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Sample records for dysprosium additions

  1. On polymorphism of dysprosium trichloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Khokhlov, Vladimir A.; Salyulev, Alexander B.; Korzun, Iraida V. [RAS Ural Branch, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry

    2015-07-01

    For the first time, the structure of crystalline DyCl{sub 3} over a wide temperature range from room temperature to melting point was studied by Raman spectroscopy. The phonon modes (cm{sup -1}) of dysprosium trichloride (monoclinic crystal lattice of AlCl{sub 3} type, Z = 4, CN = 6) at room temperature are 257 (A{sub 1g}), 201 (E{sub g}), 112 (E{sub g}), 88 (A{sub 1g}), and 63 (E{sub g}). The monoclinic structure of the crystalline DyCl{sub 3} C{sub 2h}{sup 3} symmetry was found to remain constant over the studied temperature range. No polymorphic transformation in the solid state was detected. Gravimetry, calorimetry, and mass spectrometry have been used in addition to support the conclusions made on the basis of Raman spectroscopic data.

  2. Dysprosium magneto-optical traps

    CERN Document Server

    Youn, Seo Ho; Ray, Ushnish; Lev, Benjamin L

    2010-01-01

    Magneto-optical traps (MOTs) of highly magnetic lanthanides open the door to explorations of novel phases of strongly correlated matter such as lattice supersolids and quantum liquid crystals. We recently reported the first MOTs of the five high abundance isotopes of the most magnetic atom, dysprosium. Described here are details of the experimental technique employed for repumper-free Dy MOTs containing up to half a billion atoms. Extensive characterization of the MOTs' properties---population, temperature, loading, metastable decay dynamics, trap dynamics---is provided.

  3. Resonance ionization spectroscopy in dysprosium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studer, D., E-mail: dstuder@uni-mainz.de; Dyrauf, P.; Naubereit, P.; Heinke, R.; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Institut für Physik (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    We report on resonance ionization spectroscopy (RIS) of high-lying energy levels in dysprosium. We developed efficient excitation schemes and re-determined the first ionization potential (IP) via analysis of Rydberg convergences. For this purpose both two- and three-step excitation ladders were investigated. An overall ionization efficiency of 25(4) % could be demonstrated in the RISIKO mass separator of Mainz University, using a three-step resonance ionization scheme. Moreover, an extensive analysis of the even-parity 6sns- and 6snd-Rydberg-series convergences, measured via two-step excitation was performed. To account for strong perturbations in the observed s-series, the approach of multichannel quantum defect theory (MQDT) was applied. Considering all individual series limits we extracted an IP-value of 47901.76(5) cm{sup −1}, which agrees with the current literature value of 47901.7(6) cm{sup −1}, but is one order of magnitude more precise.

  4. Dysprosium electrodeposition from a hexaalkylguanidinium-based ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Claudia A.; Arkhipova, Maria; Maas, Gerhard; Jacob, Timo

    2016-07-01

    The rare-earth element dysprosium (Dy) is an important additive that increases the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of neodymium magnets and additionally prevents from demagnetizing at high temperatures. Therefore, it is one of the most important elements for high-tech industries and is mainly used in permanent magnetic applications, for example in electric vehicles, industrial motors and direct-drive wind turbines. In an effort to develop a more efficient electrochemical technique for depositing Dy on Nd-magnets in contrast to commonly used costly physical vapor deposition, we investigated the electrochemical behavior of dysprosium(iii) trifluoromethanesulfonate in a custom-made guanidinium-based room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL). We first examined the electrodeposition of Dy on an Au(111) model electrode. The investigation was carried out by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The initial stages of metal deposition were followed by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). CV measurements revealed a large cathodic reduction peak, which corresponds to the growth of monoatomic high islands, based on STM images taken during the initial stages of deposition. XPS identified these deposited islands as dysprosium. A similar reduction peak was also observed on an Nd-Fe-B substrate, and positively identified as deposited Dy using XPS. Finally, we varied the concentration of the Dy precursor, electrolyte flow and temperature during Dy deposition and demonstrated that each of these parameters could be used to increase the thickness of the Dy deposit, suggesting that these parameters could be tuned simultaneously in a temperature-controlled flow cell to enhance the thickness of the Dy layer.The rare-earth element dysprosium (Dy) is an important additive that increases the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of neodymium magnets and additionally prevents from demagnetizing at high temperatures. Therefore, it is one of the most important

  5. The dysprosium-tin phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eremenko, V.N.; Bulanova, M.V.; Martsenjuk, P.S. (I.N. Frantsevich Inst. for Problems of Materials Science, Kiev (Ukraine))

    1992-12-07

    The dysprosium-tin phase diagram was established by means of differential thermal, X-ray and microscopic analyses of 22 alloys. Seven intermetallic compounds were found to exist in the system. Dy[sub 5]Sn[sub 3] melts congruently at 1870 degC, and undergoes a polymorphous transformation at 1823 [+-] 6 degC. The intermetallics Dy[sub 5]Sn[sub 4], Dy[sub 11]Sn[sub 10], DySn, Dy[sub 4]Sn[sub 5], DySn[sub 2], DySn[sub 3] are formed peritectically at 1712 [+-]11, 1605 [+-]12, 1208 [+-]3, 1166 [+-]7, 1138 [+-]3 and 747 [+-]6 degC respectively. DySn[sub 3] exists in a narrow temperature range, in two polymorphous modifications. The transformation [beta]-DySn[sub 3] [yields] [alpha]-DySn[sub 3] occurs at 608 [+-] 12 degC, and at 499 [+-]2 degC [alpha]-DySn[sub 3] decomposes to DySn[sub 2] and the tin-rich melt. The dysprosium-rich eutectic crystallizes at 1204 [+-]10 degC and contains 13 at.% tin. The solid-state solubility of tin in dysprosium is about 3 at.%, and that of dysprosium in tin is negligible.

  6. Towards a new measurement of parity violation in dysprosium

    CERN Document Server

    Leefer, N; Antypas, D; Budker, D

    2014-01-01

    The dysprosium parity violation experiment concluded nearly 17 years ago with an upper limit on weak interaction induced mixing of nearly degenerate, opposite parity states in atomic dysprosium. While that experiment was limited in sensitivity by statistics, a new apparatus constructed in the interim for radio-frequency spectroscopy is expected to provide significant improvements to the statistical sensitivity. Preliminary work from the new PV experiment in dysprosium is presented with a discussion of the current statistical sensitivity and outlook.

  7. Dysprosium Modification of Cobalt Ferrite Ionic Magnetic Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Rong-li; LIU Yong-chao; GENG Quan-rong; ZHAO Wen-tao

    2005-01-01

    Dysprosium composite cobalt ferrite ionic magnetic fluids were prepared by precipitation in the presence of Tri-sodium citrate. Influence of dysprosium modification on magnetic property is studied. The result shows that magnetic response toward exterior magnetic field can be improved by adding Dy3+. Studies also show that the increase of reaction temperature may improve the modification effect of dysprosium. By adding dysprosium ions, the average diameter of the magnetic nanoparticles will be decreased evidently. It is clear that the particles appear as balls, Cobalt ferrite with sizes of 12-15 nm, rare earth composite cobalt ferrite with sizes of 6-8 nm.

  8. Can a dysprosium shortage threaten green energy technologies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenderdaal, S.; Tercero Espinoza, L.; Marschneider-Weidemann, F.; Crijns - Graus, Wina

    2013-01-01

    Dysprosium, one of the various rare earth elements, is currently for more than 99% mined in China. As China is reducing its exports, new mining projects outside of China are needed to sustain supply and meet future demands. Dysprosium is mainly used in permanent magnets to retain the magnet's streng

  9. Phenalenyl-based mononuclear dysprosium complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Lan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The phenalenyl-based dysprosium complexes [Dy(PLN2(HPLNCl(EtOH] (1, [Dy(PLN3(HPLN]·[Dy(PLN3(EtOH]·2EtOH (2 and [Dy(PLN3(H2O2]·H2O (3, HPLN being 9-hydroxy-1H-phenalen-1-one, have been synthesized. All compounds were fully characterized by means of single crystal X-ray analysis, paramagnetic 1H NMR, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, UV–vis spectrophotometry and magnetic measurements. Both static (dc and dynamic (ac magnetic properties of these complexes have been investigated, showing slow relaxation of magnetization, indicative of single molecule magnet (SMM behavior. Attempts to synthesize sublimable phenalenyl-based dysprosium complexes have been made by implementing a synthetic strategy under anhydrous conditions. The sublimed species were characterized and their thermal stability was confirmed. This opens up the possibility to deposit phenalenyl-based lanthanides complexes by sublimation onto surfaces, an important prerequisite for ongoing studies in molecular spintronics.

  10. Anisotropy in the Interaction of Ultracold Dysprosium

    CERN Document Server

    Kotochigova, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    The nature of the interaction between ultracold atoms with a large orbital and spin angular momentum has attracted considerable attention. It was suggested that such interactions can lead to the realization of exotic states of highly correlated matter. Here, we report on a theoretical study of the competing anisotropic dispersion, magnetic dipole-dipole, and electric quadrupole-quadrupole forces between two dysprosium atoms. Each dysprosium atom has an orbital angular momentum L=6 and magnetic moment $\\mu=10\\mu_B$. We show that the dispersion coefficients of the ground state adiabatic potentials lie between 1865 a.u. and 1890 a.u., creating a non-negligible anisotropy with a spread of 25 a.u. and that the electric quadrupole-quadrupole interaction is weak compared to the other interactions. We also find that for interatomic separations $R< 50\\,a_0$ both the anisotropic dispersion and magnetic dipole-dipole potential are larger than the atomic Zeeman splittings for external magnetic fields of order 10 G to ...

  11. Phosphor Dysprosium-Doped Layered Double Hydroxides Exchanged with Different Organic Functional Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ricardo Martínez Vargas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The layers of a Zn/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH were doped with Dy3+ cations. Among some compositions, the Zn2+ : Al3+ : Dy3+ molar ratio equal to 30 : 9 : 1 presented a single crystalline phase. Organic anions with carboxylic, amino, sulfate, or phosphate functional groups were intercalated as single layers between LDH layers as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Photoluminescence spectra of the nitrate intercalated LDH showed a wide emission band with strong intensity in the yellow region (around 574 nm, originated due to symmetry distortion of the octahedral coordination in dysprosium centers. Moreover, a broad red band emission was also detected apparently due to the presence of zinc oxide. The distorted symmetry of the dysprosium coordination environment, also confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, was modified after the intercalation with phenyl phosphonate (PP, aspartate (Asp, adipate (Adip, and serinate (Ser anions; the emission as measured from PL spectra of these LDH was more intense in the blue region (ca. 486 nm, thus indicating an increase in symmetry of dysprosium octahedrons. The red emission band from zinc oxide kept the same intensity after intercalation of dodecyl sulfate (DDS. An additional emission of unknown origin at λ = 767 nm was present in all LDHs.

  12. First search for double $\\beta$ decay of dysprosium

    CERN Document Server

    Belli, P; Cappella, F; Cerulli, R; Danevich, F A; d'Angelo, S; Di Vacri, M L; Incicchitti, A; Laubenstein, M; Nagorny, S S; Nisi, S; Tolmachev, A V; Tretyak, V I; Yavetskiy, R P

    2011-01-01

    A search for double $\\beta$ decay of dysprosium was realized for the first time with the help of an ultra low-background HP Ge $\\gamma$ detector. After 2512 h of data taking with a 322 g sample of dysprosium oxide limits on double beta processes in $^{156}$Dy and $^{158}$Dy have been established on the level of $T_{1/2}\\geq 10^{14}-10^{16}$ yr. Possible resonant double electron captures in $^{156}$Dy and $^{158}$Dy were restricted on a similar level. As a by-product of the experiment we have measured the radioactive contamination of the Dy$_2$O$_3$ sample and set limits on the $\\alpha$ decay of dysprosium isotopes to the excited levels of daughter nuclei as $T_{1/2}\\geq 10^{15} - 10^{17}$ yr.

  13. Exploration of dysprosium: the most critical element for Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Dysprosium (Dy), one of the heavy rare earth elements, is used mainly as an additive for NdFeB permanent magnets which are installed in various modern industrial products such as voice coil motors in computers, factory automation machinery, hybrid and electric vehicles, home electronics, and wind turbine, to improve heat resistance of the magnets. Dy has been produced about 2,000t per year from the ores from ion adsorption type deposits in southern China. However, the produced amount of Dy was significantly reduced in 2011 in China due to reservation of heavy rare earth resources and protection of natural environment, resulting in soaring of Dy price in the world. In order to respond the increasing demand of Dy, unconventional supply sources are inevitably developed, in addition to heavy rare earth enriched ion adsorption type deposits outside China. Heavy rare earth elements including Dy are dominantly hosted in xenotime, fergusonite, zircon, eudialyte, keiviite, kainosite, iimoriite, etc. Concentration of xenotime is found in placer deposits in Malaysia and India, hydrothermal deposits associated with unconformity-type uranium mineralization (Athabasca basin in Canada, Western Australia), iron-oxide fluorite mineralization (South Africa) and Sn-bearing alkaline granite (Brazil). Zircon and fergusontie concentration is found as igneous and hydrothermal products in peralkaline syenite, alkaline granite and pegmatite (e.g., Nechalacho in Canada). Eudialyte concentration is found in some peralkaline syenite bodies in Greenland, Canada, Sweden and Russia. Among these sources, large Dy resources are estimated in the deposits hosted in peralkaline rocks (Nechalacho: 79,000t, Kvanefjeld: 49,000t, Norra Karr: 15,700t, etc.) compared to the present demand of Dy. Thus, Dy will be supplied from the deposits associated with peralkaline and alkaline deposits in future instead of ion adsorption type deposits in southern China.

  14. Neutron resonance parameters of dysprosium isotopes using neutron capture yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S. G.; Kye, Y. U.; Cho, M. H. [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Namkung, W. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, G. N. [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M. W.; Kang, Y. R. [Dongnam Inst. Of Radiological and Medical Science, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Dysprosium is used in the field of nuclear reactor system because it has a very large thermal neutron absorption cross-section. The dysprosium alloyed with special stainless steels is attractive for control in nuclear reactor because of the ability to absorb neutrons readily without swelling or contracting over time and its high melting point. Dysprosium is also one of fission products from the thermal fission of {sup 234}U, {sup 233}U, and {sup 239}Pu. The fission products are accumulated in the reactor core by the burn-up of the nuclear fuel and the poison effect is increased. Therefore, it is required to understand how Dysprosium as both a poison and an absorbing material in the control rod has an effect on the neutron population in a nuclear reactor system over all energy regions. Neutron Capture experiments on Dy isotopes were performed at the electron linear accelerator (LINAC) facility of the Rensselear Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in the neutron energy region from 10 eV to 1 keV. Resonance parameters were extracted by fitting the neutron capture data using the SAMMY multilevel R-matrix Bayesian code.

  15. Long afterglow of trivalent dysprosium doped strontium aluminate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yuan Ming, E-mail: dongshanisland@126.com [School of Mathematics and Physics, Changzhou University, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Ma, Qing-lan [School of Mathematics and Physics, Changzhou University, Jiangsu 213164 (China); School of Electronics and Information, Nantong University, Jiangsu 226019 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Trivalent dysprosium doped strontium aluminate (SrA1{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Dy{sup 3+}) was synthesized via the sol–gel combustion method to realize green afterglow in the absence of Eu{sup 2+} luminescent centers. The morphology, crystal structure, photoluminescence and long afterglow of the SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Dy{sup 3+} were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy, respectively. The bluish-green photoluminescence of SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Dy{sup 3+} consists of a broad emission band centered at about 520 nm and two characteristic emissions of Dy{sup 3+} ions centered at 480 and 575 nm, respectively. The green afterglow of SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Dy{sup 3+} is a broad emission band centered at around 520 nm, and the lifetime extracted from afterglow decay is found to be 53 s. The mechanism on the green afterglow from SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Dy{sup 3+} is discussed in terms of the possible defect levels in the host. - Highlights: • Broad band long-lasting afterglow is observed in SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Dy{sup 3+} phosphors. • Characteristic emissions of Dy{sup 3+} ions are superimposed on the broad PL of phosphors. • Dy{sup 3+} ions can also act as luminescent centers in addition to electron traps. • A mechanism on long afterglow of SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Dy{sup 3+} is proposed without Eu{sup 2+} activator.

  16. Anisotropic magnetic properties of dysprosium iron garnet (DyIG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahoubi, M; Younsi, W; Soltani, M-L [Department of Physics, Badji-Mokhtar University, BP 12 - 23000 Annaba (Algeria); Ouladdiaf, B, E-mail: mlahoubi@gmail.co [Institut Laue Langevin, BP 156 - 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic properties of dysprosium iron garnet (DyIG) have been studied by performing high resolution powder neutron diffraction experiments and high dc fields magnetizations on single crystals. Among all the reflections (hkl) indexed in the nuclear cubic space group (CSG) Ia 3-bar d with h+k+l=2n and k=[000], the superstructure lines (hkl)* forbidden by the symmetry (222)* and (622)* are not observed in the patterns at all temperatures. The pattern at 130 K is well interpreted within the magnetic modes F belonging to the irreducible representation (IR) T{sub 1g} of the CSG and identified to the room temperature ferrimagnetic Neel model. The high magnetic field behavior of the spontaneous collinear magnetic structure (MS) along the easy axis (EA) <111> is isotropic. Below 130 K, the patterns exhibit additional magnetic superstructure lines. They are associated to the appearance of the spontaneous non collinear MS which is described in the subgroup of the CSG, R 3-bar c within the IR A{sub 2g}. A strong magnetization anisotropy (MA) is observed at 1.5 K in the low symmetry phases were the spin reorientation transition (SR) occur at T{sub RS}=14.5 K. The onset of MA is detected below two characteristic temperatures, Ta{sub 1}=125 K and Ta{sub 2}=75 K respectively to the hard axis (HA) <100> and <110>. Symmetry arguments are used in the framework of the theory of representation analysis (RA) applied to the subgroup of R 3-bar c, C2/c within the IR A{sub g}. It seems that this MA results essentially from the difference between the spontaneous non collinear MS and the field induced (FI) configurations. All results are discussed with previous neutrons studies.

  17. Properties of Polydisperse Tin-doped Dysprosium and Indium Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinovskaya Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the complex permittivity, diffuse-reflectance, and characteristics of crystal lattices of tin-doped indium and dysprosium oxides are presented. Using the methods of spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis, it is shown that doping of indium oxide with tin results in a significant increase of the components of the indium oxide complex permittivity and an appearance of the plasma resonance in its diffuse-reflectance spectra. This indicates the appearance of charge carriers with the concentration of more than 1021 cm−3 in the materials. On the other hand, doping of the dysprosium oxide with the same amount of tin has no effect on its optical and electromagnetic properties.

  18. Dysprosium titanate as an absorber material for control rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risovany, V. D.; Varlashova, E. E.; Suslov, D. N.

    2000-09-01

    Disprosium titanate is an attractive control rod material for the thermal neutron reactors. Its main advantages are: insignificant swelling, no out-gassing under neutron irradiation, rather high neutron efficiency, a high melting point (˜1870°C), non-interaction with the cladding at temperatures above 1000°C, simple fabrication and easily reprocessed non-radioactive waste. It can be used in control rods as pellets and powder. The disprosium titanate control rods have worked off in the MIR reactor for 17 years, in VVER-1000 - for 4 years without any operating problems. After post-irradiation examinations this type of control rod having high lifetime was recommended for the VVER and RBMK. The paper presents the examination results of absorber element dummies containing dysprosium titanate, irradiated in the SM reactor to the neutron fluence of 3.4×10 22 cm -2 ( E>0.1 MeV) and, also, the data on structure, thermal-physical properties of dysprosium titanate, efficiency of dysprosium titanate control rods.

  19. Electrochemical behaviour of dysprosium in the eutectic LiCl-KCl at W and Al electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrillejo, Y. [Dpto de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail: ycastril@qa.uva.es; Bermejo, M.R. [Dpto de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Barrado, A.I. [Dpto de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Pardo, R. [Dpto de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Barrado, E. [Dpto de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Martinez, A.M. [Department of Materials Technology, Sem Saelands vei 6, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2005-03-15

    The electrochemical behaviour of DyCl{sub 3} was studied in the eutectic LiCl-KCl at different temperatures. The cathodic reaction can be written:Dy(III)+3e-bar Dy(0)which can be divided in two very close cathodic steps:Dy(III)+1e-bar Dy(II)andDy(II)+2e-bar Dy(0)Transient electrochemical techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry, and chronoamperometry were used in order to study the reaction mechanism and the transport parameters of electroactive species at a tungsten electrode. The results showed that in the eutectic LiCl-KCl, electrocrystallization of dysprosium seems to be the controlling electrochemical step. Chronoamperometric studies indicated instantaneous nucleation of dysprosium with three dimensional growth of the nuclei whatever the applied overpotential.Mass transport towards the electrode is a simple diffusion process, and the diffusion coefficient of the electroactive species, i.e. Dy(III), has been calculated. The validity of the Arrhenius law was also verified by plotting the variation of the logarithm of the diffusion coefficient versus 1/T.In addition, the electrode reactions of the LiCl-KCl-DyCl{sub 3} solutions at an Al wire were also investigated by cyclic voltammetry and open circuit chronopotentiometry. The redox potential of the Dy(III)/Dy couple at the Al electrode was observed at more positive potentials values than those at the inert electrode. This potential shift was thermodynamically analyzed by a lowering of activity of Dy in the metal phase due to the formation of intermetallic compounds.

  20. Dysprosium detector for neutron dosimetry in external beam radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostinelli, A.; Berlusconi, C.; Conti, V.; Duchini, M.; Gelosa, S.; Guallini, F.; Vallazza, E.; Prest, M.

    2014-09-01

    Radiotherapy treatments with high-energy (>8 MeV) photon beams are a standard procedure in clinical practice, given the skin and near-target volumes sparing effect, the accurate penetration and the uniform spatial dose distribution. On the other hand, despite these advantages, neutrons may be produced via the photo-nuclear (γ,n) reactions of the high-energy photons with the high-Z materials in the accelerator head, in the treatment room and in the patient, resulting in an unwanted dose contribution which is of concern, given its potential to induce secondary cancers, and which has to be monitored. This work presents the design and the test of a portable Dysprosium dosimeter to be used during clinical treatments to estimate the "in vivo" dose to the patient. The dosimeter has been characterized and validated with tissue-equivalent phantom studies with a Varian Clinical iX 18 MV photon beam, before using it with a group of patients treated at the S. Anna Hospital in Como. The working principle of the dosimeter together with the readout chain and the results in terms of delivered dose are presented.

  1. Dysprosium detector for neutron dosimetry in external beam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostinelli, A.; Berlusconi, C.; Conti, V.; Duchini, M.; Gelosa, S. [Medical Physics - Sant' Anna Hospital, Como (Italy); Guallini, F. [EL.SE s.r.l. (Italy); Vallazza, E. [INFN, Trieste (Italy); Prest, M. [University of Insubria, Como (Italy)

    2014-09-21

    Radiotherapy treatments with high-energy (>8MeV) photon beams are a standard procedure in clinical practice, given the skin and near-target volumes sparing effect, the accurate penetration and the uniform spatial dose distribution. On the other hand, despite these advantages, neutrons may be produced via the photo-nuclear (γ,n) reactions of the high-energy photons with the high-Z materials in the accelerator head, in the treatment room and in the patient, resulting in an unwanted dose contribution which is of concern, given its potential to induce secondary cancers, and which has to be monitored. This work presents the design and the test of a portable Dysprosium dosimeter to be used during clinical treatments to estimate the “in vivo” dose to the patient. The dosimeter has been characterized and validated with tissue-equivalent phantom studies with a Varian Clinical iX 18 MV photon beam, before using it with a group of patients treated at the S. Anna Hospital in Como. The working principle of the dosimeter together with the readout chain and the results in terms of delivered dose are presented.

  2. Low Field Magnetic and Thermal Hysteresis in Antiferromagnetic Dysprosium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliia Liubimova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic and thermal hysteresis (difference in magnetic properties on cooling and heating have been studied in polycrystalline Dy (dysprosium between 80 and 250 K using measurements of the reversible Villari effect and alternating current (AC susceptibility. We argue that measurement of the reversible Villari effect in the antiferromagnetic phase is a more sensitive method to detect magnetic hysteresis than the registration of conventional B(H loops. We found that the Villari point, recently reported in the antiferromagnetic phase of Dy at 166 K, controls the essential features of magnetic hysteresis and AC susceptibility on heating from the ferromagnetic state: (i thermal hysteresis in AC susceptibility and in the reversible Villari effect disappears abruptly at the temperature of the Villari point; (ii the imaginary part of AC susceptibility is strongly frequency dependent, but only up to the temperature of the Villari point; (iii the imaginary part of the susceptibility drops sharply also at the Villari point. We attribute these effects observed at the Villari point to the disappearance of the residual ferromagnetic phase. The strong influence of the Villari point on several magnetic properties allows this temperature to be ranked almost as important as the Curie and Néel temperatures in Dy and likely also for other rare earth elements and their alloys.

  3. A Low-Symmetry Dysprosium Metallocene Single-Molecule Magnet with a High Anisotropy Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Thomas; Chilton, Nicholas F; Layfield, Richard A

    2016-09-05

    The single-molecule magnet (SMM) properties of the isocarbonyl-ligated dysprosium metallocene [Cp*2 Dy{μ-(OC)2 FeCp}]2 (1Dy ), which contains a rhombus-shaped Dy2 Fe2 core, are described. Combining a strong axial [Cp*](-) ligand field with a weak equatorial field consisting of the isocarbonyl ligands leads to an anisotropy barrier of 662 cm(-1) in zero applied field. The dominant thermal relaxation pathways in 1Dy involves at least the fourth-excited Kramers doublet, thus demonstrating that prominent SMM behavior can be observed for dysprosium in low-symmetry environments.

  4. Malonate complexes of dysprosium: synthesis, characterization and application for LI-MOCVD of dysprosium containing thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanov, Andrian P; Seidel, Rüdiger W; Barreca, Davide; Gasparotto, Alberto; Winter, Manuela; Feydt, Jürgen; Irsen, Stephan; Becker, Hans-Werner; Devi, Anjana

    2011-01-07

    A series of malonate complexes of dysprosium were synthesized as potential metalorganic precursors for Dy containing oxide thin films using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) related techniques. The steric bulkiness of the dialkylmalonato ligand employed was systematically varied and its influence on the resulting structural and physico-chemical properties that is relevant for MOCVD was studied. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the five homoleptic tris-malonato Dy complexes (1-5) are dimers with distorted square-face bicapped trigonal-prismatic geometry and a coordination number of eight. In an attempt to decrease the nuclearity and increase the solubility of the complexes in various solvents, the focus was to react these dimeric complexes with Lewis bases such as 2,2'-biypridyl and pyridine (6-9). This resulted in monomeric tris-malonato mono Lewis base adduct complexes with improved thermal properties. Finally considering the ease of synthesis, the monomeric nature and promising thermal characteristics, the silymalonate adduct complex [Dy(dsml)(3)bipy] (8) was selected as single source precursor for growing DySi(x)O(y) thin films by liquid injection metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (LI-MOCVD) process. The as-deposited films were analyzed for their morphology and composition by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, Rutherford backscattering (RBS) analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  5. Low temperature spin reorientation in dysprosium iron garnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahoubi, M; Younsi, W; Soltani, M L [Department of Physics, Badji-Mokhtar University, BP-12 Annaba, 23000 (Algeria); Voiron, J; Schmitt, D, E-mail: mlahoubi@gmail.co [Louis Neel Laboratory, CNRS-UJF, BP-166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2009-03-01

    The spin reorientation (SR) phase transition in dysprosium iron garnet (Dy{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} or DyIG) have been studied by specific heat C{sub p}(T) and high field magnetisation measurements M{sub T}(H) and M{sub H}(T) on single crystals at low temperature. A first order SR is observed with a sharp jump at T{sub SR} = 14.5+-0.5 K in the C{sub p}(T) curve which corresponds to a spontaneous change from the high temperature (HT) easy direction (111) to an (uuw) angular low temperature (LT) phases. Above T{sub SR}, the magnetic structure is described by the irreducible representation (IR) A{sub 2g} of the rhombohedral space group R 3 c. Below T{sub SR}, the magnetic structure changes in the monoclinic the space group C2/c with the IR A{sub g}. When the field H is kept aligned along the hard symmetry directions (100) and (110), we obtain respectively the variation of the angular positions theta(T) and theta'(T) from the total spontaneous magnetisation down to 1.5 K (theta = 39.23 deg. and theta' = 30.14 deg.) and the results are in good agreement with the previous observations in low fields. When the sample is allowed to rotate freely on itself, the critical field H{sub c}(T) between the HT(111) and the LT(uuw) angular phases permits us to precise the transition line up to 15 T and 40 K between the so called canted field induced (FI) and the associated collinear magnetic phases. The experimental magnetic phase diagram (MPD) is precisely determined in the (H{sub c}-T) plane and the domains of the existence and the stability of the two magnetic phases are specified.

  6. Dysprosium-containing layered double hydroxides nanoparticles intercalated with biologically active species as an approach for theranostic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Arratia-Quijada, Jenny

    2015-10-23

    A layered double hydroxide structure including dysprosium cations was prepared by co-precipitation. The nanoparticles showed a linear relationship with the reciprocal relaxation spin-lattice (T1) time of water protons which is reflected as contrast in aqueous suspensions analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging. The interlayer space of dysprosium containing LDH was successfully intercalated with folate, ibuprofen and gallate ions, which are key molecules for recognition of some cancer cells and treatment of diseases. The paramagnetic property of the dysprosium-containing LDH detected in this work beside the ability to transport drugs open up the opportunity to design theranostic materials in a single crystal phase with nanometric dimensions.

  7. Effects of Dysprosium Oxide Doping on Microstructure and Properties of Barium Titanate Ceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu Yongping; Ren Huijun; Chen Wei; Chen Shoutian

    2005-01-01

    Different amounts of dysprosium oxide were incorporated into barium titanate powders synthesized by hydrothermal method. Relations of substitution behaviors and lattice parameters with solid-solubility were studied. Furthermore, the influences of dysprosium oxide doping fraction on grain size and dielectric properties of barium titanate ceramic, including dielectric constant and breakdown electric field strength, were investigated via scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and electric property tester. The results show that dysprosium oxide can restrain abnormal grain growth during sintering and that fine-grained and high density of barium titanate ceramic can result in excellent dielectric properties. As mass fraction of dysprosium oxide is 0.6%, the lattice parameters of grain increase to the maximum because of the lowest vacancy concentration. The electric property parameters are cited as following: dielectric constant (25 ℃) reaches 4100, the change in relative dielectric constant with temperature is -10% to 10% within the range of -15~100 ℃, breakdown electric field strength (alternating current) achieves 3.2 kV·mm-1, which can be used in manufacturing high voltage ceramic capacitors.

  8. Sandwich-type tetrakis(phthalocyaninato) dysprosium-cadmium quadruple-decker SMM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailong; Qian, Kang; Wang, Kang; Bian, Yongzhong; Jiang, Jianzhuang; Gao, Song

    2011-09-14

    Homoleptic tetrakis[2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octa(butyloxy)phthalocyaninato] dysprosium-cadmium quadruple-decker complex 1 was isolated in relatively good yield of 43% from a simple one-pot reaction. This compound represents the first sandwich-type tetrakis(phthalocyaninato) rare earth-cadmium quadruple-decker SMM that has been structurally characterized.

  9. In situ characterization of the nitridation of dysprosium during mechanochemical processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaques, Brian J.; Osterberg, Daniel D.; Alanko, Gordon A.; Tamrakar, Sumit; Smith, Cole R.; Hurley, Michael F.; Butt, Darryl P., E-mail: DarrylButt@BoiseState.edu

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • A nitridation reaction in a high energy planetary ball mill was monitored in situ. • Dysprosium mononitride was synthesized from Dy at low temperatures in short times. • Ideal gas law and in situ temperature and pressure used to assess reaction extent. • It is proposed that reaction rate is proportional to the creation of new surface. - Abstract: Processing of advanced nitride ceramics traditionally requires long durations at high temperatures and, in some cases, in hazardous atmospheres. In this study, dysprosium mononitride (DyN) was rapidly formed from elemental dysprosium in a closed system at ambient temperatures. An experimental procedure was developed to quantify the progress of the nitridation reaction during mechanochemical processing in a high energy planetary ball mill (HEBM) as a function of milling time and intensity using in situ temperature and pressure measurements, SEM, XRD, and particle size analysis. No intermediate phases were formed. It was found that the creation of fresh dysprosium surfaces dictates the rate of the nitridation reaction, which is a function of milling intensity and the number of milling media. These results show clearly that high purity nitrides can be synthesized with short processing times at low temperatures in a closed system requiring a relatively small processing footprint.

  10. Dysprosium complexes with the tetraphenylporphyrin macrocyclic ligand; Complejos de disprosio con el ligante macrociclico tetrafenilporfirina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez M, V.; Padilla, J.; Ramirez, F.M

    1992-04-15

    In this report, the results obtained on the synthesis, characterization and study of the chemical behavior of dysprosium complex with the acetylacetone chelating agent (Hacac) and the tetraphenylporphyrin macrocyclic ligand (H{sub 2}TFP) are given. Based on the literature but according to our necessities and interest, the appropriate methodology settled down from the synthesis of prime matters until the obtaining and characterization of the products. The acetyl acetonate complex was obtained of mono hydrated dysprosium [Dy(acac){sub 3}. H{sub 2}0] and trihydrated [Dy(acac){sub 3} .3 H{sub 2}0], the mono tetra phenyl porphyrinate [Dy(TFP)(acac). 2 ac] the double sandwich of the dysprosium porphyrinate [Dy(TFP){sub 2}] and the triple sandwich of the dysprosium porphyrinate [Dy(TFP){sub 3}. 2 TCB] (TCB = trichlorobenzene). Its were characterized by their melting points, solubility, IR, UV, TGA and DTA both first and besides the techniques already mentioned for NMR'H, RPE and Magnetic susceptibility the three last complexes. From the spectroscopic point of view, IR and RPE its suggested the existence of a complex of inverse mixed valence [Dy(TFP){sup 2-} (TFP) {sup 1-}] for the Dy(TFP){sub 2} as a result of the existence of the free radical (TFP' {sup 1-} and that it was not in none of the other porphyrin compounds. In the NMR'H spectra of the compounds were not observed signals in the region from 0 to 10 ppm that which shows that the dysprosium complexes in special those of the porphyrin type are highly paramagnetic and its could be used as displacement reagents, creators of images and contrast agents of great utility in these days in studies of NMR, technique today by today used in medical diagnoses. (Author)

  11. Acute dysprosium toxicity to Daphnia pulex and Hyalella azteca and development of the biotic ligand approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukov, Oliver; Smith, D Scott; McGeer, James C

    2016-01-01

    The toxicological understanding of rare earth elements (REEs) in the aquatic environment is very limited but of increasing concern. The objective of this research is to compare the toxicological effect of the REE dysprosium to the freshwater invertebrates Daphnia pulex and Hyalella azteca and in the more sensitive organism, understand the toxicity modifying influence of Ca, Na, Mg, pH and dissolved organic matter (DOM). Standard methods (Environment Canada) were followed for testing and culture in media of intermediate hardness (60mg CaCO3 mg/L) at pH 7.8 with Ca at 0.5, Na 0.5, Mg 0.125 (mM) and 23°C. Acute toxicity tests were done with azteca and D. pulex revealed Hyalella to be 1.4 times more sensitive than Daphnia. Additions of Ca and Na but not Mg provided significant protection against Dy toxicity to Hyalella. Similarly, low pH was associated with reduction in toxicity. Exposures which were pH buffered with and without MOPS were significantly different and indicated that MOPS enhanced Dy toxicity. DOM also mitigated Dy toxicity. Biotic ligand based parameters (LogK values) were calculated based on free ion relationships as determined by geochemical equilibrium modeling software (WHAM ver. 7.02). The logK value for Dy(3+) toxicity to Hyalella was 7.75 while the protective influence of Ca and Na were 3.95 and 4.10, respectively. This study contributes data towards the development of site specific water quality guidelines and criteria for Dy and possibly REEs in general and offers insight into the complex bio-geochemical nature of this element.

  12. Synthesis, structural characterization and in vitro testing of dysprosium containing silica particles as potential MRI contrast enhancing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriac, L. B.; Trandafir, D. L.; Turcu, R. V. F.; Todea, M.; Simon, S.

    2016-11-01

    The work is focused on synthesis and structural characterization of novel dysprosium-doped silica particles which could be considered as MRI contrast agents. Sol-gel derived silica rich particles obtained via freeze-drying and spray-drying processing methods were structurally characterized by XRD, 29Si MAS-NMR and XPS methods. The occurrence of dysprosium on the outermost layer of dysprosium containing silica particles was investigated by XPS analysis. The MRI contrast agent characteristics have been tested using RARE-T1 and RARE-T2 protocols. The contrast of MRI images delivered by the investigated samples was correlated with their local structure. Dysprosium disposal on microparticles with surface structure characterised by decreased connectivity of the silicate network units favours dark T2-weighted MRI contrast properties.

  13. Dysprosium-containing layered double hydroxides nanoparticles intercalated with biologically active species as an approach for theranostic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arratia-Quijada, Jenny [Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, Centro Universitario Tonalá, Universidad de Guadalajara, Av. Nuevo Periférico No. 555, C.P. 48525, Tonalá, Jalisco (Mexico); Sánchez Jiménez, Cecilia [Departamento de Química, Universidad de Guadalajara, Boulevard Marcelino García Barragán 1421, C.P. 44430, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Gurinov, Andrey [Research Resources Center for Magnetic Resonance, St. Petersburg State University, Universitetskiy pr. 26, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); NMR Core Lab, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia); Pérez Centeno, Armando; Ceja Andrade, Israel [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Guadalajara, Boulevard Marcelino García Barragán 1421, C.P. 44430, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Carbajal Arízaga, Gregorio Guadalupe, E-mail: gregoriocarbajal@yahoo.com.mx [Departamento de Química, Universidad de Guadalajara, Boulevard Marcelino García Barragán 1421, C.P. 44430, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • LDH structure including dysprosium was prepared by co-precipitation. • LDH was capable to produce contrast in the T1 mode of MRI. • LDH were intercalated with folate, ibuprofen and gallate ions. - Abstract: A layered double hydroxide structure including dysprosium cations was prepared by co-precipitation. The nanoparticles showed a linear relationship with the reciprocal relaxation spin-lattice (T1) time of water protons which is reflected as contrast in aqueous suspensions analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging. The interlayer space of dysprosium containing LDH was successfully intercalated with folate, ibuprofen and gallate ions, which are key molecules for recognition of some cancer cells and treatment of diseases. The paramagnetic property of the dysprosium-containing LDH detected in this work beside the ability to transport drugs open up the opportunity to design theranostic materials in a single crystal phase with nanometric dimensions.

  14. Slow magnetic relaxation in a hydrogen-bonded 2D array of mononuclear dysprosium(III) oxamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortea-Pérez, Francisco R; Vallejo, Julia; Julve, Miguel; Lloret, Francesc; De Munno, Giovanni; Armentano, Donatella; Pardo, Emilio

    2013-05-01

    The reaction of N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)oxamic acid with dysprosium(III) ions in a controlled basic media afforded the first example of a mononuclear lanthanide oxamate complex exhibiting a field-induced slow magnetic relaxation behavior typical of single-ion magnets (SIMs). The hydrogen-bond-mediated self-assembly of this new bifunctional dysprosium(III) SIM in the solid state provides a unique example of 2D hydrogen-bonded polymer with a herringbone net topology.

  15. Dysprosium-Catalyzed Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Arrays on Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this letter, we report that dysprosium is an effective catalyst for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs growth via a chemical vapor deposition (CVD process for the first time. Horizontally superlong well-oriented SWNT arrays on SiO2/Si wafer can be fabricated by EtOH-CVD under suitable conditions. The structure and properties are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transition electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The results show that the SWNTs from dysprosium have better structural uniformity and better conductivity with fewer defects. This rare earth metal provides not only an alternative catalyst for SWNTs growth, but also a possible method to generate high percentage of superlong semiconducting SWNT arrays for various applications of nanoelectronic device.

  16. Direct Search for keV Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter with a Stable Dysprosium Target

    CERN Document Server

    Lasserre, T; Cribier, M; Merle, A; Mertens, S; Vivier, M

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a new method to search for keV-scale sterile neutrinos that could account for Dark Matter. Neutrinos trapped in our galaxy could be captured on stable $^{163}$Dy if their mass is greater than 2.83~keV. Two experimental realizations are studied, an integral counting of $^{163}$Ho atoms in dysprosium-rich ores and a real-time measurement of the emerging electron spectrum in a dysprosium-based detector. The capture rates are compared to the solar neutrino and radioactive backgrounds. An integral counting experiment using several kilograms of $^{163}$Dy could reach a sensitivity for the sterile-to-active mixing angle $\\sin^2\\theta_{e4}$ of $10^{-5}$ significantly exceeding current laboratory limits. Mixing angles as low as $\\sin^2\\theta_{e4} \\sim 10^{-7}$ / $\\rm m_{^{163}\\rm Dy}\\rm{(ton)}$ could possibly be explored with a real-time experiment.

  17. Preparation of Dysprosium Ferrite/Polyacrylamide Magnetic Composite Microsphere and Its Characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidehiro Kumazawa; Wang Zhifeng; Zhou Lanxiang; Zhang Hong; Li Yourong; Zhang Ming

    2005-01-01

    Using the technique of microemulsion polymerization with nano-reactor, dysprosium ferrite/polyacrylamide magnetic composite microsphere was prepared by one-step method in a single inverse microemulsion. The structure, average particle size, morphology of composite microsphere were characterized by FTIR, XRD, TEM and TGA. The magnetic responsibility of composite microsphere was also investigated. The results indicate that the magnetic composite microsphere possess high magnetic responsibility and suspension stability.

  18. {Delta}I = 2 energy staggering in normal deformed dysprosium nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, M.A.; Brown, T.B.; Archer, D.E. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Very high spin states (I{ge}50{Dirac_h}) have been observed in {sup 155,156,157}Dy. The long regular band sequences, free from sharp backbending effects, observed in these dysprosium nuclei offer the possibility of investigating the occurence of any {Delta}I = 2 staggering in normal deformed nuclei. Employing the same analysis techniques as used in superdeformed nuclei, certain bands do indeed demonstrate an apparent staggering and this is discussed.

  19. Poly[[[μ3-N′-(carboxymethylethylenediamine-N,N,N′-triacetato]dysprosium(III] trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Zhuang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title coordination polymer, {[Dy(C10H13N2O8]·3H2O}n, the dysprosium(III ion is coordinated by two N atoms and six O atoms from three different (carboxymethylethylenediaminetriacetate ligands in a distorted square-antiprismatic geometry. The ligands connect the metal atoms, forming layers parallel to the ab plane. O—H...O hydrogen bonds further assemble adjacent layers into a three-dimensional supramolecular network.

  20. Making two dysprosium atoms rotate - Einstein-de Haas effect revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Górecki, Wojciech; Rzążewski, Kazimierz

    2016-01-01

    We present a numerical study of the behaviour of two magnetic dipolar atoms trapped in a harmonic potential and exhibiting the standard Einstein-de Haas effect while subject to a time dependent homogeneous magnetic field. Using a simplified description of the short range interaction and the full expression for the dipole-dipole forces we show, that under experimentally realisable conditions two dysprosium atoms may be pumped to a high ($l>20$) value of the relative orbital angular momentum.

  1. Systematic study on surface and magnetostructural changes in Mn-substituted dysprosium ferrite by hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rekha, G. [Department of Physics, College of Engineering Guindy, Anna University, Sardar Patel Road, Chennai 600025 (India); Tholkappiyan, R. [Department of Physics, College of Engineering Guindy, Anna University, Sardar Patel Road, Chennai 600025 (India); Department of Physics, College of Science, UAE University, Al-Ain 15551 (United Arab Emirates); Vishista, K., E-mail: raovishista@gmail.com [Department of Physics, College of Engineering Guindy, Anna University, Sardar Patel Road, Chennai 600025 (India); Hamed, Fathalla [Department of Physics, College of Science, UAE University, Al-Ain 15551 (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Garnet type Dy{sub 3}Fe{sub 5-x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 12} (x = 0–0.06) nanoparticles of 88.4–86.8 nm were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • The Dy, Mn, Fe and O elements in the ferrites were confirmed from XPS. • The multiple oxidation states of Fe and Mn ions, bonding energy and cationic distributions of the samples were examined by XPS. • The magnetic property shows ferromagnetic behavior from VSM technique. • The results from these studies are correlated with respect to Mn dopant. - Abstract: Dysprosium iron garnets are of scientific importance because of the wide range of magnetic properties that can be obtained in substituting dysprosium by a rare earth metal. In the present work, the effect of Mn substitution on magnetostructural changes in dysprosium ferrite nanoparticles is studied. Highly crystalline pure and Mn doped dysprosium ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The samples were calcined at 1100 °C for 2 h in air atmosphere which is followed by characterization using XRD, FT-IR analysis, SEM, XPS and VSM. The average crystallite size of synthesized samples were calculated by X-ray diffraction falls in the range of 88.4–86.8 nm and was found to be in cubic garnet structure. For further investigation of the structure and corresponding changes in the tetrahedral and octahedral stretching vibrational bonds, FT-IR was used. The synthesized samples consist of multiple oxidation (Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+}) states for Fe ions and (Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 2+}) Mn ions analyzed in three ways of Fe 2p and Mn 2p spectra from the XPS analysis. With respect to Mn dopant in Dy{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}, the cationic distributions of elements were discussed from high resolution XPS spectra by peak position and shift, area, width. To find out the porous/void surface morphology of the sample, scanning electron microscopy was used. From XPS analysis, the presence of elements (Dy, Mn, Fe and O) and their composition in the

  2. Acute dysprosium toxicity to Daphnia pulex and Hyalella azteca and development of the biotic ligand approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukov, Oliver, E-mail: vuko3930@mylaurier.ca [Biology Department, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada); Smith, D. Scott [Chemistry Department, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada); McGeer, James C. [Biology Department, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    The toxicological understanding of rare earth elements (REEs) in the aquatic environment is very limited but of increasing concern. The objective of this research is to compare the toxicological effect of the REE dysprosium to the freshwater invertebrates Daphnia pulex and Hyalella azteca and in the more sensitive organism, understand the toxicity modifying influence of Ca, Na, Mg, pH and dissolved organic matter (DOM). Standard methods (Environment Canada) were followed for testing and culture in media of intermediate hardness (60 mg CaCO{sub 3} mg/L) at pH 7.8 with Ca at 0.5, Na 0.5, Mg 0.125 (mM) and 23 °C. Acute toxicity tests were done with <24 h old neonates for 48 h in the case of D. pulex and with 2–9 days old offspring for 96 h tests with Hyalella. The potential protective effect of cationic competition was tested with Ca (0.5–2.0 mM), Na (0.5–2.0 mM) and Mg (0.125–0.5 mM). The effect of pH (6.5–8.0) and Suwannee River DOM complexation (at dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations of 9 and 13 mg C/L) were evaluated. Dissolved Dy concentrations were lower than total (unfiltered) indicating precipitation, particularly at higher concentrations. Acute toxicity of Dy to H. azteca and D. pulex revealed Hyalella to be 1.4 times more sensitive than Daphnia. Additions of Ca and Na but not Mg provided significant protection against Dy toxicity to Hyalella. Similarly, low pH was associated with reduction in toxicity. Exposures which were pH buffered with and without MOPS were significantly different and indicated that MOPS enhanced Dy toxicity. DOM also mitigated Dy toxicity. Biotic ligand based parameters (Log K values) were calculated based on free ion relationships as determined by geochemical equilibrium modeling software (WHAM ver. 7.02). The log K value for Dy{sup 3+} toxicity to Hyalella was 7.75 while the protective influence of Ca and Na were 3.95 and 4.10, respectively. This study contributes data towards the development of site specific

  3. Synthesis, structural characterization and in vitro testing of dysprosium containing silica particles as potential MRI contrast enhancing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiriac, L.B.; Trandafir, D.L. [Faculty of Physics & National Magnetic Resonance Center, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, RO-400084 (Romania); Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences & Faculty of Physics, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, RO-400084 (Romania); Turcu, R.V.F. [Faculty of Physics & National Magnetic Resonance Center, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, RO-400084 (Romania); Todea, M. [Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences & Faculty of Physics, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, RO-400084 (Romania); Simon, S., E-mail: simons@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Faculty of Physics & National Magnetic Resonance Center, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, RO-400084 (Romania); Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences & Faculty of Physics, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, RO-400084 (Romania)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Dysprosium containing silica microparticles obtained by freeze and spray drying. • Higher structural units interconnection achieved in freeze vs. spray dried samples. • Dy occurance on the outermost layer of the microparticles evidenced by XPS. • Enhanced MRI contrast observed for freeze dried samples with 5% mol Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}. - Abstract: The work is focused on synthesis and structural characterization of novel dysprosium-doped silica particles which could be considered as MRI contrast agents. Sol-gel derived silica rich particles obtained via freeze-drying and spray-drying processing methods were structurally characterized by XRD, {sup 29}Si MAS-NMR and XPS methods. The occurrence of dysprosium on the outermost layer of dysprosium containing silica particles was investigated by XPS analysis. The MRI contrast agent characteristics have been tested using RARE-T{sub 1} and RARE-T{sub 2} protocols. The contrast of MRI images delivered by the investigated samples was correlated with their local structure. Dysprosium disposal on microparticles with surface structure characterised by decreased connectivity of the silicate network units favours dark T{sub 2}-weighted MRI contrast properties.

  4. Influence of exchange splitting on optical properties in gadolinium and dysprosium single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knyazev, Yu.V.; Bolotin, G.A. (AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Fiziki Metallov)

    1984-12-01

    The temperature dependences of optical conductivity in gadolinium and dysprosium single crystals at the light wave vector polarization along a hexagonal axis and in the basis plane are considered. A substantial anisotropy of interzonal absorption has been found. The sample transition into magnetically ordered state is shown to be accompanied by the emergence of resonance absorption peaks in the near infrared spectral region. The manifestation of these peculiarities is associated with quantum electron transitions between the s-, d-f- interaction-split energy bands near the Fermi level. Main peculiarities of the experimental spectrum of gadolinium optical conductivity found their reflection in theoretically calculated dispersion dependence.

  5. Therapeutic application of dysprosium-165-FHMA in the treatment of rheumatoid knee effusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, R.J.; Zalutsky, M.; Venkatesan, P.; Sledge, C.B.

    1986-03-01

    Radiation synovectomy utilizing a variety of radionuclides has proven to be an effective technique in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The recent introduction of the short-lived radionuclide, Dysprosium-165 (/sup 165/Dy), as a replacement for the longer-lived radiocolloids has reduced nontarget dosimetry caused by leakage of the agent from the articular cavity. A review of the methods and status of radiation synovectomy, and the application of /sup 165/Dy-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates (FHMA) as an alternative therapeutic agent is described.

  6. Properties of dysprosium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide fiber amplifiers operating at 1.3 microm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, B N; Schweizer, T; Hewak, D W; Laming, R I

    1997-05-15

    In light of recent progress in the fabrication of gallium lanthanum sulfide (GaLaS) fibers, we have modeled the performance of dysprosium-doped GaLaS fiber amplifiers operating at 1.3 microm . Based on experimental data, we find that the incorporation of a codopant (terbium) in the fiber core significantly shortens the optimum amplifier length from >30 m to approximately 3 m . Such a device may be practical, given the fiber losses currently achieved in GaLaS fibers.

  7. Effect of dysprosium on the kinetics and structural transformations during the decomposition of the supersaturated solid solution in magnesium-samarium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokhlin, L. L.; Luk'yanova, E. A.; Tabachkova, N. Yu.; Dobatkina, T. V.; Tarytina, I. E.; Korol'kova, I. G.

    2017-03-01

    The effect of dysprosium added in the amounts such that it does not form an individual phase in equilibrium with solid magnesium on the decomposition of the supersaturated magnesium solid solution in Mg-Sm alloys is studied. The presence of dysprosium in Mg-Sm alloys is found to retard the decomposition of the supersaturated magnesium solid solution and to increase the hardening effect upon aging. When these alloys are aged, dysprosium is partly retained in the magnesium solid solution and partly enters into the compositions of the phases that form during the decomposition of the solid solution and are characteristic of Mg-Sm alloys.

  8. Cyclic single-molecule magnets: from the odd-numbered heptanuclear to a dimer of heptanuclear dysprosium clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Haiquan; Bao, Song-Song; Zheng, Li-Min

    2016-02-01

    A heptanuclear and a dimer of heptanuclear dysprosium clusters (Dy7 and Dy14) have been successfully synthesized by ingenious coalescence of the single and double pyrazinyl hydrazone as well as phosphonate ligands. The complexes feature the largest odd-numbered cyclic lanthanide clusters reported thus far. Both exhibit single molecule magnet behaviors at low temperature.

  9. A comparison of the effects of symmetry and magnetoanisotropy on paramagnetic relaxation in related dysprosium single ion magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ursula J; Mahoney, Brian D; DeGregorio, Patrick T; Carroll, Patrick J; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Kikkawa, James M; Schelter, Eric J

    2012-06-07

    Dysprosium complexes of the tmtaa(2-) ligand were synthesized and characterized by X-band EPR and magnetism studies. Both complexes demonstrate magnetoanisotropy and slow paramagnetic relaxation. Comparison of these compounds with the seminal phthalocyanine complex [Dy(Pc)(2)](-) shows the azaannulide complexes are more susceptible to relaxation through non-thermal pathways.

  10. Dual responsive dysprosium-doped hydroxyapatite particles and toxicity reduction after functionalization with folic and glucuronic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez Lafarga, Ana Karen; Pacheco Moisés, Fermín P. [Departamento de Química, Universidad de Guadalajara, Marcelino García Barragán 1421, C.P. 44430, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Gurinov, Andrey [Research Resources Center for Magnetic Resonance, Saint Petersburg State University, Universitetskij pr. 26, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ortiz, Genaro Gabriel [Laboratorio Desarrollo-Envejecimiento, Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente (CIBO), Instituto Mexicano de Seguro Social (IMSS), Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Carbajal Arízaga, Gregorio Guadalupe, E-mail: gregoriocarbajal@yahoo.com.mx [Departamento de Química, Universidad de Guadalajara, Marcelino García Barragán 1421, C.P. 44430, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2015-03-01

    The development of probes for biomedical applications demands materials with low toxicity levels besides fluorescence or magnetic properties to be detected by confocal microscopes or MRI resonators. Several drug delivery systems or other biomedical materials prepared with hydroxyapatite have been proposed, however, toxicity effects might arise when the size of particles is nanometric. In this study, hydroxyapatite functionalized with glucuronic or folic acids presented lower oxidative stress, measured from lipoperoxides and nitric oxide indicators in rats than pure hydroxyapatite. In separated experiments, hydroxyapatite was doped with dysprosium cations by coprecipitation producing a single crystal phase with fluorescent properties easily visualized by confocal microscopy when excited at 488 nm. These particles also presented the ability to modify the proton relaxation time in T1 maps collected by magnetic resonance imaging. These modified hydroxyapatite nanoparticles could be candidates to design bimodal probes with low toxicity. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite functionalized with glucuronic acid reduced oxidative stress in rats. • Functionalization with folic acid reduced oxidative stress in rats. • Dysprosium doping does not affect the crystalline structure of hydroxyapatite. • Dysprosium doped particles are visible in fluorescent microscope. • Dysprosium doped particles act as MRI contrast agents.

  11. Tuning Slow Magnetic Relaxation in a Two-Dimensional Dysprosium Layer Compound through Guest Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Li, Jian; Meng, Yin-Shan; Sun, Hao-Ling; Zhang, Yi-Quan; Sun, Jun-Liang; Gao, Song

    2016-08-15

    A novel two-dimensional dysprosium(III) complex, [Dy(L)(CH3COO)]·0.5DMF·H2O·2CH3OH (1), has been successfully synthesized from a new pyridine-N-oxide (PNO)-containing ligand, namely, N'-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)pyridine-N-oxidecarbohydrazide (H2L). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal that complex 1 is composed of a dinuclear dysprosium subunit, which is further extended by the PNO part of the ligand to form a two-dimensional layer. Magnetic studies indicate that complex 1 shows well-defined temperature- and frequency-dependent signals under a zero direct-current (dc) field, typical of slow magnetic relaxation with an effective energy barrier Ueff of 33.6 K under a zero dc field. Interestingly, powder X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis reveal that compound 1 undergoes a reversible phase transition that is induced by the desorption and absorption of methanol and water molecules. Moreover, the desolvated sample [Dy(L)(CH3COO)]·0.5DMF (1a) also exhibits slow magnetic relaxation but with a higher anisotropic barrier of 42.0 K, indicating the tuning effect of solvent molecules on slow magnetic relaxation.

  12. Dosimetric properties of dysprosium doped calcium magnesium borate glass subjected to Co-60 gamma ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omar, R. S., E-mail: ratnasuffhiyanni@gmail.com; Wagiran, H., E-mail: husin@utm.my; Saeed, M. A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetric properties of dysprosium doped calcium magnesium borate (CMB:Dy) glass are presented. This study is deemed to understand the application of calcium as the modifier in magnesium borate glass with the presence of dysprosium as the activator to be performed as TL dosimeter (TLD). The study provides fundamental knowledge of a glass system that may lead to perform new TL glass dosimetry application in future research. Calcium magnesium borate glass systems of (70-y) B{sub 2}O{sub 3} − 20 CaO – 10 MgO-(y) Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} with 0.05  mol % ≤ y ≤ 0.7  mol % of dyprosium were prepared by melt-quenching technique. The amorphous structure and TL properties of the prepared samples were determined using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and TL reader; model Harshaw 4500 respectively. The samples were irradiated to Co-60 gamma source at a dose of 50 Gy. Dosimetric properties such as annealing procedure, time temperature profile (TTP) setting, optimization of Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration of 0.5 mol % were determined for thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) reader used.

  13. Microscopic study of neutron-rich dysprosium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Carlos E. [Universidad Veracruzana, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Xalapa (Mexico); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Facultad de Ciencias, Apartado Postal 70-542, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Velazquez, Victor [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Facultad de Ciencias, Apartado Postal 70-542, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Lerma, Sergio [Universidad Veracruzana, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Xalapa (Mexico)

    2013-01-15

    Microscopic studies in heavy nuclei are very scarce due to large valence spaces involved. This computational problem can be avoided by means of the use of symmetry-based models. Ground-state, {gamma} and {beta} bands, and their B(E2) transition strengths in {sup 160-168}Dy isotopes, are studied in the framework of the pseudo-SU(3) model which includes the preserving symmetry Q . Q term and the symmetry-breaking Nilsson and pairing terms, systematically parametrized. Additionally, three rotor-like terms are considered, whose free parameters, fixed for all members of the chain, are used to fine tune the moment of inertia of rotational bands and the band head of {gamma} and {beta} bands. The model succesfully describes in a systematic way rotational features in these nuclei and allows to extrapolate toward the midshell nucleus {sup 170}Dy. The results presented show that it is possible to study a full chain of isotopes or isotones in the region with the present model. (orig.)

  14. Microscopic study of neutron-rich Dysprosium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Vargas, Carlos E; Lerma, Sergio; 10.1140/epja/i2013-13004-1

    2013-01-01

    Microscopic studies in heavy nuclei are very scarce due to large valence spaces involved. This computational problem can be avoided by means of the use of symmetry based models. Ground-state, gamma and beta-bands, and their B(E2) transition strengths in 160-168Dy isotopes, are studied in the framework of the pseudo-SU(3) model which includes the preserving symmetry Q.Q term and the symmetry-breaking Nilsson and pairing terms, systematically parametrized. Additionally, three rotor-like terms are considered whose free parameters, fixed for all members of the chain are used to fine tune the moment of inertia of rotational bands and the band-head of gamma and beta-bands. The model succesfully describes in a systematic way rotational features in these nuclei and allows to extrapolate toward the midshell nucleus 170Dy. The results presented show that it is possible to study full chain of isotopes or isotones in the region with the present model.

  15. Luminescent properties of dysprosium(Ⅲ) ions in LaAlO3 nanocrystallites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Lema(n)ski; P.J. Dere(n)

    2011-01-01

    The absorption and emission spectra as well as decay time profile of Dy3+ ions in LaAlO3 nanocrystals were analyzed.The crystal structure of LaAlO3 was confirmed from XRD measurement.The emission peaks from blue to red came from main emitting level of dysprosium 4F9/2 to the ground and other excited levels of Dy3+ ions.Cross relaxation process led to non-radiative quenching of luminescence,so that the lifetime of the 4F9/2 energy level ions decreased with increasing amount of doped Dy3+ ions.The cross relaxation transfer rates were experimentally determined as a function of Dy3+ concentration.

  16. Magnetic ordering temperatures in rare earth metal dysprosium under ultrahigh pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Weir, Samuel T.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2014-04-01

    Magnetic ordering temperatures in heavy rare earth metal dysprosium (Dy) have been studied using an ultrasensitive electrical transport measurement technique in a designer diamond anvil cell to a pressure of 69 GPa and a temperature of 10 K. Previous studies using magnetic susceptibility measurements at high pressures were able to track magnetic ordering temperature only till 7 GPa in the hexagonal close packed (hcp) phase of Dy. Our studies indicate that the magnetic ordering temperature shows an abrupt drop of 80 K at the hcp-Sm phase transition followed by a gradual decrease that continues till 17 GPa. This is followed by a rapid increase in the magnetic ordering temperatures in the double hcp phase and finally leveling off in the distorted face centered cubic phase of Dy. Our studies reaffirm that 4f-shell remains localized in Dy and there is no loss of magnetic moment or 4f-shell delocalization for pressures up to 69 GPa.

  17. Structural, optical, thermal, mechanical and dielectric studies of Sulfamic acid single crystals: An influence of dysprosium (Dy3+) doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Budhendra; Shkir, Mohd.; AlFaify, S.; Kaushal, Ajay; Nasani, Narendar; Bdikin, Igor; Shoukry, H.; Yahia, I. S.; Algarni, H.

    2016-09-01

    Sulfamic acid is a potential material that exhibits excellent optical properties. A good quality, pure and dysprosium (Dy3+) doped (2.5 and 5 mol %) Sulfamic acid (SA) single crystals were grown successfully by slow cooling method. Structural study revealed a slight change in its lattice parameters and volume, suggesting the successful incorporation of Dy3+ in crystal system. The existence of dysprosium in the system was also confirmed. Presence of various vibrational modes was confirmed. Optical transparency was found to have a significant effect with variation in the doping concentration. Furthermore, a marked enhancement in its mechanical parameters with doping was also identified by nanoindentation technique. Etching study was also performed on the grown crystals to study the etch-pit formation and growth mechanism. Effect of doping on the thermal stability was analysed. All the results were compared and discussed in detail to get insight of the effect of doping concentration on Sulfamic acid crystal.

  18. Optical trapping of ultracold dysprosium atoms: transition probabilities, dynamic dipole polarizabilities and van der Waals $C_6$ coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hui; Dulieu, Olivier; Nascimbene, Sylvain; Lepers, Maxence

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of optical trapping of ultracold atoms depend on the atomic dynamic dipole polarizability governing the atom-field interaction. In this article, we have calculated the real and imaginary parts of the dynamic dipole polarizability of dysprosium in the ground and first excited level. Due to the high electronic angular momentum of those two states, the polarizabilities possess scalar, vector and tensor contributions that we have computed, on a wide range of trapping wavelengths, using the sum-over-state formula. Using the same formalism, we have also calculated the $C_6$ coefficients characterizing the van der Waals interaction between two dysprosium atoms in the two lowest levels. We have computed the energies of excited states and the transition probabilities appearing in the sums, using a combination of \\textit{ab initio} and least-square-fitting techniques provided by the Cowan codes and extended in our group. Regarding the real part of the polarizability, for field frequencies far from atomic...

  19. Mixed (phthalocyaninato)(Schiff-base) di-dysprosium sandwich complexes. Effect of magnetic coupling on the SMM behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailong; Liu, Chenxi; Liu, Tao; Zeng, Suyuan; Cao, Wei; Ma, Qi; Duan, Chunying; Dou, Jianmin; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2013-11-21

    Reaction between Schiff-base ligand and half-sandwich complex M(Pc)(acac) led to the isolation of new sandwich-type mixed (phthalocyaninato)(Schiff-base) di-lanthanide compounds M2(Pc)2(L)H2O (M = Dy, Gd) (1, 2) [H2Pc = metal free phthalocyanine, Hacac = acetylacetone, H2L = N,N'-bis(3-methyloxysalicylidene)benzene-1,2-diamine] with the triple-decker molecular structure clearly revealed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. For the comparative studies, sandwich triple-decker analogues with pure Schiff-base ligand M2(L)3H2O (M = Dy, Gd) (3, 4) were also prepared. Dynamic magnetic measurement result reveals the single-molecule magnet (SMM) nature of the di-dysprosium derivative 1, while the static magnetic investigation over both pure and the diamagnetic diluted samples of this compound discloses the interionic ferromagnetic coupling between the two dysprosium ions, which in turn effectively suppresses the QTM and enhances the energy barrier of this SMM. Nevertheless, comparative studies over the static magnetic properties of the di-dysprosium triple-decker complexes 1 and 3 indicate the stronger magnetic coupling between the two lanthanide ions in mixed (phthalocyaninato)(Schiff-base) species than in the pure Schiff-base triple-decker analogue, suggesting the special coordination sphere around the dysprosium ions in the former compound over the latter one on the more intense inter-ionic ferromagnetic coupling. As a very small step towards understanding the structure-property relationship, the present result will be surely helpful for the design and synthesis of the multinuclear lanthanide-based SMMs with good properties.

  20. Evaluating United States and world consumption of neodymium, dysprosium, terbium, and praseodymium in final products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Matthew

    This paper develops scenarios of future rare-earth-magnet metal (neodymium, dysprosium, terbium, and praseodymium) consumption in the permanent magnets used in wind turbines and hybrid electric vehicles. The scenarios start with naive base-case scenarios for growth in wind-turbine and hybrid-electric-vehicle sales over the period 2011 to 2020, using historical data for each good. These naive scenarios assume that future growth follows time trends in historical data and does not depend on any exogenous variable. Specifically, growth of each technological market follows historical time trends, and the amount of rare earths used per unit of technology remains fixed. The chosen reference year is 2010. Implied consumptions of the rare earth magnet metals are calculated from these scenarios. Assumptions are made for the material composition of permanent magnets, the market share of permanent-magnet wind turbines and vehicles, and magnet weight per unit of technology. Different scenarios estimate how changes in factors like the material composition of magnets, growth of the economy, and the price of a substitute could affect future consumption. Each scenario presents a different method for reducing rare earth consumption and could be interpreted as potential policy choices. In 2010, the consumption (metric tons, rare-earth-oxide equivalent) of each rare-earth-magnet metal was as follows. Total neodymium consumption in the world for both technologies was 995 tons; dysprosium consumption was 133 tons; terbium consumption was 50 tons; praseodymium consumption was zero tons. The base scenario for wind turbines shows there could be strong, exponential growth in the global wind turbine market. New U.S. sales of hybrid vehicles would decline (in line with the current economic recession) while non-U.S. sales increase through 2020. There would be an overall increase in the total amount of magnetic rare earths consumed in the world. Total consumption of each rare earth in the short

  1. Luminescence features of dysprosium and phosphorus oxide co-doped lithium magnesium borate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, S.; Mhareb, M. H. A.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Alajerami, Y. S. M.; Saripan, M. I.; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    Lithium magnesium borate (LMB) glass system co-doped with the oxides of dysprosium (Dy2O3) and phosphorus (P2O5) were synthesized using melt-quenching method. Prepared samples were characterized using various techniques to determine the effects of co-dopants concentration variation on their thermoluminescence (TL) and photoluminescence (PL) properties. TL glow curves of LMB:0.5Dy sample revealed a single prominent peak at Tm=190 °C, where TL intensity was enhanced by a factor of 2.5 with the increase of P2O5 concentration up to 1 mol%. This enhancement was accompanied by a shift in Tm towards higher temperature. Good linearity in the range of 1-100 Gy with linear correlation coefficient of 0.998 was achieved. PL spectra displayed two significant peaks centred at 481 nm and 573 nm. These attractive luminescence features of the proposed glass system may be useful for the development of radiation dosimetry.

  2. Single-molecule magnet behavior for an antiferromagnetically superexchange-coupled dinuclear dysprosium(III) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jérôme; Habib, Fatemah; Lin, Po-Heng; Korobkov, Ilia; Enright, Gary; Ungur, Liviu; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Murugesu, Muralee

    2011-04-13

    A family of five dinuclear lanthanide complexes has been synthesized with general formula [Ln(III)(2)(valdien)(2)(NO(3))(2)] where (H(2)valdien = N1,N3-bis(3-methoxysalicylidene)diethylenetriamine) and Ln(III) = Eu(III)1, Gd(III)2, Tb(III)3, Dy(III)4, and Ho(III)5. The magnetic investigations reveal that 4 exhibits single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior with an anisotropic barrier U(eff) = 76 K. The step-like features in the hysteresis loops observed for 4 reveal an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling between the two dysprosium ions. Ab initio calculations confirm the weak antiferromagnetic interaction with an exchange constant J(Dy-Dy) = -0.21 cm(-1). The observed steps in the hysteresis loops correspond to a weakly coupled system similar to exchange-biased SMMs. The Dy(2) complex is an ideal candidate for the elucidation of slow relaxation of the magnetization mechanism seen in lanthanide systems.

  3. A comparative study of donor formation in dysprosium, holmium, and erbium implanted silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emtsev, V.V.; Emtsev, V.V. Jr.; Poloskin, D.S.; Shek, E.I.; Sobolev, N.A. [Division of Solid State Electronics, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-01

    Formation of donor centers in Czochralski grown silicon doped with dysprosium, holmium, and erbium is discussed. Donor states of three kinds are introduced in the implanted layers after annealing at T=700C. Shallow donor states with ionization energies between 20 and 40 meV are attributed to oxygen -related thermal donors. Other donor centers in the energy range of E{sub C}-(60...70) meV and E{sub C}-(100...120) meV appear to be dependent on dopants. After a 900C anneal strong changes in the donor formation are observed only in silicon doped with erbium. Instead of donors at E{sub C}-(118{+-}5) meV, new donor centres at E{sub C}-(145{+-}5) meV are formed. Reportedly, the latter ones are involved in the excitation process of the Er{sup 3+} ions with a characteristic luminescence line at {approx}1.54 {mu}m. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Thermoluminescence properties of lithium magnesium borate glasses system doped with dysprosium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhareb, M H A; Hashim, S; Ghoshal, S K; Alajerami, Y S M; Saleh, M A; Razak, N A B; Azizan, S A B

    2015-12-01

    We report the impact of dysprosium (Dy(3+)) dopant and magnesium oxide (MgO) modifier on the thermoluminescent properties of lithium borate (LB) glass via two procedures. The thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves reveal a single prominent peak at 190 °C for 0.5 mol% of Dy(3+). An increase in MgO contents by 10 mol% enhances the TL intensity by a factor of 1.5 times without causing any shift in the maximum temperature. This enhancement is attributed to the occurrence of extra electron traps created via magnesium and the energy transfer to trivalent Dy(3+) ions. Good linearity in the range of 0.01-4 Gy with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.998, fading as low as 21% over a period of 3 months, excellent reproducibility without oven annealing and tissue equivalent effective atomic numbers ~8.71 are achieved. The trap parameters, including geometric factor (μg), activation energy (E) and frequency factor (s) associated with LMB:Dy are also determined. These favorable TL characteristics of prepared glasses may contribute towards the development of Li2O-MgO-B2O3 radiation dosimeters.

  5. Optical properties of zinc borotellurite glass doped with trivalent dysprosium ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ami Hazlin, M. N.; Halimah, M. K.; Muhammad, F. D.; Faznny, M. F.

    2017-04-01

    The zinc borotellurite doped with dysprosium oxide glass samples with chemical formula {[(TeO2) 0 . 7(B2O3) 0 . 3 ] 0 . 7(ZnO) 0 . 3 } 1 - x(Dy2O3)x (where x=0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.05 M fraction) were prepared by using conventional melt quenching technique. The structural and optical properties of the proposed glass systems were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and UV-VIS spectroscopy. The amorphous nature of the glass systems is confirmed by using XRD technique. The infrared spectra of the glass systems indicate three obvious absorption bands which are assigned to BO3 and TeO4 vibrational groups. Based on the absorption spectra obtained, the direct and indirect optical band gaps, as well as the Urbach energy were calculated. It is observed that both the direct and indirect optical band gaps increase with the concentration of Dy3+ ions. On the other hand, the Urbach energy is observed to decrease as the concentration of Dy3+ ions increases.

  6. Isolation of {sup 163}Ho from dysprosium target material by HPLC for neutrino mass measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Veronika; Taylor, Wayne A.; Nortier, Francois M.; Engle, Jonathan W.; Pollington, Anthony D.; Kunde, Gerd J.; Rabin, Michael W.; Birnbaum, Eva R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Div.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Nickles, Robert J. [Univ. Wisconsinn, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Medical Physics

    2015-07-01

    The rare earth isotope {sup 163}Ho is of interest for neutrino mass measurements. This report describes the isolation of {sup 163}Ho from a proton-irradiated dysprosium target and its purification. A Dy metal target was irradiated with 16 MeV protons for 10 h. After target dissolution, {sup 163}Ho was separated from the bulk Dy via cation-exchange high performance liquid chromatography using 70 mmol dm{sup -3} α-hydroxyisobutyric acid as the mobile phase. Subsequent purification of the collected Ho fraction was performed to remove the α-hydroxyisobutyrate chelating agent and to concentrate the Ho in a low ionic strength aqueous matrix. The final solution was characterized by MC-ICP-MS to determine the {sup 163}Ho/{sup 165}Ho ratio, {sup 163}Ho and the residual Dy content. The HPLC purification process resulted in a decontamination factor 1.4 x 10{sup 5} for Dy. The isolated Ho fraction contained 24.8 ± 1.3 ng of {sup 163}Ho corresponding to holmium recovery of 72 ± 3%.

  7. Influence of dysprosium addition on the structural, morphological, electrical and magnetic properties of nano-crystalline W-type hexaferrites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali-Sharbati; Javad-Mola Verdi Khani; G R Amiri; R Mousarezaei

    2015-02-01

    Dysporium (Dy)-substituted W-type barium hexaferrites were prepared by the citrate sol–gel-method. Crystalline structure, morphology, magnetic properties, DC resistivity and microwave absorption properties of BaNi2DyFe16−O27 ( = 0-0.9) were studied using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometer and vector network analyzer and sensitive source meter, respectively. Single-phase W-type barium hexaferrites, with a chemical composition of BaNi2DyFe16−O27 ( = 0-0.9), were formed by being heated at 1250°C for 4 h in air. The magnetic properties such as saturation magnetization (s), and coercivity (c) were calculated from hysteresis loops. Hysteresis loop measurements show that the coercivity values lie in the range of 530–560 Oe with increasing Dy content. It was also observed that magnetization decreases with the increase of Dy content. The DC resistivity was observed to increase from 0.83 × 107 to 6.92 × 107 cm with increasing Dy contents due to the unavailability of Fe3+ ions. Microwave absorption properties of hexaferrite (70 wt%)–acrylic resin (30 wt%) composites were measured by the standing-wave-ratio (SWR) method in the range from 12 to 20 GHz. For sample with = 0.6, a minimum reflection loss of −40 dB was obtained at 16.2 GHz for a layer of 1.7 mm in thickness. Sample with = 0.9 had wide bandwidth absorption in the frequency range of 13.5–18 GHz with reflection losses less than −15 dB. Meanwhile the minimum reflection point shifts toward higher frequency with the increase of Dy content.

  8. Optical trapping of ultracold dysprosium atoms: transition probabilities, dynamic dipole polarizabilities and van der Waals C 6 coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Wyart, J.-F.; Dulieu, O.; Nascimbène, S.; Lepers, M.

    2017-01-01

    The efficiency of the optical trapping of ultracold atoms depends on the atomic dynamic dipole polarizability governing the atom-field interaction. In this article, we have calculated the real and imaginary parts of the dynamic dipole polarizability of dysprosium in the ground and first excited levels. Due to the high electronic angular momentum of those two states, the polarizabilities possess scalar, vector and tensor contributions that we have computed, on a wide range of trapping wavelengths, using the sum-over-state formula. Using the same formalism, we have also calculated the C 6 coefficients characterizing the van der Waals interaction between two dysprosium atoms in the two lowest levels. We have computed the energies of excited states and the transition probabilities appearing in the sums, using a combination of ab initio and least-square-fitting techniques provided by the Cowan codes and extended in our group. Regarding the real part of the polarizability, for field frequencies far from atomic resonances, the vector and tensor contributions are two-orders-of-magnitude smaller than the scalar contribution, whereas for the imaginary part, the vector and tensor contributions represent a noticeable fraction of the scalar contribution. Finally, our anisotropic C 6 coefficients are much smaller than those published in the literature.

  9. White light emission of dysprosium doped lanthanum calcium phosphate oxide and oxyfluoride glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luewarasirikul, N.; Kim, H. J.; Meejitpaisan, P.; Kaewkhao, J.

    2017-04-01

    Lanthanum calcium phosphate oxide and oxyfluoride glasses doped with dysprosium oxide were prepared by melt-quenching technique with chemical composition 20La2O3:10CaO:69P2O5:1Dy2O3 and 20La2O3:10CaF2:69P2O5:1Dy2O3. The physical, optical and luminescence properties of the glass samples were studied to evaluate their potential to using as luminescence materials for solid-state lighting applications. The density, molar volume and refractive index of the glass samples were carried out. The optical and luminescence properties were studied by investigating absorption, excitation, and emission spectra of the glass samples. The absorption spectra were investigated in the UV-Vis-NIR region from 300 to 2000 nm. The excitation spectra observed under 574 nm emission wavelength showed the highest peak centered at 349 nm (6H15/2 → 6P7/2). The emission spectra, excited with 349 nm excitation wavelength showed two major peaks corresponding to 482 nm blue emission (4F9/2 → 6H15/2) and 574 nm yellow emission (4F9/2 → 6H13/2). The experimental lifetime were found to be 0.539 and 0.540 for oxide and oxyfluoride glass sample, respectively. The x,y color coordinates under 349 nm excitation wavelength were (0.38, 0.43) for both glass samples, that be plotted in white region of CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram. The CCT values obtained from the glass samples are 4204 K for oxide glass and 4228 K for oxyfluoride glass corresponding to the commercial cool white light (3100-4500 K). Judd-Ofelt theory had also been employed to obtain the J-O parameters (Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6), oscillator strength, radiative transition possibility, stimulated emission cross section and branching ratio. The Ω2 > Ω4 > Ω6 trend of J-O parameters of both glass samples may indicate the good quality of a glass host for using as optical device application. Temperature dependence of emission spectra was studied from 300 K to 10 K and found that the intensity of the emission peak was found to be increased with

  10. Limits on violations of Lorentz symmetry and the Einstein equivalence principle using radio-frequency spectroscopy of atomic dysprosium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohensee, M A; Leefer, N; Budker, D; Harabati, C; Dzuba, V A; Flambaum, V V

    2013-08-02

    We report a joint test of local Lorentz invariance and the Einstein equivalence principle for electrons, using long-term measurements of the transition frequency between two nearly degenerate states of atomic dysprosium. We present many-body calculations which demonstrate that the energy splitting of these states is particularly sensitive to violations of both special and general relativity. We limit Lorentz violation for electrons at the level of 10(-17), matching or improving the best laboratory and astrophysical limits by up to a factor of 10, and improve bounds on gravitational redshift anomalies for electrons by 2 orders of magnitude, to 10(-8). With some enhancements, our experiment may be sensitive to Lorentz violation at the level of 9 × 10(-20).

  11. Nonlinear optical properties of lutetium and dysprosium bisphthalocyanines at 1550 nm with femto- and nanosecond pulse excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plekhanov, A. I.; Basova, T. V.; Parkhomenko, R. G.; Gürek, A. G.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, the nonlinear optical properties of unsubstituted lutetium (LuPc2) and dysprosium (DyPc2) bisphthalocyanines as well as octasubstituted Lu(PcR8)2 derivative with R=-S(C6H13) were studied at a wavelength of 1550 nm with 10 ns and 300 fs pulses. Based on Z-scan measurements the nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficient as well as the nature of nonlinear optical properties were analyzed for these materials. Open aperture Z-scan indicates strong two-photon absorption in all three bisphthalocyanines in nano- and femtosecond regimes. With good nonlinear optical coefficients, bisphthalocyanines of rare earth elements are expected to be promising materials for the creation of optical limiters.

  12. Spectroscopic data of the 1.8-, 2.9-, and 4.3- mu m transitions in dysprosium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, T.; Hewak, D. W.; Samson, B. N.; Payne, D. N.

    1996-10-01

    Infrared emission at 1.8, 2.9, and 4.3 mu m is measured in dysprosium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide (Ga:La:S) glass excited at 815 nm. Emission cross sections were calculated by Judd-Ofelt analysis, the Fuchtbauer-Ladenburg equation, and the theory of McCumber. The sigma tau value for the 4.3- mu m transition is \\similar 4000 times larger in the Ga:La:S glass than in a dysprosium-doped LiYF4 crystal, which has lased on this transition. The large sigma tau value and the recently reported ability of Ga:La:S glass to be fabricated into fiber form show the potential for an efficient, low-threshold mid-infrared fiber laser. The fluorescence peak at 4.3 mu m coincides with the fundamental absorption of atmospheric carbon dioxide, making the glass a potential laser source for gas-sensing applications.

  13. Spectroscopic data of the 1.8-, 2.9-, and 4.3-microm transitions in dysprosium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, T; Hewak, D W; Samson, B N; Payne, D N

    1996-10-01

    Infrared emission at 1.8, 2.9, and 4.3 microm is measured in dysprosium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide (Ga:La:S) glass excited at 815 nm. Emission cross sections were calculated by Judd-Ofelt analysis, the Füchtbauer- Ladenburg equation, and the theory of McCumber. The sigmatau value for the 4.3-microm transition is ~4000 times larger in the Ga:La:S glass than in a dysprosium-doped LiYF(4) crystal, which has lased on this transition. The large sigmatau value and the recently reported ability of Ga:La:S glass to be fabricated into fiber form show the potential for an efficient, low-threshold mid-infrared fiber laser. The f luorescence peak at 4.3 microm coincides with the fundamental absorption of atmospheric carbon dioxide, making the glass a potential laser source for gas-sensing applications.

  14. On-line complexation/cloud point preconcentration for the sensitive determination of dysprosium in urine by flow injection inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Claudia; Cerutti, Soledad; Silva, Maria F. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, 5700, San Luis (Argentina); Olsina, Roberto A.; Martinez, Luis D. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, 5700, San Luis (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Avda. Rivadavia 1917, CP C1033AAJJ, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2003-01-01

    An on-line dysprosium preconcentration and determination system based on the hyphenation of cloud point extraction (CPE) to flow injection analysis (FIA) associated with ICP-OES was studied. For the preconcentration of dysprosium, a Dy(III)-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol complex was formed on-line at pH 9.22 in the presence of nonionic micelles of PONPE-7.5. The micellar system containing the complex was thermostated at 30 C in order to promote phase separation, and the surfactant-rich phase was retained in a microcolumn packed with cotton at pH 9.2. The surfactant-rich phase was eluted with 4 mol L{sup -1} nitric acid at a flow rate of 1.5 mL min{sup -1}, directly in the nebulizer of the plasma. An enhancement factor of 50 was obtained for the preconcentration of 50 mL of sample solution. The detection limit value for the preconcentration of 50 mL of aqueous solution of Dy was 0.03 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The precision for 10 replicate determinations at the 2.0 {mu}g L{sup -1}Dy level was 2.2% relative standard deviation (RSD), calculated from the peak heights obtained. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system for dysprosium was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9994 at levels near the detection limits up to at least 100 {mu}g L {sup -1}. The method was successfully applied to the determination of dysprosium in urine. (orig.)

  15. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Tri-(2-mercaptopyridine N-oxide)bis(dimethyl sulfoxide) Dysprosium(Ⅲ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A range of rare earth metal complexes of 2-mercaptopyridine N-oxide (Hmpo) have been synthesized, and studied by elemental analysis and IR spectroscopic technique. Crystal structure of Dy(mpo)3(DMSO)2 (DMSO = dimethyl sulfoxide) has been determined. The complex crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group Pī with lattice parameters: a = 9.602(3), b = 9.803(3), c = 15.498(5)A, α= 89.51(1), β= 85.73(1), γ= 62.99(1)°, Dc = 1.787 g/cm3, C19H24N3O5S5Dy, Mr = 697.21, Z = 2, F(000) = 690, μ = 3.321mm-1, the final R = 0.0237 and wR = 0.0587 for 4116 reflections with I>σ2(I). The coordination number of dysprosium Ⅲ is eight, and its coordination geometry is a somewhat distorted square antiprism with O(3), O(4), O(5), S(3) and O(1), O(2), S(1), S(2) at the tetragonal bases (dihedral angle between their mean planes is 2.9(1)0). Around the Dy atom, three five-membered ring planes (Dy, O, N, C, S) make the dihedral angles of 74.42, 11.31 and 83.72, respectively.

  16. Photo-, cathodo- and thermoluminescent properties of dysprosium-doped HfO2 films deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manríquez, R Reynoso; Góngora, J A I Díaz; Guzmán-Mendoza, J; Montalvo, T Rivera; Olguín, J C Guzmán; Ramírez, P V Cerón; García-Hipólito, M; Falcony, C

    2014-09-01

    In this work, the photoluminescent (PL), cathodoluminescent (CL) and thermoluminescent (TL) properties of hafnium oxide films doped with trivalent dysprosium ions are reported. The films were deposited on glass substrates at temperatures ranging from 300 to 600°C, using chlorides as precursor reagents. The surface morphology of films showed a veins shaped microstructure at low deposition temperatures, while at higher temperatures the formation of spherical particles was observed on the surface. X-ray diffraction showed the presence of HfO2 monoclinic phase in the films deposited at temperatures greater than 400°C. The PL and CL spectra of the doped films showed the highest emission band centered at 575nm corresponding to the transitions (4)F9/2→(6)H13/2, which is a characteristic transition of Dy(3+) ion. The greatest emission intensities were observed in samples doped with 1 atomic percent (at%) of DyCl3 in the precursor solution. Regarding the TL behavior, the glow curve of HfO2:Dy(+3) films exhibited spectrum with one broad band centered at about 150°C. The highest intensity TL response was observed on the films deposited at 500°C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Workplace testing of the new single sphere neutron spectrometer based on Dysprosium activation foils (Dy-SSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, R.; Gómez-Ros, J. M.; Esposito, A.; Gentile, A.; Chiti, M.; Palacios-Pérez, L.; Angelone, M.; Tana, L.

    2012-08-01

    A photon insensitive passive neutron spectrometer consisting of a single moderating polyethylene sphere with Dysprosium activation foils arranged along three perpendicular axes was designed by CIEMAT and INFN. The device is called Dy-SSS (Dy foil-based Single Sphere Spectrometer). It shows nearly isotropic response in terms of neutron fluence up to 20 MeV. The first prototype, previously calibrated with 14 MeV neutrons, has been recently tested in workplaces having different energy and directional distributions. These are a 2.5 MeV nearly mono-chromatic and mono-directional beam available at the ENEA Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG) and the photo-neutron field produced in a 15 MV Varian CLINAC DHX medical accelerator, located in the Ospedale S. Chiara (Pisa). Both neutron spectra are known through measurements with a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer. In both cases the experimental response of the Dy-SSS agrees with the reference data. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the spectrometric capability of the new device are independent from the directional distribution of the neutron field. This opens the way to a new generation of moderation-based neutron instruments, presenting all advantages of the Bonner sphere spectrometer without the disadvantage of the repeated exposures. This concept is being developed within the NESCOFI@BTF project of INFN (Commissione Scientifica Nazionale 5).

  18. Ferroelectric properties of dysprosium-doped Bi4Ti3O12 thin films crystallized in various atmospheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Chuan-pin; TANG Ming-hua; YE Zhi; ZHOU Yic-hun; ZHENG Xue-jun; ZHONG Xiang-li; HU Zeng-shun

    2006-01-01

    Dysprosium-doped Bi4Ti3O12 (Bi3.4Dy0.6Ti3O12,BDT) ferroelectric thin films were deposited on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si(111) substrates by chemical solution deposition (CSD) and crystallized in nitrogen,air and oxygen atmospheres,respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to identify the crystal structure,the surface and cross-section morphology of the deposited ferroelectric films. The results show that the crystallization atmosphere has significant effect on determining the crystallization and ferroelectric properties of the BDT films. The film crystallized in nitrogen at a relatively low temperature of 650 ℃,exhibits excellent crystallinity and ferroelectricity with a remanent polarization of 2Pr = 24.9 μC/cm2 and a coercive field of 144.5 kV/cm. While the films annealed in air and oxygen at 650 ℃ do not show good crystallinity and ferroelectricity until they are annealed at 700 ℃. The structure evolution and ferroelectric properties of BDT thin films annealed under different temperatures (600-750 ℃) were also investigated. The crystallinity of the BDT films is improved and the average grain size increases when the annealing temperature increases from 600 ℃ to 750 ℃ at an interval of 50 ℃. However,the polarization of the films is not monotonous function of the annealing temperature.

  19. Sensitive search for the temporal variation of the fine structure constant using radio-frequency E1 transitions in atomic dysprosium

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, A T; Lamoreaux, S K; Torgerson, J R

    2003-01-01

    It has been proposed that the radio-frequency electric-dipole (E1) transition between two nearly degenerate opposite-parity states in atomic dysprosium should be highly sensitive to possible temporal variation of the fine structure constant ($\\alpha$) [V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and J. K. Webb, Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 59}, 230 (1999)]. We discuss here an experimental realization of the proposed search, which involves monitoring the E1 transition frequency over a period of time using direct frequency counting techniques. We estimate that a statistical sensitivity of $|\\adota| \\sim 10^{-18}$/yr may be achieved and discuss possible systematic effects in such a measurement.

  20. Dysprosium doping induced shape and magnetic anisotropy of Fe3-xDyxO4 (x=0.01-0.1) nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Richa; Luthra, Vandna; Gokhale, Shubha

    2016-09-01

    The effect of dysprosium doping on evolution of structural and magnetic properties of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles is reported. A standard route of co-precipitation was used for the synthesis of undoped and doped magnetite nanoparticles Fe3-xDyxO4 (x=0.0-0.1). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows formation of round shaped particles with diameter in the range of 8-14 nm for undoped sample. On doping beyond x=0.01, the formation of rod like structures is initiated along with the round shaped particles. The number of rods is found to increase with increasing doping concentration. Magnetic characterization using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) revealed doping dependent magnetic properties which can be correlated with the crystallite size as determined from X-ray diffraction (XRD). Enhancement in the saturation magnetization in the initial stages of doping can be explained on the basis of incorporation of Dy3+ ions in the inverse spinel structure at the octahedral site in place of Fe3+ ions. Subsequent decrease in saturation magnetization observed beyond x=0.03 could be attributed to precipitation of excess Dy in form of dysprosium ferrite phase.

  1. Recycling of waste Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets by doping with dysprosium hydride nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫强; 李超; ZAKOTNIK Miha; 岳明; 张东涛; 黄秀莲

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets by doping DyH3 nanoparticles was investigated. The effect of the DyH3 nanoparticles on the microstructure and magnetic properties of the recycled magnets was studied. As the DyH3 nanoparticles additive increased, the coercivity of recycled magnet increased gradually. The recycled magnets with DyH3 nanoparticle content be-tween 0.0 wt.% and 1.0 wt.% maintained the remanence (Br), but, with higher additions, theBr began to decrease rapidly. The best recycled magnet produced contained 1.0 wt.% of DyH3 nanoparticles when compared to the properties of the starting waste sintering magnet. TheHcj,Br and (BH)max values of 101.7%, 95.4%, and 88.58%, respectively, were recovered.

  2. Microstructure and dielectric properties of dysprosium-doped barium titanate ceramics Microestrutura e propriedades dielétricas de cerâmicas de titanato de bário dopado com disprósio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Pu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The substitution behavior and lattice parameter of barium titanate between solid_solubility with a dopant concentration in the range of 0.25 to 1.5 mol% are studied. The influences of dysprosium-doped fraction on the grain size and dielectric properties of barium titanate ceramic, including dielectric constant and breakdown electric field strength, are investigated via scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electric property tester. The results show that, at a dysprosium concentration of 0.75 mol%, the abnormal grain growth is inhibited and the lattice parameters of grain rise up to the maximum because of the lowest vacancy concentration. In addition, the finegrain and high density of barium titanate ceramic result in its excellent dielectric properties. The relative dielectric constant (25 °C reaches to 4100. The temperature coefficient of the capacitance varies from -10 to 10% within the temperature range of -15 °C -100 °C, and the breakdown electric field strength (alternating current achieves 3.2 kV/mm. These data suggest that our barium titanate could be used in the manufacture of high voltage ceramic capacitors.Foram estudados o comportamento da substituição e o parâmetro de rede de titanato de bário da solubilidade sólida com uma concentração de dopante na faixa 0,25-1,5 mol%. As influências da fração do dopante disprósio no tamanho de grão e nas propriedades dielétricas da cerâmica de titanato de bário, incluindo constante dielétrica e rigidez dielétrica foram investigadas por meio de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, difração de raios X e teste de propriedades elétricas. Os resultados mostram que a uma concentração de disprósio de 0,75 mol% o crescimento anormal de grão é inibido e os parâmetros de rede aumentam até um máximo devido a menor concentração de vacâncias. Além disso, as cerâmicas de grãos pequenos e alta densidade resultam em excelentes propriedades dielétricas. A

  3. A naproxen complex of dysprosium intercalates into calf thymus DNA base pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Mengsi; Jin, Jianhua; Xu, Guiqing [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Cui, Fengling, E-mail: fenglingcui@hotmail.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Luo, Hongxia [Department of Chemistry, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Binding mode to ctDNA was studied by various methods. • Intercalation is the most possible binding mode. • Dynamic and static quenching occurred simultaneously. • Hydrophobic force played a major role. • Binding characteristic of rare earth complexes to DNA are dependent on the element. - Abstract: The binding mode and mechanism of dysprosium–naproxen complex (Dy–NAP) with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ctDNA) were studied using UV–vis and fluorescence spectra in physiological buffer (pH 7.4). The results showed that more than one type of quenching process occurred and the binding mode between Dy–NAP with ctDNA might be intercalation. In addition, ionic strength, iodide quenching and fluorescence polarization experiments corroborated the intercalation binding mode between Dy–NAP and ctDNA. The calculated thermodynamic parameters ΔG, ΔH and ΔS at different temperature demonstrated that hydrophobic interaction force played a major role in the binding process.

  4. Single-molecule magnet behavior in an octanuclear dysprosium(iii) aggregate inherited from helical triangular Dy3 SMM-building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Lang; Wu, Jianfeng; Guo, Mei; Tang, Jinkui

    2016-06-28

    An unprecedented octanuclear dysprosium(iii) cluster with the formula [Dy8L6(μ3-OH)4(μ2-CH3O)2(CH3OH)6(H2O)2]·6H2O·10CH3OH·2CH3CN () based on a nonlinearly tritopic aroylhydrazone ligand H3L has been isolated, realizing the successful linking of pairwise interesting triangular Dy3 SMMs. It is noteworthy that two enantiomers (Λ and Δ configurations) individually behaving as a coordination-induced chirality presented in the Dy3 helicate are connected in the meso Dy8 cluster. Remarkably, alternating-current magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed that the Dy8 cluster shows typical SMM behavior inherited from its Dy3 helical precursor. It is one of the rare polynuclear Lnn SMMs (n > 7) under zero dc field.

  5. Another challenge to paramagnetic relaxation theory: a study of paramagnetic proton NMR relaxation in closely related series of pyridine-derivatised dysprosium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Nicola J; Finney, Katie-Louise N A; Senanayake, P Kanthi; Parker, David

    2016-02-14

    Measurements of the relaxation rate behaviour of two series of dysprosium complexes have been performed in solution, over the field range 1.0 to 16.5 Tesla. The field dependence has been modelled using Bloch-Redfield-Wangsness theory, allowing estimates of the electronic relaxation time, T1e, and the size of the magnetic susceptibility, μeff, to be made. Changes in relaxation rate of the order of 50% at higher fields were measured, following variation of the para-substituent in the single pyridine donor. The magnetic susceptibilities deviated unexpectedly from the free-ion values for certain derivatives in each series examined, in a manner that was independent of the electron-releasing/withdrawing ability of the pyridine substituent, suggesting that the polarisability of just one pyridine donor in octadenate ligands can play a significant role in defining the magnetic susceptibility anisotropy.

  6. Additivity dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Judgments of naturalness of foods tend to be more influenced by the process history of a food, rather than its actual constituents. Two types of processing of a ``natural'' food are to add something or to remove something. We report in this study, based on a large random sample of individuals from six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, UK and USA that additives are considered defining features of what makes a food not natural, whereas ``subtractives'' are almost never mentioned. In support of this, skim milk (with major subtraction of fat is rated as more natural than whole milk with a small amount of natural vitamin D added. It is also noted that ``additives'' is a common word, with a synonym reported by a native speaker in 17 of 18 languages, whereas ``subtractive'' is lexicalized in only 1 of the 18 languages. We consider reasons for additivity dominance, relating it to omission bias, feature positive bias, and notions of purity.

  7. Potlining Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  8. Additivity dominance

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Judgments of naturalness of foods tend to be more influenced by the process history of a food, rather than its actual constituents. Two types of processing of a ``natural'' food are to add something or to remove something. We report in this study, based on a large random sample of individuals from six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, UK and USA) that additives are considered defining features of what makes a food not natural, whereas ``subtractives'' are almost never mentioned....

  9. Sulfite Additives

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    The CMA recommends that sulfites be banned as food preservatives when satisfactory and safe alternatives are available. When there is no suitable substitute strict labelling requirements on foods should be imposed for sulfite additives. The association supports the efforts of the Health Protection Branch of the Department of National Health and Welfare to regulate sulfites in the food and drug industry to prevent adverse reactions in people sensitive to sulfites. The CMA recommends that the D...

  10. Tuning the composition and magnetostructure of dysprosium iron garnets by Co-substitution: An XRD, FT-IR, XPS and VSM study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tholkappiyan, R.; Vishista, K., E-mail: raovishista@gmail.com

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Garnet type Dy{sub 3}Fe{sub 5−x}Co{sub x}O{sub 12} (x = 0–0.06) nanoparticles were synthesized by glycine assisted combustion method. • To investigate and confirm the phases in the synthesized ferrite nanoparticles by FT-IR and XRD analysis. • To investigate the compositional and oxidation state of the samples by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. • The detailed core level spectra of Dy 4d, Fe 2p, Co 2p and O 1s were analyzed using XPS. • The magnetic property was studied by VSM technique. - Abstract: We report the Co-substituting on the synthesis and properties of garnet type dysprosium ferrite nanoparticles by basic composition Dy{sub 3}Fe{sub 5−x}Co{sub x}O{sub 12} (x = 0–0.06) synthesized through glycine assisted combustion method. A possible formation mechanism of synthesized Dy{sub 3}Fe{sub 5−x}Co{sub x}O{sub 12} samples by controlling the synthesis process has been proposed. XRD, FT-IR, XPS and VSM studies were used to investigate the compositional and magnetostructural properties of the prepared nanoparticles. XRD results confirm that all the samples are single-phase cubic garnet structure with mean crystallite size of 97–105 nm obtained from Scherrer method and 95–102 nm from W–H method. FT-IR analysis shows the presence of three expected bands in the frequency limit of 450–600 cm{sup −1} attributed to metal–O stretching vibration in tetrahedral site of garnet structure. A typical survey spectrum from XPS results confirmed the presence of Dy, Fe, Co and O elements in the samples. This study also to characterize the different oxidation states of the samples by fitting the parameters of high resolution Dy 4d, Fe 2p, Co 2p and O 1s XPS spectra. The XPS data of Dy 4d spectrum show that Dy{sup 3+} ion occupy in dodecahedral (D) site. The XPS analysis of Fe 2p and Co 2p data suggests that (Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+}), (Co{sup 3+} and Co{sup 2+}) are distributed in tetrahedral and octahedral sites

  11. A dysprosium-based metal-organic framework: Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure and interaction with calf thymus-DNA and bovine serum albumin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biplab Mondal; Buddhadeb Sen; Ennio Zangrando; Pabitra Chattopadhyay

    2014-07-01

    A dysprosium-based metallo-organic framework (MOF) containing calcium ions formulated as {Dy(pyda)3Ca1.5(H2O)6} · 5.5H2O (1) (H2pyda = pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid) was solvothermally synthesized in ethanolic medium and characterized by physico-chemical and spectroscopic tools. A detailed structural analysis of the solid state structure of 1 by single crystal X-ray diffraction study showed a tricapped trigonal prism geometry for lanthanide in the [Dy(pyda)3]3− fragment. The mode of interaction of 1 with calf thymus- DNA and with protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by using absorption and emission spectroscopic tools. The apparent association constant of complex 1 with CT-DNA was deduced from an absorption spectral study (b = 4.08 × 104 M-1). Spectral and viscosity measurements indicated a groove-binding mode of 1 with CT-DNA, and from spectroscopic study the formation of a metal complex-BSA adduct was assumed to be the result of the interaction of 1 with BSA.

  12. Dual-mode T1 and T2 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent based on ultrasmall mixed gadolinium-dysprosium oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and in vivo application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegafaw, Tirusew; Xu, Wenlong; Wasi Ahmad, Md; Baeck, Jong Su; Chang, Yongmin; Bae, Ji Eun; Chae, Kwon Seok; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Gang Ho

    2015-09-01

    A new type of dual-mode T1 and T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent based on mixed lanthanide oxide nanoparticles was synthesized. Gd3+ (8S7/2) plays an important role in T1 MRI contrast agents because of its large electron spin magnetic moment resulting from its seven unpaired 4f-electrons, and Dy3+ (6H15/2) has the potential to be used in T2 MRI contrast agents because of its very large total electron magnetic moment: among lanthanide oxide nanoparticles, Dy2O3 nanoparticles have the largest magnetic moments at room temperature. Using these properties of Gd3+ and Dy3+ and their oxide nanoparticles, ultrasmall mixed gadolinium-dysprosium oxide (GDO) nanoparticles were synthesized and their potential to act as a dual-mode T1 and T2 MRI contrast agent was investigated in vitro and in vivo. The D-glucuronic acid coated GDO nanoparticles (davg = 1.0 nm) showed large r1 and r2 values (r2/r1 ≈ 6.6) and as a result clear dose-dependent contrast enhancements in R1 and R2 map images. Finally, the dual-mode imaging capability of the nanoparticles was confirmed by obtaining in vivo T1 and T2 MR images.

  13. Experimental and molecular dynamics studies of dysprosium(III) salt solutions for a better representation of the microscopic features used within the binding mean spherical approximation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruas, Alexandre; Guilbaud, Philippe; Den Auwer, Christophe; Moulin, Christophe; Simonin, Jean-Pierre; Turq, Pierre; Moisy, Philippe

    2006-10-19

    This work is aimed at a predictive description of the thermodynamic properties of actinide(III) salt solutions at high concentration and 25 degrees C. A new solution of the binding mean spherical approximation (BIMSA) theory, based on the Wertheim formalism, for taking into account 1:1 and also 1:2 complex formation, is used to reproduce, from a simple procedure, experimental osmotic coefficient variation with concentration for three binary salt solutions of the same lanthanide(III) cation: dysprosium(III) perchlorate, nitrate, and chloride. The relevance of the fitted parameters is discussed, and their values are compared with available literature values. UV-vis/near-IR, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy experiments, and molecular dynamics (MD) calculations were conducted for dilute to concentrated solutions (ca. 3 mol.kg-1) for a study of the microscopic behavior of DyCl3 binary solutions. Coupling MD calculations and extended X-ray absorption fine structure led to the determination of reliable distances. The MD results were used for a discussion of the parameters used in the BIMSA.

  14. Experimental and molecular dynamics studies of dysprosium(III) salt solutions for a better representation of the microscopic features used within the binding mean spherical approximation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruas, Alexandre; Guilbaud, Philippe; Den Auwer, Christophe; Moulin, Christophe; Simonin, Jean-Pierre; Turq, Pierre; Moisy, Philippe [DEN/DRCP/SCPS, CEA-Valrho Marcoule, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex, DEN/DPC/SECR/LSRM, CEA-Saclay, Bat 391, BP 91191 Gif sur Yvette, Cedex (France); Laboratoire LI2C (UMR 7612), Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Boite No. 51, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2006-07-01

    This work is aimed at a predictive description of the thermodynamic properties of actinide (III) salt solutions at high concentration and 25 deg. C. A new solution of the binding mean spherical approximation (BIMSA) theory, based on the Wertheim formalism, for taking into account 1: 1 and also 1: 2 complex formation, is used to reproduce, from a simple procedure, experimental osmotic coefficient variation with concentration for three binary salt solutions of the same lanthanide (III) cation: dysprosium (III) perchlorate, nitrate, and chloride. The relevance of the fitted parameters is discussed, and their values are compared with available literature values. UV-vis/near-IR, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy experiments, and molecular dynamics (MD) calculations were conducted for dilute to concentrated solutions (ca. 3 mol, kg{sup -1}) for a study of the microscopic behavior of DyCl{sub 3} binary solutions. Coupling MD calculations and extended X-ray absorption fine structure led to the determination of reliable distances. The MD results were used for a discussion of the parameters used in the BIMSA. (authors)

  15. Elucidation of Dual Magnetic Relaxation Processes in Dinuclear Dysprosium(III) Phthalocyaninato Triple-Decker Single-Molecule Magnets Depending on the Octacoordination Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Keiichi; Aizawa, Yu; Morita, Takaumi; Breedlove, Brian K; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2017-08-07

    When applying single-molecule magnets (SMMs) to spintronic devices, control of the quantum tunneling of the magnetization (QTM) as well as a spin-lattice interactions are important. Attempts have been made to use not only coordination geometry but also magnetic interactions between SMMs as an exchange bias. In this manuscript, dinuclear dysprosium(III) (Dy(III) ) SMMs with the same octacoordination geometry undergo dual magnetic relaxation processes at low temperature. In the dinuclear Dy(III) phthalocyaninato (Pc(2-) ) triple-decker type complex [(Pc)Dy(ooPc)Dy(Pc)] (1) (ooPc(2-) =2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octakis(octyloxy)phthalocyaninato) with a square-antiprismatic (SAP) geometry, the ground state is divided by the Zeeman effect, and level intersection occurs when a magnetic field is applied. Due to the ground state properties of 1, since the Zeeman diagram where the levels intersect in an Hdc of 2500 Oe, two kinds of QTM and direct processes occur. However, dinuclear Dy(III) -Pc systems with C4 geometry, which have a twist angle (ϕ) of less than 45° do not undergo dual magnetic relaxation processes. From magnetic field and temperature dependences, the dual magnetic relaxation processes were clarified. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Annealing behaviour and crystal structure of RF-sputtered Bi-substituted dysprosium iron-garnet films having excess co-sputtered Bi-oxide content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, M; Nur-E-Alam, M; Alameh, K [Electron Science Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA, 6027 (Australia); Premchander, P; Lee, Y T [Department of Information and Communications, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kotov, V A [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 11 Mohovaya St, Moscow, 125009 (Russian Federation); Lee, Y P, E-mail: m.vasiliev@ecu.edu.au [Quantum Photonic Science Research Center, Department of Physics, Hanyang University, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-23

    We investigate the magneto-optic properties, crystal structure and annealing behaviour of nano-composite media with record-high magneto-optic quality exceeding the levels reported so far in sputtered iron-garnet films. Bi-substituted dysprosium-gallium iron-garnet films having excess bismuth oxide content are deposited using RF co-sputtering, and a range of garnet materials are crystallized using conventional oven-annealing processes. We report, for the first time ever, the results of optimization of thermal processing regimes for various high-performance magneto-optic iron-garnet compositions synthesized and describe the evolution of the optical and magneto-optical properties of garnet-Bi-oxide composite-material films occurring during the annealing processes. The crystallization temperature boundaries of the system (BiDy){sub 3}(FeGa){sub 5}O{sub 12} : Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} are presented. We also report the results of x-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy studies of this recently developed class of high-performance magneto-optic composites. Our hypothesis of iron oxides being the cause of excess optical absorption in sputtered Bi-iron-garnet films is confirmed experimentally.

  17. Global use structures of the magnetic materials neodymium and dysprosium. A scenario-based analysis of the effect of the diffusion of electromobility on the demand for rare earths; Globale Verwendungsstrukturen der Magnetwerkstoffe Neodym und Dysprosium. Eine szenariobasierte Analyse der Auswirkung der Diffusion der Elektromobilitaet auf den Bedarf an Seltenen Erden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloeser-Chahoud, Simon; Kuehn, Andre; Tercero Espinoza, Luis

    2016-06-15

    Neodymium-iron-boron magnets (NdFeB) have experienced a significant demand as the most powerful permanent magnet in recent years, especially for the manufacture of compact electric servomotors with high efficiency and high power density, especially for mobile applications in hybrid traction motors and electric vehicles or for electric bikes. However, NdFeB magnets are also increasingly being used in general mechanical engineering (conveying and pumping systems, tools, air conditioning systems, lift motors, etc.), in the small electric motors of conventional passenger cars or in the generators of large wind power plants with permanent magnetic direct drive. Nevertheless, there is still high uncertainty in the use structures of NdFeB magnets and the contained rare earth elements neodymium and dysprosium. An effective instrument for increasing the market transparency and the understanding of complex anthropogenic material cycles is the dynamic material flow modeling. In the present work paper, this instrument is used for an in-depth analysis of the use structures of NdFeB magnets and the contained rare earths on a global scale. The dynamic modeling of product usage cycles reveals today's usage structures and quantifies future magnetic quantities in obsolete product flows. It could be shown that the magnets in today's scrap volume are mainly contained in obsolete electronics applications such as hard disks (HDD), CD and DVD drives, which makes the recycling hardly seem to be economical due to the small magnets and the high material spread, but in the foreseeable future with larger magnetic quantities from synchronous servomotors and generators can be expected, which significantly increases the recycling potential. In a further step, the effect of the diffusion of alternative drives in the automotive market on the dysprosium requirement is analyzed using a system dynamics model and possible adaptation mechanisms in the form of different substitution effects in

  18. The role of dysprosium on the structural and magnetic properties of (Nd1-xDyx)2Fe14B nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Hamed; Ghasemi, Ali; Mozaffarinia, Reza; Tavoosi, Majid

    2017-02-01

    In current work, Nd2Fe14B nanoparticles was synthesized by sol-gel method. Dysprosium powders were added into Nd2Fe14B nanoparticles by mechanical alloying process in order to enhancement of coercivity. The phase analysis, structure, and magnetic properties of annealed (Nd1-xDyx)2Fe14B nanoparticles with different Dy-content (x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6) were investigated by employing X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and vibrating sample magnetometer techniques. The results showed that with an increase in Dy amounts, the coercivity of particles increased from 2.9 kOe to 13.4 kOe and then decreased to 5.6 kOe. By adding an optimum amount of Dy (x=0.4), the coercivity was significantly increased from 2.9 kOe to 13.4 kOe. The average particle size of annealed (Nd1-xDyx)2Fe14B nanoparticles was below 10 nm. Magnetization reversal studies indicate that the coercivity of milled and annealed (Nd1-xDyx)2Fe14B nanoparticles is controlled by the nucleation of reversed magnetic domains. The experimental results in the angular dependence of coercivity for (Nd1-xDyx)2Fe14B permanent magnets showed that the normalized coercivity of the permanent magnets Hc(θ)/Hc(0) increases from 1 to about 1.2-1.5 with increasing θ from 0 to about π/3, for x=0.4-0.6.

  19. Dysprosium(III) complexes with a square-antiprism configuration featuring mononuclear single-molecule magnetic behaviours based on different β-diketonate ligands and auxiliary ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Ke, Hongshan; Shi, Quan; Zhang, Jangwei; Yang, Qi; Wei, Qing; Xie, Gang; Wang, Wenyuan; Yang, Desuo; Chen, Sanping

    2016-03-28

    Three mononuclear dysprosium(III) complexes derived from three β-diketonate ligands, 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(4-methylphenyl)-1,3-butanedione (tfmb), 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-butanedione (tffb) and 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(2-naphthyl)-1,3-butanedione (tfnb) as well as auxiliary ligands, 5-nitro-1,10-phenanthroline (5-NO2-Phen), DMF and 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) have been synthesized and structurally characterized, namely [Dy(5-NO2-Phen)(tfmb)3] (1), [Dy(DMF)2(tffb)3] (2) and [Dy(bpy)2(tfnb)3]·0.5(1,4-dioxane) (3). The metal ions in 1-3 adopt an approximately square-antiprismatic (SAP) coordination environment with D4d axial symmetry. The magnetic properties of 1-3 have been investigated, displaying weak out-of-phase AC signals under a zero-DC field. With an applied DC field of 1200 Oe, the quantum tunnelling of the magnetization was suppressed in 1-3 with the pre-exponential factor τ0 = 5.3 × 10(-7) s and the effective barrier ΔE/kB = 83 K for 1 as well as the pre-exponential factor τ0 = 3.09 × 10(-7) s and the effective barrier ΔE/kB = 39 K for 3. Interestingly, for the frequency dependence of the out-of-phase (χ'') of the AC susceptibility of 2, two slow relaxation of the magnetization processes occurred under the applied magnetic field of 1200 Oe, corresponding to the fast relaxation (FR) phase and slow relaxation (SR) phase, respectively. Arrhenius analysis gave the effective energy barrier (ΔE/kB) of 55 K and the pre-exponential factor (τ0) of 8.23 × 10(-12) for the SR. It is thus very likely that the FR process in complex 2 results from QTM enhanced by dipolar interactions between the Dy ions or the presence of the applied field. The structure-property relationship of some Dy(III) based mononuclear SMMs with the SAP configuration was further discussed.

  20. Magnetic Phase Transition of Nanocrystalline Bulk Metal Gadolinium and Dysprosium%纳米块体金属钆和镝的磁性相变分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤艳; 侯碧辉; 岳明; 王克军

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic properties of bulk nanocrystalline metal gadolinium (Gd) and dysprosium (Dy)samples were studied.The magnetization and Curie temperature TC of nanocrystalline Gd and Dy decreased usually as compared with the polycrystal.However,when the mean grain size was 10 nm, the Curie temperature Tc of nanocrystalline Dy increased to 100 K instead and there was an antiferromagnetic phase in nanocrystalline Gd.According to the calculation based on Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida exchange interaction, the exchange integral of the grain boundary atoms and crystalline surface atoms had its sign changed from plus to minus or vice versa, and there were three orderly phases in the steady state with the lowest energy, ferromagnetic phase, antiferromagnetic phase and fan phase.For the nanocrystals with mean grain size of 10 nm, the proportion of grain boundary to crystalline surface atoms was high, and as the result of superposition of the three phases, and there appeared a peak near the phase transition temperature for the nanocrystalline Gd.While for the Dy, the magnetization decreased gently with temperature, and showing a higher Curie temperature than in the case of the polycrystal.%对纳米晶钆(Gd)和镝(Dy)块体材料的磁性进行了研究.与多晶比较,通常纳米晶的磁化强度减小,居里温度TC降低,但平均粒径为10 nm的纳米晶Dy的居里温度TC反而升高到100 K,平均粒径为10 nm的纳米晶Gd中还存在明显的反铁磁相.通过RKKY交换作用的计算知道,晶面晶界处原子的交换积分会发生正负号的变化,能量最低的稳定状态对应三种有序相:铁磁相、反铁磁相和扇相,晶粒中在一定条件下出现三相共存.对于平均粒径为10 nm的纳米晶,晶面晶界处原子所占比例很大,三相叠加的结果,对于Gd,即是在相变点附近出现磁化强度尖峰;对于Dy,则是磁化强度随温度升高下降缓慢,表现为居里温度TC比多晶升高.

  1. Extension of the energy range of the experimental activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium up to 65 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Tárkányi, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2016-01-01

    Activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium were extended up to 65 MeV by using stacked foil irradiation and gamma spectrometry experimental methods. Experimental cross-sections data for the formation of the radionuclides $^{159}$Dy, $^{157}$Dy, $^{155}$Dy, $^{161}$Tb, $^{160}$Tb, $^{156}$Tb, $^{155}$Tb, $^{154m2}$Tb, $^{154m1}$Tb, $^{154g}$Tb, $^{153}$Tb, $^{152}$Tb and $^{151}$Tb are reported in the 36-65 MeV energy range, and compared with an old dataset from 1964. The experimental data were also compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS nuclear reaction model code as listed in the latest on-line libraries TENDL 2013.

  2. Extension of the energy range of the experimental activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium up to 65MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2015-04-01

    Activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium were extended up to 65MeV by using stacked foil irradiation and gamma spectrometry experimental methods. Experimental cross-sections data for the formation of the radionuclides (159)Dy, (157)Dy, (155)Dy, (161)Tb, (160)Tb, (156)Tb, (155)Tb, (154m2)Tb, (154m1)Tb, (154g)Tb, (153)Tb, (152)Tb and (151)Tb are reported in the 36-65MeV energy range, and compared with an old dataset from 1964. The experimental data were also compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS nuclear reaction model code as listed in the latest on-line libraries TENDL 2013. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Dysprosium selective potentiometric membrane sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Hassan Ali, E-mail: haszamani@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faridbod, Farnoush; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-01

    A novel Dy(III) ion-selective PVC membrane sensor was made using a new synthesized organic compound, 3,4-diamino-N Prime -((pyridin-2-yl)methylene)benzohydrazide (L) as an excellent sensing element. The electrode showed a Nernstian slope of 19.8 {+-} 0.6 mV per decade in a wide concentration range of 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}-1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} mol L{sup -1}, a detection limit of 5.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} mol L{sup -1}, a short conditioning time, a fast response time (< 10 s), and high selectivity towards Dy(III) ion in contrast to other cations. The proposed sensor was successfully used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Dy(III) ions with EDTA. The membrane sensor was also applied to the F{sup -} ion indirect determination of some mouth washing solutions and to the Dy{sup 3+} determination in binary mixtures. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The novelty of this work is based on the high affinity of the ionophore toward the Dy{sup 3+} ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This technique is very simple, fast and inexpensive and it is not necessary to use sophisticated equipment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The newly developed sensor is superior to the formerly reported Dy{sup 3+} sensors in terms of selectivity.

  4. The magnetocaloric effect in dysprosium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, S. M.

    1979-01-01

    The magnetocaloric effect in polycrystalline Dy was measured in the 84-280-K range in measuring fields from 1 to 7 T. These adiabatic temperature changes reflect structural changes in Dy with applied field and temperature, and include the first magnetocaloric data for a helical antiferromagnet. Above the Neel point (179 K) a field increase always caused heating; below the Neel point fields less than about 2 T cause cooling for some values of initial temperature. The largest temperature increase with a 7 T field occurs at the Neel point and at fields below 2 T near the Curie point. For refrigeration purposes the optimal working region for a Dy cooling element is field dependent.

  5. [Food additives and healthiness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  6. Additives in yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milna Tudor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt production are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt production.

  7. Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Stewart W.; Martina, Filomeno; Addison, Adrian C.; Ding, Jialuo; Pardal, Goncalo; Colegrove, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Depositing large components (>10 kg) in titanium, aluminium, steel and other metals is possible using Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing. This technology adopts arc welding tools and wire as feedstock for additive manufacturing purposes. High deposition rates, low material and equipment costs, and good structural integrity make Wire+Arc Additive Manufacturing a suitable candidate for replacing the current method of manufacturing from solid billets or large forgings, especially with regards to ...

  8. Enhanced in-field critical currents of YBCO second-generation (2G) wire by Dy additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, N [Industrial Research Ltd, PO Box 31-310, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Strickland, N [Industrial Research Ltd, PO Box 31-310, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Chapman, B [Industrial Research Ltd, PO Box 31-310, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Ross, N [Industrial Research Ltd, PO Box 31-310, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Xia, J [Industrial Research Ltd, PO Box 31-310, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Li, X [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Zhang, W [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Kodenkandath, T [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Huang, Y [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Rupich, M [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    The addition of dysprosium oxide nanoparticles is shown to improve the critical current in perpendicular magnetic fields for second-generation (2G) wire formed by metal-organic deposition (MOD). Typical enhancements in J{sub c} are from 0.17 MA cm{sup -2} to over 0.33 MA cm{sup -2} at 77 K and B{sub perp} = 1.5 T. TEM analysis shows that we are introducing (Y,Dy){sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles with dimensions of 10-50 nm. A simple theoretical analysis shows that the maximum pinning effect for additions is expected at excess concentrations of approximately 70% DyO{sub 1.5}, i.e. for YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}+0.7DyO{sub 1.5} if the added nanoparticles are randomly dispersed and a strong pinning model is valid. An interesting feature is that the critical current in parallel field is reduced in these samples. We present evidence that shows this may be due to reduced planar defects in the YBCO.

  9. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  10. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Additive Gaussian Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Duvenaud, David; Rasmussen, Carl Edward

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a Gaussian process model of functions which are additive. An additive function is one which decomposes into a sum of low-dimensional functions, each depending on only a subset of the input variables. Additive GPs generalize both Generalized Additive Models, and the standard GP models which use squared-exponential kernels. Hyperparameter learning in this model can be seen as Bayesian Hierarchical Kernel Learning (HKL). We introduce an expressive but tractable parameterization of the kernel function, which allows efficient evaluation of all input interaction terms, whose number is exponential in the input dimension. The additional structure discoverable by this model results in increased interpretability, as well as state-of-the-art predictive power in regression tasks.

  12. Additive and polynomial representations

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, David H; Suppes, Patrick

    1971-01-01

    Additive and Polynomial Representations deals with major representation theorems in which the qualitative structure is reflected as some polynomial function of one or more numerical functions defined on the basic entities. Examples are additive expressions of a single measure (such as the probability of disjoint events being the sum of their probabilities), and additive expressions of two measures (such as the logarithm of momentum being the sum of log mass and log velocity terms). The book describes the three basic procedures of fundamental measurement as the mathematical pivot, as the utiliz

  13. Neodymium Dysprosium Modified Starch- coated Magnetic Fluid Preparation of Ferrite%淀粉包覆镝钕改性铁氧体磁性液体的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林穗云; 周育辉

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, in order to obtain the ferrite magnetic fluids of higher saturation magnetic intensity with simple technology, nanometer magnetite ( Fe3O4 ) particles ware prepared by chemical co - precipitation. And to a certain proportion of Dysprosium Neodymium ferrite magnetic fluids on the modification, we selected starch prepara- tion for the relief of water - based coating of rare earth iron oxide magnetic fluid composites. We also investigated the amount of Nd - Dy, the amount of coating agent, reaction temperature, coating temperature on the performance of the products and the effects of particle size, and its preliminary characterization was also performed . Through experiment,we summed up, under n (Fe) : [ n ( Nd3+ ) + n ( Dy3+ ) ] = 30:1 and n ( Fe3 + ) : n ( Fe2 + ) = 1.70 ~ 1. 75, the ratio for use of dysprosium and neodymium is n(Dy3+ ) : n(Nd3+ ) =4:1, 25%NH3 · H2O(A. R. ) as precipitating agent and pH value conditioner; the reacting system temperature was controlled in 35 ℃, and the pH value was adjusted to 9 ~ 11 ; the best dosage of starch as the relief is O. 0050g each 6OraL magnetic fluids, the temperature of surfactant was controlled in 50℃ and the pH value was adjusted to 2 ~ 3. In such system under the conditions of a water - based rare - earth compound Nd Dy Fe Magnetic, fluid magnetic oxygen was higher than or- dinary water- based ferrite.%为制备工艺简单且饱和磁化强度高的磁流体,本文采用化学共沉淀法制得了纳米磁性Fe304粒子.然后以一定比例的镝钕对铁氧体磁流体改性,选择淀粉为包覆剂制备水基稀土复合铁氧磁流体.考察了镝钕的用量、包覆剂的用量、反应温度、包覆温度等因素对产物粒径及性能的影响,并对其进行了初步的性能表征.实验总结出适宜的条件:在n(Fe):[n(Nd3+)+n(Dy3+)]=30:1,n(Fe3+):n(Fe2+)=1.70~1.75

  14. Food additives data book

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Jim; Hong-Shum, Lily

    2011-01-01

    .... Compiled by food industry experts with a proven track record of producing high quality reference work, this volume is the definitive resource for technologists using food additives"-- "The use...

  15. Groups – Additive Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We translate the articles covering group theory already available in the Mizar Mathematical Library from multiplicative into additive notation. We adapt the works of Wojciech A. Trybulec [41, 42, 43] and Artur Korniłowicz [25].

  16. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  17. Additively Manufactured Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    Dushku, Matthew; Mueller, Paul

    2012-01-01

    New high-performance, carbon-fiber reinforced polymer material allows additive manufacturing to produce pressure vessels capable of high pressures (thousands of pounds per square inch). This advancement in turn allows integral hybrid propulsion which is revolutionary for both CubeSats and additively-manufactured spacecraft. Hybrid propulsion offers simplicity as compared to bipropellant liquid propulsion, significantly better safety compared to solid or monopropellant hydrazine propulsion, an...

  18. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  19. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  20. From additivity to synergism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Christian; Streibig, Jens Carl

    2014-01-01

    Interest in synergistic or antagonistic effects through mixture experiments has grown immensely over the past two decades, not the least within in pharmacology and toxicology. Several definitions of reference models exist; one commonly used reference model is concentration or dose addition, which...... assumes compounds, when administrated simultaneously, do not interfere with each other at the site of action. We focus on statistical modelling that allows evaluation of dose addition. We will describe several statistical approaches that are suitable for analysis mixture data where synergistic...... or antagonistic effects may be present. The statistical models are defined and explained and some of the approaches exemplified. Code in open-source software is provided....

  1. Additives for the Axe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On May 1,China will begin to ban the production and use of two food additives commonly used to "bleach" flour,benzoyl peroxide and calcium peroxide.The decision was made after 10 years of wrangling between the policy makers,manufacturers,scientists and consumers.The Ministry of Health said in a statement it was applying the ban in response to consumers’ concerns about chemical substances in food,and technical improvements that had made the two additives unnecessary in flour processing.Minister of Health Chen Zhu has also said

  2. Alcohols as gasoline additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawetz, P.

    1982-12-01

    This paper showed that, when using alcohol octane-boosting additives to gasoline, one attains several goals at the same time: (a) there is an increased saving in petroleum crude, since the alcohol is not merely a substitute for gasoline but rather a substitute for the octane-boosting additives used in the manufacture of unleaded gasoline; and (b) the production of fermentation ethanol for a fuel purpose can help revitalize the agricultural sector in different economics systems, thus becoming a road to economic development.

  3. Biobased lubricant additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  4. Sarks as additional fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Jyoti; Frampton, Paul H.; Jack Ng, Y.; Nishino, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Osamu

    1991-03-01

    An extension of the standard model is proposed. The gauge group is SU(2) X ⊗ SU(3) C ⊗ SU(2) S ⊗ U(1) Q, where all gauge symmetries are unbroken. The colour and electric charge are combined with SU(2) S which becomes strongly coupled at approximately 500 GeV and binds preons to form fermionic and vector bound states. The usual quarks and leptons are singlets under SU(2) X but additional fermions, called sarks. transform under it and the electroweak group. The present model explains why no more than three light quark-lepton families can exist. Neutral sark baryons, called narks, are candidates for the cosmological dark matter having the characteristics designed for WIMPS. Further phenomenological implications of sarks are analyzed i including electron-positron annihilation. Z 0 decay, flavor-changing neutral currents. baryon-number non-conservation, sarkonium and the neutron electric dipole moment.

  5. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  6. 表面修饰对镝铁氧体纳米磁粒子的合成及其磁性能的影响%Effect of Surface Modification on Formation and Magnetic Property of Dysprosium Ferrite Nanomagnetic Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静; 张茂润; 邓真娟

    2011-01-01

    利用湿化学法制备镝铁氧体纳米磁粒子时,用适量的阴离子表面活性剂进行表面修饰,能够有效地控制磁粒子的粒径,同时避免干燥时产生硬团聚.文章介绍了用月桂酸、月桂酸钠、正十二烷基硫酸钠对磁粒子进行表面修饰的研究结果,探讨了三者及其用量对磁粒子的形成及磁性能的影响.借助X射线衍射仪(XRD)、透射电镜(TEM)、振动样品磁强计(VSM)、红外光谱仪(IR)对产物的性能进行了表征.结果表明,用月桂酸修饰后的产物具有Fe3O4磁粒子的晶型结构且结晶度高、磁性能优异、平均粒径约16nm;用月桂酸钠、正十二烷基硫酸钠修饰后的产物不具有Fe3O4磁粒子的晶型结构,结晶度低且磁性能差.%When wet chemical method are use to prepare dysprosium-doped ferrite magnetic nanoparticles, right a-mount of anionic surfactant were doped as surface modification, which can effectively control the size of magnetic particles, and avoid producing hard reunion when dry out. This paper introduces the research results of magnetic particle surface modification by using lauric acid, laurel acid sodium and lauryl sodium sulfate, discusses the effect of lauric acid, laurel acid sodium and lauryl sodium sulfate and their dosages on the formation of magnetic and its magnetic property. The properties of the product can be characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), infrared spectrometer (IR). The results showed that the product modified with lauric acid have a crystalline structure of Fe3O4 magnetic particles and high crystallin-ity, excellent magnetic properties. The average particle size is about 16 nm; the product modified with laurel acid sodium and lauryl sodium sulfate does not have the crystalline structure of Fe3O4 magnetic particles, with low crystal-linity and low magnetic property.

  7. The Additive Hazard Mixing Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping LI; Xiao-liang LING

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the aging and dependence properties in the additive hazard mixing models including some stochastic comparisons.Further,some useful bounds of reliability functions in additive hazard mixing models are obtained.

  8. ADDITIVES USED TO OBTAIN FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of food additives in food is determined by the growth of contemporary food needs of the world population. Additives used in food, both natural and artificial ones, contribute to: improving the organoleptic characteristics and to preserve the food longer, but we must not forget that all these additives should not be found naturally in food products. Some of these additives are not harmful and human pests in small quantities, but others may have harmful effects on health.

  9. Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils . A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for... lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order to give the additive detergent properties

  10. Additive interaction in survival analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Lange, Theis; Andersen, Ingelise

    2012-01-01

    It is a widely held belief in public health and clinical decision-making that interventions or preventive strategies should be aimed at patients or population subgroups where most cases could potentially be prevented. To identify such subgroups, deviation from additivity of absolute effects...... implementation guide of the additive hazards model is provided in the appendix....

  11. Additive Effects on Asymmetric Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liang; Sun, Wangsheng; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Rui

    2016-03-23

    This review highlights a number of additives that can be used to make asymmetric reactions perfect. Without changing other reaction conditions, simply adding additives can lead to improved asymmetric catalysis, such as reduced reaction time, improved yield, or/and increased selectivity.

  12. Density measures and additive property

    OpenAIRE

    Kunisada, Ryoichi

    2015-01-01

    We deal with finitely additive measures defined on all subsets of natural numbers which extend the asymptotic density (density measures). We consider a class of density measures which are constructed from free ultrafilters on natural numbers and study a certain additivity property of such density measures.

  13. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, B.S.; Resch, V.; Otten, L.G.; Hanefeld, U.

    2014-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus st

  14. Density measures and additive property

    OpenAIRE

    Kunisada, Ryoichi

    2015-01-01

    We deal with finitely additive measures defined on all subsets of natural numbers which extend the asymptotic density (density measures). We consider a class of density measures which are constructed from free ultrafilters on natural numbers and study a certain additivity property of such density measures.

  15. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  16. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  17. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...

  18. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  19. Prevalence of Food Additive Intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1994-01-01

    estimates are questionable but may be less than 0.15%. In adults and children with reproducible, and with more subjective symptoms, such as headache and behavioural/mood change the prevalence is even lower (0.026%). Food additive intolerance is primarily found in atopic children with cutaneous symptoms.......026%. The challenged population is 81 children and adults with a history of reproducible clinical symptoms after ingestion of food additives. 4 In the Danish population study a prevalence of 1-2% is found in children age 5-16. In this study a total of 606 children mainly with atopic disease have been challenged. 5...... where the additive is aggravating an existing disease. The prevalence of food additive intolerance in children age 5-16 is 1-2%....

  20. Adverse reactions to drug additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R A

    1984-10-01

    There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.

  1. Wide and High Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roschli, Alex C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the enabling technologies for Wide and High Additive Manufacturing (WHAM). WHAM will open up new areas of U.S. manufacturing for very large tooling in support of the transportation and energy industries, significantly reducing cost and lead time. As with Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM), the initial focus is on the deposition of composite materials.

  2. Addition on a Quantum Computer

    CERN Document Server

    Draper, Thomas G

    2000-01-01

    A new method for computing sums on a quantum computer is introduced. This technique uses the quantum Fourier transform and reduces the number of qubits necessary for addition by removing the need for temporary carry bits. This approach also allows the addition of a classical number to a quantum superposition without encoding the classical number in the quantum register. This method also allows for massive parallelization in its execution.

  3. Food additives and preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  4. Additive manufacturing of tunable lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Katja; Novak, Tobias; Heinrich, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Individual additive manufacturing of optical systems based on 3D Printing offers varied possibilities in design and usage. In addition to the additive manufacturing procedure, the usage of tunable lenses allows further advantages for intelligent optical systems. Our goal is to bring the advantages of additive manufacturing together with the huge potential of tunable lenses. We produced tunable lenses as a bundle without any further processing steps, like polishing. The lenses were designed and directly printed with a 3D Printer as a package. The design contains the membrane as an optical part as well as the mechanical parts of the lens, like the attachments for the sleeves which contain the oil. The dynamic optical lenses were filled with an oil. The focal length of the lenses changes due to a change of the radius of curvature. This change is caused by changing the pressure in the inside of the lens. In addition to that, we designed lenses with special structures to obtain different areas with an individual optical power. We want to discuss the huge potential of this technology for several applications. Further, an appropriate controlling system is needed. Wéll show the possibilities to control and regulate the optical power of the lenses. The lenses could be used for illumination tasks, and in the future, for individual measurement tasks. The main advantage is the individuality and the possibility to create an individual design which completely fulfills the requirements for any specific application.

  5. Clinical effects of sulphite additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vally, H; Misso, N L A; Madan, V

    2009-11-01

    Sulphites are widely used as preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Topical, oral or parenteral exposure to sulphites has been reported to induce a range of adverse clinical effects in sensitive individuals, ranging from dermatitis, urticaria, flushing, hypotension, abdominal pain and diarrhoea to life-threatening anaphylactic and asthmatic reactions. Exposure to the sulphites arises mainly from the consumption of foods and drinks that contain these additives; however, exposure may also occur through the use of pharmaceutical products, as well as in occupational settings. While contact sensitivity to sulphite additives in topical medications is increasingly being recognized, skin reactions also occur after ingestion of or parenteral exposure to sulphites. Most studies report a 3-10% prevalence of sulphite sensitivity among asthmatic subjects following ingestion of these additives. However, the severity of these reactions varies, and steroid-dependent asthmatics, those with marked airway hyperresponsiveness, and children with chronic asthma, appear to be at greater risk. In addition to episodic and acute symptoms, sulphites may also contribute to chronic skin and respiratory symptoms. To date, the mechanisms underlying sulphite sensitivity remain unclear, although a number of potential mechanisms have been proposed. Physicians should be aware of the range of clinical manifestations of sulphite sensitivity, as well as the potential sources of exposure. Minor modifications to diet or behaviour lead to excellent clinical outcomes for sulphite-sensitive individuals.

  6. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  7. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  8. Topology Optimization for Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders

    This PhD thesis deals with the combination of topology optimization and additive man-ufacturing (AM, also known as 3D-printing). In addition to my own works, the thesis contains a broader review and assessment of the literature within the field. The thesis first presents a classification...... of the various AM technologies, a review of relevant manufacturing materials, the properties of these materials in the additively manufactured part, as well as manufacturing constraints with a potential for design optimization. Subsequently, specific topology optimization formulations relevant for the most im......-portant AM-related manufacturing constraints are presented. These constraints are di-vided into directional and non-directional constraints. Non-directional constraints include minimum/uniform length scale and a cavity constraint. It is shown that modified filter boundary conditions are required in order...

  9. Ruzsa's Constant on Additive Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Hui FANG; Yong Gao CHEN

    2013-01-01

    A function f:N → R is called additive if f(mn) =f(m)+f(n) for all m,n with (m,n) =1.Let μ(x) =maxn≤x(f(n)-f(n + 1)) and v(x) =maxn≤x(f(n + 1)-f(n)).In 1979,Ruzsa proved that there exists a constant c such that for any additive function f,μ(x) ≤ cv(x2) + cf,where cf is a constant depending only on f.Denote by Raf the least such constant c.We call Raf Ruzsa's constant on additive functions.In this paper,we prove that Raf ≤ 20.

  10. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  11. Search for additional Higgs bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Jochen; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Standard Model of particle physics is one of the most well-established theories in physics. However, it has some flaws which cannot be explained without physics beyond the Standard Model. Most of the theoretically explored extensions which provide potential solutions include further Higgs bosons in addition to the discovered resonance with the mass of about 125 GeV. This talk summarizes current efforts carried out by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations targeting at the discovery of further resonances. A variety of observables in multiple final states is studied and interpreted in terms of additional Higgs bosons predicted by selected models. Those additional bosons are not necessarily neutral, but could also be charged.

  12. Additional disulfide bonds in insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N; Pettersson, Ingrid; Huus, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    The structure of insulin, a glucose homeostasis-controlling hormone, is highly conserved in all vertebrates and stabilized by three disulfide bonds. Recently, we designed a novel insulin analogue containing a fourth disulfide bond located between positions A10-B4. The N-terminus of insulin's B......-chain is flexible and can adapt multiple conformations. We examined how well disulfide bond predictions algorithms could identify disulfide bonds in this region of insulin. In order to identify stable insulin analogues with additional disulfide bonds, which could be expressed, the Cβ cut-off distance had...... in comparison to analogues with additional disulfide bonds that were more difficult to predict. In contrast, addition of the fourth disulfide bond rendered all analogues resistant to fibrillation under stress conditions and all stable analogues bound to the insulin receptor with picomolar affinities. Thus...

  13. The selective addition of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resch, V.; Hanefeld, U.

    2014-01-01

    Water is omnipresent and essential. Yet at the same time it is a rather unreactive molecule. The direct addition of water to C[double bond, length as m-dash]C double bonds is therefore a challenge not answered convincingly. In this perspective we critically evaluate the selectivity and the applicabi

  14. Pragmatics in Court Interpreting: Additions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    2003-01-01

    Danish court interpreters are expected to follow ethical guidelines, which instruct them to deliver exact verbatim versions of source texts. However, this requirement often clashes with the reality of the interpreting situation in the courtroom. This paper presents and discusses the findings of a...... of an investigation regarding one kind of interpreter modification in particular: additions. The investigation was undertaken for a doctoral thesis....

  15. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wauthle, Ruben; Van Der Stok, Johan; Yavari, Saber Amin; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of it

  16. Protocol for ADDITION-PRO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Nanna Borup; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Jensen, Troels M

    2012-01-01

    disease and microvascular diabetic complications. We also require a better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie and drive early changes in cardiometabolic physiology. The ADDITION-PRO study was designed to address these issues among individuals at different levels of diabetes risk recruited from...... Danish primary care. METHODS/DESIGN: ADDITION-PRO is a population-based, longitudinal cohort study of individuals at high risk for diabetes. 16,136 eligible individuals were identified at high risk following participation in a stepwise screening programme in Danish general practice between 2001 and 2006...... at high risk for diabetes. The detailed phenotyping of this cohort will also allow a number of research questions concerning early changes in cardiometabolic physiology to be addressed....

  17. The Frontiers of Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-03

    Additive manufacturing, more commonly known as 3-D printing, has become a ubiquitous tool in science for its precise control over mechanical design. For additive manufacturing to work, a 3-D structure is split into thin 2D slices, and then different physical properties, such as photo-polymerization or melting, are used to grow the sequential layers. The level of control allows not only for devices to be made with a variety of materials: e.g. plastics, metals, and quantum dots, but to also have finely controlled structures leading to other novel properties. While 3-D printing is widely used by hobbyists for making models, it also has industrial applications in structural engineering, biological tissue scaffolding, customized electric circuitry, fuel cells, security, and more.

  18. Ice cream with additional value

    OpenAIRE

    Melicharová, Barbora

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to summarise current knowledge about production and properties of ice cream with an additional value. Nowadays, incorporation of probiotics is considered as the most intensively studied possibility for functional ice cream manufacture. Their viability depends on the kind of a microorganism, for example bifidobacteria are mostly less stable than lactobacilli in ice cream matrix. Lactobacillus acidophilus AB518, AK414, Lactobacillus agilis AA1773, AC1888 and L...

  19. ADDITIONAL STREET BERBASIS APP INVENTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Adib Adhi Prabowo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Seiring dengan perkembangan sistem operasi android, telah banyak aplikasi yang memanfaatkan fasilitas GPS dan Google Map, seperti untuk mencari rute, mendapatkan peta, mencari lokasi tertentu pada sebuah tempat. Akan tetapi seringkali pengguna perangkat bergerak kesulitan ketika ingin mengetahui beberapa tempat dan lokasi tertentu karena belum ada fasilitas yang menyediakan informasi lokasi suatu tempat. Walaupun ada informasi lokasi pada peta biasanya informasi yang diberikan lokasi tempat berskala besar, misalnya lokasi tempat wisata atau stasiun kereta api. Pengembangan aplikasi untuk skala kecil ini akan memberikan informasi yang dipresentasikan pada google map. Selama ini belum ada yang memberikan sebuah informasi lokasi tempat penting yang berskala kecil. Misalnya informasi lokasi  tambal ban, lokasi warung makan, lokasi laundry, dan lokasi bengkel motor. Oleh karena itu kami mencoba untuk mengembangkan aplikasi additional street berbasis android via App Inventor dengan bantuan google maps. Aplikasi additional street ini dapat memberikan informasi letak objek pada peta serta memberikan informasi jalan menuju lokasi tersebut dan detail informasi lokasi tersebut serta lokasi dari pengguna aplikasi tersebut. Kata Kunci: additional street, android, google maps, app inventor, GPS

  20. Tweaking Synchronisation by Link Addition

    CERN Document Server

    Schultz, Paul; Eroglu, Deniz; Stemler, Thomas; Ávila, G Marcelo Ramírez; Rodrigues, Francisco A; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Natural and man-made networks often possess locally tree-like sub-structures. Taking such tree networks as our starting point, we show how the addition of links changes the synchronization properties of the network. We focus on two different methods of link addition. The first method adds single links that create cycles of a well-defined length. Following a topological approach we introduce cycles of varying length and analyze how this feature, as well as the position in the network, alters the synchronous behaviour. We show that in particular short cycles can lead to a maximum change of the Laplacian's eigenvalue spectrum, dictating the synchronization properties of such networks. The second method connects a certain proportion of the initially unconnected nodes. We simulate dynamical systems on these network topologies, with the nodes' local dynamics being either a discrete or continuous. Here our main result is that a certain amount of additional links, with the relative position in the network being cruci...

  1. Reversible Oxidative Addition at Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Antonius F; Fuchs, Sonja; Flock, Marco; Marder, Todd B; Radius, Udo

    2017-04-07

    The reactivity of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and cyclic alkyl amino carbenes (cAACs) with arylboronate esters is reported. The reaction with NHCs leads to the reversible formation of thermally stable Lewis acid/base adducts Ar-B(OR)2 ⋅NHC (Add1-Add6). Addition of cAAC(Me) to the catecholboronate esters 4-R-C6 H4 -Bcat (R=Me, OMe) also afforded the adducts 4-R-C6 H4 Bcat⋅cAAC(Me) (Add7, R=Me and Add8, R=OMe), which react further at room temperature to give the cAAC(Me) ring-expanded products RER1 and RER2. The boronate esters Ar-B(OR)2 of pinacol, neopentylglycol, and ethyleneglycol react with cAAC at RT via reversible B-C oxidative addition to the carbene carbon atom to afford cAAC(Me) (B{OR}2 )(Ar) (BCA1-BCA6). NMR studies of cAAC(Me) (Bneop)(4-Me-C6 H4 ) (BCA4) demonstrate the reversible nature of this oxidative addition process.

  2. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  3. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  4. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  5. The Mozart Effect: Additional Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John R.

    2002-04-01

    After the review of the Mozart effect was published in this journal (Hughes JR. Epilepsy Behav 2001;2:369-417), additional data from the music of Haydn and Liszt have been analyzed that may account for the decrease in seizure activity originally reported during Mozart music. Even with these added data Mozart music continued to score significantly higher than the selections from the other six composers in one of the important characteristics of this music, namely, the repetition of the melody. However Haydn's values were second highest among Mozart, J. S. Bach, Wagner, Beethoven, Chopin, and Liszt.

  6. Additive Manufacturing of Porous Metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kirka, Michael M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Currently, helium is obtained through separation from natural gas. The current industrial process incurs significant costs and requires large energy resources to successfully achieve separation. Through utilizing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies it is possible to reduce both of these burdens when refining helium gas. The ability to engineer porosity levels within Inconel 718 discs for controlled separation of helium from natural gas was investigated. Arrays of samples fabricated using the electron beam melting process were analyzed for their relative porosity density. Based upon the measurements, full scale discs were fabricated, and subsequently tested to determine their effectiveness in separating helium from liquefied natural gas.

  7. Individualized additional instruction for calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Ken

    2010-10-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the student's performance. Our study compares two calculus classes, one taught with mandatory remedial IAI and the other without. The class with mandatory remedial IAI did significantly better on comprehensive multiple-choice exams, participated more frequently in classroom discussion and showed greater interest in theorem-proving and other advanced topics.

  8. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  9. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  10. Additive manufacturing with polypropylene microfibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Jodie N; Dargaville, Tim R; Dalton, Paul D

    2017-08-01

    The additive manufacturing of small diameter polypropylene microfibers is described, achieved using a technique termed melt electrospinning writing. Sequential fiber layering, which is important for accurate three-dimensional fabrication, was achieved with the smallest fiber diameter of 16.4±0.2μm obtained. The collector speed, temperature and melt flow rate to the nozzle were optimized for quality and minimal fiber pulsing. Of particular importance to the success of this method is appropriate heating of the collector plate, so that the electrostatically drawn filament adheres during the direct-writing process. By demonstrating the direct-writing of polypropylene, new applications exploiting the favorable mechanical, stability and biocompatible properties of this polymer are envisaged. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Business models for additive manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadar, Ronen; Bilberg, Arne; Bogers, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Digital fabrication — including additive manufacturing (AM), rapid prototyping and 3D printing — has the potential to revolutionize the way in which products are produced and delivered to the customer. Therefore, it challenges companies to reinvent their business model — describing the logic...... of creating and capturing value. In this paper, we explore the implications that AM technologies have for manufacturing systems in the new business models that they enable. In particular, we consider how a consumer goods manufacturer can organize the operations of a more open business model when moving from...... a manufacturer-centric to a consumer-centric value logic. A major shift includes a move from centralized to decentralized supply chains, where consumer goods manufacturers can implement a “hybrid” approach with a focus on localization and accessibility or develop a fully personalized model where the consumer...

  12. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system.

  13. Dynamics of ultrasonic additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state technology for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils near room temperature by scrubbing them together with ultrasonic vibrations under pressure. Structural dynamics of the welding assembly and work piece influence how energy is transferred during the process and ultimately, part quality. To understand the effect of structural dynamics during UAM, a linear time-invariant model is proposed to relate the inputs of shear force and electric current to resultant welder velocity and voltage. Measured frequency response and operating performance of the welder under no load is used to identify model parameters. Using this model and in-situ measurements, shear force and welder efficiency are estimated to be near 2000N and 80% when welding Al 6061-H18 weld foil, respectively. Shear force and welder efficiency have never been estimated before in UAM. The influence of processing conditions, i.e., welder amplitude, normal force, and weld speed, on shear force and welder efficiency are investigated. Welder velocity was found to strongly influence the shear force magnitude and efficiency while normal force and weld speed showed little to no influence. The proposed model is used to describe high frequency harmonic content in the velocity response of the welder during welding operations and coupling of the UAM build with the welder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Additive attacks on speaker recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokh Baroughi, Alireza; Craver, Scott

    2014-02-01

    Speaker recognition is used to identify a speaker's voice from among a group of known speakers. A common method of speaker recognition is a classification based on cepstral coefficients of the speaker's voice, using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to model each speaker. In this paper we try to fool a speaker recognition system using additive noise such that an intruder is recognized as a target user. Our attack uses a mixture selected from a target user's GMM model, inverting the cepstral transformation to produce noise samples. In our 5 speaker data base, we achieve an attack success rate of 50% with a noise signal at 10dB SNR, and 95% by increasing noise power to 0dB SNR. The importance of this attack is its simplicity and flexibility: it can be employed in real time with no processing of an attacker's voice, and little computation is needed at the moment of detection, allowing the attack to be performed by a small portable device. For any target user, knowing that user's model or voice sample is sufficient to compute the attack signal, and it is enough that the intruder plays it while he/she is uttering to be classiffed as the victim.

  15. Dimensionless numbers in additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, T.; Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of many process variables and alloy properties on the structure and properties of additively manufactured parts are examined using four dimensionless numbers. The structure and properties of components made from 316 Stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, and Inconel 718 powders for various dimensionless heat inputs, Peclet numbers, Marangoni numbers, and Fourier numbers are studied. Temperature fields, cooling rates, solidification parameters, lack of fusion defects, and thermal strains are examined using a well-tested three-dimensional transient heat transfer and fluid flow model. The results show that lack of fusion defects in the fabricated parts can be minimized by strengthening interlayer bonding using high values of dimensionless heat input. The formation of harmful intermetallics such as laves phases in Inconel 718 can be suppressed using low heat input that results in a small molten pool, a steep temperature gradient, and a fast cooling rate. Improved interlayer bonding can be achieved at high Marangoni numbers, which results in vigorous circulation of liquid metal, larger pool dimensions, and greater depth of penetration. A high Fourier number ensures rapid cooling, low thermal distortion, and a high ratio of temperature gradient to the solidification growth rate with a greater tendency of plane front solidification.

  16. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  17. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.

  18. Children's understanding of additive concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Katherine M; Dubé, Adam K; Beatch, Jacqueline-Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most research on children's arithmetic concepts is based on one concept at a time, limiting the conclusions that can be made about how children's conceptual knowledge of arithmetic develops. This study examined six arithmetic concepts (identity, negation, commutativity, equivalence, inversion, and addition and subtraction associativity) in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Identity (a-0=a) and negation (a-a=0) were well understood, followed by moderate understanding of commutativity (a+b=b+a) and inversion (a+b-b=a), with weak understanding of equivalence (a+b+c=a+[b+c]) and associativity (a+b-c=[b-c]+a). Understanding increased across grade only for commutativity and equivalence. Four clusters were found: The Weak Concept cluster understood only identity and negation; the Two-Term Concept cluster also understood commutativity; the Inversion Concept cluster understood identity, negation, and inversion; and the Strong Concept cluster had the strongest understanding of all of the concepts. Grade 3 students tended to be in the Weak and Inversion Concept clusters, Grade 4 students were equally likely to be in any of the clusters, and Grade 5 students were most likely to be in the Two-Term and Strong Concept clusters. The findings of this study highlight that conclusions about the development of arithmetic concepts are highly dependent on which concepts are being assessed and underscore the need for multiple concepts to be investigated at the same time.

  19. From Local to Global Additive Representation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Chateauneuf, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper studies continuous additive representations of transitive preferences on connected subdomains of product sets. Contrary to what has sometimes been thought, local additive representability does not imply global additive representability. It is shown that the result can nevertheless be

  20. From local to global additive representation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Chateauneuf (Alain); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThis paper studies continuous additive representations of transitive preferences on connected subdomains of product sets. Contrary to what has sometimes been thought, local additive representability does not imply global additive representability. It is shown that the result can

  1. Septic tank additive impacts on microbial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S; Hoover, M T; Clark, G H; Gumpertz, M; Wollum, A G; Cobb, C; Strock, J

    2008-01-01

    Environmental health specialists, other onsite wastewater professionals, scientists, and homeowners have questioned the effectiveness of septic tank additives. This paper describes an independent, third-party, field scale, research study of the effects of three liquid bacterial septic tank additives and a control (no additive) on septic tank microbial populations. Microbial populations were measured quarterly in a field study for 12 months in 48 full-size, functioning septic tanks. Bacterial populations in the 48 septic tanks were statistically analyzed with a mixed linear model. Additive effects were assessed for three septic tank maintenance levels (low, intermediate, and high). Dunnett's t-test for tank bacteria (alpha = .05) indicated that none of the treatments were significantly different, overall, from the control at the statistical level tested. In addition, the additives had no significant effects on septic tank bacterial populations at any of the septic tank maintenance levels. Additional controlled, field-based research iswarranted, however, to address additional additives and experimental conditions.

  2. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  3. Additive-driven assembly of block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Daga, Vikram; Anderson, Eric; Watkins, James

    2011-03-01

    One challenge to the formation of well ordered hybrid materials is the incorporation of nanoscale additives including metal, semiconductor and dielectric nanoparticles at high loadings while maintaining strong segregation. Here we describe the molecular and functional design of small molecule and nanoparticle additives that enhance phase segregation in their block copolymer host and enable high additive loadings. Our approach includes the use of hydrogen bond interactions between the functional groups on the additive or particle that serve as hydrogen bond donors and one segment of the block copolymer containing hydrogen bond acceptors. Further, the additives show strong selectively towards the targeted domains, leading to enhancements in contrast between properties of the phases. In addition to structural changes, we explore how large changes in the thermal and mechanical properties occur upon incorporation of the additives. Generalization of this additive-induced ordering strategy to various block copolymers will be discussed.

  4. Additives In Meat and Poultry Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Additives in Meat and Poultry Products People have been using food additives for thousands ... may be used in canned hams or jellied meat products. HUMECTANT - substance added to foods to help retain ...

  5. [Safety of food additives in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Sumio

    2011-01-01

    Recently, many accidents relating to food happened in Japan. The consumer's distrust for food, food companies, and the administration is increasing. The consumer especially has an extreme refusal feeling for chemicals such as food additives and agricultural chemicals, and begins to request agricultural chemical-free vegetables and food additive-free food. Food companies also state no agricultural chemicals and no food additives to correspond with consumers' request and aim at differentiating. The food additive is that the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare specifies the one that person's health might not be ruined by providing for Food Sanitation Law Article 10 in our country. The standard for food additives and standard for use of food additives are provided according to regulations of Food Sanitation Law Article 11. Therefore, it is thought that the food additive used is safe now. Then, it reports on the procedure and the safety examination, etc. in our country for designation for food additive this time.

  6. ADHD Diet: Do Food Additives Cause Hyperactivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Huxsahl, M.D. Food additives include artificial colors, artificial sweeteners and preservatives. There's no solid evidence that food additives cause attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, ... reactions to artificial food colors in children. Nutrition Reviews. 2013;71: ...

  7. The identities of additive binary arithmetics

    CERN Document Server

    Klyachko, Anton A

    2011-01-01

    Operations of arbitrary arity expressible via addition modulo 2^n and bitwise addition modulo 2 admit a simple description. The identities connecting these two additions have finite basis. Moreover, the universal algebra with these two operations is rationally equivalent to a nilpotent ring and, therefore, generates a Specht variety.

  8. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  9. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  10. Lubricant additive concentrate containing isomerized jojoba oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, G.

    1987-05-12

    This patent describes a crankcase motor oil additive concentrate intended to be added to a conventional crankcase motor oil to improve its ability to lubricate and protect the engine. The additive concentrate comprises the following components: A petroleum base stock of lubricating quality and viscosity. The base stock comprises from about 13.5 to 90 weight percent of the additive concentrate; a detergent-inhibitor package. The package is present at from about 7 to about 40 weight percent of the concentrate; a supplemental antiwear additive selected from the salts of dialkyl dithiophosporic acids. The additive is present at a level of from about 1 to about 10 weight percent of the concentrate; and a supplemental antiwear additive selected from the class of sulfurized olefins. The additive is present at a level of from about 1 to about 10 weight percent of the concentrate.

  11. Cincinnati Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-04

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) worked with Cincinnati Incorporated (CI) to demonstrate Big Area Additive Manufacturing which increases the speed of the additive manufacturing (AM) process by over 1000X, increases the size of parts by over 10X and shows a cost reduction of over 100X. ORNL worked with CI to transition the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology from a proof-of-principle (TRL 2-3) demonstration to a prototype product stage (TRL 7-8).

  12. Allergic and immunologic reactions to food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, food additives have been used for flavouring, colouring and extension of the useful shelf life of food, as well as the promotion of food safety. During the last 20 years, the studies implicating the additives contained in foods and medicine as a causative factor of allergic reactions have been proliferated considerably. In this review, we aimed to overview all of the food additives which were approved to consume in EU and find out how common and serious allergic reactions come into existence following the consuming of food additives.

  13. Merits and Demerits of Food Additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuening; YANG; Yong; ZHAN

    2014-01-01

    Food additive is a double-edged sword. It has merits and demerits. Food additives have such merits as improving sensory properties of foods,preventing deterioration and extending the shelf life,increasing varieties of foods,enhancing convenience of foods,facilitating food processing,and satisfying other demands. However,excessive and illegal use of food additives will exert adverse influence on food security.Therefore,it is required to take proper measures to bring merits of food additives into full play,and get rid of their demerits.

  14. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color additives.... (b) Action on a request for exemption for investigational use of a food additive if the food......

  15. 12 CFR 619.9010 - Additional security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional security. 619.9010 Section 619.9010 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9010 Additional security. Supplementary collateral to the primary security taken in connection with the loan....

  16. Additions to the Avifauna of suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1974-01-01

    It is self-evident that as the avifauna of a country becomes better known, the number of additions to its avifauna one can expect to make in a given period, must decrease. On the other hand, it may be said that for the same reason the value of each addition increases. During a stay in Suriname of ab

  17. DNA addition using linear self-assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jian; QIAN LuLu; LIU Qiang; ZHANG ZhiZhou; HE Lin

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a DNA algorithm which adds two nonnegative binary integers using self-assembly in constant steps. The approach has the benefit of greater experimental simplicity when compared with previous DNA addition algorithms. For the addition of two binary n-bit integers, O(n) is different from DNA strands and only O(1) biochemical experimental procedures are required.

  18. 48 CFR 1603.7002 - Additional guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Additional guidelines. 1603.7002 Section 1603.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL... OF INTEREST Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising 1603.7002 Additional guidelines....

  19. 75 FR 8927 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add to the Procurement List products to be provided by a...

  20. 78 FR 7412 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products to the Procurement List that will be furnished by...

  1. 78 FR 7413 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds products and services to the Procurement List that will be furnished by nonprofit...

  2. 78 FR 5423 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds products to the Procurement List that will be furnished by the nonprofit agency...

  3. 78 FR 9386 - Procurement List; Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds a service to the Procurement List that will be provided by a nonprofit agency employing...

  4. 75 FR 8926 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds to the Procurement List products and a service to be furnished by nonprofit...

  5. 78 FR 5423 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee... Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products to the Procurement List that will be... have other severe disabilities. The following products are proposed for addition to the...

  6. 76 FR 7824 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... PEOPLE WHO AREBLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products to the Procurement List that will be furnished by...

  7. 49 CFR 377.209 - Additional charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Goods Freight Forwarders § 377.209 Additional charges. When a carrier— (a) Has collected the amount of tariff charges represented in a freight bill presented by it as the total amount of such charges, and (b) Thereafter presents to the shipper another freight bill for additional charges— the carrier may extend credit...

  8. 78 FR 4133 - Procurement List; Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds a service to the Procurement List that will be provided by a nonprofit...

  9. 78 FR 2378 - Procurement List, Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List, Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds a product to the Procurement List that will be furnished by a nonprofit agency employing...

  10. 75 FR 4784 - Procurement List; Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds to the Procurement List a service to be furnished by a nonprofit agency employing persons who...

  11. 75 FR 6869 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-12

    ...; ] COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds to the Procurement List products and a service to be furnished...

  12. Contexts for Column Addition and Subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Fernandez, Jorge M.; Velazquez Estrella, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss their approach to column addition and subtraction algorithms. Adapting an original idea of Paul Cobb and Erna Yackel's from "A Contextual Investigation of Three-Digit Addition and Subtraction" related to packing and unpacking candy in a candy factory, the authors provided an analogous context by…

  13. 75 FR 60739 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... NPA: CW Resources, Inc., New Britain, CT. Contracting Activity: Dept. of the Army, XRA W7NN USPFO... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the procurement...

  14. French and English Together: An "Additive" Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Jessica; Harbon, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of the "additive" experience of a bilingual French-English curriculum at Killarney Heights Public School in New South Wales. Predictably, the well-supported "additive" nature of the languages program model elicited positive reactions regarding educational success. The paper also explores issues…

  15. Developing Multiplicative Thinking from Additive Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Jennifer M.; Andreasen, Janet B.

    2013-01-01

    As students progress through elementary school, they encounter mathematics concepts that shift from additive to multiplicative situations (NCTM 2000). When they encounter fraction problems that require multiplicative thinking, they tend to incorrectly extend additive properties from whole numbers (Post et al. 1985). As a result, topics such as …

  16. Contexts for Column Addition and Subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Fernandez, Jorge M.; Velazquez Estrella, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss their approach to column addition and subtraction algorithms. Adapting an original idea of Paul Cobb and Erna Yackel's from "A Contextual Investigation of Three-Digit Addition and Subtraction" related to packing and unpacking candy in a candy factory, the authors provided an analogous context by…

  17. 18 CFR 281.215 - Additional relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional relief. 281... Additional relief. If an interstate pipeline rejects (under § 281.210 or otherwise) a request for... aggrieved by such action may file a request for relief from curtailment under § 385.206 of this chapter. The...

  18. Effect of glutathione addition in sparkling wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Vanessa; Dutra, Sandra Valduga; Spinelli, Fernanda Rodrigues; Marcon, Ângela Rossi; Carnieli, Gilberto João; Vanderlinde, Regina

    2014-09-15

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of glutathione (GSH) on secondary aromas and on the phenolic compounds of sparkling wine elaborated by traditional method. It was added 10 and 20 mg L(-1) of GSH to must and to base wine. The determination of aroma compounds was performed by gas chromatography. Phenolic compounds and glutathione content were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Sparkling wines with addition of GSH to must showed lower levels of total phenolic compounds and hydroxycinnamic acids. Furthermore, the sparkling wine with addition of GSH to must showed higher levels of 2-phenylethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and diethyl succinate, and lower concentrations of ethyl decanoate, octanoic and decanoic acids. The GSH addition to the must show a greater influence on sparkling wine than to base wine, however GSH addition to base wine seems retain higher SO2 free levels. The concentration of GSH added showed no significant difference.

  19. Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of a lactobacillus additive an anaerobic sludge digestion under normal, variable, and overload operating conditions. The additive was a whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus fortified with CaCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid. The lactobacillus additive is multifunctional in nature and provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. The experimental work consisted of several pairs of parallel mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) digestion runs (control and test) conducted in five experimental phases. Baseline runs without the additive showed that the two experimental digesters had the same methane content, gas production rate (GPR), and ethane yield. The effect of the additive was to increase methane yield and GPR by about 5% (which was statistically significant) during digester operation at a loading rate (LR) of 3.2 kg VS/m/sup 3/-day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. Data collected from the various experimental phases showed that the biochemical additive increased methane yield, gas production rate, and VS reduction, and decreased volatile acids accumulation. In addition, it enhanced digester buffer capacity and improved the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue.

  20. Graphite and Hybrid Nanomaterials as Lubricant Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu J. Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lubricant additives, based on inorganic nanoparticles coated with organic outer layer, can reduce wear and increase load-carrying capacity of base oil remarkably, indicating the great potential of hybrid nanoparticles as anti-wear and extreme-pressure additives with excellent levels of performance. The organic part in the hybrid materials improves their flexibility and stability, while the inorganic part is responsible for hardness. The relationship between the design parameters of the organic coatings, such as molecular architecture and the lubrication performance, however, remains to be fully elucidated. A survey of current understanding of hybrid nanoparticles as lubricant additives is presented in this review.

  1. Fine-grained concrete with organomineral additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solovyov Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issues concerning the formation of the structure and properties of fine-grained concrete with organomineral additive produced through mechanochemical activation of thermal power plant fly ash together with superplasticizer. The additive is produced in a high-speed activator at the collision particles’ speed of about 80 m/s. The use of the additive in fine-grained concrete in the amounts of 0.5-1% increased the strength by 30-50% and reduced the size and volume of pores. The cement consumption in such concrete is close to the cement consumption in common concrete of equal resistance.

  2. Dysprosium-free melt-spun permanent magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D N; Wu, Z; He, F; Miller, D J; Herchenroeder, J W

    2014-02-12

    Melt-spun NdFeB powders can be formed into a number of different types of permanent magnet for a variety of applications in electronics, automotive and clean technology industries. The melt-spinning process produces flake powder with a fine uniform array of nanoscale Nd2Fe14B grains. These powders can be net-shape formed into isotropic polymer-bonded magnets or hot formed into fully dense magnets. This paper discusses the influence of heavy rare earth elements and microstructure on the magnetic performance, thermal stability and material cost of NdFeB magnets. Evidence indicates that melt-spun nanocrystalline NdFeB magnets are less dependent on heavy rare earth elements for high-temperature performance than the alternative coarser-grained sintered NdFeB magnets. In particular, hot-pressed melt-spun magnets are an attractive low-cost solution for applications that require thermal stability up to 175-200 °C.

  3. Structural and magnetic study of dysprosium substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Hemaunt, E-mail: hvatsal@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agr. & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand 263145 (India); Srivastava, R.C. [Department of Physics, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agr. & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand 263145 (India); Pal Singh, Jitendra [Advanced Analysis Centre, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Negi, P. [Department of Physics, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agr. & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand 263145 (India); Agrawal, H.M. [Advanced Analysis Centre, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Das, D. [UGC-DAE CSR Kolkata Centre, Kolkata 700098 (India); Hwa Chae, Keun [Advanced Analysis Centre, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-01

    The present work investigates the magnetic behavior of Dy{sup 3+} substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction studies reveal presence of cubic spinel phases in these nanoparticles. Raman spectra of these nanoparticles show change in intensity of Raman bands, which reflects cation redistribution in cubic spinel lattice. Saturation magnetization and coercivity decrease with increase of Dy{sup 3+}concentration in these nanoparticles. Room temperature Mössbauer measurements show the cation redistribution in these nanoparticles and corroborates the results obtained from Raman Spectroscopic measurements. Decrease in magnetization of Dy{sup 3+} substituted cobalt ferrite is attributed to the reduction in the magnetic interaction and cation redistribution. - Highlights: • Slight decrease in crystallite size after Dy{sup 3+} doping. • Saturation magnetization and coercivity decrease after Dy{sup 3+} doping. • Mössbauer measurements show the cation redistribution in the samples.

  4. Dysprosium Acetylacetonato Single-Molecule Magnet Encapsulated in Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Nakanishi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dy single-molecule magnets (SMMs, which have several potential uses in a variety of applications, such as quantum computing, were encapsulated in multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs by using a capillary method. Encapsulation was confirmed by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. In alternating current magnetic measurements, the magnetic susceptibilities of the Dy acetylacetonato complexes showed clear frequency dependence even inside the MWCNTs, meaning that this hybrid can be used as magnetic materials in devices.

  5. Photodissociation spectroscopy of the dysprosium monochloride molecular ion

    CERN Document Server

    Dunning, Alexander; Showalter, Steven J; Puri, Prateek; Kotochigova, Svetlana; Hudson, Eric R

    2015-01-01

    We have performed a combined experimental and theoretical study of the photodissociation cross section of the molecular ion DyCl$^+$. The cross section for the photon energy range 35,500 cm$^{-1}$ to 47,500 cm$^{-1}$ is measured using an integrated ion trap and time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and we observe a broad, asymmetric profile that is peaked near 43,000 cm$^{-1}$. The theoretical cross section is determined from electronic potentials and transition dipole moments calculated using the relativistic configuration-interaction valence-bond and coupled-cluster methods. The electronic structure of DyCl$^+$ is unprecedentedly complex due to the presence of multiple open electronic shells, including 4f$^{10}$ orbitals. The molecule has nine attractive potentials with ionically-bonded electrons and 99 repulsive potentials dissociating to a ground state Dy$^+$ ion and Cl atom. We explain the lack of symmetry in the cross section as due to multiple contributions from one-electron-dominated transitions between t...

  6. FTIR and Electrical Study of Dysprosium Doped Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemaunt Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the role of Dy3+ doping on the XRD, TEM, FTIR, and dielectric and electrical properties of CoFe2O4 at room temperature. Cubic spinel phase of CoFe2−xDyxO4 (x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 was synthesized by using different sintering temperatures (300, 500, 700, and 900°C. The two absorption bands ν1 and ν2 are observed in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR spectra corresponding to the tetrahedral and octahedral sites, which show signature of spinel structure of the sample. For the sample sintered at 300°C, the dielectric constant is almost unchanged with the frequency at the particular concentrations of x = 0.00 and 0.05. Similar result is obtained for the sample sintered at 500°C (x = 0.10, 0.15, 700°C (x = 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15, and 900°C (x = 0.05, 0.10. An increase in the dielectric constant was observed for the undoped cobalt ferrite sintered at 500, 700, and 900°C. The values of electrical resistivity of the materials vary from ~105 to 109 Ω-cm.

  7. Adsorption of D113 Resin for Dysprosium(Ⅲ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption behavior and mechanism of D113 resin for Dy(Ⅲ) was investigated by using the method of resin adsorption. Experimental results show that the optimum medium pH of adsorption of D113 resin for Dy3+ is pH=6.00 in the HAc-NaAc medium. The static adsorption capacity of D113 resin for Dy3+chemical analysis and IR spectra.

  8. 1300-nm gain obtained with dysprosium-doped chloride crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, R.H.; Schaffers, K.I.; Beach, R.J.; Payne, S.A.; Krupke, W.F.

    1996-03-01

    Dy{sup 3+} - doped chloride crystals have high 1300-nm emission quantum yields. Pump - probe experiments on La Cl{sub 3}:Dy{sup 3+} demonstrate optical gain consistent with predictions based on spectroscopic cross sections and lifetimes.

  9. Visible luminescence of dysprosium ions in oxyhalide lead borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarska, Joanna; Żur, Lidia; Pisarski, Wojciech A.

    2011-08-01

    Visible luminescence of Dy 3+ ions in oxyhalide lead borate glasses was examined. Luminescence spectra show two intense bands at 480 nm and 573 nm due to 4F 9/2 → 6H 15/2 (blue) and 4F 9/2 → 6H 13/2 (yellow) transitions of Dy 3+. Luminescence decays from 4F 9/2 state and yellow-to-blue luminescence intensity ratios (Y/B) were analysed with PbX 2 (X = F, Cl) content. An introduction of PbX 2 to the borate glass results in the increasing of 4F 9/2 lifetime and the decreasing of yellow-to-blue luminescence intensity ratio, which is due to reduction of covalency between Dy 3+ and O 2-/X - ions.

  10. MAGNETIC FIELD INDUCED FIRST-ORDER TRANSITIONS IN DYSPROSIUM ORTHOFERRITE

    OpenAIRE

    Eremenko, V.; Gnatchenko, S.; Kharchenko, N.; Lebedev, P.; Piotrowski, K; Szymczak, H.; Szymczak, R.

    1988-01-01

    New type of magnetic first-order phase transition induced by external magnetic field applied in the ab-plane in DyFeO3 is investigated using different magnetooptic techniques. The phenomenological model of this transition is proposed. The phase diagram in H-T plane has been obtained for various H orientation in the ab-plane.

  11. 77 FR 699 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... January 5, 2012 Part V Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 80 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the Renewable Fuel Standard... Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under...

  12. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wei, H L; Mazumder, J; DebRoy, T

    2015-01-01

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data...

  13. 77 FR 44218 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 5/11/2012 (77 FR 27737-27738) and 6/1/2012 (77 FR 32591-32592), the...: 3895-00-NIB-0002--Asphalt Lute, Aluminum Head, Industrial Grade, 67'' Fiberglass Handle,...

  14. Non-additive measure and integral

    CERN Document Server

    Denneberg, Dieter

    1994-01-01

    Non-Additive Measure and Integral is the first systematic approach to the subject. Much of the additive theory (convergence theorems, Lebesgue spaces, representation theorems) is generalized, at least for submodular measures which are characterized by having a subadditive integral. The theory is of interest for applications to economic decision theory (decisions under risk and uncertainty), to statistics (including belief functions, fuzzy measures) to cooperative game theory, artificial intelligence, insurance, etc. Non-Additive Measure and Integral collects the results of scattered and often isolated approaches to non-additive measures and their integrals which originate in pure mathematics, potential theory, statistics, game theory, economic decision theory and other fields of application. It unifies, simplifies and generalizes known results and supplements the theory with new results, thus providing a sound basis for applications and further research in this growing field of increasing interest. It also co...

  15. Additions to the fern flora of Sulawesi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovenkamp, P.H.; Joncheere, de G.J.

    1988-01-01

    A number of additions to the fern flora of Celebes are given here, including also the description of 15 new taxa in the Polypodiaceae, Cyatheaceae, Dennstaedtiaceae, Thelypteridaceae, Aspleniaceae, and Davalliaceae.

  16. Large Scale Metal Additive Techniques Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nycz, Andrzej [ORNL; Adediran, Adeola I [ORNL; Noakes, Mark W [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    In recent years additive manufacturing made long strides toward becoming a main stream production technology. Particularly strong progress has been made in large-scale polymer deposition. However, large scale metal additive has not yet reached parity with large scale polymer. This paper is a review study of the metal additive techniques in the context of building large structures. Current commercial devices are capable of printing metal parts on the order of several cubic feet compared to hundreds of cubic feet for the polymer side. In order to follow the polymer progress path several factors are considered: potential to scale, economy, environment friendliness, material properties, feedstock availability, robustness of the process, quality and accuracy, potential for defects, and post processing as well as potential applications. This paper focuses on current state of art of large scale metal additive technology with a focus on expanding the geometric limits.

  17. 77 FR 32592 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... notices of proposed additions to the Procurement List. After consideration of the material presented to it... CONS LGC, Beale AFB, CA. Service Type/Location: Contractor-Operated Civil Engineer Supply Store...

  18. Laser-based additive manufacturing of metals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available For making metallic products through Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes, laser-based systems play very significant roles. Laser-based processes such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) are dominating processes...

  19. Additively Manufactured and Surface Biofunctionalized Porous Nitinol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorgin Karaji, Z; Speirs, M; Dadbakhsh, S; Kruth, J-P; Weinans, H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/087198622; Zadpoor, A A; Amin Yavari, S

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced bone tissue regeneration and improved osseointegration are among the most important goals in design of multifunctional orthopedic biomaterials. In this study, we used additive manufacturing (selective laser melting) to develop multifunctional porous nitinol that combines superelasticity wit

  20. 77 FR 51521 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... certification were: 1. The action will not result in any additional reporting, recordkeeping or other compliance...: Operation Support Service, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, National Ground Intelligence Center (NGIC), Rivanna... Patricia Briscoe, Deputy Director, Business Operations, (Pricing and Information Management). BILLING...

  1. Additive Manufacturing of Ion Thruster Optics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Plasma Controls will manufacture and test a set of ion optics for electric propulsion ion thrusters using additive manufacturing technology, also known as 3D...

  2. Building a Competitive Edge with Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    be collected, processed to recapture cutting solvents, and compacted into soup can sized aluminum “pucks.” Those pucks are then sold to a third party...Thomas A. Campbell , “Toward a Printed World: Additive Manufacturing and its Implications for National Security.” Defense Horizons, No. 73...A. Campbell , “Toward a Printed World: Additive Manufacturing and its Implications for National Security.” Defense Horizons, No. 73 (September 2012

  3. Cyclic Oxonitriles: Stereodivergent Grignard Addition-Alkylations

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Fraser F.; Wei, Guoqing; Zhang, Zhiyu; Steward, Omar W.

    2007-01-01

    Sequential carbonyl addition-conjugate addition of Grignard reagents to cyclic 5–7–membered oxoalkenenitriles efficiently generates cyclic magnesiated nitriles. Alkylations of these magnesiated nitriles exhibit diastereoselectivities that depend intimately on the size of the carbocyclic ring: 5-membered oxonitriles generate magnesiated nitriles whose alkylations are controlled by steric constraints whereas 6- and 7-membered oxonitriles generate internally coordinated, C-magnesiated nitriles w...

  4. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and a food contaminant with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for seven food additives (advantame; glucoamylase from Trichoderma reesei expressed in Trichoderma reesei; glycerol ester of gum rosin; glycerol ester of tall oil rosin; glycerol ester of wood rosin; nisin; and octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic) and an assessment of dietary exposure to cadmium from cocoa and cocoa products. Specifications for the following food additives were revised: annatto extracts (solvent-extracted bixin and solvent-extracted norbixin); Benzoe tonkinensis; food additives containing aluminium and/or silicon; mineral oil (medium viscosity); modified starches; paprika extract; phosphates (analytical methods for the determination of phosphorus and revision of specifications); 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; potassium aluminium silicate; and potassium aluminium silicate-based pearlescent pigments. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of the food additives and contaminant considered.

  5. Additive manufacturing in production: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Bhrigu; Karg, Michael; Schmidt, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing, characterized by its inherent layer by layer fabrication methodology has been coined by many as the latest revolution in the manufacturing industry. Due to its diversification of Materials, processes, system technology and applications, Additive Manufacturing has been synonymized with terminology such as Rapid prototyping, 3D printing, free-form fabrication, Additive Layer Manufacturing, etc. A huge media and public interest in the technology has led to an innovative attempt of exploring the technology for applications beyond the scope of the traditional engineering industry. Nevertheless, it is believed that a critical factor for the long-term success of Additive Manufacturing would be its ability to fulfill the requirements defined by the traditional manufacturing industry. A parallel development in market trends and product requirements has also lead to a wider scope of opportunities for Additive Manufacturing. The presented paper discusses some of the key challenges which are critical to ensure that Additive Manufacturing is truly accepted as a mainstream production technology in the industry. These challenges would highlight on various aspects of production such as product requirements, process management, data management, intellectual property, work flow management, quality assurance, resource planning, etc. In Addition, changing market trends such as product life cycle, mass customization, sustainability, environmental impact and localized production will form the foundation for the follow up discussion on the current limitations and the corresponding research opportunities. A discussion on ongoing research to address these challenges would include topics like process monitoring, design complexity, process standardization, multi-material and hybrid fabrication, new material development, etc.

  6. Additional renal arteries: incidence and morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyapal, K S; Haffejee, A A; Singh, B; Ramsaroop, L; Robbs, J V; Kalideen, J M

    2001-01-01

    Advances in surgical and uro-radiological techniques dictate a reappraisal and definition of renal arterial variations. This retrospective study aimed at establishing the incidence of additional renal arteries. Two subsets were analysed viz.: a) Clinical series--130 renal angiograms performed on renal transplant donors, 32 cadaver kidneys used in renal transplantation b) Cadaveric series--74 en-bloc morphologically normal kidney pairs. The sex and race distribution was: males 140, females 96; African 84, Indian 91, White 43 and "Coloured" 18, respectively. Incidence of first and second additional arteries were respectively, 23.2% (R: 18.6%; L: 27.6%) and 4.5% (R: 4.7%; L: 4.4%). Additional arteries occurred more frequently on the left (L: 32.0%; R: 23.3%). The incidence bilaterally was 10.2% (first additional arteries, only). The sex and race incidence (first and second additional) was: males, 28.0%, 5.1%; females, 16.4%, 3.8% and African 31.1%, 5.4%; Indian 13.5%, 4.5%; White 30.9%, 4.4% and "Coloured" 18.5%, 0%; respectively. Significant differences in the incidence of first additional arteries were noted between sex and race. The morphometry of additional renal arteries were lengths (cm) of first and second additional renal arteries: 4.5 and 3.8 (right), 4.9 and 3.7 (left); diameters: 0.4 and 0.3 (right), 0.3 and 0.3 (left). Detailed morphometry of sex and race were also recorded. No statistically significant differences were noted. Our results of the incidence of additional renal arteries of 27.7% compared favourably to that reported in the literature (weighted mean 28.1%). The study is unique in recording detailed morphometry of these vessels. Careful techniques in the identification of this anatomical variation is important since it impacts on renal transplantation surgery, vascular operations for renal artery stenosis, reno-vascular hypertension, Takayasu's disease, renal trauma and uro-radiological procedures.

  7. Laser polishing of additive manufactured Ti alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C. P.; Guan, Y. C.; Zhou, W.

    2017-06-01

    Laser-based additive manufacturing has attracted much attention as a promising 3D printing method for metallic components in recent years. However, surface roughness of additive manufactured components has been considered as a challenge to achieve high performance. In this work, we demonstrate the capability of fiber laser in polishing rough surface of additive manufactured Ti-based alloys as Ti-6Al-4V and TC11. Both as-received surface and laser-polished surfaces as well as cross-section subsurfaces were analyzed carefully by White-Light Interference, Confocal Microscope, Focus Ion Beam, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, and X-ray Diffraction. Results revealed that as-received Ti-based alloys with surface roughness more than 5 μm could be reduce to less than 1 μm through laser polishing process. Moreover, microstructure, microhardness and wear resistance of laser-polished zone was investigated in order to examine the thermal effect of laser polishing processing on the substrate of additive manufactured Ti alloys. This proof-of-concept process has the potential to effectively improve the surface roughness of additive manufactured metallic alloy by local polishing method without damage to the substrate.

  8. [Intolerance to food additives: an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, F; Mangini, F; Berardi, M; Sterpeta Loffredo, M; Chinellato, I; Dellino, A; Cristofori, F; Di Domenico, F; Mastrototaro, M F; Cappiello, A; Centoducati, T; Carella, F; Armenio, L

    2008-12-01

    Contrary to common believing, the prevalence of the intolerance to food additives in the general population is rather low. Nowadays many doubts persist with regard both to the pathogenetic mechanisms and to the clinical and diagnostic aspects in this field. Symptoms due to, or exacerbated from, food additives usually involve non-IgE-mediate mechanisms (pseudo-allergic reactions, PAR) and are usually less severe of those induced by food allergy. The most frequent clinical feature of the intolerance to food additives still remains the urticaria-angioedema syndrome, although these substances are really involved only in a minority of patients. Other possible clinical features include anaphylaxis, atopic eczema, behaviour disturbances, asthma and non-allergic rhinitis. The diagnostic approach consists in diary cards, reporting symptoms and food habits, elimination diet and double blinded placebo-controlled oral challenge with suspected additives. However, such procedure still remains poorly standardized and numerous uncertainties persist with regard to optimal conditions for performing and interpret the challenge results. The therapeutic approach consists in the exclusion of foods and products containing the additive involved, and, in patients not compliant to the diet, in treatment with symptomatic drugs.

  9. Biocompatibility of photopolymers for additive manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonhardt Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To establish photopolymers for the production of class II or class III medical products by additive manufacturing it is essential to know which components of photopolymeric systems, consisting of monomers, photoinitiators and additives, are the determining factors on their biocompatible properties. In this study the leachable substances of a cured photopolymeric system were eluted and identified by HPLC-MS detection. In addition the cured photopolymer was testes for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity according to DIN EN ISO 10993 for long time applications. The results showed that uncured residual monomers are the determining factor on the biocompatible properties of the photopolymeric system. Strategies to reduce these residual monomers in the cured photopolymer are presented.

  10. Selecting thickening additives for VMGZ oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagautdinov, D.T.; Kalsina, M.P.; Marintseva, A.V.

    1983-01-01

    The possibility is studied of increasing the viscosity level of VMGZ oil (Ms), produced in accordance with Technical Specification 38 101479 74, by increasing the amount of thickening polymer additives (Pr); the viscosity of this oil at 50 degrees is in a range of 10 to 11 square millimeters per second. A 260 to 350 degree diesel fraction, purified in a type 65/1 absorptive purification installation, was used as the raw material. Plexol-702, V-2 polymethacrylate and KP-10 polymethacrylate in different ratios were used as the thickening additives. In order to give this base oil the required degree of thickness (a viscosity at 80 degrees of 10 square millimeters per second) 7 percent of the Plexol-702 additive had to be introduced, but 7.5 percent of the V2 polymethacrylate (PMA). Here, there is a reserve of quality in certain characteristics.

  11. Mass Additivity and A Priori Entailment

    CERN Document Server

    McQueen, Kelvin J

    2015-01-01

    The principle of mass additivity states that the mass of a composite object is the sum of the masses of its elementary components. Mass additivity is true in Newtonian mechanics but false in special relativity. Physicists have explained why mass additivity is true in Newtonian mechanics by reducing it to Newton's microphysical laws. This reductive explanation does not fit well with deducibility theories of reductive explanation such as the modern Nagelian theory of reduction, and the a priori entailment theory of reduction that is prominent in the philosophy of mind. Nonetheless, I argue that a reconstruction of the explanation that incorporates distinctively philosophical concepts in fact fits both theories. I discuss the implications of this result for both theories and for the reductive explanation of consciousness.

  12. Non-additive measures theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Narukawa, Yasuo; Sugeno, Michio; 9th International Conference on Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence (MDAI 2012)

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive and timely report in the area of non-additive measures and integrals. It is based on a panel session on fuzzy measures, fuzzy integrals and aggregation operators held during the 9th International Conference on Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence (MDAI 2012) in Girona, Spain, November 21-23, 2012. The book complements the MDAI 2012 proceedings book, published in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) in 2012. The individual chapters, written by key researchers in the field, cover fundamental concepts and important definitions (e.g. the Sugeno integral, definition of entropy for non-additive measures) as well some important applications (e.g. to economics and game theory) of non-additive measures and integrals. The book addresses students, researchers and practitioners working at the forefront of their field.  

  13. Testing for additivity with B-splines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng-jian CUI; Xu-ming HE; Li LIU

    2007-01-01

    Regression splines are often used for fitting nonparametric functions, and they work especially well for additivity models. In this paper, we consider two simple tests of additivity: an adaptation of Tukey's one degree of freedom test and a nonparametric version of Rao's score test. While the Tukey-type test can detect most forms of the local non-additivity at the parametric rate of O(n-1/2), the score test is consistent for all alternative at a nonparametric rate. The asymptotic distribution of these test statistics is derived under both the null and local alternative hypotheses. A simulation study is conducted to compare their finite-sample performances with some existing kernelbased tests. The score test is found to have a good overall performance.

  14. Analyses of Additives Applied in a Polycarbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.J. [Kunsan National University, Kunsan (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    In this study, polymer additives were extracted and separated by Soxhlet extraction method and the dissolution-precipitation method from a polycarbonate (optical grade) which completely absorbed UV light below 390 nm. Analytical techniques such as UV-V is spectroscopy, FR-IR, and HPLC were applied to analyze additives in polycarbonate. Separated materials from the polycarbonate may be a complex mixture containing additives such as UV stabilizer, antioxidants(primary and secondary), monomers, and oligomers. Several compounds such as bisphenol A, Irganox 1010, and Cyasorb UV-5411 were identified by chromatograms and UV spectra obtained from RP HPLC analysis using Bondapak C{sub 18} column, methanol mobile phase, and a photodiode array (PDA) detector. Also, the content of UV-5411 in the polycarbonate was about 0.12 wt % by a quantitative analysis through UV spectroscopy. (author). 21 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  15. Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project is developing technology to build structures on planetary surfaces using in-situ resources. The project focuses on the construction of both 2D (landing pads, roads, and structure foundations) and 3D (habitats, garages, radiation shelters, and other structures) infrastructure needs for planetary surface missions. The ACME project seeks to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of two components needed for planetary surface habitation and exploration: 3D additive construction (e.g., contour crafting), and excavation and handling technologies (to effectively and continuously produce in-situ feedstock). Additionally, the ACME project supports the research and development of new materials for planetary surface construction, with the goal of reducing the amount of material to be launched from Earth.

  16. Electrolyte Additives for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Xiao; Hjuler, H.A.; Olsen, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Electrochemical characteristics of a series of modified phosphoric acid electrolytes containing fluorinated car on compounds and silicone fluids as additives are presented. When used in phosphoric acid fuel cells, the modified electrolytes improve the performance due to the enhanced oxygen...... reduction rate. Among useful additives we found potassium perfluorohexanesulfonate (C6F13SO3K), potassium nonafluorobutanesulfonate (C4F9SO3K), perfluorotributylamine [(C4F9)3N], and polymethylsiloxanes [(-Si(CH3)2O-)n]. The wettability of the electrodes by the modified electrolytes also is discussed......, as a fuel-cell performance with the modified electrolytes. Specific conductivity measurements of some of the modified phosphoric acid electrolytes are reported. At a given temperature, the conductivity of the C4F9SO3K-modified electrolyte decreases with an increasing amount of the additive; the conductivity...

  17. Evaluation of advanced polymers for additive manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Orlando [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Morrison, Crystal [PPG Industries, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and PPG Industries, Inc. was to evaluate the feasibility of using conventional coatings chemistry and technology to build up material layer-by-layer. The PPG-ORNL study successfully demonstrated that polymeric coatings formulations may overcome many limitations of common thermoplastics used in additive manufacturing (AM), allow lightweight nozzle design for material deposition and increase build rate. The materials effort focused on layer-by-layer deposition of coatings with each layer fusing together. The combination of materials and deposition results in an additively manufactured build that has sufficient mechanical properties to bear the load of additional layers, yet is capable of bonding across the z-layers to improve build direction strength. The formulation properties were tuned to enable a novel, high-throughput deposition method that is highly scalable, compatible with high loading of reinforcing fillers, and is inherently low-cost.

  18. Testing for additivity with B-splines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Regression splines are often used for fitting nonparametric functions, and they work especially well for additivity models. In this paper, we consider two simple tests of additivity: an adaptation of Tukey’s one degree of freedom test and a nonparametric version of Rao’s score test. While the Tukey-type test can detect most forms of the local non-additivity at the parametric rate of O(n-1/2), the score test is consistent for all alternative at a nonparametric rate. The asymptotic distribution of these test statistics is derived under both the null and local alternative hypotheses. A simulation study is conducted to compare their finite-sample performances with some existing kernel-based tests. The score test is found to have a good overall performance.

  19. Combustion enhancing additives for coal firing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katherine Le Manquais; Colin Snape; Ian McRobbie; Jim Barker [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering (SChEME)

    2007-07-01

    For pulverised fuel (pf) combustion, the level of unburnt carbon in fly ash is now considerably more problematic worldwide than a decade ago, because of the introduction of low NOx burners and the increased level of high inertinite in internationally traded coals. Thus, there is a major opportunity to develop an effective additive to improve carbon burnout and obviate the need for post-treatment of fly ash, which endeavours to meet specifications for filler/building materials applications and thereby avoid landfill. A robust comparison of the reactivity of different coals and their corresponding chars is necessary, in order to estimate the effects of such an additive on pf combustion. Coal chars have been generated on a laboratory scale using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and on a larger scale using a drop tube furnace (DTF), which is more representative of the rapid heating rates and mixing achieved on pf combustion. The TGA results indicate that chars have varying levels of reactivity, dependent on the parent coal properties. When physically mixed with a propriety metal additive, the degree of enhancement to the reactivity of these chars also appeared reliant on the parent coal characteristics. Additionally it was demonstrated that DTF chars, whilst showing similar reactivity trends, are less reactive than the equivalent coal chars produced by the TGA. However, when mixed with the metal additive the DTF chars show a significantly greater improvement in reactivity than their analogous TGA chars, indicating the additive may have the greatest impact on the most unreactive carbon in the coal. 42 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Effusion plate using additive manufacturing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Wegerif, Daniel Gerritt

    2016-04-12

    Additive manufacturing techniques may be utilized to construct effusion plates. Such additive manufacturing techniques may include defining a configuration for an effusion plate having one or more internal cooling channels. The manufacturing techniques may further include depositing a powder into a chamber, applying an energy source to the deposited powder, and consolidating the powder into a cross-sectional shape corresponding to the defined configuration. Such methods may be implemented to construct an effusion plate having one or more channels with a curved cross-sectional geometry.

  1. Breaking Barriers in Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Post, Brian K [ORNL; Lind, Randall F [ORNL; Lloyd, Peter D [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Blue, Craig A [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) enables the creation of complex structures directly from a computer-aided design (CAD). There are limitations that prevent the technology from realizing its full potential. AM has been criticized for being slow and expensive with limited build size. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a large scale AM system that improves upon each of these areas by more than an order of magnitude. The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system directly converts low cost pellets into a large, three-dimensional part at a rate exceeding 25 kg/h. By breaking these traditional barriers, it is possible for polymer AM to penetrate new manufacturing markets.

  2. The additive completion of the biset category

    OpenAIRE

    Ibarra, Jesús; Raggi-Cárdenas, Alberto G.; Romero, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Let $R$ be a commutative unital ring. We construct a category $\\mathcal{C}_R$ of fractions $X/G$, where $G$ is a finite group and $X$ is a finite $G$-set, and with morphisms given by $R$-linear combinations of spans of bisets. This category is an additive, symmetric monoidal and self-dual category, with a Krull-Schmidt decomposition for objects. We show that $\\mathcal{C}_R$ is equivalent to the additive completion of the biset category and that the category of biset functors over $R$ is equiv...

  3. Additive Manufacturing Applications for Wind Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlström, Niklas; Gabrielsson, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D-printing is an automated manufacturing process in which the component is built layer upon layer from a predefined 3D computer model. In contrast to conventional manufacturing processes where a vast volume of material is wasted due to machining, AM only uses the material that the component consists of. In addition to material savings, the method has a number of potential benefits. Two of these are (1) a large design freedom which enables the produc...

  4. Theory of atomic additivity in molecular hyperpolizabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, James K.

    1987-01-01

    Hyperpolarizability is a function of frequency. This is called dispersion. Because of the Kramers-Kronig relations, researchers expect that a material that is dispersing light is also absorbing it. Where there is both dispersion and absorption, the molecular polarizabilities are complex functions of the frequency. This led researchers to consider atomic additivity in both the real and imaginary parts of the ordinary and hyperpolarizabilities. This effort is desirable not only from a theoretical point of view, but also because of the existence of a large body of complex refractive index data, which may be used to test the additivity principle with the complex valued ordinary dipole polarizability.

  5. Local Time of Additive Levy Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    We studied the problem of existence of jointly continuous local time for an additive process.Here, “local time” is understood in the sence of occupation density, and by an additive Lévy process we mean a process X={X(t), t∈Rd+)} which has the decomposition X= X1 X2 … XN. We prove that if the product of it slower index and N is greater than d, then a jointly continuous local time can be obtained via Berman's method.

  6. Phosphate Additive Avoidance in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jules, David E; Goldfarb, David S; Pompeii, Mary Lou; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2017-05-01

    IN BRIEF Dietary guidelines for patients with diabetes extend beyond glycemic management to include recommendations for mitigating chronic disease risk. This review summarizes the literature suggesting that excess dietary phosphorus intake may increase the risk of skeletal and cardiovascular disease in patients who are in the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) despite having normal serum phosphorus concentrations. It explores strategies for limiting dietary phosphorus, emphasizing that food additives, as a major source of highly bioavailable dietary phosphorus, may be a suitable target. Although the evidence for restricting phosphorus-based food additives in early CKD is limited, diabetes clinicians should monitor ongoing research aimed at assessing its efficacy.

  7. Effusion plate using additive manufacturing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Wegerif, Daniel Gerritt

    2016-04-12

    Additive manufacturing techniques may be utilized to construct effusion plates. Such additive manufacturing techniques may include defining a configuration for an effusion plate having one or more internal cooling channels. The manufacturing techniques may further include depositing a powder into a chamber, applying an energy source to the deposited powder, and consolidating the powder into a cross-sectional shape corresponding to the defined configuration. Such methods may be implemented to construct an effusion plate having one or more channels with a curved cross-sectional geometry.

  8. Construction of Additive Reed-Muller Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Pujol, J; Ronquillo, L; 10.1007/978-3-642-02181-7

    2009-01-01

    The well known Plotkin construction is, in the current paper, generalized and used to yield new families of Z2Z4-additive codes, whose length, dimension as well as minimum distance are studied. These new constructions enable us to obtain families of Z2Z4-additive codes such that, under the Gray map, the corresponding binary codes have the same parameters and properties as the usual binary linear Reed-Muller codes. Moreover, the first family is the usual binary linear Reed-Muller family.

  9. 78 FR 22209 - Additional Synthetic Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 26 Additional Synthetic Drug Testing AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... NRC amend its Fitness for Duty program regulations to amend drug testing requirements to test for... raised in the PRM are appropriate for consideration in an ongoing rulemaking on Drug and Alcohol Testing...

  10. Highly stereoselective addition of stannylcuprates to alkynones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Eiland; de Dios, M.A.C.; Tanner, David Ackland

    2002-01-01

    The addition of stannylcuprate reagents such as (Bu3Sn)(PhS)CuLi to alkynones has been found to proceed in high yield and with excellent stereoselectivity for the Z isomer of the product (>95%). The behavior of the stannylcuprates is thus very different from that of their "carbocuprate" counterpa...

  11. Boolean analysis of addition and multiplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faltin, F. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY); Metropolis, N.; Ross, B.; Rota, G.-C.

    1977-01-01

    The notions of binary string and binary symmetric function are introduced, and basic results presented. Boolean algorithms are given for binary addition and multiplication. An analysis of the redundancies involved is straightforward. The examination of carry propagation which arises in the Boolean analysis of functions may lead to a new interpretation of the notion of computational complexity.

  12. 77 FR 42700 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Contracting Command--Aberdeen Proving Ground, Natick Contracting Division, Natick MA. Comments were received...--Aberdeen Proving Ground, Natick Contracting Division, Natick MA. Services Service Type/Location: Laundry... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 5/18/2012 (77 FR 29596) and 5/25/2012 (77 FR 31335-31336), the...

  13. 76 FR 18189 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD. Patricia Briscoe, Deputy Director, Business Operations Pricing and... INFORMATION: Additions On 1/28/2011 (76 FR 5142-5143), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... Contracting Center--Aberdeen, MD, (Off-site: 507 Kent Street, Utica NY). NPA: Central Association for...

  14. Quantitative Relationships Involving Additive Differences: Numerical Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramful, Ajay; Ho, Siew Yin

    2014-01-01

    This case study describes the ways in which problems involving additive differences with unknown starting quantities, constrain the problem solver in articulating the inherent quantitative relationship. It gives empirical evidence to show how numerical reasoning takes over as a Grade 6 student instantiates the quantitative relation by resorting to…

  15. Additive Manufacturing of Biomaterials, Tissues, and Organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadpoor, Amir A; Malda, Jos|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412461099

    The introduction of additive manufacturing (AM), often referred to as three-dimensional (3D) printing, has initiated what some believe to be a manufacturing revolution, and has expedited the development of the field of biofabrication. Moreover, recent advances in AM have facilitated further

  16. 76 FR 55883 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for... Center (SPOC), 5015 S. IH-35, Austin, TX. NPA: Austin Task, Inc., Austin, TX. Contracting Activity:...

  17. 76 FR 70422 - Procurement List Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From... Center (SPOC), 5015 S. IH-35, Austin, TX NPA: Austin Task, Inc., Austin, TX. Contracting Activity:...

  18. Leaching of Plastic Additives to Marine Organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Besseling, E.; Foekema, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that ingestion of microplastics by aquatic species leads to increased exposure to plastic additives. However, experimental data or model based evidence is lacking. Here we assess the potential of leaching of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in the intestinal tracts of Areni

  19. Fully additive chip packaging: science or fiction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, G.; Zon, C.M.B. van der; Maalderink, H.H.

    2011-01-01

    The current trend in IC packaging towards an ever increasing degree of integration, combined with a high level of production flexibility calls for novel approaches in manufacturing. To address these challenges in a flexible manufacturing setting, TNO investigated to what extend mask-less additive ma

  20. Clinica use of platelet additive solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rhenen, Dick J

    2007-12-01

    Randomised clinical trial (RCT) to study the clinical efficacy and safety of new platelet products using platelet additive solutions are scarce. In this paper a number of recent RCT's is discussed. It can be the start of a development where new transfusion products enter a RCT before the product is applied in clinical practice.

  1. Efficient classification for additive kernel SVMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Subhransu; Berg, Alexander C; Malik, Jitendra

    2013-01-01

    We show that a class of nonlinear kernel SVMs admits approximate classifiers with runtime and memory complexity that is independent of the number of support vectors. This class of kernels, which we refer to as additive kernels, includes widely used kernels for histogram-based image comparison like intersection and chi-squared kernels. Additive kernel SVMs can offer significant improvements in accuracy over linear SVMs on a wide variety of tasks while having the same runtime, making them practical for large-scale recognition or real-time detection tasks. We present experiments on a variety of datasets, including the INRIA person, Daimler-Chrysler pedestrians, UIUC Cars, Caltech-101, MNIST, and USPS digits, to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method for efficient evaluation of SVMs with additive kernels. Since its introduction, our method has become integral to various state-of-the-art systems for PASCAL VOC object detection/image classification, ImageNet Challenge, TRECVID, etc. The techniques we propose can also be applied to settings where evaluation of weighted additive kernels is required, which include kernelized versions of PCA, LDA, regression, k-means, as well as speeding up the inner loop of SVM classifier training algorithms.

  2. Additive Manufacturing of Biomaterials, Tissues, and Organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadpoor, Amir A; Malda, Jos

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of additive manufacturing (AM), often referred to as three-dimensional (3D) printing, has initiated what some believe to be a manufacturing revolution, and has expedited the development of the field of biofabrication. Moreover, recent advances in AM have facilitated further developm

  3. Power transformer additional load losses separation procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Miloje M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed procedure is based on the fact that total transformer losses (PLL1,n, determined by short circuit test, can be separated into two components: the eddy current losses in the windings (PEC1,n and stray flux losses (PSL1,n in iron parts of construction as well as in the transformer tank walls. The total additional load losses, PLLd1 and PLLdh, are determined by short circuit test results, conducted at rated frequency (f1 and at increased harmonic frequency (fh=h*f1. Using so obtained total additional load losses, PLLd1 and PLLdh, which can be expressed in the form PLLdh=PEC1,n*h2 + PSL1,n*h, the corresponding rate additional load losses values PEC1,n and PSL1,n are derived. At the end, for given load with predefined high harmonics content, (Ih/I1n, relative to rated current, the total additional load losses value ΣPLLdh > PLLd1, is found. In such a way all harmonics up to hmax are taken into account.

  4. Additive Manufacturing: From Rapid Prototyping to Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Tracie

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers tremendous promise for the rocket propulsion community. Foundational work must be performed to ensure the safe performance of AM parts. Government, industry, and academia must collaborate in the characterization, design, modeling, and process control to accelerate the certification of AM parts for human-rated flight.

  5. 77 FR 71400 - Procurement List, Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ..., Vinyl, Adjustable 31'' to 55'', Fluorescent Green NSN: 4240-00-NIB-0052--Reflective Safety Belt, Vinyl, Adjustable 31'' to 55'', Dark Green NPA: Envision, Inc., Wichita, KS. Contracting Activity: DEFENSE LOGISTICS... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 8/24/2012 (77 FR 51522-51523) and 10/5/2012 (77 FR 60969), the...

  6. Release of additives from packaging plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmroth, I.E.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords : migration, diffusion, additives, polymer, low density polyethylene, polymer swelling, Fick, stochastic modellingThe diffusion of small molecules from polymers into food is studied. A better understanding of this process is important for the development of mathematical models to predict mi

  7. ADDITIVE FUNCTIONALS AND PERTURBATION OF SEMIGROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The perturbation of semigroup by a multiplicative functional with bounded variation is investigated in the frame of weak duality. The strong continuity and Schrodinger type equation of the perturbated semigroup are discussed. A few switching identities and formulae conerning dual additive functionals and Revuz measures are given.

  8. ADDITIVE FUNCTIONALS AND PERTURBATION OF SEMIGROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JINMENGWEI; YINGJIANGANG

    2001-01-01

    The perturbation of semigroup by a multiplicative functional with bounded variation is investigated in the frame of weak duality. The strong continuity and SchrSdinger type equation of the perturbated semigroup are discussed. A few switching identities and formulae conerning dual additive functionais and Revuz measures are given.

  9. Additional notes on Dilleniaceae 1—9

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogland, R.D.

    1959-01-01

    Since the publication of the Revision of the Genus Dillenia (Blumea 7, 1952, pp. 1—145) a number of additional collections have come to my notice. As is to be expected, the most interesting ones are from Eastern Malaysia, where the genus has developed a high degree of diversity and where the number

  10. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... frequencies to be used for tracking, telemetry and control functions of DBS systems. ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS...

  11. Fully additive chip packaging: science or fiction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, G.; Zon, C.M.B. van der; Maalderink, H.H.

    2011-01-01

    The current trend in IC packaging towards an ever increasing degree of integration, combined with a high level of production flexibility calls for novel approaches in manufacturing. To address these challenges in a flexible manufacturing setting, TNO investigated to what extend mask-less additive ma

  12. Generalized additional boundary conditions for wire media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslovski, Stanislav I; Morgado, Tiago A; Silveirinha, Mario G [Departamento de Engenharia Electrotecnica, Instituto de Telecomunicacoes, Universidade de Coimbra, Polo II, 3030-290 Coimbra (Portugal); Kaipa, Chandra S R; Yakovlev, Alexander B, E-mail: stas@co.it.p [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677-1848 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    We generalize additional boundary conditions (ABCs) for wire media by including arbitrary wire junctions with impedance loading. Special attention is given to the conditions at the interface of two uniaxial wire media with metallic patches at the junction. The derived ABCs are validated against full-wave numerical simulations.

  13. Augmented Reality Interfaces for Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Pedersen, David Bue; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores potential use cases for using augmented reality (AR) as a tool to operate industrial machines. As a baseline we use an additive manufacturing system, more commonly known as a 3D printer. We implement novel augmented interfaces and controls using readily available open source...

  14. Finding phosphorus containing additives in manufactured foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn Lloyd

    2012-06-01

    This reflects manufactured foods in NZ and it is likely that these results could be generalized to countries with similar food patterns and supplies. Quantitative data in manufactured foods is unlikely to be available to guide patient choice so qualitative information of where to find P additives can be helpful.

  15. [Information about phosphorus additives and nutritional counseling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Shinsuke; Nomura, Kengo; Sasaki, Shohei; Shiozaki, Yuji; Segawa, Hiroko; Tatsumi, Sawako

    2012-10-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is a common disorder in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) , and may result in hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy. Hyperphosphatemia also may contribute to deterioration vascular calcification and increase mortality. Hence, correction and prevention of hyperphosphatemia is a main component of the management of CKD. This goal is usually approached both by administering phosphorus binders and by restricting dietary phosphorus (P) intake. Dietary intake of phosphorus (P) is derived largely from foods with high protein content or food additives and is an important determinant of P balance in patient with CKD. Food additives (PO4) can dramatically increase the amount of P consumed in the daily diet, especially because P is more readily absorbed in its inorganic form. In addition, information about the P content and type in prepared foods is often unavailable or misleading. Therefore, during dietary counseling of patients with CKD, we recommended that they consider both the absolute dietary P content and the P-to-protein ratio of foods and meals including food additives.

  16. Powder Characterization and Optimization for Additive Manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordova, Laura; Campos, Mónica; Tinga, Tiedo

    2017-01-01

    Achieving the optimal quality for Additive Manufactured (AM) parts does not only depend on setting the right process parameters. Material feedstock also plays an important role when aiming for high performance products. The metal AM processes that are most applicable to industry, Powder Bed Fusion

  17. Teaching Additional Languages. Educational Practices Series 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Elliot L.; Tan, Lihua; Walberg, Herbert J.

    This booklet describes key principles of and research on teaching additional languages. The 10 chapters focus on the following: (1) "Comprehensible Input" (learners need exposure to meaningful, understandable language); (2) "Language Opportunities" (classroom activities should let students use natural and meaningful language with their…

  18. Predicting Color Output of Additive Manufactured Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Pedersen, David Bue; Aanæs, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address the colorimetric performance of a multicolor additive manufacturing process. A method on how to measure and characterize color performance of said process is presented. Furthermore, a method on predicting the color output is demonstrated, allowing for previsualization...

  19. Children's Understanding of Addition and Subtraction Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Katherine M.; Dube, Adam K.

    2009-01-01

    After the onset of formal schooling, little is known about the development of children's understanding of the arithmetic concepts of inversion and associativity. On problems of the form a+b-b (e.g., 3+26-26), if children understand the inversion concept (i.e., that addition and subtraction are inverse operations), then no calculations are needed…

  20. Leaching of Plastic Additives to Marine Organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Besseling, E.; Foekema, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that ingestion of microplastics by aquatic species leads to increased exposure to plastic additives. However, experimental data or model based evidence is lacking. Here we assess the potential of leaching of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in the intestinal tracts of Areni

  1. Designing for Color in Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Luongo, Andrea; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a color design pipeline for 3D printed or additively manufactured parts. We demonstrate how to characterize and calibrate a commercial printer and how to obtain its forward and backward color transformation models. We present results from our assistive color design tool, ...

  2. Biofuels and the need for additional carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Searchinger, Timothy D, E-mail: tsearchi@princeton.edu [Princeton Environmental Institute and Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University, M27 Guyot Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Transatlantic Fellow of the German Marshall Fund of the US, 1744 R Street, NW, Washington, DC 20009 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Use of biofuels does not reduce emissions from energy combustion but may offset emissions by increasing plant growth or by reducing plant residue or other non-energy emissions. To do so, biofuel production must generate and use 'additional carbon', which means carbon that plants would not otherwise absorb or that would be emitted to the atmosphere anyway. When biofuels cause no direct land use change, they use crops that would grow regardless of biofuels so they do not directly absorb additional carbon. All potential greenhouse gas reductions from such biofuels, as well as many potential emission increases, result from indirect effects, including reduced crop consumption, price-induced yield gains and land conversion. If lifecycle analyses ignore indirect effects of biofuels, they therefore cannot properly find greenhouse gas reductions. Uncertainties in estimating indirect emission reductions and increases are largely symmetrical. The failure to distinguish 'additional' carbon from carbon already absorbed or withheld from the atmosphere also leads to large overestimates of global bioenergy potential. Reasonable confidence in greenhouse gas reductions requires a precautionary approach to estimating indirect effects that does not rely on any single model. Reductions can be more directly assured, and other adverse indirect effects avoided, by focusing on biofuels from directly additional carbon.

  3. Dust-Firing of Straw and Additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Frandsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, the ash chemistry and deposition behavior during straw dust-firing were studied by performing experiments in an entrained flow reactor. The effect of using spent bleaching earth (SBE) as an additive in straw combustion was also investigated by comparing with kaolinite. During...

  4. Fully additive chip packaging: science or fiction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, G.; Zon, C.M.B. van der; Maalderink, H.H.

    2011-01-01

    The current trend in IC packaging towards an ever increasing degree of integration, combined with a high level of production flexibility calls for novel approaches in manufacturing. To address these challenges in a flexible manufacturing setting, TNO investigated to what extend mask-less additive

  5. Designing for Color in Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Luongo, Andrea; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a color design pipeline for 3D printed or additively manufactured parts. We demonstrate how to characterize and calibrate a commercial printer and how to obtain its forward and backward color transformation models. We present results from our assistive color design tool...

  6. 31 CFR 306.125 - Additional requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional requirements. 306.125 Section 306.125 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING...

  7. 47 CFR 68.318 - Additional limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Conditions for Terminal Equipment Approval § 68.318 Additional... receipt of CO ground start at the network demarcation point. (c) Line seizure by automatic telephone... proceeding to dial another number. (6) Network addressing signals shall be transmitted no earlier than:...

  8. 78 FR 66848 - Addition of ortho-

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ...) headquartered at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) of the National Institutes of... instead of the Form R. In addition, respondents may designate the specific chemical identity of a... Order 13045: Protection of Children From Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks EPA interprets...

  9. 77 FR 60969 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ...-0655, or email CMTEFedReg@AbilityOne.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 8/3/2012 (77 FR...: 7510-00-NIB-1855--Correction Tape, Pen Style, Retractable. NPA: Industries for the Blind, Inc., West.../Location: Janitorial Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources, Conservation...

  10. 78 FR 14190 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AR07 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is issuing a final rule identifying additional...

  11. 76 FR 41687 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Hydroxypropyl Cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Hydroxypropyl Cellulose AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the food additive...

  12. Resveratrol entrapped niosomes as yoghurt additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando, D; Beltrán, M; Gerone, I; Matos, M; Pazos, C

    2015-03-01

    Nanodesign of niosomes containing resveratrol (RSV) was carried out using food-grade surfactants with dodecanol to stabilise the membrane. Niosomes were prepared using a modified thin film hydration method. A factorial design analysis was carried out to reduce the number of experiments. The response factors were: mean size, polydispersity index (PDI) and entrapment efficiency (EE). Agitation speed and surfactant to dodecanol weight ratio were selected as key parameters for niosomes preparation. Parameter contribution was determined using a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA). Niosomes formulated with Span 60 or Maisine 35-1 as surfactants, and dodecanol as stabiliser, were able to incorporate RSV. These niosomes exhibited a small mean size, narrow size distribution, high RSV entrapment efficiency and good stability. RSV addition did not involve changes in the textural properties of regular yoghurt demonstrating that RSV entrapped niosomes are suitable additives in these dairy products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Additive manufacturing technology in reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Scott C; Moore, Michael G

    2016-10-01

    Technological advances have been part and parcel of modern reconstructive surgery, in that practitioners of this discipline are continually looking for innovative ways to perfect their craft and improve patient outcomes. We are currently in a technological climate wherein advances in computers, imaging, and science have coalesced with resulting innovative breakthroughs that are not merely limited to improved outcomes and enhanced patient care, but may provide novel approaches to training the next generation of reconstructive surgeons. New developments in software and modeling platforms, imaging modalities, tissue engineering, additive manufacturing, and customization of implants are poised to revolutionize the field of reconstructive surgery. The interface between technological advances and reconstructive surgery continues to expand. Additive manufacturing techniques continue to evolve in an effort to improve patient outcomes, decrease operative time, and serve as instructional tools for the training of reconstructive surgeons.

  14. The addition of disilanes to cumulenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yiyuan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-10-08

    The syntheses of silicon-containing compounds and the studies of their rearrangements have been active research areas in the Barton research group. Previously, the addition of disilanes to acetylenes was studied in the group and an intramolecular 2S + 2A mechanism has been proposed. In this thesis, the work is focused on the addition of disilanes to cumulenes. The syntheses of the precursors are discussed and the possible mechanisms for their thermal, photochemical and catalytic rearrangements are proposed. Conjugated organic polymers have been studied in the group since 1985 because of their potential for exhibiting high electroconductivity, photoconductivity, strong non-linear optical response and intense fluorescence. In the second section of this dissertation, the synthesis and property studies of poly(phenylene vinylene) analogues are discussed.

  15. Femtosecond fiber laser additive manufacturing of tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shuang; Liu, Jian; Yang, Pei; Zhai, Meiyu; Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is promising to produce complex shaped components, including metals and alloys, to meet requirements from different industries such as aerospace, defense and biomedicines. Current laser AM uses CW lasers and very few publications have been reported for using pulsed lasers (esp. ultrafast lasers). In this paper, additive manufacturing of Tungsten materials is investigated by using femtosecond (fs) fiber lasers. Various processing conditions are studied, which leads to desired characteristics in terms of morphology, porosity, hardness, microstructural and mechanical properties of the processed components. Fully dense Tungsten part with refined grain and increased hardness was obtained and compared with parts made with different pulse widths and CW laser. The results are evidenced that the fs laser based AM provides more dimensions to modify mechanical properties with controlled heating, rapid melting and cooling rates compared with a CW or long pulsed laser. This can greatly benefit to the make of complicated structures and materials that could not be achieved before.

  16. Rare Earth Additions in Continuously Cast Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William G.; Heaslip, L. J.; Sommerville, I. D.

    1985-09-01

    Rare earth (lanthanide metals) addiiions to continuously cast steel are particularly advantageous because of their ability to refine as-cast structures, reduce segregation and increase hot ductility at temperatures just below that of solidification. The complete shape control of sulfides in steels containing Rare Earth Metals (REM), whether continuously cast or ingot cast, is primarily responsible for improvements in ductility related mechanical properties, weldability, fatigue resistance and resistance to hydrogen damage. Complete sulfide shape control can be obtained with REM additions at sulfur levels as high as.020%. The greatest improvements, however, are obtained with REM additions to low sulfur steels. However, to achieve full operational advantages afforded by REM, nozzle blockage problems must be circumvented. Water model studies indicate a possible solution.

  17. Weldability of Additive Manufactured Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilainen, Ville-Pekka; Pekkarinen, Joonas; Salminen, Antti

    Part size in additive manufacturing is limited by the size of building area of AM equipment. Occasionally, larger constructions that AM machines are able to produce, are needed, and this creates demand for welding AM parts together. However there is very little information on welding of additive manufactured stainless steels. The aim of this study was to investigate the weldability aspects of AM material. In this study, comparison of the bead on plate welds between AM parts and sheet metal parts is done. Used material was 316L stainless steel, AM and sheet metal, and parts were welded with laser welding. Weld quality was evaluated visually from macroscopic images. Results show that there are certain differences in the welds in AM parts compared to the welds in sheet metal parts. Differences were found in penetration depths and in type of welding defects. Nevertheless, this study presents that laser welding is suitable process for welding AM parts.

  18. An Additive Definition of Molecular Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Thomas

    2016-03-28

    A framework for molecular complexity is established that is based on information theory and consistent with chemical knowledge. The resulting complexity index Cm is derived from abstracting the information content of a molecule by the degrees of freedom in the microenvironments on a per-atom basis, allowing the molecular complexity to be calculated in a simple and additive way. This index allows the complexity of any molecule to be universally assessed and is sensitive to stereochemistry, heteroatoms, and symmetry. The performance of this complexity index is evaluated and compared against the current state of the art. Its additive character gives consistent values also for very large molecules and supports direct comparisons of chemical reactions. Finally, this approach may provide a useful tool for medicinal chemistry in drug design and lead selection, as demonstrated by correlating molecular complexities of antibiotics with compound-specific parameters.

  19. Laboratory tests of sludge-control additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatnall, R.E. [MIC Associates, Inc., Chadds Ford, PA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Laboratory {open_quotes}jar{close_quotes} tests compared eleven different fuel oil and diesel fuel sludge-control additives. Factors studied included (1) ability to disperse and prevent buildup of sludge deposits on surfaces, (2) ability to protect steel from corrosion, (3) ability to inhibit growth and proliferation of bacteria, and (4) ability to disperse water. Results varied greatly, and it was found that many commercial products do not do what they claim. It is concluded that fuel retailers should not believe manufacturers` claims for their additive products, but rather should test such products themselves to be sure that the benefits of treatment are real. A simplified form of the procedure used here is proposed as one way for dealers to do such testing.

  20. Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Zak C.; Zhou, Chaoyin; Martin, John H.; Jacobsen, Alan J.; Carter, William B.; Schaedler, Tobias A.

    2016-01-01

    The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers. Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily, three-dimensional (3D) printing enables a big leap in geometrical flexibility. We report preceramic monomers that are cured with ultraviolet light in a stereolithography 3D printer or through a patterned mask, forming 3D polymer structures that can have complex shape and cellular architecture. These polymer structures can be pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide microlattice and honeycomb cellular materials fabricated with this approach exhibit higher strength than ceramic foams of similar density. Additive manufacturing of such materials is of interest for propulsion components, thermal protection systems, porous burners, microelectromechanical systems, and electronic device packaging.

  1. Inhomogenous quantum codes (Ⅰ):additive case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,the quantum error-correcting codes are generalized to the inhomogenous quantumstate space Cq1  Cq2 ··· Cqn,where qi(1 i n) are arbitrary positive integers.By attaching an abelian group Ai of order qi to the space Cqi(1 i n),we present the stabilizer construction of such inhomogenous quantum codes,called additive quantum codes,in term of the character theory of the abelian group A = A1⊕A2⊕···⊕An.As usual case,such construction opens a way to get inhomogenous quantum codes from the classical mixed linear codes.We also present Singleton bound for inhomogenous additive quantum codes and show several quantum codes to meet such bound by using classical mixed algebraic-geometric codes.

  2. Identifying confounders using additive noise models

    CERN Document Server

    Janzing, Dominik; Mooij, Joris; Schoelkopf, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method for inferring the existence of a latent common cause ('confounder') of two observed random variables. The method assumes that the two effects of the confounder are (possibly nonlinear) functions of the confounder plus independent, additive noise. We discuss under which conditions the model is identifiable (up to an arbitrary reparameterization of the confounder) from the joint distribution of the effects. We state and prove a theoretical result that provides evidence for the conjecture that the model is generically identifiable under suitable technical conditions. In addition, we propose a practical method to estimate the confounder from a finite i.i.d. sample of the effects and illustrate that the method works well on both simulated and real-world data.

  3. [Trends in the utilization of food additives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szűcs, Viktória; Bánáti, Diána

    2013-11-17

    The frequent media reports on food additives weakened consumers' trust in food producers and food control authorities as well. Furthermore, consumers' uncertainty is also raised by the fact that they obtain their information from inadequate, mistrustful sources and, therefore, consumers might avoid the consumption of certain foodstuffs. While food producers may react by replacing artificial components by natural ones, they try to emphasize the favourable characteristics of their products. The authors describe the main trends and efforts related to food additives. On the basis of the overview it can be concluded that - besides taking into consideration consumers' needs - product development and research directions are promising. Food producers' efforts may help to restore consumer confidence and trust and they may help them to have informed choice.

  4. The teratology testing of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Paul C; Spézia, François

    2013-01-01

    The developmental and reproductive toxicity testing (including teratogenicity) of new foods and food additives is performed worldwide according to the guidelines given in the FDA Redbook. These studies are not required for substances that are generally recognized as safe, according to the FDA inventory. The anticipated cumulated human exposure level above which developmental or reproduction studies are required depends on the structure-alert category. For food additives of concern, both developmental (prenatal) and reproduction (multigeneration) studies are required. The developmental studies are performed in two species, usually the rat and the rabbit. The reproduction study is generally performed in the rat. The two rat studies are preferably combined into a single experimental design, if possible. The test methods described in the FDA Redbook are similar to those specified by the OECD for the reproductive toxicity testing of chemicals.

  5. Microbial biosurfactants as additives for food industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Jenyffer Medeiros; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; de Luna, Juliana Moura; Rufino, Raquel Diniz; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2013-01-01

    Microbial biosurfactants with high ability to reduce surface and interfacial surface tension and conferring important properties such as emulsification, detergency, solubilization, lubrication and phase dispersion have a wide range of potential applications in many industries. Significant interest in these compounds has been demonstrated by environmental, bioremediation, oil, petroleum, food, beverage, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries attracted by their low toxicity, biodegradability and sustainable production technologies. Despite having significant potentials associated with emulsion formation, stabilization, antiadhesive and antimicrobial activities, significantly less output and applications have been reported in food industry. This has been exacerbated by uneconomical or uncompetitive costing issues for their production when compared to plant or chemical counterparts. In this review, biosurfactants properties, present uses and potential future applications as food additives acting as thickening, emulsifying, dispersing or stabilising agents in addition to the use of sustainable economic processes utilising agro-industrial wastes as alternative substrates for their production are discussed.

  6. Role of Additives in Mortars: Historic Precedents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Acharya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of lime in building construction began at least 10,000 years ago, where there are numerous evidence of its earlier uses. This research is an attempt to provide a review of the history of lime as a building material in based on available literature resources. The origin significance and sustainability of lime mortars and their use in architectural conservation is discussed. Large scale use of additives in historic buildings in India and abroad is highlighted in order to put forth their physio-chemical and aesthetical properties. Use of sustainable additives in mortar is stressed. The analysis presented is supposed to help architectural conservation experts in their efforts to safeguard the intrinsic qualities Indian cultural heritage for posterity.

  7. Addition of malodorants to lighter gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neela, Vasu; von Solms, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    to lighter gas components. The aim is to find substances that not only have the correct physiological effect (discourage abuse) but also the correct physical behavior upon addition to lighter gas (solubility, phase behavior). Specifically the way the malodorant partitions between the vapor and liquid phase......Relevant thermodynamic and phase behavior of mixtures created by adding malodorants to lighter gas to discourage its abuse have been studied. The influence of physical factors such as temperature, pressure and concentration of the selected substances with lighter gas is studied. This work...... represents one component in a larger study examining the feasibility of adding malodorants to lighter gas and focuses on the physical chemistry or chemical engineering aspects of the problem. An initial set of 27 compounds was selected based on deterrent effect (odor) in order to find suitable additives...

  8. Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Zak C; Zhou, Chaoyin; Martin, John H; Jacobsen, Alan J; Carter, William B; Schaedler, Tobias A

    2016-01-01

    The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers. Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily, three-dimensional (3D) printing enables a big leap in geometrical flexibility. We report preceramic monomers that are cured with ultraviolet light in a stereolithography 3D printer or through a patterned mask, forming 3D polymer structures that can have complex shape and cellular architecture. These polymer structures can be pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide microlattice and honeycomb cellular materials fabricated with this approach exhibit higher strength than ceramic foams of similar density. Additive manufacturing of such materials is of interest for propulsion components, thermal protection systems, porous burners, microelectromechanical systems, and electronic device packaging.

  9. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H L; Mazumder, J; DebRoy, T

    2015-11-10

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Therefore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numerical modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components.

  10. Modifying network connectivity with a subgraph addition

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Dane

    2011-01-01

    The principal eigenvalue $\\lambda$ of a network's adjacency matrix often determines dynamics on the network (e.g., in synchronization and spreading processes) and some of its structural properties (e.g., robustness against failure or attack), and is therefore a good indicator for how "strongly" a network is connected. We study how $\\lambda$ is modified by the addition of a subgraph. This type of modification has broad applications, ranging from those involving a single modification (e.g., introduction of a drug into a biological process) to those involving repeated subnetwork additions (e.g., power-grid and transit development). We describe how to optimally connect the subgraph to the network to either maximize or minimize the shift in $\\lambda$, noting several applications.

  11. Sintering of magnesia: effect of additives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satyananda Behera; Ritwik Sarkar

    2015-10-01

    Effect of different additives, namely Cr2O3, Fe2O3 and TiO2, up to 2 wt% was studied on the sintering and microstructural developments of the chemically pure magnesia using the pressureless sintering technique between 1500 and 1600° C. Sintering was evaluated by per cent densification and microstructural developments were studied by electron microscopy and elemental distribution of the additives in the sintered products was also investigated for their distribution in the matrix. Cr2O3 and TiO2 were found to deteriorate the densification associated with grain growth. Fe2O3 was found to improve the densification and well-compacted grain distribution was observed in the microstructure.

  12. Femtosecond laser additive manufacturing of YSZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Bai, Shuang

    2017-04-01

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) is investigated using femtosecond (fs) fiber lasers. Various processing conditions are studied, which leads to desired characteristics in terms of morphology, porosity, hardness, microstructural and mechanical properties of the processed components. High-density (>99%) YSZ part with refined grain and increased hardness was obtained. Microstructure features of fabricated specimens were studied with SEM, EDX, the measured micro hardness is achieved as high as 18.84 GPa.

  13. Conferences on Combinatorial and Additive Number Theory

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This proceedings volume is based on papers presented at the Workshops on Combinatorial and Additive Number Theory (CANT), which were held at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York in 2011 and 2012. The goal of the workshops is to survey recent progress in combinatorial number theory and related parts of mathematics. The workshop attracts researchers and students who discuss the state-of-the-art, open problems, and future challenges in number theory.

  14. Additive manufacturing – a sustainable manufacturing route

    OpenAIRE

    Frăţilă Domniţa; Rotaru Horaţiu

    2017-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies allow developing and manufacturing very complex shaped parts and functional products with a high level of customization, being a great alternative to Traditional Manufacturing (TM) methods like injection molding, die-casting or machining. Due to the importance of cleaner production in the field of manufacturing processes, sustainability of AM processes needs to be assessed in order to make easier its acceptance and implementation in the industry. Furth...

  15. LAVA: Large scale Automated Vulnerability Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-23

    annotated historic bugs with triggering inputs took about six months to construct. In addition, public corpora have the disadvantage of already being...statistics are reported as well as DUA, attack point (ATP), and yield (fraction of injected bugs that result in a segmentation violation). VI. RESULTS We...generation report. Technical report, SAMATE, 2014. [13] Vlad Tsyrklevich. Hacking team: A zero-day market case study. Blog post, July 2015. [14] John

  16. Femtosecond laser additive manufacturing of YSZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian; Bai, Shuang [PolarOnyx, Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) is investigated using femtosecond (fs) fiber lasers. Various processing conditions are studied, which leads to desired characteristics in terms of morphology, porosity, hardness, microstructural and mechanical properties of the processed components. High-density (>99%) YSZ part with refined grain and increased hardness was obtained. Microstructure features of fabricated specimens were studied with SEM, EDX, the measured micro hardness is achieved as high as 18.84 GPa. (orig.)

  17. Additive manufacturing – a sustainable manufacturing route

    OpenAIRE

    Frăţilă Domniţa; Rotaru Horaţiu

    2017-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies allow developing and manufacturing very complex shaped parts and functional products with a high level of customization, being a great alternative to Traditional Manufacturing (TM) methods like injection molding, die-casting or machining. Due to the importance of cleaner production in the field of manufacturing processes, sustainability of AM processes needs to be assessed in order to make easier its acceptance and implementation in the industry. Furth...

  18. Supplier Selection Using Weighted Utility Additive Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karande, Prasad; Chakraborty, Shankar

    2015-10-01

    Supplier selection is a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem which mainly involves evaluating a number of available suppliers according to a set of common criteria for choosing the best one to meet the organizational needs. For any manufacturing or service organization, selecting the right upstream suppliers is a key success factor that will significantly reduce purchasing cost, increase downstream customer satisfaction and improve competitive ability. The past researchers have attempted to solve the supplier selection problem employing different MCDM techniques which involve active participation of the decision makers in the decision-making process. This paper deals with the application of weighted utility additive (WUTA) method for solving supplier selection problems. The WUTA method, an extension of utility additive approach, is based on ordinal regression and consists of building a piece-wise linear additive decision model from a preference structure using linear programming (LP). It adopts preference disaggregation principle and addresses the decision-making activities through operational models which need implicit preferences in the form of a preorder of reference alternatives or a subset of these alternatives present in the process. The preferential preorder provided by the decision maker is used as a restriction of a LP problem, which has its own objective function, minimization of the sum of the errors associated with the ranking of each alternative. Based on a given reference ranking of alternatives, one or more additive utility functions are derived. Using these utility functions, the weighted utilities for individual criterion values are combined into an overall weighted utility for a given alternative. It is observed that WUTA method, having a sound mathematical background, can provide accurate ranking to the candidate suppliers and choose the best one to fulfill the organizational requirements. Two real time examples are illustrated to prove

  19. Powder Characterization and Optimization for Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Cordova, Laura; Campos, Mónica; Tinga, Tiedo

    2017-01-01

    Achieving the optimal quality for Additive Manufactured (AM) parts does not only depend on setting the right process parameters. Material feedstock also plays an important role when aiming for high performance products. The metal AM processes that are most applicable to industry, Powder Bed Fusion and Directed Energy Deposition, use metal powder as raw material. Therefore, controlling the quality and correctly characterizing the particles used in the process is a key step to successfully appl...

  20. [Additive Manufacturing and Its Medical Applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zewen; Wang, Guohui; Gao, Qin; Zhu, Shaihong

    2015-04-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a collection of technologies based on the layer-by-layer manufacturing. Characterized by its direct manufacturing and rapidity, it has been regarded by the Economist Journal as one of the key techniques which will trigger the third industry reformation. The present article, beginning with a brief introduction of the history of AM and the process of its major technologies, focuses on the advantages and disadvantages and medical applications of the technique.

  1. Additive Manufacturing for Affordable Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Brian; Robertson, Elizabeth; Osborne, Robin; Calvert, Marty

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) technology has the potential to drastically reduce costs and lead times associated with the development of complex liquid rocket engine systems. NASA is using 3D printing to manufacture rocket engine components including augmented spark igniters, injectors, turbopumps, and valves. NASA is advancing the process to certify these components for flight. Success Story: MSFC has been developing rocket 3D-printing technology using the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process. Over the last several years, NASA has built and tested several injectors and combustion chambers. Recently, MSFC has 3D printed an augmented spark igniter for potential use the RS-25 engines that will be used on the Space Launch System. The new design is expected to reduce the cost of the igniter by a factor of four. MSFC has also 3D printed and tested a liquid hydrogen turbopump for potential use on an Upper Stage Engine. Additive manufacturing of the turbopump resulted in a 45% part count reduction. To understanding how the 3D printed parts perform and to certify them for flight, MSFC built a breadboard liquid rocket engine using additive manufactured components including injectors, turbomachinery, and valves. The liquid rocket engine was tested seven times in 2016 using liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In addition to exposing the hardware to harsh environments, engineers learned to design for the new manufacturing technique, taking advantage of its capabilities and gaining awareness of its limitations. Benefit: The 3D-printing technology promises reduced cost and schedule for rocket engines. Cost is a function of complexity, and the most complicated features provide the largest opportunities for cost reductions. This is especially true where brazes or welds can be eliminated. The drastic reduction in part count achievable with 3D printing creates a waterfall effect that reduces the number of processes and drawings, decreases the amount of touch

  2. Navy additive manufacturing: adding parts, subtracting steps

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Victor; Schrader, Christopher A.; Young, James

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This study examines additive manufacturing (AM) and describes its potential impact on the Navy’s Supply Chain Management processes. Included in the analysis is the implementation of 3D printing technology and how it could impact the Navy’s future procurement processes, specifically based on a conducted analysis of the automotive aerospace industry. Industry research and development has identified multiple dimensions of AM technology, i...

  3. Materials as additives for advanced lubrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pol, Vilas G.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Mistry, Kuldeep; Erdemir, Ali

    2016-09-13

    This invention relates to carbon-based materials as anti-friction and anti-wear additives for advanced lubrication purposes. The materials comprise carbon nanotubes suspended in a liquid hydrocarbon carrier. Optionally, the compositions further comprise a surfactant (e.g., to aid in dispersion of the carbon particles). Specifically, the novel lubricants have the ability to significantly lower friction and wear, which translates into improved fuel economies and longer durability of mechanical devices and engines.

  4. Laser Additive Manufacturing Bulk Graphene Copper Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zengrong; Chen, Feng; Ling, Dong; Nian, Qiong; Parandoush, Pedram; Zhu, Xing; Shao, Zhuqiang; Cheng, Gary J

    2017-08-30

    The exceptional mechanical properties of graphene enable itself as ideal nanofiller to reinforce the metal matrix composites (MMCs). In this work, graphene copper (Gr-Cu) nanocomposites have been fabricated by laser additive manufacturing process. The transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy were utilized to characterize the fabricated nanocomposites. The XRD, Raman spectrum, energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) and TEM results demonstrate the feasibility of laser additive manufacturing of Gr-Cu nanocomposites. Microstructures were characterized by high resolution TEM (HRTEM) further reveal the interface between copper matrix and graphene. With addition of graphene, mechanical properties of the composites were significantly enhanced. Nanoindentation tests show that average modulus value and hardness of the composites are 118.9 GPa and 3 GPa respectively; a 17.6% and a 50% increase were achieved compared with pure copper, respectively. This work opens a new way to manufacture the figure strong copper based composites with ultra-strong mechanical property, and provides alternatives for applications in electrical and thermal conductors. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  5. Laser Additive Manufacturing of Magnetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikler, C. V.; Chaudhary, V.; Borkar, T.; Soni, V.; Jaeger, D.; Chen, X.; Contieri, R.; Ramanujan, R. V.; Banerjee, R.

    2017-03-01

    While laser additive manufacturing is becoming increasingly important in the context of next-generation manufacturing technologies, most current research efforts focus on optimizing process parameters for the processing of mature alloys for structural applications (primarily stainless steels, titanium base, and nickel base alloys) from pre-alloyed powder feedstocks to achieve properties superior to conventionally processed counterparts. However, laser additive manufacturing or processing can also be applied to functional materials. This article focuses on the use of directed energy deposition-based additive manufacturing technologies, such as the laser engineered net shaping (LENS™) process, to deposit magnetic alloys. Three case studies are presented: Fe-30 at.%Ni, permalloys of the type Ni-Fe-V and Ni-Fe-Mo, and Fe-Si-B-Cu-Nb (derived from Finemet) alloys. All these alloys have been processed from a blend of elemental powders used as the feedstock, and their resultant microstructures, phase formation, and magnetic properties are discussed in this paper. Although these alloys were produced from a blend of elemental powders, they exhibited relatively uniform microstructures and comparable magnetic properties to those of their conventionally processed counterparts.

  6. Additive Manufacturing of Biomaterials, Tissues, and Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadpoor, Amir A; Malda, Jos

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of additive manufacturing (AM), often referred to as three-dimensional (3D) printing, has initiated what some believe to be a manufacturing revolution, and has expedited the development of the field of biofabrication. Moreover, recent advances in AM have facilitated further development of patient-specific healthcare solutions. Customization of many healthcare products and services, such as implants, drug delivery devices, medical instruments, prosthetics, and in vitro models, would have been extremely challenging-if not impossible-without AM technologies. The current special issue of the Annals of Biomedical Engineering presents the latest trends in application of AM techniques to healthcare-related areas of research. As a prelude to this special issue, we review here the most important areas of biomedical research and clinical practice that have benefited from recent developments in additive manufacturing techniques. This editorial, therefore, aims to sketch the research landscape within which the other contributions of the special issue can be better understood and positioned. In what follows, we briefly review the application of additive manufacturing techniques in studies addressing biomaterials, (re)generation of tissues and organs, disease models, drug delivery systems, implants, medical instruments, prosthetics, orthotics, and AM objects used for medical visualization and communication.

  7. The Porosity of Additive Noise Sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, Vinith

    2012-01-01

    Consider a binary additive noise channel with noiseless feedback. When the noise is a stationary and ergodic process $\\mathbf{Z}$, the capacity is $1-\\mathbb{H}(\\mathbf{Z})$ ($\\mathbb{H}(\\cdot)$ denoting the entropy rate). It is shown analogously that when the noise is a deterministic sequence $z^\\infty$, the capacity under finite-state encoding and decoding is $1-\\bar{\\rho}(z^\\infty)$, where $\\bar{\\rho}(\\cdot)$ is Lempel and Ziv's finite-state compressibility. This quantity is termed the \\emph{porosity} $\\underline{\\sigma}(\\cdot)$ of an individual noise sequence. A sequence of schemes are presented that universally achieve porosity for any noise sequence. These converse and achievability results may be interpreted both as a channel-coding counterpart to Ziv and Lempel's work in universal source coding, as well as an extension to the work by Lomnitz and Feder and Shayevitz and Feder on communication across modulo-additive channels. Additionally, a slightly more practical architecture is suggested that draws a...

  8. The value of additional videorecordings on defecography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung Ki; Choi, Sang Hee; Kim, Seung Hoon; Kim, Seung Kwon; Lim, Hyo Keun; Lee, Soon Jin; Kim, Bo Hyun [Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-01

    To determine the value of additional videorecording during defecography. Ninety-nine consecutive patients (20 males, 79 females;mean age:48 yrs) who between august 1996 and June 1997 had undergone defecography due to defecation difficulty were included in this study. In all patients, spot filming(at rest, during squeezing, during straining) and videorecording during defecography were simultaneously performed. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed spot films and video images, analyzed discrepancies between the two methods, and reached a consensus. In 52% of patients (51/99), the results of the two examinations were discrepant. The most common finding was anterior rectocele (n=3D33), followed by spastic pelvic floor syndrome (n=3D16), rectal intussusception (n=3D5), posterior rectocele (n=3D3), mucosal prolapse (n=3D2), descending perineal syndrome (n=3D2), and rectal prolapse (n=3D1). All findings except spastic pelvic floor syndrome were additionally found on videorecording. Because videorecording during defecography showed additional findings in 52% of patients, it is a necessary procedure for the diagnosis and management of patients with defecation difficulty.=20.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A FUNCTIONAL FEED ADDITIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysenko Y. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The new feed additives for animals based on milk whey, enriched with sprouting wheat, barley, maize grains and lactic-acid bacterium have been presented in this article. This study explores the possibility of combining the prebiotics ability of milk whey and sprouting grains with feed probiotic attributes of microbe to enhance gut health of animals and digestibility of the feed. Twelve variants of products were tested in the study using the microbial and physical-chemical approaches. All the assays showed high count of microorganism and high content of reducing sugar. The results of investigation indicate that selected feed additive show high quality. An additional point is that it contains useful organic acids (lactic, acetic and propionic acids and 2,1×109 colony-forming unit of probiotics microorganism that hold the concentration for 4 months. There are not yeast, must, coliform bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus in the developed functional feed product. It contributes to the normalization of the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract of animal, suppression of conditionally pathogenic and putrefactive microflora. The elaborated feed component will help to provide combined feed companies with accessible high-quality raw material

  10. Additive Technology for EU Ecolabel Formulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric Nehls; Tassilo Habereder; Edward Ng

    2009-01-01

    Currently, Bio -lubricants are still regarded as niche products. Within the global lubricant market, however, the ar-ea of environmentally acceptable fluids represents one of the fast growing markets with an estimated annual growth of more than 6% per year. This growth is supported by various market drivers such as legal regulations, public subsidies and the im-plementation of national or international labeling schemes.With the implementation of the European Ecolabel for lubricants in 2005, a common standard specifying ecological and performance requirements for Bio - lubricants was defined. Applying for the EU Ecolabel requires a comprehensive assess-ment, not only of the final formulation, but also of the additives used. Additives are required to meet specifications for oxi-dation and thermal stability, as well as to impart metal protection (of both steel and yellow metals), thus improving corro-sion protection and wear performance of the formulation. Therefore, it is challenging in terms of formulation technology to develop the right formulation that meets the technical specifications as well as the stringent requirements of the EU - Ecola-bel.The paper describes how, by using ester base fluids and additives currently available in the market, lubricants can be developed to meet the technical and eco - toxicological requirements of the EU - Ecolabel, approaching the performance lev-els of lubricants formulated with traditional base fluids.

  11. Culture and neuroscience: additive or synergistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapretto, Mirella; Iacoboni, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of cultural phenomena using neuroscientific methods—cultural neuroscience (CN)—is receiving increasing attention. Yet it is unclear whether the integration of cultural study and neuroscience is merely additive, providing additional evidence of neural plasticity in the human brain, or truly synergistic, yielding discoveries that neither discipline could have achieved alone. We discuss how the parent fields to CN: cross-cultural psychology, psychological anthropology and cognitive neuroscience inform the investigation of the role of cultural experience in shaping the brain. Drawing on well-established methodologies from cross-cultural psychology and cognitive neuroscience, we outline a set of guidelines for CN, evaluate 17 CN studies in terms of these guidelines, and provide a summary table of our results. We conclude that the combination of culture and neuroscience is both additive and synergistic; while some CN methodologies and findings will represent the direct union of information from parent fields, CN studies employing the methodological rigor required by this logistically challenging new field have the potential to transform existing methodologies and produce unique findings. PMID:20083533

  12. Microbial analyses of cement and grouting additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, L.; Jaegevall, S.; Paeaejaervi, A.; Rabe, L.; Edlund, J.; Eriksson, S. [Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden)

    2012-01-15

    During sampling in the ONKALO tunnel in 2006, heavy growth of a slimy material was observed in connection with grouting. It was suggested to be microbial growth on organic additives leaching from the grout. Two sampling campaigns resulted in the isolation of several aerobic bacterial strains. Some of these strains were used in biodegradation studies of three solid cement powders, eight liquid grout additives, and six plastic drainage materials. Degradation was also studied using ONKALO groundwaters as inoculums. The isolated strains were most closely related to hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms. The biodegradation of seven of the products was tested using microorganisms isolated from the ONKALO slime in 2006; none of these strains could degrade the tested products. When ONKALO drillhole groundwaters were used as inoculums in the degradation studies, it was demonstrated that Structuro 111X, Mighty 150, and Super-Parmix supported growth of the groundwater microorganisms. Structuro 111X is a polycarboxylate condensate while Mighty 150 and Super-Parmix are condensates with formaldehyde and naphthalene. Some of the isolated microorganisms belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, many strains of which can degrade organic molecules. None of the plastic drainage materials supported growth during the degradation studies. Microorganisms were present in two of the liquid products when delivered, GroutAid and Super-Parmix. The potential of the organic compounds in grout additives to be degraded by microorganisms, increasing the risk of biofilm formation and complexing compound production, must be considered. Microbial growth will also increase the possibility of hydrogen sulphide formation. (orig.)

  13. Bond additivity corrections for quantum chemistry methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. F. Melius; M. D. Allendorf

    1999-04-01

    In the 1980's, the authors developed a bond-additivity correction procedure for quantum chemical calculations called BAC-MP4, which has proven reliable in calculating the thermochemical properties of molecular species, including radicals as well as stable closed-shell species. New Bond Additivity Correction (BAC) methods have been developed for the G2 method, BAC-G2, as well as for a hybrid DFT/MP2 method, BAC-Hybrid. These BAC methods use a new form of BAC corrections, involving atomic, molecular, and bond-wise additive terms. These terms enable one to treat positive and negative ions as well as neutrals. The BAC-G2 method reduces errors in the G2 method due to nearest-neighbor bonds. The parameters within the BAC-G2 method only depend on atom types. Thus the BAC-G2 method can be used to determine the parameters needed by BAC methods involving lower levels of theory, such as BAC-Hybrid and BAC-MP4. The BAC-Hybrid method should scale well for large molecules. The BAC-Hybrid method uses the differences between the DFT and MP2 as an indicator of the method's accuracy, while the BAC-G2 method uses its internal methods (G1 and G2MP2) to provide an indicator of its accuracy. Indications of the average error as well as worst cases are provided for each of the BAC methods.

  14. AN AZERBAIDZHAN SSR. INSTITUTE OF ADDITIVE CHEMISTRY ADDITIVES TO LUBRICATING OILS. PROBLEMS OF SYNTHESIS, INVESTIGATION AND USE OF OIL ADDITIVES; FUELS AND POLYMER MATERIALS (SELECTED ARTICLES),

    Science.gov (United States)

    An Azerbaidzhan SSR. Institute of additive chemistry additives to lubricating oils . Problems of synthesis, investigation and use of oil additives; fuels and polymer materials (Selected articles)--Translation.

  15. Testing drug additivity based on monotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Harry; Novick, Steven J; Zhao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Under the Loewe additivity, constant relative potency between two drugs is a sufficient condition for the two drugs to be additive. Implicit in this condition is that one drug acts like a dilution of the other. Geometrically, it means that the dose-response curve of one drug is a copy of another that is shifted horizontally by a constant over the log-dose axis. Such phenomenon is often referred to as parallelism. Thus, testing drug additivity is equivalent to the demonstration of parallelism between two dose-response curves. Current methods used for testing parallelism are usually based on significance tests for differences between parameters in the dose-response curves of the monotherapies. A p-value of less than 0.05 is indicative of non-parallelism. The p-value-based methods, however, may be fundamentally flawed because an increase in either sample size or precision of the assay used to measure drug effect may result in more frequent rejection of parallel lines for a trivial difference. Moreover, similarity (difference) between model parameters does not necessarily translate into the similarity (difference) between the two response curves. As a result, a test may conclude that the model parameters are similar (different), yet there is little assurance on the similarity between the two dose-response curves. In this paper, we introduce a Bayesian approach to directly test the hypothesis that the two drugs have a constant relative potency. An important utility of our proposed method is in aiding go/no-go decisions concerning two drug combination studies. It is illustrated with both a simulated example and a real-life example. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Mechanical properties of additively manufactured octagonal honeycombs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, R; Sadighi, M; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Zadpoor, A A

    2016-12-01

    Honeycomb structures have found numerous applications as structural and biomedical materials due to their favourable properties such as low weight, high stiffness, and porosity. Application of additive manufacturing and 3D printing techniques allows for manufacturing of honeycombs with arbitrary shape and wall thickness, opening the way for optimizing the mechanical and physical properties for specific applications. In this study, the mechanical properties of honeycomb structures with a new geometry, called octagonal honeycomb, were investigated using analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. An additive manufacturing technique, namely fused deposition modelling, was used to fabricate the honeycomb from polylactic acid (PLA). The honeycombs structures were then mechanically tested under compression and the mechanical properties of the structures were determined. In addition, the Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories were used for deriving analytical relationships for elastic modulus, yield stress, Poisson's ratio, and buckling stress of this new design of honeycomb structures. Finite element models were also created to analyse the mechanical behaviour of the honeycombs computationally. The analytical solutions obtained using Timoshenko beam theory were close to computational results in terms of elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and yield stress, especially for relative densities smaller than 25%. The analytical solutions based on the Timoshenko analytical solution and the computational results were in good agreement with experimental observations. Finally, the elastic properties of the proposed honeycomb structure were compared to those of other honeycomb structures such as square, triangular, hexagonal, mixed, diamond, and Kagome. The octagonal honeycomb showed yield stress and elastic modulus values very close to those of regular hexagonal honeycombs and lower than the other considered honeycombs.

  17. Improvements in China's Food Additive Laws-Fermented Flour Paste Additive in Beijing Roast Duck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianglian; Zhao Xin

    2008-01-01

    About half of the food safety incidents in 2005 and 2006 were related to food additives. Early in 2007,the main problem for administrative enforcement is the issue of food additives.This paper analyzes one such incident:the fermented flour paste incident in Beijing roast duck that occurred in early 2007.We put forward suggested ways to perfect the legal system regarding Chinese food additives by focusing on legal and management mechanisms.This includes optimizing higher-level laws for food additives,improving the standards system,cultivating the appropriate concepts,implementing preventive measures,and facilitating routine law enforcement.

  18. Additive strengthening mechanisms in dispersion hardened polycrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Ralph, B.

    1986-01-01

    Tensile data from polycrystalline samples of copper dispersion strengthened by alumina are analysed. The basis of this analysis is to look at the strain range from 0.05 to 0.20 where the stress-strain curves show a parabolic hardening behaviour and are parallel to one another. The means by which...... the dislocation density contributions from each of these three sources. The type of additivity suggested here not only gives very good agreement with the stress-strain data but it also uses and is in accord with the experimental measurements of dislocation densities made using transmission electron microscopy....

  19. Influence of Additives on Reinforced Concrete Durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neverkovica Darja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research on carbonation and chloride induced corrosion mechanisms in reinforced concrete structures, based on three commercially available concrete admixtures: Xypex Admix C-1000, Penetron Admix and Elkem Microsilica. Carbonation takes place due to carbon dioxide diffusion, which in the required amount is present in the air. Chlorides penetrate concrete in case of the use of deicing salt or structure exploitation in marine atmosphere. Based on the implemented research, Elkem Microsilica is the recommended additive for the use in aggressive environmental conditions. Use of Xypex Admix C-1000 and Penetron Admix have only average resistance to the aggressive environmental impact.

  20. Additive measures of travel time variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelson, Leonid; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper derives a measure of travel time variability for travellers equipped with scheduling preferences defined in terms of time-varying utility rates, and who choose departure time optimally. The corresponding value of travel time variability is a constant that depends only on preference...... parameters. The measure is unique in being additive with respect to independent parts of a trip. It has the variance of travel time as a special case. Extension is provided to the case of travellers who use a scheduled service with fixed headway....

  1. MIXED HEDGING UNDER ADDITIVE MARKET PRICE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haifeng YAN; Jianqi YANG; Limin LIU

    2008-01-01

    Assume that there is additional market information in the financial market, which is represented by n given T-contingent claims. The special claims with observed prices at time 0 can only be traded at time 0. Hence, investment opportunities increase. By means of the techniques developed by Gourierout et al. (1998), the mixed hedging problem is considered, especially, the price of contingent claim and the optimal hedging strategy are obtained. An explicit description of the mean-variance efficient solution is given after arguing mean-variance efficient frontier problem.

  2. Additive manufacturing – a sustainable manufacturing route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frăţilă Domniţa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Additive Manufacturing (AM technologies allow developing and manufacturing very complex shaped parts and functional products with a high level of customization, being a great alternative to Traditional Manufacturing (TM methods like injection molding, die-casting or machining. Due to the importance of cleaner production in the field of manufacturing processes, sustainability of AM processes needs to be assessed in order to make easier its acceptance and implementation in the industry. Furthermore, the manufacturers can improve their competitiveness and profitability by considering the ecological aspects during the manufacturing step of a product. This paper gives a survey on sustainability issues related to AM.

  3. Structural dynamic modification using additive damping

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B C Nakra

    2000-06-01

    In order to control dynamic response in structures and machines, modofications using additive viscoelastic damping materials are highlighted. The techniques described for analysis include analytical methods for structural elements, FEM and perturbation methods for reanalysis or structural dynamic modifications for complex structures. Optimisation techniques are used for damping effectiveness include multi-parameter optimisatoin techniques and a technique using dynamic sensitivity analysis and structural dynamic modification. These have been applied for optimum dynamic design of structures incorporating viscoelastic damping. Some current trends for vibraton control are also discussed.

  4. Additive Manufacturing of Hierarchical Porous Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division. Polymers and Coatings

    2016-08-30

    Additive manufacturing has become a tool of choice for the development of customizable components. Developments in this technology have led to a powerful array of printers that t serve a variety of needs. However, resin development plays a crucial role in leading the technology forward. This paper addresses the development and application of printing hierarchical porous structures. Beginning with the development of a porous scaffold, which can be functionalized with a variety of materials, and concluding with customized resins for metal, ceramic, and carbon structures.

  5. The addition of iodine to tetramethylammonium iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, H.W.; Fleischer, M.

    1953-01-01

    The system tetramethylammonium iodide-iodine-toluene has been studied by the solubility method at 6 and at 25??. The compounds (CH3)4NI3, (CH3)4NI5 and (CH3)4NI11 were found to be stable phases at both temperatures. In addition, the compound (CH3)4NI10 was found at 6?? and the compound (CH3)4NI9 at 25??. The dissociation pressures of the compounds at these temperatures were calculated from the solubility data.

  6. 10 conjectures in additive number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cloitre, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    Following an idea of Rowland we give a conjectural way to generate increasing sequences of primes using algorithms involving the gcd. These algorithms seem not so useless for searching primes since it appears we found sometime primes much more greater than the number of required iterations. In an other hand we propose new formulations of famous conjectures from the additive theory of numbers (the weak twin prime conjecture, the Polignac conjecture, the Goldbach conjecture or the very general Schinzel's hypothesis H). For the moment these are experimental results obtained using pari-gp.

  7. Mechanism and kinetics of addition polymerizations

    CERN Document Server

    Kucera, M

    1991-01-01

    This volume presents an up-to-date survey of knowledge concerning addition type polymerizations. It contains nine chapters, each of which covers a particular basic term. Whenever necessary, the phenomena are discussed from the viewpoint of both stationary and non-stationary state of radical, ionic (i.e. anionic and cationic) and coordination polymerization. Special attention has been paid to the propagation process. It provides not only a general overview but also information on important special cases (theoretical conditions of propagation, influence of external factors, controlled propagatio

  8. Custom surgical implants using additive manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    POUKENS, Jules; Laeven, Paul; BEERENS, Maikel; Koper, David; Lethaus, Bernd; Kessler, Peter; Vander Sloten, Jos; Lambrichts, Ivo

    2010-01-01

    CAD/CAM and Additive Manufacturing (AM) are getting more attention in the medical sector, especially in cranio-maxillofacial surgery where defects of the face (e.g., absence of a nose, ear, or eye) have a very big psycho-social impact. Radiological, optical, and laser scans of the patient are converted into a virtual three-dimensional patient with subsequent virtual design of the medical device. AM methods enable the production of custom implants made in a solid or resorbable material, or eve...

  9. Characteristics of asphalt mixes with FT additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štefunková, S.

    2012-03-01

    This article is focused on low-temperature asphalt mixture technologies using FT additive and RAP. The modern production and use of asphalt mixture technologies with reduced temperatures has many advantages. These advantages mainly help to save energy and the environment. Lower temperatures enable a reduction in energy consumption, a more acceptable working environment for workers, a reduction in negative environmental effects, such as greenhouse gas emissions, and an improvement in the workability of mixtures and a prolongation of their duration. This technology is currently becoming popular in many countries.

  10. Additive and Photochemical Manufacturing of Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Winco K. C.; Sun, Bo; Meng, Zhengong; Huang, Junfeng; Jin, Yingdi; Choy, Hang Shan; Cai, Zhixiang; Li, Guijun; Ho, Cheuk Lam; Yang, Jinlong; Wong, Wai Yeung

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, 3D printing technologies have been extensively developed, enabling rapid prototyping from a conceptual design to an actual product. However, additive manufacturing of metals in the existing technologies is still cost-intensive and time-consuming. Herein a novel platform for low-cost additive manufacturing is introduced by simultaneously combining the laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) method with photochemical reaction. Using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) polymer as the sacrificial layer, sufficient ejection momentum can be generated in the LIFT method. A low-cost continuous wave (CW) laser diode at 405 nm was utilized and proved to be able to transfer the photochemically synthesized copper onto the target substrate. The wavelength-dependent photochemical behaviour in the LIFT method was verified and characterized by both theoretical and experimental studies compared to 1064 nm fiber laser. The conductivity of the synthesized copper patterns could be enhanced using post electroless plating while retaining the designed pattern shapes. Prototypes of electronic circuits were accordingly built and demonstrated for powering up LEDs. Apart from pristine PDMS materials with low surface energies, the proposed method can simultaneously perform laser-induced forward transfer and photochemical synthesis of metals, starting from their metal oxide forms, onto various target substrates such as polyimide, glass and thermoplastics.

  11. Galvanometer scanning technology for laser additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xi; Li, Jin; Lucas, Mark

    2017-02-01

    A galvanometer laser beam scanning system is an essential element in many laser additive manufacturing (LAM) technologies including Stereolithography (SLA), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and Selective Laser Melting (SLM). Understanding the laser beam scanning techniques and recent innovations in this field will greatly benefit the 3D laser printing system integration and technology advance. One of the challenges to achieve high quality 3D printed parts is due to the non-uniform laser power density delivered on the materials caused by the acceleration and deceleration movements of the galvanometer at ends of the hatching and outlining patterns. One way to solve this problem is to modulate the laser power as the function of the scanning speed during the acceleration or deceleration periods. Another strategy is to maintain the constant scanning speed while accurately coordinating the laser on and off operation throughout the job. In this paper, we demonstrate the high speed, high accuracy and low drift digital scanning technology that incorporates both techniques to achieve uniform laser density with minimal additional process development. With the constant scanning speed method, the scanner not only delivers high quality and uniform results, but also a throughput increase of 23% on a typical LAM job, compared to that of the conventional control method that requires galvanometer acceleration and deceleration movements.

  12. Energy additivity in branched and cyclic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, H.; Bader, R.F.W. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Cortes-Guzman, F. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, (Mexico). Dept. de Fisicoquimica

    2009-11-15

    This paper reported on a study of the energetic relationships between hydrocarbon molecules and the heats of formation. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) was used to investigate the degree to which branched hydrocarbons obey a group additivity scheme for energy and populations. The QTAIM defined the properties of the chemical groups. The experimental and theoretical transferability of the methyl and methylene groups of the linear hydrocarbons was also explored. The calculations were performed using a large basis set at the restricted Hartree-Fock and MP2(full) levels of theory. The study also investigated the deviations from additivity, noted for small ring hydrocarbons leading to the definition of strain energy. The QTAIM energies recovered the experimental values. The paper included details regarding the delocalization of the electron density over the surface of the cyclopropane ring, responsible for its homoaromatic properties. The calculations presented in this study satisfied the virial theorem for the atomic definition of energy. The paper discussed the problems associated with the use of the density functional theory (DFT) resulting from its failure to satisfy the virial theorem. 44 refs., 9 tabs., 2 figs.

  13. The Electrophilic Addition to Alkynes Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Thomas T.

    1996-11-01

    A recent claim (Weiss, H. J. Chem. Ed. 1993, 70, 873 - 874) that vinyl cations are not the predominant intermediates in the electrophilic addition to alkynes in disputed on the following grounds: (1) these is a linear free energy correlation between the rates of acid-catalyzed hydration of alkenes and alkynes, and since carbocations are accepted as intermediates in the former reaction, they are implicated in the latter as well; (2) rearrangements are known to be energetically less favorable in vinyl cations compared to alkyl cations, and so the lesser observed tendency for rearrangement in the former case does not argue for the absence of vinyl cation intermediates; (3) there is evidence that alkenes and alkynes react with HBr and HCl in some cases with anti addition and a kinetic term in [HX]2, but this is not an argument for a difference in behavior between the two, or for a pi-complex mechanism; (4) thermochemical calculations show that vinyl cations are not prohbitively destabilized compared to analogous alkyl cations; (5) the observation of an HCl/acetylene pi-complex in the gas phase is not an argument that this represents a rate-limiting transition state in solution.

  14. Emerging technologies in arthroplasty: additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Samik; Kulesha, Gene; Kester, Mark; Mont, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    Additive manufacturing is an industrial technology whereby three-dimensional visual computer models are fabricated into physical components by selectively curing, depositing, or consolidating various materials in consecutive layers. Although initially developed for production of simulated models, the technology has undergone vast improvements and is currently increasingly being used for the production of end-use components in various aerospace, automotive, and biomedical specialties. The ability of this technology to be used for the manufacture of solid-mesh-foam monolithic and coated components of complex geometries previously considered unmanufacturable has attracted the attention of implant manufacturers, bioengineers, and orthopedic surgeons. Currently, there is a paucity of reports describing this fabrication method in the orthopedic literature. Therefore, we aimed to briefly describe this technology, some of the applications in other orthopedic subspecialties, its present use in hip and knee arthroplasty, and concerns with the present form of the technology. As there are few reports of clinical trials presently available, the true benefits of this technology can only be realized when studies evaluating the clinical and radiographic outcomes of cementless implants manufactured with additive manufacturing report durable fixation, less stress shielding, and better implant survivorship. Nevertheless, the authors believe that this technology holds great promise and may potentially change the conventional methods of casting, machining, and tooling for implant manufacturing in the future.

  15. Gas hydrate inhibition of drilling fluid additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaolan, L.; Baojiang, S.; Shaoran, R. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Dongying (China). Inst. of Petroleum Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Gas hydrates that form during offshore well drilling can have adverse impacts on well operational safety. The hydrates typically form in the risers and the annulus between the casing and the drillstring, and can stop the circulation of drilling fluids. In this study, experiments were conducted to measure the effect of drilling fluid additives on hydrate inhibition. Polyalcohols, well-stability control agents, lubricating agents, and polymeric materials were investigated in a stirred tank reactor at temperatures ranging from -10 degree C to 60 degrees C. Pressure, temperature, and torque were used to detect onset points of hydrate formation and dissociation. The inhibitive effect of the additives on hydrate formation was quantified. Phase boundary shifts were measured in terms of temperature difference or sub-cooling gained when chemicals were added to pure water. Results showed that the multiple hydroxyl groups in polyalcohol chemicals significantly inhibited hydrate formation. Polymeric and polyacrylamide materials had only a small impact on hydrate formation, while sulfonated methyl tannins were found to increase hydrate formation. 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  16. Additive manufacturing of glass for optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junjie; Gilbert, Luke J.; Bristow, Douglas A.; Landers, Robert G.; Goldstein, Jonathan T.; Urbas, Augustine M.; Kinzel, Edward C.

    2016-04-01

    Glasses including fused quartz have significant scientific and engineering applications including optics, communications, electronics, and hermetic seals. This paper investigates a filament fed process for Additive Manufacturing (AM) of fused quartz. Additive manufacturing has several potential benefits including increased design freedom, faster prototyping, and lower processing costs for small production volumes. However, current research in AM of glasses is limited and has focused on non-optical applications. Fused quartz is studied here because of its desirability for high-quality optics due to its high transmissivity and thermal stability. Fused quartz also has a higher working temperature than soda lime glass which poses a challenge for AM. In this work, fused quartz filaments are fed into a CO2 laser generated melt pool, smoothly depositing material onto the work piece. Single tracks are printed to explore the effects that different process parameters have on the morphology of printed fused quartz. A spectrometer is used to measure the thermal radiation incandescently emitted from the melt pool. Thin-walls are printed to study the effects of layer-to-layer height. Finally, a 3D fused quartz cube is printed using the newly acquired layer height and polished on each surface. The transmittance and index homogeneity of the polished cube are both measured. These results show that the filament fed process has the potential to print fused quartz with optical transparency and of index of refraction uniformity approaching bulk processed glass.

  17. Additive and Photochemical Manufacturing of Copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Winco K C; Sun, Bo; Meng, Zhengong; Huang, Junfeng; Jin, Yingdi; Choy, Hang Shan; Cai, Zhixiang; Li, Guijun; Ho, Cheuk Lam; Yang, Jinlong; Wong, Wai Yeung

    2016-12-21

    In recent years, 3D printing technologies have been extensively developed, enabling rapid prototyping from a conceptual design to an actual product. However, additive manufacturing of metals in the existing technologies is still cost-intensive and time-consuming. Herein a novel platform for low-cost additive manufacturing is introduced by simultaneously combining the laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) method with photochemical reaction. Using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) polymer as the sacrificial layer, sufficient ejection momentum can be generated in the LIFT method. A low-cost continuous wave (CW) laser diode at 405 nm was utilized and proved to be able to transfer the photochemically synthesized copper onto the target substrate. The wavelength-dependent photochemical behaviour in the LIFT method was verified and characterized by both theoretical and experimental studies compared to 1064 nm fiber laser. The conductivity of the synthesized copper patterns could be enhanced using post electroless plating while retaining the designed pattern shapes. Prototypes of electronic circuits were accordingly built and demonstrated for powering up LEDs. Apart from pristine PDMS materials with low surface energies, the proposed method can simultaneously perform laser-induced forward transfer and photochemical synthesis of metals, starting from their metal oxide forms, onto various target substrates such as polyimide, glass and thermoplastics.

  18. Surface texture measurement for additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantaphyllou, Andrew; Giusca, Claudiu L.; Macaulay, Gavin D.; Roerig, Felix; Hoebel, Matthias; Leach, Richard K.; Tomita, Ben; Milne, Katherine A.

    2015-06-01

    The surface texture of additively manufactured metallic surfaces made by powder bed methods is affected by a number of factors, including the powder’s particle size distribution, the effect of the heat source, the thickness of the printed layers, the angle of the surface relative to the horizontal build bed and the effect of any post processing/finishing. The aim of the research reported here is to understand the way these surfaces should be measured in order to characterise them. In published research to date, the surface texture is generally reported as an Ra value, measured across the lay. The appropriateness of this method for such surfaces is investigated here. A preliminary investigation was carried out on two additive manufacturing processes—selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM)—focusing on the effect of build angle and post processing. The surfaces were measured using both tactile and optical methods and a range of profile and areal parameters were reported. Test coupons were manufactured at four angles relative to the horizontal plane of the powder bed using both SLM and EBM. The effect of lay—caused by the layered nature of the manufacturing process—was investigated, as was the required sample area for optical measurements. The surfaces were also measured before and after grit blasting.

  19. Value addition to bamboo shoots: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Debangana; Sahu, Jatindra K; Sharma, G D

    2012-08-01

    Bamboo shoot forms a traditional delicacy in many countries. Being low in fat content and high in potassium, carbohydrate, dietary fibres, Vitamins and active materials, bamboo shoots are consumed in raw, canned, boiled, marinated, fermented, frozen, liquid and medicinal forms. Although the fresh bamboo shoots of species like Dendraocalamus giganteus are healthier and nutritionally rich, the young shoots, after fortification, can be consumed by processing into a wide range of food products with longer shelf-life and better organoleptic qualities. However, the consumption pattern of bamboo shoots in most of the countries is traditional, non-standardized, seasonal and region-specific with little value addition. Therefore, there exists a great opportunity, especially for the organized food processing sectors to take up the processing of bamboo shoot-based food products in an organized manner. The present article gives an insight into the global scenario of bamboo shoot-based food products and their consumption pattern, the quality attributes, and the opportunities for value addition along with future prospects in view of international food safety, security and nutrition.

  20. Rusip with Alginate Addition as Seasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Koesoemawardani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractRusip was a fermented food of fish that have a distinctive aroma so that potential to be developed into instant seasoning. This research was aimed to optimize powder processing of rusip with the addition of alginate. The treatments were concentration of alginate (5% , 10% , 15% and 20% w/w and the heating temperature (50oC, 60oC , 70oC and 80oC. Data was analyzed using advanced test Honestly Significant Difference (HSD at 5% level. The results showed that the best rusip powder was alginate 5% with heating at 50oC and 70°C . The character were 5.98% and 7.57% water content; pH 5.69 and 5.85; 7.77% and 8.77% salt content; 28% and 27.65% protein content, respectively. This study proves that the addition of alginate 5% (w/w, heating at a temperature of 50oC and 70°C can trap volatile compounds formed during fermentation in rusip processing into powder.

  1. The retro Grignard addition reaction revisited: the reversible addition of benzyl reagents to ketones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stig Holden; Holm, Torkil; Madsen, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The Grignard addition reaction is known to be a reversible process with allylic reagents, but so far the reversibility has not been demonstrated with other alkylmagnesium halides. By using crossover experiments it has been established that the benzyl addition reaction is also a reversible transfo...

  2. 77 FR 13009 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AR07 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... January 5, 2012 to amend the Renewable Fuel Standard program regulations. Because EPA received...

  3. 76 FR 16285 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Bacteriophage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 (formerly Docket No. 2002F-0316) Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Bacteriophage Preparation AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule; response to objections and denial of requests...

  4. Equivalent Hamiltonians with additional discrete states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn, C.R. (Physics Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (USA)); Thaler, R.M. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (USA) Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Given a particular Hamiltonian {ital H}, we present a method to generate a new Hamiltonian {ital {tilde H}}, which has the same discrete energy eigenvalues and the same continuum phase shifts as {ital H}, but which also has additional given discrete eigenstates. This method is used to generate a Hamiltonian {ital h}{sub 1}, which gives rise to a complete orthonormal set of basis states, which contain a given set of biorthonormal discrete states, the continuum states of which are asymptotic to plane waves (have zero phase shifts). Such a set of states may be helpful in representing the medium modification of the Green's function due to the Pauli principle, as well as including Pauli exclusion effects into scattering calculations.

  5. Equivalent Hamiltonians with additional discrete states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, C. R.; Thaler, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    Given a particular Hamiltonian H, we present a method to generate a new Hamiltonian H~, which has the same discrete energy eigenvalues and the same continuum phase shifts as H, but which also has additional given discrete eigenstates. This method is used to generate a Hamiltonian h1, which gives rise to a complete orthonormal set of basis states, which contain a given set of biorthonormal discrete states, the continuum states of which are asymptotic to plane waves (have zero phase shifts). Such a set of states may be helpful in representing the medium modification of the Green's function due to the Pauli principle, as well as including Pauli exclusion effects into scattering calculations.

  6. Additive subgroups of topological vector spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Banaszczyk, Wojciech

    1991-01-01

    The Pontryagin-van Kampen duality theorem and the Bochner theorem on positive-definite functions are known to be true for certain abelian topological groups that are not locally compact. The book sets out to present in a systematic way the existing material. It is based on the original notion of a nuclear group, which includes LCA groups and nuclear locally convex spaces together with their additive subgroups, quotient groups and products. For (metrizable, complete) nuclear groups one obtains analogues of the Pontryagin duality theorem, of the Bochner theorem and of the Lévy-Steinitz theorem on rearrangement of series (an answer to an old question of S. Ulam). The book is written in the language of functional analysis. The methods used are taken mainly from geometry of numbers, geometry of Banach spaces and topological algebra. The reader is expected only to know the basics of functional analysis and abstract harmonic analysis.

  7. High-Efficient Circuits for Ternary Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Faghih Mirzaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New ternary adders, which are fundamental components of ternary addition, are presented in this paper. They are on the basis of a logic style which mostly generates binary signals. Therefore, static power dissipation reaches its minimum extent. Extensive different analyses are carried out to examine how efficient the new designs are. For instance, the ternary ripple adder constructed by the proposed ternary half and full adders consumes 2.33 μW less power than the one implemented by the previous adder cells. It is almost twice faster as well. Due to their unique superior characteristics for ternary circuitry, carbon nanotube field-effect transistors are used to form the novel circuits, which are entirely suitable for practical applications.

  8. Network Tomography Based on Additive Metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Ni, Jian

    2008-01-01

    Inference of the network structure (e.g., routing topology) and dynamics (e.g., link performance) is an essential component in many network design and management tasks. In this paper we propose a new, general framework for analyzing and designing routing topology and link performance inference algorithms using ideas and tools from phylogenetic inference in evolutionary biology. The framework is applicable to a variety of measurement techniques. Based on the framework we introduce and develop several polynomial-time distance-based inference algorithms with provable performance. We provide sufficient conditions for the correctness of the algorithms. We show that the algorithms are consistent (return correct topology and link performance with an increasing sample size) and robust (can tolerate a certain level of measurement errors). In addition, we establish certain optimality properties of the algorithms (i.e., they achieve the optimal $l_\\infty$-radius) and demonstrate their effectiveness via model simulation.

  9. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2009-05-20

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements. We allow for a working covariance matrix for the regression errors, showing that our method is most efficient when the correct covariance matrix is used. The component functions achieve the known asymptotic variance lower bound for the scalar argument case. Smooth backfitting also leads directly to design-independent biases in the local linear case. Simulations show our estimator has smaller variance than the usual kernel estimator. This is also illustrated by an example from nutritional epidemiology. © 2009 Biometrika Trust.

  10. The stability of alloying additions in Zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumley, S.C. [Department of Materials, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Nuclear Department, Defence Academy, HMS Sultan, Gosport, Hampshire, PO12 3BY (United Kingdom); Murphy, S.T. [Department of Materials, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Burr, P.A. [Department of Materials, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Grimes, R.W. [Department of Materials, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Chard-Tuckey, P.R. [Nuclear Department, Defence Academy, HMS Sultan, Gosport, Hampshire, PO12 3BY (United Kingdom); Wenman, M.R., E-mail: m.wenman@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Materials, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-15

    The interactions of Cr, Fe, Nb, Ni, Sn, V and Y with Zr are simulated using density functional theory. Thermodynamic stabilities of various different Zr based intermetallic compounds, including multiple Laves phase structures and solutions of alloying additions in both α and β-Zr were investigated. The thermodynamic driving forces in this system can be correlated with trends in atomic radii and the relative electronegativities of the different species. Formation energies of Fe, Ni and Sn based intermetallic compounds were found to be negative, and the Zr{sub 2}Fe and Zr{sub 2}Ni intermetallics were metastable. Most elements displayed negative energies of solution in β-Zr but positive energies in the α-phase, with the exception of Sn (which was negative for both) and Y (which was positive for both). Solutions formed from intermetallics showed a similar trend.

  11. Subgroup finding via Bayesian additive regression trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaganesan, Siva; Müller, Peter; Huang, Bin

    2017-03-09

    We provide a Bayesian decision theoretic approach to finding subgroups that have elevated treatment effects. Our approach separates the modeling of the response variable from the task of subgroup finding and allows a flexible modeling of the response variable irrespective of potential subgroups of interest. We use Bayesian additive regression trees to model the response variable and use a utility function defined in terms of a candidate subgroup and the predicted response for that subgroup. Subgroups are identified by maximizing the expected utility where the expectation is taken with respect to the posterior predictive distribution of the response, and the maximization is carried out over an a priori specified set of candidate subgroups. Our approach allows subgroups based on both quantitative and categorical covariates. We illustrate the approach using simulated data set study and a real data set. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Nucleophilic Addition of Thiols to Deoxynivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanic, Ana; Uhlig, Silvio; Solhaug, Anita; Rise, Frode; Wilkins, Alistair L; Miles, Christopher O

    2015-09-02

    Conjugation of deoxynivalenol (DON) with sulfur compounds is recognized as a significant reaction pathway, and putative DON-glutathione (DON-GSH) conjugates have been reported in planta. To understand and control the reaction of trichothecenes with biologically important thiols, we studied the reaction of DON, T-2 tetraol, and de-epoxy-DON with a range of model thiols. Reaction conditions were optimized for DON with 2-mercaptoethanol. Major reaction products were identified using HRMS and NMR spectroscopy. The results indicate that thiols react reversibly with the double bond (Michael addition) and irreversibly with the epoxide group in trichothecenes. These reactions occurred at different rates, and multiple isomers were produced including diconjugated forms. LC-MS analyses indicated that glutathione and cysteine reacted with DON in a similar manner to the model thiols. In contrast to DON, none of the tested mercaptoethanol adducts displayed toxicity in human monocytes or induced pro-inflammatory cytokines in human macrophages.

  13. Additive Feed Forward Control with Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.

    1999-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a method to control a non-linear, multivariable, noisy process using trained neural networks. The basis for the method is a trained neural network controller acting as the inverse process model. A training method for obtaining such an inverse process model is applied....... A suitable 'shaped' (low-pass filtered) reference is used to overcome problems with excessive control action when using a controller acting as the inverse process model. The control concept is Additive Feed Forward Control, where the trained neural network controller, acting as the inverse process model......, is placed in a supplementary pure feed-forward path to an existing feedback controller. This concept benefits from the fact, that an existing, traditional designed, feedback controller can be retained without any modifications, and after training the connection of the neural network feed-forward controller...

  14. A DNA based model for addition computation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Lin; YANG Xiao; LIU Wenbin; XU Jin

    2004-01-01

    Much effort has been made to solve computing problems by using DNA-an organic simulating method, which in some cases is preferable to the current electronic computer. However, No one at present has proposed an effective and applicable method to solve addition problem with molecular algorithm due to the difficulty in solving the carry problem which can be easily solved by hardware of an electronic computer. In this article, we solved this problem by employing two kinds of DNA strings, one is called result and operation string while the other is named carrier. The result and operation string contains some carry information by its own and denotes the ultimate result while the carrier is just for carrying use. The significance of this algorithm is the original code, the fairly easy steps to follow and the feasibility under current molecular biological technology.

  15. Intolerance to food additives - does it exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paul J; Kemp, Andrew S

    2012-02-01

    'Food intolerance' is often confused with a range of adverse symptoms which may be coincidental to ingestion of food. 'Food intolerance' is defined as a reaction in which symptoms must be objectively reproducible and not known to involve an immunological mechanism. A more precise term is non-allergic food hypersensitivity, which contrasts with food allergies which are due to an immunological mechanism. Some children will experience food reactions to food additives. Reported symptoms range from urticaria/angioedema to hyperactive behaviours. While parents/carers report that over one fifth of children experience of food reaction, only 1 in 20 of these are confirmed to have a non-allergic food hypersensitivity on testing.

  16. Organic Additive Implantation onto Cement Hydration Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jipeng; LI Zongjin; YANG Ruochong; ZHANG Yamei

    2014-01-01

    In polymer modified cementitious materials, it is hard to set up a chemical connection between the added polymer and the cement moiety. In this study FS (functional silane) was adopted to form this connection as a bridge component which has the functional group forming bonds with polymer. To testify the connection between FS and cement moiety, Q2/Q1 ratio (Qx:intensity ratio) investigation was carried out by the means of quantitative solid state 29Si MAS NMR. The results show that the Q2/Q1 ratio has increased with the addition of FS which indicates that the silicon chain length has increased, and the quantity of silicon atoms at site of Q2, chain site, has enhanced, showing that the silicon atom of FS has connected to the silicon chain of cement moiety by the bond“-Si-O-Si-”formation.

  17. Atom addition reactions in interstellar ice analogues

    CERN Document Server

    Linnartz, Harold; Fedoseev, Gleb

    2015-01-01

    This review paper summarizes the state-of-the-art in laboratory based interstellar ice chemistry. The focus is on atom addition reactions, illustrating how water, carbon dioxide and methanol can form in the solid state at astronomically relevant temperatures, and also the formation of more complex species such as hydroxylamine, an important prebiotic molecule, and glycolaldehyde, the smallest sugar, is discussed. These reactions are particularly relevant during the dark ages of star and planet formation, i.e., when the role of UV light is restricted. A quantitative characterization of such processes is only possible through dedicated laboratory studies, i.e., under full control of a large set of parameters such as temperature, atom-flux, and ice morphology. The resulting numbers, physical and chemical constants, e.g., barrier heights, reaction rates and branching ratios, provide information on the molecular processes at work and are needed as input for astrochemical models, in order to bridge the timescales t...

  18. Additive Feed Forward Control with Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.

    1999-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a method to control a non-linear, multivariable, noisy process using trained neural networks. The basis for the method is a trained neural network controller acting as the inverse process model. A training method for obtaining such an inverse process model is applied....... A suitable 'shaped' (low-pass filtered) reference is used to overcome problems with excessive control action when using a controller acting as the inverse process model. The control concept is Additive Feed Forward Control, where the trained neural network controller, acting as the inverse process model......, is placed in a supplementary pure feed-forward path to an existing feedback controller. This concept benefits from the fact, that an existing, traditional designed, feedback controller can be retained without any modifications, and after training the connection of the neural network feed-forward controller...

  19. Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, T; Zuback, J S; De, A; DebRoy, T

    2016-01-22

    Although additive manufacturing (AM), or three dimensional (3D) printing, provides significant advantages over existing manufacturing techniques, metallic parts produced by AM are susceptible to distortion, lack of fusion defects and compositional changes. Here we show that the printability, or the ability of an alloy to avoid these defects, can be examined by developing and testing appropriate theories. A theoretical scaling analysis is used to test vulnerability of various alloys to thermal distortion. A theoretical kinetic model is used to examine predisposition of different alloys to AM induced compositional changes. A well-tested numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model is used to compare susceptibilities of various alloys to lack of fusion defects. These results are tested and validated with independent experimental data. The findings presented in this paper are aimed at achieving distortion free, compositionally sound and well bonded metallic parts.

  20. Combined additive manufacturing approaches in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitelli, S M; Mozetic, P; Trombetta, M; Rainer, A

    2015-09-01

    Advances introduced by additive manufacturing (AM) have significantly improved the control over the microarchitecture of scaffolds for tissue engineering. This has led to the flourishing of research works addressing the optimization of AM scaffolds microarchitecture to optimally trade-off between conflicting requirements (e.g. mechanical stiffness and porosity level). A fascinating trend concerns the integration of AM with other scaffold fabrication methods (i.e. "combined" AM), leading to hybrid architectures with complementary structural features. Although this innovative approach is still at its beginning, significant results have been achieved in terms of improved biological response to the scaffold, especially targeting the regeneration of complex tissues. This review paper reports the state of the art in the field of combined AM, posing the accent on recent trends, challenges, and future perspectives.

  1. Additive manufacturing of biologically-inspired materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studart, André R

    2016-01-21

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies offer an attractive pathway towards the fabrication of functional materials featuring complex heterogeneous architectures inspired by biological systems. In this paper, recent research on the use of AM approaches to program the local chemical composition, structure and properties of biologically-inspired materials is reviewed. A variety of structural motifs found in biological composites have been successfully emulated in synthetic systems using inkjet-based, direct-writing, stereolithography and slip casting technologies. The replication in synthetic systems of design principles underlying such structural motifs has enabled the fabrication of lightweight cellular materials, strong and tough composites, soft robots and autonomously shaping structures with unprecedented properties and functionalities. Pushing the current limits of AM technologies in future research should bring us closer to the manufacturing capabilities of living organisms, opening the way for the digital fabrication of advanced materials with superior performance, lower environmental impact and new functionalities.

  2. Use of waste rubber as concrete additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Liang Hsing; Lu, Chun-Ku; Chang, Jen-Ray; Lee, Maw Tien

    2007-02-01

    For resource reutilization, scrap tyres have long been investigated as an additive to concrete to form 'Rubcrete' for various applications and have shown promising results. However, the addition of rubber particles leads to the degradation of physical properties, particularly, the compressive strength of the concrete. In this study, a theoretical model was proposed to shed light on the mechanisms of decrease in compressive strength due to the addition of rubber particles as well as improvement in compressive strength through modification of particle surfaces. The literature suggests that the compressive strength can be improved by soaking the rubber particles in alkaline solution first to increase the inter-phase bonding between the rubber particles and cement. Instead, we discovered that the loss in compressive strength was due to local imperfections in the hydration of cement, induced by the addition of heterogeneous and hydrophobic rubber particles. Microscopic studies showed that the rubber particles disturbed the water transfer to create channels, which were prone to cracking and led to a loss in the compressive strength. Unexpectedly, no cracking was found along the surfaces of the rubber particles, indicating that the bonding strength between the rubber particles and cement phases was not the critical factor in determining the compressive strength. Therefore, a theoretical model was proposed to describe the water transfer in the Rubcrete specimens to explain the experimental data. In the model, the local water available for hydration (Q) is: Q = -A(slv)/6piv, where Q, A(slv), and v are mass flow rate (kg s(-1)), Hamaker constant (J), and dynamic viscosity (m2 s(-1)), respectively. By maximizing the quantity Q and, in turn, the Hamaker constant A(slv), the compressive strength could be improved. The Hamaker constant A(slv) for water film on rubber particle surfaces was smaller than that for the hydrated cement particles; the water transfer rate was lower in

  3. Additive Manufacturing of Wind Turbine Molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Richardson, Bradley [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lloyd, Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Love, Lonnie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nolet, Stephen [TPI Composites, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Hannan, James [TPI Composites, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this project was to explore the utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for low cost manufacturing of wind turbine molds. Engineers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and TPI Composites (TPI) collaborated to design and manufacture a printed mold that can be used for resin infusion of wind turbine components. Specific focus was on required material properties (operating temperatures and pressures, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), thermal conductivity), surface finish (accuracy and coatings) and system integration (integrated vacuum ports, and heating element). The project began with a simple proof of principle components, targeting surface coatings and material properties for printing a small section (approximately 4’ x 4’ x 2’) of a mold. Next, the second phase scaled up and integrated with the objective of capturing all of the necessary components (integrated heating to accelerate cure time, and vacuum, sealing) for resin infusion on a mold of significant size (8’ x 20’ x 6’).

  4. Object attributes combine additively in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod, R T; Arun, S P

    2016-01-01

    We perceive objects as containing a variety of attributes: local features, relations between features, internal details, and global properties. But we know little about how they combine. Here, we report a remarkably simple additive rule that governs how these diverse object attributes combine in vision. The perceived dissimilarity between two objects was accurately explained as a sum of (a) spatially tuned local contour-matching processes modulated by part decomposition; (b) differences in internal details, such as texture; (c) differences in emergent attributes, such as symmetry; and (d) differences in global properties, such as orientation or overall configuration of parts. Our results elucidate an enduring question in object vision by showing that the whole object is not a sum of its parts but a sum of its many attributes.

  5. Additive functionals and excursions of Kuznetsov processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacène Boutabia

    2005-01-01

    semigroup of transition. In this paper, we give the excursion laws of (Xtt∈ℝ+ conditioned on the strict past and future without duality hypothesis. We study excursions of a general regenerative system and of a regenerative system consisting of the closure of the set of times the regular points of B are visited. In both cases, those conditioned excursion laws depend only on two points Xg− and Xd, where ]g,d[ is an excursion interval of the regenerative set M. We use the (FDt-predictable exit system to bring together the isolated points of M and its perfect part and replace the classical optional exit system. This has been a subject in literature before (e.g., Kaspi (1988 under the classical duality hypothesis. We define an “additive functional” for (Ytt∈ℝ with B, we generalize the laws cited before to (Ytt∈ℝ, and we express laws of pairs of excursions.

  6. Challenges in Additive Manufacturing of Alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Hugo

    Additive manufacturing is seen by many as the holy grail of manufacturing, the ability to produce parts nearly autonomously. Adding material rather than removing it would eliminate the need for expensive resources and machining. The recent expiration of key 3D printing patents has led to many advances in the field and has dramatically lowered the prices of 3D printers, making them accessible to the average individual. The one area where additive manufacturing is still in its infancy is in ceramics. Ceramic materials have advantages over polymers and metals such as corrosion resistance, insulating behavior, high stiffness and high temperature stability that make them attractive in industries such as aerospace, medical, and electronics. Processing and machining ceramics however is difficult and expensive as it requires high temperature furnaces and diamond tooling. There are currently two companies that produce printers capable of printing technical ceramics, Lithoz in Germany and 3D Ceram in France. The issue is that both of these printers retail for over $100,000. The work in this thesis intends to show the challenges associated with setting up a ceramic 3D printer at a fraction of that cost for 3D printing of alumina. The first such challenge was creating a photopolymer resin that could be loaded with a large volume percent of aluminum oxide powder while maintain its curability and low viscosity. Several combinations of monomers and dispersants were evaluated before coming to the conclusion that the use of a hexanediol diacrylate monomer and quarternary ammonia acetate were the most effective in suspending volume sold loadings of over 40% while maintaining a low viscosity. The next challenge was adapting an inexpensive polymer printer to use the powder loaded resin. Various printer parameters were modified and different window coatings were implemented to create a print. The issue of the layers curing on the build area window however, proved to be difficult to

  7. Mechanical Properties of Additively Manufactured Thick Honeycombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hedayati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Honeycombs resemble the structure of a number of natural and biological materials such as cancellous bone, wood, and cork. Thick honeycomb could be also used for energy absorption applications. Moreover, studying the mechanical behavior of honeycombs under in-plane loading could help understanding the mechanical behavior of more complex 3D tessellated structures such as porous biomaterials. In this paper, we study the mechanical behavior of thick honeycombs made using additive manufacturing techniques that allow for fabrication of honeycombs with arbitrary and precisely controlled thickness. Thick honeycombs with different wall thicknesses were produced from polylactic acid (PLA using fused deposition modelling, i.e., an additive manufacturing technique. The samples were mechanically tested in-plane under compression to determine their mechanical properties. We also obtained exact analytical solutions for the stiffness matrix of thick hexagonal honeycombs using both Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories. The stiffness matrix was then used to derive analytical relationships that describe the elastic modulus, yield stress, and Poisson’s ratio of thick honeycombs. Finite element models were also built for computational analysis of the mechanical behavior of thick honeycombs under compression. The mechanical properties obtained using our analytical relationships were compared with experimental observations and computational results as well as with analytical solutions available in the literature. It was found that the analytical solutions presented here are in good agreement with experimental and computational results even for very thick honeycombs, whereas the analytical solutions available in the literature show a large deviation from experimental observation, computational results, and our analytical solutions.

  8. Feasibility and Testing of Additive Manufactured Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Hummelt, Ed [Eaton Corporation; Solovyeva, Lyudmila [Eaton Corporation

    2016-09-01

    This project focused on demonstrating the ability to fabricate two parts with different geometry: an arc flash interrupter and a hydraulic manifold. Eaton Corporation provided ORNL solid models, information related to tolerances and sensitive parameters of the parts and provided testing and evaluation. ORNL successfully manufactured both components, provided cost models of the manufacturing (materials, labor, time and post processing) and delivered test components for Eaton evaluation. The arc flash suppressor was fabricated using the Renishaw laser powder bed technology in CoCrMo while the manifold was produced from Ti-6Al-4V using the Arcam electron beam melting technology. These manufacturing techniques were selected based on the design and geometrical tolerances required. A full-scale manifold was produced on the Arcam A2 system (nearly 12 inches tall). A portion of the manifold was also produced in the Arcam Q10 system. Although a full scale manifold could not be produced in the system, a full scale manifold is expected to have similar material properties, geometric accuracy, and surface finish as could be fabricated on an Arcam Q20 system that is capable of producing four full scale manifolds in a production environment. In addition to the manifold, mechanical test specimens, geometric tolerance artifacts, and microstructure samples were produced alongside the manifold. The development and demonstration of these two key components helped Eaton understand the impact additive manufacturing can have on many of their existing products. By working within the MDF and leveraging ORNL’s manufacturing and characterization capabilities, the work will ensure the rapid insertion and commercialization of this technology.

  9. Additively Manufactured and Surface Biofunctionalized Porous Nitinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgin Karaji, Z; Speirs, M; Dadbakhsh, S; Kruth, J-P; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A; Amin Yavari, S

    2017-01-18

    Enhanced bone tissue regeneration and improved osseointegration are among the most important goals in design of multifunctional orthopedic biomaterials. In this study, we used additive manufacturing (selective laser melting) to develop multifunctional porous nitinol that combines superelasticity with a rationally designed microarchitecture and biofunctionalized surface. The rational design based on triply periodic minimal surfaces aimed to properly adjust the pore size, increase the surface area (thereby amplifying the effects of surface biofunctionalization), and resemble the curvature characteristics of trabecular bone. The surface of additively manufactured (AM) porous nitinol was biofunctionalized using polydopamine-immobilized rhBMP2 for better control of the release kinetics. The actual morphological properties of porous nitinol measured by microcomputed tomography (e.g., open/close porosity, and surface area) closely matched the design values. The superelasticity originated from the austenite phase formed in the nitinol porous structure at room temperature. Polydopamine and rhBMP2 signature peaks were confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy tests. The release of rhBMP2 continued until 28 days. The early time and long-term release profiles were found to be adjustable independent of each other. In vitro cell culture showed improved cell attachment, cell proliferation, cell morphology (spreading, spindle-like shape), and cell coverage as well as elevated levels of ALP activity and increased calcium content for biofunctionalized surfaces as compared to as-manufactured specimens. The demonstrated functionalities of porous nitinol could be used as a basis for deployable orthopedic implants with rationally designed microarchitectures that maximize bone tissue regeneration performance by release of biomolecules with adjustable and well-controlled release profiles.

  10. Additive Construction using Basalt Regolith Fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Hintze, Paul E.; Lippitt, Thomas C.; Mantovani, James G.; Nugent, Matthew W.; Townsend, Ivan I.

    2014-01-01

    Planetary surfaces are often covered in regolith (crushed rock), whose geologic origin is largely basalt. The lunar surface is made of small-particulate regolith and areas of boulders located in the vicinity of craters. Regolith composition also varies with location, reflecting the local bedrock geology and the nature and efficiency of the micrometeorite-impact processes. In the lowland mare areas (suitable for habitation), the regolith is composed of small granules (20 - 100 microns average size) of mare basalt and volcanic glass. Impacting micrometeorites may cause local melting, and the formation of larger glassy particles, and this regolith may contain 10-80% glass. Studies of lunar regolith are traditionally conducted with lunar regolith simulant (reconstructed soil with compositions patterned after the lunar samples returned by Apollo). The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Granular Mechanics & Regolith Operations (GMRO) lab has identified a low fidelity but economical geo-technical simulant designated as Black Point-1 (BP-1). It was found at the site of the Arizona Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) analog field test site at the Black Point lava flow in adjacent basalt quarry spoil mounds. This paper summarizes activities at KSC regarding the utilization of BP-1 basalt regolith and comparative work with lunar basalt simulant JSC-1A as a building material for robotic additive construction of large structures. In an effort to reduce the import or in-situ fabrication of binder additives, we focused this work on in-situ processing of regolith for construction in a single-step process after its excavation. High-temperature melting of regolith involves techniques used in glassmaking and casting (with melts of lower density and higher viscosity than those of metals), producing basaltic glass with high durability and low abrasive wear. Most Lunar simulants melt at temperatures above 1100 C, although melt processing of terrestrial regolith at 1500 C is not

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING FOR PROCESS TUBING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, John S. [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); BobbittIII, John T. [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); Morgan, Michael J. [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); Reigel, Marissa [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL; Babu, Suresh S. [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2016-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing has garnered significant levels of interest in recent years as a primary manufacturing method. While the general technology has been around for over 20 years, with increased computing capacity, higher powered directed energy sources, e.g., lasers and electron beams, it is coming of age as a viable technique for high value added, low production quantity components. The Savannah River National Laboratory is interested in AM as a technique to build hydrogen isotope separation components called Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) columns. The TCAP operates from cryogenic to moderate temperatures in a cyclic manner and is a pressure boundary. The current technique for fabricating TCAP columns is to form a flat coil of 0.375 to 0.5 inch diameter tube and braze two coils together. During the brazing operation, the two nested coils often move and this movement results in gaps between the coils. Since one coil contains the working fluid, i.e., liquid nitrogen, and the other the process fluid, hydrogen isotopes, these gaps result in poor heat transfer. Additive manufacturing is being explored as a replacement technology since the adjacent tubes can be fabricated simultaneously and in intimate contact and they can also share a common wall to improve heat transfer. AM allows designers to develop unique tube structures that overcome several of the shortcomings of the coil and braze technique, such as the braze gap in fabrication and slow cooling during operation. Simple test samples with various internal geometries were designed and built from Type 316L stainless steel using a laser powder bed process. Three test article geometries that were built include a simple tube, a pair of stacked tubes, and a tube partially surrounded by two kidney shaped tubes with cooling fins that would extend into the process fluid, these tube sections incorporated thermowells or heat trace channels, selectively. The test samples will be subjected to heat transfer

  12. Behaviors of Polymer Additives Under EHL and Influences of Interactions Between Additives on Friction Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, T.

    1984-01-01

    Polymer additives have become requisite for the formulation of multigrade engine oils. The behavior of polymethacrylate (PMA)-thickened oils as lubricants in concentrated contacts under nominal rolling and pure sliding conditions was investigated by conventional optical interferometry. The PMA thickened oils behaved differently from the base oil in the formation of elastohydrodynamic (EHL) films. The higher the elastohydrodynamic molecular weight of the PMA contained in the lubricant, the thinner was the oil film under EHL conditions. The film thickness of shear-degraded PMA-thickened oils was also investigated. The behavior of graphite particles dispersed in both the base oil and the PMA-thickened oil was studied under pure sliding by taking photomicrographs. Many kinds of additives are contained in lubricating oil and the interactions between additives are considered. The interactions of zinc-organodithiophosphates (ZDP) with other additives is discussed.

  13. Additive Manufacturing of Ultem Polymers and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Grady, Joseph E.; Draper, Robert D.; Shin, Euy-Sik E.; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this project was to conduct additive manufacturing to produce aircraft engine components by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), using commercially available polyetherimdes Ultem 9085 and experimental Ultem 1000 filled with 10 chopped carbon fiber. A property comparison between FDM-printed and injection molded coupons for Ultem 9085, Ultem 1000 resin and the fiber-filled composite Ultem 1000 was carried out. Furthermore, an acoustic liner was printed from Ultem 9085 simulating conventional honeycomb structured liners and tested in a wind tunnel. Composite compressor inlet guide vanes were also printed using fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and tested in a cascade rig. The fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and composite vanes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and acid digestion to determine the porosity of FDM-printed articles which ranged from 25-31. Coupons of Ultem 9085, experimental Ultem 1000 composites and XH6050 resin were tested at room temperature and 400F to evaluate their corresponding mechanical properties.

  14. Additive manufacturing of borosilicate glass (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junjie; Goldstein, Jonathan T.; Urbas, Augustine M.; Bristow, Douglas A.; Landers, Robert G.; Kinzel, Edward C.

    2017-02-01

    Glasses including have significant scientific and engineering applications including optics, communications, electronics, and hermetic seals. This paper investigates a filament fed process for Additive Manufacturing (AM) of borosilicate glasses. Compared to soda-lime glasses, borosilicate glasses have improved coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and are widely used because of thermal shock resistance. In this work, borosilicate glass filaments are fed into a CO2 laser generated melt pool, smoothly depositing material onto the workpiece. Single tracks are printed to explore the effects that different process parameters have on the morphology of printed glass as well as the residual stress trapped in the glass. The transparency of glass allows residual stress to be measured using a polariscope. The effect of the substrate as well and substrate temperature are analyzed. We show that if fracture due to thermal shock can be avoided during deposition, then the residual stress can be relieved with an annealing step, removing birefringence. When combined with progress toward avoiding bubble entrapment in printed glass, we show the AM approach has the potential to produce high quality optically transparent glass for optical applications.

  15. Weld formation during material extrusion additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppala, Jonathan E; Hoon Han, Seung; Hillgartner, Kaitlyn E; Davis, Chelsea S; Migler, Kalman B

    2017-08-18

    Material extrusion (ME) is a layer-by-layer additive manufacturing process that is now used in personal and commercial production where prototyping and customization are required. However, parts produced from ME frequently exhibit poor mechanical performance relative to those from traditional means; moreover, fundamental knowledge of the factors leading to development of inter-layer strength in this highly non-isothermal process is limited. In this work, we seek to understand the development of inter-layer weld strength from the perspective of polymer interdiffusion under conditions of rapidly changing mobility. Our framework centers around three interrelated components: in situ thermal measurements (via infrared imaging), temperature dependent molecular processes (via rheology), and mechanical testing (via mode III fracture). We develop the concept of an equivalent isothermal weld time and test its relationship to fracture energy. For the printing conditions studied the equivalent isothermal weld time for Tref = 230 °C ranged from 0.1 ms to 100 ms. The results of these analysis provide a basis for optimizing inter-layer strength, the limitations of the ME process, and guide development of new materials.

  16. Additive Layer Manufacturing for Launcher's Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, J.; Romera, P.; Lasagni, F.; Zorrilla, A.; Perinan, A.

    2014-06-01

    In the next years the European space industry has the challenge of maintaining its competitiveness in launch vehicles (LV) production, due to the growth of competition worldwide. It has to assure its position developing new applied technologies. In this field the effort is focussed on the production of short series of customized products, like payloads, flight components or launcher parts. ALM (Additive Layer Manufacturing) could be a powerful tool that offers new competitiveness factors for this industry, comprising a set of emerging technologies that are becoming a competitor to forming, casting and machining as well as being utilised directly as a complementary alternative.Originally used for prototypes and models, now ALM becomes a very useful technology capable to fabricate functional parts for the space industrial sector. Its demands on rapid technologies are different to "earth" industries, and they aren't so easily satisfied because space is a field with different requirements depending on its application: launchers, reusable vehicles, satellites, probes, low gravity researches, manned spacecraft, or even moon and planetary exploration.This paper reports on the ALM potential applications, under ESA requirements, exploring the challenges and possibilities for its use in the launchers market, trying to answer two basic questions: the first one, whether ALM is a mature technology to be ready for its use as flight hardware; and the second one, if it can be used to reduce the product cycle, and consequently, the development, production and operational costs.

  17. Biobased additive plasticizing Polylactic acid (PLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounira Maiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polylactic acid (PLA is an attractive candidate for replacing petrochemical polymers because it is from renewable resources. In this study, a specific PLA 2002D was melt-mixed with two plasticizers: triethyl citrate (TEC and acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC. The plasticized PLA with various concentrations were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, melt flow index (MFI, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, UV-Visible spectroscopy and plasticizer migration test. Differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated that the addition of TEC and ATBC resulted in a decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg, and the reduction was the largest with the plasticizer having the lowest molecular weight (TEC. Plasticizing effect was also shown by decrease in the dynamic storage modulus and viscosity of plasticized mixtures compared to the treated PLA. The TGA results indicated that ATBC and TEC promoted a decrease in thermal stability of the PLA. The X-ray diffraction showed that the PLA have not polymorphic crystalline transition. Analysis by UV-Visible spectroscopy showed that the two plasticizers: ATBC and TEC have no effect on the color change of the films. The weight loss plasticizer with heating time and at 100°C is lesser than at 135 °C. Migration of TEC and ATBC results in cracks and changed color of material. We have concluded that the higher molecular weight of citrate in the studied exhibited a greater plasticizing effect to the PLA.

  18. Additional EIPC Study Analysis. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, Stanton W [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gotham, Douglas J. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Luciani, Ralph L. [Navigant Consultant Inc., Suwanee, GA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 14 topics was developed for further analysis. This paper brings together the earlier interim reports of the first 13 topics plus one additional topic into a single final report.

  19. IN718 Additive Manufacturing Properties and Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    The results of tensile, fracture, and fatigue testing of IN718 coupons produced using the selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing technique are presented. The data have been "sanitized" to remove the numerical values, although certain references to material standards are provided. This document provides some knowledge of the effect of variation of controlled build parameters used in the SLM process, a snapshot of the capabilities of SLM in industry at present, and shares some of the lessons learned along the way. For the build parameter characterization, the parameters were varied over a range that was centered about the machine manufacturer's recommended value, and in each case they were varied individually, although some co-variance of those parameters would be expected. Tensile, fracture, and high-cycle fatigue properties equivalent to wrought IN718 are achievable with SLM-produced IN718. Build and post-build processes need to be determined and then controlled to established limits to accomplish this. It is recommended that a multi-variable evaluation, e.g., design-of experiment (DOE), of the build parameters be performed to better evaluate the co-variance of the parameters.

  20. Towards Mobile Microrobot Swarms for Additive Micromanufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cappelleri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel approach to achieving the independent control of multiple magnetic microrobots is presented. The approach utilizes a specialized substrate consisting of a fine grid of planar, MEMS-fabricated micro coils of the same size as the microrobots (≤ 500 μm. The coils can be used to generate real magnetic potentials and, therefore, attractive and repulsive forces in the workspace to control the trajectories of the microrobots. Initial work on modelling the coil and microrobot behavior is reported along with simulation results for navigating one and two microrobots along independent desired trajectories. Qualitative results from a scaled-up printed circuit board version of the specialized substrate operating on permanent magnets are presented and offer proof-of-concept results for the approach. These tests also provide insights for practical implementations of such a system, which are similarly reported. The ultimate goal of this work is to use swarms of independently controlled microrobots in advanced, additive manufacturing applications.

  1. Computed tomography characterisation of additive manufacturing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibb, Richard; Thompson, Darren; Winder, John

    2011-06-01

    Additive manufacturing, covering processes frequently referred to as rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing, provides new opportunities in the manufacture of highly complex and custom-fitting medical devices and products. Whilst many medical applications of AM have been explored and physical properties of the resulting parts have been studied, the characterisation of AM materials in computed tomography has not been explored. The aim of this study was to determine the CT number of commonly used AM materials. There are many potential applications of the information resulting from this study in the design and manufacture of wearable medical devices, implants, prostheses and medical imaging test phantoms. A selection of 19 AM material samples were CT scanned and the resultant images analysed to ascertain the materials' CT number and appearance in the images. It was found that some AM materials have CT numbers very similar to human tissues, FDM, SLA and SLS produce samples that appear uniform on CT images and that 3D printed materials show a variation in internal structure.

  2. OPERATOR BURDEN IN METAL ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Amy M [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is an emerging manufacturing process that creates usable machine parts via layer-by-layer joining of a stock material. With this layer-wise approach, high-performance geometries can be created which are impossible with traditional manufacturing methods. Metal AM technology has the potential to significantly reduce the manufacturing burden of developing custom hardware; however, a major consideration in choosing a metal AM system is the required amount of operator involvement (i.e., operator burden) in the manufacturing process. The operator burden not only determines the amount of operator training and specialization required but also the usability of the system in a facility. As operators of several metal AM processes, the Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Labs is uniquely poised to provide insight into requirements for operator involvement in each of the three major metal AM processes. The paper covers an overview of each of the three metal AM technologies, focusing on the burden on the operator to complete the build cycle, process the part for final use, and reset the AM equipment for future builds.

  3. Fully additive copper metallization on BCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolle, T. [FhG-IZM Berlin (Germany); Schwencke, B.; Reichl, H.

    2000-07-01

    A fully additive copper metallization process on benzocyclobutene cyclotene trademark (BCB) has been investigated for application in MCM-D technology. The process consists of surface pretreatment of the BCB basic layer by reactive ion etching (RIE), spin-coating and photopatterning of an organic seed layer by broad-band I-line photolithography followed by developing and activation steps. The metallization of the seed patterns is performed by a 2-step process by means of electroless copper baths. A height of about 5 {mu}m selectively deposited copper can be achieved. The electrical conductivity of patterns is in the range of 80% - 85% of the bulk conductivity of pure copper. Adhesive strength tests during accelerated aging show good adhesion of copper to the BCB surface, which is influenced by RIE pretreatment, exposure dose and thermal load. Shear experiments performed with optimal treated 200 x 200 {mu}m bumps show shear forces > 150 cN. Design rules have to take into account the lateral growth of copper patterns, which is nearly equal to the vertical growth. Real spaces of {>=} 30 {mu}m between copper lines are possible. The process is considered as a low cost technology because of replacing of sputter technique, few process steps and waste reduction. (orig.)

  4. Computational Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing (OSU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagg, Stacey; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing (AM) through Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) or Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is being used by NASA and the Aerospace industry to "print" parts that traditionally are very complex, high cost, or long schedule lead items. The process spreads a thin layer of metal powder over a build platform, then melts the powder in a series of welds in a desired shape. The next layer of powder is applied, and the process is repeated until layer-by-layer, a very complex part can be built. This reduces cost and schedule by eliminating very complex tooling and processes traditionally used in aerospace component manufacturing. To use the process to print end-use items, NASA seeks to understand SLM material well enough to develop a method of qualifying parts for space flight operation. Traditionally, a new material process takes many years and high investment to generate statistical databases and experiential knowledge, but computational modeling can truncate the schedule and cost -many experiments can be run quickly in a model, which would take years and a high material cost to run empirically. This project seeks to optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling.

  5. Towards Mobile Microrobot Swarms for Additive Micromanufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cappelleri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel approach to achieving the independent control of multiple magnetic microrobots is presented. The approach utilizes a specialized substrate consisting of a fine grid of planar, MEMS-fabricated micro coils of the same size as the microrobots (≤ 500 μm. The coils can be used to generate real magnetic potentials and, therefore, attractive and repulsive forces in the workspace to control the trajectories of the microrobots. Initial work on modelling the coil and microrobot behavior is reported along with simulation results for navigating one and two microrobots along independent desired trajectories. Qualitative results from a scaled-up printed circuit board version of the specialized substrate operating on permanent magnets are presented and offer proof-of-concept results for the approach. These tests also provide insights for practical implementations of such a system, which are similarly reported. The ultimate goal of this work is to use swarms of independently controlled microrobots in advanced, additive manufacturing applications.

  6. Additive Manufacturing: Making Imagination the Major Limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yuwei; Lados, Diana A.; LaGoy, Jane L.

    2014-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) refers to an advanced technology used for the fabrication of three-dimensional near-net-shaped functional components directly from computer models, using unit materials. The fundamentals and working principle of AM offer several advantages, including near-net-shape capabilities, superior design and geometrical flexibility, innovative multi-material fabrication, reduced tooling and fixturing, shorter cycle time for design and manufacturing, instant local production at a global scale, and material, energy, and cost efficiency. Well suiting the requests of modern manufacturing climate, AM is viewed as the new industrial revolution, making its way into a continuously increasing number of industries, such as aerospace, defense, automotive, medical, architecture, art, jewelry, and food. This overview was created to relate the historical evolution of the AM technology to its state-of-the-art developments and emerging applications. Generic thoughts on the microstructural characteristics, properties, and performance of AM-fabricated materials will also be discussed, primarily related to metallic materials. This write-up will introduce the general reader to specifics of the AM field vis-à-vis advantages and common techniques, materials and properties, current applications, and future opportunities.

  7. Structure Property Studies for Additively Manufactured Parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milenski, Helen M [Univ. of Mexico, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schmalzer, Andrew Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelly, Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-17

    Since the invention of modern Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes engineers and designers have worked hard to capitalize on the unique building capabilities that AM allows. By being able to customize the interior fill of parts it is now possible to design components with a controlled density and customized internal structure. The creation of new polymers and polymer composites allow for even greater control over the mechanical properties of AM parts. One of the key reasons to explore AM, is to bring about a new paradigm in part design, where materials can be strategically optimized in a way that conventional subtractive methods cannot achieve. The two processes investigated in my research were the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process and the Direct Ink Write (DIW) process. The objectives of the research were to determine the impact of in-fill density and morphology on the mechanical properties of FDM parts, and to determine if DIW printed samples could be produced where the filament diameter was varied while the overall density remained constant.

  8. Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Folic Acid. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of folic acid in corn masa flour. We are taking this action in response to a food additive petition filed jointly by Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of La Raza.

  9. Additionality of global benefits and financial additionality in the context of the AIJ negotiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhl, I.

    1996-12-31

    The Conference of the Party at their first meeting (COP1) took a decision regarding criteria for joint implementation as indicated in Art. 4.2 (a) of the FCCC which established a pilot phase for activities implemented jointly (AIJ) under the pilot phase. Besides some more technical issues this decision specified that such measures should bring about real, measurable and long-term environmental benefits related to the mitigation of climate change that would not have occurred in the absence of such activities. It also established that the financing of AIJ shall be additional to the financial obligations of developed country parties. These two requirements are called the additionality criteria for AIJ. The first refers to the realness of GHG emission abatement (which means reduction compared to a baseline) whereas the second describes that funds earmarked for AIJ have no other objective (i.e. profit making, export promotion) but to reduce GHG emissions to avoid the free-riding of investors and subsequently developed country parties. The reporting framework as well as the reporting requirements under national programs do not specify further the two types of additionality and even though research focuses on issues like baseline determination there has been no attempt so far to identify approaches which contribute towards defining strict and practicable methods and guidelines to frame additionality criteria. The first FCCC assessment of pilot project reporting revealed that in the reporting of activities, emissions additionality often remained unclear, especially in cases where AIJ was only a portion of an existing or already planned project, and that there is a point about how to account for financial additionality. It subsequently proposed to develop a uniform approach to baseline determination and the assessment of emission (reduction) additionality and financial additionality.

  10. CREATION OF THE MODEL ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houck, F.; Rosenthal, M.; Wulf, N.

    2010-05-25

    In 1991, the international nuclear nonproliferation community was dismayed to discover that the implementation of safeguards by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under its NPT INFCIRC/153 safeguards agreement with Iraq had failed to detect Iraq's nuclear weapon program. It was now clear that ensuring that states were fulfilling their obligations under the NPT would require not just detecting diversion but also the ability to detect undeclared materials and activities. To achieve this, the IAEA initiated what would turn out to be a five-year effort to reappraise the NPT safeguards system. The effort engaged the IAEA and its Member States and led to agreement in 1997 on a new safeguards agreement, the Model Protocol Additional to the Agreement(s) between States and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards. The Model Protocol makes explicit that one IAEA goal is to provide assurance of the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. The Model Protocol requires an expanded declaration that identifies a State's nuclear potential, empowers the IAEA to raise questions about the correctness and completeness of the State's declaration, and, if needed, allows IAEA access to locations. The information required and the locations available for access are much broader than those provided for under INFCIRC/153. The negotiation was completed in quite a short time because it started with a relatively complete draft of an agreement prepared by the IAEA Secretariat. This paper describes how the Model Protocol was constructed and reviews key decisions that were made both during the five-year period and in the actual negotiation.

  11. Additive manufacturing technologies of porous metal implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Quanzhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical metal materials with good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties are widely used in orthopedic surgery and dental implant materials, but they can easily cause stress shielding due to the significant difference in elastic modulus between the implant and human bones. The elastic modulus of porous metals is lower than that of dense metals. Therefore, it is possible to adjust the pore parameters to make the elastic modulus of porous metals match or be comparable with that of the bone tissue. At the same time, the open porous metals with pores connected to each other could provide the structural condition for bone ingrowth, which is helpful in strengthening the biological combination of bone tissue with the implants. Therefore, the preparation technologies of porous metal implants and related research have been drawing more and more attention due to the excellent features of porous metals. Selective laser melting (SLM and electron beam melting technology (EBM are important research fields of additive manufacturing. They have the advantages of directly forming arbitrarily complex shaped metal parts which are suitable for the preparation of porous metal implants with complex shape and fine structure. As new manufacturing technologies, the applications of SLM and EBM for porous metal implants have just begun. This paper aims to understand the technology status of SLM and EBM, the research progress of porous metal implants preparation by using SLM and EBM, and the biological compatibility of the materials, individual design and manufacturing requirements. The existing problems and future research directions for porous metal implants prepared by SLM and EBM methods are discussed in the last paragraph.

  12. Additive manufacturing technologies of porous metal implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Linxi; Yang Quanzhan; Zhang Guirong; Zhao Fangxin; Shen Gang; Yu Bo

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical metal materials with good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties are widely used in orthopedic surgery and dental implant materials, but they can easily cause stress shielding due to the signiifcant difference in elastic modulus between the implant and human bones. The elastic modulus of porous metals is lower than that of dense metals. Therefore, it is possible to adjust the pore parameters to make the elastic modulus of porous metals match or be comparable with that of the bone tissue. At the same time, the open porous metals with pores connected to each other could provide the structural condition for bone ingrowth, which is helpful in strengthening the biological combination of bone tissue with the implants. Therefore, the preparation technologies of porous metal implants and related research have been drawing more and more attention due to the excellent features of porous metals. Selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting technology (EBM) are important research fields of additive manufacturing. They have the advantages of directly forming arbitrarily complex shaped metal parts which are suitable for the preparation of porous metal implants with complex shape and ifne structure. As new manufacturing technologies, the applications of SLM and EBM for porous metal implants have just begun. This paper aims to understand the technology status of SLM and EBM, the research progress of porous metal implants preparation by using SLM and EBM, and the biological compatibility of the materials, individual design and manufacturing requirements. The existing problems and future research directions for porous metal implants prepared by SLM and EBM methods are discussed in the last paragraph.

  13. Study on Magnetic Responsibility of Rare Earth Ferrite/Polyacrylamide Magnetic Microsphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ming; Wang Zhifeng; Zhang Hong; Dai Shaojun; Qiu Guanming; Okamoto Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    In inverse microemulsion, rare earth ferrite/polyacrylamide magnetic microsphere were prepared and their magnetic responsibility were studied by magnetic balance. Results indicate that the magnetic responsibility of microsphere relates to magnetic moment of rare earth ion, and it can be improved by the addition of dysprosium ion of high magnetic moment. Dysprosium content has an effect on magnetic responsibility of dysprosium ferrite/polyacrylamide magnetic microsphere. The microsphere displays strong magnetic responsibility when the molar ratio of Dy3+/iron is 0.20.

  14. Fatigue crack growth in additive manufactured products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Riemer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Additive Manufacturing (AM is a new innovative technique that allows the direct fabrication of complex, individual, delicate and high-strength products, based on their 3D data. Selective Laser Melting (SLM is one of the AM processes that generates metallic components layer by layer using powder-bed technique. The irradiation and consequent melting of metallic powder is realised by the laser source. Employing SLM, especially complex and individual products, such as implants or aerospace parts, are well suited for economic production in small batches. The first important issue in this work was to analyse the fatigue crack growth (FCG in titanium alloy Ti-6-4 and stainless steel 316L processed by SLM. As a first step, stress intensity range decreasing tests were performed on SLM samples in their “as-built” condition. The next step was to adopt measures for optimisation of fatigue crack growth performance of SLM parts. For this purpose various heat treatments such as stress relief annealing and hot isostatic pressing (HIP were applied to the CT specimens. Finally, the strong impact of heat treatment on the residual lifetime was demonstrated by numerical fatigue crack growth simulations. For this purpose, the hip joint implant consisting of Ti-6-4 and processed by SLM was taken into account. It was found that residual stresses have a strong influence on the crack growth in Ti-6-4, while the influence of the micro-pores on the threshold values remains low. In contrast the results for 316L show that its fracturemechanical behaviour is not affected by residual stresses, whereas the microstructural features lead to modification in the da/dN-K-data. The second fundamental aim of this work was to demonstrate the possibilities of the SLM process. For that reason, the individually tailored bicycle crank was optimised regarding its weight and local stresses and finally manufactured using the SLM system. The iterative optimisation procedure was based on

  15. Comparison of Various Dynamic Balancing Principles Regarding Additional Mass and Additional Inertia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van der Volkert; Demeulenaere, Bram; Herder, Just L.

    2009-01-01

    The major disadvantage of existing dynamic balancing principles is that a considerable amount of mass and inertia is added to the system. The objectives of this article are to summarize, to compare, and to evaluate existing complete balancing principles regarding the addition of mass and the additio

  16. A Public Opinion Survey on Correctional Education: Does Additional Information on Efficacy Lead to Additional Support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterland, Keri Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Though much research has been done on the efficacy of correctional education on reducing recidivism rates for prison inmates, there is little research on the effect that information about the efficacy of correctional education has on public opinion. This study examined whether providing additional information regarding the efficacy of correctional…

  17. 37 CFR 1.776 - Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... extension for a food additive or color additive. 1.776 Section 1.776 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750 that a patent for a food additive or color additive is eligible for extension, the...

  18. Additive Biotech-Chances, challenges, and recent applications of additive manufacturing technologies in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krujatz, Felix; Lode, Anja; Seidel, Julia; Bley, Thomas; Gelinsky, Michael; Steingroewer, Juliane

    2017-09-07

    The diversity and complexity of biotechnological applications are constantly increasing, with ever expanding ranges of production hosts, cultivation conditions and measurement tasks. Consequently, many analytical and cultivation systems for biotechnology and bioprocess engineering, such as microfluidic devices or bioreactors, are tailor-made to precisely satisfy the requirements of specific measurements or cultivation tasks. Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies offer the possibility of fabricating tailor-made 3D laboratory equipment directly from CAD designs with previously inaccessible levels of freedom in terms of structural complexity. This review discusses the historical background of these technologies, their most promising current implementations and the associated workflows, fabrication processes and material specifications, together with some of the major challenges associated with using AM in biotechnology/bioprocess engineering. To illustrate the great potential of AM, selected examples in microfluidic devices, 3D-bioprinting/biofabrication and bioprocess engineering are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of phosphorus containing food additives in grocery stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeen B. Leon

    2012-06-01

    In conclusion, phosphorus additives are commonly present in groceries and contribute significantly to the phosphorus content of foods. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than additive-free foods. As a result, phosphorus additives may be an important contributor to hyperphosphatemia among persons with chronic kidney disease

  20. A generalized additive regression model for survival times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.

    2001-01-01

    Additive Aalen model; counting process; disability model; illness-death model; generalized additive models; multiple time-scales; non-parametric estimation; survival data; varying-coefficient models......Additive Aalen model; counting process; disability model; illness-death model; generalized additive models; multiple time-scales; non-parametric estimation; survival data; varying-coefficient models...

  1. 21 CFR 570.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 570.18... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food additives that cause similar or related pharmacological...

  2. 21 CFR 570.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 570.38... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.38 Determination of food additive status. (a) The Commissioner may, in accordance with § 570.35 (b)(4) or...

  3. 21 CFR 170.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tolerances for related food additives. 170.18... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food additives that cause similar or related pharmacological effects will...

  4. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives... the Act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of...

  5. 21 CFR 170.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Determination of food additive status. 170.38... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.38 Determination of food additive status. (a) The Commissioner may, in accordance with § 170.35(b)(4) or...

  6. 78 FR 28163 - Zentox Corporation; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of withdrawal. SUMMARY: The... filing, of a food additive petition (FAP 8A4775) proposing that the food additive regulations be amended... Orange Ave., suite 710, Orlando, FL 32801, had filed a food additive petition (FAP 8A4775). The...

  7. A generalized additive regression model for survival times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.

    2001-01-01

    Additive Aalen model; counting process; disability model; illness-death model; generalized additive models; multiple time-scales; non-parametric estimation; survival data; varying-coefficient models......Additive Aalen model; counting process; disability model; illness-death model; generalized additive models; multiple time-scales; non-parametric estimation; survival data; varying-coefficient models...

  8. 76 FR 47210 - Notices of Filing of Petitions for Food Additives and Color Additives; Relocation in the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Notices of Filing of Petitions for Food Additives and Color Additives; Relocation in the Federal Register AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... petitions for food additives and color additives that are published in accordance with the Federal...

  9. THE CATIONIC ADDITIVES USED IN COATED INK-JET PAPER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei Yu; Chuanshan Zhao; Kefu Chen

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of several different cationic additives on the viscosity 、zeta potential and printing properties of the ink-jet coating. The cationic additives have greatly improved sheet's gloss and printabilities.

  10. Ultrafast Grignard addition reactions in the presence of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osztrovszky, Gyorgyi; Holm, Torkil; Madsen, R.

    2010-01-01

    The addition of allylmagnesium bromide and benzylmagnesium chloride to carbonyl compounds was investigated in the presence of protic reagents such as water and the rate of carbonyl addition was found to be comparable to the rate of protonation by the reagent.......The addition of allylmagnesium bromide and benzylmagnesium chloride to carbonyl compounds was investigated in the presence of protic reagents such as water and the rate of carbonyl addition was found to be comparable to the rate of protonation by the reagent....

  11. Cash sub-additive risk measures and interest rate ambiguity

    OpenAIRE

    El Karoui, Nicole; Ravanelli, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    A new class of risk measures called cash sub-additive risk measures is introduced to assess the risk of future financial, non financial and insurance positions. The debated cash additive axiom is relaxed into the cash sub-additive axiom to preserve the original difference between the numeraire of the current reserve amounts and future positions. Consequently, cash sub-additive risk measures can model stochastic and/or ambiguous interest rates or defaultable contingent claims. Practical exampl...

  12. Cash Sub-additive Risk Measures and Interest Rate Ambiguity

    OpenAIRE

    El Karoui, Nicole; Ravanelli, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    A new class of risk measures called cash sub-additive risk measures is introduced to assess the risk of future financial, non financial and insurance positions. The debated cash additive axiom is relaxed into the cash sub-additive axiom to preserve the original difference between the numeraire of the current reserve amounts and future positions. Consequently, cash sub-additive risk measures can model stochastic and/or ambiguous interest rates or defaultable contingent claims. Practical exampl...

  13. 7 CFR 58.639 - Addition of flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Addition of flavor. 58.639 Section 58.639 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.639 Addition of flavor. The addition of flavoring ingredients to semi-frozen mix just prior... flavor injection equipment has been properly cleaned and sanitized prior to use and that the flavor...

  14. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in... additive, or articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in which the color... respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date...

  15. 27 CFR 24.233 - Addition of spirits to wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wine. 24.233 Section 24.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.233 Addition of spirits to wine. (a) Prior to the addition of spirits. Wine will be placed in tanks approved for the addition of spirits. The...

  16. 46 CFR 535.606 - Requests for additional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requests for additional information. 535.606 Section 535... on Agreements § 535.606 Requests for additional information. (a) The Commission may request from the... responses to a request for additional information shall be submitted to the Director, Bureau of Trade...

  17. 32 CFR 1698.3 - Requests for additional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requests for additional information. 1698.3... ADVISORY OPINIONS § 1698.3 Requests for additional information. (a) The Director may request additional appropriate information from the requester for an advisory opinion. (b) The Director will forward a copy of...

  18. 25 CFR 103.14 - Can BIA request additional information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can BIA request additional information? 103.14 Section... request additional information? BIA may require the lender to provide additional information, whenever BIA believes it needs the information to properly evaluate a new lender, guaranty application, or insurance...

  19. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31... Procedures for Domestic Drug Establishments § 207.31 Additional drug listing information. (a) In addition to... following information by letter or by Federal Register notice: (1) For a particular prescription drug...

  20. 21 CFR 173.310 - Boiler water additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.310 Boiler water additives. Boiler water additives may be safely... Applied Nutrition's Library, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740... Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Library, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint...

  1. 48 CFR 1246.101-70 - Additional definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or ceiling price for fixed price incentive contracts (see (FAR) 48 CFR 46.707), or at no increase in... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional definitions... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE General 1246.101-70 Additional definitions. At no additional cost...

  2. 32 CFR 643.51 - Additional items concerning leasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Additional items concerning leasing. 643.51... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Leases § 643.51 Additional items concerning leasing. In addition to the general and... leasing of Army real estate....

  3. Learning Basic Addition Facts from Choosing between Alternative Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Galen, Mirte S.; Reitsma, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    The acquisition of addition facts was investigated in a practice study. Participants were 103 Grade 1 children who practiced simple addition problems with three different methods: (a) writing down the answer, (b) choosing between two alternative answers, and (c) filling in the second missing addend. On a test with simple addition problems,…

  4. Additional Raman Scattering Mechanism due to Transverse Polar Modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Ze

    2001-01-01

    Longitudinal polar modes generate a macroscopic electric field in piezoelectric crystals and cause an additional mechanism of Raman scattering. The classical theory holds that transverse polar modes cannot produce such an additional mechanism. Our quantum theory shows that there is an additional Raman scattering mechanism arising from the electro-optic effect of transverse polar modes.``

  5. 40 CFR 51.117 - Additional provisions for lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional provisions for lead. 51.117... Additional provisions for lead. In addition to other requirements in §§ 51.100 through 51.116 the following requirements apply to lead. To the extent they conflict, there requirements are controlling over those of the...

  6. Entropies of the automata networks with additive rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-qingGU; GeCHEN; 等

    1996-01-01

    The matrix presentation for automata networks with additive rule are described.A set of entropy theorems of additive automata network are proved and an analytic formula of its entropy is built.For example,we proved that the topological entropy is identically equal to metric entropy for an additive antomata network.

  7. 77 FR 53801 - Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition; Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition... Administration (FDA) is amending the filing notice for a food additive petition filed by Nexira proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the expanded safe use of acacia gum...

  8. 77 FR 5201 - Ecolab, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 173 Ecolab, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive... Administration (FDA) is announcing that Ecolab, Inc., has filed a petition proposing that the food additive...) (21 U.S.C. 348(b)(5))), notice is given that a food additive petition (FAP 2A4785) has been filed...

  9. 76 FR 78866 - Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition... Administration (FDA) is announcing that Nexira has filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations... given that a food additive petition (FAP 1A4784) has been filed by Nexira, c/o Keller and Heckman...

  10. 7 CFR 1230.639 - Additional absentee voter challenge period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... no later than the 2nd business day (October 31, 2000) after the last day of the additional challenge... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional absentee voter challenge period. 1230.639... § 1230.639 Additional absentee voter challenge period. (a) Absentee Voter Request List. The...

  11. Addition formulae for Abelian functions associated with specialized curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilbeck, J C; Matsutani, S; Onishi, Y

    2011-03-28

    We discuss a family of multi-term addition formulae for Weierstrass functions on specialized curves of low genus with many automorphisms, concentrating mostly on the case of genus 1 and 2. In the genus 1 case, we give addition formulae for the equianharmonic and lemniscate cases, and in genus 2 we find some new addition formulae for a number of curves.

  12. An evaluation of estimation methods for determining addition in presbyopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Catunda Bittencourt

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The optical correction of presbyopia must be handled individually. Our aim was to compare the methods used in addition to the refractive near vision, with the final addition used in presbyopic patients. METHODS: Eighty healthy subjects with a mean age of 49.7 years (range 40 to 60 years were studied. Tentative near additions were determined using four different techniques: one-half amplitude accommodation with minus lenses (AAL; one-third accommodative demand with positive lens (ADL; balanced range of accommodation with minus and positive lenses (BRA and crossed cylinder test with initial myopisation (CCT. The power of the addition was then refined to arrive at the final addition. RESULTS: The mean tentative near additions were lower than the final addition for ADL and BRA addition methods. The mean differences between tentative and final additions were low for all the tests examined (less than 0.25 D. The intervals between the 95% limits of agreement differed substantially and were always higher than ±0.50 D. CONCLUSION: All the methods used displayed similar behavior and provided a tentative addition close to the final addition. The coefficient of agreements (COA detected suggests that every tentative addition should be adjusted according to the particular needs of the patient.

  13. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  14. 21 CFR 81.1 - Provisional lists of color additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Provisional lists of color additives. 81.1 Section... GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS AND GENERAL RESTRICTIONS FOR PROVISIONAL COLOR ADDITIVES FOR USE IN FOODS, DRUGS, AND COSMETICS § 81.1 Provisional lists of color additives. The Commissioner of Food and Drugs...

  15. Adverse reactions to food additives in children with atopic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, G; Madsen, G; Halken, S

    1994-01-01

    , rhinitis, or urticaria. After a 2-week period on an additive-free diet, the children were challenged with the eliminated additives. The food additives investigated were coloring agents, preservatives, citric acid, and flavoring agents. Carbonated "lemonade" containing the dissolved additives was used...... dermatitis, asthma, urticaria, gastrointestinal symptoms), and citric acid (atopic dermatitis, gastrointestinal symptoms). The incidence of intolerance of food additives was 2% (6/335), as based on the double-blind challenge, and 7% (23/335), as based on the open challenge with lemonade. Children with atopic...

  16. The behaviour of molybdenum dialkyldithiocarbamate friction modifier additives

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, J C H

    2001-01-01

    In recent years there has been growing concern to produce energy-efficient lubricated components and modem engine oil specifications require lubricants to demonstrate fuel efficiency in standardised engine tests. One important method of producing low friction and thus fuel-efficient lubricants is to use oil-soluble, molybdenum-containing, friction modifier additives. In optimal conditions these additives are able to produce very low friction coefficients, in the range 0.045 to 0.075 in boundary lubrication conditions. Very little is known about the chemical and physical mechanisms by which oil soluble molybdenum additives form low friction films in tribological contacts. Information about their activity could lead to optimal use of these additives in lubricants and, therefore, more efficient engine running. The work outlined in this thesis investigated the behaviour of oil-soluble molybdenum additives and showed that these additives were able to effectively reduce friction in the absence of other additives su...

  17. 27 CFR 19.318 - Addition of caramel to rum or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits. 19.318 Section 19.318 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Production § 19.318 Addition of caramel to rum or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits... prior to production gauge. Oak chips which have not been treated with any chemical may be added...

  18. INFLUENCE OF NATURAL ADDITIVES ON PROTEIN COMPLEX OF BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Urminská

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on researching the influence of natural additives on certain technological characteristics of mixtures used for bread production, more particularly the influence of N substances in used raw material on selected qualitative parameters of bread. The blends for bread production to be analysed were prepared by mixing wheat flour with an addition of oat, buckwheat, lentil and chickpea wholegrain flour in different portions (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The experiment showed that the addition of natural additives worsened the protein complex of the blends used in bread production (worsening also qualitative parameters known as product volume. The loaves prepared with an addition of buckwheat, oat, lentil and chickpea were evaluated to be of a lesser quality from a technological viewpoint when compared with pure wheat loaves. The lower content of gluten forming proteins and the generally changed protein composition of blends due to additives caused a lower percentage of wet gluten content, its lower extensibility and swelling capacity. The sedimentation value (Zeleny index decreased proportionally with the increase of addition until the level was unsatisfactory for raw material intended for bakery purposes. The N content in experimental loaves was higher than in the reference loaves and it increased according to the selected additive and its portion in the blend (more with the addition of lentil and chickpea, less in case of buckwheat and oat which is considered as positive from a nutritional point of view. But from the technological point of view the additives did not show any positive influence and caused a lower loaf bread volume. The most significant decrease of the loaf bread volume was found with the addition of 50 % of buckwheat (- 45.6 %. Better results were obtained with a lower portion of the additive: loaf with an addition of 30 % of chickpea (volume decreased by 12.8 % > loaf with an addition of 30 % of lentil (volume

  19. Versatility of cooperative transcriptional activation: a thermodynamical modeling analysis for greater-than-additive and less-than-additive effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till D Frank

    Full Text Available We derive a statistical model of transcriptional activation using equilibrium thermodynamics of chemical reactions. We examine to what extent this statistical model predicts synergy effects of cooperative activation of gene expression. We determine parameter domains in which greater-than-additive and less-than-additive effects are predicted for cooperative regulation by two activators. We show that the statistical approach can be used to identify different causes of synergistic greater-than-additive effects: nonlinearities of the thermostatistical transcriptional machinery and three-body interactions between RNA polymerase and two activators. In particular, our model-based analysis suggests that at low transcription factor concentrations cooperative activation cannot yield synergistic greater-than-additive effects, i.e., DNA transcription can only exhibit less-than-additive effects. Accordingly, transcriptional activity turns from synergistic greater-than-additive responses at relatively high transcription factor concentrations into less-than-additive responses at relatively low concentrations. In addition, two types of re-entrant phenomena are predicted. First, our analysis predicts that under particular circumstances transcriptional activity will feature a sequence of less-than-additive, greater-than-additive, and eventually less-than-additive effects when for fixed activator concentrations the regulatory impact of activators on the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter increases from weak, to moderate, to strong. Second, for appropriate promoter conditions when activator concentrations are increased then the aforementioned re-entrant sequence of less-than-additive, greater-than-additive, and less-than-additive effects is predicted as well. Finally, our model-based analysis suggests that even for weak activators that individually induce only negligible increases in promoter activity, promoter activity can exhibit greater-than-additive

  20. RAPID TEST METHOD FOR EVALUATION OF ANTIFREEZE ADDITIVE EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gushchin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Usage of chemical additives while executing concrete works at negative temperatures is considered as a convenient and economical method. Range of the used antifreeze additives is rather wide. A great number of new additives are advertised but their characteristics have not been practically studied. Evaluation of the antifreeze additive efficiency is unfortunately rather long process and it does not provide comprehensive data on concrete structure formation processes. Due to this development of rapid and comprehensive methodology for construction companies is urgently required.Freezing processes of antifreeze additive aqueous solutions and hardening of cement paste with them have been investigated in the paper. The paper proposes a methodology for determination of freezing point for aqueous solutions of chemical additives of various applications. Identity of  freezing point for a chemical additive aqueous solution and cement paste with an equal concentration of the additive in the paste pore fluid has been determined while taking  calcium nitrate and sodium formate additives as an example. The paper demonstrates the possibility to evaluate efficiency of antifreeze additive action on the basis of kinetics in temperature changes of the cement paste with additives by its consecutive freezing and defrosting.  A methodology for operational evaluation in the field of chemical additive application for concreting items at negative temperatures has been offered in the paper.  The methodology does not require  deficient and expensive test-equipment. It can be applied at ordinary construction companies and it is comprehensible for personnel of low-qualification.  The paper shows the possibility to develop an original methodology for designing concrete structure which is based on operating efficiency determinations  for single and integrated antifreeze additives.

  1. Enhancement of Corrosion Resistance of Zinc Coatings Using Green Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punith Kumar, M. K.; Srivastava, Chandan

    2014-10-01

    In the present work, morphology, microstructure, and electrochemical behavior of Zn coatings containing non-toxic additives have been investigated. Zn coatings were electrodeposited over mild steel substrates using Zn sulphate baths containing four different organic additives: sodium gluconate, dextrose, dextrin, and saccharin. All these additives are "green" and can be derived from food contents. Morphological and structural characterization using electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and texture co-efficient analysis revealed an appreciable alteration in the morphology and texture of the deposit depending on the type of additive used in the Zn plating bath. All the Zn coatings, however, were nano-crystalline irrespective of the type of additive used. Polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic analysis, used to investigate the effect of the change in microstructure and morphology on corrosion resistance behavior, illustrated an improved corrosion resistance for Zn deposits obtained from plating bath containing additives as compared to the pure Zn coatings.

  2. A General Theory of Additive State Space Abstractions

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Fan; Holte, Robert; Zahavi, Uzi; Felner, Ariel; 10.1613/jair.2486

    2011-01-01

    Informally, a set of abstractions of a state space S is additive if the distance between any two states in S is always greater than or equal to the sum of the corresponding distances in the abstract spaces. The first known additive abstractions, called disjoint pattern databases, were experimentally demonstrated to produce state of the art performance on certain state spaces. However, previous applications were restricted to state spaces with special properties, which precludes disjoint pattern databases from being defined for several commonly used testbeds, such as Rubiks Cube, TopSpin and the Pancake puzzle. In this paper we give a general definition of additive abstractions that can be applied to any state space and prove that heuristics based on additive abstractions are consistent as well as admissible. We use this new definition to create additive abstractions for these testbeds and show experimentally that well chosen additive abstractions can reduce search time substantially for the (18,4)-TopSpin puz...

  3. Adverse reactions to food additives in children with atopic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, G.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Halken, S.

    1994-01-01

    In a multicenter study conducted at four Danish hospital pediatric departments, the parents of 472 consecutive children were informed of this project to determine the incidence of intolerance of food additives among children referred to an allergy clinic with symptoms of asthma, atopic dermatitis......, rhinitis, or urticaria. After a 2-week period on an additive-free diet, the children were challenged with the eliminated additives. The food additives investigated were coloring agents, preservatives, citric acid, and flavoring agents. Carbonated ''lemonade'' containing the dissolved additives was used...... dermatitis, asthma, urticaria, gastrointestinal symptoms), and citric acid (atopic dermatitis, gastrointestinal symptoms). The incidence of intolerance of food additives was 2% (6/335), as based on the double-blind challenge, and 7% (23/335), as based on the open challenge with lemonade. Children with atopic...

  4. Navy Additive Manufacturing: Policy Analysis for Future DLA Material Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    NAVY ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES The Navy currently operates AM machines in depots, labs, hospitals and other warfare centers. Four major...Lorincz, J. (2014). Additive Joins Subtractive on Advanced All-in-One Machines . Manufacturing Engineering, 152(4), 67–69,71–72,74–77. McNulty, C. M...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT NAVY ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING : POLICY ANALYSIS FOR FUTURE

  5. Cost-Efficient Low-Volume Production Through Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D Printing, is a production method of rising popularity. The method works by adding layers of material, in contrast to subtracting, which is the dominating method today. The objective of this thesis has been to evaluate the cost-efficiency of producing relatively complex parts through additive manufacturing, compared to subtractive methods with production volumes less than 20 units. Initial findings narrow the additive methods down ...

  6. Additive Manufacturing: Preparing for the Reality of Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    applications.185 The separation between high- and low-end machines in the late 1990s was critical to the current additive manufacturing landscape. The...research into the development and output of high-end additive manufacturing machines continued along a relatively constant and predictable trajectory...technologies required for the low-end additive manufacturing machines led to surprising industry changes. After nearly two decades of a strict industrial

  7. Machining of Additively Manufactured Parts: Implications for Surface Integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Oyelola, O.; Crawforth, P.; M'Saoubi, R.; Clare, A.T.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing methods continue to move towards production ready technologies with the widely extolled virtues of rapid transition from design to part and enhanced design freedoms. However, due to fundamental limitations of laser based processes for metal additive manufacturing, there is a significant ongoing need for these parts to be subject to additional machining operations. This paper reports on a study to investigate the machining behavior and surface integrity of Ti-6Al-4 V com...

  8. Effectiveness of Low Temperature Additives for Biodiesel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-30

    UNCLASSIFIED EFFECTIVENESS OF LOW TEMPERATURE ADDITIVES FOR BIODIESEL BLENDS INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 428 by Steven R...Do not return it to the originator. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED EFFECTIVENESS OF LOW TEMPERATURE ADDITIVES FOR BIODIESEL BLENDS...17-2010 – 06-30-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Effectiveness of Low Temperature Additives for Biodiesel Blends 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W56HZV-09-C-0100

  9. Cost-Efficient Low-Volume Production Through Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D Printing, is a production method of rising popularity. The method works by adding layers of material, in contrast to subtracting, which is the dominating method today. The objective of this thesis has been to evaluate the cost-efficiency of producing relatively complex parts through additive manufacturing, compared to subtractive methods with production volumes less than 20 units. Initial findings narrow the additive methods down ...

  10. Machining of Additively Manufactured Parts: Implications for Surface Integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Oyelola, O.; Crawforth, P.; M'Saoubi, R.; Clare, A.T.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing methods continue to move towards production ready technologies with the widely extolled virtues of rapid transition from design to part and enhanced design freedoms. However, due to fundamental limitations of laser based processes for metal additive manufacturing, there is a significant ongoing need for these parts to be subject to additional machining operations. This paper reports on a study to investigate the machining behavior and surface integrity of Ti-6Al-4 V com...

  11. Stereochemistry of enzymatic water addition to C=C bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Water addition to carbon-carbon double bonds using hydratases is attracting great interest in biochemistry. Most of the known hydratases are involved in primary metabolism and to a lesser extent in secondary metabolism. New hydratases have recently been added to the toolbox, both from natural sources or artificial metalloenzymes. In order to comprehensively understand how the hydratases are able to catalyse the water addition to carbon-carbon double bonds, this review will highlight the mechanistic and stereochemical studies of the enzymatic water addition to carbon-carbon double bonds, focusing on the syn/anti-addition and stereochemistry of the reaction.

  12. Legal assumptions for private company claim for additional (supplementary payment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šogorov Stevan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject matter of analyze in this article are legal assumptions which must be met in order to enable private company to call for additional payment. After introductory remarks discussion is focused on existence of provisions regarding additional payment in formation contract, or in shareholders meeting general resolution, as starting point for company's claim. Second assumption is concrete resolution of shareholders meeting which creates individual obligations for additional payments. Third assumption is defined as distinctness regarding sum of payment and due date. Sending of claim by relevant company body is set as fourth legal assumption for realization of company's right to claim additional payments from member of private company.

  13. Anomaly Detection In Additively Manufactured Parts Using Laser Doppler Vibrometery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Carlos A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-29

    Additively manufactured parts are susceptible to non-uniform structure caused by the unique manufacturing process. This can lead to structural weakness or catastrophic failure. Using laser Doppler vibrometry and frequency response analysis, non-contact detection of anomalies in additively manufactured parts may be possible. Preliminary tests show promise for small scale detection, but more future work is necessary.

  14. 20 CFR 655.154 - Additional positive recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional positive recruitment. 655.154... recruitment. (a) Where to conduct additional positive recruitment. The employer must conduct positive recruitment within a multistate region of traditional or expected labor supply where the CO finds that there...

  15. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sources of additional information. 1.3 Section 1.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.3 Sources of additional information. (a) A statement of the NRC's organization, policies, procedures...

  16. Design for additive manufacturing: Automated build orientation selection and optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, Marijn Pieter; Wits, Wessel Willems

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, is an emerging type of production technology that is seen as the core technology for future high-value engineered products. Due to the additive nature of stacking and unifying individual layers, the part and process design is substantially different from conve

  17. 47 CFR 0.314 - Additional authority delegated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional authority delegated. 0.314 Section 0... Authority Enforcement Bureau § 0.314 Additional authority delegated. The Regional Director, Deputy Regional Director, District Director or Resident Agent at each installation is delegated authority to act upon...

  18. 46 CFR 401.425 - Provision for additional pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provision for additional pilot. 401.425 Section 401.425... REGULATIONS Rates, Charges, and Conditions for Pilotage Services § 401.425 Provision for additional pilot. The... Authority, Ltd., Canada, may require the assignment of two pilots to a ship upon request of the ship or...

  19. Ultrashort mode-locked lasers with additional Raman active elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunov, V. I.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.; Pestryakov, Efim V.; Petrov, V. V.; Komarov, A. K.; Komarov, Konstantin P.

    2002-05-01

    Numerical simulation of ultrashort pulse generation in the laser with a composite active medium and additional Raman active element in a cavity has been done. It was created that for some laser parameters the optimization of a Raman gain and a frequency shift values was resulted in additional shortening of pulse duration.

  20. 33 CFR 101.310 - Additional communication devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... plan under part 104 of this subchapter. See 33 CFR part 164 for additional information on AIS device... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional communication devices... communication devices. (a) Alert Systems. Alert systems, such as the ship security alert system required...