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Sample records for dysgalactiae subsp equisimilis

  1. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis: two cases of tonsillitis

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    Vincenzo Savini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We described two case reports of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis tonsillitis occurred from January 2005 to January 2007, among patients who come to our observation during these two years. These patients are paradigmatic of some conditions: adult age, absence of underlying diseases, outbreak of similar pharyngo-tonsillar sympyomatology, unsuccessful oral penicillin therapy, isolation of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis from throat swab, complete recovery after oral beta-lattamic antibiotic therapy, but total clearance of the microorganism only after oral macrolides administrations. Thus, the intracellular localization of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equismilis, could be in charge of the failure of beta-lattamic antibiotics therapy.

  2. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Bacteremia, Finland, 1995–2004

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    Vähäkuopus, Susanna; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Vuento, Risto; Syrjänen, Jaana

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective population-based study of 140 episodes of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia occurring in Finland during 1995–2004. Rare emm types were associated with more severe disease and increased mortality rates. Skin and soft tissue infections were more frequent clinical signs among cases caused by common emm types. PMID:20409380

  3. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Bacteremia, Finland, 1995-2004.

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    Rantala, Sari; Vahakuopus, Susanna; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Vuento, Risto; Syrjanen, Jaana

    2010-05-01

    We conducted a retrospective population-based study of 140 episodes of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia occurring in Finland during 1995-2004. Rare emm types were associated with more severe disease and increased mortality rates. Skin and soft tissue infections were more frequent clinical signs among cases caused by common emm types.

  4. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Bacteremia, Finland, 1995–2004

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    Rantala, Sari; Vähäkuopus, Susanna; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Vuento, Risto; Syrjänen, Jaana

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective population-based study of 140 episodes of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia occurring in Finland during 1995–2004. Rare emm types were associated with more severe disease and increased mortality rates. Skin and soft tissue infections were more frequent clinical signs among cases caused by common emm types.

  5. Detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in equine nasopharyngeal swabs by PCR.

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    Preziuso, Silvia; Laus, Fulvio; Tejeda, Aurora Romero; Valente, Carlo; Cuteri, Vincenzo

    2010-03-01

    Streptococcus (S.) dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis is responsible for severe diseases in humans, including primary bacteraemia, pneumonia, endocarditis, and toxic shock syndrome. Infection in some animal species can also occur, although a few studies have looked into cross-species infectivity. In horses, S. equisimilis is generally considered infrequent or opportunistic, but has recently been isolated from cases of strangles-like disease. Rapid and sensitive diagnostic techniques could enable epidemiological studies and effective investigation of outbreaks involving these bacteria. In this study, PCR protocols previously described in cattle and in humans to detect the species S. dysgalactiae and the subspecies equisimilis were evaluated to detect specific sequences in equine samples. For this purpose, 99 monolateral nasal swabs were collected from horses from stud farms with a history of S. equisimilis infection and were tested blindly by bacteriological isolation and by single and duplex PCR. DNA for PCR was extracted both from the colonies grown on agar media and from enrichment broth aliquots after incubation with nasal swab samples. S. equisimilis was identified by bacteriological isolation in 23 out of 99 swab samples, and PCR assays on these colonies were fully concordant with bacteriological identification (kappa statistic = 1.00). In addition, PCR of the enrichment broth aliquots confirmed the bacteriological results and detected S. equisimilis in 6 samples more than the bacteriological examination (kappa statistic = 0.84). The PCR protocols appeared to be reliable for the rapid identification of S. equisimilis in equine nasal swab samples, and could be useful for microbiological diagnosis.

  6. Characterization of Blood Culture Isolates of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Possessing Lancefield's Group A Antigen

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    Brandt, Claudia M.; Haase, Gerhard; Schnitzler, Norbert; Zbinden, Reinhard; Lütticken, Rudolf

    1999-01-01

    For three human blood culture isolates of beta-hemolytic streptococci with Lancefield's serogroup A antigen, phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA genes confirmed biochemical identification as Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Genes encoding M or M-like proteins, which are considered to be major virulence determinants in streptococci, were detected in all of these strains. Our data clearly demonstrate that for beta-hemolytic streptococci, the species assignment should not be base...

  7. Prevalence of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus in a sample of healthy dogs, cats and horses.

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    Acke, E; Midwinter, A C; Lawrence, K; Gordon, S J G; Moore, S; Rasiah, I; Steward, K; French, N; Waller, A

    2015-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence of β-haemolytic Lancefield group C streptococci in healthy dogs, cats and horses; to determine if frequent contact with horses was associated with isolation of these species from dogs and cats; and to characterise recovered S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolates by multilocus sequence typing. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 197 dogs and 72 cats, and nasopharyngeal swabs from 93 horses. Sampling was carried out at the Massey University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, on sheep and beef farms or on premises where horses were present. All animals were healthy and were categorised as Urban dogs and cats (minimal contact with horses or farm livestock), Farm dogs (minimal contact with horses) and Stable dogs and cats (frequent contact with horses). Swabs were cultured for β-haemolytic Streptococcus spp. and Lancefield group C streptococcal subspecies were confirmed by phenotypic and molecular techniques. Of the 197 dogs sampled, 21 (10.7 (95% CI= 4.0-25.4)%) tested positive for S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and 4 (2.0 (95% CI=0.7-5.5)%) tested positive for S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. All these isolates, except for one S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis isolate in an Urban dog, were from Stable dogs. S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis was isolated from one Stable cat. Of the 93 horses, 22 (23.7 (95% CI=12.3-40.6)%) and 6 (6.5 (95% CI=2.8-14.1)%) had confirmed S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolation respectively. Isolation of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis from dogs was associated with frequent contact with horses (OR=9.8 (95% CI=2.6-72.8)). Three different multilocus sequence type profiles of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus that have not been previously reported in dogs were recovered. Subclinical infection or colonisation by S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis occurs in dogs and further research on inter-species transmission and the pathogenic potential of these

  8. Characterization of Blood Culture Isolates of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Possessing Lancefield's Group A Antigen

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    Brandt, Claudia M.; Haase, Gerhard; Schnitzler, Norbert; Zbinden, Reinhard; Lütticken, Rudolf

    1999-01-01

    For three human blood culture isolates of beta-hemolytic streptococci with Lancefield's serogroup A antigen, phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA genes confirmed biochemical identification as Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Genes encoding M or M-like proteins, which are considered to be major virulence determinants in streptococci, were detected in all of these strains. Our data clearly demonstrate that for beta-hemolytic streptococci, the species assignment should not be based on the results of serogrouping alone. PMID:10565964

  9. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Isolated From Infections in Dogs and Humans: Are Current Subspecies Identification Criteria accurate?

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    Ciszewski, Marcin; Zegarski, Kamil; Szewczyk, Eligia M

    2016-11-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae is a pyogenic species pathogenic both for humans and animals. Until recently, it has been considered an exclusive animal pathogen causing infections in wild as well as domestic animals. Currently, human infections are being reported with increasing frequency, and their clinical picture is often similar to the ones caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. Due to the fact that S. dysgalactiae is a heterogeneous species, it was divided into two subspecies: S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) and S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (SDSD). The first differentiation criterion, described in 1996, was based on strain isolation source. Currently applied criteria, published in 1998, are based on hemolysis type and Lancefield group classification. In this study, we compared subspecies identification results for 36 strains isolated from clinical cases both in humans and animals. Species differentiation was based on two previously described criteria as well as MALDI-TOF and genetic analyses: RISA and 16S rRNA genes sequencing. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were also determined according to CLSI guidelines. The results presented in our study suggest that the subspecies differentiation criteria previously described in the above two literature positions seem to be inaccurate in analyzed group of strains, the hemolysis type on blood agar, and Lancefield classification should not be here longer considered as criteria in subspecies identification. The antimicrobial susceptibility tests indicate emerging of multiresistant human SDSE strains resistant also to vancomycin, linezolid and tigecycline, which might pose a substantial problem in treatment.

  10. Potential Factors Enabling Human Body Colonization by Animal Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Strains.

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    Ciszewski, Marcin; Szewczyk, Eligia M

    2017-05-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) is a pyogenic, Lancefield C or G streptococcal pathogen. Until recently, it has been considered as an exclusive animal pathogen. Nowadays, it is responsible for both animal infections in wild animals, pets, and livestock and human infections often clinically similar to the ones caused by group A streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes). The risk of zoonotic infection is the most significant in people having regular contact with animals, such as veterinarians, cattlemen, and farmers. SDSE is also prevalent on skin of healthy dogs, cats, and horses, which pose a risk also to people having contact with companion animals. The main aim of this study was to evaluate if there are features differentiating animal and human SDSE isolates, especially in virulence factors involved in the first stages of pathogenesis (adhesion and colonization). Equal groups of human and animal SDSE clinical strains were obtained from superficial infections (skin, wounds, abscesses). The presence of five virulence genes (prtF1, prtF2, lmb, cbp, emm type) was evaluated, as well as ability to form bacterial biofilm and produce BLIS (bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances) which are active against human skin microbiota. The study showed that the presence of genes coding for fibronectin-binding protein and M protein, as well as BLIS activity inhibiting the growth of Corynebacterium spp. strains might constitute the virulence factors which are necessary to colonize human organism, whereas they are not crucial in animal infections. Those virulence factors might be horizontally transferred from human streptococci to animal SDSE strains, enabling their ability to colonize human organism.

  11. Genetic diversity and virulence properties of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis from different sources.

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    Gherardi, Giovanni; Imperi, Monica; Palmieri, Claudio; Magi, Gloria; Facinelli, Bruna; Baldassarri, Lucilla; Pataracchia, Marco; Creti, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    A recent increase in virulence of pathogenic Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) has been widely proposed. Such an increase may be partly explained by the acquisition of new virulence traits by horizontal gene transfer from related streptococci such as Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) and Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS). A collection of 54 SDSE strains isolated in Italy in the years 2000-2010 from different sources (paediatric throat carriage, invasive and non-invasive diseases) was characterized by emm typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. The virulence repertoire was evaluated by PCR for the presence of GAS superantigen (spe) genes, the streptolysin S (sagA) gene, the group G fibronectin-binding protein (gfbA) gene and GAS-GBS alpha-like protein family (alp) genes; moreover, the ability to invade human epithelial cells was investigated. Resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin and clindamycin was assessed. The combined use of emm typing and PFGE proved to be a reliable strategy for the epidemiological analysis of SDSE isolates. The most frequent emm types were the same as those more frequently reported in other studies, thus indicating the diffusion of a limited number of a few successful emm types fit to disseminate in humans. The speG gene was detected in SDSE strains of different genetic backgrounds. Erythromycin resistance determined by the erm(T) gene, and the unusual, foggy MLSB phenotype, observed in one and seven strains, respectively, have never previously, to our knowledge, been reported in SDSE. Moreover, a new member of the alp family was identified. The identification of new antibiotic and virulence determinants, despite the small size of the sample analysed, shows the importance of constant attention to monitoring the extent of lateral gene transfer in this emerging pathogen.

  12. Assessment and characterization of biofilm formation among human isolates of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis.

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    Genteluci, Gabrielle Limeira; Silva, Ligia Guedes; Souza, Maria Clara; Glatthardt, Thaís; de Mattos, Marcos Corrêa; Ejzemberg, Regina; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Figueiredo, Agnes Marie Sá; Ferreira-Carvalho, Bernadete Teixeira

    2015-12-01

    The capacity to form biofilm is considered a protective mechanism that allows the bacteria to survive and proliferate in hostile environments, facilitating the maintenance of the infectious process. Recently, biofilm has become a topic of interest in the study of the human pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS). Although GAS has not been associated with infection on medical implants, the presence of microcolonies embedded in an extracellular matrix on infected tissues has been reported. Despite the similarity between GAS and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE), there are no studies in the literature describing the production of biofilm by SDSE. In this work, we assessed and characterized biofilm development among SDSE human isolates of group C. The in vitro data showed that 59.3% of the 118 isolates tested were able to form acid-induced biofilm on glass, and 28% formed it on polystyrene surfaces. More importantly, biofilm was also formed in a foreign body model in mice. The biofilm structure was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Long fibrillar-like structures were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, the expression of a pilus associated gene of SDSE was increased for in vitro sessile cells compared with planktonics, and when sessile cells were collected from biofilms formed in the animal model compared with that of in vitro model. Results obtained from the immunofluorescence microscopy indicated the biofilm was immunogenic. Our data also suggested a role for proteins, exopolysaccharide and extracellular DNA in the formation and accumulation of biofilm by SDSE.

  13. Acute Bacterial Meningitis and Systemic Abscesses due to Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Infection

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    M. Jourani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated abscesses due to group G β-hemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae were observed in a 57-year-old cirrhotic patient with the skin being the putative way of entry for the pathogen. S. dysgalactiae is a rare agent in human infections responsible for acute pyogenic meningitis. The mortality rate associated with S. dysgalactiae bacteraemia and meningitis may be as high as 50%, particularly in the presence of endocarditis or brain abscesses. In our patient, main sites of infections were meningitis and ventriculitis, spondylodiscitis, septic arthritis, and soft-tissue infections. In contrast, no endocarditis was evidenced. Cirrhosis-related immune suppression was considered as a pathophysiological cofactor for the condition. Fortunately, clinical status improved after long-term (3 months antimicrobial therapy.

  14. Complete genome sequencing and analysis of a Lancefield group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strain causing streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS

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    Ubukata Kimiko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE causes invasive streptococcal infections, including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS, as does Lancefield group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS. We sequenced the entire genome of SDSE strain GGS_124 isolated from a patient with STSS. Results We found that GGS_124 consisted of a circular genome of 2,106,340 bp. Comparative analyses among bacterial genomes indicated that GGS_124 was most closely related to GAS. GGS_124 and GAS, but not other streptococci, shared a number of virulence factor genes, including genes encoding streptolysin O, NADase, and streptokinase A, distantly related to SIC (DRS, suggesting the importance of these factors in the development of invasive disease. GGS_124 contained 3 prophages, with one containing a virulence factor gene for streptodornase. All 3 prophages were significantly similar to GAS prophages that carry virulence factor genes, indicating that these prophages had transferred these genes between pathogens. SDSE was found to contain a gene encoding a superantigen, streptococcal exotoxin type G, but lacked several genes present in GAS that encode virulence factors, such as other superantigens, cysteine protease speB, and hyaluronan synthase operon hasABC. Similar to GGS_124, the SDSE strains contained larger numbers of clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR spacers than did GAS, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer via streptococcal phages between SDSE and GAS is somewhat restricted, although they share phage species. Conclusion Genome wide comparisons of SDSE with GAS indicate that SDSE is closely and quantitatively related to GAS. SDSE, however, lacks several virulence factors of GAS, including superantigens, SPE-B and the hasABC operon. CRISPR spacers may limit the horizontal transfer of phage encoded GAS virulence genes into SDSE. These findings may provide clues for dissecting the pathological roles

  15. Necrotizing soft tissue infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis of groups C and G in western Norway.

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    Bruun, T; Kittang, B R; de Hoog, B J; Aardal, S; Flaatten, H K; Langeland, N; Mylvaganam, H; Vindenes, H A; Skrede, S

    2013-12-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus, GAS) is a major cause of necrotizing soft tissue infection (NSTI). On rare occasions, other β-haemolytic streptococci may also cause NSTI, but the significance and nature of these infections has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, clinical and molecular characteristics of NSTI caused by GAS and β-haemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis of groups C and G (GCS/GGS) in western Norway during 2000-09 are presented. Clinical data were included retrospectively. The bacterial isolates were subsequently emm typed and screened for the presence of genes encoding streptococcal superantigens. Seventy cases were identified, corresponding to a mean annual incidence rate of 1.4 per 100 000. Sixty-one of the cases were associated with GAS, whereas GCS/GGS accounted for the remaining nine cases. The in-hospital case fatality rates of GAS and GCS/GGS disease were 11% and 33%, respectively. The GCS/GGS patients were older, had comorbidities more often and had anatomically more superficial disease than the GAS patients. High age and toxic shock syndrome were associated with mortality. The Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis laboratory score showed high values (≥6) in only 31 of 67 cases. Among the available 42 GAS isolates, the most predominant emm types were emm1, emm3 and emm4. The virulence gene profiles were strongly correlated to emm type. The number of superantigen genes was low in the four available GCS/GGS isolates. Our findings indicate a high frequency of streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis in our community. GCS/GGS infections contribute to the disease burden, but differ from GAS cases in frequency and predisposing factors.

  16. Septic Osteoarthritis Due to Streptococcus dysgalactiae Subspecies equisimilis in a Three-Year-Old Girl

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    B. P.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents a three-year-old toddler with an acute and severe osteoarticular infection of her left hip and proximal thigh. In the first 24 hours she underwent an arthrotomy and during the intravenous phase of antibiotic treatment multiple teeth were removed because of an extensive periodontal disease. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE was identified in her blood culture samples. The paper discusses the clinical spectrum of the disease caused by this pathogen and briefly reviews the literature. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first case of septic osteomyelitis and arthritis caused by SDSE in a child.

  17. Antibiotic susceptibilities, streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin gene profiles among clinical isolates of group C or G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis & of group G S. anginosus group at a tertiary care centre

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    Bijayini Behera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Group C and group G streptococci (together GCGS are often regarded as commensal bacteria and their role in streptococcal disease burden is under-recognized. While reports of recovery of GCGS from normally sterile body sites are increasing, their resistance to macrolides, fluoroquinolone further warrants all invasive β haemolytic streptococci to be identified to the species level and accurately tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence, clinical profile, antimicrobial susceptibility and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin gene profile (speA, speB, speC, speF, smeZ, speI, speM, speG, speH and ssa of GCGS obtained over a period of two years at a tertiary care centre from north India. Methods: The clinical samples were processed as per standard microbiological techniques. β-haemolytic streptococci (BHS were characterized and grouped. Antimicrobial susceptibility of GCGS was performed using disk diffusion method. All GCGS were characterized for the presence of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (spe and spe genes were amplified by PCR method. Results: GCGS (23 GGS, 2GCS comprised 16 per cent of β haemolytic streptococci (25/142 βHS, 16% isolated over the study period. Of the 25 GCGS, 22 (88% were recovered from pus, two (8% from respiratory tract, whereas one isolate was recovered from blood of a fatal case of septicaemia. Of the total 23 GGS isolates, 18 (78% were identified as Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp equisimilis (SDSE, large-colony phenotype, five (21% were Streptococcus anginosus group (SAG, small-colony phenotype. The two GCS were identified as SDSE. All GCGS isolates were susceptible to penicillin, vancomycin, and linezolid. Tetracycline resistance was noted in 50 per cent of SDSE isolates. The rates of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance in SDSE were low. Twelve of the 20 SDSE isolates were positive for one or more spe genes, with five of the SDSE isolates

  18. Recombination drives genetic diversification of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis in a region of streptococcal endemicity.

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    McMillan, David J; Kaul, Santosh Y; Bramhachari, P V; Smeesters, Pierre R; Vu, Therese; Karmarkar, M G; Shaila, Melkote S; Sriprakash, Kadaba S

    2011-01-01

    Infection of the skin or throat by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE) may result in a number of human diseases. To understand mechanisms that give rise to new genetic variants in this species, we used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to characterise relationships in the SDSE population from India, a country where streptococcal disease is endemic. The study revealed Indian SDSE isolates have sequence types (STs) predominantly different to those reported from other regions of the world. Emm-ST combinations in India are also largely unique. Split decomposition analysis, the presence of emm-types in unrelated clonal complexes, and analysis of phylogenetic trees based on concatenated sequences all reveal an extensive history of recombination within the population. The ratio of recombination to mutation (r/m) events (11:1) and per site r/m ratio (41:1) in this population is twice as high as reported for SDSE from non-endemic regions. Recombination involving the emm-gene is also more frequent than recombination involving housekeeping genes, consistent with diversification of M proteins offering selective advantages to the pathogen. Our data demonstrate that genetic recombination in endemic regions is more frequent than non-endemic regions, and gives rise to novel local SDSE variants, some of which may have increased fitness or pathogenic potential.

  19. Recombination drives genetic diversification of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis in a region of streptococcal endemicity.

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    David J McMillan

    Full Text Available Infection of the skin or throat by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE may result in a number of human diseases. To understand mechanisms that give rise to new genetic variants in this species, we used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST to characterise relationships in the SDSE population from India, a country where streptococcal disease is endemic. The study revealed Indian SDSE isolates have sequence types (STs predominantly different to those reported from other regions of the world. Emm-ST combinations in India are also largely unique. Split decomposition analysis, the presence of emm-types in unrelated clonal complexes, and analysis of phylogenetic trees based on concatenated sequences all reveal an extensive history of recombination within the population. The ratio of recombination to mutation (r/m events (11:1 and per site r/m ratio (41:1 in this population is twice as high as reported for SDSE from non-endemic regions. Recombination involving the emm-gene is also more frequent than recombination involving housekeeping genes, consistent with diversification of M proteins offering selective advantages to the pathogen. Our data demonstrate that genetic recombination in endemic regions is more frequent than non-endemic regions, and gives rise to novel local SDSE variants, some of which may have increased fitness or pathogenic potential.

  20. Refractory Toxic Shock-Like Syndrome from Streptococcus dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis and Intravenous Immunoglobulin as Salvage Therapy: A Case Series

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    Marjan Islam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections from Streptococcus dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis (SDSE can cause a wide variety of infections, ranging from mild cellulitis to invasive disease, such as endocarditis and streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome (TSLS. Despite prompt and appropriate antibiotics, mortality rates associated with shock have remained exceedingly high, prompting the need for adjunctive therapy. IVIG has been proposed as a possible adjunct, given its ability to neutralize a wide variety of superantigens and modulate a dysregulated inflammatory response. We present the first reported cases of successful IVIG therapy for reversing shock in the treatment of SDSE TSLS.

  1. [Outbreak of subclinical mastitis due to beta hemolytic group L streptococci (S. dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis) in an Austrian dairy herd].

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    Baumgartner, Martina; Giffinger, Friederike; Hoppe, Jan Christoph; Spergser, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    This study is reporting an outbreak of subclinical mastitis due to beta-hemolytic group L streptococci in an Austrian dairy herd with a history of high somatic cell count. At the first survey 16 of 33 lactating cows (28 quarters of 132) were cultured positive for beta-hemolytic, CAMP and esculin negative cocci that grew on Columbia blood agar with small grey catalase negative colonies. With the commercial API 20 Strep system (bioMerieux, F) isolates were classified as members of streptococci group L. All tested strains (eight of 28) produced acid from ribose, lactose, trehalose, amidon and glycogen; they hydrolysed hippurate and showed beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase, alkaline phosphatase, leucinaminopeptidase and arginindehydrolase activity. Isolates were sensitive to bacitracin but resistant to tetracycline. Using phenotypic characterisation as well as sequence analysis of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region of a representative strain, recovered isolates were identified as Streptococcus (S.) dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis. Mastitis was characterized by normal milk secretions and absence of clinical abnormalities but high elevations of somatic cell count. Based on the characteristics of the strains and on the observations during the first herd survey, contagious transmission during milking as a result of poor milking hygiene was assumed. The mastitis was controlled through implementation of a strict hygiene protocol including use of single-use udder towels, post milking teat desinfection and cluster disinfection between milking cows in combination with antibiotic treatment of infected udders.

  2. Molecular and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolated from swine.

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    Moreno, Luisa Z; da Costa, Barbara L P; Matajira, Carlos E C; Gomes, Vasco T M; Mesquita, Renan E; Silva, Ana Paula S; Moreno, Andrea M

    2016-10-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis and dysgalactiae were isolated from swine clinical specimens. The subspecies equisimilis presented 2 clonal patterns with 85% genetic similarity, whereas subspecies dysgalactiae presented distinct band pattern with less than 80% similarity with equisimilis genotypes. Isolates presented high MIC values to tetracyclines, danofloxacin, spectinomycin, tiamulin, and clindamycin.

  3. Distribution of virulence factors and association with emm polymorphism or isolation site among beta-hemolytic group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis.

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    Lo, Hsueh-Hsia; Cheng, Wei-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Distribution of virulence factors and association with emm polymorphism or isolation site among beta-hemolytic group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE), the dominant human pathogenic species among group G streptococci, is the causative agent of several invasive and non-invasive diseases worldwide. However, limited information is available about the distribution of virulence factors among SDSE isolates, or their association with emm types and the isolation sites. In this study, 246 beta-hemolytic group G SDSE isolates collected in central Taiwan between February 2007 and August 2011 were under investigation. Of these, 66 isolates were obtained from normally sterile sites and 180 from non-sterile sites. emm typing revealed 32 types, with the most prevalent one being stG10.0 (39.8%), followed by stG245.0 (15.4%), stG840.0 (12.2%), stG6.1 (7.7%), and stG652.0 (4.1%). The virulence genes lmb (encoding laminin-binding protein), gapC (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase), sagA (streptolysin S), and hylB (hyaluronidase) existed in all isolates. Also, 99.2% of the isolates possessed slo (streptolysin O) and scpA (C5a peptidase) genes. In addition, 72.8%, 14.6%, 9.4%, and 2.4% of the isolates possessed the genes ska (streptokinase), cbp (putative collagen-binding protein, SDEG_1781), fbp (putative fibronectin-binding protein, SDEG_0161), and sicG (streptococcal inhibitor of complement), respectively. The only superantigen gene detected was spegg (streptococcus pyrogenic exotoxin G(dys) ), which was possessed by 74.4% of the isolates; these isolates correlated with non-sterile sites. Positive correlations were observed between the following emm types and virulence genes: stG10.0 and stG840.0 with spegg, stG6.1 and stG652.0 with ska, and stG840.0 with cbp. On the other hand, negative correlations were observed between the following: stG245.0, stG6.1, and stG652.0 types with spegg, stG10.0 with ska

  4. Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae strains isolated from horses are a genetically distinct population within the Streptococcus dysgalactiae taxon

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    Pinho, Marcos D.; Erol, Erdal; Ribeiro-Gonçalves, Bruno; Mendes, Catarina I.; Carriço, João A.; Matos, Sandra C.; Preziuso, Silvia; Luebke-Becker, Antina; Wieler, Lothar H.; Melo-Cristino, Jose; Ramirez, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenic role of beta-hemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae in the equine host is increasingly recognized. A collection of 108 Lancefield group C (n = 96) or L (n = 12) horse isolates recovered in the United States and in three European countries presented multilocus sequence typing (MLST) alleles, sequence types and emm types (only 56% of the isolates could be emm typed) that were, with few exceptions, distinct from those previously found in human Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Characterization of a subset of horse isolates by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that most equine isolates could also be differentiated from S. dysgalactiae strains from other animal species, supporting the existence of a horse specific genomovar. Draft genome information confirms the distinctiveness of the horse genomovar and indicates the presence of potentially horse-specific virulence factors. While this genomovar represents most of the isolates recovered from horses, a smaller MLST and MLSA defined sub-population seems to be able to cause infections in horses, other animals and humans, indicating that transmission between hosts of strains belonging to this group may occur. PMID:27530432

  5. Streptococcus dysgalactiae: An emerging pathogen of fishes and mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdelsalam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (GCSD has gained special interest of aquatic health experts throughout the past few years due to its interesting veterinary and public health importance. Increasing records of GCSD infections in farmed fishes have been documented through diverse worldwide aquatic habitats in Japan, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Taiwan and Brazil. Despite the intraspecies/interspecies dynamic spread of fish GCSD, yet, the genetic basis of its virulence remains unknown. This gap in knowledge is the main reason behind inability to develop a competent vaccine to control the disease in aquatic animals. However, the authors have concluded that the virulence of GCSD is mainly based on its cell surface properties such as high hemagglutination and hydrophobic properties which determine the main adhesive/invasive pathogenic mechanism of the pathogen where GCSD isolates were able to adhere to and invade fish epithelial cell line in vitro. Most recently, the molecular pathogenesis investigations have revealed that, serum opacity factor [SOF], superantigen and streptolysin S genes might be the most important virulence factors that have contributed to the swift propagation of streptococcal infection among aquatic and mammalian species. In conclusion, the current research based review has emphasized the current knowledge gap in epidemiology and control of fish GCSD. To bridge this current gap, a swift future development of high tech/accurate molecular research is highly needed to better understand the pathogenic mechanisms of GCSD.

  6. Case of endogenous endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus equisimilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Suemori

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Shinsuke Suemori1, Akira Sawada1, Shinya Komori1, Kiyofumi Mochizuki1, Kiyofumi Ohkusu2, Hirofumi Takemura31Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Microbiology, 3Department of General and Cardiothoracic Surgery Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, JapanAbstract: We report a rare case of endogenous endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus equisimilis. A 74-year-old woman with endocarditis developed endogenous endophthalmitis. The patient underwent emergency mitral valvuloplasty, and intravitreal and subconjunctival injections of vancomycin and meropenem. After the surgery, she was treated with topical antibiotics, ointment, intravenous gentamicin and intravenous penicillin G potassium. The causative organism was identified as S. equisimilis. S. equisimilis should be considered as a pathogen that can cause severe endogenous endophthalmitis.Keywords: endogenous endophthalmitis, group G Streptococcus, endocarditis, Streptococcus equisimilis

  7. Streptococcus dysgalactiae endocarditis presenting as acute endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Su-Min Yong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare ocular infection affecting the vitreous and/or aqueous humours. It is associated with poor visual prognosis and its commonest endogenous aetiology is infective endocarditis. The causative organisms of endogenous endophthalmitis complicating endocarditis are mainly Group A or B streptococci. The identification of Group C and G streptococci such as Streptococcus dysgalactiae is comparatively uncommon and has only been reported in a few case reports or series. We therefore report a case of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae first presenting with endogenous endophthalmitis, the most likely source being bilateral feet osteomyelitis in a patient with type I diabetes. The patient was treated with a course of intravenous benzylpenicillin, intravitreal antibiotics, bilateral below knee amputations and mitral valve replacement. She survived all surgical procedures and regained partial visual acuity in the affected eye.

  8. Gene repertoire evolution of Streptococcus pyogenes inferred from phylogenomic analysis with Streptococcus canis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefébure, Tristan; Richards, Vince P; Lang, Ping; Pavinski-Bitar, Paulina; Stanhope, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, is an important human pathogen classified within the pyogenic group of streptococci, exclusively adapted to the human host. Our goal was to employ a comparative evolutionary approach to better understand the genomic events concomitant with S. pyogenes human adaptation. As part of ascertaining these events, we sequenced the genome of one of the potential sister species, the agricultural pathogen S. canis, and combined it in a comparative genomics reconciliation analysis with two other closely related species, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus equi, to determine the genes that were gained and lost during S. pyogenes evolution. Genome wide phylogenetic analyses involving 15 Streptococcus species provided convincing support for a clade of S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. canis and suggested that the most likely S. pyogenes sister species was S. dysgalactiae. The reconciliation analysis identified 113 genes that were gained on the lineage leading to S. pyogenes. Almost half (46%) of these gained genes were phage associated and 14 showed significant matches to experimentally verified bacteria virulence factors. Subsequent to the origin of S. pyogenes, over half of the phage associated genes were involved in 90 different LGT events, mostly involving different strains of S. pyogenes, but with a high proportion involving the horse specific pathogen S. equi subsp. equi, with the directionality almost exclusively (86%) in the S. pyogenes to S. equi direction. Streptococcus agalactiae appears to have played an important role in the evolution of S. pyogenes with a high proportion of LGTs originating from this species. Overall the analysis suggests that S. pyogenes adaptation to the human host was achieved in part by (i) the integration of new virulence factors (e.g. speB, and the sal locus) and (ii) the construction of new regulation networks (e.g. rgg, and to some extent speB).

  9. Gene repertoire evolution of Streptococcus pyogenes inferred from phylogenomic analysis with Streptococcus canis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Lefébure

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes, is an important human pathogen classified within the pyogenic group of streptococci, exclusively adapted to the human host. Our goal was to employ a comparative evolutionary approach to better understand the genomic events concomitant with S. pyogenes human adaptation. As part of ascertaining these events, we sequenced the genome of one of the potential sister species, the agricultural pathogen S. canis, and combined it in a comparative genomics reconciliation analysis with two other closely related species, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus equi, to determine the genes that were gained and lost during S. pyogenes evolution. Genome wide phylogenetic analyses involving 15 Streptococcus species provided convincing support for a clade of S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. canis and suggested that the most likely S. pyogenes sister species was S. dysgalactiae. The reconciliation analysis identified 113 genes that were gained on the lineage leading to S. pyogenes. Almost half (46% of these gained genes were phage associated and 14 showed significant matches to experimentally verified bacteria virulence factors. Subsequent to the origin of S. pyogenes, over half of the phage associated genes were involved in 90 different LGT events, mostly involving different strains of S. pyogenes, but with a high proportion involving the horse specific pathogen S. equi subsp. equi, with the directionality almost exclusively (86% in the S. pyogenes to S. equi direction. Streptococcus agalactiae appears to have played an important role in the evolution of S. pyogenes with a high proportion of LGTs originating from this species. Overall the analysis suggests that S. pyogenes adaptation to the human host was achieved in part by (i the integration of new virulence factors (e.g. speB, and the sal locus and (ii the construction of new regulation networks (e.g. rgg, and to some extent speB.

  10. Genetic diversity of geographically distinct Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates from fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdelsalam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus dysgalactiae is an emerging pathogen of fish. Clinically, infection is characterized by the development of necrotic lesions at the caudal peduncle of infected fishes. The pathogen has been recently isolated from different fish species in many countries. Twenty S. dysgalactiae isolates collected from Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia and Indonesia were molecularly characterized by biased sinusoidal field gel electrophoresis (BSFGE using SmaI enzyme, and tuf gene sequencing analysis. DNA sequencing of ten S. dysgalactiae revealed no genetic variation in the tuf amplicons, except for three strains. The restriction patterns of chromosomal DNA measured by BSFGE were differentiated into six distinct types and one subtype among collected strains. To our knowledge, this report gives the first snapshot of S. dysgalactiae isolates collected from different countries that are localized geographically and differed on a multinational level. This genetic unrelatedness among different isolates might suggest a high recombination rate and low genetic stability.

  11. Recombinant production of Streptococcus equisimilis streptokinase by Streptomyces lividans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallín Carlos

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptokinase (SK is a potent plasminogen activator with widespread clinical use as a thrombolytic agent. It is naturally secreted by several strains of beta-haemolytic streptococci. The low yields obtained in SK production, lack of developed gene transfer methodology and the pathogenesis of its natural host have been the principal reasons to search for a recombinant source for this important therapeutic protein. We report here the expression and secretion of SK by the Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces lividans. The structural gene encoding SK was fused to the Streptomyces venezuelae CBS762.70 subtilisin inhibitor (vsi signal sequence or to the Streptomyces lividans xylanase C (xlnC signal sequence. The native Vsi protein is translocated via the Sec pathway while the native XlnC protein uses the twin-arginine translocation (Tat pathway. Results SK yield in the spent culture medium of S. lividans was higher when the Sec-dependent signal peptide mediates the SK translocation. Using a 1.5 L fermentor, the secretory production of the Vsi-SK fusion protein reached up to 15 mg SK/l. SK was partially purified from the culture supernatant by DEAE-Sephacel chromatography. A 44-kDa degradation product co-eluted with the 47-kDa mature SK. The first amino acid residues of the S. lividans-produced SK were identical with those of the expected N-terminal sequence. The Vsi signal peptide was thus correctly cleaved off and the N-terminus of mature Vsi-SK fusion protein released by S. lividans remained intact. This result also implicates that the processing of the recombinant SK secreted by Streptomyces probably occurred at its C-terminal end, as in its native host Streptococcus equisimilis. The specific activity of the partially purified Streptomyces-derived SK was determined at 2661 IU/mg protein. Conclusion Heterologous expression of Streptococcus equisimilis ATCC9542 skc-2 in Streptomyces lividans was successfully achieved. SK can be

  12. Thymus vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Pablo Ferrer-Gallego; Albert J. Navarro Peris; Emilio Laguna Lumbreras; Gonzalo Mateo Sanz

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN: Se describe una nueva subespecie de Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae); Th. vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov., caracterizada por presentar un hábito postrado, tallos estoloníferos, decumbentes y radicantes, hojas muy estrechas y una floración otoñal. ABSTRACT: Thymus vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. (Lamiaceae). A new subspecies of Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae); Th. vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. is described. This new subspecies is characterized by its prost...

  13. Chronic mastitis in cows caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cojkić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis in dairy cows is an economically important disease because it makes up 38% of all diseases that occur in intensive cattle breeding. Mastitis affects milk production, either temporarily or permanently, depending on the course of infection and type of pathogen agent. Regular and timely therapy of mastitis based on the application antimicrobials, apart from prophylaxis, is very important for good health of breeding stock. This paper presents the case of repeated mastitis in a cow, Holstein-Friesian breed, 5 years old, which did not respond to antibiotic therapy. Milk samples from each separate quarter of the udder were collected under aseptic conditions and sent to the laboratory for further bacteriological tests, for isolation and identification of pathogens, as well as to test pathogen resistance to some antibiotics. On the basis of bacteriological examinations, there was confirmed the presence of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, which showed sensitivity to ampicillin, cloxacillin and augmentin, intermediate resistance to tetracycline and resistance to kotrimeksazol.(cotrimoxazole-proveriti [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31085

  14. Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates at calving and lactation performance within the same lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whist, A C; Østerås, O; Sølverød, L

    2007-02-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the association between early lactation Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates and milk yield, somatic cell count (SCC), clinical mastitis, and culling in the same lactation. The 178 commercial dairy herds were randomly placed into 3 penicillin- or penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin-based dry-cow treatments and 3 different postmilking teat disinfection groups-negative control, iodine, or external teat sealant. All cows were sampled in early lactation, and Strep. dysgalactiae-positive and culture-negative cows were followed throughout the remainder of the lactation. Mixed models, including repeated measurements, with test-day observation as dependent variable, were used to compare milk yield, SCC, and available milk quality variables throughout the remaining lactation. Survival analyses, using a positive frailty model to account for any herd random effects, were used to estimate the hazard ratio for clinical mastitis and culling. Streptococcus dysgalactiae-positive cows had a significantly higher SCC throughout the lactation compared to culture-negative cows. For primiparous or multiparous cows, respectively, the differences in the geometric mean SCC between Strep. dysgalactiae-positive and culture-negative cows was 197,000 or 280,000 cells/mL at the beginning of the lactation, 24,000 or 46,000 cells/mL in mid lactation, and 39,000 or 111,000 cells/mL at the end of the lactation. Streptococcus dysgalactiae-positive primiparous or multiparous cows produced 334 or 246 kg less milk, respectively, during a 305-d lactation compared with culture-negative cows. Compared with culture-negative cows, the hazard ratios for clinical mastitis in Strep. dysgalactiae-positive cows were 2.3 (1.9 to 2.9) and 1.6 (1.3 to 2.0) for culling. For cows with both Strep. dysgalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus isolates, the hazard ratio for culling significantly increased to 2.5 (1.9 to 3.2).

  15. Production of mouse monoclonal antibody against Streptococcus dysgalactiae GapC protein and mapping its conserved B-cell epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Limeng; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Ziyao; Zhou, Xue; Yu, Liquan; Sun, Hunan; Wu, Zhijun; Yu, Yongzhong; Song, Baifen; Ma, Jinzhu; Tong, Chunyu; Zhu, Zhanbo; Cui, Yudong

    2015-02-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae (S. dysgalactiae) GapC protein is a protective antigen that induces partial immunity against S. dysgalactiae infection in animals. To identify the conserved B-cell epitope of S. dysgalactiae GapC, a mouse monoclonal antibody 1E11 (mAb1E11) against GapC was generated and used to screen a phage-displayed 12-mer random peptide library (Ph.D.-12). Eleven positive clones recognized by mAb1E11 were identified, most of which matched the consensus motif TGFFAKK. Sequence of the motif exactly matched amino acids 97-103 of the S. dysgalactiae GapC. In addition, the epitope (97)TGFFAKK(103) showed high homology among different streptococcus species. Site-directed mutagenic analysis further confirmed that residues G98, F99, F100 and K103 formed the core of (97)TGFFAKK(103), and this core motif was the minimal determinant of the B-cell epitope recognized by the mAb1E11. Collectively, the identification of conserved B-cell epitope within S. dysgalactiae GapC highlights the possibility of developing the epitope-based vaccine.

  16. Identification of a conserved B-cell epitope on the GapC protein of Streptococcus dysgalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Limeng; Zhou, Xue; Fan, Ziyao; Tang, Wei; Chen, Liang; Dai, Jian; Wei, Yuhua; Zhang, Jianxin; Yang, Xuan; Yang, Xijing; Liu, Daolong; Yu, Liquan; Zhang, Hua; Wu, Zhijun; Yu, Yongzhong; Sun, Hunan; Cui, Yudong

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae (S. dysgalactia) GapC is a highly conserved surface dehydrogenase among the streptococcus spp., which is responsible for inducing protective antibody immune responses in animals. However, the B-cell epitope of S. dysgalactia GapC have not been well characterized. In this study, a monoclonal antibody 1F2 (mAb1F2) against S. dysgalactiae GapC was generated by the hybridoma technique and used to screen a phage-displayed 12-mer random peptide library (Ph.D.-12) for mapping the linear B-cell epitope. The mAb1F2 recognized phages displaying peptides with the consensus motif TRINDLT. Amino acid sequence of the motif exactly matched (30)TRINDLT(36) of the S. dysgalactia GapC. Subsequently, site-directed mutagenic analysis further demonstrated that residues R31, I32, N33, D34 and L35 formed the core of (30)TRINDLT(36), and this core motif was the minimal determinant of the B-cell epitope recognized by the mAb1F2. The epitope (30)TRINDLT(36) showed high homology among different streptococcus species. Overall, our findings characterized a conserved B-cell epitope, which will be useful for the further study of epitope-based vaccines.

  17. Bovine S protein (vitronectin increases phagocytosis of Streptococcus dysgalactiae Aumento na fagocitose de Streptococcus dysgalactiae pela ação da proteína S bovina (vitronectina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Francisco Filippsen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of bovine S protein (vitronectin on phagocytosis of Streptococcus dysgalactiae strains isolated from cattle with mastitis were investigated. Phagocytized streptococci were determined by a fluorometric microassay using glass adherent polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN. Preincubation of S. dysgalactiae with bovine S protein significantly increased their phagocytosis by PMN. Bovine S protein had no effect on phagocytic killing of non-S protein binding S. pyogenes cultures. Enzymatic digestion of the bovine S protein binding sites on S. dysgalactiae with pronase resulted in a significative reduction of the effects of S protein on phagocytosis. It could thus be concluded that in addition to its role as a promoter of cellular adhesion and complement inhibitor, bovine S protein may also influence the phagocytosis of S. dysgalactiae during inflammatory processes.Foram investigados os efeitos da proteína S bovina (vitronectina na fagocitose de amostras de Streptococcus dysgalactiae isoladas de bovinos com mastite. A determinação do número de estreptococos fagocitados foi realizada pelo método fluorométrico utilizando neutrófilos polimorfonucleares (NPM aderidos em lâminas de vidro. A pré-incubação do S. dysgalactiae com a proteína S bovina aumentou significativamente a sua fagocitose por NPM. A proteína S bovina não causou efeito na fagocitose de culturas de S. pyogenes, já que não apresentam sítios de ligação para esta proteína. A digestão enzimática com pronase dos sítios de ligação S. dysgalactiae para a proteína S bovina resultou numa significativa redução do efeito da proteína S na fagocitose. Pode-se concluir que além do papel como promotor da adesão celular e inibidor do complemento, a proteína S bovina pode também influir na fagocitose do S. dysgalactiae durante os processos inflamatórios.

  18. in Streptococcus salivarius subsp. Thermophilus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-16

    Apr 16, 2007 ... from E. coli was introduced into S. salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis cells by .... Lysozyme E expressed by three recombinant bacteria (S. salivarius subsp. .... Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gene 66: ...

  19. Isolation, sequence and expression in Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Lactococcus lactis of the DNase (streptodornase)-encoding gene from Streptococcus equisimilis H46A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolinowska, Renata; Cegłowski, Piotr; Kok, Jan; Venema, Gerhardus

    1991-01-01

    A partial library of BclI-generated chromosomal DNA fragments from Streptococcus equisimilis H64A (Lancefield Group C) was constructed in Escherichia coli. Clones displaying either streptokinase or deoxyribonuclease (streptodornase; SDC) activities were isolated. The gene (sdc) expressing the SDC ac

  20. Transcriptome analysis of soiny mullet (Liza haematocheila) spleen in response to Streptococcus dysgalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhitao; Wu, Ping; Zhang, Qihuan; Wei, Youchuan; Wang, Zisheng; Qiu, Ming; Shao, Rong; Li, Yao; Gao, Qian

    2016-02-01

    Soiny mullet (Liza haematocheila) is becoming an economically important aquaculture mugilid species in China and other Asian countries. However, increasing incidences of bacterial pathogenic diseases has greatly hampered the production of the soiny mullet. Deeper understanding of the soiny mullet immune system and its related genes in response to bacterial infections are necessary for disease control in this species. In this study, the transcriptomic profile of spleen from soiny mullet challenged with Streptococcus dysgalactiae was analyzed by Illumina-based paired-end sequencing method. After assembly, 86,884 unique transcript fragments (unigenes) were assembled, with an average length of 991 bp. Approximately 41,795 (48.1%) unigenes were annotated in the nr NCBI database and 57.9% of the unigenes were similar to that of the Nile tilapia. A total of 24,299 unigenes were categorized into three Gene Ontology (GO) categories (molecular function, cellular component and biological process), 13,570 unigenes into 25 functional Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) categories, and 30,547 unigenes were grouped into 258 known pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Following S. dysgalactiae infection, 11,461 differentially expressed unigenes were identified including 4658 up-regulated unigenes and 6803 down-regulated unigenes. Significant enrichment analysis of these differentially expressed unigenes identified major immune related pathways, including the Toll-like receptor, complement and coagulation cascades, T cell receptor signaling pathway and B cell receptor signaling pathway. In addition, 24,813 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 127,503 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified from the mullet spleen transcriptome. To this date, this study has globally analyzed the transcriptome profile from the spleen of L. haematocheila after S. dysgalactiae infection. Therefore, the results of our study

  1. Development of primer sets for loop-mediated isothermal amplification that enables rapid and specific detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP) for identification and differentiation of these three ...

  2. Sequential necrotizing fasciitis caused by the monomicrobial pathogens Streptococcus equisimilis and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Akiko; Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Mizuno, Yasushi; Doi, Asako; Nishioka, Hiroaki

    2016-08-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressing bacterial infection of the superficial fascia and subcutaneous tissue that is associated with a high mortality rate and is caused by a single species of bacteria or polymicrobial organisms. Escherichia coli is rarely isolated from patients with monomicrobial disease. Further, there are few reports of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli associated with necrotizing fasciitis. We report here our treatment of an 85-year-old man who was admitted because of necrotizing fasciitis of his right thigh. Streptococcus equisimilis was detected as a monomicrobial pathogen, and the infection was cured by amputation of the patient's right leg and the administration of antibiotics. However, 5 days after discontinuing antibiotic therapy, he developed necrotizing fasciitis on his right upper limb and died. ESBL-producing E. coli was the only bacterial species isolated from blood and skin cultures. This case demonstrates that ESBL-producing E. coli can cause monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis, particularly during hospitalization and that a different bacterial species can cause disease shortly after a previous episode.

  3. Risk factors for isolation of Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus dysgalactiae from milk culture obtained approximately 6 days post calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterås, Olav; Whist, Anne Cathrine; Sølverød, Liv

    2008-02-01

    Milk culture results at approximately 6 d post calving were assessed in a 2-year retrospective single-cohort study in 178 Norwegian herds. A combined teat dipping and selective antibiotic therapy trial was performed in these herds where cows with composite milk somatic cell count (CMSCC) >100,000 cells/ml before drying-off (geometric mean of the last three CMSCC test-days) and isolation of Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus dysgalactiae were selected for either short-acting lactation antibiotic treatment or long-acting dry cow antibiotic treatment. Milk culture results at approximately 6 d post-calving were available from 437 treated cows and 3061 non-treated cows before drying-off and separate multivariable logistic regression models were ran for these two groups. Risk factors associated with isolation of Staph. aureus 6 d post calving for non-treated cows were CMSCC >400,000 cells/ml before drying-off v. 200,000 cells/ml before drying-off v. 50,000 cells/ml compared with teat disinfection (PMTD) did not influence the isolation of Staph. aureus 6 d post calvin, but it was less likely to isolate Str. dysgalactiae 6 d post calving if iodine PMTD was used regularly rather than irregularly. The external teat sealant had no effect on either of the two bacteria. This study indicates that the CMSCC limit for sampling cows before drying-off can be reduced to 50,000 cells/ml in herds with a Str. dysgalactiae problem. Iodine PMTD should also be recommended in these herds. Cows with a CMSCC > 400,000 cells/ml prior to drying-off should receive long-acting dry cow formula irrespective of the milk result.

  4. Udder infections with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis at calving in dairy herds with suboptimal udder health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Å; Nyman, A-K; Aspán, A; Börjesson, S; Unnerstad, H Ericsson; Waller, K Persson

    2016-03-01

    Udder infections with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis are common causes of bovine mastitis. To study these pathogens in early lactation, a 12-mo longitudinal, observational study was carried out in 13 herds with suboptimal udder health. The aims of the study were to investigate the occurrence of these pathogens and to identify if presence of the 3 pathogens, and of genotypes within the pathogens, differed with respect to herd, season, and parity. Quarter milk samples, collected at calving and 4 d in milk (DIM), were cultured for the 3 pathogens. Genotyping of staphylococcal and streptococcal isolates was performed using spa typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, respectively. For each of the 3 pathogens, cows with an udder infection at calving or 4 DIM were allocated to 1 of 4 infection types: cleared (pathogen present only at calving), persistent (pathogen present in the same quarter at calving and 4 DIM), new (pathogen present only at 4 DIM), or cleared/new (pathogen present in 1 quarter at calving and in another quarter at 4 DIM). Associations between season or parity and overall occurrence of pathogens or infection types were determined using univariable mixed-effect logistic-regression models and the Fisher's exact test, respectively. The most commonly occurring pathogen was Staph. aureus, followed by Strep. dysgalactiae and Strep. uberis. Persistent infections were the most common infection type among Staph. aureus-infected cows, whereas cleared infections were the most common among Strep. dysgalactiae- and Strep. uberis-positive cows. The proportion of cows with persistent Staph. aureus infections and the proportion of cows having a Strep. uberis infection at calving or 4 DIM were higher in the multiparous cows than in primiparous cows. Infections with Strep. dysgalactiae were less common during the early housing season than during the late housing or pasture seasons, whereas persistent Strep. uberis

  5. Optimization of flask culture medium and conditions for hyaluronic acid production by a streptococcus equisimilis mutant nc2168

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hao Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A mutant designated NC2168, which was selected from wild-type Streptococcus equisimilis CVCC55116by ultraviolet ray combined with60Co-γ ray treatment and does not produce streptolysin, was employed to produce hyaluronic acid (HA. In order to increase the output of HA in a flask, the culture medium and conditions for NC2168 were optimized in this study. The influence of culture medium ingredients including carbon sources, nitrogen sources and metal ions on HA production was evaluated using factional factorial design. The mathematical model, which represented the effect of each medium component and their interaction on the yield of HA, was established by the quadratic rotary combination design and response surface method. The model estimated that, a maximal yield of HA could be obtained when the concentrations of yeast extract, peptone, glucose, and MgSO4 were set at 3 g/100 mL, 2 g/100 mL, 0.5 g/100 mL and 0.15 g/100 mL, respectively. Compared with the values obtained by other runs in the experimental design, the optimized medium resulted in a remarkable increase in the output of HA and the maximum of the predicted HA production was 174.76 mg/L. The model developed was accurate and reliable for predicting the production of HA by NC2168.Cultivation conditions were optimized by an orthogonal experimental design and the optimal conditions were as follows: temperature 33ºC, pH 7.8, agitation speed 200 rpm, medium volume 20 mL.

  6. Increased cytotoxicity and streptolysin O activity in group G streptococcal strains causing invasive tissue infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siemens, Nikolai; Kittang, Bård R; Chakrakodi, Bhavya

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) has emerged as an important cause of severe skin and soft tissue infections, but little is known of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying tissue pathology. Patient samples and a collection of invasive and non-invasive group G SDSE strains (n = 6...... infiltration and pro-inflammatory markers. Our findings suggest the contribution of SLO to epithelial cytotoxicity and tissue pathology in SDSE tissue infections.......Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) has emerged as an important cause of severe skin and soft tissue infections, but little is known of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying tissue pathology. Patient samples and a collection of invasive and non-invasive group G SDSE strains (n = 69......) were analyzed with respect to virulence factor expression and cytotoxic or inflammatory effects on human cells and 3D skin tissue models. SDSE strains efficiently infected the 3D-skin model and severe tissue pathology, inflammatory responses and altered production of host structural framework proteins...

  7. Bacteria in milk from anterior and posterior mammary glands in sows affected and unaffected by postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PPDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerjets Imke

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The performance of piglet weight gain is strongly dependent on the sow's ability to meet the demand for adequate milk. Postparturient disorders, especially those subsumed under the term postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PPDS, can alter or reduce the milk production sensitively, resulting in starving piglets. The aim of this study was to gather further information about the prevalence of different bacterial species in the anterior and posterior mammary glands of sows with respect to the clinical appearance of PPDS. Methods In this study, the health status of 56 sows after farrowing was determined with special regard to mastitis and dysgalactia. Pooled milk samples from anterior and posterior glands were taken from both affected and non-affected animals and analysed bacteriologically for the presence of a wide spectrum of different pathogens. Results Mainly Escherichia coli, staphylococci and streptococci were detected in high percentages but without significant differences in healthy and diseased animals and anterior and posterior glands. However, the large percentages of coliform bacteria suggested a transmission route via faecal contamination. Conclusion In this study, the prevalence of different bacteria in anterior and posterior glands in PPDS positive and negative sows was analysed. No significant differences in bacteria of healthy and diseased sows were assessed. Therefore, the development of clinical PPDS and actual infection seems to be largely dependant on individual resistance in single sows.

  8. Bioclimatic characteristic of oak species Quercus macranthera subsp. syspirensis and Quercus petraea subsp. pinnatiloba in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargioglu, Mustafa; Serteser, Ahmet; Senkul, Cetin; Konuk, Muhsin

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine some bioclimatic characteristics such as humidity category (Q2), winter variant (m), the length of the dry season (LDS) and the dry season water deficit (DSWD) of naturally growing two endemic oak taxa, Quercus macranthera subsp. syspirensis and Q. petraea subsp. pinnatiloba, living in Turkey. Our findings showed that bioclimatic tolerance range of Q. macranthera subsp. syspirensis possess 7 different types of Mediterranean bioclimate while Q. petraea subsp. pinnatiloba had 8 of them. Although Q. macranthera subsp. syspirensis was ranging among the semiarid, freezing and very cold, Q. petraea subsp. pinnatiloba was among sub-humid, freezing and very cold ambient. It was briefly established that Q. macranthera subsp. syspirensis prefers semi-arid and very cold/freezing conditions and Q. petraea subsp. pinnatiloba prefers sub-humid and cold/very cold climatic conditions.

  9. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. phaseoli subsp. nov., pathogenic in bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ana J; Trapiello, Estefanía

    2014-05-01

    A yellow Gram-reaction-positive bacterium isolated from bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was identified as Clavibacter michiganensis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Molecular methods were employed in order to identify the subspecies. Such methods included the amplification of specific sequences by PCR, 16S amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), RFLP and multilocus sequence analysis as well as the analysis of biochemical and phenotypic traits including API 50CH and API ZYM results. The results showed that strain LPPA 982T did not represent any known subspecies of C. michiganensis. Pathogenicity tests revealed that the strain is a bean pathogen causing a newly identified bacterial disease that we name bacterial bean leaf yellowing. On the basis of these results, strain LPPA 982T is regarded as representing a novel subspecies for which the name Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. phaseoli subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LPPA 982T (=CECT 8144T=LMG 27667T).

  10. Brote de mastitis clínica por Corynebacterium spp. y Streptococcus dysgalactiae en cabras en Salta, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheloud, J. F.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones mamarias son un problema grave para la producción lechera en cabras a nivel mundial. Staphylococcus spp. es el patógeno más prevalente en las infecciones intramamarias de los pequeños rumiantes, sin embargo, es escasa la información acerca de mastitis caprinas en LA Argentina. El objetivo de esta comunicación es describir un brote de mastitis clínica que afectó a 12 de 24 cabras lecheras. Corynebacterium spp. y Streptococus dysgalactiae fueron aislados en forma pura de las muestras de leche. Todos los aislamientos fueron identificados bioquímicamente y sometidos a prueba de sensibilidad antibiótica.

  11. Whole-Genome Sequence Analysis of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae Isolates from Canadian Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Reyes Vélez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to determine the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR genes using whole-genome sequence (WGS of Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (S. dysgalactiae isolates, recovered from dairy cows in the Canadian Maritime Provinces. A secondary objective included the exploration of the association between phenotypic AMR and the genomic characteristics (genome size, guanine–cytosine content, and occurrence of unique gene sequences. Initially, 91 isolates were sequenced, and of these isolates, 89 were assembled. Furthermore, 16 isolates were excluded due to larger than expected genomic sizes (>2.3 bp × 1,000 bp. In the final analysis, 73 were used with complete WGS and minimum inhibitory concentration records, which were part of the previous phenotypic AMR study, representing 18 dairy herds from the Maritime region of Canada (1. A total of 23 unique AMR gene sequences were found in the bacterial genomes, with a mean number of 8.1 (minimum: 5; maximum: 13 per genome. Overall, there were 10 AMR genes [ANT(6, TEM-127, TEM-163, TEM-89, TEM-95, Linb, Lnub, Ermb, Ermc, and TetS] present only in S. uberis genomes and 2 genes unique (EF-TU and TEM-71 to the S. dysgalactiae genomes; 11 AMR genes [APH(3′, TEM-1, TEM-136, TEM-157, TEM-47, TetM, bl2b, gyrA, parE, phoP, and rpoB] were found in both bacterial species. Two-way tabulations showed association between the phenotypic susceptibility to lincosamides and the presence of linB (P = 0.002 and lnuB (P < 0.001 genes and the between the presence of tetM (P = 0.015 and tetS (P = 0.064 genes and phenotypic resistance to tetracyclines only for the S. uberis isolates. The logistic model showed that the odds of resistance (to any of the phenotypically tested antimicrobials was 4.35 times higher when there were >11 AMR genes present in the genome, compared with <7 AMR genes (P < 0.001. The odds of resistance was lower for S

  12. Development of Primer Sets for Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification that Enables Rapid and Specific Detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deguo Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP for identification and differentiation of these three pathogens are not available. With the 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as targets, four sets of LAMP primers were designed for identification and differentiation of S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis and S. agalactiae. The detection limit of all four LAMP primer sets were 0.1 pg DNA template per reaction, the LAMP method with 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as the targets can differentiate the three pathogens, which is potentially useful in epidemiological studies.

  13. Development of Primer Sets for Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification that Enables Rapid and Specific Detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deguo; Liu, Yanhong

    2015-05-26

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP) for identification and differentiation of these three pathogens are not available. With the 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as targets, four sets of LAMP primers were designed for identification and differentiation of S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis and S. agalactiae. The detection limit of all four LAMP primer sets were 0.1 pg DNA template per reaction, the LAMP method with 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as the targets can differentiate the three pathogens, which is potentially useful in epidemiological studies.

  14. Identification and characterization of CD4⁺ T-cell epitopes on GapC protein of Streptococcus dysgalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Di; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xintong; Yu, Simiao; Wei, Yuhua; Liu, Wei; Wang, Jiannan; Chen, Xiaoting; Zhang, Zhenghai; Sun, Hunan; Yu, Liquan; Ma, Jinzhu; Tong, Chunyu; Song, Baifen; Cui, Yudong

    2016-02-01

    The GapC protein is highly conserved surface dehydrogenase among Streptococcus dysgalactiae (S. dysgalactiae) and is shown to be involved in bacterial virulence. Immunization of GapC protein can induce specific CD4(+) T-cell immune responses and protect against S. dysgalactiae infection. However, there are no studies to identify immunodominant CD4(+) T-cell epitopes on GapC protein. In this study, in silico MHC affinity measurement method was firstly used to predict potential CD4(+) T-cell epitopes on GapC protein. Six predictive 15-mer peptides were synthesized and two novel GapC CD4(+) T-cell epitopes, GapC63-77 and GapC96-110, were for the first time identified using CD4(+) T-cells obtained from GapC-immunized BALB/c (H-2(d)) and C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) mice spleen based on cell proliferation and cytokines response. The results showed that peptides containing 63-77 and 96-110 induced significant antigen-specific CD4(+) T-cells proliferation response in vivo. At the same time, high levels of IFN-γ and IL-17A, as well as moderate levels of IL-10 and IL-4 were detected in CD4(+) T-cells isolated from both GapC and peptide-immunized mice in vivo, suggesting that GapC63-77 and GapC96-110 preferentially elicited polarized Th1/Th17-type responses. The characterization of GapC CD4(+) T-cell epitopes not only helps us understand its protective immunity, but also contributes to design effective T-cell epitope-based vaccine against S. dysgalactiae infection.

  15. The molecular epidemiological characteristics of streptococci isolated from primary school children in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Nosik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The goal of the study was to isolate group A, С, and G streptococci from children and characterize them by the methods of molecular epidemiology.Materials and methods. Group A, С, and G streptococci were isolated from tonsils and back wall of pharynx of Vietnamese children during 2012–2014. сpn60 gene based PCR approach and rnpB gene sequencing were used to identify streptococcal species belonging to group С and G streptococci. The presence of scpA, lmb, nga, slo virulence genes was analyzed in S. anginosus and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strainS. emm-typing of S. pyogenes was done as published (http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/biotech/strep/MProteinGene_typing.htm. Antibiotic resistance of the strains was tested by the disk diffusion method.Results. A total of 1359 children were examined. Group A streptococci (S. pyogenes were isolated from 49 children, group C streptococci – from 8 children (4 stains – S. anginosus, 1 strain – S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, 1 strain – S. parasanguinis, 1 strain – S. gordonii, 1 strain – S. constellatus, and group G streptococci – from 75 children (55 stains – S. anginosus, 8 stains – S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, 4 stains – S. sanguinis, 3 stains – S. parasanguinis, 2 stains – S. australis, 2 stains – S. constellatus, 1 stain – S. mitis. emm-typing of 47 S. pyogenes strains revealed 15 different emm-subtypes belonging to 11 different emm-typeS. The subtypes emm104.0 and emm109.1 were found to be predominant. S. anginosus strains under study were genetically heterogeneous for the presence of virulence genes. All tested strains were susceptible to cephalosporins and vancomycin, and resistant to amikacine. A total of 70% and 52,5% of S. pyogenes were resistant to tetracycline and erythromycin, respectively.

  16. A genome-wide association study to detect genetic variation for postpartum dysgalactia syndrome in five commercial pig breeding lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preissler, Regine; Tetens, Jens; Reiners, Kerstin; Looft, Holger; Kemper, Nicole

    2013-08-01

    Postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PDS) in sows is an important disease after parturition with a relevant economic impact, affecting the health and welfare of both sows and piglets. The genetic background of this disease has been discussed and its heritability estimated, but further genetic analyses are lacking in detail. The aim of the current study was to detect loci affecting the susceptibility to PDS through a genome-wide association approach. The study was designed as a family-based association study with matched sampling of affected sows and healthy half- or full-sib control sows on six farms. For the study, 597 sows (322 affected vs. 275 healthy control sows) were genotyped on 62 163 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. After quality control, 585 sows (314 affected vs. 271 healthy control sows) and 49 740 SNPs remained for further analysis. Statistics were performed mainly with the r package genabel and included a principal component analysis. A statistically significant genome-wide associated SNP was identified on porcine chromosome (SSC) 17. Further promising results with moderate significance were detected on SSC 13 and on an unplaced scaffold with an older annotation on SSC 15. The PRICKLE2 and NRP2 genes were identified as candidate genes near associated SNPs. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been previously described in these genomic regions, including QTL for mammary gland condition, as teat number and non-functional nipples QTL, as well as QTL for body temperature and gestation length.

  17. Endocarditis-associated Brain Lesions in Slaughter Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstrup, C.C.; Jensen, H.E.; Aalbæk, B.

    2011-01-01

    Left-sided valvular endocarditis (LSVE) is a common finding in slaughter pigs. The lesion is often associated with renal thromboembolism, but information on embolization to other organs is sparse. This study focuses on the presence and type of endocarditis-associated brain lesions (EABLs......-situ hybridization examinations. These examinations identified 11 cases of Streptococcus suis, six cases of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, one Streptococcus spp. and two cases that remained aetiologically undetermined. One of the S. suis cases had a dual infection with S. suis in the aortic valve lesions...... and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in the atrioventricular valve lesions. Renal infarcts were present in eight cases. Focal encephalitis was found in 12 cases, with the number of lesions ranging from one to 11. Most pigs had less than four microscopical lesions. Acute lesions were characterized...

  18. Staphylococcus petrasii subsp. pragensis subsp. nov., occurring in human clinical material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švec, Pavel; De Bel, Annelies; Sedláček, Ivo; Petráš, Petr; Gelbíčová, Tereza; Černohlávková, Jitka; Mašlanˇová, Ivana; Cnockaert, Margo; Varbanovová, Ivana; Echahidi, Fedoua; Vandamme, Peter; Pantuček, Roman

    2015-07-01

    Seven coagulase-negative, oxidase-negative and novobiocin-susceptible staphylococci assigned tentatively as Staphylococcus petrasii were investigated in this study in order to elucidate their taxonomic position. All strains were initially shown to form a genetically homogeneous group separated from remaining species of the genus Staphylococcus by using a repetitive sequence-based PCR fingerprinting with the (GTG)5 primer. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene, hsp60, rpoB, dnaJ, gap and tuf sequences showed that the group is closely related to Staphylococcus petrasii but separated from the three hitherto known subspecies, S. petrasii subsp. petrasii, S. petrasii subsp. croceilyticus and S. petrasii subsp. jettensis. Further investigation using automated ribotyping, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, fatty acid methyl ester analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization and extensive biotyping confirmed that the analysed group represents a novel subspecies within S. petrasii, for which the name Staphylococcus petrasii subsp. pragensis subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NRL/St 12/356(T) ( = CCM 8529(T) = LMG 28327(T)).

  19. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology of streptococci from bovine mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rato, Márcia G.; Bexiga, Ricardo; Florindo, Carlos;

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (Group C Streptococcus, GCS) and Streptococcus uberis are relevant mastitis pathogens, a highly prevalent and costly disease in dairy industry due to antibiotherapy and loss in milk production. T...

  20. Iridoid Glucosides from Lamium garganicum subsp. laevigatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayfun, Ersöz; Kaya, Duygu; Yalcin, Funda Nuray;

    2007-01-01

    Phytochemical investigations on the above ground parts of Lamium garganicum subsp. laevigatum resulted in the isolation of seven iridoid glucosides, shanzhiside methyl ester (1), barlerin (8-O-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester; 2), 6-O-syringyl-8-O-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester (3), 6β-hydroxyipola......-hydroxyipolamiide (4), lamalbide (5), dehydropenstemoside (6), and sesamoside (7). The structure of the iridoids was elucidated by spectroscopic (UV, IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR, and ESI-MS) evidence....

  1. Campylobacter pinnipediorum sp. nov., isolated from pinnipeds, comprising Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. pinnipediorum subsp. nov. and Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. caledonicus subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Leger, Judy St; Chapman, Mary H; Timmerman, Arjen J; Duim, Birgitta; Foster, Geoffrey; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2017-06-01

    During independent diagnostic screenings of otariid seals in California (USA) and phocid seals in Scotland (UK), Campylobacter-like isolates, which differed from the established taxa of the genus Campylobacter, were cultured from abscesses and internal organs of different seal species. A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of these six isolates. The isolates were characterized by 16S rRNA gene and AtpA sequence analysis and by conventional phenotypic testing. The whole-genome sequences were determined for all isolates, and the average nucleotide identity (ANI) was determined. The isolates formed a separate phylogenetic clade, divergent from all other taxa of the genus Campylobacter and most closely related to Campylobactermucosalis. Although all isolates showed 100 % 16S rRNA gene sequence homology, AtpA and ANI analyses indicated divergence between the otariid isolates from California and the phocid isolates from Scotland, which warrants subspecies status for each clade. The two subspecies could also be distinguished phenotypically on the basis of catalase activity. This study shows clearly that the isolates obtained from pinnipeds represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter pinnipediorum sp. nov. is proposed. Within this novel species, the Californian isolates represent a separate subspecies, for which the name C. pinnipediorum subsp. pinnipediorum subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain for both this novel species and subspecies is RM17260T (=LMG 29472T=CCUG 69570T). The Scottish isolates represent another subspecies, for which the name C. pinnipediorum subsp. caledonicus subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of this subspecies is M302/10/6T (=LMG 29473T=CCUG 68650T).

  2. Meconopsis wilsonii subsp.wilsonii (Papaveraceae) Rediscovered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshio YOSHIDA; Hang SUN; David E. BOUFFORD

    2007-01-01

    Field studies in the Lamagetou Nature Reserve, Mianning Xian, Sichuan Province, in the summer of 2005 revealed a particularly rich and diverse flora. One particularly noteworthy plant growing in openings in the forest, at woodland margins and on exposed slopes, was the recently described Meconopsis wilsonii Grey-Wilson subsp.wilsonii (Papaveraceae), a species previously known only from the type collection and last collected in 1908, nearly 100 years ago.

  3. Complete genome sequences of Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis strain LMG9260 and Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii strain LMG15993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter hyointestinalis is isolated primarily from ruminants and swine, but is also occasionally isolated from humans. C. hyointestinalis is currently divided into two subspecies: subsps. hyointestinalis and lawsonii. This study describes the first closed whole-genome sequences of the subsp. h...

  4. Flavonoids from Aconitum napellus subsp. neomontanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fico, G; Braca, A; De Tommasi, N; Tomè, F; Morelli, I

    2001-06-01

    Three flavonol glycosides quercetin 7-O-(6-trans-caffeoyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-rhamnopyranoside-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (1), kaempferol 7-O-(6-trans-caffeoyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-rhamnopyranoside-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (2), and kaempferol 7-O-(6-trans-p-coumaroyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-rhamnopyranoside-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (3), together with the known beta-3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl beta-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the flowers of Aconitum napellus subsp. neomontanum. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR spectral techniques.

  5. Use of PCR-based methods for rapid differentiation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torriani, S; Zapparoli, G; Dellaglio, F

    1999-10-01

    Two PCR-based methods, specific PCR and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR), were used for rapid and reliable differentiation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis. PCR with a single combination of primers which targeted the proline iminopeptidase (pepIP) gene of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus allowed amplification of genomic fragments specific for the two subspecies when either DNA from a single colony or cells extracted from dairy products were used. A numerical analysis of the RAPD-PCR patterns obtained with primer M13 gave results that were consistent with the results of specific PCR for all strains except L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii LMG 6412(T), which clustered with L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis strains. In addition, RAPD-PCR performed with primer 1254 provided highly polymorphic profiles and thus was superior for distinguishing individual L. delbrueckii strains.

  6. Genome sequencing identifies Listeria fleischmannii subsp. coloradonensis subsp. nov., isolated from a ranch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Bakker, Henk C; Manuel, Clyde S; Fortes, Esther D; Wiedmann, Martin; Nightingale, Kendra K

    2013-09-01

    Twenty Listeria-like isolates were obtained from environmental samples collected on a cattle ranch in northern Colorado; all of these isolates were found to share an identical partial sigB sequence, suggesting close relatedness. The isolates were similar to members of the genus Listeria in that they were Gram-stain-positive, short rods, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive; the isolates were similar to Listeria fleischmannii because they were non-motile at 25 °C. 16S rRNA gene sequencing for representative isolates and whole genome sequencing for one isolate was performed. The genome of the type strain of Listeria fleischmannii (strain LU2006-1(T)) was also sequenced. The draft genomes were very similar in size and the average MUMmer nucleotide identity across 91% of the genomes was 95.16%. Genome sequence data were used to design primers for a six-gene multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme. Phylogenies based on (i) the near-complete 16S rRNA gene, (ii) 31 core genes and (iii) six housekeeping genes illustrated the close relationship of these Listeria-like isolates to Listeria fleischmannii LU2006-1(T). Sufficient genetic divergence of the Listeria-like isolates from the type strain of Listeria fleischmannii and differing phenotypic characteristics warrant these isolates to be classified as members of a distinct infraspecific taxon, for which the name Listeria fleischmannii subsp. coloradonensis subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TTU M1-001(T) ( =BAA-2414(T) =DSM 25391(T)). The isolates of Listeria fleischmannii subsp. coloradonensis subsp. nov. differ from the nominate subspecies by the inability to utilize melezitose, turanose and sucrose, and the ability to utilize inositol. The results also demonstrate the utility of whole genome sequencing to facilitate identification of novel taxa within a well-described genus. The genomes of both subspecies of Listeria fleischmannii contained putative enhancin genes; the Listeria fleischmannii subsp

  7. Genetic Diversity of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis Isolated in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hwan Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant pathogenic bacterial genus Pectobacteirum consists of heterogeneous strains. The P. carotovorum species is a complex strain showing divergent characteristics, and a new subspecies named P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis has been identified recently. In this paper, we re-identified the P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates from those classified under the subspecies carotovorum and newly isolated P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis strains. All isolates were able to produce plant cell-wall degrading enzymes such as pectate lyase, polygalacturonase, cellulase and protease. We used genetic and biochemical methods to examine the diversity of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates, and found genetic diversity within the brasiliensis subsp. isolates in Korea. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis based on the recA gene revealed a unique pattern for the brasiliensis subspecies. The Korean brasiliensis subsp. isolates were divided into four clades based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, correlations between clades and isolated hosts or year could not be found, suggesting that diverse brasiliensis subsp. isolates existed.

  8. Antioxidant activity of supercritical extract of Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis and Melissa officinalis subsp. inodora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marongiu, Bruno; Porcedda, Silvia; Piras, Alessandra; Rosa, Antonella; Deiana, Monica; Dessì, Maria Assunta

    2004-10-01

    The antioxidant activity of Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis and of Melissa officinalis subsp. inodora extracts, obtained by using carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions was investigated. The samples were prepared in two steps. A preliminary extraction at 90 bar and 50 degrees C eliminated the essential oil, then a further extraction at 300 bar and 50 degrees C obtained the high molecular mass extract. These samples were tested for autoxidation and the iron or EDTA-mediated oxidation of linoleic acid at 37 degrees C in the absence of solvent, in in vitro systems. During linoleic acid autoxidation and its EDTA-mediated oxidation both M. officinalis and M. inodora extracts showed an antioxidant activity, and no significant differences in their efficacy were observed. None showed any prooxidant activity. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Onderzoeksverslag 'Distributie van Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in tomatenplanten'

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, de, E.A.; Zouwen, van der, Tonnie; Ludeking, D.J.W.; Hamelink, R.; Schenk, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Van 2009 tot 2011 werden kasproeven uitgevoerd om de kolonisatie van tomatenplanten met Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) vanuit besmet zaad en de secundaire verspreiding van Cmm in een gewas te bestuderen.

  10. Surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, the potential for improvements in surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) infection and paratuberculosis in dairy herds was investigated, leading to a reduction in surveillance costs whilst continuing to meet specific quality targets. In particular, differen

  11. The effects of aqueous root extract of Senna italica subsp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... ISSN 1684–5315 © 2010 Academic Journals. Full Length Research Paper. The effects of aqueous root extract of Senna italica subsp. arachoides on the feeding performance of ... which the nutritional value of grass is poor.

  12. Susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolado de bovinos Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolated from cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agueda C. Vargas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A campilobacteriose venérea bovina, ocasionada principalmente pelo Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus e Campylobacter subsp. venerealis, é transmitida através do coito ou por inseminação com sêmen contaminado. O propósito deste estudo foi determinar a susceptibilidade in vitro de isolados de C. fetus subesp. venerealis a agentes antimicrobianos comumente utilizados para o tratamento clínico e de sêmen. Foram testadas duas cepas padrão, sendo uma de C. fetus subsp. fetus e outra de C. fetus subsp. venerealis, bem como 21 amostras de isolados clínicos de C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Os testes foram realizados conforme o método de Kirby-Bauer. A amostra padrão de C. fetus subsp. fetus demonstrou-se resistente à lincomicina, penicilina e ácido nalidíxico, enquanto a de C. fetus subsp. venerealis apresentou susceptibilidade a todos antimicrobianos testados, com exceção do ácido nalidíxico. Todas as amostras de C. fetus subsp. venerealis foram susceptíveis à amicacina, ampicilina, cefalotina, estreptomicina, gentamicina, penicilina e tetraciclina. Foi observada resistência de 42,86% à lincomicina e 4,76 % a enrofloxacina, e de 100% ao ácido nalidíxico. Ainda, 4,76% apresentaram susceptibilidade intermediária à enrofloxacina, neomicina e polimixina B e 9,52% à lincomicina. Os resultados evidenciaram a sensibilidade das amostras analisadas aos antimicrobianos comumente utilizados para o tratamento clínico e do sêmen.Venereal campylobacteriosis is associated with infection of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis. The etiological agent is transmitted by natural bull breeding or artificial insemination using contaminated semen. The present study aimed to determine the in vitro susceptibility of C. fetus subsp. venerealis isolates to antimicrobial drugs generally used in clinical and semen treatment. Reference strains of C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis and 21 C. fetus

  13. Electrotransformation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis with various plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serror, Pascale; Sasaki, Takashi; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Maguin, Emmanuelle

    2002-01-01

    We describe, for the first time, a detailed electroporation procedure for Lactobacillus delbrueckii. Three L. delbrueckii strains were successfully transformed. Under optimal conditions, the transformation efficiency was 10(4) transformants per microg of DNA. Using this procedure, we identified several plasmids able to replicate in L. delbrueckii and integrated an integrative vector based on phage integrative elements into the L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus chromosome. These vectors provide a good basis for developing molecular tools for L. delbrueckii and open the field of genetic studies in L. delbrueckii.

  14. CLONING AND PROKARYOTIC EXPRESSION OF MIG GENE SEQUENCE OF S.dysgalactiae FROM STRAIN INNER MONGOLIA%停乳链球菌内蒙分离株抗原基因MIG的克隆和表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金晔; 白龙; 郝永清; 张爱荣

    2011-01-01

    S. Dysgalactiae is the major pathogens of mastitis in dairy cows, S. Dysgalactiae were derived from the mastitis Bovine in some areas of Inner Mongolia. A pair of primers was designed according to 5. Dysgalactiae MIG surface protein gene sequences in Gen-Bank. Subsequently,the MIG gene of 1900 bp was amplified by PCR. Then ,the gene was cloned into PMD - 19T vector, and identified by digestion with restriction endonucleases ,PCR and sequencing. The DNA sequence analysis confirmed S. Dysgalactiae in GenBank, MIG gene (AF354651) sequence homology of 95%. A porkaryotic expression pET-32a( + ) -MIG was constructed .The recombi-nant plasmid was transformed into BL21 (DH5 a)/pET system for expression . The recombinant protein was analyzed by SDS - PAGE , it had an approximate molecular mass of 89 ku. With the purified protein immune rabbits , anti - MIG antibodies were measured by EL1SA . With the antiserum prepared with whole bacteria Streptococcus slide agglutination test, agglutination particles appeared. The results show that the MIG fusion protein with strong immunogenicity for vaccine dysgalactiae basis.%停乳链球菌是引起奶牛乳房炎的主要病原菌,根据GenBank中登陆的停乳链球菌表面蛋白MIG基因序列,设计一对引物,采用PCR的方法从临床分离的停乳链球菌内蒙分离株基因组DNA中扩增出MIG基因,得到1条1 900bp的片段.将其连入PMD - 19T载体中,经酶切,PCR及序列测定法进行鉴定.结果表明,MIG基因与GenBank中停乳链球菌MIG基因(AF354651)序列的同源性为95%.构建原核表达载体PET - 32a(+)- MIG,随后转化到大肠杆菌BL21( DH5a)中表达.表达产物进行SDS-PAGE分析后,表达的重组蛋白大小为89 ku.将纯化的MIG重组蛋白免疫兔,用ELISA检测其血清抗体.用制备出的抗血清与链球菌全菌进行玻片凝集试验,出现凝集颗粒.结果表明MIG重组蛋白具有较强的免疫原性,为停乳链球菌疫苗的研制奠定基础.

  15. Molecular characterization of virulence genes of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in equines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, R.; Taku, A. K.; Gangil, Rakhi; Sharma, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to determine the occurrence of streptococci in equines in Jammu (R. S. Pura, Katra), characterization of Streptococci equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus with respect to their virulence traits and to determine antibiotic sensitivity pattern of virulent Streptococcus isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 samples were collected from both clinically affected animals (exhibiting signs of respiratory tract disease) and apparently healthy animals and were sent to laboratory. The organisms were isolated on Columbia nalidixic acid agar containing 5% sheep blood as well as on sheep blood agar and confirmed by cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. Molecular detection of Streptococcus was done directly from cultures using sodA and seM gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibiogram was performed against five antibiotics such as amoxicillin, penicillin G, streptomycin, rifampicin, and methicillin. Results: During this study, a total 40 streptococcal isolates were obtained out of which 2 isolates were of S. equi subsp. equi, 12 isolates were from S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. In the PCR-based detection, we revealed amplicons of 235 bp and 679 bp for confirmation of sodA and seM gene, respectively. In antibiogram, two isolates of S. equi subsp. equi were found resistant to penicillin G, and all other isolates were found sensitive to amoxicillin and streptomycin. Conclusion: The majority of streptococcal infections was due to S. equi subsp. Zooepidemicus, and thus was recognized as a potential pathogen of diseases of equines besides S. equi subsp. equi. PMID:27651677

  16. Molecular characterization of virulence genes of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in equines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Javed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine the occurrence of streptococci in equines in Jammu (R. S. Pura, Katra, characterization of Streptococci equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus with respect to their virulence traits and to determine antibiotic sensitivity pattern of virulent Streptococcus isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 samples were collected from both clinically affected animals (exhibiting signs of respiratory tract disease and apparently healthy animals and were sent to laboratory. The organisms were isolated on Columbia nalidixic acid agar containing 5% sheep blood as well as on sheep blood agar and confirmed by cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. Molecular detection of Streptococcus was done directly from cultures using sodA and seM gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Antibiogram was performed against five antibiotics such as amoxicillin, penicillin G, streptomycin, rifampicin, and methicillin. Results: During this study, a total 40 streptococcal isolates were obtained out of which 2 isolates were of S. equi subsp. equi, 12 isolates were from S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. In the PCR-based detection, we revealed amplicons of 235 bp and 679 bp for confirmation of sodA and seM gene, respectively. In antibiogram, two isolates of S. equi subsp. equi were found resistant to penicillin G, and all other isolates were found sensitive to amoxicillin and streptomycin. Conclusion: The majority of streptococcal infections was due to S. equi subsp. Zooepidemicus, and thus was recognized as a potential pathogen of diseases of equines besides S. equi subsp. equi.

  17. Biofilm formation of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Esteban; Halliday-Wimmonds, Iona; Francis , Stewart; Kearney, Michael T; Hansen, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) is an emergent fish pathogen in both marine and fresh water environments. The bacterium is suspected to persist in the environment even without the presence of a suitable fish host. In the present study, the influence of different abiotic factors such as salinity and temperature were used to study the biofilm formation of different isolates of Fno including intracellular growth loci C (iglC)and pathogenicity determinant protein A (pdpA) knockout strains. Finally, we compared the susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm to three disinfectants used in the aquaculture and ornamental fish industry, namely Virkon®, bleach and hydrogen peroxide. The data indicates that Fno is capable of producing biofilms within 24 h where both salinity as well as temperature plays a role in the growth and biofilm formation of Fno. Mutations in theiglC or pdpA, both known virulence factors, do not appear to affect the capacity of Fno to produce biofilms, and the minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum biocidal concentration for the three disinfectants were lower than the minimum biofilm eradication concentration values. This information needs to be taken into account if trying to eradicate the pathogen from aquaculture facilities or aquariums.

  18. Potential Transmission Pathways of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessika Dumke

    Full Text Available Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, a member of group D streptococci, is an inhabitant of the animal and human gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, it is a facultative pathogen which causes e.g. endocarditis, septicemia and mastitis. S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus may be transmitted either directly or indirectly between animals and humans. However, the transmission routes are an unsolved issue. In this study, we present systematic analyses of an S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolate of an infective endocarditis patient in relation to isolates of his laying hen flock. Isolates from pooled droppings of laying hens, pooled dust samples and human blood culture were characterized by using multilocus sequence typing (MLST and DNA fingerprinting. MLST revealed the same allelic profile of isolates from the human blood culture and from the droppings of laying hens. In addition, these isolates showed clonal identity regarding a similar DNA fingerprinting pattern. For the first time, we received a hint that transmission of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus between poultry and humans may occur. This raises the question about the zoonotic potential of isolates from poultry and should be considered in future studies.

  19. Novel Campylobacter lari-like bacteria from humans and molluscs: description of Campylobacter peloridis sp. nov., Campylobacter lari subsp. concheus subsp. nov. and Campylobacter lari subsp. lari subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debruyne, Lies; On, Stephen L W; De Brandt, Evie; Vandamme, Peter

    2009-05-01

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to clarify the taxonomic position of Campylobacter lari-like strains isolated from shellfish and humans. The diversity within the strain collection was initially screened by means of fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and whole-cell protein electrophoresis, revealing the existence of two clusters distinct from C. lari and other Campylobacter species. The divergence of these clusters was confirmed by phenotypic analysis and by 16S rRNA and hsp60 gene sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis identified C. lari, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter insulaenigrae as the closest phylogenetic neighbours of both taxa. DNA-DNA hybridizations revealed that one cluster, comprising 10 strains, represented a novel Campylobacter species, for which the name Campylobacter peloridis sp. nov. is proposed, with 2314BVA(T) (=LMG 23910(T) =CCUG 55787(T)) as the type strain. The second cluster, comprising six strains, represents a novel subspecies within the species C. lari, for which the name Campylobacter lari subsp. concheus subsp. nov. is proposed, with 2897R(T) (=LMG 21009(T) =CCUG 55786(T)) as the type strain. The description of C. lari subsp. concheus has the effect of automatically creating the subspecies Campylobacter lari subsp. lari subsp. nov. (type strain LMG 8846(T)=NCTC 11352(T)).

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme Bovine Liver Abscess Isolate B35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Stewart, George C

    2014-05-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that causes foot rot and liver abscesses in cattle. F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and the less virulent organism F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme are recognized. We present here a draft genome sequence of the bovine liver abscess isolate F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme strain B35, which affords a genomic perspective of virulence and bovine adaptation.

  1. Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis subsp. asaccharedens subsp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring in Batman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul-Guven, Reyhan; Guven, Kemal; Poli, Annarita; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2008-12-01

    A new thermophilic spore-forming strain KG8(T) was isolated from the mud of Taslidere hot spring in Batman. Strain KG8(T) was aerobe, Gram-positive, rod-shaped, motile, occurring in pairs or filamentous. Growth was observed from 35-65 degrees C (optimum 55 degrees C) and at pH 5.5-9.5 (optimum pH 7.5). It was capable of utilizing starch, growth was observed until 3% NaCl (w/v) and it was positive for nitrate reduction. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain KG8(T) was shown to be related most closely to Anoxybacillus species. Chemotaxonomic data (major isoprenoid quinone-menaquinone-7; major fatty acid-iso-C15:0 and iso-C17:0) supported the affiliation of strain KG8(T) to the genus Anoxybacillus. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain KG8(T). Based on these results we propose assigning a novel subspecies of Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis, to be named Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis subsp. asaccharedens subsp. nov. with the type strain KG8(T) (DSM 18475(T)=CIP 109280(T)).

  2. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. capsici subsp. nov., causing bacterial canker disease in pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eom-Ji; Bae, Chungyun; Lee, Han-Beoyl; Hwang, In Sun; Lee, Hyok-In; Yea, Mi Chi; Yim, Kyu-Ock; Lee, Seungdon; Heu, Sunggi; Cha, Jae-Soon; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2016-10-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis is a Gram-stain-positive bacterium with eight subspecies. One of these subspecies is C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, which causes bacterial canker disease in tomato. Bacterial strains showing very similar canker disease symptoms to those of a strain originally classified as C. michiganensis have been isolated from pepper. In this paper, we reclassified strains isolated from pepper. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis with 16S rRNA gene sequences, the strains isolated from pepper were grouped in a separate clade from other subspecies of C. michiganensis. Biochemical, physiological and genetic characteristics of strain PF008T, which is the representative strain of the isolates from pepper, were examined in this study. Based on multi-locus sequence typing and other biochemical and physiological features including colony color, utilization of carbon sources and enzyme activities, strain PF008T was categorically differentiated from eight subspecies of C. michiganensis. Moreover, genome analysis showed that the DNA G+C content of strain PF008T is 73.2 %. These results indicate that PF008T is distinct from other known subspecies of C. michiganensis. Therefore, we propose a novel subspecies, C. michiganensis subsp. capsici, causing bacterial canker disease in pepper, with a type strain of PF008T (=KACC 18448T=LMG 29047T).

  3. Simultaneous detection of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis and Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii based on microsphere immunoreaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Li, Jinfeng; Zou, Mingqiang; Chen, Yan; Wang, Yanfei; Qi, Xiaohua

    2013-04-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (Cmn) and Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pss) are two plant pathogens that can cause tremendous agricultural economic losses. This novel method based on microsphere immunoreaction was developed for the simultaneous detection of Cmn and Pss in maize. This multiplex method was constructed based on microsphere immunodetection with fluorescent labels such as quantum dots (QDs) and R-phycoerythrin (R-PE) for the detection of Cmn and Pss. Captured QDs and R-PE serve as signal reporters for fluorescent readout. The principle of this method is based on a sandwich immunoreaction. Cmn and Pss captured by the microspheres were detected using flow cytometry. The limit of detection of this method was 10 times lower than the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and its analysis time (1 h) was much shorter compared with ELISA (6-8 h). The method, which has been proven to be an effective approach to multiplex detection of plant bacteria (Cmn and Pss as models), not only increased the varieties but also improved the sensitivity. The microsphere immunoreaction provides a universal method for the multiplex determination of microbes because of its high sensitivity, specificity, and speed. In the future, the method will be more fully validated in vivo to detect diversiform bacteria.

  4. Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp hyointestinalis, a common Campylobacter species in reindeer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanninen, M.L.; Sarelli, L.; Sukura, A.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To study the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in the faecal material of reindeer, and to identify the isolates by means of a polyphasic approach. In addition, to study the genetic diversity of Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis reindeer isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis...... slaughterhouses. Samples were cultured by methods suitable for isolation of fastidious Campylobacter species. Of all samples, 6% (24/399) were Campylobacter-positive. Phenotypic characteristics, SDS-PAGE protein patterns, dot blot DNA-DNA hybridization, 23S rDNA restriction fragment polymorphism analysis and PFGE...... identified the isolates as Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. kyointestinalis. Conclusions: Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis was the only Campylobacter species isolated from reindeer in this study. The isolates showed high genomic diversity in PFGE with the restriction enzymes SmaI and Kpn...

  5. Hygienic characteristics and microbiological hazard identification in horse and donkey raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colavita, Giampaolo; Amadoro, Carmela; Rossi, Franca; Fantuz, Francesco; Salimei, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Today the interest toward horse (Equus caballus) and donkey (Equus asinus) milk for human consumption is receiving a renewed attention because of its particular composition, hypoallergenicity, and nutraceutical properties. The realistic perspective of global use of this aliment in balanced diets, especially for infancy and geriatrics, poses the need for a more in depth knowledge on milk hygiene and on the health status of dairy animals, as a prerequisite of consumers' safety. The aim of this paper was to review the available literature on the health and hygiene parameters as well as on the potential microbiological hazards in horse and donkey milk and the risks related to their consumption. Both microbial contamination and somatic cell count are reasonably low in equine milk and also the presence of pathogens, like Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Brucella spp., Mycobacterium spp., Bacillus cereus, Cronobacter sakazakii, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, Rhodococcus equi, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Clostridium difficile and Burkholderia mallei is low. However, in those regions of the world where the prevalence of Brucella spp. and Rhodococcus equi is high, the alimentary risks could increase. Similarly, in areas with higher incidence of immunocompromised people, the increased risks should be warned not only for pathogens but also for opportunistic microbiota.

  6. Flavonoids from the aerial parts of Onobrychis montana subsp. scardica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORIS PEJIN

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Rutin (1, main constituent and two flavone C-glycosides, vitexin (2 and vitexin 2''-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (3 were isolated from the aerial parts of Onobrychis montana subsp. scardica. They were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and UV–Vis spectroscopy (procedure with shift reagents, and high resolution ESI-MS. A relatively high content of 1 (5.27 mg/g of dry plant material, measured by HPLC, indicated O. montana subsp. scardica as a new natural source of this biologically active compound. The isolated flavonoid compounds might be of value as chemotaxonomic markers.

  7. A single or multistage mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis subunit vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention provides one or more immunogenic polypeptides for use in a preventive or therapeutic vaccine against latent or active infection in a human or animal caused by a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Furthermore a single or multi-phase vaccine...... comprising the one or more immunogenic polypeptides is provided for administration for the prevention or treatment of infection with a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Additionally, nucleic acid vaccines, capable of in vivo expression of the multi-phase vaccine...

  8. Cronobacter gen. nov., a new genus to accommodate the biogroups of Enterobacter sakazakii, and proposal of Cronobacter sakazakii gen. nov., comb. nov., Cronobacter malonaticus sp. nov., Cronobacter turicensis sp. nov., Cronobacter muytjensii sp. nov., Cronobacter dublinensis sp. nov., Cronobacter genomospecies 1, and of three subspecies, Cronobacter dublinensis subsp. dublinensis subsp. nov., Cronobacter dublinensis subsp. lausannensis subsp. nov. and Cronobacter dublinensis subsp. lactaridi subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Carol; Mullane, Niall; McCardell, Barbara; Tall, Ben D; Lehner, Angelika; Fanning, Séamus; Stephan, Roger; Joosten, Han

    2008-06-01

    [Enterobacter] sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause infections in neonates. This study further clarifies the taxonomy of isolates described as [E.] sakazakii and completes the formal description of the proposed reclassification of these organisms as novel species and subspecies within a proposed novel genus, Cronobacter gen. nov. [E.] sakazakii was first defined in 1980, however recent polyphasic taxonomic analysis has determined that this group of organisms consists of several genomospecies. In this study, the phenotypic descriptions of the proposed novel species are expanded using Biotype 100 and Biolog Phenotype MicroArray data. Further DNA-DNA hybridization experiments showed that malonate-positive strains within the [E.] sakazakii genomospecies represent a distinct species, not a subspecies. DNA-DNA hybridizations also determined that phenotypically different strains within the proposed species, Cronobacter dublinensis sp. nov., belong to the same species and can be considered as novel subspecies. Based on these analyses, the following alternative classifications are proposed: Cronobacter sakazakii gen. nov., comb. nov. [type strain ATCC 29544(T) (=NCTC 11467(T))]; Cronobacter malonaticus sp. nov. [type strain CDC 1058-77(T) (=LMG 23826(T)=DSM 18702(T))]; Cronobacter turicensis sp. nov. [type strain z3032(T) (=LMG 23827(T)=DSM 18703(T))]; Cronobacter muytjensii sp. nov. [type strain ATCC 51329(T) (=CIP 103581(T))]; Cronobacter dublinensis sp. nov. [type strain DES187(T) (=LMG 23823(T)=DSM 18705(T))]; Cronobacter dublinensis subsp. dublinensis subsp. nov. [type strain DES187(T) (=LMG 23823(T)=DSM 18705(T))]; Cronobacter dublinensis subsp. lausannensis subsp. nov. [type strain E515(T) (=LMG 23824=DSM 18706(T))], and Cronobacter dublinensis subsp. lactaridi subsp. nov. [type strain E464(T) (=LMG 23825(T)=DSM 18707(T))].

  9. Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus subsp. lwoffi.

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberger, I. (Ingeburg); Davidson, E.; Rotenberg, Z; Fuchs, J; Agmon, J

    1987-01-01

    Acinetobacter spp. are uncommon etiologic agents of prosthetic valve endocarditis. Two patients with Acinetobacter calcoaceticus subsp. lwoffi prosthetic valve endocarditis are described. The patients were successfully treated with antibiotics (cefotaxime sodium and gentamicin sulfate); thus, we suggest medical treatment rather than early valve replacement in this particular type of infection.

  10. Genetic Basis of Tetracycline Resistance in Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gueimonde, M.; Florez, A.B.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Stuer-Lauridsen, B.; Stroman, P.; Reyes-Gavilan, de los C.G.; Margolles, A.

    2010-01-01

    All strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis described to date show medium level resistance to tetracycline. Screening of 26 strains from a variety of sources revealed the presence of tet(W) in all isolates. A transposase gene upstream of tet(W) was found in all strains, and both genes were

  11. Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Strain HD-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Michael; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Dyer, David; Bulla, Lee

    2014-07-17

    We report here the complete genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain HD-1, which serves as the primary U.S. reference standard for all commercial insecticidal formulations of B. thuringiensis manufactured around the world. Copyright © 2014 Day et al.

  12. New Iridoid Glycosides from Lamium eriocephalum subsp. eriocephalum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yalcin, Funda Nuray; Ersöz, Tayfun; Avci, Kürsat;

    2007-01-01

    Two new iridoid glycosides, eriobioside (1) and lamerioside (2) were isolated from the aerial parts of Lamium eriocephalum subsp. eriocephalum, along with two known componds, lamiide (3) and ipolamiide (4). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (UV, 1D- and 2D-NMR) and by mass...

  13. Novel cyanide-hydrolyzing enzyme from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingvorsen, K.; Hojer-Pederson, B.; Godtfredsen, S.E. (Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsvaerd (Denmark))

    1991-06-01

    A cyanide-metabolizing bacterium, strain DF3, isolated from soil was identified as Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans. Whole cells and cell extracts of strain DF3 catalyzed hydrolysis of cyanide to formate and ammonia (HCN + 2H{sub 2}O {r arrow} HCOOH + NH{sub 3}) without forming formamide as a free intermediate. The cyanide-hydrolyzing activity was inducibly produced in cells during growth in cyanide-containing media. Cyanate (OCN{sup {minus}}) and a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic nitriles were not hydrolyzed by intact cells of A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3. Strain DF3 hydrolyzed cyanide with great efficacy. Thus, by using resting induced cells at a concentration of 11.3 mg (dry weight) per ml, the cyanide concentration could be reduced from 0.97 M (approximately 25,220 ppm) to less than 77 nM (approximately 0.002 ppm) in 55 h. Enzyme purification established that cyanide hydrolysis by A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3 was due to a single intracellular enzyme. The molecular mass of the active enzyme (purity, {gt}97% as determined by amino acid sequencing) was estimated to be {gt}300,000 Da. The cyanide-hydrolyzing enzyme of A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3 was tentatively named cyanidase to distinguish it from known nitrilases (EC 3.5.5.1) which act on organic nitriles.

  14. A Proteomic Study of Clavibacter Michiganensis Subsp. Michiganensis Culture Supernatants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Hiery

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Clavibacter michiganensis, subsp. michiganensis is a Gram-positive plant pathogen infecting tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. Despite a considerable economic importance due to significant losses of infected plants and fruits, knowledge about virulence factors of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and host-pathogen interactions on a molecular level are rather limited. In the study presented here, the proteome of culture supernatants from C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB382 was analyzed. In total, 1872 proteins were identified in M9 and 1766 proteins in xylem mimicking medium. Filtration of supernatants before protein precipitation reduced these to 1276 proteins in M9 and 976 proteins in the xylem mimicking medium culture filtrate. The results obtained indicate that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis reacts to a sucrose- and glucose-depleted medium similar to the xylem sap by utilizing amino acids and host cell polymers as well as their degradation products, mainly peptides, amino acids and various C5 and C6 sugars. Interestingly, the bacterium expresses the previously described virulence factors Pat-1 and CelA not exclusively after host cell contact in planta but already in M9 minimal and xylem mimicking medium.

  15. Enrichment of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in tomato seed extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira Lelis, Flavia; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2017-01-01

    An enrichment procedure was developed to improve detection of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) in tomato seed extracts. In the final procedure, seeds were soaked overnight in a buffer at 4°C and homogenised. Seed extracts were then filtered, supplemented with antibiotics and

  16. A Proteomic Study of Clavibacter Michiganensis Subsp. Michiganensis Culture Supernatants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiery, Eva; Poetsch, Ansgar; Moosbauer, Tanja; Amin, Bushra; Hofmann, Jörg; Burkovski, Andreas

    2015-11-12

    Clavibacter michiganensis, subsp. michiganensis is a Gram-positive plant pathogen infecting tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Despite a considerable economic importance due to significant losses of infected plants and fruits, knowledge about virulence factors of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and host-pathogen interactions on a molecular level are rather limited. In the study presented here, the proteome of culture supernatants from C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB382 was analyzed. In total, 1872 proteins were identified in M9 and 1766 proteins in xylem mimicking medium. Filtration of supernatants before protein precipitation reduced these to 1276 proteins in M9 and 976 proteins in the xylem mimicking medium culture filtrate. The results obtained indicate that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis reacts to a sucrose- and glucose-depleted medium similar to the xylem sap by utilizing amino acids and host cell polymers as well as their degradation products, mainly peptides, amino acids and various C5 and C6 sugars. Interestingly, the bacterium expresses the previously described virulence factors Pat-1 and CelA not exclusively after host cell contact in planta but already in M9 minimal and xylem mimicking medium.

  17. Linear plasmid in the genome of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan E; Knudson, Dennis L; Ishimaru, Carol A

    2002-05-01

    Contour-clamped homogeneous electric field gel analysis of genomic DNA of the plant pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus revealed the presence of a previously unreported extrachromosomal element. This new element was demonstrated to be a linear plasmid. Of 11 strains evaluated, all contained either a 90-kb (pCSL1) or a 140-kb (pCSL2) linear plasmid.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale is a naturally attenuated subtype that has been used as a vaccine for a century. We sequenced the genome of this organism and compared it to those of virulent senso stricto A. marginale strains. The comparison markedly narrows the number of outer membrane protein ...

  19. Laminaria japonica Extract, an Inhibitor of Clavibater michiganense Subsp. Sepedonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Cai

    Full Text Available Bacterial ring rot of potato is one of the most serious potato plant and tuber diseases. Laminaria japonica extract was investigated for its antimicrobial activity against Clavibater michiganense subsp. sepedonicum (Spieckermann & Kotthoff Davis et al., the causative agent of bacterial ring rot of potato. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions of antimicrobial substances from L. japonica were an extraction temperature of 80°C, an extraction time of 12 h, and a solid to liquid ratio of 1∶25. Active compounds of L. japonica were isolated by solvent partition, thin layer chromatography (TLC and column chromatography. All nineteen fractionations had antimicrobial activities against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum, while Fractionation three (Fr.3 had the highest (P<0.05 antimicrobial activity. Chemical composition analysis identified a total of 26 components in Fr.3. The main constituents of Fr.3 were alkanes (80.97%, esters (5.24%, acids (4.87% and alcohols (2.21%. Antimicrobial activity of Fr.3 against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum could be attributed to its ability to damage the cell wall and cell membrane, induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, increase cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, inhibit the glycolytic pathway (EMP and tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle, inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis, and disrupt the normal cycle of DNA replication. These findings indicate that L. japonica extracts have potential for inhibiting C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum.

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Ivica; Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Liesack, Werner; Stott, Matthew B.; Alam, Maqsudul; Murrell, J. Colin; Dunfield, Peter F.

    2010-01-01

    Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica is an aerobic, acidophilic, exopolysaccharide-producing, N2-fixing soil bacterium. It is a generalist chemoorganotroph that is phylogenetically closely related to facultative and obligate methanotrophs of the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa. Here we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium. PMID:20601475

  1. Taraxacum limnanthes Haglund subsp. limnanthoides Van Soest op Schiermonnikoog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroman, M.; Ietswaart, J.H.

    1972-01-01

    Taraxacum limnanthes was described by HAGLUND (1946). VAN SOEST (1965) distinguishes two subspecies. One of these, subsp. limnanthoides, occurs in the Netherlands. In this country it is found on the Wadden Islands, near the IJssel Lake (the former Zuiderzee), and in Zeeland. The present paper is con

  2. Factors affecting survival of Clavibacter michiganesis subsp. sepedonicus in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Beckhoven, van J.R.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The survival of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms), the causal organism of bacterial ring rot in potato, was studied in water, to assess the risks for dissemination of Cms via surface water and infection of potato crops by irrigation. Cms was able to survive for a maximum period of 7

  3. Complete genome sequence of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. insidiosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. insidiosus (Cmi) causes bacterial wilt disease of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and can also infect the model legume plant M. truncatula. The virulence mechanisms of Cmi are yet to be identified, hampered by the lack of efficient mutagenesis tools as well as by the la...

  4. Antibacterial activity of Helleborus bocconei Ten. subsp. siculus root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, S; Speciale, A; Acquaviva, R; Ferlito, G; Ragusa, S; De Pasquale, R; Iauk, L

    2009-08-17

    Roots of Helleborus bocconei Ten. subsp. siculus (Schiffner) Merxm. & Podl. are widely used in veterinary folk medicine in Sicily (Italy) to diagnose and cure lower respiratory tract infections in cattle. This study intended to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the methanolic root extract of Helleborus bocconei Ten. subsp. siculus, and of the bufadienolide and ecdysteroid fractions extracted from its roots, against strains belonging to species commonly associated with respiratory tract infections. The phytochemical screening of the previously prepared plant extracts was carried out by chemical, thin-layer chromatography and spectroscopic methods. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the extracts against seven different standard bacterial strains was evaluated by broth microdilution. According to the present study, Helleborus bocconei Ten. subsp. siculus roots contain bufadienolides and ecdysteroids, and the extracts containing these compounds, as well as the crude methanolic root extract, show antibacterial activity against microorganisms responsible for respiratory infections. In particular, the bufadienolide extract has the highest inhibitory activity against all the tested organisms, and, as the other extracts, shows the lowest MIC values (100mug/ml) against Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Since the roots of Helleborus bocconei Ten. subsp. siculus contain substances with antibacterial activity, the traditional use of this plant may also derive from its antibacterial properties.

  5. Molecular characterization of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenas, Maria B; Bradley, Julie; Maggi, Ricardo G; Takara, Matt; Hegarty, Barbara C; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2008-05-01

    The molecular characterization of a Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype III strain (NCSU strain 06-CO1) isolated from the blood of a military working dog diagnosed with endocarditis is reported in this study. Several genes were amplified and sequenced for comparative sequence similarity with other strains.

  6. Novel Temperate Phages of Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae and subsp. diarizonae and Their Activity against Pathogenic S. enterica subsp. enterica Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikalová, Lenka; Bosák, Juraj; Hříbková, Hana; Dědičová, Daniela; Benada, Oldřich; Šmarda, Jan; Šmajs, David

    2017-01-01

    Forty strains of Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) subspecies salamae (II), arizonae (IIIa), diarizonae (IIIb), and houtenae (IV) were isolated from human or environmental samples and tested for bacteriophage production. Production of bacteriophages was observed in 15 S. enterica strains (37.5%) belonging to either the subspecies salamae (8 strains) or diarizonae (7 strains). Activity of phages was tested against 52 pathogenic S. enterica subsp. enterica isolates and showed that phages produced by subsp. salamae had broader activity against pathogenic salmonellae compared to phages from the subsp. diarizonae. All 15 phages were analyzed using PCR amplification of phage-specific regions and 9 different amplification profiles were identified. Five phages (SEN1, SEN4, SEN5, SEN22, and SEN34) were completely sequenced and classified as temperate phages. Phages SEN4 and SEN5 were genetically identical, thus representing a single phage type (i.e. SEN4/5). SEN1 and SEN4/5 fit into the group of P2-like phages, while the SEN22 phage showed sequence relatedness to P22-like phages. Interestingly, while phage SEN34 was genetically distantly related to Lambda-like phages (Siphoviridae), it had the morphology of the Myoviridae family. Based on sequence analysis and electron microscopy, phages SEN1 and SEN4/5 were members of the Myoviridae family and phage SEN22 belonged to the Podoviridae family.

  7. Identification of Bartonella Species Isolated from Rodents from Yucatan, Mexico, and Isolation of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. yucatanensis subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte Fischedick, Frederique B; Stuckey, Matthew J; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro; Moreno-Sandoval, Hayde; Galvez-Romero, Guillermo; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Arechiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Overgaauw, Paul A M; Kasten, Rickie W; Chomel, Bruno B

    2016-10-01

    Bartonella species are highly endemic among wild rodents in many parts of the world. Blood and/or blood clot cultures from 38 rodents, including 27 Yucatan deer mouse (Peromyscus yucatanicus), 7 Gaumer's spiny pocket mouse (Heteromys gaumeri), 2 black rats (Rattus rattus) and 2 big-eared climbing rats (Ototylomys phyllotis) captured near Merida, Yucatan, Mexico, led to the isolation in 3-4 days of small gram-negative bacilli, which were identified as Bartonella spp. based on colony morphology. DNA extraction and PCR testing were also performed from heart samples of 35 of these 38 rodents. Overall, Bartonella spp. were isolated from the blood/blood clots of 22 (58%) rodents. All Bartonella-positive rodents were Yucatán deer mice from San José Pituch. Sequencing of a fragment of the gltA gene showed that all but one rodent isolates were closest to B. vinsonii subsp. vinsonii and one isolate was intermediate between B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis. Further analysis of concatenated housekeeping genes (gltA, ftsZ, rpoB, and 16S rRNA) suggests that this outlier isolate is a new subspecies within the B. vinsonii genogroup, for which we proposed the name B. vinsonii subsp. yucatanensis.

  8. COMPOSITION OF THE ESSENTIAL OILS OF IAJULA VISCOSA, I.GRAVEOLENS AND I. HELENIUM SUBSP. TURCORACEMOSA

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Steam distilled essential oils from aerial parts of Inula viscosa, I. graveolens andfrom rhizomes of I. helenium subsp. turcoracemosa (Asteraceae) were analysed by GCMS. The main components of essential oils were identified as carvacrol(18.6 %) in I. viscosa, L-borneol (63.96 %) in I. graveolens and alantolactone (59.6 %) in I. helenium subsp. turcoracemosa.Key Words: Inula viscosa, Inula graveolens, Inula helenium subsp. turcoracemosa,essential oils.

  9. Complete Genome of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis Siphophage CN1A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongari, Rohit R.; Yao, Guichun W.; Chamakura, Karthik R.

    2013-01-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis is a Gram-positive actinomycete that is the causative agent of the potato disease ring rot. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of the Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis siphophage CN1A. CN1A is only the second fully sequenced Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis phage reported to date. Core and unique features of its genome are described. PMID:24309731

  10. Complete Genome of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis Siphophage CN1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongari, Rohit R; Yao, Guichun W; Chamakura, Karthik R; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F

    2013-12-05

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis is a Gram-positive actinomycete that is the causative agent of the potato disease ring rot. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of the Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis siphophage CN1A. CN1A is only the second fully sequenced Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis phage reported to date. Core and unique features of its genome are described.

  11. Complete Genome of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis Siphophage CN1A

    OpenAIRE

    Kongari, Rohit R.; Yao, Guichun W.; Chamakura, Karthik R.; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F.

    2013-01-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis is a Gram-positive actinomycete that is the causative agent of the potato disease ring rot. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of the Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis siphophage CN1A. CN1A is only the second fully sequenced Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis phage reported to date. Core and unique features of its genome are described.

  12. Mycobacterium abscessus subsp abscessus lung disease: ‘trouble ahead, trouble behind…’

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus subsp abscessus is the most common respiratory pathogen among the rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and is also the most feared due to its well-deserved reputation for being refractory to antibiotic therapy. M. abscessus subsp abscessus has multiple innate antibiotic resistance mechanisms, but the most important one described so far is an inducible erythromycin methylase (erm) gene. M. abscessus subsp abscessus isolates may appear macrolide susceptible...

  13. Fate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Swiss Hard and Semihard Cheese Manufactured from Raw Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Spahr, U.; Schafroth, K.

    2001-01-01

    Raw milk was artificially contaminated with declumped cells of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis at a concentration of 104 to 105 CFU/ml and was used to manufacture model hard (Swiss Emmentaler) and semihard (Swiss Tisliter) cheese. Two different strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were tested, and for each strain, two model hard and semihard cheeses were produced. The survival of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells was monitored over a ripening period of 120 days by plat...

  14. Allelopathic activity of Nepeta nuda L. subsp. nuda water extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoeva, Asya; Stoyanova, Zheni; Koleva, Vanya; Dragolova, Daniela

    2017-03-01

    Nepeta nuda subsp. nuda is a medicinal plant growing wild in Bulgaria. Different species of Nepeta genus have been reported to possess allelopathic potential. The present study was conducted to observe its phytotoxic effects on T. aestivum and C. sativus L. seeds in laboratory conditions. Nepeta water extracts (NWE) prepared from aerial parts of plants at concentrations 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 g/l were tested. The rate of seed germination, the root and shoot length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings were observed after treatment with NWE. As a control served seeds treated with distilled water. Germination was not affected, but NWE showed deterioration in seedling growth. Roots were more affected than shoots. The fresh and dry weights were reduced upon treatment with the extracts tested. These negative effects were dose-dependent. The overall results indicate presence of water soluble allelochemicals in Nepeta nuda subsp. nuda.

  15. Characterizing the Genetic Diversity of the Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis Population in New York

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tancos, Matthew A; Lange, Holly W; Smart, Christine D

    2015-01-01

    New York Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis isolates, collected from disparate bacterial canker of tomato outbreaks over the past 11 years, were characterized with a multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA...

  16. Discovery of novel small molecule modulators of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Xiulan; Kumar, Anand; Deblais, Loïc; Pina-Mimbela, Ruby; Nislow, Corey; Fuchs, James R; Miller, Sally A; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) is a Gram-positive seed-transmitted bacterial phytopathogen responsible for substantial economic losses by adversely affecting tomato production worldwide...

  17. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma M. Alves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Myeloma cells Sp2/0-Ag14 and spleen cells from BALB/c mouse immunized with sonicated Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354 were fused with polyethylene glycol (PEG for the selection of clones producing antibodies. Clones were obtained by limiting dilution and screened for the production of specific antibodies to C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354 by indirect ELISA and western blot against a panel of bacteria: C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354, C. fetus subsp fetus ADRI 1812, C. sputorum biovar sputorum LMG 6647, C. lari NCTC 11352, and Arcobacter skirrowii LMG 6621 for the ELISA and C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354 and C. sputorum biovar sputorum LMG 6647 for the western blotting. Fifteen clones producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs anti-C. fetus subsp. venerealis of the IgM (1 and IgG (14 classes were further screened for species-specificity. Four clones of the 15 obtained were producers of species-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs: two were specific for C. fetus subsp. venerealis and two were specific for C. fetus subsp. fetus. None of the clones were reactive against C. sputorum biovar sputorum LMG 6647. All clones recognized a protein with molecular mass of approximately 148 kDa from lysed C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354.

  18. Characterization of the arginine deiminase of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kyongsu

    2006-09-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is an important cause of infectious diseases in horses and rarely humans. Little is known about the virulence factors or protective antigens of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. In the present study, I designed original primers based on an alignment of the gene sagp(arcA) from Streptococcus pyogenes encoding streptococcal acid glycoprotein-arginine deiminase (SAGP/AD) to amplify the S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus counterpart sequence by polymerase chain reaction, and I analyzed the sagp(arcA) gene of the organism. Using chromosomal walking steps, I identified a contiguous eight-gene locus involved in SAGP/AD production. Their open reading frames were found to share significant homologies and to correspond closely in molecular mass to previously sequenced arc genes of S. pyogenes, thus they were designated ahrC.2 (arginine repressor), arcR (CRP/FNR transcription regulator), sagp(arcA) (streptococcal acid glycoprotein-arginine deiminase), putative acetyltransferase gene, arcB (ornithine carbamyl transferase), arcD (arginine-ornithine antiporter), arcT (Xaa-His peptidase), and arcC (carbamate kinase). The SAGP homologue of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus (SzSAGP), encoded by arcA gene of the bacteria (arcA(SZ)), was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. When in vitro growth inhibitory activity of the recombinant SzSAGP was tested against MOLT-3 cells, it inhibited the growth of the cells during the 3 days of culture in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by the induction of apoptotic cell death. The recombinant protein also possessed AD activity. By immunoblot analysis using both anti-SzSAGP-SfbI(H8) and anti-SfbI(H8) sera, I was able to demonstrate that the SzSAGP protein is expressed on the streptococcal surface.

  19. Actinobacillus equuli subsp. equuli associated with equine valvular endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Bent; Østergaard, Stine; Buhl, Rikke;

    2007-01-01

    Microbiological and pathological data from a case of equine valvular endocarditis are reported. Limited information is available on the pathogenic potential of equine Actinobacillus species as several strains originate from apparently healthy horses. After the establishment of two subspecies within...... this species, this seems to be the first report of an etiological association between A. equuli subsp. equuli and equine endocarditis. Furthermore, new information on some phenotypical characteristics of this subspecies are reported, compared to previous findings...

  20. ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES OF Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L .D. Varbanets

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of lipopolysaccharides of two strains of Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens to inhibit in vitro the reproduction of human viruses: influenza A/FM/1/47 (H1N1, herpes simplex type 2 and bovine diarrhea, which is used as a model of hepatitis C virus, as well as to suppress hepatitis C virus production in model system of cells transfected with cDNA of this virus. It has been established that for both lipopolysaccharides in three types of cultures (MDCK, Vero and MDBK the toxicity is not manifested even in a concentration of 100.0 μg/ml, and decreasing in infectious virus titer more than by 2.0 lg TCD50 (ED99 was already achieved at concentrations of 1.55 mg/ml. Selectivity indexes determination of lipopolysaccharides preparations against the influenza A/FM/1/47 (H1N1 virus, herpes simplex virus type 2 and bovine diarrhea virus shows that lipopolysaccharides of P. chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens UCM B-306 and UCM B-111 are effective inhibitors of investigated viruses reproduction: selectivity index is at least 64. In the model of Jurkat cells transfected with human hepatitis C virus cDNA, viral RNA loading was determined in cells treated with lipopolysaccharides of P. chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens. The results of the studies indicate that when lipopolysaccharides of both strains are administered, the production of the hepatitis C virus is completely inhibited.

  1. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SUBSP. plantarum PROBIOTIC STRAINS AS PROTEASE PRODUCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Маtseliukh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Proteases from probiotic strains of the genus Bacillus, just like the antibiotics, bacteriocins and other hydrolytic enzymes, are one of the main factors that determine their biological activity. The aim of this work was to study the synthesis and biochemical properties of proteases from two strains Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM B-5139 and UCM B-5140 that included in the probiotic Endosporin. The cultivation of strains was carried out in flasks under rotating for two days. The influence of physico-chemical parameters of the reaction medium on proteolytic activity was studied on partially purified protease preparations. Lytic activity was determined by turbidimetric method. On the second day of cultivation B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM В-5139 and UCM В-5140 synthesized the metal-dependent peptidase and serine protease, respectively. The optimum conditions of their action were the following: temperature 37–40 °C and pH 6.5–7.0. Isolated proteases are able to lyse the living cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Thus we demonstrated that B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM B-5140 and UCM B-5139, included in the probiotic veterinary preparation Endosporin, produced proteolytic enzymes that hydrolyze the native insoluble proteins (elastin, fibrin and collagen. These enzymes belong to the group of neutral metal-dependent and serine proteases. They are active under physiological conditions against gram-positive bacteria and yeasts. The application of these proteases in biotechnology is considered.

  2. Partial resistance to Erwinia carotovora SUBSP. carotovora and plant vigour among F1 hybrids of Zantedeschia cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, R.C.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The potential of breeding Zantedeschia cultivars for resistance to soft rot caused by Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (syn. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum) was determined. Hybrids of six cultivars (`Back Magic`, Galaxy`, Pink Persuasion`, Sensation`, `Treasure` and `Florex Gold`)

  3. Preliminary investigation of a mice model of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae induced pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renois, Fanny; Jacques, Jérôme; Guillard, Thomas; Moret, Hélène; Pluot, Michel; Andreoletti, Laurent; de Champs, Christophe

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, we comparatively assessed the pathophysiological mechanisms developed during lung infection of BALB/C female mice infected by an original wild type Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae strain (CH137) or by a referent subspecies K. pneumoniae. subsp. pneumoniae strain (ATCC10031). The mice infected with 2.10⁶ CFU K. p. subsp. pneumoniae (n = 10) showed transient signs of infection and all of them recovered. All of those infected with 1.10⁶ CFU K. p. subsp. ozaenae (n = 10) developed pneumonia within 24 h and died between 48 and 72 h. Few macrophages, numerous polymorphonuclear cells and lymphocytes were observed in their lungs in opposite to K. p. subsp. pneumoniae. In bronchoalveolar lavage, a significant increase in MIP-2, IL-6, KC and MCP-1 levels was only observed in K. p. subsp. ozaenae infected mice whereas high levels of TNF-α were evidenced with the two subspecies. Our findings indicated a lethal effect of a wild type K. p. subsp. ozaenae strain by acute pneumonia reflecting an insufficient alveolar macrophage response. This model might be of a major interest to comparatively explore the pathogenicity of K. p. subsp ozaenae strains and to further explore the physiopathological mechanisms of gram-negative bacteria induced human pneumonia.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88, an Entomopathogenic Bacterium Isolated from Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazal, Shimaa; Oshone, Rediet; Simpson, Stephen,; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W. Kelley; Khalil, Kamal M.; Tisa, Louis S.

    2016-01-01

    Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88 is an entomopathogenic bacterium that forms a symbiotic association with Heterorhabditis nematodes. We report here a 5.27-Mbp draft genome sequence for P. luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88, with a G+C content of 42.4% and containing 4,243 candidate protein-coding genes.

  5. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strain ND02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhihong; Chen, Xia; Wang, Jicheng; Zhao, Wenjing; Shao, Yuyu; Guo, Zhuang; Zhang, Xingchang; Zhou, Zhemin; Sun, Tiansong; Wang, Lei; Meng, He; Zhang, Heping; Chen, Wei

    2011-07-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strain ND02 is a Chinese commercial dairy starter used for the manufacture of yoghurt. It was isolated from naturally fermented yak milk in Qinghai, China. Here, we report the main genome features of ND02 and several differences with two other published genomes of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains.

  6. MAO-A inhibition profiles of some benzophenone glucosides from Gentiana verna subsp. pontica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaya, Duygu; Jäger, Anna; Yalçin, Funda N;

    2014-01-01

    Gentiana verna L. subsp. pontica (Soltok.) Hayek, G. pyrenaica L., and G. verna L. subsp. balcanica Pritchard from Turkey were tested for their MAO-A inhibitory effects. A photometric peroxidase linked MAO-A bioassay performed on the H20 extracts prepared from the methanolic extracts of the title...

  7. Bacterial Canker (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis) of tomato in commercial seed produced in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anwar, A.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Ilyas, S.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Smith) Davis, the causal organism of bacterial canker of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), was isolated from two of six commercial asymptomatic tomato seed lots produced on Java in Indonesia. C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis has not been

  8. Genome Sequence of Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae MB373, an Effective Bioremediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Fozia; Thomas, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae MB373 was isolated from effluent of the Hattar Industrial Estate, Haripur, Pakistan. K. quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae has few cultivated/characterized members so far. Whole-genome sequencing revealed its potential for metal and toxin resistance, which further elucidated various enzymatic processes for the degradation of xenobiotics, illuminating its bioremediation applications. PMID:27688323

  9. MAO-A inhibition profiles of some benzophenone glucosides from Gentiana verna subsp. pontica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaya, Duygu; Jäger, Anna; Yalçin, Funda N

    2014-01-01

    Gentiana verna L. subsp. pontica (Soltok.) Hayek, G. pyrenaica L., and G. verna L. subsp. balcanica Pritchard from Turkey were tested for their MAO-A inhibitory effects. A photometric peroxidase linked MAO-A bioassay performed on the H20 extracts prepared from the methanolic extracts of the title...

  10. Een merkwaardige vindplaats van Juncus alpino-articulatus subsp. atricapillus (Drejer ex Lange) Reichg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichgelt, Th.J.

    1968-01-01

    The two subspecies of Juncus alpino-articulatus Chaix ex Vill. found in the Netherlands, viz. subsp. atricapillus (Drejer ex Lange) Reichg. and subsp. arthrophyllus (Brenner) Reichg. are restricted there to two distinctly separated areas. The former subspecies occurs only near the coast, in the dune

  11. Draft genome sequence of the first human isolate of the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seersholm, Frederik Valeur; Fischer, Anne; Heller, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum is a well-known pathogen of small ruminants. A recent human case of septicemia involving this agent raised the question of its potential pathogenicity to humans. We present the first draft genome sequence of a human Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum...

  12. Genomic Sequence of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni HS:19 Penner Serotype Reference Strain RM3420

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Steven; Heikema, Astrid P.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni infections are a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis and the most prevalent antecedent to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Penner serotype HS:19 is among several capsular types shown to be markers for GBS. This study describes the genome of C. jejuni subsp. jejuni HS:19 Penner reference strain RM3420. PMID:28232429

  13. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Pectobacterium Strains Causing Blackleg of Potato: P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis ICMP 19477, P. atrosepticum ICMP 1526, and P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum UGC32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Preetinanda; Fiers, Mark W E J; Lu, Ashley; Armstrong, Karen F; Pitman, Andrew R

    2015-08-06

    Blackleg is a disease caused by several species of Pectobacterium that results in losses to potato crops worldwide. Here, we report the draft genomes of three taxonomically and geographically distinct blackleg-causing strains of Pectobacterium: P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis ICMP 19477, P. atrosepticum ICMP 1526, and P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum UGC32. Comparison of these genomes will support the identification of common traits associated with their capacity to cause blackleg.

  14. Complete Genome and Methylome Sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Panama (ATCC 7378) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Sloterdijk (ATCC 15791).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kuan; Muruvanda, Tim; Roberts, Richard J; Payne, Justin; Allard, Marc W; Hoffmann, Maria

    2016-03-17

    Salmonella enterica spp. are pathogenic bacteria commonly associated with food-borne outbreaks in human and animals. Salmonella enterica spp. are characterized into more than 2,500 different serotypes, which makes epidemiological surveillance and outbreak control more difficult. In this report, we announce the first complete genome and methylome sequences from two Salmonella type strains associated with food-borne outbreaks, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Panama (ATCC 7378) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Sloterdijk (ATCC 15791).

  15. In vitro morphogenesis of Syngonanthus mucugensis Giul: subsp. mucugensis

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    Alone Lima-Brito

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Syngonanthus mucugensis Giul. subsp. mucugensis is an herbaceous plant with significant economic value in the ornamental dry flower business. The restricted occurrence of the municipality Mucugê-BA, Brazil, exclusively associated with extractive exploitation, has considered this species as endangered. The objective of this work was to evaluate the organogenic potential of three different types of S. mucugensis subsp. mucugensis explants to promote the development of an alternative method to the propagation of the genetic resources of this important plant. The morphogenetic capacities of the leaf, stem and root this species was tested using Murashige and Skoog culture medium at half salt concentration and different concentrations of growth of regulators benzylaminopurine - BAP (0.00; 2.22 and 4.44 µM, and naphthalene acetic acid - NAA (0.00; 1.34 and 2.68 µM. The morphoanatomic events that lead to formation of shoots were described. Stems proved to be the best source of explants, showing 58.75% regeneration of shoot by direct organogenesis in the absence of growth regulators, and 32.18 and 47.55% of shoot regeneration by indirect organogenesis in the presence of 2.22 and 4.44 µM BAP, respectively. As for leaves, there was callus formation, but without regenerating shoots. Morphogenesis was not observed when roots were used as explants. The histological analyses showed that shoot regeneration in S. mucugensis subsp. mucugensis occurred both indirectly, by unorganized tissue differentiation, and directly through returning to merismatic activity in differentiated mature cells and preexisting bud proliferation.Syngonanthus mucugensis Giul. subsp. mucugensis é uma herbácea com grande potencial de utilização no comércio de flores secas ornamentais. A ocorrência restrita ao município de Mucugê-BA, Brasil, associado à exploração extrativista tem levado essa espécie ao risco de extinção. Neste estudo, objetivou-se avaliar o potencial

  16. Hospedeiros alternativos de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli Alternative hosts of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosa P. Nascimento

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Uma das principais doenças que afeta o meloeiro é a mancha-aquosa, causada pela bactéria Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Visando conhecer hospedeiros alternativos de Aac, plantas no estágio de primeiras folhas definitivas, de várias espécies/cultivares, incluindo cucurbitáceas, solanáceas, gramíneas, leguminosas e caricáceas, foram inoculadas pela atomização da parte aérea com suspensão dos isolados Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13, oriundos de melão e melancia, respectivamente. A suscetibilidade das plantas aos isolados foi avaliada pelo período de incubação (PI e incidência da doença (INC. Caupi, feijão, fumo e milho não apresentaram sintomas. Os menores PIs foram observados em cucurbitáceas (3,0 d, com exceção da bucha (6,83 d. Incidências da doença acima de 90% foram observadas em cucurbitáceas, excetuando a bucha e em solanáceas, para ambos os isolados de Aac. Em outro experimento, frutos de abóbora, abobrinha, berinjela, mamão, maxixe, melancia, melão, pepino, pimentão e tomate foram analisados quanto à suscetibilidade aos isolados Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13. Os frutos foram inoculados pelo método de injeção subepidérmica, determinando-se PI, INC e severidade, avaliada pelo diâmetro da lesão externa (DLE e profundidade da lesão (PL. Menores PIs (2,0 d foram detectados em frutos de mamão, melancia, melão e pimentão. Incidência de 100% foi observada em todos os frutos inoculados, com exceção da abobrinha (93,75% e da abóbora (34,37%. Maiores DLEs foram observados em pepino (1,47 cm para o isolado Aac 1.49 e em melancia (1,60 cm e melão (1,07 cm para Aac 12.13. As maiores PL foram constatadas em melancia (1,72 e 0,75 cm respectivamente para Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13. Frutos de berinjela não apresentaram sintomas externos embora as lesões internas tenham sido profundas.One of the most important melon diseases is the bacterial blotch caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Alternative hosts of this

  17. [Evaluation of Prolex for the rapid identification of streptococci isolated in medical microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubinoux, J; Mihaila-Amrouche, L; Bouvet, A

    2004-10-01

    The need to rapidly identify streptococci responsible for acute infectious diseases has led to the development of agglutination techniques that are able to identify streptococcal group antigens (A, B, C, D, F, and G) directly from primoculture colonies on blood agar. The Prolex agglutination tests (Pro-Lab Diagnostics, Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada), distributed in France by i2a, have been used for the determination of group antigens of 166 isolates of streptococci and enterococci previously identified in the National Reference Center for Streptococci. The results obtained with the Prolex reagents have permitted to correctly identify all pyogenic beta-hemolytic streptococci (23 Streptococcus pyogenes, 21 Streptococcus agalactiae, 33 Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis including 6 group C and 27 group G, and 5 Streptococcus porcinus including 4 group B). Four differences between unexpected agglutinations (A or F) and species identifications have been obtained. These differences were observed for four non-hemolytic isolates of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus infantarius, and Streptococcus suis. The anti-D reagent has been of value as a marker for isolates of enterococci. Thus, these results confirm the abilities of these agglutination tests for the grouping of beta-hemolytic streptococci. Moreover, the use of Prolex has the advantage to be rapid because of the non-enzymatic but chemical extraction of streptococcal antigens.

  18. High-level fluorescence labeling of gram-positive pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Aymanns

    Full Text Available Fluorescence labeling of bacterial pathogens has a broad range of interesting applications including the observation of living bacteria within host cells. We constructed a novel vector based on the E. coli streptococcal shuttle plasmid pAT28 that can propagate in numerous bacterial species from different genera. The plasmid harbors a promoterless copy of the green fluorescent variant gene egfp under the control of the CAMP-factor gene (cfb promoter of Streptococcus agalactiae and was designated pBSU101. Upon transfer of the plasmid into streptococci, the bacteria show a distinct and easily detectable fluorescence using a standard fluorescence microscope and quantification by FACS-analysis demonstrated values that were 10-50 times increased over the respective controls. To assess the suitability of the construct for high efficiency fluorescence labeling in different gram-positive pathogens, numerous species were transformed. We successfully labeled Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus and Staphylococcus aureus strains utilizing the EGFP reporter plasmid pBSU101. In all of these species the presence of the cfb promoter construct resulted in high-level EGFP expression that could be further increased by growing the streptococcal and enterococcal cultures under high oxygen conditions through continuous aeration.

  19. Challenges to developing effective streptococcal vaccines to prevent rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma A

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abhinay Sharma, D Patric Nitsche-SchmitzDepartment of Medical Microbiology, Helmholtz Center for Infection Research, Braunschweig, GermanyAbstract: Acute rheumatic fever is a sequela of Streptococcus pyogenes and potentially of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis infections. Acute rheumatic fever is caused by destructive autoimmunity and inflammation in the extracellular matrix and can lead to rheumatic heart disease, which is the most frequent cardiologic disease that is acquired in youth. Although effective treatments are available, acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease remain serious threats to human health, which affect millions and cause high economic losses. This has motivated the search for a vaccine that prevents the causative streptococcal infections. A variety of potential vaccine candidates have been identified and investigated in the past. Today, new approaches are applied to find alternative candidates. Nevertheless, several obstacles lie in the way of an approved S. pyogenes vaccine for use in humans. Herein, a subjective selection of promising vaccine candidates with respect to the prevention of acute rheumatic fever/rheumatic heart disease and safety regarding immunological side effects is discussed.Keywords: autoimmune disease, side effects, M protein vaccine, molecular mimicry, coiled-coil, collagen binding, PARF

  20. Streptolysin S of Streptococcus anginosus exhibits broad-range hemolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asam, Daniela; Mauerer, Stefanie; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    Streptococcus anginosus is a commensal of mucous membranes and an emerging human pathogen. Some strains, including the type strain, display a prominent β-hemolytic phenotype. A gene cluster (sag), encoding a variant of streptolysin S (SLS) has recently been identified as the genetic background for β-hemolysin production in S. anginosus. In this study, we further characterized the hemolytic and cytolytic activity of the S. anginosus hemolysin in comparison with other streptococcal hemolysins. The results indicate that SLS of S. anginosus is a broad-range hemolysin able to lyse erythrocytes of different species, including horse, bovine, rabbit and even chicken. The hemolytic activity is temperature dependent, and a down-regulation of the hemolysin expression is induced in the presence of high glucose levels. Survival assays indicate that in contrast to other streptococcal species, S. anginosus does not require SLS for survival in the presence of human granulocytes. Cross-complementation studies using the sagB and sagD genes of Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis demonstrated functional similarities to the S. anginosus SLS. Nevertheless, distinct differences to other streptolysin S variants were noted and provide further insights into the molecular mechanisms of SLS pathogen host interactions.

  1. Quantitative and cytotoxic activity determinations on Galanthus nivalis subsp. cilicicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, G I; Gözler, B

    2005-06-01

    Aerial and underground parts of Galanthus nivalis subsp. cilicicus, a wild-growing species in Turkey, were collected during two different vegetation periods in flowering and fruiting seasons. Herba and bulbus Galanthi were prepared from each specimen. With the aim of collecting data for prospective monographs on this drug, contents of humidity, ash, sulphated ash and total alkaloids were determined according to DAB 10. The specimens were also analyzed quantitatively for two of the principal alkaloids of the genus, galanthamine and lycorine, by using a method based on spectrophotometry complemented with TLC. LC50 values were determined for the ethanolic and alkaloidal extracts of each of the specimens using brine shrimp lethality bioassay.

  2. Micromorphology of the halophyte Juncus gerardii Loisel. subsp. gerardii (Juncaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Futorna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that anatomical structure of vegetative organs of the halophyte Juncus gerardiisubsp. gerardiicombines xeromorphic and halomophic features. Such features as parenchyma lining, good development of bulliform cells, and weak development of mechanical tissue are typically halomophic. However, plants also have features considered as xeromorphic: e.g. smaller cells of the tissues, the high length of the cells in palisade mesophyll (in the leaves, and length of the cells in chlorenchyma (in the stem. The seeds of J. gerardii subsp. gerardiihave not special morphological or anatomical adaptations to germination at the high level of salinity.

  3. Nested PCR for ultrasensitive detection of the potato ring rot bacterium, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I M; Bartoszyk, I M; Gundersen, D E; Mogen, B; Davis, R E

    1997-07-01

    Oligonucleotide primers derived from sequences of the 16S rRNA gene (CMR16F1, CMR16R1, CMR16F2, and CMR16R2) and insertion element IS1121 of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (CMSIF1, CMSIR1, CMSIF2, and CMISR2) were used in nested PCR to detect the potato ring rot bacterium C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus. Nested PCR with primer pair CMSIF1-CMSIR1 followed by primer pair CMSIF2-CMSIR2 specifically detected C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, while nested PCR with CMR16F1-CMR16R1 followed by CMR16F2-CMR16R2 detected C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus and the other C. michiganensis subspecies. In the latter case, C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus can be differentiated from the other subspecies by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of the nested PCR products (16S rDNA sequences). The nested PCR assays developed in this work allow ultrasensitive detection of very low titers of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus which may be present in symptomiess potato plants or tubers and which cannot be readily detected by direct PCR (single PCR amplification). RFLP analysis of PCR products provides for an unambiguous confirmation of the identify of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus.

  4. Bioluminescence Imaging of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis Infection of Tomato Seeds and Plants ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiulan; Miller, Sally A.; Baysal-Gurel, Fulya; Gartemann, Karl-Heinz; Eichenlaub, Rudolf; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2010-01-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes wilting and cankers, leading to severe economic losses in commercial tomato production worldwide. The disease is transmitted from infected seeds to seedlings and mechanically from plant to plant during seedling production, grafting, pruning, and harvesting. Because of the lack of tools for genetic manipulation, very little is known regarding the mechanisms of seed and seedling infection and movement of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in grafted plants, two focal points for application of bacterial canker control measures in tomato. To facilitate studies on the C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis movement in tomato seed and grafted plants, we isolated a bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strain using the modified Tn1409 containing a promoterless lux reporter. A total of 19 bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis mutants were obtained. All mutants tested induced a hypersensitive response in Mirabilis jalapa and caused wilting of tomato plants. Real-time colonization studies of germinating seeds using a virulent, stable, constitutively bioluminescent strain, BL-Cmm17, showed that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis aggregated on hypocotyls and cotyledons at an early stage of germination. In grafted seedlings in which either the rootstock or scion was exposed to BL-Cmm17 via a contaminated grafting knife, bacteria were translocated in both directions from the graft union at higher inoculum doses. These results emphasize the use of bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis to help better elucidate the C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis-tomato plant interactions. Further, we demonstrated the broader applicability of this tool by successful transformation of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis with Tn1409::lux. Thus, our approach would be highly useful to understand the pathogenesis of diseases caused by other subspecies of the

  5. Bioluminescence imaging of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis infection of tomato seeds and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiulan; Miller, Sally A; Baysal-Gurel, Fulya; Gartemann, Karl-Heinz; Eichenlaub, Rudolf; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2010-06-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes wilting and cankers, leading to severe economic losses in commercial tomato production worldwide. The disease is transmitted from infected seeds to seedlings and mechanically from plant to plant during seedling production, grafting, pruning, and harvesting. Because of the lack of tools for genetic manipulation, very little is known regarding the mechanisms of seed and seedling infection and movement of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in grafted plants, two focal points for application of bacterial canker control measures in tomato. To facilitate studies on the C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis movement in tomato seed and grafted plants, we isolated a bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strain using the modified Tn1409 containing a promoterless lux reporter. A total of 19 bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis mutants were obtained. All mutants tested induced a hypersensitive response in Mirabilis jalapa and caused wilting of tomato plants. Real-time colonization studies of germinating seeds using a virulent, stable, constitutively bioluminescent strain, BL-Cmm17, showed that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis aggregated on hypocotyls and cotyledons at an early stage of germination. In grafted seedlings in which either the rootstock or scion was exposed to BL-Cmm17 via a contaminated grafting knife, bacteria were translocated in both directions from the graft union at higher inoculum doses. These results emphasize the use of bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis to help better elucidate the C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis-tomato plant interactions. Further, we demonstrated the broader applicability of this tool by successful transformation of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis with Tn1409::lux. Thus, our approach would be highly useful to understand the pathogenesis of diseases caused by other subspecies of the

  6. Análisis comparativo del cariotipo en poblaciones de Alstroemeria ligtu subsp. ligtu y A. ligtu subsp. simsii (Alstroemeriaceae de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Baeza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae es un género endémico de América del Sur. En Chile, este género se distribuye desde el extremo norte hasta la Patagonia, y la mayor diversidad de especies se encuentra en la zona central. Precisamente en esta zona crece Alstroemeria ligtu con sus 3 subespecies: A. ligtu subsp. ligtu, A. ligtu subsp. incarnata, A. ligtu subsp. simsii. Se realizó un estudio comparativo del cariotipo de individuos provenientes de 5 poblaciones de A. ligtu subsp. ligtu de la VIII Región, y de una población de A. ligtu subsp. simsii de la V Región, mediante tinción de los cromosomas con DAPI u orceína acética. Las seis poblaciones estudiadas presentaron un cariotipo asimétrico, con 2n=2x=16 cromosomas. Las poblaciones de A. ligtu subsp. ligtu presentaron una fórmula haploide conformada por cuatro cromosomas metacéntricos (los pares 1 y 2 con microsatélites, uno submetacéntrico con microsatélite y tres telocéntricos con microsatélites. La población de A. ligtu subsp. simsii se caracterizó por poseer cinco cromosomas metacéntricos (el par 2 con un microsatélite y el par 6 con una constricción secundaria y tres cromosomas telocéntricos con satélite. Estos resultados indican que el cariotipo en A. ligtu es variable, y es probable que cambios a nivel cromosómico hayan contribuido en la diversificación de esta especie.

  7. Proposal to reclassify Brenneria quercina (Hildebrand and Schroth 1967) Hauben et al. 1999 into a new genus, Lonsdalea gen. nov., as Lonsdalea quercina comb. nov., descriptions of Lonsdalea quercina subsp. quercina comb. nov., Lonsdalea quercina subsp. iberica subsp. nov. and Lonsdalea quercina subsp. britannica subsp. nov., emendation of the description of the genus Brenneria, reclassification of Dickeya dieffenbachiae as Dickeya dadantii subsp. dieffenbachiae comb. nov., and emendation of the description of Dickeya dadantii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Carrie L; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Denman, Sandra; Venter, Stephanus N; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; Coutinho, Teresa A; De Vos, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Bacterial isolates from oak trees in Spain and Britain, showing symptoms of bark canker and Acute Oak Decline (AOD), respectively, were examined by a polyphasic approach. Both 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), based on partial sequences of gyrB, rpoB, infB and atpD genes, revealed that the isolates were separated into two genetic groups according to their origin. Their closest phylogenetic relative was Brenneria quercina, the causal agent of drippy nut disease of oak, which clustered distant to the other species of the genus Brenneria. MLSA data for species of the genera Brenneria, Pectobacterium, Dickeya, Erwinia, Pantoea and Samsonia confirmed the polyphyletic nature of the genus Brenneria and indicated synonymy of Dickeya dadantii and Dickeya dieffenbachiae. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed this synonymy and also revealed DNA-DNA relatedness values of 58-73% between the new oak isolates and B. quercina. Phenotypic and/or chemotaxonomic methods allowed B. quercina and the two genetic groups of new oak isolates to be discriminated from other recognized species of the genus Brenneria and from members of the closely related genera Dickeya, Pectobacterium and Samsonia. Based on the data obtained, the following taxonomic proposals are made: (1) reclassification of B. quercina as the type species of a novel genus, Lonsdalea gen. nov., as Lonsdalea quercina comb. nov. (type strain LMG 2724(T)=ATCC 29281(T)=CCUG 48867(T)=CFBP 3617(T)=CIP 105201(T)=DSM 4561(T)=ICMP 1845(T)), (2) classification of the oak isolates as Lonsdalea quercina subsp. iberica subsp. nov. (type strain LMG26264(T)=NCPPB 4490(T)) and Lonsdalea quercina subsp. britannica subsp. nov. (type strain LMG 26267(T)=NCPPB 4481(T)) and leading to the automatic creation of Lonsdalea quercina subsp. quercina subsp. nov. (type strain LMG 2724(T)=ATCC 29281(T)), (3) emendation of the description of the genus Brenneria, and (4) reclassification of Dickeya dieffenbachiae as

  8. Genome sequence of the ethanol-producing Zymomonas mobilis subsp. pomaceae lectotype strain ATCC 29192.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvelis, Vassili N; Davenport, Karen W; Brettin, Thomas S; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Han, Cliff S; Nolan, Matt; Tapia, Roxanne; Damoulaki, Agni; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Typas, Milton A; Pappas, Katherine M

    2011-09-01

    Zymomonas mobilis is an alphaproteobacterium studied for bioethanol production. Different strains of this organism have been hitherto sequenced; they all belong to the Z. mobilis subsp. mobilis taxon. Here we report the finished and annotated genome sequence of strain ATCC 29192, a cider-spoiling agent isolated in the United Kingdom. ATCC 29192 is the lectotype of the second-best-characterized subspecies of Z. mobilis, Z. mobilis subsp. pomaceae. The nucleotide sequence of ATCC 29192 deviates from that of Z. mobilis subsp. mobilis representatives, which justifies its distinct taxonomic positioning and proves particularly useful for comparative and functional genomic analyses. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Stability evaluation of freeze-dried Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in oral capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, M; Abedi, D; Varshosaz, J; Najjarzadeh, M; Mirlohi, M; Tavakoli, N

    2012-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a common preservation technology in the pharmaceutical industry. Various studies have investigated the effect of different cryoprotectants on probiotics during freeze-drying. However, information on the effect of cryoprotectants on the stability of some Lactobacillus strains during freeze-drying seems scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish production methods for preparation of oral capsule probiotics containing Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus. It was also of interest to examine the effect of various formulations of cryoprotectant media containing skim milk, trehalose and sodium ascorbate on the survival rate of probiotic bacteria during freeze-drying at various storage temperatures. Without any cryoprotectant, few numbers of microorganisms survived. However, microorganisms tested maintained higher viability after freeze-drying in media containing at least one of the cryoprotectants. Use of skim milk in water resulted in an increased viability after lyophilization. Media with a combination of trehalose and skim milk maintained a higher percentage of live microorganisms, up to 82%. In general, bacteria retained a higher number of viable cells in capsules containing freeze-dried bacteria with sodium ascorbate after three months of storage. After this period, a marked decline was observed in all samples stored at 23°C compared to those stored at 4°C. The maximum survival rate (about 72-76%) was observed with media containing 6% skim milk, 8% trehalose and 4% sodium ascorbate.

  10. The Karyotype of Alstroemeria diluta Ehr. Bayer subsp. chrysantha (Alstroemeriaceae Karyotype of Alstroemeria diluta Ehr. Bayer subsp. chrysantha (Alstroemeriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Baeza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype of Alstroemeria diluta subsp. chrysantha Ehr. Bayer from Chile was examined. The species has 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes, with 4m + 4sm + 2st-sat + 4t + 2t-sat. The reported karyotype is very asymmetrical (AsK % = 71.4 and Syi = 40.0%. This karyotype is similar to that published previously for Alstroemeria graminea Phil.Alstroemeria diluta subsp. chrysantha Ehr. Bayer (Alstroemeriaceae fue examinada citológicamente. Esta especie presenta un número cromosómico somático de 2n = 2x = 16 cromosomas, con una fórmula haploide constituida por 4m + 4sm + 2st-sat + 4t + 2t-sat cromosomas. El cariotipo es muy asimétrico, con valores de AsK % = 71,4 y Syi = 40,0%. Estos resultados se compararon con los de Alstroemeria graminea Phil., especie que presenta un cariotipo muy similar.

  11. The Type III Secretion System Effector SeoC of Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae and S. enterica subsp. arizonae ADP-Ribosylates Src and Inhibits Opsonophagocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Dominic J.; Young, Joanna C.; Covarelli, Valentina; Herrera-León, Silvia; Connor, Thomas R.; Fookes, Maria; Walker, Danielle; Echeita, Aurora; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Berger, Cedric N.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella species utilize type III secretion systems (T3SSs) to translocate effectors into the cytosol of mammalian host cells, subverting cell signaling and facilitating the onset of gastroenteritis. In this study, we compared a draft genome assembly of Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae strain 3588/07 against the genomes of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain LT2 and Salmonella bongori strain 12419. S. enterica subsp. salamae encodes the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), SPI-2, and the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) T3SSs. Though several key S. Typhimurium effector genes are missing (e.g., avrA, sopB, and sseL), S. enterica subsp. salamae invades HeLa cells and contains homologues of S. bongori sboK and sboC, which we named seoC. SboC and SeoC are homologues of EspJ from enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC, respectively), which inhibit Src kinase-dependent phagocytosis by ADP-ribosylation. By screening 73 clinical and environmental Salmonella isolates, we identified EspJ homologues in S. bongori, S. enterica subsp. salamae, and Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae. The β-lactamase TEM-1 reporter system showed that SeoC is translocated by the SPI-1 T3SS. All the Salmonella SeoC/SboC homologues ADP-ribosylate Src E310 in vitro. Ectopic expression of SeoC/SboC inhibited phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized beads into Cos-7 cells stably expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-FcγRIIa. Concurrently, S. enterica subsp. salamae infection of J774.A1 macrophages inhibited phagocytosis of beads, in a seoC-dependent manner. These results show that S. bongori, S. enterica subsp. salamae, and S. enterica subsp. arizonae share features of the infection strategy of extracellular pathogens EPEC and EHEC and shed light on the complexities of the T3SS effector repertoires of Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:27736780

  12. Development and characterization of recombinant chromosome substitution lines (RCSLs) using Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum as a source of donor alleles in a Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, I; Corey, A; Filichkin, T; Hayes, P M; Vales, M I; Kling, J; Riera-Lizarazu, O; Sato, K; Powell, W; Waugh, R

    2003-12-01

    The ancestor of barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) may be a source of novel alleles for crop improvement. We developed a set of recombinant chromosome substitution lines (RCSLs) using an accession of H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum (Caesarea 26-24, from Israel) as the donor and Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare 'Harrington' (the North American malting quality standard) as the recurrent parent via two backcrosses to the recurrent parent, followed by six generations of selfing. Here we report (i) the genomic architecture of the RCSLs, as inferred by simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and (ii) the effects of H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum genome segment introgressions in terms of three classes of phenotypes: inflorescence yield components, malting quality traits, and domestication traits. Significant differences among the RCSLs were detected for all phenotypes measured. The phenotypic effects of the introgressions were assessed using association analysis, and these were referenced to quantitative trait loci (QTL) reported in the literature. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum, despite its overall inferior phenotype, contributed some favorable alleles for agronomic and malting quality traits. In most cases, the introgression of the ancestral genome resulted in a loss of desirable phenotypes in the cultivated parent. Although disappointing from a plant breeding perspective, this finding may prove to be a useful tool for gene discovery.

  13. Bacteriologic characterization of 36 strains of Roseomonas species and proposal of Roseomonas mucosa sp nov and Roseomonas gilardii subsp rosea subsp nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiang Y; Pham, Audrey S; Tarrand, Jeffrey J; Rolston, Kenneth V; Helsel, Leta O; Levett, Paul N

    2003-08-01

    We used a polyphasic approach (sequencing analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene and phenotypic analyses) to characterize 36 strains of Roseomonas species isolated from blood. Five strains, represented by strain MDA5176 (M.D. Anderson Cancer Center), were identified as Roseomonas gilardii. One strain belonged to Roseomonas genomospecies 4. The 22 strains represented by strain MDA5527 showed significant differences genotypically and phenotypically with R gilardii and other Roseomonas species and represented a new Roseomonas species; Roseomonas mucosa sp nov was proposed to denote its prominent mucoid, almost runny colonies. Eight strains, represented by strain MDA5605, had minor differences with R gilardii and displayed obvious pink to red colonies; Roseomonas gilardii subsp rosea subsp nov was proposed. For subspecies differentiation, R gilardii was proposed to be R gilardii subsp gilardii subsp nov. Unique patterns of biochemical reactions were established for these Roseomonas species, which may assist routine identification of these organisms. All 36 strains and 2 American Type Culture Collection strains were susceptible to amikacin and ciprofloxacin but resistant to cefepime and ceftazidime. They also were frequently susceptible to imipenem and ticarcillin-clavulanate but far less susceptible to ceftriaxone, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and ampicillin. R mucosa strains were most resistant, whereas R gilardii subsp gilardii strains were most susceptible.

  14. Achromobacter xylosoxidans (Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans) meningitis associated with a gunshot wound.

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    The microbiological and clinical features of a case of Achromobacter xylosoxidans (Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans) meningitis associated with a gunshot wound are described. To our knowledge, this is the third confirmed case report of meningitis caused by this organism.

  15. In vitro cellulolytic activity of the plant pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, D; Gudmestad, N C

    1995-10-01

    The activity of four Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus strains against various cellulose substrates was investigated. Sixty-seven Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus strains grew well on media amended with carboxymethylcellulose, 64 strains produced zones of hydrolysis. Endoglucanase activity was optimal at 37 degrees C and pH 6.0 against carboxymethylcellulose incorporated in plate assays. Zymogram and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of a protein band corresponding to the cellulolytic activity in the molecular weight (MW) range of approximately 28,000. Protein bands in the same range were detected in five Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus strains. Studies on crude enzyme extracts of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus strain N-1-1 revealed that p-nitrophenyl beta-D-cellobioside (pNPC) was hydrolyzed, with optimal activity at 37 degrees C and pH 7.0.

  16. PFGE and AFLP genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius isolated from goats with Morel's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaluś-Jordanow, O; Chrobak, D; Pyrgiel, M; Lutyńska, A; Kaba, J; Czopowicz, M; Witkowski, L; Kizerwetter-Świda, M; Binek, M; Frymus, T

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius is the etiological agent of the Morel's disease in sheep and goats. The disease presents with subcutaneous abscesses, located mainly in the superficial lymph nodes. Forty-one isolates of S. aureus subsp. anaerobius were collected from two outbreaks of the Morel's disease in Poland in years 2006-2008. Analysis of DNA SmaI digests by PFGE showed that 35 of 41 isolates belonged to the same PFGE type, identical to the type strain of S. aureus subsp. anaerobius ATCC 35844, confirming high level of clonality of the species. The DNA patterns of the remaining identical 6 isolates, different from the reference strain only by two bands, were found closely related. Genotyping performed with AFLP technique revealed two clonal groups including 16 and 25 isolates, respectively. The study indicated that AFLP technique might be a better discriminatory tool for genetic analysis of S. aureus subsp. anaerobius isolates, when compared to PFGE.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Bardo Strain CRJJGF_00099 (Phylum Gammaproteobacteria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sushim K.; McMillan, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, Charlene R.; Desai, Prerak T.; Porwollik, Steffen; McClelland, Michael; Hiott, Lari M.; Humayoun, Shaheen B.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report a 4.87-Mbp draft genome sequence of the multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Bardo strain CRJJGF_00099, isolated from dairy cattle in 2005. PMID:27634995

  18. Colorectal neoplasm in cases of Clostridium septicum and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus bacteraemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corredoira, J.; Grau, I.; Garcia-Rodriguez, J.F.; Garcia-Pais, M.J.; Rabunal, R.; Ardanuy, C.; Garcia-Garrote, F.; Coira, A.; Alonso, M.P.; Boleij, A.; Pallares, R.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacteremia with Clostridium septicum (CS) and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (SGG) have both been associated with colorectal neoplasms (CRN) and colonoscopic examination is advised, however the differences and similarities in colorectal findings are not well known.

  19. Neisseria elongata subsp elongata infective endocarditis following endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Joanne May; Fife, Amanda; Baghai, Max; Dworakowski, Rafal

    2015-12-11

    A 31-year-old Argentinian woman presented with a 3-week history of fever, night sweats, myalgia and lethargy following a work trip to Uganda where she ran a marathon. Malarial screens were negative but C reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and neutrophil count were raised and she was anaemic. A new pansystolic murmur was heard over the mitral valve and the transthoracic echocardiogram showed a large vegetation (>1 cm) with at least moderate mitral regurgitation. Blood cultures grew Neisseria elongata, subsp elongata treated initially with ceftriaxone then oral ciprofloxacin to complete 4 weeks of treatment. CT scan revealed a wedge-shaped area of low attenuation in the spleen in keeping with a splenic infarct. Seven days postadmission, the patient underwent a successful mitral valve repair. Recovery was complicated by a likely embolic infarct in the right frontal lobe, but the patient was discharged 12 days postoperative with no neurological sequelae.

  20. Novel fermentation media for production of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poopathi, Subbiah; Kumar, K Anup

    2003-08-01

    The production of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (deBarjac) (Bti) as a biopesticide is not cost-effective using existing fermentation technology. In this study, we explored the use of several less expensive alternative culture media (potato, common sugar, and Bengal gram) for the growth and production of Bti. Growth was obtained in all tested media and was comparable to that obtained in conventional medium (Luria-Bertani). Toxicity assays showed that the toxin produced from the novel growth media were effective in killing larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti and toxicity was comparable to that produced from Luria-Bertani medium. These observations suggest that potato can be used as a cheap source of culture medium for the production of Bti toxin in mosquito control programs.

  1. Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida isolated from a human in Arizona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birdsell Dawn N

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Francisella tularensis is the etiologic agent of tularemia and is classified as a select agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Currently four known subspecies of F. tularensis that differ in virulence and geographical distribution are recognized:tularensis (type A, holarctica (type B, mediasiatica, and novicida. Because of the Select Agent status and differences in virulence and geographical location, the molecular analysis of any clinical case of tularemia is of particular interest. We analyzed an unusual Francisella clinical isolate from a human infection in Arizona using multiple DNA-based approaches. Findings We report that the isolate is F. tularensis subsp. novicida, a subspecies that is rarely isolated. Conclusion The rarity of this novicida subspecies in clinical settings makes each case study important for our understanding of its role in disease and its genetic relationship with other F. tularensis subspecies.

  2. Inhibition of protein glycation by essential oils of branchlets and fruits of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica

    OpenAIRE

    S Asgary; G.A NADERI; Shams Ardekani, M.R.; A. Sahebkar; Airin,A.; S. Aslani; Kasher,T.; Emami, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and protein glycation play pivotal roles in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-glycation properties of essential oils obtained from different parts of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica. The branchlets of male tree (BMT) and branchlets of female (BFT) tree, and fruits of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica were extracted using steam distillation method. The oils were phytochemically analyz...

  3. Genomic variations of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp capripneumoniae detected by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; Bolske, G.; Ahrens, Peter;

    2000-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strains based on determination of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) is described. AFLP fingerprints of 38 strains derived from different countries in Africa and the Middle East consisted of over 100 bands in the size...... found by 16S rDNA analysis. The present data support previous observations regarding genetic homogeneity of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, and confirm the two evolutionary lines of descent found by analysis of 16S rRNA genes....

  4. Seed-associated subspecies of the genus Clavibacter are clearly distinguishable from Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara-Bell, Jarred; Alvarez, Anne M

    2015-03-01

    The genus Clavibacter contains one recognized species, Clavibacter michiganensis. Clavibacter michiganensis is subdivided into subspecies based on host specificity and bacteriological characteristics, with Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis causing bacterial canker of tomato. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is often spread through contaminated seed leading to outbreaks of bacterial canker in tomato production areas worldwide. The frequent occurrence of non-pathogenic Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis-like bacteria (CMB) is a concern for seed producers because Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is a quarantine organism and detection of a non-pathogenic variant may result in destruction of an otherwise healthy seed lot. A thorough biological and genetic characterization of these seed-associated CMB strains was performed using standard biochemical tests, cell wall analyses, metabolic profiling using Biolog, and single-gene and multilocus sequence analyses. Combined, these tests revealed two distinct populations of seed-associated members of the genus Clavibacter that differed from each other, as well as from all other described subspecies of Clavibacter michiganensis. DNA-DNA hybridization values are 70 % or higher, justifying placement into the single recognized species, C. michiganensis, but other analyses justify separate subspecies designations. Additionally, strains belonging to the genus Clavibacter isolated from pepper also represent a distinct population and warrant separate subspecies designation. On the basis of these data we propose subspecies designations for separate non-pathogenic subpopulations of Clavibacter michiganensis: Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. californiensis subsp. nov. and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. chilensis subsp. nov. for seed-associated strains represented by C55(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2691(T) = CFBP 8216(T)) and ZUM3936(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2690(T) = CFBP 8217(T

  5. Characteristics of atypical Huperzia selago subsp. arctica habitats to the south of distribution area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Jukonienė

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two localities for Huperzia selago subsp. arctica are recorded from Lithuania, to the south of its known distribution area. The habitats of this subspecies are cutover peatlands whose natural vegetation was disturbed 6-8 years ago during peat exploitation. One of the dominant species of latest vegetation cover is the invasive bryophyte Campylopus introflexus. Characteristics of the habitats of H. selago subsp. arctica and the frequency of this taxon in populations were analysed.

  6. Unusual outbreak of clinical mastitis in dairy sheep caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Las Heras, Alfonso; Vela, Ana I; Fernández, Elena; Legaz, Emilio; Domínguez, Lucas; Fernández-Garayzábal, Jose F

    2002-03-01

    This work describes an outbreak of clinical mastitis affecting 13 of 58 lactating ewes due to Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated in pure culture from all milk samples. All the clinical isolates had identical biochemical profiles and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and also exhibited indistinguishable macrorestriction patterns by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, indicating that all cases of mastitis were produced by a single strain.

  7. Expression library immunization confers protection against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, J F; Stabel, J R; Paustian, M L; Reinhardt, T A; Bannantine, J P

    2005-10-01

    Currently, paratuberculosis vaccines are comprised of crude whole-cell preparations of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Although effective in reducing clinical disease and fecal shedding, these vaccines have severe disadvantages as well, including seroconversion of vaccinated animals and granulomatous lesions at the site of vaccination. DNA vaccines can offer an alternative approach that may be safer and elicit more protective responses. In an effort to identify protective M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis sequences, a genomic DNA expression library was generated and subdivided into pools of clones (approximately 1,500 clones/pool). The clone pools were evaluated to determine DNA vaccine efficacy by immunizing mice via gene gun delivery and challenging them with live, virulent M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Four clone pools resulted in a significant reduction in the amount of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis recovered from mouse tissues compared to mice immunized with other clone pools and nonvaccinated, infected control mice. One of the protective clone pools was further partitioned into 10 clone arrays of 108 clones each, and four clone arrays provided significant protection from both spleen and mesenteric lymph node colonization by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The nucleotide sequence of each clone present in the protective pools was determined, and coding region functions were predicted by computer analysis. Comparison of the protective clone array sequences implicated 26 antigens that may be responsible for protection in mice. This study is the first study to demonstrate protection against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection with expression library immunization.

  8. Pork meat as a potential source of Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae infection in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelopoulou, Grammato; Kritas, Spyridon; Govaris, Alexander; Burriel, Angeliki R

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae was isolated from 13 of 123 slaughtered pigs in central Greece. The samples cultured were feces, ileum tissue, mesenteric lymph nodes, and gallbladder swabs. A total of 74 isolates from 492 samples were identified as Salmonella spp. by use of standard laboratory culture media and two commercial micromethods and by use of a polyvalent slide agglutination test for the detection of O and H antigens. Among them were 19 (25.68%) suspected to be S. enterica subsp. arizonae according to analysis with standard laboratory culture media. Of those, 14 were identified as S. enterica subsp. arizonae by the API 20E (bioMérieux, France) and the Microgen GnA+B-ID (Microgen Bioproducts, Ltd., United Kingdom) identification systems. All the isolates were tested for resistance to 23 antimicrobials. Strains identified as S. enterica subsp. arizonae were resistant to 17 (70.8%) antibiotics. The highest proportions of resistance were observed for sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (71.4%), tetracycline (71.4%), ampicillin (64.3%), and amoxicillin (57.1%). Two isolates were resistant to aztreonam (7.1%) and tigecycline (7.1%), used only for the treatment of humans. Thus, pork meat may play a role in the transmission of antibiotic-resistant S. enterica subsp. arizonae to human consumers. This is the first report of S. enterica subsp. arizonae isolation from pigs.

  9. Tomato fruit and seed colonization by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis through external and internal routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancos, Matthew A; Chalupowicz, Laura; Barash, Isaac; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit; Smart, Christine D

    2013-11-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, causal agent of bacterial wilt and canker of tomato, is an economically devastating pathogen that inflicts considerable damage throughout all major tomato-producing regions. Annual outbreaks continue to occur in New York, where C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis spreads via infected transplants, trellising stakes, tools, and/or soil. Globally, new outbreaks can be accompanied by the introduction of contaminated seed stock; however, the route of seed infection, especially the role of fruit lesions, remains undefined. In order to investigate the modes of seed infection, New York C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis field strains were stably transformed with a gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). A constitutively eGFP-expressing virulent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis isolate, GCMM-22, was used to demonstrate that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis could not only access seeds systemically through the xylem but also externally through tomato fruit lesions, which harbored high intra- and intercellular populations. Active movement and expansion of bacteria into the fruit mesocarp and nearby xylem vessels followed, once the fruits began to ripen. These results highlight the ability of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis to invade tomato fruits and seeds through multiple entry routes.

  10. Detection of Goss's Wilt Pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis in Maize by Loop-Mediated Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara-Bell, Jarred; de Silva, Asoka; Heuchelin, Scott A; Chaky, Jennifer L; Alvarez, Anne M

    2016-03-01

    The Goss's wilt pathogen, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, can cause considerable losses in maize (Zea mays) production. Diagnosis of Goss's wilt currently is based on symptomology and identification of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, following isolation on a semiselective medium and/or serological testing. In an effort to provide a more efficient identification method, a loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) assay was developed to detect the tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic (TRAP)-type C4-dicarboxylate transport system large permease component and tested using strains of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, all other C. michiganensis subspecies and several genera of nontarget bacteria. Only strains of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis reacted positively with the LAMP assay. The LAMP assay was then used to identify bacterial isolates from diseased maize. 16S rDNA and dnaA sequence analyses were used to confirm the identity of the maize isolates and validate assay specificity. The Cmm ImmunoStrip assay was included as a presumptive identification test of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis at the species level. The Cmn-LAMP assay was further tested using symptomatic leaf tissue. The Cmn-LAMP assay was run in a hand-held real-time monitoring device (SMART-DART) and performed equally to in-lab quantitative polymerase chain reaction equipment. The Cmn-LAMP assay accurately identified C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis and has potential as a field test. The targeted sequence also has potential application in other molecular detection platforms.

  11. Specific 16S ribosomal RNA targeted oligonucleotide probe against Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, M S; Rademaker, J L; Janse, J D; Akkermans, A D

    1993-11-01

    In this article we report on the polymerase chain reaction amplification of a partial 16S rRNA gene from the plant pathogenic bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus. A partial sequence (about 400 base pairs) of the gene was determined that covered two variable regions important for oligonucleotide probe development. A specific 24mer oligonucleotide probe targeted against the V6 region of 16S rRNA was designed. Specificity of the probe was determined using dot blot hybridization. Under stringent conditions (60 degrees C), the probe hybridized with all 16 Cl. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus strains tested. Hybridization did not occur with 32 plant pathogenic and saprophytic bacteria used as controls under the same conditions. Under less stringent conditions (55 degrees C) the related Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. insidiosus, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. tesselarius also showed hybridization. At even lower stringency (40 degrees C), all Cl. michiganensis subspecies tested including Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis showed hybridization signal, suggesting that under these conditions the probe may be used as a species-specific probe for Cl. michiganensis.

  12. Decreased toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis to mosquito larvae after contact with leaf litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Stalinski, Renaud; Kersusan, Dylann; Veyrenc, Sylvie; David, Jean-Philippe; Reynaud, Stéphane; Després, Laurence

    2012-08-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is a bacterium producing crystals containing Cry and Cyt proteins, which are toxic for mosquito larvae. Nothing is known about the interaction between crystal toxins and decaying leaf litter, which is a major component of several mosquito breeding sites and represents an important food source. In the present work, we investigated the behavior of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxic crystals sprayed on leaf litter. In the presence of leaf litter, a 60% decrease in the amount of Cyt toxin detectable by immunology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays [ELISAs]) was observed, while the respective proportions of Cry toxins were not affected. The toxicity of Cry toxins toward Aedes aegypti larvae was not affected by leaf litter, while the synergistic effect of Cyt toxins on all B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry toxins was decreased by about 20% when mixed with leaf litter. The toxicity of two commercial B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strains (VectoBac WG and VectoBac 12AS) and a laboratory-produced B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strain decreased by about 70% when mixed with leaf litter. Taken together, these results suggest that Cyt toxins interact with leaf litter, resulting in a decreased toxicity of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in litter-rich environments and thereby dramatically reducing the efficiency of mosquitocidal treatments.

  13. Geobacter sulfurreducens subsp. ethanolicus, subsp. nov., an ethanol-utilizing dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium from a lotus field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viulu, Samson; Nakamura, Kohei; Kojima, Akihiro; Yoshiyasu, Yuki; Saitou, Sakiko; Takamizawa, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    An ethanol-utilizing Fe(III)-reducing bacterial strain, OSK2A(T), was isolated from a lotus field in Aichi, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of OSK2A(T) and related strains placed it within Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA(T). Strain OSK2A(T) was shown to be a Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, strictly anaerobic, 0.76-1.65 µm long and 0.28-0.45 μm wide. Its growth occurred at 20-40℃, pH 6.0-8.1, and it tolerated up to 1% NaCl. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 61.2 mol% and DNA-DNA hybridization value with Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA(T) was 60.7%. The major respiratory quinone was MK-8. The major fatty acids were 16:1 ω7c, 16:0, 14:0, 15:0 iso, 16:1 ω5c, and 18:1 ω7c. Strain OSK2A(T) could utilize H2, ethanol, acetate, lactate, pyruvate, and formate as substrates with Fe(III)-citrate as electron acceptor. Amorphous Fe(III) hydroxide, Fe(III)-NTA, fumarate, malate, and elemental sulfur were utilized as electron acceptors with either acetate or ethanol as substrates. Results obtained from physiological, DNA-DNA hybridization, and chemotaxonomic tests support genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain OSK2A(T) from its closest relative. The isolate is assigned as a novel subspecies with the name Geobacter sulfurreducens subsp. ethanolicus, subsp. nov. (type strain OSK2A(T)=DSMZ 26126(T)=JCM 18752(T)).

  14. Isolamento de esporos de Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae no Brasil Detectionof Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Maria Tocchetto Schuch

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou detectar presença de esporos de Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae em produtos de um entreposto do interior do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a identificação de possíveis fontes de contaminação e a avaliação da possibilidade da transferência de esporos para colméias de apiários adjacentes a partir de produtos importados contaminados. Foram analisados mel e pólen importados disponíveis no entreposto, favo do ninho (crias, pólen e mel colhido de uma colméia sadia, mel estocado em um dos apiários e abelhas adultas. Os resultados foram positivosem relação ao mel e pólen importados, a três grupos de abelhas adultas e ao mel do favo.The objective of this work was to detect the presence of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores in products from a warehouse located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, the identification of possible contamination sources, and the assessment of spores transference possibility from contaminated imported products from the warehouse to apiaries located in the surrounding area. Samples of imported pollen and bulk honey stocked in the warehouse, and honeycomb (brood, honey and pollen from a healthy hive, honey from one apiary and adult bees were analyzed. Imported honey and pollen, and three groups of adult bees and the honey collected from the honeycomb resulted positive.

  15. Microbiota of Minas cheese as influenced by the nisin producer Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis GLc05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Luana Martins; Dal Bello, Barbara; Belviso, Simona; Zeppa, Giuseppe; de Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes; Cocolin, Luca; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2015-12-01

    Minas cheese is a popular dairy product in Brazil that is traditionally produced using raw or pasteurized cow milk. This study proposed an alternative production of Minas cheese using raw goat milk added of a nisin producer Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis GLc05. An in situ investigation was carried on to evaluate the interactions between the L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 and the autochthonous microbiota of a Minas cheese during the ripening; production of biogenic amines (BAs) was assessed as a safety aspect. Minas cheese was produced in two treatments (A, by adding L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05, and B, without adding this strain), in three independent repetitions (R1, R2, and R3). Culture dependent (direct plating) and independent (rep-PCR and PCR-DGGE) methods were employed to characterize the microbiota and to assess the possible interferences caused by L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05. BA amounts were measured using HPLC. A significant decrease in coagulase-positive cocci was observed in the cheeses produced by adding L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 (cheese A). The rep-PCR and PCR-DGGE highlighted the differences in the microbiota of both cheeses, separating them into two different clusters. Lactococcus sp. was found as the main microorganism in both cheeses, and the microbiota of cheese A presented a higher number of species. High concentrations of tyramine were found in both cheeses and, at specific ripening times, the BA amounts in cheese B were significantly higher than in cheese A (pnisin producer L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 was demonstrated in situ, by demonstration of its influence in the complex microbiota naturally present in a raw goat milk cheese and by controlling the growth of coagulase-positive cocci. L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 influenced also the production of BA determining that their amounts in the cheeses were maintained at acceptable levels for human consumption.

  16. Effects of Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica on Growth and Aflatoxin Production by Aspergillus parasiticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodavaisy, Sadegh; Rezaie, Sassan; Noorbakhsh, Fatemeh; Baghdadi, Elham; Sharifynia, Somayeh; Aala, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Background Aflatoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites mainly produced by Aspergillus parasiticus. This species can contaminate a wide range of agricultural commodities, including cereals, peanuts, and crops in the field. In recent years, research on medicinal herbs, such as Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica, have led to reduced microbial growth, and these herbs also have a particular effect on the production of aflatoxins as carcinogenic compounds. Objectives In this study, we to examine P. atlantica subsp. kurdica as a natural compound used to inhibit the growth of A. parasiticus and to act as an anti-mycotoxin. Materials and Methods In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of P. atlantica subsp. kurdica for A. parasiticus was performed according to CLSI document M38-A2. The rate of aflatoxin production was determined using the HPLC technique after exposure to different concentrations (62.5 - 125 mg/mL) of the gum. The changes in expression levels of the aflR gene were analyzed with a quantitative real-time PCR assay. Results The results showed that P. atlantica subsp. kurdica can inhibit A. parasiticus growth at a concentration of 125 mg/mL. HPLC results revealed a significant decrease in aflatoxin production with 125 mg/mL of P. atlantica subsp. kurdica, and AFL-B1 production was entirely inhibited. Based on quantitative real-time PCR results, the rate of aflR gene expression was significantly decreased after treatment with P. atlantica subsp. kurdica. Conclusions Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica has anti-toxic properties in addition to an inhibitory effect on A. parasiticus growth, and is able to decrease aflatoxin production effectively in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, this herbal extract maybe considered a potential anti-mycotoxin agent in medicine or industrial agriculture. PMID:27800127

  17. Demonstration of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. Capripneumoniae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, small colony type in outbreaks of caprine pleuropneumonia in eastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusiluka, L J; Semuguruka, W D; Kazwala, R R; Ojeniy, B; Friis, N F

    2000-01-01

    An outbreak of caprine pleuropneumonia involving about 1200 goats in the Coast and Morogoro regions of eastern Tanzania is reported. The major clinical findings were severe respiratory distress, fever, mucopurulent nasal discharge and high mortality involving all age groups and both sexes of goats. The morbidity and mortality rates were 45%-90% and 14%-50%, respectively. The principal pathological lesions were confined to the thoracic cavity and comprised hydrothorax and serofibrinous pleuropneumonia. The histopathological features consisted of a necrotizing fibrinous pleuropneumonia characterized by different degrees of vasculitis, and fibrinocellular exudation into the alveolar septae and lumina, and into interlobular septae and pleura. Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini were isolated from some of the examined goats including a case with a sequestrum which yielded Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type. This work reports the first description of an outbreak of caprine pleuropneumonia in Tanzania in which M. capripneumoniae and M. mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type were concurrently isolated.

  18. Comparative polyphasic characterization of Streptococcus phocae strains with different host origin and description of the subspecies Streptococcus phocae subsp. salmonis subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Balboa, Sabela; Castro, Nuria; González-Contreras, Alberto; Magariños, Beatriz; Fernández, Jorge; Toranzo, Alicia E; Romalde, Jesús L

    2014-05-01

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to clarify the taxonomic position of Streptococcus phocae strains isolated from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) cage-farmed in Chile. Four salmon and three seal isolates showed minor differences in the SDS-PAGE protein analysis. Thus, a major protein band present in the salmon isolates, of approximately 22.4 kDa, was absent in the pinniped strains, regardless of the growth media employed. In addition, the pinniped strains showed protein bands with molecular masses of 71.5 and 14.2 kDa, when grown on trypticase soy agar supplemented with 1% NaCl, or 25.6 kDa, when grown on Columbia blood agar, not present in the Atlantic salmon strains. A high similarity in the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS spectra of the strains was observed, although some minor peaks were absent in the fish isolates. Fatty acid methyl esters from isolates with different host origin significantly (PStreptococcus phocae subsp. salmonis subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is C-4T (=CECT 7921T=DSM 24768T). The subspecies Streptococcus phocae subsp. phocae subsp. nov. is automatically created. An emended description of S. phocae is also provided.

  19. Relationship between Presence of Cows with Milk Positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-Specific Antibody by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Dust in Cattle Barns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenberg, S.W.F.; Chuchaisangrat, R.; Nielen, M.; Koets, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Paratuberculosis, or Johne’s disease, in cattle is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, which has recently been suspected to be transmitted through dust. This longitudinal study on eight commercial M. avium subsp. paratuberculosispositive dairy farms studied the relationship betwee

  20. Genetic diversity and population structure of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarkova, I V; Lambrecht, P A; Vidaver, A K

    2011-05-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (CMN) is a gram-positive bacterium and an incitant of Goss's bacterial wilt and leaf blight or "leaf freckles" in corn. A population structure of a wide temporal and geographic collection of CMN strains (n = 131), originating between 1969 and 2009, was determined using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis and repetitive DNA sequence-based BOX-PCR. Analysis of the composite data set of AFLP and BOX-PCR fingerprints revealed two groups with a 60% cutoff similarity: a major group A (n = 118 strains) and a minor group B (n = 13 strains). The clustering in both groups was not correlated with strain pathogenicity. Group A contained two clusters, A1 (n = 78) and A2 (n = 40), with a linkage of 75%. Group A strains did not show any correlation with historical, geographical, morphological, or physiological properties of the strains. Group B was very heterogeneous and eight out of nine clusters were represented by a single strain. The mean similarity between clusters in group B varied from 13% to 63%. All strains in group B were isolated after 1999. The percentage of group B strains among all strains isolated after 1999 (n = 69) was 18.8%. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  1. Control of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in agricultural species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, D J; Benedictus, G

    2001-04-01

    Paratuberculosis or Johne's disease is a chronic intestinal disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, which continues to spread in agricultural species. Control of paratuberculosis is challenging and should not be underestimated. Due to the long incubation period of the infection, disease is largely subclinical in domesticated livestock. Hence, direct effects on animal productivity and welfare are often masked and may appear insufficient to justify large investments in control programmes by individual farmers, livestock industries or governments. Furthermore, in some countries the main effects of the disease are indirect, resulting from the impact of market discrimination against herds and flocks known to be infected, or from the control measures enforced to reduce transmission. In such circumstances, producers may be unwilling to co-operate with surveillance that may detect infection in herds or flocks. As control programmes are rarely successful in eliminating the infection from a herd or flock in the short term without an aggressive and costly programme, financial and community support assists producers to deal with the challenge. Successful prevention and control depends on animal health authorities and livestock industries acquiring a good understanding of the nature and epidemiology of infection, and of the application of tools for diagnosis and control. Building support for control programmes under the leadership of the affected livestock industries is critical, as programmes are unlikely to be successful without ongoing political will, supported by funding for research, surveillance and control.

  2. Description of a Novel Adhesin of Mycobacterium avium Subsp. paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Noelia Viale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The binding and ingestion of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP by host cells are fibronectin (FN dependent. In several species of mycobacteria, a specific family of proteins allows the attachment and internalization of these bacteria by epithelial cells through interaction with FN. Thus, the identification of adhesion molecules is essential to understand the pathogenesis of MAP. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize FN binding cell wall proteins of MAP. We searched for conserved adhesins within a large panel of surface immunogenic proteins of MAP and investigated a possible interaction with FN. For this purpose, a cell wall protein fraction was obtained and resolved by 2D electrophoresis. The immunoreactive spots were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and a homology search was performed. We selected elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu as candidate for further studies. We demonstrated the FN-binding capability of EF-Tu using a ligand blot assay and also confirmed the interaction with FN in a dose-dependent manner by ELISA. The dissociation constant of EF-Tu was determined by surface plasmon resonance and displayed values within the μM range. These data support the hypothesis that this protein could be involved in the interaction of MAP with epithelial cells through FN binding.

  3. Enhancement of Nisin Production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, Dominic; Vu, Khanh Dang; Lacroix, Monique

    2016-09-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp lactis BSA (L. lactis BSA) was isolated from a commercial fermented product (BSA Food Ingredients, Montreal, Canada) containing mixed bacteria that are used as starter for food fermentation. In order to increase the bacteriocin production by L. lactis BSA, different fermentation conditions were conducted. They included different volumetric combinations of two culture media (the Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) broth and skim milk), agitation level (0 and 100 rpm) and concentration of commercial nisin (0, 0.15, and 0.30 µg/ml) added into culture media as stimulant agent for nisin production. During fermentation, samples were collected and used for antibacterial evaluation against Lactobacillus sakei using agar diffusion assay. Results showed that medium containing 50 % MRS broth and 50 % skim milk gave better antibacterial activity as compared to other medium formulations. Agitation (100 rpm) did not improve nisin production by L. lactis BSA. Adding 0.15 µg/ml of nisin into the medium-containing 50 % MRS broth and 50 % skim milk caused the highest nisin activity of 18,820 AU/ml as compared to other medium formulations. This activity was 4 and ~3 times higher than medium containing 100 % MRS broth without added nisin (~4700 AU/ml) and 100 % MRS broth with 0.15 µg/ml of added nisin (~6650 AU/ml), respectively.

  4. Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and Its Dipteran-Specific Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitan Ben-Dov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti is the first Bacillus thuringiensis to be found and used as an effective biological control agent against larvae of many mosquito and black fly species around the world. Its larvicidal activity resides in four major (of 134, 128, 72 and 27 kDa and at least two minor (of 78 and 29 kDa polypeptides encoded respectively by cry4Aa, cry4Ba, cry11Aa, cyt1Aa, cry10Aa and cyt2Ba, all mapped on the 128 kb plasmid known as pBtoxis. These six δ-endotoxins form a complex parasporal crystalline body with remarkably high, specific and different toxicities to Aedes, Culex and Anopheles larvae. Cry toxins are composed of three domains (perforating domain I and receptor binding II and III and create cation-selective channels, whereas Cyts are composed of one domain that acts as well as a detergent-like membrane perforator. Despite the low toxicities of Cyt1Aa and Cyt2Ba alone against exposed larvae, they are highly synergistic with the Cry toxins and hence their combinations prevent emergence of resistance in the targets. The lack of significant levels of resistance in field mosquito populations treated for decades with Bti-bioinsecticide suggests that this bacterium will be an effective biocontrol agent for years to come.

  5. Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and its dipteran-specific toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Dov, Eitan

    2014-03-28

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is the first Bacillus thuringiensis to be found and used as an effective biological control agent against larvae of many mosquito and black fly species around the world. Its larvicidal activity resides in four major (of 134, 128, 72 and 27 kDa) and at least two minor (of 78 and 29 kDa) polypeptides encoded respectively by cry4Aa, cry4Ba, cry11Aa, cyt1Aa, cry10Aa and cyt2Ba, all mapped on the 128 kb plasmid known as pBtoxis. These six δ-endotoxins form a complex parasporal crystalline body with remarkably high, specific and different toxicities to Aedes, Culex and Anopheles larvae. Cry toxins are composed of three domains (perforating domain I and receptor binding II and III) and create cation-selective channels, whereas Cyts are composed of one domain that acts as well as a detergent-like membrane perforator. Despite the low toxicities of Cyt1Aa and Cyt2Ba alone against exposed larvae, they are highly synergistic with the Cry toxins and hence their combinations prevent emergence of resistance in the targets. The lack of significant levels of resistance in field mosquito populations treated for decades with Bti-bioinsecticide suggests that this bacterium will be an effective biocontrol agent for years to come.

  6. Optimization of a plasmid electroporation protocol for Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire-Dufresne, Stéphanie; Emond-Rheault, Jean-Guillaume; Attéré, Sabrina A; Tanaka, Katherine H; Trudel, Mélanie V; Frenette, Michel; Charette, Steve J

    2014-03-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a major fish pathogen. Molecular tools are required to study the virulence and genomic stability of this bacterium. An efficient electroporation-mediated transformation protocol for A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida would make genetic studies faster and easier. In the present study, we designed the 4.1-kb pSDD1 plasmid as a tool for optimizing an electroporation protocol for A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. We systematically tested the electroporation conditions to develop a protocol that generates the maximum number of transformants. Under these optimal conditions (25 kV/cm, 200 Ω, 25 μF), we achieved an electroporation efficiency of up to 1×10(5) CFU/μg DNA. The electroporation protocol was also tested using another plasmid of 10.6-kb and three different strains of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. The strains displayed significant differences in their electro-transformation competencies. Strain 01-B526 was the easiest to electroporate, especially with the pSDD1 plasmid. This plasmid was stably maintained in the 01-B526 transformants, as were the native plasmids, but could be easily cured by removing the selection conditions. This is the first efficient electroporation protocol reported for A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, and offers new possibilities for studying this bacterium.

  7. Colonization of tomato seedlings by bioluminescent Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis under different humidity regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiulan; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Paul, Pierce A; Miller, Sally A

    2012-02-01

    Tomato bacterial canker, caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, is transmitted by infected or infested seed and mechanically from plant to plant. Wounds occurring during seedling production and crop maintenance facilitate the dissemination of the pathogen. However, the effects of environmental factors on C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis translocation and growth as an endophyte have not been fully elucidated. A virulent, stable, constitutively bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strain BL-Cmm 17 coupled with an in vivo imaging system allowed visualization of the C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis colonization process in tomato seedlings in real time. The dynamics of bacterial infection in seedlings through wounds were compared under low (45%) and high (83%) relative humidity. Bacteria multiplied rapidly in cotyledon petioles remaining after clip inoculation and moved in the stem toward both root and shoot. Luminescent signals were also observed in tomato seedling roots over time, and root development was reduced in inoculated plants maintained under both humidity regimes. Wilting was more severe in seedlings under high-humidity regimes. A strong positive correlation between light intensity and bacterial population in planta suggests that bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains will be useful in evaluating the efficacy of bactericides and host resistance.

  8. Synergy between toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Margaret C; Jiannino, Joshua A; Federici, Brian A; Walton, William E

    2004-09-01

    Synergistic interactions among the multiple endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis de Barjac play an important role in its high toxicity to mosquito larvae and the absence of insecticide resistance in populations treated with this bacterium. A lack of toxin complexity and synergism are the apparent causes of resistance to Bacillus sphaericus Neide in particular Culex field populations. To identify endotoxin combinations of the two Bacillus species that might improve insecticidal activity and manage mosquito resistance to B. sphaericus, we tested their toxins alone and in combination. Most combinations of B. sphaericus and B. t. subsp. israelensis toxins were synergistic and enhanced toxicity relative to B. sphaericus, particularly against Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae resistant to B. sphaericus and Aedes aegypti (L.), a species poorly susceptible to B. sphaericus. Toxicity also improved against susceptible Cx. quinquefasciatus. For example, when the CytlAa toxin from B. t. subsp. israelensis was added to Bin and Cry toxins, or when native B. t. subsp. israelensis was combined with B. sphaericus, synergism values as high as 883-fold were observed and combinations were 4-59,000-fold more active than B. sphaericus. These data, and previous studies using cytolytic toxins, validate proposed strategies for improving bacterial larvicides by combining B. sphaericus with B. t. subsp. israelensis or by engineering recombinant bacteria that express endotoxins from both strains. These combinations increase both endotoxin complexity and synergistic interactions and thereby enhance activity and help avoid insecticide resistance.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis Biovar Intermedius, Isolated from the Prepuce of a Bull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraola, Gregorio; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Paolicchi, Fernando; Harris, David; Lawley, Trevor D; Rego, Natalia; Hernández, Martín; Calleros, Lucía; Carretto, Luis; Velilla, Alejandra; Morsella, Claudia; Méndez, Alejandra; Gioffre, Andrea

    2013-08-01

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis is the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a sexually transmitted disease distributed worldwide. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar Intermedius strains differ in their biochemical behavior and are prevalent in some countries. We report the first genome sequence for this biovar, isolated from bull prepuce.

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Leifsonia xyli subsp. cynodontis Strain DSM46306, a Gram-Positive Bacterial Pathogen of Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerillo, Marcelo Marques; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Camargo, Luis Eduardo Aranha; Kitajima, João Paulo

    2013-01-01

    We announce the complete genome sequence of Leifsonia xyli subsp. cynodontis, a vascular pathogen of Bermuda grass. The species also comprises Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli, a sugarcane pathogen. Since these two subspecies have genome sequences available, a comparative analysis will contribute to our understanding of the differences in their biology and host specificity. PMID:24201198

  11. Complete genomic sequence of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni HS: 19 strain RM1285 isolated from packaged chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.T. Parker (Craig); Huynh, S. (Steven); A.P. Heikema (Astrid)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPoultry products serve as the main source of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni infections in humans. C. jejuni subsp. jejuni infections are a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis and are a prevalent antecedent to Guillain-Barré syndrome. This study describes the genome of C.

  12. Comparison of Susceptibilities of M. tuberculosis H37Ra and M. chelonei subsp. Abscessus to Disinfectants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO-QING WANG; CHAO-WU ZHANG; HENG-CHUAN LIU; ZHAO-BIN CHEN

    2005-01-01

    Objective To determine the susceptibilities of M. tuberculosis H37Ra and M. chelonei subsp. absecessus to several frequently-used disinfectants and to evaluate the practicability of surrogating M. tuberculosis by the latter. Methods A suspension quantitative bactericidal test was set up in accordance with Chinese Technique Standard for Disinfection to evaluate the susceptibility of each mycobacteria strain to each selected disinfectant. Killing log value was used as criterion in comparing the susceptibility to disinfectants between the two strains. Results M. chelonei subsp. abscessus was more resistant to chlorine disinfectant than M. tuberculosis while the two strains were similarly resistant to iodophor disinfectant, peracetic acid, alcohol and glutaraldehyde disinfectant. Conclusion M. chelonei subsp. abscessus has the potential to surrogate M. tuberculosis in evaluating mycobactericidal efficacies of disinfectants.

  13. Toxicity of parasporal crystals of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis to mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrell, D J; Davidson, L I; Bulla, L A; Ramoska, W A

    1979-01-01

    Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (ONR-60A/WHO 1897) parasporal crystals to three medically important mosquito larvae is described. The numbers of larvae killed are in relation to crystal dry weight. The crystals are lethally toxic to Aedes aegypti Linnaeus (mean 50% lethal concentration [LC50] = 1.9 x 10(-4) micrograms/ml), Culex pipiens var. quinquefasciatus Say (LC50 = 3.7 x 10(-4) micrograms/ml), and Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann (LC50 = 8.0 x 10(-3) micrograms/ml). Purfied crystals of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, which are toxic to lepidopteran insects, are ineffective against the mosquito larvae. Likewise, B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis parasporal crystals are not efficacious for larvae of the lepidopteran, Manduca sexta. PMID:44177

  14. Is the Evolution of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Linked to Restriction-Modification Systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roer, Louise; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica bacteria are highly diverse foodborne pathogens that are subdivided into more than 1,500 serovars. The diversity is believed to result from mutational evolution, as well as intra- and interspecies recombination that potentially could be influenced by restriction......-modification (RM) systems. The aim of this study was to investigate whether RM systems were linked to the evolution of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. The study included 221 Salmonella enterica genomes, of which 68 were de novo sequenced and 153 were public available genomes from ENA. The data set covered 97...... of pangenes. The topology of the trees was compared to the presence of RM systems, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes, Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs), and plasmid replicons. We did not observe any correlation between evolution and the RM systems in S. enterica subsp. enterica. However, sublineage...

  15. PCR-Mediated Detection and Quantification of the Goss's Wilt Pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis Via a Novel Gene Target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, R Ryan; Ishimaru, Carol A; Malvick, Dean K

    2016-12-01

    Goss's leaf blight and wilt of maize (corn) is a significant and reemerging disease caused by the bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis. Despite its importance, molecular tools for diagnosing and studying this disease remain limited. We report the identification of CMN_01184 as a novel gene target and its use in conventional PCR (cPCR) and SYBR green-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays for specific detection and quantification of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis. The cPCR and qPCR assays based on primers targeting CMN_01184 specifically amplified only C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis among a diverse collection of 129 bacterial and fungal isolates, including multiple maize bacterial and fungal pathogens, environmental organisms from agricultural fields, and all known subspecies of C. michiganensis. Specificity of the assays for detection of only C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis was also validated with field samples of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis-infected and uninfected maize leaves and C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis-infested and uninfested soil. Detection limits were determined at 30 and 3 ng of pure C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis DNA, and 100 and 10 CFU of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis for the cPCR and qPCR assays, respectively. Infection of maize leaves by C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis was quantified from infected field samples and was standardized using an internal maize DNA control. These novel, specific, and sensitive PCR assays based on CMN_01184 are effective for diagnosis of Goss's wilt and for studies of the epidemiology and host-pathogen interactions of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis.

  16. Molecular differentiation of Pantoea stewartii subsp. indologenes from subspecies stewartii and identification of new isolates from maize seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, I; Wensing, A; Gernold, M; Wiedemann, W; Coplin, D L; Geider, K

    2014-06-01

    Assays to detect Pantoea stewartii from maize seeds should include differentiation of P. stewartii subsp. stewartii and P. stewartii subsp. indologenes. Previously published PCR primers for the identification of P. stewartii subsp. stewartii amplified signals from both subspecies using both conventional and quantitative PCR. In MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy analysis with the Biotyper software (Bruker), subspecies stewartii and indologenes produced identical score values. Analysis against the Biotyper database produced similar score values for both subspecies. From the subtyping methods provided by the Biotyper software, only composite correlation indexing (CCI) separated both groups. By alignment of 16S rRNA sequences, no subspecies distinction was possible. To develop new techniques for the separation of these subspecies, the partial sequences of several housekeeping genes were compared. The type strains of the two subspecies showed characteristic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes galE, glmS and recA. Other reference strains of P. stewartii subsp. stewartii followed the same nucleotide pattern, whereas known P. stewartii subsp. indologenes strains were different. Based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms in galE and recA, PCR primers were created to separate the subspecies by stepdown PCR analysis. Two putative P. stewartii strains were isolated from imported maize seeds. They were not virulent on maize seedlings, were positive in the indole assay with Kovacs reagent and identified as P. stewartii subsp. indologenes. The subspecies-specific PCR primers confirmed they were subspecies indologenes. By stepdown PCR, P. stewartii subsp. indologenes can be differentiated from P. stewartii subsp. stewartii. A possible detection of P. stewartii subsp. stewartii, the causative agent of Stewart's wilt of maize, in plant material by immunological or molecular assays must exclude contamination with P. stewartii subsp. indologenes, which would create

  17. Characterization of a novel bacteriophage, Phda1, infecting the histamine-producing Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaki, S; Kawai, Y; Yamazaki, K

    2015-06-01

    Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae is a potent histamine-producing micro-organism. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize a bacteriophage Phda1 that infected P. damselae subsp. damselae to inhibit its growth and histamine accumulation. Phda1 was isolated from a raw oyster, and the host range, morphology and the bacteriophage genome size were analysed. Phda1 formed a clear plaque only against P. damselae subsp. damselae JCM8969 among five Gram-positive and 32 Gram-negative bacterial strains tested. Phda1 belongs to the family Myoviridae, and its genome size was estimated as 35·2-39·5 kb. According to the one-step growth curve analysis, the latent period, rise period and burst size of Phda1 were 60 min, 50 min and 19 plaque-forming units per infected cell, respectively. Divalent cations, especially Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) , strongly improved Phda1 adsorption to the host cells and its propagation. Phda1 treatment delayed the growth and histamine production of P. damselae subsp. damselae in an in vitro challenge test. The bacteriophage Phda1 might serve as a potential antimicrobial agent to inhibit the histamine poisoning caused by P. damselae subsp. damselae. This is the first description of a bacteriophage specifically infecting P. damselae subsp. damselae and its potential applications. Bacteriophage therapy could prove useful in the prevention of histamine poisoning. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Characteristics of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides strains from fresh vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Gordana R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Strains synthesizing extracellular polysaccharide dextran on a medium with 10% sucrose were isolated from different kind of vegetables (cabbage, cucumber, cauliflower, kohlrabi, carrot, green beans, red beet, pepper, eggplant, radish. Carbohydrate fermentation was examined using a bioMerieux API 50 CHL test system. Among micropopulations with characteristic spherical cell morphology, 94.9% belonged to Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and 5.1% were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum. According to fermentation of pentoses L. mesenteroides strains were divided into three groups with a certain number of biotypes; 10 strains were tested on acid production. .

  19. Relevance of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Plasminogen Binding Activity in the Human Gastrointestinal Microenvironment ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Marco; Turroni, Silvia; Centanni, Manuela; Fiori, Jessica; Bergmann, Simone; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    Human plasmin(ogen) is regarded as a component of the molecular cross talk between the probiotic species Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and the human host. However, up to now, only in vitro studies have been reported. Here, we demonstrate that the probiotic strain B. animalis subsp. lactis BI07 is capable of recruiting plasmin(ogen) present at physiological concentrations in crude extracts from human feces. Our results provide evidence that supports the significance of the B. lactis-plasmin(ogen) interaction in the human gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21821753

  20. Relevance of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis plasminogen binding activity in the human gastrointestinal microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Marco; Turroni, Silvia; Centanni, Manuela; Fiori, Jessica; Bergmann, Simone; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2011-10-01

    Human plasmin(ogen) is regarded as a component of the molecular cross talk between the probiotic species Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and the human host. However, up to now, only in vitro studies have been reported. Here, we demonstrate that the probiotic strain B. animalis subsp. lactis BI07 is capable of recruiting plasmin(ogen) present at physiological concentrations in crude extracts from human feces. Our results provide evidence that supports the significance of the B. lactis-plasmin(ogen) interaction in the human gastrointestinal tract.

  1. Listeria innocua and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus employ different strategies to cope with acid stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabala, Lana; McMeekin, Tom; Budde, Birgitte Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Responses of Listeria innocua and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus to a rapid change in extracellular pH (pHex) from pHex 6 to a range of concentrations down to pHex 3.0 were examined, using HCl and lactic acid (LA) as acidulants. A new fluorescent probe 5-(and-6)-carboxy-2', 7...... pHi and H+ -fluxes being more severely affected by LA compared to HCl. Overall, our data demonstrated different adaptive strategies in these two bacteria. While L. innocua expels protons to maintain a constant pHi, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus allows proton entry after acidic treatment so that p...

  2. Influence of artificial sweeteners on the kinetic and metabolic behavior of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca de Nadra, M C; Anduni, G J; Farías, M E

    2007-10-01

    The addition of artificial sweeteners to a LAPT (yeast extract, peptone, and tryptone) medium without supplemented sugar increased the growth rate and final biomass of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus YOP 12 isolated from commercial yogurt. Saccharin and cyclamate were consumed during microorganism growth, while the uptake of aspartame began once the medium was glucose depleted. The pH of the media increased as a consequence of the ammonia released into the media supplemented with the sweeteners. The L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strain was able to grow in the presence of saccharin, cyclamate, or aspartame, and at low sweetener concentrations, the microorganism could utilize cyclamate and aspartame as an energy and carbon source.

  3. Interaction between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and environmental protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Michael T

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interactions between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map and free-living protozoa in water are likely to occur in nature. The potential impact of ingestion of Map by two naturally occurring Acanthamoeba spp. on this pathogen's survival and chlorine resistance was investigated. Results Between 4.6 and 9.1% of spiked populations of three Map strains (NCTC 8578, B2 and ATCC 19698, which had been added at a multiplicity of infection of 10:1, were ingested by Acanthamoeba castellanii CCAP 1501/1B and A. polyphaga CCAP 1501/3B during co-culture for 3 h at 25°C. Map cells were observed to be present within the vacuoles of the amoebae by acid-fast staining. During extended co-culture of Map NCTC 8578 at 25°C for 24 d with both A. castellanii and A. polyphaga Map numbers did not change significantly during the first 7 days of incubation, however a 1–1.5 log10 increase in Map numbers was observed between days 7 and 24 within both Acanthamoeba spp. Ingested Map cells were shown to be more resistant to chlorine inactivation than free Map. Exposure to 2 μg/ml chlorine for 30 min resulted in a log10 reduction of 0.94 in ingested Map but a log10 reduction of 1.73 in free Map (p Conclusion This study demonstrated that ingestion of Map by and survival and multiplication of Map within Acanthamoeba spp. is possible, and that Map cells ingested by amoebae are more resistant to inactivation by chlorine than free Map cells. These findings have implications with respect to the efficacy of chlorination applied to Map infected surface waters.

  4. Molecular subtyping of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum in Lisbon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, R; Prieto, E; Aguas, M J; Manata, M J; Botas, J; Pereira, F Martins

    2009-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reproducibility of a molecular method for the subtyping of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum and to discriminate strains of this microorganism from strains from patients with syphilis. We studied 212 specimens from a total of 82 patients with different stages of syphilis (14 primary, 7 secondary and 61 latent syphilis). The specimens were distributed as follows: genital ulcers (n = 9), skin and mucosal lesions (n = 7), blood (n = 82), plasma (n = 82), and ear lobe scrapings (n = 32). The samples were assayed by a PCR technique to amplify a segment of the polymerase gene I (polA). Positive samples were typed on the basis of the analysis of two variable genes, tpr and arp. Sixty-two of the 90 samples positive for polA yielded typeable Treponema pallidum DNA. All skin lesions in which T. pallidum was identified (six of six [100%]) were found to contain enough DNA for typing of the organism. It was also possible to type DNA from 7/9 (77.7%) genital ulcer samples, 13/22 (59.1%) blood samples, 20/32 (62.5%) plasma samples, and 16/21 (76.2%) ear lobe scrapings. The same subtype was identified in all samples from the same patient. Five molecular subtypes (subtypes 10a, 14a, 14c, 14f, and 14g) were identified, with the most frequently found subtype being subtype 14a and the least frequently found subtype being subtype 10a. In conclusion, the subtyping technique used in this study seems to have good reproducibility. To our knowledge, subtype 10a was identified for the first time. Further studies are needed to explain the presence of this subtype in Portugal, namely, its relationship to the Treponema pallidum strains circulating in the African countries where Portuguese is spoken.

  5. Fortunella margarita Transcriptional Reprogramming Triggered by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalaf Abeer A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Citrus canker disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc has become endemic in areas where high temperature, rain, humidity, and windy conditions provide a favourable environment for the dissemination of the bacterium. Xcc is pathogenic on many commercial citrus varieties but appears to elicit an incompatible reaction on the citrus relative Fortunella margarita Swing (kumquat, in the form of a very distinct delayed necrotic response. We have developed subtractive libraries enriched in sequences expressed in kumquat leaves during both early and late stages of the disease. The isolated differentially expressed transcripts were subsequently sequenced. Our results demonstrate how the use of microarray expression profiling can help assign roles to previously uncharacterized genes and elucidate plant pathogenesis-response related mechanisms. This can be considered to be a case study in a citrus relative where high throughput technologies were utilized to understand defence mechanisms in Fortunella and citrus at the molecular level. Results cDNAs from sequenced kumquat libraries (ESTs made from subtracted RNA populations, healthy vs. infected, were used to make this microarray. Of 2054 selected genes on a customized array, 317 were differentially expressed (P Conclusion Functional categorization of kumquat Xcc-responsive genes revealed an enhanced defence-related metabolism as well as a number of resistant response-specific genes in the kumquat transcriptome in response to Xcc inoculation. Gene expression profile(s were analyzed to assemble a comprehensive and inclusive image of the molecular interaction in the kumquat/Xcc system. This was done in order to elucidate molecular mechanisms associated with the development of the hypersensitive response phenotype in kumquat leaves. These data will be used to perform comparisons among citrus species to evaluate means to enhance the host immune responses

  6. Molecular Subtyping of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum in Lisbon, Portugal▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, R.; Prieto, E.; Águas, M. J.; Manata, M. J.; Botas, J.; Martins Pereira, F.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reproducibility of a molecular method for the subtyping of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum and to discriminate strains of this microorganism from strains from patients with syphilis. We studied 212 specimens from a total of 82 patients with different stages of syphilis (14 primary, 7 secondary and 61 latent syphilis). The specimens were distributed as follows: genital ulcers (n = 9), skin and mucosal lesions (n = 7), blood (n = 82), plasma (n = 82), and ear lobe scrapings (n = 32). The samples were assayed by a PCR technique to amplify a segment of the polymerase gene I (polA). Positive samples were typed on the basis of the analysis of two variable genes, tpr and arp. Sixty-two of the 90 samples positive for polA yielded typeable Treponema pallidum DNA. All skin lesions in which T. pallidum was identified (six of six [100%]) were found to contain enough DNA for typing of the organism. It was also possible to type DNA from 7/9 (77.7%) genital ulcer samples, 13/22 (59.1%) blood samples, 20/32 (62.5%) plasma samples, and 16/21 (76.2%) ear lobe scrapings. The same subtype was identified in all samples from the same patient. Five molecular subtypes (subtypes 10a, 14a, 14c, 14f, and 14g) were identified, with the most frequently found subtype being subtype 14a and the least frequently found subtype being subtype 10a. In conclusion, the subtyping technique used in this study seems to have good reproducibility. To our knowledge, subtype 10a was identified for the first time. Further studies are needed to explain the presence of this subtype in Portugal, namely, its relationship to the Treponema pallidum strains circulating in the African countries where Portuguese is spoken. PMID:19494073

  7. Virulence differences among Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis clades in mice.

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    Claudia R Molins

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis (type A and holarctica (type B are of clinical importance in causing tularemia. Molecular typing methods have further separated type A strains into three genetically distinct clades, A1a, A1b and A2. Epidemiological analyses of human infections in the United States suggest that A1b infections are associated with a significantly higher mortality rate as compared to infections caused by A1a, A2 and type B. To determine if genetic differences as defined by molecular typing directly correlate with differences in virulence, A1a, A1b, A2 and type B strains were compared in C57BL/6 mice. Here we demonstrate significant differences between survival curves for infections caused by A1b versus A1a, A2 and type B, with A1b infected mice dying earlier than mice infected with A1a, A2 or type B; these results were conserved among multiple strains. Differences were also detected among type A clades as well as between type A clades and type B with respect to bacterial burdens, and gross anatomy in infected mice. Our results indicate that clades defined within F. tularensis subsp. tularensis by molecular typing methods correlate with virulence differences, with A1b strains more virulent than A1a, A2 and type B strains. These findings indicate type A strains are not equivalent with respect to virulence and have important implications for public health as well as basic research programs.

  8. Characterization of free exopolysaccharides secreted by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides.

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    Clothilde Bertin

    Full Text Available Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is a severe respiratory disease of cattle that is caused by a bacterium of the Mycoplasma genus, namely Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm. In the absence of classical virulence determinants, the pathogenicity of Mmm is thought to rely on intrinsic metabolic functions and specific components of the outer cell surface. One of these latter, the capsular polysaccharide galactan has been notably demonstrated to play a role in Mmm persistence and dissemination. The free exopolysaccharides (EPS, also produced by Mmm and shown to circulate in the blood stream of infected cattle, have received little attention so far. Indeed, their characterization has been hindered by the presence of polysaccharide contaminants in the complex mycoplasma culture medium. In this study, we developed a method to produce large quantities of EPS by transfer of mycoplasma cells from their complex broth to a chemically defined medium and subsequent purification. NMR analyses revealed that the purified, free EPS had an identical β(1->6-galactofuranosyl structure to that of capsular galactan. We then analyzed intraclonal Mmm variants that produce opaque/translucent colonies on agar. First, we demonstrated that colony opacity was related to the production of a capsule, as observed by electron microscopy. We then compared the EPS extracts and showed that the non-capsulated, translucent colony variants produced higher amounts of free EPS than the capsulated, opaque colony variants. This phenotypic variation was associated with an antigenic variation of a specific glucose phosphotransferase permease. Finally, we conducted in silico analyses of candidate polysaccharide biosynthetic pathways in order to decipher the potential link between glucose phosphotransferase permease activity and attachment/release of galactan. The co-existence of variants producing alternative forms of galactan (capsular versus free extracellular galactan and associated

  9. Verminephrobacter aporrectodeae sp. nov. subsp. tuberculatae and subsp. caliginosae; the specific nephridial symbionts of the earthworms Aporrectodea tuberculata and A. caliginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie Braad; Schätzle, Sarah; Schramm, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    .3%, their earthworm host specificity, differing temperature ranges and pH optima suggest that they represent two subspecies of a novel species of Verminephrobacter. For this species, the name V. aporrectodeae sp. nov. is proposed, with the two subspecies V. aporrectodeae subsp. tuberculatae (type strain, At4T = DSM...... 21361T = LMG 25313T) and V. aporrectodeae subsp. caliginosae (type strain, Ac9T = DSM 21895T = LMG 5312T) isolated from the nephridia of the earthworms Aporrectodea tuberculata and A. caliginosa, respectively....... analysis. Similarly to V. eiseniae, the two isolates grew aerobically with a preference for low oxygen concentrations on a range of sugars, fatty acids and amino acids and fermentatively on glucose and pyruvate. These phenotypes match well with the conditions reported or inferred for the nephridial...

  10. Eliminação de Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensisem estacas de bambu infestadas artificialmente Control of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in bamboo stakes used for tomato production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulândula Silva Miguel Wruck

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes tratamentos foram comparados visando a erradicação de Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis de estacas de bambu infestadas artificialmente. A imersão das estacas, por 30 minutos, em uma solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 2% foi o tratamento mais eficiente, em comparação à solarização, à exposição direta aos raios solares, à imersão em sulfato de cobre e à fumigação com fosfina ou brometo de metila.Different treatments were compared as a means to eradicate viable cells of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis from infested bamboo stakes. The soaking of the stakes, for 30 minutes, in a 2% solution of sodium hypochlorite was the most efficient treatment, as compared to solarization with or without a plastic mulch and fumigation with phosfine or methyl bromide.

  11. [Comparative susceptibility of Ochrobactrum anthropi, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Alcaligenes faecalis, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. denitrificans, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosidans and Bordetella bronchiseptica against 35 antibiotics including 17 beta-lactams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizet, C; Bizet, J

    1995-04-01

    Ochrobactrum anthropi, formerly known as "Achromobacter sp." or CDC group Vd has been isolated from water, hospital environment (antiseptic solutions, dialysis fluids ... ). O. anthropi is a Gram negative, motile, strictly aerobic, oxydase positive and non-fermentative bacteria with a strong urease activity. The susceptibility of 13 strains of O. anthropi was determined by agar diffusion method and compared to those of type strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Alcaligenes faecalis, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. denitrificans, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosoxydans and Bordetella bronchiseptica. The MICs of 20 antimicrobial agents confirmed the distinct phenotype susceptibility of O. anthropi. All the strains of O. anthropi are sensitive to imipenem, amikacin, gentamicin, netilmicin, nalidixic acid, pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracyclin, colistin, sulphonamides and rifampicin and resistant to ampicillin, amoxycillin + clavulanic acid, ticarcillin, mezlocillin, cefuroxime, cefamandol, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, cefoperazon, ceftazidime, cefsulodin, aztreonam, streptomycin, kanamycin, pipemidic acid, chloramphenicol, erythromicin, pristinamycin, trimethoprim and fosfomycin. O. anthropi is implicated in nosocomial infections. O. anthropi was the species with the greatest resistance to beta-lactamins.

  12. Reclassification of Staphylococcus jettensis De Bel et al. 2013 as Staphylococcus petrasii subsp. jettensis subsp. nov. and emended description of Staphylococcus petrasii Pantucek et al. 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bel, Annelies; Švec, Pavel; Petráš, Petr; Sedláček, Ivo; Pantůček, Roman; Echahidi, Fedoua; Piérard, Denis; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The type and clinical strains of two recently described coagulase-negative species of the genus Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus petrasii and Staphylococcus jettensis, were compared using dnaJ, tuf, gap, hsp60 and rpoB gene sequences, DNA-DNA hybridization, ribotyping, repetitive sequence-based PCR fingerprinting and extensive biochemical characterization. Based on the results, the species description of S. petrasii has been emended and S. jettensis should be reclassified as a novel subspecies within S. petrasii for which the name Staphylococcus petrasii subsp. jettensis subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SEQ110(T) ( = LMG 26879(T) = CCUG 62657(T) = DSM 26618(T) = CCM 8494(T)). © 2014 IUMS.

  13. Isolation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (O:4,5:i and Salmonella enterica subsp. Typhimurium from free-living domestic pigeons (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Rocha-e-Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the isolation of Salmonella enterica in organs of free-living domestic pigeons. In the clinic examination, the presence of feces in the peri-cloacal and abdominal regions were observed, as well as symptoms such as cachexy, incoordination and opisthotonos. Before any therapeutic protocol was applied the bird died and a necropsy was then performed for the removal of spleen, liver, kidney and intestine for bacteriological examination and antibiotic sensitivity test. Salmonella enterica subsp.enterica (O:4,5:i- and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium were isolated from the liver and intestine and the sensitivity test demonstrated that these strains are sensitive to several antibiotics.

  14. Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oils of Different Parts of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. subsp. excelsa and J. excelsa M. Bieb. subsp. polycarpos (K. Koch) Takhtajan (Cupressaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Sayyed Ahmad; Abedindo, Bibi Fatemeh; Hassanzadeh-Khayyat, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    The essential oils of branchlets and fruits of Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa and Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos were examined for their antioxidant activity. The compositions of the essential oils were studied by GC and GC-MS. To evaluation the antioxidants activity of the volatile oils, pure components and positive controls at different concentrations, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) screening methods, diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, deoxyribose degradation test and modified deoxyribose degradation test were employed. The results of the present study demonstrate some antioxidant activity for the tested essential oils obtained from various parts of both plants. It indicates that the use of these essential oils, in very low concentrations, may be useful as a natural preservative. However before any final conclusion, it is suggested that the antioxidant activity of these oils should also be evaluated by using lipid solvent system methods. PMID:24250416

  15. Bioprocessing of some agro-industrial residues for endoglucanase production by the new subsp.; Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Noura El-Ahmady; Abdelwahed, Nayera A.M.; Saber, Wesam I.A.; Mohamed, Asem A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of low cost agro-industrial residues for the production of industrial enzymes is one of the ways to reduce significantly production costs. Cellulase producing actinomycetes were isolated from soil and decayed agricultural wastes. Among them, a potential culture, strain NEAE-J, was selected and identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, together with 16S rDNA sequence. It is proposed that strain NEAE-J should be included in the species Streptomyces albogriseolus as a representative of a novel sub-species, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J and sequencing product was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number JN229412. This organism was tested for its ability to produce endoglucanase and release reducing sugars from agro-industrial residues as substrates. Sugarcane bagasse was the most suitable substrate for endoglucanase production. Effects of process variables, namely incubation time, temperature, initial pH and nitrogen source on production of endoglucanase by submerged fermentation using Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus have been studied. Accordingly optimum conditions have been determined. Incubation temperature of 30 °C after 6 days, pH of 6.5, 1% sugarcane bagasse as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source were found to be the optimum for endoglucanase production. Optimization of the process parameters resulted in about 2.6 fold increase in the endoglucanase activity. Therefore, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus coud be potential microorganism for the intended application. PMID:25242966

  16. Bioprocessing of some agro-industrial residues for endoglucanase production by the new subsp.; Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura El-Ahmady El-Naggar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of low cost agro-industrial residues for the production of industrial enzymes is one of the ways to reduce significantly production costs. Cellulase producing actinomycetes were isolated from soil and decayed agricultural wastes. Among them, a potential culture, strain NEAE-J, was selected and identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, together with 16S rDNA sequence. It is proposed that strain NEAE-J should be included in the species Streptomyces albogriseolus as a representative of a novel sub-species, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J and sequencing product was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number JN229412. This organism was tested for its ability to produce endoglucanase and release reducing sugars from agro-industrial residues as substrates. Sugarcane bagasse was the most suitable substrate for endoglucanase production. Effects of process variables, namely incubation time, temperature, initial pH and nitrogen source on production of endoglucanase by submerged fermentation using Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus have been studied. Accordingly optimum conditions have been determined. Incubation temperature of 30 ºC after 6 days, pH of 6.5, 1% sugarcane bagasse as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source were found to be the optimum for endoglucanase production. Optimization of the process parameters resulted in about 2.6 fold increase in the endoglucanase activity. Therefore, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus coud be potential microorganism for the intended application.

  17. The effect of lactose, NaCl and an aero/anaerobic environment on the tyrosine decarboxylase activity of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buňková, Leona; Buňka, František; Pollaková, Eva; Podešvová, Tereza; Dráb, Vladimír

    2011-05-27

    The aim of this work was to study, under model conditions, combined effects of the concentration of lactose (0-1% w/v), NaCl (0-2% w/v) and aero/anaerobiosis on the growth and tyramine production in 3 strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and 2 strains of L. lactis subsp. cremoris. The levels of the factors tested were chosen with respect to the conditions which can occur during the real process of natural cheese production, including the culture temperature (10 ± 1°C). In all strains tested, tyrosine decarboxylation was most influenced by NaCl concentration; the highest production of tyramine was obtained within the culture with the highest (2% w/v) salt concentration applied. Two of the strains L. lactis subsp. lactis produced tyramine only in broth with the highest NaCl concentration tested. In the remaining 3 strains of L. lactis, tyramine was detected under all conditions applied. The tested concentration of lactose and aero/anaerobiosis had a less significant effect on tyramine decarboxylation. However, it was also found that at the same concentrations of NaCl and lactose, a higher amount of tyramine was detected under anaerobic conditions. In all strains tested, tyramine decarboxylation started during the active growth phase of the cells.

  18. Morphological, chemical and genetic differentiation of two subspecies of Cistus creticus L. (C. creticus subsp. eriocephalus and C. creticus subsp. corsicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Julien; Falchi, Alessandra; Quilichini, Yann; Desjobert, Jean-Marie; Cian, Marie-Cecile De; Varesi, Laurent; Costa, Jean

    2009-06-01

    Cistus creticus L., an aromatic species from the Mediterranean area, contains various diterpenes bearing the labdane skeleton. The production of essential oil from this species has potential economic value, but so far, it has not been optimized. In order to contribute to a better knowledge of this species and to its differentiation, the morphological characters, volatile chemical composition and genetic data of two subspecies (C. creticus subsp. eriocephalus and C. creticus subsp. corsicus) were investigated. The leaf trichomes were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The chemical composition of Corsican essential oil (C. creticus subsp. corsicus) has been reported using GC, GC/MS and 13C NMR; the main constituents were oxygenated labdane diterpenes (33.9%) such as 13-epi-manoyl oxide (18.5%). Using plant material (54 samples) collected from 18 geographically distinct areas of the islands of Corsica and Sardinia, the basis of variation in the headspace solid-phase microextraction volatile fraction and an inter-simple sequence repeat genetic analysis were also examined. It was shown that the two subspecies of C. creticus differed in morphology, essential oil production, volatile fraction composition and genetic data.

  19. Bioprocessing of some agro-industrial residues for endoglucanase production by the new subsp.; Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Noura El-Ahmady; Abdelwahed, Nayera A M; Saber, Wesam I A; Mohamed, Asem A

    2014-01-01

    The use of low cost agro-industrial residues for the production of industrial enzymes is one of the ways to reduce significantly production costs. Cellulase producing actinomycetes were isolated from soil and decayed agricultural wastes. Among them, a potential culture, strain NEAE-J, was selected and identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, together with 16S rDNA sequence. It is proposed that strain NEAE-J should be included in the species Streptomyces albogriseolus as a representative of a novel sub-species, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J and sequencing product was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number JN229412. This organism was tested for its ability to produce endoglucanase and release reducing sugars from agro-industrial residues as substrates. Sugarcane bagasse was the most suitable substrate for endoglucanase production. Effects of process variables, namely incubation time, temperature, initial pH and nitrogen source on production of endoglucanase by submerged fermentation using Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus have been studied. Accordingly optimum conditions have been determined. Incubation temperature of 30 °C after 6 days, pH of 6.5, 1% sugarcane bagasse as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source were found to be the optimum for endoglucanase production. Optimization of the process parameters resulted in about 2.6 fold increase in the endoglucanase activity. Therefore, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus coud be potential microorganism for the intended application.

  20. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis Vatr1 and Vatr2 transcriptional regulators are required for virulence in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savidor, Alon; Chalupowicz, Laura; Teper, Doron; Gartemann, Karl-Heinz; Eichenlaub, Rudolf; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit; Barash, Isaac; Sessa, Guido

    2014-10-01

    The plant pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is a gram-positive bacterium responsible for wilt and canker disease of tomato. Although disease development is well characterized and diagnosed, molecular mechanisms of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis virulence are poorly understood. Here, we identified and characterized two C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis transcriptional regulators, Vatr1 and Vatr2, that are involved in pathogenicity of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Vatr1 and Vatr2 belong to TetR and MocR families of transcriptional regulators, respectively. Mutations in their corresponding genes caused attenuated virulence, with the Δvatr2 mutant showing a more dramatic effect than Δvatr1. Although both mutants grew well in vitro and reached a high titer in planta, they caused reduced wilting and canker development in infected plants compared with the wild-type bacterium. They also led to a reduced expression of the ethylene-synthesizing tomato enzyme ACC-oxidase compared with wild-type C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and to reduced ethylene production in the plant. Transcriptomic analysis of wild-type C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and the two mutants under infection-mimicking conditions revealed that Vatr1 and Vatr2 regulate expression of virulence factors, membrane and secreted proteins, and signal-transducing proteins. A 70% overlap between the sets of genes positively regulated by Vatr1 and Vatr2 suggests that these transcriptional regulators are on the same molecular pathway responsible for C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis virulence.

  1. Specific Detection of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus by Amplification of Three Unique DNA Sequences Isolated by Subtraction Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, D; Russell, B W; Hanus, J W

    1997-08-01

    ABSTRACT Three single-copy, unique DNA fragments, designated Cms50, Cms72, and Cms85, were isolated from strain CS3 of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus by subtraction hybridization using driver DNA from C. michiganensis subsp. insidiosus, C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, and Rhodococcus facians. Radio-labeled probes made of these fragments and used in Southern blot analysis revealed each to be absolutely specific to all North American C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus strains tested, including plasmidless and nonmucoid strains. The probes have no homology with genomic DNA from related C. michiganensis subspecies insidiosus, michiganensis, and tessellarius, nor with DNA from 11 additional bacterial species and three unidentified strains, some of which have been previously reported to display cross-reactivity with C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus-specific antisera. The three fragments shared no homology, and they appeared to be separated from each other by at least 20 kbp in the CS3 genome. Internal primer sets permitted amplification of each fragment by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) only from C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus DNA. In a PCR-based sensitivity assay using a primer set that amplifies Cms85, the lowest level of detection of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus was 100 CFU per milliliter when cells were added to potato core fluid. Erroneous results that may arise from PCR artifacts and mutational events are, therefore, minimized by the redundancy of the primer sets, and the products should be verifiable with unique capture probes in sequence-based detection systems.

  2. Foliar application of biofilm formation-inhibiting compounds enhances control of citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinyun; Wang, Nian

    2014-02-01

    Citrus canker caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is an economically important disease of citrus worldwide. Biofilm formation plays an important role in early infection of X. citri subsp. citri on host leaves. In this study, we assessed the hypothesis that small molecules inhibiting biofilm formation reduce X. citri subsp. citri infection and enhance the control of citrus canker disease. D-leucine and 3-indolylacetonitrile (IAN) were found to prevent biofilm formation by X. citri subsp. citri on different abiotic surfaces and host leaves at a concentration lower than the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that IAN repressed expression of chemotaxis/motility-related genes in X. citri subsp. citri. In laboratory experiments, planktonic and biofilm cells of X. citri subsp. citri treated with D-leucine and IAN, either alone or in combination, were more susceptible to copper (CuSO4) than those untreated. In greenhouse assays, D-leucine and IAN applied alone or combined with copper reduced both the number of canker lesions and bacterial populations of X. citri subsp. citri on citrus host leaves. This study provides the basis for the use of foliar-applied biofilm inhibitors for the control of citrus canker alone or combined with copper-based bactericides.

  3. Molecular Evidence of Perinatal Transmission of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and Bartonella henselae to a Child▿

    OpenAIRE

    Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Farmer, Peter; Mascarelli, Patricia E

    2010-01-01

    Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella henselae, or DNA of both organisms was amplified and sequenced from blood, enrichment blood cultures, or autopsy tissues from four family members. Historical and microbiological results support perinatal transmission of Bartonella species in this family. It is of clinical relevance that Bartonella spp. may adversely influence human reproductive performance.

  4. The Aeromonas salmonicida Lipopolysaccharide Core from Different Subspecies: The Unusual subsp. pectinolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    Initial hydridization tests using Aeromonas salmonicida typical and atypical strains showed the possibility of different lipopolysaccharide (LPS) outer cores among these strains. By chemical structural analysis, LPS-core SDS-PAGE gel migration, and functional and comparative genomics we demonstrated that typical A. salmonicida (subsp. salmonicida) strains and atypical subsp. masoucida and probably smithia strains showed the same LPS outer core. A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes strains show a similar LPS outer core but lack one of the most external residues (a galactose linked α1-6 to heptose), not affecting the O-antigen LPS linkage. A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica strains show a rather changed LPS outer core, which is identical to the LPS outer core from the majority of the A. hydrophila strains studied by genomic analyses. The LPS inner core in all tested A. salmonicida strains, typical and atypical, is well-conserved. Furthermore, the LPS inner core seems to be conserved in all the Aeromonas (psychrophilic or mesophilic) strains studied by genomic analyses.

  5. Demodicosis in Chamois ( Rupicapra rupicapra subsp. rupicapra) in the Italian Alps, 2013-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Claudia; Formenti, Nicoletta; Trogu, Tiziana; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Papini, Roberto A; Poli, Alessandro

    2016-04-28

    We report demodicosis in five alpine chamois ( Rupicapra rupicapra subsp. rupicapra) from the Italian Alps that showed moderate crusts on the head and dorsal aspect of the trunk. We detected intramural folliculitis, moderate dermatitis, and T-lymphocytes and macrophages associated with Demodex spp. in follicles and sebaceous glands.

  6. Three New Tazettine-Type Alkaloids from Galanthus gracilis and Galanthus plicatus Subsp. byzantinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unver, N; Noyan, S; Gözler, T; Onür, M A; Gözler, B; Hesse, M

    1999-05-01

    Three new tazettine-type alkaloids were isolated from two different GALANTHUS species of Turkish origin. (+)-Isotazettinol and (+)-3- O-demethylmacronine are obtained from G. GRACILIS, while (+)-3- O-demethyl-3-epimacronine is found in G. PLICATUS subsp. BYZANTINUS. The known base, trispheridine, is reported for the first time in GALANTHUS genus.

  7. Modeling of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis dynamics in a dairy herd : An individual based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Mamun, Mohammad A; Smith, Rebecca L; Schukken, Ynte H; Gröhn, Yrjö T

    2016-01-01

    In the dairy industry, Johne's disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is one of the major investigated diseases. To date, researchers have suggested some control strategies for JD, such as test-and-cull based herd management, isolated calf rearing management, and v

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of the Emerging Bivalve Pathogen Vibrio tubiashii subsp. europaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinard, Edward J; Dubert, Javier; Nelson, David R; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta; Barja, Juan L

    2016-07-28

    Vibrio tubiashii subsp. europaeus is a bivalve pathogen isolated during episodes of mortality affecting larval cultures in different shellfish hatcheries. Here, we announce the draft genome sequence of the type strain PP-638 and describe potential virulence factors, which may provide insight into the mechanism of pathogenicity.

  9. Inhibition of protein glycation by essential oils of branchlets and fruits of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, S; Naderi, G A; Shams Ardekani, M R; Sahebkar, A; Airin, A; Aslani, S; Kasher, T; Emami, S A

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and protein glycation play pivotal roles in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-glycation properties of essential oils obtained from different parts of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica. The branchlets of male tree (BMT) and branchlets of female (BFT) tree, and fruits of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica were extracted using steam distillation method. The oils were phytochemically analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anti-glycation properties were evaluated using hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. Overall, 18 volatile components were identified in the J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica oils, amounting to 82.1%, 100.0% and 96.4% of the BMT, BFT and fruit oils, respectively. Promising inhibitory activity was observed from all concentrations of the tested oils in the hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. The inhibitory activities peaked to 89.9% (BFT oil; 200 μg mL(-1)) and 81.0% (BFT oil; 600 μg mL(-1)) in the hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays, respectively. The evidence from this study suggests that essential oils obtained from the fruits and branchlets of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica possess anti-glycation properties. These activities may find implication for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications.

  10. Antigenic Profiles of Recombinant Proteins from Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in Sheep with Johne's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods to improve the ELISA test to detect Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis have been explored over several years. Previously, selected recombinant proteins of M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis were found to be immunogenic in cattle with Johne’s disease. In the present study, antibo...

  11. Factors affecting exocellular polysaccharide production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus grown in a chemically defined medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, S; Furlan, S; Crepeau, M J; Cerning, J; Desmazeaud, M

    2000-08-01

    We developed a chemically defined medium (CDM) containing lactose or glucose as the carbon source that supports growth and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production of two strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. The factors found to affect EPS production in this medium were oxygen, pH, temperature, and medium constituents, such as orotic acid and the carbon source. EPS production was greatest during the stationary phase. Composition analysis of EPS isolated at different growth phases and produced under different fermentation conditions (varying carbon source or pH) revealed that the component sugars were the same. The EPS from strain L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CNRZ 1187 contained galactose and glucose, and that of strain L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CNRZ 416 contained galactose, glucose, and rhamnose. However, the relative proportions of the individual monosaccharides differed, suggesting that repeating unit structures can vary according to specific medium alterations. Under pH-controlled fermentation conditions, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains produced as much EPS in the CDM as in milk. Furthermore, the relative proportions of individual monosaccharides of EPS produced in pH-controlled CDM or in milk were very similar. The CDM we developed may be a useful model and an alternative to milk in studies of EPS production.

  12. Rocket Immunoelectrophoresis of the Entomocidal Parasporal Crystal of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, R. E.; Iandolo, J. J.; Campbell, B. S.; Davidson, L. I.; Bulla, L. A.

    1980-01-01

    Rocket immunoelectrophoresis was used to quantitate the soluble parasporal crystal of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. The method described is rapid, reliable, specific, and extremely accurate, and it can be used to measure crystal toxin in commercial microbial insecticides that contain a mixture of spores, vegetative cells, and carrier materials. Images PMID:16345656

  13. Herd-level diagnosis for Salmonella enterica subsp enterica serovar Dublin infection in bovine dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, J.; Barkema, H.W.; Schans, van de J.; Zijderveld, van F.G.; Verhoeff, J.

    2002-01-01

    Herd-level sensitivities of bacteriological and serological methods were compared in 79 bovine dairy herds, recently infected with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin. All farms experienced clinical signs of salmonellosis for the first time and had no history of vaccination against sa

  14. Risk factors for clinical Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium infection on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, J.; Wilpshaar, H.; Frankena, K.; Bartels, C.; Barkema, H.W.

    2002-01-01

    Risk factors for outbreaks in 1999 of clinical Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium infection on dairy farms were studied in a matched case–control study with 47 case farms and 47 control farms. All 47 case farms experienced a clinical outbreak of salmonellosis which was confirmed

  15. Evaluation of a PCR kit for the detection of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica on potato tubers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frechon, D.; Exbrayat, P.; Helias, V.; Hyman, L.J.; Jouan, B.; Llop, P.; Lopez, M.M.; Payet, N.; Perombelon, M.C.M.; Toth, I.K.; Beckhoven, van J.R.C.M.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Bertheau, Y.

    1998-01-01

    A PCR-based kit, Probelia(TM), for the detection of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (Eca) on potatoes was evaluated at five laboratories in four countries. The kit is based on DNA-specific PCR amplification followed by detection of amplicons by hybridization to a peroxidase-labelled DNA probe

  16. Genome Sequence of the "Indian Bison Type" Biotype of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Strain S5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shoor Vir; Kumar, Naveen; Singh, Shree Narayan; Bhattacharya, Tapas; Sohal, Jagdip Singh; Singh, Pravin Kumar; Singh, Ajay Vir; Singh, Brajesh; Chaubey, Kundan Kumar; Gupta, Saurabh; Sharma, Nitu; Kumar, Shailesh; Raghava, Gajendra Pal Singh

    2013-01-01

    We report the 4.79-Mb genome sequence of the "Indian Bison Type" biotype of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis strain S5, isolated from a terminally sick Jamunapari goat at the CIRG (Central Institute for Research on Goats) farm in India. This draft genome will help in studying novelties of this biotype, which is widely distributed in animals and human beings in India.

  17. Colonization and movement of GFP-labeled Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis during tomato infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupowicz, L; Zellermann, E-M; Fluegel, M; Dror, O; Eichenlaub, R; Gartemann, K-H; Savidor, A; Sessa, G; Iraki, N; Barash, I; Manulis-Sasson, S

    2012-01-01

    The vascular pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is responsible for bacterial wilt and canker of tomato. Pathogenicity of this bacterium is dependent on plasmid-borne virulence factors and serine proteases located on the chromosomal chp/tomA pathogenicity island (PAI). In this study, colonization patterns and movement of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis during tomato infection was examined using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled strain. A plasmid expressing GFP in C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis was constructed and found to be stable in planta for at least 1 month. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) of inoculated stems showed that the pathogen extensively colonizes the lumen of xylem vessels and preferentially attaches to spiral secondary wall thickening of the protoxylem. Acropetal movement of the wild-type strain C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB382 (Cmm382) in tomato resulted in an extensive systemic colonization of the whole plant reaching the apical region after 15 days, whereas Cmm100 (lacking the plasmids pCM1 and pCM2) or Cmm27 (lacking the chp/tomA PAI) remained confined to the area surrounding of the inoculation site. Cmm382 formed biofilm-like structures composed of large bacterial aggregates on the interior of xylem walls as observed by CLSM and scanning electron microscopy. These findings suggest that virulence factors located on the chp/tomA PAI or the plasmids are required for effective movement of the pathogen in tomato and for the formation of cellular aggregates.

  18. Characterizing the Genetic Diversity of the Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis Population in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancos, Matthew A; Lange, Holly W; Smart, Christine D

    2015-02-01

    New York Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis isolates, collected from disparate bacterial canker of tomato outbreaks over the past 11 years, were characterized with a multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme that differentiated the 51 isolates into 21 haplotypes with a discriminatory power of 0.944. The MLSA scheme consisted of five housekeeping genes (kdpA, sdhA, dnaA, ligA, and gyrB) and three putative pathogenicity genes (celA, tomA, and nagA). Repetitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with the BOX-A1R primer, confirmed the high diversity of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis isolates in New York by demonstrating that all six PCR patterns (A, B, 13C, 65C, 81C, and D) were present, with PCR patterns C and A being the most common. The MLSA scheme provided higher resolving power than the current repetitive-PCR approach. The plasmid profiles of New York isolates were diverse and differed from reference strain NCPPB382. PCR analysis indicated that the presence of putative pathogenicity genes varied between isolates and highlighted the ephemeral nature of pathogenicity genes in field populations of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Analysis of molecular variance between Serbian and New York C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis isolates demonstrated that the two populations were not significantly different, with 98% genetic variation within each population and only 2% genetic variation between populations.

  19. Identification of a tomatinase in the tomato-pathogenic actinomycete Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB382.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaup, Olaf; Gräfen, Ines; Zellermann, Eva-Maria; Eichenlaub, Rudolf; Gartemann, Karl-Heinz

    2005-10-01

    The insertion site of a transposon mutant of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB382 was cloned and found to be located in the gene tomA encoding a member of the glycosyl hydrolase family 10. The intact gene was obtained from a cosmid library of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. The deduced protein TomA (543 amino acids, 58 kDa) contains a predicted signal peptide and two domains, the N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal fibronectin III-like domain. The closest well-characterized relatives of TomA were tomatinases from fungi involved in the detoxification of the tomato saponin alpha-tomatine which acts as a growth inhibitor. Growth inhibition of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis by alpha-tomatine was stronger in the tomA mutants than in the wild type. Tomatinase activity assayed by deglycosylation of alpha-tomatine to tomatidine was demonstrated in concentrated culture supernatants of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. No activity was found with the tomA mutants. However, neither the transposon mutant nor a second mutant constructed by gene disruption was affected in virulence on the tomato cv. Moneymaker.

  20. Screening for new sources of resistance to Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, Y.; Zhu, F.; Vandenbroucke, H.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Heusden, van A.W.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial canker of tomato, caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm), is considered the most serious bacterial threat, resulting in high damages in production areas. Worldwide, Cmm is subjected to quarantine regulations.There is no cultivar in market containing Cmm resistance

  1. Roseomonas gilardii subsp rosea, a pink bacterium associated with bacteremia: the first case in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srifuengfung, Somporn; Tharavichitkul, Prasit; Pumprueg, Satchana; Tribuddharat, Chanwit

    2007-09-01

    Roseomonas is a pink-pigmented, non-fermentative, gram-negative coccobacillus bacterium. Human infections caused by Roseomonas are very rare. We report the first case of bacteremia associated with Roseomonas gilardii subsp rosea in Thailand. The bacterium was isolated from blood culture and identified by cellular morphology, characteristics of colonies on blood agar, extensive biochemical tests and 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing.

  2. Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei L. casei W8 suppresses energy intake acutely

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Anne Toksvig; Kristensen, Mette Bredal; Ritz, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Probiotic bacteria have been shown to have various effects on the microbiota; this may also affect appetite and may help promote weight loss and maintenance. Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei L. casei W8 (L. casei W8...

  3. Complete genomic sequence of campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni HS:19 penner reference strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni (Cjj) infections are a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis and the most prevalent antecedent to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Capsular type Penner HS:19 is among several capsule types shown to be markers for GBS. This study describes the genome of Cjj HS:19...

  4. Genomic sequence of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni HS:19 Penner serotype reference strain RM3420

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.T. Parker (Craig); Huynh, S. (Steven); A.P. Heikema (Astrid)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractCampylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni infections are a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis and the most prevalent antecedent to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Penner serotype HS:19 is among several capsular types shown to be markers for GBS. This study describes the genome of C.

  5. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli in sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratoon stunt, caused by the xylem-limited coryneform bacterium Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx), is prevalent in most sugarcane-planting countries. Because the disease does not cause characteristic external symptoms, a laboratory-based technique is needed for accurate diagnosis. Based on loop-mediat...

  6. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Tanacetum praeteritum subsp praeteritum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goren, N; Woerdenbag, HJ; BozokJohansson, C

    1996-01-01

    Ten sesquiterpene lactones and one sesquiterpene isolated from Tanacetum praeteritum subsp. praeteritum: 1 alpha,6 alpha-dihydroxyisocostic acid methyl ester (2), 1 alpha-hydroxy-1-deoxoarglanine (3), douglanin (5), santamarin (6), reynosin (7), 1-epi-tatridin B (8), ludovicin A (10), armexin (12),

  7. Comparison of fecal DNA extraction kits for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal culture is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis, however, PCR for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in fecal material is widely used today, having demonstrated great sensitivity and specificity. To insure the most efficient and rep...

  8. First identification of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis causing mortality in Mexican tilapia Oreochromis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Cesar; Mancera, Gerardo; Enríquez, Ricardo; Vargas, Augusto; Martínez, Simón; Fajardo, Raúl; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Navarrete, María José; Romero, Alex

    2016-08-01

    Francisellosis, an emerging disease in tilapia Oreochromis spp., is caused by the facultative, intracellular bacterium Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis, which is present in various countries where tilapia farming is commercially important. We confirmed the presence of francisellosis in Mexican tilapia cultures in association with an outbreak during the second semester of 2012. Broodstock fish presented a mortality rate of approximately 40%, and disease was characterized by histologically classified granulomas, or whitish nodules, in different organs, mainly the spleen and kidney. Through DNA obtained from infected tissue and pure cultures in a cysteine heart medium supplemented with hemoglobin, F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis was initially confirmed through the amplification and analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer region. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes demonstrated close similarity with previously reported F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis sequences obtained from infected tilapia from various countries. The identification of this subspecies as the causative agent of the outbreak was confirmed using the iglC gene as a target sequence, which showed 99.5% identity to 2 F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis strains (Ethime-1 and Toba04). These findings represent the first documented occurrence of francisellosis in Mexican tilapia cultures, which highlights the importance of establishing preventative measures to minimize the spread of this disease within the Mexican aquaculture industry.

  9. Influence of ions on growth and production of exopolysaccharides by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NCFB 2772

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grobben, G.J.; Boels, I.C.; Sikkema, J.; Smith, M.R.; Bont, de J.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Several lactic acid bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS), either attached to the cell wall or excreted into the environment as slime material. EPS produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (Lb. bulgaricus) and Streptococcus thermophilus play an important role in improving the text

  10. Bioaccessible Antioxidants in Milk Fermented by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mérilie Gagnon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum is among the dominant species of the human gastrointestinal microbiota and could thus have potential as probiotics. New targets such as antioxidant properties have interest for beneficial effects on health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioaccessibility of antioxidants in milk fermented by selected B. longum subsp. longum strains during in vitro dynamic digestion. The antioxidant capacity of cell extracts from 38 strains, of which 32 belong to B. longum subsp. longum, was evaluated with the ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. On the basis of screening and gene sequence typing by multilocus locus sequence analysis (MLSA, five strains were chosen for fermenting reconstituted skim milk. Antioxidant capacity varied among the strains tested (P=0.0009. Two strains of B. longum subsp. longum (CUETM 172 and 171 showed significantly higher ORAC values than the other bifidobacteria strains. However, there does not appear to be a relationship between gene sequence types and antioxidant capacity. The milk fermented by each of the five strains selected (CUETM 268, 172, 245, 247, or PRO 16-10 did not have higher initial ORAC values compared to the nonfermented milk samples. However, higher bioaccessibility of antioxidants in fermented milk (175–358% was observed during digestion.

  11. Insights into physiological traits of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 through membrane proteome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilad, Ofir; Hjernø, Karin; Østerlund, Eva Christina

    2012-01-01

    Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 is a widely used probiotic strain associated with a variety of health-promoting traits. There is, however, only limited knowledge available regarding the membrane proteome and the proteins involved in oligosaccharide transport in BB-12. We applied two...

  12. Genome Sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris Strain T26, Isolated from Mesophilic Undefined Cheese Starter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, W. P.; Hansen, L. H.; Sørensen, S. J.; Broadbent, J. R.; Vogensen, F. K.; Ardö, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Leuconostoc is the main group of heterofermentative bacteria found in mesophilic dairy starters. They grow in close symbiosis with the Lactococcus population and are able to degrade citrate. Here we present a draft genome sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris strain T26. PMID:24903867

  13. Lymphoproliferative and gamma interferon responses to stress-regulated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis recombinant proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johne’s disease in ruminants is a chronic infection of the intestines caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Economic losses associated with Johne’s disease arise due to premature culling, reduced production of milk and wool and mortalities. The disease is characterised by a long inc...

  14. Studies upon morhological and biological traits of Festuca rubra, subsp.fallax (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Sawicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Observation and measurements of some traits of Festuca rubra L., subsp. fallax (Thuill. Hack. ecotypes were made in 1995-1997 using samples selected from natural habitats and collected in Grassland Experimental Station in Sosnowica. High differentiation of traits under study and their correlations were found. Valorized ecotypes are good material for new varieties breeding.

  15. Note on the occurrence of Melientha suavis subsp. suavis (Opiliaceae) in the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberger, G.

    2002-01-01

    The small tree Melientha suavis Pierre subsp. suavis (Opiliaceae) is in the Philippines so far known from two localities in Mindanao, only (Misamis Or., Claveria; Cotabato, Port Lebak: Hiepko, 1979, 1984). During vegetation studies on Mt Pangasugan, Leyte, Eastern Visayas (Langenberger, 2000), it wa

  16. Tulum Peynirlerinden izole Edilen Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis YBML9 ve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin TUNCER

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalısmanın amacı tulum peynirlerinden izole edilen Lactococcus lactis suslarının fenotipik tanısı ve bu suslar tarafından üretilen bakteriyosinlerin kısmi karakterizasyonlarıdır. Bu amaçla Türkiye'nin sekiz farklı ilinden (Ankara, Antalya, Burdur, Denizli, Erzincan, Isparta, İstanbul ve İzmir yöresel pazarlardan toplanan 60 adet tulum peyniri örneginden 40 adet Lactococcus lactis susu (31 adet L. lactis subsp. lactis ve 9 adet L. lactis subsp. cremoris izole edildi. 40 adet L. lactis susu içerisinden, 2 adet L. lactis subsp. lactis (YBML9 ve YBML21 susu bakteriyosin üretme yeteneginde bulundu. L. lactis subsp. lactis YBML9 ve YBML21 susları tarafından üretilen bakteriyosinler, farklı enzim, pH ve sıcaklık uygulamaları sonucu; sırasıyla nisin ve laktisin 481 olarak tanımlandı.

  17. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp carotovorum can cause potato blackleg in temperate climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de E.G.; Dekker-Nooren, T.C.E.M.; Bovenkamp, van den G.W.; Speksnijder, A.G.C.L.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that the pectinolytic bacteria Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pca) and Dickeya spp. are causal organisms of blackleg in potato. In temperate climates, the role of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc) in potato blackleg, however, is unclear. In different western an

  18. Distribution of Dickeya spp. and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp carotovorum in naturally infected seed potatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, R.L.; Grabe, G.J.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Detailed studies were conducted on the distribution of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Dickeya spp. in two potato seed lots of different cultivars harvested from blackleg-diseased crops. Composite samples of six different tuber sections (peel, stolon end, and peeled potato tissue 0

  19. Sensitive detection of Myobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in bovine semen by real-time PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herthnek, D.; Englund, S.; Willemsen, P.T.J.; Bolske, G.

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To develop a fast and sensitive protocol for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in bovine semen and to make a critical evaluation of the analytical sensitivity. Methods and Results: Processed semen was spiked with known amounts of MAP. Semen from different bulls as

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LBB.B5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajo, Karima; Lenoci, Leonardo; Bron, Peter A.; Dijkstra, Annereinou; Alkema, Wynand; Wels, Michiel; Siezen, Roland J.; Minkova, Svetlana; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LBB.B5 originates from homemade Bulgarian yogurt and was selected for its ability to form a strong association with Streptococcus thermophilus. The genome sequence will facilitate elucidating the genetic background behind the contribution of LBB.B5 to the taste and aroma of yogurt and its exceptional protocooperation with S. thermophilus.

  1. Transcriptomic profile of aguR deletion mutant of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Rio, Beatriz; Linares, Daniel M; Redruello, Begoña; Martin, Maria Cruz; Fernandez, Maria; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P; Ladero, Victor; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 (formerly GE2-14) is a dairy strain that catabolizes agmatine (a decarboxylated derivative of arginine) into the biogenic amine putrescine by the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway [1]. The AGDI cluster of L. lactis is composed by five genes aguR, aguB, ag

  2. Note on the occurrence of Melientha suavis subsp. suavis (Opiliaceae) in the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberger, G.

    2002-01-01

    The small tree Melientha suavis Pierre subsp. suavis (Opiliaceae) is in the Philippines so far known from two localities in Mindanao, only (Misamis Or., Claveria; Cotabato, Port Lebak: Hiepko, 1979, 1984). During vegetation studies on Mt Pangasugan, Leyte, Eastern Visayas (Langenberger, 2000), it wa

  3. Complete Genome Sequences of Legionella pneumophila subsp. fraseri Strains Detroit-1 and Dallas 1E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Brian H.; Kozak-Muiznieks, Natalia A.; Morrison, Shatavia S.; Mercante, Jeffrey W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here the complete genome sequences of two of the earliest known strains of Legionella pneumophila subsp. fraseri. Detroit-1 is serogroup 1 and was isolated from a lung biopsy specimen in 1977. Dallas 1E is serogroup 5 and was isolated in 1978 from a cooling tower. PMID:28153889

  4. Complete Whole-Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Java NCTC5706.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Mohammed-Abbas; Alexander, Sarah; Burnett, Edward; Deheer-Graham, Ana; Oliver, Karen; Holroyd, Nancy; Parkhill, Julian; Russell, Julie E

    2016-11-03

    Salmonellae are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Java strain NCTC5706. This strain is of historical significance, having been isolated in the pre-antibiotic era and was deposited into the National Collection of Type Cultures in 1939.

  5. Comparison of nine PCR primer sets designed to detect Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, the causal agent of Stewart's bacterial wilt of maize, is a major quarantine pest in maize seed. Verifying freedom from P. stewartii remains a significant hurdle in exporting corn seed from the U.S. Several PCR primer sets have been developed and suggested as bein...

  6. Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118, a GABA-Producing Strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Letícia C; Saraiva, Tessália D L; Soares, Siomar C

    2014-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118 is a nondairy lactic acid bacterium, a xylose fermenter, and a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producer isolated from frozen peas. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of L. lactis NCDO 2118, a strain with probiotic potential activity....

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium fortuitum subsp. fortuitum Type Strain DSM46621

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Y. S

    2012-10-26

    Mycobacterium fortuitum is a member of the rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). It is ubiquitous in water and soil habitats, including hospital environments. M. fortuitum is increasingly recognized as an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen causing disseminated infection. Here we report the genome sequence of M. fortuitum subsp. fortuitum type strain DSM46621.

  8. Complete genome sequence of the prototype lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp cremoris MG1363

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegmann, Udo; O'Connell-Motherwy, Mary; Zomer, Aldert; Buist, Girbe; Shearman, Claire; Canchaya, Carlos; Ventura, Marco; Goesmann, Alexander; Gasson, Michael J.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; van Sinderen, Douwe; Kok, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is of great importance for the nutrition of hundreds of millions of people worldwide. This paper describes the genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363, the lactococcal strain most intensively studied throughout the world. The 2,529,478-bp genome contains 81 ps

  9. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk from clinically affected cows by PCR and culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Steen Bjørck; Ahrens, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Milk and faeces samples from cows with clinical symptoms of paratuberculosis were examined for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) by culture and PCR. M. paratuberculosis was cultivated in variable numbers from faeces or intestinal mucosa in eight of 11...

  10. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Milk from Clinically Affected Cows by PCR and culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Steen Bjørck; Ahrens, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Milk and faecal samples from cows with clinical symptoms of paratuberculosis were examined for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp.paratuberculosis (M. a. paratuberculosis) by culture and PCR. M. a. paratuberculosis was isolated in varied numbers from faeces or intestinal mucosa in 8 of 11...

  11. Bioaccessible Antioxidants in Milk Fermented by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Mérilie; Savard, Patricia; Rivière, Audrey; LaPointe, Gisèle

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum is among the dominant species of the human gastrointestinal microbiota and could thus have potential as probiotics. New targets such as antioxidant properties have interest for beneficial effects on health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioaccessibility of antioxidants in milk fermented by selected B. longum subsp. longum strains during in vitro dynamic digestion. The antioxidant capacity of cell extracts from 38 strains, of which 32 belong to B. longum subsp. longum, was evaluated with the ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) method. On the basis of screening and gene sequence typing by multilocus locus sequence analysis (MLSA), five strains were chosen for fermenting reconstituted skim milk. Antioxidant capacity varied among the strains tested (P = 0.0009). Two strains of B. longum subsp. longum (CUETM 172 and 171) showed significantly higher ORAC values than the other bifidobacteria strains. However, there does not appear to be a relationship between gene sequence types and antioxidant capacity. The milk fermented by each of the five strains selected (CUETM 268, 172, 245, 247, or PRO 16-10) did not have higher initial ORAC values compared to the nonfermented milk samples. However, higher bioaccessibility of antioxidants in fermented milk (175–358%) was observed during digestion. PMID:25802836

  12. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii: lessons learned from a xylem-dwelling pathogen of sweet corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, M Caroline

    2011-09-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is a Gram-negative enteric bacterium that primarily infects sweet corn. Studies of this bacterium have provided useful insight into how xylem-dwelling bacteria establish themselves and incite disease in their hosts. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is a remarkable bacterial system for laboratory studies because of its relative ease of propagation and genetic manipulation, and the fact that it appears to employ a minimal number of pathogenicity mechanisms. In addition, P. stewartii subsp. stewartii produces copious amounts of its quorum sensing (QS) signal, acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL), making it an excellent organism for studying QS-controlled gene regulation in a plant-pathogenic bacterium. In fact, P. stewartii subsp. stewartii has become the microbial paradigm for QS control of gene expression by both repression and activation via a QS regulator that binds DNA in the absence and dissociates in the presence of the signal ligand. Moreover, P. stewartii subsp. stewartii is a member of the Enterobacteriaceae, and lessons learned from its interaction with plants may be extrapolated to other plant-associated enterics, such as Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium spp., or enteric human pathogens associated with plants, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. Bacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; family Enterobacteriaceae; genus Pantoea; species stewartii (Mergaert et al., 1993). Gram-negative, motile, yellow pigmented, mucoid, facultative anaerobe. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Smith, 1898) Dye causes Stewart's wilt of corn (Zea mays). Early-maturing sweet corn varieties and some elite inbred maize lines are particularly susceptible. There are two major phases of Stewart's wilt disease: (i) wilt and (ii) leaf blight. The wilt phase occurs when young seedlings are infected with P. stewartii subsp. stewartii (Fig. 1A). Water-soaked lesions first appear on the young expanding leaves and, later, seedlings may become severely wilted

  13. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and Bartonella henselae bacteremia in a father and daughter with neurological disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woods Christopher W

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii is an important, emerging, intravascular bacterial pathogen that has been recently isolated from immunocompetent patients with endocarditis, arthritis, neurological disease and vasoproliferative neoplasia. Vector transmission is suspected among dogs and wild canines, which are the primary reservoir hosts. This investigation was initiated to determine if pets and family members were infected with one or more Bartonella species. Methods PCR and enrichment blood culture in Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM was used to determine infection status. Antibody titers to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotypes I-III and B. henselae were determined using a previously described indirect fluorescent antibody test. Two patients were tested sequentially for over a year to assess the response to antibiotic treatment. Results Intravascular infection with B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype II and Bartonella henselae (Houston 1 strain were confirmed in a veterinarian and his daughter by enrichment blood culture, followed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Symptoms included progressive weight loss, muscle weakness, lack of coordination (the father and headaches, muscle pain and insomnia (the daughter. B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype II was also sequenced from a cerebrospinal fluid BAPGM enrichment culture and from a periodontal swab sample. After repeated courses of antibiotics, post-treatment blood cultures were negative, there was a decremental decrease in antibody titers to non-detectable levels and symptoms resolved in both patients. Conclusions B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. henselae are zoonotic pathogens that can be isolated from the blood of immunocompetent family members with arthralgias, fatigue and neurological symptoms. Therapeutic elimination of Bartonella spp. infections can be challenging, and follow-up testing is recommended. An increasing number of arthropod

  14. Complete genome and comparative analysis of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, an emerging pathogen of infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreier Jens

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus is an important causative agent of infectious endocarditis, while the pathogenicity of this species is widely unclear. To gain insight into the pathomechanisms and the underlying genetic elements for lateral gene transfer, we sequenced the entire genome of this pathogen. Results We sequenced the whole genome of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strain ATCC BAA-2069, consisting of a 2,356,444 bp circular DNA molecule with a G+C-content of 37.65% and a novel 20,765 bp plasmid designated as pSGG1. Bioinformatic analysis predicted 2,309 ORFs and the presence of 80 tRNAs and 21 rRNAs in the chromosome. Furthermore, 21 ORFs were detected on the plasmid pSGG1, including tetracycline resistance genes telL and tet(O/W/32/O. Screening of 41 S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolates revealed one plasmid (pSGG2 homologous to pSGG1. We further predicted 21 surface proteins containing the cell wall-sorting motif LPxTG, which were shown to play a functional role in the adhesion of bacteria to host cells. In addition, we performed a whole genome comparison to the recently sequenced S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strain UCN34, revealing significant differences. Conclusions The analysis of the whole genome sequence of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus promotes understanding of genetic factors concerning the pathogenesis and adhesion to ECM of this pathogen. For the first time we detected the presence of the mobilizable pSGG1 plasmid, which may play a functional role in lateral gene transfer and promote a selective advantage due to a tetracycline resistance.

  15. Human Treponema pallidum 11q/j isolate belongs to subsp. endemicum but contains two loci with a sequence in TP0548 and TP0488 similar to subsp. pertenue and subsp. pallidum, respectively.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Mikalová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Treponema pallidum subsp. endemicum (TEN is the causative agent of endemic syphilis (bejel. An unusual human TEN 11q/j isolate was obtained from a syphilis-like primary genital lesion from a patient that returned to France from Pakistan.The TEN 11q/j isolate was characterized using nested PCR followed by Sanger sequencing and/or direct Illumina sequencing. Altogether, 44 chromosomal regions were analyzed. Overall, the 11q/j isolate clustered with TEN strains Bosnia A and Iraq B as expected from previous TEN classification of the 11q/j isolate. However, the 11q/j sequence in a 505 bp-long region at the TP0488 locus was similar to Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA strains, but not to TEN Bosnia A and Iraq B sequences, suggesting a recombination event at this locus. Similarly, the 11q/j sequence in a 613 bp-long region at the TP0548 locus was similar to Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue (TPE strains, but not to TEN sequences.A detailed analysis of two recombinant loci found in the 11q/j clinical isolate revealed that the recombination event occurred just once, in the TP0488, with the donor sequence originating from a TPA strain. Since TEN Bosnia A and Iraq B were found to contain TPA-like sequences at the TP0548 locus, the recombination at TP0548 took place in a treponeme that was an ancestor to both TEN Bosnia A and Iraq B. The sequence of 11q/j isolate in TP0548 represents an ancestral TEN sequence that is similar to yaws-causing treponemes. In addition to the importance of the 11q/j isolate for reconstruction of the TEN phylogeny, this case emphasizes the possible role of TEN strains in development of syphilis-like lesions.

  16. Human Treponema pallidum 11q/j isolate belongs to subsp. endemicum but contains two loci with a sequence in TP0548 and TP0488 similar to subsp. pertenue and subsp. pallidum, respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikalová, Lenka; Strouhal, Michal; Oppelt, Jan; Grange, Philippe Alain; Janier, Michel; Benhaddou, Nadjet; Dupin, Nicolas; Šmajs, David

    2017-03-01

    Treponema pallidum subsp. endemicum (TEN) is the causative agent of endemic syphilis (bejel). An unusual human TEN 11q/j isolate was obtained from a syphilis-like primary genital lesion from a patient that returned to France from Pakistan. The TEN 11q/j isolate was characterized using nested PCR followed by Sanger sequencing and/or direct Illumina sequencing. Altogether, 44 chromosomal regions were analyzed. Overall, the 11q/j isolate clustered with TEN strains Bosnia A and Iraq B as expected from previous TEN classification of the 11q/j isolate. However, the 11q/j sequence in a 505 bp-long region at the TP0488 locus was similar to Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA) strains, but not to TEN Bosnia A and Iraq B sequences, suggesting a recombination event at this locus. Similarly, the 11q/j sequence in a 613 bp-long region at the TP0548 locus was similar to Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue (TPE) strains, but not to TEN sequences. A detailed analysis of two recombinant loci found in the 11q/j clinical isolate revealed that the recombination event occurred just once, in the TP0488, with the donor sequence originating from a TPA strain. Since TEN Bosnia A and Iraq B were found to contain TPA-like sequences at the TP0548 locus, the recombination at TP0548 took place in a treponeme that was an ancestor to both TEN Bosnia A and Iraq B. The sequence of 11q/j isolate in TP0548 represents an ancestral TEN sequence that is similar to yaws-causing treponemes. In addition to the importance of the 11q/j isolate for reconstruction of the TEN phylogeny, this case emphasizes the possible role of TEN strains in development of syphilis-like lesions.

  17. Efficacy of novel lipid-formulated whole bacterial cell vaccines against Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffin, J.F.T.; Hughes, A.D.; Liggett, S.; Farquhar, P.A.; Mackintosh, C.G.; Bakker, D.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis [MAP], the Causative agent of enteric Johne's disease, incurs significant economic losses to the livestock industry. Prophylactic vaccination can be employed as a control means, however mineral oil-based vaccines Currently in practice have limited

  18. Drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium Avium subsp. Avium isolates from naturally infected domestic pigeons to avian tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Parvandar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: We suggest drug susceptibility testing for more nontuberculous mycobateria, particularly M. avium complex isolated from infected birds and humans, as well as molecular basics of drug sensitivity in order to detect resistance genes of pathogenic M. avium subsp. avium.

  19. Control of Brochothrix thermosphacta in pork meat using Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis I23 isolated from beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun A Olaoye

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the antimicrobial activities of two lactic acid bacteria (LAB Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis I23 and L. lactis subsp. hordinae E91 against Brochothrix thermosphacta in pork during storage at ambient temperature (30oC over 7 days. Both the LAB strains and spoilage organism were inoculated on fresh pork samples at 1x106cfu/g. About 3 log reduction in the spoilage organism was obtained in LAB treated samples after 48 h of storage. The spoilage organism was confirmed to be sensitive to the bacteriocin nisin produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis I23. There were reductions in the counts of Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus in the treated samples. Conclusively, growth of B. thermosphacta could be effectively controlled by nisin producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis I23 in fresh pork during storage, thereby enhancing shelf life of the product.

  20. Transcriptome-Based Characterization of Interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in Lactose-Grown Chemostat Cocultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, F.; Sieuwerts, S.; De Hulster, E.; Almering, M.J.; Luttik, M.A.; Pronk, J.T.; Smid, E.J.; Bron, P.A.; Daran-Lapujade, P.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and lactic acid bacteria occur in many dairy, food, and beverage fermentations, but knowledge about their interactions is incomplete. In the present study, interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaric

  1. Transcriptome-based characterization of interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in lactose-grown chemostat cocultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, F.; Sieuwerts, S.; Hulster, de E.; Almering, M.J.; Luttik, M.A.H.; Pronk, J.T.; Smid, E.J.; Baron, P.A.; Daran-Lapujade, P.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and lactic acid bacteria occur in many dairy, food, and beverage fermentations, but knowledge about their interactions is incomplete. In the present study, interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaric

  2. Transcriptome-Based Characterization of Interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in Lactose-Grown Chemostat Cocultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, F.; Sieuwerts, S.; De Hulster, E.; Almering, M.J.; Luttik, M.A.; Pronk, J.T.; Smid, E.J.; Bron, P.A.; Daran-Lapujade, P.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and lactic acid bacteria occur in many dairy, food, and beverage fermentations, but knowledge about their interactions is incomplete. In the present study, interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaric

  3. Transcriptome-based characterization of interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in lactose-grown chemostat cocultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, F.; Sieuwerts, S.; Hulster, de E.; Almering, M.J.; Luttik, M.A.H.; Pronk, J.T.; Smid, E.J.; Baron, P.A.; Daran-Lapujade, P.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and lactic acid bacteria occur in many dairy, food, and beverage fermentations, but knowledge about their interactions is incomplete. In the present study, interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaric

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto Strain CGMCC 2108, a High Producer of Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Siyuan; Meng, Yonghong; Su, Anping; Zhang, Chen; Ren, Yuanyuan

    2016-05-26

    Here, we report the 4.1-Mb draft genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto strain CGMCC 2108, a high producer of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA). This sequence will provide further help for the biosynthesis of γ-PGA and will greatly facilitate research efforts in metabolic engineering of B. subtilis subsp. natto strain CGMCC 2108. Copyright © 2016 Tan et al.

  5. Application of the C18-Carboxypropylbetaine Specimen Processing Method to Recovery of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from Ruminant Tissue Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Charles G.; MacLellan, Kerry M.; Judith R Stabel; Carothers, Christine; Whitlock, Robert H.; Passen, Selvin

    2002-01-01

    The causative agent of Johne's disease is Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. This is a chronic, debilitating gastrointestinal disorder that affects ruminants and is responsible for significant economic loss. The specimen processing method that combines C18-carboxypropylbetaine (CB-18) treatment and lytic enzyme decontamination has been shown to improve the diagnosis of mycobacterioses. This processing method was applied to the isolation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from rumin...

  6. Transfer of the toxin protein genes of Bacillus sphaericus into Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and their expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgouin, C.; Delécluse, A; de la Torre, F; Szulmajster, J.

    1990-01-01

    The genes encoding the toxic determinants of Bacillus sphaericus have been expressed in a nontoxic and a toxic strain of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. In both cases, the B. sphaericus toxin proteins were produced at a high level during sporulation of B. thuringiensis and accumulated as crystalline structures. B. thuringiensis transformants expressing B. sphaericus and B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxins did not show a significant enhancement of toxicity against Aedes aegyp...

  7. Transcriptome-based characterization of interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in lactose-grown chemostat cocultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Filipa; Sieuwerts, Sander; de Hulster, Erik; Almering, Marinka J H; Luttik, Marijke A H; Pronk, Jack T; Smid, Eddy J; Bron, Peter A; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2013-10-01

    Mixed populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and lactic acid bacteria occur in many dairy, food, and beverage fermentations, but knowledge about their interactions is incomplete. In the present study, interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, two microorganisms that co-occur in kefir fermentations, were studied during anaerobic growth on lactose. By combining physiological and transcriptome analysis of the two strains in the cocultures, five mechanisms of interaction were identified. (i) Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus hydrolyzes lactose, which cannot be metabolized by S. cerevisiae, to galactose and glucose. Subsequently, galactose, which cannot be metabolized by Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, is excreted and provides a carbon source for yeast. (ii) In pure cultures, Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus grows only in the presence of increased CO2 concentrations. In anaerobic mixed cultures, the yeast provides this CO2 via alcoholic fermentation. (iii) Analysis of amino acid consumption from the defined medium indicated that S. cerevisiae supplied alanine to the bacterium. (iv) A mild but significant low-iron response in the yeast transcriptome, identified by DNA microarray analysis, was consistent with the chelation of iron by the lactate produced by Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. (v) Transcriptome analysis of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in mixed cultures showed an overrepresentation of transcripts involved in lipid metabolism, suggesting either a competition of the two microorganisms for fatty acids or a response to the ethanol produced by S. cerevisiae. This study demonstrates that chemostat-based transcriptome analysis is a powerful tool to investigate microbial interactions in mixed populations.

  8. Loop-mediated amplification of the Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis micA gene is highly specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara-Bell, Jarred; Kubota, Ryo; Jenkins, Daniel M; Alvarez, Anne M

    2013-12-01

    Loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) was used to specifically identify Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, causal agent of bacterial canker of tomato. LAMP primers were developed to detect micA, a chromosomally stable gene that encodes a type II lantibiotic, michiganin A, which inhibits growth of other C. michiganensis subspecies. In all, 409 bacterial strains (351 C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and 58 non-C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis) from a worldwide collection were tested with LAMP to determine its specificity. LAMP results were compared with genetic profiles established using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of seven genes (dnaA, ppaJ, pat-1, chpC, tomA, ppaA, and ppaC). C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains produced eight distinct profiles. The LAMP reaction identified all C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains and discriminated them from other C. michiganensis subspecies and non-Clavibacter bacteria. LAMP has advantages over immunodiagnostic and other molecular detection methods because of its specificity and isothermal nature, which allows for easy field application. The LAMP reaction is also not affected by as many inhibitors as PCR. This diagnostic tool has potential to provide an easy, one-step test for rapid identification of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.

  9. Miniprimer PCR assay targeting multiple genes: a new rapid and reliable tool for genotyping Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, R; Chen, Q; Robleh Djama, Z; Tambong, J T

    2010-02-01

    Development of a 'miniprimer' PCR assay for genotyping Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, the causal agent of the Stewart's bacterial wilt on maize. Four 10-nucleotide (10-nt) 'miniprimer' sets were designed and evaluated in the presence of Titanium Taq DNA polymerase. Under optimal reaction conditions, the miniprimer pair Uni-BacF-10/Uni-BacR-10 reproducibly generated identical banding patterns among 10 strains of P. stewartii subsp. stewartii, different patterns from strains of P. stewartii subsp. indologenes, other Panteoa species, Clavibacter michiganensis, Pectobacterium spp., Pseudomonas spp. and other bacterial species. The amplicons of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii were cloned and sequenced to identify genes or DNA fragments that are targeted by the miniprimer PCR assay. Of the 14 'clone types' identified, sequences of a 1.23-kb fragment had a 99.8% similarity to part of the Pantoea stewartii zeaxanthin diglucoside biosynthetic operon (AY166713). Other dominant cloned fragments included a 411-bp amplicon that exhibited 99.8% similarity to the psaU gene (syn:ysaU; GQ249669), a type III protein-secretion system complex of P. stewartii subsp. stewartii strain DC283, and a 548-bp fragment showed 63% homology to the Asp/Glu racemase encoding gene in Erwinia tasmaniensis strain ET1/99. The miniprimer PCR assay reported here is highly discriminatory and reproducible in genotyping Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii. This miniprimer PCR assay could be a new reliable and rapid tool for fingerprinting the Stewart's wilt pathogen of maize.

  10. Alterações patológicas em potros infectados por Actinobacillus equuli subsp. haemolyticus Pathological changes in foals infected with Actinobacillus equuli subsp. haemolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Carloto Gomes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, são descritos dois casos fatais de septicemia com lesões embólicas causadas por Actinobacillus equuli subsp. haemolyticus em potros recém-nascidos. Em um dos animais, foram observados, na necropsia, pequenos nódulos esbranquiçados de aproximadamente 0,2cm de diâmetro na cortical dos rins e no outro havia uma área de coloração acinzentada no lobo diafragmático esquerdo do pulmão. As principais alterações microscópicas observadas no primeiro animal foram rins com infiltrado inflamatório multifocal a coalescente acentuado, com predomínio de neutrófilos, associado com áreas basofílicas levemente granulares compostas por grumos bacterianos. No segundo animal, o pulmão apresentava infiltrado inflamatório neutrofílico, edema, congestão e colônias bacterianas intravasculares. Em ambos os casos, colônias bacterianas foram encontradas disseminadas por vários órgãos incluindo capilares cerebrais. Nos dois casos foi isolado e identificado A. equuli subsp. haemolyticus.This paper describes two fatal cases of embolic and septicaemic lesions caused by Actinobacillus equuli subsp. haemolyticus in two newborn foals. In one foal was observed at necropsy small whitish nodules of approximately 0,2cm in diameter on the renal cortex and the other foal had an area of gray color in the left diaphragmatic lobe of the lung. The main histologic changes were observed in the first foal kidneys with multifocal to coalescing inflammatory suppurative infiltrates associated with slightly granular basophilic bacterial colonies. In the second animal the lung showed neutrophilic inflammatory infiltrate, edema, congestion and presence of intravascular bacterial colonies. In both cases, the bacteria were disseminated by several organs including cerebral capillary cerebral. In both cases A. equuli subsp. haemolyticus was isolated and identified.

  11. Efficacy of Various Pasteurization Time-Temperature Conditions in Combination with Homogenization on Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Irene R.; Williams, Alan G.; Rowe, Michael T.; Muir, D. Donald

    2005-01-01

    The effect of various pasteurization time-temperature conditions with and without homogenization on the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was investigated using a pilot-scale commercial high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurizer and raw milk spiked with 101 to 105 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells/ml. Viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was cultured from 27 (3.3%) of 816 pasteurized milk samples overall, 5 on Herrold's egg yolk medium and 22 by BACTEC cult...

  12. Chromosomal islands of Streptococcus pyogenes and related streptococci: molecular switches for survival and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Scott V; McShan, William M

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a significant pathogen of humans, annually causing over 700,000,000 infections and 500,000 deaths. Virulence in S. pyogenes is closely linked to mobile genetic elements like phages and chromosomal islands (CI). S. pyogenes phage-like chromosomal islands (SpyCI) confer a complex mutator phenotype on their host. SpyCI integrate into the 5' end of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutL, which also disrupts downstream operon genes lmrP, ruvA, and tag. During early logarithmic growth, SpyCI excise from the bacterial chromosome and replicate as episomes, relieving the mutator phenotype. As growth slows and the cells enter stationary phase, SpyCI reintegrate into the chromosome, again silencing the MMR operon. This system creates a unique growth-dependent and reversible mutator phenotype. Additional CI using the identical attachment site in mutL have been identified in related species, including Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus parauberis, and Streptococcus canis. These CI have small genomes, which range from 13 to 20 kB, conserved integrase and DNA replication genes, and no identifiable genes encoding capsid proteins. SpyCI may employ a helper phage for packaging and dissemination in a fashion similar to the Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPI). Outside of the core replication and integration genes, SpyCI and related CI show considerable diversity with the presence of many indels that may contribute to the host cell phenotype or fitness. SpyCI are a subset of a larger family of streptococcal CI who potentially regulate the expression of other host genes. The biological and phylogenetic analysis of streptococcal chromosomal islands provides important clues as to how these chromosomal islands help S. pyogenes and other streptococcal species persist in human populations in spite of antibiotic therapy and immune challenges.

  13. Strain dependency of the immunopotentiating activity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagafuchi, S; Takahashi, T; Yajima, T; Kuwata, T; Hirayama, K; Itoh, K

    1999-03-01

    To obtain strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus with high immunopotentiating activity, we screened 90 strains of this bacterial species for the proliferative response of murine spleen and beta-lactoglobulin-primed lymph node cells. In this screening, certain strains showed strong immunopotentiating activity. Among them, strain 1023 had the strongest mitogenic activity for murine Peyer's patch (PP) cells. Furthermore, strain 1023 induced IgA antibody production by PP cells as strongly as Bifidobacterium longum 6001, which had adjuvant activity when orally administered. Also in the assays using immune cells from human-flora-associated mice a few strains including 1023 showed strong immunopotentiating activity comparable to B. longum 6001. These results suggest that L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains such as 1023 may be useful for the production of fermented milk with a more beneficial effect on the systemic and mucosal immune system.

  14. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: characterization of the bacteriocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Danielle N; Todorov, Svetoslav D; Landgraf, Mariza; Destro, Maria T; Franco, Bernadette D G M

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria capable of producing bacteriocins and presenting probiotic potential open innovative technological applications in the dairy industry. In this study, a bacteriocinogenic strain (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF4Mi) was isolated from goat milk, and studied for its antimicrobial activity. The bacteriocin presented a broad spectrum of activity, was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, resistant to heat and pH extremes, and not affected by the presence of SDS, Tween 20, Tween 80, EDTA or NaCl. Bacteriocin production was dependent on the components of the culture media, especially nitrogen source and salts. When tested by PCR, the bacteriocin gene presented 100% homology to nisin Z gene. These properties indicate that this L. lactis subsp. lactis DF4Mi can be used for enhancement of dairy foods safety and quality.

  15. Ingress of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis into Tomato Leaves Through Hydathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, W M; Braun, E J; Gleason, M L

    1998-06-01

    ABSTRACT Hydathodes of tomato leaves served as extremely efficient infection courts for the bacterial canker pathogen, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Chlorotic lesions developed at the tips of leaflet lobes about 2 weeks after inoculation of guttation droplets. Lesions expanded along the leaflet margins and became necrotic. Movement of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis from the inoculated leaflet into the rachis was slow and erratic. Histological observations revealed that pathogen populations first developed within large intercellular spaces lying beneath the stomata, which serve as water pores in tomato hydathodes. Bacteria were first observed within vessels of the large marginal fimbriate veins 7 days after inoculation. By 14 days after inoculation, large populations could be seen within the vessels; and by 21 days after inoculation, tissue collapse was widespread and masses of bacteria could be seen in the intercellular spaces and within necrotic cells.

  16. Occurrence of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, the causal agent of bacterial canker of tomato, in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radwan FTAYEH

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Several surveys were carried out to evaluate the occurrence of bacterial canker of tomato caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm in Syria, especially in the North-West provinces Latakiaand Tartous. The surveys revealed typical disease symptoms in greenhouses where the tomato cvs. Dima, Huda and Astona were grown, such as dark brown to black lesions on the leaf margins, wilting of whole plants, stunting, and vascular discoloration. The disease incidence in such greenhouses was 15% in the spring of 2007, and up to 70% by the end of July. Ten isolates obtained from diseased plants at different locations in these two provinces were identified as Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis using classical microbiological tests as well as PCR. This is the first detailed proof of the occurrence of bacterial canker of tomato in Syria.

  17. A highly efficient transposon mutagenesis system for the tomato pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, O; Gartemann, K H; Zellermann, E M; Eichenlaub, R; Burger, A

    2001-11-01

    A transposon mutagenesis system for Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis was developed based on antibiotic resistance transposons that were derived from the insertion element IS1409 from Arthrobacter sp. strain TM1 NCIB12013. As a prerequisite, the electroporation efficiency was optimized by using unmethylated DNA and treatment of the cells with glycine such that about 5 x 10(6) transformants per microg of DNA were generally obtained. Electroporation of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis with a suicide vector carrying transposon Tn1409C resulted in approximately 1 x 10(3) transposon mutants per pg of DNA and thus is suitable for saturation mutagenesis. Analysis of Tn1409C insertion sites suggests a random mode of transposition. Transposition of Tn1409C was also demonstrated for other subspecies of C. michiganensis.

  18. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: characterization of the bacteriocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N. Furtado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria capable of producing bacteriocins and presenting probiotic potential open innovative technological applications in the dairy industry. In this study, a bacteriocinogenic strain (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF4Mi was isolated from goat milk, and studied for its antimicrobial activity. The bacteriocin presented a broad spectrum of activity, was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, resistant to heat and pH extremes, and not affected by the presence of SDS, Tween 20, Tween 80, EDTA or NaCl. Bacteriocin production was dependent on the components of the culture media, especially nitrogen source and salts. When tested by PCR, the bacteriocin gene presented 100% homology to nisin Z gene. These properties indicate that this L. lactis subsp. lactis DF4Mi can be used for enhancement of dairy foods safety and quality.

  19. ANTIMICROBIAL AND CYTOTOXIC PROPERTIES OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF MUSA SAPIENTUM L. SUBSP. SYLVESTRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Mohammad Zafar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the different extracts of Musa sapientum L. subsp. sylvestris fruits. The methanolic extracts of Musa sapientum L. subsp. sylvestris peel (MSPE, pulp (MSPU and seed (MSSE were investigated for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method and for cytotoxic activity by Brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Good antimicrobial activity was shown by MSPU while moderate activity by MSPE against 5 gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus aureus and 8 gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhi, Shigella boydii, Shigella dysenteriae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio mimicus, Vibrio parahemolyticus bacteria and 3 fungi (Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Sacharomyces cerevaceae. Antimicrobial activity of MSSE against the organisms was insignificant. The order of Brine Shrimp lethality was found as Vincristine sulphate > MSPU > MSSE > MSPE. These findings suggest the potentiality of finding novel compounds with antimicrobial property in the investigated fruit.

  20. POTENSI BAKTERI ENDOFIT DALAM MENEKAN PENYAKIT LAYU STEWART (PANTOEA STEWARTII SUBSP. STEWARTII PADA TANAMAN JAGUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haliatur Rahma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Potential of endophytic bacteria to control stewart wilt disease (Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii in maize. The purpose of this study was to explore endophytic bacteria from seedling, maize roots and grass roots as well as to test the ability of endophytic bacteria which could potentially suppress stewart wilt disease development in maize. Characterization of endophytic bacteria as biocontrol agents including: do not induce HR on tobacco, synthesize IAA, dissolve phosphate, produce siderophores, and antibiotic to Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pnss. The results of research shoed 17 isolates of endophytic bacteria potentially as candidate biocontrol agents. Nine isolates were able to produce IAA, siderofores and phosphatase; two isolates produce IAA and phosphatase; six isolates produce IAA. Six isolates ie: AR1, AJ34, AJ15, AJ19, and AJ14 AN6, can increase maize plant resistance and suppress stewart wilt disease severity with a range of 48.95-55.60%.

  1. First report of MIRU-VNTR genotyping of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    A. Fawzy; Fayed, A.; Youssef, H; El-Sayed, A.; Zschöck, M.

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease, an economically important disease in ruminants worldwide. It was first isolated in Egypt in 2005. Since then, the pathogen has been detected in different Egyptian provinces. In order to trace the source of infection, genotyping using simple methods of high discriminatory power such as mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) were carried out in different co...

  2. Biological Role of Pigment Production for the Bacterial Phytopathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Mojtaba; Burbank, Lindsey; Roper, M. Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, the causal agent of Stewart's wilt of sweet corn, produces a yellow carotenoid pigment. A nonpigmented mutant was selected from a bank of mutants generated by random transposon mutagenesis. The transposon insertion site was mapped to the crtB gene, encoding a putative phytoene synthase, an enzyme involved in the early steps of carotenoid biosynthesis. We demonstrate here that the carotenoid pigment imparts protection against UV radiation and also contribute...

  3. Microaggregate-associated protein involved in invasion of epithelial cells by Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis

    OpenAIRE

    Babrak, Lmar; Danelishvili, Lia; Sasha J. Rose; Bermudez, Luiz E.

    2015-01-01

    The environmental opportunistic pathogen Mycobacterium avium subsp hominissuis (MAH), a member of the nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cluster, causes respiratory as well as disseminated disease in patients such as those with chronic respiratory illnesses or AIDS. Currently, there is no effective method to prevent NTM respiratory infections. The formation of mycobacterial microaggregates comprises of phenotypic changes that lead to efficient adherence and invasion of the respiratory mucosa i...

  4. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of 24 antimicrobial agents against Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni.

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhoof, R.; Gordts, B; Dierickx, R; Coignau, H; Butzler, J P

    1980-01-01

    The bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of 24 antimicrobial agents were tested with the Dynatech MIC 2000 system against 86 strains of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni from human sources. The penicillins (penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxycillin, carbenicillin) had poor activity. Ampicillin and amoxycillin were equally active. Cefotaxime revealed a rather good activity. Erythromycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, and furazolidone were the most active compounds. Two strains (2.3%) wer...

  5. The importance of arbuscular mycorrhiza for Cyclamen purpurascens subsp. immaculatum endemic in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlová, Jana; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Slavíková, Renata; Turis, Peter

    2015-11-01

    At present, there is no relevant information on arbuscular mycorrhiza and the effect of the symbiosis on the growth of wild populations of cyclamens. To fill this gap, two populations of Cyclamen purpurascens subsp. immaculatum, endemic in Nízke Tatry (NT) mountains and Veľká Fatra (VF) mountains, Slovakia, were studied in situ as well as in a greenhouse pot experiment. For both populations, mycorrhizal root colonization of native plants was assessed, and mycorrhizal inoculation potential (MIP) of the soils at the two sites was determined in 3 consecutive years. In the greenhouse experiment, the growth response of cyclamens to cross-inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was tested: plants from both sites were grown in their native soils and inoculated with a Septoglomus constrictum isolate originating either from the same or from the other plant locality. Although the MIP of soil at the NT site was significantly higher than at the VF site, the level of AMF root colonization of C. purpurascens subsp. immaculatum plants in the field did not significantly differ between the two localities. In the greenhouse experiment, inoculation with AMF generally accelerated cyclamen growth and significantly increased all growth parameters (shoot dry weight, leaf number and area, number of flowers, tuber, and root dry weight) and P uptake. The two populations of C. purpurascens subsp. immaculatum grown in their native soils, however, differed in their response to inoculation. The mycorrhizal growth response of NT plants was one-order higher compared to VF plants, and all their measured growth parameters were stimulated regardless of the fungal isolates' origin. In the VF plants, only the non-native (NT originating) isolate showed a significant positive effect on several growth traits. It can be concluded that mycorrhiza significantly increased fitness of C. purpurascens subsp. immaculatum, despite the differences between plant populations, implying that AMF

  6. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY ON ENDEMIC CROCUS OLIVIERI GAY SUBSP. ISTANBULENSIS MATHEW SUBSPECIES (IRIDACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yetişen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, morphological and anatomical properties of Crocus olivieri Gay subsp. istanbulensis Mathew were investigated. Cross-sections of root, scape and leaf parts of the plant were examined anddemonstrated by photographs. Most of the anatomical properties are similar to the other member of Iridaceae family. Sclerenchyma groups were observed around to leaf vascular bundle. Morphological and anatomical findings compared with other two subspecies of Crocus olivieri.

  7. Delphinium fissum subsp. sordidum (Ranunculaceae in Portugal: distribution and conservation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Ramírez-Rodríguez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Delphinium fissum subsp. sordidum has been found in calcareous and schistaceous slopes on the Mines of Santo Adrião, Trás-os-Montes region —close to Bragança, northeastern Portugal—. It is the first record of this taxon in Portugal and the westernmost locality of its general distribution area. Its conservation status, according to the most recent IUCN categories and criteria, should be “Critically Endangered” in Portugal.

  8. Prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Neisseria elongata subsp. elongata in a patient with Klinefelter's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Morgan; Yazdani, Farah; Malnick, Henry; Shah, Jayesh J; Turner, David P J

    2007-06-01

    A case is reported of prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Neisseria elongata subsp. elongata in a patient with Klinefelter's syndrome. This is believed to be only the third case of endocarditis reported due to this subspecies. N. elongata is difficult to identify, and is morphologically and biochemically similar to Kingella spp. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene is useful for identification. The patient was successfully treated with amoxicillin and gentamicin, followed by ceftriaxone.

  9. Effective heat inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in raw milk contaminated with naturally infected feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Jan L W; Vissers, Marc M M; Te Giffel, Meike C

    2007-07-01

    The effectiveness of high-temperature, short holding time (HTST) pasteurization and homogenization with respect to inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was evaluated quantitatively. This allowed a detailed determination of inactivation kinetics. High concentrations of feces from cows with clinical symptoms of Johne's disease were used to contaminate raw milk in order to realistically mimic possible incidents most closely. Final M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis concentrations varying from 10(2) to 3.5 x 10(5) cells per ml raw milk were used. Heat treatments including industrial HTST were simulated on a pilot scale with 22 different time-temperature combinations, including 60 to 90 degrees C at holding (mean residence) times of 6 to 15 s. Following 72 degrees C and a holding time of 6 s, 70 degrees C for 10 and 15 s, or under more stringent conditions, no viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were recovered, resulting in >4.2- to >7.1-fold reductions, depending on the original inoculum concentrations. Inactivation kinetic modeling of 69 quantitative data points yielded an E(a) of 305,635 J/mol and an lnk(0) of 107.2, corresponding to a D value of 1.2 s at 72 degrees C and a Z value of 7.7 degrees C. Homogenization did not significantly affect the inactivation. The conclusion can be drawn that HTST pasteurization conditions equal to 15 s at > or =72 degrees C result in a more-than-sevenfold reduction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

  10. Complete genome sequence of a plant associated bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCMB5033.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Adnan; Manzoor, Shahid; Bejai, Sarosh; Meijer, Johan; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik

    2014-06-15

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCMB5033 is of special interest for its ability to promote host plant growth through production of stimulating compounds and suppression of soil borne pathogens by synthesizing antibacterial and antifungal metabolites or priming plant defense as induced systemic resistance. The genome of B. amyloliquefaciens UCMB5033 comprises a 4,071,167 bp long circular chromosome that consists of 3,912 protein-coding genes, 86 tRNA genes and 10 rRNA operons.

  11. Anatomical differences between stem and branch wood of Ficus carica L. subsp. carica

    OpenAIRE

    Barbaros Yaman

    2014-01-01

    The quantitative anatomical differences between the stem and branch wood of Ficus carica L. subsp. carica (Moraceae) were investigated. In spite of the similarity in the qualitative traits, according to statistical analysis, tangential vessel diameter, radial vessel diameter, vessel frequency, vessel wall thickness, multiseriate ray width, fibre length, fibre diameter, and fibre wall thickness showed statistically significant differences in the stem and branch wood of taxon examined. Fibre le...

  12. CELL-SURFACE BINDING OF DEOXYNIVALENOL TO Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans ISOLATED FROM SOURDOUGH STARTER CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Yousef I.; Lloyd B. Bullerman

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are two contaminant-mycotoxins frequently found in food commodities produced under poor conditions. Several methods have been suggested for the detoxification of such mycotoxins. Among the proposed methods, biological detoxification seems to be the most promising and cost-efficient. This study explores the capability of one strain of lactic acid bacteria, identified as Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans, to bind both DON and FB1 in liquid cultu...

  13. Volatile Constituents of Ferula communis L. subsp. communis Growing Spontaneously in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula Manolakou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of Greek Ferula communis subsp. communis from different plant parts were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by means of GC and GC-MS. Ninety three compounds were identified in the total essential oils. Sesqui terpenes were the most dominant class of compounds in the leaves and inflorescences oils, while infructescences oils were rich in monoterpenes with α-pinene (35.2-40.6% being the dominant component.

  14. Expression of putative virulence factors in the potato pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtsmark, Ingrid; Takle, Gunnhild W; Brurberg, May Bente

    2008-02-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus is the causal agent of bacterial wilt and ring rot of potato. So far, only two proteins have been shown to be essential for virulence, namely a plasmid-encoded cellulase CelA and a hypersensitive response-inducing protein. We have examined the relative expression of CelA and eight putative virulence factors during infection of potato and in liquid culture, using quantitative real-time PCR. The examined putative virulence genes were celB, a cellulase-encoding gene and genes encoding a pectate lyase, a xylanase and five homologues of the Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis pathogenicity factor Pat-1 thought to encode a serine protease. Six of the nine assayed genes were up-regulated during infection of potato, including celA, celB, the xylanase gene, and two of the pat genes. The pectate lyase gene showed only slightly elevated expression, whereas three of the five examined pat genes were down-regulated during infection in potato. Interestingly, the two up-regulated pat genes showed a noticeable sequence difference compared to the three down-regulated pat genes. These results reveal several new proteins that are likely to be involved in Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus pathogenicity.

  15. New type of antimicrobial protein produced by the plant pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanliang; Ma, Ping; Holtsmark, Ingrid; Skaugen, Morten; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Brurberg, May B

    2013-09-01

    It has previously been shown that the tomato pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis secretes a 14-kDa protein, C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis AMP-I (CmmAMP-I), that inhibits growth of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, the causal agent of bacterial ring rot of potato. Using sequences obtained from tryptic fragments, we have identified the gene encoding CmmAMP-I and we have recombinantly produced the protein with an N-terminal intein tag. The gene sequence showed that CmmAMP-I contains a typical N-terminal signal peptide for Sec-dependent secretion. The recombinant protein was highly active, with 50% growth inhibition (IC50) of approximately 10 pmol, but was not toxic to potato leaves or tubers. CmmAMP-I does not resemble any known protein and thus represents a completely new type of bacteriocin. Due to its high antimicrobial activity and its very narrow inhibitory spectrum, CmmAMP-1 may be of interest in combating potato ring rot disease.

  16. Genome of the Actinomycete Plant Pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus Suggests Recent Niche Adaptation▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Stephen D.; Corton, Craig; Brown, Susan E.; Barron, Andrew; Clark, Louise; Doggett, Jon; Harris, Barbara; Ormond, Doug; Quail, Michael A.; May, Georgiana; Francis, David; Knudson, Dennis; Parkhill, Julian; Ishimaru, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus is a plant-pathogenic bacterium and the causative agent of bacterial ring rot, a devastating agricultural disease under strict quarantine control and zero tolerance in the seed potato industry. This organism appears to be largely restricted to an endophytic lifestyle, proliferating within plant tissues and unable to persist in the absence of plant material. Analysis of the genome sequence of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus and comparison with the genome sequences of related plant pathogens revealed a dramatic recent evolutionary history. The genome contains 106 insertion sequence elements, which appear to have been active in extensive rearrangement of the chromosome compared to that of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. There are 110 pseudogenes with overrepresentation in functions associated with carbohydrate metabolism, transcriptional regulation, and pathogenicity. Genome comparisons also indicated that there is substantial gene content diversity within the species, probably due to differential gene acquisition and loss. These genomic features and evolutionary dating suggest that there was recent adaptation for life in a restricted niche where nutrient diversity and perhaps competition are low, correlated with a reduced ability to exploit previously occupied complex niches outside the plant. Toleration of factors such as multiplication and integration of insertion sequence elements, genome rearrangements, and functional disruption of many genes and operons seems to indicate that there has been general relaxation of selective pressure on a large proportion of the genome. PMID:18192393

  17. Detection of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in tomato seeds using immunomagnetic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León, L; Siverio, F; Rodríguez, A

    2006-10-01

    The use of pathogen-free plant material is the main strategy for controlling bacterial canker of tomato caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. However, detection and isolation of this pathogen from seeds before field or greenhouse cultivation is difficult when the bacterium is at low concentration and associated microbiota are present. Immunomagnetic separation (IMS), based on the use of immunomagnetic beads (IMBs) coated with specific antibodies, was used to capture C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis cells, allowing removal of non-target bacteria from samples before plating on non-selective medium. Different concentrations of IMBs and of two antisera were tested, showing that IMS with 10(6)IMBs/ml coated with a polyclonal antiserum at 1/3200 dilution recovered more than 50% of target cells from initial inocula of 10(3) to 10(0)CFU/ml. Threshold detection was lower than 10CFU/ml even in seed extracts containing seed debris and high populations of non-target bacteria. The IMS permitted C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis isolation from naturally infected seeds with higher sensitivity and faster than direct isolation on the semiselective medium currently used and could become a simple viable system for routinely testing tomato seed lots in phytosanitary diagnostic laboratories.

  18. Genome of the actinomycete plant pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus suggests recent niche adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Stephen D; Corton, Craig; Brown, Susan E; Barron, Andrew; Clark, Louise; Doggett, Jon; Harris, Barbara; Ormond, Doug; Quail, Michael A; May, Georgiana; Francis, David; Knudson, Dennis; Parkhill, Julian; Ishimaru, Carol A

    2008-03-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus is a plant-pathogenic bacterium and the causative agent of bacterial ring rot, a devastating agricultural disease under strict quarantine control and zero tolerance in the seed potato industry. This organism appears to be largely restricted to an endophytic lifestyle, proliferating within plant tissues and unable to persist in the absence of plant material. Analysis of the genome sequence of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus and comparison with the genome sequences of related plant pathogens revealed a dramatic recent evolutionary history. The genome contains 106 insertion sequence elements, which appear to have been active in extensive rearrangement of the chromosome compared to that of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. There are 110 pseudogenes with overrepresentation in functions associated with carbohydrate metabolism, transcriptional regulation, and pathogenicity. Genome comparisons also indicated that there is substantial gene content diversity within the species, probably due to differential gene acquisition and loss. These genomic features and evolutionary dating suggest that there was recent adaptation for life in a restricted niche where nutrient diversity and perhaps competition are low, correlated with a reduced ability to exploit previously occupied complex niches outside the plant. Toleration of factors such as multiplication and integration of insertion sequence elements, genome rearrangements, and functional disruption of many genes and operons seems to indicate that there has been general relaxation of selective pressure on a large proportion of the genome.

  19. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis grown in xylem mimicking medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiery, Eva; Adam, Susanne; Reid, Stephen; Hofmann, Jörg; Sonnewald, Sophia; Burkovski, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    The interaction between Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis with its host, the tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum), is poorly understood and only few virulence factors are known. While studying of the bacteria in planta is time-consuming and difficult, the analysis in vitro would facilitate research. Therefore, a xylem mimicking medium (XMM) for C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis was established in this study based on an apoplast medium for Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. In contrast to the apoplast medium, XMM contains no sugars, but amino acids which serve as nitrogen and carbon source. As a result, growth in XMM induced transcriptional changes of genes encoding putative sugar, amino acid and iron uptake systems. In summary, mRNA levels of about 8% of all C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis genes were changed when XMM-grown bacteria were compared to M9 minimal medium-grown cells. Almost no transcriptional changes of genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes were detected, leading to the idea that XMM reflects the situation in the beginning of infection and therefore allows the characterization of virulence factors in this early stage of infection. The addition of the plant wound substance acetosyringone to the XMM medium led to a change in transcript amount, including genes coding for proteins involved in protein transport, iron uptake and regulation processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Production and characterization of bioemulsifier from a marine bacterium, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus subsp. anitratus SM7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulnaree Phetrong

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine bacterium strain SM7 was isolated as a bioemulsifier-producing bacterium from oil-spilled seawater in Songkhla lagoon, Thailand. It was identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus subsp. anitratus based on morphology, biochemicalcharacteristics and 16S rRNA sequence. A. calcoaceticus subsp. anitratus SM7 produced an extracellular emulsifying agent when grown in a minimal salt medium (pH 7.0 containing 0.3% (v/v n-heptadecane and 0.1% (w/v ammoniumhydrogen carbonate as carbon source and nitrogen source, respectively, at 30oC with agitation rate of 200 rpm. Crude bioemulsifier was recovered from the culture supernatant by ethanol precipitation with a yield of 2.94 g/l and had a criticalemulsifier concentration of 0.04 g/ml. The crude bioemulsifier was capable of emulsifying n-hexadecane in a broad pH range (6-12, temperatures (30-121oC and in the presence of NaCl up to 12% (w/v. The bioemulsifier was stable in saltsolution ranging from 0 to 0.1% (w/v of MgCl2 and CaCl2. The broad range of pH stability, thermostability and salt tolerance suggested that the bioemulsifier from A. calcoaceticus subsp. anitratus SM7 could be useful in environmentalapplication, especially bioremediation of oil-polluted seawater.

  1. Identification and characterization of Nip, necrosis-inducing virulence protein of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattinen, Laura; Tshuikina, Marina; Mäe, Andres; Pirhonen, Minna

    2004-12-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora is a gram-negative bacterium that causes soft rot disease of many cultivated crops. When a collection of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora isolates was analyzed on a Southern blot using the harpin-encoding gene hrpN as probe, several harpinless isolates were found. Regulation of virulence determinants in one of these, strain SCC3193, has been characterized extensively. It is fully virulent on potato and in Arabidopsis thaliana. An RpoS (SigmaS) mutant of SCC3193, producing elevated levels of secreted proteins, was found to cause lesions resembling the hypersensitive response when infiltrated into tobacco leaf tissue. This phenotype was evident only when bacterial cells had been cultivated on solid minimal medium at low pH and temperature. The protein causing'the cell death was purified and sequenced, and the corresponding gene was cloned. The deduced sequence of the necrosis-inducing protein (Nip) showed homology to necrosis- and ethylene-inducing elicitors of fungi and oomycetes. A mutant strain of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora lacking the nip gene showed reduced virulence in potato tuber assay but was unaffected in virulence in potato stem or on other tested host plants.

  2. Involvement of N-acylhomoserine lactones throughout plant infection by Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (Pectobacterium atrosepticum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadja, Bruno; Latour, Xavier; Faure, Denis; Chevalier, Sylvie; Dessaux, Yves; Orange, Nicole

    2004-11-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica is responsible for potato blackleg disease in the field and tuber soft rot during crop storage. The process leading to the disease occurs in two phases: a primary invasion step followed by a maceration step. Bacteria-to-bacteria communication is associated with a quorum-sensing (QS) process based on the production of N-acylhomoserine lactones (HSL). The role of HSL throughout plant infection was analyzed. To this purpose, HSL produced by a specific E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica wild-type strain, which was particularly virulent on potato, were identified. A derivative of this strain that expressed an HSL lactonase gene and produced low amounts of HSL was generated. The comparison of these strains allowed the evaluation of the role of HSL and QS in disease establishment and development. Bacterial growth and motility; activity of proteins secreted by type I, II, and III systems; and hypersensitive and maceration reactions were evaluated. Results indicated that HSL production and QS regulate only those traits involved in the second stage of the host plant infection (i.e., tissue maceration) and hypersensitive response in nonhost tobacco plants. Therefore, the use of QS quenching strategies for biological control in E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica cannot prevent initial infection and multiplication of this pathogen.

  3. Association between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and culling in dairy cattle herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Arrazuría

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to analyse the causes for culling in dairy herds with different Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection status and to compare these causes with those observed over the general dairy cattle population. During 2009, causes for culling were registered in two different groups of farms: (1 farms with seropositive cows for three consecutive years (2007-2009 but where Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis has not been isolated from any of the fecal samples collected and (2 farms with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis seropositive cows for three consecutive years (2007-2009 and where the bacteria has been isolated from at least one fecal sample. Causes for animal loss were compared between both groups and between them and the general dairy cattle population by means of regression analysis. The distribution of culling reasons was different between infected herds (both bacteriologically positive and negative and the general population. The percentage of losses seemed to be higher in infected herds from the first parity on. The most remarkable difference among groups was observed in losses due to "death/urgent slaughter".

  4. Phobalysin, a Small β-Pore-Forming Toxin of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Amable J; von Hoven, Gisela; Neukirch, Claudia; Meyenburg, Martina; Qin, Qianqian; Füser, Sabine; Boller, Klaus; Lemos, Manuel L; Osorio, Carlos R; Husmann, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, an important pathogen of marine animals, may also cause septicemia or hyperaggressive necrotizing fasciitis in humans. We previously showed that hemolysin genes are critical for virulence of this organism in mice and fish. In the present study, we characterized the hlyA gene product, a putative small β-pore-forming toxin, and termed it phobalysin P (PhlyP), for "photobacterial lysin encoded on a plasmid." PhlyP formed stable oligomers and small membrane pores, causing efflux of K(+), with no significant leakage of lactate dehydrogenase but entry of vital dyes. The latter feature distinguished PhlyP from the related Vibrio cholerae cytolysin. Attack by PhlyP provoked a loss of cellular ATP, attenuated translation, and caused profound morphological changes in epithelial cells. In coculture experiments with epithelial cells, Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae led to rapid hemolysin-dependent membrane permeabilization. Unexpectedly, hemolysins also promoted the association of P. damselae subsp. damselae with epithelial cells. The collective observations of this study suggest that membrane-damaging toxins commonly enhance bacterial adherence.

  5. Septic Shock Induced by Bacterial Prostatitis with Morganella morganii subsp. morganii in a Posttransplantation Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infection is a common complication after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT. Morganella morganii is ubiquitous Gram-negative facultative anaerobe, which may cause many kinds of opportunistic infection. Herein we report a case of a 55-year-old man who presented with frequent urination, urgency, and mild pain that comes and goes low in the abdomen and around the anus. The patient had a medical history of chronic prostatitis for 4 years. He received HLA-matched sibling allo-HSCT because of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma 29 months ago. The routine examination of prostatic fluid showed increased leukocytes and the culture of prostatic fluid showed Morganella morganii subsp. morganii. The patient developed chills and fever 18 hours after examination. Both urine culture and blood culture showed Morganella morganii subsp. morganii. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotic therapy and septic shock management. Taken together, Morganella morganii should be considered a possible pathogen when immunocompromised patients develop prostatitis. Also, prostatic massage could be a possible trigger of septic shock induced by Morganella morganii subsp. morganii in a posttransplantation patient.

  6. Septic Shock Induced by Bacterial Prostatitis with Morganella morganii subsp. morganii in a Posttransplantation Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofan; Chen, Jianhui

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infection is a common complication after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT). Morganella morganii is ubiquitous Gram-negative facultative anaerobe, which may cause many kinds of opportunistic infection. Herein we report a case of a 55-year-old man who presented with frequent urination, urgency, and mild pain that comes and goes low in the abdomen and around the anus. The patient had a medical history of chronic prostatitis for 4 years. He received HLA-matched sibling allo-HSCT because of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma 29 months ago. The routine examination of prostatic fluid showed increased leukocytes and the culture of prostatic fluid showed Morganella morganii subsp. morganii. The patient developed chills and fever 18 hours after examination. Both urine culture and blood culture showed Morganella morganii subsp. morganii. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotic therapy and septic shock management. Taken together, Morganella morganii should be considered a possible pathogen when immunocompromised patients develop prostatitis. Also, prostatic massage could be a possible trigger of septic shock induced by Morganella morganii subsp. morganii in a posttransplantation patient. PMID:26798544

  7. Genome differences between Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum strain Nichols and T. paraluiscuniculi strain Cuniculi A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strouhal, Michal; Smajs, David; Matejková, Petra; Sodergren, Erica; Amin, Anita G; Howell, Jerrilyn K; Norris, Steven J; Weinstock, George M

    2007-12-01

    The genome of Treponema paraluiscuniculi strain Cuniculi A was compared to the genome of the syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum strain Nichols using DNA microarray hybridization, whole-genome fingerprinting, and DNA sequencing. A DNA microarray of T. pallidum subsp. pallidum Nichols containing all 1,039 predicted open reading frame PCR products was used to identify deletions and major sequence changes in the Cuniculi A genome. Using these approaches, deletions, insertions, and prominent sequence changes were found in 38 gene homologs and six intergenic regions of the Cuniculi A genome when it was compared to the genome of T. pallidum subsp. pallidum Nichols. Most of the observed differences were localized in tpr loci and the vicinity of these loci. In addition, 14 other genes were found to contain frameshift mutations resulting in major changes in protein sequences. Analysis of restriction target sites representing 0.34% of the total genome length and DNA sequencing of three PCR products (0.46% of the total genome length) amplified from Cuniculi A chromosomal regions and comparison to the Nichols genome revealed a sequence similarity of 98.6 to 99.3%. These results are consistent with a close genetic relationship among the T. pallidum strains and subspecies and a strong, but relatively divergent connection between the human and rabbit pathogens.

  8. A bioactivity guided study on the antidiabetic activity of Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Nilüfer; Aslan, Mustafa; Demirci, Betül; Ergun, Fatma

    2012-03-27

    Juniperus (Cupressaceae) species are widely used as folk medicine in spreading countries. Decoction of Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus L. leaves is used internally to lower blood glucose levels in Turkey. To determine hypoglycaemic and antidiabetic activities of Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus leaves and to identify active compounds through bioactivity guided isolation technique. Ethanol and water extracts of Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus (Joso), leaves on oral administration were studied using in vivo models in normal, glucose-hyperglycemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Through in vivo bioactivity-guided fractionation processes, a nonpolar fraction was separated from the n-hexane subextract by silica gel column chromatography as the main active fraction. Subfractions of this fraction was found to possess antidiabetic activity and their chemical composition was investigated by GC-FID and GC-MS, simultaneously. This is the first report on the antidiabetic constituents of Joso leaves. Fatty acids, such as palmitic, linoleic and linolenic acid were found as the major compounds in subfractions. Results indicated that Joso leaf extract and its active constituents might be beneficial for diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Septic Shock Induced by Bacterial Prostatitis with Morganella morganii subsp. morganii in a Posttransplantation Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofan; Chen, Jianhui

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infection is a common complication after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT). Morganella morganii is ubiquitous Gram-negative facultative anaerobe, which may cause many kinds of opportunistic infection. Herein we report a case of a 55-year-old man who presented with frequent urination, urgency, and mild pain that comes and goes low in the abdomen and around the anus. The patient had a medical history of chronic prostatitis for 4 years. He received HLA-matched sibling allo-HSCT because of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma 29 months ago. The routine examination of prostatic fluid showed increased leukocytes and the culture of prostatic fluid showed Morganella morganii subsp. morganii. The patient developed chills and fever 18 hours after examination. Both urine culture and blood culture showed Morganella morganii subsp. morganii. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotic therapy and septic shock management. Taken together, Morganella morganii should be considered a possible pathogen when immunocompromised patients develop prostatitis. Also, prostatic massage could be a possible trigger of septic shock induced by Morganella morganii subsp. morganii in a posttransplantation patient.

  10. Phobalysin, a Small β-Pore-Forming Toxin of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Amable J.; von Hoven, Gisela; Neukirch, Claudia; Meyenburg, Martina; Qin, Qianqian; Füser, Sabine; Boller, Klaus; Lemos, Manuel L.; Osorio, Carlos R.

    2015-01-01

    Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, an important pathogen of marine animals, may also cause septicemia or hyperaggressive necrotizing fasciitis in humans. We previously showed that hemolysin genes are critical for virulence of this organism in mice and fish. In the present study, we characterized the hlyA gene product, a putative small β-pore-forming toxin, and termed it phobalysin P (PhlyP), for “photobacterial lysin encoded on a plasmid.” PhlyP formed stable oligomers and small membrane pores, causing efflux of K+, with no significant leakage of lactate dehydrogenase but entry of vital dyes. The latter feature distinguished PhlyP from the related Vibrio cholerae cytolysin. Attack by PhlyP provoked a loss of cellular ATP, attenuated translation, and caused profound morphological changes in epithelial cells. In coculture experiments with epithelial cells, Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae led to rapid hemolysin-dependent membrane permeabilization. Unexpectedly, hemolysins also promoted the association of P. damselae subsp. damselae with epithelial cells. The collective observations of this study suggest that membrane-damaging toxins commonly enhance bacterial adherence. PMID:26303391

  11. Characterization of pathogenic vibrios isolated from bivalve hatcheries in Galicia, NW Atlantic coast of Spain. Description of Vibrio tubiashii subsp. europaeus [corrected] subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Susana; Dubert, Javier; Barja, Juan L

    2015-02-01

    The taxonomic position of the bivalve pathogen PP-638 was studied together with five similar isolates. The strains were isolated from flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) and Manila clam (Venerupis philippinarum) cultures during outbreaks of disease in two shellfish hatcheries (Galicia, NW Spain). The pathogenicity, previously established for PP-638, was demonstrated with all isolates and for several bivalve species, including the original hosts. On the basis of phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequences, a tight group was defined within the genus Vibrio. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on concatenated sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and the five housekeeping genes recA, rpoA, pyrH, gyrB and ftsZ revealed that these strains form a cluster within the Orientalis clade, close to the species Vibrio tubiashii. The results of MLSA, the DDH rate and the phenotypic differences with the type strain of V. tubiashii supported the differentiation of the Galician isolates as a new subspecies within V. tubiashii, for which the name V. tubiashii subsp. europaeus [corrected] subsp. nov. is proposed (type strain PP-638(T)=CECT 8136(T)=DSM 7349(T)) The emended description of V. tubiashii is included. The pathogenicity assays widen the host range of V. tubiashii to add two unreported species, Venerupis decussata and Donax trunculus, and the described as relatively resistant species V. philippinarum.

  12. Isolation and Characterization of a New Subspecies of Aeromonas salmonicida (Aeromonas salmonicida subsp.Flounderacida subsp.Nov.) from Stone Flounder(Kareius bicoloratus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaojun(张晓君); Zhan Wenbin; Chen Cuizhen; Fang Hai

    2004-01-01

    Biological properties were studied to appropriate pathogenic bacteria which were isolated from di-seased (or dead) stone flounder (Kareius bicoloratus L.) which expressed bacterial septicaemia, including morphological characteristics, colony characteristics, physiological and biochemical characteristics and serum homology of isolates, the results showed that the isolates belonged to a new subspecies of A.salmonicida. In addition, the representative strains have been re-checked and detected the mol% G+C ratio of the DNA by China Center for Type Culture Collection (CCTCC), the examined strains were also regarded as a new subspecies of A.salmonicida, and designated as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. flounderacida subsp.nov.by its isolated fish (Kareius bicoloratus). Molecular identification of analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene were applied, the results showed high similarity (99%) with the 16S rRNA gene of Aeromonas salmonicida from GenBank database. Cluster analysis of phylogenetic tree revealed that the representative strain formed separately bootstrap-supported cluster.

  13. Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus and Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball. "berries" from Turkey: comparative evaluation of phenolic profile, antioxidant, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taviano, Maria Fernanda; Marino, Andreana; Trovato, Ada; Bellinghieri, Valentina; Melchini, Antonietta; Dugo, Paola; Cacciola, Francesco; Donato, Paola; Mondello, Luigi; Güvenç, Ayşegül; De Pasquale, Rita; Miceli, Natalizia

    2013-08-01

    This work aimed to evaluate and compare the phenolic profile and some biological properties of the ripe "berries" methanol extracts of Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus (Joo) and Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball. (Jom) from Turkey. The total phenolic content resulted about 3-fold higher in Jom (17.89±0.23 mg GAE/g extract) than in Joo (5.14±0.06 mg GAE/g extract). The HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS analysis revealed a similar flavonoid fingerprint in Joo and Jom, whereas a difference in their quantitative content was found (4632 μg/g extract and 12644 μg/g extract). In addition, three phenolic acids were detected in Jom only (5765 μg/g extract), and protocatechuic acid was the most abundant one. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated by different in vitro assays: in the DPPH and in the TBA tests a stronger activity in Jom was highlighted, while Joo exhibited higher reducing power and metal chelating activity. Joo and Jom did not affect HepG2 cell viability and both extracts resulted virtually non-toxic against Artemia salina. The extracts were also studied for their antimicrobial potential, displaying efficacy against Gram-positive bacteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Roundup(®) and glyphosate on three food microorganisms: Geotrichum candidum, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clair, Emilie; Linn, Laura; Travert, Carine; Amiel, Caroline; Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Panoff, Jean-Michel

    2012-05-01

    Use of many pesticide products poses the problem of their effects on environment and health. Amongst them, the effects of glyphosate with its adjuvants and its by-products are regularly discussed. The aim of the present study was to shed light on the real impact on biodiversity and ecosystems of Roundup(®), a major herbicide used worldwide, and the glyphosate it contains, by the study of their effects on growth and viability of microbial models, namely, on three food microorganisms (Geotrichum candidum, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus) widely used as starters in traditional and industrial dairy technologies. The presented results evidence that Roundup(®) has an inhibitory effect on microbial growth and a microbicide effect at lower concentrations than those recommended in agriculture. Interestingly, glyphosate at these levels has no significant effect on the three studied microorganisms. Our work is consistent with previous studies which demonstrated that the toxic effect of glyphosate was amplified by its formulation adjuvants on different human cells and other eukaryotic models. Moreover, these results should be considered in the understanding of the loss of microbiodiversity and microbial concentration observed in raw milk for many years.

  15. Morphological leaf variability in natural populations of Pistacia atlantica Desf. subsp. atlantica along climatic gradient: new features to update Pistacia atlantica subsp. atlantica key

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zerey-Belaskri, Asma; Benhassaini, Hachemi

    2016-04-01

    The effect of bioclimate range on the variation in Pistacia atlantica Desf. subsp. atlantica leaf morphology was studied on 16 sites in Northwest Algeria. The study examined biometrically mature leaves totaling 3520 compound leaves. Fifteen characters (10 quantitative and 5 qualitative) were assessed on each leaf. For each quantitative character, the nested analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine relative magnitude of variation at each level of the nested hierarchy. The correlation between the climatic parameters and the leaf morphology was examined. The statistical analysis applied on the quantitative leaf characters showed highly significant variation at the within-site level and between-site variation. The correlation coefficient ( r) showed also an important correlation between climatic parameters and leaf morphology. The results of this study exhibited several values reported for the first time on the species, such as the length and the width of the leaf (reaching up to 24.5 cm/21.9 cm), the number of leaflets (up to 18 leaflets/leaf), and the petiole length of the terminal leaflet (reaching up to 3.4 cm). The original findings of this study are used to update the P. atlantica subsp. atlantica identification key.

  16. Stable transformation of the gram-positive phytopathogenic bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus with several cloning vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, M J; Nakhei, H; Dreier, J; Lehtilä, K; Meletzus, D; Eichenlaub, R; Metzler, M C

    1996-05-01

    In this paper we describe transformation of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, the potato ring rot bacterium, with plasmid vectors. Three of the plasmids used, pDM100, pDM302, and pDM306, contain the origin of replication from pCM1, a native plasmid of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. We constructed two new cloning vectors, pHN205 and pHN216, by using the origin of replication of pCM2, another native plasmid of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Plasmids pDM302, pHN205, and pHN216 were stably maintained without antibiotic selection in various strains of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus. We observed that for a single plasmid, different strains of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus showed significantly different transformation efficiencies. We also found unexplained strain-to-strain differences in stability with various plasmid constructions containing different arrangements of antibiotic resistance genes and origins of replication. We examined the effect of a number of factors on transformation efficiency. The best transformation efficiencies were obtained when C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus cells were grown on DM agar plates, harvested during the early exponential growth phase, and used fresh (without freezing) for electroporation. The maximal transformation efficiency obtained was 4.6 x 10(4) CFU/microgram of pHN216 plasmid DNA. To demonstrate the utility of this transformation system, we cloned a beta-1,4-endoglucanase-encoding gene from C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus into pHN216. When this construction, pHN216:C8, was electroporated into competent cells of a cellulase-deficient mutant, it restored cellulase production to almost wild-type levels.

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11101-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 14 EF619606_1( EF619606 |pid:none) Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. ... 84 4e-14 EU680782_1( EU680782 |pid:none) Vibrio campbell...) Syntrophomonas wolfei subsp. wolfe... 80 4e-13 AB014950_1( AB014950 |pid:none) Vibrio campbell

  18. Phenotypic, Genotypic, and Antimicrobial Characteristics of Streptococcus halichoeri Isolates from Humans, Proposal To Rename Streptococcus halichoeri as Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. halichoeri, and Description of Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. hominis subsp. nov., a Bacterium Associated with Human Clinical Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewmaker, P L; Whitney, A M; Humrighouse, B W

    2016-03-01

    Phenotypic, genotypic, and antimicrobial characteristics of six phenotypically distinct human clinical isolates that most closely resembled the type strain of Streptococcus halichoeri isolated from a seal are presented. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, sodA, and recN genes; comparative whole-genome analysis; conventional biochemical and Rapid ID 32 Strep identification methods; and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed on the human isolates, the type strain of S. halichoeri, and type strains of closely related species. The six human clinical isolates were biochemically indistinguishable from each other and showed 100% 16S rRNA, rpoB, sodA, and recN gene sequence similarity. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis revealed 98.6% similarity to S. halichoeri CCUG 48324(T), 97.9% similarity to S. canis ATCC 43496(T), and 97.8% similarity to S. ictaluri ATCC BAA-1300(T). A 3,530-bp fragment of the rpoB gene was 98.8% similar to the S. halichoeri type strain, 84.6% to the S. canis type strain, and 83.8% to the S. ictaluri type strain. The S. halichoeri type strain and the human clinical isolates were susceptible to the antimicrobials tested based on CLSI guidelines for Streptococcus species viridans group with the exception of tetracycline and erythromycin. The human isolates were phenotypically distinct from the type strain isolated from a seal; comparative whole-genome sequence analysis confirmed that the human isolates were S. halichoeri. On the basis of these results, a novel subspecies, Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. hominis, is proposed for the human isolates and Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. halichoeri is proposed for the gray seal isolates. The type strain of the novel subspecies is SS1844(T) = CCUG 67100(T) = LMG 28801(T).

  19. Silencing of host basal defense response-related gene expression increases susceptibility of Nicotiana benthamiana to Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Vasudevan; Sessa, Guido; Smart, Christine D

    2011-03-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is an actinomycete, causing bacterial wilt and canker disease of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We used virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to identify genes playing a role in host basal defense response to C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis infection using Nicotiana benthamiana as a model plant. A preliminary VIGS screen comprising 160 genes from tomato known to be involved in defense-related signaling identified a set of 14 genes whose suppression led to altered host-pathogen interactions. Expression of each of these genes and three additional targets was then suppressed in larger-scale VIGS experiments and the effect of silencing on development of wilt disease symptoms and bacterial growth during an N. benthamiana-C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis compatible interaction was determined. Disease susceptibility and in planta bacterial population size were enhanced by silencing genes encoding N. benthamiana homologs of ubiquitin activating enzyme, snakin-2, extensin-like protein, divinyl ether synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase 2, and Pto-like kinase. The identification of genes having a role in the host basal defense-response to C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis advances our understanding of the plant responses activated by C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and raises possibilities for devising novel and effective molecular strategies to control bacterial canker and wilt in tomato.

  20. Emulsifying, rheological and physicochemical properties of exopolysaccharide produced by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CCUG 52486 and Bifidobacterium infantis NCIMB 702205.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, P H P; Bell, A; Grandison, A S; Charalampopoulos, D

    2012-09-01

    The rheological, emulsification and certain physicochemical properties of purified exopolysaccharides (EPS) of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CCUG 52486 and Bifidobacterium infantis NCIMB 702205 were studied and compared with those of guar gum and xanthan gum. The two strains were grown in skim milk supplemented with 1.5% (w/v) casein hydrolysate at 37 °C for 24h; they both produced heteropolysaccharides with different molecular mass and composition. The carbohydrate content of both polymers was more than 92% and no protein was detected. The EPS of B. longum subsp. infantis CCUG 52486 showed highly branched entangled porous structure under scanning electron microscopy. Higher intrinsic viscosity was observed for the EPS of B. longum subsp. infantis CCUG 52486 compared to the EPS of B. infantis NCIMB 702205 and guar gum. Both polymers showed pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid behaviour in an aqueous solution. The EPS of B. infantis NCIMB 702205 and B. longum subsp. infantis CCUG 52486 produced more stable emulsions with orange oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil and xylene compared to guar and xanthan gum. The EPS of B. longum subsp. infantis CCUG 52486 is the most promising one for applications in the food industry, as it had higher intrinsic viscosity, higher apparent viscosity in aqueous solution, porous dense entangled structure and good emulsification activity.

  1. Festuca paniculata (L. Schinz & Thell. subsp. paui, nuevo taxon para la Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cebolla, Consuelo

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available A new subspecies, Festuca paniculata (L. Schinz & Thell. subsp. paui Cebolla & Rivas Ponce (Poaceae is described.

    Se describe una subespecie nueva, Festuca paniculata (L. Schinz & Thell. subsp. paui Cebolla & Rivas Ponce (Poaceae.

  2. Asplenium x sleepiae nothosubsp krameri (A-foreziense x A-obovatum subsp obovatum), a fern hybrid new for France (Aspleniaceae, Pteridophyta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prelli, R; Rasbach, H; Viane, R

    1998-01-01

    A mixed population of several Asplenium taxa was studied near Roquebrune-sur-Argens (France, Var). A. foreziense, A. obovatum subsp. obovatum and A. obovatum subsp. lanceolatum were identified in the field and then confirmed by spore measurement. The presence of two hybrids within the population was

  3. Draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus M1-1, isolated from the gills of a Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli Hilgendorf, after high hydrostatic pressure processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong-Soo; Kim, Chong-Tai; Park, Bang Heon; Kwon, Sujin; Cho, Yong-Jin; Kim, Namsoo; Kim, Chul-Jin; Chun, Jongsik; Kwak, Jangyul; Maeng, Jin-Soo

    2012-08-01

    A bacterium designated M1-1 was isolated from the gills of a Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli Hilgendorf, after high hydrostatic pressure processing. Studies of 16S rRNA phylogeny and comparative genomics demonstrated that the isolate belongs to Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of S. saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus M1-1 (KACC 16562).

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus M1-1, Isolated from the Gills of a Korean Rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli Hilgendorf, after High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Bong-Soo; Kim, Chong-Tai; Park, Bang Heon; Kwon, Sujin; Cho, Yong-Jin; Kim, Namsoo; Kim, Chul-Jin; Chun, Jongsik; Kwak, Jangyul; Maeng, Jin-Soo

    2012-01-01

    A bacterium designated M1-1 was isolated from the gills of a Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli Hilgendorf, after high hydrostatic pressure processing. Studies of 16S rRNA phylogeny and comparative genomics demonstrated that the isolate belongs to Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of S. saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus M1-1 (KACC 16562).

  5. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: presencia en los alimentos y su relación con la enfermedad de Crohn Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in food and its relationship with Crohn's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Cirone

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available La paratuberculosis o enfermedad de Johne es una enteritis crónica producida por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, que afecta a bovinos y a otras especies. En la Argentina se ha caracterizado en rodeos bovinos y de ciervos, con aislamientos tipificados en distintos patrones genéticos. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis ha sido vinculado en humanos con una inflamación crónica del intestino, denominada enfermedad de Crohn. Existen evidencias clínicas y experimentales que relacionan a M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis con la enfermedad en el humano, mediante su detección por PCR y por cultivo a partir de biopsias de órganos, de leche materna y de sangre de pacientes afectados. La leche y sus subproductos serían posibles fuentes de infección y se ha sugerido que M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis resistiría las condiciones de pasteurización. Diversos trabajos de investigación demostraron que esta micobacteria podría estar presente en leches comercializadas en diversos países, como Reino Unido, Estados Unidos, República Checa, y también en la Argentina. La presencia de M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis en productos lácteos y agua de consumo ha sido relacionada con la resistencia del microorganismo tanto a los procesos de elaboración como a los factores climáticos adversos, lo que enfatiza el rol de los alimentos y del agua como vías de transmisión al humano. Las investigaciones en curso podrían ratificar el riesgo y las implicancias de la exposición del humano a M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis a través de los alimentos y del agua contaminados, para determinar la importancia de la paratuberculosis como enfermedad zoonótica.Paratuberculosis or Johne's disease is a chronic enteritis of the cattle and other small ruminant animals caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. In Argentina, the strains were characterized in beef and dairy cattle and deer in different genetic patterns by molecular tools. M. avium

  6. Investigación de Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis en leche ultrapasteurizada para consumo humano Research of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in ultrapasteurized milk for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G Magnano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente se vincula al Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis como potencial agente etiológico implicado en la enfermedad de Crohn en humanos. Una de las vías de ingreso sería a través de la ingestión de leche contaminada. El objetivo fue evaluar la presencia de Map en leche comercial homogeneizada y ultrapasteurizada para consumo humano en supermercados de la ciudad de Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina. Se muestrearon 98 envases de 1 litro de leche entera homogeneizada y ultrapasteurizada de seis marcas comerciales. Previa descontaminación con el método de Cornell modificado, se sembraron en medio de cultivo Herrold con y sin micobactina. Todas las muestras fueron negativas. Como posibles causas de estos resultados se discuten: el origen de la leche y su probable muy baja carga de micobacterias, la eficacia de la pasteurización, el proceso en el laboratorio, entre otras.Currently, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is linked to Crohn's disease in humans as a potential etiologic agent. One route of infection to be considered is by the ingestion of contaminated milk. The objective of the present work was to evaluate Map's presence in commercial homogenized and ultrapasteurized milk for human consumption in supermarkets in the city of Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina. Ninety eight packages of 1 liter of entire, homogenized and ultrapasteurized milk of six commercial brands were sampled. After decontamination by the modified Cornell's method, the samples were cultured in Herrold's medium with and without micobactin. All samples were negative. Possible causes of this result such as the origin of the milk and its probable very low amount of micobacterias, the efficiency of the pasteurization, the processing in the laboratory, among others are here discussed.

  7. Alkalibacillus halophilus subsp.hitensis subsp.nov.:A new subspecies of moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from a chemical plant in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei-guo; MA Fang; WEI Li; LI Li-ping; SU Jun-feng

    2009-01-01

    In order to develop halophilic microorganism resources to improve environment,a Gram-positive,strictlv aerobic and moderately halophilic bacterial strain JSAI Was obtained from the waste water sample col-lected from Jinhong Chemical Plant at Weihai city,by the methods of quick isolation and screening of halophilic bacteria.Systematic studies on it were carried out.Results show that the strain JSAl is bacillus.The temperature range most suitable for its growth is 29-35℃and the most suitable pH is 6.5-9.0.It Can grow well at the salt mass concentration of 30-150 g/L.The C+G mole fraction of its DNA is 37.5%.The analytical result of 16S rRNA gene sequence reveals that this strain has the closest relationship with Alkalibacillus halophihts(DQ359731)of Alkalibacillus.Their similarities are as high as 99%.However,they have obvious differences in aspects of whole-cell main fatty acid components,cell size,cell morphology,motility,oxidase,gelatine liquefication,NaCI tolerance range,pH tolerance range,G+C mole fraction,sole carbon source,sole nitrogen source.antibiotic sensitivity and strain source.Comparing with other species of the same genus,differ-ences of this strain are even more obvious. In view of multiple identification results,we believe this strain iS a new subsDecies of Alkalibacillus halophilus and name it Alkalibacillus halophilus subsp.hitensis subsp.nov.

  8. Replication and long-term persistence of bovine and human strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis within Acanthamoeba polyphaga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Manuela; Bull, Tim J; Evans, Hugh; Sidi-Boumedine, Karim; McMinn, Liz; Rhodes, Glenn; Pickup, Roger; Hermon-Taylor, John

    2006-01-01

    Free-living protists are ubiquitous in the environment and form a potential reservoir for the persistence of animal and human pathogens. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the cause of Johne's disease, a systemic infection accompanied by chronic inflammation of the intestine that affects many animals, including primates. Most humans with Crohn's disease are infected with this chronic enteric pathogen. Subclinical infection with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is widespread in domestic livestock. Infected animals excrete large numbers of robust organisms into the environment, but little is known about their ability to replicate and persist in protists. In the present study we fed laboratory cultures of Acanthamoeba polyphaga with bovine and human strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Real-time PCR showed that the numbers of the pathogens fell over the first 4 to 8 days and recovered by 12 to 16 days. Encystment of the amoebic cultures after 4 weeks resulted in a 2-log reduction in the level of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, which returned to the original level by 24 weeks. Extracts of resection samples of human gut from 39 patients undergoing abdominal surgery were fed to cultures of A. polyphaga. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis detected by nested IS900 PCR with amplicon sequencing and visualized by IS900 in situ hybridization and auramine-rhodamine staining was found in cultures derived from 13 of the patients and was still present in the cultures after almost 4 years of incubation. Control cultures were negative. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis has the potential for long-term persistence in environmental protists.

  9. Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.L. Pedroso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01 and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04 were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF, and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (10³ CFU/g. The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at -18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved.

  10. Characterization of the plasmid encoded virulence region pat-1 of phytopathogenic Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, J; Meletzus, D; Eichenlaub, R

    1997-03-01

    The tomato pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB382, causing bacterial wilt and canker, harbors two plasmids, pCM1 (27.5 kb) and pCM2 (72 kb), carrying genes involved in virulence. The region of plasmid pCM2 encoding the pathogenicity locus pat-1 was mapped by deletion analysis and complementation studies to a 1.5-kb Bg/II/SmaI DNA fragment. Introduction of the pat-1 region into endophytic, plasmid-free isolates of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis converted these bacteria into virulent pathogens. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the pat-1 region, an open reading frame (ORF1) can be predicted, coding for a protein of 280 amino acids and 29.7 kDa with homology to serine proteases. Introduction of a frame-shift mutation in ORF1 leads to a loss of the pathogenic phenotype. Northern (RNA) hybridizations identified an 1.5-knt transcript of the pat-1 structural gene. The site of transcription initiation was mapped by primer extension and a typical -10/-35 region was located with significant homology to the consensus Escherichia coli sigma 70 and Bacillus subtilis sigma 43 promoters. Downstream of the pat-1 structural gene, a peculiar repetitive sequence motif (pat-1rep) is located, consisting of 20 direct tandem repeats preceded by a run of 14 guanosine residues. DNA sequences homologous to pat-1rep were isolated and characterized from four virulent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains exhibiting a high extent of structural conservation. The deletion of this repetitive sequence reduced virulence significantly but did not lead to a complete loss of the virulence phenotype.

  11. Phytochemical composition and antinociceptive activity of Bauhinia glauca subsp. hupehana in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Xu

    Full Text Available In traditional medicine, Bauhinia glauca subsp. hupehana has long been used as an analgesic agent in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the ethanol extract of the aerial parts of B. glauca subsp. hupehana (BHE in rats and its chemical fingerprint. The antinociceptive activity of BHE was assessed in mice using chemically and heat-induced pain models, such as the acetic acid-induced writhing, hot plate, tail-flick and glutamate tests. Naltrexone hydrochloride, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, was utilized to determine the involvement of the opioid system. In addition to this, the involvements of the cGMP and ATP-sensitive K+ channel pathways were also detected using methylene blue and glibenclamide. The oral administration of BHE (at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg produced significant and dose-related inhibitions in both the chemically and heat-induced pain models. Interestingly, in the abdominal constriction test, when the dose of BHE was increased to 800 mg/kg (p.o., n = 10, the inhibition rate was 100%. The antinociceptive mechanism may involve the cGMP pathway and ATP sensitive K+ channel pathway. The central antinociceptive effect was not antagonized by naltrexone. One phenolic acid, one lignin and five flavonoids were isolated from BHE. The antinociceptive activity of BHE was most likely due to the presence of the flavonoids. The acute toxicity results showed that BHE was safe at a high dose (2 g/kg, p.o.. The current investigation demonstrates that B. glauca subsp. hupehana is a potential candidate for the development of novel, non-opioid, analgesic phytomedicines.

  12. Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, D.L.; Dogenski, M.; Thomazini, M.; Heinemann, R.J.B.; Favaro-Trindade, C.S.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04) were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF), and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (103 CFU/g). The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at −18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved. PMID:24516445

  13. Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, D L; Dogenski, M; Thomazini, M; Heinemann, R J B; Favaro-Trindade, C S

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04) were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF), and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (10(3) CFU/g). The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at -18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis CRL264, a Citrate-Fermenting Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuljan, Federico; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S.; Esteban, Luis; Alarcón, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis CRL264, a natural strain isolated from artisanal cheese from northwest Argentina. L. lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis is one of the most important microorganisms used as starter culture around the world. The CRL264 strain constitutes a model microorganism in the studies on the generation of aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) by lactic acid bacteria. Our genome analysis shows similar genetic organization to other available genomes of L. lactis bv. diacetylactis strains. PMID:26847906

  15. Structural basis for arabinoxylo‐oligosaccharide capture by the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl‐04

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Ejby; Fredslund, Folmer; Vujicic‐Zagar, Andreja

    2013-01-01

    Glycan utilization plays a key role in modulating the composition of the gut microbiota, but molecular insight into oligosaccharide uptake by this microbial community is lacking. Arabinoxylo‐oligosaccharides (AXOS) are abundant in the diet, and are selectively fermented by probiotic bifidobacteria...... in the colon. Here we show how selectivity for AXOS uptake is established by the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl‐04. The binding protein BlAXBP, which is associated with an ATP‐binding cassette (ABC) transporter that mediates the uptake of AXOS, displays an exceptionally broad...

  16. Biological role of pigment production for the bacterial phytopathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mojtaba; Burbank, Lindsey; Roper, M Caroline

    2012-10-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, the causal agent of Stewart's wilt of sweet corn, produces a yellow carotenoid pigment. A nonpigmented mutant was selected from a bank of mutants generated by random transposon mutagenesis. The transposon insertion site was mapped to the crtB gene, encoding a putative phytoene synthase, an enzyme involved in the early steps of carotenoid biosynthesis. We demonstrate here that the carotenoid pigment imparts protection against UV radiation and also contributes to the complete antioxidant pathway of P. stewartii. Moreover, production of this pigment is regulated by the EsaI/EsaR quorum-sensing system and significantly contributes to the virulence of the pathogen in planta.

  17. Mean effective sensitivity for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis infection in cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Græsbøll, Kaare; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in cattle are generally challenging to detect and cost-effective test strategies are consequently difficult to identify. MAP-specific antibody ELISAs for milk and serum are relatively inexpensive, but their utility...... within and between groups, and in some groups we found a bimodal distribution of MES. Dairy herds generally showed higher MES than non-dairy herds. Dairy herds in a control programme for paratuberculosis showed a MES similar to all other dairy herds from which animals >2.0 years were tested (both groups...

  18. Factors influencing autoaggregation and aggregation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus isolated from handmade yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslim, Belma; Onal, Derya; Beyatli, Yavuz

    2007-01-01

    Of 26 Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains isolated from yogurt, strains B2 and 22, which produce low levels (28 and 21 mg liter(-1), respectively) of extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs), and strains B3 and G12, which produce high EPS levels (211 and 175 mg liter(-1), respectively), were selected for further study. The two high EPS-producing strains showed a significant autoaggregation and coaggregation ability with Escherichia coli ATCC 11230 (P production and coaggregation ability may be important in the selection of probiotic strains.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. chinensis Strain CT-43▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Wang, Jieping; Yin, Wen; Shao, Xiaohu; Zheng, Huajun; Li, Mingshun; Zhao, Youwen; Sun, Ming; Wang, Shengyue; Yu, Ziniu

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis has been widely used as an agricultural biopesticide for a long time. As a producing strain, B. thuringiensis subsp. chinensis strain CT-43 is highly toxic to lepidopterous and dipterous insects. It can form various parasporal crystals consisting of Cry1Aa3, Cry1Ba1, Cry1Ia14, Cry2Aa9, and Cry2Ab1. During fermentation, it simultaneously generates vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3Aa10 and the insecticidal nucleotide analogue thuringiensin. Here, we report the finished, annotated genome sequence of B. thuringiensis strain CT-43. PMID:21551307

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. chinensis Strain CT-43▿

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jin; Wang, Jieping; Yin, Wen; Shao, Xiaohu; Zheng, Huajun; Li, Mingshun; Zhao, Youwen; Sun, Ming; Wang, Shengyue; Yu, Ziniu

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis has been widely used as an agricultural biopesticide for a long time. As a producing strain, B. thuringiensis subsp. chinensis strain CT-43 is highly toxic to lepidopterous and dipterous insects. It can form various parasporal crystals consisting of Cry1Aa3, Cry1Ba1, Cry1Ia14, Cry2Aa9, and Cry2Ab1. During fermentation, it simultaneously generates vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3Aa10 and the insecticidal nucleotide analogue thuringiensin. Here, we report the finished...

  1. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. chinensis strain CT-43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Wang, Jieping; Yin, Wen; Shao, Xiaohu; Zheng, Huajun; Li, Mingshun; Zhao, Youwen; Sun, Ming; Wang, Shengyue; Yu, Ziniu

    2011-07-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis has been widely used as an agricultural biopesticide for a long time. As a producing strain, B. thuringiensis subsp. chinensis strain CT-43 is highly toxic to lepidopterous and dipterous insects. It can form various parasporal crystals consisting of Cry1Aa3, Cry1Ba1, Cry1Ia14, Cry2Aa9, and Cry2Ab1. During fermentation, it simultaneously generates vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3Aa10 and the insecticidal nucleotide analogue thuringiensin. Here, we report the finished, annotated genome sequence of B. thuringiensis strain CT-43.

  2. Apparent prevalence of beef carcasses contaminated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis sampled from Danish slaughter cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Toft, Nils; Pozzato, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in beef has been reported as a public health concern because asymptomatically infected cattle may contain MAP in tissues that are used for human consumption. Associations between MAP carcasses contamination and animal characteristics...... of two dairy cows were positive by culture whereas 4% of the animals were estimated with =10¿CFU/gram muscle based on realtime PCR. Age was found to be associated with carcass contamination with MAP. The observed viable MAP prevalence in beef carcasses was low. However, detection of MAP and MAP DNA...... in muscle tissues suggested that bacteremia occurred in slaughtered cattle....

  3. Atividade antiinflamatoria da Chuquiraga spinosa subsp. Huamanpinta em ratos e camundongos

    OpenAIRE

    Sabino Julio Sotelo Cordova

    1998-01-01

    Resumo: A Chuquiraga spinosa Lessing subsp. Huamanpinta Ezcurra, conhecida no Peru como "Huamanpinta" é utilizada na medicina popular como diurético, antiinflamatório e antitTeumático. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a atividade antiinflamatória do,' extrato bruto hidroalcoólico (EBH) e suas frações (orgânica e aquosa) em modelos experimentais de inflamação aguda em ratos e camundongos. o EBH da Huamanpinta (250, 500 e 1000 mglkg, v.o.), quando adtpinistrado uma hora antes da indução de inflamaçã...

  4. First report of Cowpea mild mottle Carlavirus on yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

    2012-12-14

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%-74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  5. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgloris Marys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  6. Characterisation of an ELISA detecting immunoglobulin G to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine colostrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zervens, Lisa Marie-Louise; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jungersen, Gregers

    2013-01-01

    Although colostrum has been used to detect specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in cattle, confounding, non-specific reactions can be a problem. The objectives of this study were to determine the proportion of non-specific ELISA reactions in samples...... of colostrum taken between 0 and 4days-in-milk (DIM), and to assess the probability of an animal testing positive for MAP specific IgG over this time-period. Non-specific reactions were found in 3/365 (0.8%) of samples. The odds of an animal testing positive on day of calving were 130 times higher than at 4...

  7. What Role Does Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Play in Crohn's Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Horacio

    2015-02-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, debilitating inflammatory bowel disease with no etiological agent yet identified. Studies have demonstrated that the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is present in a high percentage of CD patients. Although MAP has been isolated from human specimens, current techniques fail to show the presence of MAP in 100 % of tissues or biopsies obtained from CD patient lesions, and thus MAP cannot meet Koch's postulate as the etiological agent of CD. In this report, the effect of genetic and immune factors as well as the presence of MAP as a potential environmental factor is analyzed.

  8. Development of a pentaplex PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis, L. helveticus, L. fermentum in whey starter for Grana Padano cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonesi, Paola; Vanoni, Laura; Morandi, Stefano; Silvetti, Tiziana; Castiglioni, Bianca; Brasca, Milena

    2011-03-30

    A pentaplex PCR assay for the rapid, selective and simultaneous detection of Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, and L. fermentum, was developed. The target sequences were a group of genes coding for beta-galactosidase production (S. thermophilus and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus), for cell-enveloped associated proteinase synthesis (L. helveticus), for dipeptide transport system production (L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis) and for arginine-ornithine antiporter protein production (L. fermentum). The analytical specificity of the assay was evaluated with 5 reference strains and 140 lactic acid bacterial strains derived from raw milk cheeses and belonging to the Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Lactococcus and Enterococcus genera. The identification limit for each target strain was 10(3)CFU/ml. This new molecular assay was used to investigate the LAB population by direct extraction of DNA from the 12 whey cultures for Grana Padano. The pentaplex PCR assay revealed a good correspondence with microbiological analyses and allowed to identify even minor LAB community members which, can be out-competed in vitro by numerically more abundant microbial species.

  9. Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, a bacterium pathogenic for marine animals and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amable J. Rivas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (formerly Vibrio damsela is a pathogen of a variety of marine animals including fish, crustaceans, molluscs and cetaceans. In humans, it can cause opportunistic infections that may evolve into necrotizing fasciitis with fatal outcome. Although the genetic basis of virulence in this bacterium is not completely elucidated, recent findings demonstrate that the phospholipase-D Dly (damselysin and the pore-forming toxins HlyApl and HlyAch play a main role in virulence for homeotherms and poikilotherms. The acquisition of the virulence plasmid pPHDD1 that encodes Dly and HlyApl has likely constituted a main driving force in the evolution of a highly hemolytic lineage within the subspecies. Interestingly, strains that naturally lack pPHDD1 show a strong pathogenic potential for a variety of fish species, indicating the existence of yet uncharacterized virulence factors. Future and deep analysis of the complete genome sequence of P. damselae subsp. damselae will surely provide a clearer picture of the virulence factors employed by this bacterium to cause disease in such a varied range of hosts.

  10. treA Codifies for a Trehalase with Involvement in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrino, André Vessoni; Goto, Leandro Seiji; Novo-Mansur, Maria Teresa Marques

    2016-01-01

    Citrus canker, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), is a severe disease of citrus. Xcc presents broad spectrum of citrus hosts including economically important species whereas X. fuscans subsp. aurantifolii–type C (XauC) causes a milder disease and only infects Citrus aurantifolia. Trehalase catalyzes hydrolysis of the disaccharide trehalose, a sugar that has been reported to be related to Xcc pathogenicity. We expressed the recombinant gene product and assessed Xcc trehalase structural and kinetics data. The recombinant protein presented 42.7% of secondary structures in α-helix and 13% in β-sheets, no quaternary structure in solution, and Michaelis-Menten constant (KM) of 0.077 mM and Vmax 55.308 μMol glucose.min-1.mg protein-1 for trehalose. A Xcc mutant strain (XccΔtreA) was produced by gene deletion from Xcc genome. Enzymatic activity of trehalase was determined in Xcc, XauC and XccΔtreA cellular lysates, showing the highest values for XauC in in vitro infective condition and no activity for XccΔtreA. Finally, leaves of Citrus aurantifolia infected with XccΔtreA showed much more drenching and necrosis than those infected by wild type Xcc. We concluded that trehalase contributes to alleviate bacterial virulence and that inability for trehalose hydrolysis may promote higher Xcc infectivity. PMID:27611974

  11. Desulfovibrio oceani subsp. oceani sp. nov., subsp. nov and Desulfovibrio oceani subsp. galateae subsp. nov., novel sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from the oxygen minimum zone off the coast of Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup

    2010-01-01

    at 20°C at pH 7.0-8.0 and at 2.5-3.5% NaCl (w/v). The strains grew by utilizing hydrogen/acetate, C3-4 fatty acids, amino acids and glycerol as electron acceptors for sulfate reduction. Fumarate, lactate and pyruvate supported fermentative growth. Sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate and taurin supported......%) for strain I.9.1T. The G+C contents of their genomic DNA were 45-46 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and dsrAB gene sequences showed that both strains belong to the genus Desulfovibrio. Desulfovibrio acrylicus DSM 10141T and Desulfovibrio marinisediminis JCM 14577T represented their closest validly.......1T represent a novel species for which the name Desulfovibrio oceani sp. nov. is proposed with the two subspecies D. oceani subsp. oceani (type strain, I.8.1T = DSM 21390T = JCM 15970T) and D. oceani subsp. galateae (type strain, I.9.1T = DSM 21391T = JCM 15971T)....

  12. treA Codifies for a Trehalase with Involvement in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrino, André Vessoni; Goto, Leandro Seiji; Novo-Mansur, Maria Teresa Marques

    2016-01-01

    Citrus canker, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), is a severe disease of citrus. Xcc presents broad spectrum of citrus hosts including economically important species whereas X. fuscans subsp. aurantifolii-type C (XauC) causes a milder disease and only infects Citrus aurantifolia. Trehalase catalyzes hydrolysis of the disaccharide trehalose, a sugar that has been reported to be related to Xcc pathogenicity. We expressed the recombinant gene product and assessed Xcc trehalase structural and kinetics data. The recombinant protein presented 42.7% of secondary structures in α-helix and 13% in β-sheets, no quaternary structure in solution, and Michaelis-Menten constant (KM) of 0.077 mM and Vmax 55.308 μMol glucose.min-1.mg protein-1 for trehalose. A Xcc mutant strain (XccΔtreA) was produced by gene deletion from Xcc genome. Enzymatic activity of trehalase was determined in Xcc, XauC and XccΔtreA cellular lysates, showing the highest values for XauC in in vitro infective condition and no activity for XccΔtreA. Finally, leaves of Citrus aurantifolia infected with XccΔtreA showed much more drenching and necrosis than those infected by wild type Xcc. We concluded that trehalase contributes to alleviate bacterial virulence and that inability for trehalose hydrolysis may promote higher Xcc infectivity.

  13. Cross-Amplification of Vicia sativa subsp. sativa Microsatellites across 22 Other Vicia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastin Raveendar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperate and herbaceous genus Vicia L. is a member of the legume tribe Fabeae of the subfamily Papilionoideae. The genus Vicia comprises 166 annual or perennial species distributed mainly in Europe, Asia, and North America, but also extending to the temperate regions of South America and tropical Africa. The use of simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for Vicia species has not been investigated as extensively as for other crop species. In this study, we assessed the potential for cross-species amplification of cDNA microsatellite markers developed from common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa. For cross-species amplification of the SSRs, amplification was carried out with genomic DNA isolated from two to eight accessions of 22 different Vicia species. For individual species or subspecies, the transferability rates ranged from 33% for V. ervilia to 82% for V. sativa subsp. nigra with an average rate of 52.0%. Because the rate of successful SSR marker amplification generally correlates with genetic distance, these SSR markers are potentially useful for analyzing genetic relationships between or within Vicia species.

  14. Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae–bacteriophage combination from the caecal effluent of a healthy woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Hoyles

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A sample of caecal effluent was obtained from a female patient who had undergone a routine colonoscopic examination. Bacteria were isolated anaerobically from the sample, and screened against the remaining filtered caecal effluent in an attempt to isolate bacteriophages (phages. A lytic phage, named KLPN1, was isolated on a strain identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae (capsular type K2, rmpA+. This Siphoviridae phage presents a rosette-like tail tip and exhibits depolymerase activity, as demonstrated by the formation of plaque-surrounding haloes that increased in size over the course of incubation. When screened against a panel of clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, phage KLPN1 was shown to infect and lyse capsular type K2 strains, though it did not exhibit depolymerase activity on such hosts. The genome of KLPN1 was determined to be 49,037 bp (50.53 %GC in length, encompassing 73 predicted ORFs, of which 23 represented genes associated with structure, host recognition, packaging, DNA replication and cell lysis. On the basis of sequence analyses, phages KLPN1 (GenBank: KR262148 and 1513 (a member of the family Siphoviridae, GenBank: KP658157 were found to be two new members of the genus “Kp36likevirus.”

  15. Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae–bacteriophage combination from the caecal effluent of a healthy woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, Horst; Heller, Knut J.; Turton, Jane F.; Mahony, Jennifer; Sanderson, Jeremy D.; Hudspith, Barry; Gibson, Glenn R.; McCartney, Anne L.

    2015-01-01

    A sample of caecal effluent was obtained from a female patient who had undergone a routine colonoscopic examination. Bacteria were isolated anaerobically from the sample, and screened against the remaining filtered caecal effluent in an attempt to isolate bacteriophages (phages). A lytic phage, named KLPN1, was isolated on a strain identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae (capsular type K2, rmpA+). This Siphoviridae phage presents a rosette-like tail tip and exhibits depolymerase activity, as demonstrated by the formation of plaque-surrounding haloes that increased in size over the course of incubation. When screened against a panel of clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, phage KLPN1 was shown to infect and lyse capsular type K2 strains, though it did not exhibit depolymerase activity on such hosts. The genome of KLPN1 was determined to be 49,037 bp (50.53 %GC) in length, encompassing 73 predicted ORFs, of which 23 represented genes associated with structure, host recognition, packaging, DNA replication and cell lysis. On the basis of sequence analyses, phages KLPN1 (GenBank: KR262148) and 1513 (a member of the family Siphoviridae, GenBank: KP658157) were found to be two new members of the genus “Kp36likevirus.” PMID:26246963

  16. Multilocus Sex Determination Revealed in Two Populations of Gynodioecious Wild Strawberry, Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Tennessen, Jacob A; Dalton, Rebecca M; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Koski, Matthew H; Liston, Aaron

    2015-10-19

    Gynodioecy, the coexistence of females and hermaphrodites, occurs in 20% of angiosperm families and often enables transitions between hermaphroditism and dioecy. Clarifying mechanisms of sex determination in gynodioecious species can thus illuminate sexual system evolution. Genetic determination of gynodioecy, however, can be complex and is not fully characterized in any wild species. We used targeted sequence capture to genetically map a novel nuclear contributor to male sterility in a self-pollinated hermaphrodite of Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata from the southern portion of its range. To understand its interaction with another identified locus and possibly additional loci, we performed crosses within and between two populations separated by 2000 km, phenotyped the progeny and sequenced candidate markers at both sex-determining loci. The newly mapped locus contains a high density of pentatricopeptide repeat genes, a class commonly involved in restoration of fertility caused by cytoplasmic male sterility. Examination of all crosses revealed three unlinked epistatically interacting loci that determine sexual phenotype and vary in frequency between populations. Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata represents the first wild gynodioecious species with genomic evidence of both cytoplasmic and nuclear genes in sex determination. We propose a model for the interactions between these loci and new hypotheses for the evolution of sex determining chromosomes in the subdioecious and dioecious Fragaria.

  17. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Bacterial Canker of Tomato: 1. Conventional and Molecular Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Milijašević

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In May 2006, tomato leaves with watersoaked areas between leaf veins were detected in glasshouses in Padinska Skela. The early-stage symptoms were followed by rapid desiccation to white and pale brown necrosis and subsequently by wilting of entire tomato plants. In June 2006, symptoms of bacterial canker and wilt were also recorded in manygreenhouses in the Jablanica County in southern Serbia.Samples of diseased tomato plants were collected from several tomato-growing regions in Serbia in order to identify the causal agent using conventional identification methods (isolation, pathogenicity and bacteriological determinative tests. Another objectiveof this study was to confirm the identity of isolated bacterial strains by polymerase chain reaction (PCR method.According to the morphological characteristics observed on NA and NBY media, biochemical characteristics, hypersensitive response in four-o’clock plant leaves and pathogenicity test on tomato seedlings, the investigated strains were identified as C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. To confirm the identity of isolated strains two PCR protocols were used. Amplification of expected length DNA fragments, 614 bp and 270 bp, respectively, confirmed that the investigated strains belonged to C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.

  18. Development of a Sensitive and Specific Polyclonal Antibody for Serological Detection of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przewodowski, Włodzimierz; Przewodowska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    The quarantine bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms) causes bacterial ring rot (BRR) in potato but is difficult to detect, hampering the diagnosis of this disease. ELISA immunoassays have not been widely used to detect Cms because commercially available anti-Cms antibodies detect mainly EPS-producing bacteria and can fail to detect strains that do not produce EPS. In the current study, we developed a new type of polyclonal antibody that specifically detects Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus bacteria irrespective of their EPS level. We first found that the presence of bacterial EPS precluded quantitative measurement of bacteria by currently available immunoenzymatic methods, but that washing Cms cells with acidic and basic buffers to remove EPS before analysis successfully standardized ELISA results. We used a mix of three strains of Cms with diverse EPS levels to generate antigen for production of antibodies recognizing Cms cells with and without an EPS layer (IgG-EPS and IgG-N-EPS, respectively). The resulting IgG-N-EPS recognized almost all Cms strains tested in this work regardless of their mucoidal level. The availability of this new antibody renders immunological diagnostics of Cms more sensitive and reliable, as our newly developed antibodies can be used in many type of immunoassays. This work represents an important step forward in efforts to diagnose and prevent the spread of BRR, and the methods and solutions developed in this work are covered by six Polish, one European and one US patents.

  19. A new selective medium for isolation of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis from tomato plants and seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ftayeh, Radwan M; von Tiedemann, Andreas; Rudolph, Klaus W E

    2011-11-01

    A new selective and highly sensitive medium was developed for isolation of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm), the causal agent of bacterial canker of tomato, from seed and latently infected plants. The new medium (BCT) proved to be superior to all published semiselective media for Cmm and is denoted as selective medium because of (i) its mean plating efficiency, amounting to ≤89% within 7 days for all 30 Cmm strains from different sources tested; (ii) the high selectivity, because accompanying bacterial species occurring on tomato plants and seed or bacteria obtained from culture collections were inhibited to an extent of 98 to 100%; and (iii) the remarkable detection sensitivity. Thus, 8 CFU of Cmm in field plant homogenates containing 12,750 CFU of accompanying saprophytes were detected on BCT. Under these extreme conditions, all of the published semiselective media (D2, KBT, D2ANX, SCM, mSCM, CMM1, mCNS, and EPPO) gave false-negative results. Either some media were rather toxic and Cmm growth was also inhibited or the other, less toxic media allowed growth of high numbers of saprophytes, so that Cmm growth was suppressed. Exclusively, BCT also supported growth of the closely related C. michiganensis subsp. insidiosus, nebraskensis, and tessellarius. The new medium is recommended for Cmm detection in tomato seed, and in symptomless tomato plantlets, to improve disease control of bacterial canker of tomato.

  20. Cloning and characterization of the nicotianamine synthase gene in Eruca vesicaria subsp sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, B L; Cheng, C; Zhang, G Y; Su, J J; Zhi, Y; Xu, S S; Cai, D T; Zhang, X K; Huang, B Q

    2015-12-22

    Nicotianamine (NA) is a ubiquitous metabolite in plants that bind heavy metals, is crucial for metal homeostasis, and is also an important metal chelator that facilitates long-distance metal transport and sequestration. NA synthesis is catalyzed by the enzyme nicotianamine synthase (NAS). Eruca vesicaria subsp sativa is highly tolerant to Ni, Pb, and Zn. In this study, a gene encoding EvNAS was cloned and characterized in E. vesicaria subsp sativa. The full-length EvNAS cDNA sequence contained a 111-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 155-bp 3'-UTR, and a 966-bp open reading frame encoding 322-amino acid residues. The EvNAS genomic sequence contained no introns, which is similar to previously reported NAS genes. The deduced translation of EvNAS contained a well-conserved NAS domain (1-279 amino acids) and an LIKI-CGEAEG box identical to some Brassica NAS and to the LIRL-box in most plant NAS, which is essential for DNA binding. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that EvNAS was most closely related to Brassica rapa NAS3 within the Cruciferae, followed by Thlaspi NAS1, Camelina NAS3, and Arabidopsis NAS3. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that EvNAS expression was greatest in the leaves, followed by the flower buds and hypocotyls. EvNAS was moderately expressed in the roots.

  1. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis Infection in Swine Associated with Peat Used for Bedding

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    Tone Bjordal Johansen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis is an environmental bacterium causing opportunistic infections in swine, resulting in economic losses. Additionally, the zoonotic aspect of such infections is of concern. In the southeastern region of Norway in 2009 and 2010, an increase in condemnation of pig carcasses with tuberculous lesions was seen at the meat inspection. The use of peat as bedding in the herds was suspected to be a common factor, and a project examining pigs and environmental samples from the herds was initiated. Lesions detected at meat inspection in pigs originating from 15 herds were sampled. Environmental samples including peat from six of the herds and from three peat production facilities were additionally collected. Samples were analysed by culture and isolates genotyped by MLVA analysis. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis was detected in 35 out of 46 pigs, in 16 out of 20 samples of peat, and in one sample of sawdust. MLVA analysis demonstrated identical isolates from peat and pigs within the same farms. Polyclonal infection was demonstrated by analysis of multiple isolates from the same pig. To conclude, the increase in condemnation of porcine carcasses at slaughter due to mycobacteriosis seemed to be related to untreated peat used as bedding.

  2. Development of a Sensitive and Specific Polyclonal Antibody for Serological Detection of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przewodowska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    The quarantine bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms) causes bacterial ring rot (BRR) in potato but is difficult to detect, hampering the diagnosis of this disease. ELISA immunoassays have not been widely used to detect Cms because commercially available anti-Cms antibodies detect mainly EPS-producing bacteria and can fail to detect strains that do not produce EPS. In the current study, we developed a new type of polyclonal antibody that specifically detects Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus bacteria irrespective of their EPS level. We first found that the presence of bacterial EPS precluded quantitative measurement of bacteria by currently available immunoenzymatic methods, but that washing Cms cells with acidic and basic buffers to remove EPS before analysis successfully standardized ELISA results. We used a mix of three strains of Cms with diverse EPS levels to generate antigen for production of antibodies recognizing Cms cells with and without an EPS layer (IgG-EPS and IgG-N-EPS, respectively). The resulting IgG-N-EPS recognized almost all Cms strains tested in this work regardless of their mucoidal level. The availability of this new antibody renders immunological diagnostics of Cms more sensitive and reliable, as our newly developed antibodies can be used in many type of immunoassays. This work represents an important step forward in efforts to diagnose and prevent the spread of BRR, and the methods and solutions developed in this work are covered by six Polish, one European and one US patents. PMID:28068400

  3. Transcriptomic profile of aguR deletion mutant of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666

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    Beatriz del Rio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 (formerly GE2-14 is a dairy strain that catabolizes agmatine (a decarboxylated derivative of arginine into the biogenic amine putrescine by the agmatine deiminase (AGDI pathway [1]. The AGDI cluster of L. lactis is composed by five genes aguR, aguB, aguD, aguA and aguC. The last four genes are responsible for the deamination of agmatine to putrescine and are co-transcribed as a single policistronic mRNA forming the catabolic operon aguBDAC [1]. aguR encodes a transmembrane protein that functions as a one-component signal transduction system that senses the agmatine concentration of the medium and accordingly regulates the transcription of aguBDAC [2], which is also transcriptionally regulated by carbon catabolic repression (CCR via glucose, but not by other sugars such as lactose and galactose [1,3]. Here we report the transcriptional profiling of the aguR gene deletion mutant (L. lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 ∆aguR [2] compared to the wild type strain, both grown in M17 medium with galactose as carbon source and supplemented with agmatine. The transcriptional profiling data of AguR-regulated genes were deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under accession no. GSE59514.

  4. Bioinformatics analysis of a non-specific nuclease from Yersinia enterocolitica subsp. palearctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Hua; Tang, Zhen-Xing; Fang, Xiu-Juan; Zhang, Zhi-Liang; Shi, Lu-E

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the physical and chemical characteristics, biological structure and function of a non-specific nuclease from Yersinia enterocolitica subsp. palearctica (Y. NSN) found in our group were studied using multiple bioinformatics approaches. The results showed that Y. NSN had 283 amino acids, a weight of 30,692.5 ku and a certain hydrophilic property. Y. NSN had a signal peptide, no transmembrane domains and disulphide bonds. Cleavage site in Y. NSN was between pos. 23 and 24. The prediction result of the secondary structure showed Y. NSN was a coil structure-based protein. The ratio of α-helix, β-folded and random coil were 18.73%, 16.96% and 64.31%, respectively. Active sites were pos. 124, 125, 127, 157, 165 and 169. Mg(2+) binding site was pos. 157. Substrate binding sites were pos. 124, 125 and 169. The analysis of multisequencing alignment and phylogenetic tree indicated that Y. NSN shared high similarity with the nuclease from Y. enterocolitica subsp. enterocolitica 8081. The enzyme activity results showed that Y. NSN was a nuclease with good thermostability.

  5. Anti-angiogenesis properties of Crocus pallasii subsp. haussknechtii, a popular ethnic food

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    M. Mosaddegh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Angiogenesis is essential for tumor survival. Inhibiting angiogenesis could be a mechanism for hindering tumor development. Numerous studies have now been focused on agiogenesis inhibitors and many of such studies have targeted plant materials. In the present study, Crocus pallasii subsp. haussknechtii has been evaluated for anti-angiogenesis properties. Methods: Anti-angiogenesis activity of the plant extracts and fractions has been investigated through wound healing assay in HUV-EC-C cells. The cytotoxic activity has also been evaluated by MTT assay. Results: The methanol extract and the methanol fraction of the corm along with the chloroform fraction of the aerial parts demonstrated to be cytotoxic to HUV-EC-C cells with IC50 values of 27.2, 74.1 and 60.0 μg/mL, respectively while the chloroform fraction of the corm showed the most considerable anti-angiogenesis property among the samples in wound healing assay. Conclusion: Regarding the results of the present study, Crocus pallasii subsp. haussknechtii is suggested for further studies in cancer research evaluations.

  6. The Cry Toxin Operon of Clostridium bifermentans subsp. malaysia Is Highly Toxic to Aedes Larval Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Nadia; Chawla, Swati; Likitvivatanavong, Supaporn; Lee, Han Lim

    2014-01-01

    The management and control of mosquito vectors of human disease currently rely primarily on chemical insecticides. However, larvicidal treatments can be effective, and if based on biological insecticides, they can also ameliorate the risk posed to human health by chemical insecticides. The aerobic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis and Lysinibacillus sphaericus have been used for vector control for a number of decades. But a more cost-effective use would be an anaerobic bacterium because of the ease with which these can be cultured. More recently, the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium bifermentans subsp. malaysia has been reported to have high mosquitocidal activity, and a number of proteins were identified as potentially mosquitocidal. However, the cloned proteins showed no mosquitocidal activity. We show here that four toxins encoded by the Cry operon, Cry16A, Cry17A, Cbm17.1, and Cbm17.2, are all required for toxicity, and these toxins collectively show remarkable selectivity for Aedes rather than Anopheles mosquitoes, even though C. bifermentans subsp. malaysia is more toxic to Anopheles. Hence, toxins that target Anopheles are different from those expressed by the Cry operon. PMID:25002432

  7. Transcriptomic profile of aguR deletion mutant of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Beatriz; Linares, Daniel M; Redruello, Begoña; Martin, Maria Cruz; Fernandez, Maria; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P; Ladero, Victor; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2015-12-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 (formerly GE2-14) is a dairy strain that catabolizes agmatine (a decarboxylated derivative of arginine) into the biogenic amine putrescine by the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway [1]. The AGDI cluster of L. lactis is composed by five genes aguR, aguB, aguD, aguA and aguC. The last four genes are responsible for the deamination of agmatine to putrescine and are co-transcribed as a single policistronic mRNA forming the catabolic operon aguBDAC[1]. aguR encodes a transmembrane protein that functions as a one-component signal transduction system that senses the agmatine concentration of the medium and accordingly regulates the transcription of aguBDAC[2], which is also transcriptionally regulated by carbon catabolic repression (CCR) via glucose, but not by other sugars such as lactose and galactose [1], [3]. Here we report the transcriptional profiling of the aguR gene deletion mutant (L. lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 ∆aguR) [2] compared to the wild type strain, both grown in M17 medium with galactose as carbon source and supplemented with agmatine. The transcriptional profiling data of AguR-regulated genes were deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession no. GSE59514.

  8. Flavonoids in Adaptation of Begonia grandis Dryander subsp. grandis Introduced in West Siberia (Novosibirsk

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    Karpova E.A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of flavonoids (flavones and flavonols in leaves of Begonia grandis Dryander subsp. grandis plants introduced in Western Siberia (Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk during the growing season in the greenhouse and the open ground were studied for the first time. The ranges of flavonoid fractions and individual flavonoids contents in a favorable environment and during periods of temperature drops and frost were established. Under favorable conditions in the greenhouse and in the open ground B. grandis subsp. grandis leaves were characterized by relatively low content of the sum of flavonoids (up to 10.1 mg/g. During periods of temperature drops in the greenhouse it was decreased (down to 5.2 mg/g, and in conditions of more considerable temperature drops and frost in open ground it was increased by several times (up to 28.3 mg/g. During the period of the action of stress factors content of the sum of flavonoid aglycones in the leaves was increased both in the greenhouse (including quercetin, luteolin and in the open ground (including quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, in the open ground content of major constituent, luteolin 8-C-glucoside (orientin, was increased. The most significant transformations during the growing season were observed in the O-glycosides and free aglycones fractions, their contents of compounds and composition were varied. Four O-glycosides, including isoquercitrin, are detected only in the leaves of open ground plants.

  9. Chemical and biological investigations of a toxic plant from Central Africa, Magnistipula butayei subsp. montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karangwa, C; Esters, V; Frédérich, M; Tits, M; Kadima, J N; Damas, J; Noirfalise, A; Angenot, L

    2006-02-20

    Magnistipula butayei subsp. montana (Chrysobalanaceae) is known, in the Great Lakes Region, to possess toxicological properties. In this paper, we investigated the acute toxicity (dose levels 50-1600 mg/kg) of its aqueous extract, administered orally to adult Wistar rats. This study demonstrated that the freeze-dried aqueous extract (5%, w/w) possesses high toxicity. The extract caused hypothermia, neurological disorders, including extensor reflex of maximal convulsive induced-seizures at about 2 h after the administered dose, and death occurred (LD50=370 mg/kg) in a dose dependent manner. Blood parameter evaluation revealed slight variations, but these might not have clinical relevance. Histological examination of internal organs (lungs, liver, heart and kidneys) did not reveal any abnormality in the treated group compared to the control. Therefore, it can be concluded that Magnistipula butayei subsp. montana aqueous extract, given orally, is toxic and that its target is the central nervous system. General phytochemical screening revealed that the plant did not contain significant amounts of products known to be toxic, such as alkaloids or cardioactive glycosides, but only catechic tannins, amino acids, saponins and other aphrogen principles in the three parts of the species (fruit, leave and bark).

  10. Production of gamma-aminobutyric acid by Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus Y2 under submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S-Y; Lü, F-X; Lu, Z-X; Bie, X-M; Jiao, Y; Sun, L-J; Yu, B

    2008-04-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, has several well-known physiological functions and has been applied to the production of many drugs and functional foods. The technology of GABA production via submerged fermentation by Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus Y2 was investigated in this paper. It indicated that the GABA production was related to the biochemical characteristics of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) of S. salivarius subsp. thermophilus Y2. After 24 h of fermentation at 37 degrees C, which is the suitable culture conditions for GAD-production, then the culture condition were adjusted to the optimal temperature (40 degrees C) and pH (4.5) for the GAD reaction activity in biotransformation of cells and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (0.02 mmol/l) were added to the broth at the 48 h, the GABA production was increased up to 1.76-fold, reaching 7984.75 +/- 293.33 mg/l. The strain shows great potential use as a starter for GABA-containing yoghurt, cheese and other functional fermented food productions.

  11. Application of Raman spectroscopy for direct analysis of Carlina acanthifolia subsp. utzka root essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzemski, Maciej; Wójciak-Kosior, Magdalena; Sowa, Ireneusz; Agacka-Mołdoch, Monika; Drączkowski, Piotr; Matosiuk, Dariusz; Kurach, Łukasz; Kocjan, Ryszard; Dresler, Sławomir

    2017-11-01

    Carlina genus plants e.g. Carlina acanthifolia subsp. utzka have been still used in folk medicine of many European countries and its biological activity is mostly associated with root essential oils. In the present paper, Raman spectroscopy (RS) was applied for the first time for evaluation of essential oil distribution in root of C. acnthifolia subsp. utzka and identification of root structures containing the essential oil. Furthermore, RS technique was applied to assess chemical stability of oil during drying of plant material or distillation process. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the essential oil. The identity of compounds was confirmed using Raman, ATR-IR and NMR spectroscopy. Carlina oxide was found to be the main component of the oil (98.96% ± 0.15). The spectroscopic study showed the high stability of essential oil and Raman distribution analysis indicated that the oil reservoirs were localized mostly in the structures of outer layer of the root while the inner part showed nearly no signal assigned to the oil. Raman spectroscopy technique enabled rapid, non-destructive direct analysis of plant material with minimal sample preparation and allowed straightforward, unambiguous identification of the essential oil in the sample. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Production of lactic acid from whey using Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus

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    Adriana M. Rojas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to determine the proper growth conditions of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus for the production of lactic acid using serum as substract. This serum was obtain from the department of Cesar, Colombia. Lactic acid is the result of the extraction and purification of fermentation broths in which bacteria Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus are used, which are usually used for the production of yogurt. The substrate was supplemented with yeast extract, ammonium phosphate as a nitrogen source, and calcium carbonate as a neutralizer, in order to optimize the consumption, by the bacteria, of the main carbohydrate present in serum (lactose. During the fermentation (up to 72 h the inoculums concentration, and temperature were controlled. Purification consisted in esterification, filtration of solids formed during the reaction, and removing of water by evaporation and nitrogen influx. Finally, lactic acid was obtained with 78,0% purity (36.7 g/L, which was characterized by infrared spectroscopy

  13. Antioxidant Potential, Lipid Peroxidation Inhibition and Antimicrobial Activities of Satureja montana L. subsp. kitaibelii Extracts

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    Dragoljub D. Cvetković

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of different Satureja montana L. subsp. kitaibelii extracts was tested by measuring their ability to scavenge reactive hydroxyl radical during the Fenton reaction, using ESR spectroscopy. Also, the influence of these extracts on lipid peroxyl radicals obtained during lipid peroxidation of: (I sunflower oil (37°C, 3h inducedby 4,4'-azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid (ACVA and (II liposomes induced by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidino-propanedihydrochloride (AAPH was studied. n-Butanol extract had the bestantioxidant activity (100% at 0.5 mg/mL in Fenton reaction system; 89.21% at 5 mg/mL in system I; 83.38% at 5 mg/mL in system II. The antioxidant activities of the extracts significantly correlated with total phenolic content. The antimicrobial activity of Satureja montana L. subsp. kitaibelii extracts was investigated. Petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts expressed a wide range of inhibiting activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

  14. Secondary metabolite content and in vitro biological effects of Ajuga chamaepitys (L. Schreb. subsp. chamaepitys

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    Jakovljević Dragana Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and contents of total phenolics and flavonoids of Ajuga chamaepitys (L. Schreb. subsp. chamaepitys (Lamiaceae were investigated. Five different extracts from aboveground flowering plant parts were obtained by extraction with water, methanol, acetone, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and expressed as the gallic acid equivalent (mg GA/g of extract. The highest value was obtained in the ethyl acetate extract (57.02 mg GA/g. The concentration of flavonoids, determined using a spectrophotometric method with aluminum chloride and expressed as the rutin equivalent (mg RU/g of extract, was highest in the ethyl acetate extract (91.76 mg RU/g. The antioxidant activity was determined in vitro using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH reagent. The highest antioxidant activity was detected in the acetone extract (SC50 value = 330.52 μg/mL. In vitro antimicrobial activities were determined using a microdilution method, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC were determined. The most effective antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus was demonstrated by the acetone extract, with MIC and MMC values of 1.25 mg/mL. Based on the results of this study, A. chamaepitys subsp. chamaepitys could be considered as a valuable source of natural compounds with important biological activities. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 41010 i OI 173032

  15. Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis at a Farm-Scale Biogas Plant Supplied with Manure from Paratuberculosis-Affected Dairy Cattle▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slana, I.; Pribylova, R.; Kralova, A.; Pavlik, I.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, products from all steps of anaerobic digestion at a farm-scale biogas plant supplied with manure from paratuberculosis-affected dairy cattle were examined and quantified for the presence of the causal agent of paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, using culture and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were detected using culture in fermentors for up to 2 months; the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA (101 cells/g) was demonstrated in all anaerobic fermentors and digestate 16 months after initiation of work at a biogas plant, using IS900 qPCR. F57 qPCR was able to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA (102 cells/g) at up to 12 months. According to these results, a fermentation process that extended beyond 2 months removed all viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells and therefore rendered its product M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis free. However, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA was found during all the examined periods (more than 1 year), which could be explained by either residual DNA being released from dead cells or by the presence of viable cells whose amount was under the limit of cultivability. As the latter hypothesis cannot be excluded, the safety of the final products of digestion used for fertilization or animal bedding cannot be defined, and further investigation is necessary to confirm or refute this risk. PMID:21398476

  16. Isolation of Bartonella henselae and Two New Bartonella Subspecies, Bartonellakoehlerae Subspecies boulouisii subsp. nov. and Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies bothieri subsp. nov. from Free-Ranging Californian Mountain Lions and Bobcats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, Bruno B; Molia, Sophie; Kasten, Rickie W; Borgo, Gina M; Stuckey, Matthew J; Maruyama, Soichi; Chang, Chao-Chin; Haddad, Nadia; Koehler, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats are the natural reservoir of Bartonella henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae. To determine the role of wild felids in the epidemiology of Bartonella infections, blood was collected from 14 free-ranging California mountain lions (Puma concolor) and 19 bobcats (Lynx rufus). Bartonella spp. were isolated from four (29%) mountain lions and seven (37%) bobcats. These isolates were characterized using growth characteristics, biochemical reactions, molecular techniques, including PCR-RFLP of selected genes or interspacer region, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), partial sequencing of several genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. Two isolates were identical to B. henselae genotype II. All other isolates were distinguished from B. henselae and B. koehlerae by PCR-RFLP of the gltA gene using endonucleases HhaI, TaqI and AciI, with the latter two discriminating between the mountain lion and the bobcat isolates. These two novel isolates displayed specific PFGE profiles distinct from B. henselae, B. koehlerae and B. clarridgeiae. Sequences of amplified gene fragments from the three mountain lion and six bobcat isolates were closely related to, but distinct from, B. henselae and B. koehlerae. Finally, DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that the mountain lion and bobcat strains are most closely related to B. koehlerae. We propose naming the mountain lion isolates B. koehlerae subsp. boulouisii subsp. nov. (type strain: L-42-94), and the bobcat isolates B. koehlerae subsp. bothieri subsp. nov. (type strain: L-17-96), and to emend B. koehlerae as B. koehlerae subsp. koehlerae. The mode of transmission and the zoonotic potential of these new Bartonella subspecies remain to be determined.

  17. Efficacy of florfenicol for control of mortality with Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in Nile tilapia, oreochromis niloticus (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) (syn. F. asiatica) is an emergent Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium. Although it is considered one of the most pathogenic bacteria in fish, there are no commercially available treatments of vaccines. The objective of this project was ...

  18. A 38-kilobase pathogenicity island specific for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis encodes cell surface proteins expressed in the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratmann, Janin; Strommenger, Birgit; Goethe, Ralph; Dohmann, Karen; Gerlach, Gerald-F; Stevenson, Karen; Li, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Qing; Kapur, Vivek; Bull, Tim J

    2004-03-01

    We have used representational difference analysis to identify a novel Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific ABC transporter operon (mpt), which comprises six open reading frames designated mptA to -F and is immediately preceded by two putative Fur boxes. Functional genomics revealed that the mpt operon is flanked on one end by a fep cluster encoding proteins involved in the uptake of Fe(3+) and on the other end by a sid cluster encoding non-ribosome-dependent heterocyclic siderophore synthases. Together these genes form a 38-kb M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific locus flanked by an insertion sequence similar to IS1110. Expression studies using Western blot analyses showed that MptC is present in the envelope fraction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The MptD protein was shown to be surface exposed, using a specific phage (fMptD) isolated from a phage-peptide library, by differential screening of Mycobacterium smegmatis transformants. The phage fMptD-derived peptide could be used in a peptide-mediated capture PCR with milk from infected dairy herds, thereby showing surface-exposed expression of the MptD protein in the host. Together, these data suggest that the 38-kb locus constitutes an M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis pathogenicity island.

  19. Yoghurt fermented by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus H+ -ATPase-defective mutants exhibits enhanced viability of Bifidobacterium breve during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongol, Martin Patrick; Sawatari, Yuki; Ebina, Yoshiko; Sone, Teruo; Tanaka, Michiko; Tomita, Fusao; Yokota, Atsushi; Asano, Kozo

    2007-05-30

    Persistent acid production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus during refrigerated storage is a major cause of reduced viability of probiotic strains such as Bifidobacterium breve in yoghurt. It was established that H+ -ATPase-defective mutants of lactic acid bacteria have reduced growth and metabolism in low pH environments. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate inhibition of post-acidification and maintenance of B. breve viability in yoghurt fermented by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus mutants with reduced membrane-bound H+ -ATPase activity during refrigerated storage. Spontaneous neomycin mutants of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus that had a significantly (P bulgaricus SBT0164 No. 55-1 (mutant) starter culture had markedly reduced post-acidification and maintained viability (> or = 10(8) CFU/ml) of both Bifidobacteruim breve JCM 1192(T) and Bifidobacteruim breve JCM 7017 during storage at 10 degrees C for 21 days. These results clearly showed that yoghurt fermented by mutants of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus with reduced membrane-bound H+ -ATPase activity has reduced post-acidification that prolongs viability of B. breve in yoghurt during refrigerated storage.

  20. Shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis into milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows over complete lactation cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary mode of transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is fecal-oral. However, MAP is also shed into the milk and colostrum of infected cows. The objective of this study was to identify if an association exists between stage of MAP infection and days in lactation with ...

  1. Optimization of methods for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is primarily shed into the feces but it has also been isolated from the milk and colostrum of cows. Because of this, there exists concern about transfer of the organism from dam to calf and about the prevalence of MAP in the milk supply. The prevalen...

  2. Transcription profiling of interactions between Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris SK11 and Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334 during Cheddar cheese simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desfossés-Foucault, Émilie; LaPointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2014-05-16

    The starter cultures (Lactococcus sp.) and non-starter lactic acid bacteria (mostly Lactobacillus spp.) are essential to flavor development of Cheddar cheese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the transcriptional interaction between Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris SK11 and Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334 in mixed cultures during simulated Cheddar cheese manufacture (Pearce activity test) and ripening (slurry). Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to quantify the expression of 34 genes common to both bacteria and for eight genes specific to either L. lactis subsp. cremoris SK11 or L. paracasei ATCC 334. The multifactorial analysis (MFA) performed on fold change results for each gene revealed that the genes linked to stress, protein and peptide degradation as well as carbohydrate metabolism of L. paracasei ATCC 334 were especially overexpressed in mixed culture with L. lactis subsp. cremoris SK11 during the ripening simulation. For L. lactis subsp. cremoris SK11, genes coding for amino acid metabolism were more expressed during the cheese manufacture simulation, especially in single culture. These results show how complementary functions of starter and NSLAB contribute to activities useful for flavor development.

  3. Only part of the protoxin gene of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. berliner 1715 is necessary for insecticidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabiko, H; Held, G A; Bulla, L A

    1985-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains harboring deletion mutations of the insecticidal protoxin gene of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. berliner 1715 were constructed. Although these strains did not produce intact protoxin, cell extracts from one of the mutants were extremely toxic to tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) larvae, indicating that only a part of the protoxin gene is required for insecticidal activity. Images PMID:3888110

  4. Analysis of the exopolysaccharides produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NCFB 2772 grown in continuous culture on glucose and fructose.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grobben, G.J.; Casteren, van W.H.M.; Schols, H.A.; Oosterveld, A.; Sala, G.; Smith, M.R.; Sikkema, J.; Bont, de J.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The exopolysaccharides produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NCFB 2772 grown in defined medium were investigated. At equal cell densities, the strain produced 95 mg l−1 exopolysaccharides with glucose and 30 mg l−1 with fructose as the carbohydrate source. High-performance size-exc

  5. Complete genomic sequences of two outbreak strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Thompson associated with cilantro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Thompson strains RM1984 (CADPH-99A2334) and RM1986 (CADPH -99A2345) are clinical isolates from 1999, putatively related to an outbreak in California from contaminated cilantro. We report the complete genome sequences and annotation of these two S. Thompson...

  6. Heterologous Gene Expression in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis : Synthesis, Secretion, and Processing of the Bacillus subtilis Neutral Protease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guchte, Maarten van de; Kodde, Jan; Vossen, Jos M.B.M. van der; Kok, Jan; Venema, Gerard

    1990-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis nprE gene lacking its own promoter sequence was inserted in the lactococcal expression vector pMG36e. Upon introduction of the recombinant plasmid into Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain MG1363, neutral protease activity could be visualized by the appearance of large clear

  7. Determination of genetic differences between fluid and nonfluid variants of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus using rep-PCR technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fousek, J; Mráz, I

    2003-01-01

    Testing of 23 isolates of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus for analysis by rep-PCR (using BOX, ERIC, REP primer sets) was used for the purpose of localization of genetic markers for fluid and/or nonfluid strains. None of the primer sets was successful in detecting genetic differences between the isolates and no polymorphism was generated.

  8. Evaluation of the efficacy of immunomagnetic separation for the detection of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in tomato seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León, L; Rodríguez, A; López, M M; Siverio, F

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the optimized immunomagnetic separation (IMS)-plating protocol in relation to other culture, serological and molecular techniques currently used for Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in seed-testing laboratories. Bacterial suspensions, tomato seed extracts spiked with the pathogen and naturally infected seeds were IMS-plated for the detection of C. m. subsp. michiganensis. These results were compared with plating on general (YPGA) and semiselective (mSCM) media, double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA), immunofluorescent assay (IF) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Different seed lots and pathogen strains were also tested. IMS-plating allowed the detection of less than 10 CFU ml(-1) of pathogen in all assayed samples. The mSCM medium provided positive results for 10 CFU ml(-1) in naturally infected seeds, but up to 14 days was necessary for the typical colonies of the target to be come visible. By serological techniques, 10(3) and up to 10(4) CFU ml(-1) were detected by IF and ELISA, respectively. DNA extraction was required to obtain positive results by PCR in seed extracts containing 10(3) CFU ml(-1) or more. Among the evaluated methods, IMS-plating provided the best results regarding sensitivity and specificity for C. m. subsp. michiganensis detection, allowing the recovery of viable bacteria from seed extracts. IMS-plating increases isolation rates of C. m. subsp. michiganensis and could improve standard protocols currently used for routine analysis.

  9. Studies on the colonization of axenically grown tomato plants by a GFP-tagged strain of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira Lelis, F.M.; Czajkowski, R.L.; Souza, de R.M.; Ribeiro, D.H.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, colonization and disease development of axenically-grown tomato plants by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm), the causative agent of bacterial wilt and canker, was investigated. For this, a spontaneous rifampicin resistant strain of Cmm was tagged with a marker that

  10. Genome Sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Infantis Strains from Hungary Representing Two Peak Incidence Periods in Three Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Tímea; Szabó, Móni; Szmolka, Ama; Kiss, János

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Four strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis isolated from humans (1980 to 1982) and broiler chickens (2016) have been sequenced. They represent the early and recent peak incidences of this serovar in Hungary. Genome sequences of these isolates provide comparative data on the evolution and rise of an endemic S. Infantis clone in Hungary. PMID:28254986

  11. Complete genomic sequence of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni HS:19 strain RM1285 that was isolated from packaged chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultry products serve as the main source of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni (Cjj) infections in humans. Cjj infections are a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis and are a prevalent antecedent to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). This study describes the genome of Cjj HS:19 strain RM1285 isol...

  12. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni subsp jejuni from macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) in the subantarctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broman, T.; Bergstrom, S.; On, Stephen L.W.

    2000-01-01

    On Bird Island, South Georgia, albatrosses (n = 140), penguins (n = 100), and fur seals (n = 206) were sampled for Campylobacter jejuni. C. jejuni subsp. jejuni was recovered from three macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus). These isolates, the first reported for the subantarctic region, showed...... low genetic diversity and high similarity to Northern Hemisphere C. jejuni isolates, possibly suggesting recent introduction to the area....

  13. Suitability of Lactococcus lactis subsp lactis ATCC 11454 as a protective culture for lightly preserved fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Stephen Wallace; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    This study is part of strategy to control the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in lightly preserved fish products by using food-grade lactic acid bacteria. When the nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp lactis ATCC 11454 was cultured in the same vessel as L-monocytogenes Scott A in brain...

  14. Voorkomen, behoud en beheer van de Isolepido-Stellarietum variant met Montia fontana subsp. fontana var. chondrosperma op Vlieland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de G.Th.

    1976-01-01

    The occurrence of the Isolepido-Stellarietum variant with Montia fontana subsp. fontana var. chondrosperma on the isle of Vlieland is reported. The conservation and management of this variant as well as of the Nanocyperion flavescentis s.l. is discussed. Directives are given for management in the fu

  15. Comparison of fecal DNA extraction kits for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) from feces has been considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis for many years. However, direct fecal PCR is becoming more widely used today, demonstrating similar sensitivity and specificity to culture. To ensure ef...

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CFL1, a Lactic Acid Bacterium Isolated from French Handcrafted Fermented Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghel, Julie; Dugat-Bony, Eric; Irlinger, Françoise; Loux, Valentin; Vidal, Marie; Passot, Stéphanie; Béal, Catherine; Layec, Séverine; Fonseca, Fernanda

    2016-03-03

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) is a lactic acid bacterium widely used for the production of yogurt and cheeses. Here, we report the genome sequence of L. bulgaricus CFL1 to improve our knowledge on its stress-induced damages following production and end-use processes.

  17. Sequencing of the complete genome of an araphid pennate diatom Synedra acus subsp. radians from Lake Baikal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galachyants, Y P; Zakharova, Yu R; Petrova, D P; Morozov, A A; Sidorov, I A; Marchenkov, A M; Logacheva, M D; Markelov, M L; Khabudaev, K V; Likhoshway, Ye V; Grachev, M A

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput method of sequencing was applied to determine the complete nucleotide sequence of an araphid pennate diatom Synedra acus subsp. radians from Lake Baikal (East Siberia). The assembled genome has a total length of 98 Mbp, the mean coverage is 33x. Structure-functional annotation of the genome was performed.

  18. Novel antigens for detection of cell mediated immune responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Aagaard, Claus; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose;

    2011-01-01

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection of the intestine of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Early stage MAP infection can be detected by measuring specific cell mediated immune responses, using the whole blood interferon-γ (IFN-γ) assay. Available IFN-γ assa...

  19. Potentiating day-old blood samples for detection of interferon-gamma responses following infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jungersen, Gregers

    The interferon gamma (IFN-γ) test measuring specific cell-mediated immune responses in whole blood can be used for diagnosis at an early stage of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection. A major obstacle for the practical use of IFN-γ testing is the recommended maximum 8 hour...

  20. Use of Novel Recombinant Antigens in the Interferon Gamma Assay for Detection of Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis Infection in Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Aagaard, Claus; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose;

    Early stage Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection can be detected by measuring antigen specific cell mediated immune responses by the interferon gamma (IFN-γ) assay. Available IFN-γ assay use purified protein derivate of Johnin (PPDj) leading to low specificity. The objectives...

  1. Use of novel recombinant antigens in the interferon gamma assay for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Aagaard, C.; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose;

    2012-01-01

    Early stage Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection may be detected by measuring antigen specific cell-mediated immune responses by the interferon-gamma (IFN-¿) assay. Available IFN-¿ assay use purified protein derivate of Johnin (PPDj) leading to low specificity. The objectives...

  2. Association between milk antibody and interferon-gamma responses in cattle from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infected herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Jungersen, Gregers; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2009-01-01

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). It is possible to detect infection with paratuberculosis at different stages of disease by means of various diagnostic test strategies. The objective of the present study was to evalu...

  3. Deciphering the conserved genetic loci implicated in plant disease control through comparative genomics of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad J Hossain

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To understand the growth-promoting and disease-inhibiting activities of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR strains, the genomes of 12 Bacillus subtilis group strains with PGPR activity were sequenced and analyzed. These B. subtilis strains exhibited high genomic diversity, whereas the genomes of B. amyloliquefaciens strains (a member of the B. subtilis group are highly conserved. A pairwise BLASTp matrix revealed that gene family similarity among Bacillus genomes ranges from 32- 90%, with 2,839 genes within the core genome of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum. Comparative genomic analyses of B. amyloliquefaciens strains identified genes that are linked with biological control and colonization of roots and/or leaves, including 73 genes uniquely associated with subsp. plantarum strains that have predicted functions related to signaling, transportation, secondary metabolite production, and carbon source utilization. Although B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strains contain gene clusters that encode many different secondary metabolites, only polyketide biosynthetic clusters that encode difficidin and macrolactin are conserved within this subspecies. To evaluate their role in plant pathogen biocontrol, genes involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis were deleted in B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strain, revealing that difficidin expression is critical in reducing the severity of disease, caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria in tomato plants. This study defines genomic features of PGPR strains and links them with biocontrol activity and with host colonization.

  4. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni subsp jejuni from macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) in the subantarctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broman, T.; Bergstrom, S.; On, Stephen L.W.

    2000-01-01

    On Bird Island, South Georgia, albatrosses (n = 140), penguins (n = 100), and fur seals (n = 206) were sampled for Campylobacter jejuni. C. jejuni subsp. jejuni was recovered from three macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus). These isolates, the first reported for the subantarctic region, showed...

  5. Draft Genome Sequences of 18 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Oranienburg Strains Isolated from Rivers in Northwestern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteñeda-Ruelas, Gloria M.; Carreón-Gaxiola, César; Castelán-Sánchez, Hugo G.; Acatzi-Silva, Abraham; Romero-Martínez, Salvador; García-Molina, Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Oranienburg is recognized as a foodborne pathogen widely distributed in the environment. Here, we report 18 draft genomes of S. Oranienburg strains isolated from rivers in the northwestern region of Mexico. PMID:28280020

  6. Culture and molecular method for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk and dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messelhäusser, U; Kämpf, P; Hörmansdorfer, S; Wagner, B; Schalch, B; Busch, U; Höller, C; Wallner, P; Barth, G; Rampp, A

    2012-01-01

    A combined molecular and cultural method for the detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was developed and tested with artificially contaminated milk and dairy products. Results indicate that the method can be used for a reliable detection as a basis for first risk assessments.

  7. Potential role of specific antibodies in vaccine-induced protection against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Dalsgaard, Inger; Raida, Martin Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Furunculosis caused by infection with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida has now been a known threat to aquaculture for more than a century. Efficient prophylactic precautions against this disease are essential for continued growth of salmonid fish aquaculture. Ever since the introduction...

  8. Efficacy of novel lipid-formulated whole bacterial cell vaccines against Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffin, J.F.T.; Hughes, A.D.; Liggett, S.; Farquhar, P.A.; Mackintosh, C.G.; Bakker, D.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis [MAP], the Causative agent of enteric Johne's disease, incurs significant economic losses to the livestock industry. Prophylactic vaccination can be employed as a control means, however mineral oil-based vaccines Currently in practice have limited efficacy

  9. Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk at dairy cattle farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Toft, Nils; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2012-01-01

    Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in milk for human consumption is a concern due to its possible relationship with Crohn’s disease in humans. Pasteurization effectively reduces the MAP load by four to five logs, but the efficacy depends on the MAP concentration, which...

  10. Biological control of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using Aeromonas phage PAS-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J H; Choresca, C H; Shin, S P; Han, J E; Jun, J W; Park, S C

    2015-02-01

    The potential control efficacy of Aeromonas phage PAS-1 was evaluated against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) model in this study. The phage was co-cultured with the virulent A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain AS05 that possesses the type III secretion system (TTSS) ascV gene, and efficient bacteriolytic activity was observed against the bacteria. The administration of PAS-1 in rainbow trout demonstrated that the phage was cleared from the fish within 200 h post-administration, and a temporal neutralizing activity against the phage was detected in the sera of phage-administrated fish. The administration of PAS-1 (multiplicity of infection: 10 000) in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infected rainbow trout model showed notable protective effects, with increased survival rates and mean times to death. These results demonstrated that Aeromonas phage PAS-1 could be considered as an alternative biological control agent against A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infections in rainbow trout culture.

  11. A Transmissible Plasmid-Borne Pathogenicity Island Confers Piscibactin Biosynthesis in the Fish Pathogen Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Amable J.; Balado, Miguel; Fuentes-Monteverde, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez, Jaime; Jiménez, Carlos; Lemos, Manuel L.; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    The fish pathogen Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida produces the siderophore piscibactin. A gene cluster that resembles the Yersinia high-pathogenicity island (HPI) encodes piscibactin biosynthesis. Here, we report that this HPI-like cluster is part of a hitherto-uncharacterized 68-kb plasmid dubbed pPHDP70. This plasmid lacks homologs of genes that mediate conjugation, but we found that it could be transferred at low frequencies from P. damselae subsp. piscicida to a mollusk pathogenic Vibrio alginolyticus strain and to other Gram-negative bacteria, likely dependent on the conjugative functions of the coresident plasmid pPHDP60. Following its conjugative transfer, pPHDP70 restored the capacity of a vibrioferrin mutant of V. alginolyticus to grow under low-iron conditions, and piscibactin became detectable in its supernatant. Thus, pPHDP70 appears to harbor all the genes required for piscibactin biosynthesis and transport. P. damselae subsp. piscicida strains cured of pPHDP70 no longer produced piscibactin, had impaired growth under iron-limited conditions, and exhibited markedly decreased virulence in fish. Collectively, our findings highlight the importance of pPHDP70, with its capacity for piscibactin-mediated iron acquisition, in the virulence of P. damselae subsp. piscicida. Horizontal transmission of this plasmid-borne piscibactin synthesis gene cluster in the marine environment may facilitate the emergence of new pathogens. PMID:26092457

  12. Rapid assessment of the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells after heat treatment, using an optimized phage amplification assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foddai, Antonio; Elliott, Christopher T; Grant, Irene R

    2010-03-01

    Thermal inactivation experiments were carried out to assess the utility of a recently optimized phage amplification assay to accurately enumerate viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells in milk. Ultra-heat-treated (UHT) whole milk was spiked with large numbers of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms (10(6) to 10(7) CFU/ml) and dispensed in 100-microl aliquots in thin-walled 200-microl PCR tubes. A Primus 96 advanced thermal cycler (Peqlab, Erlangen, Germany) was used to achieve the following time and temperature treatments: (i) 63 degrees C for 3, 6, and 9 min; (ii) 68 degrees C for 20, 40, and 60 s; and (iii) 72 degrees C for 5, 10, 15, and 25 s. After thermal stress, the number of surviving M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells was assessed by both phage amplification assay and culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium (HEYM). A high correlation between PFU/ml and CFU/ml counts was observed for both unheated (r(2) = 0.943) and heated (r(2) = 0.971) M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells. D and z values obtained using the two types of counts were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The D(68 degrees C), mean D(63 degrees C), and D(72 degrees C) for four M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains were 81.8, 9.8, and 4.2 s, respectively, yielding a mean z value of 6.9 degrees C. Complete inactivation of 10(6) to 10(7) CFU of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis/ml milk was not observed for any of the time-temperature combinations studied; 5.2- to 6.6-log(10) reductions in numbers were achieved depending on the temperature and time. Nonlinear thermal inactivation kinetics were consistently observed for this bacterium. This study confirms that the optimized phage assay can be employed in place of conventional culture on HEYM to speed up the acquisition of results (48 h instead of a minimum of 6 weeks) for inactivation experiments involving M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-spiked samples.

  13. Influence of N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine on the Activity of Adenylate Cyclase Signaling System and the Virulence of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Goncharova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine was obtained from exudates of pea root on growth, virulence and signaling-specific of potato phytopathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus. It is shown that the compound in a physiological concentration of the peas 9 mkM had no effect on C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, but when exposed to N-FNA in a concentration of 45 mkM was observed reduction in growth of planktonic culture C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, as well as changes in the activity of adenylyl cyclase signaling system components in this phytopathogen.

  14. Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum Exo-β-1,3-Galactanase, an enzyme for the degradation of type II arabinogalactan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Kiyotaka; Sakaguchi, Takenori; Sakamoto, Ayami; Shimokawa, Michiko; Kitahara, Kanefumi

    2014-08-01

    Type II arabinogalactan (AG-II) is a suitable carbohydrate source for Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum, but the degradative enzymes have never been characterized. In this study, we characterized an exo-β-1,3-galactanase, BLLJ_1840, belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 43 from B. longum subsp. longum JCM1217. The recombinant BLLJ_1840 expressed in Escherichia coli hydrolyzed β-1,3-linked galactooligosaccharides but not β-1,4- and β-1,6-linked galactooligosaccharides. The enzyme also hydrolyzed larch wood arabinogalactan (LWAG), which comprises a β-1,3-linked galactan backbone with β-1,6-linked galactan side chains. The kcat/Km ratio of dearabinosylated LWAG was 24-fold higher than that of β-1,3-galactan. BLLJ_1840 is a novel type of exo-β-1,3-galactanase with a higher affinity for the β-1,6-substituted β-1,3-galactan than for nonsubstituted β-1,3-galactan. BLLJ_1840 has 27% to 28% identities with other characterized exo--1,3-galactanases from bacteria and fungi. The homologous genes are conserved in several strains of B. longum subsp. longum and B. longum subsp. infantis but not in other bifidobacteria. Transcriptional analysis revealed that BLLJ_1840 is intensively induced with BLLJ_1841, an endo-β-1,6-galactanase candidate, in the presence of LWAG. This is the first report of exo-β-1,3-galactanase in bifidobacteria, which is an enzyme used for the acquisition of AG-II in B. longum subsp. longum.

  15. Characterization and prediction by near-infrared reflectance of mineral composition of rocket (Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa and Eruca vesicaria subsp. vesicaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villatoro-Pulido, Myriam; Moreno Rojas, Rafael; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; Cardeñosa, Vanessa; Amaro López, Manuel Ángel; Font, Rafael; Del Río-Celestino, Mercedes

    2012-05-01

    Minerals are essential for human nutrition and must be obtained from our diet. Crucifer vegetables are a good source of these nutrients. Our objectives were to determine the genetic variability for mineral content and to evaluate the use of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for prediction of ashes and minerals among and within the rocket species Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa and vesicaria. The minerals studied were iron (Fe), copper (Cu), sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn). The maximum mean values obtained for all the accessions (mean ± SE) were 235.5 ± 1.5 mg ashes kg(-1), 273.3 ± 4.2 mg Fe kg(-1), 18.1 ± 0.4 mg Cu kg(-1), 2.8 ± 0.1 g Na kg(-1), 71.6 ± 1.0 g K kg(-1), 64.6 ± 1.2 g Ca kg(-1), 6.8 ± 0.1 g mg kg(-1), 101.6 ± 1.2 mg Mn kg(-1), and 67.1 ± 0.4 mg Zn kg(-1) of dry weight. The statistical analysis showed significant differences for all the minerals, except Ca, for each accession studied individually and for accessions grouped within countries. The results indicate that NIRS can be used as a rapid screening method for determining total mineral, Fe, Na, K, and Zn in rocket. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Biochemical, immunological and toxicological characteristics of the crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Orduz

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of the insecticidal and hemolytic activity of solubilized crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt subsp. medellin (Btmed was performed and compared to solubilized crystal proteins of isolates 1884 of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti and isolate PG-14 of B. thuringiensis subsp. morrisoni (Btm. In general, at acid pH values solubilization of the Bt crystalline parasporal inclusions (CPI was lower than at alkaline pH. The larvicidal activity demonstrated by the CPI of Btmed indicated that optimal solubilization of CPI takes place at a pH value of 11.3, in Bti at pH values from 5.03 to 11.3 and in Btm at pH values from 9.05 to 11.3. Hemolytic activity against sheep red blood cells was mainly found following extraction at pH 11.3 in all Bt strains tested. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions revealed that optimal solubilization of the CPI in all Bt strains takes place at the alkaline pH values from 9.05 to 11.3. An enriched preparation of Btmed crystals was obtained, solubilized and crystal proteins were separated on a size exclusion column (Sephacryl S-200. Three main protein peaks were observed on the chromatogram. The first peak had two main proteins that migrate between 90 to 100 kDa. These proteins are apparently not common to other Bt strains isolated to date. The second and third peaks obtained from the size exclusion column yielded polypeptides of 68 and 28-30 kDa, respectively. Each peak independently, showed toxicity against 1st instar Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Interestingly, combinations of the fractions corresponding to the 68 and 30 kDa protein showed an increased toxicity. These results suggest that the 94 kDa protein is an important component of the Btmed toxins with the highest potency to kill mosquito larvae. When crystal proteins of Bti were probed with antisera raised independently against the three main protein fractions of Btmed, the only crystal protein that showed

  17. Heterologous expression and activity studying of a nisin resistance gene in Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanghong Gong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lactic acid bacteria are generally regarded as safe microorganisms and widely used in industry and medicine. We are trying to add additional properties to them by gene engineering. However, the genetically modified bacteria are not acceptable to use in food and medicine due to the presence of antibiotic resistance genes in plasmids. Thus, it is necessary to develop food-grade selection markers. Methods: To evaluate the activity of nisin resistance gene (nsr cloned from Lactococcus lactis as a food-grade selective marker in transformant bacterial strains, we isolated L.lactis nisin resistant strains from fresh milk, and cloned the nsr gene to Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, then studied the activity of nsr in positive transformant bacterial strains. Results: Six nisin resistant strains were isolated from fresh milk on M17 plates supplemented with nisin at a final concentration of 400 μg/ml. All of these isolates were identified as L.lactis by morphological, physiological, biochemical and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. A pair of primers was designed on the basis of the DNA sequences of reported nsr. PCR amplification was carried out with chromosome and plasmid DNA as templates from these six strains respectively, and an expected PCR product was obtained from one chromosome. After the amplicon was confirmed as nsr gene, it was cloned into E.coli-Lactobacillus shuttle vector pMG36e, resulting in pMG36e-nsr. The construct was obtained when the recombinant plasmid pMG36e-nsr was electroporated into L.delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus L6032 competent cells. When the medium contained a maximum of 400 μg/ml nisin, the construct carrying pMG36e-nsr showed the same growth curve as that cultured in medium containing 10 μg/ml erythromycin. Conclusions: The nsr gene was cloned and successfully expressed in L.delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus L6032. This study suggests that nsr gene could be used as a potential food-grade selective marker to

  18. Incidence of lameness and abrasions in piglets in identical farrowing pens with four different types of floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Ebba

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lameness in piglets is a major animal welfare issue. Floor abrasiveness is a common cause of superficial injury in piglets in farrowing pens. The abrasion achieved may act as a gate for infections, which in turn may induce development of infectious arthritis. In this study, the influence of improvements of the floor quality and of increased ratios of straw in identical farrowing pens was measured. Methods The study was carried out at a herd with four identical farrowing units with solid concrete floor bedded with 1 kg chopped straw per sow and 1 hg per piglet and day. Nothing was changed in the management of the four identical farrowing units, but four experimental groups were created: Group I – control, Group II – the amount of bedding was doubled. The surface of the floor was repaired in two units, Group III – Piglet Floor®, Flowcrete Sweden AB, Perstorp, Sweden and Group IV – Thorocrete SL®, Växa Halland, Sweden. Three farrowing batches were studies in each unit. In total, 93 litters (1,073 piglets were examined for foot and skin lesions until the age of 3 weeks. The occurrence of lameness was registered until weaning at an average age of 4.5 weeks. Twenty seven lame piglets were culled instead of medicinally treated and subjected to necropsy including histopathological and microbiological examinations. Isolates of streptococci, staphylococci and E. coli were tested with respect to antimicrobial resistance. Results Piglet born on the repaired floors had the lowest prevalences of abrasions at carpus. Also the doubled straw ration decreased the abrasions. Skin lesions at carpus decreased significantly in magnitude in all four systems from day 10. At day 3, the sole bruising scores of the control unit were greater than the other three units (p Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (60%, Staphylococcus hyicus subsp. hyicus (35% and Escherichia coli (5%. These isolates were sensitive to all antibiotics

  19. Treatment with antibiotics is detrimental to the recovery of viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis cultured from milk and colostrum of dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotic cocktails are frequently used as secondary decontaminants prior to the culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). This study investigated whether secondary incubation with an antibiotic cocktail containing vancomycin, nalidixic acid, and amphotericin B after primary exp...

  20. Development of immunofluorescence colony staining (IFC) for detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp michiganensis in tomato seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nemeth, J.; Vuurde, van J.W.L.

    2006-01-01

    Immunofluorescence colony-staining (IFC) is based on sample pour plating in combination with immunofluorescence staining for recognition of the target colony. IFC was optimised for detecting Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) in

  1. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection and identification of plant pathogenic bacteria (in particular for Erwinia amylovora and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokoskova, Blanka; Janse, Jaap D

    2009-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the most commonly used serological diagnostic technique. A number of different ELISA formats can be used for the detection of bacterial plant pathogens and in particular Erwinia amylovora and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus.

  2. Co-production of surfactin and a novel bacteriocin by Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis H4 isolated from bikalga, an African alkaline Hibiscus sabdariffa seed fermented condiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compaore, C. S.; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Ouoba, L. I. I.;

    2013-01-01

    Bikalga is a Hibiscus sabdariffa seed fermented condiment widely consumed in Burkina Faso and neighboring countries. The fermentation is dominated by Bacillus subtilis group species. Ten B. subtilis subsp. subtilis (six isolates) and Bacillus licheniformis (four isolates) isolated from traditiona...

  3. Co-production of surfactin and a novel bacteriocin by Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis H4 isolated from bikalga, an African alkaline Hibiscus sabdariffa seed fermented condiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compaore, C. S.; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Ouoba, L. I. I.

    2013-01-01

    Bikalga is a Hibiscus sabdariffa seed fermented condiment widely consumed in Burkina Faso and neighboring countries. The fermentation is dominated by Bacillus subtilis group species. Ten B. subtilis subsp. subtilis (six isolates) and Bacillus licheniformis (four isolates) isolated from traditiona...

  4. Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli in Sugarcane Stalk Juice Using a Real-Time Fluorescent (TaqMan) PCR Assay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hua-Ying Fu; Sheng-Ren Sun; Jin-Da Wang; Kashif Ahmad; Heng-Bo Wang; Ru-Kai Chen; San-Ji Gao

    2016-01-01

      Ratoon stunting disease (RSD) of sugarcane, one of the most important diseases seriously affecting the productivity of sugarcane crops, was caused by the bacterial agent Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx...

  5. Intoxicação espontânea por Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convolvulaceae em bovinos no Pantanal Matogrossense Spontaneous Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convolvulaceae poisoning of cattle in the Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia A.B. Antoniassi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a intoxicação espontânea por Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (canudo, algodoeiro em bovinos no Pantanal Matogrossense. As investigações iniciaram após a morte de 12 bovinos, de um rebanho de 500 animais, criados em uma extensa área intensamente infestada por I. carnea subsp. fistulosa com escassa disponibilidade de outra forragem. As mortes ocorreram entres os meses de junho e setembro de 2006. O quadro clínico foi caracterizado por emagrecimento e sinais neurológicos com dificuldade locomotora. Um bovino foi necropsiado sem que se observassem alterações macroscópicas significativas. Histologicamente havia tumefação e vacuolização celular, em neurônios, células acinares pancreáticas, tubulares renais e foliculares da tireóide. Bovinos com quadro clínico similar foram retirados da área invadida por I. carnea subsp. fistulosa e colocadas em áreas com pastagem nativa e de Brachiaria sp. e apresentaram melhora clínica após período de 15 dias.A spontaneous Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (canudo, algodoeiro poisoning of cattle in the county of Poconé, Brazilian Pantanal, is reported. The investigation began after 12 cattle had died from a flock of 500 animals maintained in an extensive area intensely infested by I. carnea subsp. fistulosa with scarce availability of other fodder plants. The deaths occurred from June to September of 2006. Clinical signs were loss of weight and neurological deficits with hypermetry and incoordination. No significant gross lesions were observed at postmortem examination of one bovine. Histological changes comprised widespread cytoplasmic vacuolation of neurons, cells of the thyroid, kidney and pancreas. Cattle with similar clinical picture, that had been removed from the area invaded by I. carnea subsp. fistulosa and placed into areas with native and Brachiaria sp. pasture, recovered clinically within 15 days.

  6. Antifungal activity and isomerization of octadecyl p-coumarates from Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidiry, Eugene Sebastian J; Ganeshan, Girija; Lokesha, Ankanahalli N

    2011-12-01

    Bioassay monitored HPLC assisted isolation and purification of the chief antifungal fraction of the leaves of Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convulvulaceae) were achieved using Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Cladosporium cucumerinum as test organisms. The activity of the purified fraction was further confirmed by the dose dependent inhibition of the spore germination of Alternaria alternata and A. porri. The active fraction was identified as a mixture of (E)-octadecyl p-coumarate and (Z)-octadecyl p-coumarate. The two isomers were detected on an HPLC column with substantially different retention times, but once eluted from the column, one form was partly converted to the other in daylight. Conclusive evidence for the structures and their isomerization were obtained from the HPLC behavior, IR, UV, HRESIMS, CIMS and and NMR spectral data. Important 1H NMR and 13C NMR signals could be separately assigned for the isomers using 2D NMR techniques.

  7. Mixed Infection of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sungmin; Wang, Sungho; Shi, Hyejin; Park, Sungrock; Lee, Sangki; Park, Kyoung Taek

    2017-01-01

    A mixed infection of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus (Mab) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in the lung is an unusual clinical manifestation and has not yet been reported. A 61-year-old woman had been treated for Mab lung disease and concomitant pneumonia, and was diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Despite both anti-PTB and anti-Mab therapy, her entire left lung was destroyed and collapsed. She underwent left pneumonectomy and received medical therapy. We were able to successfully treat her mixed infection by pneumonectomy followed by inhaled amikacin therapy. To the best of our knowledge, thus far, this is the first description of a mixed Mab and MTB lung infection. PMID:28180105

  8. Effect of oligosaccharides on the growth of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains isolated from dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Tseteslava; Iliev, Ilia; Kirilov, Nikolai; Vassileva, Tonka; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Haertlé, Thomas; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Ivanova, Iskra

    2009-10-28

    Eighteen lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from dairy products, all identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, were tested for their ability to grow on three different oligosaccharides: fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), gluco-oligosaccharides (GOS) and galacto-oligosaccharides (GalOS). The growth of LAB on different oligosaccharides was very different. Study of the antimicrobial activities of these LAB indicated that the system of uptake of unusual sugars influenced in a specific way the production of antimicrobial substances (bacteriocins) specific against gram-negative bacteria. The added oligosaccharides induced LAB to form end-products of a typical mixed acid fermentation. The utilization of different types of oligosaccharides may help to explain the ability of Lactobacillus strains to compete with other bacteria in the ecosystem of the human gastro-intestinal tract.

  9. The Investigation of Some Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Properties of Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna subsp. monogyna jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat KESER

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and pharmacological effects of hawthorn have mainly been attributed to the polyphenolic contents. The aim of this research is to determine some bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of hawthorn aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves, flowers and ripened fruits. For this purpose, antioxidant activities of extracts were assessed on DPPH and #8226;, ABTS and #8226;+, superoxide scavenging, reducing power and ferrous metal chelating activity assays and phenolic content of extracts was determined by Folin-Cioacalteu and #8217;s reagent. The flavonoids including rutin, apigenin, myricetin, quercetin, naringenin and kaempferol, were identified by HPLC in the hawthorn extract. It was observed the aqueous and ethanol extracts of Crataegus monogyna subsp. monogyna fruits showed highest activity in reducing power and metal chelating activity assays. Additionally, it was determined that the aqueous flower extract showed higher flavonoid content than aqueous leaves extract. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 51-55

  10. The investigation of some bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna subsp. monogyna Jacq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Serhat; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra; Yilmaz, Ökkes; Turkoglu, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant and pharmacological effects of hawthorn have mainly been attributed to the polyphenolic contents. The aim of this research is to determine some bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of hawthorn aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves, flowers, and ripened fruits. For this purpose, antioxidant activities of extracts were assessed on DPPH•, ABTS•+, superoxide scavenging, reducing power and ferrous metal chelating activity assays and phenolic content of extracts was determined by Folin-Cioacalteu's reagent. The flavonoids including rutin, apigenin, myricetin, quercetin, naringenin and kaempferol, were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography in the hawthorn extract. It was observed the aqueous and ethanol extracts of Crataegus monogyna subsp. monogyna fruits showed the highest activity in reducing power and metal chelating activity assays. In addition, it was determined that the aqueous flower extract showed higher flavonoid content than aqueous leaves extract. The antioxidant and pharmacological effects of hawthorn have mainly been attributed to the polyphenolic contents.

  11. Structure determination of the neutral exopolysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Calsteren, Marie-Rose; Gagnon, Fleur; Nishimura, Junko; Makino, Seiya

    2015-09-01

    The neutral exopolysaccharide (NPS) of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strain OLL1073R-1 was purified and characterized. The molecular mass was 5.0×10(6) g/mol. Sugar and absolute configuration analyses gave the following composition: d-Glc, 1; d-Gal, 1.5. The NPS was also submitted to periodate oxidation followed by borohydride reduction and Smith degradation. Sugar and methylation analyses, (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometry of the NPS or of its specifically modified products allowed determining the repeating unit sequence: {2)Glc(α1-3)Glc(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)]Gal(β1-4)Gal(α1-}n. The structure is compared to that of exopolysaccharides produced by other Lactobacillus bulgaricus strains.

  12. Apparent Prevalence of Beef Carcasses Contaminated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Sampled from Danish Slaughter Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisako Okura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP in beef has been reported as a public health concern because asymptomatically infected cattle may contain MAP in tissues that are used for human consumption. Associations between MAP carcasses contamination and animal characteristics such as age, breed, production type, and carcass classification were assessed. Cheek muscles from 501 carcasses were sampled cross-sectionally at a Danish abattoir and tested for presence of viable MAP and MAP DNA by bacterial culture and IS900 realtime PCR, respectively. Cheek muscle tissues from carcasses of two dairy cows were positive by culture whereas 4% of the animals were estimated with ≥10 CFU/gram muscle based on realtime PCR. Age was found to be associated with carcass contamination with MAP. The observed viable MAP prevalence in beef carcasses was low. However, detection of MAP and MAP DNA in muscle tissues suggested that bacteremia occurred in slaughtered cattle.

  13. [Macrolide resistance in Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum in the Czech Republic and in other countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillová, L; Mikalová, L; Zákoucká, H; Židlická, J; Šmajs, D

    2015-03-01

    Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA) is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease syphilis. In the Czech Republic, several hundred cases of syphilis are reported annually; e.g. in 2012, 696 syphilis cases were documented. In the last decades, an increasing prevalence of macrolide resistant TPA strains harboring A2058G or A2059G mutations in the 23S rRNA gene has been reported. Macrolides were used (and rarely are still being used) in the Czech Republic for the treatment of syphilis in patients allergic to penicillin. While 37% of TPA strains were resistant to macrolides between 2004 and 2010, this rate increased to 67% between 2011-2013. High prevalence of A2058G or A2059G mutations and increasing rates of macrolide resistant TPA strains have also been documented in other developed countries. Therefore, macrolides should not be used in the treatment of syphilis.

  14. Deteksi Bakteri Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis pada Benih Tomat Komersial yang Beredar di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswaldi Anwar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm, the pathogen causing bacterial canker, on 22 lots of tomato seeds distributed commercially in Indonesia was evaluated. Isolation of suspected Cmm colonies were conducted by agar dilution plating on semiselective SCM medium followed by confirmation of colony identity on YDC medium. Identity of suspected Cmm colony was confirmed using IF test, pathogenicity test on tomato seedlings, hypersensitivity test on leaf of Mirabilis jalapa and Nicotiana tabacum, ELISA, and Cmm specific DNA amplification by PCR. After seed extraction and evaluation of the extract on semi-selective SCM medium and confirmastion by IF test, at least six tomato seed lots were contaminated with Cmm. After more confirmation using pathogenicity and hypersensitivity test, ELISA, and PCR amplification, at least three seed lots were confirmed possitively to carry Cmm.

  15. [Identification and analysis of an actinomycete strain suppressing Clavibacter michiganensis subsp, michiganensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Weihong; Wang, Songhong; Li, Yaning; Zhao, Zhiquan; Liu, Daqun; Yang, Wenxiang

    2009-07-01

    To identify and analyze bioactive compounds of an actinomycete strain Z-L-22 suppressing Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, the causal agent of bacterial canker of tomato. Morphological, biological and biochemical characterization, chemotaxonomy analysis and 16S rDNA sequences homology analysis were performed to identify the strain Z-L-22. Bioactive compounds were separated and retrieved by thin layer chromatography. Paper chromatography and confirmation tests were used to identify the antibiotic. PCR was carried out using the primers targeted to synthetase of the antibiotic. Strain Z-L-22 belonged to Streptomyces sp. and was similar to Streptomyces setonii. Two main bioactive components were isolated by thin layer chromatography, which were all identified as actinomycin. New actinomycin synthetase gene was cloned using the primers designed from actinomycin synthetase conserve domain. Strain Z-L-22 was classified as Streptomyces setonii. Actinomycin produced by Streptomyces setonii was first reported.

  16. [Effect of cultivation conditions on fatty acid content of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis lipids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, S M; Hvozdiak, R I; Chernenko, Ie P; Ostapchuk, A M

    2010-01-01

    The fatty acid content of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis cellular lipids in different culture conditions was investigated. It was established, that it lies in a narrow range C14-C18 and belongs to isoanteiso type. The species character is constant, independent of temperature, duration of cultivation and medium content dominance of saturated branched-chain fatty acids, among which the anteiso-acids dominate, generally a-C15. A response to the temperature modification of bacteria cultivation, medium and age of culture is expressed by relations between separate fatty acids. Thus the modifications of fatty acid content, connected with age of culture and temperature of cultivation, depend on a strain. The cultivation of bacteria on a rich medium in comparison with poor one enlarges the content of nonbranched-chain and anteiso-acids in lipids.

  17. Two new species of Lactarius associated with Alnus acuminata subsp. arguta in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Leticia; Bandala, Victor M; Garay, Edith

    2014-01-01

    In pure stands of Alnus acuminata subsp. arguta trees from Sierra Norte de Puebla (central Mexico) two undescribed ectomycorrhizal species of Lactarius were discovered. Distinction of the two new species is based on morphological characters and supported with phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS region and part of the gene that encodes for the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (rpb2). The phylogenies inferred recovered the two species in different clades strongly supported by posterior probabilities and bootstrap values. The new Lactarius species are recognized as part of the assemblage of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Alnus acuminata. Information about these taxa includes the morphological variation achieved along 16 monitories 2010-2013. Descriptions are provided. They are accompanied by photos including SEM photomicrographs of basidiospores and information on differences between them and other related taxa from Europe and the United States. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  18. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of 24 antimicrobial agents against Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoof, R; Gordts, B; Dierickx, R; Coignau, H; Butzler, J P

    1980-07-01

    The bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of 24 antimicrobial agents were tested with the Dynatech MIC 2000 system against 86 strains of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni from human sources. The penicillins (penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxycillin, carbenicillin) had poor activity. Ampicillin and amoxycillin were equally active. Cefotaxime revealed a rather good activity. Erythromycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, and furazolidone were the most active compounds. Two strains (2.3%) were resistant to erythromycin. One strain (1.2%) was completely resistant to tobramycin. The tetracyclines (tetracyline, doxycycline, minocycline) were generally effective, but 8% of the strains were totally resistant to them. Minocycline was the most active. Chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, and clindamycin had good activity. The bacteriostatic and bactericidal distributions for colistin, nalidixic acid, and metronidazole were broad.

  19. Chemical structure and biological activity of a quorum sensing pheromone from Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Masahiro; Nakamura, Yuta; Hayashi, Shunsuke; Ozaki, Koki; Usami, Syohei

    2015-10-01

    Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto secrets a peptide pheromone, named ComXnatto pheromone, as an inducer for biofilm formation containing poly-γ-glutamic acid. Recently, the ComXnatto pheromone was identified to be a hexapeptide with an amino acid sequence of Lys-Trp-Pro-Pro-Ile-Glu, and the tryptophan residue was post-translationally modified with a farnesyl group. In order to determine the precise modification of the tryptophan residue, ComXnatto pheromone was synthesized using solid-phase peptide synthesis. Biological activity of the ComXnatto pheromone was then investigated. It was demonstrated that poly-γ-glutamic acid production were accelerated by ComXnatto pheromone at more than 1 nM in natto. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Draft genome of a South African strain of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayalethu Ntushelo

    Full Text Available Abstract The draft genome of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense (Pcb which causes blackleg of potato was submitted to the NCBI and released with reference number NZ_LGRF00000000.1. The estimated genome size based on the draft genome assembly is 4,820,279 bp from 33 contigs ranging in length from 444 to 1,660,019 nucleotides. The genome annotation showed 4250 putative genes, 4114 CDS and 43 pseudo-genes. Three complete rRNA gene species were detected: nine 5S, one 16S and one 23S. Other partial rRNA gene fragments were also identified, nine 16S rRNA and three 23S rRNA. A total of 69 tRNA genes and one ncRNA gene were also annotated in this genome.

  1. Produksi Asam Laktat oleh Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus dengan Sumber Karbon Tetes Tebu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laita Nurjannah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Senyawa asam laktat sangat dibutuhkan di dunia industri. Namun produksi dengan menggunakan mikrob masih menggunakan bahan pangan sebagai substratnya. Alternatif substrat untuk produksi asam laktat  sebagai pengganti penggunaan bahan pangan  sangat diperlukan industri. Tetes tebu merupakan salah satu substrat yang kaya akan sumber  karbon yang dapat digunakan sebagai komponen media pertumbuhan bakteri. Ketersediaannya melimpah dan harganya murah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah tetes tebu dapat digunakan sebagai alternatif  sumber karbon bakteri Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus untuk menghasilkan asam laktat. Langkah penelitian ini meliputi hidrolisis dan detoksifikasi tetes tebu, uji kualitatif gula pereduksi tetes tebu, analisis gula total dengan metode fenol sulfat, penentuan kurva pertumbuhan bakteri, produksi dan ekstraksi asam laktat, serta analisis kualitatif asam laktat dengan menggunakan kromatografi cair kinerja tinggi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tetes tebu dapat digunakan sebagai alternatif sumber karbon. Hal ini terbukti bakteri dapat tumbuh dengan baik ketika media diberi 0.5% tetes tebu. Konsentrasi gula total tetes tebu adalah 1090 g/L. Uji gula pereduksi menunjukkan hasil yang positif untuk uji Selliwanof, uji Benedict, dan uji Barfoed. Pertumbuhan optimum L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus terjadi pada suhu 42°C dengan agitasi 150 rpm. Produksi asam laktat dilakukan selama 24 jam. Kadar asam laktat yang dihasilkan sebesar 2.80% dengan biomassa sel kering sebesar 0.002 g/L dan pH media fermentasi sebesar 4.0. Hasil analisis kualitatif kromatografi cair kinerja tinggi juga menunjukkan bahwa produk dari hasil fermentasi adalah asam laktat. Abstract. Lactic acid is needed as an industrial feed. However, by using a microbial production still uses food material as a substrate. Alternative substrates for the production of lactic acid is needed in industry. Molasses are potential substrates due to the richness in

  2. Antiproliferative Effects of the Methanolic Extracts of Sideritis libanotica Labill. subsp. linearis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saban Tekin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Methanol extract from aerial parts of Sideritis libanotica Labill. subsp. linearis (Bentham Borm.were investigated for its in vitro antiproliferative activities against Vero, HeLa and C6 cells. The tests werecarried out as dose-dependent assay starting from 25 μg/mL to 250 μg/mL. The extract found to be active againstAfrican green monkey kidney (Vero, human uterus carcinoma (HeLa and Rat Brain tumor cells (C6 cancercell lines with IC50 values. The methanol extract of S. libanotica showed the highest activity against the Vero,HeLa and C6 cell lines at 250 μg/mL as dose-dependent assay starting from 25 μg/mL.

  3. Identification and comparative analysis of a genomic island in Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Annesha; Sanchini, Andrea; Semmler, Torsten; Schäfer, Hubert; Lewin, Astrid

    2014-11-03

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) is an environmental bacterium causing opportunistic infections. The objective of this study was to identify flexible genome regions in MAH isolated from different sources. By comparing five complete and draft MAH genomes we identified a genomic island conferring additional flexibility to the MAH genomes. The island was absent in one of the five strains and had sizes between 16.37 and 84.85kb in the four other strains. The genes present in the islands differed among strains and included phage- and plasmid-derived genes, integrase genes, hypothetical genes, and virulence-associated genes like mmpL or mce genes. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Germination and conjugation of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in the intestine of gnotobiotic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcks, Andrea; Ørum-Smidt, Lasse; Bahl, Martin Iain;

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To study the ability of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores to germinate and subsequently transfer a conjugative plasmid in the intestinal tract of gnotobiotic rats. Methods and Results: Germination was studied by feeding germ-free rats with spores of a B. thuringiensis strain...... the conjugative plasmid pXO16 was introduced. Both strains were given as spores and transfer of pXO16 was observed from the donor to the recipient strain. Conclusions: Bacillus thuringiensis is able to have a full life cycle in the intestine of gnotobiotic rats including germination of spores, several cycles...... harbouring a plasmid encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP), which enabled quantification of germinated bacteria by flow cytometry. To study in vivo conjugation, germ-free rats were first associated with a B. thuringiensis recipient strain and after 1 week an isogenic donor strain harbouring...

  5. Osteomyelitis due to Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae: the price of exotic pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, S; Itsekzon, T; Yinnon, A M; Lachish, T

    2012-02-01

    We describe a 31-year-old immunocompromised patient who developed sepsis and osteomyelitis due to Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae secondary to exposure to iguana and snakes kept as pets at her home, and review all 23 previously published cases of bone and joint infections due to this organism, for a total of nine children and 15 adults. Eleven of the adults were female (73%), compared with three (33%) of the children (p child only (17%) (p child only (11%, p <0.01). Antibiotic therapy was prolonged in both adults and children, and in most cases consisted of 4-6 weeks of parenteral treatment. Complete cure and survival was attained in 11 of 15 adults (73%) and all nine children (NS). Optimal antibiotic treatment probably consists of ceftriaxone or a fluoroquinolone, if the organism is susceptible.

  6. The distribution of Allium schoenoprasum L. subsp. sibiricum (L. Hartm. in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kwiatkowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chorological analysis of the distribution of Allium schoenoprasum L. subsp. sibiricum (L Hartm. presented in the paper is based on literature data, herbaria and the authors own observations. A. *sibiricum is a rare and threatened species in Poland, reported exclusively from the Karkonosze Mts. and the Pilsko Massif in the Beskid Żywiecki Mts. The author discusses the taxonomic position, general distribution as well as environmental and phytocoenotic conditions preferred by the species in Europe. Detailed phytosociological analysis of phytocoenoses in which A. *sibiricum typically occurs in the Karkonosze Mts. is presented. They belong to the association Allietum sibirici Šmarda 1950 which is described here for the first time from Poland.

  7. Selection of Small Synthetic Antimicrobial Peptides Inhibiting Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Causing Citrus Canker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeahyuk; Park, Euiho; Lee, Se-Weon; Hyun, Jae-Wook; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Citrus canker disease decreases the fruit quality and yield significantly, furthermore, emerging of streptomycin-resistant pathogens threatens the citrus industry seriously because of a lack of proper control agents. Small synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could be a promising alternative. Fourteen hexapeptides were selected by using positional scanning of synthetic peptide combinatorial libraries. Each hexapeptide showed different antimicrobial spectrum against Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas, and Candida species. Intriguingly, BHC10 showed bactericidal activity exclusively on Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), while BHC7 was none-active exclusively against two Pseudomonas spp. at concentration of 100 μg/ml suggesting potential selectivity constrained in hexapeptide frame. Three hexapeptides, BHC02, 06 and 11, showed bactericidal activities against various Xcc strains at concentration of 10 μg/ml. When they were co-infiltrated with pathogens into citrus leaves the disease progress was suppressed significantly. Further study would be needed to confirm the actual disease control capacity of the selected hexapeptides. PMID:28167892

  8. Essential Oil of Thymus munbyanus subsp. coloratus from Algeria: Chemotypification and in vitro Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendif, Hamdi; Boudjeniba, Messaoud; Miara, Mohamed Djamel; Biqiku, Loreta; Bramucci, Massimo; Lupidi, Giulio; Quassinti, Luana; Vitali, Luca A; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-03-01

    Thymus munbyanus subsp. coloratus (Lamiaceae) is a small shrub endemic to Algeria and Morocco where is found in lawns, rockeries and mountainous regions. From a phytochemical point of view this taxon has never been characterized. In this work we have analysed the chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained from inflorescences and vegetative parts by GC/MS. A new chemotype, i.e. borneol-chemotype, was characterized for the first time in the species. Furthermore, we assessed the biological activities of essential oils, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxicity on tumor cells that were evaluated by the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP, disc diffusion, and MTT methods, respectively. Biological assays highlighted a moderate inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans (inhibition zone diameter in the range 9 - 10 mm), and noteworthy cytotoxicity on A375 human melanoma cells (IC50 of 46.95 μg/ml). © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  9. Phytochemical characterization of the threatened specie Fraxinus caroliniana Mill subsp. cubensis (Griseb. Borhidi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabelkis Terry Rosabal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fraxinus caroliniana Mill subsp. cubensis (Griseb. Borhidi is commonly known as buffalo, represents an endemic subspecies and categorized as critical danger of extinction in Cuba. This work aimed to characterize the phytochemical composition of plants of F. caroliniana in two localities of the Matanzas province. The presence of secondary metabolites in leaf extracts was qualitatively analyzed and reductive and total sugars were quantified. The results indicated the presence of flavonoids, terpenes, steroids, saponins, tannins and anthraquinones in leaves that could be considered for further systematic studies and application in agriculture. The plants from the Ciénaga de Zapata showed contents of reducing sugars and totals higher than those obtained in the plants of Martí. These results provide information for the identification of characters of possible taxonomic and conservation value in this species.   Keywords: anthraquinons, extracts, swamp ash, steroids, tannins, terpens

  10. Development of an Immunochromatographic Strip for Rapid Detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Feng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, simple, sensitive, and specific immunochromatographic test strip was developed for the detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pss in corn seed which was soaked overnight and then centrifuged for precipitate re-dissolved as samples. A pair of sensitive monoclonal antibodies for the immunochromatographic test strip was generated by mice immunization and cell fusion. Under optimized conditions, the lower detection limit of the strips for Pss was 1 × 105 cfu/mL both in 0.01 M phosphate buffer solution and corn seed samples, with no cross-reactivity with other common plant pathogens. The developed strip is useful and rapid for the detection of Pss in corn seed samples.

  11. Development of an immunochromatographic strip for rapid detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Min; Kong, Dezhao; Wang, Wenbing; Liu, Liqiang; Song, Shanshan; Xu, Chuanlai

    2015-02-12

    A rapid, simple, sensitive, and specific immunochromatographic test strip was developed for the detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pss) in corn seed which was soaked overnight and then centrifuged for precipitate re-dissolved as samples. A pair of sensitive monoclonal antibodies for the immunochromatographic test strip was generated by mice immunization and cell fusion. Under optimized conditions, the lower detection limit of the strips for Pss was 1 × 10(5) cfu/mL both in 0.01 M phosphate buffer solution and corn seed samples, with no cross-reactivity with other common plant pathogens. The developed strip is useful and rapid for the detection of Pss in corn seed samples.

  12. Pollination Strategies to Increase Productivity of the African Fruit Trees Vitellaria paradoxa subsp. paradoxa & Parkia biglobosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristin Marie

    The PhD thesis has studied the pollination ecology of two popular fruit trees used in agro-forestry parklands in The Gambia and Burkina Faso. Both species are economically and nutritionally important. The methods used have been a combination of size-based exclusion trials and direct observations...... of the potential pollinators in the flowers. For one of the species, a number of seeds from the resulting pods were genotyped and the distances to the assigned father trees were found. Due to relatively few flower-visitors it was possible to assign the effective pollinators for both species. The main results...... for Vitellaria paradoxa subsp. paradoxa are the findings that honey bees were the most efficient pollinators, and that stingless bees and solitary bees partly could compensate honey bees. The stingless bees often construct nests in older V. paradoxa trees, and when excluding honey bees, these trees yielded...

  13. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by a Direct In Situ PCR Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Delgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is useful for diagnosis and research of paratuberculosis. The aim of this paper was to detect this agent in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples by a direct in situ PCR. The technique was performed on ileum or ileocaecal lymph node samples from 8 naturally infected cattle and 1 healthy calf, by using p89 and p92 primers for amplification of IS900 sequence. Moderate positive signal was detected in all positive samples and not in negative control, but tissues resulted were affected in many cases due to the enzymatic treatment and the high temperature exposition. Although the technique was useful for Map detection, the signal was lower than immunohistochemistry probably because of the fixation process. In one case, signal was higher, which might be due to the detection of spheroplasts. Thus, the described method should be recommended when others resulted negative or for spheroplasts detection.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium from humans and production animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; FrimodtMoller, N.

    1997-01-01

    to the State Serum Institute during August 1993 (228 isolates). The animal strains were isolated from clinical or subclinical infections in cattle (48 isolates), pigs (99 isolates) or poultry (98 isolates), all from 1993. All strains were tested against 22 different antimicrobial agents used in both human......: Poultry strains were usually resistant only to ampicillin, white pig and cattle isolates were most often resistant to sulphonamide, tetracycline and streptomycin. Typing of the strains showed that some animal strains and human strains were indistinguishable. In conclusion, while antimicrobial resistance......We have studied the frequency of antimicrobial resistance and epidemiological relatedness among 473 isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp, enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) from human and veterinary sources. The human strains were clinical isolates from patients with diarrhoea sent...

  15. CELL-SURFACE BINDING OF DEOXYNIVALENOL TO Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans ISOLATED FROM SOURDOUGH STARTER CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef I. Hassan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON and fumonisin B1 (FB1 are two contaminant-mycotoxins frequently found in food commodities produced under poor conditions. Several methods have been suggested for the detoxification of such mycotoxins. Among the proposed methods, biological detoxification seems to be the most promising and cost-efficient. This study explores the capability of one strain of lactic acid bacteria, identified as Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans, to bind both DON and FB1 in liquid cultures. Here we report the ability of heat-inactivated cells to significantly reduce concentrations of DON in liquid cultures. Further mechanistic investigation showed that the detoxification process is a result of the physical binding of such mycotoxins to the cell wall of this bacterium.

  16. Morphological and ultrastructural studies on Ulva flexuosa subsp. pilifera (Chlorophyta from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Messyasz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ulva flexuosa subsp. pilifera (Kütz. M. J. Wynne 2005 (= Enteromorpha pilifera Kützing 1845 was previously found in Argentina, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia and Sweden, recently also in Poland. The genus Ulva was first time described as Enteromorpha. Interestingly, Enteromorpha is used nowadays as a synonym for Ulva, a development which is based on molecular data. The morphologies of both young and mature specimens were studied, and most life cycle stages could be observed. Further, the formation of calcium carbonate crystals on the surface of Ulva thalli seems to influence the arrangement of the cells. A detailed ultrastructural (TEM analysis of cell walls is presented. The TEM reveals in great details highly complex, irregular structures with stratification lines.

  17. Scientific Opinion on the pest categorisation of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Smith) Davis et al.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The European Commission requested the EFSA Panel on Plant Health to perform the pest categorisation for Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm). The agent responsible for vascular tomato wilt and canker is the clearly defined and valid gram-positive taxon C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. This pathogen can be accurately identified based on a range of sensitive and specific methods. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is the main host, but peppers (Capsicum annum and C. frutescens)...

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis Strain DOAB 397, Isolated from an Infected Field Corn Plant in Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambong, James Tabi; Xu, Renlin; Adam, Zaky; Cott, Morgan; Rose, Karin; Reid, Lana M; Daayf, Fouad; Brière, Stephan; Bilodeau, Guillaume J

    2015-07-09

    In 2014, the pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis was isolated from symptomatic corn leaves in Manitoba, Canada. We report the draft genome sequence of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis DOAB 397, consisting of 3.059 Mb with 73.0% G+C content, 2,922 predicted protein-coding sequences, 45 tRNAs, 3 rRNAs, and 37 pseudogenes. Copyright © 2015 Tambong et al.

  19. RNA-Seq reveals transcriptomic interactions of Bacillus subtilis natto and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis in whole soybean solid-state co-fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai Kuan; Ng, Yi Kai; Koh, Eileen; Yao, Lina; Chien, Ang Sze; Lin, Hui Xin; Lee, Yuan Kun

    2015-10-01

    Bifidobacteria are anaerobes and are difficult to culture in conventional fermentation system. It was observed that Bacillus subtilis natto enhanced growth of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis v9 by about 3-fold in a whole soybean solid-state co-fermentation, in a non-anaerobic condition. For the purpose of understanding the metabolic interactions between Bif. animalis subsp. lactis v9 and Ba. subtilis natto, the transcriptome of Bif. animalis subsp. lactis v9 and Ba. subtilis natto was analyzed in single and mixed cultures using RNA-Seq. Compared with the single culture, 459 genes of Bif. animalis subsp. lactis v9 were up regulated and 21 were down regulated in the mixed culture with Ba. subtilis natto, with more than 2-fold difference. Predictive metagenomic analyses suggested that Ba. subtilis natto up regulated transport functions, complex carbohydrates and amino acid metabolism, DNA repair, oxydative stress-related functions, and cell growth of Bif. animalis subsp. lactis v9. In the mixed culture with Bif. animalis subsp. lactis v9, only 3 transcripts of Ba. subtilis natto were over-expressed and 3115 were under-expressed with more than 2-fold difference. The highest down-regulated genes were those involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. The data presented here demonstrated a parasitic-like interaction regulated at the transcription level, between Ba. subtilis natto and Bif. animalis subsp. lactis in the mixed culture. The over-expression of genes involved in substrate uptake and metabolism in Bif. animalis subsp. lactis in the mixed culture nevertheless, led to its higher cell concentration in the nutrient rich whole soybean medium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial with Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 for maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordgaard, Inge; Rumessen, Jüri Johs.; Wildt, Signe

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the clinical effect of treatment with Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 (Probio-Tec AB-25) to maintain remission in patients with ulcerative colitis.......To investigate the clinical effect of treatment with Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 (Probio-Tec AB-25) to maintain remission in patients with ulcerative colitis....

  1. Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhi Isolate PM016/13 from Untreated Well Water Associated with a Typhoid Outbreak in Pasir Mas, Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad Harish, Salwani; Sim, Kee-Shin; Najimudin, Nazalan; Aziah, Ismail

    2015-11-12

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi is a human-restricted pathogen that causes typhoid fever. Even though it is a human-restricted pathogen, the bacterium is also isolated from environments such as groundwater and pond water. Here, we describe the genome sequence of the Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi PM016/13 which was isolated from well water during a typhoid outbreak in Kelantan, Malaysia, in 2013. Copyright © 2015 Muhamad Harish et al.

  2. Host responses to the pathogen Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and beneficial microbes exhibit host sex specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunasena, Enusha; McMahon, K Wyatt; Chang, David; Brashears, Mindy M

    2014-08-01

    Differences between microbial pathogenesis in male and female hosts are well characterized in disease conditions connected to sexual transmission. However, limited biological insight is available on variances attributed to sex specificity in host-microbe interactions, and it is most often a minimized variable outside these transmission events. In this work, we studied two gut microbes-a pathogen, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and a probiotic, Lactobacillus animalis NP-51-and the interaction between each agent and the male and female gastrointestinal systems. This trial was conducted in BALB/c mice (n=5 per experimental group and per sex at a given time point), with analysis at four time points over 180 days. Host responses to M.avium subsp. paratuberculosis and L. animalis were sensitive to sex. Cytokines that were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) betweenthe sexes included interleukin-1α/β (IL-1α/β), IL-17, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and gamma interferon (IFN-) and were dependent on experimental conditions. However, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and IL-13/23 showed no sex specificity. A metabolomics study indicated a 0.5- to 2.0-fold (log2 scale) increase in short-chain fatty acids (butyrate and acetate) in males and greater increases in o-phosphocholine or histidine from female colon tissues; variances distinct to each sex were observed with age or long-term probiotic consumption. Two genera, Staphylococcus and Roseburia, were consistently overrepresented in females compared to males; other species were specific to one sex but fluctuated depending on experimental conditions. The differences observed suggest that male and female gut tissues and microbiota respond to newly introduced microorganisms differently and that gut-associated microorganisms with host immune system responses and metabolic activity are supported by biology distinct to the host sex.

  3. PRESENCE OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN ALPACAS (LAMA PACOS) INHABITING THE CHILEAN ALTIPLANO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Miguel; Sevilla, Iker; Rios, Carolina; Crossley, Jorge; Tejeda, Carlos; Manning, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The organism causes disease in both domestically managed and wild ruminant species. South American camelids have a long, shared history with indigenous people in the Andes. Over the last few decades, increasing numbers of alpacas were exported to numerous countries outside South America. No paratuberculosis surveillance has been reported for these source herds. In this study, individual fecal samples from 85 adult alpacas were collected from six separate herds in the Chilean Altiplano. A ParaTB mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) liquid culture of each individual fecal sample, followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was used for confirmation. DNA extracts from a subset of confirmed MAP isolates were subjected to mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Fifteen alpaca were fecal culture test-positive. Five false-positive culture samples were negative on PCR analysis for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA), Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), and the 16 S rDNA gene. Three MAP isolates subset-tested belonged to the same MIRU-VNTR type, showing four repeats for TR292 (locus 1) in contrast to the three repeats typical of the MAP reference strain K10. The number of repeats found in the remaining loci was identical to that of the K10 strain. It is not known how nor when MAP was introduced into the alpaca population in the Chilean Altiplano. The most plausible hypothesis to explain the presence of MAP in these indigenous populations is transmission by contact with infected domestic small ruminant species that may on occasion share pastures or range with alpacas. Isolation of this mycobacterial pathogen from such a remote region suggests that MAP has found its way beyond the confines of intensively managed domestic agriculture premises.

  4. Transcriptome profiling of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 in response to agmatine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz del Rio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The dairy strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 (formerly GE2-14 synthesizes the biogenic amine putrescine from agmatine via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI pathway [1]. The AGDI cluster of L. lactis is composed by five genes aguR, aguB, aguD, aguA and aguC. The last four genes are co-transcribed as a single policistronic mRNA forming the catabolic operon aguBDAC, which encodes the proteins necessary for agmatine uptake and its conversion into putrescine [1,2]. The first gene of the cluster, aguR, encodes a transmembrane protein that functions as a one-component signal transduction system that senses the agmatine concentration of the medium and accordingly regulates the transcription of aguBDAC [2]. The catabolic operon aguBDAC is transcriptionally activated by agmatine [2] and transcriptionally regulated by carbon catabolite repression (CCR via glucose, but not by other sugars such as lactose or galactose [1,3]. On the contrary, the transcription of the aguR regulatory gene is not subject to CCR regulation [1,3] nor is regulated by agmatine [2]. In this study we report the transcriptional profiling of L. lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 grown in M17 medium with galactose (GalM17 as carbon source and supplemented with agmatine, compared to that of the strain grown in the same culture medium without agmatine. The transcriptional profiling data of agmatine-regulated genes were deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under Accession no. GSE74808.

  5. Capillary zone electrophoresis for enumeration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Orathai; Suntornsuk, Worapot; Suntornsuk, Leena

    2009-03-15

    Enumeration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus is a priority due to their importance in yogurt production. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) of both bacteria could be achieved in 7.2 min with a resolution of 3.2 in the background electrolyte (BGE) containing 4.5mM Tris(hydroxymethyl) amminomethane (TRIS)-4.5 mM boric acid-0.1 mM ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA) (TBE) buffer (pH 8.4) and 0.05% (v/v) polyethylene oxide (PEO), using a capillary of 47.5 cm (effective length) x 100 microm i.d., injection of 50 mbar x 3s followed by -5kV x 120s, a voltage and temperature of 20 kV and 25 degrees C, respectively. Appropriate amounts of PEO in the BGE, sample preparation (i.e. vortex) and introduction were key factors for their separation. A short hydrodynamic injection followed by applying reversed polarity voltage could compress the bacteria into narrow zones, which were detected as separated single peaks. Method linearity (r(2)>0.99), precision (%RSDsyogurt were not statistically different from those of the plate count method (P>0.05). The CE method can be used as an alternative for quantitation of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus in yogurt since it was reliable, simple, cost and labor effective and rapid, allowing the analysis of 3 samples/h (comparing to 2d/sample by plate count method).

  6. Scientific Opinion on the pest categorisation of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Smith Davis et al.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Commission requested the EFSA Panel on Plant Health to perform the pest categorisation for Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm. The agent responsible for vascular tomato wilt and canker is the clearly defined and valid gram-positive taxon C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. This pathogen can be accurately identified based on a range of sensitive and specific methods. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum is the main host, but peppers (Capsicum annum and C. frutescens are also naturally susceptible to Cmm. These host plants are cultivated throughout Europe and conditions are conducive to disease development in open fields in southern Europe and in greenhouses. The disease is present in many EU Member States. Outbreaks are rare but usually severe. It causes a range of symptoms on the aerial parts of plants, including the fruits. Detection methods are available for any type of plant material either presenting symptoms or symptomless. Seed testing has proven to be a good control option by discarding contaminated seed lots. Despite tomato seed production being done under strict sanitation using recommended practices, seed contamination still occurs occasionally. Contaminated seeds and transplants are responsible for long-distance dissemination of the pathogen. Under conducive conditions, even low levels of seed contamination can result in disease outbreaks. Cultivation practices can favour secondary spread of the bacterium and an increase in disease incidence both in greenhouse and in open-field crops. No effective biological or chemical control agents are registered for bacterial canker in Europe. Cmm meets all criteria defined in International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM 21. Cmm meets all ISPM 11 criteria, although it has been observed in 16 EU Member States. The outbreaks are usually severe but sporadic.

  7. Transcriptome profiling of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 in response to agmatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Beatriz; Redruello, Begoña; Martin, M Cruz; Fernandez, Maria; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P; Ladero, Victor; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2016-03-01

    The dairy strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 (formerly GE2-14) synthesizes the biogenic amine putrescine from agmatine via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway [1]. The AGDI cluster of L. lactis is composed by five genes aguR, aguB, aguD, aguA and aguC. The last four genes are co-transcribed as a single policistronic mRNA forming the catabolic operon aguBDAC, which encodes the proteins necessary for agmatine uptake and its conversion into putrescine [1], [2]. The first gene of the cluster, aguR, encodes a transmembrane protein that functions as a one-component signal transduction system that senses the agmatine concentration of the medium and accordingly regulates the transcription of aguBDAC[2]. The catabolic operon aguBDAC is transcriptionally activated by agmatine [2] and transcriptionally regulated by carbon catabolite repression (CCR) via glucose, but not by other sugars such as lactose or galactose [1], [3]. On the contrary, the transcription of the aguR regulatory gene is not subject to CCR regulation [1], [3] nor is regulated by agmatine [2]. In this study we report the transcriptional profiling of L. lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 grown in M17 medium with galactose (GalM17) as carbon source and supplemented with agmatine, compared to that of the strain grown in the same culture medium without agmatine. The transcriptional profiling data of agmatine-regulated genes were deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under Accession no. GSE74808.

  8. Long lasting persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis Subsp. israelensis (Bti in mosquito natural habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Tilquin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The detrimental effects of chemical insecticides on the environment and human health have lead to the call for biological alternatives. Today, one of the most promising solutions is the use of spray formulations based on Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti in insect control programs. As a result, the amounts of Bti spread in the environment are expected to increase worldwide, whilst the common belief that commercial Bti is easily cleared from the ecosystem has not yet been clearly established. METHODOLOGY/MAIN FINDINGS: In this study, we aimed to determine the nature and origin of the high toxicity toward mosquito larvae found in decaying leaf litter collected in several natural mosquito breeding sites in the Rhône-Alpes region. From the toxic fraction of the leaf litter, we isolated B. cereus-like bacteria that were further characterized as B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis using PCR amplification of specific toxin genes. Immunological analysis of these Bti strains showed that they belong to the H14 group. We finally used amplified length polymorphism (AFLP markers to show that the strains isolated from the leaf litter were closely related to those present in the commercial insecticide used for field application, and differed from natural worldwide genotypes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results raise the issue of the persistence, potential proliferation and environmental accumulation of human-spread Bti in natural mosquito habitats. Such Bti environmental persistence may lengthen the exposure time of insects to this bio-insecticide, thereby increasing the risk of resistance acquisition in target insects, and of a negative impact on non-target insects.

  9. Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus from dengue outbreak areas to temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp.israelensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad Mohiddin; Asmalia Md Lasim; Wan Fatma Zuharah

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To monitor the current duration of the application rates in vector programme and the level of Aedes albopictus larvae susceptibility from three selected areas in northeast district of Penang on two selected larvicides,temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp.israelensis(Bti) which are commonly used by Penang Health Department for vector control.Methods:The mosquito larvae were tested against two types of larvicides:(1) temephos(Abate?) with diagnostic dosage(0.012 mg/L) and operational dosage(1 mg/L) and(2)Bacillus thuringiensis subsp.israelensis(Vecto Bac?WG) with operational dosage ranging from 6 000 international toxic units per L to 24 000 international toxic unit per L.A total of 20 late third and early forth instar larvae were selected and transferred into paper cup sized 300 m L using wide-mouthed pipette.The larvae were distributed into each 300 m L paper cup containing 50 m L of aged tap water.The experiment was replicated five times for each concentration tested.Each test was repeated three times.The mortality was recorded after 24 h of exposure and recorded lethal time was based on 2 h for temephos and 6 h for Bti.The control consisted of ethanol for temephos and only seasoned water for Bti.Results:The result showed that Aedes albopictus from Flat Hamna,Kampung Sungai Gelugor and Kampung Tanjung Tokong were still susceptible to Bti and temephos.However,higher lethal time and resistance ratio were detected in strain from Flat Hamna which was a known dengue hot spot area in northeast of Penang.Conclusions:The application of temephos and Bti in vector control activity in these selected localities is still relevant in the control of Aedes larvae populations.

  10. Characterization of novel microsatellite markers in Musa acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4

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    Amorim Edson P

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Banana is a nutritionally important crop across tropical and sub-tropical countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Central and South America and Asia. Although cultivars have evolved from diploid, triploid and tetraploid wild Asian species of Musa acuminata (A genome and Musa balbisiana (B genome, many of today's commercial cultivars are sterile triploids or diploids, with fruit developing via parthenocarpy. As a result of restricted genetic variation, improvement has been limited, resulting in a crop frequently lacking resistance to pests and disease. Considering the importance of molecular tools to facilitate development of disease resistant genotypes, the objectives of this study were to develop polymorphic microsatellite markers from BAC clone sequences for M. acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4. This wild diploid species is used as a donor cultivar in breeding programs as a source of resistance to diverse biotic stresses. Findings Microsatellite sequences were identified from five Calcutta 4 BAC consensi datasets. Specific primers were designed for 41 loci. Isolated di-nucleotide repeat motifs were the most abundant, followed by tri-nucleotides. From 33 tested loci, 20 displayed polymorphism when screened across 21 diploid M. acuminata accessions, contrasting in resistance to Sigatoka diseases. The number of alleles per SSR locus ranged from two to four, with a total of 56. Six repeat classes were identified, with di-nucleotides the most abundant. Expected heterozygosity values for polymorphic markers ranged from 0.31 to 0.75. Conclusions This is the first report identifying polymorphic microsatellite markers from M. acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4 across accessions contrasting in resistance to Sigatoka diseases. These BAC-derived polymorphic microsatellite markers are a useful resource for banana, applicable for genetic map development, germplasm characterization, evolutionary studies and marker

  11. Characterization of nitrite degradation by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013.

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    Dong-mei Liu

    Full Text Available Nitrites are potential carcinogens. Therefore, limiting nitrites in food is critically important for food safety. The nitrite degradation capacity of Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013 was investigated in pickle fermentation. After LCR 6013 fermentation for 120 h at 37°C, the nitrite concentration in the fermentation system was significantly lower than that in the control sample without the LCR 6013 strain. The effects of NaCl and Vc on nitrite degradation by LCR 6013 in the De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS medium were also investigated. The highest nitrite degradations, 9.29 mg/L and 9.89 mg/L, were observed when NaCl and Vc concentrations were 0.75% and 0.02%, respectively in the MRS medium, which was significantly higher than the control group (p ≤ 0.01. Electron capture/gas chromatography and indophenol blue staining were used to study the nitrite degradation pathway of LCR 6013. The nitrite degradation products contained N2O, but no NH4(+. The LCR 6013 strain completely degraded all NaNO2 (50.00 mg/L after 16 h of fermentation. The enzyme activity of NiR in the periplasmic space was 2.5 times of that in the cytoplasm. Our results demonstrated that L. casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013 can effectively degrade nitrites in both the pickle fermentation system and in MRS medium by NiR. Nitrites are degraded by the LCR 6013 strain, likely via the nitrate respiration pathway (NO2(->NO->N2O->N2, rather than the aammonium formation pathway (dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, DNRA, because the degradation products contain N2O, but not NH4(+.

  12. Production of the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis with deltamethrin increases toxicity towards mosquito larvae.

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    Tetreau, G; Patil, C D; Chandor-Proust, A; Salunke, B K; Patil, S V; Després, L

    2013-08-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is a bioinsecticide used for larval mosquito control and it represents a safe alternative to chemical insecticides. Despite its environmental safety, it is less efficient and persistent than chemical insecticides. To bypass these limitations, we propose to combine the advantages of chemical and biological insecticides by producing Bti in a medium supplemented with a chemical insecticide (DDT, deltamethrin, permethrin, propoxur or temephos). Among the investigated insecticides, the addition of deltamethrin in the medium induced a higher toxicity (over 6.72-fold) of the composite deltamethrin-Bti towards mosquito larvae as compared to Bti alone. This was mainly due to the insertion of deltamethrin into the membranes of Bti spores, as evidenced by a quantification of membrane-extracted deltamethrin by HPLC. This composite larvicide is a promising tool to decrease the quantity of chemicals dispersed in the environment, to increase the efficacy of Bti and to facilitate its widespread use as a transition between chemical and biological insecticides. Further experiments are required to characterize the mechanisms that underline the incorporation of deltamethrin into Bti to optimize the production and the toxicity of this composite larvicide. This study is the first report of an increased efficacy of the mosquitocidal bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) when produced with a chemical insecticide. The results clearly demonstrate that deltamethrin is able to synergize the insecticidal activity of Bti through inclusion into spore membranes, reducing off-target and nonspecific toxicity occurring when the chemical is used alone as sprays. This new composite chemical-biological insecticide can become an invaluable tool as an intermediate between single chemical usage and the widespread use of Bti, notably in developing countries with limited financial resources for intensive mosquito control campaigns. © 2013

  13. New Claims for Wild Carrot (Daucus carota subsp. carota Essential Oil

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    Jorge M. Alves-Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Daucus carota subsp. carota from Portugal, with high amounts of geranyl acetate (29.0%, α-pinene (27.2%, and 11αH-himachal-4-en-1β-ol (9.2%, was assessed for its biological potential. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, dermatophytes, and Aspergillus strains. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal lethal concentration (MLC were evaluated showing a significant activity towards Gram-positive bacteria (MIC = 0.32–0.64 μL/mL, Cryptococcus neoformans (0.16 μL/mL, and dermatophytes (0.32–0.64 μL/mL. The inhibition of the germ tube formation and the effect of the oil on Candida albicans biofilms were also unveiled. The oil inhibited more than 50% of filamentation at concentrations as low as 0.04 μL/mL (MIC/128 and decreased both biofilm mass and cell viability. The antioxidant capacity of the oil, as assessed by two in chemico methods, was not relevant. Still, it seems to exhibit some anti-inflammatory potential by decreasing nitric oxide production around 20% in LPS-stimulated macrophages, without decreasing macrophages viability. Moreover, the oils safety profile was assessed on keratinocytes, alveolar epithelial cells, macrophages, and hepatocytes. Overall, the oil demonstrated a safety profile at concentrations below 0.64 μL/mL. The present work highlights the bioactive potential of D. carota subsp. carota suggesting its industrial exploitation.

  14. Application of the C(18)-carboxypropylbetaine specimen processing method to recovery of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from ruminant tissue specimens.

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    Thornton, Charles G; MacLellan, Kerry M; Stabel, Judith R; Carothers, Christine; Whitlock, Robert H; Passen, Selvin

    2002-05-01

    The causative agent of Johne's disease is Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. This is a chronic, debilitating gastrointestinal disorder that affects ruminants and is responsible for significant economic loss. The specimen processing method that combines C(18)-carboxypropylbetaine (CB-18) treatment and lytic enzyme decontamination has been shown to improve the diagnosis of mycobacterioses. This processing method was applied to the isolation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from ruminant tissue samples. The BACTEC 12B liquid culture system was used but was supplemented with 1% egg yolk emulsion, 4 microg of mycobactin J, and 0.5% pyruvate (12B/EMP) for use in conjunction with this method. The final concentration of antibiotics used was 10 microg of vancomycin, 30 microg of amphotericin B, and 20 microg of nalidixic acid (VAN) per ml. A 7H10-based solid medium was also used that included mycobactin J, pyruvate, and VAN but excluded the egg yolk emulsion (7H10/MPV). Several M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates were examined during the evaluation of this processing method. It was observed that treatment with lytic enzymes stimulated the growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis; however, the growth of one isolate was markedly inhibited due to the presence of vancomycin. Subsequently, the vancomycin concentration in the VAN formulation was reduced to 2 microg/ml. A blinded panel of 60 previously characterized tissue samples from bovine and bison were then processed and analyzed by smear and culture. Historically, 31 and 37 specimens were classified as positive by histology and culture, respectively. The overall sensitivity and specificity of smear relative to culture following CB-18 processing were 97.6 and 89.5%, respectively. The 12B/EMP/VAN liquid culture system recovered M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from 39 specimens, whereas 7H10/MPV and Herrold's egg yolk media recovered M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from 26 and 16 specimens, respectively

  15. A quantitative and direct PCR assay for the subspecies-specific detection of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis based on a ferredoxin reductase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min Seok; Lee, Jang Ha; Her, Nam Han; Kim, Changkug; Seol, Young-Joo; Hahn, Jang Ho; Baeg, Ji Hyoun; Kim, Hong Gi; Park, Dong Suk

    2012-06-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is the causal agent of canker disease in tomato. Because it is very important to control newly introduced inoculum sources from commercial materials, the specific detection of this pathogen in seeds and seedlings is essential for effective disease control. In this study, a novel and efficient assay for the detection and quantitation of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in symptomless tomato and red pepper seeds was developed. A pair of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers (Cmm141F/R) was designed to amplify a specific 141 bp fragment on the basis of a ferredoxin reductase gene of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB 382. The specificity of the primer set was evaluated using purified DNA from 16 isolates of five C. michiganensis subspecies, one other Clavibacter species, and 17 other reference bacteria. The primer set amplified a single band of expected size from the genomic DNA obtained from the C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains but not from the other C. michiganensis subspecies or from other Clavibacter species. The detection limit was a single cloned copy of the ferredoxin reductase gene of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. In conclusion, this quantitative direct PCR assay can be applied as a practical diagnostic method for epidemiological research and the sanitary management of seeds and seedlings with a low level or latent infection of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.

  16. DnaK from Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis is a surface-exposed human plasminogen receptor upregulated in response to bile salts.

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    Candela, Marco; Centanni, Manuela; Fiori, Jessica; Biagi, Elena; Turroni, Silvia; Orrico, Catia; Bergmann, Simone; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2010-06-01

    Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis lives in the gastrointestinal tract of most mammals, including humans. Recently, for the probiotic strain B. animalis subsp. lactis BI07, a dose-dependent plasminogen-binding activity was demonstrated and five putative plasminogen-binding proteins were identified. Here we investigated the role of surface DnaK as a B. animalis subsp. lactis BI07 plasminogen receptor. DnaK was visualized on the bacterial cell surface by transmission electron microscopy. The His-tagged recombinant DnaK protein showed a high affinity for human plasminogen, with an equilibrium dissociation constant in the nanomolar range. The capability to tolerate physiological concentrations of bile salts is a crucial feature for an intestinal symbiont micro-organism. By proteome analysis we demonstrated that the long-term exposure of B. animalis subsp. lactis BI07 to bile salts results in the upregulation of important surface plasminogen receptors such as DnaK and enolase. Moreover, adaptation of B. animalis subsp. lactis BI07 to physiological concentrations of bile salts significantly increased its capacity to interact with the host plasminogen system. By enhancing the bacterial capacity to interact with the host plasminogen, the gut bile environment may facilitate the colonization of the human host by B. animalis subsp. lactis BI07.

  17. Some biological compounds, radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emre, I.; Kursat, M.; Yilmaz, O.; Erecevit, P.

    2011-07-01

    This study determined some biological compounds (fatty acid compositions, lipid-soluble vitamins, sterols, flavonoids), radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was found that palmitic acid (C16:0; 8.54+-0.13-3.05+-0.04%), oleic acid (C18:1 n9, 22.41+-0.8-18.83+-0.1%) and a-inolenic acid were the dominant fatty acids in both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was concluded that both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contained stigmasterol and ergosterol as well as beta-sitosterol. The present findings show that Nepeta italica L. contains morin, catechin, naringin and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contains morin, naringenin as major flavonoids. It was also determined that methanol extracts of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana were most effective against DPPH radicals. The results of the present study show that the vitamins, flavonoids and fatty acid extracts in the seeds of N. italica L. and S. montana L. subsp. montana prevented the growth of the microorganisms used in the tests at different ratios. (Author).

  18. Prevalence and comparison of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus in raw and fermented dairy products from East and West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Christoph; Kaindi, Dasel Wambua Mulwa; Böck, Désirée; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Kouamé-Sina, Sylvie Mireille; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2013-10-15

    Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus are members of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) associated with human infections. SBSEC-related endocarditis was furthermore associated with rural residency in Southern Europe. SBSEC members are increasingly isolated as predominant species from fermented dairy products in Europe, Asia and Africa. African variants of Sii displayed dairy adaptations to lactose metabolism paralleling those of Streptococcus thermophilus including genome decay. In this study, the aim was to assess the prevalence of Sii and possibly other SBSEC members in dairy products of East and West Africa in order to identify their habitat, estimate their importance in dairy fermentation processes and determine geographic areas affected by this potential health risk. Presumptive SBSEC members were isolated on semi-selective M17 and SM agar media. Subsequent genotypic identification of isolates was based on rep-PCR fingerprinting and SBSEC-specific16S rRNA gene PCR assay. Detailed identification was achieved through application of novel primers enhancing the binding stringency in partial groES/groEL gene amplification and subsequent DNA sequencing. The presence of S. thermophilus-like lacS and lacZ genes in the SBSEC isolates was determined to elucidate the prevalence of this dairy adaptation. Isolates (n = 754) were obtained from 72 raw and 95 fermented milk samples from Côte d'Ivoire and Kenya on semi-selective agar media. Colonies of Sii were not detected from raw milk despite high microbial titers of approximately 10(6)CFU/mL on M17 agar medium. However, after spontaneous milk fermentation Sii was genotypically identified in 94.1% of Kenyan samples and 60.8% of Kenyan isolates. Sii prevalence in Côte d'Ivoire displayed seasonal variations in samples from 32.3% (June) to 40.0% (Dec/Jan) and isolates from 20.5% (June) to 27.7% (Dec/Jan) present at titers of 10

  19. Identification of genomic differences between Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni and C. jejuni subsp. doylei at the nap locus leads to the development of a C. jejuni subspeciation multiplex PCR method

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    Heath Sekou

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni contains two subspecies: C. jejuni subsp. jejuni (Cjj and C. jejuni subsp. doylei (Cjd. Although Cjd strains are isolated infrequently in many parts of the world, they are obtained primarily from human clinical samples and result in an unusual clinical symptomatology in that, in addition to gastroenteritis, they are associated often with bacteremia. In this study, we describe a novel multiplex PCR method, based on the nitrate reductase (nap locus, that can be used to unambiguously subspeciate C. jejuni isolates. Results Internal and flanking napA and napB primer sets were designed, based on existing C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli genome sequences to create two multiplex PCR primer sets, nap mpx1 and nap mpx2. Genomic DNA from 161 C. jejuni subsp. jejuni (Cjj and 27 C. jejuni subsp. doylei (Cjd strains were amplified with these multiplex primer sets. The Cjd strains could be distinguished clearly from the Cjj strains using either nap mpx1 or mpx2. In addition, combination of either nap multiplex method with an existing lpxA speciation multiplex method resulted in the unambiguous and simultaneous speciation and subspeciation of the thermophilic Campylobacters. The Cjd nap amplicons were also sequenced: all Cjd strains tested contained identical 2761 bp deletions in napA and several Cjd strains contained deletions in napB. Conclusion The nap multiplex PCR primer sets are robust and give a 100% discrimination of C. jejuni subspecies. The ability to rapidly subspeciate C. jejuni as well as speciate thermophilic Campylobacter species, most of which are pathogenic in humans, in a single amplification will be of value to clinical laboratories in strain identification and the determination of the environmental source of campylobacterioses caused by Cjd. Finally, the sequences of the Cjd napA and napB loci suggest that Cjd strains arose from a common ancestor, providing clues as to

  20. EFEITO DE PROTETORES E TRATAMENTOS DE ESTRESSE NA SOBREVIVÊNCIA DE LACTOCOCCUS LACTIS SUBSP LACTIS AO CONGELAMENTO Effect of protective and stress treatment on survival of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis to freezing

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    Eliana dos Santos Leandro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de substâncias crioprotetoras e de tratamentos subletais de estresse foi avaliado no aumento da tolerância ao congelamento em Lactococcus lactis subsp lactis PD 6.9. Todas as substâncias crioprotetoras avaliadas aumentaram a sobrevivência de L. lactis subsp lactis PD 6.9 a estocagem de 15 dias a - 20 ºC. Entretanto, o leite desnatado reconstituído a 10 % foi o que conferiu maior proteção. Quanto à exposição da suspensão de células a tratamentos subletais de estresse, a exposição a 10 ºC por 4 horas foi capaz de manter a sobrevivência de L. lactis subsp lactis PD 6.9 estável durante 70 dias de estocagem a - 20 ºC. O tratamento a 40 ºC por 30 minutos conferiu proteção durante 70 dias de estocagem a - 20 ºC quando comparado com a suspensão de células que não recebeu nenhum tratamento antes do congelamento. A aplicação desses tratamentos é importante para assegurar a viabilidade de L. lactis subsp lactis PD 6.9 no decorrer do período de estocagem, e também de assegurar a qualidade sensorial e microbiológica de alimentos obtidos por processos de fermentação.