Entanglement and Fidelity of a Spin Ladder with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya Interaction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈雅; 朱士群
2011-01-01
The spin ladder with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction is investigated by using the quantum renormalization-group method. The entanglement and fidelity are periodic functions of the time and oscillate between zero and one. The oscillation period decreases with either the interaction in the spin ladder or the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction increasing. When the system relates to the environment, both entanglement and fidelity oscillate with a damping rate related to intrinsic decoherence rate, the interaction in the spin ladder, and the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hui, Ning-Ju [Department of Applied Physics, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710054 (China); Xu, Yang-Yang; Wang, Jicheng; Zhang, Yixin [Jiangsu Provincial Research Center of Light Industrial Optoelectronic Engineering and Technology, School of Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Hu, Zheng-Da, E-mail: huyuanda1112@jiangnan.edu.cn [Jiangsu Provincial Research Center of Light Industrial Optoelectronic Engineering and Technology, School of Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)
2017-04-01
We investigate the properties of geometric quantum coherence in the XY spin-1/2 chain with staggered Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction via the quantum renormalization-group approach. It is shown that the geometric quantum coherence and its coherence susceptibility are effective to detect the quantum phase transition. In the thermodynamic limit, the geometric quantum coherence exhibits a sudden jump. The coherence susceptibilities versus the anisotropy parameter and the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction are infinite and vanishing, respectively, illustrating the distinct roles of the anisotropy parameter and the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction in quantum phase transition. Moreover, we also explore the finite-size scaling behaviors of the coherence susceptibilities. For a finite-size chain, the coherence susceptibility versus the phase-transition parameter is always maximal at the critical point, indicating the dramatic quantum fluctuation. Besides, we show that the correlation length can be revealed by the scaling exponent for the coherence susceptibility versus the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction.
Hui, Ning-Ju; Xu, Yang-Yang; Wang, Jicheng; Zhang, Yixin; Hu, Zheng-Da
2017-04-01
We investigate the properties of geometric quantum coherence in the XY spin-1/2 chain with staggered Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction via the quantum renormalization-group approach. It is shown that the geometric quantum coherence and its coherence susceptibility are effective to detect the quantum phase transition. In the thermodynamic limit, the geometric quantum coherence exhibits a sudden jump. The coherence susceptibilities versus the anisotropy parameter and the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction are infinite and vanishing, respectively, illustrating the distinct roles of the anisotropy parameter and the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction in quantum phase transition. Moreover, we also explore the finite-size scaling behaviors of the coherence susceptibilities. For a finite-size chain, the coherence susceptibility versus the phase-transition parameter is always maximal at the critical point, indicating the dramatic quantum fluctuation. Besides, we show that the correlation length can be revealed by the scaling exponent for the coherence susceptibility versus the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction.
Quantum breathers in Heisenberg ferromagnetic chains with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction.
Tang, Bing; Li, De-Jun; Tang, Yi
2014-06-01
We present an analytical study on quantum breathers in one-dimensional ferromagnetic XXZ chains with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction by means of the time-dependent Hartree approximation and the semidiscrete multiple-scale method. The stationary localized single-boson wave functions are obtained and these analytical solutions are checked by numerical simulations. With such stationary localized single-boson wave functions, we construct quantum breather states. Furthermore, the role of the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction is discussed.
Quantum breathers in Heisenberg ferromagnetic chains with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tang, Bing; Tang, Yi, E-mail: tangyii@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Li, De-Jun [College of Physics, Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Jishou University, Jishou 416000 (China)
2014-06-15
We present an analytical study on quantum breathers in one-dimensional ferromagnetic XXZ chains with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction by means of the time-dependent Hartree approximation and the semidiscrete multiple-scale method. The stationary localized single-boson wave functions are obtained and these analytical solutions are checked by numerical simulations. With such stationary localized single-boson wave functions, we construct quantum breather states. Furthermore, the role of the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction is discussed.
Hering, Max; Reuther, Johannes
2017-02-01
We investigate the effects of Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) interactions on the frustrated J1-J2 kagome-Heisenberg model using the pseudofermion functional renormalization group (PFFRG) technique. In order to treat the off-diagonal nature of DM interactions, we develop an extended PFFRG scheme. We benchmark this approach in parameter regimes that have previously been studied with other methods and find good agreement of the magnetic phase diagram. Particularly, finite DM interactions are found to stabilize all types of noncollinear magnetic orders of the J1-J2 Heisenberg model (q =0 , √{3 }×√{3 } , and cuboc orders) and shrink the extents of magnetically disordered phases. We discuss our results in the light of the mineral herbertsmithite which has been experimentally predicted to host a quantum spin liquid at low temperatures. Our PFFRG data indicate that this material lies in close proximity to a quantum critical point. In parts of the experimentally relevant parameter regime for herbertsmithite, the spin-correlation profile is found to be in good qualitative agreement with recent inelastic-neutron-scattering data.
Thermal quantum discord in Heisenberg models with Dzyaloshinski-Moriya interaction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Lin-Cheng; Yan Jun-Yan; Yi Xue-Xi
2011-01-01
We study the quantum discord of the bipartite Heisenberg model with the Dzyaloshinski-Moriya(DM)interaction in thermal equilibrium state and discuss the effect of the DM interaction on the quantum discord.The quantum entanglement of the system is also discussed and compared with quantum discord. Our results show that the quantum discord may reveal more properties of the system than quantum entanglement and the DM interaction may play an important role in the Heisenberg model.
Effect of Dzyaloshinski-Moriya interaction on elastic small-angle neutron scattering
Michels, Andreas; Mettus, Denis; Honecker, Dirk; Metlov, Konstantin L.
2016-08-01
For magnetic materials containing many lattice imperfections (e.g., nanocrystalline magnets), the relativistic Dzyaloshinski-Moriya (DM) interaction may result in nonuniform spin textures due to the lack of inversion symmetry at interfaces. Within the framework of the continuum theory of micromagnetics, we explore the impact of the DM interaction on the elastic magnetic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) cross section. It is shown that the DM interaction gives rise to a polarization-dependent asymmetric term in the spin-flip SANS cross section. Analysis of this feature may provide a means to determine the DM constant.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIAN Li; FANG Jian-Xing
2009-01-01
We study the effects of Dzyaloshinski-Moriya(DM)interaction on entanglement and teleportation in a two-qubit Ising system with intrinsic decoherence taken into account.It is found that for the unentangled state,DM interaction is a benefit for entanglement and teleportation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hu Xiao-Mian; Liu Jin-Ming
2009-01-01
Quantum teleportation via the entangled channel composed of a two-qubit Heisenberg XYZ model with Dzyaloshinski-Moriya (DM) interaction in the presence of intrinsic decoherenee has been investigated. We find that the initial state of the channel plays an important role in the teleported state and the average fidelity of teleportation. When the initial channel is in the state [ψ1(0)>=a|00> + b|11>, the average fidelity is equal to 1/3 constantly, which is independent of the DM interaction and the intrinsic decoherence effect. But when the channel is initially in the state [ψ2(0)> = c|01) + d|10>, the average fidelity is always larger than 2/3. Moreover, under a certain condition, the average fidelity can be enhanced by adjusting the DM interaction, and the intrinsic decoherence leads to a suppression of the fluctuation of the average fidelity.
Djoufack, Z. I.; Tala-Tebue, E.; Nguenang, J. P.; Kenfack-Jiotsa, A.
2016-10-01
We report in this work, an analytical study of quantum soliton in 1D Heisenberg spin chains with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya Interaction (DMI) and Next-Nearest-Neighbor Interactions (NNNI). By means of the time-dependent Hartree approximation and the semi-discrete multiple-scale method, the equation of motion for the single-boson wave function is reduced to the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. It comes from this present study that the spectrum of the frequencies increases, its periodicity changes, in the presence of NNNI. The antisymmetric feature of the DMI was probed from the dispersion curve while changing the sign of the parameter controlling it. Five regions were identified in the dispersion spectrum, when the NNNI are taken into account instead of three as in the opposite case. In each of these regions, the quantum model can exhibit quantum stationary localized and stable bright or dark soliton solutions. In each region, we could set up quantum localized n-boson Hartree states as well as the analytical expression of their energy level, respectively. The accuracy of the analytical studies is confirmed by the excellent agreement with the numerical calculations, and it certifies the stability of the stationary quantum localized solitons solutions exhibited in each region. In addition, we found that the intensity of the localization of quantum localized n-boson Hartree states increases when the NNNI are considered. We also realized that the intensity of Hartree n-boson states corresponding to quantum discrete soliton states depend on the wave vector.
Zheng, Xiao; Zhang, Guo-Feng
2017-01-01
The effects of mixedness and entanglement on the lower bound and tightness of the entropic uncertainty in the Heisenberg model with Dzyaloshinski-Moriya (DM) interaction have been investigated. It is found that the mixedness can reflect the essence of the entropic uncertainty better than the entanglement. Meanwhile, the uncertainty of measurement results will be reduced by the entanglement and improved by the mixedness. The entanglement can destroy the tightness of the uncertainty, while the tightness will be improved with the increase in the mixedness. In addition, the tightness of the uncertainty in Heisenberg model can be expressed as a function of the magnetic properties, the strength of the DM interaction as well as the mixedness of the state and the functional form has no relationship with temperature. What's more, the entropic uncertain inequality becomes uncertain equality when the mixedness of the system reaches the minimum value. For a given mixedness, the tightness will be reduced with the increase in the strength of DM interaction at the antiferromagnetic case while the situation is just the opposite for the ferromagnetic case.
Okubo, Susumu; Nakata, Ryohei; Ikeda, Shohei; Takahashi, Naoki; Sakurai, Takahiro; Zhang, Wei-Min; Ohta, Hitoshi; Shimokawa, Tokuro; Sakai, Tôru; Okuta, Koji; Hara, Shigeo; Sato, Hirohiko
2017-02-01
A single-crystal S = 3/2 perfect kagome lattice antiferromagnet, KCr3(OH)6(SO4)2 (Cr-jarosite), has been studied by X-band and high-frequency electron spin resonance (ESR). The g-values perpendicular to the kagome plane (c-axis) and in the plane were determined to be gc = 1.9704 ± 0.0002 and gξ = 1.9720 ± 0.0003, respectively, by high-frequency ESR observed at 265 K. Antiferromagnetic resonances (AFMRs) with an antiferromagnetic gap of 120 GHz were observed at 1.9 K, which is below TN = 4.5 K. The analysis of AFMR modes using the conventional molecular field theory gave dp = 0.27 K and dz = 0.07 K, where dp and dz are in-plane and out-of-plane components of d vector of the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) interaction, respectively. On the basis of these results and the exchange interaction of J = 6.15 K estimated by Okuta et al., the ground state of Cr-jarosite was discussed in connection with the Monte Carlo simulation results with classical Heisenberg spins on the kagome lattice by Elhajal et al. Finally, the angular dependence of the linewidth and lineshape observed at 296 K by X-band ESR showed the typical behavior of a two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet, suggesting the good two-dimensionality of Cr-jarosite.
{mu}{sup +}-SR studies of the weak ferromagnets CoCO{sub 3} and NiCO{sub 3}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lancaster, T.; Blundell, S.J.; Pratt, F.L.; Kurmoo, M
2003-02-01
We present the results of zero-field {mu}{sup +}-SR measurements on CoCO{sub 3} and NiCO{sub 3}. Both compounds are rhombohedral antiferromagnets which exhibit a spontaneous weak magnetisation below 22.2 and 17.2 K, respectively. This arises due to an anisotropic superexchange (Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya) interaction. We have studied the temperature dependence of the internal field in the ordered state and the magnetic fluctuations in the paramagnetic state. We describe the possible muon-site obtained from dipolar-field calculations.
Entanglement dynamics of a Heisenberg chain with Dzyaloshinski-Moriya interaction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zheng qiang; Zhang Xiao-Ping; Zhi Qi-Jun; Ren Zhong-Zhou
2009-01-01
This paper investigates the entanglement dynamics of the system,composed of two qubits A and B with Heisenberg XX spin interactation.There is a third controller qubit C,which only has Dzyaloshiuskii-Moriya (DM) spin-orbit interaction with the qubit B.It is found that depending on the initial state of the controller qubit C and DM interaction,the entanglement of the system displays amplification and sudden birth effects.These effects indicate that one can control the entanglement of the system,which may be helpful for quantum information processing.
Weighted weak type estimates for commutators of the Marcinkiewicz integrals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DING; Yong; LU; Shanzhen; ZHANG; Pu
2004-01-01
In this paper the authors give the weighted weak LlogL type estimates for a class of the higher order commutator generated by the Marcinkiewicz integral and a BMO function. In addition, the weak type norm inequalities for the Marcinkiewicz integral and its commutators with different weight functions are also discussed.
Two-weight weak-type inequalities for potential type operators
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Wen-ming; QI Jin-yun; ZHANG Ya-jing
2008-01-01
For the potential type operatorTΦf(x):∫Rn(x-y)f(y)dy,where Φis a non-negative locally integrable function Oil Rn and satisfies weak growth condition，a two-weight weak-type(p,q)inequality for T Φis obtained.
Weak Affine Light Typing: Polytime intensional expressivity, soundness and completeness
Roversi, Luca
2007-01-01
Weak affine light typing (WALT) assigns light affine linear formulae as types to a subset of lambda-terms in System F. WALT is poly-time sound: if a lambda-term M has type in WALT, M can be evaluated with a polynomial cost in the dimension of the derivation that gives it a type. In particular, the evaluation can proceed under any strategy of a rewriting relation, obtained as a mix of both call-by-name/call-by-value beta-reductions. WALT is poly-time complete since it can represent any poly-time Turing machine. WALT weakens, namely generalizes, the notion of stratification of deductions common to some Light Systems -- we call as such those logical systems, derived from Linear logic, to characterize FP, the set of Polynomial functions -- . A weaker stratification allows to define a compositional embedding of the Quasi-linear fragment QlSRN of Safe recursion on notation (SRN) into WALT. QlSRN is SRN, which is a recursive-theoretical system characterizing FP, where only the composition scheme is restricted to lin...
On the compatible weakly nonlocal Poisson brackets of hydrodynamic type
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrei Ya. Maltsev
2002-01-01
of hydrodynamic type (Ferapontov brackets and the corresponding integrable hierarchies. We show that, under the requirement of the nondegeneracy of the corresponding first pseudo-Riemannian metric g(0 νμ and also some nondegeneracy requirement for the nonlocal part, it is possible to introduce a canonical set of integrable hierarchies based on the Casimirs, momentum functional and some canonical Hamiltonian functions. We prove also that all the higher positive Hamiltonian operators and the negative symplectic forms have the weakly nonlocal form in this case. The same result is also true for negative Hamiltonian operators and positive symplectic structures in the case when both pseudo-Riemannian metrics g(0 νμ and g(1 νμ are nondegenerate.
Maschke-type theorem and Morita context over weak Hopf algebras
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Liangyun
2006-01-01
This paper gives a Maschke-type theorem over semisimple weak Hopf algebras,extends the well-known Maschke-type theorem given by Cohen and Fishman and constructs a Morita context over weak Hopf algebras.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Osvaldo GOROSITO; Gladis PRADOLINI; Oscar SALINAS
2007-01-01
We obtain weighted distributional inequalities for multilinear commutators of the fractional integral on spaces of homogeneous type. The techniques developed in this work involve the behavior of some fractional maximal functions. In relation to these operators, as a main tool, we prove a weighted weak type boundedness result, which is interesting in itself.
Weak type estimates of intrinsic square functions on the weighted Herz-type Hardy spaces
Wang, Hua
2010-01-01
In this paper, by using the atomic decomposition theory of weighted Herz-type Hardy spaces, we will obtain some weighted weak type estimates for intrinsic square functions including the Lusin area function, Littlewood-Paley $g$-function and $g^*_\\lambda$-function on these spaces.
Measuring weak lensing correlations of Type Ia Supernovae
Scovacricchi, D; Macaulay, E; Bacon, D
2016-01-01
We study the feasibility of detecting weak lensing spatial correlations between Supernova (SN) Type Ia magnitudes with present (Dark Energy Survey, DES) and future (Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, LSST) surveys. We investigate the angular auto-correlation function of SN magnitudes (once the background cosmology has been subtracted) and cross-correlation with galaxy catalogues. We examine both analytical and numerical predictions, the latter using simulated galaxy catalogues from the MICE Grand Challenge Simulation. We predict that we will be unable to detect the SN auto-correlation in DES, while it should be detectable with the LSST SN deep fields (15,000 SNe on 70 deg^2) at ~6sigma level of confidence (assuming 0.15 magnitudes of intrinsic dispersion). The SN-galaxy cross-correlation function will deliver much higher signal-to-noise, being detectable in both surveys with an integrated signal-to-noise of ~100 (up to 30 arcmin separations). We predict joint constraints on the matter density parameter (Omega_m...
Measuring weak lensing correlations of Type Ia supernovae
Scovacricchi, D.; Nichol, R. C.; Macaulay, E.; Bacon, D.
2017-03-01
We study the feasibility of detecting weak lensing spatial correlations between supernova (SN) Type Ia magnitudes with present (Dark Energy Survey, DES) and future (Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, LSST) surveys. We investigate the angular auto-correlation function of SN magnitudes (once the background cosmology has been subtracted) and cross-correlation with galaxy catalogues. We examine both analytical and numerical predictions, the latter using simulated galaxy catalogues from the MICE Grand Challenge Simulation. We predict that we will be unable to detect the SN auto-correlation in DES, while it should be detectable with the LSST SN deep fields (15 000 SNe on 70 deg2) at ≃6σ level of confidence (assuming 0.15 mag of intrinsic dispersion). The SN-galaxy cross-correlation function will deliver much higher signal to noise, being detectable in both surveys with an integrated signal to noise of ∼100 (up to 30 arcmin separations). We predict joint constraints on the matter density parameter (Ωm) and the clustering amplitude (σ8) by fitting the auto-correlation function of our mock LSST deep fields. When assuming a Gaussian prior for Ωm, we can achieve a 25 per cent measurement of σ8 from just these LSST supernovae (assuming 0.15 mag of intrinsic dispersion). These constraints will improve significantly if the intrinsic dispersion of SNe Ia can be reduced.
A Maschke Type Theorem for Weak Hopf Algebras
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
J. N. ALONSO (A)LVAREZ; J. M. FERN(A)NDEZ VILABOA; R. GONZ(A)LEZ RODR(I)GUEZ; A. B. RODR(I)GUEZ RAPOSO
2008-01-01
In this paper, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for a comodule algebra over a weak Hopf algebra to have a total integral, thus extending the classical theory developed by Doi in the Hopf algebra setting. Also, from these results, we deduce a version of Maschke's Theorem for (H, S)-Hopf modules associated with a weak Hopf algebra H and a right H-comodule algebra B.
Weak Noether symmetry for nonholonomic systems of non-Chetaev type
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xie Jia-Fang; Gang Tie-Qiang; Mei Feng-Xiang
2008-01-01
Baaed on the weak Noether symmetry proposed by Mei F X,this paper discusses the weak Noether symmetry for nonholonomic system of non-Chetaev type,and presents expressions of three kinds of conserved quantities by weak Noether symmetry.Finally,the application of this new results is showed by a practical example.
Acceleration of weakly collisional solar-type winds
Zouganelis, I; Landi, S; Maksimovic, M; Pantellini, F
2005-01-01
One of the basic properties of the solar wind, that is the high speed of the fast wind, is still not satisfactorily explained. This is mainly due to the theoretical difficulty of treating weakly collisional plasmas. The fluid approach implies that the medium is collision dominated and that the particle velocity distributions are close to Maxwellians. However the electron velocity distributions observed in the solar wind depart significantly from Maxwellians. Recent kinetic collisionless models (called exospheric) using velocity distributions with a suprathermal tail have been able to reproduce the high speeds of the fast solar wind. In this letter we present new developments of these models by generalizing them over a large range of corona conditions. We also present new results obtained by numerical simulations that include collisions. Both approaches calculate the heat flux self-consistently without any assumption on the energy transport. We show that both approaches - the exospheric and the collisional one...
Weak magnetic fields in early-type stars: failed fossils
Braithwaite, Jonathan
2012-01-01
Weak magnetic fields have recently been detected in Vega and Sirius. Here, we explore the possibility that these fields are the remnants of some field inherited or created during or shortly after star formation and, unlike true fossil fields, are still evolving as we observe them. The timescale of this evolution is given in terms of the Alfven timescale and the rotation frequency by tau_evol ~ tau_A^2 Omega, which would be comparable to the age of the star. It is shown that it is likely that all intermediate- and high-mass stars contain fields of at least the order of the strength found so far in Vega and Sirius. Faster rotators are expected to have stronger magnetic fields. Stars may experience an increase in field strength during their early main-sequence, but for most of their lives field strength will decrease slowly. The length scale of the magnetic structure on the surface may be small in very young stars but should quickly increase to at least very approximately a fifth of the stellar radius.
A 'fat hyperplane section' weak Lefschetz (in arbitrary characteristic), and Barth-type theorems
Bondarko, Mikhail V
2012-01-01
We prove a certain 'fat hyperplane section' Weak Lefschetz-type statement for etale cohomology, similar to a result of Goresky and MacPherson (over complex numbers). This statement easily yields certain (vast) generalizations of the 'ordinary' Weak Lefschetz and Barth's theorems in arbitrary characteristic.
Continuous Choreographies as Limiting Solutions of N-body Type Problems with Weak Interaction
Castaneira, Reynaldo; Padilla, Pablo; Sánchez-Morgado, Héctor
2016-10-01
We consider the limit Nto +∞ of N-body type problems with weak interaction, equal masses and -σ-homogeneous potential, 0absolute minimizer of the action functional among zero mean (travelling wave) loops of class H^1.
Case of rhesus antigen weak D type 4.2. (DAR category detection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. L. Golovkina
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Serological methods of Rhesus antigens identification in humans cannot identify D-antigen variants. In this article the serological characteristics of Rhesus antigen D weak type 4.2. (Category DAR are described.
Limits from Weak Gravity Conjecture on Chaplygin-Gas-Type Models
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Xing; ZHU Zong-Hong
2008-01-01
@@ The weak gravity conjecture is proposed as a criterion to distinguish the landscape from the swampland in string theory. As an application in cosmology of this conjecture, we use it to impose theoretical constraint on parameters of the Chaplygin-gas-type models. Our analysis indicates that the Chaplygin-gas-type models realized in quintessence field are in the swampland.
Weak type estimates of intrinsic square functions on the weighted Hardy spaces
Wang, Hua
2010-01-01
In this paper, by using the atomic decomposition theory of weighted Hardy spaces, we will give some weighted weak type estimates for intrinsic square functions including the Lusin area function, Littlewood-Paley $g$-function and $g^*_\\lambda$-function on these spaces.
The drift of ab-type domain walls in the weak ferromagnetic
Gerasimchuk, V S
2002-01-01
The drift motion of a ab-type 180-degree domain wall in a weak ferromagnetic is studied in elastic stress fields, generated by a sound wave. Parallel or perpendicularly to the domain wall plane. The dependences of the drift velocity on direction, polarization and amplitude of the acoustic wave are obtained. The drift conditions of the band domain structure are defined.
Renal tubular acidosis type II associated with vitamin D deficiency presenting as chronic weakness.
Ali, Yaseen; Parekh, Amila; Baig, Mirza; Ali, Taseen; Rafiq, Tazeen
2014-08-01
Chronic vitamin D deficiency, though common in the elderly, is often under diagnosed and when progressing to renal tubular acidosis type II (RTA 2) can cause several simultaneous electrolyte imbalances that may present with weakness and pain as chief symptoms. We present such a case that after months of evaluation and symptomatic treatment did not lead to an effective establishment of the etiology causing chronic weakness and body pain in an elderly female patient. Eventually, after a careful review of the patient's history, repeat physical examinations, laboratory data evaluation, and diagnostic testing led to the establishment of the diagnosis of proximal RTA 2 associated with vitamin D deficiency, which caused the patient to develop several remarkable secondary electrolyte imbalances such as hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, acidemia, hyperparathyroidism, with weakness and body pain.
The weakly coupled Pfaffian as a type I quantum hall liquid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parameswaran, S.A., E-mail: spivak@u.washington.edu [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kivelson, S.A. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Sondhi, S.L. [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Spivak, B.Z. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)
2012-06-01
The Pfaffian phase of electrons in the proximity of a half-filled Landau level is understood to be a p+ip superconductor of composite fermions. We consider the properties of this paired quantum Hall phase when the pairing scale is small, i.e. in the weak coupling, BCS, limit, where the coherence length is much larger than the charge screening length. We find that, as in a Type I superconductor, vortices attract so that, upon varying the magnetic field from its magic value at {nu}=5/2, the system exhibits Coulomb frustrated phase separation. We propose that the weakly and strongly coupled Pfaffian states exemplify a general dichotomy between Type I and Type II quantum Hall fluids.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Buonaguro Franco M
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Virtually all cases of cervical cancer are caused by persistent infections with a restricted set of human papillomaviruses (HPV. Some HPV types, like HPV16 and HPV18, are clear and powerful carcinogens. However, the categorization of the most weakly carcinogenic HPV types is extremely challenging. The decisions are important for screening test and vaccine development. This article describes for open discussion an approach recently taken by a World Health Organization International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC Monographs Working Group to re-assess the carcinogenicity of different HPV types.
Krasnoselskii-type fixed point theorems under weak topology settings and applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tian Xiang
2010-03-01
Full Text Available In this article, we establish some fixed point results of Krasnoselskii type for the sum T+S, where S is weakly continuous and T may not be continuous. Some of the main results complement and encompass the previous ones. As an application, we study the existence of solution to one parameter operator equations. Finally, our results are used to prove the existence of solution for integral equations in reflexive Banach spaces.
Some New Weakly Contractive Type Multimaps and Fixed Point Results in Metric Spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdou AfrahAN
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Some new weakly contractive type multimaps in the setting of metric spaces are introduced, and we prove some results on the existence of fixed points for such maps under certain conditions. Our results extend and improve several known results including the corresponding recent fixed point results of Pathak and Shahzad (2009, Latif and Abdou (2009, Latif and Albar (2008, Cirić (2008, Feng and Liu (2006, and Klim and Wardowski (2007.
Analysis of Galactic late-type O dwarfs: more constraints on the weak wind problem
Marcolino, W L F; Martins, F; Hillier, D J; Lanz, T; Escolano, C
2009-01-01
We have investigated the stellar and wind properties of a sample of five late-type O dwarfs in order to address the weak wind problem. A grid of TLUSTY models was used to obtain the stellar parameters, and the wind parameters were determined by using the CMFGEN code. We found that the spectra have mainly a photospheric origin. A weak wind signature is seen in CIV 1549, from where mass-loss rates consistent with previous CMFGEN results regarding O8-9V stars were obtained. A discrepancy of roughly 2 orders of magnitude is found between these mass-loss rates and the values predicted by theory (Mdot(Vink)), confirming a breakdown or a steepening of the modified wind momentum-luminosity relation at log L/Lsun -3.5) (abridged).
Sheiman, I M; Kreshchenko, N D
2010-10-01
The effects of weak electromagnetic irradiation on simple forms of behavior were studied using adult Tenebrio molitor mealworms. The beetles' motor behavior was studied in conditions of different motivations, i.e., positive (food) and negative (avoidance of light), in otherwise identical experimental conditions. The beetles had to navigate a defined space to reach their target - potato or cover from light. Experiments consisted of one trial per day for five days. Target attainment time was measured in groups of beetles. Behavior in both cases developed as follows: an initial orientation reaction appeared and was followed by adaptation to the apparatus. Exposure to weak electromagnetic irradiation led to increases in the response time at the initial stages of the experiments. The effects of irradiation were seasonal in nature and differed in the two types of behavior.
Outer measures and weak type estimates of Hardy-Littlewood maximal operators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Terasawa Yutaka
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We will introduce the times modified centered and uncentered Hardy-Littlewood maximal operators on nonhomogeneous spaces for . We will prove that the times modified centered Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator is weak type bounded with constant when if the Radon measure of the space has "continuity" in some sense. In the proof, we will use the outer measure associated with the Radon measure. We will also prove other results of Hardy-Littlewood maximal operators on homogeneous spaces and on the real line by using outer measures.
Global Weak Solutions for Kolmogorov-Vicsek Type Equations with Orientational Interactions
Gamba, Irene M.; Kang, Moon-Jin
2016-10-01
We study the global existence and uniqueness of weak solutions to kinetic Kolmogorov-Vicsek models that can be considered as non-local, non-linear, Fokker-Planck type equations describing the dynamics of individuals with orientational interactions. This model is derived from the discrete Couzin-Vicsek algorithm as mean-field limit (Bolley et al., Appl Math Lett, 25:339-343, 2012; Degond et al., Math Models Methods Appl Sci 18:1193-1215, 2008), which governs the interactions of stochastic agents moving with a velocity of constant magnitude, that is, the corresponding velocity space for these types of Kolmogorov-Vicsek models is the unit sphere. Our analysis for L p estimates and compactness properties take advantage of the orientational interaction property, meaning that the velocity space is a compact manifold.
A weak type (1,1) inequality for maximal averages over certain sparse sequences
Christ, Michael
2011-01-01
Examples are constructed of sparse subsequences of the integers for which the associated maximal averages operator is of weak type (1,1). A consequence, by transference, is that an almost everywhere L^1 -- type ergodic theorem holds for corresponding subsequences of iterates of general measure-preserving transformations. These examples can be constructed so that n_k has growth rate k^m for any prescribed integer power m greater than or equal to 2. Urban and Zienkiewicz have established the same conclusion for other subsequences, which have growth rate k^m for noninteger exponents m sufficiently close to 1; the first novelty here is that the exponent can be arbitrarily large. In contrast, Buczolich and Mauldin have shown that the corresponding conclusion fails to hold if n_k is exactly k^2. The rather simple analysis relies on certain exponential sum bounds of Weil, together with a decomposition of Calderon-Zygmund type in which the exceptional set is defined in terms of the subsequence in question. The subseq...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ronaldo Irzon
2016-12-01
Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.4.1.21-37Karimun is an island with various geological deposits: tin, granite, sand, and others. The tin deposit in Karimun is related to the granitoid tin belt which extends from Myanmar to western Indonesia. Late Triassic Karimun Granite is composed of quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, biotite, and/or muscovite with small amounts of accessory minerals. The granitoid unit is different with other felsic intrusive rocks in Malay Peninsular because of its A-type affinity although it is classified as part of the Tin Islands. All eight samples can be classified as altered rocks since the occurrence of secondary chlorite was identifed both macroscopically and microscopically. Petrography was used to describe the minerals that form the samples, whereas XRF and ICP-MS were used to study Karimun Granite from the geochemical point of view. Harker diagrams confirm that the granites show similarity to other granite units in Malaysia except for CaO. Whalen diagrams indicate the granite as A-type as well as the SiO2, REE, and LILE amounts. REE content in the weak peraluminous granitoid ranges from 183 to 3,296 ppm with Eu and Ce show negative anomalies in the REE spider diagram. Negative anomalies of Eu, Ba, Sr, P, and Ti in normalized spider plot also conclude that the studied granitoid indicates A-type.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Guo
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Let E be a real q-uniformly smooth Banach space which is also uniformly convex (e.g., Lp or lp spaces (1
weak convergence of Mann's algorithm for a ÃŽÂº-strictly pseudocontractive mapping of Browder-Petryshyn type on K in condition thet the control sequence {ÃŽÂ±n} is chosen so that (i ÃŽÂ¼Ã¢Â‰Â¤ÃŽÂ±n<1,nÃ¢Â‰Â¥0; (ii Ã¢ÂˆÂ‘n=0Ã¢ÂˆÂž(1Ã¢ÂˆÂ’ÃŽÂ±n[qÃŽÂºÃ¢ÂˆÂ’Cq(1Ã¢ÂˆÂ’ÃŽÂ±nqÃ¢ÂˆÂ’1]=Ã¢ÂˆÂž, where ÃŽÂ¼Ã¢ÂˆÂˆ[maxÃ¢ÂÂ¡{0,1Ã¢ÂˆÂ’(qÃŽÂº/Cq1/(qÃ¢ÂˆÂ’1},1. Moreover, we consider to find a common fixed point of a finite family of strictly pseudocontractive mappings and consider the parallel and cyclic algorithms for solving this problem. We will prove the weak convergence of these algorithms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yange Huang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss a class of Volterra-Fredholm type difference inequalities with weakly singular. The upper bounds of the embedded unknown functions are estimated explicitly by analysis techniques. An application of the obtained inequalities to the estimation of Volterra-Fredholm type difference equations is given.
Radio continuum detection in blue early-type weak emission line galaxies
Paswan, A
2016-01-01
The star formation rates (SFRs) in weak emission line (WEL) galaxies in a volume-limited ($0.02 < z < 0.05$) sample of blue early-type galaxies (ETGs) identified from SDSS, are constrained here using 1.4 GHz radio continuum emission. The direct detection of 1.4 GHz radio continuum emission is made in 8 WEL galaxies and a median stacking is performed on 57 WEL galaxies using VLA FIRST images. The median stacked 1.4 GHz flux density and luminosity are estimated as 79 $\\pm$ 19 $\\mu$Jy and 0.20 $\\pm$ 0.05 $\\times$ 10$^{21}$ W Hz$^{-1}$ respectively. The radio far-infrared correlation in 4 WEL galaxies suggests that the radio continuum emission from WEL galaxies is most likely due to star formation activities. The median SFR for WEL galaxies is estimated as 0.23 $\\pm$ 0.06 M$_{\\odot}$yr$^{-1}$, which is much less compared to SFRs ($0.5 - 50$ M$_{\\odot}$yr$^{-1}$) in purely star forming blue ETGs. The SFRs in blue ETGs are found to be correlated with their stellar velocity dispersions ($\\sigma$) and decreasin...
Adsorption behavior of ytterbium (Ⅲ) on gel-type weak acid resin
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG Zhanwang; XIONG Chunhua
2011-01-01
The adsorption and desorption behaviors of Yb(Ⅲ) on gel-type weak acid resin (110) were investigated. The influence of operational conditions such as contact time, initial concentration of Yb(Ⅲ), initial pH of solution and temperature on the adsorption of Yb(Ⅲ) were also examined. The results showed that the optimal adsorption condition of 110 resin for Yb(Ⅲ) was achieved at pH=5.5 in HAc-NaAc medium. The maximum uptake capacity of Yb(ⅢI) was 265.8 mg/g at 298 K. Yb(Ⅲ) could be eluted by using 3.0 mol/L HCI solution and the 110 resin could be regenerated and reused. The adsorption of Yb(Ⅲ) followed the Langmuir isotherm, and the correlation coefficients were evaluated. Various thermodynamic parameters such as standard enthalpy change (△H), standard entropy change (△S) and standard free energy change (△G) were evaluated. The adsorption of Yb(Ⅲ) on the 110 resin was found to be endothermic in nature. Thomas model was successfully applied to experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves and to determine the characteristics parameters of the column useful for process design. And the resin sample both before and after adsorption was described by IR spectroscopy.
Postnatal brain development of the pulse type, weakly electric gymnotid fish Gymnotus omarorum.
Iribarne, Leticia; Castelló, María E
2014-01-01
Teleosts are a numerous and diverse group of fish showing great variation in body shape, ecological niches and behaviors, and a correspondent diversity in brain morphology, usually associated with their functional specialization. Weakly electric fish are a paradigmatic example of functional specialization, as these teleosts use self-generated electric fields to sense the nearby environment and communicate with conspecifics, enabling fish to better exploit particular ecological niches. We analyzed the development of the brain of the pulse type gymnotid Gymnotus omarorum, focusing on the brain regions involved directly or indirectly in electrosensory information processing. A morphometric analysis has been made of the whole brain and of brain regions of interest, based on volumetric data obtained from 3-D reconstructions to study the growth of the whole brain and the relative growth of brain regions, from late larvae to adulthood. In the smallest studied larvae some components of the electrosensory pathway appeared to be already organized and functional, as evidenced by tract-tracing and in vivo field potential recordings of electrosensory-evoked activity. From late larval to adult stages, rombencephalic brain regions (cerebellum and electrosensory lateral line lobe) showed a positive allometric growth, mesencephalic brain regions showed a negative allometric growth, and the telencephalon showed an isometric growth. In a first step towards elucidating the role of cell proliferation in the relative growth of the analyzed brain regions, we also studied the spatial distribution of proliferation zones by means of pulse type BrdU labeling revealed by immunohistochemistry. The brain of G. omarorum late larvae showed a widespread distribution of proliferating zones, most of which were located at the ventricular-cisternal lining. Interestingly, we also found extra ventricular-cisternal proliferation zones at in the rombencephalic cerebellum and electrosensory lateral line
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giai Giang Vo
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the study of a wave equation with a boundary condition of many-point type. The existence of weak solutions is proved by using the Galerkin method. Also, the uniqueness and the stability of solutions are established.
From weak to strong L1-convergence by an oscillation restriction criterion of BMO type
Balder, E.J.
2001-01-01
Recently, Girardi gave acharacterization of relative strong L 1 R-compactness in terms of relative weak L 1 R-compactness and the Bocce criterion [18]. Here this result is generalized and extended by presenting a less stringent oscillation restriction condition (ORC) which enforces the transcendence
Correlation between serology and genetics of weak D types in Denmark
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Mette; Samuelsen, Betina; Christiansen, Lene
2008-01-01
BACKGROUND: To date more than 100 variant D types have been reported and the frequencies vary among populations. Blood donor typing should reveal all donors expressing D antigens, while patient typing should prevent the development of anti-D in patients with a D- or variant D blood type. Serotyping...... exact categorization. Serology is superior for routine blood typing, however. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Jan...
Gutsche, S; Krause, M; Kranz, H
2008-12-01
Weakly basic drugs demonstrate higher solubility at lower pH, thus often leading to faster drug release at lower pH. The objective of this study was to achieve pH-independent release of weakly basic drugs from extended release formulations based on the naturally occurring polymer sodium alginate. Three approaches to overcome the pH-dependent solubility of the weakly basic model drug verapamil hydrochloride were investigated. First, matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression of drug substance with different types of sodium alginate only. Second, pH-modifiers were added to the drug/alginate matrix systems. Third, press-coated tablets consisting of an inner pH-modifier tablet core and an outer drug/sodium alginate coat were prepared. pH-Independent drug release was achieved from matrix tablets consisting of selected alginates and drug substance only. Alginates are better soluble at higher pH. Therefore, they are able to compensate the poor solubility of weakly basic drugs at higher pH as the matrix of the tablets dissolves faster. This approach was successful when using alginates that demonstrated fast hydration and erosion at higher pH. The approach failed for alginates with less-pronounced erosion at higher pH. The addition of fumaric acid to drug/alginate-based matrix systems decreased the microenvironmental pH within the tablets thus increasing the solubility of the weakly basic drug at higher pH. Therefore, pH-independent drug release was achieved irrespective of the type of alginate used. Drug release from press-coated tablets did not provide any further advantages as compound release remained pH-dependent.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaobao Dong
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As one of the most important virulence factor types in gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, type-III effectors (TTEs play a crucial role in pathogen-host interactions by directly influencing immune signaling pathways within host cells. Based on the hypothesis that type-III secretion signals may be comprised of some weakly conserved sequence motifs, here we used profile-based amino acid pair information to develop an accurate TTE predictor. RESULTS: For a TTE or non-TTE, we first used a hidden Markov model-based sequence searching method (i.e., HHblits to detect its weakly homologous sequences and extracted the profile-based k-spaced amino acid pair composition (HH-CKSAAP from the N-terminal sequences. In the next step, the feature vector HH-CKSAAP was used to train a linear support vector machine model, which we designate as BEAN (Bacterial Effector ANalyzer. We compared our method with four existing TTE predictors through an independent test set, and our method revealed improved performance. Furthermore, we listed the most predictive amino acid pairs according to their weights in the established classification model. Evolutionary analysis shows that predictive amino acid pairs tend to be more conserved. Some predictive amino acid pairs also show significantly different position distributions between TTEs and non-TTEs. These analyses confirmed that some weakly conserved sequence motifs may play important roles in type-III secretion signals. Finally, we also used BEAN to scan one plant pathogen genome and showed that BEAN can be used for genome-wide TTE identification. The webserver and stand-alone version of BEAN are available at http://protein.cau.edu.cn:8080/bean/.
SN 2013ej - A type IIL supernova with weak signs of interaction
Bose, Subhash; Kumar, Brijesh; Duggal, Chetna; Misra, Kuntal; Brown, Peter J; Singh, Mridweeka; Dwarkadas, Vikram; York, Donald G; Chakraborti, Sayan; Chandola, H C; Dahlstrom, Julie; Ray, Alak; Safonova, Margarita
2015-01-01
We present optical photometric and spectroscopic observations of supernova 2013ej. It is one of the brightest type II supernovae exploded in a nearby ($\\sim 10$ Mpc) galaxy NGC 628. The light curve characteristics are similar to type II SNe, but with a relatively shorter ($ \\sim85 $ day) and steeper ($ \\sim1.7 $ mag (100 d)$^{-1} $ in V) plateau phase. The SN shows a large drop of 2.4 mag in V band brightness during plateau to nebular transition. The absolute ultraviolet (UV) light curves are identical to SN 2012aw, showing a similar UV plateau trend extending up to 85 days. The radioactive $^{56}$Ni mass estimated from the tail luminosity is $ 0.02 $M$_{\\odot}$ which is significantly lower than typical type IIP SNe. The characteristics of spectral features and evolution of line velocities indicate that SN 2013ej is a type II event. However, light curve characteristics and some spectroscopic features provide strong support in classifying it as a type IIL event. A detailed SYNOW modelling of spectra indicates ...
Unusual weak magnetic exchange in two different structure types: YbPt2Sn and YbPt2In.
Gruner, T; Jang, D; Steppke, A; Brando, M; Ritter, F; Krellner, C; Geibel, C
2014-12-03
We present the structural, magnetic, thermodynamic and transport properties of the two new compounds YbPt(2)Sn and YbPt(2)In. X-ray powder diffraction shows that they crystallize in different structure types, the hexagonal ZrPt(2)Al and the cubic Heusler type, respectively. Despite quite different lattice types, both compounds present very similar magnetic properties: a stable trivalent Yb(3+), no evidence for a sizeable Kondo interaction and very weak exchange interactions with a strength below 1 K as deduced from specific heat C(T). Broad anomalies in C(T) suggest short range magnetic ordering at about 250 mK and 180 mK for YbPt(2)Sn and YbPt(2)In, respectively. The weak exchange and the low ordering temperature result in a large magnetocaloric effect as deduced from the magnetic field dependence of C(T), making these compounds interesting candidates for magnetic cooling. In addition we found in YbPt(2)In evidences for a charge density wave transition at about 290 K. The occurrence of such transitions within several RET2X compound series (RE = rare earth, T = noble metal, X = In, Sn) is analyzed.
Weak itinerant ferromagnetism in Heusler-type Fe2VAl0.95
Sato, K.; Naka, T.; Taguchi, M.; Nakane, T.; Ishikawa, F.; Yamada, Y.; Takaesu, Y.; Nakama, T.; de Visser, A.; Matsushita, A.
2010-01-01
We report measurements of the magnetic, transport, and thermal properties of the Heusler-type compound Fe2VAl0.95. We show that while stoichiometric Fe2VAl is a nonmagnetic semimetal a 5% substitution on the Al site with the 3d elements Fe and V atoms leads to a ferromagnetic ground state with a
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Shoaib Saleem
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this work we develop the square integral estimates for the functions of n variables which are subharmonic with respect to some variables and for other remaining variables are superharmonic. It is in a sense a generalization of reverse Poincaré type inequalities for the difference of superharmonic functions developed in (J. Inequal. Appl. 2015: doi:10.1186/s13660-015-0916-9 , 2015.
El-Khatib, Fatima; Cahier, Benjamin; López-Jordà, Maurici; Guillot, Régis; Rivière, Eric; Hafez, Hala; Saad, Zeinab; Girerd, Jean-Jacques; Guihéry, Nathalie; Mallah, Talal
2017-09-05
The preparation of a binuclear Ni(II) complex with a pentacoordinate environment using a cryptand organic ligand and the imidazolate bridge is reported. The coordination sphere is close to trigonal bipyramidal (tbp) for one Ni(II) and to square pyramidal (spy) for the other. The use of the imidazolate bridge that undergoes π-π stacking with two benzene rings of the chelating ligand induces steric hindrance that stabilizes the pentacoordinate environment. Magnetic measurements together with theoretical studies of the spin states energy levels allow fitting the data and reveal a large Ising-type anisotropy and a weak anti-ferromagnetic exchange coupling between the metal ions. The magnitude and the nature of the magnetic anisotropy and the difference in anisotropy between the two metal ions are rationalized using wave-function-based calculations. We show that a slight distortion of the coordination sphere of Ni(II) from spy to tbp leads to an Ising-type anisotropy. Broken-symmetry density functional calculations rationalize the weak anti-ferromagnetic exchange coupling through the imidazolate bridge.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Gan Shi-xin
2003-01-01
Lr convergence and convergence in probability for weighted sums of Lq-mixingale arrays have been discussed and the Marcinkiewicz type weak law of large numbers for Lq-mixingale arrays has been obtained.
Ekşioğlu, Yasa; Güven, Kaan
2011-01-01
We propose that a weakly-coupled nonlinear dielectric waveguide -- surface-plasmon system can be formulated as a new type of Josephson junction. Such a system can be realized along a metal - dielectric interface where the dielectric medium hosts a nonlinear waveguide (e.g. fiber) for soliton propagation. We demonstrate that the system is in close analogy to the bosonic Josephson-Junction (BJJ) of atomic condensates at very low temperatures, yet exhibits different dynamical features. In particular, the inherently dynamic coupling parameter between soliton and surface-plasmon generates self-trapped oscillatory states at nonzero fractional populations with zero and $\\pi$ time averaged phase difference. The salient features of the dynamics are presented in the phase space.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valentina Olivera-Pasilio
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis, an essential mechanism of brain plasticity, enables brain development along postnatal life, constant addition of new neurons, neuronal turnover, and/or regeneration. It is amply distributed but negatively modulated during development and along evolution. Widespread cell proliferation, high neurogenic, and regenerative capacities are considered characteristics of teleost brains during adulthood. These anamniotes are promising models to depict factors that modulate cell proliferation, migration, and neurogenesis, and might be intervened to promote brain plasticity in mammals. Nevertheless, the migration path of derived cells to their final destination was not studied in various teleosts, including most weakly electric fish. In this group adult brain morphology is attributed to sensory specialization, involving the concerted evolution of peripheral electroreceptors and electric organs, encompassed by the evolution of neural networks involved in electrosensory information processing. In wave type gymnotids adult brain morphology is proposed to result from lifelong region specific cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Consistently, pulse type weakly electric gymnotids and mormyrids show widespread distribution of proliferation zones that persists in adulthood, but their neurogenic potential is still unknown. Here we studied the migration process and differentiation of newborn cells into the neuronal phenotype in the pulse type gymnotid Gymnotus omarorum. Pulse labeling of S-phase cells with 5-Chloro-2′-deoxyuridine thymidine followed by 1 to 180 day survivals evidenced long distance migration of newborn cells from the rostralmost telencephalic ventricle to the olfactory bulb, and between layers of all cerebellar divisions. Shorter migration appeared in the tectum opticum and torus semicircularis. In many brain regions, derived cells expressed early neuronal markers doublecortin (chase: 1–30 days and HuC/HuD (chase: 7–180 days
Olivera-Pasilio, Valentina; Lasserre, Moira; Castelló, María E.
2017-01-01
Adult neurogenesis, an essential mechanism of brain plasticity, enables brain development along postnatal life, constant addition of new neurons, neuronal turnover, and/or regeneration. It is amply distributed but negatively modulated during development and along evolution. Widespread cell proliferation, high neurogenic, and regenerative capacities are considered characteristics of teleost brains during adulthood. These anamniotes are promising models to depict factors that modulate cell proliferation, migration, and neurogenesis, and might be intervened to promote brain plasticity in mammals. Nevertheless, the migration path of derived cells to their final destination was not studied in various teleosts, including most weakly electric fish. In this group adult brain morphology is attributed to sensory specialization, involving the concerted evolution of peripheral electroreceptors and electric organs, encompassed by the evolution of neural networks involved in electrosensory information processing. In wave type gymnotids adult brain morphology is proposed to result from lifelong region specific cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Consistently, pulse type weakly electric gymnotids and mormyrids show widespread distribution of proliferation zones that persists in adulthood, but their neurogenic potential is still unknown. Here we studied the migration process and differentiation of newborn cells into the neuronal phenotype in the pulse type gymnotid Gymnotus omarorum. Pulse labeling of S-phase cells with 5-Chloro-2′-deoxyuridine thymidine followed by 1 to 180 day survivals evidenced long distance migration of newborn cells from the rostralmost telencephalic ventricle to the olfactory bulb, and between layers of all cerebellar divisions. Shorter migration appeared in the tectum opticum and torus semicircularis. In many brain regions, derived cells expressed early neuronal markers doublecortin (chase: 1–30 days) and HuC/HuD (chase: 7–180 days). Some newborn
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soong, C.Y. [Department of Aerospace and Systems Engineering, Feng Chia University, Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: cysoong@fcu.edu.tw; Huang, W.T. [Department of Marine Mechanical Engineering, Chinese Naval Academy, Kaohsiung 81300, Taiwan (China); Lin, F.P. [Grid Computing Division, National Center of High Performance Computing, Hsinchu 30012, Taiwan (China)
2007-12-15
Recently, we proposed a chaos control strategy with weak Fourier signals optimized by using a genetic algorithm (GA) and demonstrated its merits in controlling Lorenz and Roessler systems (Physical Review E, 2004). In this continuation work, performance of various types of signals, namely periodic continuous, periodic discrete, and constant bias (non-periodic), applied to an autonomous (Roessler) system and a non-autonomous (Murali-Lakshmanan-Chua, MLC) system are investigated. An index of relative robustness is proposed for measuring the noise-resisting ability of the control signals. The results reveal that the constant signal has the strongest noise-resisting ability, the periodic pulse signal has the weakest, and the Fourier signal falls in between. Phase modulation generally shortens the transient time period and is additionally beneficial to non-autonomous systems in minimizing significantly the signal power. By searching with the present GA-optimization, it is demonstrated that the minimum-power signal for controlling the non-autonomous (MLC) system is the signal with a frequency exactly the same as that of the system forcing but with phase modulation. The effectiveness of the GA-optimized signals of extremely low power employed in alternatively switching control of non-autonomous systems is also demonstrated.
Weak or no association of TCF7L2 variants with Type 2 diabetes risk in an Arab population
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Al-Daghri Nasser
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The rs7903146 and rs12255372 variants of TCF7L2 have been strongly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D risk in most populations studied to date. Meta-analysis of 27 different studies has resulted in a global OR of 1.46 [1.42–1.51] (rs7903146 variant. Thus far, despite a high incidence of T2D, the role of this variant in Arabs has not been established. Methods We performed a case-control association study using 522 Saudi T2D patients (WHO criteria, and 346 controls (age > 60; fasting plasma glucose Results For rs7903146, the T allele frequency of the cases (0.415 was not different from that observed in the controls (0.405. The crude odds ratio (OR was 1.04 with a 95% CI of 0.86–1.27 (P = 0.675. For rs12255372, the T allele frequency of the cases (0.368 was not different from that observed in the controls (0.355. Retrospective power calculations based upon an OR of 1.46 reported in a comprehensive meta-analysis of TCF7L2 risk, indicated this study was sufficiently powered (96.92%; α = 0.05 to detect an effect of similar magnitude to that reported for rs7903146. Conclusion Our study is consistent with weak or no association of T2D in Arabs with the two TCF7L2 variants, however it cannot rule out an effect of other SNPs in this gene. Future studies in this population are required to confirm our findings and may indicate the presence of yet to be defined genetic risk factors for T2D.
Al Kaissi, Ali; Ryabykh, Sergey; Ochirova, Polina; Kenis, Vladimir; Hofstätter, Jochen G.; Grill, Franz; Ganger, Rudolf; Kircher, Susanne Gerit
2017-01-01
Marked ligamentous hyperlaxity and muscle weakness/wasting associated with awkward gait are the main deficits confused with the diagnosis of myopathy. Seven children (6 boys and 1 girl with an average age of 8 years) were referred to our department because of diverse forms of skeletal abnormalities. No definitive diagnosis was made, and all underwent a series of sophisticated investigations in other institutes in favor of myopathy. We applied our methodology through the clinical and radiographic phenotypes followed by targeted genotypic confirmation. Three children (2 boys and 1 girl) were compatible with the diagnosis of progressive pseudorheumatoid chondrodysplasia. The genetic mutation was correlated with the WISP 3 gene actively expressed by articular chondrocytes and located on chromosome 6. Klinefelter syndrome was the diagnosis in 2 boys. Karyotyping confirmed 47,XXY (aneuploidy of Klinefelter syndrome). And 2 boys were finally diagnosed with Morquio syndrome (MPS type IV A) as both showed missense mutations in the N-acetylgalactosamine-sulfate sulfatase gene. Misdiagnosis can lead to the initiation of a long list of sophisticated investigations. PMID:28210640
Weak Convergence and Weak Convergence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Narita Keiko
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this article, we deal with weak convergence on sequences in real normed spaces, and weak* convergence on sequences in dual spaces of real normed spaces. In the first section, we proved some topological properties of dual spaces of real normed spaces. We used these theorems for proofs of Section 3. In Section 2, we defined weak convergence and weak* convergence, and proved some properties. By RNS_Real Mizar functor, real normed spaces as real number spaces already defined in the article [18], we regarded sequences of real numbers as sequences of RNS_Real. So we proved the last theorem in this section using the theorem (8 from [25]. In Section 3, we defined weak sequential compactness of real normed spaces. We showed some lemmas for the proof and proved the theorem of weak sequential compactness of reflexive real Banach spaces. We referred to [36], [23], [24] and [3] in the formalization.
Chen, D-P; Sun, C-F; Ning, H-C; Peng, C-T; Wang, W-T; Tseng, C-P
2015-01-01
Ael is a rare blood type that is characterized by weak agglutination of RBCs when reacts with anti-A antibody in adsorption-elution test. Although IVS6 + 5G→A mutation is known to associate with the Ael blood type, genetic and mechanistic evaluation for the weak agglutination of Ael with IVS6 + 5G→A mutation has not yet been completely addressed. In this study, five cases of confirmed Ael individuals were analysed. The cDNAs for the A(el) alleles were obtained by cloning method for sequence analyses. The erythroleukemia K562 cells were used as the cell study model and were transfected with the A(el) expression construct. Flow cytometry analysis was then performed to determine the levels of surface antigen expression. The results indicated that IVS6 + 5G→A attributes to all cases of Ael . RT-PCR analyses revealed the presence of at least 10 types of aberrant A(el) splicing transcripts. Most of the transcripts caused early termination and produced non-functional protein during translation. Nevertheless, the transcript without exons 5-6 was predicted to generate functional Ael glycosyltransferase lacking 57 amino acids at the N-terminal segment. When the exons 5-6 deletion transcript was stably expressed in the K562 cells, weak agglutination of the cells can be induced by adding anti-A antibody followed by adsorption-elution test. This study demonstrates that aberrant splicing of A transcripts contributes to weak A expression and the weak agglutination of Ael -RBCs, adding to the complexity for the regulatory mechanisms of ABO gene expression. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chong-Yun Fu
Full Text Available Hybrid weakness (HW is an important postzygotic isolation which occurs in both intra- and inter-specific crosses. In this study, we described a novel low temperature-dependent intrasubspecific hybrid weakness in the F1 plants derived from the cross between two indica rice varieties Taifeng A and V1134. HW plants showed growth retardation, reduced panicle number and pale green leaves with chlorotic spots. Cytological assay showed that there were reduced cell numbers, larger intercellular spaces, thicker cell walls, and abnormal development of chloroplast and mitochondria in the mature leaves from HW F1 plants in comparison with that from both of the parental lines. Genetic analysis revealed that HW was controlled by two complementary dominant genes Hw3 from V1134 and Hw4 from Taifeng A. Hw3 was mapped in a 136 kb interval between the markers Indel1118 and Indel1117 on chromosome 11, and Hw4 was mapped in the region of about 15 cM between RM182 and RM505 on chromosome 7, respectively. RT-PCR analysis revealed that only LOC_Os11g44310, encoding a putative calmodulin-binding protein (OsCaMBP, differentially expressed among Taifeng A, V1134 and their HW F1. No recombinant was detected using the markers designed based on the sequence of LOC_Os11g44310 in the BC1F2 (Taifeng A//Taifeng A/V1134 population. Hence, LOC_Os11g44310 was probably the candidate gene of Hw3. Gene amplification suggested that LOC_Os11g44310 was present in V1134 and absent in Taifeng A. BLAST search revealed that LOC_Os11g44310 had one copy in the japonica genomic sequence of Nipponbare, and no homologous sequence in the indica reference sequence of 9311. Our results indicate that Hw3 is a novel gene for inducing hybrid weakness in rice.
Without the weak force, the sun wouldn't shine. The weak force causes beta decay, a form of radioactivity that triggers nuclear fusion in the heart of the sun. The weak force is unlike other forces: it is characterised by disintegration. In beta decay, a down quark transforms into an up quark and an electron is emitted. Some materials are more radioactive than others because the delicate balance between the strong force and the weak force varies depending on the number of particles in the atomic nucleus. We live in the midst of a natural radioactive background that varies from region to region. For example, in Cornwall where there is a lot of granite, levels of background radiation are much higher than in the Geneva region. Text for the interactive: Move the Geiger counter to find out which samples are radioactive - you may be surprised. It is the weak force that is responsible for the Beta radioactivity here. The electrons emitted do not cross the plastic cover. Why do you think there is some detected radioa...
Weak martingale Hardy spaces and weak atomic decompositions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HOU; Youliang; REN; Yanbo
2006-01-01
In this paper we define some weak martingale Hardy spaces and three kinds of weak atoms. They are the counterparts of martingale Hardy spaces and atoms in the classical martingale Hp-theory. And then three atomic decomposition theorems for martingales in weak martingale Hardy spaces are proved. With the help of the weak atomic decompositions of martingale, a sufficient condition for a sublinear operator defined on the weak martingale Hardy spaces to be bounded is given. Using the sufficient condition, we obtain a series of martingale inequalities with respect to the weak Lp-norm, the inequalities of weak (p ,p)-type and some continuous imbedding relationships between various weak martingale Hardy spaces. These inequalities are the weak versions of the basic inequalities in the classical martingale Hp-theory.
Selleri, Franco
2015-01-01
Weak Relativity is an equivalent theory to Special Relativity according to Reichenbach’s definition, where the parameter epsilon equals to 0. It formulates a Neo-Lorentzian approach by replacing the Lorentz transformations with a new set named “Inertial Transformations”, thus explaining the Sagnac effect, the twin paradox and the trip from the future to the past in an easy and elegant way. The cosmic microwave background is suggested as a possible privileged reference system. Most importantly, being a theory based on experimental proofs, rather than mutual consensus, it offers a physical description of reality independent of the human observation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonathan L McMurry
Full Text Available The bacterial flagellum contains its own type III secretion apparatus that coordinates protein export with assembly at the distal end. While many interactions among export apparatus proteins have been reported, few have been examined with respect to the differential affinities and dynamic relationships that must govern the mechanism of export. FlhB, an integral membrane protein, plays critical roles in both export and the substrate specificity switching that occurs upon hook completion. Reported herein is the quantitative characterization of interactions between the cytoplasmic domain of FlhB (FlhBC and other export apparatus proteins including FliK, FlhAC and FliI. FliK and FlhAC bound with micromolar affinity. KD for FliI binding in the absence of ATP was 84 nM. ATP-induced oligomerization of FliI induced kinetic changes, stimulating fast-on, fast-off binding and lowering affinity. Full length FlhB purified under solubilizing, nondenaturing conditions formed a stable dimer via its transmembrane domain and stably bound FliH. Together, the present results support the previously hypothesized central role of FlhB and elucidate the dynamics of protein-protein interactions in type III secretion.
Allison, J R; Sadler, E M; Reeves, S N
2012-01-01
We report conclusive verification of the detection of associated HI 21cm absorption in the early-type host of the compact radio source PMN J2054-4242. We estimate an equivalent spectral-line width of 415 +/- 20 km/s, and observed peak optical depth of 2.5 +/- 0.2 per cent, making this one of the broadest and weakest 21cm absorption-lines yet discovered. For Tspin/f > 100K the column density is NHI > 2 x 10^{21} cm^{-2}. The observed spectral-line profile is redshifted by v = 179 +/- 46 km/s, with respect to the spectroscopic optical measurement, perhaps indicating that the HI gas is infalling toward the central active galactic nucleus. The broad width of the line suggests that the cold gas is either rotating at very high velocity, or that the infall is accelerating (perhaps as a blended series of line-of-sight gas clouds). Our initial tentative detection would likely have been dismissed by visual inspection, and hence its verification here is an excellent test of our spectral-line detection technique, current...
Bryant, Dean; Hibbitts, Samantha; Almonte, Maribel; Tristram, Amanda; Fiander, Alison; Powell, Ned
2015-05-01
Persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 causes the majority of cervical cancers. Genital HPV infection is very common, but neoplastic progression is uncommon. There is an urgent need for biomarkers associated with cervical neoplasia, to enable triage of women who test positive for HPV. To assess the ability of quantitative measurement of HPV16 DNA methylation to separate samples of different cytological and histological grades from young women, among whom rates of HPV infection are high. DNA methylation was quantified by pyrosequencing of bisulphite converted DNA from liquid based cytology samples from 234 women (mean age 20.6 years) who tested positive for HPV16 and showed varying degrees of neoplasia. Methylation was assessed at CpGs in the HPV E2 and L1/L2 regions. The performance of methylation-based classifiers was assessed by ROC curve analyses. The best combination of CpGs (5600 and 5609) achieved AUCs of 0.656 (95% CI=0.520-0.792) for separation of cytologically normal and severely dyskaryotic samples, and 0.639 (95% CI=0.547-0.731) for separation of samples with or without high-grade neoplasia (CIN2+/-). The data are consistent with HPV L1/L2 methylation being a marker of the duration of infection in a specific host. Assessment of HPV DNA methylation is hence a promising biomarker to triage HPV-positive cytology samples, but may have limited utility in young women. Future studies assessing the likely utility of HPV DNA methylation as a potential triage biomarker must take account of women's age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yue, Q.; Zhao, W.; Kang, K. J.; Cheng, J. P.; Li, Y. J.; Lin, S. T.; Chang, J. P.; Chen, N.; Chen, Q. H.; Chen, Y. H.; Chuang, Y. C.; Deng, Z.; Du, Q.; Gong, H.; Hao, X. Q.; He, H. J.; He, Q. J.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, T. R.; Jiang, H.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. M.; Li, J.; Li, J.; Li, X.; Li, X. Y.; Li, Y. L.; Liao, H. Y.; Lin, F. K.; Liu, S. K.; Lü, L. C.; Ma, H.; Mao, S. J.; Qin, J. Q.; Ren, J.; Ren, J.; Ruan, X. C.; Shen, M. B.; Singh, L.; Singh, M. K.; Soma, A. K.; Su, J.; Tang, C. J.; Tseng, C. H.; Wang, J. M.; Wang, L.; Wang, Q.; Wong, H. T.; Wu, S. Y.; Wu, Y. C.; Wu, Y. C.; Xianyu, Z. Z.; Xiao, R. Q.; Xing, H. Y.; Xu, F. Z.; Xu, Y.; Xu, X. J.; Xue, T.; Yang, L. T.; Yang, S. W.; Yi, N.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H.; Yu, X. Z.; Zeng, X. H.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhao, M. G.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Zhu, J. J.; Zhu, W. B.; Zhu, X. Z.; Zhu, Z. H.; CDEX Collaboration
2014-11-01
We report results of a search for light dark matter weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) with CDEX-1 experiment at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory, based on 53.9 kg-days of data from a p -type point-contact germanium detector enclosed by a NaI(Tl) crystal scintillator as anti-Compton detector. The event rate and spectrum above the analysis threshold of 475 eVee are consistent with the understood background model. Part of the allowed regions for WIMP-nucleus coherent elastic scattering at WIMP mass of 6-20 GeV are probed and excluded. Independent of interaction channels, this result contradicts the interpretation that the anomalous excesses of the CoGeNT experiment are induced by dark matter, since identical detector techniques are used in both experiments.
Sun, Mengmeng; Van Wijk, Eduard; Koval, Slavik; Van Wijk, Roeland; He, Min; Wang, Mei; Hankemeier, Thomas; van der Greef, Jan
2017-01-01
The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes is estimated to reach 4.4% by 2030, placing a significant burden on our healthcare system. Therefore, the ability to identify patients in early stages of the disease is essential for both prevention and effective management, and diagnostic methods based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be suitable for identifying patients with early-stage type 2 diabetes. Here, a panel of three physicians trained in TCM classified 44 pre-diabetic subjects into three syndrome subtypes using TCM-based diagnostics. In addition, ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) was measured at four anatomical sites in each subject. Ten properties encompassing 40 parameters were then extracted from the UPE time series. Statistical analyses, including multinomial logistic regression, were performed using the results of each parameter measured at the four sites. Sixteen UPE parameters were then selected and used to discriminate between the three subtypes of pre-diabetic subjects. Next, Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to quantify the correlation between the 16 UPE parameters and the TCM-based diagnoses. The resulting correlation networks accurately reflected the differences between the three syndrome subtypes. These results suggest that UPE is a suitable tool for detecting subtypes in early-stage type 2 diabetes. In addition, our results provide evidence that TCM may represent an important step toward personalized medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tsvetkova, S.; Petit, P.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Aurière, M.; Wade, G. A.; Palacios, A.; Charbonnel, C.; Drake, N. A.
2017-03-01
Aims: This work studies the magnetic activity of the late-type giant 37 Com. This star belongs to the group of weak G-band stars that present very strong carbon deficiency in their photospheres. The paper is a part of a global investigation into the properties and origin of magnetic fields in cool giants. Methods: We use spectropolarimetric data, which allows the simultaneous measurement of the longitudinal magnetic field Bl, line activity indicators (Hα, Ca ii IRT, S-index) and radial velocity of the star, and consequently perform a direct comparison of their time variability. Mean Stokes V profiles are extracted using the least squares deconvolution (LSD) method. One map of the surface magnetic field of the star is reconstructed via the Zeeman Doppler imaging (ZDI) inversion technique. Results: A periodogram analysis is performed on our dataset and it reveals a rotation period of 111 days. We interpret this period to be the rotation period of 37 Com. The reconstructed magnetic map reveals that the structure of the surface magnetic field is complex and features a significant toroidal component. The time variability of the line activity indicators, radial velocity and magnetic field Bl indicates a possible evolution of the surface magnetic structures in the period from 2008 to 2011. For completeness of our study, we use customized stellar evolutionary models suited to a weak G-band star. Synthetic spectra are also calculated to confirm the peculiar abundance of 37 Com. Conclusions: We deduce that 37 Com is a 6.5 M⊙ weak G-band star located in the Hertzsprung gap, whose magnetic activity is probably due to dynamo action. Based on observations obtained at the Télescope Bernard Lyot (TBL, Pic du Midi, France) of the Midi-Pyrénées Observatory which is operated by the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France and Université de Toulouse, and at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Scotto, Matthieu; Afonso, Georgia; Østerbye, Thomas;
2012-01-01
The cartography of β-cell epitopes targeted by CD8(+) T cells in type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients remains largely confined to the common HLA-A2 restriction. We aimed to identify β-cell epitopes restricted by the HLA-B7 (B*07:02) molecule, which is associated with mild T1D protection. Using DNA...... immunization on HLA-B7-transgenic mice and prediction algorithms, we identified GAD and preproinsulin candidate epitopes. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunospot assays on peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that most candidates were recognized by new-onset T1D patients, but not by type 2 diabetic...... and healthy subjects. Some epitopes were highly immunodominant and specific to either T1D children (GAD(530-538); 44% T cell-positive patients) or adults (GAD(311-320); 38%). All epitopes displayed weak binding affinity and stability for HLA-B7 compared with HLA-A2-restricted ones, a general feature of HLA-B7...
On the weak project construction cost management
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
高守刚; 姜婧; 李玲
2013-01-01
the weak cost management is the most talked about topics in the weak industry, but also the basis of the weak construction business management and focus. With the increasingly fierce market competition, weak construction enterprises, the competition among enterprises wil gradual y transition from product quality competition to price competition. To strengthen the management of the weak construction enterprises cost, cut public spending ef iciency, improve market competitiveness, wil be the main way most weak construction corporate earnings and long-term business strategy. Based on the to weak project construction cost management based on analysis of the type of project construction costs, and further proposed the weak project construction cost management measures.
Measurement of weak radioactivity
Theodorsson , P
1996-01-01
This book is intended for scientists engaged in the measurement of weak alpha, beta, and gamma active samples; in health physics, environmental control, nuclear geophysics, tracer work, radiocarbon dating etc. It describes the underlying principles of radiation measurement and the detectors used. It also covers the sources of background, analyzes their effect on the detector and discusses economic ways to reduce the background. The most important types of low-level counting systems and the measurement of some of the more important radioisotopes are described here. In cases where more than one type can be used, the selection of the most suitable system is shown.
Fossati, L; Morel, T; Langer, N; Briquet, M; Carroll, T A; Hubrig, S; Nieva, M F; Oskinova, L M; Przybilla, N; Schneider, F R N; Scholler, M; Simon-Diaz, S; Ilyin, I; de Koter, A; Reisenegger, A; Sana, H
2014-01-01
Within the context of the "B fields in OB stars (BOB)" collaboration, we used the HARPSpol spectropolarimeter to observe the early B-type stars beta CMa (HD44743; B1 II/III) and epsilon CMa (HD52089; B1.5 II). For both stars, we consistently detected the signature of a weak (<30 G in absolute value) longitudinal magnetic field. We determined the physical parameters of both stars and characterise their X-ray spectrum. For beta CMa, our mode identification analysis led to determining a rotation period of 13.6+/-1.2 days and of an inclination angle of the rotation axis of 57.6+/-1.7 degrees, with respect to the line of sight. On the basis of these measurements and assuming a dipolar field geometry, we derived a best fitting obliquity of ~22 degrees and a dipolar magnetic field strength (Bd) of ~100 G (60
Pajusalu, Sander; Talvik, Inga; Noormets, Klari; Talvik, Tiina; Põder, Haide; Joost, Kairit; Puusepp, Sanna; Piirsoo, Andres; Stenzel, Werner; Goebel, Hans H; Nikopensius, Tiit; Annilo, Tarmo; Nõukas, Margit; Metspalu, Andres; Õunap, Katrin; Reimand, Tiia
2016-03-01
Here we report on a case of MYH7-related myopathy in a boy with early onset of muscular weakness and delayed motor development in infancy. His most affected muscles were neck extensors showing a dropped head sign, proximal muscles of lower limbs with positive Gower's sign, and trunk muscles. Brain and spinal cord MRI scans, echocardiography, and laboratory analyses including creatine kinase and lactate did not reveal any abnormalities. Muscle histopathology showed fiber-type disproportion. Whole exome sequencing of the parents-offspring trio revealed a novel de novo c.5655G>A p.(Ala1885=) synonymous substitution of the last nucleotide in exon 38 of the MYH7 gene. Further RNA investigations proved the skipping of exon 38 (p.1854_1885del). This is a first report of an exon-skipping mutation in the MYH7 gene causing myopathy. This report broadens both the phenotypic and genotypic spectra of MYH7-related myopathies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Weak Galois and Weak Cocleft Coextensions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
J.N. Alonso (A)lvarez; J.M. Fernández Vilaboa; R. González Rodríguez; A.B. Rodríguez Raposo
2007-01-01
For a weak entwining structure (A, C,ψ) living in a braided monoidal category with equalizers and coequalizers, we formulate the notion of weak A-Galois coextension with normal basis and we show that these Galois coextensions are equivalent to the weak A-cocleft coextensions introduced by the authors.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yong Hua LI; Hai Bin KAN; Bing Jun YU
2004-01-01
In this paper, a special kind of partial algebras called projective partial groupoids is defined.It is proved that the inverse image of all projections of a fundamental weak regular *-semigroup under the homomorphism induced by the maximum idempotent-separating congruence of a weak regular *-semigroup has a projective partial groupoid structure. Moreover, a weak regular *-product which connects a fundamental weak regular *-semigroup with corresponding projective partial groupoid is defined and characterized. It is finally proved that every weak regular *-product is in fact a weak regular *-semigroup and any weak regular *-semigroup is constructed in this way.
Cofinitely weak supplemented modules
Alizade, Rafail; Büyükaşık, Engin
2003-01-01
We prove that a module M is cofinitely weak supplemented or briefly cws (i.e., every submodule N of M with M/N finitely generated, has a weak supplement) if and only if every maximal submodule has a weak supplement. If M is a cws-module then every M-generated module is a cws-module. Every module is cws if and only if the ring is semilocal. We study also modules, whose finitely generated submodules have weak supplements.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
丁夏畦; 罗佩珠
2004-01-01
In this paper the authors introduce some new ideas on generalized numbers and generalized weak functions. They prove that the product of any two weak functions is a generalized weak function. So in particular they solve the problem of the multiplication of two generalized functions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marwan Amin Kutbi
2014-01-01
weakly compatible mappings in symmetric spaces satisfying generalized (ψ,φ-contractive conditions employing the common limit range property. We furnish some interesting examples which support our main theorems. Our results generalize and extend some recent results contained in Imdad et al. (2013 to symmetric spaces. Consequently, a host of metrical common fixed theorems are generalized and improved. In the process, we also derive a fixed point theorem for four finite families of mappings which can be utilized to derive common fixed point theorems involving any number of finite mappings.
Weakly relativistic dispersion of Bernstein waves
Robinson, P. A.
1988-01-01
Weakly relativistic effects on the dispersion of Bernstein waves are investigated for waves propagating nearly perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field in a Maxwellian plasma. Attention is focused on those large-wave-vector branches that are either weakly damped or join continuously onto weakly damped branches since these are the modes of most interest in applications. The transition between dispersion at perpendicular and oblique propagation is examined and major weakly relativistic effects can dominate even in low-temperature plasmas. A number of simple analytic criteria are obtained which delimit the ranges of harmonic number and propagation angle within which various types of weakly damped Bernstein modes can exist.
Weakly relativistic dispersion of Bernstein waves
Robinson, P. A.
1988-01-01
Weakly relativistic effects on the dispersion of Bernstein waves are investigated for waves propagating nearly perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field in a Maxwellian plasma. Attention is focused on those large-wave-vector branches that are either weakly damped or join continuously onto weakly damped branches since these are the modes of most interest in applications. The transition between dispersion at perpendicular and oblique propagation is examined and major weakly relativistic effects can dominate even in low-temperature plasmas. A number of simple analytic criteria are obtained which delimit the ranges of harmonic number and propagation angle within which various types of weakly damped Bernstein modes can exist.
On Weakly Semicommutative Rings*
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN WEI-XING; CUI SHU-YING
2011-01-01
A ring R is said to be weakly scmicommutative if for any a, b ∈ R,ab = 0 implies aRb C_ Nil(R), where Nil(R) is the set of all nilpotcnt elements in R.In this note, we clarify the relationship between weakly semicommutative rings and NI-rings by proving that the notion of a weakly semicommutative ring is a proper generalization of NI-rings. We say that a ring R is weakly 2-primal if the set of nilpotent elements in R coincides with its Levitzki radical, and prove that if R is a weakly 2-primal ring which satisfies oα-condition for an endomorphism α of R (that is, ab = 0 （←→） aα(b) ＝ 0 where a, b ∈ R) then the skew polynomial ring R[π; αα]is a weakly 2-primal ring, and that if R is a ring and I is an ideal of R such that I and R/I are both weakly semicommutative then R is weakly semicommutative.Those extend the main results of Liang et al. 2007 (Taiwanese J. Math., 11(5)(2007),1359-1368) considerably. Moreover, several new results about weakly semicommutative rings and NI-rings are included.
Walther, Markus; Mayer, Florian; Kafka, Wolf; Schütze, Norbert
2007-01-01
In vitro effects of electromagnetic fields appear to be related to the type of electromagnetic field applied. Previously, we showed that human osteoblasts display effects of BEMER type electromagnetic field (BTEMF) on gene regulation. Here, we analyze effects of BTEMF on gene expression in human mesenchymal stem cells and chondrocytes. Primary mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow and the chondrocyte cell line C28I2 were stimulated 5 times at 12-h intervals for 8 min each with BTEMF. RNA from treated and control cells was analyzed for gene expression using the affymetrix chip HG-U133A. A limited number of regulated gene products from both cell types mainly affect cell metabolism and cell matrix structure. There was no increased expression of cancer-related genes. RT-PCR analysis of selected transcripts partly confirmed array data. Results indicate that BTEMF in human mesenchymal stem cells and chondrocytes provide the first indications to understanding therapeutic effects achieved with BTEMF stimulation.
Idiopathic isolated orbicularis weakness
MacVie, O P; Majid, M A; Husssin, H M; Ung, T; Manners, R M; Ormerod, I; Pawade, J; Harrad, R A
2012-01-01
Purpose Orbicularis weakness is commonly associated with seventh nerve palsy or neuromuscular and myopathic conditions such as myotonic dystrophy and myasethenia gravis. We report four cases of idiopathic isolated orbicularis weakness. Methods All four cases were female and the presenting symptoms of ocular irritation and epiphora had been present for over 7 years in three patients. All patients had lagophthalmos and three had ectropion. Three patients underwent full investigations which excluded known causes of orbicularis weakness. Two patients underwent oribularis oculi muscle biopsy and histological confirmation of orbicularis atrophy. Results All patients underwent surgery to specifically address the orbicularis weakness with satisfactory outcomes and alleviation of symptoms in all cases. Isolated orbicularis weakness may be a relatively common entity that is frequently overlooked. Conclusion Early recognition of this condition may lead to better management and prevent patients undergoing unnecessary surgical procedures. PMID:22322997
Sun, M.; Wijk, E. van; Koval, S.; Wijk, R. van; He, M.; Wang, M.; Hankemeier, T.; Greef, J. van der
2017-01-01
The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes is estimated to reach 4.4% by 2030, placing a significant burden on our healthcare system. Therefore, the ability to identify patients in early stages of the disease is essential for both prevention and effective management, and diagnostic methods based on
Weakly tight functions and their decomposition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mona Khare
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The present paper deals with the study of a weakly tight function and its relation to tight functions. We obtain a Jordan-decomposition-type theorem for a locally bounded weakly tight real-valued function defined on a sublattice of IX, followed by the notion of a total variation.
Weak decays. [Lectures, phenomenology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wojcicki, S.
1978-11-01
Lectures are given on weak decays from a phenomenological point of view, emphasizing new results and ideas and the relation of recent results to the new standard theoretical model. The general framework within which the weak decay is viewed and relevant fundamental questions, weak decays of noncharmed hadrons, decays of muons and the tau, and the decays of charmed particles are covered. Limitation is made to the discussion of those topics that either have received recent experimental attention or are relevant to the new physics. (JFP) 178 references
Weakly asymptotically hyperbolic manifolds
Allen, Paul T; Lee, John M; Allen, Iva Stavrov
2015-01-01
We introduce a class of "weakly asymptotically hyperbolic" geometries whose sectional curvatures tend to $-1$ and are $C^0$, but are not necessarily $C^1$, conformally compact. We subsequently investigate the rate at which curvature invariants decay at infinity, identifying a conformally invariant tensor which serves as an obstruction to "higher order decay" of the Riemann curvature operator. Finally, we establish Fredholm results for geometric elliptic operators, extending the work of Rafe Mazzeo and John M. Lee to this setting. As an application, we show that any weakly asymptotically hyperbolic metric is conformally related to a weakly asymptotically hyperbolic metric of constant negative curvature.
Yamanaka, Nodoka; Kubota, Takahiro
2013-01-01
The contribution of the R-parity violating supersymmetric model to the fermion electric dipole moment at the two-loop level is analyzed. We show that in general, the Barr-Zee type contribution to the fermion electric dipole moment with the exchange of W and Z bosons is not small compared to the currently known photon exchange one with R-parity violating interactions. We will then give new upper bounds on the imaginary parts of R-parity violating couplings from the experimental data of the electric dipole moments of the electron and of the neutron.
Hosoya, Akio
2010-01-01
We develop a formal theory of the weak values with emphasis on the consistency conditions and a probabilistic interpretation in the counter-factual processes. We present the condition for the choice of the post-selected state to give a negative weak value of a given projection operator and strange values of an observable in general. The general framework is applied to Hardy's paradox and the spin $1/2$ system to explicitly address the issues of counter-factuality and strange weak values. The counter-factual arguments which characterize the paradox specifies the pre-selected state and a complete set of the post-selected states clarifies how the strange weak values emerge.
Entanglement Transfer via XXZ Heisenberg chain with DM Interaction
Rafiee, Morteza; Mohammadi, Hamidreza; Mokhtari, Hossein
2010-01-01
The role of spin-orbit interaction, arises from the Dzyaloshinski-Moriya anisotropic antisymmetric interaction, on the entanglement transfer via an antiferromagnetic XXZ Heisenberg chain is investigated. From symmetrical point of view, the XXZ Hamiltonian with Dzyaloshinski-Moriya interaction can be replaced by a modified XXZ Hamiltonian which is defined by a new exchange coupling constant and rotated Pauli operators. The modified coupling constant and the angle of rotations are depend on the strength of Dzyaloshinski-Moriya interaction. In this paper we study the dynamical behavior of the entanglement propagation through a system which is consist of a pair of maximally entangled spins coupled to one end of the chain. The calculations are performed for the ground state and the thermal state of the chain, separately. In both cases the presence of this anisotropic interaction make our channel more efficient, such that the speed of transmission and the amount of the entanglement are improved as this interaction ...
Joyal, André
2009-01-01
We define weak units in a semi-monoidal 2-category $\\CC$ as cancellable pseudo-idempotents: they are pairs $(I,\\alpha)$ where $I$ is an object such that tensoring with $I$ from either side constitutes a biequivalence of $\\CC$, and $\\alpha: I \\tensor I \\to I$ is an equivalence in $\\CC$. We show that this notion of weak unit has coherence built in: Theorem A: $\\alpha$ has a canonical associator 2-cell, which automatically satisfies the pentagon equation. Theorem B: every morphism of weak units is automatically compatible with those associators. Theorem C: the 2-category of weak units is contractible if non-empty. Finally we show (Theorem E) that the notion of weak unit is equivalent to the notion obtained from the definition of tricategory: $\\alpha$ alone induces the whole family of left and right maps (indexed by the objects), as well as the whole family of Kelly 2-cells (one for each pair of objects), satisfying the relevant coherence axioms.
Weak non-competitive type and the correction of the negative effects%“非竞争型弱势化”的负面效应及其矫正
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
田文富
2011-01-01
weak non-competitive type of the rapid social transformation and institutional change in the context of,and interest differentiation,stratification,and close contact with the right of alienation exists because the system is missing or not caused by poverty,the right kind of social weakness of the normal.This weakness of the opportunities in the rules and give the right part of the social exclusion of the other members of Shique members of society,which has unjust,unfair and unreasonable features.Non-competitive type of vulnerable groups of society different sense of injustice and a sense of relative deprivation to deepen,resulting in social isolation and confrontation,so that mechanisms to support the reform momentum and energy loss,loss of recognition of the legitimacy of the government,threaten economic development and political and social stability.Strengthen the social security system fair and mechanisms,giving the community more rights,to achieve inclusive growth.%非竞争型弱势化,是在社会急剧转型和制度变迁的背景下,与利益分化、阶层分化和权利异化紧密联系而存在,由于制度缺失或权利贫困造成的不正常的一种社会弱势化趋势和状态。这种弱势化在把机会、规则和权利给予一部分社会成员时却排斥了另一部分社会成员,因而具有不正义、不公平、不合理的特性。非竞争型弱势化使社会不同群体不公平感和相对剥夺感加深,造成社会割裂与对立,使支持改革机制的动力和活力丧失,失去对政府合法性的认同,威胁经济发展和政治、社会稳定。为此,应加强社会公平保障体系和机制建设,赋予社会更多的权利,实现包容性增长。
WEAK CONVERGENCE OF SOME SERIES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2000-01-01
This paper continues the study of [1] on weak functions.The weak convergence theory is investigated in complex analysis,Fourier transform and Mellin transform.A Mobius inverse formula of weak functions is obtained.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Munir AHMED; Fang LI
2008-01-01
In this paper, we define the notion of self-dual graded weak Hopf algebra and self-dual semilattice graded weak Hopf algebra. We give characterization of finite-dimensional such algebras when they are in structually simple forms in the sense of E. L. Green and E. N. Morcos. We also give the definition of self-dual weak Hopf quiver and apply these types of quivers to classify the finite-dimensional self-dual semilattice graded weak Hopf algebras. Finally, we prove partially the conjecture given by N. Andruskiewitsch and H.-J. Schneider in the case of finite-dimensional pointed semilattice graded weak Hopf algebra H when grH is self-dual.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kohlenbach, Ulrich Wilhelm
2002-01-01
We show that the so-called weak Markov's principle (WMP) which states that every pseudo-positive real number is positive is underivable in E-HA + AC. Since allows one to formalize (atl eastl arge parts of) Bishop's constructive mathematics, this makes it unlikely that WMP can be proved within the...
On closed weak supplemented modules
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZENG Qing-yi; SHI Mei-hua
2006-01-01
A module M is called closed weak supplemented if for any closed submodule N of M, there is a submodule K of M such that M=K+N and K(c)N＜＜M. Any direct summand of closed weak supplemented module is also closed weak supplemented.Any nonsingular image of closed weak supplemented module is closed weak supplemented. Nonsingular V-rings in which all nonsingular modules are closed weak supplemented are characterized in Section 4.
On modeling weak sinks in MODPATH
Abrams, Daniel B.; Haitjema, Henk; Kauffman, Leon J.
2012-01-01
Regional groundwater flow systems often contain both strong sinks and weak sinks. A strong sink extracts water from the entire aquifer depth, while a weak sink lets some water pass underneath or over the actual sink. The numerical groundwater flow model MODFLOW may allow a sink cell to act as a strong or weak sink, hence extracting all water that enters the cell or allowing some of that water to pass. A physical strong sink can be modeled by either a strong sink cell or a weak sink cell, with the latter generally occurring in low resolution models. Likewise, a physical weak sink may also be represented by either type of sink cell. The representation of weak sinks in the particle tracing code MODPATH is more equivocal than in MODFLOW. With the appropriate parameterization of MODPATH, particle traces and their associated travel times to weak sink streams can be modeled with adequate accuracy, even in single layer models. Weak sink well cells, on the other hand, require special measures as proposed in the literature to generate correct particle traces and individual travel times and hence capture zones. We found that the transit time distributions for well water generally do not require special measures provided aquifer properties are locally homogeneous and the well draws water from the entire aquifer depth, an important observation for determining the response of a well to non-point contaminant inputs.
Arakawa, Naoya
2016-11-01
I propose the emergence of the spin-orbital-coupled vector chirality in a nonfrustrated Mott insulator with the strong spin-orbit coupling due to a b -plane's inversion-symmetry (IS) breaking. I derive the superexchange interactions for a t2 g-orbital Hubbard model on a square lattice with the strong spin-orbit coupling and the IS-breaking-induced hopping integrals, and explain the microscopic origins of the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) -type and the Kitaev-type interactions. Then, by adopting the mean-field approximation to a minimal model including only the Heisenberg-type and the DM-type nearest-neighbor interactions, I show that the IS breaking causes the spin-orbital-coupled chirality as a result of stabilizing the screw state. I also highlight the limit of the hard-pseudospin approximation in discussing the stability of the screw states in the presence of both the DM-type and the Kitaev-type interactions, and discuss its meaning. I finally discuss the effects of tetragonal crystal field and Jeff=3/2 states, and the application to the iridates near the [001 ] surface of Sr2IrO4 and the interface between Sr2IrO4 and Sr3Ir2O7 .
Weak, strong, and uniform quantum simulations
Wang, Dong-Sheng
2015-01-01
In this work, we introduce different types of quantum simulations according to different operator topologies on a Hilbert space, namely, uniform, strong, and weak quantum simulations. We show that they have the same computational power that the efficiently solvable problems are in bounded-error quantum polynomial time. For the weak simulation, we formalize a general weak quantum simulation problem and construct an algorithm which is valid for all instances. Also, we analyze the computational power of quantum simulations by proving the query lower bound for simulating a general quantum process.
Weak Polarized Electron Scattering
Erler, Jens; Mantry, Sonny; Souder, Paul A
2014-01-01
Scattering polarized electrons provides an important probe of the weak interactions. Precisely measuring the parity-violating left-right cross section asymmetry is the goal of a number of experiments recently completed or in progress. The experiments are challenging, since A_{LR} is small, typically between 10^(-4) and 10^(-8). By carefully choosing appropriate targets and kinematics, various pieces of the weak Lagrangian can be isolated, providing a search for physics beyond the Standard Model. For other choices, unique features of the strong interaction are studied, including the radius of the neutron density in heavy nuclei, charge symmetry violation, and higher twist terms. This article reviews the theory behind the experiments, as well as the general techniques used in the experimental program.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suzuki, M.
1988-04-01
Dynamical mechanism of composite W and Z is studied in a 1/N field theory model with four-fermion interactions in which global weak SU(2) symmetry is broken explicitly by electromagnetic interaction. Issues involved in such a model are discussed in detail. Deviation from gauge coupling due to compositeness and higher order loop corrections are examined to show that this class of models are consistent not only theoretically but also experimentally.
On Weakly Singular Versions of Discrete Nonlinear Inequalities and Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kelong Cheng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Some new weakly singular versions of discrete nonlinear inequalities are established, which generalize some existing weakly singular inequalities and can be used in the analysis of nonlinear Volterra type difference equations with weakly singular kernels. A few applications to the upper bound and the uniqueness of solutions of nonlinear difference equations are also involved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haagerup, Uffe; Knudby, Søren
2015-01-01
The weak Haagerup property for locally compact groups and the weak Haagerup constant were recently introduced by the second author [27]. The weak Haagerup property is weaker than both weak amenability introduced by Cowling and the first author [9] and the Haagerup property introduced by Connes [6......] and Choda [5]. In this paper, it is shown that a connected simple Lie group G has the weak Haagerup property if and only if the real rank of G is zero or one. Hence for connected simple Lie groups the weak Haagerup property coincides with weak amenability. Moreover, it turns out that for connected simple...... Lie groups the weak Haagerup constant coincides with the weak amenability constant, although this is not true for locally compact groups in general. It is also shown that the semidirect product R2 × SL(2,R) does not have the weak Haagerup property....
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈广
2016-01-01
ObjectiveTo explore the treatment of the weak breast tissue type of small breast disease by using modified subpectoral breast augmentation. Methods Fifty-seven cases treated by the surgery of breast augmentation under the ectopectoralis, including stripped the ectopectoralis. Then,with the help of endoscope, part of the abdomen rectus abdominis anterior sheath, external oblique as well as serratus anterior musculo were stripped, to place the prosthesis.ResultsWithin six months to two years after the surgery, complications such as hematoma, infection, prosthesis displacement deformation and so on, were not found in those cases. Breast shape looked good, the degree of satisfaction of all cases was hige.Conclusion Treating the weak breast tissue type of small breast disease by using modified subpectoral breast augmentation can be appliedbecause of less complication after surgery.%目的：探讨改良后胸肌下隆乳术治疗胸部软组织薄弱型小乳症。方法：对于57例美容就医者行胸大肌下隆乳术时，除进行胸大肌剥离外，借助内窥镜向下将两侧腹直肌前鞘、腹外斜肌及前锯肌筋膜做部分剥离，成形假体受床后置入乳房假体。结果：本组术后未出现血肿，感染、假体移位变形等并发症，术后随访6个月～2年，乳房外观美感好，美容就医者满意度高。结论：改良胸肌下隆乳术比较适用于胸部软组织薄弱性小乳症，术后并发症少，可以推广应用。
Weak Hopf Algebras Corresponding to Borcherds-Cartan Matrices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Xia YE; Zhi Xiang WU; Xue Feng MEI
2007-01-01
Let y be a generalized Kac-Moody algebra with an integral Borcherds-Cartan matrix. Inthis paper, we define a d-type weak quantum generalized Kac-Moody algebra wUdq(y), which is a weakHopf algebra. We also study the highest weight module over the weak quantum algebra wUdq(y) andWeak A-forms of wUdq(y).
Inversion assuming weak scattering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus
2013-01-01
The study of weak scattering from inhomogeneous media or interface roughness has long been of interest in sonar applications. In an acoustic backscattering model of a stationary field of volume inhomogeneities, a stochastic description of the field is more useful than a deterministic description...... due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...
Erler, Jens
2013-01-01
This is a review of electroweak precision physics with particular emphasis on low-energy precision measurements in the neutral current sector of the electroweak theory and includes future experimental prospects and the theoretical challenges one faces to interpret these observables. Within the minimal Standard Model they serve as determinations of the weak mixing angle which are competitive with and complementary to those obtained near the Z-resonance. In the context of new physics beyond the Standard Model these measurements are crucial to discriminate between models and to reduce the allowed parameter space within a given model. We illustrate this for the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model with or without R-parity.
Weakly broken galileon symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pirtskhalava, David [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Santoni, Luca; Trincherini, Enrico [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Vernizzi, Filippo [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette cédex, F-91191 (France)
2015-09-01
Effective theories of a scalar ϕ invariant under the internal galileon symmetryϕ→ϕ+b{sub μ}x{sup μ} have been extensively studied due to their special theoretical and phenomenological properties. In this paper, we introduce the notion of weakly broken galileon invariance, which characterizes the unique class of couplings of such theories to gravity that maximally retain their defining symmetry. The curved-space remnant of the galileon’s quantum properties allows to construct (quasi) de Sitter backgrounds largely insensitive to loop corrections. We exploit this fact to build novel cosmological models with interesting phenomenology, relevant for both inflation and late-time acceleration of the universe.
Exotic skyrmion crystals in chiral magnets with compass anisotropy
Chen, J. P.; Zhang, Dan-Wei; Liu, J.-M.
2016-07-01
The compass-type anisotropy appears naturally in diverse physical contexts with strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) such as transition metal oxides and cold atomic gases etc, and it has been receiving substantial attention. Motivated by recent studies and particularly recent experimental observations on helimagnet MnGe, we investigate the critical roles of this compass-type anisotropy in modulating various spin textures of chiral magnets with strong SOC, by Monte Carlo simulations based on a classical Heisenberg spin model with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction and compass anisotropy. A phase diagram with emergent spin orders in the space of compass anisotropy and out-of-plane magnetic field is presented. In this phase diagram, we propose that a hybrid super-crystal structure consisting of alternating half-skyrmion and half-anti-skyrmion is the possible zero-field ground state of MnGe. The simulated evolution of the spin structure driven by magnetic field is in good accordance with experimental observations on MnGe. Therefore, this Heisenberg spin model successfully captures the main physics responsible for the magnetic structures in MnGe, and the present work may also be instructive to research on the magnetic states in other systems with strong SOC.
Weak Lensing Simulations for the SKA
Patel, Prina; Makhathini, Sphesihle; Abdalla, Filipe; Bacon, David; Brown, Michael L; Heywood, Ian; Jarvis, Matt; Smirnov, Oleg
2015-01-01
Weak gravitational lensing measurements are traditionally made at optical wavelengths where many highly resolved galaxy images are readily available. However, the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) holds great promise for this type of measurement at radio wavelengths owing to its greatly increased sensitivity and resolution over typical radio surveys. The key to successful weak lensing experiments is in measuring the shapes of detected sources to high accuracy. In this document we describe a simulation pipeline designed to simulate radio images of the quality required for weak lensing, and will be typical of SKA observations. We provide as input, images with realistic galaxy shapes which are then simulated to produce images as they would have been observed with a given radio interferometer. We exploit this pipeline to investigate various stages of a weak lensing experiment in order to better understand the effects that may impact shape measurement. We first show how the proposed SKA1-Mid array configurations perfor...
Alberico, W M
2004-01-01
The focus of these Lectures is on the weak decay modes of hypernuclei, with special attention to Lambda-hypernuclei. The subject involves many fields of modern theoretical and experimental physics, from nuclear structure to the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. The various weak decay modes of Lambda-hypernuclei are described: the mesonic mode and the non-mesonic ones. The latter are the dominant decay channels of medium--heavy hypernuclei, where, on the contrary, the mesonic decay is disfavoured by Pauli blocking effect on the outgoing nucleon. In particular, one can distinguish between one-body and two-body induced decays. Theoretical models employed to evaluate the (partial and total) decay widths of hypernuclei are illustrated, and their results compared with existing experimental data. Open problems and recent achievements are extensively discussed, in particular the determination of the ratio Gamma_n/Gamma_p, possible tests of the Delta I=1/2 rule in non-mesonic decays and the pu...
Jolley, Sarah E; Bunnell, Aaron E; Hough, Catherine L
2016-11-01
Survivorship after critical illness is an increasingly important health-care concern as ICU use continues to increase while ICU mortality is decreasing. Survivors of critical illness experience marked disability and impairments in physical and cognitive function that persist for years after their initial ICU stay. Newfound impairment is associated with increased health-care costs and use, reductions in health-related quality of life, and prolonged unemployment. Weakness, critical illness neuropathy and/or myopathy, and muscle atrophy are common in patients who are critically ill, with up to 80% of patients admitted to the ICU developing some form of neuromuscular dysfunction. ICU-acquired weakness (ICUAW) is associated with longer durations of mechanical ventilation and hospitalization, along with greater functional impairment for survivors. Although there is increasing recognition of ICUAW as a clinical entity, significant knowledge gaps exist concerning identifying patients at high risk for its development and understanding its role in long-term outcomes after critical illness. This review addresses the epidemiologic and pathophysiologic aspects of ICUAW; highlights the diagnostic challenges associated with its diagnosis in patients who are critically ill; and proposes, to our knowledge, a novel strategy for identifying ICUAW. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A Continuation Method for Weakly Kannan Maps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ariza-Ruiz David
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The first continuation method for contractive maps in the setting of a metric space was given by Granas. Later, Frigon extended Granas theorem to the class of weakly contractive maps, and recently Agarwal and O'Regan have given the corresponding result for a certain type of quasicontractions which includes maps of Kannan type. In this note we introduce the concept of weakly Kannan maps and give a fixed point theorem, and then a continuation method, for this class of maps.
Weak lensing and cosmological investigation
Acquaviva, V
2005-01-01
In the last few years the scientific community has been dealing with the challenging issue of identifying the dark energy component. We regard weak gravitational lensing as a brand new, and extremely important, tool for cosmological investigation in this field. In fact, the features imprinted on the cosmic microwave background radiation by the lensing from the intervening distribution of matter represent a pretty unbiased estimator, and can thus be used for putting constraints on different dark energy models. This is true in particular for the magnetic-type B-modes of CMB polarization, whose unlensed spectrum at large multipoles (l approximately=1000) is very small even in presence of an amount of gravitational waves as large as currently allowed by the experiments: therefore, on these scales the lensing phenomenon is the only responsible for the observed power, and this signal turns out to be a faithful tracer of the dark energy dynamics. We first recall the formal apparatus of the weak lensing in extended t...
Kaplan, L
1998-01-01
We examine the consequences of classical ergodicity for the localization properties of individual quantum eigenstates in the classical limit. We note that the well known Schnirelman result is a weaker form of quantum ergodicity than the one implied by random matrix theory. This suggests the possibility of systems with non-gaussian random eigenstates which are nonetheless ergodic in the sense of Schnirelman and lead to ergodic transport in the classical limit. These we call "weakly quantum ergodic.'' Indeed for a class of "slow ergodic" classical systems, it is found that each eigenstate becomes localized to an ever decreasing fraction of the available state space, in the semiclassical limit. Nevertheless, each eigenstate in this limit covers phase space evenly on any classical scale, and long-time transport properties betwen individual quantum states remain ergodic due to the diffractive effects which dominate quantum phase space exploration.
Weakly deformed soliton lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dubrovin, B. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Moscow (USSR). Dept. of Mechanics and Mathematics)
1990-12-01
In this lecture the author discusses periodic and quasiperiodic solutions of nonlinear evolution equations of phi{sub t}=K (phi, phi{sub x},..., phi{sup (n)}), the so-called soliton lattices. After introducing the theory of integrable systems of hydrodynamic type he discusses their Hamiltonian formalism, i.e. the theory of Poisson brackets of hydrodynamic type. Then he describes the application of algebraic geometry to the effective integration of such equations. (HSI).
Dosen, K
2010-01-01
An operad (this paper deals with non-symmetric operads) may be conceived as a partial algebra with a family of insertion operations, Gerstenhaber's circle-i products, which satisfy two kinds of associativity, one of them involving commutativity. A Cat-operad is an operad enriched over the category Cat of small categories, as a 2-category with small hom-categories is a category enriched over Cat. The notion of weak Cat-operad is to the notion of Cat-operad what the notion of bicategory is to the notion of 2-category. The equations of operads like associativity of insertions are replaced by isomorphisms in a category. The goal of this paper is to formulate conditions concerning these isomorphisms that ensure coherence, in the sense that all diagrams of canonical arrows commute. This is the sense in which the notions of monoidal category and bicategory are coherent. The coherence proof in the paper is much simplified by indexing the insertion operations in a context-independent way, and not in the usual manner. ...
Weak Total Resolvability In Graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Casel Katrin
2016-02-01
Full Text Available A vertex v ∈ V (G is said to distinguish two vertices x, y ∈ V (G of a graph G if the distance from v to x is di erent from the distance from v to y. A set W ⊆ V (G is a total resolving set for a graph G if for every pair of vertices x, y ∈ V (G, there exists some vertex w ∈ W − {x, y} which distinguishes x and y, while W is a weak total resolving set if for every x ∈ V (G−W and y ∈ W, there exists some w ∈ W −{y} which distinguishes x and y. A weak total resolving set of minimum cardinality is called a weak total metric basis of G and its cardinality the weak total metric dimension of G. Our main contributions are the following ones: (a Graphs with small and large weak total metric bases are characterised. (b We explore the (tight relation to independent 2-domination. (c We introduce a new graph parameter, called weak total adjacency dimension and present results that are analogous to those presented for weak total dimension. (d For trees, we derive a characterisation of the weak total (adjacency metric dimension. Also, exact figures for our parameters are presented for (generalised fans and wheels. (e We show that for Cartesian product graphs, the weak total (adjacency metric dimension is usually pretty small. (f The weak total (adjacency dimension is studied for lexicographic products of graphs.
The strong side of weak topological insulators
Kraus, Yaacov; Ringel, Zohar; Stern, Ady
2012-02-01
Three-dimensional topological insulators are classified into ``strong'' (STI) and ``weak'' (WTI) according to the nature of their surface states. While the surface states of the STI are topologically protected, in the WTI they are believed to be very fragile to disorder. In this work we show that the WTI surface states are actually protected from any random perturbation which does not break time-reversal symmetry, and does not close the bulk energy gap. Consequently, the conductivity of metallic surfaces in the clean system will remain finite even in the presence of strong disorder of this type. In the weak disorder limit the surfaces are perfect metals, and strong surface disorder only acts to push them inwards. We find that WTI's differ from STI's primarily in their anisotropy, and that the anisotropy is not a sign of their weakness but rather of their richness.
Enhancing QKD security with weak measurements
Farinholt, Jacob M.; Troupe, James E.
2016-10-01
Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on 10/24/2016, was replaced with a corrected/revised version on 11/8/2016. If you downloaded the original PDF but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance. In the late 1980s, Aharonov and colleagues developed the notion of a weak measurement of a quantum observable that does not appreciably disturb the system.1, 2 The measurement results are conditioned on both the pre-selected and post-selected state of the quantum system. While any one measurement reveals very little information, by making the same measurement on a large ensemble of identically prepared pre- and post-selected (PPS) states and averaging the results, one may obtain what is known as the weak value of the observable with respect to that PPS ensemble. Recently, weak measurements have been proposed as a method of assessing the security of QKD in the well-known BB84 protocol.3 This weak value augmented QKD protocol (WV-QKD) works by additionally requiring the receiver, Bob, to make a weak measurement of a particular observable prior to his strong measurement. For the subset of measurement results in which Alice and Bob's measurement bases do not agree, the weak measurement results can be used to detect any attempt by an eavesdropper, Eve, to correlate her measurement results with Bob's. Furthermore, the well-known detector blinding attacks, which are known to perfectly correlate Eve's results with Bob's without being caught by conventional BB84 implementations, actually make the eavesdropper more visible in the new WV-QKD protocol. In this paper, we will introduce the WV-QKD protocol and discuss its generalization to the 6-state single qubit protocol. We will discuss the types of weak measurements that are optimal for this protocol, and compare the predicted performance of the 6- and 4-state WV-QKD protocols.
Weak compactness of biharmonic maps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shenzhou Zheng
2012-10-01
Full Text Available This article shows that if a sequence of weak solutions of a perturbed biharmonic map satisfies $Phi_ko 0$ in $(W^{2,2}^*$ and $u_kightharpoonup u$ weakly in $W^{2,2}$, then $u$ is a biharmonic map. In particular, we show that the space of biharmonic maps is sequentially compact under the weak-$W^{2,2}$ topology.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Varga, Tamas [Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Droubay, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bowden, Mark E. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Colby, Robert J. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Manandhar, Sandeep [Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam [Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hu, Dehong [Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Kabius, Bernd C. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Apra, Edoardo [Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Shelton, William A. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Chambers, Scott A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
2013-04-15
We report the magnetic and structural characteristics of epitaxial NiTiO_{3} films grown by pulsed laser deposition that are isostructural with acentric LiNbO_{3} (space group R3c). Optical second harmonic generation and magnetometry demonstrate lattice polarization at room temperature and weak ferromagnetism below 250 K, respectively. These results appear to be consistent with earlier predictions from first-principles calculations of the coexistence of ferroelectricity and weak ferromagnetism in a series of transition metal titanates crystallizing in the LiNbO_{3 }structure. This acentric form of NiTiO_{3} is believed to be one of the rare examples of ferroelectrics exhibiting weak ferromagnetism generated by a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction.
Simulation of weak and strong Langmuir collapse regimes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hadzievski, L.R.; Skoric, M.M. [Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Kono, M.; Sato, T.
1998-01-01
In order to check the validity of the self-similar solutions and the existence of weak and strong collapse regimes, direct two dimensional simulation of the time evolution of a Langmuir soliton instability is performed. Simulation is based on the Zakharov model of strong Langmuir turbulence in a weakly magnetized plasma accounting for the full ion dynamics. For parameters considered, agreement with self-similar dynamics of the weak collapse type is found with no evidence of the strong Langmuir collapse. (author)
On properties of (weakly) small groups
Milliet, Cédric
2011-01-01
A group is small if it has countably many complete $n$-types over the empty set for each natural number n. More generally, a group $G$ is weakly small if it has countably many complete 1-types over every finite subset of G. We show here that in a weakly small group, subgroups which are definable with parameters lying in a finitely generated algebraic closure satisfy the descending chain conditions for their traces in any finitely generated algebraic closure. An infinite weakly small group has an infinite abelian subgroup, which may not be definable. A small nilpotent group is the central product of a definable divisible group with a definable one of bounded exponent. In a group with simple theory, any set of pairwise commuting elements is contained in a definable finite-by-abelian subgroup. First corollary : a weakly small group with simple theory has an infinite definable finite-by-abelian subgoup. Secondly, in a group with simple theory, a normal solvable group A of derived length n is contained in an A-def...
[Systemic lupus erythematosus and weakness].
Vinagre, Filipe; Santos, Maria José; da Silva, José Canas
2006-01-01
We report a case of a 13-year old young girl, with Juvenile Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and recent onset of muscle weakness. Investigations lead to the diagnosis of Myasthenia Gravis. The most important causes of muscle weakness in lupus patients are discussed.
Measurements of weak localization of graphene in inhomogeneous magnetic fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindvall, N.; Shivayogimath, Abhay; Yurgens, A.
2015-01-01
Weak localization in graphene is studied in inhomogeneous magnetic fields. To generate the inhomogeneous field, a thin film of type-II superconducting niobium is put in close proximity to graphene. A deviation from the ordinary quadratic weak localization behavior is observed at low fields. We...
Acute neuromuscular weakness associated with dengue infection
Harmanjit Singh Hira; Amandeep Kaur; Anuj Shukla
2012-01-01
Background: Dengue infections may present with neurological complications. Whether these are due to neuromuscular disease or electrolyte imbalance is unclear. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight patients of dengue fever required hospitalization during epidemic in year 2010. Twelve of them presented with acute neuromuscular weakness. We enrolled them for study. Diagnosis of dengue infection based on clinical profile of patients, positive serum IgM ELISA, NS1 antigen, and sero-typing. Complete ...
Continuity in weak topology: higher order linear systems of ODE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG MeiRong
2008-01-01
We will introduce a type of Fredholm operators which are shown to have a certain continuity in weak topologies. From this, we will prove that the fundamental matrix solutions of k-th,k≥ 2, order linear systems of ordinary differential equations are continuous in coefficient matrixes with weak topologies. Consequently, Floquet multipliers and Lyapunov exponents for periodic systems are continuous in weak topologies. Moreover, for the scalar Hill's equations, Sturm-Liouville eigenvalues,periodic and anti-periodic eigenvalues, and rotation numbers are all continuous in potentials with weak topologies. These results will lead to many interesting variational problems.
Precision Metrology Using Weak Measurements
Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A.
2015-05-01
Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.
Precision metrology using weak measurements.
Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A
2015-05-29
Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.
Acute muscular weakness in children
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ricardo Pablo Javier Erazo Torricelli
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acute muscle weakness in children is a pediatric emergency. During the diagnostic approach, it is crucial to obtain a detailed case history, including: onset of weakness, history of associated febrile states, ingestion of toxic substances/toxins, immunizations, and family history. Neurological examination must be meticulous as well. In this review, we describe the most common diseases related to acute muscle weakness, grouped into the site of origin (from the upper motor neuron to the motor unit. Early detection of hyperCKemia may lead to a myositis diagnosis, and hypokalemia points to the diagnosis of periodic paralysis. Ophthalmoparesis, ptosis and bulbar signs are suggestive of myasthenia gravis or botulism. Distal weakness and hyporeflexia are clinical features of Guillain-Barré syndrome, the most frequent cause of acute muscle weakness. If all studies are normal, a psychogenic cause should be considered. Finding the etiology of acute muscle weakness is essential to execute treatment in a timely manner, improving the prognosis of affected children.
Weak solution for stochastic differential equations with terminal conditions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIN; Qingquan(林清泉)
2002-01-01
The notion of weak solution for stochastic differential equation with terminal conditions is in-troduced. By Girsanov transformation, the equivalence of existence of weak solutions for two-type equationsis established. Several sufficient conditions for the existence of the weak solutions for stochastic differentialequation with terminal conditions are obtained, and the solution existence condition for this type of equations isrelaxed. Finally, an example is given to show that the result is an essential extension of the one under Lipschitzcondition on g with respect to (Y, Z).
... stroke After injury to a nerve During a flare-up of multiple sclerosis (MS) You may feel ... Duchenne) Myotonic dystrophy POISONING Botulism Poisoning ( insecticides , nerve gas) Shellfish poisoning OTHER Not enough healthy red blood ...
Universal portfolios generated by weakly stationary processes
Tan, Choon Peng; Pang, Sook Theng
2014-12-01
Recently, a universal portfolio generated by a set of independent Brownian motions where a finite number of past stock prices are weighted by the moments of the multivariate normal distribution is introduced and studied. The multivariate normal moments as polynomials in time consequently lead to a constant rebalanced portfolio depending on the drift coefficients of the Brownian motions. For a weakly stationary process, a different type of universal portfolio is proposed where the weights on the stock prices depend only on the time differences of the stock prices. An empirical study is conducted on the returns achieved by the universal portfolios generated by the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process on selected stock-price data sets. Promising results are demonstrated for increasing the wealth of the investor by using the weakly-stationary-process-generated universal portfolios.
Weak cosmic censorship: as strong as ever.
Hod, Shahar
2008-03-28
Spacetime singularities that arise in gravitational collapse are always hidden inside of black holes. This is the essence of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture. The hypothesis, put forward by Penrose 40 years ago, is still one of the most important open questions in general relativity. In this Letter, we reanalyze extreme situations which have been considered as counterexamples to the weak cosmic censorship conjecture. In particular, we consider the absorption of scalar particles with large angular momentum by a black hole. Ignoring back reaction effects may lead one to conclude that the incident wave may overspin the black hole, thereby exposing its inner singularity to distant observers. However, we show that when back reaction effects are properly taken into account, the stability of the black-hole event horizon is irrefutable. We therefore conclude that cosmic censorship is actually respected in this type of gedanken experiments.
Strong side of weak topological insulators
Ringel, Zohar; Kraus, Yaacov E.; Stern, Ady
2012-07-01
Three-dimensional topological insulators are classified into “strong” (STI) and “weak” (WTI) according to the nature of their surface states. While the surface states of the STI are topologically protected from localization, this does not hold for the WTI. In this work, we show that the surface states of the WTI are actually protected from any random perturbation that does not break time-reversal symmetry, and does not close the bulk energy gap. Consequently, the conductivity of metallic surfaces in the clean system remains finite even in the presence of strong disorder of this type. In the weak disorder limit, the surfaces are found to be perfect metals, and strong surface disorder only acts to push the metallic surfaces inwards. We find that the WTI differs from the STI primarily in its anisotropy, and that the anisotropy is not a sign of its weakness but rather of its richness.
Peripheral facial weakness (Bell's palsy).
Basić-Kes, Vanja; Dobrota, Vesna Dermanović; Cesarik, Marijan; Matovina, Lucija Zadro; Madzar, Zrinko; Zavoreo, Iris; Demarin, Vida
2013-06-01
Peripheral facial weakness is a facial nerve damage that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face. It may be idiopathic (Bell's palsy) or may have a detectable cause. Almost 80% of peripheral facial weakness cases are primary and the rest of them are secondary. The most frequent causes of secondary peripheral facial weakness are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immune disorders, drugs, degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, etc. The diagnosis relies upon the presence of typical signs and symptoms, blood chemistry tests, cerebrospinal fluid investigations, nerve conduction studies and neuroimaging methods (cerebral MRI, x-ray of the skull and mastoid). Treatment of secondary peripheral facial weakness is based on therapy for the underlying disorder, unlike the treatment of Bell's palsy that is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are some indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but there are also studies that show no beneficial effect. Additional treatments include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or surgery. Bell's palsy has a benign prognosis with complete recovery in about 80% of patients, 15% experience some mode of permanent nerve damage and severe consequences remain in 5% of patients.
Weak forms of continuity in I-double gradation fuzzy topological spaces.
Ghareeb, A
2012-12-01
In this paper, we introduce and characterize double fuzzy weakly preopen and double fuzzy weakly preclosed functions between I-double gradation fuzzy topological spaces and also study these functions in relation to some other types of already known functions.
Warping the Weak Gravity Conjecture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karta Kooner
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The Weak Gravity Conjecture, if valid, rules out simple models of Natural Inflation by restricting their axion decay constant to be sub-Planckian. We revisit stringy attempts to realise Natural Inflation, with a single open string axionic inflaton from a probe D-brane in a warped throat. We show that warped geometries can allow the requisite super-Planckian axion decay constant to be achieved, within the supergravity approximation and consistently with the Weak Gravity Conjecture. Preliminary estimates of the brane backreaction suggest that the probe approximation may be under control. However, there is a tension between large axion decay constant and high string scale, where the requisite high string scale is difficult to achieve in all attempts to realise large field inflation using perturbative string theory. We comment on the Generalized Weak Gravity Conjecture in the light of our results.
Interpolation for weak Orlicz spaces with condition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIAO Yong; PENG LiHua; LIU PeiDe
2008-01-01
An interpolation theorem for weak Orlicz spaces generalized by N-functions satisfying M△ condition is given.It is proved to be true for weak Orlicz martingale spaces by weak atomic decomposition of weak Hardy martingale spaces.And applying the interpolation theorem,we obtain some embedding relationships among weak Orlicz martingale spaces.
Electromagnetism in nonleptonic weak interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ecker, G. E-mail: ecker@doppler.thp.univie.ac.at; Isidori, G.; Mueller, G.; Neufeld, H.; Pich, A
2000-12-18
We construct a low-energy effective field theory that permits the complete treatment of isospin-breaking effects in nonleptonic weak interactions to next-to-leading order. To this end, we enlarge the chiral Lagrangian describing strong and {delta}S=1 weak interactions by including electromagnetic terms with the photon as additional dynamical degree of freedom. The complete and minimal list of local terms at next-to-leading order is given. We perform the one-loop renormalization at the level of the generating functional and specialize to K{yields}{pi}{pi} decays.
Cosmology and the weak interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schramm, D.N. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)):(Chicago Univ., IL (USA))
1989-12-01
The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. This review will emphasize two of its most publicized cosmological connections: Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Dark Matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of Neutrino Flavours, N{sub {nu}} {approximately} 3 which is now being confirmed at SLC and LEP. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galaxy and structure formation in the universe. This review will demonstrate the role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure. 87 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.
Weak disorder in Fibonacci sequences
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ben-Naim, E [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Krapivsky, P L [Department of Physics and Center for Molecular Cybernetics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)
2006-05-19
We study how weak disorder affects the growth of the Fibonacci series. We introduce a family of stochastic sequences that grow by the normal Fibonacci recursion with probability 1 - {epsilon}, but follow a different recursion rule with a small probability {epsilon}. We focus on the weak disorder limit and obtain the Lyapunov exponent that characterizes the typical growth of the sequence elements, using perturbation theory. The limiting distribution for the ratio of consecutive sequence elements is obtained as well. A number of variations to the basic Fibonacci recursion including shift, doubling and copying are considered. (letter to the editor)
The cohomology group of weak entwining structure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2007-01-01
In this paper, we reveal that a weak entwining structure admits a rich cohomology theory. As an application we compute the cohomology of a weak entwining structure associated to a weak coalgebra-Galois extension.
Tate form and weak coupling limits in F-theory
Esole, Mboyo; Savelli, Raffaele
2013-06-01
We consider the weak coupling limit of F-theory in the presence of non-Abelian gauge groups implemented using the traditional ansatz coming from Tate's algorithm. We classify the types of singularities that could appear in the weak coupling limit and explain their resolution. In particular, the weak coupling limit of SU( n) gauge groups leads to an orientifold theory which suffers from conifold singulaties that do not admit a crepant resolution compatible with the orientifold involution. We present a simple resolution to this problem by introducing a new weak coupling regime that admits singularities compatible with both a crepant resolution and an orientifold symmetry. We also comment on possible applications of the new limit to model building. We finally discuss other unexpected phenomena as for example the existence of several non-equivalent directions to flow from strong to weak coupling leading to different gauge groups.
Tate Form and Weak Coupling Limits in F-theory
Esole, Mboyo
2012-01-01
We consider the weak coupling limit of F-theory in the presence of non-Abelian gauge groups implemented using the traditional ansatz coming from Tate's algorithm. We classify the types of singularities that could appear in the weak coupling limit and explain their resolution. In particular, the weak coupling limit of SU(n) gauge groups leads to an orientifold theory which suffers from conifold singulaties that do not admit a crepant resolution compatible with the orientifold involution. We present a simple resolution to this problem by introducing a new weak coupling regime that admits singularities compatible with both a crepant resolution and an orientifold symmetry. We also comment on possible applications of the new limit to model building. We finally discuss other unexpected phenomena as for example the existence of several non-equivalent directions to flow from strong to weak coupling leading to different gauge groups.
Weakly linear systems of fuzzy relation inequalities: The heterogeneous case
Ignjatović, Jelena; Damljanović, Nada; Jančić, Ivana
2011-01-01
New types of systems of fuzzy relation inequalities and equations, called weakly linear, have been recently introduced in [J. Ignjatovi\\'c, M. \\'Ciri\\'c, S. Bogdanovi\\'c, On the greatest solutions to weakly linear systems of fuzzy relation inequalities and equations, Fuzzy Sets and Systems 161 (2010) 3081--3113.]. The mentioned paper dealt with homogeneous weakly linear systems, composed of fuzzy relations on a single set, and a method for computing their greatest solutions has been provided. This method is based on the computing of the greatest post-fixed point, contained in a given fuzzy relation, of an isotone function on the lattice of fuzzy relations. Here we adapt this method for computing the greatest solutions of heterogeneous weakly linear systems, where the unknown fuzzy relation relates two possibly different sets. We also introduce and study quotient fuzzy relational systems and establish relationships between solutions to heterogeneous and homogeneous weakly linear systems. Besides, we point out ...
Second threshold in weak interactions
Veltman, M.J.G.
1977-01-01
The point of view that weak interactions must have a second threshold below 300 – 600 GeV is developed. Above this threshold new physics must come in. This new physics may be the Higgs system, or some other nonperturbative system possibly having some similarities to the Higgs system. The limit of la
Beam splitting on weak illumination.
Snyder, A W; Buryak, A V; Mitchell, D J
1998-01-01
We demonstrate, in both two and three dimensions, how a self-guided beam in a non-Kerr medium is split into two beams on weak illumination. We also provide an elegant physical explanation that predicts the universal character of the observed phenomenon. Possible applications of our findings to guiding light with light are also discussed.
Weak measurements and supraluminal communication
Belinsky, A V
2016-01-01
There is suggested a version of the experiment with a correlated pair of particles in the entangled state. The experiment demonstrates that, in the case of weak and/or non-demolition measurements of one of the particles, it is possible to transmit information with a speed not limited by velocity of light.
Thomys, Janus; Zhang, Xiaohong
2013-01-01
We describe weak-BCC-algebras (also called BZ-algebras) in which the condition (x∗y)∗z = (x∗z)∗y is satisfied only in the case when elements x, y belong to the same branch. We also characterize ideals, nilradicals, and nilpotent elements of such algebras. PMID:24311983
Eldercare at Home: Bone Weakness
... socialize. This can make exercising fun. If you don't exercise, your bones and muscles will become weak and your chances of falling will increase. Let’s exercise together. I will pick you up and we will go to the mall and walk for a little ...
Submanifolds Weakly Associated with Graphs
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A Carriazo; L M Fernández; A Rodríguez-Hidalgo
2009-06-01
We establish an interesting link between differential geometry and graph theory by defining submanifolds weakly associated with graphs. We prove that, in a local sense, every submanifold satisfies such an association, and other general results. Finally, we study submanifolds associated with graphs either in low dimensions or belonging to some special families.
Heating Cooling Flows with Weak Shock Waves
Mathews, W G; Brighenti, F
2006-01-01
The discovery of extended, approximately spherical weak shock waves in the hot intercluster gas in Perseus and Virgo has precipitated the notion that these waves may be the primary heating process that explains why so little gas cools to low temperatures. This type of heating has received additional support from recent gasdynamical models. We show here that outward propagating, dissipating waves deposit most of their energy near the center of the cluster atmosphere. Consequently, if the gas is heated by (intermittent) weak shocks for several Gyrs, the gas within 30-50 kpc is heated to temperatures that far exceed observed values. This heating can be avoided if dissipating shocks are sufficiently infrequent or weak so as not to be the primary source of global heating. Local PV and viscous heating associated with newly formed X-ray cavities are likely to be small, which is consistent with the low gas temperatures generally observed near the centers of groups and clusters where the cavities are located.
Parametric Amplification For Detecting Weak Optical Signals
Hemmati, Hamid; Chen, Chien; Chakravarthi, Prakash
1996-01-01
Optical-communication receivers of proposed type implement high-sensitivity scheme of optical parametric amplification followed by direct detection for reception of extremely weak signals. Incorporates both optical parametric amplification and direct detection into optimized design enhancing effective signal-to-noise ratios during reception in photon-starved (photon-counting) regime. Eliminates need for complexity of heterodyne detection scheme and partly overcomes limitations imposed on older direct-detection schemes by noise generated in receivers and by limits on quantum efficiencies of photodetectors.
Acute neuromuscular weakness associated with dengue infection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Harmanjit Singh Hira
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Dengue infections may present with neurological complications. Whether these are due to neuromuscular disease or electrolyte imbalance is unclear. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight patients of dengue fever required hospitalization during epidemic in year 2010. Twelve of them presented with acute neuromuscular weakness. We enrolled them for study. Diagnosis of dengue infection based on clinical profile of patients, positive serum IgM ELISA, NS1 antigen, and sero-typing. Complete hemogram, kidney and liver functions, serum electrolytes, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK were tested. In addition, two patients underwent nerve conduction velocity (NCV test and electromyography. Results: Twelve patients were included in the present study. Their age was between 18 and 34 years. Fever, myalgia, and motor weakness of limbs were most common presenting symptoms. Motor weakness developed on 2 nd to 4 th day of illness in 11 of 12 patients. In one patient, it developed on 10 th day of illness. Ten of 12 showed hypokalemia. One was of Guillain-Barré syndrome and other suffered from myositis; they underwent NCV and electromyography. Serum CPK and SGOT raised in 8 out of 12 patients. CPK of patient of myositis was 5098 IU. All of 12 patients had thrombocytopenia. WBC was in normal range. Dengue virus was isolated in three patients, and it was of serotype 1. CSF was normal in all. Within 24 hours, those with hypokalemia recovered by potassium correction. Conclusions: It was concluded that the dengue virus infection led to acute neuromuscular weakness because of hypokalemia, myositis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. It was suggested to look for presence of hypokalemia in such patients.
Rh Immunoprophylaxis for Women With a Serologic Weak D Phenotype.
Virk, Mrigender; Sandler, S Gerald
2015-01-01
It is standard practice for pregnant RhD-negative women who have not already formed anti-D to receive antepartum Rh immunoprophylaxis and, if they deliver an RhD-positive neonate, to receive postpartum Rh immunoprophylaxis. An estimated 0.6% to 1.0% of white women have red blood cells that express a serologic weak D phenotype. Of these women, approximately 80% will have a weak D type 1, 2, or 3 that could be managed safely as RhD-positive. Surveys of laboratory practice reveal a lack of standards for interpreting the RhD type for women with a serologic weak D and for determining their need for Rh immunoprophylaxis. RhD genotyping is recommended to determine the molecular basis of serologic weak D phenotypes in pregnant women as a basis for determining their candidacy for Rh immunoprophylaxis.
Hall, Lawrence J; Ruderman, Joshua T
2014-01-01
The measured values of the weak scale, $v$, and the first generation masses, $m_{u,d,e}$, are simultaneously explained in the multiverse, with all these parameters scanning independently. At the same time, several remarkable coincidences are understood. Small variations in these parameters away from their measured values lead to the instability of hydrogen, the instability of heavy nuclei, and either a hydrogen or a helium dominated universe from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. In the 4d parameter space of $(m_u,m_d,m_e,v)$, catastrophic boundaries are reached by separately increasing each parameter above its measured value by a factor of $(1.4,1.3,2.5,\\sim5)$, respectively. The fine-tuning problem of the weak scale in the Standard Model is solved: as $v$ is increased beyond the observed value, it is impossible to maintain a significant cosmological hydrogen abundance for any values of $m_{u,d,e}$ that yield both hydrogen and heavy nuclei stability. For very large values of $v$ a new regime is entered where weak in...
Identification and classification of weak layers in the snow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. S. Klimenko
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The paper considers the role of vertical snowpack structure for snow avalanche formation and describes the idea of «structural instability». It aims at enhancing the knowledge about transition mechanisms between stable and unstable states of snowpack and snow avalanches release. Structural instability implies the presence of weak layer or interface in vertical snowpack profile. Type of snow failure and avalanche characteristics are completely defined by snowpack state and properties. Thus wide variety of genetic types of snow avalanches indicates the existence of structural instability of different types. The detailed analysis of scientific publications and field observations led to the creation of a new classification of weak layers. The layers are classified basing on their cohesiveness, the causes of initial disturbance and internal and external processes which form a weak layer. The classification is a necessary part of global method which allows assessing snowpack stability using modern physical models of snow cover evolution.
Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bull, J. W.; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.;
2016-01-01
environmental awareness. Threats include resistance to change, and difficulty with interdisciplinary collaboration. Consideration of SWOT themes suggested five strategic areas for developing and implementing ES.The ES concept could improve decision-making related to natural resource use, and interpretation...... facilitate interdisciplinary research, ensuring decision-making that supports sustainable development........ Such an assessment could form the basis for improving ES thinking, further embedding it into environmental decisions and management.The Young Ecosystem Services Specialists (YESS) completed a Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats (SWOT) analysis of ES through YESS member surveys. Strengths include the approach...
Weak Precedence Story Parsing Grammar
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张松懋
1995-01-01
Story understanding is one of the important branches of natural language understanding research in AI techniques.The story understanding approach based on Story Parsing Grammar (SPG) involves that SPG is used to represent different abstracting processes of stories with different levels in story understanding and that the story understanding process is converted to the recognition process of stories using the syntactic parser of SPG.This kind of story understanding is called story parsing.In this paper,firstly a subclass of SPG,called Weak Precedence SPG(WPSPG),is defined.Afterwards the syntactic parsing algorithm of WPSPG is studied.An example of story parsing is also given.
Weakly distributive domains(Ⅱ)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIANG Ying; ZHANG Guo-Qiang
2007-01-01
In our previous work(Inform.and Comput.,2005,202:87-103),we have shown that for any ω-algebraic meet-cpo D,if all higher-order stable function spaces built from D are ω-algebraic,then D is finitary.This accomplishes the first of a possible,two-step process in solving the problem raised(LNCS,1991,530:16-33;Domainsand lambda-calculi,Cambridge Univ.Press,1998)whetherthe category of stable bifinite domains of Amadio-Droste-G(o)bel(LNCS,1991,530:16-33;Theor.Comput.Sci.,1993,111:89-101)is the largest cartesian closed full subcategory within the category of ω-algebraic meet-cpos with stable functions.This paper presents the results of the second step,which is to show that for any ω-algebraic meet-cpo D satisfying axioms M and I to be contained in a cartesian closed full sub-category using ω-algebraic meet-cpos with stable functions,it must not violate M I∞.We introduce a new class of domains called weakly distributive domains and show that for these domains to be in a cartesian closed category using ω-algebraic meet-cpos,property M I must not be violated.Further,we demonstrate that principally distributive domains(those for which each principle ideal is distributive)form a proper subclass of weakly distributive domains,and Birkhoff's M3 and N5(Introduction to Lattices and order,Cambridge Univ.Press,2002)are weakly distributive(but non-distributive).Then,we establish characterization results for weakly distributive domains.We also introduce the notion of meet-generators in constructing stable functions and show that if an ω-algebraic meet-cpo D contains an infinite number of meet-generators,then[D→D]fails I.However,the original problem of Amadio and Curien remains open.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dariush Akbarian
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The Production Possibility Set (PPS is defined as a set of inputs and outputs of a system in which inputs can produce outputs. The Production Possibility Set of the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA model is contain of two types defining hyperplanes (facets; strong and weak efficient facets. In this paper, the problem of finding weak defining hyperplanes of the PPS of the CCR model is dealt with. However, the equation of strong defining hyperplanes of the PPS of the CCR model can be found in this paper. We state and prove some properties relative to our method. To illustrate the applicability of the proposed model, some numerical examples are finally provided. Our algorithm can easily be implemented using existing packages for operation research, such as GAMS.
Weak bond detection in composites using highly nonlinear solitary waves
Singhal, Taru; Kim, Eunho; Kim, Tae-Yeon; Yang, Jinkyu
2017-05-01
We experimentally investigate a diagnostic technique for identifying a weak bond in composites using highly nonlinear solitary waves (HNSWs). We set up a one-dimensional chain of granular crystals, consisting of spherical particles with nonlinear interactions, to generate HNSWs. These solitary wave packets are transmitted into an inspection area of composites by making a direct contact with the chain. We demonstrate that a strong type of solitary waves injected to the weak bond area can break the weak bond of laminates, thereby causing delamination. Then, to identify the creation of the delamination, we transmit a weak type of solitary waves by employing the same apparatus, and measure the solitary waves reflected from the specimens. By analyzing these reflected solitary waves, we differentiate the weak bond samples with the pristine bond ones in an efficient and fast manner. The diagnostic results based on the proposed method are compared with the strength and energy release rate at bond interfaces, which are measured via standard testing methods such as three point bending and end notched flexure tests. This study shows the potential of solitary wave-based detection of weak bonds for hot spot monitoring of composite-based structures.
The magnetosphere under weak solar wind forcing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. J. Farrugia
2007-02-01
Full Text Available The Earth's magnetosphere was very strongly disturbed during the passage of the strong shock and the following interacting ejecta on 21–25 October 2001. These disturbances included two intense storms (D_{st}^{*}≈−250 and −180 nT, respectively. The cessation of this activity at the start of 24 October ushered in a peculiar state of the magnetosphere which lasted for about 28 h and which we discuss in this paper. The interplanetary field was dominated by the sunward component [B=(4.29±0.77, −0.30±0.71, 0.49±0.45 nT]. We analyze global indicators of geomagnetic disturbances, polar cap precipitation, ground magnetometer records, and ionospheric convection as obtained from SuperDARN radars. The state of the magnetosphere is characterized by the following features: (i generally weak and patchy (in time low-latitude dayside reconnection or reconnection poleward of the cusps; (ii absence of substorms; (iii a monotonic recovery from the previous storm activity (D_{st} corrected for magnetopause currents decreasing from ~−65 to ~−35 nT, giving an unforced decreased of ~1.1 nT/h; (iv the probable absence of viscous-type interaction originating from the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH instability; (v a cross-polar cap potential of just 20–30 kV; (vi a persistent, polar cap region containing (vii very weak, and sometimes absent, electron precipitation and no systematic inter-hemisphere asymmetry. Whereas we therefore infer the presence of a moderate amount of open flux, the convection is generally weak and patchy, which we ascribe to the lack of solar wind driver. This magnetospheric state approaches that predicted by Cowley and Lockwood (1992 but has never yet been observed.
Weak localization in few-layer black phosphorus
Du, Yuchen; Neal, Adam T.; Zhou, Hong; Ye, Peide D.
2016-06-01
We have conducted a comprehensive investigation into the magneto-transport properties of few-layer black phosphorus in terms of phase coherence length, phase coherence time, and mobility via weak localization measurement and Hall-effect measurement. We present magnetoresistance data showing the weak localization effect in bare p-type few-layer black phosphorus and reveal its strong dependence on temperature and carrier concentration. The measured weak localization agrees well with the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model and the extracted phase coherence length of 104 nm at 350 mK, decreasing as ˜T-0.513+-0.053 with increased temperature. Weak localization measurement allows us to qualitatively probe the temperature-dependent phase coherence time τ ϕ , which is in agreement with the theory of carrier interaction in the diffusive regime. We also observe the universal conductance fluctuation phenomenon in few-layer black phosphorus within moderate magnetic field and low temperature regime.
Weakly circadian cells improve resynchrony.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexis B Webb
Full Text Available The mammalian suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN contain thousands of neurons capable of generating near 24-h rhythms. When isolated from their network, SCN neurons exhibit a range of oscillatory phenotypes: sustained or damping oscillations, or arrhythmic patterns. The implications of this variability are unknown. Experimentally, we found that cells within SCN explants recover from pharmacologically-induced desynchrony by re-establishing rhythmicity and synchrony in waves, independent of their intrinsic circadian period We therefore hypothesized that a cell's location within the network may also critically determine its resynchronization. To test this, we employed a deterministic, mechanistic model of circadian oscillators where we could independently control cell-intrinsic and network-connectivity parameters. We found that small changes in key parameters produced the full range of oscillatory phenotypes seen in biological cells, including similar distributions of period, amplitude and ability to cycle. The model also predicted that weaker oscillators could adjust their phase more readily than stronger oscillators. Using these model cells we explored potential biological consequences of their number and placement within the network. We found that the population synchronized to a higher degree when weak oscillators were at highly connected nodes within the network. A mathematically independent phase-amplitude model reproduced these findings. Thus, small differences in cell-intrinsic parameters contribute to large changes in the oscillatory ability of a cell, but the location of weak oscillators within the network also critically shapes the degree of synchronization for the population.
Optimal Weak Lensing Skewness Measurements
Zhang, T J; Zhang, P; Dubinski, J; Zhang, Tong-Jie; Pen, Ue-Li; Zhang, Pengjie; Dubinski, John
2003-01-01
Weak lensing measurements are entering a precision era to statistically map the distribution of matter in the universe. The most common measurement has been of the variance of the projected surface density of matter, which corresponds to the induced correlation in alignments of background galaxies. This measurement of the fluctuations is insensitive to the total mass content, like using waves on the ocean to measure its depths. But when the depth is shallow as happens near a beach, waves become skewed. Similarly, a measurement of skewness in the projected matter distribution directly measures the total matter content of the universe. While skewness has already been convincingly detected, its constraint on cosmology is still weak. We address optimal analyses for the CFHT Legacy Survey in the presence of noise. We show that a compensated Gaussian filter with a width of 2.5 arc minutes optimizes the cosmological constraint, yielding $\\Delta \\Omega_m/\\Omega_m\\sim 10%$. This is significantly better than other filt...
Hall, Lawrence J.; Pinner, David; Ruderman, Joshua T.
2014-12-01
The measured values of the weak scale, v, and the first generation masses, m u, d, e , are simultaneously explained in the multiverse, with all these parameters scanning independently. At the same time, several remarkable coincidences are understood. Small variations in these parameters away from their measured values lead to the instability of hydrogen, the instability of heavy nuclei, and either a hydrogen or a helium dominated universe from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. In the 4d parameter space of ( m u , m d , m e , v), catastrophic boundaries are reached by separately increasing each parameter above its measured value by a factor of (1.4, 1.3, 2.5, ˜ 5), respectively. The fine-tuning problem of the weak scale in the Standard Model is solved: as v is increased beyond the observed value, it is impossible to maintain a significant cosmological hydrogen abundance for any values of m u, d, e that yield both hydrogen and heavy nuclei stability.
Weak Quasielastic Production of Hyperons
Athar, M Sajjad; Alam, M Rafi; Chauhan, S; Singh, S K
2016-01-01
We present the results for antineutrino induced quasielastic hyperon production from nucleon and nuclear targets \\cite{Alam:2014bya,Singh:2006xp}. The inputs are the nucleon-hyperon(N--Y) transition form factors determined from the analysis of neutrino-nucleon scattering and semileptonic decays of neutron and hyperons using SU(3) symmetry. The calculations for the nuclear targets are done in local density approximation. The nuclear medium effects(NME) like Fermi motion, Pauli blocking and final state interaction(FSI) effects due to hyperon-nucleon scattering have been taken into account. The hyperons giving rise to pions through weak decays also contribute to the weak pion production in addition to the $\\Delta$ excitation mechanism which dominates in the energy region of $<$ 0.7 GeV. We also present the results of longitudinal and perpendicular components of polarization of final hyperon \\cite{Akbar:2016awk}. These measurements in the future accelerator experiments with antineutrinos may give some informat...
Political corruption and weak state
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stojiljković Zoran
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The author starts from the hypothesis that it is essential for the countries of the region to critically assess the synergy established between systemic, political corruption and a selectively weak, “devious” nature of the state. Moreover, the key dilemma is whether the expanded practice of political rent seeking supports the conclusion that the root of all corruption is in the very existence of the state - particularly in excessive, selective and deforming state interventions and benefits that create a fertile ground for corruption? The author argues that the destructive combination of weak government and rampant political corruption is based on scattered state intervention, while also rule the parties cartel in the executive branch subordinate to parliament, the judiciary and the police. Corrupt exchange takes place with the absence of strong institutional framework and the precise rules of the political and electoral games, control of public finances and effective political and anti-monopoly legislation and practice included. Exit from the current situation can be seen in the realization of effective anticorruption strategy that integrates preventive and repressive measures and activities and lead to the establishment of principles of good governance. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179076: Politički identitet Srbije u regionalnom i globalnom kontekstu
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eliana Henriques de Brito
1990-01-01
Full Text Available In continuing from previous papers, where we studied the existence and uniqueness of the global solution and its asymptotic behavior as time t goes to infinity, we now search for a time-periodic weak solution u(t for the equation whose weak formulation in a Hilbert space H isddt(u′,v+δ(u′,v+αb(u,v+βa(u,v+(G(u,v=(h,vwhere: ′=d/dt; (′ is the inner product in H; b(u,v, a(u,v are given forms on subspaces U⊂W, respectively, of H; δ>0, α≥0, β≥0 are constants and α+β>0; G is the Gateaux derivative of a convex functional J:V⊂H→[0,∞ for V=U, when α>0 and V=W when α=0, hence β>0; v is a test function in V; h is a given function of t with values in H.
Shear calibration biases in weak lensing surveys
Hirata, C M; Hirata, Christopher M.; Seljak, Uros
2003-01-01
We investigate biases induced by the conversion between the observed image shape to shear distortion in current weak lensing analysis methods. Such overall calibration biases cannot be detected by the standard tests such as E/B decomposition or calibration with stars. We find that the non-Gaussianity of point spread function has a significant effect and can lead to up to 15 per cent error on the linear amplitude of fluctuations sigma_8 depending on the method of analysis. This could explain some of the discrepancies seen in recent amplitude determinations from weak lensing. Using an elliptical Laguerre expansion method we develop a re-Gaussianization method which reduces the error to calibration error of order 1 per cent even for poorly resolved galaxies. We also discuss a new type of shear selection bias which results in up to roughly 8 percent underestimation of the signal. It is expected to scale with redshift, inducing errors in the growth factor extraction if not properly corrected for. Understanding and...
Newman, Mark J.; deCamp, Allan; Hay, Christine Mhorag; De Rosa, Stephen C.; Noonan, Elizabeth; Livingston, Brian D.; Fuchs, Jonathan D.; Kalams, Spyros A.; Cassis-Ghavami, Farah L.
2012-01-01
We evaluated a DNA plasmid-vectored vaccine and a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccine (MVA-mBN32), each encoding cytotoxic and helper T-lymphocyte epitopes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in 36 HIV-1-uninfected adults using a heterologous prime-boost schedule. HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses, measured as interleukin-2 and/or gamma interferon production, were induced in 1 (4%) of 28 subjects after the first MVA-mBN32 immunization and in 3 (12%) of 25 subjects after the second MVA-mBN32 immunization. Among these responders, polyfunctional T-cell responses, including the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and perforin, were detected. Vaccinia virus-specific antibodies were induced to the MVA vector in 27 (93%) of 29 and 26 (93%) of 28 subjects after the first and second immunizations with MVA-mBN32. These peptide-based vaccines were safe but were ineffective at inducing HIV-1-specific immune responses and induced much weaker responses than MVA vaccines expressing the entire open reading frames of HIV-1 proteins. PMID:22398243
Casimir torque in weak coupling
Milton, Kimball A; Long, William
2013-01-01
In this paper, dedicated to Johan H{\\o}ye on the occasion of his 70th birthday, we examine manifestations of Casimir torque in the weak-coupling approximation, which allows exact calculations so that comparison with the universally applicable, but generally uncontrolled, proximity force approximation may be made. In particular, we examine Casimir energies between planar objects characterized by $\\delta$-function potentials, and consider the torque that arises when angles between the objects are changed. The results agree very well with the proximity force approximation when the separation distance between the objects is small compared with their sizes. In the opposite limit, where the size of one object is comparable to the separation distance, the shape dependence starts becoming irrelevant. These calculations are illustrative of what to expect for the torques between, for example, conducting planar objects, which eventually should be amenable to both improved theoretical calculation and experimental verific...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Baocang; LIU Shuanggen; HU Yupu
2006-01-01
The security of the RSA system with the prime pairs of some special form is investigated. A new special-purpose algorithm for factoring RSA numbers is proposed. The basic idea of the method is to factor RSA numbers by factoring a well-chosen quadratic polynomial with integral coefficients. When viewed as a general-purpose algorithm, the new algorithm has a high computational complexity. It is shown that the RSA number n=pq can be easily factored if p and q have the special form of p=as+b, q=cs+d, where a, b, c, d are relatively small numbers. Such prime pairs (p, q) are the weak keys of RSA, so when we generate RSA modulus, we should avoid using such prime pairs (p, q).
Mahanta, J.; P. K. Das
2012-01-01
A new class of fuzzy closed sets, namely fuzzy weakly closed set in a fuzzy topological space is introduced and it is established that this class of fuzzy closed sets lies between fuzzy closed sets and fuzzy generalized closed sets. Alongwith the study of fundamental results of such closed sets, we define and characterize fuzzy weakly compact space and fuzzy weakly closed space.
Twisting theory for weak Hopf algebras
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Ju-zhen; ZHANG Yan; WANG Shuan-hong
2008-01-01
The main aim of this paper is to study the twisting theory of weak Hopf algebras and give an equivalence between the (braided) monoidal categories of weak Hopf bimodules over the original and the twisted weak Hopf algebra to generalize the result from Oeckl (2000).
Reconstruction of weak quasi-Hopf algebras
Häring, Reto Andreas
1995-01-01
All rational semisimple braided tensor categories are representation categories of weak quasi Hopf algebras. To proof this result we construct for any given category of this kind a weak quasi tensor functor to the category of finite dimensional vector spaces. This allows to reconstruct a weak quasi Hopf algebra with the given category as its representation category.
Weak interference in the high-signal regime
Torres, Juan P; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Salazar-Serrano, Luis Jose
2012-01-01
Weak amplification is a signal enhancement technique which is used to measure tiny changes that otherwise cannot be determined because of technical limitations. It is based on the existence of a special type of interaction which couples a property of a system, i.e., polarization or which-path information, with a separate degree of freedom, i.e., transverse position or frequency. Unfortunately, the weak amplification process is generally accompanied by severe losses of the detected signal, which limits the applicability of the weak amplification concept. However, we will show here that since the weak measurement concept is essentially an interference phenomena, it should be possible to use the degree of interference to get relevant information about the physical system under study in a more general scenario, where the signal is not severely depleted (high-signal regime). This can widen the range of systems where the weak measurement concept can be applied. In this scenario, which can be called generally weak i...
Weak KKM theorems in generalized finitely continuous space with applications
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
方敏; 王磊
2013-01-01
Some new weak Knaster-Kuratouski-Mazurkiewicz (KKM) theorems are proved under the noncompact situation in the generalized finitely continuous space (GFC-space) without any convexity. As applications, the minimax inequalities of the Ky Fan type are also given under some suitable conditions. The results unify and generalize some known results in recent literatures.
Weakly Distributive Modules. Applications to Supplement Submodules
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Engin Büyükaşik; Yilmaz M Demirci
2010-11-01
In this paper, we define and study weakly distributive modules as a proper generalization of distributive modules. We prove that, weakly distributive supplemented modules are amply supplemented. In a weakly distributive supplemented module every submodule has a unique coclosure. This generalizes a result of Ganesan and Vanaja. We prove that -projective duo modules, in particular commutative rings, are weakly distributive. Using this result we obtain that in a commutative ring supplements are unique. This generalizes a result of Camillo and Lima. We also prove that any weakly distributive $\\oplus$-supplemented module is quasi-discrete.
A Universe without Weak Interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad
2006-04-07
A universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and star formation. The stars in this universe are able to burn for billions of years, synthesize elements up to iron, and undergo supernova explosions, dispersing heavy elements into the interstellar medium. These definitive claims are supported by a detailed analysis where this hypothetical ''Weakless Universe'' is matched to our Universe by simultaneously adjusting Standard Model and cosmological parameters. For instance, chemistry and nuclear physics are essentially unchanged. The apparent habitability of the Weakless Universe suggests that the anthropic principle does not determine the scale of electroweak breaking, or even require that it be smaller than the Planck scale, so long as technically natural parameters may be suitably adjusted. Whether the multi-parameter adjustment is realized or probable is dependent on the ultraviolet completion, such as the string landscape. Considering a similar analysis for the cosmological constant, however, we argue that no adjustments of other parameters are able to allow the cosmological constant to raise up even remotely close to the Planck scale while obtaining macroscopic structure. The fine-tuning problems associated with the electroweak breaking scale and the cosmological constant therefore appear to be qualitatively different from the perspective of obtaining a habitable universe.
A universe without weak interactions
Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad
2006-08-01
A universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and star formation. The stars in this universe are able to burn for billions of years, synthesize elements up to iron, and undergo supernova explosions, dispersing heavy elements into the interstellar medium. These definitive claims are supported by a detailed analysis where this hypothetical “weakless universe” is matched to our Universe by simultaneously adjusting standard model and cosmological parameters. For instance, chemistry and nuclear physics are essentially unchanged. The apparent habitability of the weakless universe suggests that the anthropic principle does not determine the scale of electroweak breaking, or even require that it be smaller than the Planck scale, so long as technically natural parameters may be suitably adjusted. Whether the multiparameter adjustment is realized or probable is dependent on the ultraviolet completion, such as the string landscape. Considering a similar analysis for the cosmological constant, however, we argue that no adjustments of other parameters are able to allow the cosmological constant to raise up even remotely close to the Planck scale while obtaining macroscopic structure. The fine-tuning problems associated with the electroweak breaking scale and the cosmological constant therefore appear to be qualitatively different from the perspective of obtaining a habitable universe.
Weak homology of elliptical galaxies
Bertin, G; Principe, M D
2002-01-01
We start by studying a small set of objects characterized by photometric profiles that have been pointed out to deviate significantly from the standard R^{1/4} law. For these objects we confirm that a generic R^{1/n} law, with n a free parameter, can provide superior fits (the best-fit value of n can be lower than 2.5 or higher than 10), better than those that can be obtained by a pure R^{1/4} law, by an R^{1/4}+exponential model, and by other dynamically justified self--consistent models. Therefore, strictly speaking, elliptical galaxies should not be considered homologous dynamical systems. Still, a case for "weak homology", useful for the interpretation of the Fundamental Plane of elliptical galaxies, could be made if the best-fit parameter n, as often reported, correlates with galaxy luminosity L, provided the underlying dynamical structure also follows a systematic trend with luminosity. We demonstrate that this statement may be true even in the presence of significant scatter in the correlation n(L). Pr...
Testing the weak equivalence principle
Nobili, Anna M.; Comandi, Gian Luca; Pegna, Raffaello; Bramanti, Donato; Doravari, Suresh; Maccarone, Francesco; Lucchesi, David M.
2010-01-01
The discovery of Dark Energy and the fact that only about 5% of the mass of the universe can be explained on the basis of the current laws of physics have led to a serious impasse. Based on past history, physics might indeed be on the verge of major discoveries; but the challenge is enormous. The way to tackle it is twofold. On one side, scientists try to perform large scale direct observations and measurements - mostly from space. On the other, they multiply their efforts to put to the most stringent tests ever the physical theories underlying the current view of the physical world, from the very small to the very large. On the extremely small scale very exciting results are expected from one of the most impressive experiments in the history of mankind: the Large Hadron Collider. On the very large scale, the universe is dominated by gravity and the present impasse undoubtedly calls for more powerful tests of General Relativity - the best theory of gravity to date. Experiments testing the Weak Equivalence Principle, on which General Relativity ultimately lies, have the strongest probing power of them all; a breakthrough in sensitivity is possible with the “Galileo Galilei” (GG) satellite experiment to fly in low Earth orbit.
The Geometry And Significance Of Weak Energy
Parks, A D
2000-01-01
Summary: The theory of weak values for quantum mechanical observables has come to serve as a useful basis for contemporary discussions concerning such varied topics as the tunnelling-time controversy and quantum stochastic processes. An intrinsic complex-valued weak energy has recently been observed experimentally and reported in the literature. In this paper it is shown that: (a) the real and imaginary valued parts of this weak energy have geometric interpretations related to a phase acquired from parallel transport in Hilbert space and the variational dynamics occurring in the associated projective Hilbert space, respectively; (b) the weak energy defines functions which translate correlation amplitudes and probabilities in time; (c) correlation probabilities can be controlled by manipulating the weak energy and there exists a condition of weak stationarity that guarantees their time invariance; and (d) a time-weak energy uncertainty relation of the usual form prevails when a suitable set of dynamical constr...
Spin-orbit coupled molecular quantum magnetism realized in inorganic solid.
Park, Sang-Youn; Do, S-H; Choi, K-Y; Kang, J-H; Jang, Dongjin; Schmidt, B; Brando, Manuel; Kim, B-H; Kim, D-H; Butch, N P; Lee, Seongsu; Park, J-H; Ji, Sungdae
2016-09-21
Molecular quantum magnetism involving an isolated spin state is of particular interest due to the characteristic quantum phenomena underlying spin qubits or molecular spintronics for quantum information devices, as demonstrated in magnetic metal-organic molecular systems, the so-called molecular magnets. Here we report the molecular quantum magnetism realized in an inorganic solid Ba3Yb2Zn5O11 with spin-orbit coupled pseudospin-½ Yb(3+) ions. The magnetization represents the magnetic quantum values of an isolated Yb4 tetrahedron with a total (pseudo)spin 0, 1 and 2. Inelastic neutron scattering results reveal that a large Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction originating from strong spin-orbit coupling of Yb 4f is a key ingredient to explain magnetic excitations of the molecular magnet states. The Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction allows a non-adiabatic quantum transition between avoided crossing energy levels, and also results in unexpected magnetic behaviours in conventional molecular magnets.
Bubble, weak and strong hyperinflation: Theory and empirical evidence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fernando de Holanda Barbosa
2015-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical framework that allows a taxonomy of hyperinflation, namely: (i bubble, (ii weak and (iii strong hyperinflation. The inflation tax revenue curve is used to characterize each type of hyperinflation and we use this curve to test them. The bubble and strong hyperinflation hypotheses are rejected using Brazilian data. The weak hyperinflation hypothesis is not rejected and the economy could have been on the ‘wrong’ side of the Laffer curve during hyperinflation. This outcome, contrary to conventional wisdom, is predicted by this hypothesis, which presents a solution to an old puzzle of the hyperinflation literature.
Autoresonance versus localization in weakly coupled oscillators
Kovaleva, Agnessa; Manevitch, Leonid I.
2016-04-01
We study formation of autoresonance (AR) in a two-degree of freedom oscillator array including a nonlinear (Duffing) oscillator (the actuator) weakly coupled to a linear attachment. Two classes of systems are studied. In the first class of systems, a periodic force with constant (resonance) frequency is applied to a nonlinear oscillator (actuator) with slowly time-decreasing stiffness. In the systems of the second class a nonlinear time-invariant oscillator is subjected to an excitation with slowly increasing frequency. In both cases, the attached linear oscillator and linear coupling are time-invariant, and the system is initially engaged in resonance. This paper demonstrates that in the systems of the first type AR in the nonlinear actuator entails oscillations with growing amplitudes in the linear attachment while in the system of the second type energy transfer from the nonlinear actuator is insufficient to excite high-energy oscillations of the attachment. It is also shown that a slow change of stiffness may enhance the response of the actuator and make it sufficient to support oscillations with growing energy in the attachment even beyond the linear resonance. Explicit asymptotic approximations of the solutions are obtained. Close proximity of the derived approximations to exact (numerical) results is demonstrated.
Weak* convergence of operator means
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romanov, Alexandr V [Moscow State Institute of Electronics and Mathematics (Technical University), Moscow (Russian Federation)
2011-12-31
For a linear operator U with ||U'n||{<=}const on a Banach space X we discuss conditions for the convergence of ergodic operator nets T{sub {alpha}} corresponding to the adjoint operator U* of U in the W*O-topology of the space EndX*. The accumulation points of all possible nets of this kind form a compact convex set L in EndX*, which is the kernel of the operator, where {Gamma}{sub 0}={l_brace}U{sub n}*, n{>=}0{r_brace}. It is proved that all ergodic nets T{sub {alpha}} weakly* converge if and only if the kernel L consists of a single element. In the case of X=C({Omega}) and the shift operator U generated by a continuous transformation {phi} of a metrizable compactum {Omega} we trace the relationships among the ergodic properties of U, the structure of the operator semigroups L, G and {Gamma}={Gamma}-bar{sub 0}, and the dynamical characteristics of the semi-cascade ({phi},{Omega}). In particular, if cardL=1, then a) for any {omega} element of {Omega} the closure of the trajectory {l_brace}{phi}{sup n}{omega}, n{>=}0{r_brace} contains precisely one minimal set m, and b) the restriction ({phi},m) is strictly ergodic. Condition a) implies the W*O-convergence of any ergodic sequence of operators T{sub n} element of EndX* under the additional assumption that the kernel of the enveloping semigroup E({phi},{Omega}) contains elements obtained from the 'basis' family of transformations {l_brace}{phi}{sup n}, n{>=}0{r_brace} of the compact set {Omega} by using some transfinite sequence of sequential passages to the limit.
Weakly and Strongly Regular Near-rings
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
N.Argac; N.J.Groenewald
2005-01-01
In this paper, we prove some basic properties of left weakly regular near-rings.We give an affirmative answer to the question whether a left weakly regular near-ring with left unity and satisfying the IFP is also right weakly regular. In the last section, we use among others left 0-prime and left completely prime ideals to characterize strongly regular near-rings.
WEAK CONVERGENCE OF HENSTOCK INTEGRABLE SEQUENCES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LuisaDiPiazza
1994-01-01
Some relationships between pointwise and weak convergence of a sequence of Henstock integrable functions are studied, In particular it is provided an example of a sequence of Henstock integrable functions whose pointwise limit is different from the weak one. By introducing an asymptotic version of the Henstock equiintegrability notion it is given a necessary and sufficient condition in order that a pointwisely convergent sequence of Henstock integrable functions is weakly convergent to its pointwise limit.
Transversality theorems for the weak topology
2011-01-01
In his 1979 paper Trotman proves, using the techniques of the Thom transversality theorem, that under some conditions on the dimensions of the manifolds under consideration, openness of the set of maps transverse to a stratification in the strong (Whitney) topology implies that the stratification is $(a)$-regular. Here we first discuss the Thom transversality theorem for the weak topology and then give a similiar kind of result for the weak topology, under very weak hypotheses. Recently sever...
Spin effects in the weak interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freedman, S.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA) Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Dept. of Physics Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.)
1990-01-01
Modern experiments investigating the beta decay of the neutron and light nuclei are still providing important constraints on the theory of the weak interaction. Beta decay experiments are yielding more precise values for allowed and induced weak coupling constants and putting constraints on possible extensions to the standard electroweak model. Here we emphasize the implications of recent experiments to pin down the strengths of the weak vector and axial vector couplings of the nucleon.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiang Yue-ming; Ouyang Lun-qun; Wang Shu-gui
2015-01-01
We introduce, in this paper, the right weakly p.p. rings as the generaliza-tion of right p.p. rings. It is shown that many properties of the right p.p. rings can be extended onto the right weakly p.p. rings. Relative examples are constructed. As applications, we also characterize the regular rings and the semisimple rings in terms of the right weakly p.p. rings.
Weak measurements with a qubit meter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wu, Shengjun; Mølmer, Klaus
2009-01-01
We derive schemes to measure the so-called weak values of quantum system observables by coupling of the system to a qubit meter system. We highlight, in particular, the meaning of the imaginary part of the weak values, and show how it can be measured directly on equal footing with the real part...... of the weak value. We present compact expressions for the weak value of single qubit observables and of product observables on qubit pairs. Experimental studies of the results are suggested with cold trapped ions....
Relaxion monodromy and the Weak Gravity Conjecture
Ibáñez, L. E.; Montero, M.; Uranga, A. M.; Valenzuela, I.
2016-04-01
The recently proposed relaxion models require extremely large trans-Planckian axion excursions as well as a potential explicitly violating the axion shift symmetry. The latter property is however inconsistent with the axion periodicity, which corresponds to a gauged discrete shift symmetry. A way to make things consistent is to use monodromy, i.e. both the axion and the potential parameters transform under the discrete shift symmetry. The structure is better described in terms of a 3-form field C μνρ coupling to the SM Higgs through its field strength F 4. The 4-form also couples linearly to the relaxion, in the Kaloper-Sorbo fashion. The extremely small relaxion-Higgs coupling arises in a see-saw fashion as g ≃ F 4 /f , with f being the axion decay constant. We discuss constraints on this type of constructions from membrane nucleation and the Weak Gravity Conjecture. The latter requires the existence of membranes, whose too fast nucleation could in principle drive the theory out of control, unless the cut-off scale is lowered. This allows to rule out the simplest models with the QCD axion as relaxion candidate on purely theoretical grounds. We also discuss possible avenues to embed this structure into string theory.
Energy localization in weakly dissipative resonant chains
Kovaleva, Agnessa
2016-08-01
Localization of energy in oscillator arrays has been of interest for a number of years, with special attention paid to the role of nonlinearity and discreteness in the formation of localized structures. This work examines a different type of energy localization arising due to the presence of dissipation in nonlinear resonance arrays. As a basic model, we consider a Klein-Gordon chain of finite length subjected to a harmonic excitation applied at an edge of the chain. It is shown that weak dissipation may be a key factor preventing the emergence of resonance in the entire chain, even if its nondissipative analog is entirely captured into resonance. The resulting process in the dissipative oscillator array represents large-amplitude resonant oscillations in a part of the chain adjacent to the actuator and small-amplitude oscillations in the distant part of the chain. The conditions of the emergence of resonance as well as the conditions of energy localization are derived. An agreement between the obtained analytical results and numerical simulations is demonstrated.
Weak interaction: past answers, present questions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ne' eman, Y.
1977-02-01
A historical sketch of the weak interaction is presented. From beta ray to pion decay, the V-A theory of Marshak and Sudarshan, CVC principle of equivalence, universality as an algebraic condition, PCAC, renormalized weak Hamiltonian in the rehabilitation of field theory, and some current issues are considered in this review. 47 references. (JFP)
Spin Seebeck effect in a weak ferromagnet
Arboleda, Juan David; Arnache Olmos, Oscar; Aguirre, Myriam Haydee; Ramos, Rafael; Anadon, Alberto; Ibarra, Manuel Ricardo
2016-06-01
We report the observation of room temperature spin Seebeck effect (SSE) in a weak ferromagnetic normal spinel Zinc Ferrite (ZFO). Despite the weak ferromagnetic behavior, the measurements of the SSE in ZFO show a thermoelectric voltage response comparable with the reported values for other ferromagnetic materials. Our results suggest that SSE might possibly originate from the surface magnetization of the ZFO.
CP Violation, Neutral Currents, and Weak Equivalence
Fitch, V. L.
1972-03-23
Within the past few months two excellent summaries of the state of our knowledge of the weak interactions have been presented. Correspondingly, we will not attempt a comprehensive review but instead concentrate this discussion on the status of CP violation, the question of the neutral currents, and the weak equivalence principle.
Towards a classification of weak hand holds
Kimmelman, V.; Sáfár, A.; Crasborn, O.
2016-01-01
The two symmetrical manual articulators (the hands) in signed languages are a striking modalityspecific phonetic property. The weak hand can maintain the end position of an articulation while the other articulator continues to produce additional signs. This weak hand spreading (hold) has been
Revisiting Weak Simulation for Substochastic Markov Chains
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jansen, David N.; Song, Lei; Zhang, Lijun
2013-01-01
The spectrum of branching-time relations for probabilistic systems has been investigated thoroughly by Baier, Hermanns, Katoen and Wolf (2003, 2005), including weak simulation for systems involving substochastic distributions. Weak simulation was proven to be sound w.r.t. the liveness fragment...
S-parameters for weakly excited slots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Albertsen, Niels Christian
1999-01-01
A simple approach to account for parasitic effects in weakly excited slots cut in the broad wall of a rectangular waveguide is proposed......A simple approach to account for parasitic effects in weakly excited slots cut in the broad wall of a rectangular waveguide is proposed...
Weakly exact categories and the snake lemma
Jafari, Amir
2009-01-01
We generalize the notion of an exact category and introduce weakly exact categories. A proof of the snake lemma in this general setting is given. Some applications are given to illustrate how one can do homological algebra in a weakly exact category.
Strong Connections and Invertible Weak Entwining Structures
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
J.N.ALONSO (A)LVAREZ; J.M.FERN(A)NDEZ VILABOA; R.GONZ(A)LEZ RODR(I)GUEZ
2012-01-01
In this paper we obtain a criterion under which the bijectivity of the canonical morphism of a weak Galois extension associated to a weak invertible entwining structure is equivalent to the existence of a strong connection form.Also we obtain an explicit formula for a strong connection under equivariant projective conditions or under coseparability conditions.
Cohomology of Weakly Reducible Maximal Triangular Algebras
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
董浙; 鲁世杰
2000-01-01
In this paper, we introduce the concept of weakly reducible maximal triangular algebras φwhich form a large class of maximal triangular algebras. Let B be a weakly closed algebra containing 5φ, we prove that the cohomology spaces Hn(φ, B) (n≥1) are trivial.
Fixed points of occasionally weakly biased mappings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Mahendra Singh, M. R. Singh
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Common fixed point results due to Pant et al. [Pant et al., Weak reciprocal continuity and fixed point theorems, Ann Univ Ferrara, 57(1, 181-190 (2011] are extended to a class of non commuting operators called occasionally weakly biased pair[ N. Hussain, M. A. Khamsi A. Latif, Commonfixed points for JH-operators and occasionally weakly biased pairs under relaxed conditions, Nonlinear Analysis, 74, 2133-2140 (2011]. We also provideillustrative examples to justify the improvements. Abstract. Common fixed point results due to Pant et al. [Pant et al., Weakreciprocal continuity and fixed point theorems, Ann Univ Ferrara, 57(1, 181-190 (2011] are extended to a class of non commuting operators called occasionally weakly biased pair[ N. Hussain, M. A. Khamsi A. Latif, Common fixed points for JH-operators and occasionally weakly biased pairs under relaxed conditions, Nonlinear Analysis, 74, 2133-2140 (2011]. We also provide illustrative examples to justify the improvements.
Atomic homodyne detection of weak atomic transitions.
Gunawardena, Mevan; Elliott, D S
2007-01-26
We have developed a two-color, two-pathway coherent control technique to detect and measure weak optical transitions in atoms by coherently beating the transition amplitude for the weak transition with that of a much stronger transition. We demonstrate the technique in atomic cesium, exciting the 6s(2)S(1/2) --> 8s(2)S(1/2) transition via a strong two-photon transition and a weak controllable Stark-induced transition. We discuss the enhancement in the signal-to-noise ratio for this measurement technique over that of direct detection of the weak transition rate, and project future refinements that may further improve its sensitivity and application to the measurement of other weak atomic interactions.
Fuzzy weakly preopen (preclosed) function in Kubiak-Sostak fuzzy topological spaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zahran, A.M. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Al azhar University, Assuit (Egypt)], E-mail: zahran15@hotmail.com; Abd-Allah, M. Azab. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Assuit University, Assuit (Egypt)], E-mail: mazab57@yahoo.com; Abd El-Rahman, Abd El-Nasser G. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, South valley University, Qena 83523 (Egypt)], E-mail: ghareeb_nasser@yahoo.com
2009-02-15
In this paper, we introduce and characterize fuzzy weakly preopen and fuzzy weakly preclosed functions between L-fuzzy topological spaces in Kubiak-Sostak sense and also study these functions in relation to some other types of already known functions.
Constraints on axion inflation from the weak gravity conjecture
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rudelius, Tom [Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2015-09-08
We derive constraints facing models of axion inflation based on decay constant alignment from a string-theoretic and quantum gravitational perspective. In particular, we investigate the prospects for alignment and ‘anti-alignment’ of C{sub 4} axion decay constants in type IIB string theory, deriving a strict no-go result in the latter case. We discuss the relationship of axion decay constants to the weak gravity conjecture and demonstrate agreement between our string-theoretic constraints and those coming from the ‘generalized’ weak gravity conjecture. Finally, we consider a particular model of decay constant alignment in which the potential of C{sub 4} axions in type IIB compactifications on a Calabi-Yau three-fold is dominated by contributions from D7-branes, pointing out that this model evades some of the challenges derived earlier in our paper but is highly constrained by other geometric considerations.
Feireisl, Eduard; Novotny, Antonin
2011-01-01
We introduce the notion of relative entropy for the weak solutions of the compressible Navier-Stokes system. We show that any finite energy weak solution satisfies a relative entropy inequality for any pair of sufficiently smooth test functions. As a corollary we establish weak-strong uniqueness principle for the compressible Navier-Stokes system.
Weak Boson Production Amplitude Zeros; Equalities of the Helicity Amplitudes
Mamedov, F
2002-01-01
We investigate the radiation amplitude zeros exhibited by many Standard Model amplitudes for triple weak gauge boson production processes. We show that $WZ\\gamma$ production amplitudes have especially rich structure in terms of zeros, these amplitudes have zeros originating from several different sources. It is also shown that TYPE I current null zone is the special case of the equality of the specific helicity amplitudes.
A Construction of Weakly Inverse Semigroups
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bing Jun YU; Yan LI
2009-01-01
Let S° be an inverse semigroup with semilattice biordered set E° of idempotents and E a weakly inverse biordered set with a subsemilattice Ep = { e ∈ E |(V) f ∈ E, S(f , e)(C) w(e) } isomorphic to E° by θ:Ep→E°. In this paper, it is proved that if(V)f, g∈E, f ←→ ,g(→) f°θ (ζ)s° g°θand there exists a mapping φ from Ep into the symmetric weakly inverse semigroup (ζξ)(E ∪S°) satisfying six appropriate conditions, then a weakly inverse semigroup ∑ can be constructed in (ζξ)(S°), called the weakly inverse hull of a weakly inverse system (S°, E, θ, φ) with I(∑) ≌ S°, E(∑) (≌) E. Conversely,every weakly inverse semigroup can be constructed in this way. Furthermore, a sufficient and necessary condition for two weakly inverse hulls to be isomorphic is also given.
Fang, Chen; Yu, Yang; Li, Qin-Zheng; Zeng, Guihua
2015-01-01
We derive a general theory for the joint weak measurement with arbitrary postselection and employ it in the time-delay measurement. Especially, we study two special cases, i.e., the balanced and unbalanced postselection regimes, and present an experiment to verify the theoretical results. The experimental results show that under similar conditions, the signal-to-noise ratio of using joint weak measurement scheme remains higher than 12 dB when the measured time-delay is smaller the ultimate precision limit of the weak-value amplification scheme. Moreover, the joint weak measurement scheme is robust to the misalignment errors and the wavelength-dependency of optical components, which indicates its advantage of improving the measurement precision with convenient laboratory equipments.
Continuity in weak topology:higher order linear systems of ODE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
We will introduce a type of Fredholm operators which are shown to have a certain con- tinuity in weak topologies.From this,we will prove that the fundamental matrix solutions of k-th, k≥2,order linear systems of ordinary differential equations are continuous in coefficient matrixes with weak topologies.Consequently,Floquet multipliers and Lyapunov exponents for periodic systems are continuous in weak topologies.Moreover,for the scalar Hill’s equations,Sturm-Liouville eigenvalues, periodic and anti-periodic eigenvalues,and rotation numbers are all continuous in potentials with weak topologies.These results will lead to many interesting variational problems.
Thermodynamics of gravity favours Weak Censorship Conjecture
Acquaviva, Giovanni; Hamid, Aymen I M; Maharaj, Sunil D
2015-01-01
We use the formulation of thermodynamics of gravity as proposed by Clifton, Ellis and Tavakol on the gravitational collapse of dustlike matter, that violates the strong or weak cosmic censorship conjecture depending on the initial data. We transparently demonstrate that the gravitational entropy prefers the scenario where the stronger version is violated but the weak censorship conjecture is satisfied. This is a novel result, showing the weak cosmic censorship and hence the future asymptotically simple structure of spacetime, is being validated by the nature of gravity, without imposing any extra constraint on the form of matter.
Structural features of sequential weak measurements
Diósi, Lajos
2016-07-01
We discuss the abstract structure of sequential weak measurement (WM) of general observables. In all orders, the sequential WM correlations without postselection yield the corresponding correlations of the Wigner function, offering direct quantum tomography through the moments of the canonical variables. Correlations in spin-1/2 sequential weak measurements coincide with those in strong measurements, they are constrained kinematically, and they are equivalent with single measurements. In sequential WMs with postselection, an anomaly occurs, different from the weak value anomaly of single WMs. In particular, the spread of polarization σ ̂ as measured in double WMs of σ ̂ will diverge for certain orthogonal pre- and postselected states.
Weak Gauge Boson Radiation in Parton Showers
Christiansen, Jesper Roy
2014-01-01
The emission of W and Z gauge boson is included in a traditional QCD + QED shower. The unitarity of the shower algorithm links the real radiation of the weak gauge bosons to the negative weak virtual corrections. The shower evolution process leads to a competition between QCD, QED and weak radiation, and allows for W and Z boson production inside jets. Various effects on LHC physics are studied, both at low and high transverse momenta, and effects at higher-energy hadron colliders are outlined.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fonthal, Gerardo; Moros, Jose [Universidad de Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela)
2001-02-01
The doped semiconductors band tail E{sub 0} and the potential by ionized impurities E{sub p} were correlated for n-type and weakly compensated samples of Ge, Si, GaP and CdS. Results showed a lineal behavior with slope of 1.417 and ordinate intersection close to zero. The slope was very close to waited {radical}2 because E{sub p} is a rms potential. [Spanish] Se correlaciono la profundidad de la cola de banda E{sub 0} de los semiconductores dopados con el potencial E{sub p} debido a la interaccion entre las impurezas ionizadas para muestras tipo n y ligeramente compensadas de Ge, Si, GaP y CdS. Los resultados mostraron un comportamiento lineal dependiente 1.417 y corte con el eje de las ordenadas cercano a cero. La pendiente dio muy cercana al {radical}2 esperando en vista de que E{sub p} es un potencial rms.
Weak-Keys in Public Key Cryptosystems Based on Discrete Logarithms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TAI Suiyan; LUO Ping; PENG Xiaoning; WANG Daoshun
2005-01-01
The discrete logarithm method is the foundation of many public key algorithms. However, one type of key, defined as a weak-key, reduces the security of public key cryptosystems based on the discrete logarithm method. The weak-key occurs if the public key is a factor or multiple of the primitive element, in which case the user's private key is not needed but can be obtained based on the character of the public key. An algorithm is presented that can easily test whether there is a weak-key in the cryptosystem. An example is given to show that an attack can be completed for the Elgamal digital signature if a weak-key exists, therefore validating the danger of weak-keys. Methods are given to prevent the generation of these weak-keys.
Testing weak form efficiency on the capital markets in Serbia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kršikapa-Rašajski Jovana
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Weak-form efficient market hypothesis assumes that participants on the financial markets are not able to achieve above-average returns based on historical prices. In order to establish the presence of a weak-form market efficiency in the Serbian market, the analysis incorporates daily data of the two most prominent indices on the Belgrade Stock Exchange, BELEX 15 and BELEX LINE, since their inception until 31 December 2014. Results obtained by the analysis and testing indicate that the capital market in Serbia can not be considered sufficiently efficient, more precisely it indicates that postulates assumed by the weak-form market efficiency are not fully met. Taking into account that the capital market in Serbia is still underdeveloped, primarily because of the small volumes, turnover and types of securities which are traded on the market, as well as the fact that it is not sufficiently regulated and transparent, lack of investors is noticeable. Consequently, analysis presented in this paper indicates a weak sustainability of the efficient market hypothesis in Serbia.
Weak layer fracture: facets and depth hoar
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Reiweger
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Understanding the fracture behavior of weak snow layers is essential for modeling and predicting dry-snow slab avalanches. We therefore performed laboratory experiments with snow samples containing a weak layer consisting of either faceted crystals or depth hoar. During these experiments the samples were loaded with different loading rates and at various tilt angles until fracture. The strength of the samples decreased with increasing loading rate and increasing tilt angle. Additionally, we took pictures of the side of the samples with a high-speed video camera and calculated the displacement using a particle image velocimetry (PIV algorithm. The fracture process within the weak layer could thus be studied in detail. We found a fracture in shear immediately followed by a collapse of the weak layer.
Weak Markov Processes as Linear Systems
Gohm, Rolf
2012-01-01
A noncommutative Fornasini-Marchesini system (a multi-variable version of a linear system) can be realized within a weak Markov process (a model for quantum evolution). For a discrete time parameter this is worked out systematically as a theory of representations of structure maps of a system by a weak process. We introduce subprocesses and quotient processes which can be described naturally by a suitable category of weak processes. A corresponding notion of cascade for processes induces a represented cascade of systems. We study the control theoretic notion of observability which turns out to be particularly interesting in connection with a cascade structure. As an application we gain new insights into stationary Markov chains where observability for the system is closely related to asymptotic completeness in the scattering theory of the chain. This motivates a general definition of asymptotic completeness in the category of weak processes.
Vibration diagnostics of weak base embankments
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Evgenij Ashpiz; Vladimir Kapustin; Svetlana Klepikova; Maxim Shirobokov
2013-01-01
In this paper the theoretical background was analyzed for vibration diagnostics method and experience in its application for weak base embankments. General schemes of survey and recommendations on hardware systems and further prospective development are outlined.
Weak entropy inequalities and entropic convergence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO FuQing; LI LiNa
2008-01-01
A criterion for algebraic convergence of the entropy is presented and an algebraic convergence result for the entropy of an exclusion process is improved.A weak entropy inequality is considered and its relationship to entropic convergence is discussed.
Weak entropy inequalities and entropic convergence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
A criterion for algebraic convergence of the entropy is presented and an algebraic convergence result for the entropy of an exclusion process is improved. A weak entropy inequality is considered and its relationship to entropic convergence is discussed.
The Sloan Nearby Cluster Weak Lensing Survey
Kubo, Jeffrey M; Hardin, Frances Mei; Kubik, Donna; Lawhorn, Kelsey; Lin, Huan; Nicklaus, Liana; Nelson, Dylan; Reis, Ribamar R R; Seo, Hee-Jong; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Stebbins, Albert; Yunker, Tony
2009-01-01
We describe and present initial results of a weak lensing survey of nearby ($\\rm{z}\\lesssim0.1$) galaxy clusters in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). In this first study, galaxy clusters are selected from the SDSS spectroscopic galaxy cluster catalogs of \\citet{miller05} and \\citet{berlind06}. We report a total of seven individual low redshift cluster weak lensing measurements which include: A2048, A1767, A2244, A1066, A2199, and two clusters specifically identified with the C4 algorithm. Our program of weak lensing of nearby galaxy clusters in the SDSS will eventually reach $\\sim 200$ clusters, making it the largest weak lensing survey of individual galaxy clusters to date.
Electromagnetic and Weak transitions in light nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
M. Viviani; L.E. Marcucci; A. Kievsky; S. Rosati; R. Schiavilla
2002-09-01
Recent advances in the study of the p -- d radiative and mu -- {sup 3}He weak capture processes by our group are presented and discussed. The trinucleon bound and scattering states have been obtained from variational calculations by expanding the corresponding wave functions in terms of correlated hyper-spherical harmonic functions. The electromagnetic and weak transition currents include one- and two-body operators. The accuracy achieved in these calculations allows for interesting comparisons with experimental data.
Model reduction of strong-weak neurons
Steven James Cox; Bosen eDu; Danny eSorensen
2014-01-01
We consider neurons with large dendritic trees that are weakly excitable in the sense that back propagating action potentials are severly attenuated as they travel from the small, strongly excitable, spike initiation zone. In previous work we have shown that the computational size of weakly excitable cell models may be reduced by two or more orders of magnitude, and that the size of strongly excitable models may be reduced by at least one order of magnitude, without sacrificing the spatio–tem...
Agile Software Methodologies: Strength and Weakness
Dr. Adel Hamdan Mohammad; Dr. Tariq Alwada’n; Dr. Jafar "M.Ali" Ababneh
2013-01-01
Agile methodologies are great software development methodologies. No doubt that these methodologies have widespread reputation. The core of agile methodologies is people. Customer and each team member in agiledevelopment teams are the key success or failure factor in agile process. In this paper authors demonstrate strength and weakness points in agile methodologies. Also authors demonstrate how strength and weakness factors can affect the overall results of agile development process.
Weak measurement and the traversal time problem
Iannaccone, G.
1996-01-01
The theory of weak measurement, proposed by Aharonov and coworkers, has been applied by Steinberg to the long-discussed traversal time problem. The uncertainty and ambiguity that characterize this concept from the perspective of von Neumann measurement theory apparently vanish, and joint probabilities and conditional averages become meaningful concepts. We express the Larmor clock and some other well-known methods in the weak measurement formalism. We also propose a method to determine higher...
Drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Popovic, M.; Melchior, H.
1968-01-01
A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated.......A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated....
Episodic weakness and vacuolar myopathy in hypokalemic periodic paralysis.
Basali, Diana; Prayson, Richard A
2015-11-01
We report a 50-year-old woman who presented with a 20 year history of gradually progressive lower extremity weakness, characterized by knee buckling with occasional falls and foot dragging. She also experienced difficulty in lifting her arms above her shoulders. The primary periodic paralyses are rare disorders caused by dysfunctional ion channels in skeletal muscle. The hypokalemic type is generally an autosomal dominant condition, due to missense mutations in the alpha subunits of the skeletal muscle L-type calcium channel genes, CACN1AS, or the skeletal muscle sodium channel gene, SCN4A. The affected patients typically present with episodic weakness. For our patient, the consumption of foods high in carbohydrates seemed to precipitate the episodes of weakness. Her family history was significant for six blood relatives, including three sons and three relatives on the paternal side, who had experienced similar symptoms. A biopsy of the left rectus femoralis muscle showed vacuolar myopathic changes in the scattered muscle fibers, accompanied by occasional degenerating and regenerating muscle fibers. There was no evidence of inflammation on the biopsy. The vacuoles were often associated with increased acid phosphatase staining. An electron microscopic examination showed that the vacuolar changes were due to T-tubule dilation, a characteristic of hypokalemic periodic paralysis. Other metabolic etiologies of vacuolar myopathy, such as acid phosphatase (lysosomal) associated acid maltase deficiency (a glycogen storage disease), need to be considered in the differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
SIMULATION OF SUBGRADE EMBANKMENT ON WEAK BASE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. D. Petrenko
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Purpose. This article provides: the question of the sustainability of the subgrade on a weak base is considered in the paper. It is proposed to use the method of jet grouting. Investigation of the possibility of a weak base has an effect on the overall deformation of the subgrade; the identification and optimization of the parameters of subgrade based on studies using numerical simulation. Methodology. The theoretical studies of the stress-strain state of the base and subgrade embankment by modeling in the software package LIRA have been conducted to achieve this goal. Findings. After making the necessary calculations perform building fields of a subsidence, borders cramped thickness, bed’s coefficients of Pasternak and Winkler. The diagrams construction of vertical stress performs at any point of load application. Also, using the software system may perform peer review subsidence, rolls railroad tracks in natural and consolidated basis. Originality. For weak soils is the most appropriate nonlinear model of the base with the existing areas of both elastic and limit equilibrium, mixed problem of the theory of elasticity and plasticity. Practical value. By increasing the load on the weak base as a result of the second track construction, adds embankment or increasing axial load when changing the rolling stock process of sedimentation and consolidation may continue again. Therefore, one of the feasible and promising options for the design and reconstruction of embankments on weak bases is to strengthen the bases with the help of jet grouting. With the expansion of the railway infrastructure, increasing speed and weight of the rolling stock is necessary to ensure the stability of the subgrade on weak bases. LIRA software package allows you to perform all the necessary calculations for the selection of a proper way of strengthening weak bases.
Tests of the weak equivalence principle
Speake, C. C.; Will, C. M.
2012-09-01
The Einstein equivalence principle is the foundation for general relativity and all metric theories of gravity. Of its three tenets—the equality of acceleration of test bodies, or weak equivalence principle; the validity of Lorentz invariance in local freely falling frames; and the position invariance of local physical laws—the weak equivalence principle has played the most important role historically, and continues to be a focus of intense theoretical and experimental investigation. From the probably apocryphal 16th century demonstrations by Galileo at Pisa's leaning tower to the sensitive torsion-balance measurements of today (both pictured on the cover of this issue), this principle, dubbed WEP, has been crucial to the development of gravitation theory. The universality of the rate of acceleration of all types of matter in a gravitational field can be taken as evidence that gravitation is fundamentally determined by the geometry, or metric, of spacetime. Newton began his magnum opus 'The Principia' with a discussion of WEP and his experiments to verify it, while Einstein took WEP for granted in his construction of general relativity, never once referring to the epochal experiments by Baron Eötvös. The classic 1964 experiment of Roll, Krotkov and Dicke ushered in the modern era of high-precision tests, and the search for a 'fifth force' during the late 1980s (instigated, ironically, by purported anomalies in Eötvös's old data) caused the enterprise to pivot from pure tests of the foundation of GR to searches for new physics beyond the standard model of the non-gravitational interactions. Today, the next generation of experimental tests of WEP are being prepared for launch or are being developed, with the goal of reaching unprecedented levels of sensitivity, in search of signatures of interactions inspired by string theory, extra dimensions and other concepts from the world of high-energy physics. At the same time observations continue using lunar laser
The Quasi-Static Electromagnetic Approximation for Weakly Conducting Media
Heubrandtner, T
2002-01-01
In a conducting dielectric charge and electric field decay with a time constant tau_R = \\varepsilon/\\sigma. In a weakly conducting medium, as e.g. glass or melamine-phenolic laminate in use in RPC's, this time is about 10^{-3} s; so it is long as compared to the time the charge cloud needs to move through the gap and to the time the signal needs to propagate through a dielectric to the electrode. A quasi-static theory to deal with transient phenomena in weakly conducting media has been developed in Haus and Melcher (1989), Fano, Chu and Adler (1963); it simplifies the analysis considerably since it requires only the solution of a scalar diffusion-type equations in place of the time-dependent Maxwell equations. This little known theory is applied to treat the generation of signals in simple models for chambers with such materials.
Rotating Gaussian wave packets in weak external potentials
Goussev, Arseni
2017-07-01
We address the time evolution of two- and three-dimensional nonrelativistic Gaussian wave packets in the presence of a weak external potential of arbitrary functional form. The focus of our study is the phenomenon of rotation of a Gaussian wave packet around its center of mass, as quantified by mean angular momentum computed relative to the wave-packet center. Using a semiclassical approximation of the eikonal type, we derive an explicit formula for a time-dependent change of mean angular momentum of a wave packet induced by its interaction with a weak external potential. As an example, we apply our analytical approach to the scenario of a two-dimensional quantum particle crossing a tilted ridge potential barrier. In particular, we demonstrate that the initial orientation of the particle wave packet determines the sense of its rotation, and report a good agreement between analytical and numerical results.
Experimental noiseless linear amplification using weak measurements
Ho, Joseph; Boston, Allen; Palsson, Matthew; Pryde, Geoff
2016-09-01
The viability of quantum communication schemes rely on sending quantum states of light over long distances. However, transmission loss can degrade the signal strength, adding noise. Heralded noiseless amplification of a quantum signal can provide a solution by enabling longer direct transmission distances and by enabling entanglement distillation. The central idea of heralded noiseless amplification—a conditional modification of the probability distribution over photon number of an optical quantum state—is suggestive of a parallel with weak measurement: in a weak measurement, learning partial information about an observable leads to a conditional back-action of a commensurate size. Here we experimentally investigate the application of weak, or variable-strength, measurements to the task of heralded amplification, by using a quantum logic gate to weakly couple a small single-optical-mode quantum state (the signal) to an ancilla photon (the meter). The weak measurement is carried out by choosing the measurement basis of the meter photon and, by conditioning on the meter outcomes, the signal is amplified. We characterise the gain of the amplifier as a function of the measurement strength, and use interferometric methods to show that the operation preserves the coherence of the signal.
Weak crystallization theory of metallic alloys
Martin, Ivar; Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Demler, Eugene A.
2016-06-01
Crystallization is one of the most familiar, but hardest to analyze, phase transitions. The principal reason is that crystallization typically occurs via a strongly first-order phase transition, and thus rigorous treatment would require comparing energies of an infinite number of possible crystalline states with the energy of liquid. A great simplification occurs when crystallization transition happens to be weakly first order. In this case, weak crystallization theory, based on unbiased Ginzburg-Landau expansion, can be applied. Even beyond its strict range of validity, it has been a useful qualitative tool for understanding crystallization. In its standard form, however, weak crystallization theory cannot explain the existence of a majority of observed crystalline and quasicrystalline states. Here we extend the weak crystallization theory to the case of metallic alloys. We identify a singular effect of itinerant electrons on the form of weak crystallization free energy. It is geometric in nature, generating strong dependence of free energy on the angles between ordering wave vectors of ionic density. That leads to stabilization of fcc, rhombohedral, and icosahedral quasicrystalline (iQC) phases, which are absent in the generic theory with only local interactions. As an application, we find the condition for stability of iQC that is consistent with the Hume-Rothery rules known empirically for the majority of stable iQC; namely, the length of the primary Bragg-peak wave vector is approximately equal to the diameter of the Fermi sphere.
Weak KAM theory for a weakly coupled system of Hamilton–Jacobi equations
Figalli, Alessio
2016-06-23
Here, we extend the weak KAM and Aubry–Mather theories to optimal switching problems. We consider three issues: the analysis of the calculus of variations problem, the study of a generalized weak KAM theorem for solutions of weakly coupled systems of Hamilton–Jacobi equations, and the long-time behavior of time-dependent systems. We prove the existence and regularity of action minimizers, obtain necessary conditions for minimality, extend Fathi’s weak KAM theorem, and describe the asymptotic limit of the generalized Lax–Oleinik semigroup. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Weak layer fracture: facets and depth hoar
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Reiweger
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Understanding failure initiation within weak snow layers is essential for modeling and predicting dry-snow slab avalanches. We therefore performed laboratory experiments with snow samples containing a weak layer consisting of either faceted crystals or depth hoar. During these experiments the samples were loaded with different loading rates and at various tilt angles until fracture. The strength of the samples decreased with increasing loading rate and increasing tilt angle. Additionally, we took pictures of the side of four samples with a high-speed video camera and calculated the displacement using a particle image velocimetry (PIV algorithm. The fracture process within the weak layer could thus be observed in detail. Catastrophic failure started due to a shear fracture just above the interface between the depth hoar layer and the underlying crust.
Weakly isolated horizon information loss paradox
Chen, Ge-Rui
2014-01-01
In this paper we investigate the information loss paradox of weakly isolated horizon(WIH) based on the Parikh and Wilczek's tunneling spectrum. We find that there are correlations among Hawking radiations from weakly isolated horizon, the information can be carried out in terms of correlations between sequential emissions, and the radiation is an entropy conservation process. We generalize Refs.[11-13]' results to a more general spacetime. Through revisiting the calculation of tunneling of weakly isolated horizon, we find that Ref.[12]'s requirement that radiating particles have the same angular momenta of unit mass as that of black hole is not needed, and the energy and angular momenta of emitting particles are very arbitrary, which should be restricted only by keeping the cosmic censorship of black hole.
Revealed Quantum Information in Weak Interaction Processes
Hiesmayr, B C
2014-01-01
We analyze the achievable limits of the quantum information processing of the weak interaction revealed by hyperons with spin. We find that the weak decay process corresponds to an interferometric device with a fixed visibility and fixed phase difference for each hyperon. Nature chooses rather low visibilities expressing a preference to parity conserving or violating processes (except for the decay $\\Sigma^+\\longrightarrow p \\pi^0$). The decay process can be considered as an open quantum channel that carries the information of the hyperon spin to the angular distribution of the momentum of the daughter particles. We find a simple geometrical information theoretic interpretation of this process: two quantization axes are chosen spontaneously with probabilities $\\frac{1\\pm\\alpha}{2}$ where $\\alpha$ is proportional to the visibility times the real part of the phase shift. Differently stated the weak interaction process corresponds to spin measurements with an imperfect Stern-Gerlach apparatus. Equipped with this...
Respiratory muscle weakness in peripheral neuropathies.
Burakgazi, Ahmet Z; Höke, Ahmet
2010-12-01
Common peripheral neuropathies do not usually cause diaphragmatic weakness and subsequent respiratory compromise. However, respiratory involvement is relatively common in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Experience in GBS has led to a standardized approach to manage respiratory problems in peripheral neuropathies. Diaphragmatic weakness is not common in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and extremely rare in multifocal motor neuropathy. The linkage has been described between certain subtypes of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease such as CMT2C and CMT4B1 and diaphragmatic weakness. A correlation usually has not been found between electrophysiologic findings and clinical respiratory signs or spirometric abnormalities in peripheral neuropathies except in amplitudes of evoked phrenic nerve responses. Careful and frequent assessment of respiratory function by a qualified team of healthcare professionals and physicians is essential. Criteria established for mechanical ventilation in GBS cases may be applied to other peripheral neuropathies with respiratory compromise as necessary.
Evidence for a Lattice Weak Gravity Conjecture
Heidenreich, Ben; Rudelius, Tom
2016-01-01
The Weak Gravity Conjecture postulates the existence of superextremal charged particles, i.e. those with mass smaller than or equal to their charge in Planck units. We present further evidence for our recent observation that in known examples a much stronger statement is true: an infinite tower of superextremal particles of different charges exists. We show that effective Kaluza-Klein field theories and perturbative string vacua respect the Sublattice Weak Gravity Conjecture, namely that a finite index sublattice of the full charge lattice exists with a superextremal particle at each site. In perturbative string theory we show that this follows from modular invariance. However, we present counterexamples to the stronger possibility that a superextremal state exists at every lattice site, including an example in which the lightest charged state is subextremal. The Sublattice Weak Gravity Conjecture has many implications both for abstract theories of quantum gravity and for real-world physics. For instance, it ...
Weak lensing in the Dark Energy Survey
Troxel, Michael
2016-03-01
I will present the current status of weak lensing results from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). DES will survey 5000 square degrees in five photometric bands (grizY), and has already provided a competitive weak lensing catalog from Science Verification data covering just 3% of the final survey footprint. I will summarize the status of shear catalog production using observations from the first year of the survey and discuss recent weak lensing science results from DES. Finally, I will report on the outlook for future cosmological analyses in DES including the two-point cosmic shear correlation function and discuss challenges that DES and future surveys will face in achieving a control of systematics that allows us to take full advantage of the available statistical power of our shear catalogs.
No-Hair Theorem for Weak Pulsar
Gruzinov, Andrei
2015-01-01
It is proposed that there exists a class of pulsars, called weak pulsars, for which the large-scale magnetosphere, and hence the gamma-ray emission, are independent of the detailed pattern of plasma production. The weak pulsar magnetosphere and its gamma-ray emission are uniquely determined by just three parameters: spin, dipole, and the spin-dipole angle. We calculate this supposedly unique pulsar magnetosphere in the axisymmetric case. The magnetosphere is found to be very close to (although interestingly not fully identical with) the magnetosphere we have previously calculated, explaining the phenomenological success of the old calculation. We offer only a highly tentative proof of this "Pulsar No-Hair Theorem". Our analytics, while convincing in its non-triviality, is incomplete, and counts only as a plausibility argument. Our numerics, while complete, is dubious. The plasma flow in the weak pulsar magnetosphere turns out to be even more intricate than what we have previously proposed: some particles, aft...
Phase slips in superconducting weak links
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kimmel, Gregory; Glatz, Andreas; Aranson, Igor S.
2017-01-01
Superconducting vortices and phase slips are primary mechanisms of dissipation in superconducting, superfluid, and cold-atom systems. While the dynamics of vortices is fairly well described, phase slips occurring in quasi-one- dimensional superconducting wires still elude understanding. The main reason is that phase slips are strongly nonlinear time-dependent phenomena that cannot be cast in terms of small perturbations of the superconducting state. Here we study phase slips occurring in superconducting weak links. Thanks to partial suppression of superconductivity in weak links, we employ a weakly nonlinear approximation for dynamic phase slips. This approximation is not valid for homogeneous superconducting wires and slabs. Using the numerical solution of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation and bifurcation analysis of stationary solutions, we show that the onset of phase slips occurs via an infinite period bifurcation, which is manifested in a specific voltage-current dependence. Our analytical results are in good agreement with simulations.
Interpolation for weak Orlicz spaces with M_Δ condition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
An interpolation theorem for weak Orlicz spaces generalized by N-functions satisfying MΔ condition is given. It is proved to be true for weak Orlicz martingale spaces by weak atomic decomposition of weak Hardy martingale spaces. And applying the interpolation theorem, we obtain some embedding relationships among weak Orlicz martingale spaces.
Nyasulu, Frazier; McMills, Lauren; Barlag, Rebecca
2013-01-01
A laboratory to determine the equilibrium constants of weak acid negative weak base reactions is described. The equilibrium constants of component reactions when multiplied together equal the numerical value of the equilibrium constant of the summative reaction. The component reactions are weak acid ionization reactions, weak base hydrolysis…
Nyasulu, Frazier; McMills, Lauren; Barlag, Rebecca
2013-01-01
A laboratory to determine the equilibrium constants of weak acid negative weak base reactions is described. The equilibrium constants of component reactions when multiplied together equal the numerical value of the equilibrium constant of the summative reaction. The component reactions are weak acid ionization reactions, weak base hydrolysis…
Dixon's extended bodies and weak gravitational waves
Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea; Ortolan, Antonello
2009-01-01
General relativity considers Dixon's theory as the standard theory to deal with the motion of extended bodies in a given gravitational background. We discuss here the features of the "reaction" of an extended body to the passage of a weak gravitational wave. We find that the body acquires a dipolar moment induced by its quadrupole structure. Furthermore, we derive the "world function" for the weak field limit of a gravitational wave background and use it to estimate the deviation between geodesics and the world lines of structured bodies. Measuring such deviations, due to the existence of cumulative effects, should be favorite with respect to measuring the amplitude of the gravitational wave itself.
Landau Weak Crystallization Theory and its Applications
Kats, E. I.
Aim of this lecture is to explain main features and ingredients of weak first order phase transitions between liquid-like (uniform in space) and solid-like (non-uniform with characteristic wave vector q0) states. We illustrate how this theory (traditionally termed as Landau weak crystallization theory) works. We consider two examples describing universal temperature dependence of shear viscosity in liquids, and so-called main phase transition in membranes. Our results are in a good qualitative agreement with experimental data, offering a deeper understanding of this kind of phase transitions. We discuss also why and where predicted universal effects can be masked.
Simple understanding of quantum weak values
Qin, Lupei; Feng, Wei; Li, Xin-Qi
2016-02-01
In this work we revisit the important and controversial concept of quantum weak values, aiming to provide a simplified understanding to its associated physics and the origin of anomaly. Taking the Stern-Gerlach setup as a working system, we base our analysis on an exact treatment in terms of quantum Bayesian approach. We also make particular connection with a very recent work, where the anomaly of the weak values was claimed from the pure statistics in association with “disturbance” and “post-selection”, rather than the unique quantum nature. Our analysis resolves the related controversies through a clear and quantitative way.
Critical level statistics for weakly disordered graphene.
Amanatidis, E; Kleftogiannis, I; Katsanos, D E; Evangelou, S N
2014-04-16
In two dimensions chaotic level statistics with the Wigner spacing distribution P(S) is expected for massless fermions in the Dirac region. The obtained P(S) for weakly disordered finite graphene samples with zigzag edges turns out, however, to be neither chaotic (Wigner) nor localized (Poisson). It is similar to the intermediate statistics at the critical point of the Anderson metal-insulator transition. The quantum transport of finite graphene for weak disorder, with critical level statistics can occur via edge states as in topological insulators, and for strong disorder, graphene behaves as an ordinary Anderson insulator with Poisson statistics.
A Weakly Homomorphic Encryption with LDN
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao Feng
2014-06-01
Full Text Available As an effective solution to protect the privacy of the data, homomorphic encryption has become a hot research topic. Existing homomorphic schemes are not truly practical due to their huge key size. In this paper, we present a simple weakly homomorphic encryption scheme using only elementary modular arithmetic over the integers rather than working with ideal lattices. Compared with DGHV’s construction, the proposed scheme has shorter public key and ciphertext size. The main appeal of our approach is the conceptual simplicity. We reduce the security of weakly homomorphic scheme to “learning divisor with noise (LDN”
Charged current weak electroproduction of $\\Delta$ resonance
Alvarez-Ruso, L; Vacas, M J V
1998-01-01
We study the weak production of $\\Delta$ (i.e. $e^{-} + p \\to \\Delta^{0}+ energy range corresponding to the Mainz and TJNAF electron accelerators. The differential cross sections $\\sigma(\\theta)$ are found to be of the order of $ 10^{-39}$ cm$^2$/sr, over a range of angles which increases with energy. The possibility of observing these reactions with the high luminosities available at these accelerators, and studying the weak N-$\\Delta$ transition form factors through these reactions is discussed. The production cross section of N$^*(1440)$ in the kinematic region of $\\Delta$ production is also estimated and found to be small.
Students’ Weakness Detective in Traditional Class
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fatimah Altuhaifa
2016-10-01
Full Text Available In Artificial Intelligent in Education in learning contexts and domains, the traditional classroom is tough to find students’ weakness during lecture due to the student’s number and because the instruction is busy with explaining the lesson. According to that, choosing teaching style that can improve student talent or skills to performs better in their classes or professional life would not be an easy task. This system is going to detect the average of students’ weakness and find either a solution for this or instruction a style that can increase students’ ability and skills by filtering the collection data, understanding the problem. After that, it provides a teaching style.
Compressive wavefront sensing with weak values.
Howland, Gregory A; Lum, Daniel J; Howell, John C
2014-08-11
We demonstrate a wavefront sensor that unites weak measurement and the compressive-sensing, single-pixel camera. Using a high-resolution spatial light modulator (SLM) as a variable waveplate, we weakly couple an optical field's transverse-position and polarization degrees of freedom. By placing random, binary patterns on the SLM, polarization serves as a meter for directly measuring random projections of the wavefront's real and imaginary components. Compressive-sensing optimization techniques can then recover the wavefront. We acquire high quality, 256 × 256 pixel images of the wavefront from only 10,000 projections. Photon-counting detectors give sub-picowatt sensitivity.
From Suitable Weak Solutions to Entropy Viscosity
Guermond, Jean-Luc
2010-12-16
This paper focuses on the notion of suitable weak solutions for the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and discusses the relevance of this notion to Computational Fluid Dynamics. The purpose of the paper is twofold (i) to recall basic mathematical properties of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and to show how they might relate to LES (ii) to introduce an entropy viscosity technique based on the notion of suitable weak solution and to illustrate numerically this concept. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Weak interactions at high energies. [Lectures, review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ellis, J.
1978-08-01
Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references. (JFP)
Measuring the dark side (with weak lensing)
Amendola, Luca; Sapone, Domenico
2007-01-01
We introduce a convenient parametrization of dark energy models that is general enough to include several modified gravity models and generalized forms of dark energy. In particular we take into account the linear perturbation growth factor, the anisotropic stress and the modified Poisson equation. We discuss the sensitivity of large scale weak lensing surveys like the proposed DUNE satellite to these parameters. We find that a large-scale weak-lensing tomographic survey is able to easily distinguish the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model from LCDM and to determine the perturbation growth index to an absolute error of 0.02-0.03.
Weak Lie symmetry and extended Lie algebra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goenner, Hubert [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, University of Goettingen, D-37077 Gottingen (Germany)
2013-04-15
The concept of weak Lie motion (weak Lie symmetry) is introduced. Applications given exhibit a reduction of the usual symmetry, e.g., in the case of the rotation group. In this context, a particular generalization of Lie algebras is found ('extended Lie algebras') which turns out to be an involutive distribution or a simple example for a tangent Lie algebroid. Riemannian and Lorentz metrics can be introduced on such an algebroid through an extended Cartan-Killing form. Transformation groups from non-relativistic mechanics and quantum mechanics lead to such tangent Lie algebroids and to Lorentz geometries constructed on them (1-dimensional gravitational fields).
A weak balance: the contribution of muscle weakness to postural instability and falls.
Horlings, C.G.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Allum, J.H.; Bloem, B.R.
2008-01-01
Muscle strength is a potentially important factor contributing to postural control. In this article, we consider the influence of muscle weakness on postural instability and falling. We searched the literature for research evaluating muscle weakness as a risk factor for falls in community-dwelling e
What Weak Measurements and Weak Values Really Mean: Reply to Kastner
Cohen, Eliahu
2017-06-01
Despite their important applications in metrology and in spite of numerous experimental demonstrations, weak measurements are still confusing for part of the community. This sometimes leads to unjustified criticism. Recent papers have experimentally clarified the meaning and practical significance of weak measurements, yet in Kastner (Found Phys 47:697-707, 2017), Kastner seems to take us many years backwards in the the debate, casting doubt on the very term "weak value" and the meaning of weak measurements. Kastner appears to ignore both the basics and frontiers of weak measurements and misinterprets the weak measurement process and its outcomes. In addition, she accuses the authors of Aharonov et al. (Ann Phys 355:258-268, 2015) in statements completely opposite to the ones they have actually made. There are many points of disagreement between Kastner and us, but in this short reply I will leave aside the ontology (which is indeed interpretational and far more complex than that described by Kastner) and focus mainly on the injustice in her criticism. I shall add some general comments regarding the broader theory of weak measurements and the two-state-vector formalism, as well as supporting experimental results. Finally, I will point out some recent promising results, which can be proven by (strong) projective measurements, without the need of employing weak measurements.
Weak monotonicity inequality and partial regularity for harmonic maps
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
沈尧天; 严树森
1999-01-01
The notion of locally weak monotonicity inequality for weakly harmonic maps is introduced and various results on this class of maps are obtained. For example, the locally weak monotonicity inequality is nearly equivalent to the ε-regularity.
Higgs Boson Production and Weak Boson Structure
1995-01-01
The influence of the QCD structure of the weak bosons on the Higgs boson production in $e$-$p$ scattering is studied. The energy and Higgs boson mass dependence of the cross-section, following from the new contributions, is calculated.
Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions
Rajasekaran, G
2014-01-01
The history of weak interactions starting with Fermi's creation of the beta decay theory and culminating in its modern avatar in the form of the electroweak gauge theory is described. Discoveries of parity violation, matter-antimatter asymmetry, W and Z bosons and neutrino mass are highlighted.
Studying dark matter haloes with weak lensing
Velander, Malin Barbro Margareta
2012-01-01
Our Universe is comprised not only of normal matter but also of unknown components: dark matter and dark energy. This Thesis recounts studies of dark matter haloes, using a technique known as weak gravitational lensing, in order to learn more about the nature of these dark components. The haloes
Modeling, Measuring, and Compensating Color Weak Vision.
Oshima, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Rika; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui
2016-06-01
We use methods from Riemann geometry to investigate transformations between the color spaces of color-normal and color-weak observers. The two main applications are the simulation of the perception of a color weak observer for a color-normal observer, and the compensation of color images in a way that a color-weak observer has approximately the same perception as a color-normal observer. The metrics in the color spaces of interest are characterized with the help of ellipsoids defined by the just-noticeable-differences between the colors which are measured with the help of color-matching experiments. The constructed mappings are the isometries of Riemann spaces that preserve the perceived color differences for both observers. Among the two approaches to build such an isometry, we introduce normal coordinates in Riemann spaces as a tool to construct a global color-weak compensation map. Compared with the previously used methods, this method is free from approximation errors due to local linearizations, and it avoids the problem of shifting locations of the origin of the local coordinate system. We analyze the variations of the Riemann metrics for different observers obtained from new color-matching experiments and describe three variations of the basic method. The performance of the methods is evaluated with the help of semantic differential tests.
Modelling, Measuring and Compensating Color Weak Vision.
Oshima, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Rika; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui
2016-03-08
We use methods from Riemann geometry to investigate transformations between the color spaces of color-normal and color weak observers. The two main applications are the simulation of the perception of a color weak observer for a color normal observer and the compensation of color images in a way that a color weak observer has approximately the same perception as a color normal observer. The metrics in the color spaces of interest are characterized with the help of ellipsoids defined by the just-noticable-differences between color which are measured with the help of color-matching experiments. The constructed mappings are isometries of Riemann spaces that preserve the perceived color-differences for both observers. Among the two approaches to build such an isometry, we introduce normal coordinates in Riemann spaces as a tool to construct a global color-weak compensation map. Compared to previously used methods this method is free from approximation errors due to local linearizations and it avoids the problem of shifting locations of the origin of the local coordinate system. We analyse the variations of the Riemann metrics for different observers obtained from new color matching experiments and describe three variations of the basic method. The performance of the methods is evaluated with the help of semantic differential (SD) tests.
TRANSPORTATION INEQUALITIES FOR WEAKLY DEPENDENT SEQUENCES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ma Yutao
2011-01-01
In[3],they gave necessary and sufficient condition for T1C and then as applications T1C for weakly dependent sequences was established.In this note,based on Gozlan-Léonard characterization for W1H-inequalities,we extends this result to W1Hinequalities.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kohlenbach, Ulrich
2002-01-01
is of interest in the context of explicit mathematics as developed by S. Feferman. The elimination process in Kohlenbach [10] actually can be used to eliminate even this uniform weak Konig's lemma provided that PRA only has a quantifier-free rule of extensionality QF-ER instead of the full axioms (E...
Weak organic acid stress in Bacillus subtilis
ter Beek, A.S.
2009-01-01
Weak organic acids are commonly used food preservatives that protect food products from bacterial contamination. A variety of spore-forming bacterial species pose a serious problem to the food industry by causing extensive food spoilage or even food poisoning. Understanding the mechanisms of
Quantum trajectories based on the weak value
Mori, Takuya; Tsutsui, Izumi
2015-04-01
The notion of the trajectory of an individual particle is strictly inhibited in quantum mechanics because of the uncertainty principle. Nonetheless, the weak value, which has been proposed as a novel and measurable quantity definable to any quantum observable, can offer a possible description of trajectory on account of its statistical nature. In this paper, we explore the physical significance provided by this "weak trajectory" by considering various situations where interference takes place simultaneously with the observation of particles, that is, in prototypical quantum situations for which no classical treatment is available. These include the double slit experiment and Lloyd's mirror, where in the former case it is argued that the real part of the weak trajectory describes an average over the possible classical trajectories involved in the process, and that the imaginary part is related to the variation of interference. It is shown that this average interpretation of the weak trajectory holds universally under the complex probability defined from the given transition process. These features remain essentially unaltered in the case of Lloyd's mirror where interference occurs with a single slit.
Axion monodromy and the weak gravity conjecture
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hebecker, Arthur; Rompineve, Fabrizio [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Westphal, Alexander [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group
2015-12-15
Axions with broken discrete shift symmetry (axion monodromy) have recently played a central role both in the discussion of inflation and the 'relaxion' approach to the hierarchy problem. We suggest a very minimalist way to constrain such models by the weak gravity conjecture for domain walls: While the electric side of the conjecture is always satisfied if the cosine-oscillations of the axion potential are sufficiently small, the magnetic side imposes a cutoff, Λ{sup 3}∝mfM{sub pl}, independent of the height of these 'wiggles'. We compare our approach with the recent related proposal by Ibanez, Montero, Uranga and Valenzuela. We also discuss the non-trivial question which version, if any, of the weak gravity conjecture for domain walls should hold. In particular, we show that string compactifications with branes of different dimensions wrapped on different cycles lead to a 'geometric weak gravity conjecture' relating volumes of cycles, norms of corresponding forms and the volume of the compact space. Imposing this 'geometric conjecture', e.g. on the basis of the more widely accepted weak gravity conjecture for particles, provides at least some support for the (electric and magnetic) conjecture for domain walls.
Weakly nonlinear density-velocity relation
Chodorowski, M J; Chodorowski, Michal J; Lokas, Ewa L
1996-01-01
We rigorously derive weakly nonlinear relation between cosmic density and velocity fields up to third order in perturbation theory. The density field is described by the mass density contrast, \\de. The velocity field is described by the variable \\te proportional to the velocity divergence, \\te = - f(\\Omega)^{-1} H_0^{-1} \
Studying dark matter haloes with weak lensing
Velander, Malin Barbro Margareta
2012-01-01
Our Universe is comprised not only of normal matter but also of unknown components: dark matter and dark energy. This Thesis recounts studies of dark matter haloes, using a technique known as weak gravitational lensing, in order to learn more about the nature of these dark components. The haloes ana
TAUBERIAN THEOREMS FOR WEAK ALMOST CONVERGENT FUNCTIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Meng-Kuang Kuo
2011-01-01
The almost convergent function which was introduced by Raimi [6] and dis- cussed by Ho [4], Das and Nanda [2, 3], is the continuous analogue of almost convergent sequences (see [5]). In this paper, we establish the Tauberian conditions and the Cauchy criteria for weak almost convergent functions on R2+.
Collisional properties of weakly bound heteronuclear dimers
Marcelis, B.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.; Petrov, D.S.
2008-01-01
We consider collisional properties of weakly bound heteronuclear molecules (dimers) formed in a two-species mixture of atoms with a large mass difference. We focus on dimers containing light fermionic atoms as they manifest collisional stability due to an effective dimer-dimer repulsion originating
Common Fixed Points for Weakly Compatible Maps
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Renu Chugh; Sanjay Kumar
2001-05-01
The purpose of this paper is to prove a common fixed point theorem, from the class of compatible continuous maps to a larger class of maps having weakly compatible maps without appeal to continuity, which generalized the results of Jungck [3], Fisher [1], Kang and Kim [8], Jachymski [2], and Rhoades [9].
Spurious Shear in Weak Lensing with LSST
Chang, C; Jernigan, J G; Peterson, J R; AlSayyad, Y; Ahmad, Z; Bankert, J; Bard, D; Connolly, A; Gibson, R R; Gilmore, K; Grace, E; Hannel, M; Hodge, M A; Jee, M J; Jones, L; Krughoff, S; Lorenz, S; Marshall, P J; Marshall, S; Meert, A; Nagarajan, S; Peng, E; Rasmussen, A P; Shmakova, M; Sylvestre, N; Todd, N; Young, M
2012-01-01
The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is one of the most powerful ground-based weak lensing survey telescopes in the upcoming decade. The complete 10-year survey will image $\\sim$ 20,000 square degrees of sky in six filter bands every few nights, bringing the final survey depth to $r\\sim27.5$, with over 4 billion well measured galaxies. To take full advantage of this unprecedented statistical power, the systematic errors associated with weak lensing measurements need to be controlled to a level similar to the statistical errors. This work is the first attempt to quantitatively estimate the absolute level and statistical properties of the systematic errors on weak lensing shear measurements due to the most important physical effects in the LSST system via high fidelity ray-tracing simulations. We identify and isolate the different sources of \\textit{additive} systematic errors on shear measurements for LSST and predict their impact on the final cosmic shear measurements using conventional weak lensing ana...
Weak organic acid stress in Bacillus subtilis
ter Beek, A.S.
2009-01-01
Weak organic acids are commonly used food preservatives that protect food products from bacterial contamination. A variety of spore-forming bacterial species pose a serious problem to the food industry by causing extensive food spoilage or even food poisoning. Understanding the mechanisms of bacteri
Engineering molecular crystals with abnormally weak cohesion.
Maly, Kenneth E; Gagnon, Eric; Wuest, James D
2011-05-14
Adding astutely placed methyl groups to hexaphenylbenzene increases molecular weight but simultaneously weakens key C-H···π interactions, thereby leading to decreased enthalpies of sublimation and showing that materials with abnormally weak cohesion can be made by identifying and then obstructing interactions that help control association.
Efficient bootstrap with weakly dependent processes
Bravo, Francesco; Crudu, Federico
2012-01-01
The efficient bootstrap methodology is developed for overidentified moment conditions models with weakly dependent observation. The resulting bootstrap procedure is shown to be asymptotically valid and can be used to approximate the distributions of t-statistics, the J-statistic for overidentifying
Modeling, Measuring, and Compensating Color Weak Vision
Oshima, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Rika; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui
2016-06-01
We use methods from Riemann geometry to investigate transformations between the color spaces of color-normal and color weak observers. The two main applications are the simulation of the perception of a color weak observer for a color normal observer and the compensation of color images in a way that a color weak observer has approximately the same perception as a color normal observer. The metrics in the color spaces of interest are characterized with the help of ellipsoids defined by the just-noticable-differences between color which are measured with the help of color-matching experiments. The constructed mappings are isometries of Riemann spaces that preserve the perceived color-differences for both observers. Among the two approaches to build such an isometry, we introduce normal coordinates in Riemann spaces as a tool to construct a global color-weak compensation map. Compared to previously used methods this method is free from approximation errors due to local linearizations and it avoids the problem of shifting locations of the origin of the local coordinate system. We analyse the variations of the Riemann metrics for different observers obtained from new color matching experiments and describe three variations of the basic method. The performance of the methods is evaluated with the help of semantic differential (SD) tests.
Strong suppression of weak localization in graphene
Morozov, S.V.; Novoselov, K.S.; Katsnelson, M.I.; Schedin, F.; Ponomarenko, L.A.; Jiang, D.; Geim, A.K.
2006-01-01
Low-field magnetoresistance is ubiquitous in low-dimensional metallic systems with high resistivity and well understood as arising due to quantum interference on self-intersecting diffusive trajectories. We have found that in graphene this weak-localization magnetoresistance is strongly suppressed a
The Strengths and Weaknesses of Universal Grammar
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
华芳
2013-01-01
Chomsky’s universal grammar (UG) has always had a following among certain linguists. This article discusses the strengths and weaknesses of UG in the L2 setting according to its proponents and opponents. The author also evaluates it using Ka⁃plan’s five-point tool and Long’s eight-point measuring stick.
Quantum Signature Scheme with Weak Arbitrator
Luo, Ming-Xing; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Yun, Deng; Yang, Yi-Xian
2012-07-01
In this paper, we propose one quantum signature scheme with a weak arbitrator to sign classical messages. This scheme can preserve the merits in the original arbitrated scheme with some entanglement resources, and provide a higher efficiency in transmission and reduction the complexity of implementation. The arbitrator is costless and only involved in the disagreement case.
Efficient bootstrap with weakly dependent processes
Bravo, Francesco; Crudu, Federico
2012-01-01
The efficient bootstrap methodology is developed for overidentified moment conditions models with weakly dependent observation. The resulting bootstrap procedure is shown to be asymptotically valid and can be used to approximate the distributions of t-statistics, the J-statistic for overidentifying
[A strong man with a weak shoulder].
Henket, Marjolijn; Lycklama á Nijeholt, Geert J; van der Zwaal, Peer
2013-01-01
A 47-year-old former olympic athlete had pain and weakness of his left shoulder. There was no prior trauma. He had full range-of-motion and a scapular dyskinesia. There was atrophy of the trapezius and sternocleidomastoideus muscles. He was diagnosed with 'idiopathic neuritis of the accessorius nerve'.
Quantum mechanical calculations on weakly interacting complexes
Heijmen, T.G.A.
1998-01-01
Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) has been applied to compute the intermolecular potential energy surfaces and the interaction-induced electrical properties of weakly interacting complexes. Asymptotic (large R) expressions have been derived for the contributions to the collision-induced pr
Annihilators on weakly standard BCC-algebras
R. Halaš; L. Plojhar
2005-01-01
In a recent paper the authors presented a new construction of BCC-algebras derived from posets with the top element 1. Resulting BCC-algebras, called weakly standard, are those for which every 4-element subset containing 1 is a subalgebra. In this paper we continue our investigations focusing on the properties of their lattices of congruence kernels.
Legitimacy Building under Weak Institutional Settings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wejs, Anja; Harvold, Kjell; Larsen, Sanne Vammen;
2014-01-01
Local strategies for adaptation to climate change in Denmark and Norway are discussed. In both countries, the national impetus for local adaptation is weak; it is largely left to local actors to take the initiative. The dynamics of the different approaches to climate-change adaptation at the loca...
WEAKLY ALGEBRAIC REFLEXIVITY AND STRONGLY ALGEBRAIC REFLEXIVITY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TaoChangli; LuShijie; ChenPeixin
2002-01-01
Algebraic reflexivity introduced by Hadwin is related to linear interpolation. In this paper, the concepts of weakly algebraic reflexivity and strongly algebraic reflexivity which are also related to linear interpolation are introduced. Some properties of them are obtained and some relations between them revealed.
Weak chaos in the asymmetric heavy top
Barrientos, M; Ranada, A F
1995-01-01
We consider the dynamics of the slightly asymmetric heavy top, a non-integrable system obtained from the Lagrange top by breaking the symmetry of its inertia tensor. It shows signs of weak chaos, which we study numerically. We argue that it is a good example for introducing students to non-integrability and chaos. (author)
Solitons and Weakly Nonlinear Waves in Plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pécseli, Hans
1985-01-01
Theoretical descriptions of solitons and weakly nonlinear waves propagating in plasma media are reviewed, with particular attention to the Korteweg-de Vries (KDV) equation and the Nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS). The modifications of these basic equations due to the effects of resonant...
Many-body chaos at weak coupling
Stanford, Douglas
2016-10-01
The strength of chaos in large N quantum systems can be quantified using λ L , the rate of growth of certain out-of-time-order four point functions. We calculate λ L to leading order in a weakly coupled matrix Φ4 theory by numerically diagonalizing a ladder kernel. The computation reduces to an essentially classical problem.
The balance of weak and strong interactions in genetic networks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan F Poyatos
Full Text Available Genetic interactions are being quantitatively characterized in a comprehensive way in several model organisms. These data are then globally represented in terms of genetic networks. How are interaction strengths distributed in these networks? And what type of functional organization of the underlying genomic systems is revealed by such distribution patterns? Here, I found that weak interactions are important for the structure of genetic buffering between signaling pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans, and that the strength of the association between two genes correlates with the number of common interactors they exhibit. I also determined that this network includes genetic cascades balancing weak and strong links, and that its hubs act as particularly strong genetic modifiers; both patterns also identified in Saccharomyces cerevisae networks. In yeast, I further showed a relation, although weak, between interaction strengths and some phenotypic/evolutionary features of the corresponding target genes. Overall, this work demonstrates a non-random organization of interaction strengths in genetic networks, a feature common to other complex networks, and that could reflect in this context how genetic variation is eventually influencing the phenotype.
Search for the Scalar Component of Weak Interactions
Zakoucky, Dalibor
2014-01-01
Weak interactions ar e described by the Standard Model which postulates the basic assumption about the pure " V (ector) - A (xial vector)" character of the interaction. Nevertheless, even after half a century of development of the model and experimental testing of its fundamental i ngredients, experimental data still allow the existence of other types of weak interactions - e.g. scalar interactions are ruled out only on the 7% level. Experimental project WITCH ( W eak I nteraction T rap for CH arged particles) was set up at the isoto pe separator ISOLDE at CERN trying to probe the properties of the weak interaction in order to look for their forbidden (scalar, tensor) components or at least significantly improve their current experimental limits. Experimental setup consisting of a comb ination of 2 Penning traps and retardation spectrometer allows to catch the radioactive nuclei from ISOLDE separator, traps and cools them and lets them decay in rest and then probes the energy spectrum of recoiling nuclei whic...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孟文静; 陈焕艮
2015-01-01
This paper defines weakly almost clean rings .A commutative ring R is a weakly almost clean ring if every element x∈ R can be written in the form x= r+ e or x= r-e where r∈ reg(R) and e∈ Id(R) .Firstly , for a nonempty collection {Ri}of rings Ri ,the product R = ∏ i∈ IRi is weakly almost clean if and only if there exists m∈ I such that Rm is weakly almost clean and Rn is almost clean for all n≠ m .Further ,let R be a ring and M be an R‐module ,the trivial extension R(M) of R and M is weakly almost clean if and only if each x∈ R can be written in the form x= r+ e or x= r-e where r∈ R-(Z(R)∪ Z(M)) and e∈ Id(R) .These extend the corre‐sponding results on almost clean rings .%定义了weakly almost clean环。交换环R叫做weakly almost clean环，如果对于任意一个元素 x ∈ R可以写成 x ＝ r＋ e或x ＝ r－e的形式，其中r∈ reg（R）且e∈ Id（R）。首先，对于环Ri的非空集合｛Ri｝，证明了直和R＝∏ i∈ IRi为weakly almost clean当且仅当存在 m ∈ I使Rm为weakly almost clean且对所有的n≠ m ，Rn为almost clean 。然后，设R是一个环且 M为一个R‐模，得到了R和M的平凡扩张R（M）为weakly almost clean当且仅当每个 x∈ R可以写成x＝ r＋e或x＝ r－e的形式，其中 r∈ R－（Z（R）∪ Z（M））且e∈ Id（R）。进而推广了almost clean环的相应结果。
Introduction to weak interaction theories with dynamical symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lane, K.D.; Peskin, M.E.
1980-07-01
A straightforward introduction to theories of the weak interactions with dynamical symmetry breaking-theories of technicolor or hypercolor is presented. The intent is to inform experimentalists, but also to goad theorists. The motivation for considering theories of this type is described. The structure that such a theory must possess, including new gauge interactions at mass scales of 1-100 TeV is then outlined. Despite their reliance on phenomena at such enormous energies, these theories contain new phenomena observable at currently accessible energies. Three such effects which are especially likely to be observed are described.
Inflationary Weak Anisotropic Model with General Dissipation Coefficient
Sharif, M
2015-01-01
This paper explores the dynamics of warm intermediate and logamediate inflationary models during weak dissipative regime with a general form of dissipative coefficient. We analyze these models within the framework of locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I universe. In both cases, we evaluate solution of inflaton, effective scalar potential, dissipative coefficient, slow-roll parameters, scalar and tensor power spectra, scalar spectral index and tensor to scalar ratio under slow-roll approximation. We constrain the model parameters using recent data and conclude that anisotropic inflationary universe model with generalized dissipation coefficient remains compatible with WMAP9, Planck and BICEP2 data.
The weak measurement process and the weak value of spin for metastable helium 23S1
Monachello, Vincenzo; Barker, Peter; Flack, Robert; Hiley, Basil
2016-05-01
An experiment is being designed and constructed in order to measure the weak value of spin for an atomic system. The principle of the ``weak measurement'' process was first proposed by Aharonov, Albert and Vaidman, and describes a scenario in which a system is weakly coupled to a pointer between well-defined pre- and post-selected states. This experiment will utilise a pulsed supersonic beam of spin-1 metastable Helium (He*) atoms in the 23S1 state. The spin of the pre-selected He* atoms will be weakly coupled to its centre-of-mass. During its flight, the atomic beam will be prepared in a desired quantum state and travel through two inhomogeneous magnets (weak and strong) which both comprise the ``weak measurement'' process. The deviation of the post-selected ms = + 1 state as measured using a micro-channel plate, phosphor screen and CCD camera setup will allow for the determination of the weak value of spin. This poster will report on the methods used and the experimental realisation.
Very weak solutions of wave equation for Landau Hamiltonian with irregular electromagnetic field
Ruzhansky, Michael; Tokmagambetov, Niyaz
2017-04-01
In this paper, we study the Cauchy problem for the Landau Hamiltonian wave equation, with time-dependent irregular (distributional) electromagnetic field and similarly irregular velocity. For such equations, we describe the notion of a `very weak solution' adapted to the type of solutions that exist for regular coefficients. The construction is based on considering Friedrichs-type mollifier of the coefficients and corresponding classical solutions, and their quantitative behaviour in the regularising parameter. We show that even for distributional coefficients, the Cauchy problem does have a very weak solution, and that this notion leads to classical or distributional-type solutions under conditions when such solutions also exist.
2015-04-08
Naval Health Research Center Perceived Strengths and Weaknesses of Highly Realistic Training and Live Tissue Training for Navy Corpsmen Stephanie...Highly Realistic and Live Tissue Training 1 Perceived Strengths and Weaknesses of Highly Realistic Training and Live Tissue...Highly Realistic and Live Tissue Training 2 ABSTRACT The U.S. Navy currently employs two types of trauma care training for Navy corpsmen: highly
Testing the Weak-Form Market Efficiency Hypothesis for Canadian and Chinese Stock
Hou, Bin; Sun, Mingyang
2014-01-01
The main empirical test methods for Weak-form efficiency market hypothesis can be divided into two categories: one is to test the randomness of stock prices; the other is to test the invalidity of technical analysis, which testing the predictability of earnings. This study mainly focused on the first category.To examining the hypothesis whether Canadian and Chinese stock markets are efficient in the weak form, two types of test are conducted. They are parametric and non-parametric tests. For ...
The Q_weak Experimental Apparatus
Allison, T; Androic, D; Armstrong, D S; Asaturyan, A; Averett, T D; Averill, R; Balewski, J; Beaufait, J; Beminiwattha, R S; Benesch, J; Benmokhtar, F; Bessuille, J; Birchall, J; Bonnell, E; Bowman, J; Brindza, P; Brown, D B; Carlini, R D; Cates, G D; Cavness, B; Clark, G; Cornejo, J C; Dusa, S Covrig; Dalton, M M; Davis, C A; Dean, D C; Deconinck, W; Diefenbach, J; Dow, K; Dowd, J F; Dunne, J A; Dutta, D; Duvall, W S; Echols, J R; Elaasar, M; Falk, W R; Finelli, K D; Finn, J M; Gaskell, D; Gericke, M T W; Grames, J; Gray, V M; Grimm, K; Guo, F; Hansknecht, J; Harrison, D J; Henderson, E; Hoskins, J R; Ihloff, E; Johnston, K; Jones, D; Jones, M; Jones, R; Kargiantoulakis, M; Kelsey, J; Khan, N; King, P M; Korkmaz, E; Kowalski, S; Kubera, A; Leacock, J; Leckey, J P; Lee, A R; Lee, J H; Lee, L; Liang, Y; MacEwan, S; Mack, D; Magee, J A; Mahurin, R; Mammei, J; Martin, J W; McCreary, A; McDonald, M H; McHugh, M J; Medeiros, P; Meekins, D; Mei, J; Michaels, R; Micherdzinska, A; Mkrtchyan, A; Mkrtchyan, H; Morgan, N; Musson, J; Mesick, K E; Narayan, A; Ndukum, L Z; Nelyubin, V; Nuruzzaman,; van Oers, W T H; Opper, A K; Page, S A; Pan, J; Paschke, K D; Phillips, S K; Pitt, M L; Poelker, M; Rajotte, J F; Ramsay, W D; Roberts, W R; Roche, J; Rose, P W; Sawatzky, B; Seva, T; Shabestari, M H; Silwal, R; Simicevic, N; Smith, G R; Sobczynski, S; Solvignon, P; Spayde, D T; Stokes, B; Storey, D W; Subedi, A; Subedi, R; Suleiman, R; Tadevosyan, V; Tobias, W A; Tvaskis, V; Urban, E; Waidyawansa, B; Wang, P; Wells, S P; Wood, S A; Yang, S; Zhamkochyan, S; Zielinski, R B
2014-01-01
The Jefferson Lab Q_weak experiment determined the weak charge of the proton by measuring the parity-violating elastic scattering asymmetry of longitudinally polarized electrons from an unpolarized liquid hydrogen target at small momentum transfer. A custom apparatus was designed for this experiment to meet the technical challenges presented by the smallest and most precise ${\\vec{e}}$p asymmetry ever measured. Technical milestones were achieved at Jefferson Lab in target power, beam current, beam helicity reversal rate, polarimetry, detected rates, and control of helicity-correlated beam properties. The experiment employed 180 microA of 89% longitudinally polarized electrons whose helicity was reversed 960 times per second. The electrons were accelerated to 1.16 GeV and directed to a beamline with extensive instrumentation to measure helicity-correlated beam properties that can induce false asymmetries. Moller and Compton polarimetry were used to measure the electron beam polarization to better than 1%. The ...
A dynamical weak scale from inflation
You, Tevong
2017-09-01
Dynamical scanning of the Higgs mass by an axion-like particle during inflation may provide a cosmological component to explaining part of the hierarchy problem. We propose a novel interplay of this cosmological relaxation mechanism with inflation, whereby the backreaction of the Higgs vacuum expectation value near the weak scale causes inflation to end. As Hubble drops, the relaxion's dissipative friction increases relative to Hubble and slows it down enough to be trapped by the barriers of its periodic potential. Such a scenario raises the natural cut-off of the theory up to ~ 1010 GeV, while maintaining a minimal relaxion sector without having to introduce additional scanning scalars or new physics coincidentally close to the weak scale.
The regularization of Old English weak verbs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marta Tío Sáenz
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This article deals with the regularization of non-standard spellings of the verbal forms extracted from a corpus. It addresses the question of what the limits of regularization are when lemmatizing Old English weak verbs. The purpose of such regularization, also known as normalization, is to carry out lexicological analysis or lexicographical work. The analysis concentrates on weak verbs from the second class and draws on the lexical database of Old English Nerthus, which has incorporated the texts of the Dictionary of Old English Corpus. As regards the question of the limits of normalization, the solution adopted are, in the first place, that when it is necessary to regularize, normalization is restricted to correspondences based on dialectal and diachronic variation and, secondly, that normalization has to be unidirectional.
Towards weakly constrained double field theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kanghoon Lee
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We show that it is possible to construct a well-defined effective field theory incorporating string winding modes without using strong constraint in double field theory. We show that X-ray (Radon transform on a torus is well-suited for describing weakly constrained double fields, and any weakly constrained fields are represented as a sum of strongly constrained fields. Using inverse X-ray transform we define a novel binary operation which is compatible with the level matching constraint. Based on this formalism, we construct a consistent gauge transform and gauge invariant action without using strong constraint. We then discuss the relation of our result to the closed string field theory. Our construction suggests that there exists an effective field theory description for massless sector of closed string field theory on a torus in an associative truncation.
Weak Convergence Theorems for Nonself Mappings
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Yong-quan; Guo Wei-ping; Ji You-qing
2015-01-01
Let E be a real uniformly convex and smooth Banach space, and K be a nonempty closed convex subset of E with P as a sunny nonexpansive retrac-tion. Let T1, T2 : K → E be two weakly inward nonself asymptotically nonexpan-sive mappings with respect to P with a sequence {k(i)n } ⊂ [1,∞) (i = 1, 2), and F := F (T1)∩F (T2) = ∅. An iterative sequence for approximation common fixed points of the two nonself asymptotically nonexpansive mappings is discussed. If E has also a Fr´echet differentiable norm or its dual E∗ has Kadec-Klee property, then weak convergence theorems are obtained.
Model Reduction of Strong-Weak Neurons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steven James Cox
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We consider neurons with large dendritic trees that are weakly excitable in the sense that back propagating action potentials are severly attenuated as they travelfrom the small, strongly excitable, spike initiation zone. In previous workwe have shown that the computational size of weakly excitable cell modelsmay be reduced by two or more orders of magnitude, and that the size of stronglyexcitable models may be reduced by at least one order of magnitude,without sacrificing thespatio-temporal nature of its inputs (in the sense we reproduce the cell's precise mapping of inputs to outputs. We combine the best of these twostrategies via a predictor--corrector decomposition scheme andachieve a drastically reduced highly accurate model of a caricature of the neuron responsible for collision detection in the locust.
Model reduction of strong-weak neurons.
Du, Bosen; Sorensen, Danny; Cox, Steven J
2014-01-01
We consider neurons with large dendritic trees that are weakly excitable in the sense that back propagating action potentials are severly attenuated as they travel from the small, strongly excitable, spike initiation zone. In previous work we have shown that the computational size of weakly excitable cell models may be reduced by two or more orders of magnitude, and that the size of strongly excitable models may be reduced by at least one order of magnitude, without sacrificing the spatio-temporal nature of its inputs (in the sense we reproduce the cell's precise mapping of inputs to outputs). We combine the best of these two strategies via a predictor-corrector decomposition scheme and achieve a drastically reduced highly accurate model of a caricature of the neuron responsible for collision detection in the locust.
Weak lensing tomography with orthogonal polynomials
Schaefer, Bjoern Malte
2011-01-01
The topic of this article is weak cosmic shear tomography where the line of sight-weighting is carried out with a set of specifically constructed orthogonal polynomials, dubbed TaRDiS (Tomography with orthogonAl Radial Distance polynomIal Systems). We investigate the properties of these polynomials and employ weak convergence spectra, which have been obtained by weighting with these polynomials, for the estimation of cosmological parameters. We quantify their power in constraining parameters in a Fisher-matrix technique and demonstrate how each polynomial projects out statistically independent information, and how the combination of multiple polynomials lifts degeneracies. The assumption of a reference cosmology is needed for the construction of the polynomials, and as a last point we investigate how errors in the construction with a wrong cosmological model propagate to misestimates in cosmological parameters. TaRDiS performs on a similar level as traditional tomographic methods and some key features of tomo...
Weak lensing tomography with orthogonal polynomials
Schäfer, Björn Malte; Heisenberg, Lavinia
2012-07-01
The topic of this paper is weak cosmic shear tomography where the line-of-sight weighting is carried out with a set of specifically constructed orthogonal polynomials, dubbed Tomography with Orthogonal Radial Distance Polynomial Systems (TaRDiS). We investigate the properties of these polynomials and employ weak convergence spectra, which have been obtained by weighting with these polynomials, for the estimation of cosmological parameters. We quantify their power in constraining parameters in a Fisher matrix technique and demonstrate how each polynomial projects out statistically independent information, and how the combination of multiple polynomials lifts degeneracies. The assumption of a reference cosmology is needed for the construction of the polynomials, and as a last point we investigate how errors in the construction with a wrong cosmological model propagate to misestimates in cosmological parameters. TaRDiS performs on a similar level as traditional tomographic methods and some key features of tomography are made easier to understand.
Atmospheric dispersion effects in weak lensing measurements
Plazas, Andrés A
2012-01-01
The wavelength dependence of atmospheric refraction causes elongation of finite-bandwidth images along the elevation vector, which produces spurious signals in weak gravitational lensing shear measurements unless this atmospheric dispersion is calibrated and removed to high precision. Because astrometric solutions and point spread function (PSF) characteristics are typically calibrated from stellar images, differences between the reference stars' spectra and the galaxies' spectra will leave residual errors in both the astrometric positions ($\\Delta{\\bar{R}}$) and in the second moment (width) of the wavelength-averaged PSF ($\\Delta{v}$) for galaxies. We estimate the level of $\\Delta{V}$ that will induce spurious weak lensing signals in PSF-corrected galaxy shapes that exceed the statistical errors of the {\\em Dark Energy Survey (DES)} and the {\\em Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)} cosmic-shear experiments. We also estimate the $\\Delta{\\bar{R}}$ signals that will produce unacceptable spurious distortions ...
Towards weakly constrained double field theory
Lee, Kanghoon
2016-08-01
We show that it is possible to construct a well-defined effective field theory incorporating string winding modes without using strong constraint in double field theory. We show that X-ray (Radon) transform on a torus is well-suited for describing weakly constrained double fields, and any weakly constrained fields are represented as a sum of strongly constrained fields. Using inverse X-ray transform we define a novel binary operation which is compatible with the level matching constraint. Based on this formalism, we construct a consistent gauge transform and gauge invariant action without using strong constraint. We then discuss the relation of our result to the closed string field theory. Our construction suggests that there exists an effective field theory description for massless sector of closed string field theory on a torus in an associative truncation.
Shock Wave Dynamics in Weakly Ionized Plasmas
Johnson, Joseph A., III
1999-01-01
An investigation of the dynamics of shock waves in weakly ionized argon plasmas has been performed using a pressure ruptured shock tube. The velocity of the shock is observed to increase when the shock traverses the plasma. The observed increases cannot be accounted for by thermal effects alone. Possible mechanisms that could explain the anomalous behavior include a vibrational/translational relaxation in the nonequilibrium plasma, electron diffusion across the shock front resulting from high electron mobility, and the propagation of ion-acoustic waves generated at the shock front. Using a turbulence model based on reduced kinetic theory, analysis of the observed results suggest a role for turbulence in anomalous shock dynamics in weakly ionized media and plasma-induced hypersonic drag reduction.
Asymptotic theory of weakly dependent random processes
Rio, Emmanuel
2017-01-01
Presenting tools to aid understanding of asymptotic theory and weakly dependent processes, this book is devoted to inequalities and limit theorems for sequences of random variables that are strongly mixing in the sense of Rosenblatt, or absolutely regular. The first chapter introduces covariance inequalities under strong mixing or absolute regularity. These covariance inequalities are applied in Chapters 2, 3 and 4 to moment inequalities, rates of convergence in the strong law, and central limit theorems. Chapter 5 concerns coupling. In Chapter 6 new deviation inequalities and new moment inequalities for partial sums via the coupling lemmas of Chapter 5 are derived and applied to the bounded law of the iterated logarithm. Chapters 7 and 8 deal with the theory of empirical processes under weak dependence. Lastly, Chapter 9 describes links between ergodicity, return times and rates of mixing in the case of irreducible Markov chains. Each chapter ends with a set of exercises. The book is an updated and extended ...
The Weak Gravity Conjecture in three dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Montero, Miguel [Departamento de Física Teórica, Facultad de Ciencias,Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Calle Francisco Tomás y Valiente 7, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Física Teórica IFT-UAM/CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco,C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Shiu, Gary; Soler, Pablo [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison,1150 University Ave, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Department of Physics & Institute for Advanced Study,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology,Lo Ka Chung Building, Lee Shau Kee Campus, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong)
2016-10-28
We study weakly coupled U(1) theories in AdS{sub 3}, their associated charged BTZ solutions, and their charged spectra. We find that modular invariance of the holographic dual two-dimensional CFT and compactness of the gauge group together imply the existence of charged operators with conformal dimension significantly below the black hole threshold. We regard this as a form of the Weak Gravity Conjecture (WGC) in three dimensions. We also explore the constraints posed by modular invariance on a particular discrete ℤ{sub N} symmetry which arises in our discussion. In this case, modular invariance does not guarantee the existence of light ℤ{sub N}-charged states. We also highlight the differences between our discussion and the usual heuristic arguments for the WGC based on black hole remnants.
Security Weaknesses in Arbitrated Quantum Signature Protocols
Liu, Feng; Zhang, Kejia; Cao, Tianqing
2014-01-01
Arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) is a cryptographic scenario in which the sender (signer), Alice, generates the signature of a message and then a receiver (verifier), Bob, can verify the signature with the help of a trusted arbitrator, Trent. In this paper, we point out there exist some security weaknesses in two AQS protocols. Our analysis shows Alice can successfully disavow any of her signatures by a simple attack in the first protocol. Furthermore, we study the security weaknesses of the second protocol from the aspects of forgery and disavowal. Some potential improvements of this kind of protocols are given. We also design a new method to authenticate a signature or a message, which makes AQS protocols immune to Alice's disavowal attack and Bob's forgery attack effectively.
The Weak Gravity Conjecture in three dimensions
Montero, Miguel; Soler, Pablo
2016-01-01
We study weakly coupled $U(1)$ theories in $AdS_3$, their associated charged BTZ solutions, and their charged spectra. We find that modular invariance of the holographic dual two-dimensional CFT and compactness of the gauge group together imply the existence of charged operators with conformal dimension significantly below the black hole threshold. We regard this as a form of the Weak Gravity Conjecture (WGC) in three dimensions. We also explore the constraints posed by modular invariance on a particular discrete $\\mathbb{Z}_N$ symmetry which arises in our discussion. In this case, modular invariance does not guarantee the existence of light $\\mathbb{Z}_N$-charged states. We also highlight the differences between our discussion and the usual heuristic arguments for the WGC based on black hole remnants.
Testing Lorentz invariance in weak decays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sytema, Auke; Dijck, Elwin; Hoekstra, Steven; Jungmann, Klaus; Mueller, Stefan; Noordmans, Jacob; Onderwater, Gerco; Pijpker, Coen; Timmermans, Rob; Vos, Keri; Willmann, Lorenz; Wilschut, Hans [Van Swinderen Institute, University of Groningen (Netherlands)
2015-07-01
Lorentz invariance is the invariance of physical laws under orientations and boosts. It is a key assumption in Special Relativity and the Standard Model of Particle Physics. Several theories unifying General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics allow breaking of Lorentz invariance. At the Van Swinderen Institute in Groningen a theoretical and experimental research program was started to study Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) in weak interactions. The theoretical work allowed a systematic approach to LIV in weak decays. Limits could be set on parameters that quantify LIV. A novel beta decay experiment was designed which tests rotational invariance with respect to the orientation of nuclear spin. In particular, using the isotope {sup 20}Na, the decay rate dependence on the nuclear polarization direction was measured. Searching for sidereal variations, systematic errors can be suppressed. The result of the experiment is presented.
Image Segmentation Using Weak Shape Priors
Xu, Robert Sheng; Salama, Magdy
2010-01-01
The problem of image segmentation is known to become particularly challenging in the case of partial occlusion of the object(s) of interest, background clutter, and the presence of strong noise. To overcome this problem, the present paper introduces a novel approach segmentation through the use of "weak" shape priors. Specifically, in the proposed method, an segmenting active contour is constrained to converge to a configuration at which its geometric parameters attain their empirical probability densities closely matching the corresponding model densities that are learned based on training samples. It is shown through numerical experiments that the proposed shape modeling can be regarded as "weak" in the sense that it minimally influences the segmentation, which is allowed to be dominated by data-related forces. On the other hand, the priors provide sufficient constraints to regularize the convergence of segmentation, while requiring substantially smaller training sets to yield less biased results as compare...
Towards Weakly Constrained Double Field Theory
Lee, Kanghoon
2015-01-01
We show that it is possible to construct a well-defined effective field theory incorporating string winding modes without using strong constraint in double field theory. We show that X-ray (Radon) transform on a torus is well-suited for describing weakly constrained double fields, and any weakly constrained fields are represented as a sum of strongly constrained fields. Using inverse X- ray transform we define a novel binary operation which is compatible with the level matching constraint. Based on this formalism, we construct a consistent gauge transform and gauge invariant action without using strong constraint. We then discuss the relation of our result to the closed string field theory. Our construction suggests that there exists an effective field theory description for massless sector of closed string field theory on a torus in an associative truncation.
Mixed methods for elastodynamics with weak symmetry
Arnold, Douglas N.; Lee, Jeonghun J.
2013-01-01
We analyze the application to elastodynamic problems of mixed finite element methods for elasticity with weak symmetry. Our approach leads to a semidiscrete method which consists of a system of ordinary differential equations without algebraic constraints. Our error analysis, which is based on a new elliptic projection operator, applies to several mixed finite element spaces developed for elastostatics. The error estimates we obtain are robust for nearly incompressible materials.
Nonuniversality of weak synchronization in chaotic systems
Vieira, M. de Sousa; Lichtenberg, A.J.
1997-01-01
We show that the separate properties of weak synchronization (WS) and strong synchronization (SS), reported recently by Pyragas [K. Pyragas, Phys. Rev. E, 54, R4508 (1996)], in unidirectionally coupled chaotic systems, are not generally distinct properties of such systems. In particular, we find analytically for the tent map and numerically for some parameters of the circle map that the transition to WS and SS coincide.
Precision frequency measurements with interferometric weak values
Starling, David J; Jordan, Andrew N; Howell, John C; 10.1103/PhysRevA.82.063822
2011-01-01
We demonstrate an experiment which utilizes a Sagnac interferometer to measure a change in optical frequency of 129 kHz per root Hz with only 2 mW of continuous wave, single mode input power. We describe the measurement of a weak value and show how even higher frequency sensitivities may be obtained over a bandwidth of several nanometers. This technique has many possible applications, such as precision relative frequency measurements and laser locking without the use of atomic lines.
Synchronization of cardiorhythm by weak external forcing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. S. Anishchenko
2000-01-01
Full Text Available We study the possibility to synchronize cardiorhythm of a human by periodic and aperiodic sequences of light and sound pulses. Aperiodic forcing is defined by variation of RR intervals of another subject. Phase locking between cardiorhythm and weak external forcing is detected on finite time intervals. We observe the 1:1 synchronization for periodic forcing and n:m synchronization for aperiodic one.
On weak solutions of random differential inclusions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mariusz Michta
1995-01-01
where G is a given set-valued mapping value in the space Kn of all nonempty, compact and convex subsets of the space ℝn, and μ is some probability measure on the Borel σ-algebra in ℝn. Under certain restrictions imposed on F and μ, we obtain weak solutions of problem (I, where the initial condition requires that the solution of (I has a given distribution at time t=0.
On weakly D-differentiable operators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Erik
2016-01-01
Let DD be a self-adjoint operator on a Hilbert space HH and aa a bounded operator on HH. We say that aa is weakly DD-differentiable, if for any pair of vectors ξ,ηξ,η from HH the function 〈eitDae−itDξ,η〉〈eitDae−itDξ,η〉 is differentiable. We give an elementary example of a bounded operator aa, suc...
[Weak signal detection in every heart cycle].
Yuan, J; Xu, X; Gao, D; Shi, G
2001-12-01
In this article, a new approach is introduced to lowering the myo-electronic noise in weak ECG signals. We use artificial neural network to make the noise be white, and then we adopt an adaptive filter of which the reference signal is achieved by extracting from other ECG cycle. The outcome is the reduction of both white noise and non-white noise in ECG signal. Satisfactory results have been achieved by using this method in the experiment of late potential detection.
The Weak Expectation Property and Riesz Interpolation
Kavruk, Ali S
2012-01-01
We show that Lance's weak expectation property is connected to tight Riesz interpolations in lattice theory. More precisely we first prove that if A \\subset B(H) is a unital C*-subalgebra, where B(H) is the bounded linear operators on a Hilbert space H, then A has (2,2) tight Riesz interpolation property in B(H) (defined below). An extension of this requires an additional assumption on A: A has (2,3) tight Riesz interpolation property in B(H) at every matricial level if and only if A has the weak expectation property. Let $J = span{(1,1,-1,-1,-1)}$ in $C^5$ . We show that a unital C*-algebra A has the weak expectation property if and only if $A \\otimesmin (C^5/J) = A \\otimesmax (C^5/J)$ (here \\otimesmin and \\otimesmax are the minimal and the maximal operator system tensor products, respectively, and $C^5/J$ is the operator system quotient of $C^5$ by $J$). We express the Kirchberg conjecture (KC) in terms of a four dimensional operator system problem. We prove that KC has an affirmative answer if and only if ...
Evidence for a sublattice weak gravity conjecture
Heidenreich, Ben; Reece, Matthew; Rudelius, Tom
2017-08-01
The Weak Gravity Conjecture postulates the existence of superextremal charged particles, i.e. those with mass smaller than or equal to their charge in Planck units. We present further evidence for our recent observation that in known examples a much stronger statement is true: an infinite tower of superextremal particles of different charges exists. We show that effective Kaluza-Klein field theories and perturbative string vacua respect the Sublattice Weak Gravity Conjecture, namely that a finite index sublattice of the full charge lattice exists with a superextremal particle at each site. In perturbative string theory we show that this follows from modular invariance. However, we present counterexamples to the stronger possibility that a superextremal particle exists at every lattice site, including an example in which the lightest charged particle is subextremal. The Sublattice Weak Gravity Conjecture has many implications both for abstract theories of quantum gravity and for real-world physics. For instance, it implies that if a gauge group with very small coupling e exists, then the fundamental gravitational cutoff energy of the theory is no higher than ˜ e 1/3 M Pl.
Topic Level Disambiguation for Weak Queries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang, Hui
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Despite limited success, today's information retrieval (IR systems are not intelligent or reliable. IR systems return poor search results when users formulate their information needs into incomplete or ambiguous queries (i.e., weak queries. Therefore, one of the main challenges in modern IR research is to provide consistent results across all queries by improving the performance on weak queries. However, existing IR approaches such as query expansion are not overly effective because they make little effort to analyze and exploit the meanings of the queries. Furthermore, word sense disambiguation approaches, which rely on textual context, are ineffective against weak queries that are typically short. Motivated by the demand for a robust IR system that can consistently provide highly accurate results, the proposed study implemented a novel topic detection that leveraged both the language model and structural knowledge of Wikipedia and systematically evaluated the effect of query disambiguation and topic-based retrieval approaches on TREC collections. The results not only confirm the effectiveness of the proposed topic detection and topic-based retrieval approaches but also demonstrate that query disambiguation does not improve IR as expected.
Francium Spectroscopy for Weak Interaction Studies
Orozco, Luis
2014-05-01
Francium, a radioactive element, is the heaviest alkali. Its atomic and nuclear structure makes it an ideal laboratory to study the weak interaction. Laser trapping and cooling in-line with the superconducting LINAC accelerator at Stony Brook opened the precision study of its atomic structure. I will present our proposal and progress towards weak interaction measurements at TRIUMF, the National Canadian Accelerator in Vancouver. These include the commissioning run of the Francium Trapping Facility, hyperfine anomaly measurements on a chain of Fr isotopes, the nuclear anapole moment through parity non-conserving transitions in the ground state hyperfine manifold. These measurements should shed light on the nucleon-nucleon weak interaction. This work is done by the FrPNC collaboration: S. Aubin College of William and Mary, J. A. Behr TRIUMF, R. Collister U. Manitoba, E. Gomez UASLP, G. Gwinner U. Manitoba, M. R. Pearson TRIUMF, L. A. Orozco UMD, M. Tandecki TRIUMF, J. Zhang UMD Supported by NSF and DOE from the USA; TRIUMF, NRC and NSERC from Canada; and CONACYT from Mexico
Policy-based benchmarking of weak heaps and their relatives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bruun, Asger; Edelkamp, Stefan; Katajainen, Jyrki
2010-01-01
In this paper we describe an experimental study where we evaluated the practical efficiency of three worst-case efficient priority queues: 1) a weak heap that is a binary tree fulfilling half-heap ordering, 2) a weak queue that is a forest of perfect weak heaps, and 3) a runrelaxed weak queue...
Nuclear Dependence in Weak Structure Functions and the Determination of Weak Mixing Angle
Athar, M Sajjad; Simo, I Ruiz; Vacas, M J Vicente
2013-01-01
We have studied nuclear medium effects in the weak structure functions $F^A_2(x)$ and $F^A_3(x)$ and in the extraction of weak mixing angle using Paschos Wolfenstein(PW) relation. We have modified the PW relation for nonisoscalar nuclear target. We have incorporated the medium effects like Pauli blocking, Fermi motion, nuclear binding energy, nucleon correlations, pion $\\&$ rho cloud contributions, and shadowing and antishadowing effects.
Riemann Geometric Color-Weak Compensationfor Individual Observers
Kojima, Takanori; Mochizuki, Rika; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui
2014-01-01
We extend a method for color weak compensation based on the criterion of preservation of subjective color differences between color normal and color weak observers presented in [2]. We introduce a new algorithm for color weak compensation using local affine maps between color spaces of color normal and color weak observers. We show howto estimate the local affine map and how to determine correspondences between the origins of local coordinates in color spaces of color normal and color weak ob...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴恒; 阮新波; 杨东升
2014-01-01
For grid-connected inverter, the current injected into utility network has to be synchronized with the grid voltage, and Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) is widely used as an efficient approach to detect grid phase angle. The inverter uses detected grid phase angle to generate synchronized current reference, thus PLL itself acts as a part of the control loop of the inverter and it will certainly affect system stability. This article focused on the single-phase LCL-type grid-connected inverter, and presented the small signal model of PLL. Meanwhile, the impedance-based stability criterion was developed. Based on the criterion, it was pointed out that in stiff grid, where the grid impedance can be neglected, the stability of the inverter will not be affected by PLL. But if the grid is weak, PLL has strong effect on the stability of the inverter, and the effect mainly depends on the bandwidth of PLL, load condition and power factor of the inverter. In order to ensure the stability of the system, a method which design the control parameters of PLL based on phase margin requirements was also proposed in this paper. The experimental results were given to verify the validity of theoretical analysis presented above.%为了保证并网逆变器的进网电流与电网电压同步，需要通过锁相环对电网电压进行锁相，并利用检测出的电网电压相位生成电流基准。该文以单相LCL型并网逆变器为例，建立锁相环的小信号模型，并根据该模型推导并网逆变器基于阻抗的稳定判据。通过分析该判据可知，在电网阻抗可忽略不计时，锁相环对并网逆变器的稳定性无影响；当电网阻抗不可忽略时，锁相环带宽、并网电流幅值给定和输出功率因数都会影响系统的稳定。为了保证系统在弱电网下的稳定性，给出一种基于相角裕度要求的锁相环参数设计方法，并进行实验验证，实验结果证明了理论分析的正确性。
Spurious Shear in Weak Lensing with LSST
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, C.; Kahn, S.M.; Jernigan, J.G.; Peterson, J.R.; AlSayyad, Y.; Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Bard, D.; Connolly, A.; Gibson, R.R.; Gilmore, K.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Hodge, M.A.; Jee, M.J.; Jones, L.; Krughoff, S.; Lorenz, S.; Marshall, P.J.; Marshall, S.; Meert, A.
2012-09-19
The complete 10-year survey from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will image {approx} 20,000 square degrees of sky in six filter bands every few nights, bringing the final survey depth to r {approx} 27.5, with over 4 billion well measured galaxies. To take full advantage of this unprecedented statistical power, the systematic errors associated with weak lensing measurements need to be controlled to a level similar to the statistical errors. This work is the first attempt to quantitatively estimate the absolute level and statistical properties of the systematic errors on weak lensing shear measurements due to the most important physical effects in the LSST system via high fidelity ray-tracing simulations. We identify and isolate the different sources of algorithm-independent, additive systematic errors on shear measurements for LSST and predict their impact on the final cosmic shear measurements using conventional weak lensing analysis techniques. We find that the main source of the errors comes from an inability to adequately characterise the atmospheric point spread function (PSF) due to its high frequency spatial variation on angular scales smaller than {approx} 10{prime} in the single short exposures, which propagates into a spurious shear correlation function at the 10{sup -4}-10{sup -3} level on these scales. With the large multi-epoch dataset that will be acquired by LSST, the stochastic errors average out, bringing the final spurious shear correlation function to a level very close to the statistical errors. Our results imply that the cosmological constraints from LSST will not be severely limited by these algorithm-independent, additive systematic effects.
Planetary migration in weakly magnetized turbulent discs
Baruteau, C.; Fromang, S.; Nelson, R. P.; Masset, F.
2011-12-01
In laminar viscous disc models, the migration of protoplanets embedded in their nascent protoplanetary discs may be directed inwards or outwards, depending on the relative magnitude of the Lindblad and corotation torques. The long-term evolution of the corotation torque is intimately related to diffusion processes inside the planet's horseshoe region. This communication examines the properties of the corotation torque in discs where magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence develops as a result of the magnetorotational instability (MRI), considering a weak initial toroidal magnetic field. We show that the differential Lindblad torque takes very similar values in MHD turbulent and laminar viscous discs, and there exists an unsaturated corotation torque in MHD turbulent discs.
Weak interactions and photoinitiated unimolecular decomposition
Mikhaylichenko, K.; Wittig, C.
1998-04-01
Numerical studies have been carried out to examine the applicability of the density of states measured just below dissociation threshold to transition state rate theory. The model system consists of two weakly interacting manifolds of levels, one of which is optically accessible. Both manifolds are coupled to dissociative continua. These studies demonstrate that immediately above reaction threshold, coupling to continua is relatively slow on the time scale of inter-manifold coupling, and it is the mixed manifolds which decay. At higher energies, couplings to continua exceed inter-manifold couplings, and it is the photoexcited bright states which undergo unimolecular decomposition.
Weakly disordered two-dimensional Frenkel excitons
Boukahil, A.; Zettili, Nouredine
2004-03-01
We report the results of studies of the optical properties of weakly disordered two- dimensional Frenkel excitons in the Coherent Potential Approximation (CPA). An approximate complex Green's function for a square lattice with nearest neighbor interactions is used in the self-consistent equation to determine the coherent potential. It is shown that the Density of States is very much affected by the logarithmic singularities in the Green's function. Our CPA results are in excellent agreement with previous investigations by Schreiber and Toyozawa using the Monte Carlo simulation.
Neutrino propagation in a weakly magnetized medium
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sushan Konar; Subinoy Das
2004-06-01
Neutrino—photon processes, forbidden in vacuum, can take place in the presence of a thermal medium and/or an external electro-magnetic field, mediated by the corresponding charged leptons (real or virtual). Such interactions affect the propagation of neutrinos through a magnetized plasma. We investigate the neutrino—photon absorptive processes, at the one-loop level, for massless neutrinos in a weakly magnetized plasma. We find that there is no correction to the absorptive part of the axial-vector—vector amplitude due to the presence of a magnetic field, to the linear order in the field strength.
Are the Weak Measurements Really Measurements?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dmitri Sokolovski
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Weak measurements can be seen as an attempt at answering the Which way? question without destroying interference between the pathways involved. Unusual mean values obtained in such measurements represent the response of a quantum system to this forbidden question, in which the true composition of virtual pathways is hidden from the observer. Such values indicate a failure of a measurement where the uncertainty principle says it must fail, rather than provide an additional insight into physical reality.Quanta 2013; 2: 50–57.
Weak $\\eta$ production off the nucleon
Alam, M Rafi; Athar, M Sajjad; Vacas, M J Vicente
2013-01-01
The weak $\\eta$-meson production off the nucleon induced by (anti)neutrinos is studied at low and intermediate energies, the range of interest for several ongoing and future neutrino experiments. We consider Born diagrams and the excitation of $N^\\ast (1535)S_{11}$ and $N^\\ast(1650)S_{11}$ resonances. The vector part of the N-$S_{11}$ transition form factors has been obtained from the MAID helicity amplitudes while the poorly known axial part is constrained with the help of the partial conservation of the axial current (PCAC) and assuming the pion-pole dominance of the pseudoscalar form factor.
Weak η production off the nucleon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alam, M. Rafi; Athar, M. Sajjad [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202 002 (India); Alvarez-Ruso, L.; Vacas, M. J. Vicente [Departamento de Física Teórica and Instituto de Física Corpuscular, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)
2015-05-15
The weak η-meson production off the nucleon induced by (anti)neutrinos is studied at low and intermediate energies, the range of interest for several ongoing and future neutrino experiments. We consider Born diagrams and the excitation of N{sup *} (1535)S{sub 11} and N{sup *} (1650)S{sub 11} resonances. The vector part of the N-S{sub 11} transition form factors has been obtained from the MAID helicity amplitudes while the poorly known axial part is constrained with the help of the partial conservation of the axial current (PCAC) and assuming the pion-pole dominance of the pseudoscalar form factor.
LensTools: Weak Lensing computing tools
Petri, A.
2016-02-01
LensTools implements a wide range of routines frequently used in Weak Gravitational Lensing, including tools for image analysis, statistical processing and numerical theory predictions. The package offers many useful features, including complete flexibility and easy customization of input/output formats; efficient measurements of power spectrum, PDF, Minkowski functionals and peak counts of convergence maps; survey masks; artificial noise generation engines; easy to compute parameter statistical inferences; ray tracing simulations; and many others. It requires standard numpy and scipy, and depending on tools used, may require Astropy (ascl:1304.002), emcee (ascl:1303.002), matplotlib, and mpi4py.
Weak Quasi-elastic Production of Hyperons
Singh, S K
2006-01-01
The quasielastic weak production of $\\Lambda$ and $\\Sigma$ hyperons from nucleons and nuclei induced by antineutrinos is studied in the energy region of some ongoing neutrino oscillation experiments in the intermediate energy region. The hyperon nucleon transition form factors determined from neutrino nucleon scattering and an analysis of high precision data on semileptonic decays of neutron and hyperons using SU(3) symmetry have been used. The nuclear effects due to Fermi motion and final state interaction effects due to hyperon nucleon scattering have also been studied. The numerical results for differential and total cross sections have been presented.
Plasma ion stratification by weak planar shocks
Simakov, Andrei N.; Keenan, Brett D.; Taitano, William T.; Chacón, Luis
2017-09-01
We derive fluid equations for describing steady-state planar shocks of a moderate strength ( 0 shock Mach number) propagating through an unmagnetized quasineutral collisional plasma comprising two separate ion species. In addition to the standard fluid shock quantities, such as the total mass density, mass-flow velocity, and electron and average ion temperatures, the equations describe shock stratification in terms of variations in the relative concentrations and temperatures of the two ion species along the shock propagation direction. We have solved these equations analytically for weak shocks ( 0 shocks, and they have been used to verify kinetic simulations of shocks in multi-ion plasmas.
Precision frequency measurements with interferometric weak values
Starling, David J.; Dixon, P. Ben; Jordan, Andrew N.; Howell, John C.
2010-12-01
We demonstrate an experiment which utilizes a Sagnac interferometer to measure a change in optical frequency of 129 ± 7 kHz/Hz with only 2 mW of continuous-wave, single-mode input power. We describe the measurement of a weak value and show how even higher-frequency sensitivities may be obtained over a bandwidth of several nanometers. This technique has many possible applications, such as precision relative frequency measurements and laser locking without the use of atomic lines.
Weakly bound systems, continuum effects, and reactions
Jaganathen, Y; Ploszajczak, M
2012-01-01
Structure of weakly bound/unbound nuclei close to particle drip lines is different from that around the valley of beta stability. A comprehensive description of these systems goes beyond standard Shell Model and demands an open quantum system description of the nuclear many-body system. We approach this problem using the Gamow Shell Model which provides a fully microscopic description of bound and unbound nuclear states, nuclear decays, and reactions. We present in this paper the first application of the GSM for a description of the elastic and inelastic scattering of protons on 6He.
Weak 'Antigravity' Fields in General Relativity
Felber, F S
2005-01-01
Within the weak-field approximation of general relativity, new exact solutions are derived for the gravitational field of a mass moving with arbitrary velocity and acceleration. Owing to an inertial-pushing effect, a mass having a constant velocity greater than 3^-1/2 times the speed of light gravitationally repels other masses at rest within a narrow cone. At high Lorentz factors (gamma >> 1), the force of repulsion in the forward direction is about -8(gamma^5) times the Newtonian force, offering opportunities for laboratory tests of gravity at extreme velocities.
Resonance phenomena for asymmetric weakly nonlinear oscillator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
钱定边
2002-01-01
We establish the coexistence of periodic solution and unbounded solution, the infinity of largeamplitude subharmonics for asymmetric weakly nonlinear oscillator x" + a2x+ - b2x- + h(x) = p(t) with h(±∞) - 0 and xh(x) → +∞(x →∞), assuming that M(τ ) has zeros which are all simple and M(τ ) 0respectively, where M(τ ) is a function related to the piecewise linear equation x" + a2x+ - b2x- = p(t).``
Improved Quantum Signature Scheme with Weak Arbitrator
Su, Qi; Li, Wen-Min
2013-09-01
In this paper, we find a man-in-the-middle attack on the quantum signature scheme with a weak arbitrator (Luo et al., Int. J. Theor. Phys., 51:2135, 2012). In that scheme, the authors proposed a quantum signature based on quantum one way function which contains both verifying the signer phase and verifying the signed message phase. However, after our analysis we will show that Eve can adopt different strategies in respective phases to forge the signature without being detected. Then we present an improved scheme to increase the security.
Strong holism, weak holism, and health.
Täljedal, Inge-Bert
2004-01-01
The health theories of Nordenfelt and Boorse are compared. Critical attention is focused on Nordenfelt's description of his theory as one of holistic welfare, contrasting with Boorse's analytical and statistical approach. Neither theory is found to give an entirely satisfactory account of 'health' in scientific medicine or common usage. Because Nordenfelt attenuates the ontological significance of organs and organ parts and simplifies the role of statistics, his theory is regarded as weakly holistic. Boorse underrates the importance of non-statistical evaluation. A mediating position, termed 'strong holism' is suggested as a way of integrating normative and statistical elements in a more adequate health concept.
Dynamical Model of Weak Pion Production Reactions
Sato, T; Lee, T S H
2003-01-01
The dynamical model of pion electroproduction has been extended to investigate the weak pion production reactions. The predicted cross sections of neutrino-induced pion production reactions are in good agreement with the existing data. We show that the renormalized(dressed) axial N-$\\Delta$ form factor contains large dynamical pion cloud effects and this renormalization effects are crucial in getting agreement with the data. We conclude that the N-$\\Delta$ transitions predicted by the constituent quark model are consistent with the existing neutrino induced pion production data in the $\\Delta$ region.
Infrared spectroscopy of weakly bound molecular ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yeh, Lisa I-Ching
1988-11-01
The infrared spectra of a series of hydrated hydronium cluster ions and of protonated ethane ion are presented. A tandem mass spectrometer is ideally suited to obtaining the spectra of such weakly bound molecular ions. Traditional absorption spectroscopy is not feasible in these situations, so the techniques described in this thesis make use of some consequence of photon absorption with higher sensitivity than simply attenuation of laser power. That consequence is dissociation. By first mass selecting the parent ion under study and then mass selecting the fragment ion formed from dissociation, the near unit detection efficiency of ion counting methods has been used to full advantage.
Ermakov, A M; Lednev, V V
2010-01-01
The effects of weak combined magnetic fields adjusted to the parametric resonance for Ca2+ and K+ and extremely weak alternating magnetic field on the metamorphosis of the meal-worm beetle Tenebrio molitor have been studied. It was shown that the exposure of pupas of insects to all above-indicated types of fields stimulates the metamorphosis. However, after the exposure to weak combined magnetic fields adjusted to the parametric resonance for Ca2+ and K+, the number of insects with anomalies increases, which is not observed by the action of the weak alternating magnetic field.
A comparison of weak-turbulence and PIC simulations of weak electron-beam plasma interaction
Ratcliffe, Heather; Rozenan, Mohammed B Che; Nakariakov, Valery
2014-01-01
Quasilinear theory has long been used to treat the problem of a weak electron beam interacting with plasma and generating Langmuir waves. Its extension to weak-turbulence theory treats resonant interactions of these Langmuir waves with other plasma wave modes, in particular ion-sound waves. These are strongly damped in plasma of equal ion and electron temperatures, as sometimes seen in, for example, the solar corona and wind. Weak turbulence theory is derived in the weak damping limit, with a term describing ion-sound wave damping then added. In this paper we use the EPOCH particle-in-cell code to numerically test weak turbulence theory for a range of electron-ion temperature ratios. We find that in the cold ion limit the results agree well, but increasing ion temperature the three-wave resonance becomes broadened in proportion to the ion-sound wave damping rate. This may be important in, for example, the theory of solar radio bursts, where the spectrum of Langmuir waves is critical. Additionally we establish...
Long-term effectiveness of acetazolamide on permanent weakness in hyperkalemic periodic paralysis.
Dejthevaporn, Charungthai; Papsing, Chutima; Phakdeekitcharoen, Bunyong; Jaovisidha, Suphaneewan; Phudhichareonrat, Suchart; Witoonpanich, Rawiphan; Pulkes, Teeratorn
2013-05-01
Acetazolamide is commonly used as an empirical treatment for inherited periodic paralyses although some patients may develop deleterious effects. We report a 65 year-old man with hyperkalemic periodic paralysis and late-onset permanent weakness in association with the common T704M mutation in α-subunit, skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channel gene. He rapidly recovered from weakness after acetazolamide treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging of thighs comparing pre- and post-treatment revealed a significant increase in muscle bulk. The patient has been without any type of weakness for over 6 years. This data show the remarkable benefit of acetazolamide on permanent weakness of hyperkalemic periodic paralysis in association with the T704M mutation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dynamics of Weak, Bifurcated and Strong Hydrogen Bonds in Lithium Nitrate Trihydrate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Werhahn, Jasper C.; Pandelov, S.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Iglev, H.
2011-07-07
The properties of three distinct types of hydrogen bonds, namely a weak, a bifurcated and a strong one, all present in/the LiNO3 (HDO)(D2O)2 hydrate lattice unit cell are studied using steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopy. The lifetimes of the OH stretching vibrations for the three individual bonds are 2.2 ps (weak), 1.7 ps (bifurcated), and 1.2 ps (strong), respectively. For the first time the properties of bifurcated H bonds can thus be unambiguously directly compared to those of weak and strong H bonds in the same system. The values of their OH stretching vibration lifetime, anharmonicity, red shift and bond strength lie between those for the strong and weak H bonds. The experimentally observed inhomogeneous broadening of their spectral signature is attributed to the coupling with a low frequency intermolecular wagging vibration/
Weak Completeness of Coalgebraic Dynamic Logics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Helle Hvid Hansen
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We present a coalgebraic generalisation of Fischer and Ladner's Propositional Dynamic Logic (PDL and Parikh's Game Logic (GL. In earlier work, we proved a generic strong completeness result for coalgebraic dynamic logics without iteration. The coalgebraic semantics of such programs is given by a monad T, and modalities are interpreted via a predicate lifting λ whose transpose is a monad morphism from T to the neighbourhood monad. In this paper, we show that if the monad T carries a complete semilattice structure, then we can define an iteration construct, and suitable notions of diamond-likeness and box-likeness of predicate-liftings which allows for the definition of an axiomatisation parametric in T, λ and a chosen set of pointwise program operations. As our main result, we show that if the pointwise operations are "negation-free" and Kleisli composition left-distributes over the induced join on Kleisli arrows, then this axiomatisation is weakly complete with respect to the class of standard models. As special instances, we recover the weak completeness of PDL and of dual-free Game Logic. As a modest new result we obtain completeness for dual-free GL extended with intersection (demonic choice of games.
Baryons, Neutrinos, Feedback and Weak Gravitational Lensing
Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Viola, Massimo; Heymans, Catherine
2014-01-01
(Abridged) The effect of baryonic feedback on the dark matter mass distribution is generally considered to be a nuisance to weak gravitational lensing. Measurements of cosmological parameters are affected as feedback alters the cosmic shear signal on angular scales smaller than a few arcminutes. Recent progress on the numerical modelling of baryon physics has shown that this effect could be so large that, rather than being a nuisance, the effect can be constrained with current weak lensing surveys, hence providing an alternative astrophysical insight on one of the most challenging questions of galaxy formation. In order to perform our analysis, we construct an analytic fitting formula that describes the effect of the baryons on the mass power spectrum. This fitting formula is based on three scenarios of the OWL hydrodynamical simulations. It is specifically calibrated for $z<1.5$, where it models the simulations to an accuracy that is better than $2\\%$ for scales $k<10 h\\mbox{Mpc}^{-1}$ and better than ...
Conformational transitions of a weak polyampholyte
Narayanan Nair, Arun Kumar
2014-10-07
Using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of a flexible polyelectrolyte where the charges are in contact with a reservoir of constant chemical potential given by the solution pH, we study the behavior of weak polyelectrolytes in poor and good solvent conditions for polymer backbone. We address the titration behavior and conformational properties of a flexible diblock polyampholyte chain formed of two oppositely charged weak polyelectrolyte blocks, each containing equal number of identical monomers. The change of solution pH induces charge asymmetry in a diblock polyampholyte. For diblock polyampholyte chains in poor solvents, we demonstrate that a discontinuous transition between extended (tadpole) and collapsed (globular) conformational states is attainable by varying the solution pH. The double-minima structure in the probability distribution of the free energy provides direct evidence for the first-order like nature of this transition. At the isoelectric point electrostatically driven coil-globule transition of diblock polyampholytes in good solvents is found to consist of different regimes identified with increasing electrostatic interaction strength. At pH values above or below the isoelectric point diblock chains are found to have polyelectrolyte-like behavior due to repulsion between uncompensated charges along the chain.
Weak Scale From the Maximum Entropy Principle
Hamada, Yuta; Kawana, Kiyoharu
2015-01-01
The theory of multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the $S^{3}$ universe at the final stage $S_{rad}$ becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the Standard Model, we can check whether $S_{rad}$ actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard $S_{rad}$ at the final stage as a function of the weak scale ( the Higgs expectation value ) $v_{h}$, and show that it becomes maximum around $v_{h}={\\cal{O}}(300\\text{GeV})$ when the dimensionless couplings in the Standard Model, that is, the Higgs self coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by \\begin{equation} v_{h}\\sim\\frac{T_{BBN}^{2}}{M_{pl}y_{e}^{5}},\
Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle
Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu
2015-03-01
The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.
Quantum counterfactual communication without a weak trace
Arvidsson-Shukur, D. R. M.; Barnes, C. H. W.
2016-12-01
The classical theories of communication rely on the assumption that there has to be a flow of particles from Bob to Alice in order for him to send a message to her. We develop a quantum protocol that allows Alice to perceive Bob's message "counterfactually"; that is, without Alice receiving any particles that have interacted with Bob. By utilizing a setup built on results from interaction-free measurements, we outline a communication protocol whereby the information travels in the opposite direction of the emitted particles. In comparison to previous attempts on such protocols, this one is such that a weak measurement at the message source would not leave a weak trace that could be detected by Alice's receiver. While some interaction-free schemes require a large number of carefully aligned beam splitters, our protocol is realizable with two or more beam splitters. We demonstrate this protocol by numerically solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a Hamiltonian that implements this quantum counterfactual phenomenon.
Weak gravity conjecture and effective field theory
Saraswat, Prashant
2017-01-01
The weak gravity conjecture (WGC) is a proposed constraint on theories with gauge fields and gravity, requiring the existence of light charged particles and/or imposing an upper bound on the field theory cutoff Λ . If taken as a consistency requirement for effective field theories (EFTs), it rules out possibilities for model building including some models of inflation. I demonstrate simple models which satisfy all forms of the WGC, but which through Higgsing of the original gauge fields produce low-energy EFTs with gauge forces that badly violate the WGC. These models illustrate specific loopholes in arguments that motivate the WGC from a bottom-up perspective; for example the arguments based on magnetic monopoles are evaded when the magnetic confinement that occurs in a Higgs phase is accounted for. This indicates that the WGC should not be taken as a veto on EFTs, even if it turns out to be a robust property of UV quantum gravity theories. However, if the latter is true, then parametric violation of the WGC at low energy comes at the cost of nonminimal field content in the UV. I propose that only a very weak constraint is applicable to EFTs, Λ ≲(log 1/g )-1 /2Mpl , where g is the gauge coupling, motivated by entropy bounds. Remarkably, EFTs produced by Higgsing a theory that satisfies the WGC can saturate but not violate this bound.
Do weak global stresses synchronize earthquakes?
Bendick, R.; Bilham, R.
2017-08-01
Insofar as slip in an earthquake is related to the strain accumulated near a fault since a previous earthquake, and this process repeats many times, the earthquake cycle approximates an autonomous oscillator. Its asymmetric slow accumulation of strain and rapid release is quite unlike the harmonic motion of a pendulum and need not be time predictable, but still resembles a class of repeating systems known as integrate-and-fire oscillators, whose behavior has been shown to demonstrate a remarkable ability to synchronize to either external or self-organized forcing. Given sufficient time and even very weak physical coupling, the phases of sets of such oscillators, with similar though not necessarily identical period, approach each other. Topological and time series analyses presented here demonstrate that earthquakes worldwide show evidence of such synchronization. Though numerous studies demonstrate that the composite temporal distribution of major earthquakes in the instrumental record is indistinguishable from random, the additional consideration of event renewal interval serves to identify earthquake groupings suggestive of synchronization that are absent in synthetic catalogs. We envisage the weak forces responsible for clustering originate from lithospheric strain induced by seismicity itself, by finite strains over teleseismic distances, or by other sources of lithospheric loading such as Earth's variable rotation. For example, quasi-periodic maxima in rotational deceleration are accompanied by increased global seismicity at multidecadal intervals.
The weak gravity conjecture and scalar fields
Palti, Eran
2017-08-01
We propose a generalisation of the Weak Gravity Conjecture in the presence of scalar fields. The proposal is guided by properties of extremal black holes in N=2 supergravity, but can be understood more generally in terms of forbidding towers of stable gravitationally bound states. It amounts to the statement that there must exist a particle on which the gauge force acts more strongly than gravity and the scalar forces combined. We also propose that the scalar force itself should act on this particle stronger than gravity. This implies that generically the mass of this particle decreases exponentially as a function of the scalar field expectation value for super-Planckian variations, which is behaviour predicted by the Refined Swampland Conjecture. In the context of N=2 supergravity the Weak Gravity Conjecture bound can be tied to bounds on scalar field distances in field space. Guided by this, we present a general proof that for any linear combination of moduli in any Calabi-Yau compactification of string theory the proper field distance grows at best logarithmically with the moduli values for super-Planckian distances.
Droplet breakup dynamics of weakly viscoelastic fluids
Marshall, Kristin; Walker, Travis
2016-11-01
The addition of macromolecules to solvent, even in dilute quantities, can alter a fluid's response in an extensional flow. For low-viscosity fluids, the presence of elasticity may not be apparent when measured using a standard rotational rheometer, yet it may still alter the response of a fluid when undergoing an extensional deformation, especially at small length scales where elastic effects are enhanced. Applications such as microfluidics necessitate investigating the dynamics of fluids with elastic properties that are not pronounced at large length scales. In the present work, a microfluidic cross-slot configuration is used to study the effects of elasticity on droplet breakup. Droplet breakup and the subsequent iterated-stretching - where beads form along a filament connecting two primary droplets - were observed for a variety of material and flow conditions. We present a relationship on the modes of bead formation and how and when these modes will form based on key parameters such as the properties of the outer continuous-phase fluid. The results are vital not only for simulating the droplet breakup of weakly viscoelastic fluids but also for understanding how the droplet breakup event can be used for characterizing the extensional properties of weakly-viscoelastic fluids.
Probing hysteretic elasticity in weakly nonlinear materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Haupert, Sylvain [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Renaud, Guillaume [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Riviere, Jacques [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Talmant, Maryline [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Laugier, Pascal [UPMC UNIV PARIS
2010-12-07
Our work is aimed at assessing the elastic and dissipative hysteretic nonlinear parameters' repeatability (precision) using several classes of materials with weak, intermediate and high nonlinear properties. In this contribution, we describe an optimized Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS) measuring and data processing protocol applied to small samples. The protocol is used to eliminate the effects of environmental condition changes that take place during an experiment, and that may mask the intrinsic elastic nonlinearity. As an example, in our experiments, we identified external temperature fluctuation as a primary source of material resonance frequency and elastic modulus variation. A variation of 0.1 C produced a frequency variation of 0.01 %, which is similar to the expected nonlinear frequency shift for weakly nonlinear materials. In order to eliminate environmental effects, the variation in f{sub 0} (the elastically linear resonance frequency proportional to modulus) is fit with the appropriate function, and that function is used to correct the NRUS calculation of nonlinear parameters. With our correction procedure, we measured relative resonant frequency shifts of 10{sup -5} , which are below 10{sup -4}, often considered the limit to NRUS sensitivity under common experimental conditions. Our results show that the procedure is an alternative to the stringent control of temperature often applied. Applying the approach, we report nonlinear parameters for several materials, some with very small nonclassical nonlinearity. The approach has broad application to NRUS and other Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy approaches.
关于Weakly J-Clean环%On Weakly J-Clean Rings
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
沈洪地; 陈焕艮
2015-01-01
A ring R is called a weakly J‐clean ring if every element a∈ R can be written in the form of a=e+ j or a= -e+ j where e is an idempotent and j belongs to the Jacobson radical .The paper explores various properties of weakly J‐clean rings ,proves that a ring R is weakly J‐clean if and only if R is clean and R/J(R) is weakly Boolean ,if and only if R/6R is weakly J‐clean and idempotents can lift J(R) .A ring R is uniquely weakly nil clean if and only if R is abelian;J(R) is nil and R is weakly J‐clean .Each weakly J‐clean ring R is right(left) quasi‐duo ring .Furthermore ,the paper proves that the following are equivalent :R is J‐clean;there is an integer n≥1 such that Tn (R) is J‐clean ;there is an integer n≥2 such that Tn (R) is weakly J‐clean;there is an integer n≥2 such that × n R is w eakly J‐clean .%一个环 R叫做w eakly J‐clean环，如果R中的每一个元素都可以写成a＝ e＋ j或a＝－e＋ j的形式，其中e是幂等元，j属于Jacobson根。文章探究了weakly J‐clean环的各种性质，证明了 R是weakly J‐clean环当且仅当 R是clean环并且 R／J（R）是弱布尔环，当且仅当R／6 R是w eakly J‐clean环且幂等元关于 J（R）可以提升。一个环R是唯一w eakly nil clean环当且仅当 R是阿贝尔环；J（R）是幂零的并且 R是w eakly J‐clean环。每个w eakly J‐clean环 R是右（左）quasi‐duo环。并进一步证明以下几点是等价的：R是 J‐clean环；存在一个大于等于1的整数 n ，使得 Tn （R）是 J‐clean环；存在一个大于等于2的整数 n ，使得 Tn （R）是w eakly J‐clean环；存在一个大于等于2的整数 n ，使得× n R 是w eakly J‐clean环。
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. N. Romanova
1998-01-01
Full Text Available The dynamics of weakly nonlinear wave trains in unstable media is studied. This dynamics is investigated in the framework of a broad class of dynamical systems having a Hamiltonian structure. Two different types of instability are considered. The first one is the instability in a weakly supercritical media. The simplest example of instability of this type is the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The second one is the instability due to a weak linear coupling of modes of different nature. The simplest example of a geophysical system where the instability of this and only of this type takes place is the three-layer model of a stratified shear flow with a continuous velocity profile. For both types of instability we obtain nonlinear evolution equations describing the dynamics of wave trains having an unstable spectral interval of wavenumbers. The transformation to appropriate canonical variables turns out to be different for each case, and equations we obtained are different for the two types of instability we considered. Also obtained are evolution equations governing the dynamics of wave trains in weakly subcritical media and in media where modes are coupled in a stable way. Presented results do not depend on a specific physical nature of a medium and refer to a broad class of dynamical systems having the Hamiltonian structure of a special form.
Casimir apparatuses in a weak gravitational field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bimonte, Giuseppe; Calloni, Enrico; Esposito, Giampiero
2009-01-01
We review and assess a part of the recent work on Casimir apparatuses in the weak gravitational field of the Earth. For a free, real massless scalar field subject to Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions on the parallel plates, the resulting regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor...... is covariantly conserved, while the trace anomaly vanishes if the massless field is conformally coupled to gravity. Conformal coupling also ensures a finite Casimir energy and finite values of the pressure upon parallel plates. These results have been extended to an electromagnetic field subject to perfect...... conductor (hence idealized) boundary conditions on parallel plates, by various authors. The regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor has beene valuated up to second order in the gravity acceleration. In both the scalar and the electromagnetic case, studied to first order in the gravity...
Entanglement in Weakly Coupled Lattice Gauge Theories
Radicevic, Djordje
2015-01-01
We present a direct lattice gauge theory computation that, without using dualities, demonstrates that the entanglement entropy of Yang-Mills theories with arbitrary gauge group $G$ contains a generic logarithmic term at sufficiently weak coupling $e$. In two spatial dimensions, for a region of linear size $r$, this term equals $\\frac{1}{2} \\dim(G) \\log\\left(e^2 r\\right)$ and it dominates the universal part of the entanglement entropy. Such logarithmic terms arise from the entanglement of the softest mode in the entangling region with the environment. For Maxwell theory in two spatial dimensions, our results agree with those obtained by dualizing to a compact scalar with spontaneous symmetry breaking.
Weakly Asymmetric Bridges and the KPZ Equation
Labbé, Cyril
2017-08-01
We consider the corner growth dynamics on discrete bridges from (0, 0) to (2 N, 0), or equivalently, the weakly asymmetric simple exclusion process with N particles on 2 N sites. We take an asymmetry of order N -α with α ∈ (0, 1) and provide a complete description of the asymptotic behaviour of this model. In particular, we show that the hydrodynamic limit of the density of particles is given by the inviscid Burgers equation with zero-flux boundary condition. When the interface starts from the flat initial profile, we show that KPZ fluctuations occur whenever α ∈ (0, 1/3]. In the particular regime α = 1/3, these KPZ fluctuations suddenly vanish at a deterministic time.
Anisotropic turbulence in weakly stratified rotating magnetoconvection
Giesecke, A
2010-01-01
Numerical simulations of the 3D MHD-equations that describe rotating magnetoconvection in a Cartesian box have been performed using the code NIRVANA. The characteristics of averaged quantities like the turbulence intensity and the turbulent heat flux that are caused by the combined action of the small-scale fluctuations are computed. The correlation length of the turbulence significantly depends on the strength and orientation of the magnetic field and the anisotropic behavior of the turbulence intensity induced by Coriolis and Lorentz force is considerably more pronounced for faster rotation. The development of isotropic behavior on the small scales -- as it is observed in pure rotating convection -- vanishes even for a weak magnetic field which results in a turbulent flow that is dominated by the vertical component. In the presence of a horizontal magnetic field the vertical turbulent heat flux slightly increases with increasing field strength, so that cooling of the rotating system is facilitated. Horizont...
Geometry of weak lensing of CMB polarization
Challinor, A D; Challinor, Anthony; Chon, Gayoung
2002-01-01
Hu has presented a harmonic-space method for calculating the effects of weak gravitational lensing on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) over the full sky. Computing the lensed power spectra to first order in the deflection power requires one to formulate the lensing displacement beyond the tangent-space approximation. We point out that for CMB polarization this displacement must undergo geometric corrections on the spherical sky to maintain statistical isotropy of the lensed fields. Although not discussed by Hu, these geometric effects are implicit in his analysis. However, there they are hidden by an overly-compact notation that is both unconventional and rather confusing. Here we aim to ameliorate this deficiency by providing a rigorous derivation of the lensed spherical power spectra.
Weak Hamiltonian, CP Violation and Rare Decays
Buras, Andrzej J
1998-01-01
These lectures describe in detail the effective Hamiltonians for weak decays of mesons constructed by means of the operator product expansion and the renormalization group method. We calculate Wilson coeffcients of local operators, discuss mixing of operators under renormalization, the anomalous dimensions of operators and anomalous dimension matrices. We elaborate on the renormalzation scheme and renormalization scale dependences and their cancellations in physical amplitudes. In particular we discuss the issue of gamma-5 in D-dimensions and the role of evanescent operators in the calculation of two-loop anomalous dimensions. We present an explicit calculation of the 6 times 6 one-loop anomalous dimension matrix involving current-current and QCD-penguin operators and we give some hints how to properly calculate two-loop anomalous dimensions of these operators. In the phenonomenological part of these lectures we discuss in detail: CKM matrix, the unitarity triangle and its determination, two-body non-leptonic...
Cluster mass reconstruction from weak gravitational lensing
Wilson, G; Frenk, C S; Wilson, Gillian; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S
1996-01-01
Kaiser & Squires have proposed a technique for mapping the dark matter in galaxy clusters using the coherent weak distortion of background galaxy images caused by gravitational lensing. We investigate the effectiveness of this technique under controlled conditions by creating simulated CCD frames containing galaxies lensed by a model cluster, measuring the resulting galaxy shapes, and comparing the reconstructed mass distribution with the original. Typically, the reconstructed surface density is diminished in magnitude when compared to the original. The main cause of this reduced signal is the blurring of galaxy images by atmospheric seeing, but the overall factor by which the reconstructed surface density is reduced depends also on the signal-to-noise ratio in the CCD frame and on both the sizes of galaxy images and the magnitude limit of the sample that is analysed. We propose a method for estimating a multiplicative compensation factor. We test our technique using a lensing cluster drawn from a cosmolo...
Weak Kaon Production off the Nucleon
Alam, M Rafi; Athar, M Sajjad; Vacas, M J Vicente
2010-01-01
The weak kaon production off the nucleon induced by neutrinos is studied at the low and intermediate energies of interest for some ongoing and future neutrino oscillation experiments. This process is also potentially important for the analysis of proton decay experiments. We develop a microscopical model based on the SU(3) chiral Lagrangians. The basic parameters of the model are fpi, the pion decay constant, Cabibbo's angle, the proton and neutron magnetic moments and the axial vector coupling constants for the baryons octet, D and F, that are obtained from the analysis of the semileptonic decays of neutron and hyperons. The studied mechanisms are the main source of kaon production for neutrino energies up to 1.2 to 1.5 GeV for the various channels and the cross sections are large enough to be amenable to be measured by experiments such as Minerva and T2K.
Can weak lensing surveys confirm BICEP2 ?
Chisari, Nora Elisa; Schmidt, Fabian
2014-01-01
The detection of B-modes in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization by the BICEP2 experiment, if interpreted as evidence for a primordial gravitational wave background, has enormous ramifications for cosmology and physics. It is crucial to test this hypothesis with independent measurements. A gravitational wave background leads to B-modes in galaxy shape correlations (shear) both through lensing and tidal alignment effects. Since the systematics and foregrounds of galaxy shapes and CMB polarization are entirely different, a detection of a cross-correlation between the two observables would provide conclusive proof for the existence of a primordial gravitational wave background. We find that upcoming weak lensing surveys will be able to detect the cross-correlation between B-modes of the CMB and galaxy shapes. However, this detection is not sufficient to confirm or falsify the hypothesis of a primordial origin for CMB B-mode polarization.
Spherical Accretion in Nearby Weakly Active Galaxies
Moscibrodzka, M A
2005-01-01
We consider the sample of weakly active galaxies situated in 'Local Universe' collected in the paper of Pellegrini (2005) with inferred accretion efficiencies from $10^{-2}$ to $10^{-7}$. We apply a model of spherically symmetrical Bondi accretion for given parameters ($M_{BH}$,$T_{\\infty}$,$\\rho_{\\infty}$,) taken from observation. We calculate spectra emitted by the gas accreting onto its central objects using Monte Carlo method including synchrotron and bremsstrahlung photons as seed photons. We compare our results with observed nuclear X-ray luminosities $L_{X,nuc}$ (0.3-10 keV) of the sample. Model is also tested for different external medium parameters ($\\rho_{\\infty}$ and $T_{\\infty}$) and different free parameters of the model. Our model is able to explain most of the observed nuclear luminosities $L_X$ under an assumption that half of the compresion energy is transfered directly to the electrons.
Casimir apparatuses in a weak gravitational field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bimonte, Giuseppe; Calloni, Enrico; Esposito, Giampiero;
2009-01-01
We review and assess a part of the recent work on Casimir apparatuses in the weak gravitational field of the Earth. For a free, real massless scalar field subject to Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions on the parallel plates, the resulting regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor...... is covariantly conserved, while the trace anomaly vanishes if the massless field is conformally coupled to gravity. Conformal coupling also ensures a finite Casimir energy and finite values of the pressure upon parallel plates. These results have been extended to an electromagnetic field subject to perfect...... conductor (hence idealized) boundary conditions on parallel plates, by various authors. The regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor has beene valuated up to second order in the gravity acceleration. In both the scalar and the electromagnetic case, studied to first order in the gravity...
Weak Gravity Conjecture and Extremal Black Holes
Cottrell, William; Soler, Pablo
2016-01-01
Motivated by the desire to improve our understanding of the Weak Gravity Conjecture, we compute the one-loop correction of charged particles to the geometry and entropy of extremal black holes in 4d. Contrary to expectations, we find that loops of massive charged particles can radically alter the classical black hole geometry and that fermion loops provide evidence for the necessity of the `magnetic' WGC cutoff. The corrections are reduced when supersymmetry is present, and disappear in ${\\cal N}=4$ supergravity. We further provide some speculative arguments that in a theory with only sub-extremal particles, classical Reisner-Nordstrom black holes actually possess an infinite microcanonical entropy, though only a finite amount is visible to an external observer.
Meson exchange and neutral weak currents
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beck, D.H. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)
1994-04-01
Measurements of parity-violating electron scattering asymmetries to determine weak neutral currents in nuclei will be effected by the presence of meson exchange currents. Present low momentum transfer calculations, based on a flavor independent framework, show these effects to be small. In general, however, as the momentum transfer increases to values typical of deep-inelastic scattering, fragmentation functions show a clear flavor dependence. It is suggested that a good experimental starting point for understanding the flavor dependence of meson production and exchange currents is the Q{sup 2} dependence of parity-violating asymmetry in inclusive single pion electroproduction. A CEBAF facility with doubled energy is necessary to approach momentum transfers where this process begins to scale.
Weak lensing using only galaxy position angles
Whittaker, Lee; Battye, Richard
2013-01-01
We develop a method for performing a weak lensing analysis using only measurements of galaxy position angles. By analyzing the statistical properties of the galaxy orientations given a known intrinsic ellipticity distribution, we show that it is possible to obtain estimates of the shear by minimizing a $\\chi^2$ statistic. The method is demonstrated using simulations where the components of the intrinsic ellipticity are taken to be Gaussian distributed. Uncertainties on the position angle measurements introduce a bias into the shear estimates which can be reduced to negligible levels by introducing a correction term into the formalism. We generalize our approach by developing an algorithm to obtain direct shear estimators given any azimuthally symmetric intrinsic ellipticity distribution. We demonstrate this technique by applying it to simulations where the ellipticities are taken to follow a log-normal distribution. We compare the performance of the position angle only method with the standard method based on...
A heroin addict with focal weakness.
Galassi, Giuliana; Ariatti, Alessandra; Gozzi, Manuela; Cavazza, Stefano
2013-05-01
A 24-year-old female with 5 year history of heroin abuse experienced painless stiffness of elbow joints and weakness of shoulder and upper limb muscles. She was injecting herself 4-6 times daily alternatively in the upper extremities, sparing the lower limbs. Electromyography (EMG) showed myopathic changes in clinically affected and unaffected muscles. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed muscle fibrosis in directly injected muscles, whereas in subcutaneous fat and within muscles of anterior and posterior compartments of both thighs, not directly injected, there were signal changes supportive of oedema and inflammation. EMG and MRI were congruent in showing abnormalities in muscles not directly injected, suggesting long distant effects of heroin or adulterants with a mechanism either toxic or immunologically mediated.
General gauge mediation at the weak scale
Knapen, Simon; Redigolo, Diego; Shih, David
2016-03-01
We completely characterize General Gauge Mediation (GGM) at the weak scale by solving all IR constraints over the full parameter space. This is made possible through a combination of numerical and analytical methods, based on a set of algebraic relations among the IR soft masses derived from the GGM boundary conditions in the UV. We show how tensions between just a few constraints determine the boundaries of the parameter space: electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB), the Higgs mass, slepton tachyons, and left-handed stop/sbottom tachyons. While these constraints allow the left-handed squarks to be arbitrarily light, they place strong lower bounds on all of the right-handed squarks. Meanwhile, light EW superpartners are generic throughout much of the parameter space. This is especially the case at lower messenger scales, where a positive threshold correction to m h coming from light Higgsinos and winos is essential in order to satisfy the Higgs mass constraint.
Kolmogorov Dissipation scales in Weakly Ionized Plasmas
Krishan, V
2009-01-01
In a weakly ionized plasma, the evolution of the magnetic field is described by a "generalized Ohm's law" that includes the Hall effect and the ambipolar diffusion terms. These terms introduce additional spatial and time scales which play a decisive role in the cascading and the dissipation mechanisms in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. We determine the Kolmogorov dissipation scales for the viscous, the resistive and the ambipolar dissipation mechanisms. The plasma, depending on its properties and the energy injection rate, may preferentially select one of the these dissipation scales. thus determining the shortest spatial scale of the supposedly self-similar spectral distribution of the magnetic field. The results are illustrated taking the partially ionized part of the solar atmosphere as an example. Thus the shortest spatial scale of the supposedly self-similar spectral distribution of the solar magnetic field is determined by any of the four dissipation scales given by the viscosity, the Spizer resistivity...
Precision cluster mass determination from weak lensing
Mandelbaum, Rachel; Baldauf, Tobias; Smith, Robert E
2009-01-01
Weak gravitational lensing has been used extensively in the past decade to constrain the masses of galaxy clusters, and is the most promising observational technique for providing the mass calibration necessary for precision cosmology with clusters. There are several challenges in estimating cluster masses, particularly (a) the sensitivity to astrophysical effects and observational systematics that modify the signal relative to the theoretical expectations, and (b) biases that can arise due to assumptions in the mass estimation method, such as the assumed radial profile of the cluster. All of these challenges are more problematic in the inner regions of the cluster, suggesting that their influence would ideally be suppressed for the purpose of mass estimation. However, at any given radius the differential surface density measured by lensing is sensitive to all mass within that radius, and the corrupted signal from the inner parts is spread out to all scales. We develop a new statistic that is ideal for estima...
Heterodyne detection with a weak local oscillator.
Jiang, Leaf A; Luu, Jane X
2008-04-01
Heterodyne detection in the limit of weak (a few photons) local oscillator and signal power levels has been largely neglected in the past, as authors almost always assumed that the noise was dominated by the shot noise from a strong local oscillator. We present the theory for heterodyne detection of diffuse and specular targets at arbitrary power levels, including the case where the local oscillator power is only a few photons per coherent integration period. The theory was tested with experimental results, and was found to show good agreement. We show how to interpret the power spectral density of the heterodyne signal and how to determine the optimal number of signal and local oscillator photons per coherent integration.
Destabilization of free convection by weak rotation
Gelfgat, Alexander
2011-01-01
This study offers an explanation of a recently observed effect of destabilization of free convective flows by weak rotation. After studying several models where flows are driven by a simultaneous action of convection and rotation, it is concluded that the destabilization is observed in the cases where centrifugal force acts against main convective circulation. At relatively low Prandtl numbers this counter action can split the main vortex into two counter rotating vortices, where the interaction leads to instability. At larger Prandtl numbers, the counter action of the centrifugal force steepens an unstable thermal stratification, which triggers Rayleigh-B\\'enard instability mechanism. Both cases can be enhanced by advection of azimuthal velocity disturbances towards the axis, where they grow and excite perturbations of the radial velocity. The effect was studied considering a combined convective/rotating flow in a cylinder with a rotating lid and a parabolic temperature profile at the sidewall. Next, explana...
General Gauge Mediation at the Weak Scale
Knapen, Simon; Shih, David
2015-01-01
We completely characterize General Gauge Mediation (GGM) at the weak scale by solving all IR constraints over the full parameter space. This is made possible through a combination of numerical and analytical methods, based on a set of algebraic relations among the IR soft masses derived from the GGM boundary conditions in the UV. We show how tensions between just a few constraints determine the boundaries of the parameter space: electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB), the Higgs mass, slepton tachyons, and left-handed stop/sbottom tachyons. While these constraints allow the left-handed squarks to be arbitrarily light, they place strong lower bounds on all of the right-handed squarks. Meanwhile, light EW superpartners are generic throughout much of the parameter space. This is especially the case at lower messenger scales, where a positive threshold correction to $m_h$ coming from light Higgsinos and winos is essential in order to satisfy the Higgs mass constraint.
Efficient topological compilation for a weakly integral anyonic model
Bocharov, Alex; Cui, Xingshan; Kliuchnikov, Vadym; Wang, Zhenghan
2016-01-01
A class of anyonic models for universal quantum computation based on weakly-integral anyons has been recently proposed. While universal set of gates cannot be obtained in this context by anyon braiding alone, designing a certain type of sector charge measurement provides universality. In this paper we develop a compilation algorithm to approximate arbitrary n -qutrit unitaries with asymptotically efficient circuits over the metaplectic anyon model. One flavor of our algorithm produces efficient circuits with upper complexity bound asymptotically in O (32 nlog1 /ɛ ) and entanglement cost that is exponential in n . Another flavor of the algorithm produces efficient circuits with upper complexity bound in O (n 32 nlog1 /ɛ ) and no additional entanglement cost.
Weak Nonlinear Matter Waves in a Trapped Spin-1 Condensates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAI Hong-Qiang; YANG Shu-Rong; XUE Ju-Kui
2011-01-01
The dynamics of the weak nonlinear matter solitary waves in a spin-1 condensates with harmonic external potential are investigated analytically by a perturbation method. It is shown that, in the small amplitude limit, the dynamics of the solitary waves are governed by a variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. The reduction to the (KdV) equation may be useful to understand the dynamics of nonlinear matter waves in spinor BEGs. The analytical expressions for the evolution of soliton show that the small-amplitude vector solitons of the mixed types perform harmonic oscillations in the presence of the trap. Furthermore, the emitted radiation profiles and the soliton oscillation freauencv are also obtained.
Magnified Weak Lensing Cross Correlation Tomography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ulmer, Melville P., Clowe, Douglas I.
2010-11-30
This project carried out a weak lensing tomography (WLT) measurement around rich clusters of galaxies. This project used ground based photometric redshift data combined with HST archived cluster images that provide the WLT and cluster mass modeling. The technique has already produced interesting results (Guennou et al, 2010,Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol 523, page 21, and Clowe et al, 2011 to be submitted). Guennou et al have validated that the necessary accuracy can be achieved with photometric redshifts for our purposes. Clowe et al titled "The DAFT/FADA survey. II. Tomographic weak lensing signal from 10 high redshift clusters," have shown that for the **first time** via this purely geometrical technique, which does not assume a standard rod or candle, that a cosmological constant is **required** for flat cosmologies. The intent of this project is not to produce the best constraint on the value of the dark energy equation of state, w. Rather, this project is to carry out a sustained effort of weak lensing tomography that will naturally feed into the near term Dark Energy Survey (DES) and to provide invaluable mass calibration for that project. These results will greatly advance a key cosmological method which will be applied to the top-rated ground-based project in the Astro2020 decadal survey, LSST. Weak lensing tomography is one of the key science drivers behind LSST. CO-I Clowe is on the weak lensing LSST committee, and senior scientist on this project, at FNAL James Annis, plays a leading role in the DES. This project has built on successful proposals to obtain ground-based imaging for the cluster sample. By 1 Jan, it is anticipated the project will have accumulated complete 5-color photometry on 30 (or about 1/3) of the targeted cluster sample (public webpage for the survey is available at http://cencos.oamp.fr/DAFT/ and has a current summary of the observational status of various clusters). In all, the project has now been awarded the equivalent of over 60
Magnified Weak Lensing Cross Correlation Tomography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ulmer, Melville P., Clowe, Douglas I.
2010-11-30
This project carried out a weak lensing tomography (WLT) measurement around rich clusters of galaxies. This project used ground based photometric redshift data combined with HST archived cluster images that provide the WLT and cluster mass modeling. The technique has already produced interesting results (Guennou et al, 2010,Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol 523, page 21, and Clowe et al, 2011 to be submitted). Guennou et al have validated that the necessary accuracy can be achieved with photometric redshifts for our purposes. Clowe et al titled "The DAFT/FADA survey. II. Tomographic weak lensing signal from 10 high redshift clusters," have shown that for the **first time** via this purely geometrical technique, which does not assume a standard rod or candle, that a cosmological constant is **required** for flat cosmologies. The intent of this project is not to produce the best constraint on the value of the dark energy equation of state, w. Rather, this project is to carry out a sustained effort of weak lensing tomography that will naturally feed into the near term Dark Energy Survey (DES) and to provide invaluable mass calibration for that project. These results will greatly advance a key cosmological method which will be applied to the top-rated ground-based project in the Astro2020 decadal survey, LSST. Weak lensing tomography is one of the key science drivers behind LSST. CO-I Clowe is on the weak lensing LSST committee, and senior scientist on this project, at FNAL James Annis, plays a leading role in the DES. This project has built on successful proposals to obtain ground-based imaging for the cluster sample. By 1 Jan, it is anticipated the project will have accumulated complete 5-color photometry on 30 (or about 1/3) of the targeted cluster sample (public webpage for the survey is available at http://cencos.oamp.fr/DAFT/ and has a current summary of the observational status of various clusters). In all, the project has now been awarded the equivalent of over 60
Weak measurement of the Goos-Hanchen shift
Jayaswal, G.; Mistura, G.; Merano, M.
2013-01-01
It is well known from quantum mechanics that weak measurements offer a means of amplifying and detecting very small phenomena. We present here the first experimental observation of the Goos-Hanchen shift via a weak measurement approach.
Residuation Properties and Weakly Primary Elements in Lattice Modules
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. S. Manjarekar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We obtain some elementary residuation properties in lattice modules and obtain a relation between a weakly primary element in a lattice module M and weakly prime element of a multiplicative lattice L.
Weak measurement of the Goos-Hänchen shift.
Jayaswal, G; Mistura, G; Merano, M
2013-04-15
It is well known from quantum mechanics that weak measurements offer a means of amplifying and detecting very small phenomena. We present here the experimental observation of the Goos-Hänchen shift via a weak measurement approach.
Weak values obtained from mass-energy equivalence
Zhang, Miao
2017-01-01
Quantum weak measurement, measuring some observable quantities within the selected subensemble of the entire quantum ensemble, can produce many interesting results such as the superluminal phenomena. An outcome of such a measurement is the weak value which has been applied to amplify some weak signals of quantum interactions in lots of previous references. Here, we apply the weak measurement to the system of relativistic cold atoms. According to mass-energy equivalence, the internal energy of an atom will contribute its rest mass and consequently the external momentum of center of mass. This implies a weak coupling between the internal and external degrees of freedom of atoms moving in the free space. After a duration of this coupling, a weak value can be obtained by post-selecting an internal state of atoms. We show that the weak value can change the momentum uncertainty of atoms and consequently help us to experimentally measure the weak effects arising from mass-energy equivalence.
RHEOLOGY OF CONFINED POLYMER MELTS UNDER SHEAR-FLOW - WEAK ADSORPTION LIMIT : Weak Adsorption Limit
Subbotin, A.V.; Semenov, A.N.; Hadziioannou, G; ten Brinke, G.
1995-01-01
The dynamics of a confined polymer melt between weakly adsorbing surfaces is considered theoretically. The finite chain extensibility is taken into account explicitly, and the tangential stress and the first and the second normal-stress differences are calculated as functions of shear rate gamma.
The Malaysian Public Procurement's Prevalent System and its Weaknesses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rohana Othman
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: This study examined the public procurement system as prevalent in the Malaysian government system of administration. Various aspects of public procurement are outlined including types and the processes that entail public procurement. This study also highlighted the weaknesses in the manual public procurement processes that are opened to potential abuse and mismanagement resulting in corruption. This study places the Malaysian Government public procurement system under the spotlight zeroing on allegations of abuse, tampering and corrupt practices. The study concluded that the large amount of funds allocated to public procurement coupled with excessive human intervention opportunities opened avenues that increase the risk of system abuse, profiteering and corruption. Case studies on the abuse and corruption of the public procurement system highlight the need for the Malaysian Government to eliminate the loopholes in the system, arrest the rot and implement a transparent, efficient and accountable public procurement system. Approach: Documents from the Ministry of Finance on public procurement including, among others, the Procurement Guideline Book, The Financial Procedures Act 1957, the Treasury Instructions (TI and the Treasury Circular Letter (TCL were scrutinized in studying the Malaysian Government public procurement system, its various attributes, types and processes that reflect a diversified approach to public procurement. Three case studies were cited to illustrate the susceptibility of the system to abuse and corruption. Results: Despite claims of openness and transparency of the public procurement system, it was found the current system is replete with the risk of abuse, unethical manipulations and corrupt practices. This research is limited to the analysis of data and processes related to the Malaysian Government public procurement system. The sensitivity of the subject may inhibit the collection of empirical data via
The influence of weak impacts on certain processes of nanotechnology
Tupik, V. A.; Margolin, V. I.; Potekhin, M. S.
2017-07-01
The article deals with the influence of weak and super weak impacts on certain technological processes in nanotechnology related to the synthesis of nanoscale films and coatings. We also touch upon the impacts of weak diffraction fields of complex shape on the formation of fractal films and coatings.
Neutrino energy transport in weak decoupling and big bang nucleosynthesis
Grohs, E; Kishimoto, C T; Paris, M W; Vlasenko, A
2015-01-01
We calculate the evolution of the early universe through the epochs of weak decoupling, weak freeze-out and big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) by simultaneously coupling a full strong, electromagnetic, and weak nuclear reaction network with a multi-energy group Boltzmann neutrino energy transport scheme. Such an approach allows a detailed accounting of the evolution of the $\
Exploring legacy systems using types
Deursen, A. van; Moonen, L.M.F.
2000-01-01
We show how hypertext-based program understanding tools can achieve new levels of abstraction by using inferred type information for cases where the subject software system is written in a weakly typed language. We propose TypeExplorer, a tool for browsing COBOL legacy systems based on these types.
Mixed-mode shear-compression failure criterion for weak snowpack layers
Reiweger, Ingrid; Gaume, Johan; Schweizer, Jürg
2015-04-01
The failure of a weak snow layer below a cohesive slab is a prerequisite for the release of a dry-snow snow slab avalanche. Once an initial failure in the weak layer reaches its critical size to become self-propagating, the slab will release as an avalanche - provided the slope is steep enough. However, the nature of the initial failure within the weak layer is still unknown - but strongly debated among avalanche researchers. Moreover, different avalanche release models assume contradictory failure criteria as input parameters. We analysed a unique data set stemming from laboratory experiments on snow failure with samples containing a weak snow layer of either depth hoar or buried surface hoar. Depth and surface hoar layers are the most relevant weak layers for avalanche release. The failure behaviour of these types of weak layers can well be described with a modified Mohr-Coulomb model. We therefore propose a mixed-mode failure criterion to be used in avalanche release models.
Common Fixed Point Theorems for Weakly Compatible Maps Satisfying a General Contractive Condition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cristina Di Bari
2008-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce a new generalized contractive condition for four mappings in the framework of metric space. We give some common fixed point results for these mappings and we deduce a fixed point result for weakly compatible mappings satisfying a contractive condition of integral type.
H(o)lder Continuity of Weak Solutions for Parabolic Equations with Nonstandard Growth Conditions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Meng XU; Ya Zhe CHEN
2006-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the interior regularity including the local boundedness and the interior H(o)lder continuity of weak solutions for parabolic equations of the p(x,t)-Laplacian type. We improve the Moser iteration technique and generalize the known results for the elliptic problem to the corresponding parabolic problem.
Evidence for the Strangeness-Changing Weak Decay Xi(-)(b) -> Lambda(0)(b)pi(-)
Aaij, R.; Beteta, C. Abellan; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Gomez, M. Calvo; Campana, P.; Perez, D. Campora; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Garcia, L. Castillo; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Vidal, X. Cid; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Torres, M. Cruz; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Deleage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suarez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Faerber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Torreira, A. Gallas; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garcia Pardinas, J.; Tico, J. Garra; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Giani, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Goebel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Gandara, M. Grabalosa; Graciani Diaz, R.; Cardoso, L. A. Granado; Grauges, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grunberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hess, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.
2015-01-01
Using a pp collision data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb(-1), collected by the LHCb detector, we present the first search for the strangeness-changing weak decay Xi(-)(b) -> Delta(0)(b)pi(-). No b hadron decay of this type has been seen before. A signal for this decay, co
Deterministic extraction from weak random sources
Gabizon, Ariel
2011-01-01
In this research monograph, the author constructs deterministic extractors for several types of sources, using a methodology of recycling randomness which enables increasing the output length of deterministic extractors to near optimal length.
Quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relations under weak measurements
Li, Lei; Wang, Qing-Wen; Shen, Shu-Qian; Li, Ming
2017-08-01
We investigate quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relations (EURs) based on weak measurements. It is shown that the lower bound of EUR revealed by weak measurements is always larger than that revealed by the corresponding projective measurements. A series of lower bounds of EUR under both weak measurements and projective measurements are presented. Interestingly, the quantum-memory-assisted EUR based on weak measurements is a monotonically decreasing function of the strength parameter. Furthermore, some information-theoretic inequalities associated with weak measurements are also derived.
Spatial-domain interactions between ultra-weak optical beams
Khadka, Utsab; Xiao, Min
2013-01-01
We have observed the spatial interactions between two ultra-weak optical beams that are initially collinear and non-overlapping. The weak beams are steered towards each other by a spatially varying cross-Kerr refractive index waveguide written by a strong laser beam in a three-level atomic medium utilizing quantum coherence. After being brought together, the weak beams show controllable phase-dependent outcomes. This is the first observation of soliton-like interactions between weak beams and can be useful for all-optically tunable beam-combining, switching and gates for weak photonic signals.
Piezoceramic Cantilever Sensor Design for Weak-Impact Detection on Plates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Young-Sup Lee
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A piezoelectric cantilever type sensor for locating the precise weak-impact or touch position on a plate is presented in this paper. Since the importance of human-computer interface such as a touch panel system has been rapidly increasing recently, this study could suggest an appropriate sensor for the detection of a weak-impact point effectively and accurately for such a system. This sensor detects the out-of-plane vibration of a panel when a touch with a finger or pen is applied on it. The sensor is made with a steel beam and a single crystal PMN-PT patch is bonded on the beam, which is designed to detect the base vibration of the panel. The sensor was designed, manufactured to verify the detect ability of a weak-impact and attached on two different plates of a glass of 400 × 400 × 4 mm and a wooden MDF of 600 × 600 × 9 mm. The experiment result of the sensor was compared with that of an accelerometer which can also be used for the same purpose and shows clear weak-impact responses with a narrow-band property at its resonant frequency. It is expected that the cantilever type sensor in this study could be applied to make a simple flat plate into a touch panel when the time difference of arrivals method is used to locate the weak-impact point.
The Origin of Weak Lensing Convergence Peaks
Liu, Jia
2016-01-01
Weak lensing convergence peaks are a promising tool to probe nonlinear structure evolution at late times, providing additional cosmological information beyond second-order statistics. Previous theoretical and observational studies have shown that the cosmological constraints on $\\Omega_m$ and $\\sigma_8$ are improved by a factor of up to ~ 2 when peak counts and second-order statistics are combined, compared to using the latter alone. We study the origin of lensing peaks using observational data from the 154 deg$^2$ Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey. We found that while high peaks (with height $\\kappa$ >3.5 $\\sigma_\\kappa$, where $\\sigma_\\kappa$ is the r.m.s. of the convergence $\\kappa$) are typically due to one single massive halo of ~$10^{15}M_\\odot$, low peaks ($\\kappa$ ~ their virial radii), compared with ~0.25 virial radii for halos linked with high peaks, hinting that low peaks are more immune to baryonic processes whose impact is confined to the inner regions of the dark matter halos. Our fi...
NUMERICAL STUDIES OF WEAKLY STOCHASTIC MAGNETIC RECONNECTION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Kowal
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We study the e ects of turbulence on magnetic reconnection using three-dimensional numerical simulations.This is the rst attempt to test the model of fast magnetic reconnection proposed by Lazarian & Vishniac (1999, which assumes the presence of weak, small-scale magnetic eld structure near the current sheet. This a ects the rate of reconnection by reducing the transverse scale for reconnection ows and by allowing many independent ux reconnection events to occur simultaneously. We performed a number of simulations to test the dependencies of the reconnection speed, de ned as the ratio of the in ow velocity to the Alfv n speed, on the turbulence power, the injection scale and resistivity. Our results show that turbulence signi cantly a ects the topology of magnetic eld near the di usion region and increases the thickness of the out ow region. We con rm the predictions of the Lazarian & Vishniac model. In particular, we report the growth of the reconnection speed proportional to V 2 l , where Vl is the amplitude of velocity at the injection scale. It depends on the injection scale linj as (linj=L2=3, where L is the size of the system, which is somewhat faster but still roughly consistent with the theoretical expectations. We also show that for 3D reconnection the Ohmic resistivity is important in the local reconnection events only, and the global reconnection rate in the presence of turbulence does not depend on it.
Compact Groups analysis using weak gravitational lensing
Chalela, Martín; Johana Gonzalez, Elizabeth; Garcia Lambas, Diego; Foëx, Gael
2017-01-01
We present a weak lensing analysis of a sample of SDSS Compact Groups (CGs). Using the measured radial density contrast profile, we derive the average masses under the assumption of spherical symmetry, obtaining a velocity dispersion for the Singular Isothermal Spherical model, σV = 270 ± 40 km s-1, and for the NFW model, R_{200}=0.53± 0.10 h_{70}^{-1}Mpc. We test three different definitions of CGs centres to identify which best traces the true dark matter halo centre, concluding that a luminosity weighted centre is the most suitable choice. We also study the lensing signal dependence on CGs physical radius, group surface brightness, and morphological mixing. We find that groups with more concentrated galaxy members show steeper mass profiles and larger velocity dispersions. We argue that both, a possible lower fraction of interloper and a true steeper profile, could be playing a role in this effect. Straightforward velocity dispersion estimates from member spectroscopy yields σV ≈ 230 km s-1 in agreement with our lensing results.
Strong eukaryotic IRESs have weak secondary structure.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xuhua Xia
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this work was to investigate the hypothesis that eukaryotic Internal Ribosome Entry Sites (IRES lack secondary structure and to examine the generality of the hypothesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: IRESs of the yeast and the fruit fly are located in the 5'UTR immediately upstream of the initiation codon. The minimum folding energy (MFE of 60 nt RNA segments immediately upstream of the initiation codons was calculated as a proxy of secondary structure stability. MFE of the reverse complements of these 60 nt segments was also calculated. The relationship between MFE and empirically determined IRES activity was investigated to test the hypothesis that strong IRES activity is associated with weak secondary structure. We show that IRES activity in the yeast and the fruit fly correlates strongly with the structural stability, with highest IRES activity found in RNA segments that exhibit the weakest secondary structure. CONCLUSIONS: We found that a subset of eukaryotic IRESs exhibits very low secondary structure in the 5'-UTR sequences immediately upstream of the initiation codon. The consistency in results between the yeast and the fruit fly suggests a possible shared mechanism of cap-independent translation initiation that relies on an unstructured RNA segment.
Forensic bitemark identification: weak foundations, exaggerated claims
Saks, Michael J.; Albright, Thomas; Bohan, Thomas L.; Bierer, Barbara E.; Bowers, C. Michael; Bush, Mary A.; Bush, Peter J.; Casadevall, Arturo; Cole, Simon A.; Denton, M. Bonner; Diamond, Shari Seidman; Dioso-Villa, Rachel; Epstein, Jules; Faigman, David; Faigman, Lisa; Fienberg, Stephen E.; Garrett, Brandon L.; Giannelli, Paul C.; Greely, Henry T.; Imwinkelried, Edward; Jamieson, Allan; Kafadar, Karen; Kassirer, Jerome P.; Koehler, Jonathan ‘Jay’; Korn, David; Mnookin, Jennifer; Morrison, Alan B.; Murphy, Erin; Peerwani, Nizam; Peterson, Joseph L.; Risinger, D. Michael; Sensabaugh, George F.; Spiegelman, Clifford; Stern, Hal; Thompson, William C.; Wayman, James L.; Zabell, Sandy; Zumwalt, Ross E.
2016-01-01
Abstract Several forensic sciences, especially of the pattern-matching kind, are increasingly seen to lack the scientific foundation needed to justify continuing admission as trial evidence. Indeed, several have been abolished in the recent past. A likely next candidate for elimination is bitemark identification. A number of DNA exonerations have occurred in recent years for individuals convicted based on erroneous bitemark identifications. Intense scientific and legal scrutiny has resulted. An important National Academies review found little scientific support for the field. The Texas Forensic Science Commission recently recommended a moratorium on the admission of bitemark expert testimony. The California Supreme Court has a case before it that could start a national dismantling of forensic odontology. This article describes the (legal) basis for the rise of bitemark identification and the (scientific) basis for its impending fall. The article explains the general logic of forensic identification, the claims of bitemark identification, and reviews relevant empirical research on bitemark identification—highlighting both the lack of research and the lack of support provided by what research does exist. The rise and possible fall of bitemark identification evidence has broader implications—highlighting the weak scientific culture of forensic science and the law's difficulty in evaluating and responding to unreliable and unscientific evidence. PMID:28852538
Blind quantum computing with weak coherent pulses.
Dunjko, Vedran; Kashefi, Elham; Leverrier, Anthony
2012-05-18
The universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) protocol [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposiumon Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2009), pp. 517-526.] allows a client to perform quantum computation on a remote server. In an ideal setting, perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing specific, randomly chosen single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this may constitute the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of view, generation of such states to be sent along long distances can never be achieved perfectly. We introduce the concept of ϵ blindness for UBQC, in analogy to the concept of ϵ security developed for other cryptographic protocols, allowing us to characterize the robustness and security properties of the protocol under possible imperfections. We also present a remote blind single qubit preparation protocol with weak coherent pulses for the client to prepare, in a delegated fashion, quantum states arbitrarily close to perfect random single qubit states. This allows us to efficiently achieve ϵ-blind UBQC for any ϵ>0, even if the channel between the client and the server is arbitrarily lossy.
Fast Reconnection of Weak Magnetic Fields
Zweibel, Ellen G.
1998-01-01
Fast magnetic reconnection refers to annihilation or topological rearrangement of magnetic fields on a timescale that is independent (or nearly independent) of the plasma resistivity. The resistivity of astrophysical plasmas is so low that reconnection is of little practical interest unless it is fast. Yet, the theory of fast magnetic reconnection is on uncertain ground, as models must avoid the tendency of magnetic fields to pile up at the reconnection layer, slowing down the flow. In this paper it is shown that these problems can be avoided to some extent if the flow is three dimensional. On the other hand, it is shown that in the limited but important case of incompressible stagnation point flows, every flow will amplify most magnetic fields. Although examples of fast magnetic reconnection abound, a weak, disordered magnetic field embedded in stagnation point flow will in general be amplified, and should eventually modify the flow. These results support recent arguments against the operation of turbulent resistivity in highly conducting fluids.
Planckian axions and the Weak Gravity Conjecture
Bachlechner, Thomas C.; Long, Cody; McAllister, Liam
2016-01-01
Several recent works [1-3] have claimed that the Weak Gravity Conjecture (WGC) excludes super-Planckian displacements of axion fields, and hence large-field axion inflation, in the absence of monodromy. We argue that in theories with N ≫ 1 axions, super-Planckian axion diameters D are readily allowed by the WGC. We clarify the non-trivial relationship between the kinetic matrix K — unambiguously defined by its form in a Minkowski-reduced basis — and the diameter of the axion fundamental domain, emphasizing that in general the diameter is not solely determined by the eigenvalues f 1 2 ≤ ṡ ṡ ṡ ≤ f N 2 of K: the orientations of the eigenvectors with respect to the identifications imposed by instantons must be incorporated. In particular, even if one were to impose the condition f N M pl does not immediately imply the existence of unsuppressed higher harmonic contributions to the potential. Finally, we argue that in effective axion-gravity theories, the zero-form version of the WGC can be satisfied by gravitational instantons that make negligible contributions to the potential.
Planckian Axions and the Weak Gravity Conjecture
Bachlechner, Thomas C; McAllister, Liam
2015-01-01
Several recent works have claimed that the Weak Gravity Conjecture (WGC) excludes super-Planckian displacements of axion fields, and hence large-field axion inflation, in the absence of monodromy. We argue that in theories with $N\\gg1$ axions, super-Planckian axion diameters $\\cal{D}$ are readily allowed by the WGC. We clarify the nontrivial relationship between the kinetic matrix $K$ --- unambiguously defined by its form in a Minkowski-reduced basis --- and the diameter of the axion fundamental domain, emphasizing that in general the diameter is not solely determined by the eigenvalues $f_1^2 \\le ... \\le f_N^2$ of $K$: the orientations of the eigenvectors with respect to the identifications imposed by instantons must be incorporated. In particular, even if one were to impose the condition $f_NM_{pl}$ does not immediately imply the existence of unsuppressed higher harmonic contributions to the potential. Finally, we argue that in effective axion-gravity theories, the zero-form version of the WGC can be satisf...
Weak gauge principle and electric charge quantization
Minguzzi, E; Almorox, A L
2006-01-01
We review the argument that relates the quantization of electric charge to the topology of the spacetime manifold starting from the gauge principle. We formulate it in the language of Cech cohomology so that its generalization to cases that do not involve a monopole field becomes straightforward. We consider two different formulations of the gauge principle, the usual (strong) version and a weaker version in which the transition functions can differ from matter field to matter field. From both versions it follows that the charges are quantized if the electromagnetic field is not exact. The weak case is studied in detail. To each pair of particles there corresponds an interference class $k \\in H^{1}(M,U(1))$ that controls the different behavior of the particles under topological Aharonov-Bohm experiments. If this class is trivial the phenomenology reduces to that of the usual strong gauge principle case. It is shown that the theory may give rise to two natural quantization units that we identify with the quant...
Halo mass - concentration relation from weak lensing
Mandelbaum, Rachel; Hirata, Christopher M
2008-01-01
We perform a statistical weak lensing analysis of dark matter profiles around tracers of halo mass from galactic- to cluster-size halos. In this analysis we use 170,640 isolated ~L* galaxies split into ellipticals and spirals, 38,236 groups traced by isolated spectroscopic Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) and 13,823 MaxBCG clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) covering a wide range of richness. Together these three samples allow a determination of the density profiles of dark matter halos over three orders of magnitude in mass, from 10^{12} M_{sun} to 10^{15} M_{sun}. The resulting lensing signal is consistent with an NFW or Einasto profile on scales outside the central region. We find that the NFW concentration parameter c_{200b} decreases with halo mass, from around 10 for galactic halos to 4 for cluster halos. Assuming its dependence on halo mass in the form of c_{200b} = c_0 [M/(10^{14}M_{sun}/h)]^{\\beta}, we find c_0=4.6 +/- 0.7 (at z=0.22) and \\beta=0.13 +/- 0.07, with very similar results for t...
Weak Lensing Galaxy Cluster Field Reconstruction
Jullo, Eric; Jauzac, Mathilde; Kneib, Jean-Paul
2013-01-01
In this paper, we compare three methods to reconstruct galaxy cluster density fields with weak lensing data. The first method called FLens integrates an inpainting concept to invert the shear field with possible gaps, and a multi-scale entropy denoising procedure to remove the noise contained in the final reconstruction, that arises mostly from the random intrinsic shape of the galaxies. The second and third methods are based on a model of the density field made of a multi-scale grid of radial basis functions. In one case, the model parameters are computed with a linear inversion involving a singular value decomposition. In the other case, the model parameters are estimated using a Bayesian MCMC optimization implemented in the lensing software Lenstool. Methods are compared on simulated data with varying galaxy density fields. We pay particular attention to the errors estimated with resampling. We find the multi-scale grid model optimized with MCMC to provide the best results, but at high computational cost, ...
Blind Quantum Computing with Weak Coherent Pulses
Dunjko, Vedran; Kashefi, Elham; Leverrier, Anthony
2012-05-01
The universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) protocol [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposiumon Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2009), pp. 517-526.] allows a client to perform quantum computation on a remote server. In an ideal setting, perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing specific, randomly chosen single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this may constitute the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of view, generation of such states to be sent along long distances can never be achieved perfectly. We introduce the concept of ɛ blindness for UBQC, in analogy to the concept of ɛ security developed for other cryptographic protocols, allowing us to characterize the robustness and security properties of the protocol under possible imperfections. We also present a remote blind single qubit preparation protocol with weak coherent pulses for the client to prepare, in a delegated fashion, quantum states arbitrarily close to perfect random single qubit states. This allows us to efficiently achieve ɛ-blind UBQC for any ɛ>0, even if the channel between the client and the server is arbitrarily lossy.
Probing dark matter caustics with weak lensing
Gavazzi, R; Fort, B; Gavazzi, Raphael; Mohayaee, Roya; Fort, Bernard
2006-01-01
Caustics are high-density structures that form frequently in collisionless media. Under self-gravity, cold dark matter flows focus onto caustics which are yet to be resolved in numerical simulations and or observed in the real world. If detected, caustics would provide a strong evidence for dark matter and would rule out alternative models such as those with modified dynamics. Here, we demonstrate how they might be observed in the weak lensing data. We evaluate the shear distortion and show that its radial profile is marked by a characteristic sawtooth pattern due to the caustics in dark matter haloes that form by selfsimilar accretion. We discuss the observational complications, mainly due to the poor knowledge of the virial radii of the haloes and demonstrate that a superposition of about 600 cluster-size haloes would give a signal-to-noise ratio which is sufficiently large for the detection of caustics with ground-based observations. This number is reduced to 200 for space-based observations. These bounds ...
Spatial evolutionary games with weak selection.
Nanda, Mridu; Durrett, Richard
2017-06-06
Recently, a rigorous mathematical theory has been developed for spatial games with weak selection, i.e., when the payoff differences between strategies are small. The key to the analysis is that when space and time are suitably rescaled, the spatial model converges to the solution of a partial differential equation (PDE). This approach can be used to analyze all [Formula: see text] games, but there are a number of [Formula: see text] games for which the behavior of the limiting PDE is not known. In this paper, we give rules for determining the behavior of a large class of [Formula: see text] games and check their validity using simulation. In words, the effect of space is equivalent to making changes in the payoff matrix, and once this is done, the behavior of the spatial game can be predicted from the behavior of the replicator equation for the modified game. We say predicted here because in some cases the behavior of the spatial game is different from that of the replicator equation for the modified game. For example, if a rock-paper-scissors game has a replicator equation that spirals out to the boundary, space stabilizes the system and produces an equilibrium.
Charge segregation in weakly ionized microgels
Hyatt, John S.; Douglas, Alison M.; Stanley, Chris; Do, Changwoo; Barker, Thomas H.; Fernández-Nieves, Alberto
2017-01-01
We investigate microgels synthesized from N -isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) copolymerized with a large mol% of acrylic acid, finding that when the acid groups are partially ionized at high temperatures, competition between ion-induced swelling and hydrophobic deswelling of poly(NIPAM) chains results in microphase separation. In cross-linked microgels, this manifests as a dramatic decrease in the ratio between the radius of gyration and the hydrodynamic radius to ˜0.2 , indicating that almost all the mass of the microgel is concentrated near the particle center. We also observe a concurrent decrease of the polymer network length scale via small-angle neutron scattering, confirming the presence of a dense, deswollen core surrounded by a diffuse, charged periphery. We compare these results to those obtained for a system of charged ultralow-cross-linked microgels; the form factor shows a distinct peak at high q when the temperature exceeds a threshold value. We successfully fit the form factor to theory developed to describe scattering from weakly charged gels in poor solvents, and we tie this behavior to charge segregation in the case of the cross-linked microgels.
Unified properties of a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
When the orbital motion and the spin motion of particles were considered simultaneously,the thermodynamic potential function of a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field was derived using the thermodynamics method. Based on the derived expression,the analytical expressions of energy,heat capacity,chemical potential,susceptibility and stability conditions of the system were given,and the effects of the interparticle interactions as well as the magnetic field on the properties of the system were analyzed. It was shown that the magnetic field always causes energy and stability to decrease,while the chemical potential of the system to increase. The repulsive(attractive) interactions always increase(decrease) energy and stability,but decrease(increase) the chemical potential and paramagnetism. The repulsive(attractive) interactions decrease(increase) heat capacity of the system at high temperatures but increase(decrease) it at low temperatures.
Thermal stability conditions of a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fudian Men; Hui Liu; Houyu Zhu
2009-01-01
On the basis of the results derived from pseudopotential method and ensemble theory,thermal stability of a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field is studied by using analytical method of thermodynamics.The exact analytical expressions of stability conditions at different temperatures are given,and the effects of interactions as well as magnetic field on the stability of the system are discussed.It is shown that there is an upper-limit magnetic field for the stability of the system at low temperatures,and there is an attractive dividing value at high temperatures.If attractive interaction is lower than the critical value,the stability of the system has no request for magnetic field,but if attractive interaction is higher than the dividing value,a lower-limit magnetic field exists for the stability of the system.
Relativistic thermodynamic properties of a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Men Fu-Dian; Liu Hui; Fan Zhao-Lan; Zhu Hou-Yu
2009-01-01
This paper derives the analytical expression of free energy for a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field, by using the methods of quantum statistics as well as considering the relativistic effect. Based on the derived expression, the thermodynamic properties of the system at both high and low temperatures are given and the relativistic effect on the properties of the system is discussed. It shows that, in comparison with a nonrelativistic situation,the relativistic effect changes the influence of temperature on the thermodynamic properties of the system at high temperatures, and changes the influence of particle-number density on them at extremely low temperature. But the relativistic effect does not change the influence of the magnetic field and inter-particle interactions on the thermodynamic properties of the system at both high and extremely low temperatures.
Zhang, Yanliang; Fang, Maofa; Kang, Guodong; Zhou, Qingping
2015-08-01
We have investigated the dynamic features of the quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation (QMA EUR) in the amplitude damping (AD) channel. The initial state of qubit system and quantum memory system shared between Alice and Bob is assumed as extended by Werner-like (EWL) state. To reduce the amount of entropic uncertainty of Pauli observables in this noisy channel, we presented a reduction scheme by means of weak measurements (WMs) and weak measurement reversals (WMRs) before and after the entangled system subjecting to the noisy channel. It is shown that the prior WM and poster WMR can effectively reduce quantity of entropic uncertainty, but the poster WM operation cannot played a positive role on reduction of quantity of entropic uncertainty. We hope that our proposal could be verified experimentally and might possibly have future applications in quantum information processing.
Q weak: A precision measurement of the proton's weak charge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, Gregory R. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States)
2005-02-01
The Q{sub weak} experiment at Jefferson Lab will measure the parity-violating asymmetry in e-p elastic scattering at very low Q{sup 2} using a longitudinally polarized electron beam and a liquid hydrogen target. The experiment will provide the first measure of the weak charge of the proton, Q{sub w}, to an accuracy of 4%. Q{sub w} is simply related to the weak mixing angle {theta}{sub w}, providing a precision test of the Standard Model. Since the value of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w} is approximately 1/4, the weak charge of the proton Q{sub w}{sup p}=1-4sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w} is suppressed in the Standard Model, making it especially sensitive to the value of the mixing angle and also to possible new physics. The experiment employs an 85% polarized, 180 {mu}A, 1.2 GeV electron beam, a 35 cm liquid hydrogen target; and a toroidal magnet to focus electrons scattered at 8 {+-}2 , corresponding to Q{sup 2}{proportional_to}0.03 (GeV/c){sup 2}. With these kinematics the systematic uncertainties from hadronic processes are strongly suppressed. To obtain the necessary statistics this 2200 hours experiment must run at an event rate of over 6 GHz. This requires current (integrating) mode detection of the scattered electrons, which will be achieved using synthetic quartz Cherenkov detectors. A tracking system will be used in a low-rate counting mode to determine the average Q{sup 2} and the dilution factor of background events. The theoretical context of the experiment and the status of its design are discussed. (orig.)
Weak-Coupling Theory for Low-Frequency Periodically Driven Two-Level Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Ai-Xi; HUANG Ke-Lin; WANG Zhi-Ping
2008-01-01
We generalize the Wu-Yang strong-coupling theory to solve analytically periodically driven two-level systems in the weak-coupling and low-frequency regimes for single- and multi-period periodic driving of continuous-wave-type and pulse-type including ultrashort pulses of a few cycles. We also derive a general formula of the AC Stark shift suitable for such diverse situations.
The instability conditions of a weakly interacting Fermi gas trapped in weak magnetic field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Men Fu-Dian; Liu Hui
2006-01-01
In this paper the analytical expression of free energy expressed by small parameter r of a weakly interacting Fermi Based on the derived expression, the exact instability conditions of a weakly interacting Fermi gas trapped in weak magnetic field at both high and low temperatures are given. From the instability conditions we get the following two results. (1) At the whole low-temperature extent, whether the interactions are repulsive or attractive with (αn + 4εF/3)(n and εF denote the particle-number density and the Fermi energy respectively, c = 4πah2/m, and a is s-wave scattering length) positive, there is a lower-limit magnetic field of instability; in addition, there is an upper-limit magnetic field for the system of attractive interactions with (αn + 4eF/3) negative. (2) At the whole high-temperature extent, the system with repulsive interactions is always stable, but for the system with attractive interactions, the greater the scattering length of attractive interactions |a| is, the stronger the magnetic field is and the larger the particle-number density is,the bigger the possibility of instability in the system will be.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SONG Guangshi
2004-01-01
Supplementary annotations on special forms 1to 4, discussion on the general characteristics of K(t) and K(t, t'), and analyses on two noticeable limits are presented in this part. It is demonstrated that strong and weak parabolic transforms can be employed to change the standard form of a multi-variable indeterminate form into xmK type, hence to derive the standard formulae of the limit and the differential.
Existence and regularity of weak solutions to a model for coarsening in molecular beam epitaxy
Zhang, Jun
2011-01-01
Taking into account the occurrence of a zero of the surface diffusion current and the requirement of the Ehrlich-Schwoebel effect, Siegert et al \\cite{Siegert94} formulate a model of Langevin type that describes the growth of pyramidlike structures on a surface under conditions of molecular beam epitaxy, and that the slope of these pyramids is selected by the crystalline symmetries of the growing film. In this article, the existence and uniqueness of weak solution to an initial boundary value problem for this model is proved, in the case that the noise is neglected. The regularity of the weak solution to models, with/without slope selection, is also investigated.
Composite Weak Vector Bosons in a Left-Right Symmetric Preon Model
Sekiguchi, M.; Ishida, S.; Wada, H.
1996-09-01
We take the viewpoint that the standard model is a low energy effective theory among composite quarks, leptons and weak bosons in a left-right (LR) symmetric preon model with a hypercolor SU(N)HC gauge interaction. Starting from NJL-type interactions with global SU(2)L × SU(2)R symmetry, we construct the composite weak vector bosons from a pair of spinor preons and derive their effective interactions with quarks and leptons, which are essentially identical, at the tree-diagram level, to those in the LR symmetric gauge model. Through the process of this approach, some physical aspects of the LR gauge model are clarified.
Weak solutions for a non-Newtonian diffuse interface model with different densities
Abels, Helmut; Breit, Dominic
2016-11-01
We consider weak solutions for a diffuse interface model of two non-Newtonian viscous, incompressible fluids of power-law type in the case of different densities in a bounded, sufficiently smooth domain. This leads to a coupled system of a nonhomogenouos generalized Navier-Stokes system and a Cahn-Hilliard equation. For the Cahn-Hilliard part a smooth free energy density and a constant, positive mobility is assumed. Using the {{L}∞} -truncation method we prove existence of weak solutions for a power-law exponent p>\\frac{2d+2}{d+2} , d = 2, 3.
Weak normality of families of meromorphic mappings and bubbling in higher dimensions
Ivashkovich, S
2011-01-01
We recall several natural notions of convergence of meromorphic mappings between general complex manifolds and give a precise analytic description of them in the case when the target manifold is projective. We also prove the Bloch-Montel type normality criterion for the so called weak convergence. Furthermore we determine the structure of the exceptional components of the limit of a weakly converging sequence - they turn out to be rationally connected. An application to the Fatou sets of meromorphic self-maps of compact complex surfaces is given.
The minimal habitat size for spreading in a weak competition system with two free boundaries
Wu, Chang-Hong
2015-08-01
In this paper, we focus on the dynamics for a Lotka-Volterra type weak competition system with two free boundaries, where free boundaries which may intersect each other as time evolves are used to describe the spreading of two competing species, respectively. In the weak competition case, the dynamics of this model can be classified into four cases, which forms a spreading-vanishing quartering. The notion of the minimal habitat size for spreading is introduced to determine if species can always spread. Some sufficient conditions for spreading and vanishing are established. Also, when spreading occurs, some rough estimates for spreading speed and the long-time behavior of solutions are established.
New Turaev braided group categories and weak (co)quasi-Turaev group coalgebras
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Xiaohui, E-mail: zxhhhhh@gmail.com; Wang, Shuanhong, E-mail: shuanhwang2002@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Southeast University, Jiangsu, Nanjing 210096 (China)
2014-11-15
In order to construct a class of new braided crossed G-categories with nontrivial associativity and unit constraints, we study the G-graded monoidal category over a family of algebras (H{sub α}){sub α∈G} and introduce the notion of a weak (co)quasi-Turaev G-(co)algebra. Then we prove that the category of (co)representations of (co)quasitriangular weak (co)quasi-Turaev π-(co)algebras is exactly a braided crossed G-category. In fact, this (co)quasitriangular structure provides a solution to a generalized quantum Yang-Baxter type equation.
Photoinitiated reactions in weakly bonded complexes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wittig, C.
1993-05-01
This paper discusses photoinitiated reactions in weakly bonded binary complexes in which the constituents are only mildly perturbed by the intermolecular bond. Such complexes, with their large zero point excursions, set the stage for events that occur following electronic excitation of one of the constituents. This can take several forms, but in all cases, entrance channel specificity is imposed by the character of the complex as well as the nature of the photoinitiation process. This has enabled us to examine aspects of bimolecular processes: steric effects, chemical branching ratios, and inelastic scattering. Furthermore, monitoring reactions directly in the time domain can reveal mechanisms that cannot be inferred from measurements of nascent product excitations. Consequently, we examined several systems that had been studied previously by our group with product state resolution. With CO{sub 2}/HI, in which reaction occurs via a HOCO intermediate, the rates agree with RRKM predictions. With N{sub 2}O/HI, the gas phase single collision reaction yielding OH + N{sub 2} has been shown to proceed mainly via an HNNO intermediate that undergoes a 1,3-hydrogen shift to the OH + N{sub 2} channel. With complexes, ab initio calculations and high resolution spectroscopic studies of analogous systems suggest that the hydrogen, while highly delocalized, prefers the oxygen to the nitrogen. We observe that OH is produced with a fast risetime (< 250 fs) which can be attributed to either direct oxygen-side attack or rapid HNNO decomposition and/or a termolecular contribution involving the nearby iodine.
Whistler Waves Associated with Weak Interplanetary Shocks
Velez, J. C. Ramirez; Blanco-Cano, X.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Kajdic, P.; Jian,, L. K.; Luhmann, J. G.
2012-01-01
We analyze the properties of 98 weak interplanetary shocks measured by the dual STEREO spacecraft over approximately 3 years during the past solar minimum. We study the occurrence of whistler waves associated with these shocks, which on average are high beta shocks (0.2 whistler waves can extend up to 100,000 km in the upstream region but in most cases (88%) are contained in a distance within 30,000 km from the shock. This corresponds to a larger region with upstream whistlers associated with IP shocks than previously reported in the literature. The maximum amplitudes of the waves are observed next to the shock interface, and they decrease as the distance to the shock increases. In most cases the wave propagation direction becomes more aligned with the magnetic field as the distance to the shock increases. These two facts suggest that most of the waves in the upstream region are Landau damping as they move away from the shock. From the analysis we also conclude that it is likely that the generation mechanism of the upstream whistler waves is taking place at the shock interface. In the downstream region, the waves are irregularly polarized, and the fluctuations are very compressive; that is, the compressive component of the wave clearly dominates over the transverse one. The majority of waves in the downstream region (95%) propagate at oblique angles with respect to the ambient magnetic field (>60 deg.). The wave propagation with respect to the shock-normal direction has no preferred direction and varies similarly to the upstream case. It is possible that downstream fluctuations are generated by ion relaxation as suggested in previous hybrid simulation shocks.
Weakly nonlinear simulation of planar stratified flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
King, Michael R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); McCready, Mark J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)
2000-01-01
The interfacial behavior of two-fluid, planar flows is studied by numerical integration of weakly-nonlinear amplitude equations derived via eigenfunction expansion of the governing equations. This study extends the range of classic Stuart-Landau theories by the inclusion of a spectrum of modes allowing all possible quadratic and cubic interactions. Results are obtained for four cases where linear and Stuart-Landau theories do not give a complete description; gas-liquid and oil-water pressure driven flow, matched-density liquid-liquid Couette flow, and the region of gas-liquid flow near resonance that switches from supercritical to subcritical. It is found that integration of amplitude equations gives better qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiments than Stuart-Landau theory. Further, the distinctively different behaviors of these systems can be understood in terms of the spectrum of nonlinear coefficients. In gas-liquid channel flow a low wave number wave is destabilized through quadratic interaction with the mean flow mode. For liquid-liquid Poiseuille flow, a low wave number wave is destabilized through cubic interactions with higher modes. For depth and viscosity ratios where liquid-liquid Couette flow is unstable to long waves and for which the growth rates are not too large, simulation results predict that the waves grow to a statistically steady state where there is no preferred wave number. Stabilization is provided by an apparently self-similar cascade of energy to higher modes that are linearly stable, explaining why no visible waves occur in experiments done in this region. While Stuart-Landau theory provides no prediction of wave amplitude above criticality for subcritical cases, simulations show that wave saturation at small amplitude is possible and suggests that subcritical predictions may not mean that steady waves do not exist. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.
Weak lensing galaxy cluster field reconstruction
Jullo, E.; Pires, S.; Jauzac, M.; Kneib, J.-P.
2014-02-01
In this paper, we compare three methods to reconstruct galaxy cluster density fields with weak lensing data. The first method called FLens integrates an inpainting concept to invert the shear field with possible gaps, and a multi-scale entropy denoising procedure to remove the noise contained in the final reconstruction, that arises mostly from the random intrinsic shape of the galaxies. The second and third methods are based on a model of the density field made of a multi-scale grid of radial basis functions. In one case, the model parameters are computed with a linear inversion involving a singular value decomposition (SVD). In the other case, the model parameters are estimated using a Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov Chain optimization implemented in the lensing software LENSTOOL. Methods are compared on simulated data with varying galaxy density fields. We pay particular attention to the errors estimated with resampling. We find the multi-scale grid model optimized with Monte Carlo Markov Chain to provide the best results, but at high computational cost, especially when considering resampling. The SVD method is much faster but yields noisy maps, although this can be mitigated with resampling. The FLens method is a good compromise with fast computation, high signal-to-noise ratio reconstruction, but lower resolution maps. All three methods are applied to the MACS J0717+3745 galaxy cluster field, and reveal the filamentary structure discovered in Jauzac et al. We conclude that sensitive priors can help to get high signal-to-noise ratio, and unbiased reconstructions.
Learning Weak Reductions to Sparse Sets
Buhrman, H.; Fortnow, L.; Hitchcock, J.M.; Loff, B.
2012-01-01
We study the consequences of NP having non-uniform polynomial size circuits of various types. We continue the work of Agrawal and Arvind~\\cite{AA:96} who study the consequences of $\\SAT$ being many-one reducible to functions computable by non-uniform circuits consisting of a single weighted threshol
Surface Fluxes under Weak Wind Conditions
2005-08-31
0188 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 1 2. REPORT DATE 3REOTTYPE AND DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5 i 4 . ’FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) OMo .7...develop at the 10-km location (Figure 3) without any SST change. This type of event did not occur with this strength in the other records. In the
Magnus force and the inertial properties of magnetic vortices in weak ferromagnets
Zvezdin, A. K.; Zvezdin, K. A.
2010-08-01
The Magnus force (gyroscopic force) acting on magnetic vortices (Bloch lines) within domain boundaries in weak ferromagnets is discussed. A general formula is derived for the Magnus force in weak ferromagnets. The Magnus force is found to be nonzero for most types of domain boundaries and is determined by the average sublattice magnetization and the constants for the Dzyaloshinsky interaction and the exchange interaction between sublattices. Generalized expressions are obtained for the effective Lagrange and Rayleigh functions in weak ferromagnets taking their vortex structure into account. The question of the vortex mass, which has been found to be on the order of m*˜10-14g/cm in YFeO3, is discussed. The dynamic flexure of domain boundaries when moving vortices are present is analyzed. A formula is derived for the magnetic field dependence of the velocity of a vortex in a motionless domain boundary.
Time Slice Analysis Method Based on OTCA Used in fMRI Weak Signal Function Extraction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LUO Sen-lin; LI Li; ZHANG Xin-li; ZHANG Tie-mei
2007-01-01
The original temporal clustering analysis (OTCA) is an effective technique for obtaining brain activation maps when the timing and location of the activation are completely unknown, but its deficiency of sensitivity is exposed in processing brain activation signal which is relatively weak. The time slice analysis method based on OTCA is proposed considering the weakness of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal of the rat model. By dividing the stimulation period into several time slices and analyzing each slice to detect the activated pixels respectively after the background removal, the sensitivity is significantly improved. The inhibitory response in the hypothalamus after glucose loading is detected successfully with this method in the experiment on rat. Combined with the OTCA method, the time slice analysis method based on OTCA is effective on detecting when, where and which type of response will happen after stimulation, even if the fMRI signal is weak.
Weak interference in the high-signal regime.
Torres, Juan P; Puentes, Graciana; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Salazar-Serrano, Luis Jose
2012-08-13
Weak amplification is a signal enhancement technique which is used to measure tiny changes that otherwise cannot be determined because of technical limitations. It is based on: a) the existence of a weak interaction which couples a property of a system (the system) with a separate degree of freedom (the pointer), and b) the measurement of an anomalously large mean value of the pointer state (weak mean value), after appropriate pre-and post-selection of the state of the system. Unfortunately, the weak amplification process is generally accompanied by severe losses of the detected signal, which limits its applicability. However, we will show here that since weak amplification is essentially the result of an interference phenomena, it should be possible to use the degree of interference (weak interference) to get relevant information about the physical system under study in a more general scenario, where the signal is not severely depleted (high-signal regime).
Weak Measurements Beyond the Aharonov-Albert-Vaidman Formalism
Wu, Shengjun
2010-01-01
High-precision experiments via weak measurements require pre-selected and post-selected states (PPS) that are nearly orthogonal, the linear dependence of the measurement outcomes on the weak values quickly fails when the PPS become more and more orthogonal, the phenomena in this regime cannot be explained by the previous weak measurement formalism. In this paper we extend the idea of weak measurements to the most general case, provide a complete treatment and give results for both the regime when the PPS are almost orthogonal and the regime when they are exactly orthogonal. We surprisingly find that for a fixed interaction strength, there may exist a maximum signal amplification and a corresponding optimum overlap of PPS to achieve it. We also find interesting quantities, the orthogonal weak values, which play the role of weak values for the case when the PPS are exactly orthogonal.
Weak gravitational lensing with the Square Kilometre Array
Brown, M L; Camera, S; Harrison, I; Joachimi, B; Metcalf, R B; Pourtsidou, A; Takahashi, K; Zuntz, J A; Abdalla, F B; Bridle, S; Jarvis, M; Kitching, T D; Miller, L; Patel, P
2015-01-01
We investigate the capabilities of various stages of the SKA to perform world-leading weak gravitational lensing surveys. We outline a way forward to develop the tools needed for pursuing weak lensing in the radio band. We identify the key analysis challenges and the key pathfinder experiments that will allow us to address them in the run up to the SKA. We identify and summarize the unique and potentially very powerful aspects of radio weak lensing surveys, facilitated by the SKA, that can solve major challenges in the field of weak lensing. These include the use of polarization and rotational velocity information to control intrinsic alignments, and the new area of weak lensing using intensity mapping experiments. We show how the SKA lensing surveys will both complement and enhance corresponding efforts in the optical wavebands through cross-correlation techniques and by way of extending the reach of weak lensing to high redshift.
Proximal Limb Weakness Reverting After CSF Diversion In Intracranial Hypertension
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sinha S
2005-01-01
Full Text Available We report about two young girls who developed progressive visual failure secondary to increased intracranial pressure and had significant proximal muscle weakness of limbs. Patients with elevated intracranial pressure (ICP may present with "false localizing signs", besides having headache, vomiting and papilledema. Radicular pain as a manifestation of raised ICP is rare and motor weakness attributable to polyradiculopathy is exceptional. Two patients with increased intracranial pressure without lateralizing signs′ had singnificant muscle weakness. Clinical evaluation and laboratory tests did not disclose any other cause for weakness. Following theco-peritoneal shunt, in both patients, there was variable recovery of vision but the proximal weakness and symptoms of elevated ICP improved rapidly. Recognition of this uncommon manifestation of raised ICP may obviate the need for unnecessary investigation and reduce morbidity due to weakness by CSF diversion procedure.
Weak value amplification is suboptimal for estimation and detection.
Ferrie, Christopher; Combes, Joshua
2014-01-31
We show by using statistically rigorous arguments that the technique of weak value amplification does not perform better than standard statistical techniques for the tasks of single parameter estimation and signal detection. Specifically, we prove that postselection, a necessary ingredient for weak value amplification, decreases estimation accuracy and, moreover, arranging for anomalously large weak values is a suboptimal strategy. In doing so, we explicitly provide the optimal estimator, which in turn allows us to identify the optimal experimental arrangement to be the one in which all outcomes have equal weak values (all as small as possible) and the initial state of the meter is the maximal eigenvalue of the square of the system observable. Finally, we give precise quantitative conditions for when weak measurement (measurements without postselection or anomalously large weak values) can mitigate the effect of uncharacterized technical noise in estimation.
Information flow between weakly interacting lattices of coupled maps
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dobyns, York [PEAR, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-5263 (United States); Atmanspacher, Harald [Institut fuer Grenzgebiete der Psychologie und Psychohygiene, Wilhelmstr. 3a, 79098 Freiburg (Germany)]. E-mail: haa@igpp.de
2006-05-15
Weakly interacting lattices of coupled maps can be modeled as ordinary coupled map lattices separated from each other by boundary regions with small coupling parameters. We demonstrate that such weakly interacting lattices can nevertheless have unexpected and striking effects on each other. Under specific conditions, particular stability properties of the lattices are significantly influenced by their weak mutual interaction. This observation is tantamount to an efficacious information flow across the boundary.
Weak Orlicz space and its applications to the martingale theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
In this paper,the weak Orlicz space wL Φ is introduced and its applications to the martingale theory are discussed.In particular,a series of martingale inequalities including the maximal function inequality in weak Orlicz spaces are established;the relationships between these spaces are investigated.Moreover,the boundedness of several sublinear operators from one weak Orlicz space to another is proved;their vector-valued analogues are also considered.
Capsular Weakness around Breast Implant: A Non-Recognized Complication
2015-01-01
Capsular contraction is a frequent complication following breast augmentation. On the other hand, capsular weakness, a not widely recognized complication, may occur around the implant. A weak capsule allows the migration of the prosthesis to the lateral region of the thoracic region or inferiorly, towards the abdomen, due to gravitational forces. The cause of capsular weakness remains unresolved. Implant malposition, with lateral or downward displacement, breast asymmetry, improper contour, w...
Two-Dimensional Weak Pseudomanifolds on Eight Vertices
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Basudeb Datta; Nandini Nilakantan
2002-05-01
We explicitly determine all the two-dimensional weak pseudomanifolds on 8 vertices. We prove that there are (up to isomorphism) exactly 95 such weak pseudomanifolds, 44 of which are combinatorial 2-manifolds. These 95 weak pseudomanifolds triangulate 16 topological spaces. As a consequence, we prove that there are exactly three 8-vertex two-dimensional orientable pseudomanifolds which allow degree three maps to the 4-vertex 2-sphere.
ON VERY WEAK SOLUTIONS OF A-HARMONIC EQUATION WITH VERY WEAK BOUNDARY VALUES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
高红亚; 叶玉全; 谢素英
2002-01-01
In this paper,the following result is given by using Hodge decomposition:There exists r0 = T0(n, p, a, b),such that if u ∈ W1,rloc(Ω) is a very weak solution of (1.1),with max{1,p - 1} ＜ r ＜ p and u ∈ W1,ro(Ω; Ω\\E), where E C Ω is a closed set and small in an appropriate capacity sense, then u = 0, a.e. in Ω provided that r0 ＜ r ＜ p.
Nonperturbative theory of weak pre- and post-selected measurements
Kofman, Abraham G; Nori, Franco
2011-01-01
This paper starts with a review of the topic of strong and weak pre- and post-selected (PPS) measurements, as well as weak values, and afterwards presents original work. In particular, we develop a nonperturbative theory of weak PPS measurements of an arbitrary system with an arbitrary meter, for arbitrary initial states of the system and the meter. New and simple analytical formulas are obtained for the average and the distribution of the meter pointer variable. These formulas hold to all orders in the weak value. In the case of a mixed preselected state, in addition to the standard weak value, an associated weak value is required to describe weak PPS measurements. In the linear regime, the theory provides the generalized Aharonov-Albert-Vaidman formula. Moreover, we reveal two new regimes of weak PPS measurements: the strongly-nonlinear regime and the inverted region (the regime with a very large weak value), where the system-dependent contribution to the pointer deflection decreases with increasing the mea...
Ternary Weakly Amenable C*-algebras and JB*-triples
Ho, Tony; Russo, Bernard
2012-01-01
A well known result of Haagerup from 1983 states that every C*-algebra A is weakly amenable, that is, every (associative) derivation from A into its dual is inner. A Banach algebra B is said to be ternary weakly amenable if every continuous Jordan triple derivation from B into its dual is inner. We show that commutative C*-algebras are ternary weakly amenable, but that B(H) and K(H) are not, unless H is finite dimensional. More generally, we inaugurate the study of weak amenability for Jordan Banach triples, focussing on commutative JB*-triples and some Cartan factors.
Experiment Investigating the Connection between Weak Values and Contextuality.
Piacentini, F; Avella, A; Levi, M P; Lussana, R; Villa, F; Tosi, A; Zappa, F; Gramegna, M; Brida, G; Degiovanni, I P; Genovese, M
2016-05-06
Weak value measurements have recently given rise to a great amount of interest in both the possibility of measurement amplification and the chance for further quantum mechanics foundations investigation. In particular, a question emerged about weak values being proof of the incompatibility between quantum mechanics and noncontextual hidden variables theories (NCHVTs). A test to provide a conclusive answer to this question was given by Pusey [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 200401 (2014)], where a theorem was derived showing the NCHVT incompatibility with the observation of anomalous weak values under specific conditions. In this Letter we realize this proposal, clearly pointing out the connection between weak values and the contextual nature of quantum mechanics.
Weak* sequential closures in Banach space theory and their applications
Ostrovskii, M. I.
2002-01-01
Let X be a Banach space. Given a subset A of the dual space X* denote by $A_{(1)}$ the weak* sequential closure of A, i.e., the set of all limits of weak*-convergent sequences in A. The study of weak* sequential closures of linear subspaces of the duals of separable Banach spaces was initiated by S.Banach. The first results of this study were presented in the appendix to his book "Theorie des operations lineaires" (1932). It is natural to suppose that the reason for studying weak* sequential ...
On Modules Whose Singular Subgenerated Modules Are Weakly Injective
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
S. Dhompongsa; J. Sanwong; S.Plubtieng; H.Tansee
2001-01-01
Rings over which every singular right module is injective (briefly,right SI-rings) were introduced and investigated by Goodearl. Weakly injective modules, as a generalization of injective modules, were introduced by Jain and modules are weakly injective, which we call SwI-rings. This concept is extended to SwI-modules, i.e., modules whose singular subgenerated modules are weakly injective. Several characterizations and properties of SwI-rings and SwI-modules are obtained which generalize some earlier known results on SI-rings and weakly semisimple rings.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rozo, Eduardo; /U. Chicago /Chicago U., KICP; Wu, Hao-Yi; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Schmidt, Fabian; /Caltech
2011-11-04
When extracting the weak lensing shear signal, one may employ either locally normalized or globally normalized shear estimators. The former is the standard approach when estimating cluster masses, while the latter is the more common method among peak finding efforts. While both approaches have identical signal-to-noise in the weak lensing limit, it is possible that higher order corrections or systematic considerations make one estimator preferable over the other. In this paper, we consider the efficacy of both estimators within the context of stacked weak lensing mass estimation in the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We find that the two estimators have nearly identical statistical precision, even after including higher order corrections, but that these corrections must be incorporated into the analysis to avoid observationally relevant biases in the recovered masses. We also demonstrate that finite bin-width effects may be significant if not properly accounted for, and that the two estimators exhibit different systematics, particularly with respect to contamination of the source catalog by foreground galaxies. Thus, the two estimators may be employed as a systematic cross-check of each other. Stacked weak lensing in the DES should allow for the mean mass of galaxy clusters to be calibrated to {approx}2% precision (statistical only), which can improve the figure of merit of the DES cluster abundance experiment by a factor of {approx}3 relative to the self-calibration expectation. A companion paper investigates how the two types of estimators considered here impact weak lensing peak finding efforts.
Development of a multivariate empirical model for predicting weak rock mass modulus
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kallu Raj R.; Keffeler Evan R.; Watters Robert J.; Agharazi Alireza
2015-01-01
Estimating weak rock mass modulus has historically proven difficult although this mechanical property is an important input to many types of geotechnical analyses. An empirical database of weak rock mass modulus with associated detailed geotechnical parameters was assembled from plate loading tests per-formed at underground mines in Nevada, the Bakhtiary Dam project, and Portugues Dam project. The database was used to assess the accuracy of published single-variate models and to develop a multivari-ate model for predicting in-situ weak rock mass modulus when limited geotechnical data are available. Only two of the published models were adequate for predicting modulus of weak rock masses over lim-ited ranges of alteration intensities, and none of the models provided good estimates of modulus over a range of geotechnical properties. In light of this shortcoming, a multivariate model was developed from the weak rock mass modulus dataset, and the new model is exponential in form and has the following independent variables:(1) average block size or joint spacing, (2) field estimated rock strength, (3) dis-continuity roughness, and (4) discontinuity infilling hardness. The multivariate model provided better estimates of modulus for both hard-blocky rock masses and intensely-altered rock masses.
Phenomena in Coupled Superconducting Weak Links.
Neumann, Lawrence George
Interactions between two independently biasable coupled superconducting microbridges were studied. Some bridges were fabricated within 2 (mu)m of each other. Quasiparticles from one bridge affect the other. In a second type of sample, the microbridges were separated by 10 (mu)m and coupled via a resistive shunt. The interaction results from the current flowing through the shunt. Similar effects are seen in both types of samples. In opposed biased bridges, the effective critical current is decreased because of the interaction. For series biased bridges, the effective critical current of one bridge is decreased or increased, depending on the voltage across the other bridge. These interactions lead to voltage steps in the I-V curves where, for opposed biased bridges, both voltages increase; for series bias, one voltage increases, the other decreases. Experimental results are in reasonable agreement with a second-order perturbation calculation and with an analog simulation. Voltage locking is found for both biasing configurations in both types of samples. Locking can occur simultaneously with a voltage step, resulting in nascent voltage locking which can also occur in conjunction with hysteresis. The effect of a voltage in the pad between the two proximity coupled bridges is to vary the voltage at which locking occurs, which in turn alters the shape of the locking curve. Locking range is calculated in two models for comparison with the two types of samples. The first explicitly considers the time delay for propagation of the charge -imbalance wave from one bridge to the other. The second model considers the current flowing in the resistive/inductive coupling shunt. A deviation of the critical current of planar microbridges from a linear temperature dependence can be explained as an effective length effect. Variable thickness bridges show a linear temperature dependence except very near T(,c), where fluctuations are important. The critical current of the one
Clamping of ferroelectric and antiferromagnetic order parameters of YMnO{sub 3}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hanamura, Eiichi [Chitose Institute of Science and Technology, 758-65 Bibi, Chitose, Hokkaido (Japan); Hagita, Katsumi [Japan Science and Technology Corporation (CREST), 758-65 Bibi, Chitose, Hokkaido (Japan); Tanabe, Yukito [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)
2003-01-29
It was observed that a ferroelectric domain boundary (DB) is always accompanied by an antiferromagnetic DB in hexagonal YMnO{sub 3}, by means of interference effects of the second-harmonic signal. The clamping of these two order parameters at the ferroelectric DB is shown theoretically to originate from Dzyaloshinski-Moriya interaction. This interaction favouring a right angle between the neighbouring spins is found to be operative within the DB and to reverse the direction of the spins across the ferroelectric DB. (letter to the editor)
Takayama, Tomohiro; Matsumoto, Akiyo; Jackeli, George; Takagi, Hidenori
2016-12-01
We report the analysis of magnetic susceptibility χ (T ) of Sr2IrO4 single crystal in the paramagnetic phase. We formulate the theoretical susceptibility based on isotropic Heisenberg antiferromagnetism incorporating the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction exactly, and include the interlayer couplings in a mean-field approximation. χ (T ) above TN was found to be well described by the model, indicating the predominant Heisenberg exchange consistent with the microscopic theory. The analysis points to a competition of nearest and next-nearest-neighbor interlayer couplings, which results in the up-up-down-down configuration of the in-plane canting moments identified by the diffraction experiments.
Localized spin excitations in an antiferromagnetic spin system with D-M interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evangeline Rebecca, T.; Latha, M. M., E-mail: lathaisaac@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Women' s Christian College, Nagercoil 629 001 (India)
2016-06-15
The existence of localized spin excitations and spin deviations along the site in a one-dimensional antiferromagnet with Dzyaloshinski-Moriya (D-M) interaction has been studied using quasiclassical approximation. By introducing the Holstein-Primakoff bosonic representation of spin operators, the coherent state ansatz, and the time dependent variational principle, a discrete set of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations governing the dynamics is derived. Employing the multiple-scale method, one, two and three solitary wave solutions are constructed and depicted graphically.
V819 Tau: A Rare Weak-Lined T Tauri Star with a Weak Infrared Excess
Furlan, E; Sargent, B A; Manoj, P; Kim, K H; Watson, Dan M
2009-01-01
We use Spitzer data to infer that the small infrared excess of V819 Tau, a weak-lined T Tauri star in Taurus, is real and not attributable to a "companion" 10 arcsec to the south. We do not confirm the mid-infrared excess in HBC 427 and V410 X-ray 3, which are also non-accreting T Tauri stars in the same region; instead, for the former object, the excess arises from a red companion 9 arcsec to the east. A single-temperature blackbody fit to the continuum excess of V819 Tau implies a dust temperature of 143 K; however, a better fit is achieved when the weak 10 and 20 micron silicate emission features are also included. We infer a disk of sub-micron silicate grains between about 1 AU and several 100 AU with a constant surface density distribution. The mid-infrared excess of V819 Tau can be successfully modeled with dust composed mostly of small amorphous olivine grains at a temperature of 85 K, and most of the excess emission is optically thin. The disk could still be primordial, but gas-poor and therefore shor...
Systematic errors in weak lensing: application to SDSS galaxy-galaxy weak lensing
Mandelbaum, R; Seljak, U; Guzik, J; Padmanabhan, N; Blake, C; Blanton, M R; Lupton, R; Brinkmann, J; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Hirata, Christopher M.; Seljak, Uros; Guzik, Jacek; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Blake, Cullen; Blanton, Michael R.; Lupton, Robert; Brinkmann, Jonathan
2005-01-01
Weak lensing is emerging as a powerful observational tool to constrain cosmological models, but is at present limited by an incomplete understanding of many sources of systematic error. Many of these errors are multiplicative and depend on the population of background galaxies. We show how the commonly cited geometric test, which is rather insensitive to cosmology, can be used as a ratio test of systematics in the lensing signal at the 1 per cent level. We apply this test to the galaxy-galaxy lensing analysis of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), which at present is the sample with the highest weak lensing signal to noise and has the additional advantage of spectroscopic redshifts for lenses. This allows one to perform meaningful geometric tests of systematics for different subsamples of galaxies at different mean redshifts, such as brighter galaxies, fainter galaxies and high-redshift luminous red galaxies, both with and without photometric redshift estimates. We use overlapping objects between SDSS and th...
Wafer weak point detection based on aerial images or WLCD
Ning, Guoxiang; Philipp, Peter; Litt, Lloyd C.; Ackmann, Paul; Crell, Christian; Chen, Norman
2015-10-01
Aerial image measurement is a key technique for model based optical proximity correction (OPC) verification. Actual aerial images obtained by AIMS (aerial image measurement system) or WLCD (wafer level critical dimension) can detect printed wafer weak point structures in advance of wafer exposure and defect inspection. Normally, the potential wafer weak points are determined based on optical rule check (ORC) simulation in advance. However, the correlation to real wafer weak points is often not perfect due to the contribution of mask three dimension (M3D) effects, actual mask errors, and scanner lens effects. If the design weak points can accurately be detected in advance, it will reduce the wafer fab cost and improve cycle time. WLCD or AIMS tools are able to measure the aerial images CD and bossung curve through focus window. However, it is difficult to detect the wafer weak point in advance without defining selection criteria. In this study, wafer weak points sensitive to mask mean-to-nominal values are characterized for a process with very high MEEF (normally more than 4). Aerial image CD uses fixed threshold to detect the wafer weak points. By using WLCD through threshold and focus window, the efficiency of wafer weak point detection is also demonstrated. A novel method using contrast range evaluation is shown in the paper. Use of the slope of aerial images for more accurate detection of the wafer weak points using WLCD is also discussed. The contrast range can also be used to detect the wafer weak points in advance. Further, since the mean to nominal of the reticle contributes to the effective contrast range in a high MEEF area this work shows that control of the mask error is critical for high MEEF layers such as poly, active and metal layers. Wafer process based weak points that cannot be detected by wafer lithography CD or WLCD will be discussed.
Weak magnetic fields in central stars of planetary nebulae?
Steffen, M; Todt, H; Schöller, M; Hamann, W -R; Sandin, C; Schönberner, D
2014-01-01
It is not yet clear whether magnetic fields play an essential role in shaping planetary nebulae (PNe), or whether stellar rotation alone and/or a close binary companion can account for the variety of the observed nebular morphologies. In a quest for empirical evidence verifying or disproving the role of magnetic fields in shaping PNe, we follow up on previous attempts to measure the magnetic field in a representative sample of PN central stars. We obtained low-resolution polarimetric spectra with FORS 2 at VLT for a sample of twelve bright central stars of PNe with different morphology, including two round nebulae, seven elliptical nebulae, and three bipolar nebulae. Two targets are Wolf-Rayet type central stars. For the majority of the observed central stars, we do not find any significant evidence for the existence of surface magnetic fields. However, our measurements may indicate the presence of weak mean longitudinal magnetic fields of the order of 100 Gauss in the central star of the young elliptical pla...
Non-commutative solitons and strong-weak duality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blas, Harold [Departamento de Matematica - ICET, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Av. Fernando Correa, s/n, Coxipo, 78060-900, Cuiaba - MT (Brazil)]. E-mail: blas@cpd.ufmt.br; Carrion, Hector L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rojas, Moises [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150 CEP 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil)
2005-03-01
Some properties of the non-commutative versions of the sine-Gordon model (NCSG) and the corresponding massive Thirring theories (NCMT) are studied. Our method relies on the NC extension of integrable models and the master Lagrangian approach to deal with dual theories. The master lagrangians turn out to be the NC versions of the so-called affine Toda model coupled to matter fields (NCATM) associated to the group GL(2), in which the Toda field belongs to certain representations of either U(1)xU(1) or U(1){sub C} corresponding to the Lechtenfeld et al. (NCSG{sub 1}) or Grisaru-Penati (NCSG{sub 2}) proposals for the NC versions of the sine-Gordon model, respectively. Besides, the relevant NCMT{sub 1,2} models are written for two (four) types of Dirac fields corresponding to the Moyal product extension of one (two) copy(ies) of the ordinary massive Thirring model. The NCATM{sub 1,2} models share the same one-soliton (real Toda field sector of model 2) exact solutions, which are found without expansion in the NC parameter {theta} for the corresponding Toda and matter fields describing the strong-weak phases, respectively. The correspondence NCSG{sub 1} {r_reversible} NCMT{sub 1} is promising since it is expected to hold on the quantum level. (author)
Non-commutative solitons and strong-weak duality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blas, H. [Univerdidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica]. E-mail: blas@cpd.ufmt.br; Carrion, H.L. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: mlm@if.ufrj.br; Rojas, M. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: mrojas@cbpf.br
2004-07-01
Some properties of the non-commutative versions of the sine-Gordon model (NCSG) and the corresponding massive Thirring theories (NCMT) are studied. Our method relies on the NC extension of integrable models and the master Lagrangian approach to deal with dual theories. The master Lagrangians turn out to be the NC versions of the so-called affine Toda model coupled to matter fields (NCATM) associated to the group GL(2), in which the Toda field belongs to certain representations of either U(1)xU(1) or U(1){sub C} corresponding to the Lechtenfeld et al. (NCSG{sub 1}) or Grisaru- Penati (NCSG{sub 2}) proposals for the NC versions of the sine-Gordon model, respectively. Besides, the relevant NCMT{sub 1,2} models are written for two (four) types of Dirac fields corresponding to the Moyal product extension of one (two) copy(ies) of the ordinary massive Thirring model. The NCATM{sub 1,2} models share the same one-soliton (real Toda field sector of model 2) exact solutions, which are found without expansion in the NC parameter {theta} for the corresponding Toda and matter fields describing the strong-weak phases, respectively. The correspondence NCSG{sub 1} {r_reversible} NCMT{sub 1} is promising since it is expected to hold on the quantum level (author)
Nonconventional synchronization and energy localization in weakly coupled autogenerators
Kovaleva, Margarita; Pilipchuk, Valery; Manevitch, Leonid
2016-09-01
The present work follows our previous study dealing with a new type of synchronization in a system of two weakly coupled generalized van der Pol-Duffing autogenerators. The essence of the effect revealed is that the synchronized oscillations are not stationary but accompanied by the most intensive energy exchange between the oscillators. The phase shift between the generators remains constant most of the time, except for vanishingly small transitional intervals. The current analysis deals with a generalized model in order to clarify the frequency detuning effect. We found that varying the frequency detuning, nonlinearity, and dissipation parameters can lead to structural changes in phase diagrams of the energy exchange dynamics, with important transitions from the intensive energy exchange to its localization on one of the two oscillators. The main conclusion is that stationary and nonstationary synchronizations associate with nonlinear normal and local modes, respectively. The analysis uses phase plane diagrams, including the concept of limiting phase trajectories, whose role in nonstationary synchronization appears to be similar to the role of nonlinear normal modes in conventional stationary states.
Search for a tensor component in the weak interaction Hamiltonian
Soti, Gergely
The search for physics beyond the standard model can, besides in high-energy experiments such as the ones at the LHC accelerator, also be carried out at lower energies. Measurements of correlation coefficients in neutron and nuclear b decay constitute a reliable and model-independent method for such efforts. The topic of this thesis is the precision measurement of the beta asymmetry parameter A. It was measured in the decay of 67Cu, which proceeds via a pure Gamow-Teller b transition, thus its A parameter is sensitive to possible tensor type currents in the weak interaction. The experiment was performed at the NICOLE setup in ISOLDE (CERN), using the technique of low temperature nuclear orientation. The b particles were observed with custom made planar high purity germanium detectors operating at around 10 K. The beta asymmetry of 68Cu was measured on-line for normalization purposes. Geant4 simulations were used to gain control over systematic effects such as electron scattering on the particle detectors. As...
Application of ultra-weak photon emission measurements in agriculture.
Kato, Kimihiko; Iyozumi, Hiroyuki; Kageyama, Chizuko; Inagaki, Hidehiro; Yamaguchi, Akira; Nukui, Hideki
2014-10-05
Here we report our two applications of ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) measurements in agriculture. One is to find new types of agrochemicals that potentiate plants' defense, so-called "plant activator". We first analyzed the relation between plant defense and Elicitor-Responsive Photon Emission (ERPE) using a combination of rice cells and a chitin elicitor. Pharmacological analyses clarified that ERPE was generated as a part of the chitin elicitor-responsive defense in close relation with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Then we successfully detected the activity of plant activators as the potentiation of ERPE, and developed a new screening system for plant activators based on this principle. Another UPE application is to distinguish herbicide-resistant weeds from susceptible ones by measuring UPE in weeds. In our study, it was revealed that the weed biotypes resistant to sulfonylurea (SU) herbicides, one of the major herbicide groups, showed stronger UPE than susceptible ones after an SU herbicide treatment. By further analysis with a pharmacological and RNAi study, we found that the detoxifying enzyme P450s contributed to the UPE increase in SU herbicide resistant weeds. It is considered that weeds resistant to herbicides other than SU might also be able to be distinguished from susceptible ones by UPE measurement, as long as the herbicides are subject to detoxification by P450s.