WorldWideScience

Sample records for e-area vault package

  1. E-Area Vault Concrete Material Property And Vault Durability/Degradation Projection Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, M. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-03-11

    Subsequent to the 2008 E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC 2008), two additional E-Area vault concrete property testing programs have been conducted (Dixon and Phifer 2010 and SIMCO 2011a) and two additional E-Area vault concrete durability modeling projections have been made (Langton 2009 and SIMCO 2012). All the information/data from these reports has been evaluated and consolidated herein by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) at the request of Solid Waste Management (SWM) to produce E-Area vault concrete hydraulic and physical property data and vault durability/degradation projection recommendations that are adequately justified for use within associated Special Analyses (SAs) and future PA updates. The Low Activity Waste (LAW) and Intermediate Level (IL) Vaults structural degradation predictions produced by Carey 2006 and Peregoy 2006, respectively, which were used as the basis for the 2008 ELLWF PA, remain valid based upon the results of the E-Area vault concrete durability simulations reported by Langton 2009 and those reported by SIMCO 2012. Therefore revised structural degradation predictions are not required so long as the mean thickness of the closure cap overlying the vaults is no greater than that assumed within Carey 2006 and Peregoy 2006. For the LAW Vault structural degradation prediction (Carey 2006), the mean thickness of the overlying closure cap was taken as nine feet. For the IL Vault structural degradation prediction (Peregoy 2006), the mean thickness of the overlying closure cap was taken as eight feet. The mean closure cap thicknesses as described here for both E-Area Vaults will be included as a key input and assumption (I&A) in the next revision to the closure plan for the ELLWF (Phifer et al. 2009). In addition, it has been identified as new input to the PA model to be assessed in the ongoing update to the new PA Information UDQE (Flach 2013). Once the UDQE is approved, the SWM Key I

  2. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.; Hunt, P.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-04-15

    The E-Area Vaults (EAVs) located on a 200 acre site immediately north of the current LLW burial site at Savannah River Site will provide a new disposal and storage site for solid, low-level, non-hazardous radioactive waste. The EAV Disposal Facility will contain several large concrete vaults divided into cells. Three types of structures will house four designated waste types. The Intermediate Level Non-Tritium Vaults will receive waste radiating greater than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container. The Intermediate Level Tritium Vaults will receive waste with at least 10 Ci of tritium per package. These two vaults share a similar design, are adjacent, share waste handling equipment, and will be closed as one facility. The second type of structure is the Low Activity Waste Vaults which will receive waste radiating less than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container and containing less than 10 Ci of tritium per package. The third facility, the Long Lived Waste Storage Building, provides covered, long term storage for waste containing long lived isotopes. Two additional types of disposal are proposed: (1) trench disposal of suspect soil, (2) naval reactor component disposal. To evaluate the long-term performance of the EAVs, site-specific conceptual models were developed to consider: (1) exposure pathways and scenarios of potential importance; (2) potential releases from the facility to the environment; (3) effects of degradation of engineered features; (4) transport in the environment; (5) potential doses received from radionuclides of interest in each vault type.

  3. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public.

  4. Addendum to the composite analysis for the E-Area Vaults and Saltstone Disposal Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-03-13

    This report documents the composite analysis performed on the two active SRS low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility.

  5. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-04-11

    This report is the first revision to ``Radiological Performance Assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility, Revision 0'', which was issued in April 1994 and received conditional DOE approval in September 1994. The title of this report has been changed to conform to the current name of the facility. The revision incorporates improved groundwater modeling methodology, which includes a large data base of site specific geotechnical data, and special Analyses on disposal of cement-based wasteforms and naval wastes, issued after publication of Revision 0.

  6. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility. Appendices A through M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    1994-04-15

    These document contains appendices A-M for the performance assessment. They are A: details of models and assumptions, B: computer codes, C: data tabulation, D: geochemical interactions, E: hydrogeology of the Savannah River Site, F: software QA plans, G: completeness review guide, H: performance assessment peer review panel recommendations, I: suspect soil performance analysis, J: sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, K: vault degradation study, L: description of naval reactor waste disposal, M: porflow input file. (GHH)

  7. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-7, 100-F Miscellaneous Hardware Storage Vault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel

    2006-11-02

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-7, 100-F Miscellaneous Hardware Storage Vault. The site consisted of an inactive solid waste storage vault used for temporary storage of slightly contaminated reactor parts that could be recovered and reused for the 100-F Area reactor operations.

  8. Special Analysis for Disposal of High-Concentration I-129 Waste in the Intermediate-Level Vaults at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, L.B.

    2000-09-26

    This revision was prepared to address comments from DOE-SR that arose following publication of revision 0. This Special Analysis (SA) addresses disposal of wastes with high concentrations of I-129 in the Intermediate-Level (IL) Vaults at the operating, low-level radioactive waste disposal facility (the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility or LLWF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This SA provides limits for disposal in the IL Vaults of high-concentration I-129 wastes, including activated carbon beds from the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), based on their measured, waste-specific Kds.

  9. Additional Information for E-Area Vault Performance Assessment, Appendix I `Suspect Soil Performance` - Results of Modeling the Effects of Organic Matter on the Mobility of Radionuclides as it Relates to the Disposal of Wood Products in E-Area Slit Trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkiz, S.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Myers, J.L.

    1996-04-24

    Numerous laboratory and field studies have shown that the chemical form (i.e., speciation) of many metals and radionuclides is affected by the presence of naturally occurring organic matter (OM) and its degradation products. The effects of OM (e.g., wood products) on the speciation and, therefore, the mobility of Am, Bk, Cf, Cm, Cs, Ni, NpO{sub 2}, Rb, Sr. UO{sub 2}, and Zr were estimated through use of geochemical and groundwater flow modeling. Due to the complex mixture nature of naturally occurring OM, the OM system was simplified through use of surrogate compounds (citric acid and ethylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid (EDTA)) to estimate effects of OM on radionuclide mobility. Using this approach, OM was found to have no effect on the inventory limits for Cs, NpO{sub 2}, Rb and Zr. The inventory limits for the isotopes of Am, Bk, Cf, Cm, Ni, Pd, PuO{sub 2}, Sr, and UO{sub 2} calculated in the presence of OM decreased over a range of 26 percent for U-233 to 48 percent for Pu-240. The information in this report will be included in the next revision of the E-Area Vaults Performance Assessment.

  10. Filigree Vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede; Tamke, Martin; Evers, Henrik Leander

    2017-01-01

    Filigree Vaults takes its point of departure in the use of ceramics in architecture.Today ceramic is in buildings mostly used as uniform modular elements for surface application - bricks and tiles. This project discusses and exemplifies new possibilities for ceramics in architecture, which emerge...

  11. Rupture loop annex ion exchange RLAIX vault deactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, J.E.; Harris, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This engineering report documents the deactivation, stabilization and final conditions of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located northwest of the 309 Building`s Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns, piping debris, and column liquid were removed from the vault, packaged and shipped for disposal. The vault walls and floor were decontaminated, and portions of the vault were painted to fix loose contamination. Process piping and drains were plugged, and the cover blocks and rain cover were installed. Upon closure,the vault was empty, stabilized, isolated.

  12. Vaginal vault prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzoma, Azubuike; Farag, K A

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Vaginal vault prolapse is a common complication following vaginal hysterectomy with negative impact on women's quality of life due to associated urinary, anorectal and sexual dysfunction. A clear understanding of the supporting mechanism for the uterus and vagina is important in making the right choice of corrective procedure. Management should be individualised, taking into consideration the surgeon's experience, patients age, comorbidities, previous surgery and sex life. Result. Preexisting pelvic floor defect prior to hysterectomy is the single most important risk factor for vault prolapse. Various surgical techniques have been advanced at hysterectomy to prevent vault prolapse. Studies have shown the McCall's culdoplasty under direct visualisation to be superior. Vault prolapse repair rely on either the use of patient's tissue or synthetic materials and can be carried out abdominally or vaginally. Sacrospinous fixation and abdominal sacrocolpopexy are the commonly performed procedures, with literature in favour of abdominal sacrocolpopexy over sacrospinous fixation due to its reported higher success rate of about 90%. Other less commonly performed procedures include uterosacral ligament suspension and illiococcygeal fixation, both of which are equally effective, with the former having a high risk of ureteric injury. Colpoclesis will play a greater role in the future as the aging population increases. Mesh procedures are gaining in popularity, and preliminary data from vaginal mesh procedures is encouraging. Laparoscopic techniques require a high level of skill and experience. There are many controversies on the mechanism of prolapse and management techniques, which we have tried to address in this article. Conclusion. As the aging population increases, the incidence of prolapse will also rise, older techniques using native tissue will continue, while new techniques using the mesh needs to be studied further. The later may well be the way forward

  13. Primary Cranial Vault Lymphoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, So Hee; Kim, Myung Soon; Kim, Young Ju [Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju Christian Hospital, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Cranial vault involvement in primary lymphoma is extremely rare in immunocompetent subjects. However, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in the presence of a lesion involving all three compartments of the cranial vault, including the scalp, skull, and pachymeninges. We report a case of primary cranial vault lymphoma involving all three compartments of the cranial vault in an immunocompetent patient.

  14. Designing and building the cork vault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; de Azambuja Varela, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    producing 2 arch experiments, 3 vault prototypes made from plywood, and 2 vaults made from expanded cork agglomerate. The final vault was the result of a competition between student groups and was based on an algorithm prepared by one of the instructors to design a structurally sound, compression-only vault...

  15. Vaginal Vault Prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azubuike Uzoma

    2009-01-01

    Vault prolapse repair rely on either the use of patient's tissue or synthetic materials and can be carried out abdominally or vaginally. Sacrospinous fixation and abdominal sacrocolpopexy are the commonly performed procedures, with literature in favour of abdominal sacrocolpopexy over sacrospinous fixation due to its reported higher success rate of about 90%. Other less commonly performed procedures include uterosacral ligament suspension and illiococcygeal fixation, both of which are equally effective, with the former having a high risk of ureteric injury. Colpoclesis will play a greater role in the future as the aging population increases. Mesh procedures are gaining in popularity, and preliminary data from vaginal mesh procedures is encouraging. Laparoscopic techniques require a high level of skill and experience. There are many controversies on the mechanism of prolapse and management techniques, which we have tried to address in this article. Conclusion. As the aging population increases, the incidence of prolapse will also rise, older techniques using native tissue will continue, while new techniques using the mesh needs to be studied further. The later may well be the way forward in future.

  16. A model for gymnastics vaulting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainis, A

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the motion of a gymnast represented by a planar three-segment link system is developed for the airborne and horse-support phases of vaulting. Four handspring vaults performed by advanced-level female gymnasts were analyzed and the results were used to verify the model. In order to describe observed performance, it was found necessary to consider the period of support on the vaulting horse as being comprised of two distinct phases: a compression phase and a repulsion phase. Solutions of the model are presented graphically enabling the relationships of important variables to be readily observed, and predictions to be made. Good agreement between observed performance and the model was obtained in all cases. The take-off velocity and initial distance from the horse were found to be the principal variables affecting the outcome of the vault. The model indicated that in the case of a good vault, a decrease of 7% in the take-off horizontal speed would cause a reduction of 13% in after-flight distance, and a similar decrease in the vertical speed would produce a 25% reduction in after-flight distance. Also, the force exerted by the performer during the repulsion phase has only a minimal effect on the after-flight characteristics of the vault. The take-off velocity requirements for an excellent vault were investigated for varying take-off distances from the horse. As the distance was decreased, the necessary velocity was decreased, but the angular velocity of the body required during the pre-flight phase was found to increase very rapidly.

  17. Radiological dose assessment for vault storage concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, R.F.

    1997-02-25

    This radiological dose assessment presents neutron and photon dose rates in support of project W-460. Dose rates are provided for a single 3013 container, the ``infloor`` storage vault concept, and the ``cubicle`` storage vault concept.

  18. 49 CFR 192.749 - Vault maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vault maintenance. 192.749 Section 192.749 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.749 Vault maintenance. (a) Each vault...

  19. Movement Regulation of Handsprings on Vault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Thomas; Vinken, Pia M.; Jeraj, Damian; Velentzas, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Visual information is utilized in gymnastics vaulting. The question remains as to which informational sources are used to regulate handspring performance. The purpose of this study was to examine springboard and vaulting table position as informational sources in gymnastics vaulting. The hypothesis tested was that the approach-run and…

  20. Desalination of painted brick vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Klenz

    The subject of the thesis is salt and moisture movement that causes damage to wall paintings on church vaults. The deterioration was studied in the churches of Fanefjord, Kirkerup and Brarup. A desalination method was tested om location. The salt and moisture transfer was examined in detail...

  1. Pre-flight characteristics of Hecht vaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeadon, M R; King, M A; Sprigings, E J

    1998-05-01

    This study reports the techniques used by gymnasts to perform the Hecht vault and compares them with techniques used for the handspring somersault vault (Takei and Kim, 1990). Our main aim was to establish how the pre-flight characteristics of the Hecht vault influence post-flight performance. Data were obtained on 27 elite gymnasts performing the Hecht vault at the 1993 Canadian National Championships using two-dimensional video analysis with the direct linear transformation (DLT) technique. The maximum height reached by the mass centre during post-flight was significantly correlated (P vault, the gymnasts had longer, lower and faster pre-flights with slower rotation at horse contact compared with the handspring somersault vaults.

  2. Hitting the vault board: implications for vaulting take-off--a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coventry, Evan; Sands, William A; Smith, Sarah L

    2006-01-01

    Gymnastics vaulting relies on a specialized take-off board for propulsion during the take-off phase of the vault. There is little information on the vault board and its behaviour. The aim of this study was to characterize the behaviour of the vault board during handspring drill take-offs of young male gymnasts (n = 36). The side of the top surface of the vault board and the wooden base were marked with three reflective markers, placed at the end of the vault board nearest the vault table and the centres of the two rearmost coil springs. The vault board surface was divided into two areas, rear and middle, based on marker location. The gymnasts' groups were determined from the location of the gymnast's lateral malleolus at vault board contact. Landings with the malleolus directly above or behind the rearmost marker were considered rear landings; landings with the malleolus forward of the rearmost marker were considered middle landings. Marker movements were automatically digitized and the right malleolus was hand digitized at 120 Hz. The maximum vertical displacement, vertical deflection time, and vertical velocity at take-off of the vault board markers did not differ statistically between board contact groups (all p > 0.05). The lateral malleolus velocity components also did not differ between board contact groups. Some low to moderately strong correlations were observed between the various marker displacements, durations and take-off velocities. Modest correlations were obtained between board markers and right malleolus velocities. The results indicate that foot contact on the vault board, as defined here, did not result in differences in board marker behaviour or right lateral malleolus velocities. This information does not support the idea that vault board contacts at the rear of the vault board are worse than contacts near the middle of the vault board. More research is needed to ascertain the role of the vault board's vibration characteristics to whole body

  3. Security analysis for fingerprint fuzzy vaults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartloff, Jesse; Bileschi, Maxwell; Tulyakov, Sergey; Dobler, Jimmy; Rudra, Atri; Govindaraju, Venu

    2013-05-01

    In this work we place some of the traditional biometrics work on fingerprint verification via the fuzzy vault scheme within a cryptographic framework. We show that the breaking of a fuzzy vault leads to decoding of Reed-Solomon codes from random errors, which has been proposed as a hard problem in the cryptography community. We provide a security parameter for the fuzzy vault in terms of the decoding problem, which gives context for the breaking of the fuzzy vault, whereas most of the existing literature measures the strength of the fuzzy vault in terms of its resistance to pre-defined attacks or by the entropy of the vault. We keep track of our security parameter, and provide it alongside ROC statistics. We also aim to be more aware of the nature of the fingerprints when placing them in the fuzzy vault, noting that the distribution of minutiae is far from uniformly random. The results we show provide additional support that the fuzzy vault can be a viable scheme for secure fingerprint verification.

  4. Vaults: a ribonucleoprotein particle involved in drug resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mossink, MH; Zon, van A; Scheper, R.J.; Sonneveld, P.; Wiemer, EA

    2003-01-01

    Vaults are ribonucleoprotein particles found in the cytoplasm of eucaryotic cells. The 13 MDa particles are composed of multiple copies of three proteins: an M(r) 100 000 major vault protein (MVP) and two minor vault proteins of M(r) 193 000 (vault poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase) and M(r) 240 000

  5. [Computer tomographic image of the cranial vault].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumair, J; Fochem, K

    1983-06-01

    Imaging of the vault of the cranium via CT must be considered as an additional examination. It is possible to assess the CT image already stored during examination of the brain, without additionally exposing the patient, merely by changing position and breadth of the window. In our opinion, primary indication for CT of the vault of the cranium exists only if diagnosis based on survey remains doubtful. However, examination will always be combined with a representation of the individual strata of the brain. Our studies have also shown that in many cases CT assessment of the vault of the cranium necessarily also involves comparison with the surveys.

  6. Tile vaulting in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. López López

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available New interactive equilibrium methods for the design and analysis of masonry structures have facilitated the construction of masonry structures with a formal language well beyond what is typically associated with compression-only architecture. These developments have also rekindled interest in tile vaulting, and led to a rediscovery of this traditional building technique. To ensure that tile vaults with new, complex shapes can still be built economically, the construction processes involved in the realisation of these structures have adapted. For example, cheaper and simpler falsework systems have been introduced. In addition, a wide variety of materials have been experimented with to be able to build more sustainable vaulted structures with local resources. This paper presents a review of the latest innovations in tile vaulting, based on the most representative works of the past few years with respect to shape, construction method and the use of materials.

  7. Mechanics of pole vaulting: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frère, Julien; L'hermette, Maxime; Slawinski, Jean; Tourny-Chollet, Claire

    2010-06-01

    A good understanding of the mechanics of pole vaulting is fundamental to performance because this event is quite complex, with several factors occurring in sequence and/or in parallel. These factors mainly concern the velocities of the vaulter-pole system, the kinetic and potential energy of the vaulter and the strain energy stored in the pole, the force and torque applied by the athlete, and the pole design. Although the pole vault literature is vast, encompassing several fields such as medicine, sports sciences, mechanics, mathematics, and physics, the studies agree that pole vault performance is basically influenced by the energy exchange between the vaulter and pole. Ideally, as the athlete clears the crossbar, the vaulter mechanical energy must be composed of high potential energy and low kinetic energy, guaranteeing the high vertical component of the vault. Moreover, the force and torque applied by the vaulter influences this energy exchange and these factors thus must be taken into consideration in the analysis of performance. This review presents the variables that influence pole vault performance during the run-up, take-off, pole support, and free flight phases.

  8. Kinematic variables of table vault on artistic gymnastics

    OpenAIRE

    FERNANDES, Sarah Maria Boldrini; Carrara, Paulo; Júlio Cerca SERRÃO; Amadio, Alberto Carlos; MOCHIZUKI, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The table vault is an event of male and female Artistics Gymnastics. Although it can be performed in a variety of rotations and body positions in different phases, it can be separated in three groups: handspring, Yurchenko and Tsukahara. It is believed that kinematic variables of vault may vary according to group of vault or gymnast body position, but few studies compares the real differences among the three groups of vaults, comparing and describing the variables in different phases...

  9. New Regression Models to Evaluate the Relationship between Biomechanics of Gymnastic Vault and Initial Vault Difficulty Values

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atiković, Almir

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this paper was to determine the relationship between biomechanical parameters of vault flights with respect to new models of initial vault difficulty values in men's artistic gymnastic...

  10. Utilities:Water:Water Infrastructure Vaults at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Water:vaults)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents vaults associated with the water infrastructure at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The vaults data were collected using Trimble...

  11. Use of Video Replay in Judging Gymnastics Vaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Jackie

    1980-01-01

    The effectiveness of using video replays to judge gymnastics vaulting was examined by determining reliability of judges' scores and comparing mean scores for original (live) vaults and replays. Statistical analyses suggest that variability of scores was greater after the live vault, and that judges' reliability may be enhanced by replays.…

  12. Kinematic variables of table vault on artistic gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Maria Boldrini FERNANDES

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The table vault is an event of male and female Artistics Gymnastics. Although it can be performed in a variety of rotations and body positions in different phases, it can be separated in three groups: handspring, Yurchenko and Tsukahara. It is believed that kinematic variables of vault may vary according to group of vault or gymnast body position, but few studies compares the real differences among the three groups of vaults, comparing and describing the variables in different phases. Vault kinematic variables could be diversifying according to the approach or position of the vaulting, but little has been studied about the biomechanical differences, comparing and describing behaviours at different stages. The aim of this study was to organize critical, objective and to systematize the most relevant kinematic variables to performance on vaulting. A Meta analysis over the basis Pubmed, Sport Discus and Web of Science were performed about this issue. From the selected references, we described and analyzed the kinematics of the table vault. Vault can be characterized in seven phases of analysis. Most of the studies are descriptive, and some do not descript all phases. Differences among vault variables according to group vaults, technical level and gender were analysed only in recent studies. There still gaps of knowledge about kinematic variables of table vault, in order to provide comprehensive information about all possibilities of vaults in this gymnastic event. It is concluded that kinematic variables of table vault depends upon vault group and may be considered to the improvement of technical performance. More researches are needed to approach the coaching interface with biomechanics applicable knowledge.

  13. Geometric principles in additive systems for construction of vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Thomas Arvid

    2015-01-01

    della Fiore. The Barouque style followed with the domes of Borromini; Bernini and Guarini. The Period of Enlightenment had iconic tunnel- and dome vault projects by Etienne l. Boulée. All these stone vaults were made by additive systems in bricks and mortar. In the 20.th century concrete was introduced......Abstract Vaults and shell constructions are among the most fascinating elements in architecture. Covering large spaces has always been a challenge in architecture and engineering and the vault with curved and double curved form has a special significance. Throughout the history of Christianity....... We wanted to examine vault systems which make use of repetitions of units. The objective was to describe the additive system and isolate the components. The research project started to investigate the vaulting systems of some famous/well known vaults and domes from the history of architecture...

  14. Exploratory Investigation of Impact Loads During the Forward Handspring Vault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penitente, Gabriella; Sands, William A

    2015-06-27

    The purpose of this study was to examine kinematic and kinetic differences in low and high intensity hand support impact loads during a forward handspring vault. A high-speed video camera (500 Hz) and two portable force platforms (500 Hz) were installed on the surface of the vault table. Two-dimensional analyses were conducted on 24 forward handspring vaults performed by 12 senior level, junior Olympic program female gymnasts (16.9 ±1.4 yr; body height 1.60 ±0.1 m; body mass 56.7 ±7.8 kg). Load intensities at impact with the vault table were classified as low (peak force 0.8 × body weight). These vaults were compared via crucial kinetic and kinematic variables using independent t-tests and Pearson correlations. Statistically significant (p vault.

  15. Cranial vault thickness in primates: Homo erectus does not have uniquely thick vault bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copes, Lynn E; Kimbel, William H

    2016-01-01

    Extremely thick cranial vaults have been noted as a diagnostic characteristic of Homo erectus since the first fossil of the species was identified, but relatively little work has been done on elucidating its etiology or variation across fossils, living humans, or extant non-human primates. Cranial vault thickness (CVT) is not a monolithic trait, and the responsiveness of its layers to environmental stimuli is unknown. We obtained measurements of cranial vault thickness in fossil hominins from the literature and supplemented those data with additional measurements taken on African fossil specimens. Total CVT and the thickness of the cortical and diploë layers individually were compared to measures of CVT in extant species measured from more than 500 CT scans of human and non-human primates. Frontal and parietal CVT in fossil primates was compared to a regression of CVT on cranial capacity calculated for extant species. Even after controlling for cranial capacity, African and Asian H. erectus do not have uniquely high frontal or parietal thickness residuals, either among hominins or extant primates. Extant primates with residual CVT thickness similar to or exceeding H. erectus (depending on the sex and bone analyzed) include Nycticebus coucang, Perodicticus potto, Alouatta caraya, Lophocebus albigena, Galago alleni, Mandrillus sphinx, and Propithecus diadema. However, the especially thick vaults of extant non-human primates that overlap with H. erectus values are composed primarily of cortical bone, while H. erectus and other hominins have diploë-dominated vault bones. Thus, the combination of thick vaults comprised of a thickened diploë layer may be a reliable autapomorphy for members of the genus Homo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. MVP and vaults: a role in the radiation response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Martina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vaults are evolutionary highly conserved ribonucleoproteins particles with a hollow barrel-like structure. The main component of vaults represents the 110 kDa major vault protein (MVP, whereas two minor vaults proteins comprise the 193 kDa vault poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (vPARP and the 240 kDa telomerase-associated protein-1 (TEP-1. Additionally, at least one small and untranslated RNA is found as a constitutive component. MVP seems to play an important role in the development of multidrug resistance. This particle has also been implicated in the regulation of several cellular processes including transport mechanisms, signal transmission and immune responses. Vaults are considered a prognostic marker for different cancer types. The level of MVP expression predicts the clinical outcome after chemotherapy in different tumour types. Recently, new roles have been assigned to MVP and vaults including the association with the insulin-like growth factor-1, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, and the two major DNA double-strand break repair machineries: non-homologous endjoining and homologous recombination. Furthermore, MVP has been proposed as a useful prognostic factor associated with radiotherapy resistance. Here, we review these novel actions of vaults and discuss a putative role of MVP and vaults in the response to radiotherapy.

  17. New Regression Models to Evaluate the Relationship between Biomechanics of Gymnastic Vault and Initial Vault Difficulty Values

    OpenAIRE

    Atikovi?, Almir

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this paper was to determine the relationship between biomechanical parameters of vault flights with respect to new models of initial vault difficulty values in men?s artistic gymnastic. The study sample included vaults (n=64) and models (n=5) from the 2009 Code of Points (CoP) of the Federation International of Gymnastics (FIG). The dependent variable included all difficulty values ranging from 2?7.2 points, while the sample of independent variables included twelve biome...

  18. Sea urchin vault structure, composition, and differential localization during development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickey-Sims Carrie

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaults are intriguing ribonucleoprotein assemblies with an unknown function that are conserved among higher eukaryotes. The Pacific coast sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, is an invertebrate model organism that is evolutionarily closer to humans than Drosophila and C. elegans, neither of which possesses vaults. Here we compare the structures of sea urchin and mammalian vaults and analyze the subcellular distribution of vaults during sea urchin embryogenesis. Results The sequence of the sea urchin major vault protein (MVP was assembled from expressed sequence tags and genome traces, and the predicted protein was found to have 64% identity and 81% similarity to rat MVP. Sea urchin MVP includes seven ~50 residue repeats in the N-terminal half of the protein and a predicted coiled coil domain in the C-terminus, as does rat MVP. A cryoelectron microscopy (cryoEM reconstruction of isolated sea urchin vaults reveals the assembly to have a barrel-shaped external structure that is nearly identical to the rat vault structure. Analysis of the molecular composition of the sea urchin vault indicates that it contains components that may be homologs of the mammalian vault RNA component (vRNA and protein components (VPARP and TEP1. The sea urchin vault appears to have additional protein components in the molecular weight range of 14–55 kDa that might correspond to molecular contents. Confocal experiments indicate a dramatic relocalization of MVP from the cytoplasm to the nucleus during sea urchin embryogenesis. Conclusions These results are suggestive of a role for the vault in delivering macromolecules to the nucleus during development.

  19. CLEARANCE OF ARCHIVE TAPE VAULT (BUILDING 186)

    CERN Multimedia

    EP Division

    1999-01-01

    The archive tape vault is being cleared to make way for the LHC experiments silicon facility.Experiments were contacted in February to arrange for the extended storage or destruction of archived volumes. Any who have not yet done so are asked to contactR. Minchin/IT immediately.This is also an opportunity to clear unused tapes or cartridges from around the site and have them destroyed ecologically. Please contact ep.smi.helpdesk@cern.ch to arrange for collection.A.E. Ball/EP-SMI

  20. Cavern/Vault Disposal Concepts and Thermal Calculations for Direct Disposal of 37-PWR Size DPCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clayton, Daniel James [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report provides two sets of calculations not presented in previous reports on the technical feasibility of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) disposal directly in dual-purpose canisters (DPCs): 1) thermal calculations for reference disposal concepts using larger 37-PWR size DPC-based waste packages, and 2) analysis and thermal calculations for underground vault-type storage and eventual disposal of DPCs. The reader is referred to the earlier reports (Hardin et al. 2011, 2012, 2013; Hardin and Voegele 2013) for contextual information on DPC direct disposal alternatives.

  1. Increasing the load bearing capacity of barrel vaults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Just after World War II many barrel vaults and domes were built with a structural system, known as Fusée Ceramique. This paper analyses the load bearing capacity of these vaults. Schemes, theories, idealizations and assumptions are analysed, validated and discussed. Methods to increase the load

  2. Preliminary safety evaluation for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapley, J.E., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-14

    This Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) describes and analyzes the installation and operation of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The SPS is a combination of components required to expedite the safe and timely storage of Plutonium (Pu) oxide. The SPS program will receive site Pu packages, process the Pu for storage, package the Pu into metallic containers, and safely store the containers in a specially modified storage vault. The location of the SPS will be in the 2736- ZB building and the storage vaults will be in the 2736-Z building of the PFP, as shown in Figure 1-1. The SPS will produce storage canisters that are larger than those currently used for Pu storage at the PFP. Therefore, the existing storage areas within the PFP secure vaults will require modification. Other modifications will be performed on the 2736-ZB building complex to facilitate the installation and operation of the SPS.

  3. Cranial vault metastasis of giant cell tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarianni, Christina; Abreo, Fluerette; Nanda, Anil

    2008-08-01

    Giant cell tumors are benign bony tumors involving the epiphysis of long bones. Here, we present a case of giant cell tumor involving the parietal bone that had metastasized from the sacrum. A 36-year-old healthy woman presented to neurosurgery clinic in April 2005 reporting a "bump" over the left parietal area that had been increasing in size over the past 6 months. The lesion was nontender, and the patient had no other associated neurological symptoms. As we have presented here, cranial vault metastases can occur and should be considered in a differential diagnosis of bony lesions found in this location. These distant metastases, although relatively uncommon, must be managed aggressively. Newer radiation treatments seem to be a promising favorable adjunct to wide local resection and should be investigated further for these tumors.

  4. Pilonidal cyst on the vault: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORGES GUILHERME

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilonidal cysts and sinuses are described as dermoid cysts which contain follicles of hairs and sebaceous glands. They clinically present as a classic case of inflammation which comes with pain, local infection and redness. The origin of pilonidal disease remains controverse. There are many hypothesis as lack of hygiene on the affected area and a penetration and growth of a hair in the subcutaneus tissue caused by constant friction or direct trauma on the damaged area. The option for clinical treatment is very frequent. However, taking into consideration the incidence and the possibility of recidive, surgical treatment is presently recommended. Complications include cellulitis and abscess formation. Pilonidal cysts are mostly found on the sacral region. In the literature is found description of pilonidal cysts on the penis, interdigital region on the hands as well as on the cervical region. We present a case of pilonidal cyst located on the vault biparietal region, without malignant degeneration.

  5. Shielding design of the Mayo Clinic Scottsdale cyclotron vault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riper Kenneth A. Van

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mayo Clinic Scottsdale (Scottsdale, Arizona is building a cyclotron vault containing a cyclotron with adjacent targets and a beam line leading to an external target. The targets are irradiated by high energy (15 to 16.5 MeV protons for the production of radioisotopes. We performed Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations to calculate the radiation dose outside of the vault during irradiation of the cyclotron and external targets. We present the Monte Carlo model including the geometry, sources, and variance reduction methods. Mesh tallies surrounding the vault show the external dose rate is within acceptable limits.

  6. New Regression Models to Evaluate the Relationship between Biomechanics of Gymnastic Vault and Initial Vault Difficulty Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiković, Almir

    2012-12-01

    The main objective of this paper was to determine the relationship between biomechanical parameters of vault flights with respect to new models of initial vault difficulty values in men's artistic gymnastic. The study sample included vaults (n=64) and models (n=5) from the 2009 Code of Points (CoP) of the Federation International of Gymnastics (FIG). The dependent variable included all difficulty values ranging from 2-7.2 points, while the sample of independent variables included twelve biomechanical parameters. After implementing the regression analysis, it could be established that the best model derived only the second flight phase with 95% of explained variance.

  7. Kinematic variables of table vault on artistic gymnastics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    FERNANDES, Sarah Maria Boldrini; CARRARA, Paulo; SERRÃO, Júlio Cerca; AMADIO, Alberto Carlos; MOCHIZUKI, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The table vault is an event of male and female Artistics Gymnastics. Although it can be performed in a variety of rotations and body positions in different phases, it can be separated in three groups...

  8. Experimental Analysis of Dynamic Effects of FRP Reinforced Masonry Vaults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Corradi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An increasing interest in the preservation of historic structures has produced a need for new methods for reinforcing curved masonry structures, such as arches and vaults. These structures are generally very ancient, have geometries and materials which are poorly defined and have been exposed to long-term historical movements and actions. Consequently, they are often in need of repair or reinforcement. This article presents the results of an experimental study carried out in the laboratory and during on-site testing to investigate the behaviour of brick masonry vaults under dynamic loading strengthened with FRPs (Fiber Reinforced Polymers. For the laboratory tests, the brick vaults were built with solid sanded clay bricks and weak mortar and were tested under dynamic loading. The experimental tests were designed to facilitate analysis of the dynamic behaviour of undamaged, damaged and reinforced vaulted structures. On-site tests were carried out on an earthquake-damaged thin brick vault of an 18th century aristocratic residence in the city of L’Aquila, Italy. The provision of FRP reinforcement is shown to re-establish elastic behavior previously compromised by time induced damage in the vaults.

  9. Optimal technique for maximal forward rotating vaults in men's gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiley, Michael J; Jackson, Monique I; Yeadon, Maurice R

    2015-08-01

    In vaulting a gymnast must generate sufficient linear and angular momentum during the approach and table contact to complete the rotational requirements in the post-flight phase. This study investigated the optimization of table touchdown conditions and table contact technique for the maximization of rotation potential for forwards rotating vaults. A planar seven-segment torque-driven computer simulation model of the contact phase in vaulting was evaluated by varying joint torque activation time histories to match three performances of a handspring double somersault vault by an elite gymnast. The closest matching simulation was used as a starting point to maximize post-flight rotation potential (the product of angular momentum and flight time) for a forwards rotating vault. It was found that the maximized rotation potential was sufficient to produce a handspring double piked somersault vault. The corresponding optimal touchdown configuration exhibited hip flexion in contrast to the hyperextended configuration required for maximal height. Increasing touchdown velocity and angular momentum lead to additional post-flight rotation potential. By increasing the horizontal velocity at table touchdown, within limits obtained from recorded performances, the handspring double somersault tucked with one and a half twists, and the handspring triple somersault tucked became theoretically possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental Analysis of Dynamic Effects of FRP Reinforced Masonry Vaults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Marco; Borri, Antonio; Castori, Giulio; Coventry, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    An increasing interest in the preservation of historic structures has produced a need for new methods for reinforcing curved masonry structures, such as arches and vaults. These structures are generally very ancient, have geometries and materials which are poorly defined and have been exposed to long-term historical movements and actions. Consequently, they are often in need of repair or reinforcement. This article presents the results of an experimental study carried out in the laboratory and during on-site testing to investigate the behaviour of brick masonry vaults under dynamic loading strengthened with FRPs (Fiber Reinforced Polymers). For the laboratory tests, the brick vaults were built with solid sanded clay bricks and weak mortar and were tested under dynamic loading. The experimental tests were designed to facilitate analysis of the dynamic behaviour of undamaged, damaged and reinforced vaulted structures. On-site tests were carried out on an earthquake-damaged thin brick vault of an 18th century aristocratic residence in the city of L’Aquila, Italy. The provision of FRP reinforcement is shown to re-establish elastic behavior previously compromised by time induced damage in the vaults. PMID:28793697

  11. Studing cranial vault modifications in ancient Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiesler, Vera

    2012-01-01

    The artificial modification of infant cranial vaults through massages or by means of constriction and compression devices constitutes a readily visible, permanent body modification that has been employed cross-culturally to express identity, ethnicity, beauty, status and gender. For those ancient societies that staged head shaping, these cultural correlates may be ascertained by examining cranial shapes together with other data sets from the archaeological record. Studies of skulls modified for cultural reasons also provide important clues for understanding principles in neural growth and physiopathological variation in cranial expansion. This paper focuses on head shaping techniques in Mesoamerica, where the practice was deeply rooted and widespread before the European conquest. It provides a comprehensive review of the Mesoamericanistic research on shaping techniques, implements and taxonomies. An up-dated, interdisciplinary examination of the physiological implications and the cultural meanings of artificially produced head shapes in different times and culture areas within Mesoamerica leads to a discussion of the scope, caveats, and future directions involved in this kind of research in the region and beyond.

  12. Dynamic optimization: inverse analysis for the Yurchenko layout vault in women's artistic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Michael T H; Jennings, Leslie S

    2003-08-01

    The use of dynamic optimization to compute the trajectory of joint torques is not popular due to the large amount of computation required, the choice of initial "guesstimates" of torque values and the mathematical sophistication required to understand the technique. Modern optimal control algorithms circumvent most of these objections to the method. It is our aim to demonstrate that the dynamic optimization technique is feasible for complex movements, using the Yurchenko layout vault as an example. A dynamic optimization method to compute joint torques so that the histories of the angular orientations of the model segments closely approximate the corresponding observed angular coordinate histories is demonstrated with the Yurchenko layout vault using an optimal control package. The objective function used is a measure of distance of fitted segment angles to the data, plus the distance of the fitted whole body centre of mass (CM), from the whole body CM computed from the data. Including the CM into the objective function, facilitates the optimization process so as to obtain a set of torques which reproduced the data. The paper shows that the approach works well for the task examined, that is, where the dynamics of the system change during a movement (impact to postflight).

  13. Is the tongue position influenced by the palatal vault dimensions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdiol, P; Mishellany-Dutour, A; Abou-El-Karam, S; Nicolas, E; Woda, A

    2010-02-01

    The influence of the palatal vault dimensions on tongue position is here studied through evaluation of the in-mouth air cavity (IMAC) volume when the mandible is in maximal intercuspal position. A sample of 35 women (mean age 21.2 +/- 1.0) and 15 men (mean age 22.1 +/- 0.9) was selected. The sagittal cross-section area of the IMAC, which is modulated by the tongue position, was measured on lateral cephalograms. Dental casts were used to measure the palatal vault volume, which was defined by the occlusal plane, the hard palate and the posterior face of the second molars. Palatal vault volume allowed deduction of the IMAC volume through a rule of three procedure relating volume to area ratios. No IMAC could be calculated from cephalograms of 10 subjects who had the tongue stuck to the palate. For the 40 other subjects, the IMAC volume was 8.9 +/- 4.8 mL. It was 2 mL larger in men (n = 14) than in women (n = 26) and was the largest in skeletal Class III and the smallest in skeletal Class II (P > 0.05). IMAC volume was strongly correlated with palatal vault height but neither with palatal width nor length. It was thus assumed that the height of the palatal vault could influence the most observed position of the tongue but this does not exclude a possible growth influence of the tongue on its surrounding skeletal structures.

  14. Nondestructive Analysis of MET-5 Paint Can at TA35 Building 2 A-Wing Vault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desimone, David J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vo, Duc Ta [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-03

    In Building 2 A-wing vault MET-5 has some drums and other packages they wanted NEN-1 help identifying nondestructively. Measurements using a mechanically cooled portable high-purity germanium HPGe Ortec detective were taken of a paint can container labeled DU-2A to determine if any radioactive material was inside. The HPGe detector measures the gamma rays emitted by radioactive material and displays it as a spectrum. The spectrum is used to identify this radioactive material by using appropriate analysis software and identifying the gamma ray peaks. A paint can container, DU-2A, was analyzed with PeakEasy 4.84 and FRAM 5.2. The FRAM report is shown. The enrichment is 0.091% U235 and 99.907% U238. This material is depleted uranium. The measurement was performed in the near field, and to extract a mass a far field measurement will need to be taken.

  15. Strategies in preflight for an optimal Yurchenko layout vault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Michael; Jennings, Les

    2007-01-01

    An optimal Yurchenko layout vault of an elite female gymnast was identified by Koh et al. [2003. A predicted optimal performance of the Yurchenko layout vault in women's artistic gymnastics. Journal of Applied Biomechanics 19, 187-204] to require a combination of an increased body angle at horse contact and increased angular momentum for postflight than was recorded experimentally. However, the individual effect of each of these variables to producing the optimal vault is not known. The purpose of the study was to determine an appropriate strategy to teaching the optimal Yurchenko layout vault. Separate optimisations were carried out to investigate how each of these variables would change in order to produce the optimal vault identified by Koh et al. (2003). A combined optimal parameter selection and optimal control approach was used. The results suggest that when the body angle of attack at horse impact was kept low, pre-flight angular momentum had to be increased, with further gains during horse impact, to produce an optimal vault. This strategy of increasing solely the level of angular momentum needed for optimum postflight may not be attainable realistically. On the other hand, employing a larger body angle of attack required an increase in angular momentum during impact but which was attainable. Both optimisations show that increasing the vertical CM horse takeoff velocity is essential for postflight height and distance. The strategy to enhance performance should thus focus on maintaining an appropriate CM pre-flight velocity, a high level of angular momentum during pre-flight and to contact the horse with a large body angle of attack.

  16. The Guastavinos and tile vaults in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Ochsendorf, John

    2005-01-01

    Rafael Guastavino Moreno (1842-1908) and his son Rafael Guastavino Expósito (1872-1950) gained fame for having built tile vaults in over 1,000 significant buildings in the United States from the 1880s to the 1940s (Figure 1). Engineering and architecture historians have shown a growing interest in their oeuvre in recent years. This paper discusses the Guastavinos' work in its historic context, illustrating the technical innovations they introduced. The objective is to show that these vaults o...

  17. Sediment Properties: E-Area Completion Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millings, M.; Bagwell, L.; Amidon, M.; Dixon, K.

    2011-04-29

    To accommodate a future need for additional waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site, the Solid Waste Management Division (SWMD) designated nine additional plots for development (Kasraii 2007; SRS 2010); these plots are collectively known as the E Area Completion Project (ECP). Subsurface samples were collected from ECP plots 6, 7, 8 and 9 (Figure 1) for chemical and physical property analyses to support Performance Assessment (PA) and Special Analyses (SA) modeling. This document summarizes the sampling and analysis scheme and the resultant data, and provides interpretations of the data particularly in reference to existing soil property data. Analytical data in this document include: gamma log, cone penetrometer log, grain size (sieve and hydrometer), water retention, saturated hydraulic conductivity (falling head permeameter), porosity, dry bulk density, total organic carbon, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray fluorescence data. SRNL provided technical and safety oversight for the fieldwork, which included completion of eight soil borings, four geophysical logs, and the collection of 522 feet of core and 33 Shelby tubes from ECP plots 6, 7, 8, and 9. Boart Longyear provided sonic drilling and logging services. Two soil borings were completed at each location. The first set of boreholes extended into (but did not fully penetrate) the Warley Hill Formation. These boreholes were continuously cored, then geophysically (gamma ray) logged. The recovered core was split, photographed, and described; one half of the core was archived at SRS's Core Lab facilities, and the remaining half was consumed as necessary for testing at SRS and off-site labs. Core descriptions and geophysical data were used to calculate target elevations for Shelby tube samples, which were obtained from the second set of boreholes. Shelby tubes were shipped to MACTEC Engineering and Consulting Inc. (MACTEC) in Atlanta for physical property testing. SRNL deployed their Site

  18. Vault prolapse treated by sacrocolpopexy | Cronjé | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate the success rate of sacrocolpopexy in 153 patients with stage 3 and 4 vault prolapse. Methods. A retrospective review was done on 153 patient records from a database in a urogynaecological unit. For the sacrocolpopexy procedure, semi-absorbable mesh was placed along the anterior and posterior vaginal ...

  19. Material control and surveillance for high frequency access vaults project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmire, V. L. (Victoria L.); Stevens, R. S. (Rebecca S.); Martinez, B. J. (Benny J.); Butler, G. W. (Gilbert W.); Huang, J. Y. (John Y.); Pickett, C. (Chris); Younkin, J. (James); Dunnigan, Janelle; Gaby, Jane; Lawson, R. (Roger)

    2004-01-01

    The 'Material Control and Surveillance for High Frequency Access Vaults' project sponsored by United States Department of Energy's Office of Security Policy, Policy Integration and Technical Support Program (SO-20.3) focuses on enhancing nuclear materials control and surveillance in vaults that are frequently accessed. The focus of this effort is to improve materials control and accountability (MC&A) while decreasing the operational impact of these activities. Los Alamos and Y-12 have developed a testbed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for evaluating and demonstrating integrated technologies for use in enhancing materials control and accountability in active nuclear material storage vaults. An update will be provided on the new systems demonstrated in the test-bed including a 'confirmatory cart' for expediting the performance of inventory and radio-frequency actuated video that demonstrates the concept of automated data entry for materials moving between MBA's. The United States Department of Energy's Office of Security Policy, Policy Integration and Technical Support Program (SO-20.3) has sponsored a project where nuclear material inventory, control and surveillance systems are evaluated, developed, and demonstrated in an effort to provide technologies that reduce risk, increase material assurance, and provide cost-efficient alternatives to manpower-intensive physical inventory and surveillance approaches for working (high-frequency-access) vaults. This Fiscal Year has been largely focused on evaluating and developing components of two sub-systems that could be used either separately in nuclear material vaults or as part of a larger integrated system for nuclear materials accountability, control and surveillance.

  20. Special Analysis: Revision of Saltstone Vault 4 Disposal Limits (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J

    2005-05-26

    New disposal limits have been computed for Vault 4 of the Saltstone Disposal Facility based on several revisions to the models in the existing Performance Assessment and the Special Analysis issued in 2002. The most important changes are the use of a more rigorous groundwater flow and transport model, and consideration of radon emanation. Other revisions include refinement of the aquifer mesh to more accurately model the footprint of the vault, a new plutonium chemistry model accounting for the different transport properties of oxidation states III/IV and V/VI, use of variable infiltration rates to simulate degradation of the closure system, explicit calculation of gaseous releases and consideration of the effects of settlement and seismic activity on the vault structure. The disposal limits have been compared with the projected total inventory expected to be disposed in Vault 4. The resulting sum-of-fractions of the 1000-year disposal limits is 0.2, which indicates that the performance objectives and requirements of DOE 435.1 will not be exceeded. This SA has not altered the conceptual model (i.e., migration of radionuclides from the Saltstone waste form and Vault 4 to the environment via the processes of diffusion and advection) of the Saltstone PA (MMES 1992) nor has it altered the conclusions of the PA (i.e., disposal of the proposed waste in the SDF will meet DOE performance measures). Thus a PA revision is not required and this SA serves to update the disposal limits for Vault 4. In addition, projected doses have been calculated for comparison with the performance objectives laid out in 10 CFR 61. These doses are 0.05 mrem/year to a member of the public and 21.5 mrem/year to an inadvertent intruder in the resident scenario over a 10,000-year time-frame, which demonstrates that the 10 CFR 61 performance objectives will not be exceeded. This SA supplements the Saltstone PA and supersedes the two previous SAs (Cook et al. 2002; Cook and Kaplan 2003).

  1. Efflux kinetics and intracellular distribution of daunorubicin are not affected by major vault protein/lung resistance-related protein (vault) expression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zon, van A; Mossink, MH; Schoester, M.; Scheper, R.J.; Sonneveld, P.; Wiemer, EA

    2004-01-01

    Vaults may contribute to multidrug resistance by transporting drugs away from their subcellular targets. To study the involvement of vaults in the extrusion of anthracyclines from the nucleus, we investigated the handling of daunorubicin by drug-sensitive and drug-resistant non-small lung cancer

  2. Neutron field inside a PET Cyclotron vault room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H.R. [UAZ, C. Cipres 10, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Mendez, R. [CIEMAT, Ave. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Iniguez, M.P. [Universidad de Valladolid, Po Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Climent, J.M.; Penuelas, I. [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear de la Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Barquero, R. [Hospital Universitario Rio Hortega, Valladolid (Spain)]. e-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com

    2006-07-01

    The neutron field around a Positron Emission Tomography cyclotron was investigated during {sup 18} F radioisotope production with an 18 MeV proton beam. In this study the Ion Beam Application cyclotron, model Cyclone 18/9, was utilized. Measurements were carried out with a Bonner sphere neutron spectrometer with pairs of thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD600 and TLD700) as thermal neutron detector. The TLDs readouts were utilized to unfold the neutron spectra at three different positions inside the cyclotron's vault room. With the spectra the Ambient dose equivalent was calculated. Neutron spectra unfolding were performed with the BUNKIUT code and the UTA4 response matrix. Neutron spectra were also determined by Monte Carlo calculations using a detailed model of cyclotron and vault room. (Author)

  3. Accounting for cranial vault growth in experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Stephanie M; Matic, Damir B; Holdsworth, David W

    2014-05-01

    Earlier studies have not accounted for continued growth when using the rat calvarial defect model to evaluate bone healing in vivo. The purpose of this study was: 1) to calculate rat cranial vault growth over time; and 2) to determine the effects of accounting for growth on defect healing. Bilateral parietal defects were created in 10 adult Wistar rats. Serial microscopic computerized tomography scans were performed. Bone mineral content (BMC) measured according to standard technique and repeated accounting for cranial growth over time was compared with the use of parametric and nonparametric tests. Cranial vault growth continued through 22 weeks of age, increasing 7.5% in width and 9.1% in length, and calvarial defects expanded proportionately. BMC was greater within defects accounting for growth 2-12 weeks postoperatively (P accounting for cranial growth given advances in serial imaging techniques. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Packaging fluency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocanu, Ana; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Bogomolova, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Research on packaging stresses the need for packaging design to read easily, presuming fast and accurate processing of product-related information. In this paper we define this property of packaging as “packaging fluency”. Based on the existing marketing and cognitive psychology literature...

  5. Microelectronic packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, M; Schultze, J Walter

    2004-01-01

    Microelectronic Packaging analyzes the massive impact of electrochemical technologies on various levels of microelectronic packaging. Traditionally, interconnections within a chip were considered outside the realm of packaging technologies, but this book emphasizes the importance of chip wiring as a key aspect of microelectronic packaging, and focuses on electrochemical processing as an enabler of advanced chip metallization.Divided into five parts, the book begins by outlining the basics of electrochemical processing, defining the microelectronic packaging hierarchy, and emphasizing the impac

  6. A Comparison of Upper-Extremity Reaction Forces between the Yurchenko Vault and Floor Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Kirk Seeley; Eadric Bressel

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine reaction forces transmitted to the upper extremities of high-level gymnasts during the round-off phase of the Yurchenko vault. A secondary purpose of this study was to compare reaction forces during the Yurchenko vault to reaction forces observed in a tumbling pass during the floor exercise. Ten high-level, female gymnasts volunteered to participate. Conditions of the independent variable were the Yurchenko vault and floor exercise; dependent variables...

  7. The effect of plyometric training on handspring vault performance in adolescent female gymnasts

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Emma; Bishop, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the huge amount of force exerted by both the upper and lower extremity musculature in gymnastic vaulting, there is scant research investigating the benefits that plyometric training can induce. The handspring vault is of paramount importance for a gymnast’s vaulting development, and requires both technical skill and power production to achieve success. The aim of this study was to determine the effects that plyometric training can have when added to habitual training on hands...

  8. E AREA LOW LEVEL WASTE FACILITY DOE 435.1 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, E

    2008-03-31

    , situated immediately north of the Mixed Waste Management Facility. The E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility is comprised of 200 acres for waste disposal and a surrounding buffer zone that extends out to the 100-m point of compliance. Disposal units within the footprint of the low-level waste facilities include the Slit Trenches, Engineered Trenches, Component-in-Grout Trenches, the Low-Activity Waste Vault, the Intermediate-Level Vault, and the Naval Reactor Component Disposal Area. Radiological waste disposal operations at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility began in 1994. E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility closure will be conducted in three phases: operational closure, interim closure, and final closure. Operational closure will be conducted during the 25-year operation period (30-year period for Slit and Engineered Trenches) as disposal units are filled; interim closure measures will be taken for some units. Interim closure will take place following the end of operations and will consist of an area-wide runoff cover along with additional grading over the trench units. Final closure of all disposal units in the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility will take place at the end of the 100-year institutional control period and will consist of the installation of an integrated closure system designed to minimize moisture contact with the waste and to serve as a deterrent to intruders. Radiological dose to human receptors is analyzed in this PA in the all-pathways analysis, the inadvertent intruder analysis and the air pathway analysis, and the results are compared to the relevant performance measures. For the all-pathways analysis, the performance measure of relevance is a 25-mrem/yr EDE to representative members of the public, excluding dose from radon and its progeny in air. For the inadvertent intruder, the applicable performance measures are 100-mrem/yr EDE and 500 mrem/yr EDE for chronic and exposure scenarios, respectively. The relevant performance measure for the air pathway is 10

  9. SnoVault and encodeD: A novel object-based storage system and applications to ENCODE metadata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitz, Benjamin C; Rowe, Laurence D; Podduturi, Nikhil R; Glick, David I; Baymuradov, Ulugbek K; Malladi, Venkat S; Chan, Esther T; Davidson, Jean M; Gabdank, Idan; Narayana, Aditi K; Onate, Kathrina C; Hilton, Jason; Ho, Marcus C; Lee, Brian T; Miyasato, Stuart R; Dreszer, Timothy R; Sloan, Cricket A; Strattan, J Seth; Tanaka, Forrest Y; Hong, Eurie L; Cherry, J Michael

    2017-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of DNA elements (ENCODE) project is an ongoing collaborative effort to create a comprehensive catalog of functional elements initiated shortly after the completion of the Human Genome Project. The current database exceeds 6500 experiments across more than 450 cell lines and tissues using a wide array of experimental techniques to study the chromatin structure, regulatory and transcriptional landscape of the H. sapiens and M. musculus genomes. All ENCODE experimental data, metadata, and associated computational analyses are submitted to the ENCODE Data Coordination Center (DCC) for validation, tracking, storage, unified processing, and distribution to community resources and the scientific community. As the volume of data increases, the identification and organization of experimental details becomes increasingly intricate and demands careful curation. The ENCODE DCC has created a general purpose software system, known as SnoVault, that supports metadata and file submission, a database used for metadata storage, web pages for displaying the metadata and a robust API for querying the metadata. The software is fully open-source, code and installation instructions can be found at: http://github.com/ENCODE-DCC/snovault/ (for the generic database) and http://github.com/ENCODE-DCC/encoded/ to store genomic data in the manner of ENCODE. The core database engine, SnoVault (which is completely independent of ENCODE, genomic data, or bioinformatic data) has been released as a separate Python package.

  10. MEMS packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu , Tai-Ran

    2004-01-01

    MEMS Packaging discusses the prevalent practices and enabling techniques in assembly, packaging and testing of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The entire spectrum of assembly, packaging and testing of MEMS and microsystems, from essential enabling technologies to applications in key industries of life sciences, telecommunications and aerospace engineering is covered. Other topics included are bonding and sealing of microcomponents, process flow of MEMS and microsystems packaging, automated microassembly, and testing and design for testing.The Institution of Engineering and Technology is

  11. An automated magnetic tape vault at CERN computer center

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2008-01-01

    The rapidly changing data processing landscape the underlying long-term storage technology remains the tried and tested magnetic tape. This robust and mature technology is used to store the complete LHC data set, from which a fraction of the data is copied to overlying disk caches for fast and widespread access. The handling of the magnetic tape cartridges is now fully automated, as they are racked in vaults where they are moved between the storage shelves and the tape drives by robotic arms.

  12. Effect of Materials and Manufacturing on the Bending Stiffness of Vaulting Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C. L.; Kukureka, S. N.

    2012-01-01

    The increase in the world record height achieved in pole vaulting can be related to the improved ability of the athletes, in terms of their fitness and technique, and to the change in materials used to construct the pole. For example in 1960 there was a change in vaulting pole construction from bamboo to glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP)…

  13. Risk Management in the Original Extreme Sporting Event: The Pole Vault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiller, Jim; Hardin, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The pole vault was considered the ultimate test of physical ability and daring before the advent of modern extreme sports such as skateboarding, snowboarding, and mountain biking. The inherent risks of the pole vault have been well documented. The National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research reported in 2007 that the catastrophic injury…

  14. Fusée ceramic vaults and domes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the fusée Ceramique vaults and domes constructed in The Netherlands just after World War II and describes the technique of construction as well as the advantages and disadvantages. Using only a minimum of concrete and steel, the environmental load of the vaults is

  15. The "Akopian" vault performed by elite male gymnasts: Which biomechanical variables are related to a judge's score?

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Farana; Jaroslav Uchytil; David Zahradník; Daniel Jandačka

    2015-01-01

    Background: A vaulting performance takes a short time and it is influenced by and affects the quantity of mechanical variables. The significant relationships between the vaulting score and specific aspects of the gymnast's vault should conduct coaches to monitor these variables as a part of training or routine testing. Objective: The aim of the current study was to determine the biomechanical variables that are related to a successful performance of the Akopian vaults performed by top level m...

  16. Novel Technique for the UX15 Cavern Vault Support System

    CERN Document Server

    Rammer, H

    2000-01-01

    The overall LHC project schedule requires the civil engineering work to begin before the final LEP shutdown. The new caverns for the ATLAS experiment will be built in and around the existing underground structures at point 1. In order to make the best possible use of the time available for the LHC civil engineering before the shutdown of LEP, a particular arrangement for the construction of the UX15 cavern vault has been developed. The basic concept of this arrangement consists of the excavation of the cavern top heading and the installation of the concrete vault immediately afterwards, prior to the subsequent bench excavation after LEP shutdown. A temporary support of the dead weight of the concrete roof will be achieved by the suspension of the roof by 38 no. pre-stressed ground anchors of 225 tons capacity each. This support system will work up to the construction of the cavern base slab and walls and the completion of the permanent concrete lining.

  17. Comparative Tests Between Shallow Downhole Installation and Classical Seismic Vaults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charade, Olivier; Vergne, Jérôme; Bonaimé, Sébastien; Bonnin, Mickaël; Louis-Xavier, Thierry; Beucler, Eric; Manhaval, Bertrand; Arnold, Benoît

    2016-04-01

    The French permanent broadband network is engaged in a major evolution with the installation of a hundred of new stations within the forthcoming years. Since most of them will be located in open field environments, we are looking for a standardized installation method able to provide good noise level performance at a reasonable cost. Nowadays, the use of posthole seismometers that can be deployed at the bottom of shallow boreholes appears to be an affordable and alternative solution to more traditional installation methods such as seismic vaults or dedicated underground cellars. Here we present some comparative tests performed at different sites (including two GEOSCOPE stations), spanning various geological conditions. On each site, posthole sensors were deployed for several weeks to months at various depths from 1.5m up to 20m. We compare the seismic noise levels measured in the different boreholes with the one for a reference sensor either directly buried or installed in a tunnel, a cellar or a seismic vault. Apart from the microseism frequency band, seismic noise level in most of the boreholes equals or outperforms the one obtained for the reference sensors. At periods higher than 20s we observe a strong reduction of the seismic noise on the horizontal components in the deepest boreholes compared to near surface installations. This improvement can reach up to 30dB and appears to be mostly due to a reduction in tilt noise induced by wind or local pressure variations. However, the absolute noise level that can be achieved strongly depends on the local geology.

  18. A Comparison of Upper-Extremity Reaction Forces between the Yurchenko Vault and Floor Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Matthew K; Bressel, Eadric

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine reaction forces transmitted to the upper extremities of high-level gymnasts during the round-off phase of the Yurchenko vault. A secondary purpose of this study was to compare reaction forces during the Yurchenko vault to reaction forces observed in a tumbling pass during the floor exercise. Ten high-level, female gymnasts volunteered to participate. Conditions of the independent variable were the Yurchenko vault and floor exercise; dependent variables were peak vertical and peak anterior-posterior reaction forces. Each participant performed three trials of both conditions with the trail hand contacting a force platform. Vertical and anterior-posterior reaction forces, normalized to body weight, were greater (p vault (2.38) than during the floor exercise round-off (2.15). Vertical reaction forces during the round-off phase of the Yurchenko vault and floor exercise round-off are similar to reaction forces transmitted to upper extremities during other gymnastic skills and ground reaction forces transmitted to lower extremities while running and walking at various speeds. Results of this study reveal a need for further research considering methods aimed at reducing reaction forces transmitted to the upper extremities during the Yurchenko vault and floor exercise. Key PointsDespite high difficulty and increased risk, a dearth of information exists concerning reaction forces transmitted to upper-extremities of high-level gymnasts performing the Yurchenko vault.Reaction forces experienced by high-level gymnasts performing the Yurchenko vault are relatively high; aforementioned forces are comparable to forces transmitted to lower-extremities during various activities and may be responsible for upper-extremity injury.Reaction forces observed during this study will serve as a baseline in the evaluation of methods purporting to reduce forces transmitted to upper-extremities during the Yurchenko vault.

  19. Target-directed running in gymnastics: a preliminary exploration of vaulting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Research to date has demonstrated the importance of running speed and an accurate take-off on gymnastics vaulting performance (Krug et al., 1998; Bohne et al., 2000). Current training practice for gymnastics vaulting is to stereotype the 15-25 m run-ups to the board, which assumes that a fast and reliable approach is best controlled predominantly without visual feedback. Incidences where gymnasts make errors during their run-ups, often landing onto the back of the board, occur frequently, even at the international level. The standard deviation method (e.g. Lee et al., 1982) for identifying visual regulation in long jump run-ups was employed in this first exploration of gymnastics vaulting to examine whether visual regulation processes are utilised. Secondly, the question of how a small number of gymnasts can run fast during the approach and perform more difficult vaults was addressed. Five elite female gymnasts aged 13-15 years performed five round-off entry vaults. One panning 50 Hz video camera recorded each trial from an elevated platform to evaluate the approach step, hurdle, and round-off characteristics, whilst two 250 Hz cameras recorded vaulting performance. Two qualified judges viewed each vaulting trial and provided a performance score. A precursor for a fast take-off from the board when vaulting is to utilise vision early to control the approach kinematics (p = 0.02). High take-off velocity was directly related to judge's score (p = 0.03). Coaches need to supplement gymnasts' vault training to include exercises that improve the gymnasts' ability to visually regulate their gait pattern whilst running.

  20. Health physics challenges involved with opening a "seventeen-inch" concrete waste vault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patrick T; Pizzulli, Michelle

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the various activities involved with opening a sealed legacy "Seventeen-inch" concrete vault and the health physics challenges and solutions employed. As part of a legacy waste stream that was removed from the former Hazardous Waste Management Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the "Seventeen-inch" concrete vault labeled 1-95 was moved to the new Waste Management Facility for ultimate disposal. Because the vault contained 239Pu foils with a total activity in excess of the transuranic waste limits, the foils needed to be removed and repackaged for disposal. Conventional diamond wire saws could not be used because of facility constraints, so this project relied mainly on manual techniques. The planning and engineering controls put in place enabled personnel to open the vault and remove the waste while keeping dose as low as reasonably achievable.

  1. Vault Safety and Inventory System users manual, PRIME 2350. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downey, N.J.

    1994-12-14

    This revision is issued to request review of the attached document: VSIS User Manual, PRIME 2350, which provides user information for the operation of the VSIS (Vault Safety and Inventory System). It describes operational aspects of Prime 2350 minicomputer and vault data acquisition equipment. It also describes the User`s Main Menu and menu functions, including REPORTS. Also, system procedures for the Prime 2350 minicomputer are covered.

  2. The Application of Carbon Composites in the Rehabilitation of Historic Baroque Vaults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Witzany

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The stabilization and reinforcement of damaged barrel vaults with lunettes over an arcaded walk, applying composite strips based on high-strength carbon fibers and epoxy resin, was performed during the restoration of a historic monastery. The application of reinforcing composite strips in the soffit of damaged barrel vaults was preceded by relatively extensive experimental research and theoretical analyses. This method significantly reduces the interventions into and the degradation of the original historic structure (surface application and is reversible.

  3. Analysis of Risk Factors for Post-Hysterectomy Vaginal Vault Prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Kuntay kuntay Kokanali

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Vault prolapse after hysterectomy is a relatively rare complication. Elderly age, obesity, chronic obstructive lung diseases, prior genital prolapse sugery, vaginal hysterectomy, genital prolapse as indication of hysterectomy and the number of vaginal delivery and #8805;2 increase vault prolapse risk. Identification of these risk factors is important to prevent this complication. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(1.000: 63-71

  4. Environmental packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Gareth Benjamin Harverd

    2006-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The food packaging industry is a £300bn global industry growing at a rate of 12% per year and increasingly favouring polymer or polymer-based materials. This generates 58m tonnes of "plastic" packaging waste annually in the EU and poses significant challenges for management given existing legislative constraints and increasing concerns surrounding the environmental impacts. The government, co...

  5. A COMPARISON OF UPPER-EXTREMITY REACTION FORCES BETWEEN THE YURCHENKO VAULT AND FLOOR EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Kirk Seeley

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine reaction forces transmitted to the upper extremities of high-level gymnasts during the round-off phase of the Yurchenko vault. A secondary purpose of this study was to compare reaction forces during the Yurchenko vault to reaction forces observed in a tumbling pass during the floor exercise. Ten high-level, female gymnasts volunteered to participate. Conditions of the independent variable were the Yurchenko vault and floor exercise; dependent variables were peak vertical and peak anterior-posterior reaction forces. Each participant performed three trials of both conditions with the trail hand contacting a force platform. Vertical and anterior-posterior reaction forces, normalized to body weight, were greater (p < 0.05 during the round-off phase of the Yurchenko vault (2.38 than during the floor exercise round-off (2.15. Vertical reaction forces during the round-off phase of the Yurchenko vault and floor exercise round-off are similar to reaction forces transmitted to upper extremities during other gymnastic skills and ground reaction forces transmitted to lower extremities while running and walking at various speeds. Results of this study reveal a need for further research considering methods aimed at reducing reaction forces transmitted to the upper extremities during the Yurchenko vault and floor exercise.

  6. Searchable Data Vault: Encrypted Queries in Secure Distributed Cloud Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geong Sen Poh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud storage services allow users to efficiently outsource their documents anytime and anywhere. Such convenience, however, leads to privacy concerns. While storage providers may not read users’ documents, attackers may possibly gain access by exploiting vulnerabilities in the storage system. Documents may also be leaked by curious administrators. A simple solution is for the user to encrypt all documents before submitting them. This method, however, makes it impossible to efficiently search for documents as they are all encrypted. To resolve this problem, we propose a multi-server searchable symmetric encryption (SSE scheme and construct a system called the searchable data vault (SDV. A unique feature of the scheme is that it allows an encrypted document to be divided into blocks and distributed to different storage servers so that no single storage provider has a complete document. By incorporating the scheme, the SDV protects the privacy of documents while allowing for efficient private queries. It utilizes a web interface and a controller that manages user credentials, query indexes and submission of encrypted documents to cloud storage services. It is also the first system that enables a user to simultaneously outsource and privately query documents from a few cloud storage services. Our preliminary performance evaluation shows that this feature introduces acceptable computation overheads when compared to submitting documents directly to a cloud storage service.

  7. 324 Building radiochemical engineering cells, high-level vault, low-level vault, and associated areas closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J.M.

    1998-03-25

    The Hanford Site, located adjacent to and north of Richland, Washington, is operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The 324 Building is located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The 324 Building was constructed in the 1960s to support materials and chemical process research and development activities ranging from laboratory/bench-scale studies to full engineering-scale pilot plant demonstrations. In the mid-1990s, it was determined that dangerous waste and waste residues were being stored for greater than 90 days in the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cells (REC) and in the High-Level Vault/Low-Level Vault (HLV/LLV) tanks. [These areas are not Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) permitted portions of the 324 Building.] Through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-89, agreement was reached to close the nonpermitted RCRA unit in the 324 Building. This closure plan, managed under TPA Milestone M-20-55, addresses the identified building areas targeted by the Tri-Party Agreement and provides commitments to achieve the highest degree of compliance practicable, given the special technical difficulties of managing mixed waste that contains high-activity radioactive materials, and the physical limitations of working remotely in the areas within the subject closure unit. This closure plan is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1.0 provides the introduction, historical perspective, 324 Building history and current mission, and the regulatory basis and strategy for managing the closure unit. Chapters 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 discuss the detailed facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring respectively. Chapter 6.0 deals with the closure strategy and performance standard, including the closure activities for the B-Cell, D-Cell, HLV, LLV; piping and miscellaneous associated building areas. Chapter 7.0 addresses the

  8. Architecture - re-Construction - Geometry: a knowledge path applied to the study of Plantery's vaults in Turin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Spallone

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plantery's vaults, by the name of the architect working in Turin since first years of '700, are composed by a main vault intersected by some axial and angular secondary vaults. Plantery's vaults allow to roof over unitary spaces obtaining effects of lightness also by small rises. Their diffusion, up to the '80s of the century, in boardrooms as palaces halls, and the richness of variations on the theme, justifies a research, that makes use of survey and digital modeling. This research is focused on the relationships between geometric models and built architecture, connected by use of materials, construction techniques and decorative styles.

  9. Electrochemical desalination of the ionic mixture measured in the vault of Rørby Church - Laboratory scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge; Bøllingtoft, P.

    2011-01-01

    Salt induced deterioration of the vault in Rørby Church has resulted in extensive deterioration of the vault itself and of the murals on the lower surface of the vault. The upper surface of the vault has previously been covered with cement mortar. After removing this cement mortar some of the bri......Salt induced deterioration of the vault in Rørby Church has resulted in extensive deterioration of the vault itself and of the murals on the lower surface of the vault. The upper surface of the vault has previously been covered with cement mortar. After removing this cement mortar some...... of the bricks erode and form brick powder. The brick powder was collected in 2002, 2005 and 2011 and measured for the most common salts in Danish vault structures. On the basis of the actual measured ions two different salt mixtures were made and used for contamination of brick specimens. By use of an applied...... be extracted electrochemically if the salts in the construction can be dissolved....

  10. Estimate of Gaseous 14Carbon Concentrations Emanating from the Intermediate-Level Vault Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D

    2005-08-31

    {sup 14}Carbon-bearing resin waste will be disposed in the Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Intermediate Level Vaults (ILV) located in E-Area on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This waste will be buried in a cementitious environment in the vadose zone, i.e., the subsurface zone above the aquifer. As the resin ages, and equilibrates with slowly infiltrating water, it is expected that the {sup 14}C will partition to the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases. The objective of this task was to estimate the concentration of gaseous {sup 14}C in the waste pore space that is in contact with the resin leachate. The approach used to estimate this value was built largely around data generated from lysimeter studies that were conducted for 9 years. These lysimeters contained the same type of used resins (mixed-bed deionizer resins used in the purification of the heavy water moderator of SRS reactors) as are being disposed in the ILV. During the 9 year period, pore water {sup 14}C leaching concentrations were monitored to provide an excellent estimate of the long-term behavior of {sup 14}C release rates from the resins. Thermodynamic calculations were conducted to calculate {sup 14}CO{sub 2(g)} concentrations. These calculations included the {sup 14}C pore water data from the lysimeter study, and data from a field study that was a natural analogue to a long-term cementitious environment (Khoury et al. 1992). The calculations predicted an extremely low {sup 14}CO{sub 2(g)} concentration of 1.9 x 10{sup -7} Ci/m{sup 3} {sup 14}CO{sub 2(g)} in the air spaces above the resin leachate. This low concentrations is not surprising in light of both laboratory and field observations that concrete acts as a strong sorbent of CO{sub 2(g)}. This calculated {sup 14}CO{sub 2(g)} concentration will now be included in future risk calculations.

  11. Effect of materials and manufacturing on the bending stiffness of vaulting poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C. L.; Kukureka, S. N.

    2012-09-01

    The increase in the world record height achieved in pole vaulting can be related to the improved ability of the athletes, in terms of their fitness and technique, and to the change in materials used to construct the pole. For example in 1960 there was a change in vaulting pole construction from bamboo to glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. The lighter GFRP pole enabled the athletes to have a faster run-up, resulting in a greater take-off speed, giving them more kinetic energy to convert into potential energy and hence height. GFRP poles also have a much higher failure stress than bamboo, so the poles were engineered to bend under the load of the athlete, thereby storing elastic strain energy that can be released as the pole straightens, resulting in greater energy efficiency. The bending also allowed athletes to change their vaulting technique from a style that involved the body remaining almost upright during the vault to one where the athlete goes over the bar with their feet upwards. Modern vaulting poles can be made from GFRP and/or carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. The addition of carbon fibres maintains the mechanical properties of the pole, but allows a reduction in the weight. The number and arrangement of the fibres determines the mechanical properties, in particular the bending stiffness. Vaulting poles are also designed for an individual athlete to take into account each athlete’s ability and physical characteristics. The poles are rated by ‘weight’ to allow athletes to select an appropriate pole for their ability. This paper will review the development of vaulting poles and the requirements to maximize performance. The properties (bending stiffness and pre-bend) and microstructure (fibre volume fraction and lay-up) of typical vaulting poles will be discussed. Originally published as Davis C L and Kukureka S N (2004) Effect of materials and manufacturing on the bending stiffness of vaulting poles The Engineering of

  12. A new method for generating an invariant iris private key based on the fuzzy vault system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Joo; Park, Kang Ryoung; Lee, Sung Joo; Bae, Kwanghyuk; Kim, Jaihie

    2008-10-01

    Cryptographic systems have been widely used in many information security applications. One main challenge that these systems have faced has been how to protect private keys from attackers. Recently, biometric cryptosystems have been introduced as a reliable way of concealing private keys by using biometric data. A fuzzy vault refers to a biometric cryptosystem that can be used to effectively protect private keys and to release them only when legitimate users enter their biometric data. In biometric systems, a critical problem is storing biometric templates in a database. However, fuzzy vault systems do not need to directly store these templates since they are combined with private keys by using cryptography. Previous fuzzy vault systems were designed by using fingerprint, face, and so on. However, there has been no attempt to implement a fuzzy vault system that used an iris. In biometric applications, it is widely known that an iris can discriminate between persons better than other biometric modalities. In this paper, we propose a reliable fuzzy vault system based on local iris features. We extracted multiple iris features from multiple local regions in a given iris image, and the exact values of the unordered set were then produced using the clustering method. To align the iris templates with the new input iris data, a shift-matching technique was applied. Experimental results showed that 128-bit private keys were securely and robustly generated by using any given iris data without requiring prealignment.

  13. The Hecht vault performed at the 1995 World Gymnastics Championships: deterministic model and judges' scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Y; Blucker, E P; Nohara, H; Yamashita, N

    2000-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the mechanical variables that govern success of the Hecht vault. The participants were 122 male gymnasts from 30 countries performing the vault at the 1995 World Gymnastics Championships. The vaults were filmed using a Photosonics 16-mm motion picture camera operating at 100 Hz. Approximately 80 frames were digitized for each vault analysed. The method of Hay and Reid was used to develop a theoretical model to identify the mechanical and physical variables that determine linear and angular motions of the vault. Correlational analysis was used to establish the strength of the relationship between the causal mechanical variables identified in the model and the judges' scores. Significant correlations (P < 0.005) indicated that the following were important determinants of success: large horizontal and vertical velocities at take-off from the board and the horse; large vertical and angular distances of pre-flight; large vertical impulses of high force and short duration exerted on the horse and the resulting large changes in vertical velocity on the horse; and large horizontal and vertical distances and long times of post-flight. Of the 18 significant variables identified in the present study, the angular distance of pre- and post-flights, the horizontal velocity and angular momentum at take-off from the horse, and the average moment of inertia and duration of post-flight collectively accounted for 57% of the variation in the judges' scores.

  14. A hierarchical fingerprint alignment method and its application to fuzzy vault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Yang, Xin; Zang, Yali; Cao, Kai; Tian, Jie

    2010-04-01

    Fuzzy vault is a practical and promising scheme, which can protect biometric templates and perform secure key management simultaneously. Aligning the query sample and the template sample in the encrypted domain remains a challenging task in the fingerprint-based fuzzy vault scheme. To some extent, all the existing fingerprint aligning methods in the encrypted domain have their own drawbacks, e.g., not enough alignment accuracy or information leakage because of publishing helper data. In this paper, a novel fingerprint aligning method is proposed, which integrates the fingerprint reference points and its neighboring region of interest(ROI) in a hierarchical manner. The concept of mutual information(MI) in the information theory is used to assess the coincidence extent of two fingerprints after being aligned. The novel alignment method is applied to fingerprint-based fuzzy vault implementation. Out of information leakage consideration, the orientation features of fingerprint minutiae are discarded and another distinguishing local feature, inter-minutiae ridge count, is used to replace the minutiae orientation in the implementation of fingerprint-based fuzzy vault. Experiment on FVC2002 DB2a is conducted to show the virtue of proposed alignment method and the promising performance of proposed fingerprint-based fuzzy vault implementation.

  15. Design and construction of the tensioned ties for UX15 cavern vault

    CERN Document Server

    Parkin, R J H

    2002-01-01

    Due to the programme constraints for the UX15 cavern set by CERN, it has been necessary to complete the concrete lining of the vault prior to the excavation of the bench. The vault lining is therefore being temporarily suspended from a number of pre-tensioned high capacity multi-strand tensioned ties. During excavation of the bench, additional loads will be imposed onto the vault lining due to ground displacements. In order to minimise the number of ties, the previously completed linings of the PX14 and PX16 access shafts will be used to support some of the load. Three-dimensional modelling has been undertaken to design the structures and determine the expected behaviour of this complex support system. Geotechnical instrumentation has been installed in the concrete linings and the ground to monitor loads and displacements during construction. After the cavern walls have been completed, the ties will be released.

  16. Influence of the moment exerted by the athlete on the pole in pole-vaulting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlier, Julien; Mesnard, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Current studies on pole-vaulting focus mostly on energy transfer data [Ekevad, M., Lundberg, B., 1995. Simulation of "smart" pole vaulting. Journal of Biomechanics 28, 1079-1090; Ekevad, M., Lundberg, B., 1997. Influence of pole length and stiffness on the energy conversion in pole-vaulting. Journal of Biomechanics, 30, 259-264; Linthorne, N.P., 2000. Energy loss in the pole vault take-off and the advantage of the flexible pole. Sports Engineering 3, 205-218; Schade, F., Arampatzis, A., Bruggemann, G.P., 2006. Reproducibility of energy parameters in the pole vault. Journal of Biomechanics 39, 146-147.] and often fail to take into account the actions exerted on the pole [Arampatzis, Schade, Bruggemann, 2004. Effect of the pole-human body interaction on pole-vaulting performance. Journal of Biomechanics 37, 1353-1360]. The present study integrates the 3D kinematics data of the athlete but also the actions measured at the end of the pole in the planting box and on the track during the last stride before take-off. It proposes a mechanical model allowing determination of the pole-vaulter's actions on the pole. The model is based on a global mechanical approach. The pole-vaulter's action on his upper and lower hand is concentrated on one middle point to solve the dynamics problem. The model was applied to seven experienced pole-vaulters. The force and the moment exerted on the pole by the pole-vaulter during the last stride before take off and during jump stage, were calculated. This analysis of the compressive force and bending moment for seven pole-vaulters helps to highlight the impact of the moment in the performance. The conclusion is confirmed by an additional comparative study carried out on two pole-vaulters, with comparable morphologies and performing with the same pole.

  17. Is palatal vault height a determinant for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A hypothesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sayan; Gupta, Tejpal; Dholam, Kanchan; Chouksey, Gunjan; Ghosh Laskar, Sarbani; Prakash Agarwal, Jai

    2015-11-01

    Although environmental and genetic factors are known for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, the present study is an attempt to provide a hypothesis behind the development of NPC with regards to the anatomical factor, the hypothesis being that patients with a deeper palatal vault tend to have a higher risk of developing nasopharyngeal cancers. The objective of this study was to find out the palatal vault height in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and compare it with the palatal vault height in patients with oral carcinomas. The heights of the palatal vault of 20 consecutive patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and 20 patients with carcinoma of the oral cavity (except hard palate) as control were recorded. In addition, in patients with carcinoma of the nasopharynx the height of the palate on the CT scans was measured and correlation between these recordings were calculated. The palatal heights of the nasopharyngeal and oral cancer cohorts were compared using independent sample T test. A strong correlation was observed in the nasopharyngeal cancer cohort between the palatal height measured manually and the radiologically measured height on the CT scans (Pearson Correlation Coefficient - 0.633; p=0.003). The difference in the mean heights of the nasopharyngeal and oral cancer cohorts was statistically significant (p<0.001). Nasopharyngeal cancer patients tend to have a higher palatal vault height compared to those with carcinoma of oral cavity other than hard palate. In such palates with a deep vault, there is increased turbulent air flow leading to increased deposition of air-borne virus/carcinogens. Lingering of these agents may ultimately cause carcinoma of the nasopharynx. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. GOTHIC CHURCHES IN PARIS ST GERVAIS ET ST PROTAIS IMAGE MATCHING 3D RECONSTRUCTION TO UNDERSTAND THE VAULTS SYSTEM GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Capone

    2015-02-01

    benefits and the troubles. From a methodological point of view this is our workflow: - theoretical study about geometrical configuration of rib vault systems; - 3D model based on theoretical hypothesis about geometric definition of the vaults' form; - 3D model based on image matching 3D reconstruction methods; - comparison between 3D theoretical model and 3D model based on image matching;

  19. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster at 244-AR vault. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrell, D.J.

    1997-12-17

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96, a portable exhauster at the 244-AR Vault. The exhauster would be used during air jetting of accumulated liquids from the cell sumps into the tanks and to make transfers among the tanks within the vault when needed. The 244-AR Vault is considered to be a double-contained receiver tank (OCRT) based on its functional characteristics, although it is not listed as one of the five designated DCRTs in the 200 Area Tank Farm systems. Process operations at the vault have been inactive since 1978 and the vault`s two stacks have not operated since 1993. Since cessation of vault operations an extremely large amount of rain water and snow melt have accumulated in the cell sumps. The water level in the sumps is substantially above their respective operating levels and there is concern for leakage to the environment through containment failure due to corrosion from backed-up sump liquid. Active ventilation is required to provide contamination control during air jetting operations within the vault. It has been determined that it would not be cost effective to repair the existing exhaust systems to an operational condition; thus, a portable exhauster will be used to support the intermittent operations.

  20. Cranial vault trauma and selective mortality in medieval to early modern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldsen, Jesper L; Milner, George R; Weise, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    To date, no estimates of the long-term effect of cranial vault fractures on the risk of dying have been generated from historical or prehistoric skeletons. Excess mortality provides a perspective on the efficacy of modern treatment, as well as the human cost of cranial injuries largely related...... to interpersonal violence in past populations. Three medieval to early modern Danish skeletal samples are used to estimate the effect of selective mortality on males with cranial vault injuries who survived long enough for bones to heal. The risk of dying for these men was 6.2 times higher than...

  1. Siim Nestor soovitab : Stereo ÖÖ. Mutant Disco. Beats from the Vault. Turbodisko / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Oma debüütalbumit "Migration" tutvustav ameerika diskor Alex Attias üritustel "Stereo ÖÖ" 19. mail Tallinnas Von Krahlis. Üritustest "Mutant Disco" 19. mail Tallinnas klubis Privé ja Tartus 20. mail klubis Illusion, "Beats from the Vault" 19. mail Tallinnas klubis Võit ja "Turbodisko" 20. mail Tallinnas klubis KuKu

  2. Cracking the Vault: Generation and analysis of a MVP knockout mouse model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Mossink (Marieke)

    2003-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In 1986 a novel, large-sized ribonucleoprotein complex was first described. The barrel-shaped structures were initially detected in preparations of clathrin-coated vesicles from rat liver and because they showed a morphology that resembled the vaulted ceilings in

  3. The influence of the vaulting table on the handspring front somersault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Gareth; Kerwin, David G

    2009-06-01

    The traditional "horse" was replaced by a new vaulting "table" in artistic gymnastics competitions in 2001. The aim of this study was to determine whether the table led to a change in vaulting technique. This was achieved by comparing three-dimensional video-based analyses (50Hz) of selected biomechanical discrete and continuous variables across four elite male gymnasts performing a series of handspring front somersault vaults on the traditional horse and the new table. Individual joint and inter-segment coupling (continuous relative phase) were used to quantify techniques used on the two apparatuses. Differences were attributed in part to the design and construction of the new table. No differences were observed for the approach and take-off from the board. Significant differences in hip flexion at board take-off and strike angle on the table were observed. One of the effects of the latter was an increase in vertical take-off velocity compared with the horse. Individual strategies were observed in hip and shoulder coordination patterns that were obscured when group data were considered. Close monitoring of the evolution of skill on this new apparatus is paramount for gymnastics coaching, and further studies of current elite competitive vaulting techniques are required.

  4. Effect of Plyometric Training on Handspring Vault Performance and Functional Power in Youth Female Gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Emma; Bishop, Daniel C; Gee, Thomas I

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of plyometric training (PT) when added to habitual gymnastic training (HT) on handspring vault (HV) performance variables. Twenty youth female competitive gymnasts (Age: 12.5 ± 1.67 y) volunteered to participate and were randomly assigned to two independent groups. The experimental plyometric training group (PTG) undertook a six-week plyometric program, involving two additional 45 min PT sessions a week, alongside their HT, while the control group (CG) performed regular HT only. Videography was used (120 Hz) in the sagittal plane to record both groups performing three HVs for both the baseline and post-intervention trials. Furthermore, participants completed a countermovement jump test (CMJ) to assess the effect of PT on functional power. Through the use of Quintic biomechanics software, significant improvements (P vault for the PTG. The CG demonstrated no improvement for all HV measures. A sport-specific PT intervention improved handspring vault performance measures and functional power when added to the habitual training of youth female gymnasts. The additional two hours plyometric training seemingly improved the power generating capacity of movement-specific musculature, which consequently improved aspects of vaulting performance. Future research is required to examine the whether the improvements are as a consequence of the additional volume of sprinting and jumping activities, as a result of the specific PT method or a combination of these factors.

  5. Reliability and variability of day-to-day vault training measures in artistic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Hume, Patria; Calton, Mark; Aisbett, Brad

    2010-06-01

    Inter-day training reliability and variability in artistic gymnastics vaulting was determined using a customised infra-red timing gate and contact mat timing system. Thirteen Australian high performance gymnasts (eight males and five females) aged 11-23 years were assessed during two consecutive days of normal training. Each gymnast completed a number of vault repetitions per daily session. Inter-day variability of vault run-up velocities (at -18 to -12 m, -12 to -6 m, -6 to -2 m, and -2 to 0 m from the nearest edge of the beat board), and board contact, pre-flight, and table contact times were determined using mixed modelling statistics to account for random (within-subject variability) and fixed effects (gender, number of subjects, number of trials). The difference in the mean (Mdiff) and Cohen's effect sizes for reliability assessment and intra-class correlation coefficients, and the coefficient of variation percentage (CV%) were calculated for variability assessment. Approach velocity (-18 to -2m, CV = 2.4-7.8%) and board contact time (CV = 3.5%) were less variable measures when accounting for day-to-day performance differences, than pre-flight time (CV = 17.7%) and table contact time (CV = 20.5%). While pre-flight and table contact times are relevant training measures, approach velocity and board contact time are more reliable when quantifying vaulting performance.

  6. The roche vault performed by elite gymnasts: somersaulting technique, deterministic model, and judges' scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yoshiaki

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the mechanical variables that are related to successful post-flight somersaulting performance of the Roche vault. The 23 Roche vaults performed during the 2000 Olympic Games were filmed by a 16-mm camera operating at 100 Hz. The 2-D direct linear transformation technique was used for spatial calibration. Approximately 60 frames were digitized per vault. The method of Hay and Reid (1988) was used to develop a deterministic model to identify the mechanical variables that govern linear and angular motions of the vault. Correlational analysis was used to establish the strength of the relationship between the mechanical variables identified and the judges' scores. Significant correlations indicated that the higher judges' scores were negatively related to five mechanical variables and positively related to seventeen variables in the model. The normalized horizontal displacement of body center of mass (CM) from the knee grasp to the peak of post-flight was the best single predictor of the judges' score and accounted for 50% of variation in the judges' score. Finally, the landing point deductions and the official horizontal distance of post-flight collectively accounted for 86% of the variance in the judges' scores.

  7. Cranial vault reconstruction using computer-designed polyetheretherketone (PEEK) implant: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Moya, Erika; Gallegos-Hernández, José Francisco; Piña-Cabrales, Sandra; Cohn-Zurita, Fabricio; Goné-Fernández, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Reconstruction of the bones of the skull is a complex procedure and represents a challenge for the surgical team. It is generally performed in patients who have loss of the cranial vault secondary to chronic infection or uncontrolled osteoradionecrosis, indicating a greater chance of failure or rejection of the materials used for repair of the defect. Selection of material to replace the cranial vault is complex due to the diversity of existing products. The ideal material is inert, lightweight, easy to fit and adaptable to the defect, offering the best aesthetic and functional results. Computer design of the implant makes this process easier by providing an implant specific to each individual patient and defect. We report the case of a patient who was diagnosed with esthesioneuroblastoma and was treated with anterior craniofacial resection and radiotherapy. Osteomyelitis and osteoradionecrosis were consequent complications with loss of the cranial vault in the frontal region. The defect was reconstructed with a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) computer-designed implant based on the defect evaluated by computed tomography. Results obtained are shown below. The PEEK computer-designed implant is a safe and easy to use alternative with great adaptability to cranial vault defects.

  8. Grout to meet physical and chemical requirements for closure at Hanford grout vaults. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-21

    The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) developed a grout based on portland cement, Class F fly ash, and bentonite clay, for the Hanford Grout Vault Program. The purpose of this grout was to fill the void between a wasteform containing 106-AN waste and the vault cover blocks. Following a successful grout development program, heat output, volume change, and compressive strength were monitored with time in simulated repository conditions and in full-depth physical models. This research indicated that the cold-cap grout could achieve and maintain adequate volume stability and other required physical properties in the internal environment of a sealed vault. To determine if contact with 106-AN liquid waste would cause chemical deterioration of the cold-cap grout, cured specimens were immersed in simulated waste. Over a period of 21 days at 150 F, specimens increased in mass without significant changes in volume. X-ray diffraction of reacted specimens revealed crystallization of sodium aluminum silicate hydrate. Scanning electron microscopy used with X-ray fluorescence showed that clusters if this phase had formed in grout pores, increasing grout density and decreasing its effective porosity. Physical and chemical tests collectively indicate a sealing component. However, the Hanford Grout Vault Program was cancelled before completion of this research. This report summarizes close-out Waterways Experiment Station when the Program was cancelled.

  9. Paleogeomorphological method of the oil trap searches (with special reference to the Tatar vault)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aikhutdinov, R.S.; Melnikov, S.N.

    1978-01-01

    At the slopes of the Tatar vault facing the Kama--Kinel trough system the buried Tournaisian surface is dissected mainly by karst forms. The erosion-karstic depressions controlled sedimentation and formation of various oil traps in the Lower Carboniferous rocks. The study results are the basis for improved methods of oil searches.

  10. Disposal Analysis of I-129 Bearing Waste Streams at the Intermediate Level Vault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, L.B.

    2001-01-25

    This report examines the effects of new waste-specific sorption characteristics reported for I-129 bearing wastes on inventory limits in the Intermediate Level Vault (ILV). Inventory limits are described based on the revised performance assessment model using the waste-specific Kd's. Results are compared with inventory projections of waste streams for the next ten years.

  11. Laparoscopic Management of Vaginal Vault Prolapse Recurring after Pelvic Organ Prolapse Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearini, Luigi; Nunzi, Elisabetta; Di Biase, Manuel; Costantini, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing success of surgery for pelvic organ prolapse, recurrent vaginal vault prolapse is not rare. We present a step-by-step laparoscopic approach with a sacral colpopexy (SC) for treatment of recurrent vault prolapse. From 2006, 25 women presenting with symptomatic recurrent vault prolapse were prospectively evaluated and treated with laparoscopic SC. This article briefly describes all of the steps that are required to conduct a proper surgery in such cases. After previous abdominal sacropexy, both the dissection of adherences and restoration of normal pelvic anatomy were challenging. As result, the overall operating time was longer in patients who had undergone abdominal sacropexy vs. vaginal route, p = 0.032. No significant peri- or postoperative complications were observed. At a mean follow-up of 41 months, all women presented with less than stage 2 prolapse and high levels of satisfaction. Despite the need for an intraoperative step-by-step surgical safety checklist, the laparoscopic repair of recurrent vault prolapse is technically feasible, safe and effective. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Catalytic asymmetric aza-Darzens reaction with a vaulted biphenanthrol magnesium phosphate salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Shawn E; Li, Guilong; Rowland, Gerald B; Junge, Denise; Huang, Rongcai; Woodcock, H Lee; Antilla, Jon C

    2011-05-06

    Conditions for a catalytic asymmetric aza-Darzens aziridine synthesis mediated by a vaulted biphenanthrol (VAPOL) magnesium phosphate salt is described. Using simple substrates, this methodology explores the scope and reactivity of a new magnesium catalyst for an aziridination reaction capable of building chirality and complexity simultaneously.

  13. Long-term quality-of-life outcome after mesh sacrocolpopexy for vaginal vault prolapse.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thomas, Arun Z

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the long-term outcome of mesh sacrocolpopexy (MSC, which aims to restore normal pelvic floor anatomy to alleviate prolapse related symptoms) and its effect on patient\\'s quality of life, as women with vaginal vault prolapse commonly have various pelvic floor symptoms that can affect urinary, rectal and sexual function.

  14. The major vault protein is related to the toxic anion resistance protein (TelA) family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprenant, Kathy A; Bloom, Nathan; Fang, Jianwen; Lushington, Gerald

    2007-03-01

    Vaults are barrel-shaped ribonucleoprotein particles that are abundant in certain tumors and multidrug resistant cancer cells. Prokaryotic relatives of the major vault protein, MVP, have not been identified. We used sequence analysis and molecular modeling to show that MVP and the toxic anion resistance protein, TelA of Rhodobacter sphaeroides strain 2.4.1, share a novel fold that consists of a three-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet. Because of this strong structural correspondence, we examined whether mammalian cell vaults respond to tellurite treatment. In the presence of the oxyanion tellurite, large vault aggregates, or vaultosomes, appear at the cell periphery in 15 min or less. Vaultosome formation is temperature-dependent, reversible, and occurs in normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells as well as transformed HeLa cervical cancer cells. Vaultosome formation is not restricted to tellurite and occurs in the presence of other toxic oxyanions (selenate, selinite, arsenate, arsenite, vanadate). In addition, vaultosomes form independently from other stress-induced ribonucleoprotein complexes, stress granules and aggresomes. Vaultosome formation is therefore a unique cellular response to an environmental toxin.

  15. FY2010 ANNUAL REVIEW E-AREA LOW-LEVEL WASTE FACILITY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT AND COMPOSITE ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.; Swingle, R.; Crapse, K.; Millings, M.; Sink, D.

    2011-01-01

    The E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) consists of a number of disposal units described in the Performance Assessment (PA)(WSRC, 2008b) and Composite Analysis (CA)(WSRC, 1997; WSRC, 1999): Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Vault, Intermediate Level (IL) Vault, Trenches (Slit Trenches [STs], Engineered Trenches [ETs], and Component-in-Grout [CIG] Trenches), and Naval Reactor Component Disposal Areas (NRCDAs). This annual review evaluates the adequacy of the approved 2008 ELLWF PA along with the Special Analyses (SAs) approved since the PA was issued. The review also verifies that the Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 low-level waste (LLW) disposal operations were conducted within the bounds of the PA/SA baseline, the Savannah River Site (SRS) CA, and the Department of Energy (DOE) Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS). Important factors considered in this review include waste receipts, results from monitoring and research and development (R&D) programs, and the adequacy of controls derived from the PA/SA baseline. Sections 1.0 and 2.0 of this review are a summary of the adequacy of the PA/SA and CA, respectively. An evaluation of the FY2010 waste receipts and the resultant impact on the ELLWF is summarized in Section 3.1. The results of the monitoring program, R&D program, and other relevant factors are found in Section 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4, respectively. Section 4.0 contains the CA annual determination similarly organized. SRS low-level waste management is regulated under DOE Order 435.1 (DOE, 1999a) and is authorized under a DAS as a federal permit. The original DAS was issued by the DOE-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) on September 28, 1999 (DOE, 1999b) for the operation of the ELLWF and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The 1999 DAS remains in effect for the regulation of the SDF. Those portions of that DAS applicable to the ELLWF were superseded by revision 1 of the DAS on July 15, 2008 (DOE, 2008b). The 2008 PA and DAS were officially implemented by the facility on October 31, 2008

  16. A visual assessment of the concrete vaults which surround underground waste storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.J.; Shurrab, M.S.

    1993-12-01

    Radioactive waste produced at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is stored in underground tanks. There are four different waste tank designs. For each waste tank design the outermost containment shield between the waste and the soil is a concrete vault surrounding the carbon steel liner(s). Should the primary and/or secondary liner be breached, the concrete vault would slow transport of the waste so that contamination of the soil is minimized. The type 3 waste tanks have a stated design life of 40--60 years. With the uncertainty of the schedule for transfer of the waste to the Defense Waste Processing Facility, it is conceivable that the tanks will be required to function past their design life. The Department of Energy formed a Waste Tank Structural Integrity Panel to investigate the potential for aging and degradation of underground radioactive waste storage tanks employed in the weapons complex. The panel is focusing on how each site in the complex: (1) inspects the waste tanks for degradation, (2) understands the potential degradation mechanisms which may occur at their sites, and (3) mitigates the known potential degradation mechanisms. In addition to the carbon steel liners, the degradation of the concrete vault has also been addressed by the panel. High Level Waste Engineering (HLWE) at SRS has formed a task team to identify key issues that determine and/or effect the condition of the concrete. In June 1993, slides were reviewed which showed the inside of the concrete vault in Type 1, 2, and 4 tanks. The authors subsequently visited the tank farm and assessed the visible portions of the outer concrete vault. Later a team of engineers knowledgeable in concrete degradation performed a walk-down. Photographs showing the concrete condition were taken at this time. This report summarizes the findings of these walk-downs and reinforces previous recommendations.

  17. Factors influencing performance in the Hecht vault and implications for modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Mark A; Yeadon, Maurice R

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigated the factors that influence Hecht vault performance and assessed the level of model complexity required to give an adequate representation of vaulting. A five-segment planar simulation model with a visco-elastic shoulder joint and a torque generator at the shoulder joint was used to simulate the contact phase in vaulting. The model was customized to an elite gymnast by determining subject-specific segmental inertia and joint torque parameters. The simulation model was matched to a performance of the Hecht vault by varying the visco-elastic characteristics of the shoulders and the arm-horse interface and the activation time history of the shoulder torque generator until the best match was found. Perturbing the matching simulation demonstrated that appropriate initial kinematics are necessary for a successful performance. Fixing the hip and knee angles at their initial values had a small effect with 3 degrees less rotation. Applying shoulder torque during the contact phase also had a small effect with only a 7 degrees range in landing angles. Excluding the hand segment from the model was found to have a moderate effect with 15 degrees less rotation and the time of contact reduced by 38%. Removing shoulder elasticity resulted in 50 degrees less rotation. The use of a five-segment simulation model confirmed that the use of shoulder torque plays a minor role in vaulting performance and that having appropriate initial kinematics at touchdown is essential. However, factors such as shoulder elasticity and the hands which have previously been ignored also have a substantial influence on performance.

  18. [Abdominal sacrocolpopexy in surgical treatment of complete vaginal vault prolapse after hysterectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdević, Srdan; Vejnović, Tihomir; Curcić, Aleksandar; Mladenović-Segedi, Ljiljana; Maksimović, Marko

    2008-01-01

    The vaginal vault prolapse after hysterectomy is a complex disorder, which can be associated with the prolapse of anterior or posterior vaginal wall or cystorectocele. The exact incidence is unknown, and is within the range from 1 - 43% of operated patients. In order to achieve the complete surgical reconstruction of the pelvic floor disorder, a surgeon must have good knowledge of normal anatomic relations of pelvic organs. Twenty-nine women with the vaginal vault prolapse after hysterectomy were operated at Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics in Novi Sad during the period fiom 1995 - 2007. After standard preoperative procedures, positioning of the patient and inferior medial abdominal incision, the supportive graft made of non-resorptive materials was fixed to the vaginal fornix and sacral periost from the promontory to the level of S 3-4 vertebrae. The average age of the patients was 61.4 years. The following supportive materials were used: mersilen mesh (16), allograft made of m. rectus abdominis fascia (5), prolen (4), fascia lata strip (2) and common Silk sutures (2). Additional operations (Moschowitz Douglasoraphy, Kelly-Marion anterior vaginal repair, colpoperineoplasty and Burchcolposuspension) were performed in 20 (68.9%) patients. There were 7 (23.8%) postoperative complications. The erosion of mersilen mesh was detected in 2 (6.8%) patients, and recurrence of vaginal vault prolaps and cystorectocele in 3 (10.2%) patients. According to other authors, the erosion of synthetic materials occurs in about 3.4%, and recurrence of vaginal vault prolaps in 0-22% of operated patients. The complete vaginal vault prolaps after hysterectomy is a complex anatomic disorder which has a great impact on the life quality and significantly disturbs patient s psychosocial sphere. Surgical treatment involves abdominal or vaginal access and is planned individually for each patient.

  19. Anthropometric and biomechanical field measures of floor and vault ability in 8 to 14 year old talent-selected gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth J; Le Rossignol, Peter

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the anthropometric and physical prerequisites for high difficulty floor tumbling and vaulting. Twenty 8-14 year old female talent-selected gymnasts performed handstand push-offs, and single and multiple jumps on a portable Kistler force plate. The force curves were analysed using Kistler and Excel software to obtain peak displacement, peak take-off force, and power The gymnasts were also assessed for sprinting, with and without vaulting, and standing broad jump performances. Video footage from the vault take-off was analysed using Video Expert II software to obtain the horizontal and vertical take-off velocities. Each gymnast's best vault starting score, three best floor tumbling skills, and anthropometric characteristics were recorded. Statistical analysis included one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to examine the effect of age (8-10 years, 11-12 years, 13-14 years) on the performance measures and linear regression analysis with performance start score for vault or best floor tumbling score as the outcome variable. The best regression model for indicating vaulting talent had, as predictor variables, resultant velocity at take-off from the board, squat jump power, and average power during the last five jumps in the continuous bent-leg jump series. The best regression model for indicating floor tumbling ability had, as predictor variables, age, vault running velocity, and reduced ground contact time in a handstand push-off.

  20. Structural repairs to fire-damaged Guastavino tile vaults at Grand Central Terminal’s Oyster Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Silman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The fireproof character of Guastavino vaults, one of the major characteristics of their structure, has been demonstrated on several occasions over the past hundred and twenty years. The firm of Robert Silman Associates has verified the versatility and solidity of these vaults in several restoration works. This article deals with the fire that broke out on 29th June 1997 in the Oyster Bar at Grand Central Station, which did not impair the structural integrity of the Guastavino vaults so that only cosmetic repairs to the lowest layer of tiles were required.

  1. NeuroVault.org: A web-based repository for collecting and sharing unthresholded statistical maps of the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Jacek Gorgolewski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Here we present NeuroVault — a web based repository that allows researchers to store, share, visualize, and decode statistical maps of the human brain. NeuroVault is easy to use and employs modern web technologies to provide informative visualization of data without the need to install additional software. In addition, it leverages the power of the Neurosynth database to provide cognitive decoding of deposited maps. The data are exposed through a public REST API enabling other services and tools to take advantage of it. NeuroVault is a new resource for researchers interested in conducting meta- and coactivation analyses.

  2. Conceptual Modeling Framework for E-Area PA HELP Infiltration Model Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-30

    A conceptual modeling framework based on the proposed E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (LLWF) closure cap design is presented for conducting Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model simulations of intact and subsided cap infiltration scenarios for the next E-Area Performance Assessment (PA).

  3. Adding EUNIS and VAULT rocket data to the VSO with Modern Perl frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansky, Edmund

    2017-08-01

    A new Perl code is described, that uses the modern Object-oriented Moose framework, to add EUNIS and VAULT rocket data to the Virtual Solar Observatory website. The code permits the easy fixing of FITS header fields in the case where some FITS fields that are required are missing from the original data files. The code makes novel use of the Moose extensions “before” and “after” to build in dependencies so that database creation of tables occurs before the loading of data, and that the validation of file-dependent tables occurs after the loading is completed. Also described is the computation and loading of the deferred FITS field CHECKSUM into the database following the loading and validation of the file-dependent tables. The loading of the EUNIS 2006 and 2007 flight data, and the VAULT 2.0 flight data is described in detail as illustrative examples.

  4. Giant osteoma of the skull vault: A rare case of mixed variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harisha P.N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoma is the most common primary bone tumor in the craniofacial skeleton. However, most of these are small, asymptomatic and arise from the facial bones or in relation to the paranasal sinuses. Cranial vault osteomas, that too giant and symptomatic are much rarer. We report a case of sixty year-old gentleman presented with a very slowly increasing, painless, hard swelling on the left side of his head. Computerized tomography scan showed the left parietal calvarial tumor to be having large exostotic and enostotic components. He underwent an en-bloc excision of the tumor and cranioplasty. Giant, symptomatic cranial vault osteoma with concurrent exostotic and enostotic components is extremely rare. These lesions can be safely and completely excised with careful planning and attention to detail.

  5. Vaginal vault recurrences of endometrial cancer in non-irradiated patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardarson, Hordur Alexander; Nyhøj Heidemann, Lene; Christensen, René dePont

    2015-01-01

    cancer limited to the vaginal vault. METHODS: Patients treated for recurrent endometrial cancer at Odense University Hospital, Denmark between 2003 and 2012 were identified, n = 118. Thirty-three patients had an isolated vaginal vault recurrence and were treated with either RT, ST or both. Re.......2-48%) and 0% (ST) (95 CI 0-60%). Two-year survival rates were 83% (RT) (95 CI 71-100%) and 100% (ST) (95 CI 40-100%) ST had one re-recurrence at 2.3 years. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that ST is an appropriate treatment for locally recurrent endometrial cancer. Our study involves a limited number......BACKGROUND: The treatment of locally recurrent endometrial cancer is based on limited evidence. The standard treatment is radiotherapy (RT) which is effective for local control and the effect has been documented in prospective studies. Investigations of surgical treatment (ST) of recurrences...

  6. Development of a New Cryptographic Construct Using Palmprint-Based Fuzzy Vault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amioy; Kumar, Ajay

    2009-12-01

    The combination of cryptology and biometrics has emerged as promising component of information security. Despite the current popularity of palmprint biometric, there has not been any attempt to investigate its usage for the fuzzy vault. This paper therefore investigates the possible usage of palmprint in fuzzy vault to develop a user friendly and reliable crypto system. We suggest the use of both symmetric and asymmetric approach for the encryption. The ciphertext of any document is generated by symmetric cryptosystem; the symmetric key is then encrypted by asymmetric approach. Further, Reed and Solomon codes are used on the generated asymmetric key to provide some error tolerance while decryption. The experimental results from the proposed approach on the palmprint images suggest its possible usage in an automated palmprint-based key generation system.

  7. Development of a New Cryptographic Construct Using Palmprint-Based Fuzzy Vault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amioy Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of cryptology and biometrics has emerged as promising component of information security. Despite the current popularity of palmprint biometric, there has not been any attempt to investigate its usage for the fuzzy vault. This paper therefore investigates the possible usage of palmprint in fuzzy vault to develop a user friendly and reliable crypto system. We suggest the use of both symmetric and asymmetric approach for the encryption. The ciphertext of any document is generated by symmetric cryptosystem; the symmetric key is then encrypted by asymmetric approach. Further, Reed and Solomon codes are used on the generated asymmetric key to provide some error tolerance while decryption. The experimental results from the proposed approach on the palmprint images suggest its possible usage in an automated palmprint-based key generation system.

  8. CYP1A-immunopositive proteins in bivalves identified as cytoskeletal and major vault proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøsvik, Bjørn Einar; Jonsson, Henrik; Rodríguez-Ortega, Manuel J

    2006-01-01

    actin (42 kDa) and major vault protein (102 kDa), while the main CYP1A-immunopositive protein in the clam Chamaelea gallina was the cytoskeletal protein tropomyosin (33 kDa). Anti-CYP1A cross-reactive bands of 48-54 and 75 kDa in M. edulis were observed but not identified in this study. Sequence...

  9. Treatment vault shielding for a flattening filter-free medical linear accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kry, Stephen F; Howell, Rebecca M; Polf, Jerimy; Mohan, Radhe; Vassiliev, Oleg N

    2009-03-07

    The requirements for shielding a treatment vault with a Varian Clinac 2100 medical linear accelerator operated both with and without the flattening filter were assessed. Basic shielding parameters, such as primary beam tenth-value layers (TVLs), patient scatter fractions, and wall scatter fractions, were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations of 6, 10 and 18 MV beams. Relative integral target current requirements were determined from treatment planning studies of several disease sites with, and without, the flattening filter. The flattened beam shielding data were compared to data published in NCRP Report No. 151, and the unflattened beam shielding data were presented relative to the NCRP data. Finally, the shielding requirements for a typical treatment vault were determined for a single-energy (6 MV) linac and a dual-energy (6 MV/18 MV) linac. With the exception of large-angle patient scatter fractions and wall scatter fractions, the vault shielding parameters were reduced when the flattening filter was removed. Much of this reduction was consistent with the reduced average energy of the FFF beams. Primary beam TVLs were reduced by 12%, on average, and small-angle scatter fractions were reduced by up to 30%. Head leakage was markedly reduced because less integral target current was required to deliver the target dose. For the treatment vault examined in the current study, removal of the flattening filter reduced the required thickness of the primary and secondary barriers by 10-20%, corresponding to 18 m(3) less concrete to shield the single-energy linac and 36 m(3) less concrete to shield the dual-energy linac. Thus, a shielding advantage was found when the linac was operated without the flattening filter. This translates into a reduction in occupational exposure and/or the cost and space of shielding.

  10. Vaulting mechanics successfully predict decrease in walk?run transition speed with incline

    OpenAIRE

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Usherwood, James R.

    2013-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the reasons underlying gait transition in terrestrial locomotion. In bipedal locomotion, the ?compass gait?, a reductionist model of inverted pendulum walking, predicts the boundaries of speed and step length within which walking is feasible. The stance of the compass gait is energetically optimal?at walking speeds?owing to the absence of leg compression/extension; completely stiff limbs perform no work during the vaulting phase. Here, we extend theoretical co...

  11. Is Postoperative Intensive Care Unit Care Necessary following Cranial Vault Remodeling for Sagittal Synostosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfswinkel, Erik M; Howell, Lori K; Fahradyan, Artur; Azadgoli, Beina; McComb, J Gordon; Urata, Mark M

    2017-12-01

    Of U.S. craniofacial and neurosurgeons, 94 percent routinely admit patients to the intensive care unit following cranial vault remodeling for correction of sagittal synostosis. This study aims to examine the outcomes and cost of direct ward admission following primary cranial vault remodeling for sagittal synostosis. An institutional review board-approved retrospective review was undertaken of the records of all patients who underwent primary cranial vault remodeling for isolated sagittal craniosynostosis from 2009 to 2015 at a single pediatric hospital. Patient demographics, perioperative course, and outcomes were recorded. One hundred ten patients met inclusion criteria with absence of other major medical problems. Average age at operation was 6.7 months, with a mean follow-up of 19.8 months. Ninety-eight patients (89 percent) were admitted to a general ward for postoperative care, whereas the remaining 12 (11 percent) were admitted to the intensive care unit for preoperative or perioperative concerns. Among ward-admitted patients, there were four (3.6 percent) minor complications; however, there were no major adverse events, with none necessitating intensive care unit transfers from the ward and no mortalities. Average hospital stay was 3.7 days. The institution's financial difference in cost of intensive care unit stay versus ward bed was $5520 on average per bed per day. Omitting just one intensive care unit postoperative day stay for this patient cohort would reduce projected health care costs by a total of $540,960 for the study period. Despite the common practice of postoperative admission to the intensive care unit following cranial vault remodeling for sagittal craniosynostosis, the authors suggest that postoperative care be considered on an individual basis, with only a small percentage requiring a higher level of care. Therapeutic, III.

  12. Infracoccygeal sacropexy in the treatment of vaginal vault prolapse: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanbari Z

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Vaginal vault prolapse is a significant longer-term complication in patients undergoing hysterectomy. An important cause is generally acknowledged to be weakness in the uterosacral and cardinal ligaments. Vaginal delivery is known to be a risk factor, and obesity and menopause are predisposing factors. Urogynecologists are constantly looking for simple, safe and effective ways to cure vaginal apex prolapse. Infracoccygeal sacropexy, also known as posterior intravaginal slingplasty, is a useful and less-invasive procedure, with low morbidity. The aim of this study is to confirm the efficacy, safety and long-term outcome of infracoccygeal sacropexy for the treatment of vault prolapse.Methods: In a prospective observational study, we performed infracoccygeal sacropexy to treat 26 patients who had at least grade 3 symptomatic vault prolapse secondary to transvaginal hysterectomy. Data collection included anatomic outcome, and intra- and post-operative complications.Results: The mean patient age was 67 years. The mean operation time was 30 minutes and mean blood loss was 130 ml. No intraoperative rectal perforation was seen, and all patients were discharged within 24 hours of surgery. The symptomatic cure of prolapse rate, urgency, nocturia and pelvic pain was 96.2%, 88.8%, 92.6% and 77% orderly. Only one tape rejection occurred in one of the 26 patients."n  Conclusion: Our initial experience with infracoccygeal sacropexy shows an efficacy similar to other more established surgical techniques for the cure of vault prolapse, but with less surgical morbidity. Therefore, the procedure is found to be efficient and safe, with shorter operation times, reduced postoperative complication and shorter hospital convalescence.

  13. Heat transfer performance uniformity factor for the basement floor made of brick vaults in historic buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murgul Vera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper exposes the calculation of Heat transfer performance uniformity factor for the basement floor made of brick vaults in residential historic buildings. It was determined that the temperature pattern on the floor surface of the premise could be characterized as uniform one. Heat transfer performance uniformity factor for the considered basement floor design can be ignored during the thermotechnical calculations. Thermal resistance calculation is performed for the overlap structure with the smallest thickness.

  14. Archaeological finds from the vaulted building at Krševica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Petar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The completely preserved building with barrel vault was discovered in 2008 in the course of investigation of the remains of an urban settlement dating from the 4th /3rd centuries BC at the site Kale in the village Krševica (southeast Serbia. We are presenting in this work the archaeological finds discovered in this structure. They included pottery, worked stone and many skeletons of horses and dogs that are assumed to be the ritual sacrifice.

  15. Effect of Plyometric Training on Handspring Vault Performance and Functional Power in Youth Female Gymnasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Hall

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of plyometric training (PT when added to habitual gymnastic training (HT on handspring vault (HV performance variables. Twenty youth female competitive gymnasts (Age: 12.5 ± 1.67 y volunteered to participate and were randomly assigned to two independent groups. The experimental plyometric training group (PTG undertook a six-week plyometric program, involving two additional 45 min PT sessions a week, alongside their HT, while the control group (CG performed regular HT only. Videography was used (120 Hz in the sagittal plane to record both groups performing three HVs for both the baseline and post-intervention trials. Furthermore, participants completed a countermovement jump test (CMJ to assess the effect of PT on functional power. Through the use of Quintic biomechanics software, significant improvements (P < 0.05 were found for the PTG for run-up velocity, take-off velocity, hurdle to board distance, board contact time, table contact time and post-flight time and CMJ height. However, there were no significant improvements on pre-flight time, shoulder angle or hip angle on the vault for the PTG. The CG demonstrated no improvement for all HV measures. A sport-specific PT intervention improved handspring vault performance measures and functional power when added to the habitual training of youth female gymnasts. The additional two hours plyometric training seemingly improved the power generating capacity of movement-specific musculature, which consequently improved aspects of vaulting performance. Future research is required to examine the whether the improvements are as a consequence of the additional volume of sprinting and jumping activities, as a result of the specific PT method or a combination of these factors.

  16. Cytology for the detection of early recurrence of gynecologic cancer in the vaginal vault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Lucia A S; de Andrade, Jurandyr M; Dos Reis, Francisco J C

    2014-01-01

    The real benefit of follow-up cervical cytology in women treated for gynecological cancer is unclear. This study was designed to assess the rate of success of cytological examinations in the detection of early vaginal recurrence of gynecological cancer in women found by other methods to have vaginal recurrence of cervical and endometrial cancer. Records of cytological examinations. Thirty-three women treated for early and invasive cervical and endometrial cancer with recurrence in the vaginal vault were retrospectively analyzed. Records from 1979 to 2010. Sixteen women (48.5%) had symptomatic vaginal recurrence associated with distant metastases, whereas 17 (51.5%) had vaginal recurrence only. Cytology was negative in 12 women (36.4%) with both symptomatic and asymptomatic recurrence and positive in the other 21 (63.6%). In 9 of these 21 women (42.9%), the disease was limited to the vaginal vault, whereas the remaining 12 (57.1%) presented with vaginal lesions associated with distant metastases. Cytology was positive in 9 of the 17 (52.9%) women whose recurrence was limited to the vaginal vault and negative in 8 (47.1%). Vaginal cytology yielded false-negative results in almost half of the women with vaginal recurrence of gynecological cancer. Patents of methods used for early diagnosis and detection of immortalization of cervical cancer are also reviewed in this article.

  17. Role of joint torques generated in an optimised Yurchenko layout vault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Michael; Jennings, Les; Elliott, Bruce

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to quantify the muscle torques required in the performance of an optimised Yurchenko layout vault based on a five-segment rigid link model and using input data from an elite female gymnast. At impact, the wrist torque trajectory indicated an extension-flexion action while the shoulder was characterised by extension. The approximate 100 Nm (wrist flexor) and 125 Nm (shoulder extensor) respective peak torque magnitudes indicated that the impact action is not passive in nature. The contribution of joint torques to the adjoining segments was apportioned to the relative components namely; centripetal, gravity and net joint torque components. Despite the presence of both large wrist and shoulder joint torques, the net turning effect on the upper limb and hand segments about their centre of mass (CM) was small. The principal role of the upper limb joint torques was therefore to effect the appropriate joint motions and to support the weight of the gymnast. The performance of the optimum vault was primarily the result of the interplay between the centripetal and the net joint torque components at the wrist, hip and shoulder joints. This has implications to the performer in that successful execution of the vault is principally concerned with the ability to create a high angular momentum for horse impact and to then apply an appropriate level of joint torques that will make optimal use of the initial kinetic condition.

  18. Vaulting mechanics successfully predict decrease in walk–run transition speed with incline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Usherwood, James R.

    2013-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the reasons underlying gait transition in terrestrial locomotion. In bipedal locomotion, the ‘compass gait’, a reductionist model of inverted pendulum walking, predicts the boundaries of speed and step length within which walking is feasible. The stance of the compass gait is energetically optimal—at walking speeds—owing to the absence of leg compression/extension; completely stiff limbs perform no work during the vaulting phase. Here, we extend theoretical compass gait vaulting to include inclines, and find good agreement with previous observations of changes in walk–run transition speed (approx. 1% per 1% incline). We measured step length and frequency for humans walking either on the level or up a 9.8 per cent incline and report preferred walk–run, walk–compliant-walk and maximum walk–run transition speeds. While the measured ‘preferred’ walk–run transition speed lies consistently below the predicted maximum walking speeds, and ‘actual’ maximum walking speeds are clearly above the predicted values, the onset of compliant walking in level as well as incline walking occurs close to the predicted values. These findings support the view that normal human walking is constrained by the physics of vaulting, but preferred absolute walk–run transition speeds may be influenced by additional factors. PMID:23325739

  19. Vaulting mechanics successfully predict decrease in walk-run transition speed with incline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Usherwood, James R

    2013-04-23

    There is an ongoing debate about the reasons underlying gait transition in terrestrial locomotion. In bipedal locomotion, the 'compass gait', a reductionist model of inverted pendulum walking, predicts the boundaries of speed and step length within which walking is feasible. The stance of the compass gait is energetically optimal-at walking speeds-owing to the absence of leg compression/extension; completely stiff limbs perform no work during the vaulting phase. Here, we extend theoretical compass gait vaulting to include inclines, and find good agreement with previous observations of changes in walk-run transition speed (approx. 1% per 1% incline). We measured step length and frequency for humans walking either on the level or up a 9.8 per cent incline and report preferred walk-run, walk-compliant-walk and maximum walk-run transition speeds. While the measured 'preferred' walk-run transition speed lies consistently below the predicted maximum walking speeds, and 'actual' maximum walking speeds are clearly above the predicted values, the onset of compliant walking in level as well as incline walking occurs close to the predicted values. These findings support the view that normal human walking is constrained by the physics of vaulting, but preferred absolute walk-run transition speeds may be influenced by additional factors.

  20. A lime based mortar for thermal insulation of medieval church vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tessa Kvist; Larsen, Poul Klenz; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    was measured to 0.08 W/mK, which is twice the value for mineral wool. It has 1/3 of the resistance to water vapour diffusion as brick, and a high capacity for liquid water absorption. This is a benefit in the case of rain leaking from the roof, because the water does not penetrate further down into the bricks.......There are 1700 medieval churches in Denmark, and many of these have brick vaults. The thickness is only 12 – 15 cm, and the heat loss through this building component is large. Thermal insulation has not been permitted until now in respect for the antiquarian values and doubts about the effect...... on water vapour transport through the vault, and the risk of condensation inside the insulation. A new mortar was developed for thermal insulation of bricks vaults, consisting mainly of expanded perlite, mixed with slaked lime. These materials are compatible with the fired clay bricks and the lime mortar...

  1. Parent Training Packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowitschek, Joseph J.; Hofmeister, Alan

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the current development of training packages for educating parents to help their children develop self-help, math, reading, and spelling skills. Two packages are described: (1) a multimedia package monitored by a professional in training workshops for parents of mentally retarded children; and (2) pencil and paper packages in which…

  2. EVALUATION OF SULFATE ATTACK ON SALTSTONE VAULT CONCRETE AND SALTSTONESIMCO TECHNOLOGIES, INC. PART1 FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C

    2008-08-19

    This report summarizes the preliminary results of a durability analysis performed by SIMCO Technologies Inc. to assess the effects of contacting saltstone Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes with highly alkaline solutions containing high concentrations of dissolved sulfate. The STADIUM{reg_sign} code and data from two surrogate concretes which are similar to the Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes were used in the preliminary durability analysis. Simulation results for these surrogate concrete mixes are provided in this report. The STADIUM{reg_sign} code will be re-run using transport properties measured for the SRS Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concrete samples after SIMCO personnel complete characterization testing on samples of these materials. Simulation results which utilize properties measured for samples of Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes will be provided in Revision 1 of this report after property data become available. The modeling performed to date provided the following information on two concrete mixes that will be used to support the Saltstone PA: (1) Relationship between the rate of advancement of the sulfate front (depth of sulfate ion penetration into the concrete) and the rate of change of the concrete permeability and diffusivity. (2) Relationship between the sulfate ion concentration in the corrosive leachate and the rate of the sulfate front progression. (3) Equation describing the change in hydraulic properties (hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity) as a function of sulfate ion concentration in the corrosive leachate. These results have been incorporated into the current Saltstone PA analysis by G. Flach (Flach, 2008). In addition, samples of the Saltstone Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes have been prepared by SIMCO Technologies, Inc. Transport and physical properties for these materials are currently being measured and sulfate exposure testing to three high alkaline, high sulfate leachates provided by SRNL is

  3. Recommended aquifer grid resolution for E-Area PA revision transport simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2018-01-03

    This memorandum addresses portions of Section 3.5.2 of SRNL (2016) by recommending horizontal and vertical grid resolution for aquifer transport, in preparation for the next E-Area Performance Assessment (WSRC 2008) revision.

  4. A comparison of Coulomb and pseudo-Coulomb friction implementations: Application to the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M I; Hiley, M J; Yeadon, M R

    2011-10-13

    In the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting both dynamic and static friction act. The purpose of this study was to develop a method of simulating Coulomb friction that incorporated both dynamic and static phases and to compare the results with those obtained using a pseudo-Coulomb implementation of friction when applied to the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting. Kinematic data were obtained from an elite level gymnast performing handspring straight somersault vaults using a Vicon optoelectronic motion capture system. An angle-driven computer model of vaulting that simulated the interaction between a seven segment gymnast and a single segment vaulting table during the table contact phase of the vault was developed. Both dynamic and static friction were incorporated within the model by switching between two implementations of the tangential frictional force. Two vaulting trials were used to determine the model parameters using a genetic algorithm to match simulations to recorded performances. A third independent trial was used to evaluate the model and close agreement was found between the simulation and the recorded performance with an overall difference of 13.5%. The two-state simulation model was found to be capable of replicating performance at take-off and also of replicating key contact phase features such as the normal and tangential motion of the hands. The results of the two-state model were compared to those using a pseudo-Coulomb friction implementation within the simulation model. The two-state model achieved similar overall results to those of the pseudo-Coulomb model but obtained solutions more rapidly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Atmospheric release model for the E-area low-level waste facility: Updates and modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-11-16

    The atmospheric release model (ARM) utilizes GoldSim® Monte Carlo simulation software (GTG, 2017) to evaluate the flux of gaseous radionuclides as they volatilize from E-Area disposal facility waste zones, diffuse into the air-filled soil pores surrounding the waste, and emanate at the land surface. This report documents the updates and modifications to the ARM for the next planned E-Area PA considering recommendations from the 2015 PA strategic planning team outlined by Butcher and Phifer.

  6. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Marr

    2000-05-11

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.

  7. Packaging for Food Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  8. The "Akopian" vault performed by elite male gymnasts: Which biomechanical variables are related to a judge's score?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Farana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A vaulting performance takes a short time and it is influenced by and affects the quantity of mechanical variables. The significant relationships between the vaulting score and specific aspects of the gymnast's vault should conduct coaches to monitor these variables as a part of training or routine testing. Objective: The aim of the current study was to determine the biomechanical variables that are related to a successful performance of the Akopian vaults performed by top level male gymnasts during the World Cup competition. Methods: Fifteen top-level male gymnasts participated in this study. For the 3D analysis, two digital camcorders with a frame rate of 50 Hz were used. The data were digitized by the Simi motion software. The Hay and Reid method was used to identify the biomechanical variables that determine the linear and angular motions of the handspring and front somersault vaults. A correlation analysis was used to establish the relationship between the biomechanical variables and the judges' scores. The level of statistical significance was determined at the value of p < .05. Results: In the Akopian vaults, in five out of 24 variables arising from the deterministic model showed a significant relationship to the score. A significant correlation was found in the maximum height of the body center of mass in the second flight phase, in the height of the body center of mass at the mat touchdown, in the change of the vertical velocity during the take-off from the vaulting table, and in the duration of the second flight phase. Conclusions: The results of the study suggest that a successful execution of Akopian vaults and the achievement of a higher score required: to maximize the change in vertical velocity in the table contact phase and maximize vertical velocity in the table take-off phase; to maximize the amplitude of the second flight phase, which is determined by the duration of the second flight phase, by the maximum

  9. A prediction of an optimal performance of the handspring 1 1/2 front salto longhorse vault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, P

    1994-01-01

    The handspring 1 1/2 front salto vault in the tucked position is deemed to be an important high-level vault. It was the compulsory vault of the 1988 Olympics and is a building block for more advanced skills in the handspring family. The purpose of this study was to predict an individual's optimal performance of a handspring 1 1/2 front salto vault. An assessment of the athlete's present performance ability was determined using cinematographical analysis of three trials. These trials were judged as being typical high-level performances of the vault. Secondly, an objective function was identified based on the performance result of points awarded. The objective function was composed of those performance variables that, if maximized, would result in minimal deductions. Postflight height and distance were identified as those variables. Angular momentum was included in a penalty function form to ensure that sufficient angular momentum was present for successful completion of the skill. A Lagrangian approach was used to derive the equations of motion and a Rayleigh-Ritz procedure, using fifth-degree polynomials, was used to represent and discretize the state variables. The predicted optimal performance of the skill displayed greater virtuosity in postflight height, distance and angular momentum when compared to the individual's best trial performance. The results of this study generally fall within the limits observed for elite vaulters.

  10. The influence of touchdown conditions and contact phase technique on post-flight height in the straight handspring somersault vault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeadon, Maurice R; Jackson, Monique I; Hiley, Michael J

    2014-09-22

    In vaulting the gymnast must generate sufficient linear and angular momentum during the approach and table contact in order to complete the rotational requirements in the post-flight phase. This study investigated the effects of touchdown conditions and contact technique on peak post-flight height of a straight handspring somersault vault. A planar seven-segment torque-driven computer simulation model of the contact phase in vaulting was evaluated by varying joint torque activation time histories to match three performances of a straight handspring somersault vault by an elite gymnast. The closest matching simulation was used as a starting point to optimise peak post-flight height of the mass centre for a straight handspring somersault. It was found that optimising either the touchdown conditions or the contact technique increased post-flight height by 0.1m whereas optimising both together increased post-flight height by 0.4m above that of a simulation matching the recorded performance. Thus touchdown technique and contact technique make similar contributions to post-flight height in the straight handspring somersault vault. Increasing touchdown velocity and angular momentum lead to additional post-flight height although there was a critical value of vertical touchdown velocity beyond which post-flight height decreased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Masonry Vaults Subjected To Horizontal Loads: Experimental and Numerical Investigations to Evaluate the Effectiveness of A GFRM Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattesco, Natalino; Boem, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    The paper investigates the effectiveness of a modern reinforcement technique based on a Glass Fiber-Reinforced Mortar (GFRM) for the enhancement of the performances of existing masonry vaults subjected to horizontal seismic actions. In fact, the authors recently evidenced, through numerical simulations, that the typical simplified loading patterns generally adopted in the literature for the experimental tests, based on concentrated vertical loads at 1/4 of the span, are not reliable for such a purpose, due to an unrealistic stress distribution. Thus, experimental quasi-static cyclic tests on full-scale masonry vaults based on a specific setup, designed to apply a horizontal load pattern proportional to the mass, were performed. Three samples were tested: an unreinforced vault, a vault reinforced at the extrados and a vault reinforced at the intrados. The experimental results demonstrated the technique effectiveness in both strength and ductility. Moreover, numerical simulations were performed by adopting a simplified FE, smear-crack model, evidencing the good reliability of the prediction by comparison with the experimental results.

  12. COMPUTATIONAL VISION IN UV-MAPPING OF TEXTURED MESHES COMING FROM PHOTOGRAMMETRIC RECOVERY: UNWRAPPING FRESCOED VAULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Robleda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes it is difficult to represent “on paper" the existing reality of architectonic elements, depending on the complexity of his geometry, but not only in cases with complex geometries: non-relief surfaces, can need a “special planar format” for its graphical representation. Nowadays, there are a lot of methods to obtain tridimensional recovery of our Cultural Heritage with different ranges of the relationship accuracy / costs, even getting high accuracy using “low-cost” recovery methods as digital photogrammetry, which allow us easily to obtain a graphical representation “on paper”: ortho-images of different points of view. This can be useful for many purposes but, for others, an orthographic projection is not really very interesting. In non-site restoration tasks of frescoed vaults, a “planar format” representation in needed to see in true magnitude the paintings represented on the intrados vault, because of the general methodology used: gluing the fresco on a fabric, removing the fresco-fabric from the support, moving to laboratory, removing the fresco from the fabric, restoring the fresco, gluing back the restored fresco on another fabric, laying the restored fresco on the original location and removing the fabric. Because of this, many times, an unfolded model is needed, in a similar way a cylinder or cone can be unfolded, but in this case with a texture included: UV unwrapping. Unfold and fold-back processes, can be especially interesting in restoration field of frescoed vaults and domes at: chromatic recovery of paintings, reconstruction of partially missed geometries, transference of paintings on surfaces, etc.

  13. Dual Use Packaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA seeks down-weighted packaging compatible with microwave preparation and perhaps high hydrostatic pressure processing. New packaging must satisfy NASA's 3-year...

  14. Merganser Download Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data download package contains an Esri 10.0 MXD, file geodatabase and copy of this FGDC metadata record. The data in this package are used in support of the...

  15. Comparative Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  16. A methodology for sunlight urban planning: a computer-based solar and sky vault obstruction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Fernando Oscar Ruttkay; Silva, Carlos Alejandro Nome [Federal Univ. of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Dept. of Architecture and Urbanism, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Turkienikz, Benamy [Federal Univ. of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Faculty of Architecture, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    The main purpose of the present study is to describe a planning methodology to improve the quality of the built environment based on the rational control of solar radiation and the view of the sky vault. The main criterion used to control the access and obstruction of solar radiation was the concept of desirability and undesirability of solar radiation. A case study for implementing the proposed methodology is developed. Although needing further developments to find its way into regulations and practical applications, the methodology has shown a strong potential to deal with an aspect that otherwise would be almost impossible. (Author)

  17. A lime based mortar for thermal insulation of medieval church vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, P.K.; Hansen, Tessa Kvist

    . The lambda-value of the insulation mortar is 0.08 W/m K or twice the lambda-value for mineral wool. The water vapour permeability is equal to a medieval clay brick, and it has three times higher capacity for liquid water absorption. The mortar was applied to the top side of the vaults in a thickness of 10 cm......, despite a water vapour pressure gradient up to 500 Pa between the nave and attic. There was no reduction in energy consumption the first winter, possibly due to the increased heat loss related to the drying of the mortar....

  18. Restoration of the vault of the open chapel at teposcolula in Oaxaca; Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Ibarra Sevilla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The extraordinary vault of this open chapel, one of the most unique examples of 16th century Latin-American architecture, has been subjected to a philological reconstruction as a result of its local and historiographic importance. The text describes, in the first place, the historical and architectural context of this building and goes on to describe its reconstruction, based on the remains conserved and historical and photographic data about its structure and increasing deterioration, the rules of stereotomy and the building methods used in its original construction.

  19. Structural consolidation in restoration. The vaults of Palladio’s villa Poiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Doglioni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The structural consolidation work on Villa Poiana, a unique work by Palladio designed and built using solely vaults without resorting to lineal structures, has given rise to an extraordinary interpretation of the evolution of the structural decay of the building over time. It is also a model intervention given its ability to adapt to this progressive history of lesions and deformation, designing added reinforcement based on the historic structure and its progressive reinforcements. The analysis of the damage that can be caused by interventions with reinforced concrete on historic structures is equally interesting due, among other reasons, to the great weight added to the structure.

  20. Openability of tamperproof packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Del Castillo C., A.; Wever, R; Buijs, P.J.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Communication, product protection and presentation are three key aspects in the world of packaging nowadays. Due to a retail landscape consisting of large stores, displaying packed products on the shelves in self-service environments, these aspects become increasingly important, not only for Fast Moving Consumer Goods, but for consumer durables as well. In the communication aspect, the package delivers a promise to the customer contained in the package, but the package itself is part of this ...

  1. Packaging Printing Today

    OpenAIRE

    Bolanča, Stanislav; Majnarić, Igor; Golubović, Kristijan

    2015-01-01

    Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. T...

  2. Trends in Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  3. Central heating: package boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.

    1977-05-01

    Performance and cost data for electrical and fossil-fired package boilers currently available from manufacturers are provided. Performance characteristics investigated include: unit efficiency, rated capacity, and average expected lifetime of units. Costs are tabulated for equipment and installation of various package boilers. The information supplied in this report will simplify the process of selecting package boilers required for industrial, commercial, and residential applications.

  4. Computerised tomography in the evaluation of expansile lesions arising from the skull vault in childhood - a report of 5 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.J.; Brunelle, F.

    1988-05-01

    Expansile lesions of the skull vault are rare in childhood, and often present as relatively asymptomatic calvarial swellings. The cases of 5 children with expansile lesions of the skull vault due to both benign and malignant primary bone lesions are described. The value of computerised tomography in demonstrating that the 'tumour' arises primarily from the skull vault as opposed to the underlying brain, and in demonstrating clinically unsuspected endocranial extension of the mass is described. The CT findings in 2 cases of aneurysmal bone cyst, including the significance of the presence of 'fluid levels' in reaching a definitive diagnosis are discussed. The successful pre-operative embolisation in one case of aneurysmal bone cyst is reported.

  5. Numerical and experimental analysis of an in-scale masonry cross-vault prototype up to failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Michela; Calderini, Chiara; Lagomarsino, Sergio [Department of Civil, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Genoa, Via Montallegro 1, Genoa (Italy); Milani, Gabriele [Department of Architecture, Built Environment and Construction Engineering, Milan Polytechnic University, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, Milan (Italy)

    2015-12-31

    A heterogeneous full 3D non-linear FE approach is validated against experimental results obtained on an in-scale masonry cross vault assembled with dry joints, and subjected to various loading conditions consisting on imposed displacement combinations to the abutments. The FE model relies into a discretization of the blocks by means of few rigid-infinitely resistant parallelepiped elements interacting by means of planar four-noded interfaces, where all the deformation (elastic and inelastic) occurs. The investigated response mechanisms of vault are the shear in-plane distortion and the longitudinal opening and closing mechanism at the abutments. After the validation of the approach on the experimentally tested cross-vault, a sensitivity analysis is conducted on the same geometry, but in real scale, varying mortar joints mechanical properties, in order to furnish useful hints for safety assessment, especially in presence of seismic action.

  6. Increased susceptibility of vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-deficient mice to carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval-Fernandes, Sujna; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Kitchen, Christina; Rome, Leonard H

    2005-10-01

    Vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (VPARP) and telomerase-associated protein 1 (TEP1) are components of the vault ribonucleoprotein complex. Vaults have been implicated in multidrug resistance of human tumors and are thought to be involved in macromolecular assembly and/or transport. Previous studies showed that VPARP-deficient mice were viable, fertile, and did not display any vault-related or telomerase-related phenotype, whereas disruption of telomerase-associated protein 1 in mice led to reduced stability of the vault RNA and affected its stable association with vaults, although there were no telomerase-related changes. In this study, we evaluated the susceptibility of Vparp-/- and Tep1-/- mice to dimethylhydrazine-induced colon tumorigenesis and urethane-induced lung tumorigenesis. Mice received i.p. injections of either 1 g/kg body weight of urethane twice a week for 2 weeks or 20 mg/kg body weight of dimethylhydrazine once a week for 10 weeks and were analyzed after 10 and 60 weeks, respectively. The colon tumor incidence and multiplicity were significantly higher and colon tumor latency was significantly shorter in Vparp-/- mice compared with wild-type mice. Increased colon tumor incidence, multiplicity, and reduced tumor latency were also seen in Tep1-/- mice, however, these results were statistically not significant. Lung tumor multiplicities were increased in both Vparp-/- and Tep1-/- mice but were not significant. The increase in carcinogen-induced tumors in VPARP-deficient mice is the only phenotype observed to date, and suggests a possible role for VPARP, directly or indirectly, in chemically induced neoplasia.

  7. Homology of the cranial vault in birds: new insights based on embryonic fate-mapping and character analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddin, Hillary C; Piekarski, Nadine; Sefton, Elizabeth M; Hanken, James

    2016-08-01

    Bones of the cranial vault appear to be highly conserved among tetrapod vertebrates. Moreover, bones identified with the same name are assumed to be evolutionarily homologous. However, recent developmental studies reveal a key difference in the embryonic origin of cranial vault bones between representatives of two amniote lineages, mammals and birds, thereby challenging this view. In the mouse, the frontal is derived from cranial neural crest (CNC) but the parietal is derived from mesoderm, placing the CNC-mesoderm boundary at the suture between these bones. In the chicken, this boundary is located within the frontal. This difference and related data have led several recent authors to suggest that bones of the avian cranial vault are misidentified and should be renamed. To elucidate this apparent conflict, we fate-mapped CNC and mesoderm in axolotl to reveal the contributions of these two embryonic cell populations to the cranial vault in a urodele amphibian. The CNC-mesoderm boundary in axolotl is located between the frontal and parietal bones, as in the mouse but unlike the chicken. If, however, the avian frontal is regarded instead as a fused frontal and parietal (i.e. frontoparietal) and the parietal as a postparietal, then the cranial vault of birds becomes developmentally and topologically congruent with those of urodeles and mammals. This alternative hypothesis of cranial vault homology is also phylogenetically consistent with data from the tetrapod fossil record, where frontal, parietal and postparietal bones are present in stem lineages of all extant taxa, including birds. It further implies that a postparietal may be present in most non-avian archosaurs, but fused to the parietal or supraoccipital as in many extant mammals.

  8. SU-E-T-267: Construction and Evaluation of a Neutron Wall to Shield a 15 MV Linac in a Low-Energy Vault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiser, M; Hager, F; Foster, R; Solberg, T

    2012-06-01

    To design and quantify the shielding efficacy of an inner Borated Polyethylene (BPE)wall for a 15 MV linac in a low energy vault. A Varian TrueBeam linac with a maximum photon energy of 15 MV was installed in asmaller, preexisting vault. This vault originally housed a low-energy machine and did not havesufficient maze length recommended for neutron attenuation. Effective dose rate calculationswere performed using the Modified Kersey's Method as detailed in NCRP Report No. 151 andfound to be unacceptably high. An initial survey following the machine installation confirmedthese calculations. Rather than restrict the linac beam energy to 10 MV, BPE was investigatedas a neutron moderating addition. An inner wall and door were planned and constructed using4'×8'×1″ thick 5% BPE sheets. The resulting door and wall had 2″ of BPE; conduits and ductwork were also redesigned and shielded. A survey was conducted following construction of thewall. The vault modification reduced the expected effective dose at the vault door from 36.23to 0.010 mSv/week. As specific guidelines for vault modification are lacking, this project quantitativelydemonstrates the potential use of BPE for vault modification. Such modifications may provide alow-cost shielding solution to allow for the use of high energy modes in smaller treatment vaults. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  9. Edible packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  10. The continuous measurement of the springboard reaction force in gymnastic vaulting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Shinya; Ikegami, Yasuo; Nunome, Hiroyuki; Apriantono, Tommy; Sakurai, Shinji

    2007-02-15

    A new method was established for the continuous measurement of force applied from a springboard to a gymnast in vaulting (board reaction force). Male gymnasts performed a handspring vault using a springboard mounted on force platforms. A high-speed video camera sampled the springboard motion at 500 Hz. The springboard was initially partitioned into 29 segments. The force due to the accelerative motion of the springboard was determined by summing the forces of the individual segments. The board reaction force acting on the gymnast was calculated by subtracting the force due to the accelerative motion of the springboard and weight from the force recorded by the force platform. The new method succeeded in illustrating transient changes of the board reaction force. The horizontal and vertical components of the peak values of the board reaction force were three and two times greater respectively than the average values. A series of tests was conducted to determine whether the number of segments of the springboard model could be reduced without affecting accuracy. A model consisting of only four segments produced almost the same accuracy as the 29-segment model. The simplified model is recommended as a more efficient method to measure board reaction force.

  11. A Computational Analysis of Bone Formation in the Cranial Vault in the Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanyoung eLee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bones of the cranial vault are formed by the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts on a surface that surrounds the brain, eventually forming mineralized bone. Signaling pathways causative for the cell differentiation include the actions of extracellular proteins driven by information from genes. We assume that the interaction of cells and extracellular molecules which are associated with cell differentiation can be modeled using Turing’s reaction-diffusion model, a mathematical model for pattern formation controlled by two interacting molecules (activator and inhibitor. In this study we hypothesize that regions of high concentration of an activator develop into primary centers of ossification, the earliest sites of cranial vault bone. In addition to the Turing model, we use another diffusion equation to model a morphogen (potentially the same as the morphogen associated with formation of ossification centers associated with bone growth. These mathematical models were solved using the finite volume method. The computational domain and model parameters are determined using a large collection of experimental data showing skull bone formation in mouse at different embryonic days in both of normal and defect conditions. The results show that the relative locations of the five ossification centers that form in our model occur at the same position as those identified in experimental data. As bone grows from these ossification centers, sutures form between the bones.

  12. Frescoed Vaults: Accuracy Controlled Simplified Methodology for Planar Development of Three-Dimensional Textured Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Giorgio Bevilacqua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the field of documentation and preservation of cultural heritage, there is keen interest in 3D metric viewing and rendering of architecture for both formal appearance and color. On the other hand, operative steps of restoration interventions still require full-scale, 2D metric surface representations. The transition from 3D to 2D representation, with the related geometric transformations, has not yet been fully formalized for planar development of frescoed vaults. Methodologies proposed so far on this subject provide transitioning from point cloud models to ideal mathematical surfaces and projecting textures using software tools. The methodology used for geometry and texture development in the present work does not require any dedicated software. The different processing steps can be individually checked for any error introduced, which can be then quantified. A direct accuracy check of the planar development of the frescoed surface has been carried out by qualified restorers, yielding a result of 3 mm. The proposed methodology, although requiring further studies to improve automation of the different processing steps, allowed extracting 2D drafts fully usable by operators restoring the vault frescoes.

  13. Elevation of water table and various stratigraphic surfaces beneath e area low level waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwell, Laura [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bennett, Patti [; Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-02

    This memorandum describes work that supports revision of the Radiological Performance Assessment (PA) for the E Area Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF). The work summarized here addresses portions of the PA Strategic Planning Team's recommendation #148b (Butcher and Phifer, 2016).

  14. Packaging for Sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Helen; Fitzpatrick, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    The packaging industry is under pressure from regulators, customers and other stakeholders to improve packaging’s sustainability by reducing its environmental and societal impacts. This is a considerable challenge because of the complex interactions between products and their packaging, and the many roles that packaging plays in the supply chain. Packaging for Sustainability is a concise and readable handbook for practitioners who are trying to implement sustainability strategies for packaging. Industry case studies are used throughout the book to illustrate possible applications and scenarios. Packaging for Sustainability draws on the expertise of researchers and industry practitioners to provide information on business benefits, environmental issues and priorities, environmental evaluation tools, design for environment, marketing strategies, and challenges for the future.

  15. Trocar-guided total tension-free vaginal mesh repair of post-hysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milani, A.L.; Withagen, M.I.J.; Vierhout, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The objective of this study was to report 1 year anatomical and functional outcomes of trocar-guided total tension-free vaginal mesh (Prolift) repair for post-hysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse with one continuous piece of polypropylene mesh. METHODS: We conducted a

  16. Mattia Preti’s vault in St John’s, Valletta: New light on a complex iconography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    The article aims at casting new light on Mattia Preti’s well-known decoration of the vault of the conventual church of the Knight Hospitallers, now the Co-cathedral of Valletta. To a modern viewer the iconography of the decoration is all but simple. The iconographic scheme, I argue, seeks to clai...

  17. Major vault protein is expressed along the nucleus-neurite axis and associates with mRNAs in cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paspalas, Constantinos D; Perley, Casey C; Venkitaramani, Deepa V; Goebel-Goody, Susan M; Zhang, YongFang; Kurup, Pradeep; Mattis, Joanna H; Lombroso, Paul J

    2009-07-01

    Major Vault Protein (MVP), the main constituent of the vault ribonucleoprotein particle, is highly conserved in eukaryotic cells and upregulated in a variety of tumors. Vaults have been speculated to function as cargo transporters in several cell lines, yet no work to date has characterized the protein in neurons. Here we first describe the cellular and subcellular expression of MVP in primate and rodent cerebral cortex, and in cortical neurons in vitro. In prefrontal, somatosensory and hippocampal cortices, MVP was predominantly expressed in pyramidal neurons. Immunogold labeled free and attached ribosomes, and structures reminiscent of vaults on the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the nuclear envelope. The nucleus was immunoreactive in association with nucleopores. Axons and particularly principal dendrites expressed MVP along individual microtubules, and in pre- and postsynaptic structures. Synapses were not labeled. Colocalization with microtubule-associated protein-2, tubulin, tau, and phalloidin was observed in neurites and growth cones in culture. Immunoprecipitation coupled with reverse transcription PCR showed that MVP associates with mRNAs that are known to be translated in response to synaptic activity. Taken together, our findings provide the first characterization of neuronal MVP along the nucleus-neurite axis and may offer new insights into its possible function(s) in the brain.

  18. Gothic Churches in Paris ST Gervais et ST Protais Image Matching 3d Reconstruction to Understand the Vaults System Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, M.; Campi, M.; Catuogno, R.

    2015-02-01

    This paper is part of a research about ribbed vaults systems in French Gothic Cathedrals. Our goal is to compare some different gothic cathedrals to understand the complex geometry of the ribbed vaults. The survey isn't the main objective but it is the way to verify the theoretical hypotheses about geometric configuration of the flamboyant churches in Paris. The survey method's choice generally depends on the goal; in this case we had to study many churches in a short time, so we chose 3D reconstruction method based on image dense stereo matching. This method allowed us to obtain the necessary information to our study without bringing special equipment, such as the laser scanner. The goal of this paper is to test image matching 3D reconstruction method in relation to some particular study cases and to show the benefits and the troubles. From a methodological point of view this is our workflow: - theoretical study about geometrical configuration of rib vault systems; - 3D model based on theoretical hypothesis about geometric definition of the vaults' form; - 3D model based on image matching 3D reconstruction methods; - comparison between 3D theoretical model and 3D model based on image matching;

  19. Kinematic analysis of "Lou Yun" vaults performed by top level male gymnasts: Relationship between kinematic variables and judges' score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Farana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In gymnastics judging, evaluation of routines in their execution is based on form and technique displayed during the performance. A vaulting performance takes a short time and is affected by the quantity of biomechanical variables. The significant relationships between the vault score and specific aspects of the gymnast’s vault should motivate coaches to monitor these variables as a part of training or routine testing. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to determine the biomechanical variables that are related to a successful performance of Lou Yun vaults performed by top level male gymnasts during the World Cup competition. METHODS: Ten top-level male gymnasts participated in this study. For the 3D kinematic analysis, two digital camcorders with a frame rate of 50 Hz were used. The data was digitized by Simi Motion software. The Hay and Reid method (1988 was used to identify the biomechanical variables that determine the linear motions of the Lou Yun vaults. A correlation analysis was used to establish the relationship between the biomechanical variables and the judges’ scores. The level of statistical significance was determined at the value of p RESULTS: Six out of 24 examined variables showed significant correlations with the scores. A significant correlation was found in the maximum height of the body centre of mass in the second flight phase (r = .68, in the height of centre of mass at mat touchdown (r = .75, in the relative height from table take-off to mat touchdown (r = –.85, in the duration of the table contact phase (r = –.71, in the duration of the second flight phase (r = .62 and in the vertical velocity of body centre of mass at table take-off (r = .70. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study suggest that a successful execution of Lou Yun vaults and the achievement of a higher score required: to minimize duration of table support phase; to maximize the vertical velocity in the table take-off phase; to

  20. Distribution of residual long-lived radioactivity in the inner concrete walls of a compact medical cyclotron vault room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Nohtomi, Akihiro; Baba, Shingo; Sasaki, Masayuki; Komiya, Isao; Umedzu, Yoshiyuki; Honda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Compact medical cyclotrons have been set up to generate the nuclides necessary for positron emission tomography. In accelerator facilities, neutrons activate the concrete used to construct the vault room; this activation increases with the use of an accelerator. The activation causes a substantial radioactive waste management problem when facilities are decommissioned. In the present study, several concrete cores from the walls, ceiling and floor of a compact medical cyclotron vault room were samples 2 years after the termination of operations, and the radioactivity concentrations of radionuclides were estimated. Cylindrical concrete cores 5 cm in diameter and 10 cm in length were bored from the concrete wall, ceiling and floor. Core boring was performed at 18 points. The gamma-ray spectrum of each sample was measured using a high-purity germanium detector. The degree of activation of the concrete in the cyclotron vault room was analyzed, and the range and tendency toward activation in the vault room were examined. (60)Co and (152)Eu were identified by gamma-ray spectrometry of the concrete samples. (152)Eu and (60)Co are produced principally from the stable isotopes of europium and cobalt by neutron capture reactions. The radioactivity concentration did not vary much between the surface of the concrete and at a depth of 10 cm. Although the radioactivity concentration near the target was higher than the clearance level for radioactive waste indicated in IAEA RS-G-1.7, the mean radioactivity concentration in the walls and floor was lower than the clearance level. The radioactivity concentration of the inner concrete wall of the medical cyclotron vault room was not uniform. The areas exceeding the clearance level were in the vicinity of the target, but most of the building did not exceed the clearance levels.

  1. The role of mode of delivery on elastic fiber architecture and vaginal vault elasticity: a rodent model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Keith T; Billah, Mubashir; Raparia, Eva; Shah, Anup; Silverstein, Moshe C; Ahmad, Amanda; Boutis, Gregory S

    2014-01-01

    We report on an experimental study of the role of mode of delivery and pregnancy on the architecture of vaginal elastic fibers and vaginal vault elasticity in female Sprague-Dawley rats. In primiparous rats submitted to spontaneous or Cesarean delivery and virgin rats submitted to simulated delivery, the tortuosity of elastic fibers (defined as the ratio of length to end-to-end distance) was observed to decrease when measured from two days to two weeks postpartum. In addition, the measured tortuosity of elastic fibers in multiparous rats was greater than that of virgin rats. The tortuosity of elastic fibers of all rats measured at two days postpartum was found to be similar to that of multiparous rats. At two weeks postpartum the measured tortuosity of vaginal elastic fibers was indistinguishable from virgin rats, regardless of the delivery method. Borrowing from the field of polymer physics, a model is suggested that connects elastic fiber tortuosity to the resulting tension under an applied stress; fibers having high tortuosity are expected to provide less structural support than more linear, low tortuosity fibers. To probe the macroscopic effects in elasticity due to architectural changes observed in elastic fibers, we have measured the stiffness of the vaginal vault in each cohort using a pressure-infusion system. The vaginal vault stiffness of all primiparous rats measured two weeks postpartum was greater than that measured two days postpartum. In addition, the vaginal vault of virgin rats was stiffer than that of multiparous rats. These observations confirmed that vaginal vault elastic fibers undergo significant remodeling due to pregnancy and parturition, and that the complex remodeling may be a significant contributor to tissue elasticity. Remarkably, regardless of the mode of delivery or simulated tissue trauma, elastic fiber tortuosity is observed to decrease from two days to two weeks postpartum indicating the onset of repair and recovery of tissue

  2. Somersaulting techniques used in high-scoring and low-scoring Roche vaults performed by male Olympic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yoshiaki; Dunn, J Hubert; Blucker, Erik P

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the somersaulting techniques used in the 16 highest-scoring and 16 lowest-scoring Roche vaults. Our hypothesis was that the gymnasts performing the highest-scoring Roche vaults would demonstrate a better technique than those performing the lowest-scoring Roche vaults while on the horse (pushing off the horse more effectively), somersaulting (executing most of the required somersaults higher in flight), and landing (showing a greater control). A 16-mm motion picture camera, operating at 100 Hz, recorded the vaults during the official competition. The two-dimensional direct linear transformation was used for spatial reconstruction. The results of t-tests (P gymnasts, the high-scoring gymnasts had: (1) greater height of body centre of mass and a more fully extended body position at the horse take-off; (2) greater height of body centre of mass at the peak of post-flight, knee release, and touchdown on the mat; (3) greater horizontal and vertical displacements of body centre of mass, greater somersaulting rotation, and longer time from the knee release to mat touchdown; and (d) markedly smaller landing point deductions. In conclusion, a successful Roche vault is likely when the focus is on: (a) leaving the horse with a large vertical velocity in an extended body position to achieve a high trajectory of centre of mass by first extending the legs, then immediately pushing off the horse vigorously, using the muscles of the upper extremity; (b) grasping the knees immediately after the take-off from the horse, achieving the tightly tucked body position early during the ascent to the peak, and completing two-thirds of the required somersaults at a great height; (c) releasing the knees and extending the body above the top level of the horse; and (d) contacting the mat with a high body centre of mass position.

  3. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westengen, Ola T; Jeppson, Simon; Guarino, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat), Sorghum (sorghum), Pennisetum (pearl millet), Eleusine (finger millet), Cicer (chickpea) and Lens (lentil) exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth), Chenopodium (quinoa), Eragrostis (teff) and Abelmoschus (okra). In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity.

  4. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola T Westengen

    Full Text Available Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat, Sorghum (sorghum, Pennisetum (pearl millet, Eleusine (finger millet, Cicer (chickpea and Lens (lentil exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth, Chenopodium (quinoa, Eragrostis (teff and Abelmoschus (okra. In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity.

  5. Maximal Power of the Lower Limbs of Youth Gymnasts and Biomechanical Indicators of the Forward Handspring Vault Versus the Sports Result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanowicz, Andrzej; Kochanowicz, Kazimierz; Niespodziúski, Bartłomiej; Mieszkowski, Jan; Aschenbrenner, Piotr; Bielec, Grzegorz; Szark-Eckardt, Mirosława

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to define the relationship between maximal power of lower limbs, the biomechanics of the forward handspring vault and the score received during a gymnastics competition. The research involved 42 gymnasts aged 9-11 years competing in the Poland's Junior Championships. The study consisted of three stages: first -estimating the level of indicators of maximal power of lower limbs tested on a force plate during the countermovement jump; second - estimating the level of biomechanical indicators of the front handspring vault. For both mentioned groups of indicators and the score received by gymnasts during the vault, linear correlation analyses were made. The last stage consisted of conducting multiple regression analysis in order to predict the performance level of the front handspring vault. Results showed a positive correlation (0.401, p front handstand vault (13.38 ± 1.02 points). However, the highest significant (p < 0.001) correlation with the judges' score was revealed in the angle of the hip joint in the second phase of the flight (196.00 ± 16.64°) and the contact time of hands with the vault surface (0.264 ± 0.118 s), where correlation coefficients were: -0.671 and -0.634, respectively. In conclusion, the angles of the hip joint in the second phase of the flight and when the hands touched the vault surface proved to be the most important indicators for the received score.

  6. Laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy compared with open abdominal sacrocolpopexy for vault prolapse repair: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolen, Anne-Lotte W M; van Oudheusden, Anique M J; Mol, Ben Willem J; van Eijndhoven, Hugo W F; Roovers, Jan-Paul W R; Bongers, Marlies Y

    2017-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the functional outcome after laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy versus open sacrocolpopexy in women with vault prolapse. A multicentre randomised controlled trial was carried out at four teaching and two university hospitals in the Netherlands in women with symptomatic vault prolapse requiring surgical treatment. Participants were randomised for laparoscopic or open sacrocolpopexy. Primary outcome was disease-specific quality of life measured using the Urinary Distress Inventory (UDI) questionnaire at 12 months' follow-up. Secondary outcomes included anatomical outcome and perioperative data. We needed 74 participants to show a difference of 10 points on the prolapse domain of the UDI 12 months after surgery (power of 80%, α error 0.05). Between 2007 and 2012, a total of 74 women were randomised. Follow-up after 12 months showed no significant differences in domain scores of the UDI between the two groups. After 12 months, both groups reported a UDI score of 0.0 (IQR: 0-0) for the domain "genital prolapse", which was the primary outcome. There were no significant differences between the two groups (p = 0.93). The number of severe complications was 4 in the laparoscopic group versus 7 in the open abdominal group (RR 0.57; 95% CI 0.50-2.27). There was less blood loss and a shorter hospital stay after laparoscopy; 2 (IQR 2-3) versus 4 (IQR 3-5) days, which was statistically different. There was no significant difference in anatomical outcome at 12 months. Our trial provides evidence to support a laparoscopic approach when performing sacrocolpopexy, as there was less blood loss and hospital stay was shorter, whereas functional and anatomical outcome were not statistically different.

  7. Underground Parking structure built with deep foundations and vault precast elements in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Ordóñez, D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In many cases the only places available for the construction of a new car park are the existing streets or roads. These streets may also have important or historic buildings very close to the structure, which means that they cannot be disturbed in any way during the construction of the parking structure. In this particular case, the novelty is that the top deck is solved with a unique structure: a vault that interacts with the pile wall not only for vertical but also for horizontal loads due to the arch mechanism. The construction of the vault is solved as a large precast element of one piece of more than 16 in length and 2.40m in width, which is built in the factory, transported with the help of trucks and erected on site with large cranes.

    En muchos casos las únicas localizaciones para construir aparcamientos son las calles o carreteras. Estas calles también suelen tener alrededor importantes edificios históricos muy cercanos a la propia estructura. En este caso particular la novedad reside en que el forjado superior está resuelto con una estructura especial: una bóveda que interacciona con la pantalla de pilotes no solo en el sentido vertical sino también en el horizontal formando un verdadero mecanismo de arco. La construcción de la bóveda se ha resuelto con grandes elementos prefabricados de una pieza de más de 16m de longitud y de 2,40m de ancho. Se han fabricado en una factoría, transportados y montados en obra con grandes grúas.

  8. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  9. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    “User-friendly Packaging” aims to create a platform for developing more user-friendly packaging. One intended outcome of the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The project also points the way for more extended collaboration between companies and design researchers. How...... can design research help industry in packaging innovation?...

  10. The BINSYN Program Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert P. Linnell

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The BINSYN program package, recently expanded to calculate synthetic spectra of cataclysmic variables, is being further extended to include synthetic photometry of ordinary binary stars in addition to binary stars with optically thick accretion disks. The package includes a capability for differentials correction optimization of eclipsing binary systems using synthetic photometry.

  11. New Finsler package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Nabil L.; Elgendi, S. G.

    2014-03-01

    The book “Handbook of Finsler geometry” has been included with a CD containing an elegant Maple package, FINSLER, for calculations in Finsler geometry. Using this package, an example concerning a Finsler generalization of Einstein’s vacuum field equations was treated. In this example, the calculation of the components of the hv-curvature of Cartan connection leads to wrong expressions. On the other hand, the FINSLER package works only in dimension four. We introduce a new Finsler package in which we fix the two problems and solve them. Moreover, we extend this package to compute not only the geometric objects associated with Cartan connection but also those associated with Berwald, Chern and Hashiguchi connections in any dimension. These improvements have been illustrated by a concrete example. Furthermore, the problem of simplifying tensor expressions is treated. This paper is intended to make calculations in Finsler geometry more easier and simpler.

  12. Packaging Printing Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Bolanča

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. The possibilities of particular printing techniques for optimal production of the determined packaging were studied in the paper. The problem was viewed from the technological and economical aspect. The possible printing quality and the time necessary for the printing realization were taken as key parameters. An important segment of the production and the way of life is alocation value and it had also found its place in this paper. The events in the field of packaging printing in the whole world were analyzed. The trends of technique developments and the printing technology for packaging printing in near future were also discussed.

  13. Consumer response to packaging design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, Nigel D.; Herpen, van Erica; Lans, van der Ivo A.; Ligthart, Tom N.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Building on theories of cue utilization, this paper investigates whether and how packaging sustainability influences consumer perceptions, inferences and attitudes towards packaged products. A framework is tested in an empirical study among 249 students using soup products varying in packaging

  14. Análisis comparativo en base a la sostenibilidad ambiental entre bóvedas de albañileria y estructuras de hormigón Comparative analysis on environmental sustainability between masonry vaults and concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo García Sanz Calcedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se compara desde una perspectiva de sostenibilidad, el impacto medioambiental de una estructura de fábrica horizontal de albañilería mediante bóveda de arista, respecto a un forjado estructural de hormigón armado de tipo reticular, utilizando técnicas basadas en el Análisis del Ciclo de Vida para cuantificar la energía consumida en el proceso de fabricación de los materiales y construcción de la estructura. Se ha detectado que la bóveda consume un 75% menos de energía en el proceso de construcción, emite un 69% menos de OO2 a la atmósfera, tienen un coste medio de fabricación para pequeñas luces similar al de un forjado convencional e inferior cuando se trata de salvar grandes luces, genera un 171% menos de residuos procedentes de embalaje en obra, aunque es necesario mas cantidad de mano de obra y que ésta sea más especializada. Se demuestra que la construcción abovedada satisface con creces las exigencias actuales en cuanto a sostenibilidad, así como que esta técnica constructiva puede convivir con la tecnología propia de la sociedad actual, dando como resultado un producto de altas prestaciones económicas, funcionales y energéticas.This paper compares, from a sustainability perspective, the environmental impact of a masonry arris vault with respect to a reticulated reinforced concrete slab, using techniques based on the Life Cycle Assessment to quantify the energy used in the manufacturing process of materials and in the construction of the structure. It has been detected that the vault consumes 75% less energy in the construction process, it emits 69% less CO2 into the atmosphere, it has an average manufacturing cost for short spans similar to a conventional slab, but much lower when large spans have to be covered, and it generates 171% less packaging waste from works, but it needs a larger and more skilled labor force. This paper shows that the vaulted building fully meets the current sustainability

  15. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal; Romenesco, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the packageùespecially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  16. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal

    2000-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the package-especially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  17. E-Area LLWF Vadose Zone Model: Probabilistic Model for Estimating Subsided-Area Infiltration Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-12-12

    A probabilistic model employing a Monte Carlo sampling technique was developed in Python to generate statistical distributions of the upslope-intact-area to subsided-area ratio (AreaUAi/AreaSAi) for closure cap subsidence scenarios that differ in assumed percent subsidence and the total number of intact plus subsided compartments. The plan is to use this model as a component in the probabilistic system model for the E-Area Performance Assessment (PA), contributing uncertainty in infiltration estimates.

  18. Comparative analyis of kinematic characteristics of motor actions of highly skilled and skilled female gymnasts during execution of «front handspring» type vault

    OpenAIRE

    Гамалій, Володимир; Хмельницька, Ірина; Крупеня, Світлана

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the kinematic characteristics of motor actions of skilled and highly skilled female gymnasts in the “front handspring” type vault on the table, based on the results of biomechanical analysis. The features of motor actions technique under a modified design of the apparatus have been studied. Statistically significant differences in the technique of kinematic characteristics of skilled and highly skilled female gymnasts during performance of vaults have been ...

  19. TARGET-DIRECTED RUNNING IN GYMNASTICS: THE ROLE OF THE SPRINGBOARD POSITION AS AN INFORMATIONAL SOURCE TO REGULATE HANDSPRINGS ON VAULT

    OpenAIRE

    T. Heinen; D. Jeraj; M. Thoeren; P.M. Vinken

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence highlights the role of visual information to control gymnastics vaulting and thus neglects a stereotyped approach run. However, there is no evidence on which informational source this regulation is based on. The aim of this study was to examine the position of the springboard as an informational source in the regulation of the handspring on vault. The hypothesis tested was that the action of running towards the springboard brings about changes in the approach run kinematics...

  20. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, CP

    2017-01-01

    This second edition continues to be the most comprehensive review on the developments in advanced electronic packaging technologies, with a focus on materials and processing. Recognized experts in the field contribute to 22 updated and new chapters that provide comprehensive coverage on various 3D package architectures, novel bonding and joining techniques, wire bonding, wafer thinning techniques, organic substrates, and novel approaches to make electrical interconnects between integrated circuit and substrates. Various chapters also address advances in several key packaging materials, including: Lead-free solders Flip chip underfills Epoxy molding compounds Conductive adhesives Die attach adhesives/films Thermal interface materials (TIMS) Materials for fabricating embedded passives including capacitors, inductors, and resistors Materials and processing aspects on wafer-level chip scale package (CSP) and MicroElectroMechanical system (MEMS) Contributors also review new and emerging technologies such as Light ...

  1. Orbital heat rate package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovin, J. K.; Spradley, L. W.

    1979-01-01

    Package consisting of three separate programs used to accurately predict temperature distribution of spacecraft in planetary orbit is invaluable tool for design and analysis of other structures that must function in complex thermal environment.

  2. FLEXIBLE FOOD PACKAGING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment to fabricate and test prototype packages of many types and sizes (e.g., bags, pouches, trays, cartons, etc.). This equipment can...

  3. Packaging for Posterity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sias, Jim

    1990-01-01

    A project in which students designed environmentally responsible food packaging is described. The problem definition; research on topics such as waste paper, plastic, metal, glass, incineration, recycling, and consumer preferences; and the presentation design are provided. (KR)

  4. Dual Use Packaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA calculation that over a kg of packaging waste are generated per day for a 6 member crew. This represents over 1.5 metric tons of waste during a Mars mission....

  5. Informative document packaging waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten JM; Nagelhout D; Duvoort GL; Weerd M de

    1989-01-01

    This "informative document packaging waste" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the instructions of the Direcotrate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  6. Quantitative estimation of the state of vault feet gymnasts on the different stages of the long-term training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Makarova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the vaults given about the state is conducted feet gymnasts on the different stages of the long-term training. 93 sportswomen of different qualification took part in research. The system of Big foot was used. It is set that on the early stages of the long-term training for gymnasts observed flattening heights of unevenness of navicular bone above the floor. With growth of qualification of sportswomen to avoid development of pathological changes of vaults feet actually not possibly. It is conditioned the rules of competitions to complication of competition compositions and technique of execution of elements of calisthenics. It is marked that appearance of flattening feet requires: corrections in the system of training; introduction of the specially developed methods on the removal of existent deformations; prophylaxis of flat-footedness; strengthening of musculoskeletal system feet.

  7. Natural radioactivity level in materials used for medieval vaulting in the territory of the central Balkan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelić Igor S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of an investigation undertaken to determine the level of natural radioactivity in the traditional building materials used for medieval indoor vaulted constructions in the territory of the central Balkan region. Indoor radiation exposure varies appreciably if it comes from the earth building materials, hence the presence of natural radioisotopes of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in masonry vaulted constructions was analyzed using gamma ray spectrometry. In addition, the internal health hazard index, the absorbed dose rates and the effective annual doses were calculated. The results were then compared both with the reported data from the previous studies concerning the territory of the Balkan Peninsula, as well as with the worldwide values for the materials of historic buildings. The results obtained from the materials examined in this paper all showed the radioactivity levels below the maximum permitted values. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171007 i br. 43009

  8. The ENSDF Java Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonzogni, A. A.

    2005-05-01

    A package of computer codes has been developed to process and display nuclear structure and decay data stored in the ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) library. The codes were written in an object-oriented fashion using the java language. This allows for an easy implementation across multiple platforms as well as deployment on web pages. The structure of the different java classes that make up the package is discussed as well as several different implementations.

  9. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-03-04

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT Shipping Package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SAR P charges the WIPP Management and Operation (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize these operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs.

  10. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-04-30

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the WIPP management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document provides the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs.

  11. TARGET-DIRECTED RUNNING IN GYMNASTICS: THE ROLE OF THE SPRINGBOARD POSITION AS AN INFORMATIONAL SOURCE TO REGULATE HANDSPRINGS ON VAULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Heinen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence highlights the role of visual information to control gymnastics vaulting and thus neglects a stereotyped approach run. However, there is no evidence on which informational source this regulation is based on. The aim of this study was to examine the position of the springboard as an informational source in the regulation of the handspring on vault. The hypothesis tested was that the action of running towards the springboard brings about changes in the approach run kinematics and handspring kinematics that relate directly to the position of the springboard. Therefore, kinematics of N = 14 female expert gymnasts’ handsprings on vault and their approach runs were examined while manipulating the position of the springboard. The results revealed that expert gymnasts placed their feet on average in the same position on the springboard and adapted to the springboard position during the last three steps of the approach run. A smaller springboard distance to the front edge of the vaulting table resulted in a different hand placement on the vaulting table, a shorter first flight phase, a take-off angle closer to 90° and a longer second flight phase. Findings suggest that the position of the springboard is a relevant informational source in gymnastics vaulting. We state that knowledge about relationships between informational sources in the environment and the resulting regulatory processes in athletes may help coaches to develop specific training programmes in order to optimize performance in complex skills.

  12. Continental glaciation and its potential impact on a used-fuel disposal vault in the Canadian Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ates, Y.; Bruneau, D.; Ridgway, W.R

    1997-09-01

    AECL has been assessing the concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal in a vault excavated at a depth ranging between 500 m and 1000 m in a plutonic rock mass of the Canadian Shield. Glaciation is a natural process that has occurred in the past, and is likely to occur in the future, thus causing changes in the loading conditions on the rock mass hosting the disposal vault. Because the rock mass is a natural barrier to the migration of radionuclides, it is important to evaluate its integrity under load changes caused by the glaciation process. Assuming that the magnitude and extent of the future glaciation will be similar to those of the past, we have reviewed published data pertaining to the last continental ice sheet that covered a large area of North America. Estimates have been madefor the magnitude of stresses due to ice sheet loading for a vault located at depths of 500 to 1000 m. These analyses have shown that the uniform loading of a continental ice sheet would reduce the deviatoric stresses in the Canadian Shield, creating more favourable conditions than those existing at the present time, namely, high horizontal stresses. The effects of surface erosion and increase in the in-situ shear stresses have also been examined. Based on the existing data and structural modelling studies, there would be no significant structural effect on a disposal vault located at 1000-m depth in a plutonic rock. At its maximum size, an ice sheet comparable to the Laurentide ice sheet could reactivate the faults and fracture zones along the perimeter areas. Our analyses have been based on fully drained conditions only. At a potential disposal site, it would be important also to consider the potential for excess pore pressure in the analyses. (author)

  13. Effect of theoretical biomechanics on open jump the platform jumps performance using jumps (vault) in artistic gymnastics

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Haider Saud; Hanna, Sura Jamil; Ameen, Ferdous Majeed

    2015-01-01

    The biomechanics is an important science the physical education, thereby sports analyzed and thereafter correct the technical errors. Gymnastics is more related with biomechanics than other sports, this science contribute in the analysis, illustration, understanding, and improvement of sports technique. This study aimed to identify the effectiveness of theoretical information on the Platform Jumps (Vault) Performance, and to identify the difference of the performance level between pre-test an...

  14. Effect of Accommodation on Vaulting and Movement of Posterior Chamber Phakic Lenses in Eyes With Implantable Collamer Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hun; Kang, David Sung Yong; Ha, Byoung Jin; Choi, Moonjung; Kim, Eung Kweon; Seo, Kyoung Yul; Kim, Tae-Im

    2015-10-01

    To investigate and compare vaulting and movement changes during accommodation in eyes with the V4c and V4 implantable collamer lenses (ICL). Comparative, observational case series. The medical records of 35 eyes (18 patients) with the V4 ICL and 51 eyes (26 patients) with the V4c ICL were retrospectively examined and included in analyses. Anterior chamber depth (ACD), posterior corneal surface-to-ICL distance (endo-ICL distance), pupil size, and postoperative vaulting were evaluated using the Visante anterior chamber optical coherence tomography system. Images were taken during the nonaccommodative and accommodative states 3 months after ICL implantation. Refractive error, keratometry values, axial length, intraocular pressure, and central corneal thickness were evaluated at 3 months postoperatively. ICL vaulting did not significantly change during accommodation in eyes with either the V4 or V4c ICL (P = .532 for V4 ICL and P = .415 for V4c ICL). However, significant reductions in ACD, endo-ICL distance, and pupil size were observed during accommodation in both groups. In eyes with a V4 ICL, the change in [Δ] ACD was 0.2 ± 0.1 mm (P size was 0.5 ± 0.9 mm (P = .021). For eyes with the V4c ICL, ΔACD was 0.2 ± 0.2 mm (P size was 0.8 ± 1.2 mm (P affect ICL vaulting differently in eyes with either the V4 or V4C ICLs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of mode of delivery on elastic fiber architecture and vaginal vault elasticity: a rodent model study

    OpenAIRE

    Downing, Keith; Billah, Mubashir; Raparia, Eva; Shah, Anup; Silverstein, Moshe; Ahmad, Amanda; Boutis, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on an experimental study of the role of mode of delivery and pregnancy on the architecture of vaginal elastic fibers and vaginal vault elasticity in female Sprague-Dawley rats. In primiparous rats submitted to spontaneous or Cesarean delivery and virgin rats submitted to simulated delivery, the tortuosity of elastic fibers (defined as the ratio of length to end-to-end distance) was observed to decrease when measured two days to two weeks postpartum. In addition, the measured tortuos...

  16. External radiation therapy boost to the vaginal vault: feasibility of intracavitary dosimetry using a commercial diode system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settineri, N; Pergolizzi, S; Raffaele, L; Maisano, R; Russi, E G

    1999-04-01

    An overall check of the whole dosimetry procedure by intracavitary in vivo dosimetry, using n-type silicon diode dosimeter, was performed during 6-MV x-ray irradiation of the vaginal vault. The dose delivered to the isocenter by all treatment fields was evaluated. The diode dosimeter was calibrated against an ion chamber and tissue maximum ratio, field size factor, SSD factor, and temperature dependence studies were performed. Diode system accuracy, linearity, and reproducibility were also tested. Patients' dose data were collected and comparision was made with respect to treatment-planning dose calculations. Ten patients with cervical cancer and endometrial cancer were treated with surgery and irradiation. During the boost to the vaginal vault, a diode was inserted by an intravaginal device and the vaginal vault was the isocenter of the four fields. The field size generally was not larger than 10 x 10 cm2. Diode-measured "tissue maximum ratio" agreed to within 1% with those measured with an ion chamber in field from 7 x 7 to 10 x 10 cm2. The diode also exhibited a temperature dependence of 0.1% degrees C(-1). For 10 patients treated with a 6-MV beam, the agreement with treatment-planning dose calculations was shown to be better than +/-4%. The good accuracy and reproducibility of the diode system shows that determination of the dose at isocenter, for patients treated in the pelvic region, can be performed with n-type diodes accurately. On the other hand, in the vaginal vault boost, external-beam radiotherapy is delivered accurately and in vivo dosimetry is really not indicated.

  17. A three dimensional observation of palatal vault growth in children using mixed effect analysis: a 9 year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sung-Tae; Kim, Hong-Kyun; Lim, Young Seol; Chang, Mi-Sook; Lee, Seung-Pyo; Park, Young-Seok

    2013-12-01

    The understanding of palatine vault growth in normal subjects is important to orthodontists. The aim of this study was to evaluate three dimensional (3D) longitudinal changes in the palatal vault from 6 to 14 years of age. Complete dental stone casts were biennially prepared for 50 subjects (25 girls and 25 boys) followed up from 6 to 14 years of age. Virtual casts were constructed using 3D laser scanning and reconstruction software. The reference gingival plane was constructed. The palatal heights were measured from a total of 12 quadrisectional points between the most gingival points of the palatal dentogingival junctions from the canine to the first molar. In addition, the palatal heights were measured from a total of 12 lateral and medial endpoints of the palatine rugae. The measurement changes over time were analyzed using a mixed-effect analysis. There were significant annual increases in all of the variables related to palatal height. However, the individual random variability at baseline was quite large. There was no significant sexual dimorphism in the linear measurements or in the annual increases as fixed effects in the model. During the observation period, increases in palatal vault height were significant in all regions. The growth pattern seemed to differ between genders even though it was not significant. More elaborate methodology is necessary to gain a better understanding of 3D palatal growth.

  18. NSun2-Mediated Cytosine-5 Methylation of Vault Noncoding RNA Determines Its Processing into Regulatory Small RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobbir Hussain

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal-recessive loss of the NSUN2 gene has been identified as a causative link to intellectual disability disorders in humans. NSun2 is an RNA methyltransferase modifying cytosine-5 in transfer RNAs (tRNAs, yet the identification of cytosine methylation in other RNA species has been hampered by the lack of sensitive and reliable molecular techniques. Here, we describe miCLIP as an additional approach for identifying RNA methylation sites in transcriptomes. miCLIP is a customized version of the individual-nucleotide-resolution crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP method. We confirm site-specific methylation in tRNAs and additional messenger and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs. Among these, vault ncRNAs contained six NSun2-methylated cytosines, three of which were confirmed by RNA bisulfite sequencing. Using patient cells lacking the NSun2 protein, we further show that loss of cytosine-5 methylation in vault RNAs causes aberrant processing into Argonaute-associated small RNA fragments that can function as microRNAs. Thus, impaired processing of vault ncRNA may contribute to the etiology of NSun2-deficiency human disorders.

  19. Perioperative Outcomes and Management in Pediatric Complex Cranial Vault Reconstruction: A Multicenter Study from the Pediatric Craniofacial Collaborative Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Paul A; Goobie, Susan M; Cladis, Franklyn P; Haberkern, Charles M; Meier, Petra M; Reddy, Srijaya K; Nguyen, Thanh T; Cai, Lingyu; Polansky, Marcia; Szmuk, Peter; Fiadjoe, John; Soneru, Codruta; Falcon, Ricardo; Petersen, Timothy; Kowalczyk-Derderian, Courtney; Dalesio, Nicholas; Budac, Stefan; Groenewald, Neels; Rubens, Daniel; Thompson, Douglas; Watts, Rheana; Gentry, Katherine; Ivanova, Iskra; Hetmaniuk, Mali; Hsieh, Vincent; Collins, Michael; Wong, Karen; Binstock, Wendy; Reid, Russell; Poteet-Schwartz, Kim; Gries, Heike; Hall, Rebecca; Koh, Jeffrey; Bannister, Carolyn; Sung, Wai; Jain, Ranu; Fernandez, Allison; Tuite, Gerald F; Ruas, Ernesto; Drozhinin, Oleg; Tetreault, Lisa; Muldowney, Bridget; Ricketts, Karene; Fernandez, Patrick; Sohn, Lisa; Hajduk, John; Taicher, Brad; Burkhart, Jessica; Wright, Allison; Kugler, Jane; Barajas-DeLoa, Lea; Gangadharan, Meera; Busso, Veronica; Stallworth, Kayla; Staudt, Susan; Labovsky, Kristen L; Glover, Chris D; Huang, Henry; Karlberg-Hippard, Helena; Capehart, Samantha; Streckfus, Cynthia; Nguyen, Kim-Phuong T; Manyang, Peter; Martinez, Jose Luis; Hansen, Jennifer K; Levy, Heather Mitzel; Brzenski, Alyssa; Chiao, Franklin; Ingelmo, Pablo; Mujallid, Razaz; Olutoye, Olutoyin A; Syed, Tariq; Benzon, Hubert; Bosenberg, Adrian

    2017-02-01

    The Pediatric Craniofacial Collaborative Group established the Pediatric Craniofacial Surgery Perioperative Registry to elucidate practices and outcomes in children with craniosynostosis undergoing complex cranial vault reconstruction and inform quality improvement efforts. The aim of this study is to determine perioperative management, outcomes, and complications in children undergoing complex cranial vault reconstruction across North America and to delineate salient features of current practices. Thirty-one institutions contributed data from June 2012 to September 2015. Data extracted included demographics, perioperative management, length of stay, laboratory results, and blood management techniques employed. Complications and outlier events were described. Outcomes analyzed included total blood donor exposures, intraoperative and perioperative transfusion volumes, and length of stay outcomes. One thousand two hundred twenty-three cases were analyzed: 935 children aged less than or equal to 24 months and 288 children aged more than 24 months. Ninety-five percent of children aged less than or equal to 24 months and 79% of children aged more than 24 months received at least one transfusion. There were no deaths. Notable complications included cardiac arrest, postoperative seizures, unplanned postoperative mechanical ventilation, large-volume transfusion, and unplanned second surgeries. Utilization of blood conservation techniques was highly variable. The authors present a comprehensive description of perioperative management, outcomes, and complications from a large group of North American children undergoing complex cranial vault reconstruction. Transfusion remains the rule for the vast majority of patients. The occurrence of numerous significant complications together with large variability in perioperative management and outcomes suggest targets for improvement.

  20. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-12

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a

  1. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  2. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the pplication." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  3. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-11-07

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to

  4. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-02-28

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.

  5. Food Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  6. Very broadband seismic background noise analysis of permanent good vaulted seismic stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd el-aal, Abd el-aziz Khairy

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes the results of a preliminary study conducted to analyze seismic background noise at sites of recently deployed very broadband stations of the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN). The main purpose of the study is to assess the effects of permanent seismic vault construction and also to establish characteristics and origin of seismic noise at those sites. Another goal of this study is to determine the time needed for noise at those sites to stabilize. The power spectral densities of background noise at short period band (SP), very broadband (VBB), and ultra long period band (ULP) for each component of each broadband seismometer deployed in the different investigated sites are calculated. A MATLAB code has been developed that manages data processing and data analysis and compares the results with the high-noise model (NHNM) and low-noise model (NLNM) of Peterson (1993). Based on the obtained analysis, the noise stability and the efficiency of each station to record regional and teleseismic events are measured. The results of this study could be used in the future to evaluate station quality, to improve those processes that require background noise values, such as automatic association, and to improve the estimation of station and network detection and location thresholds.

  7. Residual long-lived radioactivity distribution in the inner concrete wall of a cyclotron vault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, K; Ishikawa, T; Kinno, M; Yamadera, A; Nakamura, T

    1994-12-01

    We measured the depth distribution of residual long-lived radioactivity in the inner concrete wall of a cyclotron vault by assaying concrete cores and we estimated the neutron flux distribution in the inner concrete wall by means of activation detectors. Nine long-lived radioactive nuclides (46Sc, 59Fe, 60Co, 65Zn, 134Cs, 152Eu, 154Eu, 22Na, and 54Mn) were identified from the gamma-ray spectra measured in the concrete samples. It was confirmed that the radionuclides induced by thermal neutrons through the (n, gamma) reaction are dominant, and that the induced activity by thermal neutrons is greatest at a depth of 5 to 10 cm rather than at the surface of the concrete and decreases exponentially beyond a depth of about 20 cm. By comparing the radioactivity and neutron flux distributions, we can estimate the induced long-lived radioactivity in concrete after a long period of operation from the short-term activation measurement.

  8. Effect of wind and altitude on record performance in foot races, pole vault, and long jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Cliff

    1985-08-01

    Using only elementary physics, one can estimate the effect of wind and altitude on performance in several track and field events. Experiments have shown that the power lost to aerodynamic drag forces is about a tenth of the total power expended in running at sprint speeds. From this observation one can calculate the effect of wind or of air density changes on sprinting speed. In pole vaulting, the sprinter converts his kinetic energy into potential energy to clear the bar. In long jumping, he is a projectile, but he is prevented from reaching his optimum distance expected for his initial velocity by the height which he can attain during his jump. For each of these events, performance in moderate winds of 2.0 m/s or at altitudes comparable to Mexico City differ by several percent from performances at sea level or in still air. In longer running races and in bicycle races, aerodynamic forces play an important role in racing strategy. However, since the athletes perform in groups it is difficult to calculate the effect on individual performances.

  9. Konsolidierte Datenmodellierung von Versorgungsdaten mit dem Entity-Attribute-Value-Modell und Data Vault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauch, Jens

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Distributed and heterogeneous data must be integrated for health services research in a way, which is open to new requirements and easily expandable for new data sources. For data integration in the health services research domain, mainly data warehouses have been used that model data either as a dimensional or an entity-attribute-value (EAV model. However, these data models are either not flexible enough or lack data management capabilities, which makes longitudinal data analyses more difficult. We have extended the EAV approach with data vault modelling and hereby modelled the data structures of the hospital quality reports by the Gemeinsamer Bundesauschuss (G-BA and integrated data from the years 2011 to 2015 accordingly. This makes it possible to historicise metadata of features, in particular those of quality indicators, and establishes a high degree of extensibility towards new heterogeneous data sources. The proposed approach allows a free selection of the abstraction level for the entities to be modelled, so that a completely generic EAV model with historicised metadata can be created.

  10. Vaginal vault carcinoma as second primary in a treated case of ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushruta Shrivastava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advances in the treatment of cancer, the chances of survival have increased today. The five-year relative survival rate is about 66%. With the increasing survival rate, it is important to identify the late effects of cancer and its therapy. One of the most serious events experienced by cancer survivors is the diagnosis of a new cancer. Case: A 32-year-old unmarried female diagnosed as ovarian cancer in the year 2010. She was treated with three cycles of chemotherapy followed by surgery. Histopathology was well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. She received three more cycles of chemotherapy after surgery. She was under follow-up and developed vaginal vault carcinoma after a disease-free interval of 2 years. The biopsy was suggestive of squamous cell carcinoma. She was treated with radiation for vaginal cancer successfully. This case indicates that female gynecological cancers with different histology may occur in minimum period of interval even in the absence of any predisposing factors like human papilloma virus infection.

  11. Materials used to build the wooden vault over the Plenary Hall in the Spanish Senate Buiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustamante, R.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The constituent materials used to build the wooden vault over the Plenary Hall in the Spain’s Senate Building (ca 1814-1820 are analyzed in this paper. Characteristics of gypsum mortar applied on pine beams, boards and blockboard, have been determined. The esparto (=needlegrass fibre provides a framework for the gypsum mortar to ensure adhesion and forming the surface of the dome. Physical-mechanical properties of the burnt clay-lightened gypsum mortars were determined with laboratory tests, while the composition of these materials was found with XRD,SEM and IR.

    En este artículo se analizan los materiales de la bóveda encamonada que cubre el Salón de Plenos del Senado de España (hacia 1814-1820. Se han determinado en particular las características físico-mecánicas del mortero de yeso aplicado sobre vigas, tablas y enlistonados de madera de pino, entomizados con fibra de esparto para asegurar la adherencia y conformar la superficie de la bóveda. Con los análisis de DRX, SEM e IR, se ha completado la caracterización del mortero que presenta adiciones de cerámica cocida.

  12. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  13. Safety of Open Cranial Vault Surgery for Single-Suture Craniosynostosis: A Case for the Multidisciplinary Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgfeld, Craig B; Dufton, Lynette; Naumann, Heather; Hopper, Richard A; Gruss, Joseph S; Haberkern, Charles M; Speltz, Matthew L

    2015-10-01

    Single Suture Craniosynostosis (SSC) occurs in 1 in 2,500 live births and is the most common type of craniosynostosis treated in most centers. Surgical treatment has evolved over the past century and open techniques are tailored to the specific suture type. Additionally, the concept of multi-disciplinary team care has proliferated and is becoming the standard of care for SSC. The combination of these evolutions, we believe, has improved the safety of cranial vault surgery for SSC. A retrospective review of patients participating in the Infant Learning Project at Seattle Children's Hospital who underwent cranial vault surgery for treatment of SSC between 2002 and 2006 was performed. Pre-operative assessment, surgical techniques, anesthetic and intraoperative events and both intra-operative and post-operative adverse events were analyzed. Eighty eight patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria (42 sagittal, 23 metopic, 19 unicoronal, 4 lambdoid). Length of procedure varied (FOA 5.2 hrs, modified pi 2.5 hrs, total vault 4.9 hrs and switch cranioplasty 4.6 hrs), as did transfusion amount (FOA 385 mL, modified pi 216 mL, total vault 600 mL, switch cranioplasty 207 mL) although 99% of patients received a transfusion of some sort. There were no deaths and no major intraoperative complications. Minor events include; ET tube malposition (1), desaturation (1), acidosis (1), hypothermia (9), coagulopathy (2), Hct < 25 (55). Average hospital stay was 3.4 days with no major post-operative complications. One patient was readmitted to the ICU and 1 had a scalp hematoma, but no patients returned to the operating room within 6 months after surgery. The surgical treatment of SSC has evolved from lengthy, risky procedures to become almost routine at most craniofacial centers. Additionally, the care for patients with SSC has evolved from a single provider to a multidisciplinary team concept based around protocols for workup, delivery of anesthesia, streamlined surgical procedures and

  14. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-13

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  15. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-04-25

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package TransporterModel II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant| (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations(CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions ofapproval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  16. Air and radon pathways screenings methodologies for the next revision of the E-area PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-31

    The strategic plan for the next E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility Performance Assessment includes recommended changes to the screening criteria used to reduce the number of radioisotopes that are to be considered in the air and radon pathways incorporated into the GoldSim® atmospheric release model (ARM). For the air pathway, a revised screening methodology was developed based on refinement of previous E-Area PA screening approaches and consideration of the strategic plan recommendations. The revised methodology has three sequential screening steps for each radioisotope: (1) volatility test using the Periodic Table of the Elements, (2) stability test based on half-life, and (3) stability test based on volatility as measured by the Henry’s Law constant for the assumed dominant gaseous species or vapor pressure in the case of tritiated water. Of the 1252 radioisotopes listed in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 107, only the 10 that satisfied all three steps of the revised screening methodology will be included in the ARM. They are: Ar-37, Ar-39, Ar-42, C-14, H-3, Hg-194, Hg-203, Kr-81, Kr-85, and Xe-127. For the radon pathway, a revised screening methodology was developed that also has three sequential steps: (1) identify all decay chains that terminate at Rn-222, (2) screen out parents that decay through U-238 because of its 4.5-billion-year primordial half-life, and (3) eliminate remaining parents whose half-life is shorter than one day. Of the 86 possible decay chains leading to Rn-222, six decay chains consist of 15 unique radioisotopes that will be incorporated into the ARM. The 15 radioisotopes are: U-238, Th-234, Pa-234m, Pu-238, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, Cf-246, Cm-242, Am-242m, Am-242, Np-238, Np-234, Pa-230, and Rn-222.

  17. Maximal Power of the Lower Limbs of Youth Gymnasts and Biomechanical Indicators of the Forward Handspring Vault Versus the Sports Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochanowicz Andrzej

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to define the relationship between maximal power of lower limbs, the biomechanics of the forward handspring vault and the score received during a gymnastics competition. The research involved 42 gymnasts aged 9-11 years competing in the Poland’s Junior Championships. The study consisted of three stages: first -estimating the level of indicators of maximal power of lower limbs tested on a force plate during the countermovement jump; second - estimating the level of biomechanical indicators of the front handspring vault. For both mentioned groups of indicators and the score received by gymnasts during the vault, linear correlation analyses were made. The last stage consisted of conducting multiple regression analysis in order to predict the performance level of the front handspring vault. Results showed a positive correlation (0.401, p < 0.05 of lower limbs’ maximal power (1400 ± 502 W with the judges’ score for the front handstand vault (13.38 ± 1.02 points. However, the highest significant (p < 0.001 correlation with the judges’ score was revealed in the angle of the hip joint in the second phase of the flight (196.00 ± 16.64° and the contact time of hands with the vault surface (0.264 ± 0.118 s, where correlation coefficients were: -0.671 and -0.634, respectively. In conclusion, the angles of the hip joint in the second phase of the flight and when the hands touched the vault surface proved to be the most important indicators for the received score.

  18. Future trends in electronic packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshabini, Aicha; Wang, Gangqiang; Barlow, Fred

    2006-03-01

    Electronic packaging is traditionally defined as the back-end process that transforms bare integrated circuits (IC) into functional products. As the IC feature size decreases and the size of silicon wafer increases, the cost per IC is reduced and the performance is enhanced. The future IC chips will be larger in size, have more input/output terminals (I/Os), and require higher power. In addition to the advancements in IC technology, electronic packaging is also driven by the market requirements for low cost, small size, and multi-functional electronic products. In response to these requirements, packaging related areas such as design, packaging architectures, materials, processes, and manufacturing equipment are all changing rapidly. Wafer-level packaging (WLP) offers the benefits of low cost and smallest size for single chip packages, since the package is done at wafer level other than individual die. After packages reach the horizontal limit of dimensions, 3D stacking solution provides more efficient packages through expanding packages in the vertical dimension. Functional integration is achieved with 3D stacking architectures. System in package (SiP), one of the solutions to system integration, incorporates electronics, non-electronic devices such as optical devices, biological devices, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), etc, and interconnection in a single package, to form smart structures or microsystems. MEMS devices require specialized packaging to serve new market applications. This paper and presentation describe the technology requirements and challenges of these advancing packaging areas. The potential solutions and future trends are presented.

  19. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  20. Aquaculture Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K. [editors

    1998-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements.

  1. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  2. Openability of tamperproof packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Castillo C., A.; Wever, R.; Buijs, P.J.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Communication, product protection and presentation are three key aspects in the world of packaging nowadays. Due to a retail landscape consisting of large stores, displaying packed products on the shelves in self-service environments, these aspects become increasingly important, not only for Fast

  3. Radioactive waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  4. Minimizing transfusions in primary cranial vault remodeling: the role of aminocaproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Adam J; Ranganathan, Kavitha; Levi, Benjamin; Strahle, Jennifer M; Kapurch, Joseph; Muraszko, Karin M; Buchman, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    Cranial vault remodeling (CVR) for craniosynostosis is a procedure with the potential for significant blood loss. Aminocaproic acid (ACA) has been used at our institution during CVR for its antifibrinolytic effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ACA on blood loss and transfusion rates during primary CVR. Three hundred eighty-three patients with craniosynostosis underwent primary CVR at a single institution by a single surgeon over 15 years. Patients were included if they received either ACA or no antifibrinolytic. The estimated blood loss (EBL) and volume of blood transfused was recorded. Thrombotic-related complications were identified. Comparisons were made between subgroups using independent Student t test and Fisher exact test. Among the study population, 148 patients met inclusion criteria. ACA was given to 30 patients, while 118 patients received no antifibrinolytic. There was no difference in the average intraoperative EBL between the ACA (322 mL) and control groups (327 mL, P > 0.05). Additionally, the incidence of transfusion was not significantly different between subgroups (97% vs. 86%, respectively, P > 0.05). Patients treated with ACA, however, received lower average perioperative transfusion volumes (25.5 mL/kg) compared to control patients (53.3 mL/kg, P < 0.0001). Furthermore, patients in the ACA subgroup were less likely to require a second unit of blood (21% vs. 43%, P < 0.0001) and therefore had fewer exposures to donor blood antigens (ARR = 22%, NNT = 4.6). The use of intraoperative ACA minimizes blood transfusion volumes and donor exposures in children who undergo primary CVR for craniosynostosis. Antifibrinolytics should be considered for routine use in pediatric craniofacial surgery.

  5. Blood loss and transfusion requirements with epsilon-aminocaproic acid use during cranial vault reconstruction surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mark E; Saadeh, Charles; Watkins, Phillip; Nagy, Laszlo; Demke, Joshua

    2017-02-01

    To determine whether epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) load of 50 mg∙kg -1 before skin incision, and infusion of 25 mg∙kg -1 ∙h -1 until skin closure during cranial vault reconstruction (CVR) were associated with decreased estimated blood loss and transfusion requirements. Antifibrinolytic medications decrease bleeding and transfusion requirements during cardiothoracic and orthopedic surgeries with high blood loss, but practical reductions in blood loss and transfusion requirements have not been consistently realized in children undergoing CVR. Current dosing recommendations are derived from adult extrapolations, and may or may not have clinical relevance. Retrospective case-controlled study of 45 consecutive infants and children undergoing primary craniosynostosis surgery at Covenant Children's Hospital during years 2010-2014. Exclusion criteria included revision surgery, and chromosomal abnormalities associated with bleeding disorders. Blood loss and blood transfusion volumes as a percent of estimated blood volume were compared in the presence of EACA while controlling for age, suture phenotype, use of bone grafting, and length of surgery. Secondary outcomes measures included volume of crystalloid infused, length of hospital stay, and any postoperative intubation requirement. When analyzed based on length of surgery, EACA did reduce blood loss and blood transfusion (R 2 =0.19, P=.005 and R 2 =0.18, P=.010, respectively) with shorter surgeries. Using a standardized dosing regimen of EACA during craniosynostosis surgery, we found statistical significance in blood loss and transfusion requirements in surgeries of the shortest duration. We suspect this may be due to our selected dosing regimen, which may be lower than recently recommended. This study contributes to the growing body of evidence supporting EACA in CVR for craniosynostosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High Efficiency Integrated Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibbetson, James

    2013-09-15

    Solid-state lighting based on LEDs has emerged as a superior alternative to inefficient conventional lighting, particularly incandescent. LED lighting can lead to 80 percent energy savings; can last 50,000 hours – 2-50 times longer than most bulbs; and contains no toxic lead or mercury. However, to enable mass adoption, particularly at the consumer level, the cost of LED luminaires must be reduced by an order of magnitude while achieving superior efficiency, light quality and lifetime. To become viable, energy-efficient replacement solutions must deliver system efficacies of ≥ 100 lumens per watt (LPW) with excellent color rendering (CRI > 85) at a cost that enables payback cycles of two years or less for commercial applications. This development will enable significant site energy savings as it targets commercial and retail lighting applications that are most sensitive to the lifetime operating costs with their extended operating hours per day. If costs are reduced substantially, dramatic energy savings can be realized by replacing incandescent lighting in the residential market as well. In light of these challenges, Cree proposed to develop a multi-chip integrated LED package with an output of > 1000 lumens of warm white light operating at an efficacy of at least 128 LPW with a CRI > 85. This product will serve as the light engine for replacement lamps and luminaires. At the end of the proposed program, this integrated package was to be used in a proof-of-concept lamp prototype to demonstrate the component’s viability in a common form factor. During this project Cree SBTC developed an efficient, compact warm-white LED package with an integrated remote color down-converter. Via a combination of intensive optical, electrical, and thermal optimization, a package design was obtained that met nearly all project goals. This package emitted 1295 lm under instant-on, room-temperature testing conditions, with an efficacy of 128.4 lm/W at a color temperature of ~2873

  7. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.S. Domski

    2003-07-21

    The work associated with the development of this model report was performed in accordance with the requirements established in ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA'' (BSC 2002a). The in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction are developed to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a failed waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry. The purpose of this work is to provide the abstraction model to the Performance Assessment Project and the Waste Form Department for development of geochemical models of the waste package interior. The scope of this model report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction. The in-package chemistry model will consider chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and codisposed high-level waste glass (HLWG) and N Reactor spent fuel (CDNR). The in-package chemistry model includes two sub-models, the first a water vapor condensation (WVC) model, where water enters a waste package as vapor and forms a film on the waste package components with subsequent film reactions with the waste package materials and waste form--this is a no-flow model, the reacted fluids do not exit the waste package via advection. The second sub-model of the in-package chemistry model is the seepage dripping model (SDM), where water, water that may have seeped into the repository from the surrounding rock, enters a failed waste package and reacts with the waste package components and waste form, and then exits the waste package with no accumulation of reacted water in the waste package. Both of the submodels of the in-package chemistry model are film models in contrast to past in-package chemistry models where all of the waste package pore space was filled with water. The

  8. Prediction of neutron induced radioactivity in the concrete walls of a PET cyclotron vault room with MCNPX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Serrano, J Javier; Díez de los Ríos, Antonio

    2010-11-01

    The authors want to assess the relevance of the neutron activation of the concrete vault of the PET cyclotron at CIMES (Universidad de Malaga) by predicting specific activities of the main activation products in the vault and their variation profiles as a function of penetration depth into concrete at present and after 10 yr of cyclotron operation. The dual proton cyclotron is used for PET isotopes production, mainly 18F. During the years 2006 and 2008, the using rate has been 1 h/day at single beam (40 microA). From January 2008, using rate is 4 h/day at dual beam (80 microA). The energy of the cyclotron proton beam is 18 MeV. Four point locations were chosen on the walls of the cyclotron room to assess neutron induced activity concentrations. In each wall point location, neutron induced radionuclide specific activity was assessed from the wall surface to a depth of 120 cm within concrete. Simulations were carried out with the Monte Carlo based radiation transport code MCNPX (v2.6.0). According to MCNPX calculations, activity depth profiles of activation products studied, except 54Mn, have a maximum at variable depths from the wall surface never beyond 12 cm. 54Mn activity decreases exponentially in all the studied depth ranges within wall concrete. The activity of 152Eu, 154Eu, 60CO, 134Cs, 46Sc, and 65Zn decreases exponentially beyond a 30 cm depth into concrete. 54Mn activity presents the faster decrease within a concrete vault with an attenuation length of 21 cm. According to MCNPX estimations, present activity in the cyclotron vault is mostly due to 46Sc and 60Co, with highest specific activity near the vault surface of 146 +/- 16 and 50 +/- 4.6 Bq/kg, respectively. 46Sc and 60Co activity measurements near the surface wall present an acceptable match with the estimation within the uncertainties, but measured activities of the other radionuclides are quite over the MCNPX estimations. The calculations after 10 yr of cyclotron operation predict a slight increase

  9. Vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase in the Octopus vulgaris brain: a regulatory factor of actin polymerization dynamic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maio, Anna; Natale, Emiliana; Rotondo, Sergio; Di Cosmo, Anna; Faraone-Mennella, Maria Rosaria

    2013-09-01

    Our previous behavioural, biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses conducted in selected regions (supra/sub oesophageal masses) of the Octopus vulgaris brain detected a cytoplasmic poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (more than 90% of total enzyme activity). The protein was identified as the vault-free form of vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase. The present research extends and integrates the biochemical characterization of poly-ADP-ribosylation system, namely, reaction product, i.e., poly-ADP-ribose, and acceptor proteins, in the O. vulgaris brain. Immunochemical analyses evidenced that the sole poly-ADP-ribose acceptor was the octopus cytoskeleton 50-kDa actin. It was present in both free, endogenously poly-ADP-ribosylated form (70kDa) and in complex with V-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase and poly-ADP-ribose (260kDa). The components of this complex, alkali and high salt sensitive, were purified and characterized. The kind and the length of poly-ADP-ribose corresponded to linear chains of 30-35 ADP-ribose units, in accordance with the features of the polymer synthesized by the known vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase. In vitro experiments showed that V-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase activity of brain cytoplasmic fraction containing endogenous actin increased upon the addition of commercial actin and was highly reduced by ATP. Anti-actin immunoblot of the mixture in the presence and absence of ATP showed that the poly-ADP-ribosylation of octopus actin is a dynamic process balanced by the ATP-dependent polymerization of the cytoskeleton protein, a fundamental mechanism for synaptic plasticity. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of vault cytology in follow-up of hysterectomized women: results and inferences from a low resource setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay; Sodhani, Pushpa; Singh, Veena; Sehgal, Ashok

    2013-09-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the utility of cervico-vaginal/vault cytology in the follow-up of women treated for cervical cancer and benign gynecological conditions. Records of 3,523 cervico-vaginal smears from 2,658 women who underwent hysterectomy and/or radiotherapy or chemotherapy, over a 10-year period were retrieved. Data was collected on type of treatment received, indication for hysterectomy, age of patient, presenting symptoms, stage of tumor, interval since treatment, cytology and biopsy results. The results of cytology versus other parameters were analyzed separately for women treated for cervical cancer and those hysterectomized for benign indications. Malignant cells were detected in 141/1949 (7.2%) follow-up smears from treated cervical cancer cases (140 recurrences and 1 VAIN). Around 92% of recurrences of cervical cancer were detected with in 2 years of follow-up and 75% of these women were symptomatic. Cytology first alerted the clinicians to a recurrence in a quarter of cases. On the other hand, VAIN was detected in 5/1079 (0.46%) vault smears from 997 women hysterectomized for benign gynecologic disease. All these women were asymptomatic and majority (80%) were detected in follow-up smears performed between 3 and 10 years. Vault cytology is an accurate tool to detect local recurrences/VAIN in women treated for cervical cancer or benign gynecological conditions. It may even first alert the clinicians to a possibility of recurrence. However, due to extremely low prevalence of VAIN/vaginal cancer, it seems unwarranted in women hysterectomized for benign indications, especially in resource constrained settings. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  11. Variation in NHS utilisation of vault smear tests in women post-hysterectomy: A study, using routinely collected datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Sue

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 20% of women living in the UK have a hysterectomy during their lifetime, levels are higher in the USA, making it one of the most commonly performed major surgical procedures. Understanding of the indications for hysterectomy and of the rationale for follow-up of women post hysterectomy is currently limited. Guidelines concerning follow-up by means of vaginal vault cytology tests exist but these are not based on 'gold standard' evidence. Furthermore, the extent to which current practice reflects these guidelines is unclear. This study aims to determine the factors associated with variability in hysterectomy rates and subsequent follow-up after surgery by use of the vaginal vault smear cytology test. Methods/Design All women resident in the West Midlands region, of the United Kingdom, who had a hysterectomy operation between 1st April 2002 and 30th March 2003 will be identified from the Hospital Episodes Statistics database which also contains proxy data on deprivation status, derived from postcode and self declared ethnicity. These data will be linked to regional cervical screening records for each woman and histopathology laboratory records from the relevant hospitals. Study objectives are to describe: Indications for the hysterectomy operation, histology at hysterectomy, subsequent follow-up by use or non-use of vaginal vault cytology tests and variation between histological groups. Additionally the data will be categorised according to a woman's cytology screening history prior to surgery (i.e. always normal, borderline, resolved abnormalities, CIN etc and these different groups compared. Variations in these outcomes according to age, deprivation and ethnic group will also be examined. Analysis will be undertaken using SPSS. Discussion This study will clarify patterns of current practice in one large English region and determine whether this practice reflects existing guidelines. The study will also strengthen the evidence

  12. Lakes Ecosystem Services Download Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data download package contains Esri 10.0 MXDs, file geodatabases and copy of this FGDC metadata record. The data in this package are used in support of the Lake...

  13. Food packaging history and innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Sara J

    2009-09-23

    Food packaging has evolved from simply a container to hold food to something today that can play an active role in food quality. Many packages are still simply containers, but they have properties that have been developed to protect the food. These include barriers to oxygen, moisture, and flavors. Active packaging, or that which plays an active role in food quality, includes some microwave packaging as well as packaging that has absorbers built in to remove oxygen from the atmosphere surrounding the product or to provide antimicrobials to the surface of the food. Packaging has allowed access to many foods year-round that otherwise could not be preserved. It is interesting to note that some packages have actually allowed the creation of new categories in the supermarket. Examples include microwave popcorn and fresh-cut produce, which owe their existence to the unique packaging that has been developed.

  14. [Anterior approach sacrospinous colpopexy in a patient with vaginal vault prolapse, stress urinary incontinence and cystocoele with lateral defect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Andrzej; Bobin, Leszek; Maciołek-Blewniewska, Grazyna

    2006-03-01

    We present a case of vaginal vault prolapse after hysterectomy associated with cystocoele with central and lateral defect and stress urinary incontinence, that was treated surgically with employment of sacrospinous colpopexy through anterior approach (from paravesical space), combined with anterior colporrhaphy by double TOT approach method (that is a butterfly-shaped polipropylen mesh, which arms were carried through upper and lower parts of obturator foramens by tension-free method). There were no postoperative complications. A control examination at 1 and 3 months after the operation showed maintenance of normal anatomic relations, which were obtained as a result of repair, total control of urinary continence and full patient's satisfaction from the operation.

  15. Constraining ground motion parameters and determining the historic earthquake that damaged the vaults underneath the Old City of Jerusalem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagoda-Biran, G.; Hatzor, Y. H.

    2013-12-01

    Evidence for seismically induced damage are preserved in historic masonry structures below the Old City of Jerusalem at a site known locally as the 'Western Wall Tunnels' complex, possibly one of the most important tourist attractions in the world. In the tunnels, structures dated to 500 BC and up until modern times have been uncovered by recent archeological excavation. One of the interesting findings is a 100 m long bridge, composed of two rows of barrel vaults, believed to have been constructed during the 3rd century AD to allow easy access to the Temple Mount. In one of the vaults a single masonry block is displaced 7 cm downward with respect to its neighbors (see figure below). Since the damage seems seismically driven, back analysis of the damage with the numerical Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA) method was performed, in order to constrain the peak ground acceleration (PGA) that had caused the damage. First the numerical method used for back analysis was verified with an analytical solution for the case of a rocking monolithic column, then validated with experimental results for site response analysis. The verification and validation prove the DDA is capable of handling dynamic and wave propagation problems. Next, the back analysis was performed. Results of the dynamic numerical simulations suggest that the damage observed at the vault was induced by seismic vibrations that must have taken place before the bridge was buried underground, namely when it was still in service. We find that the PGA required for causing the observed damage was high - between 1.5 and 2 g. The PGA calculated for Jerusalem on the basis of established attenuation relationships for historic earthquakes that struck the region during the relevant time period is about one order of magnitude lower: 0.14 and 0.48 g, for the events that took place at 362 and 746 AD, respectively. This discrepancy is explained by local site effects that must have amplified bedrock ground motions by a

  16. Anticounterfeit packaging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchir Y Shah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology.

  17. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

    2003-08-25

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. The C of C states: ''...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, ''Operating Procedures,'' of the application.'' It further states: ''...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, ''Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR {section} 71.11, ''Deliberate Misconduct.'' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARP. This document is available on the Internet at: ttp://www.ws/library/t2omi/t2omi.htm. Users are responsible for ensuring they are using the current

  18. The Swarm Magnetometry Package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Friis-Christensen, Eigil

    2008-01-01

    The Swarm mission under the ESA's Living Planet Programme is planned for launch in 2010 and consists of a constellation of three satellites at LEO. The prime objective of Swarm is to measure the geomagnetic field with unprecedented accuracy in space and time. The magnetometry package consists of ...... of an extremely accurate and stable vector magnetometer, which is co-mounted in an optical bench together with a start tracker system to ensure mechanical stability of the measurements....

  19. Amdahl 470 Chip Package

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    In the late 70s the larger IBM computers were water cooled. Amdahl, an IBM competitor, invented an air cooling technology for it's computers. His company worked hard, developing a computer that was faster and less expensive than the IBM System/360 mainframe computer systems. This object contains an actual Amdahl series 470 computer logic chip with an air cooling device mounted on top. The package leads and cooling tower are gold-plated.

  20. Aquaculture information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  1. Alternative methods for dispoal of low-level radioactive wastes. Task 1. Description of methods and assessment of criteria. [Alternative methods are belowground vaults, aboveground vaults; earth mounded concrete bunkers, mined cavities, augered holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, R.D.; Miller, W.O.; Warriner, J.B.; Malone, P.G.; McAneny, C.C.

    1984-04-01

    The study reported herein contains the results of Task 1 of a four-task study entitled Criteria for Evaluating Engineered Facilities. The overall objective of this study is to ensure that the criteria needed to evaluate five alternative low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal methods are available to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Agreement States. The alternative methods considered are belowground vaults, aboveground vaults, earth mounded concrete bunkers, mined cavities, and augered holes. Each of these alternatives is either being used by other countries for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal or is being considered by other countries or US agencies. In this report the performance requirements are listed, each alternative is described, the experience gained with its use is discussed, and the performance capabilities of each method are addressed. Next, the existing 10 CFR Part 61 Subpart D criteria with respect to paragraphs 61.50 through 61.53, pertaining to site suitability, design, operations and closure, and monitoring are assessed for applicability to evaluation of each alternative. Preliminary conclusions and recommendations are offered on each method's suitability as an LLW disposal alternative, the applicability of the criteria, and the need for supplemental or modified criteria.

  2. Air Pathway Dose Modeling for the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, K. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Minter, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2017-09-06

    Dose-release factors (DRFs) were calculated for potential atmospheric releases of several radionuclides from the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF). The ELLWF receives solid low-level radioactive waste from across the Savannah River Site (SRS) and offsite for disposal. These factors represent the maximum dose a receptor would receive if standing at either 100 m or 11,410 m (Site Boundary) from the edge of an ELLWF disposal unit which are points of assessment (POA) for Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 performance assessments (PA). The DRFs were calculated for 1 Ci of the specified radionuclide being released from the ground surface to the atmosphere (mrem per curie released). The calculation conservatively represented the ELLWF as a point source, and conservatively assumed the receptor was positioned at the center of the contaminant plume and continuously exposed for a period of one year. These DRFs can be refined to take into consideration disposal unit size, proximity and timing of peak dose to establish less conservative radionuclide specific disposal limits. DRFs were calculated for H-3 and C-14 in Revision 0 of this report. H-3 as HTO and C-14 as CO2 were identified as volatile radionuclides of potential concern in earlier radionuclide screening studies. In Revision 1, DRFs were calculated for eight additional radionuclides identified by an updated screening analysis as potentially important volatile radionuclides. These include Ar-37, Ar-39, Ar-42, Hg-194, Hg- 203, Kr-81, Kr-85, and Xe-127.

  3. Comparison of postoperative vault height predictability using white-to-white or sulcus diameter-based sizing for the visian implantable collamer lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, Dan Z; Lovisolo, Carlo F; Archer, Timothy J; Gobbe, Marine

    2013-01-01

    To compare vault height predictability of Implantable Collamer Lens (ICL; Staar Surgical) sizing using a sulcus diameter-based formula or the manufacturer-recommended white-to-white-based method. In 50 myopic eyes, ICL size was calculated using both a formula including sulcus diameter and the traditional formula based on white-to-white diameter. Sulcus diameter was measured using Artemis 2 very high-frequency (VHF) digital ultrasound (ArcScan Inc). Implantation was based on the sulcus diameter derived size. Actual postoperative vault height achieved was measured by VHF digital ultrasound scanning. Circle segment trigonometry was used to calculate the vault height that would have resulted had lens sizing been based on the white-to-white formula. The same lens size would have been used in 60% of eyes, a smaller lens would have been used in 34% of eyes and a larger lens in 6% of eyes had lens sizing been based on the white-to-white formula. Mean vault for eyes with lenses sized using the sulcus diameter formula was 0.37±0.16 mm (range: 0.08 to 0.92 mm), with 2% trigonometry predicted that the vault height would have been 0.24±0.28 mm (range: -0.31 to 0.92 mm), with 26% <0.09 mm had lens sizing been based on the white-to-white formula. Significantly better predictability of postoperative vault height was achieved by including sulcus diameter into the ICL sizing formula compared with using the traditional white-to-white-based formula. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. The VAULT2.0 Observing Campaign: A Comprehensive Investigation of the Chromosphere-Corona Interface at Sub-arcsecond scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourlidas, A.; Korendyke, C.; Tun-Beltran, S. D.; Ugarte-Urra, I.; Morrill, J. S.; Warren, H. P.; Young, P.; De Pontieu, B.; Gauzzi, G.; Reardon, K.

    2014-12-01

    We report the first results from an observing campaign in support of the VAULT2.0 sounding rocket launch on September 30, 2014. VAULT2.0 is a Lya (1216Å) spectroheliograph capable of 0.3" (~250 km) spatial resolution. The objective of the VAULT2.0 project is the study of the chromosphere-corona interface. This interface has acquired renewed emphasis over the last few years, thanks to high-resolution observations from Hinode/SOT and EIS instruments and the Lya imaging from the two VAULT flights. The observations have shown that the upper chromosphere may play a more important role in heating the corona and in affecting EUV observations that previously thought: (1) by supplying the mass via Type-II spicules and, (2) by absorbing coronal emission. Many of the required clues for further progress are located in sub-arcsecond structures with temperatures between 10000 and 50000 K, a regime not accessible by Hinode or SDO. Lyman-alpha observations are, therefore, ideal, for filling in this gap. The observing campaign in support of the VAULT2.0 is closely coordinated with the Hinode and IRIS missions to study the mass/energy flow from the chromosphere to the corona with joint observations of type-II spicules, and the magnetic connectivity of coronal loops using the full imaging and spectral capabilities of IRIS, Hinode and SDO. Several ground-based observatories also provide important observations (IBIS, BBSO, SOLIS). The VAULT2.0 project is funded by the NASA LCAS program.

  5. Inimluud Mihkli kiriku võlvidelt / Human remains on the vaulted ceiling of Mihkli Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Malve

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 4029 human bones or their fragments from the C 13th–18th were gathered and analysed from soil on the vaults of Mihkli (St Michael’s Church in western Estonia during the rescue works in 2011 (photo 1. Ribs and vertebrae formed the majority of bones, but wholly preserved long bones and other larger bones, as well as, hand and foot bones that are quite typical among mixed human remains were almost absent in this case. Therefore, it can be concluded that during the earthworks larger bones were taken from the soil. The minimum number of adults was determined by the ribs of the right side. Only the ribs with preserved heads (figure 1 were used in calculations. The rib fragments indicate approximately 60 adults among the assorted bones. Judging by the radius, there were at least 16 children among the bone assemblage. Scarceness of children in the Mihkli church can be the result of poor preservation, smallness and fragility of their bones, but the possibility that subadult (child and juvenile burials were fewer in the destroyed part of the churchyard cannot be ruled out.Pathological analysis of the osteological material ascertained several diseases and traumas, the most common pathologies being connected to ageing, for example, wearing of joints (Osteoarthrosis. Various diseases related to degeneration of the spine were present – spondylosis, spondyloarthrosis and osteochondrosis. Compression fractures (fractura compressiva and Schmorl´s nodes (nodi Schmorl indicated strenuous physical activity and/or traumas. Dental diseases included caries (photo 2, alveolar reduction, hypoplasia and tooth abscesses. Several upper and lower jaws showed traces of ante mortem lost teeth (photo 3. In one case a canine of the right mandible of an adult man (age 45 + years had formed but had not erupted (photo 4.Various healed fractures of ribs and limb bones formed the bulk of traumas detected on the bones. Three right ribs had fractures in a stage of

  6. Geochemical Data Package for Performance Assessment Calculations Related to the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Daniel I. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-22

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) disposes of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and stabilizes high-level radioactive waste (HLW) tanks in the subsurface environment. Calculations used to establish the radiological limits of these facilities are referred to as Performance Assessments (PA), Special Analyses (SA), and Composite Analyses (CA). The objective of this document is to revise existing geochemical input values used for these calculations. This work builds on earlier compilations of geochemical data (2007, 2010), referred to a geochemical data packages. This work is being conducted as part of the on-going maintenance program of the SRS PA programs that periodically updates calculations and data packages when new information becomes available. Because application of values without full understanding of their original purpose may lead to misuse, this document also provides the geochemical conceptual model, the approach used for selecting the values, the justification for selecting data, and the assumptions made to assure that the conceptual and numerical geochemical models are reasonably conservative (i.e., bias the recommended input values to reflect conditions that will tend to predict the maximum risk to the hypothetical recipient). This document provides 1088 input parameters for geochemical parameters describing transport processes for 64 elements (>740 radioisotopes) potentially occurring within eight subsurface disposal or tank closure areas: Slit Trenches (ST), Engineered Trenches (ET), Low Activity Waste Vault (LAWV), Intermediate Level (ILV) Vaults, Naval Reactor Component Disposal Areas (NRCDA), Components-in-Grout (CIG) Trenches, Saltstone Facility, and Closed Liquid Waste Tanks. The geochemical parameters described here are the distribution coefficient, Kd value, apparent solubility concentration, ks value, and the cementitious leachate impact factor.

  7. Packaging based on polymeric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodan M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past two years the consumption of common in the developed countries world wide (high tonnage polymers for packaging has approached a value of 50 wt.%. In the same period more than 50% of the packaging units on the world market were made of polymeric materials despite the fact that polymeric materials present 17 wt.% of all packaging materials. The basic properties of polymeric materials and their environmental and economical advantages, providing them such a position among packaging materials, are presented in this article. Recycling methods, as well as the development trends of polymeric packaging materials are also presented.

  8. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

  9. Cranial neural crest contributes to the bony skull vault in adult Xenopus laevis: insights from cell labeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Joshua B; Hanken, James

    2005-03-15

    As a step toward resolving the developmental origin of the ossified skull in adult anurans, we performed a series of cell labeling and grafting studies of the cranial neural crest (CNC) in the clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. We employ an indelible, fixative-stable fluorescent dextran as a cell marker to follow migration of the three embryonic streams of cranial neural crest and to directly assess their contributions to the bony skull vault, which forms weeks after hatching. The three streams maintain distinct boundaries in the developing embryo. Their cells proliferate widely through subsequent larval (tadpole) development, albeit in regionally distinct portions of the head. At metamorphosis, each stream contributes to the large frontoparietal bone, which is the primary constituent of the skull vault in adult anurans. The streams give rise to regionally distinct portions of the bone, thereby preserving their earlier relative position anteroposteriorly within the embryonic neural ridge. These data, when combined with comparable experimental observations from other model species, provide insights into the ancestral pattern of cranial development in tetrapod vertebrates as well as the origin of differences reported between birds and mammals. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Mother-baby package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburlini, G

    1995-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme developed the Mother-Baby package to facilitate the development of national strategies and plans of action. It was presented at an international meeting in Geneva in April 1994. The goals of the package are by the year 2000 to reduce maternal mortality by half and perinatal and neonatal mortality by 30-40% of 1990 levels. The package comprises: 1) a section on the technical basis and underlying strategies, 2) a section describing intervention before and during pregnancy, and during and after delivery, and 3) detailed recommendations on operating the program. The underlying strategy aims to reduce the number of high-risk and unwanted pregnancies; the number of obstetric complications; and the case fatality rate in women with complications. Interventions are based on a fourfold approach of family planning, quality antenatal care, clean and safe delivery, and access to essential obstetric care for high-risk pregnancies and complications. The district health system is the basic unit for planning and implementing the interventions. Midwives who live in the community are best equipped to provide appropriate community-based care to pregnant women. Pregnancy and obstetric complications requiring surgery and anesthesia should be available in the district hospital with an adequate referral system. Upgrading the skills of traditional birth attendants is also essential. National authorities should undertake a series of steps to carry out the interventions. A basic infrastructure, the upgrading of peripheral facilities, the development of human resources for safe motherhood, the effective delegation of responsibility, information, education, and communication (IEC), the involvement of nongovernmental organizations and women's groups, and the monitoring of results are other important elements in carrying out the interventions.

  11. Packaging - Materials review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  12. New package for CMOS sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diot, Jean-Luc; Loo, Kum Weng; Moscicki, Jean-Pierre; Ng, Hun Shen; Tee, Tong Yan; Teysseyre, Jerome; Yap, Daniel

    2004-02-01

    Cost is the main drawback of existing packages for C-MOS sensors (mainly CLCC family). Alternative packages are thus developed world-wide. And in particular, S.T.Microelectronics has studied a low cost alternative packages based on QFN structure, still with a cavity. Intensive work was done to optimize the over-molding operation forming the cavity onto a metallic lead-frame (metallic lead-frame is a low cost substrate allowing very good mechanical definition of the final package). Material selection (thermo-set resin and glue for glass sealing) was done through standard reliability tests for cavity packages (Moisture Sensitivity Level 3 followed by temperature cycling, humidity storage and high temperature storage). As this package concept is new (without leads protruding the molded cavity), the effect of variation of package dimensions, as well as board lay-out design, are simulated on package life time (during temperature cycling, thermal mismatch between board and package leads to thermal fatigue of solder joints). These simulations are correlated with an experimental temperature cycling test with daisy-chain packages.

  13. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-07-13

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

  14. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.7, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence.

  15. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-05-27

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  16. Human cranial vault thickness in a contemporary sample of 1097 autopsy cases: relation to body weight, stature, age, sex and ancestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, H. H. Hans; van der Merwe, A. E. Lida; Soerdjbalie-Maikoe, V. Vidija

    2016-01-01

    The relation between human cranial vault thickness (CVT) and various elements of the physical anthropological biological profile is subject of ongoing discussion. Some results seem to indicate no correlation between CVT and the biological profile of the individual, whereas other results suggest that

  17. Functional Package Management with Guix

    OpenAIRE

    Courtès, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    International audience; We describe the design and implementation of GNU Guix, a purely functional package manager designed to support a complete GNU/Linux distribution. Guix supports transactional upgrades and roll-backs, unprivileged package management, per-user profiles, and garbage collection. It builds upon the low-level build and deployment layer of the Nix package manager. Guix uses Scheme as its programming interface. In particular, we devise an embedded domain-specific language (EDSL...

  18. Biodegradable packaging materials : case: PLA

    OpenAIRE

    Jama, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this bachelor thesis was to investigate the possibility of biodegradable packaging materials. Plastics and other non-degradable packaging materials have been used for many years and they have a negative impact on the environment since they do not degrade. Different research methods are used to get authentic results, which simplifies using biodegradable packaging materials. There were two biodegradability testing methods, which has been applied to this task:-, testing biode...

  19. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  20. About the ZOOM minimization package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischler, M.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  1. Does Receiving a Blood Transfusion Predict for Length of Stay in Children Undergoing Cranial Vault Remodeling for Craniosynostosis? Outcomes Using the Pediatric National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, Michael R; Alden, Tord; Momin, Mohmed Vasim; Olsson, Alexis B; Jurado, Ray J; Abdullah, Fizan; Miloro, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Recent interventions have aimed at reducing the need for blood transfusions in the perioperative period in patients with craniosynostosis undergoing cranial vault remodeling. However, little is known regarding whether the receipt of a blood transfusion influences the length of hospital stay. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the receipt of a blood transfusion in patients undergoing cranial vault remodeling is associated with an increased length of stay. To address the research purposes, we designed a retrospective cohort study using the 2014 Pediatric National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP Peds) dataset. The primary predictor variable was whether patients received a blood transfusion during cranial vault remodeling. The primary outcome variable was length of hospital stay after the operation. The association between the receipt of blood transfusions and length of stay was assessed using the Student t test. The association between other covariates and the outcome variable was assessed using linear regression, analysis of variance, and the Tukey test for post hoc pair-wise comparisons. The sample was composed of 756 patients who underwent cranial vault remodeling: 503 who received blood transfusions and 253 who did not. The primary predictor variable of blood transfusion was associated with an increased length of stay (4.1 days vs 3.0 days, P = .03). Other covariates associated with an increased length of stay included race, American Society of Anesthesiologists status, premature birth, presence of a congenital malformation, and number of sutures involved in craniosynostosis. The receipt of a blood transfusion in the perioperative period in patients with craniosynostosis undergoing cranial vault remodeling was associated with an increased length of stay. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The LISA Technology Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livas, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The LISA Technology Package (LTP) is the payload of the European Space Agency's LISA Pathfinder mission. LISA Pathfinder was instigated to test, in a flight environment, the critical technologies required by LISA; namely, the inertial sensing subsystem and associated control laws and micro-Newton thrusters required to place a macroscopic test mass in pure free-fall. The UP is in the late stages of development -- all subsystems are currently either in the final stages of manufacture or in test. Available flight units are being integrated into the real-time testbeds for system verification tests. This poster will describe the UP and its subsystems, give the current status of the hardware and test campaign, and outline the future milestones leading to the UP delivery.

  3. Tritium waste package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  4. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  5. SALTSTONE VAULT CLASSIFICATION SAMPLES MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT/ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS WASTE STREAM APRIL 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibling, R.

    2011-09-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to prepare saltstone from samples of Tank 50H obtained by SRNL on April 5, 2011 (Tank 50H sampling occurred on April 4, 2011) during 2QCY11 to determine the non-hazardous nature of the grout and for additional vault classification analyses. The samples were cured and shipped to Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Group-Radioisotope and Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (B&W TSG-RACL) to perform the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and subsequent extract analysis on saltstone samples for the analytes required for the quarterly analysis saltstone sample. In addition to the eight toxic metals - arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium and silver - analytes included the underlying hazardous constituents (UHC) antimony, beryllium, nickel, and thallium which could not be eliminated from analysis by process knowledge. Additional inorganic species determined by B&W TSG-RACL include aluminum, boron, chloride, cobalt, copper, fluoride, iron, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate/nitrite as Nitrogen, strontium, sulfate, uranium, and zinc and the following radionuclides: gross alpha, gross beta/gamma, 3H, 60Co, 90Sr, 99Tc, 106Ru, 106Rh, 125Sb, 137Cs, 137mBa, 154Eu, 238Pu, 239/240Pu, 241Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 243/244Cm. B&W TSG-RACL provided subsamples to GEL Laboratories, LLC for analysis for the VOCs benzene, toluene, and 1-butanol. GEL also determines phenol (total) and the following radionuclides: 147Pm, 226Ra and 228Ra. Preparation of the 2QCY11 saltstone samples for the quarterly analysis and for vault classification purposes and the subsequent TCLP analyses of these samples showed that: (1) The saltstone waste form disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility in 2QCY11 was not characteristically hazardous for toxicity. (2) The concentrations of the eight RCRA metals and UHCs identified as possible in the saltstone waste form were present at levels below the UTS. (3) Most of the

  6. Monte Carlo simulation of the neutron spectral fluence and dose equivalent for use in shielding a proton therapy vault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanshui; Newhauser, Wayne; Klein, Eric; Low, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Neutron production is of principal concern when designing proton therapy vault shielding. Conventionally, neutron calculations are based on analytical methods, which do not accurately consider beam shaping components and nozzle shielding. The goal of this study was to calculate, using Monte Carlo modeling, the neutron spectral fluence and neutron dose equivalent generated by a realistic proton therapy nozzle and evaluate how these data could be used in shielding calculations. We modeled a contemporary passive scattering proton therapy nozzle in detail with the MCNPX simulation code. The neutron spectral fluence and dose equivalent at various locations in the treatment room were calculated and compared to those obtained from a thick iron target bombarded by parallel proton beams, the simplified geometry on which analytical methods are based. The neutron spectral fluence distributions were similar for both methods, with deeply penetrating high-energy neutrons (E > 10 MeV) being most prevalent along the beam central axis, and low-energy neutrons predominating the neutron spectral fluence in the lateral region. However, unlike the inverse square falloff used in conventional analytical methods, this study shows that the neutron dose equivalent per therapeutic dose in the treatment room decreased with distance approximately following a power law, with an exponent of about −1.63 in the lateral region and −1.73 in the downstream region. Based on the simulated data according to the detailed nozzle modeling, we developed an empirical equation to estimate the neutron dose equivalent at any location and distance in the treatment vault, e.g. for cases in which detailed Monte Carlo modeling is not feasible. We applied the simulated neutron spectral fluence and dose equivalent to a shielding calculation as an example. PMID:19887713

  7. Ensuring socially responsible packaging design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...

  8. Packaging perspective, 1910-1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Koning; James F. Laundrie

    1985-01-01

    For 75 years the Forest Products Laboratory has been concerned for the wise use of wood. One of the major uses of wood is packaging. This report summarizes the research reports completed in packaging and relates the output in terms of forest management and return on the taxpayer’s investment.

  9. Gentoo package dependencies over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, Remco; Amrit, Chintan Amrit; Kuhlmann, Stefan; Ordonez Matamoros, Hector Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    Open source distributions such as Gentoo need to accurately track dependency relations between software packages in order to install working systems. To do this, Gentoo has a carefully authored database containing those relations. In this paper, we extract the Gentoo package dependency graph and its

  10. Packaging Software Assets for Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattmann, C. A.; Marshall, J. J.; Downs, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    The reuse of existing software assets such as code, architecture, libraries, and modules in current software and systems development projects can provide many benefits, including reduced costs, in time and effort, and increased reliability. Many reusable assets are currently available in various online catalogs and repositories, usually broken down by disciplines such as programming language (Ibiblio for Maven/Java developers, PyPI for Python developers, CPAN for Perl developers, etc.). The way these assets are packaged for distribution can play a role in their reuse - an asset that is packaged simply and logically is typically easier to understand, install, and use, thereby increasing its reusability. A well-packaged asset has advantages in being more reusable and thus more likely to provide benefits through its reuse. This presentation will discuss various aspects of software asset packaging and how they can affect the reusability of the assets. The characteristics of well-packaged software will be described. A software packaging domain model will be introduced, and some existing packaging approaches examined. An example case study of a Reuse Enablement System (RES), currently being created by near-term Earth science decadal survey missions, will provide information about the use of the domain model. Awareness of these factors will help software developers package their reusable assets so that they can provide the most benefits for software reuse.

  11. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed pursuant...

  12. E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility Vadose Zone Model: Confirmation of Water Mass Balance for Subsidence Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-30

    In preparation for the next revision of the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (LLWF) Performance Assessment (PA), a mass balance model was developed in Microsoft Excel to confirm correct implementation of intact- and subsided-area infiltration profiles for the proposed closure cap in the PORFLOW vadose-zone model. The infiltration profiles are based on the results of Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model simulations for both intact and subsided cases.

  13. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2004-11-09

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste

  14. Naval Waste Package Design Sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Schmitt

    2006-12-13

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to varying inner cavity dimensions when subjected to a comer drop and tip-over from elevated surface. This calculation will also determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to the upper bound of the naval canister masses. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of through-wall stress intensities in the outer corrosion barrier. This calculation is intended for use in support of the preliminary design activities for the license application design of the Naval waste package. It examines the effects of small changes between the naval canister and the inner vessel, and in these dimensions, the Naval Long waste package and Naval Short waste package are similar. Therefore, only the Naval Long waste package is used in this calculation and is based on the proposed potential designs presented by the drawings and sketches in References 2.1.10 to 2.1.17 and 2.1.20. All conclusions are valid for both the Naval Long and Naval Short waste packages.

  15. Perfume Packaging, Seduction and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Petersson McIntyre

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines gender and cultural sense-making in relation to perfumes and their packaging. Gendered meanings of seduction, choice, consumption and taste are brought to the fore with the use of go-along interviews with consumers in per-fume stores. Meeting luxury packages in this feminized environment made the interviewed women speak of bottles as objects to fall in love with and they de-scribed packages as the active part in an act of seduction where they were expect-ing packages to persuade them into consumption. The interviewed men on the other hand portrayed themselves as active choice-makers and stressed that they were always in control and not seduced by packaging. However, while their ways of explaining their relationship with packaging on the surface seems to confirm cultural generalizations in relation to gender and seduction, the article argues that letting oneself be seduced is no less active than seducing. Based on a combination of actor network theories and theories of gender performativity the article points to the agency of packaging for constructions of gender and understands the inter-viewees as equally animated by the flows of passion which guide their actions.

  16. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) concrete-lined waste packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, T.

    1997-09-25

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a package to ship Type A, non-transuranic, fissile excepted quantities of liquid or solid radioactive material and radioactive mixed waste to the Central Waste Complex for storage on the Hanford Site.

  17. Characterization of integrated circuit packaging materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Chapters in this volume address important characteristics of IC packages. Analytical techniques appropriate for IC package characterization are demonstrated through examples of the measurement of critical performance parameters and the analysis of key technological problems of IC packages. Issues are discussed which affect a variety of package types, including plastic surface-mount packages, hermetic packages, and advanced designs such as flip-chip, chip-on-board and multi-chip models.

  18. Large area LED package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goullon, L.; Jordan, R.; Braun, T.; Bauer, J.; Becker, F.; Hutter, M.; Schneider-Ramelow, M.; Lang, K.-D.

    2015-03-01

    Solid state lighting using LED-dies is a rapidly growing market. LED-dies with the needed increasing luminous flux per chip area produce a lot of heat. Therefore an appropriate thermal management is required for general lighting with LEDdies. One way to avoid overheating and shorter lifetime is the use of many small LED-dies on a large area heat sink (down to 70 μm edge length), so that heat can spread into a large area while at the same time light also appears on a larger area. The handling with such small LED-dies is very difficult because they are too small to be picked with common equipment. Therefore a new concept called collective transfer bonding using a temporary carrier chip was developed. A further benefit of this new technology is the high precision assembly as well as the plane parallel assembly of the LED-dies which is necessary for wire bonding. It has been shown that hundred functional LED-dies were transferred and soldered at the same time. After the assembly a cost effective established PCB-technology was applied to produce a large-area light source consisting of many small LED-dies and electrically connected on a PCB-substrate. The top contacts of the LED-dies were realized by laminating an adhesive copper sheet followed by LDI structuring as known from PCB-via-technology. This assembly can be completed by adding converting and light forming optical elements. In summary two technologies based on standard SMD and PCB technology have been developed for panel level LED packaging up to 610x 457 mm2 area size.

  19. Packaging systems for animal origin food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main task of food packaging is to protect the product during storage and transport against the action of biological, chemical and mechanical factors. The paper presents packaging systems for food of animal origin. Vacuum and modified atmosphere packagings were characterised together with novel types of packagings, referred to as intelligent packaging and active packaging. The aim of this paper was to present all advantages and disadvantages of packaging used for meat products. Such list enables to choose the optimal type of packaging for given assortment of food and specific conditions of the transport and storing.

  20. Applications of Active Packaging in Breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Göncü

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes on consumer preferences lead to innovations and improvements in new packaging technologies. With these new developments passive packaging technologies aiming to protect food nowadays have left their place to active and intelligent packaging technologies that have other various functions beside protection of food. Active packaging is defined as an innovative packaging type and its usage increases the shelf life of food significantly. Applications of active packaging have begun to be used for packaging of breads. In this study active packaging applications in breads have been reviewed.

  1. Emotional response towards food packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Lewis Xinwei; Corsi, Armando M.; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate consumers’ emotional responses to food packaging. More specifically, we use self-report and physiological measures to jointly assess emotional responses to three typical food packaging elements: colours (lowwavelength vs. high-wavelength), images (positive vs. negative......) and typefaces (simple vs. ornate). A sample of 120 participants was exposed to mock package design concepts of chocolate blocks. The results suggest that images generate an emotional response that can be measured by both self-report and physiological measures, whereas colours and typefaces generate emotional...... response that can only be measured by self-report measures. We propose that a joint application of selfreport and physiological measures can lead to richer information and wider interpretation of consumer emotional responses to food packaging elements than using either measure alone....

  2. New Packaging for Amplifier Slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thorsness, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Suratwala, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Steele, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rogowski, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-18

    The following memo provides a discussion and detailed procedure for a new finished amplifier slab shipping and storage container. The new package is designed to maintain an environment of <5% RH to minimize weathering.

  3. Recommendations to the NRC for review criteria for alternative methods of low-level radioactive waste disposal: Task 2a, Below-ground vaults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denson, R.H.; Bennett, R.D.; Wamsley, R.M.; Bean, D.L.; Ainsworth, D.L.

    1987-12-01

    The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) and the US Army Engineer Division, Huntsville (HNDED) have developed general design criteria and specific design review criteria for the below-ground vault (BGV) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. A BGV is a reinforced concrete vault (floor, walls, and roof) placed underground below the frost line, and above the water table, surrounded by filter blanket and drainage zones and covered with a low permeability earth layer and top soil with vegetation. Eight major review criteria categories have been developed ranging from the loads imposed on the BGV structure through material quality and durability considerations. Specific design review criteria have been developed in detail for seven of the eight major categories. 59 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Packaging Review Guide for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A; Biswas, D; DeMicco, M; Fisher, L E; Hafner, R; Haslam, J; Mok, G; Patel, C; Russell, E

    2007-04-12

    This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE Order 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his or her review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. This PRG is generally organized at the section level in a format similar to that recommended in Regulatory Guide 7.9 (RG 7.9). One notable exception is the addition of Section 9 (Quality Assurance), which is not included as a separate chapter in RG 7.9. Within each section, this PRG addresses the technical and regulatory bases for the review, the manner in which the review is accomplished, and findings that are generally applicable for a package that meets the approval standards. This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for DOE review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE O 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. The primary objectives of this PRG are to: (1) Summarize the regulatory requirements for package approval; (2) Describe the technical review procedures by which DOE determines that these requirements have been satisfied; (3) Establish and maintain the quality and uniformity of reviews; (4) Define the base from which to evaluate proposed changes in scope

  5. AliPDU Package Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    "Martin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    "AliPDU Package" is a set of script, panels, and datapoints designed in WinCC to manage and monitor PDU's. PDU is an essential component in the data center, in order to make data center working properly through the monitoring of power distribution and environmental condition of the data center. In this project "AliPDU Package" is upgraded so it can be used to monitor environmental condition of data center using PDU's and external environmental sensor connected to PDU.

  6. AliPDU Package Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    AliPDU Package is a set of script, panels, and datapoints designed in WinCC to manage and monitor PDU's. PDU is an essential component in the data center, in order to make data center working properly through the monitoring of power distribution and environmental condition of the data center. In this project "AliPDU Package" is upgraded so it can be used to monitor environmental condition of data center using PDU's and external environmental sensor connected to PDU.

  7. Food Packaging for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Helén

    2011-01-01

    Packaging has been on the environmental agenda for decades. It has been discussed and debated within the society mainly as an environmental problem. Production, distribution and consumption of food and drinks contribute significant to the environmental impact. However, consumers in the EU waste about 20% of the food they buy. The function of packaging in reducing the amount of food losses is an important but often neglected environmental issue. This thesis focuses on the functions of packagin...

  8. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  9. Changes in frontal morphology after single-stage open posterior-middle vault expansion for sagittal craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khechoyan, David; Schook, Carolyn; Birgfeld, Craig B; Khosla, Rohit K; Saltzman, Babette; Teng, Chia Chi; Ettinger, Russell; Gruss, Joseph S; Ellenbogen, Richard; Hopper, Richard A

    2012-02-01

    There is controversy regarding whether the frontal bossing associated with sagittal synostosis requires direct surgical correction or spontaneously remodels after isolated posterior cranial expansion. The authors retrospectively measured changes in frontal bone morphology in patients with isolated sagittal synostosis 2 years after open posterior and midvault cranial expansion and compared these changes with those occurring in age-comparable healthy control groups. Forty-three patients age 1 year or younger (mean, 6 months) with sagittal synostosis underwent computed tomography scan digital analysis immediately after and 2 years after posterior-middle cranial vault expansion. Quantitative angular and linear measures were taken along the midsagittal and axial planes to capture both aspects of frontal bossing. The change in values over the 2 years were compared with healthy controls with normal computed tomography scans taken to rule out head trauma. All measures indicative of frontal bossing decreased significantly from the time of posterior-middle vault expansion to 2 years postoperatively. Whereas the majority of patients at time of the operation had frontal bossing measures greater than two standard deviations outside the age-comparable control mean, almost all patients were within two standard deviations of the norm 2 years later. Lateral forehead bossing and anterior cranial growth was greater the older the patient was at the time of the operation, suggesting that the more time that passed before the operation, the more compensatory anterior fossa growth occurred. Central forehead position relative to the anterior cranial base was greatest in the younger patients at the time of operation, suggesting that a central forehead bulge was an early compensatory response to premature sagittal fusion. As a group, patients with sagittal synostosis start to normalize their forehead morphology within 2 years if an isolated posterior operation is performed at 1 year of age

  10. Packaging food for radiation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolprasert, Vanee

    2016-12-01

    Irradiation can play an important role in reducing pathogens that cause food borne illness. Food processors and food safety experts prefer that food be irradiated after packaging to prevent post-irradiation contamination. Food irradiation has been studied for the last century. However, the implementation of irradiation on prepackaged food still faces challenges on how to assess the suitability and safety of these packaging materials used during irradiation. Irradiation is known to induce chemical changes to the food packaging materials resulting in the formation of breakdown products, so called radiolysis products (RP), which may migrate into foods and affect the safety of the irradiated foods. Therefore, the safety of the food packaging material (both polymers and adjuvants) must be determined to ensure safety of irradiated packaged food. Evaluating the safety of food packaging materials presents technical challenges because of the range of possible chemicals generated by ionizing radiation. These challenges and the U.S. regulations on food irradiation are discussed in this article.

  11. Antimicrobial Food Packaging: Potential & Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BHANU eMALHOTRA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays food preservation, quality maintenance, and safety are major growing concerns of the food industry. It is evident that over time consumers’ demand for natural and safe food products with stringent regulations to prevent food-borne infectious diseases. Antimicrobial packaging which is thought to be a subset of active packaging and controlled release packaging is one such promising technology which effectively impregnates the antimicrobial into the food packaging film material and subsequently delivers it over the stipulated period of time to kill the pathogenic microorganisms affecting food products thereby increasing the shelf life to severe folds. This paper presents a picture of the recent research on antimicrobial agents that are aimed at enhancing and improving food quality and safety by reduction of pathogen growth and extension of shelf life, in a form of a comprehensive review. Examination of the available antimicrobial packaging technologies is also presented along with their significant impact on food safety. This article entails various antimicrobial agents for commercial applications, as well as the difference between the use of antimicrobials under laboratory scale and real time applications. Development of resistance amongst microorganisms is considered as a future implication of antimicrobials with an aim to come up with actual efficacies in extension of shelf life as well as reduction in bacterial growth through the upcoming and promising use of antimicrobials in food packaging for the forthcoming research down the line.

  12. Maximal Power of the Lower Limbs of Youth Gymnasts and Biomechanical Indicators of the Forward Handspring Vault Versus the Sports Result

    OpenAIRE

    Kochanowicz Andrzej; Kochanowicz Kazimierz; Niespodziúski Bartłomiej; Mieszkowski Jan; Aschenbrenner Piotr; Bielec Grzegorz; Szark-Eckardt Mirosława

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to define the relationship between maximal power of lower limbs, the biomechanics of the forward handspring vault and the score received during a gymnastics competition. The research involved 42 gymnasts aged 9-11 years competing in the Poland?s Junior Championships. The study consisted of three stages: first -estimating the level of indicators of maximal power of lower limbs tested on a force plate during the countermovement jump; second - estimating the lev...

  13. Rapid Active Sampling Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  14. Prevention policies addressing packaging and packaging waste: Some emerging trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tencati, Antonio; Pogutz, Stefano; Moda, Beatrice; Brambilla, Matteo; Cacia, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    Packaging waste is a major issue in several countries. Representing in industrialized countries around 30-35% of municipal solid waste yearly generated, this waste stream has steadily grown over the years even if, especially in Europe, specific recycling and recovery targets have been fixed. Therefore, an increasing attention starts to be devoted to prevention measures and interventions. Filling a gap in the current literature, this explorative paper is a first attempt to map the increasingly important phenomenon of prevention policies in the packaging sector. Through a theoretical sampling, 11 countries/states (7 in and 4 outside Europe) have been selected and analyzed by gathering and studying primary and secondary data. Results show evidence of three specific trends in packaging waste prevention policies: fostering the adoption of measures directed at improving packaging design and production through an extensive use of the life cycle assessment; raising the awareness of final consumers by increasing the accountability of firms; promoting collaborative efforts along the packaging supply chains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Successful treatment of groin pain syndrome in a pole-vault athlete with core stability exercise: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dello Iacono, Antonio; Maffulli, Nicola; Laver, Lior; Padulo, Johnny

    2016-10-28

    The purpose of this case report is to present a case of groin pain in a pole vault athlete describing the biomechanical features of the injury`s mechanism, acute medical management, and its successful rehabilitation. A 22 years old professional pole-vaulter sustained an injury during a regular training session. The athlete reported significant left lower abdominal and left proximal adductor discomfort in all activities, including basic trunk motion when moving in bed, sit to stand, and walking, and was unable to return to the regular training. Clinical evaluation and imaging studies addressed the injury to a case of adductor-related groin pain associated with pubic symphysis degeneration. Treatment consisted of an exercise-based therapeutic protocol based on trunk and core muscle strengthening and stability program, with progressive motor and functional demands. Significant improvements in the overall clinical findings and functional outcomes were reported after 52 days of intervention when the athletes returned to his full athletic activity. These results suggest that an appropriate rehabilitation program, focused on trunk and core musculature stability exercise addressing to sport-related specific demands, should be considered as an optimal conservative method in the multidisciplinary approach for treatment of groin pain and prior to any surgical intervention.

  16. Laparoscopic trans teres vault suspension, a new laparoscopic method of treatment of female genital prolapse – a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Milnerowicz-Nabzdyk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Pelvic organ prolapse (POP is treated with a great variety of procedures and none is fully satisfactory. The aim of the study was to introduce and evaluate the effectives of laparoscopic trans teres vault suspension (LTTVS technique as a new method for POP treatment. Material and methods: In the years 2013-2014, eight symptomatic women with grades II-IV POP underwent LTTVS procedure. The mean age of patients was 65.25 years (range from 52 to 76 years. The surgery encompassed total hysterectomy, suturing the vagina and fixation of uterosacral ligaments to the vaginal stump, fixation of stumps of round ligaments to the vaginal stump, and fixation of the vaginal stump to the anterior rectus fascia. Mean follow-up was 17.75 months (range from 6 to 27 months. Results : Eight patients were successfully operated. The symptoms of POP resolved after surgery and subjective quality of life increased. In one case a complication such as common fibular nerve injury appeared; however, it resolved after one month of physiotherapy. The other patient reported radiating pain down the leg after three months. No recurrence of vaginal stump prolapse was observed during the follow-up. Conclusions : LTTVS is a promising method for POP treatment. Due to repair with the use of native tissues, physiological placement of vaginal stump, and high efficacy it can be considered as an alternative to other POP surgeries. The method requires additional research on larger groups of patients.

  17. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging materials. 381.144 Section... Packaging materials. (a) Edible products may not be packaged in a container which is composed in whole or in... to health. All packaging materials must be safe for the intended use within the meaning of section...

  18. Nanocellulose in green food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarinho, Fernanda; Sanches Silva, Ana; Vaz, M Fátima; Farinha, José Paulo

    2017-01-26

    The development of packaging materials with new functionalities and lower environmental impact is now an urgent need of our society. On one hand, the shelf-life extension of packaged products can be an answer to the exponential increase of worldwide demand for food. On the other hand, uncertainty of crude oil prices and reserves has imposed the necessity to find raw materials to replace oil-derived polymers. Additionally, consumers' awareness toward environmental issues increasingly pushes industries to look with renewed interest to "green" solutions. In response to these issues, numerous polymers have been exploited to develop biodegradable food packaging materials. Although the use of biopolymers has been limited due to their poor mechanical and barrier properties, these can be enhanced by adding reinforcing nanosized components to form nanocomposites. Cellulose is probably the most used and well-known renewable and sustainable raw material. The mechanical properties, reinforcing capabilities, abundance, low density, and biodegradability of nanosized cellulose make it an ideal candidate for polymer nanocomposites processing. Here we review the potential applications of cellulose based nanocomposites in food packaging materials, highlighting the several types of biopolymers with nanocellulose fillers that have been used to form bio-nanocomposite materials. The trends in nanocellulose packaging applications are also addressed.

  19. The reduction of packaging waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raney, E.A.; Hogan, J.J.; McCollom, M.L.; Meyer, R.J.

    1994-04-01

    Nationwide, packaging waste comprises approximately one-third of the waste disposed in sanitary landfills. the US Department of Energy (DOE) generated close to 90,000 metric tons of sanitary waste. With roughly one-third of that being packaging waste, approximately 30,000 metric tons are generated per year. The purpose of the Reduction of Packaging Waste project was to investigate opportunities to reduce this packaging waste through source reduction and recycling. The project was divided into three areas: procurement, onsite packaging and distribution, and recycling. Waste minimization opportunities were identified and investigated within each area, several of which were chosen for further study and small-scale testing at the Hanford Site. Test results, were compiled into five ``how-to`` recipes for implementation at other sites. The subject of the recipes are as follows: (1) Vendor Participation Program; (2) Reusable Containers System; (3) Shrink-wrap System -- Plastic and Corrugated Cardboard Waste Reduction; (4) Cardboard Recycling ; and (5) Wood Recycling.

  20. Package power stations for export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The cheap and efficient generation of power is an essential requirement for the success and prosperity of any community and is especially important to third world countries. It is therefore logical that the more technologically advanced nations should seek to produce power stations for the developing countries. Power plant can now be designed into a packaged form that may be readily exported and commissioned. This valuable and interesting collection of papers were originally presented at a seminar organised by the Power Industries Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Topics considered include the developing world market for packaged power stations using indigenous fuels; multi-fuel systems for power generation; packaging, modularisation, and containerisation of equipment for power boilers for export; compact coal-fired industrial plant; rural woodburning power stations; biomass gasification based power generation technology and potential; gas fed reciprocating engine development; packaged heavy duty gas turbines for power generation; and criteria for assessing the appropriateness of package power technologies in developing countries.

  1. Package inspection using inverse diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAulay, Alastair D.

    2008-08-01

    More efficient cost-effective hand-held methods of inspecting packages without opening them are in demand for security. Recent new work in TeraHertz sources,1 millimeter waves, presents new possibilities. Millimeter waves pass through cardboard and styrofoam, common packing materials, and also pass through most materials except those with high conductivity like metals which block light and are easily spotted. Estimating refractive index along the path of the beam through the package from observations of the beam passing out of the package provides the necessary information to inspect the package and is a nonlinear problem. So we use a generalized linear inverse technique that we first developed for finding oil by reflection in geophysics.2 The computation assumes parallel slices in the packet of homogeneous material for which the refractive index is estimated. A beam is propagated through this model in a forward computation. The output is compared with the actual observations for the package and an update computed for the refractive indices. The loop is repeated until convergence. The approach can be modified for a reflection system or to include estimation of absorption.

  2. Standardised Packaging of Tobacco Products Evidence Review

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health (Ireland)

    2014-01-01

    The current report reviews the scientific evidence on standardised or “plain” packaging, and the extent to which plain packaging regulations would help Ireland to achieve its tobacco control objectives.   Plain packaging is a form of marketing restriction that prohibits the use of logos, colours, brand images and promotional information on tobacco packaging. Under plain packaging regulations, the colour of the pack is uniform across different brands and varieties. Regulations ma...

  3. Advanced organics for electronic substrates and packages

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, Andrew E

    1992-01-01

    Advanced Organics for Electronic Substrates and Packages provides information on packaging, which is one of the most technologically intensive activities in the electronics industry. The electronics packaging community has realized that while semiconductor devices continue to be improved upon for performance, cost, and reliability, it is the interconnection or packaging of these devices that will limit the performance of the systems. Technology must develop packaging for transistor chips, with high levels of performance and integration providing cooling, power, and interconnection, and yet pre

  4. Semiconductor packaging materials interaction and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In semiconductor manufacturing, understanding how various materials behave and interact is critical to making a reliable and robust semiconductor package. Semiconductor Packaging: Materials Interaction and Reliability provides a fundamental understanding of the underlying physical properties of the materials used in a semiconductor package. The book focuses on an important step in semiconductor manufacturing--package assembly and testing. It covers the basics of material properties and explains how to determine which behaviors are important to package performance. The authors also discuss how

  5. The paradox of packaging optimization – a characterization of packaging source reduction in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sluisveld, M.A.E.; Worrell, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/106856715

    2013-01-01

    The European Council Directive 94/62/EC for Packaging and Packaging Waste requires that Member States implement packaging waste prevention measures. However, consumption and subsequently packaging waste figures are still growing annually. It suggests that policies to accomplish packaging waste

  6. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

  7. Plastic food packaging and health

    OpenAIRE

    Raika Durusoy; Ali Osman Karababa

    2011-01-01

    Plastics have a wide usage in our daily lives. One of their uses is for food packaging and food containers. The aim of this review is to introduce different types of chemicals that can leach from food packaging plastics into foods and cause human exposure and to mention their effects on health. The types of plastics were reviewed under the 13 headings in Turkish Codex Alimentarius and plastics recycling symbols were provided to enable the recognition of the type of plastic when applicable. Ch...

  8. GNS-12 Packaging design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, E.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-24

    The purpose of this Packaging Design Criteria (PDC) is to provide criteria for the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP)(Onsite). The SARP provides the evaluation to demonstrate that the onsite transportation safety criteria are met for the transport and storage of the 324 Building vitrified encapsulated material in the GNS-12 cask. In this application, the approved PDC provides a formal set of standards for the payload requirements, and guidance for the current cask transport configuration and a revised storage seal and primary lid modification design.

  9. Family of Packaged Water/Packaged Water System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    equipment were surveyed. These companies were selected from: a. Thomas Register - Pharmaceutical , Blood Processing Equipment, and Intravenous Equipment...Engineering Center, ASTM- CCM , Fort Lee, VA. 4. U.S. Army Quartermaster Center and School. 1992. Draft Study Plan for the Packaged Water System

  10. Intelligent food packaging - research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Packaging also fosters effective marketing of the food through distribution and sale channels. It is of the utmost importance to optimize the protection of the food, a great quality and appearance - better than typical packaged foods. In recent years, intelligent packaging became very popular. Intelligent packaging is becoming more and more widely used for food products. Application of this type of solution contributes to improvement of the quality consumer life undoubtedly. Intelligent packaging refers to a package that can sense environmental changes, and in turn, informs the users about the changes. These packaging systems contain devices that are capable of sensing and providing information about the functions and properties of the packaged foods. Also, this paper will review intelligent packaging technologies and describe different types of indicators (time-temperature indicators, freshness indicators.

  11. Aging adult skull vaults by applying the concept of fractal geometry to high-resolution computed tomography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obert, Martin; Seyfried, Maren; Schumacher, Falk; Krombach, Gabriele A; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2014-09-01

    Aging human remains is a critical issue in anthropology and forensic medicine, and the search for accurate, new age-estimation methods is ongoing. In our study, we, therefore, explored a new approach to investigate a possible correlation between age-at-death (aad) and geometric irregularities in the bone structure of human skull caps. We applied the concept of fractal geometry and fractal dimension D analysis to describe heterogeneity within the bone structure. A high-resolution flat-panel computed tomography scanner (eXplore Locus Ultra) was used to obtain 229,500 images from 221 male and 120 female (total 341) European human skulls. Automated image analysis software was developed to evaluate the fractal dimension D, using the mass radius method. The frontal and the occipital portions of the skull caps of adult females and males were investigated separately. The age dependence of the fractal dimension D was studied by correlation analysis, and the prediction accuracy of age-at-death (aad) estimates for individual observations was calculated. D values for human skull caps scatter strongly as a function of age. We found sex-dependent correlation coefficients (CC) between D and age for adults (females CC=-0.67; males CC=-0.05). Prediction errors for aad estimates for individual observations were in the range of ±18 years at a 75% confidence interval. The detailed quantitative description of age-dependent irregularities in the bone microarchitecture of skull vaults through fractal dimension analysis does not, as we had hoped, enable a new aging method. Severe scattering of the data leads to an estimation error that is too great for this method to be of practical relevance in aad estimates. Thus, we disclosed an interesting sex difference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing Information on Food Packages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Jesper; Smith, Viktor; Zlatev, Jordan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents an experimental study which aims at assessing the potentially misleading effect of graphic elements on food packaging. We call these elements potentially misleading elements (PMEs) as they can give customers false expectations. They are either (a) highlighted numerical...

  13. Annual Symposium in Electronics Packaging

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    Each May, the Continuing Education Division of the T.J.Watson School of Engineering, Applied Science and Technology at the State University of New York at Binghamton sponsors an Annual Symposium in Electronics Packaging in cooperation with local professional societies (IEEE, ASME, SME, IEPS) and UnlPEG (the University-Industry Partnership for Economic Growth.) Each volume of this Electronics Packaging Forum series is based on the the preceding Symposium, with Volume Two based on the 1990 presentations. The Preface to Volume One included a brief definition of the broad scope of the electronics packaging field with some comments on why it has recently assumed such a more prominent priority for research and development. Those remarks will not be repeated here; at this point it is assumed that the reader is a professional in the packaging field, or possibly a student of one of the many academic disciplines which contribute to it. It is worthwhile repeating the series objectives, however, so the reader will be cle...

  14. The ssWavelets package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey H. Gove

    2017-01-01

    This package adds several classes, generics and associated methods as well as a few various functions to help with wavelet decomposition of sampling surfaces generated using sampSurf. As such, it can be thought of as an extension to sampSurf for wavelet analysis.

  15. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  16. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations & Development (PO&D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage.

  17. SMART PACKAGING FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodríguez-Sauceda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of the food industry is the preservation of its products, that is, to prevent them from being attacked by microorganisms that decompose them hauling economic losses and severe health damage to the consumer. Today, competition in the food industry is very high and any company that does not offer the quality products is doomed to fail. Consumers demand more and the industry still stands offering what is asked: quality, security and safety. The package, in addition to fulfilling its core functions is becoming a means of sophisticated interactions with content and a record of relevant information for both the end consumer and intermediate players in the value chain and concepts are born of active and intelligent packaging. A smart container is defined as a system that monitors the condition of the packaged product, being able to register and provide information about product quality or condition of the container, showing the possible "abnormal" practices that have suffered the product or the container during the entire supply chain, such as transportation or storage. These systems monitor the mechanisms of altered food due to physiological, chemical and biological processes that respond and communicate changes in the status of the product as time-temperature, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, microbial growth, etc. There are different types of smart packaging such as time-temperature indicators, color indicators, indicators of pathogens and indicators of leaks, to name a few. Through literature review, arguments that demonstrate the usefulness and necessity of the use of smart packaging to preserve the quality and safety of the product it contains, from manufacturing to the time it is used by consumers were found, as these besides communicating or providing information about their state, acting as a marketing tool.

  18. Plastic food packaging and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raika Durusoy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plastics have a wide usage in our daily lives. One of their uses is for food packaging and food containers. The aim of this review is to introduce different types of chemicals that can leach from food packaging plastics into foods and cause human exposure and to mention their effects on health. The types of plastics were reviewed under the 13 headings in Turkish Codex Alimentarius and plastics recycling symbols were provided to enable the recognition of the type of plastic when applicable. Chemicals used during the production and that can cause health risks are investigated under the heading of the relevant type of plastic. The most important chemicals from plastic food packaging that can cause toxicity are styrene, 1,3-butadiene, melamine, formaldehyde, acrylamide, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl adipate, vinyl chloride and bisphenol A. These chemicals have endocrine disrupting, carcinogenic and/or development disrupting effects. These chemicals may leach into foods depending on the chemical properties of the plastic or food, temperature during packaging, processing and storage, exposure to UV and duration of storage. Contact with fatty/oily or acidic foods, heating of the food inside the container, or drinking hot drinks from plastic cups, use of old and scratched plastics and some detergents increase the risk of leaching. The use of plastic containers and packaging for food and beveradges should be avoided whenever possible and when necessary, less harmful types of plastic should be preferred. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 87-96

  19. Approach to underground characterization of a disposal vault in granite; Methode de caracterisation souterraine d`une enceinte de stockage dans la roche granitique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everitt, R.A.; Martin, C.D.; Thompson, P.M.

    1994-12-01

    The concept of disposing of nuclear fuel waste by sealing it in a disposal vault in the Canadian Shield is being investigated as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Engineered and natural barriers would isolate the waste from the biosphere. Underground characterization and testing have been under way since 1983 at the Underground Research Laboratory in support of this program. This report draws on experience gained at the URL to recommend an approach to underground characterization to obtain information to optimize the design of the excavation and the engineered barriers, and to provide a baseline against which to monitor the performance of the facility during and following its operation.

  20. The impact of packaging on product competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Masoumi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is to detect important factors, which are influencing competitive advantage. The proposed model of this paper uses sampling technique to measure characteristics of society. There are eight independent variables for the proposed study of this paper including packaging endurance, easy distribution, customer promotion through packaging, packaging structure, packaging as silent advertiser, diversity of packaging, clean and healthy packaging and innovation in packaging. The proposed study uses structural equation modeling to either accept or reject all hypotheses associated with the proposed study of this paper. The population of this study includes all managers and experts who are involved in packaging products. We used simple sampling technique and chooses 300 from a population of 450 people who are considered as the population of this survey. Cronbach alpha was determined as 0.732, which is above the minimum acceptable level. The results confirm that all mentioned factors influence competitiveness, effectively.

  1. Integrated Approach to Industrial Packaging Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobeva, O.

    2017-11-01

    The article reviews studies in the field of industrial packaging design. The major factors which influence technological, ergonomic, economic and ecological features of packaging are established. The main modern trends in packaging design are defined, the principles of marketing communications and their influence on consumers’ consciousness are indicated, and the function of packaging as a transmitter of brand values is specified. Peculiarities of packaging technology and printing techniques in modern printing industry are considered. The role of designers in the stage-by-stage development of the construction, form and graphic design concept of packaging is defined. The examples of authentic packaging are given and the mention of the tetrahedron packaging history is made. At the end of the article, conclusions on the key research aspects are made.

  2. Automated packaging employing real-time vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Chung; Wu, Chia-Hung

    2016-07-01

    Existing packaging systems rely on human operation to position a box in the packaging device perform do the packaging task. Current facilities are not capable of handling boxes with different sizes in a flexible way. In order to improve the above-mentioned problems, an eye-to-hand visual servo automated packaging approach is proposed in this paper. The system employs two cameras to observe the box and the gripper mounted on the robotic manipulator to precisely control the manipulator to complete the packaging task. The system first employs two-camera vision to determine the box pose. With appropriate task encoding, a closed-loop visual servoing controller is designed to drive a manipulator to accomplish packaging tasks. The proposed approach can be used to complete automated packaging tasks in the case of uncertain location and size of the box. The system has been successfully validated by experimenting with an industrial robotic manipulator for postal box packaging.

  3. Packaging glass with hierarchically nanostructured surface

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau

    2017-08-03

    An optical device includes an active region and packaging glass located on top of the active region. A top surface of the packaging glass includes hierarchical nanostructures comprised of honeycombed nanowalls (HNWs) and nanorod (NR) structures extending from the HNWs.

  4. GRIP LIGHTNING INSTRUMENT PACKAGE (LIP) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Lightning Instrument Package (LIP) dataset was collected by the Lightning Instrument Package (LIP), which consists of 6 rotating vane type electric field...

  5. Multimedia package for LRFD concrete bridge design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    This Project developed a Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) multimedia package to provide a practical introduction and an in-depth understanding of the technological advances in the design of concrete bridges. This package can be used to train ...

  6. 7 CFR 33.6 - Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.6 Package. Package means any container of apples. ...

  7. Development in the Active Packaging of Foods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Active packaging is one of the innovative food packaging concepts that has been introduced as a ... dioxide, flavours/odours and those which release carbon dioxide, .... potential risk could be accidental .... moulds and aerobic bacteria.

  8. Sensory impacts of food-packaging interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Susan E; Webster, Janet B

    2009-01-01

    Sensory changes in food products result from intentional or unintentional interactions with packaging materials and from failure of materials to protect product integrity or quality. Resolving sensory issues related to plastic food packaging involves knowledge provided by sensory scientists, materials scientists, packaging manufacturers, food processors, and consumers. Effective communication among scientists and engineers from different disciplines and industries can help scientists understand package-product interactions. Very limited published literature describes sensory perceptions associated with food-package interactions. This article discusses sensory impacts, with emphasis on oxidation reactions, associated with the interaction of food and materials, including taints, scalping, changes in food quality as a function of packaging, and examples of material innovations for smart packaging that can improve sensory quality of foods and beverages. Sensory evaluation is an important tool for improved package selection and development of new materials.

  9. Introducing Experience Goals into Packaging Design

    OpenAIRE

    Joutsela, Markus; Roto, Virpi; Lloyd, Peter; Bohemia, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Consumer experiences are an increasingly important driving force for commerce, affecting also packaging design. Yet, experience design for packages is rarely studied. Specifically, there is a gap in research regarding the integration of experiential goals, Xgoals, into the packaging design process. Open questions include how to describe Xgoals in design briefs when package design is outsourced, how to deal with changes during the design process, and how to evaluate whether the delivered desig...

  10. Comparison of environmental sustainability of pharmaceutical packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Geo Raju; Prabir Sarkar; Ekta Singla; Harpreet Singh; Rachit Kumar Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies are increasingly imparting a lot of importance on becoming more sustainable by developing medicines that are having same medicinal value but with reduced environmental impact. Type of packaging of tablets affects the emission generated during packaging of medicines. Selection of an appropriate packaging of medicine also influences the emission added to the environment. This paper aims at the comparison of environmental impacts of two different types of packaging of ta...

  11. Developments in the active packaging of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeiren, L.; Devlieghere, F.; Beest, M. van; Kruijf, N. de; Debevere, J.

    1999-01-01

    Active packaging is one of the innovative food packaging concepts that has been introduced as a response to the continuous changes in current consumer demands and market trends. Major active packaging techniques are concerned with substances that absorb oxygen, ethylene, moisture, carbon dioxide,

  12. 9 CFR 317.24 - Packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging materials. 317.24 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.24 Packaging materials... packaging materials must be safe for their intended use within the meaning of section 409 of the Federal...

  13. Packaging of Sin Goods - Commitment or Exploitation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia

    to such self-control problems, and possibly exploit them, by offering different package sizes. In a competitive market, either one or three (small, medium and large) packages are offered. In contrast to common intuition, the large, and not the small package is a commitment device. The latter serves to exploit...

  14. 27 CFR 30.43 - Packaged spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaged spirits. 30.43... Packaged spirits. When the quantity of spirits (including denatured spirits when gauged by weight) in... by weighing each package on an accurate weighing beam or platform scale having a beam or dial showing...

  15. Consumer perception: attributes considered important in packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Medianeira Stefano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Packaging has been considered the main vehicle for sales, brand building and product identity, since it is the first contact with the product that the consumer has, it is fundamental when choosing and buying a product. In this sense, the packaging is a silent salesperson, because it is up to the package to attract attention, create interest and desire, show the quality of the product and close the sale within seconds. Packaging has contributed to corporate communication with consumers; it provides product protection, storage and convenience, as products move through the value chain. Thinking about it, the product cannot be planned separately from its packaging, and it should not be defined based only on engineering, marketing, communications or economics. The packaging concept has expanded and gained product status; packaging is able to communicate the same language of convenience wherever it goes. Today, packaging industries are taking advantage of this opportunity to differentiate their products through packaging, finding that it is not enough for the package to be beautiful, unbreakable, or preserve the flavor and freshness of foods. Within this context, the objective of this research is to analyze, from the point of view of consumers, the most important product packaging attributes at the time of purchase. For this purpose, the data obtained in this study was run through the Statistica 8.0 and SPSS 16 (Statistical Package Social Sciences software’s.

  16. ICT and the paperboard and packaging industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Ince; Sanna Kallioranta; Richard Vlosky

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the reasons for the development of ICT and e-business systems in the paper and paperboard packaging industry and to discuss future scenarios that may serve to guide forest- sector research in this topical area. The paper and paperboard packaging industry encompasses producers of primary paper and paperboard packaging materials...

  17. 7 CFR 65.130 - Consumer package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer package. 65.130 Section 65.130 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.130 Consumer package. Consumer package means any...

  18. 7 CFR 993.22 - Consumer package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer package. 993.22 Section 993.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.22 Consumer package. Consumer package means: (a) Any...

  19. Packaging of high power semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xingsheng; Xiong, Lingling; Liu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces high power semiconductor laser packaging design. The characteristics and challenges of the design and various packaging, processing, and testing techniques are detailed by the authors. New technologies, in particular thermal technologies, current applications, and trends in high power semiconductor laser packaging are described at length and assessed.

  20. Magnetic Package data quality overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qamili, Enkelejda; Ottavianelli, Giuseppe; Olsen, Nils

    The ESA Swarm satellites, launched in November 2013, carry on-board instuments devoted to measure extremely accurate data necessary to improve our understanding of Earth’s magnetic field. The Swarm instrument package is made by two magnetometers (one vector and one scalar), one Electric field Ins...... Instrument (EFI), one Accelerometer and one GPS reciever. This presentation aims at providing an extensive overview of the magnetic instrument status, magnetic data availability and quality.......The ESA Swarm satellites, launched in November 2013, carry on-board instuments devoted to measure extremely accurate data necessary to improve our understanding of Earth’s magnetic field. The Swarm instrument package is made by two magnetometers (one vector and one scalar), one Electric field...

  1. Transportation and packaging resource guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendt, J.W.; Gove, R.M.; Welch, M.J.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this resource guide is to provide a convenient reference document of information that may be useful to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor personnel involved in packaging and transportation activities. An attempt has been made to present the terminology of DOE community usage as it currently exists. DOE`s mission is changing with emphasis on environmental cleanup. The terminology or nomenclature that has resulted from this expanded mission is included for the packaging and transportation user for reference purposes. Older terms still in use during the transition have been maintained. The Packaging and Transportation Resource Guide consists of four sections: Sect. 1, Introduction; Sect. 2, Abbreviations and Acronyms; Sect. 3, Definitions; and Sect. 4, References for packaging and transportation of hazardous materials and related activities, and Appendices A and B. Information has been collected from DOE Orders and DOE documents; U.S Department of Transportation (DOT), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations; and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards and other international documents. The definitions included in this guide may not always be a regulatory definition but are the more common DOE usage. In addition, the definitions vary among regulatory agencies. It is, therefore, suggested that if a definition is to be used in a regulatory or a legal compliance issue, the definition should be verified with the appropriate regulation. To assist in locating definitions in the regulations, a listing of all definition sections in the regulations are included in Appendix B. In many instances, the appropriate regulatory reference is indicated in the right-hand margin.

  2. Small Cold Temperature Instrument Packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Millar, P. S.; Yeh, P. S.; Feng, S.; Brigham, D.; Beaman, B.

    We are developing a small cold temperature instrument package concept that integrates a cold temperature power system with ultra low temperature ultra low power electronics components and power supplies now under development into a 'cold temperature surface operational' version of a planetary surface instrument package. We are already in the process of developing a lower power lower temperature version for an instrument of mutual interest to SMD and ESMD to support the search for volatiles (the mass spectrometer VAPoR, Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith) both as a stand alone instrument and as part of an environmental monitoring package. We build on our previous work to develop strategies for incorporating Ultra Low Temperature/Ultra Low Power (ULT/ULP) electronics, lower voltage power supplies, as well as innovative thermal design concepts for instrument packages. Cryotesting has indicated that our small Si RHBD CMOS chips can deliver >80% of room temperature performance at 40K (nominal minimum lunar surface temperature). We leverage collaborations, past and current, with the JPL battery development program to increase power system efficiency in extreme environments. We harness advances in MOSFET technology that provide lower voltage thresholds for power switching circuits incorporated into our low voltage power supply concept. Conventional power conversion has a lower efficiency. Our low power circuit concept based on 'synchronous rectification' could produce stable voltages as low as 0.6 V with 85% efficiency. Our distributed micro-battery-based power supply concept incorporates cold temperature power supplies operating with a 4 V or 8 V battery. This work will allow us to provide guidelines for applying the low temperature, low power system approaches generically to the widest range of surface instruments.

  3. Waste Package Design Methodology Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Brownson

    2001-09-28

    The objective of this report is to describe the analytical methods and processes used by the Waste Package Design Section to establish the integrity of the various waste package designs, the emplacement pallet, and the drip shield. The scope of this report shall be the methodology used in criticality, risk-informed, shielding, source term, structural, and thermal analyses. The basic features and appropriateness of the methods are illustrated, and the processes are defined whereby input values and assumptions flow through the application of those methods to obtain designs that ensure defense-in-depth as well as satisfy requirements on system performance. Such requirements include those imposed by federal regulation, from both the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and those imposed by the Yucca Mountain Project to meet repository performance goals. The report is to be used, in part, to describe the waste package design methods and techniques to be used for producing input to the License Application Report.

  4. Hazardous Material Packaging and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-04

    This is a student training course. Some course objectives are to: recognize and use standard international and US customary units to describe activities and exposure rates associated with radioactive material; determine whether a quantity of a single radionuclide meets the definition of a class 7 (radioactive) material; determine, for a given single radionuclide, the shipping quantity activity limits per 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 173.435; determine the appropriate radioactive material hazard class proper shipping name for a given material; determine when a single radionuclide meets the DOT definition of a hazardous substance; determine the appropriate packaging required for a given radioactive material; identify the markings to be placed on a package of radioactive material; determine the label(s) to apply to a given radioactive material package; identify the entry requirements for radioactive material labels; determine the proper placement for radioactive material label(s); identify the shipping paper entry requirements for radioactive material; select the appropriate placards for a given radioactive material shipment or vehicle load; and identify allowable transport limits and unacceptable transport conditions for radioactive material.

  5. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-02

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Package security recorder of vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-na; Hu, Jin-liang; Song, Shi-de

    2013-08-01

    This paper introduces a new kind of electronic product — Package Security Recorder of Vibration. It utilizes STC89C54RD+ LQFP-44 MCU as its main controller. At the same time, it also utilizes Freescale MMA845A 3-Axis 8-bit/12-bit Digital Accelerometer and Maxim DS1302 Trickle Charge Timekeeping Chip. It utilizes the MCU to read the value of the accelerometer and the value of the timekeeping chip, and records the data into the inner E2PROM of MCU. The whole device achieves measuring, reading and recording the time of the vibration and the intensity of the vibration. When we need the data, we can read them out. The data can be used in analyzing the condition of the cargo when it transported. The device can be applied to monitor the security of package. It solves the problem of responsibility affirming, when the valuable cargo are damaged while it transported. It offers powerful safeguard for the package. It's very value for application.

  7. Examination of SR101 shipping packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-01

    Four SR101 shipping packages were removed from service and provided for disassembly and examination of the internal fiberboard assemblies. These packages were 20 years old, and had experienced varying levels of degradation. Two of the packages were successfully disassembled and fiberboard samples were removed from these packages and tested. Mechanical and thermal property values are generally comparable to or higher than baseline values measured on fiberboard from 9975 packages, which differs primarily in the specified density range. While baseline data for the SR101 material is not available, this comparison with 9975 material suggests that the material properties of the SR101 fiberboard have not significantly degraded.

  8. The Model 9977 Radioactive Material Packaging Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-09

    The Model 9977 Packaging is a single containment drum style radioactive material (RAM) shipping container designed, tested and analyzed to meet the performance requirements of Title 10 the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A radioactive material shipping package, in combination with its contents, must perform three functions (please note that the performance criteria specified in the Code of Federal Regulations have alternate limits for normal operations and after accident conditions): Containment, the package must “contain” the radioactive material within it; Shielding, the packaging must limit its users and the public to radiation doses within specified limits; and Subcriticality, the package must maintain its radioactive material as subcritical

  9. Challenges in the Packaging of MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malshe, A.P.; Singh, S.B.; Eaton, W.P.; O' Neal, C.; Brown, W.D.; Miller, W.M.

    1999-03-26

    The packaging of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is a field of great importance to anyone using or manufacturing sensors, consumer products, or military applications. Currently much work has been done in the design and fabrication of MEMS devices but insufficient research and few publications have been completed on the packaging of these devices. This is despite the fact that packaging is a very large percentage of the total cost of MEMS devices. The main difference between IC packaging and MEMS packaging is that MEMS packaging is almost always application specific and greatly affected by its environment and packaging techniques such as die handling, die attach processes, and lid sealing. Many of these aspects are directly related to the materials used in the packaging processes. MEMS devices that are functional in wafer form can be rendered inoperable after packaging. MEMS dies must be handled only from the chip sides so features on the top surface are not damaged. This eliminates most current die pick-and-place fixtures. Die attach materials are key to MEMS packaging. Using hard die attach solders can create high stresses in the MEMS devices, which can affect their operation greatly. Low-stress epoxies can be high-outgassing, which can also affect device performance. Also, a low modulus die attach can allow the die to move during ultrasonic wirebonding resulting to low wirebond strength. Another source of residual stress is the lid sealing process. Most MEMS based sensors and devices require a hermetically sealed package. This can be done by parallel seam welding the package lid, but at the cost of further induced stress on the die. Another issue of MEMS packaging is the media compatibility of the packaged device. MEMS unlike ICS often interface with their environment, which could be high pressure or corrosive. The main conclusion we can draw about MEMS packaging is that the package affects the performance and reliability of the MEMS devices. There is a

  10. Lunar Dust Analysis Package - LDAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkley, S. A.; Richter, L.; Goepel, M.; Sovago, M.; Pike, W. T.; Yang, S.; Rodenburg, J.; Claus, D.

    2012-09-01

    The Lunar Dust Analysis package (L-DAP) is a suite of payloads which have been designed to operate in synergy with each other at the Lunar Surface. The benefits of combining these payloads in a single package allow very precise measurements of a particular regolith sample. At the same time the integration allows mass savings since common resources are shared and this also means that interfaces with the Lander are simplified significantly leading to benefits of integration and development of the overall mission. Lunar Dust represents a real hazard for lunar exploration due to its invasive, fine microscopic structure and toxic properties. However it is also valuable resource which could be exploited for future exploration if the characteristics and chemical composition is well known. Scientifically, the regolith provides an insight into the moon formation process and there are areas on the Moon which have never been ex-plored before. For example the Lunar South Pole Aitken Basin is the oldest and largest on the moon, providing excavated deep crust which has not been found on the previous lunar landing missions. The SEA-led team has been designing a compact package, known as LDAP, which will provide key data on the lunar dust properties. The intention is for this package to be part of the payload suite deployed on the ESA Lunar Lander Mission in 2018. The LDAP has a centralised power and data electronics, including front end electronics for the detectors as well as sample handling subsystem for the following set of internal instruments : • Optical Microscope - with a 1μm resolution to provide context of the regolith samples • Raman and LIBS spectrographic instrumentation providing quantification of mineral and elemental composition information of the soil at close to grain scale. This includes the capability to detect (and measure abundance of) crystalline and adsorbed volatile phases, from their Raman signature. The LIBS equipment will also allow chemical

  11. The art of packaging: An investigation into the role of color in packaging, marketing, and branding

    OpenAIRE

    Behzad Mohebbi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the existing research in the field of packaging and marketing and shed more light on the psychology of colors and their effect on packaging and marketing. Nowadays, packaging is proved to be one of the significant factors in the success of promoting product sale. However, there is a perceived gap with respect to the different aspects of packaging, in particular the graphics, design, and color of packaging. The current study provides...

  12. POEMS syndrome (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, multiple myeloma and skin changes) with cranial vault plasmocytoma and the role of surgery in its management: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata Bello, Julio; Garcia-Marin, Victor

    2013-10-18

    POEMS syndrome (an acronym of polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, multiple myeloma and skin changes) is a paraneoplastic disorder related to an underlying plasma cell dyscrasia. The development of such a syndrome is rare and its association with calvarial plasmocytoma is even less common, with only two previous reported cases. We describe, in detail, an unusual presentation of cranial plasmocytoma associated with POEMS syndrome and briefly discuss the possible role of surgery in the management of this disease. We present the case of a 45-year-old Caucasian man who was admitted to our department presenting with progressive weakness in his lower limbs, enlarged lymph nodes and a large mass on the scalp with intense bone erosion. POEMS criteria were present and pathological studies confirmed a Castleman's variant plasmocytoma. Clinical status improved noticeably after the excision of the plasmocytoma and the treatment was completed with radiotherapy and steroid pulse therapy. Cranial vault plasmocytoma and its association with POEMS syndrome are rare conditions with few previously reported cases. Although the role of surgery is not clearly defined in POEMS syndrome guidelines, the fact that there seems to be a better prognosis and clinical outcome when surgery is used as a part of the management in POEMS syndrome with cranial vault plasmocytoma is worth discussing.

  13. Safety analysis report -- Packages LP-50 tritium package (Packaging of fissile and other radioactive materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, A.A.; McCarthy, P.G.; Edl, J.W.; Chalfant, G.G. (comps.); Cadelli, G.

    1975-05-01

    Elemental tritium is shipped at low pressure in a stainless steel container (LP-50) surrounded by an aluminum vessel and Celotex insulation at least 4 in. thick in a steel drum. Each package contains a large quantity (greater than a Type A quantity) of nonfissile material, as defined in AECM 0529. This report provides the details of the safety analysis performed for this type container.

  14. Antimicrobial packaging with natural compunds - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Packaging problems are an integral part of logistics and the implementation of packaging significantly affects the effectiveness of logistics processes, as a factor which increases the safety and the quality of products being transported. Active packaging is an area of technology needed to meet the requirements of the contemporary consumer. Active packaging creates additional opportunities in systems for packing goods, as well as offering a solution in which the packaging, the product and surroundings interact. Furthermore, active packaging allows packaging to interact with food and the environment and play a dynamic role in food preservation. The main role of antimicrobial packaging is to inhibit the growth of microorganisms that reduce the quality of the packaged product. Methods: The application of natural antimicrobial agents appears to be safe for food products. Also, these compounds have potential applications as a natural preservative in the food packaging industry. This study presents some antibacterial agents, namely chitosan, nisin and pectins. Results and conclusion: Natural substances used in active packaging can eliminate the danger of chemical substances migrating to food.

  15. IMS Content Packaging v1.2 public draft specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel; Tattersall, Colin; Vogten, Hubert

    2006-01-01

    The IMS Content Packaging Specification provides the functionality to describe and package learning materials, such as an individual course or a collection of courses, into interoperable, distributable packages. Content Packaging addresses the description, structure, and location of online learning

  16. Package Formats for Preserved Digital Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up requireme......This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up...... requirements for package formats used for long term preserved digital material, and using these requirements as the basis for analysing a range of package formats. The result of the concrete investigation is that the WARC format is the package format best suited for the listed requirements. Fulfilling......, e.g. if there are specific forensic or direct access to files....

  17. Examination of shipping package 9975-02403

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    SRNL examined shipping package 9975-02403 following storage of nuclear material in K-Area Complex (KAC). As a result of field surveillance activities in KAC, this package was identified to contain several non-conforming and other conditions. Further examination of this package in SRNL confirmed significant moisture and mold in the bottom layers of the lower fiberboard assembly, and identified additional corrosion along the seam weld and on the bottom of the drum. It was recently recommended that checking for corrosion along the bottom edge of the drum be implemented for packages that are removed from storage, as well as high wattage packages remaining in storage. The appearance of such corrosion on 9975-02403 further indicates that such corrosion may provide an indication of significant moisture concentration and related degradation within the package. This condition is more likely to develop in packages with higher internal heat loads.

  18. RF and microwave microelectronics packaging II

    CERN Document Server

    Sturdivant, Rick

    2017-01-01

    Reviews RF, microwave, and microelectronics assembly process, quality control, and failure analysis Bridges the gap between low cost commercial and hi-res RF/Microwave packaging technologies Engages in an in-depth discussion of challenges in packaging and assembly of advanced high-power amplifiers This book presents the latest developments in packaging for high-frequency electronics. It is a companion volume to “RF and Microwave Microelectronics Packaging” (2010) and covers the latest developments in thermal management, electrical/RF/thermal-mechanical designs and simulations, packaging and processing methods, and other RF and microwave packaging topics. Chapters provide detailed coverage of phased arrays, T/R modules, 3D transitions, high thermal conductivity materials, carbon nanotubes and graphene advanced materials, and chip size packaging for RF MEMS. It appeals to practicing engineers in the electronic packaging and high-frequency electronics domain, and to academic researchers interested in underst...

  19. Composite hollow core vaults: An analysis of the Fusée Céramic System and the design of form-active environmental friendly roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Kamerling

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Just after World-War II building materials were scarce, architects and engineers had to design buildings using not much cement and steel. In French an architect, Jacques Couëlle, had invented a system with céramique infill elements to reduce for structures of concrete the self-weight and need of cement and steel. In the fifties and sixties of the twentieth century these céramique elements, known as Fusée Céramique elements, were used widely in France, North Africa and the Netherlands, mostly for barrel vaults and shells. Nowadays most of these structures are pulled down and the remaining buildings do not meet the demands of the present concerning climate comfort, insulation and safety. This thesis analyses the structural design of cylindrical Fusée Céramique roofs in the context of those days. The effect of the céramique infill elements for the time dependent deformations, stiffness and load bearing capacity, including second order, is studied. To save the few remaining buildings for the coming generations the possibilities to strengthen these structures with slender light elements of steel are explored. The effect of the strengthening is described for a Fusée Céramique vault, designed and constructed in the past. Reinforced concrete is a widely used building material with many advantages. Unfortunately the production of both reinforcement and cement is quite energy intensive and causes the emission of greenhouse gasses as NO2, NO and CO2. Reducing the need of cement is a relative simple way to reduce the emission of these greenhouse gasses. In practice roofs are seldom really flat but curved or at least slightly inclined, to drain rainwater and snow. Structurally curved structures, transferring loads as a surface-active or form-active structural system, are very efficient. The need of material and the self-weight is pretty low. This can be very useful if in the future the potentials of roofs for producing food and energy are used more

  20. Composite hollow core vaults: An analysis of the Fusée Céramic System and the design of form-active environmental friendly roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Kamerling

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Just after World-War II building materials were scarce, architects and engineers had to design buildings using not much cement and steel. In French an architect, Jacques Couëlle, had invented a system with céramique infill elements to reduce for structures of concrete the self-weight and need of cement and steel. In the fifties and sixties of the twentieth century these céramique elements, known as Fusée Céramique elements, were used widely in France, North Africa and the Netherlands, mostly for barrel vaults and shells. Nowadays most of these structures are pulled down and the remaining buildings do not meet the demands of the present concerning climate comfort, insulation and safety.This thesis analyses the structural design of cylindrical Fusée Céramique roofs in the context of those days. The effect of the céramique infill elements for the time dependent deformations, stiffness and load bearing capacity, including second order, is studied. To save the few remaining buildings for the coming generations the possibilities to strengthen these structures with slender light elements of steel are explored. The effect of the strengthening is described for a Fusée Céramique vault, designed and constructed in the past.Reinforced concrete is a widely used building material with many advantages. Unfortunately the production of both reinforcement and cement is quite energy intensive and causes the emission of greenhouse gasses as NO2, NO and CO2. Reducing the need of cement is a relative simple way to reduce the emission of these greenhouse gasses.In practice roofs are seldom really flat but curved or at least slightly inclined, to drain rainwater and snow. Structurally curved structures, transferring loads as a surface-active or form-active structural system, are very efficient. The need of material and the self-weight is pretty low. This can be very useful if in the future the potentials of roofs for producing food and energy are used more

  1. Waste characterization for the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility in support of waste certification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.F.

    1994-10-17

    The Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) procedures define the rules concerning packages of solid Low Level Waste (LLW) that are sent to the E-area vaults (EAV). The WACs tabulate the quantities of 22 radionuclides that require manifesting in waste packages destined for each type of vault. These quantities are called the Package Administrative Criteria (PAC). If a waste package exceeds the PAC for any radionuclide in a given vault, then specific permission is needed to send to that vault. To avoid reporting insignificant quantities of the 22 listed radionuclides, the WAC defines the Minimum Reportable Quantity (MRQ) of each radionuclide as 1/1000th of the PAC. If a waste package contains less than the MRQ of a particular radionuclide, then the package`s manifest will list that radionuclide as zero. At least one radionuclide has to be reported, even if all are below the MRQ. The WAC requires that the waste no be ``hazardous`` as defined by SCDHEC/EPA regulations and also lists several miscellaneous physical/chemical requirements for the packages. This report evaluates the solid wastes generated within the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) for potential impacts on waste certification.

  2. Geochemical Data Package for Performance Assessment Calculations Related to the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D

    2006-02-28

    The Savannah River Site disposes of certain types of radioactive waste within subsurface-engineered facilities. One of the tools used to establish the capacity of a given site to safely store radioactive waste (i.e., that a site does not exceed its Waste Acceptance Criteria) is the Performance Assessment (PA). The objective of this document is to provide the geochemical values for the PA calculations. This work is being conducted as part of the on-going maintenance program that permits the PA to periodically update existing calculations when new data becomes available. Because application of values without full understanding of their original purpose may lead to misuse, this document also provides the geochemical conceptual model, approach used for selecting the values, the justification for selecting data, and the assumptions made to assure that the conceptual and numerical geochemical models are reasonably conservative (i.e., reflect conditions that will tend to predict the maximum risk to the hypothetical recipient). The geochemical parameters describe transport processes for 38 elements (>90 radioisotopes) potentially occurring within eight disposal units (Slit Trenches, Engineered Trenches, Low Activity Waste (LAW) Vault, Intermediate Level (ILV) Vaults, TRU-Pad-1, Naval Reactor Waste Pads, Components-in-Grout Trenches, and Saltstone Facility). This work builds upon well-documented work from previous PA calculations (McDowell-Boyer et al. 2000). The new geochemical concepts introduced in this data package are: (1) In the past, solubility products were used only in a few conditions (element existing in a specific environmental setting). This has been expanded to >100 conditions. (2) Radionuclide chemistry in cementitious environments is described through the use of both the Kd and apparent solubility concentration limit. Furthermore, the solid phase is assumed to age during the assessment period (thousands of years), resulting in three main types of controlling

  3. Trends in packaged steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V. [ABCO Industries, Abilene, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Oil and gas-fired packaged steam generators are used in many industrial plants. They generate saturated or superheated steam up to 250,000 lb/hr, 1000 psig, and 950 F. They may be used for continuous steam generation or as standby boilers in cogeneration systems. Numerous variables affect the design of this equipment. A few important considerations should be addressed at an early point by the plant engineer specifying or evaluating equipment options. These considerations include trends such as customized designs that minimize operating costs and ensure emissions regulations are met. The paper discusses efficiency considerations first.

  4. The Innovative Approaches to Packaging – Comparison Analysis of Intelligent and Active Packaging Perceptions in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loucanova Erika

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Packaging has always served a practical function - to hold goods together and protect it when moving toward the customer through distribution channel. Today packaging is also a container for promoting the product and making it easier and safer to use. The sheer importance of packaging functions is still growing and consequently the interest of the company is to access to the packaging more innovative and creative. The paper deals with the innovative approaches to packaging resulting in the creation of packaging with interactive active features in the form of active and intelligent packaging. Using comparative analysis, we monitored the perception of the active packaging functions in comparison to intelligent packaging function among different age categories. We identified the age categories which are most interested in these functions.

  5. Comparison of environmental sustainability of pharmaceutical packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geo Raju

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical companies are increasingly imparting a lot of importance on becoming more sustainable by developing medicines that are having same medicinal value but with reduced environmental impact. Type of packaging of tablets affects the emission generated during packaging of medicines. Selection of an appropriate packaging of medicine also influences the emission added to the environment. This paper aims at the comparison of environmental impacts of two different types of packaging of tablets viz., PVC blister and aluminium blister packaging. Life cycle assessment (LCA methodology is used for this comparison. The study includes stages from Cradle to Gate that is, extraction till the packaging processes focused mainly on manufacturing. The functional unit is taken as material required for packing 1 lakh (100,000, 500 mg of paracetamol tablets. Primary data is provided by a pharmaceutical formulation industry and secondary data is obtained from a commercial LCA database available in GaBi and from literature. LCA software GaBi 7.0 is used to carry out the life cycle assessment of both kinds of packaging. Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA method, CML 2001, is used in this study. The study indicates that the PVC blister packaging performs better compared to the aluminium blister packaging in most of the impact categories considered. It is observed that the process of manufacturing of aluminium foils is a significant contributor to the overall environmental impact of aluminium blister packaging.

  6. Challenges in the Packaging of MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN, WILLIAM D.; EATON, WILLIAM P.; MALSHE, AJAY P.; MILLER, WILLIAM M.; O' NEAL, CHAD; SINGH, SUSHILA B.

    1999-09-24

    Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) packaging is much different from conventional integrated circuit (IC) packaging. Many MEMS devices must interface to the environment in order to perform their intended function, and the package must be able to facilitate access with the environment while protecting the device. The package must also not interfere with or impede the operation of the MEMS device. The die attachment material should be low stress, and low outgassing, while also minimizing stress relaxation overtime which can lead to scale factor shifts in sensor devices. The fabrication processes used in creating the devices must be compatible with each other, and not result in damage to the devices. Many devices are application specific requiring custom packages that are not commercially available. Devices may also need media compatible packages that can protect the devices from harsh environments in which the MEMS device may operate. Techniques are being developed to handle, process, and package the devices such that high yields of functional packaged parts will result. Currently, many of the processing steps are potentially harmful to MEMS devices and negatively affect yield. It is the objective of this paper to review and discuss packaging challenges that exist for MEMS systems and to expose these issues to new audiences from the integrated circuit packaging community.

  7. Natural biopolimers in organic food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczynska, Justyna; Cavoski, Ivana; Chami, Ziad Al; Mondelli, Donato; Di Donato, Paola; Di Terlizzi, Biagio

    2014-05-01

    Concerns on environmental and waste problems caused by use of non-biodegradable and non-renewable based plastic packaging have caused an increase interest in developing biodegradable packaging using renewable natural biopolymers. Recently, different types of biopolymers like starch, cellulose, chitosan, casein, whey protein, collagen, egg white, soybean protein, corn zein, gelatin and wheat gluten have attracted considerable attention as potential food packaging materials. Recyclable or biodegradable packaging material in organic processing standards is preferable where possible but specific principles of packaging are not precisely defined and standards have to be assessed. There is evidence that consumers of organic products have specific expectations not only with respect to quality characteristics of processed food but also in social and environmental aspects of food production. Growing consumer sophistication is leading to a proliferation in food eco-label like carbon footprint. Biopolymers based packaging for organic products can help to create a green industry. Moreover, biopolymers can be appropriate materials for the development of an active surfaces designed to deliver incorporated natural antimicrobials into environment surrounding packaged food. Active packaging is an innovative mode of packaging in which the product and the environment interact to prolong shelf life or enhance safety or sensory properties, while maintaining the quality of the product. The work will discuss the various techniques that have been used for development of an active antimicrobial biodegradable packaging materials focusing on a recent findings in research studies. With the current focus on exploring a new generation of biopolymer-based food packaging materials with possible applications in organic food packaging. Keywords: organic food, active packaging, biopolymers , green technology

  8. WASTE PACKAGE DESIGN SENSITIVITY REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Mecharet

    2001-03-09

    The purpose of this technical report is to present the current designs for waste packages and determine which designs will be evaluated for the Site Recommendation (SR) or Licence Application (LA), to demonstrate how the design will be shown to comply with the applicable design criteria. The evaluations to support SR or LA are based on system description document criteria. The objective is to determine those system description document criteria for which compliance is to be demonstrated for SR; and, having identified the criteria, to refer to the documents that show compliance. In addition, those system description document criteria for which compliance will be addressed for LA are identified, with a distinction made between two steps of the LA process: the LA-Construction Authorization (LA-CA) phase on one hand, and the LA-Receive and Possess (LA-R&P) phase on the other hand. The scope of this work encompasses the Waste Package Project disciplines for criticality, shielding, structural, and thermal analysis.

  9. NFR TRIGA package design review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, M.D.

    1994-08-26

    The purpose of this document is to compile, present and document the formal design review of the NRF TRIGA packaging. The contents of this document include: the briefing meeting presentations, package description, design calculations, package review drawings, meeting minutes, action item lists, review comment records, final resolutions, and released drawings. This design review required more than two meeting to resolve comments. Therefore, there are three meeting minutes and two action item lists.

  10. Hermeticity testing of MEMS and microelectronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Costello, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Packaging of microelectronics has been developing since the invention of the transistor in 1947. With the increasing complexity and decreasing size of the die, packaging requirements have continued to change. A step change in package requirements came with the introduction of the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) whereby interactions with the external environment are, in some cases, required.This resource is a rapid, definitive reference on hermetic packaging for the MEMS and microelectronics industry, giving practical guidance on traditional and newly developed test methods. This book in

  11. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herschel Smartt; Arthur Watkins; David Pace; Rodney Bitsoi; Eric Larsen; Timothy McJunkin; Charles Tolle

    2006-04-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  12. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    shelton-davis; Colleen Shelton-Davis; Greg Housley

    2005-10-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  13. Photolithography and Micro-Fabrication/ Packaging Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Photolithography and Micro-Fabrication/Packaging laboratories provide research level semiconductor processing equipment and facilities that do not require a full...

  14. Best Practice in Policy Package Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Florian; Vesela, Jirina; Vencl, Vaclav

    2010-01-01

    This deliverable focuses on the identification and analysis of best practice examples of policy package design. For this purpose a methodology is developed that allows the systematic analysis of both national and EU policy packages. Eight packages were selected and analysed, highlighting...... the factors which supported the design and implementation process in each case. The results of the analysis show which factors led to these cases to be considered best practice. In addition, factors are identified which are not yet part of the generic policy packaging framework presented in earlier OPTIC...

  15. Packaging performance evaluation and performance oriented packaging standards for large packages for poison inhalation hazard materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griego, N.R.; Mills, G.S.; McClure, J.D. [and others

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation Research & Special Programs Administration (DOT-RSPA) has sponsored a project at Sandia National Laboratories to evaluate the protection provided by current packagings used for truck and rail transport of materials that have been classified as Poison Inhalation Hazards (PIH) and to recommend performance standards for these PIH packagings. Hazardous materials span a wide range of toxicity and there are many parameters used to characterize toxicity; for any given hazardous material, data are not available for all of the possible toxicity parameters. Therefore, it was necessary to select a toxicity criterion to characterize all of the PIH compounds (a value of the criterion was derived from other parameters in many cases) and to calculate their dispersion in the event of a release resulting from a transportation accident. Methodologies which account for material toxicity and dispersal characteristics were developed as a major portion of this project and applied to 72 PIH materials. This report presents details of the PIH material toxicity comparisons, calculation of their dispersion, and their classification into five severity categories. 16 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. The art of packaging: An investigation into the role of color in packaging, marketing, and branding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Behzad Mohebbi

    2014-01-01

      The purpose of this study is to contribute to the existing research in the field of packaging and marketing and shed more light on the psychology of colors and their effect on packaging and marketing...

  17. PRIDE Surveillance Projects Data Packaging Project Information Package Specification Version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, D. M.; Shipp, R. L.; Mason, J. D.

    2010-08-31

    Information Package Specification version 1.1 describes an XML document format called an information package that can be used to store information in information management systems and other information archives. An information package consists of package information, the context required to understand and use that information, package metadata that describes the information, and XML signatures that protect the information. The information package described in this specification was designed to store Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) information and includes the metadata required for that information: a unique package identifier, information marking that conforms to DOE and NNSA requirements, and access control metadata. It is an implementation of the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model archival information package tailored to meet NNSA information storage requirements and designed to be used in the computing environments at the Y-12 National Security Complex and at other NNSA sites.

  18. The Innovative Approaches to Packaging – Comparison Analysis of Intelligent and Active Packaging Perceptions in Slovakia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erika Loucanova; Martina Kalamarova; Jan Parobek

    2017-01-01

    .... Using comparative analysis, we monitored the perception of the active packaging functions in comparison to intelligent packaging function among different age categories. We identified the age categories which are most interested in these functions.

  19. Advanced Sensor Arrays and Packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryter, John Wesley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Christopher J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ramaiyan, Kannan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brosha, Eric L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-11

    Novel sensor packaging elements were designed, fabricated, and tested in order to facilitate the transition of electrochemical mixed-potential sensors toward commercialization. Of the two designs completed, the first is currently undergoing field trials, taking direct measurements within vehicle exhaust streams, while the second is undergoing preliminary laboratory testing. The sensors’ optimal operating conditions, sensitivity to hydrogen, and long-­term baseline stability were also investigated. The sensing capabilities of lanthanum chromite (La0.8Sr0.2CrO3) and indium-­doped tin oxide (ITO) working electrodes were compared, and the ITO devices were selected for pre-­commercial field trials testing at a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fueling station in California. Previous data from that fueling station were also analyzed, and the causes of anomalous baseline drift were identified.

  20. Antimicrobial seafood packaging: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suman; Ho Lee, Myung; Park, Lnsik; Shin, Yangjai; Lee, Youn Suk

    2016-06-01

    Microorganisms are the major cause of spoilage in most seafood products; however, only few microbes, called the specific spoilage organisms (SSOs), contribute to the offensive off-flavors associated with seafood spoilage. In food, microbial degradation manifests itself as spoilage, or changes in the sensory properties of a food product, rendering it unsuitable for human consumption. The use of antimicrobial substances can control the general microflora as well as specific microorganisms related to spoilage to provide products with higher safety and better quality. Many antimicrobial compounds have been evaluated in film structures for use in seafood, especially organic acids and their salts, enzymes, bacteriocins; some studies have considered inorganic compounds such as AgSiO2, zinc oxide, silver zeolite, and titanium oxide. The characteristics of some organic antimicrobial packaging systems for seafood and their antimicrobial efficiency in film structures are reviewed in this article.

  1. Printing systems for MEMS packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Donald J.; Cox, Weldon R.; Wallace, David B.

    2001-10-01

    Ink-jet printing technology is, in many ways, ideally suited for addressing a number of these MEMS device packaging challenges. The general advantages of this form of microdispensing derive from the incorporation of data-driven, non-contact processes which enable precise, picoliter-level volumes of material to be deposited with high accuracy and speed at target sites, even on non-planar surfaces. Being data-driven, microjet printing is a highly flexible and automated process which may readily be incorporated into manufacturing lines. It does not require application-specific tooling such as photomasks or screens, and, as an additive process with no chemical waste, it is environmentally friendly. In short, the advantages obtainable with incorporation of micro-jet printing technology in many fabrication applications range from increased process capability, integration and automation to reduced manufacturing costs.

  2. Morphological, functional and neurological outcomes of craniectomy versus cranial vault remodeling for isolated nonsyndromic synostosis of the sagittal suture: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwin, May; Schultz, Timothy J; Anderson, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    Craniosynostosis is a condition characterized by the premature closure of one or more of the cranial vault sutures. It can occur alone or in association with other congenital defects and may be part of a syndrome. The sagittal suture is most commonly affected, comprising 40-60% of cases. Premature fusion of the sagittal suture can cause scaphocephaly due to compensatory anterior-posterior growth of the skull. This is morphologically considered as a narrow elongated skull with a decreased cephalic index, and is diagnosed clinically and/or radiologically. Both the indications for surgery and the techniques used have varied with time and location. Surgical techniques have evolved, from limited craniectomy to calvarial remodeling. In recent times a return to craniectomy methods has occurred with the more recent introduction of endoscopic methods. The objectives of this review were to identify and synthesize the best available evidence on the morphological, functional and neurological outcomes of craniectomy compared to cranial vault remodeling. This review considered studies of infants with primary isolated sagittal synostosis operated on or before the mean age of 24 months. The intervention of interest was local craniectomy and this was compared to cranial vault remodeling. Morphological (primary), functional and neurological (secondary) outcomes were included. Mortality, complications and aesthetic outcome were included as tertiary outcomes. A comprehensive search was undertaken across major databases. The retrieved studies were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological validity prior to inclusion. Data was then extracted and, where possible, pooled in statistical meta-analysis. For descriptive studies, where statistical pooling was not possible, the findings are presented in narrative form. Search and retrieval: Based on critical appraisal, 27 studies were considered to be suitable for this review. These studies were all descriptive in nature. Meta

  3. Nanotechnology: An Untapped Resource for Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Sharma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Food commodities are packaged and hygienically transported to protect and preserve them from any un-acceptable alteration in quality, before reaching the end-consumer. Food packaging continues to evolve along-with the innovations in material science and technology, as well as in light of consumer's demand. Presently, the modern consumers of competitive economies demands for food with natural quality, assured safety, minimal processing, extended shelf-life and ready-to-eat concept. Innovative packaging systems, not only ascertains transit preservation and effective distribution, but also facilitates communication at the consumer levels. The technological advances in the domain of food packaging in twenty-first century are mainly chaired by nanotechnology, the science of nano-materials. Nanotechnology manipulates and creates nanometer scale materials, of commercial and scientific relevance. Introduction of nanotechnology in food packaging sector has significantly addressed the food quality, safety and stability concerns. Besides, nanotechnology based packaging intimate's consumers about the real time quality of food product. Additionally, nanotechnology has been explored for controlled release of preservatives/antimicrobials, extending the product shelf life within the package. The promising reports for nanotechnology interventions in food packaging have established this as an independent priority research area. Nanoparticles based food packages offer improved barrier and mechanical properties, along with food preservation and have gained welcoming response from market and end users. In contrary, recent advances and up-liftment in this area have raised various ethical, environmental and safety concerns. Policies and regulation regarding nanoparticles incorporation in food packaging are being reviewed. This review presents the existing knowledge, recent advances, concerns and future applications of nanotechnology in food packaging sector.

  4. Nanotechnology: An Untapped Resource for Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Dhiman, Romika; Rokana, Namita; Panwar, Harsh

    2017-01-01

    Food commodities are packaged and hygienically transported to protect and preserve them from any un-acceptable alteration in quality, before reaching the end-consumer. Food packaging continues to evolve along-with the innovations in material science and technology, as well as in light of consumer's demand. Presently, the modern consumers of competitive economies demands for food with natural quality, assured safety, minimal processing, extended shelf-life and ready-to-eat concept. Innovative packaging systems, not only ascertains transit preservation and effective distribution, but also facilitates communication at the consumer levels. The technological advances in the domain of food packaging in twenty-first century are mainly chaired by nanotechnology, the science of nano-materials. Nanotechnology manipulates and creates nanometer scale materials, of commercial and scientific relevance. Introduction of nanotechnology in food packaging sector has significantly addressed the food quality, safety and stability concerns. Besides, nanotechnology based packaging intimate's consumers about the real time quality of food product. Additionally, nanotechnology has been explored for controlled release of preservatives/antimicrobials, extending the product shelf life within the package. The promising reports for nanotechnology interventions in food packaging have established this as an independent priority research area. Nanoparticles based food packages offer improved barrier and mechanical properties, along with food preservation and have gained welcoming response from market and end users. In contrary, recent advances and up-liftment in this area have raised various ethical, environmental and safety concerns. Policies and regulation regarding nanoparticles incorporation in food packaging are being reviewed. This review presents the existing knowledge, recent advances, concerns and future applications of nanotechnology in food packaging sector.

  5. Healthy package, healthy product? Effects of packaging design as a function of purchase setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rompay, Thomas Johannes Lucas; Deterink, Florien; Fenko, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by research testifying to the influence of visual packaging appearance and meaning portrayal on food evaluation, here it is argued that effects of packaging design vary depending on purchase context. Realistic packaging variants for a fictitious yoghurt brand varying in health connotation

  6. Packaging of airborne and spaceborne electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirzl, William H.

    1964-05-01

    The paper was prepared as a survey of problems associated with packaging of airborne and spaceborne electronics. Included is a discussion of the steps which must be taken in order to withstand applicable environmental conditions. Emphasis is placed on discussion of vibration, temperature control, radiation and electromagnetic compatibility of the packaged units.

  7. Development in the Active Packaging of Foods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    into, barrier packaging such as crown caps, plastic or metal closures, is ascorbate oxidation of flavour [13]} The Pillsbury Co. “hold a 1994 patent that also utilizes ..... superabsorbent polymer in between two layers. Large sheets are also used for absorption _of melted ice in package of seafood during air transportation. The.

  8. An expression analysis package for REDUCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulzen, J.A.; Hulshof, B.J.A.

    1982-01-01

    An expression analysis package for REDUCE 2 is presented. This package, completely written in Standard LISP, can be considered as an extension of the algebraic mode. It allows to interactively dismantled and/or modify the last output expression as it is desplayed or printed. An interface with the

  9. A Thermodynamics Course Package in Onenote

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, John L.; Nicodemus, Garret D.; Medlin, J. Will; deGrazia, Janet; McDanel, Katherine P.

    2014-01-01

    A ready-to-use package of active-learning materials for a semester-long chemical engineering thermodynamics course was prepared for instructors, and similar materials are being prepared for a material and energy balance course. The course package includes ConcepTests, explanations of the ConcepTests for instructors, links to screencasts, chapter…

  10. Wrap-Attack Pack: Product Packaging Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hwan; Hoffman, K. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Although many marketing courses discuss traditional concepts pertaining to product strategy, concepts specifically relating to packaging are often glossed over. This exercise, "Wrap-Attack Pack," teaches students about the utilitarian and hedonic design elements of packaging. More specifically, the primary objective is to creatively…

  11. The power of symbolic packaging cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, I.; Verlegh, P.; Voorveld, H.; Eisend, M.

    2016-01-01

    Packaging can be considered as an element of communication in the marketplace. By communicating through packaging, marketers are able to appeal to consumers at the most crucial moment in the consumer decision journey: the point of sale. At the point of sale, consumers are able to consider the

  12. 49 CFR 173.63 - Packaging exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., incendiary, or detonating explosive projectiles; (iv) Ammunition not exceeding 12.7 mm (50 caliber or 0.5... outside packagings; (iv) Maximum gross weight is limited to 30 kg (66 pounds) per package; and (v) Cartridges, power devices which are used to project fastening devices and 22 caliber rim-fire cartridges may...

  13. 21 CFR 820.130 - Device packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device packaging. 820.130 Section 820.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... shall ensure that device packaging and shipping containers are designed and constructed to protect the...

  14. Packaging Materials Outgassing Study Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R. A. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (Y-12), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2006-09-26

    An outgassing study was conducted on two polyurethane packaging foams, two polymer bottles (polytetrafluoroethylene and polyethylene), and two polymer lids. The purpose was to measure the volume of gases that diffuse from these packaging materials at a maximum of 400-degrees F when stored in ambient air within sealed containers.

  15. Material Efficiency in Dutch Packaging Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/106856715; van Sluisveld, M.A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Packaging materials are one of the largest contributors to municipal solid waste generation. In this paper, we evaluate the material impacts of packaging policy in The Netherlands, focusing on the role of material efficiency (or waste prevention). Since 1991, five different policies have been

  16. Reliability of industrial packaging for microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reus, Roger De; Christensen, Carsten; Weichel, Steen

    1998-01-01

    Packaging concepts for silicon-based micromachined sensors exposed to harsh environments are explored. By exposing the sensors directly to the media and applying protection at the wafer level the packaging and assembly will be simplified as compared to conventional methods of fabrication. Protect...

  17. Ceramic ball grid array package stress analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, S. H. B. S.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Ong, N. R.; Sauli, Z.; Alcain, J. B.; Retnasamy, V.

    2017-09-01

    The ball grid array (BGA), a form of chip scale package (CSP), was developed as one of the most advanced surface mount devices, which may be assembled by an ordinary surface ball bumps are used instead of plated nickel and gold (Ni/Au) bumps. Assembly and reliability of the BGA's printed circuit board (PCB), which is soldered by conventional surface mount technology is considered in this study. The Ceramic Ball Grid Array (CBGA) is a rectangular ceramic package or square-shaped that will use the solder ball for external electrical connections instead of leads or wire for connections. The solder balls will be arranged in an array or grid at the bottom of the ceramic package body. In this study, ANSYS software is used to investigate the stress on the package for 2 balls and 4 balls of the CBGA package with the various force range of 1-3 Newton applied to the top of the die, top of the substrate and side of the substrate. The highest maximum stress was analyzed and the maximum equivalent stress was observed on the solder ball and the die. From the simulation result, the CBGA package with less solder balls experience higher stress compared to the package with many solder balls. Therefore, less number of solder ball on the CBGA package results higher stress and critically affect the reliability of the solder balls itself, substrate and die which can lead to the solder crack and also die crack.

  18. Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging on Microbiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimum packaging film for carrots should lead to low condensation, but preventing moisture loss, and maintain optimum gas composition during the storage period. In this study, carrots were packaged in polypropylene (PP) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) films and stored at 0¼C and ambient temperature (15-25¼C).

  19. 19 CFR 134.53 - Examination packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Found Not Legally Marked § 134.53 Examination packages. (a) Site of marking—(1) Customs custody. Articles (or containers) in examination packages may be marked by... the public stores. (2) Importer's premises or elsewhere. If it is impracticable to mark the articles...

  20. Pre-packaged applications in business reorganisations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to explore the operating environment of pre-packaged financing in various established reorganisation regimes, including the legal framework, practice, enablers, context and other governing structures. Pre-packaging in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia and Canada was examined with a view to ...

  1. Clustering Classes in Packages for Program Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During software maintenance and evolution, one of the important tasks faced by developers is to understand a system quickly and accurately. With the increasing size and complexity of an evolving system, program comprehension becomes an increasingly difficult activity. Given a target system for comprehension, developers may first focus on the package comprehension. The packages in the system are of different sizes. For small-sized packages in the system, developers can easily comprehend them. However, for large-sized packages, they are difficult to understand. In this article, we focus on understanding these large-sized packages and propose a novel program comprehension approach for large-sized packages, which utilizes the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA model to cluster large-sized packages. Thus, these large-sized packages are separated as small-sized clusters, which are easier for developers to comprehend. Empirical studies on four real-world software projects demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. The results show that the effectiveness of our approach is better than Latent Semantic Indexing- (LSI- and Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis- (PLSA- based clustering approaches. In addition, we find that the topic that labels each cluster is useful for program comprehension.

  2. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollay RW

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers.

  3. PRIDE Surveillance Projects Data Packaging Project, Information Package Specification Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, D.M.; Shipp, R. L.; Mason, J. D.

    2009-09-28

    This document contains a specification for a standard XML document format called an information package that can be used to store information and the context required to understand and use that information in information management systems and other types of information archives. An information package consists of packaged information, a set of information metadata that describes the packaged information, and an XML signature that protects the packaged information. The information package described in this specification was designed to be used to store Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) information and includes the metadata required for that information: a unique package identifier, information marking that conforms to DOE and NNSA requirements, and access control metadata. Information package metadata can also include information search terms, package history, and notes. Packaged information can be text content, binary content, and the contents of files and other containers. A single information package can contain multiple types of information. All content not in a text form compatible with XML must be in a text encoding such as base64. Package information is protected by a digital XML signature that can be used to determine whether the information has changed since it was signed and to identify the source of the information. This specification has been tested but has not been used to create production information packages. The authors expect that gaps and unclear requirements in this specification will be identified as this specification is used to create information packages and as information stored in information packages is used. The authors expect to issue revised versions of this specification as needed to address these issues.

  4. Vacuum maintenance in hermetically sealed MEMs packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Alessio; Kullberg, Richard C.

    1998-09-01

    Packages for many high sensitivity MEM devices (Micro- Electro-Mechanical devices) such as accelerometers need to operate in a vacuum in order to obtain their full performance. This vacuum is destroyed by the outgassing of species such as hydrogen and water vapor from the surfaces of the package exposed to this vacuum. To control this outgassing a getter is needed. MEM packages are too small to accommodate traditional sintered porous getters. A solution has been developed using a high porosity thick film getter material. The getter consists of a highly porous, mechanically stable, getter coating on a metal substrate. This getter reacts with active gases such as water vapor, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon monoxide that outgas from the inner surfaces of the package. The physical characteristics and performance of this material will be demonstrated per ASTM sorption testing. The results of this testing will be used to demonstrate the potential for vacuum performance in a real world MEM package.

  5. Service Packages – Attractiveness Has Many Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Bondos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to identify the impact of the customer age (especially the Baby boomers generation and the X and the Y generation on the assessment of incentives to buy service package. Belonging to different age generations seems to be important for the effectiveness of service packages sales – the entrance by the consumers in subsequent phases of the life cycle is related to their perception of the market offer. The starting point for the empirical part of the article was to analyze the different average scores attractiveness of the ten packages service features (incentives to purchase. Then, using multidimensional scaling authors determined the similarity or dissimilarity data on a set of applied incentives to use service packages. Visible differences indicate a different perception of the attractiveness of packages representatives of the Baby boomer generation and Y generation. Managerial implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  6. Dynamic modelling of packaging material flow systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiliyannis, Christos A

    2005-04-01

    A dynamic model has been developed for reused and recycled packaging material flows. It allows a rigorous description of the flows and stocks during the transition to new targets imposed by legislation, product demand variations or even by variations in consumer discard behaviour. Given the annual reuse and recycle frequency and packaging lifetime, the model determines all packaging flows (e.g., consumption and reuse) and variables through which environmental policy is formulated, such as recycling, waste and reuse rates and it identifies the minimum number of variables to be surveyed for complete packaging flow monitoring. Simulation of the transition to the new flow conditions is given for flows of packaging materials in Greece, based on 1995--1998 field inventory and statistical data.

  7. Can packaging elements elicit consumers’ emotional responses?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Lewis; Corsi, Armando; Lockshin, Larry

    Emotion has been an important concept in many areas of consumer research such as judgment, decision-making and advertising. Little research has been done on emotion in packaging adopting the physiological measures used in other areas. This paper draws on past studies in advertising that measure...... emotional responses toward image, colour and font, and apply them to packaging research. The study tests the extent at which packaging can elicit consumers’ spontaneous emotional response for each of those three elements, by using skin conductance, facial electromyography (EMG) and selfassessment scales....... The results show that packaging can elicit an emotional response via different elements. The paper also raises concerns about the accuracy of using selfreport measures of emotional responses to packaging research....

  8. Does 'Plain Packaging' of Tobacco matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Clancy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The incremental tightening of the tobacco industry’s advertising capabilities led to the investment of billions of dollars into increasingly creative packaging. Today, packing remains one of the industry’s sole methods of promotion and marketing. The size, shape, colour, and font on cigarette packs serve to differentiate brands and promote a certain image associated with the given cigarette package Many studies in recent years have tested the association between pack standardisation and peoples’ attitudes, behaviours, and perceptions of tobacco packaging. The results show that plain packs are thought to be less attractive and associated with less positive characteristics, the health warnings are more salient, and smokers report feelings of wanting to smoke less when using standardised packs. Now we have the real life results from Australia, which show the tobacco control advances that are possible with standardised packaging. This must increase the pressure to have 'plain packaging' introduced throughout the EU.

  9. Radiation treatment for sterilization of packaging materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji-Saeid, Mohammad; Sampa, Maria Helena O.; Chmielewski, Andrzej G.

    2007-08-01

    Treatment with gamma and electron radiation is becoming a common process for the sterilization of packages, mostly made of natural or synthetic plastics, used in the aseptic processing of foods and pharmaceuticals. The effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packaging engineering to understand the effects of these new treatments. Packaging material may be irradiated either prior to or after filling. The irradiation prior to filling is usually chosen for dairy products, processed food, beverages, pharmaceutical, and medical device industries in the United States, Europe, and Canada. Radiation effects on packaging material properties still need further investigation. This paper summarizes the work done by different groups and discusses recent developments in regulations and testing procedures in the field of packaging technology.

  10. Optimization of Train Trip Package Operation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Tong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Train trip package transportation is an advanced form of railway freight transportation, realized by a specialized train which has fixed stations, fixed time, and fixed path. Train trip package transportation has lots of advantages, such as large volume, long distance, high speed, simple forms of organization, and high margin, so it has become the main way of railway freight transportation. This paper firstly analyzes the related factors of train trip package transportation from its organizational forms and characteristics. Then an optimization model for train trip package transportation is established to provide optimum operation schemes. The proposed model is solved by the genetic algorithm. At last, the paper tests the model on the basis of the data of 8 regions. The results show that the proposed method is feasible for solving operation scheme issues of train trip package.

  11. 76 FR 51257 - First-Class Package Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Package Service, Periodicals, and Package Services pieces addressed to a discontinued Post Office may be... have all Express Mail, Priority Mail, First-Class Mail, First-Class Package Service, Periodicals, and... Personnel All Express Mail, First-Class Mail, First-Class Package Service, Periodicals, and Package Services...

  12. IFT Scientific Status Summary 2008: Innovative Food Packaging Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and beverage packaging comprises 55-65% of the $110 billion value of packaging in the United States. This review provides a summary of innovative technology developments in food packaging. The expanded role of food and beverage packaging is reviewed. Active and intelligent food packaging, ba...

  13. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Summary report of NRC approved packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages for radioactive material packages effective September 14, 1979. Purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory.

  14. Interconnect mechanisms in microelectronic packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Maria Penafrancia C.

    alloy showed differences in adhesion strength and IMC formation. Bond strength by wire pull testing showed the 95Ag alloy with higher values while shear bond testing showed the 88Ag higher bond strength. Use of Cu pillars in flip chips and eutectic bonding in wafer level chip scale packages are direct consequences of diminishing interconnect dimension as a result of the drive for miniaturization. The combination of Cu-Sn interdiffusion, Kirkendall mechanism and heterogeneous vacancy precipitation are the main causes of IMC and void formation in Cu pillar - Sn solder - Cu lead frame sandwich structure. However, adding a Ni barrier agent showed less porous IMC layer as well as void formation as a result of the modified Cu and Sn movement well as the void formation. Direct die to die bonding using Al-Ge eutectic bonds is necessary when 3D integration is needed to reduce the footprint of a package. Hermeticity and adhesion strength are a function of the Al/Ge thickness ratio, bonding pressure, temperature and time. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) allowed imaging of interfacial microstructures, porosity, grain morphology while Scanning Transmission Electron microscope (STEM) provided diffusion profile and confirmed interdiffusion. Ion polishing technique provided information on porosity and when imaged using backscattered mode, grain structure confirmed mechanical deformation of the bonds. Measurements of the interfacial bond strength are made by wire pull tests and ball shear tests based on existing industry standard tests. However, for the Al-Ge eutectic bonds, no standard strength is available so a test is developed using the stud pull test method using the Dage 4000 Plus to yield consistent results. Adhesion strengths of 30-40 MPa are found for eutectic bonded packages however, as low as 20MPa was measured in low temperature bonded areas.

  15. Compostability of bioplastic packaging materials: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Gaurav; Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Selke, Susan E; Singh, Sher Paul

    2007-03-08

    Packaging waste accounted for 78.81 million tons or 31.6% of the total municipal solid waste (MSW) in 2003 in the USA, 56.3 million tons or 25% of the MSW in 2005 in Europe, and 3.3 million tons or 10% of the MSW in 2004 in Australia. Currently, in the USA the dominant method of packaging waste disposal is landfill, followed by recycling, incineration, and composting. Since landfill occupies valuable space and results in the generation of greenhouse gases and contaminants, recovery methods such as reuse, recycling and/or composting are encouraged as a way of reducing packaging waste disposal. Most of the common materials used in packaging (i.e., steel, aluminum, glass, paper, paperboard, plastics, and wood) can be efficiently recovered by recycling; however, if packaging materials are soiled with foods or other biological substances, physical recycling of these materials may be impractical. Therefore, composting some of these packaging materials is a promising way to reduce MSW. As biopolymers are developed and increasingly used in applications such as food, pharmaceutical, and consumer goods packaging, composting could become one of the prevailing methods for disposal of packaging waste provided that industry, governments, and consumers encourage and embrace this alternative. The main objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current situation of packaging compostability, to describe the main mechanisms that make a biopolymer compostable, to delineate the main methods to compost these biomaterials, and to explain the main standards for assessing compostability, and the current status of biopolymer labeling. Biopolymers such as polylactide and poly(hydroxybutyrate) are increasingly becoming available for use in food, medical, and consumer goods packaging applications. The main claims of these new biomaterials are that they are obtained from renewable resources and that they can be biodegraded in biological environments such as soil and compost

  16. PORTABLE ACOUSTIC MONITORING PACKAGE (PAMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Patrick Browning

    2004-07-20

    The Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP) has been designed to record and monitor the acoustic signal in natural gas transmission lines. In particular the three acoustic signals associated with a line leak. The system is portable ({approx}30 lbs) and is designed for line pressures up to 1000 psi. It has become apparent that cataloging of the various background acoustic signals in natural gas transmission line is very important if a system to identify leak signals is to be developed. The low-pressure (0-200 psig) laboratory test phase has been completed and a number of field trials have been conducted. Before the cataloging phase could begin, a few problems identified in field trials identified had to be corrected such as: (1) Decreased microphone sensitivity at line pressures above 250 psig. (2) The inability to deal with large data sets collected when cataloging the variety of signals in a transmission line. (3) The lack of an available online acoustic calibration system. These problems have been solved and the WVU PAMP is now fully functional over the entire pressure range found in the Natural Gas transmission lines in this region. Field portability and reliability have been greatly improved. Data collection and storage have also improved to the point were the full acoustic spectrum of acoustic signals can be accurately cataloged, recorded and described.

  17. The Fireball integrated code package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobranich, D.; Powers, D.A.; Harper, F.T.

    1997-07-01

    Many deep-space satellites contain a plutonium heat source. An explosion, during launch, of a rocket carrying such a satellite offers the potential for the release of some of the plutonium. The fireball following such an explosion exposes any released plutonium to a high-temperature chemically-reactive environment. Vaporization, condensation, and agglomeration processes can alter the distribution of plutonium-bearing particles. The Fireball code package simulates the integrated response of the physical and chemical processes occurring in a fireball and the effect these processes have on the plutonium-bearing particle distribution. This integrated treatment of multiple phenomena represents a significant improvement in the state of the art for fireball simulations. Preliminary simulations of launch-second scenarios indicate: (1) most plutonium vaporization occurs within the first second of the fireball; (2) large non-aerosol-sized particles contribute very little to plutonium vapor production; (3) vaporization and both homogeneous and heterogeneous condensation occur simultaneously; (4) homogeneous condensation transports plutonium down to the smallest-particle sizes; (5) heterogeneous condensation precludes homogeneous condensation if sufficient condensation sites are available; and (6) agglomeration produces larger-sized particles but slows rapidly as the fireball grows.

  18. Extreme temperature packaging: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Wayne

    2016-05-01

    Consumer electronics account for the majority of electronics manufactured today. Given the temperature limits of humans, consumer electronics are typically rated for operation from -40°C to +85°C. Military applications extend the range to -65°C to +125°C while underhood automotive electronics may see +150°C. With the proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT), the goal of instrumenting (sensing, computation, transmission) to improve safety and performance in high temperature environments such as geothermal wells, nuclear reactors, combustion chambers, industrial processes, etc. requires sensors, electronics and packaging compatible with these environments. Advances in wide bandgap semiconductors (SiC and GaN) allow the fabrication of high temperature compatible sensors and electronics. Integration and packaging of these devices is required for implementation into actual applications. The basic elements of packaging are die attach, electrical interconnection and the package or housing. Consumer electronics typically use conductive adhesives or low melting point solders for die attach, wire bonds or low melting solder for electrical interconnection and epoxy for the package. These materials melt or decompose in high temperature environments. This paper examines materials and processes for high temperature packaging including liquid transient phase and sintered nanoparticle die attach, high melting point wires for wire bonding and metal and ceramic packages. The limitations of currently available solutions will also be discussed.

  19. APPLICATION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN FOOD PACKAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology involves the design, production and use of structures through control of the size and shape of the materials at the nanometre scale. Also, nanomaterials have been already applied in many fields of human life. Nanocomposites have already led to several innovations with potential applications in the food packaging sector. The use of nanocomposite formulations is expected to considerably enhance the shelf-life of many types of food. This improvement can lead to lower weight packages because less material is needed to obtain the same or even better barrier properties. This, in turn, can lead to reduced package cost with less packaging waste. Antimicrobial packaging is another area with high potential for applying nanocomposite technology. Nanostructured antimicrobials have a higher surface area-to-volume ratio when compared with their higher scale counterparts. Therefore, antimicrobial nanocomposite packaging systems are supposed to be particularly efficient in their activities against microbial cells. In this review, definition of nanomaterials is presented. Besides, the paper shows examples of nanocomposities and antimicrobial nanopackaging mainly with the use of nanosilver. Moreover, nanoparticles such ZnO, TiO2, MgO and nanosensors in packaging were presented.

  20. Food packaging and shelf life: a practical guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robertson, Gordon L

    2010-01-01

    .... Food Packaging and Shelf Life: A Practical Guide provides package developers with the information they need to specify just the right amount of protective packaging to maintain food quality and maximize shelf life...

  1. Flat conductor cable for electrical packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angele, W.

    1972-01-01

    Flat conductor cable (FCC) is relatively new, highly promising means for electrical packaging and system integration. FCC offers numerous desirable traits (weight, volume and cost savings, flexibility, high reliability, predictable and repeatable electrical characteristics) which make it extremely attractive as a packaging medium. FCC, today, finds wide application in everything from integration of lunar equipment to the packaging of electronics in nuclear submarines. Described are cable construction and means of termination, applicable specifications and standards, and total FCC systems. A list of additional sources of data is also included for more intensive study.

  2. Void-Free Lid for Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C. D.; Farris, W. P.

    1986-01-01

    Flexible cover eliminates air pockets in sealed container. Universal food-package lid formed from flexible plastic. Partially folded, lid unfolded by depressing center portion. Height of flat portion of lid above flange thereby reduced. Pressure of food against central oval depression pops it out, forming dome that provides finger grip for mixing contents with water or opening lid. Therefore food stays fresh, allows compact stacking of partially filled containers, and resists crushing. Originally developed for packaging dehydrated food for use in human consumption on Space Shuttle missions. Other uses include home canning and commercial food packaging.

  3. The art of packaging: An investigation into the role of color in packaging, marketing, and branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Mohebbi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to contribute to the existing research in the field of packaging and marketing and shed more light on the psychology of colors and their effect on packaging and marketing. Nowadays, packaging is proved to be one of the significant factors in the success of promoting product sale. However, there is a perceived gap with respect to the different aspects of packaging, in particular the graphics, design, and color of packaging. The current study provides a comprehensive overview of packaging. It elaborates on different aspects of packaging and summarizes the findings of the most recent research conducted to date probing into packaging from different perspectives. It also discusses the role of color, i.e., the psychology of colors, and graphics in packaging and product sale. It is argued that graphics and color play key roles in promoting product sale and designers and marketers should attach a great deal of importance to color in packaging. The implications for producers, marketers, practitioners, and researchers are discussed in detail and suggestions for future research are provided.

  4. RECENT TRENDS IN PACKAGING SYSTEMS FOR PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:  In recent years, pharmaceutical packaging market was one of the fastest growing areas of the packaging industry. At the same time the packaging manufacturers put high demands on quality and safety. Methods: Review of innovations in packaging systems for pharmaceutical products was made including newest information of researches and achievements of recent years. Results and conclusion: Observed in recent years the development of pharmaceutical packaging market expanded due to with the huge technological advances that allow introduction of new packaging. Also, in this study presented intelligent packaging in pharmacy and innovation in child-resistance packaging.

  5. Green packaging from a company’s perspective: Determining factors for packaging solutions in the German fruit juice industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ramme, Iris; Heimann, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    In Germany, extensive legislation aims at getting companies to engage in eco-friendly packaging. A common packaging challenge centers on fruit juice products the packaging of which ranges from carton container, to glass or plastic bottles. This study examined the prevalence of Green Packaging in the Baden-Württemberg fruit juice industry. Expert interviews reveal that these companies make packaging decisions based on bottling volume and financial resources and not on Green Packaging concerns....

  6. OECA Annual Report 2015 Data Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This downloadable data package shows information on enforcement actions and cases from 2015. They include civil enforcement actions taken by EPA at facilities,...

  7. micromap: A Package for Linked Micromaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package micromap is used to create linked micromaps, which display statistical summaries associated with areal units, or polygons. Linked micromaps provide a means to simultaneously summarize and display both statistical and geographic distributions by linking statistical ...

  8. GRIP LIGHTNING INSTRUMENT PACKAGE (LIP) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lightning Instrument Package (LIP) consists of 6 rotating vane type electric field sensors along with a central computer to record and monitor the instruments....

  9. Improvement in Space Food Packaging Methods Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Space Food Systems Laboratory's (SFSL) current Bulk Overwrap Bag (BOB) package, while simple and effective, leaves room for improvement. Currently, BOBs are...

  10. Development of polymer packaging for power cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sremac

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the issues of product design and the procedure of developing polymer packaging as one of the most important engineering tasks. For the purpose of packing power cables a polymer packaging has been designed in the form of drum. Packaging and many other consumer products are largely produced using polymeric materials due to many positive features. High Density Polyethylene is the type of polyethylene proposed for packaging purposes due to its low degree of branching and strong intermolecular forces. Transport and storage processes were automated based on the radio-frequency identification technology. The proposed system is flexible in terms of its possibility of accepting and processing different types of cables and other products.

  11. Solder Mounting Technologies for Electronic Packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VIANCO, PAUL T.

    1999-09-23

    Soldering provides a cost-effective means for attaching electronic packages to circuit boards using both small scale and large scale manufacturing processes. Soldering processes accommodate through-hole leaded components as well as surface mount packages, including the newer area array packages such as the Ball Grid Arrays (BGA), Chip Scale Packages (CSP), and Flip Chip Technology. The versatility of soldering is attributed to the variety of available solder alloy compositions, substrate material methodologies, and different manufacturing processes. For example, low melting temperature solders are used with temperature sensitive materials and components. On the other hand, higher melting temperature solders provide reliable interconnects for electronics used in high temperature service. Automated soldering techniques can support large-volume manufacturing processes, while providing high reliability electronic products at a reasonable cost.

  12. Waste Package Component Design Methodology Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Mecham

    2004-07-12

    This Executive Summary provides an overview of the methodology being used by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) to design waste packages and ancillary components. This summary information is intended for readers with general interest, but also provides technical readers a general framework surrounding a variety of technical details provided in the main body of the report. The purpose of this report is to document and ensure appropriate design methods are used in the design of waste packages and ancillary components (the drip shields and emplacement pallets). The methodology includes identification of necessary design inputs, justification of design assumptions, and use of appropriate analysis methods, and computational tools. This design work is subject to ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description''. The document is primarily intended for internal use and technical guidance for a variety of design activities. It is recognized that a wide audience including project management, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others are interested to various levels of detail in the design methods and therefore covers a wide range of topics at varying levels of detail. Due to the preliminary nature of the design, readers can expect to encounter varied levels of detail in the body of the report. It is expected that technical information used as input to design documents will be verified and taken from the latest versions of reference sources given herein. This revision of the methodology report has evolved with changes in the waste package, drip shield, and emplacement pallet designs over many years and may be further revised as the design is finalized. Different components and analyses are at different stages of development. Some parts of the report are detailed, while other less detailed parts are likely to undergo further refinement. The design methodology is intended to provide designs that satisfy the safety

  13. HOPSPACK: Hybrid Optimization Parallel Search Package.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Genetha Anne.; Kolda, Tamara G.; Griffin, Joshua; Taddy, Matt; Martinez-Canales, Monica L.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we describe the technical details of HOPSPACK (Hybrid Optimization Parallel SearchPackage), a new software platform which facilitates combining multiple optimization routines into asingle, tightly-coupled, hybrid algorithm that supports parallel function evaluations. The frameworkis designed such that existing optimization source code can be easily incorporated with minimalcode modification. By maintaining the integrity of each individual solver, the strengths and codesophistication of the original optimization package are retained and exploited.4

  14. Design and packaging: Impact to consumer decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrašinović Maja

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In marketing theory and practice, product packaging is getting more important. Changes in the market give to packaging a multifunctional phenomenon which is more that core product protection. It represent company marketing strategy and it is competitive tool, which needs to be integrated into a marketing plan and adapt to product, brand price distribution and promotion strategy. A focus to this approach is getting to know customer behavior.

  15. MGtoolkit: A python package for implementing metagraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ranathunga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present MGtoolkit : an open-source Python package for implementing metagraphs - a first of its kind. Metagraphs are commonly used to specify and analyse business and computer-network policies alike. MGtoolkit can help verify such policies and promotes learning and experimentation with metagraphs. The package currently provides purely textual output for visualising metagraphs and their analysis results.

  16. Biopreservation in modified atmosphere packaged vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Bennik, M.H.J.

    1997-01-01


    Recent trends in food preservation are the use of mild preservation techniques, such as modified atmosphere (MA) packaging and refrigeration, to prolong the shelflife of foods without affecting the fresh character of the product. This has resulted in the development of a new generation of chill stored, minimally processed foods, such as vegetables that are packaged under reduced oxygen (0 2 ) and elevated carbon dioxide (C0 ...

  17. Recyclability and the selection of packaging materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David

    1992-12-01

    Costs of solid-waste disposal, concern for environmental impact, and "green" marketing opportunities have placed more attention on recyclability of packaging materials. Recyclability is determined not only by the characteristics of materials themselves, but also by the presence or absence of collection facilities, ease of separation, technology for reprocessing, and markets for recovered materials. By these measures, packaging materials are becoming more recyclable and recyclability is growing in importance as a factor in material selection.

  18. Bioplastics and food packaging: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Nafisa Jabeen; Ishrat Majid; Gulzar Ahmad Nayik

    2015-01-01

    Food packaging as a vital part of the subject of food technology is involved with protection and preservation of all types of foods. Due to economical abundance, petrochemical plastics have been largely used as packaging material due to their desirable properties of good barrier properties towards O2, aroma compounds, tensile strength and tear strength. Meanwhile, they have many disadvantages like very low water vapour transmission rate and the major disadvantage is that they are non-biodegra...

  19. Smart packaging systems for food applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biji, K B; Ravishankar, C N; Mohan, C O; Srinivasa Gopal, T K

    2015-10-01

    Changes in consumer preference for safe food have led to innovations in packaging technologies. This article reviews about different smart packaging systems and their applications in food packaging, packaging research with latest innovations. Active and intelligent packing are such packaging technologies which offer to deliver safer and quality products. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additives into the package with the aim of maintaining or extending the product quality and shelf life. The intelligent systems are those that monitor the condition of packaged food to give information regarding the quality of the packaged food during transportation and storage. These technologies are designed to the increasing demand for safer foods with better shelf life. The market for active and intelligent packaging systems is expected to have a promising future by their integration into packaging materials or systems.

  20. Development directions of packaging made from polymer materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available World packaging market achieves turnover of about $620 billion per year with one third of this amount being associated to packaging made from polymer materials. It is expected that this kind of packaging consumption will hold at least 3% of world packaging market share in the next five years and that it will surpass the consumption of all other materials used in the packaging production. This can be contributed to product quality, low production costs as well as significant investments made in the development of polymer materials, packaging technology and packaging. This paper presents some development directions for packaging made from polymer materials, such as: packaging in the protective atmosphere, the use of active and intelligent packaging, and the use of biopolymers and recycled polymers for packaging production that come into direct contact with the packed product.

  1. Severities of transportation accidents involving large packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, A.W.; Foley, J.T. Jr.; Hartman, W.F.; Larson, D.W.

    1978-05-01

    The study was undertaken to define in a quantitative nonjudgmental technical manner the abnormal environments to which a large package (total weight over 2 tons) would be subjected as the result of a transportation accident. Because of this package weight, air shipment was not considered as a normal transportation mode and was not included in the study. The abnormal transportation environments for shipment by motor carrier and train were determined and quantified. In all cases the package was assumed to be transported on an open flat-bed truck or an open flat-bed railcar. In an earlier study, SLA-74-0001, the small-package environments were investigated. A third transportation study, related to the abnormal environment involving waterways transportation, is now under way at Sandia Laboratories and should complete the description of abnormal transportation environments. Five abnormal environments were defined and investigated, i.e., fire, impact, crush, immersion, and puncture. The primary interest of the study was directed toward the type of large package used to transport radioactive materials; however, the findings are not limited to this type of package but can be applied to a much larger class of material shipping containers.

  2. Naming, labeling, and packaging of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenagy, J W; Stein, G C

    2001-11-01

    The problem of medical errors associated with the naming, labeling, and packaging of pharmaceuticals is discussed. Sound-alike and look-alike drug names and packages can lead pharmacists and nurses to unintended interchanges of drugs that can result in patient injury or death. The existing medication-use system is flawed because its safety depends on human perfection. Simplicity, standardization, differentiation, lack of duplication, and unambiguous communication are human factors concepts that are relevant to the medication-use process. These principles have often been ignored in drug naming, labeling, and packaging. Instead, current methods are based on long-standing commercial considerations and bureaucratic procedures. The process for naming a marketable drug is lengthy and complex and involves submission of a new chemical entity and patent application, generic naming, brand naming, FDA review, and final approval. Drug companies seek the fastest possible approval and may believe that the incremental benefit of human factors evaluation is small. "Trade dress" is the concept that underlies labeling and packaging issues for the drug industry. Drug companies are resistant to changing trade dress and brand names. Although a variety of private-sector organizations have called for reforms in drug naming, labeling, and packaging standards have been proposed, the problem remains. Drug names, labels, and packages are not selected and designed in accordance with human factors principles. FDA standards do not require application of these principles, the drug industry has struggled with change, and private-sector initiatives have had only limited success.

  3. Time temperature indicators as devices intelligent packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Food packaging is an important part of food production. Temperature is a one of crucial factor which affecting the quality and safety of food products during distribution, transport and storage. The one way of control of food quality and safety is the application of new packaging systems, which also include the intelligent or smart packaging. Intelligent packaging is a packaging system using different indicators for monitoring the conditions of production, but in particular the conditions during transport and storage. Among these indicators include the time-temperature indicators to monitor changes in temperature, which is exposed the product and to inform consumers about the potential risks associated with consumption of these products. Time temperature indicators are devices that show an irreversible change in a physical characteristic, usually color or shape, in response to temperature history. Some are designed to monitor the evolution of temperature with time along the distribution chain and others are designed to be used in the consumer packages.

  4. Antimicrobial food packaging: potential and pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Bhanu; Keshwani, Anu; Kharkwal, Harsha

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays food preservation, quality maintenance, and safety are major growing concerns of the food industry. It is evident that over time consumers’ demand for natural and safe food products with stringent regulations to prevent food-borne infectious diseases. Antimicrobial packaging which is thought to be a subset of active packaging and controlled release packaging is one such promising technology which effectively impregnates the antimicrobial into the food packaging film material and subsequently delivers it over the stipulated period of time to kill the pathogenic microorganisms affecting food products thereby increasing the shelf life to severe folds. This paper presents a picture of the recent research on antimicrobial agents that are aimed at enhancing and improving food quality and safety by reduction of pathogen growth and extension of shelf life, in a form of a comprehensive review. Examination of the available antimicrobial packaging technologies is also presented along with their significant impact on food safety. This article entails various antimicrobial agents for commercial applications, as well as the difference between the use of antimicrobials under laboratory scale and real time applications. Development of resistance amongst microorganisms is considered as a future implication of antimicrobials with an aim to come up with actual efficacies in extension of shelf life as well as reduction in bacterial growth through the upcoming and promising use of antimicrobials in food packaging for the forthcoming research down the line. PMID:26136740

  5. ACTIVE PACKAGING SYSTEM FOR MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, food packaging was used to enable marketing of products and to provide passive protection against environmental contaminations or influences that affect the shelf life of the products. However, unlike traditional packaging, which must be totally inert, active packaging is designed to interact with the contents and/or the surrounding environment. Interest in the use of active packaging systems for meat and meat products has increased in recent years. Active packaging systems are developed with the goal of extending shelf life for foods and increasing the period of time that the food is high quality. Developments in active packaging have led to advances in many areas, including delayed oxidation and controlled respiration rate, microbial growth, and moisture migration. Active packaging technologies include some physical, chemical, or biological action which changes interactions between a package, product, and/or headspace of the package in order to get a desired outcome. Active packaging systems discussed include oxygen scavengers, carbon dioxide scavengers and emitters, moisture control agents, flavour/odour absorbers and releasers  and antimicrobial packaging technologies. Active packaging is typically found in two types of systems; sachets and pads which are placed inside of packages, and active ingredients that are incorporated directly into packaging materials.  Recognition of the benefits of active packaging technologies by the food industry, development of economically viable packaging systems and increased consumer acceptance is necessary for commercial realisation of these packaging technologies.doi:10.5219/205

  6. Sustainable packaging. Packaging for a circular economy; Duurzaam verpakken. Verpakken voor de circulaire economie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haffmans, S. [Partners for Innovation, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Standhardt, G. [Nederlands Verpaskkingscentrum NVC, Gouda (Netherlands); Hamer, A. [Agentschap NL, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    What is Sustainable Packaging? And what is the most sustainable packaging for a product? The publication is intended for anyone who wants to take into account the environment in the design of a product and packaging. It offers concrete suggestions and inspiring examples to bring sustainable packaging into practice [Dutch] Wat is Duurzaam Verpakken? En wat is de duurzaamste verpakking voor mijn product? De publicatie is bestemd voor iedereen die rekening wil houden met het milieu bij het ontwerp van een product-verpakkingscombinatie. Ze biedt concrete aanknopingspunten en inspirerende voorbeelden om hier praktisch mee aan de slag te gaan.

  7. Tobacco packaging design for reducing tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Gravely, Shannon; Hitchman, Sara C; Bauld, Linda; Hammond, David; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie

    2017-04-27

    Tobacco use is the largest single preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Standardised tobacco packaging is an intervention intended to reduce the promotional appeal of packs and can be defined as packaging with a uniform colour (and in some cases shape and size) with no logos or branding, apart from health warnings and other government-mandated information, and the brand name in a prescribed uniform font, colour and size. Australia was the first country to implement standardised tobacco packaging between October and December 2012, France implemented standardised tobacco packaging on 1 January 2017 and several other countries are implementing, or intending to implement, standardised tobacco packaging. To assess the effect of standardised tobacco packaging on tobacco use uptake, cessation and reduction. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and six other databases from 1980 to January 2016. We checked bibliographies and contacted study authors to identify additional peer-reviewed studies. Primary outcomes included changes in tobacco use prevalence incorporating tobacco use uptake, cessation, consumption and relapse prevention. Secondary outcomes covered intermediate outcomes that can be measured and are relevant to tobacco use uptake, cessation or reduction. We considered multiple study designs: randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental and experimental studies, observational cross-sectional and cohort studies. The review focused on all populations and people of any age; to be included, studies had to be published in peer-reviewed journals. We examined studies that assessed the impact of changes in tobacco packaging such as colour, design, size and type of health warnings on the packs in relation to branded packaging. In experiments, the control condition was branded tobacco packaging but could include variations of standardised packaging. Screening and data extraction followed standard Cochrane methods. We used different 'Risk of bias' domains for

  8. White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Zheng; Matthew Stough

    2008-09-30

    The goal of this project is to develop a high efficiency phosphor converting (white) Light Emitting Diode (pcLED) 1-Watt package through an increase in package extraction efficiency. A transparent/translucent monolithic phosphor is proposed to replace the powdered phosphor to reduce the scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is proposed between blue LED die and phosphor layer to recover inward yellow emission. At the end of the project we expect to recycle approximately 50% of the unrecovered backward light in current package construction, and develop a pcLED device with 80 lm/W{sub e} using our technology improvements and commercially available chip/package source. The success of the project will benefit luminous efficacy of white LEDs by increasing package extraction efficiency. In most phosphor-converting white LEDs, the white color is obtained by combining a blue LED die (or chip) with a powdered phosphor layer. The phosphor partially absorbs the blue light from the LED die and converts it into a broad green-yellow emission. The mixture of the transmitted blue light and green-yellow light emerging gives white light. There are two major drawbacks for current pcLEDs in terms of package extraction efficiency. The first is light scattering caused by phosphor particles. When the blue photons from the chip strike the phosphor particles, some blue light will be scattered by phosphor particles. Converted yellow emission photons are also scattered. A portion of scattered light is in the backward direction toward the die. The amount of this backward light varies and depends in part on the particle size of phosphors. The other drawback is that yellow emission from phosphor powders is isotropic. Although some backward light can be recovered by the reflector in current LED packages, there is still a portion of backward light that will be absorbed inside the package and further converted to heat. Heat

  9. Anatomical and functional outcomes of posterior intravaginal slingplasty for the treatment of vaginal vault or uterine prolapse: a prospective, multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Suk; Han, Deok Hyun; Lee, Ji Youl; Kim, Joon Chul; Choo, Myung-Soo; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2010-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the anatomical and functional outcomes of posterior intravaginal slingplasty (P-IVS) for the treatment of a vaginal vault or uterine prolapse (VP/UP). This was a 12-month prospective, multicenter, observational study. Women aged over 30 years who presented with stage II or greater VP/UP underwent P-IVS by four urologists at four university hospitals. Preoperatively, pelvic examination by use of the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) system, the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI) questionnaire, the 3-day frequency volume chart, and uroflowmetry were completed. At the 12-month follow-up, changes in the POP-Q, PFDI, frequency volume chart, and uroflowmetry parameters were assessed. Cure was defined as VP/UP stage 0 and improvement as stage I. The cure and improvement rates among the 32 women were 65.6% and 34.4%, respectively. All subscale scores of the Urinary Distress Inventory, the general subscale score of the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory, and the rectal prolapse subscale score of the Colo-Rectal-Anal Distress Inventory were significantly improved. There were no significant changes in the frequency volume chart or uroflowmetry parameters. There was one case of surgery-related transfusion. Trans-vaginal repair by P-IVS is an effective and safe procedure for restoring the anatomical defect and improving the associated pelvic floor symptoms in women with VP/UP.

  10. SU-F-T-655: Evaluation of Neutron Dose Equivalent Inside of Treatment Vault of Radiotherapy by Photoneutron Production in the Primary Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, C [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, N/A (Korea, Republic of); Park, S; Park, J [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Photon beams with energy higher than 10 MV interact with metal material in the primary barriers, where lead or steel have been widely used, neutrons can be generated. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to simulate the production of photoneutrons and the neutron shielding effect. Methods: For two photon beam energies, 15 MV and 18 MV, we simulated to strike metal sheets (steel and lead), and the ambient dose equivalents were calculated at the isocenter (in the patient plane) while delivering 1 Gy to the patient. For these cases, the thickness of the neutron shielding materials (Borated polyethylene (BPE) and concrete) were simulated to reduce the patient exposure by neutron doses. Results: When 18 MV photons interact with the metal sheets in the primary barrier, the evaluated neutron doses at the isocenter inside the treatment vault were 48.7 µSv and 7.3 µSv for lead and steel, respectively. In case of 15 MV photons, the calculated neutron doses were 18.6 µSv and 0.6 µSv for lead and steel, respectively. The neutron dose delivered to the patient can be reduced to negligible levels by including a 10 cm thick sheet of BPE or 22 cm thick sheet of concrete. Conclusion: When bunker shielding is designed with a primary barrier including a metal sheet inside the wall for a high energy machine, proper neutron shielding should be constructed to avoid undesirable extra dose.

  11. Dosimetric comparison of vaginal vault ovoid brachytherapy versus intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans in postoperative patients of cervical carcinoma following whole pelvic radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Khosla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dosimetric study to compare high dose rate (HDR vaginal vault ovoid brachytherapy plan versus intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT boost plan for doses delivered to target volume and organs at risk (OAR in postoperative patients of cervical carcinoma following whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT. Materials and Methods: Fifteen postoperative patients of cervical carcinoma suitable for vaginal ovoid brachytherapy following WPRT of 46 Gy/23 fractions/4.5 weeks were included. All were treated with brachytherapy (two sessions of 8.5 Gy each. The equivalent dose for IMRT was calculated by computing biologically effective dose of brachytherapy by linear quadratic model. Dose of brachytherapy (two sessions of 8.5 Gy was equivalent to IMRT dose of 26 Gy/13 fractions. Doses to target volume and OAR were compared between HDR and IMRT plans. Results: Target volume was well covered with both HDR and IMRT plans, but dose with brachytherapy was much higher (P < 0.05. Mean doses, doses to 0.1, 1, 2, and 5cc, 1/3 rd , 1/2, and 2/3 rd volume of bladder and rectum were significantly lower with HDR plans. Conclusion: In postoperative patients of cervical carcinoma, HDR brachytherapy following WPRT appears to be better than IMRT for tumor coverage and reducing dose to critical organs.

  12. Wrapping up your message : Sustainable storytelling through packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Schermer, R.; Smit, L.; Vos, L.

    2015-01-01

    Besides contributing to the actual sustainability performance of a product-packaging combination, packaging can also play a role in communicating about sustainability. Such green marketing aspects of packaging may either focus on the sustainability credentials of the packaging itself, or on the

  13. 30 CFR 7.108 - Power package checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Power package checklist. 7.108 Section 7.108... checklist. Each diesel power package bearing an MSHA approval plate shall be accompanied by a power package checklist. The power package checklist shall consist of a list of specific features that must be checked and...

  14. 49 CFR 173.465 - Type A packaging tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type A packaging tests. 173.465 Section 173.465... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.465 Type A packaging tests. (a) The packaging... deformation upon impact by the specimen would not significantly increase the damage to the specimen. (d...

  15. 19 CFR 10.461 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.461 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale, if classified with the good for which... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.461...

  16. 19 CFR 10.539 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.539 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale, if classified with the good for which... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.539...

  17. Certification of packagings: compliance with DOT specification 7A packaging requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edling, D.A.

    1976-10-08

    A study was conducted to determine which of the packagings currently listed in CFR 49 Section 173.395 a.1-5, meet the Specification 7A requirements (CFR 49 Section 173.350). According to DOT HM-111 the present listing of various authorized DOT specifications in Section 173.394 and Section 173.395 (Type A containers) of ICC Tariff No. 27 would be deleted with complete reliance being placed on the use of DOT 7A, Type A general packaging specification. Each user of a Specification 7A package would be required to document and maintain on file for one year a written record of his determination of compliance with the DOT Specification 7A performance requirements. All the specification packagings listed in CFR 49 Section 173.395a.1-5 were tested and shown to meet the Specification 7A criteria; however, in many cases qualifications were placed on their use. Forty-nine specification packagings were tested and shown to meet the DOT Specification 7A performance requirements and since there were several styles of some specific packagings, this amounts to greater than 80 packagings. The extensive testing generally indicated a high degree of containment integrity in the packagings tested and the documentation discussed is a valuable tool for shippers of Type A quantities of radioactive materials. (DLC)

  18. SUSTAINABLE PACKAGING SOLUTIONS FOR ORGANIC FRESH BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Elena TĂNASE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes and particularly global warming are topics carefully treated by specialists already since decades. The most pregnant factor that influences climate change is pollution, namely the high level carbon dioxide emissions. Besides other substances used by the most of the industries (oil, charcoal, fertilizers, etc., plastics are not to be ignored when talking about pollution. Plastic waste affects animals and humans, as well as their habitat. In this respect, food industry engages in preserving the good functioning of the environment by developing and using biodegradable and bio-based resources for food packaging. The aim of this literature review was to identify the optimal sustainable packaging solution used for berries. The results of the study pointed out that the most used environmentally friendly packaging technique is the one that involves modified atmosphere. In terms of packaging materials, the literature is limited when it comes to biodegradable/bio-based solutions. However, active packaging gains popularity among researchers, considering the endless possibilities to include sustainable compounds in a biopolymer based matrix, in order to prolong the shelf-life of berries or fruits in general.

  19. Antimicrobial nanomaterials for food packaging applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radusin Tanja I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Food packaging industry presents one of the fastest growing industries nowadays. New trends in this industry, which include reducing food as well as packaging waste, improved preservation of food and prolonged shelf-life together with substitution of petrochemical sources with renewable ones are leading to development of this industrial area in diverse directions. This multidisciplinary challenge is set up both in front of food and material scientists. Nanotechnology is recently answering to these challenges, with different solutions-from improvements in materials properties to active packaging solutions, or both at the same time. Incorporation of nanoparticles into polymer matrix and preparation of hybrid materials is one of the methods of modification of polymer properties. Nano scaled materials with antimicrobial properties can act as active components when added into polymer, thereby leading to prolonged protective function of pristine food packaging material. This paper presents a review in the field of antimicrobial nanomaterials for food packaging in turn of technology, application and regulatory issues.

  20. Advances in Packaging Methods, Processes and Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitaigour Premchand Mahalik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The food processing and packaging industry is becoming a multi-trillion dollar global business. The reason is that the recent increase in incomes in traditionally less economically developed countries has led to a rise in standards of living that includes a significantly higher consumption of packaged foods. As a result, food safety guidelines have been more stringent than ever. At the same time, the number of research and educational institutions—that is, the number of potential researchers and stakeholders—has increased in the recent past. This paper reviews recent developments in food processing and packaging (FPP, keeping in view the aforementioned advancements and bearing in mind that FPP is an interdisciplinary area in that materials, safety, systems, regulation, and supply chains play vital roles. In particular, the review covers processing and packaging principles, standards, interfaces, techniques, methods, and state-of-the-art technologies that are currently in use or in development. Recent advances such as smart packaging, non-destructive inspection methods, printing techniques, application of robotics and machineries, automation architecture, software systems and interfaces are reviewed.

  1. RNA Encapsidation and Packaging in the Phleboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Hornak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae represents the largest family of segmented RNA viruses, which infect a staggering diversity of plants, animals, and insects. Within the family Bunyaviridae, the Phlebovirus genus includes several important human and animal pathogens, including Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV, Uukuniemi virus (UUKV, and the sandfly fever viruses. The phleboviruses have small tripartite RNA genomes that encode a repertoire of 5–7 proteins. These few proteins accomplish the daunting task of recognizing and specifically packaging a tri-segment complement of viral genomic RNA in the midst of an abundance of host components. The critical nucleation events that eventually lead to virion production begin early on in the host cytoplasm as the first strands of nascent viral RNA (vRNA are synthesized. The interaction between the vRNA and the viral nucleocapsid (N protein effectively protects and masks the RNA from the host, and also forms the ribonucleoprotein (RNP architecture that mediates downstream interactions and drives virion formation. Although the mechanism by which all three genomic counterparts are selectively co-packaged is not completely understood, we are beginning to understand the hierarchy of interactions that begins with N-RNA packaging and culminates in RNP packaging into new virus particles. In this review we focus on recent progress that highlights the molecular basis of RNA genome packaging in the phleboviruses.

  2. Packaging wastes management; Gestion integral de los residuos de envases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Ramos, M.

    1996-12-01

    Packaging, having fulfilled their function, become waste and joint the flow of resure we generate every day. Packaging waste is a usable secondary raw material, provided that a suitable integrated management strategy is devised. This article highlights the Integrated Management Strategic Plan for Packaging Waste, following the priority guidelines established by the Community Directives on waste management: Reduction, re-use, Recycling, Energy Recovery and Final Elimination, and the European Directive 94/62/CE about packaging and packaging waste. (Author)

  3. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuite, K.; Winberg, M.R.; McIsaac, C.V. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy through the National Low-Level Waste Management Program and WMG Inc. have entered into a joint development effort to design, build, and demonstrate the Packaged Low-Level Waste Verification System. Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste disposal site operators have no method to independently verify the radionuclide content of packaged low-level waste that arrives at disposal sites for disposition. At this time, the disposal site relies on the low-level waste generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to ensure that low-level waste received meets the site`s waste acceptance criteria. The subject invention provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of low-level waste shipping records to ensure that the site`s waste acceptance criteria are being met. The objective of the prototype system is to demonstrate a mobile system capable of independently verifying the content of packaged low-level waste.

  4. Examination of shipping package 9975-04985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-01

    Package 9975-04985 was examined following the identification of several unexpected conditions during surveillance activities. A heavy layer of corrosion product on the shield and the shield outer diameter being larger that allowed by drawing tolerances contributed to a very tight fit between the upper fiberboard assembly and shield. The average corrosion rate for the shield is estimated to be 0.0018 inch/year or less, which falls within the bounding rate of 0.002 inch/year that has been previously recommended for these packages. Several apparent foreign objects were noted within the package. One object observed on the air shield was identified as tape. The other objects were comprised of mostly fine fibers from the cane fiberboard. It is postulated that the upper and lower fiberboard assemblies were able to rub against each other due to the upper fiberboard assembly being held tight to the shield, and a few stray cane chips became frayed under vibratory motions.

  5. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN FOOD PACKAGING - A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Goyal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has an extremely high potential to benefit society through applications in food packaging. It can make the products cheaper and the production more efficient by producing less waste and using less energy. However, any new technology carries an ethical responsibility for wise application and the recognition that there are potential unforeseen risks that may come with the tremendous positive potential. The concept of nanocomposites represents a stimulating route for creating new and innovative materials, also in the area of natural polymers. The use of protective coatings and suitable packaging by the food industry has become a topic of great interest because of their potentiality for increasing the shelf life of many food products. Research and development of bio-nanocomposite materials for food applications such as packaging and other food contact surfaces is expected to grow in the next decade with the advent of new polymeric materials and composites with inorganic nano-particles.

  6. MEMS Packaging - Current Issues and Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DRESSENDORFER,PAUL V.; PETERSON,DAVID W.; REBER,CATHLEEN ANN

    2000-01-19

    The assembly and packaging of MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) devices raise a number of issues over and above those normally associated with the assembly of standard microelectronic circuits. MEMS components include a variety of sensors, microengines, optical components, and other devices. They often have exposed mechanical structures which during assembly require particulate control, space in the package, non-contact handling procedures, low-stress die attach, precision die placement, unique process schedules, hermetic sealing in controlled environments (including vacuum), and other special constraints. These constraints force changes in the techniques used to separate die on a wafer, in the types of packages which can be used in the assembly processes and materials, and in the sealing environment and process. This paper discusses a number of these issues and provides information on approaches being taken or proposed to address them.

  7. STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL IN SERBIAN FOOD PACKAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djekic Ilija

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the food packaging process in seven food companies in the dairy and confectionery sector. A total of 23 production runs have been analyzed regarding the three packers' rules outlined in the Serbian legislation and process capability tests related to statistical process control. None of the companies had any type of statistical process control in place. Results confirmed that more companies show overweight packaging compared to underfilling. Production runs are more accurate than precise, although in some cases the productions are both inaccurate and imprecise. Education / training of the new generation of food industry workers (both on operational and managerial level with courses in the food area covering elements of quality assurance and statistical process control can help in implementing effective food packaging.

  8. Packaging design criteria for the MCO cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, W.S.

    1997-01-30

    Approximately 2,100 metric tons of unprocessed, irradiated nuclear fuel elements are presently stored in the K Basins. To permit cleanup of the K Basins and fuel conditioning, the fuel will be transported from the K Basins to a Canister Storage Building in the 200 East Area. The purpose of this packaging design criteria is to provide criteria for the design, fabrication, and use of a packaging system to transport the large quantities of irradiated nuclear fuel elements positioned within Multiple Canister Overpacks.

  9. Plain packaging policy: Preventing industry innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdani, Mohammed

    2017-04-20

    The pack is a marketing tool for the tobacco industry - its shape, colour, fonts, descriptors and logos attract and mislead smokers. Health warnings on cigarette packs serve as a knowledge reminder for smokers to quit smoking. Plain packaging eliminates brand imagery elements from cigarette packs and has many benefits, including the reduction of intention to smoke and the denormalization of smoking behaviour. The tobacco industry has devised pack and product marketing innovations that thwart the effectiveness of health warnings. Plain packaging policy needs to address these innovations by restricting their use and preventing them from undermining health warnings.

  10. Engineered waste-package-system design specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-05-01

    This report documents the waste package performance requirements and geologic and waste form data bases used in developing the conceptual designs for waste packages for salt, tuff, and basalt geologies. The data base reflects the latest geotechnical information on the geologic media of interest. The parameters or characteristics specified primarily cover spent fuel, defense high-level waste, and commercial high-level waste forms. The specification documents the direction taken during the conceptual design activity. A separate design specification will be developed prior to the start of the preliminary design activity.

  11. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) SERF cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, W.S.

    1997-10-24

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) documents the ability of the Special Environmental Radiometallurgy Facility (SERF) Cask to meet the requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for transfer of Type B quantities (up to highway route controlled quantities) of radioactive material within the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. This document shall be used to ensure that loading, tie down, transport, and unloading of the SERF Cask are performed in accordance with WHC-CM-2-14. This SEP is valid until October 1, 1999. After this date, an update or upgrade to this document is required.

  12. Energy Savings Measure Packages. Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  13. Economic tour package model using heuristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Syariza Abdul; Benjamin, Aida Mauziah; Bakar, Engku Muhammad Nazri Engku Abu

    2014-07-01

    A tour-package is a prearranged tour that includes products and services such as food, activities, accommodation, and transportation, which are sold at a single price. Since the competitiveness within tourism industry is very high, many of the tour agents try to provide attractive tour-packages in order to meet tourist satisfaction as much as possible. Some of the criteria that are considered by the tourist are the number of places to be visited and the cost of the tour-packages. Previous studies indicate that tourists tend to choose economical tour-packages and aiming to visit as many places as they can cover. Thus, this study proposed tour-package model using heuristic approach. The aim is to find economical tour-packages and at the same time to propose as many places as possible to be visited by tourist in a given geographical area particularly in Langkawi Island. The proposed model considers only one starting point where the tour starts and ends at an identified hotel. This study covers 31 most attractive places in Langkawi Island from various categories of tourist attractions. Besides, the allocation of period for lunch and dinner are included in the proposed itineraries where it covers 11 popular restaurants around Langkawi Island. In developing the itinerary, the proposed heuristic approach considers time window for each site (hotel/restaurant/place) so that it represents real world implementation. We present three itineraries with different time constraints (1-day, 2-day and 3-day tour-package). The aim of economic model is to minimize the tour-package cost as much as possible by considering entrance fee of each visited place. We compare the proposed model with our uneconomic model from our previous study. The uneconomic model has no limitation to the cost with the aim to maximize the number of places to be visited. Comparison between the uneconomic and economic itinerary has shown that the proposed model have successfully achieved the objective that

  14. Warpage of QFN Package in Post Mold Cure Process of integrated circuit packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwithoon, Nattha; Ugsornrat, Kessararat; Srisuwitthanon, Warayoot; Thonglor, Panakamon

    2017-09-01

    This research studied about warpage of QFN package in post mold cure process of integrated circuit (IC) packages using pre-plated (PPF) leadframe. For IC package, epoxy molding compound (EMC) are molded by cross linking of compound stiffness but incomplete crosslinked network and leading the fully cured thermoset by post mold cure (PMC) process. The cure temperature of PMC can change microstructure of EMC in term of stress inside the package and effect to warpage of the package due to coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) between EMC and leadframe. In experiment, cure temperatures were varied to check the effect of internal stress due to different cure temperature after completed post mold cure for TDFN 2×3 8L. The cure temperature were varied with 180 °C, 170 °C, 160 °C, and 150°C with cure time 4 and 6 hours, respectively. For analysis, the TDFN 2×3 8L packages were analyzed the warpage by thickness gauge and scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) after take the test samples out from the oven cure. The results confirmed that effect of different CTE between EMC and leadframe due to different cure temperature resulting to warpage of the TDFN 2×3 8L packages.

  15. Physical and chemical characteristics of cashew nut flour stored and packaged with different packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Carolina GADANI

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical changes in cashew nut flour under different packaging and storage conditions. The flour samples were characterized according to their chemical composition, packaged in polystyrene trays associated with covering chloride polyvinyl (PVC, plastic pot of polyethylene terephthalate (PET, plastic packaging polyethylene (POL and without coating polystyrene trays (CON. All packages were stored for 225 days, evaluating every 45 days the moisture content of the flour as well as extracting their oil by the cold method for characterization on the following indexes: acidity, saponification, iodine, peroxide and refraction. There was slight and gradual increase in the moisture content from the 45th to the 225th day, especially for products packaged in PVC and without coating polystyrene trays (CON. The oil saponification indexes showed gradual decrease during storage, especially in flour without packaging (CON. There was a gradual increase in the iodine index until the 135th day, followed by decay. The acidity and peroxide indexes increased along with the storage time. However packages with lower oxygen and moisture permeability, such as PET and POL, minimized such changes, being therefore the most suitable for long-term storage.

  16. Tolerance of the vaginal vault to high-dose rate brachytherapy and concomitant chemo-pelvic irradiation: Long-term perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaidar-Person, Orit; Abdah-Bortnyak, Roxolyana; Amit, Amnon; Nevelsky, Alexander; Berniger, Alison; Bar-Deroma, Raquel; Ben-Yosef, Rahamim; Kuten, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    We sought to determine the tolerance level and complication rates of the vaginal vault to combined high-dose-rate intra-cavitary brachytherapy with concomitant chemo-radiotherapy. A retrospective review of medical records of all the patients who received definitive chemo-radiotherapy for cervical cancer between 1998 and 2002 was undertaken. The records were reviewed for doses and for radiation-associated early and late sequelae of the vagina, rectum and bladder. Cumulative biological effective dose was calculated for two reference vaginal surface points. Fifty patients were included. Average age at diagnosis was 54 years. Median follow-up was 59 months. There were no recorded instances of acute grade IV toxicity. Maximal high-dose-rate vaginal surface dose (upper central point) was 103 Gy, and maximal brachytherapy lateral surface dose was 70 Gy. Maximal cumulative biological effective dose for the lateral surface reference point was 465.5 Gy3, and the maximal cumulative biological effective dose for the superior reference point was 878.6 Gy3. There were no cases of vaginal necrosis or fistulas, and no cases of grade IV late vaginal, rectal or bladder toxicity. No correlation was found between the maximal vaginal surface dose and vaginal, rectal or bladder toxicity. The maximal surface HDR brachytherapy dose of 103 Gy and the maximal cBED of 878.6 Gy3 were not associated with fistula or necrosis or other grade 3-4 vaginal complications. Concomitant chemo-radiotherapy, including pelvic radiotherapy and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy, is relatively safe for cervical cancer patients.

  17. SU-G-TeP2-10: Feasibility of Newly Designed Applicator for High Dose Rate Brachytherapy Treatment of Patients with Vaginal Vault Recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, V; Wong, M; Chan, M; Cheung, S; Leung, R; Lee, K; Law, G; Tung, S [Tuen Mun Hospital (Hong Kong); Huang, X; Chui, E; Leung, K [The Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Kwong, D [The University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To compare the dose of an in-house 3D-printed gynecology applicator (TMHGA) for vaginal vault recurrence of corpus cancer patients after operation for high dose rate brachytherapy treatment with commercially available applicators. Methods: A newly designed applicator is made from 3D-printing methods using ABSM30i. The isodose of the applicator is compared with Elekta multi-channel (MC) applicator and titanium Rotterdam applicator with coupling central tube and vaginal cylinder (RC). Three plans are created using three applicators in a CT set of water phantom. The applicators are anchored using the applicator library and implant library in the Elekta Oncentra treatment planning system (ver.4.5). The rectum is mimicked by creating a 2cm diameter cylinder, with a distance 1mm posteriorly away from the high risk CTV (HR-CTV). Similarly, the bladder is replicated by a 6cm diameter cylinder with distance 1mm anteriorly from the HR-CTV. Three plans are all normalized 1.5cm superior, 0.5cm anterior and 0.5cm posterior of the applicator surface. By fixing D90 of HR-CTV to 6Gy, the D2cc of rectum and bladder of three plans are compared. Results: The D2cc of the bladder for using TMHGA is lower than MC and RC by 14.0% and 11.9% respectively. While the D2cc of the rectum for using TMHGA is lower than MC and RC by 18.9% and 12.4% respectively. The total treatment time of TMHGA plan is shorter than MC and RC by 11.2% and 12.9%. Conclusion: The applicator created via 3D printing delivers a lower dose to the bladder and the rectum while keeping the same coverage to HR-CTV as other commercially available applicators. Additionally, the new applicator resulted in a reduction of treatment time, which is always welcome.

  18. Safety analysis report for packaging: the ORNL DOT specification 6M - special form package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaich, R.W.

    1982-07-01

    The ORNL DOT Specification 6M - Special Form Package was fabricated at the Oak Ridge Nation al Laboratory (ORNL) for the transport of Type B solid non-fissile radioactive materials in special form. The package was evaluated on the basis of tests performed by the Dow Chemical Company, Rocky Flats Division, on the DOT-6M container and special form tests performed on a variety of stainless steel capsules at ORNL by Operations Division personnel. The results of these evaluations demonstrate that the package is in compliance with the applicable regulations for the transport of Type B quantities in special form of non-fissile radioactive materials.

  19. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The presentations made at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials are included. The purpose of the meeting was for the interchange of information on the technology and politics of radioactive material transportation. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual items. (DC)

  20. 7 CFR 322.32 - Mailed packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mailed packages. 322.32 Section 322.32 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of...