, on a scale compatible with KV applications, offer the potential of a lightweight DACS with both high {Delta}v and acceleration capability, while still enabling the rapid pulsing of the divert thrusters needed in the end-game fly-in. Pumped propulsion uses lightweight low-pressure propellant tanks, as the main vehicle structure and eliminates the need for high-pressure gas bottles, reducing mass and increasing the relative propellant load. Prior work used hydrazine and demonstrated a propellant mass fraction >0.8 and a vehicle propulsion dry mass of {approx}3 kg. Our current approach uses the non-toxic propellants 90% hydrogen peroxide and kerosene. This approach enables faster development at lower costs due to the ease of handling. In operational systems these non-toxic propellants can simplify the logistics for manned environments including shipboard applications. This DACS design configuration is expected to achieve sufficient mass flows to support divert thrusters in the 1200 N to 1330 N (270 lbf to 300 lbf) range. The DACS design incorporates two pairs of reciprocating differential piston pumps (oxidizer and fuel), a warm-gas drive system, compatible bi-propellant thrusters, lightweight valves, and lightweight low-pressure propellant tanks. This paper summarizes the current development status and plans.

  11. Inducer analysis/pump model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gary C.

    1994-01-01

    Current design of high performance turbopumps for rocket engines requires effective and robust analytical tools to provide design information in a productive manner. The main goal of this study was to develop a robust and effective computational fluid dynamics (CFD) pump model for general turbopump design and analysis applications. A finite difference Navier-Stokes flow solver, FDNS, which includes an extended k-epsilon turbulence model and appropriate moving zonal interface boundary conditions, was developed to analyze turbulent flows in turbomachinery devices. In the present study, three key components of the turbopump, the inducer, impeller, and diffuser, were investigated by the proposed pump model, and the numerical results were benchmarked by the experimental data provided by Rocketdyne. For the numerical calculation of inducer flows with tip clearance, the turbulence model and grid spacing are very important. Meanwhile, the development of the cross-stream secondary flow, generated by curved blade passage and the flow through tip leakage, has a strong effect on the inducer flow. Hence, the prediction of the inducer performance critically depends on whether the numerical scheme of the pump model can simulate the secondary flow pattern accurately or not. The impeller and diffuser, however, are dominated by pressure-driven flows such that the effects of turbulence model and grid spacing (except near leading and trailing edges of blades) are less sensitive. The present CFD pump model has been proved to be an efficient and robust analytical tool for pump design due to its very compact numerical structure (requiring small memory), fast turnaround computing time, and versatility for different geometries.

  12. Inactivation of Efflux Pumps Abolishes Bacterial Biofilm Formation▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kvist, Malin; Hancock, Viktoria; Klemm, Per

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms cause numerous problems in health care and industry; notably, biofilms are associated with a large number of infections. Biofilm-dwelling bacteria are particularly resistant to antibiotics, making it hard to eradicate biofilm-associated infections. Bacteria rely on efflux pumps to get rid of toxic substances. We discovered that efflux pumps are highly active in bacterial biofilms, thus making efflux pumps attractive targets for antibiofilm measures. A number of efflux pump ...

  13. Design Optimization of Centrifugal Pump Using Radial Basis Function Metamodels

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Zhang; Jinglai Wu; Yunqing Zhang; Liping Chen

    2014-01-01

    Optimization design of centrifugal pump is a typical multiobjective optimization (MOO) problem. This paper presents an MOO design of centrifugal pump with five decision variables and three objective functions, and a set of centrifugal pumps with various impeller shroud shapes are studied by CFD numerical simulations. The important performance indexes for centrifugal pump such as head, efficiency, and required net positive suction head (NPSHr) are investigated, and the results indicate that th...

  14. Monitoring of aquifer pump tests with Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herckenrath, Daan; Auken, Esben; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2009-01-01

    method, which calculates the MRS-signal generated by an aquifer pump test. A synthetic MRS-dataset was subsequently used to determine the hydrogeological parameters in an inverse parameter estimation approach. This was done for a pump test with a partially and fully penetrating well. With the MRS data we...... to pump tests in which a partially penetrating pumping well is used, because the limited drawdown around the extraction well causes smaller changes in received signal compared to a fully penetrating well....

  15. New Discrete Fibonacci Charge Pump Design, Evaluation and Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matoušek David

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the practical aspects of the realisation of Dickson and Fibonacci charge pumps. Standard Dickson charge pump circuit solution and new Fibonacci charge pump implementation are compared. Both charge pumps were designed and then evaluated by LTspice XVII simulations and realised in a discrete form on printed circuit board (PCB. Finally, the key parameters as the output voltage, efficiency, rise time, variable power supply and clock frequency effects were measured.

  16. Pump to signal noise transfer in parametric fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, Toke; Rottwitt, Karsten; Peucheret, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Fiber optic parametric amplifiers have been suggested due to their potential low spontaneous emission. However, by nature the parametric amplifier only work in a forward pumped configuration, which result in transfer of relative intensity noise in the pump to the signal.......Fiber optic parametric amplifiers have been suggested due to their potential low spontaneous emission. However, by nature the parametric amplifier only work in a forward pumped configuration, which result in transfer of relative intensity noise in the pump to the signal....

  17. Heat pump evaluation for Space Station ATCS evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Brian E.; Petete, Patricia A.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility assessment of the application of a vapor compression heat pump to the Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) of SSF is presented. This paper focuses on the methodology of raising the surface temperature of the radiators for improved heat rejection. Some of the effects of the vapor compression cycle on SSF examined include heat pump integration into ATCS, constraints on the heat pump operating parameters, and heat pump performance enhancements.

  18. Flow-Rate-Pressure Characteristics of a Disk Blood Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyavskii, A. M.; Medvedev, A. E.; Prikhodko, Yu. M.; Fomin, V. M.; Fomichev, V. P.; Fomichev, A. V.; Lomanovich, K. A.; Ruzmatov, T. M.; Karas‧kov, A. M.

    2017-11-01

    An experimental model of a disk pump for pumping a liquid has been designed and fabricated. This model was tested on a special stand with the use of a 40% aqueous solution of glycerin whose hydrodynamical characteristics most closely correspond to those of blood. The results obtained lend credence to the view that an implantable blood pump can be developed on the basis of the disk pump.

  19. All-Glass Fiber Amplifier Pumped by Ultra-High Brightness Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-15

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for Public Release: distribution unlimited. All- glass Fiber Amplifier Pumped by Ultra-high Brightness Pumps...temperature profile of the active fiber, assuming perfect heat sinking along its periphery. Even though both inner and outer-clad of the fiber is glass , there...is still an acrylate coating outside the glass clad for fiber handling and protection. Calculation shows that the temperature of the fiber acrylate

  20. Risk Factors of On-Pump Conversion during Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Sil Yoon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG procedures can avoid the complications of an o n-pump b ypass. However, some c ases u nexpectedly require c onversion to c ardiopulmonary b ypass during OPCABG. The risk factors associated with a sudden need for cardiopulmonary bypass were analyzed. Methods: This retrospective study included 283 subjects scheduled for OPCABG from 2001 to 2010. These were divided into an OPCABG group and an on-pump conversion group. Preoperative, operative, and postoperative variables were compared between the 2 groups. Results: Of the 283 patients scheduled for OPCABG, 47 (16% were switched to on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. The mortality of the both the OPCABG and on-pump conversion groups was not significantly different. The major risk factors for conversion to on-pump CABG were congestive heart failure (CHF (odds ratio [OR], 3.5; p=0.029, ejection fraction (EF <35% (OR, 4.4; p=0.012, and preoperative beta-blocker (BB administration (OR, 0.3; p=0.007. The use of intraoperative (p=0.007 and postoperative (p=0.021 inotropics was significantly higher in the conversion group. The amount of postoperative drainage (p<0.001 and transfusion (p<0.001 also was significantly higher in the conversion group. There were no significant differences in stroke or cardiovascular complications between the groups over the course of short-term and long-term follow-up. Conclusion: Patients who undergo OPCABG and have CHF or a lower EF (<35% are more likely to undergo on-pump conversion, while preoperative BB administration could help prevent conversions from OPCABG to on-pump CABG.

  1. Influence of different heating types on the pumping performance of a bubble pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierling, Bernd; Schmid, Fabian; Spindler, Klaus

    2017-11-01

    This study presents an experimental investigation of the influence of different heating types on the pumping performance of a bubble pump. A test rig was set up at the Institute of Thermodynamics and Thermal Engineering (ITW), University of Stuttgart. The vertical lift tube is made of copper with an inner diameter of 8 mm and a length of 1.91 m. The working fluid is demineralized water. The test rig offers the possibility to vary the supplied heat flow (0 W - 750 W), the resulting supplied heat flux and the location of the heating. Investigations were carried out using spot heating, partial-length heating and full-length heating. A Coriolis mass flowmeter was successfully implemented which measures the vapor mass flow rate continuously. The improvement of the vapor mass flow rate measurement by using the continuous measurement method compared to a discontinuous one is discussed. Furthermore, the influence of an unstable inlet temperature of the working fluid entering the lift tube on the pumping performance is investigated. The focus of this publication lies on the build-up of the test rig with the measurement setup and the analysis of the pumping performance for the three heating types. The measurement results show a big influence of the heating type on the pumping performance. The lower the relative length of the heating, the higher is the pumping ratio which is defined as the lifted liquid mass flow rate in relation to the generated vapor mass flow rate.

  2. Phase Sensitive Amplifier Based on Ultrashort Pump Pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Gershikov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a narrow band phase sensitive amplifier in the pump degenerate configuration which employs ps pump pulses. Control of the amplifier bandwidth is achieved via changes of the pump spectral width. A phase sensitive gain between -6 and 6 decibels, with an overall system gain of 28dB was demonstrated.

  3. Contamination of successive samples in portable pumping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert B. Thomas; Rand E. Eads

    1983-01-01

    Automatic discrete sample pumping systems used to monitor water quality should deliver to storage all materials pumped in a given cycle. If they do not, successive samples will be contaminated, a severe problem with highly variable suspended sediment concentrations in small streams. The cross-contamination characteristics of two small commonly used portable pumping...

  4. Performance enhancement of a pump impeller using optimal design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Seok-Yun; Kim, Chul-Kyu; Lee, Sang-Moon; Yoon, Joon-Yong; Jang, Choon-Man

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of a regenerative pump to increase its efficiency using optimal design method. Two design parameters which define the shape of the pump impeller, are introduced and analyzed. Pump performance is evaluated by numerical simulation and design of experiments(DOE). To analyze three-dimensional flow field in the pump, general analysis code, CFX, is used in the present work. Shear stress turbulence model is employed to estimate the eddy viscosity. Experimental apparatus with an open-loop facility is set up for measuring the pump performance. Pump performance, efficiency and pressure, obtained from numerical simulation are validated by comparison with the results of experiments. Throughout the shape optimization of the pump impeller at the operating flow condition, the pump efficiency is successfully increased by 3 percent compared to the reference pump. It is noted that the pressure increase of the optimum pump is mainly caused by higher momentum force generated inside blade passage due to the optimal blade shape. Comparisons of pump internal flow on the reference and optimum pump are also investigated and discussed in detail.

  5. Ion pumping in nanochannels using an asymmetric electrode array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparreboom, Wouter; Cucu, C.F.; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert; Locascio, L.E.; Gaitan, M.; Paegel, B.M.; Ross, D.J.; Vreeland, W.N.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate an ion pump, consisting of a nanochannel with an AC driven asymmetric electrode array. Our system enables us to actively pump ions using a low driving voltage. In all experiments the electrical double layers are overlapping. Via viscous coupling ion pumping is accompanied by liquid

  6. Microfluidic pump based on arrays of rotating magnetic microspheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Beld, Wesley Theodorus Eduardus; de Weerd, Eddy L; Abelmann, Leon; Bomer, Johan G.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Fujii, T.; Hibara, A.; Takeuchi, S.; Fukuba, T.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel, flexible and biocompatible method to pump liquid through microchannels without the use of an external pump. The pumping principle is based on the rotation of superparamagnetic microspheres around permalloy disks, driven by an external in-plane rotating magnetic field. By

  7. Experimental investigation of solar powered diaphragm and helical pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    For several years, many types of solar powered water pumping systems were evaluated, and in this paper, diaphragm and helical solar photovoltaic (PV) powered water pumping systems are discussed. Data were collected on diaphragm and helical pumps which were powered by different solar PV arrays at mul...

  8. Energy Savings Potential for Pumping Water in District Heating Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sarbu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In district heating stations, the heat carrier is circulated between the energy source and consumers by a pumping system. Fluid handling systems, such as pumping systems, are responsible for a significant portion of the total electrical energy use. Significant opportunities exist to reduce pumping energy through smart design, retrofitting, and operating practices. Most existing systems requiring flow control make use of bypass lines, throttling valves or pump speed adjustments. The most efficient of these options is pump speed control. One of the issues in using variable-speed pumping systems, however, is the total efficiency of the electric motor/pump arrangement under a given operating condition. This paper provides a comprehensive discussion about pump control in heating stations and analyzes the energy efficiency of flow control methods. Specific attention is also given to the selection of motor types, sizing and pump duty cycle. A comparative energy analysis is performed on the hot water discharge adjustment using throttling control valves and variable-speed drives in a district heating station constructed in Romania. To correlate the pumped flow rate with the heat demand and to ensure the necessary pressure using minimum energy, an automatic system has been designed. The performances of these control methods are evaluated in two practical applications. The results show that approximately 20%–50% of total pumping energy could be saved by using the optimal control method with variable-speed pumps. Additionally, some modernization solutions to reduce the environmental impact of heating stations are described.

  9. The impacts of groundwater heat pumps on urban shallow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to assess the impacts of groundwater heat pumps on urban shallow groundwater quality in Shenyang China, the urban groundwater samples from pumping and recharging wells of groundwater heat pumps were collected during heating season in the months of November, September, January, February and March ...

  10. How are ion pumps and agrin signaling integrated?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidow, Henning; Aperia, Anita; Nissen, Poul

    2010-01-01

    -potassium pump be connected and regulated? We envision an integrated model of ion pumping and signaling, considering in particular the recently discovered regulation of the sodium-potassium pump by agrin, a protein that is cleaved specifically by neurotrypsin at the synapse. Based on the recently solved...

  11. Performance of a small wind powered water pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentz helical pumps (Henstedt-Ulzburg, Germany) have been powered by solar energy for remote water pumping applications for many years, but from October 2005 to March 2008 a Lorentz helical pump was powered by wind energy at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL) near ...

  12. SUSTAINABILITY ASPECTS OF PROGRESSIVE CAVITY PUMPS USED IN OIL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Stan, Marius

    2013-01-01

    Pump, sucker rod and tubing string wear is directly proportional to the number of revolutions,therefore the use of larger displacement pumps operated at lower speeds can significantly extend equipmentlife. In order to reach the scope of paper is to have analyzed provided well data, well condition and wellconstruction and propose PC Pumping System to meet the applications production and lift requirements

  13. 21 CFR 870.4390 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing. 870.4390... bypass pump tubing. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing is polymeric tubing which is... through the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ...

  14. Public Risk Perceptions towards Oxygenation Pumping in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    . Comparing the level of concern towards oxygenation pumping with impacts of other human activities in and around the Baltic Sea, we find that for 50% of the populations, pumping does not figure as one of the very concerning ac-tivities. Medium- and small-scale pumping is considered by 50% of the pop...

  15. 21 CFR 878.4780 - Powered suction pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered suction pump. 878.4780 Section 878.4780...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4780 Powered suction pump. (a) Identification. A powered suction pump is a portable, AC-powered or compressed air-powered device intended to be...

  16. 21 CFR 884.5150 - Nonpowered breast pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonpowered breast pump. 884.5150 Section 884.5150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5150 Nonpowered breast pump. (a) Identification. A nonpowered breast pump is a manual suction...

  17. Generation of synchronized signal and pump pulses for an optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Synchronized signal (650 ps) and pump (1.3 ns) pulses were generated using. 4-pass geometry in a grating pair based pulse stretcher unit. The pump pulse has been further amplified in a high gain regenerative amplifier. This amplified pulse was used as the pump in an optical parametric chirped pulse ...

  18. 21 CFR 870.1800 - Withdrawal-infusion pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal-infusion pump. 870.1800 Section 870.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... pump. (a) Identification. A withdrawal-infusion pump is a device designed to inject accurately drugs...

  19. 21 CFR 884.5160 - Powered breast pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered breast pump. 884.5160 Section 884.5160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5160 Powered breast pump. (a) Identification. A powered breast pump in an electrically powered...

  20. Heat pump increases utilization of biogas; Varmepumpe gir mer biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroem, Knut

    2009-07-01

    Heat recovery by means of an unique hybrid heat pump will lead to increased production of bio gas at Bekkelaget treatment plant. The heat pump is soon to be installed and will be operative in autumn. The heat pump fetch waste heat from the mouth of a sludge digestion tank. (AG)