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Sample records for dysfunction central cholinergic

  1. Central cholinergic dysfunction could be associated with oropharyngeal dysphagia in early Parkinson's disease.

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    Lee, Kyung Duck; Koo, Jung Hoi; Song, Sun Hong; Jo, Kwang Deog; Lee, Moon Kyu; Jang, Wooyoung

    2015-11-01

    Dysphagia is an important issue in the prognosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although several studies have reported that oropharyngeal dysphagia may be associated with cognitive dysfunction, the exact relationship between cortical function and swallowing function in PD patients is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the association between an electrophysiological marker of central cholinergic function, which reflected cognitive function, and swallowing function, as measured by videofluoroscopic studies (VFSS). We enrolled 29 early PD patients. Using the Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire (SDQ), we divided the enrolled patients into two groups: PD with dysphagia and PD without dysphagia. The videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale (VDS) was applied to explore the nature of the dysphagia. To assess central cholinergic dysfunction, short latency afferent inhibition (SAI) was evaluated. We analyzed the relationship between central cholinergic dysfunction and oropharyngeal dysphagia and investigated the characteristics of the dysphagia. The SAI values were significantly different between the two groups. The comparison of each VFSS component between the PD with dysphagia group and the PD without dysphagia group showed statistical significance for most of the oral phase components and for a single pharyngeal phase component. The total score on the VDS was higher in the PD with dysphagia group than in the PD without dysphagia group. The Mini-Mental State Examination and SAI values showed significant correlations with the total score of the oral phase components. According to binary logistic regression analysis, SAI value independently contributed to the presence of dysphagia in PD patients. Our findings suggest that cholinergic dysfunction is associated with dysphagia in early PD and that an abnormal SAI value is a good biomarker for predicting the risk of dysphagia in PD patients.

  2. Cholinergic dysfunction and amnesia in patients with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

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    Nardone, Raffaele; Bergmann, Jürgen; De Blasi, Pierpaolo; Kronbichler, Martin; Kraus, Jörg; Caleri, Francesca; Tezzon, Frediano; Ladurner, Gunther; Golaszewski, Stefan

    2010-03-01

    The specific neurochemical substrate underlying the amnesia in patients with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is still poorly defined. Memory impairment has been linked to dysfunction of neurons in the cholinergic system. A transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocol, the short latency afferent inhibition (SAI), may give direct information about the function of some cholinergic pathways in the human motor cortex. In the present study, we measured SAI in eight alcoholics with WKS and compared the data with those from a group of age-matched healthy individuals; furthermore, we correlated the individual SAI values of the WKS patients with memory and other cognitive functions. Mean SAI was significantly reduced in WKS patients when compared with the controls. SAI was increased after administration of a single dose of donezepil in a subgroup of four patients. The low score obtained in the Rey Complex Figure delayed recall test, the Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and the Corsi's Block Span subtest of the WAIS-R documented a severe impairment in the anterograde memory and short-term memory. None of the correlations between SAI values and these neuropsychological tests reached significance. We provide physiological evidence of cholinergic involvement in WKS. However, this putative marker of central cholinergic activity did not significantly correlate with the memory deficit in our patients. These findings suggest that the cholinergic dysfunction does not account for the memory disorder and that damage to the cholinergic system is not sufficient to cause a persisting amnesic syndrome in WKS.

  3. Cognitive impairment as a central cholinergic deficit in patients with Myasthenia Gravis

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    Antonia Kaltsatou

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: VCmax and ACmax are governed mainly by the action of the Parasympathetic Nervous System, through acetylcholine. The results of this study demonstrate that the CNS may be affected in MG and support the hypothesis that MG has central cholinergic effects manifested by cognitive dysfunction.

  4. Centrality of striatal cholinergic transmission in basal ganglia function

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    Paola eBonsi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Work over the past two decades revealed a previously unexpected role for striatal cholinergic interneurons in the context of basal ganglia function. The recognition that these interneurons are essential in synaptic plasticity and motor learning represents a significant step ahead in deciphering how the striatum processes cortical inputs, and why pathological circumstances cause motor dysfunction.Loss of the reciprocal modulation between dopaminergic inputs and the intrinsic cholinergic innervation within the striatum appears to be the trigger for pathophysiological changes occurring in basal ganglia disorders. Accordingly, there is now compelling evidence showing profound changes in cholinergic markers in these disorders, in particular Parkinson’s disease and dystonia.Based on converging experimental and clinical evidence, we provide an overview of the role of striatal cholinergic transmission in physiological and pathological conditions, in the context of the pathogenesis of movement disorders.

  5. Low-level microwave irradiation and central cholinergic systems

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    Lai, H.; Carino, M.A.; Horita, A.; Guy, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Our previous research showed that 45 min of exposure to low-level, pulsed microwaves (2450-MHz, 2-microseconds pulses, 500 pps, whole-body average specific absorption rate 0.6 W/kg) decreased sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the rat. The effects of microwaves on central cholinergic systems were further investigated in this study. Increases in choline uptake activity in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus were observed after 20 min of acute microwave exposure, and tolerance to the effect of microwaves developed in the hypothalamus, but not in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, of rats subjected to ten daily 20-min exposure sessions. Furthermore, the effects of acute microwave irradiation on central choline uptake could be blocked by pretreating the animals before exposure with the narcotic antagonist naltrexone. In another series of experiments, rats were exposed to microwaves in ten daily sessions of either 20 or 45 min, and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in different regions of the brain were studied by 3H-QNB binding assay. Decreases in concentration of receptors occurred in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats subjected to ten 20-min microwave exposure sessions, whereas increase in receptor concentration occurred in the hippocampus of animals exposed to ten 45-min sessions. This study also investigated the effects of microwave exposure on learning in the radial-arm maze. Rats were trained in the maze to obtain food reinforcements immediately after 20 or 45 min of microwave exposure

  6. Early presymptomatic cholinergic dysfunction in a murine model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

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    Casas, Caty; Herrando-Grabulosa, Mireia; Manzano, Raquel; Mancuso, Renzo; Osta, Rosario; Navarro, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Sporadic and familiar amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases presented lower cholinergic activity than in healthy individuals in their still preserved spinal motoneurons (MNs) suggesting that cholinergic reduction might occur before MN death. To unravel how and when cholinergic function is compromised, we have analyzed the spatiotemporal expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) from early presymptomatic stages of the SOD1G93A ALS mouse model by confocal immunohistochemistry. The analysis showed an early reduction in ChAT content in soma and presynaptic boutons apposed onto MNs (to 76%) as well as in cholinergic interneurons in the lumbar spinal cord of the 30-day-old SOD1G93A mice. Cholinergic synaptic stripping occurred simultaneously to the presence of abundant surrounding major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II)-positive microglia and the accumulation of nuclear Tdp-43 and the appearance of mild oxidative stress within MNs. Besides, there was a loss of neuronal MHC-I expression, which is necessary for balanced synaptic stripping after axotomy. These events occurred before the selective raise of markers of denervation such as ATF3. By the same time, alterations in postsynaptic cholinergic-related structures were also revealed with a loss of the presence of sigma-1 receptor, a Ca2+ buffering chaperone in the postsynaptic cisternae. By 2 months of age, ChAT seemed to accumulate in the soma of MNs, and thus efferences toward Renshaw interneurons were drastically diminished. In conclusion, cholinergic dysfunction in the local circuitry of the spinal cord may be one of the earliest events in ALS etiopathogenesis. PMID:23531559

  7. Unraveling the mechanism of neuroprotection of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in rats

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    Srivastava, Pranay [CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, MG Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India); Yadav, Rajesh S. [CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, MG Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India); Department of Crimnology and Forensic Science, Harisingh Gour University, Sagar 470 003 (India); Chandravanshi, Lalit P.; Shukla, Rajendra K.; Dhuriya, Yogesh K.; Chauhan, Lalit K.S. [CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, MG Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India); Dwivedi, Hari N. [Babu Banarasi Das University, BBD City, Faizabad Road, Lucknow 227 015 (India); Pant, Aditiya B. [CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, MG Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India); Khanna, Vinay K., E-mail: vkkhanna1@gmail.com [CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, MG Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India)

    2014-09-15

    Earlier, we found that arsenic induced cholinergic deficits in rat brain could be protected by curcumin. In continuation to this, the present study is focused to unravel the molecular mechanisms associated with the protective efficacy of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic deficits. Exposure to arsenic (20 mg/kg body weight, p.o) for 28 days in rats resulted to decrease the expression of CHRM2 receptor gene associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions as evident by decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential, activity of mitochondrial complexes and enhanced apoptosis both in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in comparison to controls. The ultrastructural images of arsenic exposed rats, assessed by transmission electron microscope, exhibited loss of myelin sheath and distorted cristae in the mitochondria both in the frontal cortex and hippocampus as compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment with arsenic (20 mg/kg body weight, p.o) and curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o) for 28 days in rats was found to protect arsenic induced changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential and activity of mitochondrial complexes both in frontal cortex and hippocampus. Alterations in the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and ultrastructural damage in the frontal cortex and hippocampus following arsenic exposure were also protected in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin. The data of the present study reveal that curcumin could protect arsenic induced cholinergic deficits by modulating the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins in the brain. More interestingly, arsenic induced functional and ultrastructural changes in the brain mitochondria were also protected by curcumin. - Highlights: • Neuroprotective mechanism of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic deficits studied • Curcumin protected arsenic induced enhanced expression of stress markers in rat brain • Arsenic compromised mitochondrial electron transport chain protected

  8. Unraveling the mechanism of neuroprotection of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Pranay; Yadav, Rajesh S.; Chandravanshi, Lalit P.; Shukla, Rajendra K.; Dhuriya, Yogesh K.; Chauhan, Lalit K.S.; Dwivedi, Hari N.; Pant, Aditiya B.; Khanna, Vinay K.

    2014-01-01

    Earlier, we found that arsenic induced cholinergic deficits in rat brain could be protected by curcumin. In continuation to this, the present study is focused to unravel the molecular mechanisms associated with the protective efficacy of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic deficits. Exposure to arsenic (20 mg/kg body weight, p.o) for 28 days in rats resulted to decrease the expression of CHRM2 receptor gene associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions as evident by decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential, activity of mitochondrial complexes and enhanced apoptosis both in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in comparison to controls. The ultrastructural images of arsenic exposed rats, assessed by transmission electron microscope, exhibited loss of myelin sheath and distorted cristae in the mitochondria both in the frontal cortex and hippocampus as compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment with arsenic (20 mg/kg body weight, p.o) and curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o) for 28 days in rats was found to protect arsenic induced changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential and activity of mitochondrial complexes both in frontal cortex and hippocampus. Alterations in the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and ultrastructural damage in the frontal cortex and hippocampus following arsenic exposure were also protected in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin. The data of the present study reveal that curcumin could protect arsenic induced cholinergic deficits by modulating the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins in the brain. More interestingly, arsenic induced functional and ultrastructural changes in the brain mitochondria were also protected by curcumin. - Highlights: • Neuroprotective mechanism of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic deficits studied • Curcumin protected arsenic induced enhanced expression of stress markers in rat brain • Arsenic compromised mitochondrial electron transport chain protected

  9. Neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rajesh S; Chandravanshi, Lalit P; Shukla, Rajendra K; Sankhwar, Madhu L; Ansari, Reyaz W; Shukla, Pradeep K; Pant, Aditya B; Khanna, Vinay K

    2011-12-01

    Our recent studies have shown that curcumin protects arsenic induced neurotoxicity by modulating oxidative stress, neurotransmitter levels and dopaminergic system in rats. As chronic exposure to arsenic has been associated with cognitive deficits in humans, the present study has been carried out to implore the neuroprotective potential of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in rats. Rats treated with arsenic (sodium arsenite, 20mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) exhibited a significant decrease in the learning activity, assessed by passive avoidance response associated with decreased binding of (3)H-QNB, known to label muscarinic-cholinergic receptors in hippocampus (54%) and frontal cortex (27%) as compared to controls. Decrease in the activity of acetylcholinesterase in hippocampus (46%) and frontal cortex (33%), staining of Nissl body, immunoreactivity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and expression of ChAT protein in hippocampal region was also observed in arsenic treated rats as compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment with arsenic and curcumin (100mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) increased learning and memory performance associated with increased binding of (3)H-QNB in hippocampus (54%), frontal cortex (25%) and activity of acetylcholinesterase in hippocampus (41%) and frontal cortex (29%) as compared to arsenic treated rats. Increase in the expression of ChAT protein, immunoreactivity of ChAT and staining of Nissl body in hippocampal region was also observed in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin as compared to those treated with arsenic alone. The results of the present study suggest that curcumin significantly modulates arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in brain and also exhibits neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Catalpol Induces Neuroprotection and Prevents Memory Dysfunction through the Cholinergic System and BDNF

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    Dong Wan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the role and mechanism of catalpol on neuroprotective effects and memory enhancing effects simultaneously, neuroprotective effects of catalpol were assessed by neurological deficits score, TTC staining, and cerebral blood flow detecting. Morris water maze was employed to investigate its effects on learning and memory and then clarify its possible mechanisms relating the central cholinergic system and BDNF. Edaravone and oxiracetam were used for positive control drugs based on its different action. Results showed that catalpol and edaravone significantly facilitated neurological function recovery, reduced infarction volume, and increased cerebral blood flow in stroke mice. Catalpol and oxiracetam decreased the escape latency significantly and increased the numbers of crossing platform obviously. The levels of ACh, ChAT, and BDNF in catalpol group were increased in a dose-dependent manner, and AChE declined with a U-shaped dose-response curve. Moreover, the levels of muscarinic AChR subtypes M1 and M2 in hippocampus were considerably raised by catalpol. These results demonstrated that catalpol may be useful for neuroprotection and memory enhancement, and the mechanism may be related to the central cholinergic system.

  11. Change of central cholinergic receptors following lesions of nucleus basalis magnocellularis in rats: search for an imaging index suitable for the early detection of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Mikako; Iida, Yasuhiko; Nakagawa, Masaki; Kuge, Yugi; Kawashima, Hidekazu; Tominaga, Akiko; Ueda, Masashi; Magata, Yasuhiro; Saji, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    Cholinergic system in the central nervous system is involved in the memory function. Thus, because the dysfunction of cholinergic system that project to the cerebral cortex from nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) would be implicated in the memory function deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD), evaluating cholinergic function may be useful for the early detection of AD. In this study, because the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) in rats is equivalent to nbM in human, we investigated the change in cholinergic receptors in the frontal cortex of rats with unilateral lesion to the NBM to find an appropriate index for the early detection of AD using techniques of nuclear medicine. The right NBM was injected with ibotenic acid. [ 18 F]FDG-PET images were obtained 3 days later. Some rats were sacrificed at 1 week, whereas others were subjected to a second [ 18 F]FDG-PET at 4 weeks then sacrificed for membrane preparation. The prepared membranes were subjected to radioreceptor assays to measure the density of nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Glucose metabolism had decreased on the damaged side compared to the control side at 3 days, but at 4 weeks, there was no difference between the sides. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors had significantly decreased in density compared to the control side at both 1 and 4 weeks. However, muscarinic receptors were not affected. These results suggested that neuronal dysfunction in AD could be diagnosed at an early stage by imaging nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

  12. Mangifera indica Fruit Extract Improves Memory Impairment, Cholinergic Dysfunction, and Oxidative Stress Damage in Animal Model of Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Thukham-Mee, Wipawee; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Wittaya-Areekul, Sakchai

    2014-01-01

    To date, the effective preventive paradigm against mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is required. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether Mangifera indica fruit extract, a substance possessing antioxidant and cognitive enhancing effects, could improve memory impairment, cholinergic dysfunction, and oxidative stress damage in animal model of mild cognitive impairment. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180–200 g, were orally given the extract at doses of 12.5, 50, and 200 mg·kg−1 BW for 2 weeks before and 1 week after the bilateral injection of AF64A (icv). At the end of study, spatial memory, cholinergic neurons density, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px enzymes in hippocampus were determined. The results showed that all doses of extract could improve memory together with the decreased MDA level and the increased SOD and GSH-Px enzymes activities. The increased cholinergic neurons density in CA1 and CA3 of hippocampus was also observed in rats treated with the extract at doses of 50 and 200 mg·kg−1 BW. Therefore, our results suggested that M. indica, the potential protective agent against MCI, increased cholinergic function and the decreased oxidative stress which in turn enhanced memory. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredients and detail mechanism. PMID:24672632

  13. Mangifera indica Fruit Extract Improves Memory Impairment, Cholinergic Dysfunction, and Oxidative Stress Damage in Animal Model of Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Jintanaporn Wattanathorn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, the effective preventive paradigm against mild cognitive impairment (MCI is required. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether Mangifera indica fruit extract, a substance possessing antioxidant and cognitive enhancing effects, could improve memory impairment, cholinergic dysfunction, and oxidative stress damage in animal model of mild cognitive impairment. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180–200 g, were orally given the extract at doses of 12.5, 50, and 200 mg·kg−1 BW for 2 weeks before and 1 week after the bilateral injection of AF64A (icv. At the end of study, spatial memory, cholinergic neurons density, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px enzymes in hippocampus were determined. The results showed that all doses of extract could improve memory together with the decreased MDA level and the increased SOD and GSH-Px enzymes activities. The increased cholinergic neurons density in CA1 and CA3 of hippocampus was also observed in rats treated with the extract at doses of 50 and 200 mg·kg−1 BW. Therefore, our results suggested that M. indica, the potential protective agent against MCI, increased cholinergic function and the decreased oxidative stress which in turn enhanced memory. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredients and detail mechanism.

  14. Naltrexone pretreatment blocks microwave-induced changes in central cholinergic receptors

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    Lai, H.; Carino, M.A.; Wen, Y.F.; Horita, A.; Guy, A.W. (Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Repeated exposure of rats to pulsed, circularly polarized microwaves (2,450-MHz, 2-microseconds pulses at 500 pps, power density 1 mW/cm2, at an averaged, whole-body SAR of 0.6 W/kg) induced biphasic changes in the concentration of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the central nervous system. An increase in receptor concentration occurred in the hippocampus of rats subjected to ten 45-min sessions of microwave exposure, whereas a decrease in concentration was observed in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats exposed to ten 20-min sessions. These findings, which confirm earlier work in the authors' laboratory, were extended to include pretreatment of rats with the narcotic antagonist naltrexone (1 mg/kg, IP) before each session of exposure. The drug treatment blocked the microwave-induced changes in cholinergic receptors in the brain. These data further support the authors' hypothesis that endogenous opioids play a role in the effects of microwaves on central cholinergic systems.

  15. Maternal exposure to hexachlorophene targets intermediate-stage progenitor cells of the hippocampal neurogenesis in rat offspring via dysfunction of cholinergic inputs by myelin vacuolation

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    Itahashi, Megu; Abe, Hajime; Tanaka, Takeshi; Mizukami, Sayaka; Kimura, Masayuki; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of maternal exposure to HCP on rat hippocampal neurogenesis was examined. • HCP induces myelin vacuolation of nerve tracts in the septal–hippocampal pathway. • Myelin changes suppress Chrnb2-mediated cholinergic inputs to the dentate gyrus. • SGZ apoptosis occurs via the mitochondrial pathway and targets type-2b cells. • Dysfunction of cholinergic inputs is related to type-2b SGZ cell apoptosis. - Abstract: Hexachlorophene (HCP) is known to induce myelin vacuolation corresponding to intramyelinic edema of nerve fibers in the central and peripheral nervous system in animals. This study investigated the effect of maternal exposure to HCP on hippocampal neurogenesis in rat offspring using pregnant rats supplemented with 0 (controls), 100, or 300 ppm HCP in the diet from gestational day 6 to day 21 after delivery. On postnatal day (PND) 21, the numbers of T box brain 2 + progenitor cells and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling + apoptotic cells in the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) decreased in female offspring at 300 ppm, which was accompanied by myelin vacuolation and punctate tubulin beta-3 chain staining of nerve fibers in the hippocampal fimbria. In addition, transcript levels of the cholinergic receptor, nicotinic beta 2 (Chrnb2) and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) decreased in the dentate gyrus. HCP-exposure did not alter the numbers of SGZ proliferating cells and reelin- or calcium-binding protein-expressing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneuron subpopulations in the dentate hilus on PND 21 and PND 77. Although some myelin vacuolation remained, all other changes observed in HCP-exposed offspring on PND 21 disappeared on PND 77. These results suggest that maternal HCP exposure reversibly decreases type-2b intermediate-stage progenitor cells via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in offspring hippocampal neurogenesis at 300 ppm HCP. Neurogenesis may be affected by dysfunction

  16. Neuropharmacology of memory consolidation and reconsolidation: Insights on central cholinergic mechanisms.

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    Blake, M G; Krawczyk, M C; Baratti, C M; Boccia, M M

    2014-01-01

    Central cholinergic system is critically involved in all known memory processes. Endogenous acetylcholine release by cholinergic neurons is necessary for modulation of acquisition, encoding, consolidation, reconsolidation, extinction, retrieval and expression. Experiments from our laboratory are mainly focused on elucidating the mechanisms by which acetylcholine modulates memory processes. Blockade of hippocampal alpha-7-nicotinic receptors (α7-nAChRs) with the antagonist methyllycaconitine impairs memory reconsolidation. However, the administration of a α7-nAChR agonist (choline) produce a paradoxical modulation, causing memory enhancement in mice trained with a weak footshock, but memory impairment in animals trained with a strong footshock. All these effects are long-lasting, and depend on the age of the memory trace. This review summarizes and discusses some of our recent findings, particularly regarding the involvement of α7-nAChRs on memory reconsolidation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cholinergic-opioidergic interaction in the central amygdala induces antinociception in the guinea pig

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    Leite-Panissi C.R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated the involvement of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA in the modulation of defensive behavior and in antinociceptive regulation. In a previous study, we demonstrated the existence of a cholinergic-opioidergic interaction in the CEA, modulating the defensive response of tonic immobility in guinea pigs. In the present study, we investigated a similar interaction in the CEA, but now involved in the regulation of the nociceptive response. Microinjection of carbachol (2.7 nmol and morphine (2.2 nmol into the CEA promoted antinociception up to 45 min after microinjection in guinea pigs as determined by a decrease in the vocalization index in the vocalization test. This test consists of the application of a peripheral noxious stimulus (electric shock into the subcutaneous region of the thigh that provokes the emission of a vocalization response by the animal. Furthermore, the present results demonstrated that the antinociceptive effect of carbachol (2.7 nmol; N = 10 was blocked by previous administration of atropine (0.7 nmol; N = 7 or naloxone (1.3 nmol; N = 7 into the same site. In addition, the decrease in the vocalization index induced by the microinjection of morphine (2.2 nmol; N = 9 into the CEA was prevented by pretreatment with naloxone (1.3 nmol; N = 11. All sites of injection were confirmed by histology. These results indicate the involvement of the cholinergic and opioidergic systems of the CEA in the modulation of antinociception in guinea pigs. In addition, the present study suggests that cholinergic transmission may activate the release of endorphins/enkephalins from interneurons of the CEA, resulting in antinociception.

  18. Involvement of Cholinergic Dysfunction and Oxidative Damage in the Effects of Simulated Weightlessness on Learning and Memory in Rats

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    Wang, Qiong; Lv, Ke; Wang, Tingmei; Wang, Yanli; Ji, Guohua; Cao, Hongqing; Kan, Guanghan

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine how the learning and memory gradually change with the prolonged hindlimb unloading (HU) treatment in rats. Different HU durations (7 d, 14 d, 21 d, and 28 d) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were implemented. Cognitive function was assessed using the Morris water maze (MWM) and the shuttle box test. Additionally, parameters about cholinergic activity and oxidative stress were tested. Results showed that longer-than-14 d HU led to the inferior performances in the behavioral tasks. Besides, acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) level in brain, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations of HU rats were significantly increased. Furthermore, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity in brain were notably attenuated. Most of these effects were more pronounced after longer exposure (21 d and 28 d) to HU, although some indicators had their own characteristics of change. These results indicate that cholinergic dysfunction and oxidative damage were involved in the learning and memory impairments induced by longer-than-14 d HU. Moreover, the negative effects of HU tend to be augmented as the HU duration becomes longer. The results may be helpful to present possible biochemical targets for countermeasures development regarding the memory deficits under extreme environmental conditions. PMID:29581965

  19. Involvement of Cholinergic Dysfunction and Oxidative Damage in the Effects of Simulated Weightlessness on Learning and Memory in Rats

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    Yongliang Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine how the learning and memory gradually change with the prolonged hindlimb unloading (HU treatment in rats. Different HU durations (7 d, 14 d, 21 d, and 28 d in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were implemented. Cognitive function was assessed using the Morris water maze (MWM and the shuttle box test. Additionally, parameters about cholinergic activity and oxidative stress were tested. Results showed that longer-than-14 d HU led to the inferior performances in the behavioral tasks. Besides, acetylcholine esterase (AChE activity, malondialdehyde (MDA level in brain, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG concentrations of HU rats were significantly increased. Furthermore, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT activity in brain were notably attenuated. Most of these effects were more pronounced after longer exposure (21 d and 28 d to HU, although some indicators had their own characteristics of change. These results indicate that cholinergic dysfunction and oxidative damage were involved in the learning and memory impairments induced by longer-than-14 d HU. Moreover, the negative effects of HU tend to be augmented as the HU duration becomes longer. The results may be helpful to present possible biochemical targets for countermeasures development regarding the memory deficits under extreme environmental conditions.

  20. Memory and learning seems to be related to cholinergic dysfunction in the JE rat model.

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    Chauhan, Prashant Singh; Misra, Usha Kant; Kalita, Jayantee; Chandravanshi, Lalit Pratap; Khanna, Vinay Kumar

    2016-03-15

    Cognitive changes have been known in encephalitis but in Japanese encephalitis (JE) such studies are limited. This study aims at evaluating the spatial memory and learning and correlate with markers of cholinergic activity in the brain.12day old Wistar rats were inoculated with dose of 3×10(6)pfu/ml of JE virus. On 10, 33 and 48days post-inoculation (dpi), spatial memory and learning was assessed by Y maze. Brain biopsies from frontal cortex, corpus striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum were taken. Muscarinic cholinergic receptor was assayed by Quinuclidinyl benzylate (H3-QNB) binding, CHRM2 gene expression by real time PCR and choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) by Western blot. Spatial learning and memory showed significant decline in rats inoculated with JEV on 10 and 33dpi (47.5%, pmemory were found at different dpi. There was transient spatial learning and memory impairment which was associated with reduction of total muscarinic receptor binding, CHRM2 gene and ChAT expression in different brain region of rat infected with JE Virus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased dopamine D1 receptor binding in the human mesocortical system following central cholinergic activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedi, M.; Berkovic, S.F.; Tochon-Danguy, H.J.; Reutens, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The interaction between the cholinergic and dopaminergic system has been implicated in many pathological processes including, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia and drug addiction. Little is known about the control of dopamine (DA) release following central cholinergic activation in humans, but experimental studies suggest that endogenously released Acetylcholine (ACh) achieved by the administration of cholinesterase inhibitors, can increase dopamine efflux in different regions of the brain. This leads to the activation of different types of post-synaptic dopaminergic receptors which belong to the family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). A common paradigm of the GPCRs desensitization is that agonist-induced receptor signaling is rapidly attenuated by receptor internalisation. Several experiments have shown that the activation of Dl receptors in acute conditions leads, within minutes, to translocation of the receptor from the surface of the neurons to the endosomal compartment in the cytoplasm and increased receptor turnover. To assess changes in Dl receptor density following an intravenous infusion of the selective cholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine salicylate (PHY), we studied eleven normal subjects (10 male and 1 female, mean age 36.1 and 61617; 9.9) using [11C]-SCH23390 and PET The binding potential (BP) for SCH23390 was significantly (p 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between baseline and physostigmine Kl ratio (p>0.05) suggesting that BP changes observed were not secondary to regional blood flow changes or to an order effect of the scans. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  2. Central Processing Dysfunctions in Children: A Review of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfant, James C.; Scheffelin, Margaret A.

    Research on central processing dysfunctions in children is reviewed in three major areas. The first, dysfunctions in the analysis of sensory information, includes auditory, visual, and haptic processing. The second, dysfunction in the synthesis of sensory information, covers multiple stimulus integration and short-term memory. The third area of…

  3. Phosphodiesterase 9A regulates central cGMP and modulates responses to cholinergic and monoaminergic perturbation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Robin J; Chapin, Douglas S; Christoffersen, Curt; Freeman, Jody; Fonseca, Kari R; Geoghegan, Kieran F; Grimwood, Sarah; Guanowsky, Victor; Hajós, Mihály; Harms, John F; Helal, Christopher J; Hoffmann, William E; Kocan, Geralyn P; Majchrzak, Mark J; McGinnis, Dina; McLean, Stafford; Menniti, Frank S; Nelson, Fredrick; Roof, Robin; Schmidt, Anne W; Seymour, Patricia A; Stephenson, Diane T; Tingley, Francis David; Vanase-Frawley, Michelle; Verhoest, Patrick R; Schmidt, Christopher J

    2012-05-01

    Cyclic nucleotides are critical regulators of synaptic plasticity and participate in requisite signaling cascades implicated across multiple neurotransmitter systems. Phosphodiesterase 9A (PDE9A) is a high-affinity, cGMP-specific enzyme widely expressed in the rodent central nervous system. In the current study, we observed neuronal staining with antibodies raised against PDE9A protein in human cortex, cerebellum, and subiculum. We have also developed several potent, selective, and brain-penetrant PDE9A inhibitors and used them to probe the function of PDE9A in vivo. Administration of these compounds to animals led to dose-dependent accumulation of cGMP in brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid, producing a range of biological effects that implied functional significance for PDE9A-regulated cGMP in dopaminergic, cholinergic, and serotonergic neurotransmission and were consistent with the widespread distribution of PDE9A. In vivo effects of PDE9A inhibition included reversal of the respective disruptions of working memory by ketamine, episodic and spatial memory by scopolamine, and auditory gating by amphetamine, as well as potentiation of risperidone-induced improvements in sensorimotor gating and reversal of the stereotypic scratching response to the hallucinogenic 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A agonist mescaline. The results suggested a role for PDE9A in the regulation of monoaminergic circuitry associated with sensory processing and memory. Thus, PDE9A activity regulates neuronal cGMP signaling downstream of multiple neurotransmitter systems, and inhibition of PDE9A may provide therapeutic benefits in psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases promoted by the dysfunction of these diverse neurotransmitter systems.

  4. Attentional control of associative learning--a possible role of the central cholinergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Wolfgang M; O'Reilly, Randall C

    2008-04-02

    How does attention interact with learning? Kruschke [Kruschke, J.K. (2001). Toward a unified Model of Attention in Associative Learning. J. Math. Psychol. 45, 812-863.] proposed a model (EXIT) that captures Mackintosh's [Mackintosh, N.J. (1975). A theory of attention: Variations in the associability of stimuli with reinforcement. Psychological Review, 82(4), 276-298.] framework for attentional modulation of associative learning. We developed a computational model that showed analogous interactions between selective attention and associative learning, but is significantly simplified and, in contrast to EXIT, is motivated by neurophysiological findings. Competition among input representations in the internal representation layer, which increases the contrast between stimuli, is critical for simulating these interactions in human behavior. Furthermore, this competition is modulated in a way that might be consistent with the phasic activation of the central cholinergic system, which modulates activity in sensory cortices. Specifically, phasic increases in acetylcholine can cause increased excitability of both pyramidal excitatory neurons in cortical layers II/III and cortical GABAergic inhibitory interneurons targeting the same pyramidal neurons. These effects result in increased attentional contrast in our model. This model thus represents an initial attempt to link human attentional learning data with underlying neural substrates.

  5. Dynamics of cholinergic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanin, I.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics; cholinergic pathways - anatomy of the central nervous system; aging, DSAT and other clinical conditions; cholinergic pre- and post-synaptic receptors; acetylcholine release; cholinesterases, anticholinesterases and reactivators; acetylcholine synthesis, metabolism and precursors; second messenger messenger mechanisms; interaction of acetylcholine with other neurotransmitter systems; cholinergic mechanisms in physiological function, including cardiovascular events; and neurotoxic agents and false transmitters

  6. CHOLINERGIC NEUROPHARMACOLOGY - AN UPDATE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PALACIOS, JM; BODDEKE, HWGM; POMBOVILLAR, E

    1991-01-01

    The current status of the pharmacology of central cholinergic transmission is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the compounds that have been or are potential candidates as therapeutic agents for the treatment of mental disorders, particularly senile dementia. Compounds affecting

  7. Effects of local anesthetics on cholinergic agonist binding affinity of central nervous system. cap alpha. -bungarotoxin receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukas, R.L.; Bennett, E.L.

    1979-12-01

    In general, pharmacological effects of local anesthetics may be attributed to their ability to reversibly block the propagation of nerve and muscle action potentials. At physiologically potent concentrations, local anesthetics (LA) also act as noncompetitive antagonists of the physiological response of post-synaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) to cholinergic agonists, and increase agonist binding affinities of nAChR from electric organ. It is postulated that the primary site of LA action on nAChR function is at the receptor-coupled ionophore. Furthermore, LA-nAChR ionophore interactions are thought to accelerate physiological desensitization of nAChR, manifest biochemically as increased affinity of nAChR for agonist. Specific receptors for ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin (..cap alpha..-Bgt), a potent competitive antagonist at nAChR sites in the periphery, have been detected in rat central nervous system membrane preparations. The affinity of these central ..cap alpha..-Bgt receptors (..cap alpha..-BgtR) for cholinergic agonists is found to increase on exposure to agonist. Nevertheless, on the basis of inconsistent pharmacological and physiological results, uncertainty remains regarding the relationship between ..cap alpha..-BgtR and authentic nAChR in the CNS, despite a wide body of biochemical and histological evidence consistent with their identity. Reasoning that if CNS ..cap alpha..-BgtR are true in nAChR, coupled to functional ion channels, LA might be expected to cause biochemically measurable increases in ..cap alpha..-BgtR affinity for cholinergic agonists, we have undertaken a study of the effects of LA on the ability of acetylcholine (ACh) to inhibit interaction of ..cap alpha..-BgtR with /sup 3/H-labeled ..cap alpha..-Bgt.

  8. Azadirachtin blocks the calcium channel and modulates the cholinergic miniature synaptic current in the central nervous system of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jingda; Zou, Xiaolu; Lai, Duo; Yan, Ying; Wang, Qi; Li, Weicong; Deng, Shengwen; Xu, Hanhong; Gu, Huaiyu

    2014-07-01

    Azadirachtin is a botanical pesticide, which possesses conspicuous biological actions such as insecticidal, anthelmintic, antifeedancy, antimalarial effects as well as insect growth regulation. Deterrent for chemoreceptor functions appears to be the main mechanism involved in the potent biological actions of Azadirachtin, although the cytotoxicity and subtle changes to skeletal muscle physiology may also contribute to its insecticide responses. In order to discover the effects of Azadirachtin on the central nervous system (CNS), patch-clamp recording was applied to Drosophila melanogaster, which has been widely used in neurological research. Here, we describe the electrophysiological properties of a local neuron located in the suboesophageal ganglion region of D. melanogaster using the whole brain. The patch-clamp recordings suggested that Azadirachtin modulates the properties of cholinergic miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) and calcium currents, which play important roles in neural activity of the CNS. The frequency of mEPSC and the peak amplitude of the calcium currents significantly decreased after application of Azadirachtin. Our study indicates that Azadirachtin can interfere with the insect's CNS via inhibition of excitatory cholinergic transmission and partly blocking the calcium channel. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Central Auditory Nervous System Dysfunction in Echolalic Autistic Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherby, Amy Miller; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The results showed that all the Ss had normal hearing on the monaural speech tests; however, there was indication of central auditory nervous system dysfunction in the language dominant hemisphere, inferred from the dichotic tests, for those Ss displaying echolalia. (Author)

  10. Cardiovascular effects of the intracerebroventricular injection of adrenomedullin: roles of the peripheral vasopressin and central cholinergic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cam-Etoz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate in conscious Sprague-Dawley (6-8 weeks, 250-300 g female rats (N = 7 in each group the effects of intracerebroventricularly (icv injected adrenomedullin (ADM on blood pressure and heart rate (HR, and to determine if ADM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP receptors, peripheral V1 receptors or the central cholinergic system play roles in these cardiovascular effects. Blood pressure and HR were observed before and for 30 min following drug injections. The following results were obtained: 1 icv ADM (750 ng/10 µL caused an increase in both blood pressure and HR (DMAP = 11.8 ± 2.3 mmHg and ΔHR = 39.7 ± 4.8 bpm. 2 Pretreatment with a CGRP receptor antagonist (CGRP8-37 and ADM receptor antagonist (ADM22-52 blocked the effect of central ADM on blood pressure and HR. 3 The nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (25 µg/10 µL, icv and the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv prevented the stimulating effect of ADM on blood pressure. The effect of ADM on HR was blocked only by atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv. 4 The V1 receptor antagonist [β-mercapto-β-β-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl¹, O-me-Tyr²,Arg8]-vasopressin (V2255; 10 µg/kg, that was applied intravenously, prevented the effect of ADM on blood pressure and HR. This is the first study reporting the role of specific ADM and CGRP receptors, especially the role of nicotinic and muscarinic central cholinergic receptors and the role of peripheral V1 receptors in the increasing effects of icv ADM on blood pressure and HR.

  11. Cardiovascular effects of the intracerebroventricular injection of adrenomedullin: roles of the peripheral vasopressin and central cholinergic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cam-Etoz, B.; Isbil-Buyukcoskun, N.; Ozluk, K. [Department of Physiology, Uludag University Medical Faculty, Gorukle/Bursa (Turkey)

    2012-03-02

    Our objective was to investigate in conscious Sprague-Dawley (6-8 weeks, 250-300 g) female rats (N = 7 in each group) the effects of intracerebroventricularly (icv) injected adrenomedullin (ADM) on blood pressure and heart rate (HR), and to determine if ADM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors, peripheral V{sub 1} receptors or the central cholinergic system play roles in these cardiovascular effects. Blood pressure and HR were observed before and for 30 min following drug injections. The following results were obtained: 1) icv ADM (750 ng/10 µL) caused an increase in both blood pressure and HR (ΔMAP = 11.8 ± 2.3 mmHg and ΔHR = 39.7 ± 4.8 bpm). 2) Pretreatment with a CGRP receptor antagonist (CGRP{sub 8-37}) and ADM receptor antagonist (ADM{sub 22-52}) blocked the effect of central ADM on blood pressure and HR. 3) The nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (25 µg/10 µL, icv) and the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv) prevented the stimulating effect of ADM on blood pressure. The effect of ADM on HR was blocked only by atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv). 4) The V{sub 1} receptor antagonist [β-mercapto-β-β-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl{sup 1}, O-me-Tyr{sup 2},Arg{sup 8}]-vasopressin (V2255; 10 µg/kg), that was applied intravenously, prevented the effect of ADM on blood pressure and HR. This is the first study reporting the role of specific ADM and CGRP receptors, especially the role of nicotinic and muscarinic central cholinergic receptors and the role of peripheral V{sub 1} receptors in the increasing effects of icv ADM on blood pressure and HR.

  12. Cardiovascular effects of the intracerebroventricular injection of adrenomedullin: roles of the peripheral vasopressin and central cholinergic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cam-Etoz, B.; Isbil-Buyukcoskun, N.; Ozluk, K.

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate in conscious Sprague-Dawley (6-8 weeks, 250-300 g) female rats (N = 7 in each group) the effects of intracerebroventricularly (icv) injected adrenomedullin (ADM) on blood pressure and heart rate (HR), and to determine if ADM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors, peripheral V 1 receptors or the central cholinergic system play roles in these cardiovascular effects. Blood pressure and HR were observed before and for 30 min following drug injections. The following results were obtained: 1) icv ADM (750 ng/10 µL) caused an increase in both blood pressure and HR (ΔMAP = 11.8 ± 2.3 mmHg and ΔHR = 39.7 ± 4.8 bpm). 2) Pretreatment with a CGRP receptor antagonist (CGRP 8-37 ) and ADM receptor antagonist (ADM 22-52 ) blocked the effect of central ADM on blood pressure and HR. 3) The nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (25 µg/10 µL, icv) and the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv) prevented the stimulating effect of ADM on blood pressure. The effect of ADM on HR was blocked only by atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv). 4) The V 1 receptor antagonist [β-mercapto-β-β-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl 1 , O-me-Tyr 2 ,Arg 8 ]-vasopressin (V2255; 10 µg/kg), that was applied intravenously, prevented the effect of ADM on blood pressure and HR. This is the first study reporting the role of specific ADM and CGRP receptors, especially the role of nicotinic and muscarinic central cholinergic receptors and the role of peripheral V 1 receptors in the increasing effects of icv ADM on blood pressure and HR

  13. Adaptive processes of the central and autonomic cholinergic neurotransmitter system: Age-related differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortuna, S.; Pintor, A.; Michalek, H.

    1991-01-01

    Potential age-related differences in the response of the ileum strip longitudinal and circular muscle to repeated treatment with diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The response was measured in terms of both biochemical parameters (acetylcholinesterase-AChE inhibition, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor binding sites-mAChRs, choline acetyltransferase-ChAT) and functional responsiveness (contractility of the isolated ileum stimulated by cholinergic agonists). The biochemical data were compared with those obtained for the cerebral cortex. In the ileum strip of control rats there was a significant age-related decline of AChE, maximal density of 3 H-QNB binding sites (Bmax) and ChAT. During the first week of DFP treatment the cholinergic syndrome was more pronounced in aged than in young rats, resulting in 35% and 10% mortality, respectively; subsequently the syndrome attenuated. At the end of DFP treatment ileal AChE were inhibited by about 30%; the down-regulation of mAChRs was about 50% in young and 35% in aged rats. No significant differences in the recovery rate of AChE were noted between young and aged rats. On the contrary, mAChRs normalized within 5 weeks in young and 3 weeks in aged rats

  14. Adaptive processes of the central and autonomic cholinergic neurotransmitter system: Age-related differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortuna, S.; Pintor, A.; Michalek, H. (Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy))

    1991-01-01

    Potential age-related differences in the response of the ileum strip longitudinal and circular muscle to repeated treatment with diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The response was measured in terms of both biochemical parameters (acetylcholinesterase-AChE inhibition, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor binding sites-mAChRs, choline acetyltransferase-ChAT) and functional responsiveness (contractility of the isolated ileum stimulated by cholinergic agonists). The biochemical data were compared with those obtained for the cerebral cortex. In the ileum strip of control rats there was a significant age-related decline of AChE, maximal density of {sup 3}H-QNB binding sites (Bmax) and ChAT. During the first week of DFP treatment the cholinergic syndrome was more pronounced in aged than in young rats, resulting in 35% and 10% mortality, respectively; subsequently the syndrome attenuated. At the end of DFP treatment ileal AChE were inhibited by about 30%; the down-regulation of mAChRs was about 50% in young and 35% in aged rats. No significant differences in the recovery rate of AChE were noted between young and aged rats. On the contrary, mAChRs normalized within 5 weeks in young and 3 weeks in aged rats.

  15. Perinatal exposure to methadone affects central cholinergic activity in the weanling rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, S E; Mo, Q; Maher, J R; Wallace, M J; Kunko, P M

    1996-06-01

    Pregnant rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps containing either methadone hydrochloride (initial dose, 9 mg/kg/day) or sterile water. Their offspring were cross-fostered so that they were exposed to methadone prenatally and/or postnatally. Perinatal methadone exposure disrupted cholinergic activity on postnatal day 21 as measured by the turnover rate of acetylcholine (TRACh) in both female and male rats, although there were some sexually-dimorphic responses. The most profoundly affected brain region was the striatum, where prenatal exposure to methadone increased ACh turnover, whether or not the rats continued to be exposed to methadone postnatally. It appears unlikely that neonatal withdrawal contributes to brain regional changes in ACh turnover, as continued postnatal exposure to methadone did not prevent the prenatal methadone induced changes.

  16. Libidibia ferrea mature seeds promote antinociceptive effect by peripheral and central pathway: possible involvement of opioid and cholinergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Luis Armando; Monteiro, Vanessa Sâmia da Conçeição; Rabelo, Guilherme Rodrigues; Dias, Germana Bueno; Da Cunha, Maura; do Nascimento, José Luiz Martins; Bastos, Gilmara de Nazareth Tavares

    2014-01-01

    Libidibia ferrea (LF) is a medicinal plant that holds many pharmacological properties. We evaluated the antinociceptive effect in the LF aqueous seed extract and Lipidic Portion of Libidibia ferrea (LPLF), partially elucidating their mechanisms. Histochemical tests and Gas chromatography of the LPLF were performed to characterize its fatty acids. Acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction, formalin-induced pain, and hot-plate test in mice were employed in the study. In all experiments, aqueous extract or LPLF was administered systemically at the doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg. LF aqueous seed extract and LPLF demonstrated a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in all tests indicating both peripheral anti-inflammatory and central analgesia properties. Also, the use of atropine (5 mg/kg), naloxone (5 mg/kg) in the abdominal writhing test was able to reverse the antinociceptive effect of the LPLF, indicating that at least one of LF lipids components is responsible for the dose related antinociceptive action in chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice. Together, the present results suggested that Libidibia ferrea induced antinociceptive activity is possibly related to its ability to inhibit opioid, cholinergic receptors, and cyclooxygenase-2 pathway, since its main component, linoleic acid, has been demonstrated to produce such effect in previous studies.

  17. Libidibia ferrea Mature Seeds Promote Antinociceptive Effect by Peripheral and Central Pathway: Possible Involvement of Opioid and Cholinergic Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Armando Sawada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Libidibia ferrea (LF is a medicinal plant that holds many pharmacological properties. We evaluated the antinociceptive effect in the LF aqueous seed extract and Lipidic Portion of Libidibia ferrea (LPLF, partially elucidating their mechanisms. Histochemical tests and Gas chromatography of the LPLF were performed to characterize its fatty acids. Acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction, formalin-induced pain, and hot-plate test in mice were employed in the study. In all experiments, aqueous extract or LPLF was administered systemically at the doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg. LF aqueous seed extract and LPLF demonstrated a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in all tests indicating both peripheral anti-inflammatory and central analgesia properties. Also, the use of atropine (5 mg/kg, naloxone (5 mg/kg in the abdominal writhing test was able to reverse the antinociceptive effect of the LPLF, indicating that at least one of LF lipids components is responsible for the dose related antinociceptive action in chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice. Together, the present results suggested that Libidibia ferrea induced antinociceptive activity is possibly related to its ability to inhibit opioid, cholinergic receptors, and cyclooxygenase-2 pathway, since its main component, linoleic acid, has been demonstrated to produce such effect in previous studies.

  18. Erectile dysfunction and central obesity: an Italian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Corona

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction (ED is a frequent complication of obesity. The aim of this review is to critically analyze the framework of obesity and ED, dissecting the connections between the two pathological entities. Current clinical evidence shows that obesity, and in particular central obesity, is associated with both arteriogenic ED and reduced testosterone (T levels. It is conceivable that obesity-associated hypogonadism and increased cardiovascular risk might partially justify the higher prevalence of ED in overweight and obese individuals. Conversely, the psychological disturbances related to obesity do not seem to play a major role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related ED. However, both clinical and preclinical data show that the association between ED and visceral fat accumulation is independent from known obesity-associated comorbidities. Therefore, how visceral fat could impair penile microcirculation still remains unknown. This point is particularly relevant since central obesity in ED subjects categorizes individuals at high cardiovascular risk, especially in the youngest ones. The presence of ED in obese subjects might help healthcare professionals in convincing them to initiate a virtuous cycle, where the correction of sexual dysfunction will be the reward for improved lifestyle behavior. Unsatisfying sexual activity represents a meaningful, straightforward motivation for consulting healthcare professionals, who, in turn, should take advantage of the opportunity to encourage obese patients to treat, besides ED, the underlying unfavorable conditions, thus not only restoring erectile function, but also overall health.

  19. Higher sensitivity to cadmium induced cell death of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons: A cholinesterase dependent mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Pino, Javier; Zeballos, Garbriela; Anadon, María José; Capo, Miguel Andrés; Díaz, María Jesús; García, Jimena; Frejo, María Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is an environmental pollutant, which is a cause of concern because it can be greatly concentrated in the organism causing severe damage to a variety of organs including the nervous system which is one of the most affected. Cadmium has been reported to produce learning and memory dysfunctions and Alzheimer like symptoms, though the mechanism is unknown. On the other hand, cholinergic system in central nervous system (CNS) is implicated on learning and memory regulation, and it has been reported that cadmium can affect cholinergic transmission and it can also induce selective toxicity on cholinergic system at peripheral level, producing cholinergic neurons loss, which may explain cadmium effects on learning and memory processes if produced on central level. The present study is aimed at researching the selective neurotoxicity induced by cadmium on cholinergic system in CNS. For this purpose we evaluated, in basal forebrain region, the cadmium toxic effects on neuronal viability and the cholinergic mechanisms related to it on NS56 cholinergic mourine septal cell line. This study proves that cadmium induces a more pronounced, but not selective, cell death on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) on cholinergic neurons. Moreover, MTT and LDH assays showed a dose dependent decrease of cell viability in NS56 cells. The ACh treatment of SN56 cells did not revert cell viability reduction induced by cadmium, but siRNA transfection against AChE partially reduced it. Our present results provide new understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the harmful effects of cadmium on the function and viability of neurons, and the possible relevance of cadmium in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases

  20. [Involvement of cross interaction between central cholinergic and histaminergic systems in the nucleus tractus solitarius in regulating carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li-Xun; Zhang, Guo-Xing; Zhang, Yu-Ying; Zhao, Hong-Fen; Yu, Kang-Ying; Wang, Guo-Qing

    2013-12-25

    The carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex (CSR) is an important approach for regulating arterial blood pressure homeostasis instantaneously and physiologically. Activation of the central histaminergic or cholinergic systems results in CSR functional inhibitory resetting. However, it is unclear whether two systems at the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) level display cross interaction to regulate the CSR or not. In the present study, the left or right carotid sinus region was isolated from the systemic circulation in Sprague-Dawley rats (sinus nerve was reserved) anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. Respective intubation was conducted into one side isolated carotid sinus and into the femoral artery for recording the intracarotid sinus pressure (ISP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) simultaneously with pressure transducers connection in vivo. ISP was set at the level of 0 mmHg to eliminate the effect of initial internal pressure of the carotid sinus on the CSR function. To trigger CSR, the ISP was quickly elevated from 0 mmHg to 280 mmHg in a stepwise manner (40 mmHg) which was added at every step for over 4 s, and then ISP returned to 0 mmHg in similar steps. The original data of ISP and corresponding MAP were fitted to a modified logistic equation with five parameters to obtain the ISP-MAP, ISP-Gain relationship curves and the CSR characteristic parameters, which were statistically compared and analyzed separately. Under the precondition of no influence on the basic levels of the artery blood pressure, the effects and potential regulatory mechanism of preceding microinjection with different cholinoceptor antagonists, the selective cholinergic M1 receptor antagonist, i.e., pirenzepine (PRZ), the M2 receptor antagonist, i.e., methoctramine (MTR) or the N1 receptor antagonist, i.e., hexamethonium (HEX) into the NTS on the changes in function of CSR induced by intracerebroventricular injection (i.c.v.) of histamine (HA) in rats were observed. Meanwhile, the actions and

  1. INTRAHIPPOCAMPAL ADMINISTRATION OF IBOTENIC ACID INDUCED CHOLINERGIC DYSFUNCTION via NR2A/NR2B EXPRESSION: IMPLICATIONS OF RESVERATROL AGAINST ALZHEIMER DISEASE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chennakesavan eKarthick

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although several drugs revealed moderate amelioration of symptoms, none of them have sufficient potency to prevent or reverse the progression towards Alzheimer’s disease (AD pathology. Resveratrol (RSV, a polyphenolic compound has shown an outstanding therapeutic effect on a broad spectrum of diseases like age-associated neurodegeneration, inflammation etc. The present study was thus conducted to assess the therapeutic efficacy of RSV in ameliorating the deleterious effects of Ibotenic acid (IBO in male Wistar rats. Stereotactic intrahippocampal administration of IBO (5µg/µl lesioned rats impairs cholinergic transmission, learning and memory performance that is rather related to AD and thus chosen as a suitable model to understand the drug efficacy in preventing AD pathophysiology. Since IBO is an agonist of glutamate, it is expected to exhibit an excitotoxic effect by altering glutamatergic receptors like NMDA receptor. The current study displayed significant alterations in the mRNA expression of NR2A and NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors, and further it is surprising to note that cholinergic receptors decreased in expression particularly α7-nAChR with increased m1AChR. RSV administration (20mg/kg body weight, i.p significantly reduced these changes in IBO induced rats. Glutamatergic and cholinergic receptor alterations were associated with significant changes in the behavioral parameters of rats induced by IBO. While RSV improved spatial learning performance, attenuated immobility and improvised open field activity in IBO induced rats. NR2B activation in the present study might mediate cell death through oxidative stress that form the basis of abnormal behavioral pattern in IBO induced rats. Interestingly, RSV that could efficiently encounter oxidative stress have significantly decreased stress markers viz., nitrite, PCO, and MDA levels by enhancing antioxidant status. Histopathological analysis displayed significant reduction in the

  2. The basal forebrain cholinergic system in aging and dementia : Rescuing cholinergic neurons from neurotoxic amyloid-beta 42 with memantine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyakas, Csaba; Granic, Ivica; Halmy, Laszlo G.; Banerjee, Pradeep; Luiten, Paul G. M.

    2011-01-01

    The dysfunction and loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and their cortical projections are among the earliest pathological events in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The evidence pointing to cholinergic impairments come from studies that report a decline in the activity of

  3. Hypoglycemia induced changes in cholinergic receptor expression in the cerebellum of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju TR

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glucose homeostasis in humans is an important factor for the functioning of nervous system. Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia is found to be associated with central and peripheral nerve system dysfunction. Changes in acetylcholine receptors have been implicated in the pathophysiology of many major diseases of the central nervous system (CNS. In the present study we showed the effects of insulin induced hypoglycemia and streptozotocin induced diabetes on the cerebellar cholinergic receptors, GLUT3 and muscle cholinergic activity. Results showed enhanced binding parameters and gene expression of Muscarinic M1, M3 receptor subtypes in cerebellum of diabetic (D and hypoglycemic group (D + IIH and C + IIH. α7nAchR gene expression showed a significant upregulation in diabetic group and showed further upregulated expression in both D + IIH and C + IIH group. AchE expression significantly upregulated in hypoglycemic and diabetic group. ChAT showed downregulation and GLUT3 expression showed a significant upregulation in D + IIH and C + IIH and diabetic group. AchE activity enhanced in the muscle of hypoglycemic and diabetic rats. Our studies demonstrated a functional disturbance in the neuronal glucose transporter GLUT3 in the cerebellum during insulin induced hypoglycemia in diabetic rats. Altered expression of muscarinic M1, M3 and α7nAchR and increased muscle AchE activity in hypoglycemic rats in cerebellum is suggested to cause cognitive and motor dysfunction. Hypoglycemia induced changes in ChAT and AchE gene expression is suggested to cause impaired acetycholine metabolism in the cerebellum. Cerebellar dysfunction is associated with seizure generation, motor deficits and memory impairment. The results shows that cerebellar cholinergic neurotransmission is impaired during hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia and the hypoglycemia is causing more prominent imbalance in cholinergic neurotransmission which is suggested to be a cause of cerebellar

  4. Sympathetic dysfunction of central origin in patients with ALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsborg, M; Andersen, E B; Wiinberg, N

    2003-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe, progressive disease affecting both the central and peripheral parts of the motor nervous system. Some studies have shown unequivocal indications of a more disseminated disease also affecting the autonomic nervous system. We therefore evaluated...

  5. Cognitive and Emotional Dysfunction after Central Pontine Myelinolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatia M. C. Lee

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of a 67-year-old right-handed Chinese man with Central Pontine Myelinolysis [CPM] is described to illustrate the resulting cognitive and emotional disturbances. A comparison of the data in this report with that in published studies suggests that ethnicity does not seem to have much effect on the symptoms of CPM. Possible underlying neural-pathological mechanisms are discussed. This case further substantiates the speculation that the brainstem plays a role in higher cognitive processes and emotional regulation.

  6. Increased phencyclidine-induced hyperactivity following cortical cholinergic denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Anna; Lindqvist, Eva; Ogren, Sven Ove; Olson, Lars

    2005-11-07

    Altered cholinergic function is considered as a potential contributing factor in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. We hypothesize that cortical cholinergic denervation may result in changes in glutamatergic activity. Therefore, we lesioned the cholinergic corticopetal projections by local infusion of 192 IgG-saporin into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis of rats. Possible effects of this lesion on glutamatergic systems were examined by phencyclidine-induced locomotor activity, and also by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor binding. We find that cholinergic lesioning of neocortex leads to enhanced sensitivity to phencyclidine in the form of a dramatic increase in horizontal activity. Further, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor binding is unaffected in denervated rats. These results suggest that aberrations in cholinergic function might lead to glutamatergic dysfunctions, which might be of relevance for the pathophysiology for schizophrenia.

  7. Metabolic Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease: Bioenergetics, Redox Homeostasis and Central Carbon Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhan, Annadurai; Jacome, Maria S; Lei, Shulei; Hernandez-Franco, Pablo; Pappa, Aglaia; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I; Powers, Robert; Franco, Rodrigo

    2017-07-01

    The loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the accumulation of protein inclusions (Lewy bodies) are the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is triggered by genetic alterations, environmental/occupational exposures and aging. However, the exact molecular mechanisms linking these PD risk factors to neuronal dysfunction are still unclear. Alterations in redox homeostasis and bioenergetics (energy failure) are thought to be central components of neurodegeneration that contribute to the impairment of important homeostatic processes in dopaminergic cells such as protein quality control mechanisms, neurotransmitter release/metabolism, axonal transport of vesicles and cell survival. Importantly, both bioenergetics and redox homeostasis are coupled to neuro-glial central carbon metabolism. We and others have recently established a link between the alterations in central carbon metabolism induced by PD risk factors, redox homeostasis and bioenergetics and their contribution to the survival/death of dopaminergic cells. In this review, we focus on the link between metabolic dysfunction, energy failure and redox imbalance in PD, making an emphasis in the contribution of central carbon (glucose) metabolism. The evidence summarized here strongly supports the consideration of PD as a disorder of cell metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Central vestibular dysfunction in an otorhinolaryngological vestibular unit: incidence and diagnostic strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Badr E; Kahky, Ayman O El; Kader, Hisham M Abdel; Rizk, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Introduction Vertigo can be due to a variety of central and peripheral causes. The relative incidence of central causes is underestimated. This may have an important impact of the patients' management and prognosis. Objective The objective of this work is to determine the incidence of central vestibular disorders in patients presenting to a vestibular unit in a tertiary referral academic center. It also aims at determining the best strategy to increase the diagnostic yield of the patients' visit. Methods This is a prospective observational study on 100 consecutive patients with symptoms suggestive of vestibular dysfunction. All patients completed a structured questionnaire and received bedside and vestibular examination and neuroimaging as required. Results There were 69 women and 31 men. Their ages ranged between 28 and 73 (mean 42.48 years). Provisional videonystagmography (VNG) results were: 40% benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), 23% suspicious of central causes, 18% undiagnosed, 15% Meniere disease, and 4% vestibular neuronitis. Patients with an unclear diagnosis or central features (41) had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Doppler studies. Combining data from history, VNG, and imaging studies, 23 patients (23%) were diagnosed as having a central vestibular lesion (10 with generalized ischemia/vertebra basilar insufficiency, 4 with multiple sclerosis, 4 with migraine vestibulopathy, 4 with phobic postural vertigo, and 1 with hyperventilation-induced nystagmus). Conclusions Combining a careful history with clinical examination, VNG, MRI, and Doppler studies decreases the number of undiagnosed cases and increases the detection of possible central lesions.

  9. Central Vestibular Dysfunction in an Otorhinolaryngological Vestibular Unit: Incidence and Diagnostic Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa, Badr E.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vertigo can be due to a variety of central and peripheral causes. The relative incidence of central causes is underestimated. This may have an important impact of the patients' management and prognosis. Objective The objective of this work is to determine the incidence of central vestibular disorders in patients presenting to a vestibular unit in a tertiary referral academic center. It also aims at determining the best strategy to increase the diagnostic yield of the patients' visit. Methods This is a prospective observational study on 100 consecutive patients with symptoms suggestive of vestibular dysfunction. All patients completed a structured questionnaire and received bedside and vestibular examination and neuroimaging as required. Results There were 69 women and 31 men. Their ages ranged between 28 and 73 (mean 42.48 years. Provisional videonystagmography (VNG results were: 40% benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, 23% suspicious of central causes, 18% undiagnosed, 15% Meniere disease, and 4% vestibular neuronitis. Patients with an unclear diagnosis or central features (41 had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and Doppler studies. Combining data from history, VNG, and imaging studies, 23 patients (23% were diagnosed as having a central vestibular lesion (10 with generalized ischemia/vertebra basilar insufficiency, 4 with multiple sclerosis, 4 with migraine vestibulopathy, 4 with phobic postural vertigo, and 1 with hyperventilation-induced nystagmus. Conclusions Combining a careful history with clinical examination, VNG, MRI, and Doppler studies decreases the number of undiagnosed cases and increases the detection of possible central lesions.

  10. Radioiodinated 2-hydroxy-3-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(4-phenylpiperidinyl)propane: potential radiotracer for mapping central cholinergic innervation in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efange, S.M.N.; Dutta, A.K.; Michelson, R.H.; Thomas, J.R.; Boudreau, R.J.; Kung, H.F.; Billings, J.

    1992-01-01

    Radioiodinated 2-hydroxy-3-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(4-phenylpiperidinyl)propane, (4-HIPP), was synthesized and evaluated as a simple vesamicol-like radiotracer for mapping cholinergic pathways in the brain. Both enantiomers of 4-HIPP exhibit significant accumulation (approx. 2% of injected dose) and prolonged retention (t 1/2 > 3h) within the rat brain. The accumulation of radioiodinated 4-HIPP in the rat brain was reduced by up to 70% in the presence of vesamicol and its analogs. The levorotary isomer (-)-4-[ 123 I]HIPP exhibits significant accumulation in the monkey brain, with a half-life of about 9 h. Radioiodinated 4-HIPP may therefore be a useful tool for studying cholinergic pathways in the brain. (author)

  11. Chronic treatment with taurine after intracerebroventricular streptozotocin injection improves cognitive dysfunction in rats by modulating oxidative stress, cholinergic functions and neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeta, K H; Singh, Devendra; Gupta, Y K

    2017-09-01

    The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of taurine, an essential amino acid for growth and development of central nervous system. Intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) model of cognitive impairment was used in male Wistar rats (270 ± 20 g). Morris water maze, elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm were used to assess cognitive performance. Taurine (40, 60 and 120 mg/kg) was administered orally for 28 days following STZ administration on day 1. Oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde, glutathione, nitric oxide and superoxide dismutase) and cholinesterases (acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase) activity were measured at end of the study in the cortex and hippocampus. Levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, expression of rho kinase-II (ROCK-II), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) were studied in cortex and hippocampus. STZ caused significant cognitive impairment as compared to normal control. Chronic administration of taurine attenuated STZ-induced cognitive impairment. Increased oxidative stress and increased levels of TNF-α, IL-1β induced by STZ were also significantly attenuated by taurine. Taurine significantly (p taurine. STZ decreased the expression of ChAT in hippocampus which was significantly (p taurine. However, GSK-3β expression was not altered by either STZ or taurine. The present study indicates that taurine exerts a neuroprotective role against STZ-induced cognitive impairment in rats. This effect is probably mediated by modulating oxidative stress, cholinesterases, inflammatory cytokines and expression of ROCK-II. Thus, this study suggests a potential of chronic taurine administration in cognitive impairment of Alzheimer's type. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Input-Output Relationship of the Cholinergic Basal Forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Gielow

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons influence cortical state, plasticity, learning, and attention. They collectively innervate the entire cerebral cortex, differentially controlling acetylcholine efflux across different cortical areas and timescales. Such control might be achieved by differential inputs driving separable cholinergic outputs, although no input-output relationship on a brain-wide level has ever been demonstrated. Here, we identify input neurons to cholinergic cells projecting to specific cortical regions by infecting cholinergic axon terminals with a monosynaptically restricted viral tracer. This approach revealed several circuit motifs, such as central amygdala neurons synapsing onto basolateral amygdala-projecting cholinergic neurons or strong somatosensory cortical input to motor cortex-projecting cholinergic neurons. The presence of input cells in the parasympathetic midbrain nuclei contacting frontally projecting cholinergic neurons suggest that the network regulating the inner eye muscles are additionally regulating cortical state via acetylcholine efflux. This dataset enables future circuit-level experiments to identify drivers of known cortical cholinergic functions.

  13. Is epicardial adipose tissue, another measure of central obesity, correlated with erectile dysfunction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Tsao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigated the correlation between epicardial adipose tissue (EAT, a measure of central obesity, and sexual function in males with vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (ED. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study of selected males with ED aged <75 years who attended the Urology Outpatient Department of Tri-Service General Hospital. Sixty subjects were included in the study, which employed biochemical data, anthropometric indexes, echocardiography, and questionnaires. Biochemical lipid profiles and associated inflammation markers were recorded. The anthropometric indexes included general and central obesity and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Echocardiography results were assessed by a single experienced cardiologist and included epicardial and pericardial fat thickness measurements. Sexual function was evaluated using the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5 score. Results: According to the analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression, only the erectile hardness score (EHS was statistically positively correlated with the IIEF-5 score. All other anthropometric indexes and echocardiography parameters, including EAT thickness, pericardial adipose tissue thickness, and ejection fraction (EF, were not significantly associated with sexual function. Conclusions: Only EHS was statistically associated with sexual function in the male subjects with ED. The anthropometric indexes and EAT thickness, a measure of central obesity, were not significantly correlated with sexual function in the male patients with ED.

  14. Brain Cholinergic Function and Response to Rivastigmine in Patients With Chronic Sequels of Traumatic Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östberg, Anna; Virta, Jere; Rinne, Juha O

    2018-01-01

    subjects for more than 1 year after at least moderate traumatic brain injury. Ten of the subjects were respondents and 7 nonrespondents to cholinergic medication. DESIGN:: Cholinergic function was assessed with [methyl-C] N-methylpiperidyl-4-acetate-PET (C-MP4A-PET), which reflects the activity...... was notably lower throughout the cortex in both respondents and nonrespondents, without significant differences between them. CONCLUSION:: Our study suggests that frontal cholinergic dysfunction is associated with the clinical response to cholinergic stimulation in patients with traumatic brain injury....

  15. Cholinergic imaging in dementia spectrum disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Roman; Niccolini, Flavia; Pagano, Gennaro; Politis, Marios

    2016-01-01

    The multifaceted nature of the pathology of dementia spectrum disorders has complicated their management and the development of effective treatments. This is despite the fact that they are far from uncommon, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) alone affecting 35 million people worldwide. The cholinergic system has been found to be crucially involved in cognitive function, with cholinergic dysfunction playing a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of dementia. The use of molecular imaging such as SPECT and PET for tagging targets within the cholinergic system has shown promise for elucidating key aspects of underlying pathology in dementia spectrum disorders, including AD or parkinsonian dementias. SPECT and PET studies using selective radioligands for cholinergic markers, such as [ 11 C]MP4A and [ 11 C]PMP PET for acetylcholinesterase (AChE), [ 123 I]5IA SPECT for the α 4 β 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and [ 123 I]IBVM SPECT for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, have been developed in an attempt to clarify those aspects of the diseases that remain unclear. This has led to a variety of findings, such as cortical AChE being significantly reduced in Parkinson's disease (PD), PD with dementia (PDD) and AD, as well as correlating with certain aspects of cognitive function such as attention and working memory. Thalamic AChE is significantly reduced in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy, whilst it is not affected in PD. Some of these findings have brought about suggestions for the improvement of clinical practice, such as the use of a thalamic/cortical AChE ratio to differentiate between PD and PSP, two diseases that could overlap in terms of initial clinical presentation. Here, we review the findings from molecular imaging studies that have investigated the role of the cholinergic system in dementia spectrum disorders. (orig.)

  16. Cholinergic imaging in dementia spectrum disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Roman; Niccolini, Flavia; Pagano, Gennaro; Politis, Marios [Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King' s College London, Neurodegeneration Imaging Group, Department of Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-15

    The multifaceted nature of the pathology of dementia spectrum disorders has complicated their management and the development of effective treatments. This is despite the fact that they are far from uncommon, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) alone affecting 35 million people worldwide. The cholinergic system has been found to be crucially involved in cognitive function, with cholinergic dysfunction playing a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of dementia. The use of molecular imaging such as SPECT and PET for tagging targets within the cholinergic system has shown promise for elucidating key aspects of underlying pathology in dementia spectrum disorders, including AD or parkinsonian dementias. SPECT and PET studies using selective radioligands for cholinergic markers, such as [{sup 11}C]MP4A and [{sup 11}C]PMP PET for acetylcholinesterase (AChE), [{sup 123}I]5IA SPECT for the α{sub 4}β{sub 2} nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and [{sup 123}I]IBVM SPECT for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, have been developed in an attempt to clarify those aspects of the diseases that remain unclear. This has led to a variety of findings, such as cortical AChE being significantly reduced in Parkinson's disease (PD), PD with dementia (PDD) and AD, as well as correlating with certain aspects of cognitive function such as attention and working memory. Thalamic AChE is significantly reduced in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy, whilst it is not affected in PD. Some of these findings have brought about suggestions for the improvement of clinical practice, such as the use of a thalamic/cortical AChE ratio to differentiate between PD and PSP, two diseases that could overlap in terms of initial clinical presentation. Here, we review the findings from molecular imaging studies that have investigated the role of the cholinergic system in dementia spectrum disorders. (orig.)

  17. Nematode cholinergic pharmacology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segerberg, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Nematode acetylcholine (ACh) receptors were characterized using both biochemical and electrophysiological techniques, including: (1) receptor binding studies in crude homogenates of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Ascaris lumbricoides with the high-affinity probe [ 3 H]N-methylscopolamine ([ 3 H]NMS) which binds to muscarinic receptors in many vertebrate and invertebrate tissues (2) measurement of depolarization and contraction induced by a variety of cholinergic agents, including N-methylscopolamine (NMS), in an innervated dorsal muscle strip preparation of Ascaris; (3) examination of the antagonistic actions of d-tubocurarine (dTC) and NMS at dorsal neuromuscular junction; (4) measurement of input resistance changes in Ascaris commissural motorneurons induced by ACh, dTC, NMS, pilocarpine and other cholinergic drugs

  18. Pathways of acetylcholine synthesis, transport and release as targets for treatment of adult-onset cognitive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenta, F; Tayebati, S K

    2008-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter widely diffused in central, peripheral, autonomic and enteric nervous system. This paper has reviewed the main mechanisms of ACh synthesis, storage, and release. Presynaptic choline transport supports ACh production and release, and cholinergic terminals express a unique transporter critical for neurotransmitter release. Neurons cannot synthesize choline, which is ultimately derived from the diet and is delivered through the blood stream. ACh released from cholinergic synapses is hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterase into choline and acetyl coenzyme A and almost 50% of choline derived from ACh hydrolysis is recovered by a high-affinity choline transporter. Parallel with the development of cholinergic hypothesis of geriatric memory dysfunction, cholinergic precursor loading strategy was tried for treating cognitive impairment occurring in Alzheimer's disease. Controlled clinical studies denied clinical usefulness of choline and lecithin (phosphatidylcholine), whereas for other phospholipids involved in choline biosynthetic pathways such as cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) or alpha-glyceryl-phosphorylcholine (choline alphoscerate) a modest improvement of cognitive dysfunction in adult-onset dementia disorders is documented. These inconsistencies have probably a metabolic explanation. Free choline administration increases brain choline availability but it does not increase ACh synthesis/or release. Cholinergic precursors to serve for ACh biosynthesis should be incorporate and stored into phospholipids in brain. It is probable that appropriate ACh precursors and other correlated molecules (natural or synthesized) could represent a tool for developing therapeutic strategies by revisiting and updating treatments/supplementations coming out from this therapeutic stalemate.

  19. Hypothalamic pituitary dysfunction in acute nonmycobacterial infections of central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh K Dhanwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Acute and chronic central nervous system (CNS infections are not uncommon in tropical countries and are associated with high morbidity and mortality if specific targeted therapy is not instituted in time. Effects of tubercular meningitis, a form of chronic meningitis on hypothalamic pituitary axis, are well known both at the time of diagnosis and after few months to years of illness. However, there are few reports of pituitary dysfunction in subjects with acute CNS infections. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating the pituitary hormonal profile in patients with nonmycobacterial acute meningitis at the time of presentation. Materials and Methods: This prospective case series study included 30 untreated adult patients with acute meningitis, meningoencephalitis, or encephalitis, due to various nonmycobacterial agents, admitted and registered with Lok Nayak Hospital, Maulana Aazd Medical College, New Delhi, between September 2007 and March 2009. Patients with preexisting endocrine diseases, tubercular meningitis and patients on steroids were carefully excluded from the study. The basal pituitary hormonal profile was measured by the electrochemilumniscence technique for serum cortisol, luetinizing hormone (LH, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH, prolactin (PRL, thyrotropin (TSH, free tri-iodothyronine (fT3, and free thyroxine (fT4. Results: The cases (n = 30 comprised of patients with acute pyogenic meningitis (n = 23, viral meningoencephalitis (n = 4, brain abscess (n = 2, and cryptococcal meningitis (n = 1. The mean age of patients was 28.97 ± 11.306 years. Out of 30 patients, 14 (46.7% were males and 16 (58.1% were females. Adrenal insufficiency both absolute and relative was seen in seven (23.3% and hyperprolactinemia was seen in nine (30.0% of the patients. One study subject had central hypothyroidism and seven (23.3 showed low levels of LH and/or FSH. None of patients showed clinical features suggestive of

  20. Cortical cholinergic deficiency enhances amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the accumbens but not striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Anna; Olson, Lars; Svensson, Torgny H; Schilström, Björn

    2007-11-01

    Cholinergic dysfunction has been implicated as a putative contributing factor in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Recently, we showed that cholinergic denervation of the neocortex in adult rats leads to a marked increase in the behavioral response to amphetamine. The main objective of this study was to investigate if the enhanced locomotor response to amphetamine seen after cortical cholinergic denervation was paralleled by an increased amphetamine-induced release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and/or striatum. The corticopetal cholinergic projections were lesioned by intraparenchymal infusion of 192 IgG-saporin into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis of adult rats. Amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens or striatum was monitored by in vivo microdialysis 2 to 3 weeks after lesioning. We found that cholinergic denervation of the rat neocortex leads to a significantly increased amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Interestingly, the cholinergic lesion did not affect amphetamine-induced release of dopamine in the striatum. The enhanced amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens in the cholinergically denervated rats could be reversed by administration of the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine, but not nicotine, prior to the amphetamine challenge, suggesting that loss of muscarinic receptor stimulation is likely to have caused the observed effect. The results suggest that abnormal responsiveness of dopamine neurons can be secondary to cortical cholinergic deficiency. This, in turn, might be of relevance for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and provides a possible link between cholinergic disturbances and alteration of dopamine transmission.

  1. Motor dysfunction of complex regional pain syndrome is related to impaired central processing of proprioceptive information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Paulina J M; Peper, C Lieke E; Marinus, Johan; Beek, Peter J; van Hilten, Jacobus J

    2013-11-01

    Our understanding of proprioceptive deficits in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and its potential contribution to impaired motor function is still limited. To gain more insight into these issues, we evaluated accuracy and precision of joint position sense over a range of flexion-extension angles of the wrist of the affected and unaffected sides in 25 chronic CRPS patients and in 50 healthy controls. The results revealed proprioceptive impairment at both the patients' affected and unaffected sides, characterized predominantly by overestimation of wrist extension angles. Precision of the position estimates was more prominently reduced at the affected side. Importantly, group differences in proprioceptive performance were observed not only for tests at identical percentages of each individual's range of wrist motion but also when controls were tested at wrist angles that corresponded to those of the patient's affected side. More severe motor impairment of the affected side was associated with poorer proprioceptive performance. Based on additional sensory tests, variations in proprioceptive performance over the range of wrist angles, and comparisons between active and passive displacements, the disturbances of proprioceptive performance most likely resulted from altered processing of afferent (and not efferent) information and its subsequent interpretation in the context of a distorted "body schema." The present results point at a significant role for impaired central processing of proprioceptive information in the motor dysfunction of CRPS and suggest that therapeutic strategies aimed at identification of proprioceptive impairments and their restoration may promote the recovery of motor function in CRPS patients. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cholinergic connectivity: it’s implications for psychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eScarr

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine has been implicated in both the pathophysiology and treatment of a number of psychiatric disorders, with most of the data related to its role and therapeutic potential focussing on schizophrenia. However, there is little thought given to the consequences of the documented changes in the cholinergic system and how they may affect the functioning of the brain. This review looks at the cholinergic system and its interactions with the intrinsic neurotransmitters glutamate and gamma-amino butyric acid as well as those with the projection neurotransmitters most implicated in the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders; dopamine and serotonin. In addition, with the recent focus on the role of factors normally associated with inflammation in the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders, links between the cholinergic system and these factors will also be examined. These interfaces are put into context, primarily for schizophrenia, by looking at the changes in each of these systems in the disorder and exploring, theoretically, whether the changes are interconnected with those seen in the cholinergic system. Thus, this review will provide a comprehensive overview of the connectivity between the cholinergic system and some of the major areas of research into the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders, resulting in a critical appraisal of the potential outcomes of a dysregulated central cholinergic system.

  3. The Cholinergic System Modulates Memory and Hippocampal Plasticity via Its Interactions with Non-Neuronal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara V. Maurer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Degeneration of central cholinergic neurons impairs memory, and enhancement of cholinergic synapses improves cognitive processes. Cholinergic signaling is also anti-inflammatory, and neuroinflammation is increasingly linked to adverse memory, especially in Alzheimer’s disease. Much of the evidence surrounding cholinergic impacts on the neuroimmune system focuses on the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh receptor, as stimulation of this receptor prevents many of the effects of immune activation. Microglia and astrocytes both express this receptor, so it is possible that some cholinergic effects may be via these non-neuronal cells. Though the presence of microglia is required for memory, overactivated microglia due to an immune challenge overproduce inflammatory cytokines, which is adverse for memory. Blocking these exaggerated effects, specifically by decreasing the release of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin 1β (IL-1β, and interleukin 6 (IL-6, has been shown to prevent inflammation-induced memory impairment. While there is considerable evidence that cholinergic signaling improves memory, fewer studies have linked the “cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway” to memory processes. This review will summarize the current understanding of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway as it relates to memory and will argue that one mechanism by which the cholinergic system modulates hippocampal memory processes is its influence on neuroimmune function via the α7 nicotinic ACh receptor.

  4. Cholinergic Inputs from Basal Forebrain Add an Excitatory Bias to Odor Coding in the Olfactory Bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Markus; Carey, Ryan M.; Puche, Adam; Shipley, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Cholinergic modulation of central circuits is associated with active sensation, attention, and learning, yet the neural circuits and temporal dynamics underlying cholinergic effects on sensory processing remain unclear. Understanding the effects of cholinergic modulation on particular circuits is complicated by the widespread projections of cholinergic neurons to telencephalic structures that themselves are highly interconnected. Here we examined how cholinergic projections from basal forebrain to the olfactory bulb (OB) modulate output from the first stage of sensory processing in the mouse olfactory system. By optogenetically activating their axons directly in the OB, we found that cholinergic projections from basal forebrain regulate OB output by increasing the spike output of presumptive mitral/tufted cells. Cholinergic stimulation increased mitral/tufted cell spiking in the absence of inhalation-driven sensory input and further increased spiking responses to inhalation of odorless air and to odorants. This modulation was rapid and transient, was dependent on local cholinergic signaling in the OB, and differed from modulation by optogenetic activation of cholinergic neurons in basal forebrain, which led to a mixture of mitral/tufted cell excitation and suppression. Finally, bulbar cholinergic enhancement of mitral/tufted cell odorant responses was robust and occurred independent of the strength or even polarity of the odorant-evoked response, indicating that cholinergic modulation adds an excitatory bias to mitral/tufted cells as opposed to increasing response gain or sharpening response spectra. These results are consistent with a role for the basal forebrain cholinergic system in dynamically regulating the sensitivity to or salience of odors during active sensing of the olfactory environment. PMID:24672011

  5. Percutaneous endoscopic sigmoid colostomy for irrigation in the management of bowel dysfunction of adults with central neurologic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramwell, A; Rice-Oxley, M; Bond, A; Simson, J N L

    2011-10-01

    Bowel dysfunction results in a major lifestyle disruption for many patients with severe central neurologic disease. Percutaneous endoscopic sigmoid colostomy for irrigation (PESCI) allows antegrade irrigation of the distal large bowel for the management of both incontinence and constipation. This study prospectively assessed the safety and efficacy of PESCI. A PESCI tube was placed endoscopically in the sigmoid colon of 25 patients to allow antegrade irrigation. Control of constipation and fecal incontinence was improved for 21 (84%) of the 25 patients. These patients were followed up for 6-83 months (mean, 43 months), with long-term success for 19 (90%) of the patients. No PESCI had to be removed for technical reasons or for PESCI complications. Late removal of the PESCI was necessary for 2 of the 21 patients. A modified St. Marks Fecal Incontinence Score to assess bowel function before and after PESCI showed a highly significant improvement (P irrigation in the management bowel dysfunction for selected patients with central neurologic disease. A successful PESCI is very likely to continue functioning satisfactorily for a long time without technical problems or local complications.

  6. Cytosolic triglycerides and oxidative stress in central obesity : the missing link between excessive atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and beta-cell failure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, SJL; IJzerman, RG; Teerlink, T; Westerhoff, HV; Gans, ROB; Heine, RJ

    Central obesity is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here we present a hypothesis that may explain the excess atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction and progressive beta-cell failure. Central obesity is associated with increased cytosolic

  7. Central nervous system dysfunction associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever infection in five dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikszewski, Jessica S; Vite, Charles H

    2005-01-01

    Five dogs from the northeastern United States were presented with clinical signs of neurological disease associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) infection. Four of the five dogs had vestibular system dysfunction. Other neurological signs included paresis, tremors, and changes in mentation. All of the dogs had an elevated indirect fluorescent antibody titer or a positive semiquantitative enzyme screening immunoassay titer for Rickettsia rickettsii at the time of presentation. Although a higher mortality rate has been reported for dogs with neurological symptoms and RMSF infection, all of the dogs in this study improved with appropriate medical therapy and supportive care.

  8. [Modulation of the cholinergic system during inflammation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezhinskaia, G I; Vladykin, A L; Sapronov, N S

    2008-01-01

    This review describes the effects of realization of the central and peripheral "cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway" in a model of endotoxic and anaphylactic shock. Under endotoxic shock conditions, a pharmacological correction by means of the central m-cholinomimetic action (electrical stimulation of the distal ends of nervus vagus after bilateral cervical vagotomy, surgical implantation of the stimulant devise, activation of efferent vagal neurons by means of muscarinic agonist) is directed toward the elimination of LPS-induced hypotension. During the anaphylaxis, peripheral effects of the cholinergic system induced by blocking m-AChR on the target cells (neuronal and non-neuronal lung cells) and acetylcholinesterase inhibition are related to suppression of the bronchoconstrictor response. The role of immune system in the pathogenesis of endotoxic shock is associated with the production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages, increase in IgM concentration, and complement activation, while the role in the pathogenesis of anaphylactic shock is associated with IgE, IgG1 augmentation. Effects of B cell stimulation may be important in hypoxia and in the prophylaxis of stress ulcers and other diseases. Plasma proteins can influence the effects of the muscarinic antagonist methacine: IgG enhance its action while albumin and CRP abolish it.

  9. Study of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in recently diagnosed hypertensives in Central Nepal

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    Shankar Laudari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available CORRECTION: The conclusion on the PDF of this article was replaced on 17th April 2016. The corrected PDF is now available by clicking on the link below.Background & Objectives: Ectopic Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is now well established as a cause of left sided heart failure and as a powerful predictor of cardiovascular events. It is attributed mostly to systemic hypertension. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in recently diagnosed hypertensives in Nepalese population using echocardiography. Materials & Methods: Two-dimensional echocardiography was performed on 120 newly diagnosed patients of systemic hypertension. Transmitral Doppler indexes of diastolic function, Valsalva maneuver applied to the same mitral inflow pattern, pulsed tissue Doppler of the mitral annulus, deceleration time, isovolumic relaxation time and pulmonary venous flow pattern.Results: The age of the patients in our study ranged from 20 to 84 years with mean age of 50years±14.13 years (standard deviation and male:female ratio being 1.35:1. Hypertensive patients were highest in age group 45-64 years followed by 25-44 years in both the genders. Majority of the patients had stage 1 hypertension (44.16% followed by stage 2 HTN in 34.17% and pre-hypertension in 21.67%. The majority of the patients in our study had Grade 1 LVDD (66.67%, 10.83% patients had Grade II LVDD, only 2.50% had non-restrictive Grade III LVDD and none had LVDD-IV. Stage II hypertensives had more LVDD(I+II+III: 39/41-95.12% than stage I hypertensives(39/53-73.58% and pre-hypertensives (8/26-30.77%. The association between stages of systemic HTN and LVDD was found to be highly statistically significant (p=0.002. Conclusion: Our study showed that left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is a common entity in Nepalese population with systemic hypertension.JCMS Nepal. 2016;12(1:14-18.

  10. Cholinergic modulation of mesolimbic dopamine function and reward.

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    Mark, Gregory P; Shabani, Shkelzen; Dobbs, Lauren K; Hansen, Stephen T

    2011-07-25

    The substantial health risk posed by obesity and compulsive drug use has compelled a serious research effort to identify the neurobiological substrates that underlie the development these pathological conditions. Despite substantial progress, an understanding of the neurochemical systems that mediate the motivational aspects of drug-seeking and craving remains incomplete. Important work from the laboratory of Bart Hoebel has provided key information on neurochemical systems that interact with dopamine (DA) as potentially important components in both the development of addiction and the expression of compulsive behaviors such as binge eating. One such modulatory system appears to be cholinergic pathways that interact with DA systems at all levels of the reward circuit. Cholinergic cells in the pons project to DA-rich cell body regions in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantial nigra (SN) where they modulate the activity of dopaminergic neurons and reward processing. The DA terminal region of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) contains a small but particularly important group of cholinergic interneurons, which have extensive dendritic arbors that make synapses with a vast majority of NAc neurons and afferents. Together with acetylcholine (ACh) input onto DA cell bodies, cholinergic systems could serve a vital role in gating information flow concerning the motivational value of stimuli through the mesolimbic system. In this report we highlight evidence that CNS cholinergic systems play a pivotal role in behaviors that are motivated by both natural and drug rewards. We argue that the search for underlying neurochemical substrates of compulsive behaviors, as well as attempts to identify potential pharmacotherapeutic targets to combat them, must include a consideration of central cholinergic systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cholinergic signalling in gut immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhawan, Shobhit; Cailotto, Cathy; Harthoorn, Lucien F.; de Jonge, Wouter J.

    2012-01-01

    The gut immune system shares many signalling molecules and receptors with the autonomic nervous system. A good example is the vagal neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), for which many immune cell types express cholinergic receptors (AChR). In the last decade the vagal nerve has emerged as an

  12. Detection of hand and leg motor tract injury using novel diffusion tensor MRI tractography in children with central motor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jeong-Won; Lee, Jessica; Kamson, David O; Chugani, Harry T; Juhász, Csaba

    2015-09-01

    To examine whether an objective segmenation of corticospinal tract (CST) associated with hand and leg movements can be used to detect central motor weakness in the corresponding extremities in a pediatric population. This retrospective study included diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of 25 children with central paresis affecting at least one limb (age: 9.0±4.2years, 15 boys, 5/13/7 children with left/right/both hemispheric lesions including ischemia, cyst, and gliosis), as well as 42 pediatric control subjects with no motor dysfunction (age: 9.0±5.5years, 21 boys, 31 healthy/11 non-lesional epilepsy children). Leg- and hand-related CST pathways were segmented using DTI-maximum a posteriori (DTI-MAP) classification. The resulting CST volumes were then divided by total supratentorial white matter volume, resulting in a marker called "normalized streamline volume ratio (NSVR)" to quantify the degree of axonal loss in separate CST pathways associated with leg and hand motor functions. A receiver operating characteristic curve was applied to measure the accuracy of this marker to identify extremities with motor weakness. NSVR values of hand/leg CST selectively achieved the following values of accuracy/sensitivity/specificity: 0.84/0.84/0.57, 0.82/0.81/0.55, 0.78/0.75/0.55, 0.79/0.81/0.54 at a cut-off of 0.03/0.03/0.03/0.02 for right hand CST, left hand CST, right leg CST, and left leg CST, respectively. Motor weakness of hand and leg was most likely present at the cut-off values of hand and leg NSVR (i.e., 0.029/0.028/0.025/0.020 for left-hand/right-hand/left-leg/right-leg). The control group showed a moderate age-related increase in absolute CST volumes and a biphasic age-related variation of the normalized CST volumes, which were lacking in the paretic children. This study demonstrates that DTI-MAP classification may provide a new imaging tool to quantify axonal loss in children with central motor dysfunction. Using this technique, we found that early-life brain

  13. Cholinergic systems are essential for late-stage maturation and refinement of motor cortical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Dhakshin S.; Conner, James M.; Anilkumar, Arjun A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies reported that early postnatal cholinergic lesions severely perturb early cortical development, impairing neuronal cortical migration and the formation of cortical dendrites and synapses. These severe effects of early postnatal cholinergic lesions preclude our ability to understand the contribution of cholinergic systems to the later-stage maturation of topographic cortical representations. To study cholinergic mechanisms contributing to the later maturation of motor cortical circuits, we first characterized the temporal course of cortical motor map development and maturation in rats. In this study, we focused our attention on the maturation of cortical motor representations after postnatal day 25 (PND 25), a time after neuronal migration has been accomplished and cortical volume has reached adult size. We found significant maturation of cortical motor representations after this time, including both an expansion of forelimb representations in motor cortex and a shift from proximal to distal forelimb representations to an extent unexplainable by simple volume enlargement of the neocortex. Specific cholinergic lesions placed at PND 24 impaired enlargement of distal forelimb representations in particular and markedly reduced the ability to learn skilled motor tasks as adults. These results identify a novel and essential role for cholinergic systems in the late refinement and maturation of cortical circuits. Dysfunctions in this system may constitute a mechanism of late-onset neurodevelopmental disorders such as Rett syndrome and schizophrenia. PMID:25505106

  14. Prevalence and determinants of erectile dysfunction among diabetic patients attending in hospitals of central and northwestern zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Awole; Gerensea, Hadgu; Tarko, Shambel; Zenebe, Yosef; Mezemir, Rahel

    2017-03-15

    The prevalence of erectile dysfunction among diabetic men varies between 35-90%. Although erectile dysfunction is widespread among men with diabetes, the condition often remains undiagnosed and demands appropriate assessment and prompt treatment. Erectile dysfunction can affect all aspects of a patient's life including physical, emotional, social, sexual, and relationships. The main aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and determinants of erectile dysfunction among diabetic patients attending hospitals in the Central and Northwest zone of Tigray, Ethiopia. A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted on 249 male diabetic patients attending five hospitals in the Central and Northwestern Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia using systematic random sampling. The data was collected from January 1 - February 30, 2016 and was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Correlation and multivariate logistic regression was employed to test associations between independent and outcome variables. The mean age of study participants was 43.39 years and the mean duration of diabetes diagnosis was 6.22 years. The overall prevalence of erectile dysfunction was 69.9%, with 32.9% suffering from mild, 31.7% moderate, and 5.2% severe erectile dysfunction. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that erective dysfunction was significantly predicted by old age (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] =15.013, CI:3.212-70.166), longer duration of diabetes (AOR = 3.77, CI:1.291-11.051), and lower monthly income (AOR = 0.285, CI:0.132-0.615). No association was found with body mass index, co-morbidity, glycemic control, and alcohol consumption. The prevalence of erective dysfunction in this study population was very high. Age, income, and duration of diabetes were the independent predictors of erectile dysfunction. Nearly all of the patients in the sample (97%) had not been screened or treated for erectile dysfunction. Assessment and management of erectile dysfunction in the

  15. A cholinergic hypothesis of the unconscious in affective disorders.

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    Costa eVakalopoulos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between distinct pharmacological systems are proposed as a key dynamic in the formation of unconscious memories underlying rumination and mood disorder, but also reflect the plastic capacity of neural networks that can aid recovery. An inverse and reciprocal relationship is postulated between cholinergic and monoaminergic receptor subtypes. M1-type muscarinic receptor transduction facilitates encoding of unconscious, prepotent behavioural repertoires at the core of affective disorders and ADHD. Behavioural adaptation to new contingencies is mediated by the classic prototype receptor: 5-HT1A (Gi/o and its modulation of m1-plasticity. Reversal of learning is dependent on increased phasic activation of midbrain monoaminergic nuclei and is a function of hippocampal theta. Acquired hippocampal dysfunction due to abnormal activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis predicts deficits in hippocampal-dependent memory and executive function and further impairments to cognitive inhibition. Encoding of explicit memories is mediated by Gq/11 and Gs signalling of monoamines only. A role is proposed for the phasic activation of the basal forebrain cholinergic nucleus by cortical projections from the complex consisting of the insula and claustrum. Although controversial. recent studies suggest a common ontogenetic origin of the two structures and a functional coupling. Lesions of the region result in loss of motivational behaviour and familiarity based judgements. A major hypothesis of the paper is that these lost faculties result indirectly, from reduced cholinergic tone.

  16. Central-Approach Surgical Repair of Coarctation of the Aorta with a Back-up Left Ventricular Assist Device for an Infant Presenting with Severe Left Ventricular Dysfunction

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    Tae Hoon Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A two-month-old infant presented with coarctation of the aorta, severe left ventricular dysfunction, and moderate to severe mitral regurgitation. Through median sternotomy, the aortic arch was repaired under cardiopulmonary bypass and regional cerebral perfusion. The patient was postoperatively supported with a left ventricular assist device for five days. Left ventricular function gradually improved, eventually recovering with the concomitant regression of mitral regurgitation. Prompt surgical repair of coarctation of the aorta is indicated for patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction. A central approach for surgical repair with a back-up left ventricular assist device is a safe and effective treatment strategy for these patients.

  17. Central-Approach Surgical Repair of Coarctation of the Aorta with a Back-up Left Ventricular Assist Device for an Infant Presenting with Severe Left Ventricular Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Shin, Yu Rim; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Do Jung; Kim, Hyohyun; Shin, Hong Ju; Htut, Aung Thein; Park, Han Ki

    2015-12-01

    A two-month-old infant presented with coarctation of the aorta, severe left ventricular dysfunction, and moderate to severe mitral regurgitation. Through median sternotomy, the aortic arch was repaired under cardiopulmonary bypass and regional cerebral perfusion. The patient was postoperatively supported with a left ventricular assist device for five days. Left ventricular function gradually improved, eventually recovering with the concomitant regression of mitral regurgitation. Prompt surgical repair of coarctation of the aorta is indicated for patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction. A central approach for surgical repair with a back-up left ventricular assist device is a safe and effective treatment strategy for these patients.

  18. Impact of quality management monitoring and intervention on central venous catheter dysfunction in the outpatient chemotherapy infusion setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Anu; Binkert, Christoph A; Robinson, Malcolm K; Shulman, Lawrence N; Pellerin, Linda; Davison, Brian

    2008-08-01

    To assess the utility of maintaining and analyzing a quality-management database while investigating a subjectively perceived increase in the incidence of tunneled catheter and port dysfunction in a cohort of oncology outpatients. All 152 patients undergoing lytic therapy (2-4 mg alteplase) of a malfunctioning indwelling central venous catheter (CVC) from January through June 2004 at a single cancer center in the United States were included in a quality-management database. Patients were categorized by time to device failure and the initial method of catheter placement (surgery vs interventional radiology). Data were analyzed after 3 months, and areas of possible improvement were identified and acted upon. Three months of follow-up data were then collected and similarly analyzed. In a 6-month period, 152 patients treated for catheter malfunction received a total of 276 doses of lytic therapy. A 3-month interim analysis revealed a disproportionately high rate (34%) of early catheter malfunction (ECM; <30 days from placement). Postplacement radiographs demonstrated suboptimal catheter positioning in 67% of these patients, all of whom had surgical catheter placement. There was a 50% absolute decrease in the number of patients presenting with catheter malfunction in the period from April through June (P < .001). Evaluation of postplacement radiographs in these patients demonstrated a 50% decrease in the incidence of suboptimal positioning (P < .05). Suboptimal positioning was likely responsible for some, but not all, cases of ECM. Maintenance of a quality-management database is a relatively simple intervention that can have a clear and important impact on the quality and cost of patient care.

  19. Evaluating the evidence surrounding pontine cholinergic involvement in REM sleep generation

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    Kevin P Grace

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep - characterized by vivid dreaming, motor paralysis, and heightened neural activity - is one of the fundamental states of the mammalian central nervous system. Initial theories of rapid eye movement (REM sleep generation posited that induction of the state required activation of the ‘pontine REM sleep generator’ by cholinergic inputs. Here we review and evaluate the evidence surrounding cholinergic involvement in REM sleep generation. We submit that: (i the capacity of pontine cholinergic neurotransmission to generate REM sleep has been firmly established by gain-of-function experiments, (ii the function of endogenous cholinergic input to REM sleep generating sites cannot be determined by gain-of-function experiments; rather, loss-of-function studies are required, (iii loss-of-function studies show that endogenous cholinergic input to the PFT is not required for REM sleep generation, and (iv Cholinergic input to the pontine REM sleep generating sites serve an accessory role in REM sleep generation: reinforcing non-REM-to-REM sleep transitions making them quicker and less likely to fail.

  20. Hypo Activity of Cholinergic System in Patients with Early Stage of Alzheimer's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidescu, L.; Codorean, I.; Matei, C.; Barret, O.; Mazere, J.; Guyot, M.; Rimbu, A.; Allard, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Objective A cholinergic dysfunction was documented in advanced stages of Alzheimer's disease. In order to specify the cholinergic involvement in early stages, we performed a presynaptic imaging study of the cholinergic system using a vesicular Acetylcholine transporter ligand labelled with iodine 123 ( 123 I-IBVM - Iodobenzovesamicol) Materials And Methods Eight patients (5 women and 3 men, 74-89 years, MMS>23) and 8 controls (6 women and 2 men, 72-80 years, MMS>30) have been evaluated using the neuropsychological tests; cerebral SPECT was performed 6 hours after intravenous injection of 218±19 MBq of 123 I - IBVM (30 min, 3 volume, 128x128) and the 3D MRI (T1 weighted images). Acquisition data were processed by filtered retroprojection (Butterworth 5.35) and analysed with SPM software. Each examination was co-registered with the MRI of the patient, normalised in the MNI template and smoothed (10mm). Results The analyse of the group (two sample T-test, p 123 I-IBVM has been detected in the patients group, compared to the control. Conclusions Our results indicate that cholinergic dysfunctions appear very early in the development of Alzheimer's disease and affect the cortical structures involved in the attention process. Some studies are in progress to analyze imaging data with cognitive impairments of each patient. (author)

  1. PET study of cholinergic system in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinotoh, Hitoshi [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-01-01

    Recently, we have developed a method to measure acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, a functional marker for cholinergic system, by positron emission tomography (PET) and carbon-11 labeled N-methyl-4-piperidyl acetate. Kinetic analysis of the radioactivity in the brain and the plasma yielded a rate constant ``k 3`` as an index of AChE activity. The ratios for the k 3 values for the cerebral cortex/thalamus/cerebellum/striatum found in healthy participants were 1/ 3/ 8/ 10, respectively, corresponding well with AChE activity ratios in the brain at necropsy (1/ 3/ 8/ 38), except for the striatum. In 23 healthy volunteers (age range: 24-89 years), there was no age-related decline of k 3 values in the cerebral cortex, suggesting AChE activity is preserved in aged cerebral cortex. In 11 patients with Alzheimer`s disease, there was a significant reduction (-24%) of k 3 values in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, suggesting a loss of ascending cholinergic system from the basal forebrain to the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In 16 patients with Parkinson`s disease, there was a significant reduction (-18%) of k 3 values in the cerebral cortex. In 10 patients with progressive supra nuclear palsy, there was a significant reduction (-38%) of k 3 values in the thalamus. This technique is useful for investigating central cholinergic system in neuro degenerative disorders with dementia. (author)

  2. PET study of cholinergic system in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinotoh, Hitoshi

    1999-01-01

    Recently, we have developed a method to measure acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, a functional marker for cholinergic system, by positron emission tomography (PET) and carbon-11 labeled N-methyl-4-piperidyl acetate. Kinetic analysis of the radioactivity in the brain and the plasma yielded a rate constant ''k 3'' as an index of AChE activity. The ratios for the k 3 values for the cerebral cortex/thalamus/cerebellum/striatum found in healthy participants were 1/ 3/ 8/ 10, respectively, corresponding well with AChE activity ratios in the brain at necropsy (1/ 3/ 8/ 38), except for the striatum. In 23 healthy volunteers (age range: 24-89 years), there was no age-related decline of k 3 values in the cerebral cortex, suggesting AChE activity is preserved in aged cerebral cortex. In 11 patients with Alzheimer's disease, there was a significant reduction (-24%) of k 3 values in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, suggesting a loss of ascending cholinergic system from the basal forebrain to the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In 16 patients with Parkinson's disease, there was a significant reduction (-18%) of k 3 values in the cerebral cortex. In 10 patients with progressive supra nuclear palsy, there was a significant reduction (-38%) of k 3 values in the thalamus. This technique is useful for investigating central cholinergic system in neuro degenerative disorders with dementia. (author)

  3. Cholinergic innervation of human mesenteric lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, V; Bianchi, E; Taurone, S; Mignini, F; Cavallotti, C; Artico, M

    2013-11-01

    The cholinergic neurotransmission within the human mesenteric lymphatic vessels has been poorly studied. Therefore, our aim is to analyse the cholinergic nerve fibres of lymphatic vessels using the traditional enzymatic techniques of staining, plus the biochemical modifications of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Specimens obtained from human mesenteric lymphatic vessels were subjected to the following experimental procedures: 1) drawing, cutting and staining of tissues; 2) staining of total nerve fibres; 3) enzymatic staining of cholinergic nerve fibres; 4) homogenisation of tissues; 5) biochemical amount of proteins; 6) biochemical amount of AChE activity; 6) quantitative analysis of images; 7) statistical analysis of data. The mesenteric lymphatic vessels show many AChE positive nerve fibres around their wall with an almost plexiform distribution. The incubation time was performed at 1 h (partial activity) and 6 h (total activity). Moreover, biochemical dosage of the same enzymatic activity confirms the results obtained with morphological methods. The homogenates of the studied tissues contain strong AChE activity. In our study, the lymphatic vessels appeared to contain few cholinergic nerve fibres. Therefore, it is expected that perivascular nerve stimulation stimulates cholinergic nerves innervating the mesenteric arteries to release the neurotransmitter AChE, which activates muscarinic or nicotinic receptors to modulate adrenergic neurotransmission. These results strongly suggest, that perivascular cholinergic nerves have little or no effect on the adrenergic nerve function in mesenteric arteries. The cholinergic nerves innervating mesenteric arteries do not mediate direct vascular responses.

  4. Dysfunctional Neurotransmitter Systems in Fibromyalgia, Their Role in Central Stress Circuitry and Pharmacological Actions on These Systems

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    Susanne Becker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is considered a stress-related disorder, and hypo- as well as hyperactive stress systems (sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis have been found. Some observations raise doubts on the view that alterations in these stress systems are solely responsible for fibromyalgia symptoms. Cumulative evidence points at dysfunctional transmitter systems that may underlie the major symptoms of the condition. In addition, all transmitter systems found to be altered in fibromyalgia influence the body's stress systems. Since both transmitter and stress systems change during chronic stress, it is conceivable that both systems change in parallel, interact, and contribute to the phenotype of fibromyalgia. As we outline in this paper, subgroups of patients might exhibit varying degrees and types of transmitter dysfunction, explaining differences in symptomatoloy and contributing to the heterogeneity of fibromyalgia. The finding that not all fibromyalgia patients respond to the same medications, targeting dysfunctional transmitter systems, further supports this hypothesis.

  5. Illuminating the role of cholinergic signaling in circuits of attention and emotionally salient behaviors

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    Antonio eLuchicchi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh signaling underlies specific aspects of cognitive functions and behaviors, including attention, learning, memory and motivation. Alterations in ACh signaling are involved in the pathophysiology of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders. In the central nervous system, ACh transmission is mainly guaranteed by dense innervation of select cortical and subcortical regions from disperse groups of cholinergic neurons within the basal forebrain (e.g. diagonal band, medial septal, nucleus basalis and the pontine-mesencephalic nuclei, respectively. Despite the fundamental role of cholinergic signaling in the CNS and the long standing knowledge of the organization of cholinergic circuitry, remarkably little is known about precisely how ACh release modulates cortical and subcortical neural activity and the behaviors these circuits subserve. Growing interest in cholinergic signaling in the CNS focuses on the mechanism(s of action by which endogenously released ACh regulates cognitive functions, acting as a neuromodulator and /or as a direct transmitter via nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. The development of optogenetic techniques has provided a valuable toolbox with which we can address these questions, as it allows the selective manipulation of the excitability of cholinergic inputs to the diverse array of cholinergic target fields within cortical and subcortical domains. Here, we review recent papers that use the light-sensitive opsins in the cholinergic system to elucidate the role of ACh in circuits related to attention and emotionally salient behaviors. In particular, we highlight recent optogenetic studies which have tried to disentangle the precise role of ACh in the modulation of cortical-, hippocampal- and striatal-dependent functions.

  6. Cholinergic Hypofunction in Presbycusis-Related Tinnitus With Cognitive Function Impairment: Emerging Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qingwei; Yu, Zhuowei; Zhang, Weibin; Ruan, Jian; Liu, Chunhui; Zhang, Ruxin

    2018-01-01

    Presbycusis (age-related hearing loss) is a potential risk factor for tinnitus and cognitive deterioration, which result in poor life quality. Presbycusis-related tinnitus with cognitive impairment is a common phenotype in the elderly population. In these individuals, the central auditory system shows similar pathophysiological alterations as those observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), including cholinergic hypofunction, epileptiform-like network synchronization, chronic inflammation, and reduced GABAergic inhibition and neural plasticity. Observations from experimental rodent models indicate that recovery of cholinergic function can improve memory and other cognitive functions via acetylcholine-mediated GABAergic inhibition enhancement, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated anti-inflammation, glial activation inhibition and neurovascular protection. The loss of cholinergic innervation of various brain structures may provide a common link between tinnitus seen in presbycusis-related tinnitus and age-related cognitive impairment. We hypothesize a key component of the condition is the withdrawal of cholinergic input to a subtype of GABAergic inhibitory interneuron, neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurogliaform cells. Cholinergic denervation might not only cause the degeneration of NPY neurogliaform cells, but may also result in decreased AChR activation in GABAergic inhibitory interneurons. This, in turn, would lead to reduced GABA release and inhibitory regulation of neural networks. Reduced nAChR-mediated anti-inflammation due to the loss of nicotinic innervation might lead to the transformation of glial cells and release of inflammatory mediators, lowering the buffering of extracellular potassium and glutamate metabolism. Further research will provide evidence for the recovery of cholinergic function with the use of cholinergic input enhancement alone or in combination with other rehabilitative interventions to reestablish inhibitory regulation mechanisms of

  7. Cholinergic Hypofunction in Presbycusis-Related Tinnitus With Cognitive Function Impairment: Emerging Hypotheses

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    Qingwei Ruan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Presbycusis (age-related hearing loss is a potential risk factor for tinnitus and cognitive deterioration, which result in poor life quality. Presbycusis-related tinnitus with cognitive impairment is a common phenotype in the elderly population. In these individuals, the central auditory system shows similar pathophysiological alterations as those observed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD, including cholinergic hypofunction, epileptiform-like network synchronization, chronic inflammation, and reduced GABAergic inhibition and neural plasticity. Observations from experimental rodent models indicate that recovery of cholinergic function can improve memory and other cognitive functions via acetylcholine-mediated GABAergic inhibition enhancement, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR-mediated anti-inflammation, glial activation inhibition and neurovascular protection. The loss of cholinergic innervation of various brain structures may provide a common link between tinnitus seen in presbycusis-related tinnitus and age-related cognitive impairment. We hypothesize a key component of the condition is the withdrawal of cholinergic input to a subtype of GABAergic inhibitory interneuron, neuropeptide Y (NPY neurogliaform cells. Cholinergic denervation might not only cause the degeneration of NPY neurogliaform cells, but may also result in decreased AChR activation in GABAergic inhibitory interneurons. This, in turn, would lead to reduced GABA release and inhibitory regulation of neural networks. Reduced nAChR-mediated anti-inflammation due to the loss of nicotinic innervation might lead to the transformation of glial cells and release of inflammatory mediators, lowering the buffering of extracellular potassium and glutamate metabolism. Further research will provide evidence for the recovery of cholinergic function with the use of cholinergic input enhancement alone or in combination with other rehabilitative interventions to reestablish inhibitory regulation

  8. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury, myelomeningocele, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard A Awad

    2011-01-01

    Exciting new features have been described concerning neurogenic bowel dysfunction, including interactions between the central nervous system, the enteric nervous system, axonal injury, neuronal loss, neurotransmission of noxious and non-noxious stimuli, and the fields of gastroenterology and neurology. Patients with spinal cord injury, myelomeningocele, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease present with serious upper and lower bowel dysfunctions characterized by constipation, incontinence, gastrointestinal motor dysfunction and altered visceral sensitivity. Spinal cord injury is associated with severe autonomic dysfunction, and bowel dysfunction is a major physical and psychological burden for these patients. An adult myelomeningocele patient commonly has multiple problems reflecting the multisystemic nature of the disease. Multiple sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disorder in which axonal injury, neuronal loss, and atrophy of the central nervous system can lead to permanent neurological damage and clinical disability. Parkinson's disease is a multisystem disorder involving dopaminergic, noradrenergic, serotoninergic and cholinergic systems, characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms. Parkinson's disease affects several neuronal structures outside the substantia nigra, among which is the enteric nervous system. Recent reports have shown that the lesions in the enteric nervous system occur in very early stages of the disease, even before the involvement of the central nervous system. This has led to the postulation that the enteric nervous system could be critical in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, as it could represent the point of entry for a putative environmental factor to initiate the pathological process. This review covers the data related to the etiology, epidemiology, clinical expression, pathophysiology, genetic aspects, gastrointestinal motor dysfunction, visceral sensitivity, management, prevention and prognosis of neurogenic bowel

  9. Intermittent hypoxia from obstructive sleep apnea may cause neuronal impairment and dysfunction in central nervous system: the potential roles played by microglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Q

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Qingchan Yang,1,* Yan Wang,2,* Jing Feng,2 Jie Cao,2 Baoyuan Chen2 1Graduate School of Tianjin Medical University, 2Respiratory Department, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common condition characterized by repetitive episodes of complete (apnea or partial (hypopnea obstruction of the upper airway during sleep, resulting in oxygen desaturation and arousal from sleep. Intermittent hypoxia (IH resulting from OSA may cause structural neuron damage and dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS. Clinically, it manifests as neurocognitive and behavioral deficits with oxidative stress and inflammatory impairment as its pathophysiological basis, which are mediated by microglia at the cellular level. Microglia are dominant proinflammatory cells in the CNS. They induce CNS oxidative stress and inflammation, mainly through mitochondria, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, and the release of excitatory toxic neurotransmitters. The balance between neurotoxic versus protective and anti- versus proinflammatory microglial factors might determine the final roles of microglia after IH exposure from OSA. Microglia inflammatory impairments will continue and cascade persistently upon activation, ultimately resulting in clinically significant neuron damage and dysfunction in the CNS. In this review article, we summarize the mechanisms of structural neuron damage in the CNS and its concomitant dysfunction due to IH from OSA, and the potential roles played by microglia in this process. Keywords: intermittent hypoxia, obstructive sleep apnea, microglia, inflammation, apoptosis

  10. A phase III, open-label, single-arm study of tenecteplase for restoration of function in dysfunctional central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbi, Cameron; Costanzi, John; Shulman, Robert; Dreisbach, Luke; Jacobs, Brian R; Blaney, Martha; Ashby, Mark; Gillespie, Barbara S; Begelman, Susan M

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate, in a phase III, single-arm study, the safety and efficacy of the thrombolytic agent tenecteplase in restoring function to dysfunctional central venous catheters (CVCs). Pediatric and adult patients with dysfunctional CVCs were eligible to receive as much as 2 mL (2 mg) of intraluminal tenecteplase, which was left to dwell in the CVC lumen for a maximum of 120 minutes. If CVC function was not restored at 120 minutes, a second dose was instilled for an additional 120 minutes. Tenecteplase was administered to 246 patients. Mean patient age was 44 years (range, 0-92 y); 72 patients (29%) were younger than 17 years of age. Chemotherapy was the most common reason for catheter insertion. Restoration of CVC function was achieved in 177 patients (72%) within 120 minutes after the first dose. After instillation of a maximum of two doses of tenecteplase, CVC function was restored in 200 patients (81%), with similar frequencies in pediatric (83%) and adult (80%) patients. Adverse events (AEs) were reported in 31 patients (13%); fever (2%), neutropenia (1%), and nausea (0.8%) were most common. One serious AE, an allergic hypersensitivity reaction, was judged to be related to tenecteplase and/or a chemotherapeutic agent that the patient was receiving concurrently. Consecutive administration of one or two doses of tenecteplase into CVCs showed efficacy in the restoration of catheter function in patients with dysfunctional CVCs. Copyright © 2011 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Reversal of androgen inhibition of estrogen-activated sexual behavior by cholinergic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohanich, G P; Cada, D A

    1989-12-01

    Androgens have been found to inhibit lordosis activated by estrogen treatment of ovariectomized female rats. In the present experiments, dihydrotestosterone propionate (200 micrograms for 3 days) inhibited the incidence of lordosis in ovariectomized females treated with estradiol benzoate (1 microgram for 3 days). This inhibition of lordosis was reversed 15 min after bilateral intraventricular infusion of physostigmine (10 micrograms/cannula), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, or carbachol (0.5 microgram/cannula), a cholinergic receptor agonist. This reversal of inhibition appears to be mediated by cholinergic muscarinic receptors since pretreatment with scopolamine (4 mg/kg, ip), a muscarinic receptor blocker, prevented the reversal of androgen inhibition by physostigmine. These results indicate that androgens may inhibit estrogen-activated lordosis through interference with central cholinergic muscarinic mechanisms.

  12. Urtica dioica leaves modulates muscarinic cholinergic system in the hippocampus of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Parashar, Arun; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder and has been associated with cognitive dysfunction. In our earlier study, chronic Urtica dioica (UD) treatment significantly ameliorated diabetes induced associative and spatial memory deficit in mice. The present study was designed to explore the effect of UD leaves extract on muscarinic cholinergic system, which has long been known to be involved in cognition. Streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg, i.p., consecutively for 5 days) was used to induce diabetes followed by treatment with UD extract (50 mg/kg, oral) or rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg, oral) for 8 weeks. STZ-induced diabetic mice showed significant reduction in hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-1 and choline acetyltransferase expressions. Chronic diabetes significantly up-regulated the protein expression of acetylcholinesterase associated with oxidative stress in hippocampus. Besides, STZ-induced diabetic mice showed hypolocomotion with up-regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-4 expression in striatum. Chronic UD treatment significantly attenuated the cholinergic dysfunction and oxidative stress in the hippocampus of diabetic mice. UD had no effect on locomotor activity and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-4 expression in striatum. In conclusion, UD leaves extract has potential to reverse diabetes mediated alteration in muscarinic cholinergic system in hippocampus and thereby improve memory functions.

  13. Cholinergic Modulation of Type 2 Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goele Bosmans

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the bidirectional relationship between the nervous and immune system has become increasingly clear, and its role in both homeostasis and inflammation has been well documented over the years. Since the introduction of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, there has been an increased interest in parasympathetic regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses, including T helper 2 responses. Increasing evidence has been emerging suggesting a role for the parasympathetic nervous system in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, food allergy, and atopic dermatitis. In this review, we will highlight the role of cholinergic modulation by both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in several key aspects of the allergic inflammatory response, including barrier function, innate and adaptive immune responses, and effector cells responses. A better understanding of these cholinergic processes mediating key aspects of type 2 immune disorders might lead to novel therapeutic approaches to treat allergic diseases.

  14. The cholinergic system, circadian rhythmicity, and time memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, R. A.; Van der Zee, E. A.

    2011-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the interaction between the mammalian cholinergic system and circadian system, and its possible role in time memory. Several studies made clear that circadian (daily) fluctuations in acetylcholine (ACh) release, cholinergic enzyme activity and cholinergic receptor

  15. Cholinergic modulation of cognition: Insights from human pharmacological functional neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Paul; Driver, Jon; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from lesion and cortical-slice studies implicate the neocortical cholinergic system in the modulation of sensory, attentional and memory processing. In this review we consider findings from sixty-three healthy human cholinergic functional neuroimaging studies that probe interactions of cholinergic drugs with brain activation profiles, and relate these to contemporary neurobiological models. Consistent patterns that emerge are: (1) the direction of cholinergic modulation of sensory cortex activations depends upon top-down influences; (2) cholinergic hyperstimulation reduces top-down selective modulation of sensory cortices; (3) cholinergic hyperstimulation interacts with task-specific frontoparietal activations according to one of several patterns, including: suppression of parietal-mediated reorienting; decreasing ‘effort’-associated activations in prefrontal regions; and deactivation of a ‘resting-state network’ in medial cortex, with reciprocal recruitment of dorsolateral frontoparietal regions during performance-challenging conditions; (4) encoding-related activations in both neocortical and hippocampal regions are disrupted by cholinergic blockade, or enhanced with cholinergic stimulation, while the opposite profile is observed during retrieval; (5) many examples exist of an ‘inverted-U shaped’ pattern of cholinergic influences by which the direction of functional neural activation (and performance) depends upon both task (e.g. relative difficulty) and subject (e.g. age) factors. Overall, human cholinergic functional neuroimaging studies both corroborate and extend physiological accounts of cholinergic function arising from other experimental contexts, while providing mechanistic insights into cholinergic-acting drugs and their potential clinical applications. PMID:21708219

  16. TROPICS 1: a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of tenecteplase for restoration of function in dysfunctional central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrail, Nashat; Sandler, Eric; Charu, Veena; Anas, Nick; Lim, Eduardo; Blaney, Martha; Ashby, Mark; Gillespie, Barbara S; Begelman, Susan M

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the thrombolytic tenecteplase, a fibrin-specific recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, for restoring function to dysfunctional central venous catheters (CVCs). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, eligible patients with dysfunctional nonhemodialysis CVCs were randomly assigned to two treatment arms. In the first arm (TNK-TNK-PBO), patients received an initial dose of intraluminal tenecteplase (TNK) (up to 2 mg), a second dose of tenecteplase if indicated, and a third placebo (PBO) dose. In the PBO-TNK-TNK arm, placebo was instilled first followed by up to two doses of tenecteplase, if needed, for restoration of catheter function. After administration of each dose, CVC function was assessed at 15, 30, and 120 minutes. There were 97 patients who received either TNK-TNK-PBO (n = 50) or PBO-TNK-TNK (n = 47). Within 120 minutes of initial study drug instillation, catheter function was restored to 30 patients (60%) in the TNK-TNK-PBO arm and 11 patients (23%) in the PBO-TNK-TNK arm, for a treatment difference of 37 percentage points (95% confidence interval 18-55; P = .0002). Cumulative restoration rates for CVC function increased to 87% after the second dose of tenecteplase in both study arms combined. Two patients developed a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after exposure to tenecteplase; one DVT was considered to be drug related. No cases of intracranial hemorrhage, major bleeding, embolic events, catheter-related bloodstream infections, or catheter-related complications were reported. Tenecteplase was efficacious for restoration of catheter function in these study patients with dysfunctional CVCs. Copyright © 2010 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Antipsychotics and Sexual Dysfunction: Sexual Dysfunction - Part III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Mysore Nagaraj

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Satisfying sexual experience is an essential part of a healthy and enjoyable life for most people. Antipsychotic drugs are among the various factors that affect optimal sexual functioning. Both conventional and novel antipsychotics are associated with significant sexual side effects. This review has presented various studies comparing different antipsychotic drugs. Dopamine antagonism, increased serum prolactin, serotonergic, adrenergic and cholinergic mechanisms are all proposed to be the mechanisms for sexual dysfunction. Drug treatment for this has not given satisfactory long-term results. Knowledge of the receptor pharmacology of an individual antipsychotic will help to determine whether it is more or less likely to cause sexual side effects and its management.

  18. Transplanted Human Stem Cell-Derived Interneuron Precursors Mitigate Mouse Bladder Dysfunction and Central Neuropathic Pain after Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandel, Thomas M; Trivedi, Alpa; Nicholas, Cory R; Zhang, Haoqian; Chen, Jiadong; Martinez, Aida F; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J; Kriegstein, Arnold R

    2016-10-06

    Neuropathic pain and bladder dysfunction represent significant quality-of-life issues for many spinal cord injury patients. Loss of GABAergic tone in the injured spinal cord may contribute to the emergence of these symptoms. Previous studies have shown that transplantation of rodent inhibitory interneuron precursors from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) enhances GABAergic signaling in the brain and spinal cord. Here we look at whether transplanted MGE-like cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC-MGEs) can mitigate the pathological effects of spinal cord injury. We find that 6 months after transplantation into injured mouse spinal cords, hESC-MGEs differentiate into GABAergic neuron subtypes and receive synaptic inputs, suggesting functional integration into host spinal cord. Moreover, the transplanted animals show improved bladder function and mitigation of pain-related symptoms. Our results therefore suggest that this approach may be a valuable strategy for ameliorating the adverse effects of spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cholinergic Modulation of Restraint Stress Induced Neurobehavioral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The involvement of the cholinergic system in restraint stress induced neurobehavioral alterations was investigated in rodents using the hole board, elevated plus maze, the open field and the light and dark box tests. Restraint stress (3h) reduced significantly (p<0.05) the number of entries and time spent in the open arm, ...

  20. Activation of Phosphoinositide Metabolism by Cholinergic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-15

    most notably calcium. Cholinergic agonist-induced seizures; Brain second messenger systems; Neurotransmitter/ Neuromodulator interactions; RAV; Lab...have been described: modulation by protein kinase C and modulation by neurotransmitter (or neuromodulator ) interactions. Agents which stimulate...phosphoinositide hydrolysis that has been identified consists of interactions among neurotransmitter systems or neuromodulators . Perhaps those most widely

  1. Central arterial stiffness and diastolic dysfunction are associated with insulin resistance and abdominal obesity in young women but polycystic ovary syndrome does not confer additional risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, E; Coulson, R; Dunstan, F; Evans, W D; Blundell, H L; Luzio, S D; Dunseath, G; Halcox, J P; Fraser, A G; Rees, D A

    2014-09-01

    Are arterial stiffness, carotid intima-media thickness and diastolic dysfunction increased in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) independently of the effects of obesity? Insulin resistance and central obesity are associated with subclinical cardiovascular dysfunction in young women, but a diagnosis of PCOS does not appear to confer additional risk at this age. Some studies have shown that young women with PCOS may have increased measures of cardiovascular risk, including arterial stiffness, carotid intima-media thickness and myocardial dysfunction. However, it is difficult to establish how much of this risk is due to PCOS per se and how much is due to obesity and insulin resistance, which are common in PCOS and themselves associated with greater vascular risk. This cross-sectional study comprised 84 women with PCOS and 95 healthy volunteers, aged 16-45 years. The study was conducted in a university hospital. Subjects underwent a comprehensive assessment of body composition (including computed tomography (CT) assessment of visceral fat; VF), measurements of arterial stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity; aPWV), common carotid intima-media thickness (ccIMT), diastolic function (longitudinal tissue velocity; e':a') and endocrinological measures. A sample size of 80 in each group gave 80% power for detecting a difference of 0.45 m/s in aPWV or a difference of 0.25 in e':a'. After adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI), PCOS subjects had a greater insulin response (insulin area under the curve-IAUC) following glucose challenge (adjusted difference [AD] 35 900 pmol min/l, P insulin resistance were only partly attenuated by adjusting for logVF. There was no significant relationship between aPWV or e':a' and either testosterone or adiponectin. The study recruited young women meeting the Rotterdam criteria for PCOS diagnosis; hence our findings may not be generalizable to older patients or those meeting other definitions of the syndrome. Biochemical

  2. Cholinergic innervation of the zebrafish olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jeffrey G; Greig, Ann; Sakata, Yoko; Elkin, Dimitry; Michel, William C

    2007-10-20

    A number of fish species receive forebrain cholinergic input but two recent reports failed to find evidence of cholinergic cell bodies or fibers in the olfactory bulbs (OBs) of zebrafish. In the current study we sought to confirm these findings by examining the OBs of adult zebrafish for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity. We observed a diffuse network of varicose ChAT-positive fibers associated with the nervus terminalis ganglion innervating the mitral cell/glomerular layer (MC/GL). The highest density of these fibers occurred in the anterior region of the bulb. The cellular targets of this cholinergic input were identified by exposing isolated OBs to acetylcholine receptor (AChR) agonists in the presence of agmatine (AGB), a cationic probe that permeates some active ion channels. Nicotine (50 microM) significantly increased the activity-dependent labeling of mitral cells and juxtaglomerular cells but not of tyrosine hydroxlase-positive dopaminergic neurons (TH(+) cells) compared to control preparations. The nAChR antagonist mecamylamine, an alpha7-nAChR subunit-specific antagonist, calcium-free artificial cerebrospinal fluid, or a cocktail of ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) antagonists each blocked nicotine-stimulated labeling, suggesting that AGB does not enter the labeled neurons through activated nAChRs but rather through activated iGluRs following ACh-stimulated glutamate release. Deafferentation of OBs did not eliminate nicotine-stimulated labeling, suggesting that cholinergic input is primarily acting on bulbar neurons. These findings confirm the presence of a functioning cholinergic system in the zebrafish OB.

  3. Curcumin attenuates surgery-induced cognitive dysfunction in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Chen, Huixin; Huang, Chunhui; Gu, Xinmei; Wang, Jialing; Xu, Dilin; Yu, Xin; Shuai, Chu; Chen, Liping; Li, Shun; Xu, Yiguo; Gao, Tao; Ye, Mingrui; Su, Wei; Liu, Haixiong; Zhang, Jinrong; Wang, Chuang; Chen, Junping; Wang, Qinwen; Cui, Wei

    2017-06-01

    Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is associated with elderly patients undergoing surgery. However, pharmacological treatments for POCD are limited. In this study, we found that curcumin, an active compound derived from Curcuma longa, ameliorated the cognitive dysfunction following abdominal surgery in aged mice. Further, curcumin prevented surgery-induced anti-oxidant enzyme activity. Curcumin also increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-positive area and expression of pAkt in the brain, suggesting that curcumin activated BDNF signaling in aged mice. Furthermore, curcumin neutralized cholinergic dysfunction involving choline acetyltransferase expression induced by surgery. These results strongly suggested that curcumin prevented cognitive impairments via multiple targets, possibly by increasing the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes, activation of BDNF signaling, and neutralization of cholinergic dysfunction, concurrently. Based on these novel findings, curcumin might be a potential agent in POCD prophylaxis and treatment.

  4. Prevalence and determinants of erectile dysfunction among diabetic patients attending in hospitals of central and northwestern zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Seid, Awole; Gerensea, Hadgu; Tarko, Shambel; Zenebe, Yosef; Mezemir, Rahel

    2017-01-01

    Background The prevalence of erectile dysfunction among diabetic men varies between 35?90%. Although erectile dysfunction is widespread among men with diabetes, the condition often remains undiagnosed and demands appropriate assessment and prompt treatment. Erectile dysfunction can affect all aspects of a patient?s life including physical, emotional, social, sexual, and relationships. The main aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and determinants of erectile dysfunction among diab...

  5. Identification of cholinergic synaptic transmission in the insect nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thany, Steeve Hervé; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Lapied, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    A major criteria initially used to localize cholinergic neuronal elements in nervous systems tissues that involve acetylcholine (ACh) as neurotransmitter is mainly based on immunochemical studies using choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), an enzyme which catalyzes ACh biosynthesis and the ACh degradative enzyme named acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Immunochemical studies using anti-ChAT monoclonal antibody have allowed the identification of neuronal processes and few types of cell somata that contain ChAT protein. In situ hybridization using cRNA probes to ChAT or AChE messenger RNA have brought new approaches to further identify cell bodies transcribing the ChAT or AChE genes. Combined application of all these techniques reveals a widespread expression of ChAT and AChE activities in the insect central nervous system and peripheral sensory neurons which implicates ACh as a key neurotransmitter. The discovery of the snake toxin alpha-bungatoxin has helped to identify nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In fact, nicotine when applied to insect neurons, resulted in the generation of an inward current through the activation of nicotinic receptors which were blocked by alpha-bungarotoxin. Thus, insect nAChRs have been divided into two categories, sensitive and insensitive to this snake toxin. Up to now, the recent characterization and distribution pattern of insect nAChR subunits and the biochemical evidence that the insect central nervous system contains different classes of cholinergic receptors indicated that ACh is involved in several sensory pathways.

  6. Central Serotonin-2A (5-HT2A Receptor Dysfunction in Depression and Epilepsy: The Missing Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Pierre Guiard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2A receptors (5-HT2A-Rs are G-protein coupled receptors. In agreement with their location in the brain, they have been implicated not only in various central physiological functions including memory, sleep, nociception, eating and reward behaviors, but also in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Interestingly, a bidirectional link between depression and epilepsy is suspected since patients with depression and especially suicide attempters have an increased seizure risk, while a significant percentage of epileptic patients suffer from depression. Such epidemiological data led us to hypothesize that both pathologies may share common anatomical and neurobiological alteration of the 5-HT2A signaling. After a brief presentation of the pharmacological properties of the 5-HT2A-Rs, this review illustrates how these receptors may directly or indirectly control neuronal excitability in most networks involved in depression and epilepsy through interactions with the monoaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmissions. It also synthetizes the preclinical and clinical evidence demonstrating the role of these receptors in antidepressant and antiepileptic responses.

  7. Beta-amyloid and cholinergic neurons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Vladimír; Kašparová, Jana

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 28, 3-4 (2003), s. 499-506 ISSN 0364-3190 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/01/0283; GA AV ČR IAA5011206 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : cholinergic neurons * AlzheimerŽs disease * beta-amyloid Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.511, year: 2003

  8. Mitochondrial dysfunction and organophosphorus compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karami-Mohajeri, Somayyeh [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad.Abdollahi@UToronto.Ca [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Organophosphorous (OPs) pesticides are the most widely used pesticides in the agriculture and home. However, many acute or chronic poisoning reports about OPs have been published in the recent years. Mitochondria as a site of cellular oxygen consumption and energy production can be a target for OPs poisoning as a non-cholinergic mechanism of toxicity of OPs. In the present review, we have reviewed and criticized all the evidences about the mitochondrial dysfunctions as a mechanism of toxicity of OPs. For this purpose, all biochemical, molecular, and morphological data were retrieved from various studies. Some toxicities of OPs are arisen from dysfunction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation through alteration of complexes I, II, III, IV and V activities and disruption of mitochondrial membrane. Reductions of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis or induction of its hydrolysis can impair the cellular energy. The OPs disrupt cellular and mitochondrial antioxidant defense, reactive oxygen species generation, and calcium uptake and promote oxidative and genotoxic damage triggering cell death via cytochrome C released from mitochondria and consequent activation of caspases. The mitochondrial dysfunction induced by OPs can be restored by use of antioxidants such as vitamin E and C, alpha-tocopherol, electron donors, and through increasing the cytosolic ATP level. However, to elucidate many aspect of mitochondrial toxicity of Ops, further studies should be performed. - Highlights: • As a non-cholinergic mechanism of toxicity, mitochondria is a target for OPs. • OPs affect action of complexes I, II, III, IV and V in the mitochondria. • OPs reduce mitochondrial ATP. • OPs promote oxidative and genotoxic damage via release of cytochrome C from mitochondria. • OP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction can be restored by increasing the cytosolic ATP.

  9. Mitochondrial dysfunction and organophosphorus compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karami-Mohajeri, Somayyeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphorous (OPs) pesticides are the most widely used pesticides in the agriculture and home. However, many acute or chronic poisoning reports about OPs have been published in the recent years. Mitochondria as a site of cellular oxygen consumption and energy production can be a target for OPs poisoning as a non-cholinergic mechanism of toxicity of OPs. In the present review, we have reviewed and criticized all the evidences about the mitochondrial dysfunctions as a mechanism of toxicity of OPs. For this purpose, all biochemical, molecular, and morphological data were retrieved from various studies. Some toxicities of OPs are arisen from dysfunction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation through alteration of complexes I, II, III, IV and V activities and disruption of mitochondrial membrane. Reductions of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis or induction of its hydrolysis can impair the cellular energy. The OPs disrupt cellular and mitochondrial antioxidant defense, reactive oxygen species generation, and calcium uptake and promote oxidative and genotoxic damage triggering cell death via cytochrome C released from mitochondria and consequent activation of caspases. The mitochondrial dysfunction induced by OPs can be restored by use of antioxidants such as vitamin E and C, alpha-tocopherol, electron donors, and through increasing the cytosolic ATP level. However, to elucidate many aspect of mitochondrial toxicity of Ops, further studies should be performed. - Highlights: • As a non-cholinergic mechanism of toxicity, mitochondria is a target for OPs. • OPs affect action of complexes I, II, III, IV and V in the mitochondria. • OPs reduce mitochondrial ATP. • OPs promote oxidative and genotoxic damage via release of cytochrome C from mitochondria. • OP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction can be restored by increasing the cytosolic ATP

  10. Tritium-labelled hemicholinium-3 ([3H]HC-3): membrane binding properties and potential uses for a novel presynaptic marker in cholinergically-innervated tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickroy, T.W.; Watson, M.; Roeske, W.R.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1986-01-01

    Sodium-dependent high-affintiy choline uptake (SDHACU) is the primary regulatory step in acetylcholine biosynthesis and subserves an essential function in cholinergically-mediated neurotransmission. Recent studies with [ 3 H]hemicholinium-3 ([ 3 H]HC-3), a potent competitive inhibitor of SDHACU, reveal that closely associated membrane sites mediate high-affinity [ 3 H]HC-3 binding and SDHACU. In this report, supportive evidences for this association are presented and potential uses of [ 3 H]HC-3 are outlined for studies of disorders that involve cholinergic nervous system dysfunction. 40 refs.; 1 figure

  11. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Deficits Reduce Glucose Metabolism and Function of Cholinergic and GABAergic Systems in the Cingulate Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Da Un; Oh, Jin Hwan; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Jihyeon; Cho, Zang Hee; Chang, Jin Woo; Chang, Won Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Reduced brain glucose metabolism and basal forebrain cholinergic neuron degeneration are common features of Alzheimer's disease and have been correlated with memory function. Although regions representing glucose hypometabolism in patients with Alzheimer's disease are targets of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, the interaction between cholinergic denervation and glucose hypometabolism is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate glucose metabolism changes caused ...

  12. Cholinergic, noradrenergic and GABAergic control of sexual behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Per

    2000-01-01

    acethylcholine, noradrenalin, GABA, sexual dysfunction, erectile dysfunction, rat, human, male, female......acethylcholine, noradrenalin, GABA, sexual dysfunction, erectile dysfunction, rat, human, male, female...

  13. Nicotine protects kidney from renal ischemia/reperfusion injury through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Sadis

    Full Text Available Kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R is characterized by renal dysfunction and tubular damages resulting from an early activation of innate immunity. Recently, nicotine administration has been shown to be a powerful inhibitor of a variety of innate immune responses, including LPS-induced toxaemia. This cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway acts via the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (alpha7nAChR. Herein, we tested the potential protective effect of nicotine administration in a mouse model of renal I/R injury induced by bilateral clamping of kidney arteries. Renal function, tubular damages and inflammatory response were compared between control animals and mice receiving nicotine at the time of ischemia. Nicotine pretreatment protected mice from renal dysfunction in a dose-dependent manner and through the alpha7nAChR, as attested by the absence of protection in alpha7nAChR-deficient mice. Additionally, nicotine significantly reduced tubular damages, prevented neutrophil infiltration and decreased productions of the CXC-chemokine KC, TNF-alpha and the proinflammatory high-mobility group box 1 protein. Reduced tubular damage in nicotine pre-treated mice was associated with a decrease in tubular cell apoptosis and proliferative response as attested by the reduction of caspase-3 and Ki67 positive cells, respectively. All together, these data highlight that nicotine exerts a protective anti-inflammatory effect during kidney I/R through the cholinergic alpha7nAChR pathway. In addition, this could provide an opportunity to overcome the effect of surgical cholinergic denervation during kidney transplantation.

  14. Cholinergic, serotoninergic and peptidergic components of the nervous system of Discocotyle sagittata (Monogenea:Polyopisthocotylea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, J; Marks, N J; Halton, D W; Shaw, C; Johnston, C F; Tinsley, R C; Gannicott, A M

    1996-12-01

    Cholinergic, serotoninergic (5-HT) and peptidergic neuronal pathways have been demonstrated in both central and peripheral nervous systems of adult Discocotyle sagittata, using enzyme histochemistry and indirect immunocytochemistry in conjunction with confocal scanning laser microscopy. Antisera to 2 native flatworm neuropeptides, neuropeptide F and the FMRFamide-related peptide (FaRP), GNFFRFamide, were employed to detect peptide immunoreactivity. The CNS is composed of paired cerebral ganglia and connecting dorsal commissure, together with several paired longitudinal nerve cords. The main longitudinal nerve cords (lateral, ventral and dorsal) are interconnected at intervals by a series of annular cross-connectives, producing a ladder-like arrangement typical of the platyhelminth nervous system. At the level of the haptor, the ventral cords provide nerve roots which innervate each of the 9 clamps. Cholinergic and peptidergic neuronal organisation was similar, but distinct from that of the serotoninergic components. The PNS and reproductive system are predominantly innervated by peptidergic neurones.

  15. Brain cholinergic involvement during the rapid development of tolerance to morphine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, Z. Z.; Oriaku, E. T.; Soliman, S. F. A.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of repeated administration of morphine on the activities of the cholinergic enzymes, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), in specific brain regions were studied in rats treated with 10 mg/kg morphine for one or two days. Repeated administration of morphine was associated with a decline in the degree of analgesia produced and with a significant increase of AChE activity of the medulla oblongata. A single injection of morphine resulted in a significant decline in ChAT activity in the hypothalamus, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata regions. After two consecutive injections, no decline in ChAT was observed in these regions, while in the cerebral cortex the second administration elicited a significant decline. The results suggest that the development of tolerance to morphine may be mediated through changes in ChAT activity and lend support to the involvement of the central cholinergic system in narcotic tolerance.

  16. Modeling Parkinson's disease falls associated with brainstem cholinergic systems decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucinski, Aaron; Sarter, Martin

    2015-04-01

    In addition to the primary disease-defining symptoms, approximately half of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) suffer from postural instability, impairments in gait control and a propensity for falls. Consistent with evidence from patients, we previously demonstrated that combined striatal dopamine (DA) and basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic cell loss causes falls in rats traversing dynamic surfaces. Because evidence suggests that degeneration of brainstem cholinergic neurons arising from the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) also contributes to impaired gait and falls, here we assessed the effects of selective cholinergic PPN lesions in combination with striatal DA loss or BF cholinergic cells loss as well as losses in all 3 regions. Results indicate that all combination losses that included the BF cholinergic system slowed traversal and increased slips and falls. However, the performance of rats with losses in all 3 regions (PPN, BF, and DA) was not more severely impaired than following combined BF cholinergic and striatal DA lesions. These results confirm the hypothesis that BF cholinergic-striatal disruption of attentional-motor interactions is a primary source of falls. Additional losses of PPN cholinergic neurons may worsen posture and gait control in situations not captured by the current testing conditions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity controls systemic cytokine levels through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Valentin A.; Parrish, William R.; Rosas-Ballina, Mauricio; Ochani, Mahendar; Puerta, Margot; Ochani, Kanta; Chavan, Sangeeta; Al-Abed, Yousef; Tracey, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    The excessive release of cytokines by the immune system contributes importantly to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Recent advances in understanding the biology of cytokine toxicity led to the discovery of the “cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway,” defined as neural signals transmitted via the vagus nerve that inhibit cytokine release through a mechanism that requires the alpha7 subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR). Vagus nerve regulation of peripheral functions is controlled by brain nuclei and neural networks, but despite considerable importance, little is known about the molecular basis for central regulation of the vagus nerve-based cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Here we report that brain acetylcholinesterase activity controls systemic and organ specific TNF production during endotoxemia. Peripheral administration of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine significantly reduced serum TNF levels through vagus nerve signaling, and protected against lethality during murine endotoxemia. Administration of a centrally-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist abolished the suppression of TNF by galantamine, indicating that suppressing acetylcholinesterase activity, coupled with central muscarinic receptors, controls peripheral cytokine responses. Administration of galantamine to α7nAChR knockout mice failed to suppress TNF levels, indicating that the α7nAChR-mediated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is required for the anti-inflammatory effect of galantamine. These findings show that inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase suppresses systemic inflammation through a central muscarinic receptor-mediated and vagal- and α7nAChR-dependent mechanism. Our data also indicate that a clinically used centrally-acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor can be utilized to suppress abnormal inflammation to therapeutic advantage. PMID:18639629

  18. Estrogen-cholinergic interactions: Implications for cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Paul; Dumas, Julie

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and Cognition". While many studies in humans have investigated the effects of estrogen and hormone therapy on cognition, potential neurobiological correlates of these effects have been less well studied. An important site of action for estrogen in the brain is the cholinergic system. Several decades of research support the critical role of CNS cholinergic systems in cognition in humans, particularly in learning and memory formation and attention. In humans, the cholinergic system has been implicated in many aspects of cognition including the partitioning of attentional resources, working memory, inhibition of irrelevant information, and improved performance on effort-demanding tasks. Studies support the hypothesis that estradiol helps to maintain aspects of attention and verbal and visual memory. Such cognitive domains are exactly those modulated by cholinergic systems and extensive basic and preclinical work over the past several decades has clearly shown that basal forebrain cholinergic systems are dependent on estradiol support for adequate functioning. This paper will review recent human studies from our laboratories and others that have extended preclinical research examining estrogen-cholinergic interactions to humans. Studies examined include estradiol and cholinergic antagonist reversal studies in normal older women, examinations of the neural representations of estrogen-cholinergic interactions using functional brain imaging, and studies of the ability of selective estrogen receptor modulators such as tamoxifen to interact with cholinergic-mediated cognitive performance. We also discuss the implications of these studies for the underlying hypotheses of cholinergic-estrogen interactions and cognitive aging, and indications for prophylactic and therapeutic potential that may exploit these effects. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Cholinergic Neurotransmission: Function and Dysfunction, International Cholinergic Symposium (8th) Held at Montreal (Quebec) on 26-30 July 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-31

    efficacy of the outward transport of brain Ch as a homeostatic mechanism was studied by the microdialysis technique in awake rats. Concentric...ip) on basal and scopolamine- evoked acetylcholine (ACh) release in awake animals using in vvo microdialysis. After collection of 3-4 baseline samples... craniotomy . After a 6-months survival the animals were processed either for biochemistry (Choline acetyltransferase-ChAT assay) or for

  20. Pharmacological identification of cholinergic receptor subtypes on Drosophila melanogaster larval heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Cole A; Ritter, Kyle; Robinson, Jonathan; English, Connor; Cooper, Robin L

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster heart is a popular model in which to study cardiac physiology and development. Progress has been made in understanding the role of endogenous compounds in regulating cardiac function in this model. It is well characterized that common neurotransmitters act on many peripheral and non-neuronal tissues as they flow through the hemolymph of insects. Many of these neuromodulators, including acetylcholine (ACh), have been shown to act directly on the D. melanogaster larval heart. ACh is a primary neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) of vertebrates and at the neuromuscular junctions on skeletal and cardiac tissue. In insects, ACh is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter of sensory neurons and is also prominent in the CNS. A full understanding regarding the regulation of the Drosophila cardiac physiology by the cholinergic system remains poorly understood. Here we use semi-intact D. melanogaster larvae to study the pharmacological profile of cholinergic receptor subtypes, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), in modulating heart rate (HR). Cholinergic receptor agonists, nicotine and muscarine both increase HR, while nAChR agonist clothianidin exhibits no significant effect when exposed to an open preparation at concentrations as low as 100 nM. In addition, both nAChR and mAChR antagonists increase HR as well but also display capabilities of blocking agonist actions. These results provide evidence that both of these receptor subtypes display functional significance in regulating the larval heart's pacemaker activity.

  1. Basic and modern concepts on cholinergic receptor: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cholinergic system is an important system and a branch of the autonomic nervous system which plays an important role in memory, digestion, control of heart beat, blood pressure, movement and many other functions. This article serves as both structural and functional sources of information regarding cholinergic receptors and provides a detailed understanding of the determinants governing specificity of muscarinic and nicotinic receptor to researchers. The study helps to give overall information about the fundamentals of the cholinergic system, its receptors and ongoing research in this field.

  2. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Deficits Reduce Glucose Metabolism and Function of Cholinergic and GABAergic Systems in the Cingulate Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Da Un; Oh, Jin Hwan; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Jihyeon; Cho, Zang Hee; Chang, Jin Woo; Chang, Won Seok

    2016-01-01

    Reduced brain glucose metabolism and basal forebrain cholinergic neuron degeneration are common features of Alzheimer's disease and have been correlated with memory function. Although regions representing glucose hypometabolism in patients with Alzheimer's disease are targets of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, the interaction between cholinergic denervation and glucose hypometabolism is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate glucose metabolism changes caused by cholinergic deficits. We lesioned basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in rats using 192 immunoglobulin G-saporin. After 3 weeks, lesioned animals underwent water maze testing or were analyzed by ¹⁸F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography. During water maze probe testing, performance of the lesioned group decreased with respect to time spent in the target quadrant and platform zone. Cingulate cortex glucose metabolism in the lesioned group decreased, compared with the normal group. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase activity and glutamate decarboxylase 65/67 expression declined in the cingulate cortex. Our results reveal that spatial memory impairment in animals with selective basal forebrain cholinergic neuron damage is associated with a functional decline in the GABAergic and cholinergic system associated with cingulate cortex glucose hypometabolism.

  3. GABAergic actions on cholinergic laterodorsal tegmental neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlmeier, K A; Kristiansen, Uffe

    2010-01-01

    Cholinergic neurons of the pontine laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT) play a critical role in regulation of behavioral state. Therefore, elucidation of mechanisms that control their activity is vital for understanding of how switching between wakefulness, sleep and anesthetic states is effectuated....... In vivo studies suggest that GABAergic mechanisms within the pons play a critical role in behavioral state switching. However, the postsynaptic, electrophysiological actions of GABA on LDT neurons, as well as the identity of GABA receptors present in the LDT mediating these actions is virtually unexplored...... neurons. Post-synaptic location of GABA(A) receptors was demonstrated by persistence of muscimol-induced inward currents in TTX and low Ca(2+) solutions. THIP, a selective GABA(A) receptor agonist with a preference for d-subunit containing GABA(A) receptors, induced inward currents, suggesting...

  4. Cholinergic mechanisms in spinal cord and muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilonius, S.M.; Askmark, H.; Gilberg, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    Current knowledge regarding the distribution of acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) cholineacetyltranferase (ChAT) and cholinergic receptors in the spinal cord is presented as well as changes in these markers coupled to the degenerations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The principal changes in ChAT and nicotonic receptors in rat hindleg muscles during denervation and reinnervation is discussed as a background for quantitative studies in human muscle biopsies. It is noted that thefirst published autoradiograph on spinal cord muscarinic receptors was from the rat, depicting an intense binding of radiolabeled quinuclikiny benzilate (tritium-QNB) in the ventral horn, and expecially in an apical part of the dorsal horn claimed to correspond to correspond to sustantia gelatinosa

  5. Hippocampal P3-Like Auditory Event-Related Potentials are Disrupted in a Rat Model of Cholinergic Degeneration in Alzheimer's Disease: Reversal by Donepezil Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bettina; Mørk, Arne; Kristiansen, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    P300 (P3) event-related potentials (ERPs) have been suggested to be an endogenous marker of cognitive function and auditory oddball paradigms are frequently used to evaluate P3 ERPs in clinical settings. Deficits in P3 amplitude and latency reflect some of the neurological dysfunctions related...... cholinergic degeneration induced by SAP. SAP-lesioned rats may constitute a suitable model to test the efficacy of pro-cognitive substances in an applied experimental setup....

  6. Erectile Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or other heart problems take medications that contain nitrates to help the blood flow better to the ... erectile dysfunction can affect the way that the nitrates work—and cause blood pressure to drop to ...

  7. Cholinergic depletion and basal forebrain volume in primary progressive aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolien Schaeverbeke

    2017-01-01

    In the PPA group, only LV cases showed decreases in AChE activity levels compared to controls. Surprisingly, a substantial number of SV cases showed significant AChE activity increases compared to controls. BF volume did not correlate with AChE activity levels in PPA. To conclude, in our sample of PPA patients, LV but not SV was associated with cholinergic depletion. BF atrophy in PPA does not imply cholinergic depletion.

  8. Astrocytes mediate in vivo cholinergic-induced synaptic plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Navarrete

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation (LTP of synaptic transmission represents the cellular basis of learning and memory. Astrocytes have been shown to regulate synaptic transmission and plasticity. However, their involvement in specific physiological processes that induce LTP in vivo remains unknown. Here we show that in vivo cholinergic activity evoked by sensory stimulation or electrical stimulation of the septal nucleus increases Ca²⁺ in hippocampal astrocytes and induces LTP of CA3-CA1 synapses, which requires cholinergic muscarinic (mAChR and metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR activation. Stimulation of cholinergic pathways in hippocampal slices evokes astrocyte Ca²⁺ elevations, postsynaptic depolarizations of CA1 pyramidal neurons, and LTP of transmitter release at single CA3-CA1 synapses. Like in vivo, these effects are mediated by mAChRs, and this cholinergic-induced LTP (c-LTP also involves mGluR activation. Astrocyte Ca²⁺ elevations and LTP are absent in IP₃R2 knock-out mice. Downregulating astrocyte Ca²⁺ signal by loading astrocytes with BAPTA or GDPβS also prevents LTP, which is restored by simultaneous astrocyte Ca²⁺ uncaging and postsynaptic depolarization. Therefore, cholinergic-induced LTP requires astrocyte Ca²⁺ elevations, which stimulate astrocyte glutamate release that activates mGluRs. The cholinergic-induced LTP results from the temporal coincidence of the postsynaptic activity and the astrocyte Ca²⁺ signal simultaneously evoked by cholinergic activity. Therefore, the astrocyte Ca²⁺ signal is necessary for cholinergic-induced synaptic plasticity, indicating that astrocytes are directly involved in brain storage information.

  9. Specific multi-nutrient enriched diet enhances hippocampal cholinergic transmission in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansev, Mehmet; van Wijk, Nick; Turkyilmaz, Mesut; Orhan, Fulya; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2015-01-01

    Fortasyn Connect (FC) is a specific nutrient combination designed to target synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease by providing neuronal membrane precursors and other supportive nutrients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of FC on hippocampal cholinergic neurotransmission in association with its effects on synaptic membrane formation in aged rats. Eighteen-month-old male Wistar rats were randomized to receive a control diet for 4 weeks or an FC-enriched diet for 4 or 6 weeks. At the end of the dietary treatments, acetylcholine (ACh) release was investigated by in vivo microdialysis in the right hippocampi. On completion of microdialysis studies, the rats were sacrificed, and the left hippocampi were obtained to determine the levels of choline, ACh, membrane phospholipids, synaptic proteins, and choline acetyltransferase. Our results revealed that supplementation with FC diet for 4 or 6 weeks, significantly enhanced basal and stimulated hippocampal ACh release and ACh tissue levels, along with levels of phospholipids. Feeding rats the FC diet for 6 weeks significantly increased the levels of choline acetyltransferase, the presynaptic marker Synapsin-1, and the postsynaptic marker PSD-95, but decreased levels of Nogo-A, a neurite outgrowth inhibitor. These data show that the FC diet enhances hippocampal cholinergic neurotransmission in aged rats and suggest that this effect is mediated by enhanced synaptic membrane formation. These data provide further insight into cellular and molecular mechanisms by which FC may support memory processes in Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Thyroid function, Alzheimer's disease and postoperative cognitive dysfunction: a tale of dangerous liaisons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafrica, Federica; Fodale, Vincenzo

    2008-05-01

    Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are commonly present conditions in adults, leading to neurological symptoms, affecting the central and peripheral nervous system, and to neurocognitive impairment. Several studies investigated a possible association between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and thyroid dysfunctions. Increasing evidence supports an extensive interrelationship between thyroid hormones and the cholinergic system, which is selectively and early affected in AD. Moreover, thyroid hormones negatively regulate expression of the amyloid-beta protein precursor (AbetaPP), which plays a key role in the development of AD. A condition, the so called euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS), characterized by reduced serum T_{3} and T_{4} concentrations without increased serum thyroid stimulation hormone secretion, occurs within hours after major surgery. After surgery, elderly patients often exhibit a transient, reversible state of cognitive alterations. Delirium occurs in 10-26% of general medical patients over 65, and it is associated with a significant increase in morbidity and mortality. Modifications in thyroid hormone functioning may take place as a consequence of psycho-physical stress caused by surgery, and probably as a consequence of reduced conversion of T4 into T3 by the liver engaged in metabolizing anesthetic drugs. Therefore, modifications of thyroid hormones post-surgery, might play a role in the pathogenesis of postoperative cognitive dysfunction.

  11. BMI, HOMA-IR, and Fasting Blood Glucose Are Significant Predictors of Peripheral Nerve Dysfunction in Adult Overweight and Obese Nondiabetic Nepalese Individuals: A Study from Central Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Lekhjung; Rana, P V S

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Nondiabetic obese individuals have subclinical involvement of peripheral nerves. We report the factors predicting peripheral nerve function in overweight and obese nondiabetic Nepalese individuals. Methodology. In this cross-sectional study, we included 50 adult overweight and obese nondiabetic volunteers without features of peripheral neuropathy and 50 healthy volunteers to determine the normative nerve conduction data. In cases of abnormal function, the study population was classified on the basis of the number of nerves involved, namely, "HOMA-IR) was the significant predictor (P = 0.019, 96% CI = 1.420-49.322) of sensory nerve dysfunction. Body mass index (BMI) was the significant predictor (P = 0.034, 95% CI = 1.018-1.577) in case of ≥2 mixed nerves' involvement. Conclusion. FBG, HOMA-IR, and BMI were significant predictors of peripheral nerve dysfunction in overweight and obese Nepalese individuals.

  12. Loss of MeCP2 in cholinergic neurons causes part of RTT-like phenotypes via α7 receptor in hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Cao, Shu-Xia; Sun, Peng; He, Hai-Yang; Yang, Ci-Hang; Chen, Xiao-Juan; Shen, Chen-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Zhong; Berg, Darwin K; Duan, Shumin; Li, Xiao-Ming

    2016-06-01

    Mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene cause Rett syndrome (RTT), an autism spectrum disorder characterized by impaired social interactions, motor abnormalities, cognitive defects and a high risk of epilepsy. Here, we showed that conditional deletion of Mecp2 in cholinergic neurons caused part of RTT-like phenotypes, which could be rescued by re-expressing Mecp2 in the basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons rather than in the caudate putamen of conditional knockout (Chat-Mecp2(-/y)) mice. We found that choline acetyltransferase expression was decreased in the BF and that α7 nicotine acetylcholine receptor signaling was strongly impaired in the hippocampus of Chat-Mecp2(-/y) mice, which is sufficient to produce neuronal hyperexcitation and increase seizure susceptibility. Application of PNU282987 or nicotine in the hippocampus rescued these phenotypes in Chat-Mecp2(-/y) mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that MeCP2 is critical for normal function of cholinergic neurons and dysfunction of cholinergic neurons can contribute to numerous neuropsychiatric phenotypes.

  13. Cranial nerve vascular compression syndromes of the trigeminal, facial and vago-glossopharyngeal nerves: comparative anatomical study of the central myelin portion and transitional zone; correlations with incidences of corresponding hyperactive dysfunctional syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu, Bulent; Sindou, Marc; Meyronet, David; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Simon, Emile; Mertens, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomy of the central myelin portion and the central myelin-peripheral myelin transitional zone of the trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves from fresh cadavers. The aim was also to investigate the relationship between the length and volume of the central myelin portion of these nerves with the incidences of the corresponding cranial dysfunctional syndromes caused by their compression to provide some more insights for a better understanding of mechanisms. The trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves from six fresh cadavers were examined. The length of these nerves from the brainstem to the foramen that they exit were measured. Longitudinal sections were stained and photographed to make measurements. The diameters of the nerves where they exit/enter from/to brainstem, the diameters where the transitional zone begins, the distances to the most distal part of transitional zone from brainstem and depths of the transitional zones were measured. Most importantly, the volume of the central myelin portion of the nerves was calculated. Correlation between length and volume of the central myelin portion of these nerves and the incidences of the corresponding hyperactive dysfunctional syndromes as reported in the literature were studied. The distance of the most distal part of the transitional zone from the brainstem was 4.19  ±  0.81 mm for the trigeminal nerve, 2.86  ±  1.19 mm for the facial nerve, 1.51  ±  0.39 mm for the glossopharyngeal nerve, and 1.63  ±  1.15 mm for the vagus nerve. The volume of central myelin portion was 24.54  ±  9.82 mm(3) in trigeminal nerve; 4.43  ±  2.55 mm(3) in facial nerve; 1.55  ±  1.08 mm(3) in glossopharyngeal nerve; 2.56  ±  1.32 mm(3) in vagus nerve. Correlations (p  nerves and incidences of the corresponding diseases. At present it is rather well-established that primary trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm and vago

  14. Erectile Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cut out alcohol. Excess alcohol can contribute to erectile dysfunction. If you choose to drink alcohol, do so in moderation. For healthy adults, that means up to one drink a day for men older than age 65, and up to two drinks ...

  15. Endogenous cholinergic neurotransmission contributes to behavioral sensitization to morphine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusica Bajic

    Full Text Available Neuroplasticity in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system is critical for behavioral adaptations associated with opioid reward and addiction. These processes may be influenced by cholinergic transmission arising from the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDTg, a main source of acetylcholine to mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons. To examine this possibility we asked if chronic systemic morphine administration affects expression of genes in ventral and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray at the level of the LDTg using rtPCR. Specifically, we examined gene expression changes in the area of interest using Neurotransmitters and Receptors PCR array between chronic morphine and saline control groups. Analysis suggested that chronic morphine administration led to changes in expression of genes associated, in part, with cholinergic neurotransmission. Furthermore, using a quantitative immunofluorescent technique, we found that chronic morphine treatment produced a significant increase in immunolabeling of the cholinergic marker (vesicular acetylcholine transporter in neurons of the LDTg. Finally, systemic administration of the nonselective and noncompetitive neuronal nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (0.5 or 2 mg/kg dose-dependently blocked the expression, and to a lesser extent the development, of locomotor sensitization. The same treatment had no effect on acute morphine antinociception, antinociceptive tolerance or dependence to chronic morphine. Taken together, the results suggest that endogenous nicotinic cholinergic neurotransmission selectively contributes to behavioral sensitization to morphine and this process may, in part, involve cholinergic neurons within the LDTg.

  16. Nucleus Ambiguus Cholinergic Neurons Activated by Acupuncture: Relation to Enkephalin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhi-Ling; Li, Min; Longhurst, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Acupuncture regulates autonomic function. Our previous studies have shown that electroacupuncture (EA) at the Jianshi–Neiguan acupoints (P5–P6, underlying the median nerve) inhibits central sympathetic outflow and attenuates excitatory cardiovascular reflexes, in part, through an opioid mechanism. It is unknown if EA at these acupoints influences the parasympathetic system. Thus, using c-Fos expression, we examined activation of nucleus ambiguus (NAmb) neurons by EA, their relation to cholinergic (preganglionic parasympathetic) neurons and those containing enkephalin. To enhance detection of cell bodies containing enkephalin, colchicine (90–100 μg/kg) was administered into the subarachnoid space of cats 30 hr prior to EA or sham-operated controls for EA. Following bilateral barodenervation and cervical vagotomy, either EA for 30 min at P5–P6 acupoints or control stimulation (needle placement at P5–P6 without stimulation) was applied. While perikarya containing enkephalin were observed in some medullary nuclei (e.g., râphe), only enkephalin-containing neuronal processes were found in the NAmb. Compared to controls (n=4), more c-Fos immunoreactivity, located principally in close proximity to fibers containing enkephalin was noted in the NAmb of EA-treated cats (n=5; P<0.01). Moreover, neurons double-labeled with c-Fos and choline acetyltransferase in the NAmb were identified in EA-treated, but not the control animals. These data demonstrate for the first time that EA activates preganglionic parasympathetic neurons in the NAmb. Because of their close proximity, these EA-activated neurons likely interact with nerve fibers containing enkephalin. These results suggest that EA at the P5–P6 acupoints has the potential to influence parasympathetic outflow and cardiovascular function, likely through an enkephalinergic mechanism. PMID:22306033

  17. Myotropic Effects of Cholinergic Muscarinic Agonists and Antagonists in the Beetle Tenebrio molitor L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowanski, Szymon; Rosinski, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    In mammals, the cholinergic nervous system plays a crucial role in neuronal regulation of physiological processes. It acts on cells by two types of receptors - nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. Both signal transmission pathways also operate in the central and peripheral cholinergic nervous system of insects. In our pharmacological experiments, we studied the effects of two muscarinic agonists (carbachol, pilocarpine) and two muscarinic antagonists (atropine, scopolamine) on the muscle contractile activity of visceral organs in the beetle, Tenebrio molitor. Both antagonists, when injected to haemolymph at concentration 10-5 M, caused delayed and prolonged cardioinhibitory effects on heart contractility in ortho- and antidromic phases of heart activity in T. molitor pupa what was observed as negative chrono- and inotropic effects. Agonist of muscarinic receptors - carbachol evoked opposite effect and increased contraction rate but only in antidromic phase. Pilocarpine, the second agonist induced weak negative chronotropic effects in the antiand orthodromic phases of heart activity. However, neither agonists had an effect on semi-isolated beetle heart in vitro. Only atropine at the highest tested concentrations slightly decreased the frequency of myocardial contractions. These suggest the regulation of heart activity by muscarinic system indirectly. The tested compounds also affected the contractility of the oviduct and hindgut, but the responses of these organs were varied and depended on the concentration of the applied compounds. These pharmacological experiments suggest the possible modulation of insect visceral muscle contractility by the cholinergic nervous system and indirectly indicate the presence of muscarinic receptor(s) in the visceral organs of the beetle T. molitor. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. The cholinergic ligand binding material of axonal membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mautner, H.G.; Coronado, R.; Jumblatt, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase, the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and hydrolysis of ACh, are present in nerve fibers. In crustacean peripheral nerves, release of ACh from cut nerve fibers has been demonstrated. Previously closed membrane vesicles have been prepared from lobster walking leg nerve plasma membrane and saturable binding of cholinergic agonsist and antagonists to such membranes have been demonstrated. This paper studies this axonal cholinergic binding material, and elucidates its functions. The binding of tritium-nicotine to lobster nerve plasma membranes was antagonized by a series of cholinergic ligands as well as by a series of local anesthetics. This preparation was capable of binding I 125-alpha-bungarotoxin, a ligand widely believed to be a specific label for nicotinic ACh receptor. The labelling of 50 K petide band with tritium-MBTA following disulfide reduction is illustrated

  19. Cholinergic neurotransmission in human corpus cavernosum. II. Acetylcholine synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, R.; De Tejada, S.; Goldstein, I.; Krane, R.J.; Wotiz, H.H.; Cohen, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Physiological and histochemical evidence indicates that cholinergic nerves may participate in mediating penile erection. Acetylcholine synthesis and release was studied in isolated human corporal tissue. Human corpus cavernosum incubated with [ 3 H]choline accumulated [ 3 H]choline and synthesized [ 3 H]acethylcholine in an concentration-dependent manner. [ 3 H]Acetylcholine accumulation by the tissue was inhibited by hemicholinium-3, a specific antagonist of the high-affinity choline transport in cholinergic nerves. Transmural electrical field stimulation caused release of [ 3 H]acetylcholine which was significantly diminished by inhibiting neurotransmission with calcium-free physiological salt solution or tetrodotoxin. These observations provide biochemical and physiological evidence for the existence of cholinergic innervation in human corpus cavernosum

  20. Cortical cholinergic innervation: Distribution and source in monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, R.G.; Cork, L.C.; Coyle, J.T.; Lehmann, J.; Mitchell, S.J.; Price, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its late-life variant, senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type (SDAT), the predominant neurochemical abnormalities are marked decrements in the activities of ChAT and AChE, the high affinity uptake of tritium-choline, and synthesis of acetylcholine. Two studies are undertaken to delineate more clearly the variability of cortical cholinergic innervation and the contribution of the Ch system, particularly the Ch4, to this cholinergic innervation. In the first study, ChAT activity was assessed in multiple samples of neocortex from seven normal cynomolgus monkeys. In the second study, the nbM was lesioned in order to determine the contribution of the Ch system to cortical cholinergic innervation

  1. Widespread expression of BDNF but not NT3 by target areas of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, H.S.; Hains, J.M.; Laramee, G.R.; Rosenthal, A.; Winslow, J.W. (Genentech, San Francisco, CA (USA))

    1990-10-12

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT3) are homologs of the well-known neurotrophic factor nerve growth factor. The three members of this family display distinct patterns of target specificity. To examine the distribution in brain of messenger RNA for these molecules, in situ hybridization was performed. Cells hybridizing intensely to antisense BDNF probe were located throughout the major targets of the rat basal forebrain cholinergic system, that is, the hippocampus, amygdala, and neocortex. Strongly hybridizing cells were also observed in structures associated with the olfactory system. The distribution of NT3 mRNA in forebrain was much more limited. Within the hippocampus, labeled cells were restricted to CA2, the most medial portion of CA1, and the dentate gyrus. In human hippocampus, cells expressing BDNF and mRNA are distributed in a fashion similar to that observed in the rat. These findings point to both basal forebrain cholinergic cells and olfactory pathways as potential central targets for BDNF.

  2. Widespread expression of BDNF but not NT3 by target areas of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, H.S.; Hains, J.M.; Laramee, G.R.; Rosenthal, A.; Winslow, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT3) are homologs of the well-known neurotrophic factor nerve growth factor. The three members of this family display distinct patterns of target specificity. To examine the distribution in brain of messenger RNA for these molecules, in situ hybridization was performed. Cells hybridizing intensely to antisense BDNF probe were located throughout the major targets of the rat basal forebrain cholinergic system, that is, the hippocampus, amygdala, and neocortex. Strongly hybridizing cells were also observed in structures associated with the olfactory system. The distribution of NT3 mRNA in forebrain was much more limited. Within the hippocampus, labeled cells were restricted to CA2, the most medial portion of CA1, and the dentate gyrus. In human hippocampus, cells expressing BDNF and mRNA are distributed in a fashion similar to that observed in the rat. These findings point to both basal forebrain cholinergic cells and olfactory pathways as potential central targets for BDNF

  3. Memory Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Brandy R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This article highlights the dissociable human memory systems of episodic, semantic, and procedural memory in the context of neurologic illnesses known to adversely affect specific neuroanatomic structures relevant to each memory system. Recent Findings: Advances in functional neuroimaging and refinement of neuropsychological and bedside assessment tools continue to support a model of multiple memory systems that are distinct yet complementary and to support the potential for one system to be engaged as a compensatory strategy when a counterpart system fails. Summary: Episodic memory, the ability to recall personal episodes, is the subtype of memory most often perceived as dysfunctional by patients and informants. Medial temporal lobe structures, especially the hippocampal formation and associated cortical and subcortical structures, are most often associated with episodic memory loss. Episodic memory dysfunction may present acutely, as in concussion; transiently, as in transient global amnesia (TGA); subacutely, as in thiamine deficiency; or chronically, as in Alzheimer disease. Semantic memory refers to acquired knowledge about the world. Anterior and inferior temporal lobe structures are most often associated with semantic memory loss. The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) is the paradigmatic disorder resulting in predominant semantic memory dysfunction. Working memory, associated with frontal lobe function, is the active maintenance of information in the mind that can be potentially manipulated to complete goal-directed tasks. Procedural memory, the ability to learn skills that become automatic, involves the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and supplementary motor cortex. Parkinson disease and related disorders result in procedural memory deficits. Most memory concerns warrant bedside cognitive or neuropsychological evaluation and neuroimaging to assess for specific neuropathologies and guide treatment. PMID:26039844

  4. The catecholaminergic-cholinergic balance hypothesis of bipolar disorder revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Janowsky, David S; Olivier, Berend; Minassian, Arpi; Perry, William; Young, Jared W; Geyer, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a unique illness characterized by fluctuations between mood states of depression and mania. Originally, an adrenergic-cholinergic balance hypothesis was postulated to underlie these different affective states. In this review, we update this hypothesis with recent findings from human and animal studies, suggesting that a catecholaminergic-cholinergic hypothesis may be more relevant. Evidence from neuroimaging studies, neuropharmacological interventions, and genetic associations support the notion that increased cholinergic functioning underlies depression, whereas increased activations of the catecholamines (dopamine and norepinephrine) underlie mania. Elevated functional acetylcholine during depression may affect both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in a compensatory fashion. Increased functional dopamine and norepinephrine during mania on the other hand may affect receptor expression and functioning of dopamine reuptake transporters. Despite increasing evidence supporting this hypothesis, a relationship between these two neurotransmitter systems that could explain cycling between states of depression and mania is missing. Future studies should focus on the influence of environmental stimuli and genetic susceptibilities that may affect the catecholaminergic-cholinergic balance underlying cycling between the affective states. Overall, observations from recent studies add important data to this revised balance theory of bipolar disorder, renewing interest in this field of research. PMID:25107282

  5. Cypermethrin Poisoning and Anti-cholinergic Medication- A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Sudip Parajuli

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A 30 years old male was brought to emergency department of Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal with alleged history of consumption of pyrethroid compound ‘cypermethrin’. It was found to be newer insecticide poisoning reported in Nepal. We reported this case to show effectiveness of anti-cholinergic like hyosciane and chlorpheniramine maleate in the treatment of cypermethrin poisoning.

  6. Cholinergic activation of neurons in the medulla oblongata changes urinary bladder activity by plasma vasopressin release in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarchio, Eduardo M; da Silva, Luiz A; Auresco, Luciana C; Ogihara, Cristiana A; Almeida, Roberto L; Giannocco, Gisele; Luz, Maria C B; Fonseca, Fernando L A; Sato, Monica A

    2016-04-05

    The central control of the micturition is dependent on cortical areas and other ascending and descending pathways in the brain stem. The descendent pathways from the pons to the urinary bladder (UB) can be direct or indirect through medullary neurons (MN). Chemical stimulation with l-glutamate of MN known for their involvement in cardiovascular regulation evokes changes in pelvic nerves activities, which innervate the urinary bladder. Different neurotransmitters have been found in medullary areas; nevertheless, their involvement in UB control is few understood. We focused to investigate if cholinergic activation of neurons in the medulla oblongata changes the urinary bladder activity. Carbachol (cholinergic agonist) or atropine (cholinergic antagonist) was injected into the 4thV in anesthetized female Wistar rats and the intravesical pressure (IP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and renal conductance (RC) were recorded for 30 min. Carbachol injection into the 4thV increased IP with peak response at 30 min after carbachol and yielded no changes in MAP, HR and RC. Atropine injection into the 4thV decreased IP and elicited no changes in MAP, HR and RC. Plasma vasopressin levels evaluated by ELISA kit assay increased after carbachol into the 4th V. Intravenous blockade of V1 receptors prior to carbachol into the 4thV abolished the increase in IP evoked by carbachol. Therefore, our findings suggest that cholinergic activation of neurons in the medulla oblongata by carbachol injections into the 4thV increases IP due to plasma vasopressin release, which acts in V1 receptors in the UB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Executive Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovici, Gil D.; Stephens, Melanie L.; Possin, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: Executive functions represent a constellation of cognitive abilities that drive goal-oriented behavior and are critical to the ability to adapt to an ever-changing world. This article provides a clinically oriented approach to classifying, localizing, diagnosing, and treating disorders of executive function, which are pervasive in clinical practice. Recent Findings: Executive functions can be split into four distinct components: working memory, inhibition, set shifting, and fluency. These components may be differentially affected in individual patients and act together to guide higher-order cognitive constructs such as planning and organization. Specific bedside and neuropsychological tests can be applied to evaluate components of executive function. While dysexecutive syndromes were first described in patients with frontal lesions, intact executive functioning relies on distributed neural networks that include not only the prefrontal cortex, but also the parietal cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum. Executive dysfunction arises from injury to any of these regions, their white matter connections, or neurotransmitter systems. Dysexecutive symptoms therefore occur in most neurodegenerative diseases and in many other neurologic, psychiatric, and systemic illnesses. Management approaches are patient specific and should focus on treatment of the underlying cause in parallel with maximizing patient function and safety via occupational therapy and rehabilitation. Summary: Executive dysfunction is extremely common in patients with neurologic disorders. Diagnosis and treatment hinge on familiarity with the clinical components and neuroanatomic correlates of these complex, high-order cognitive processes. PMID:26039846

  8. Simulated Cholinergic Reinnervation of β (INS-1 Cells: Antidiabetic Utility of Heterotypic Pseudoislets Containing β Cell and Cholinergic Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ao Jiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholinergic neurons can functionally support pancreatic islets in controlling blood sugar levels. However, in islet transplantation, the level of cholinergic reinnervation is significantly lower compared to orthotopic pancreatic islets. This abnormal reinnervation affects the survival and function of islet grafts. In this study, the cholinergic reinnervation of beta cells was simulated by 2D and 3D coculture of INS-1 and NG108-15 cells. In 2D culture conditions, 20 mM glucose induced a 1.24-fold increase (p<0.0001 in insulin secretion from the coculture group, while in the 3D culture condition, a 1.78-fold increase (p<0.0001 in insulin secretion from heterotypic pseudoislet group was observed. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS from 2D INS-1 cells showed minimal changes when compared to 3D structures. E-cadherin expressed in INS-1 and NG108-15 cells was the key adhesion molecule for the formation of heterotypic pseudoislets. NG108-15 cells hardly affected the proliferation of INS-1 cells in vitro. Heterotypic pseudoislet transplantation recipient mice reverted to normoglycemic levels faster and had a greater blood glucose clearance compared to INS-1 pseudoislet recipient mice. In conclusion, cholinergic cells can promote insulin-secreting cells to function better in vitro and in vivo and E-cadherin plays an important role in the formation of heterotypic pseudoislets.

  9. Mitochondrial dysfunction in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Aline Haas; Costa, Ana Beatriz; Engel, Jéssica Della Giustina; Rezin, Gislaine Tezza

    2018-01-01

    Obesity leads to various changes in the body. Among them, the existing inflammatory process may lead to an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, in turn, can trigger mitochondrial changes, which is called mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, excess nutrients supply (as it commonly is the case with obesity) can overwhelm the Krebs cycle and the mitochondrial respiratory chain, causing a mitochondrial dysfunction, and lead to a higher ROS formation. This increase in ROS production by the respiratory chain may also cause oxidative stress, which may exacerbate the inflammatory process in obesity. All these intracellular changes can lead to cellular apoptosis. These processes have been described in obesity as occurring mainly in peripheral tissues. However, some studies have already shown that obesity is also associated with changes in the central nervous system (CNS), with alterations in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and in cerebral structures such as hypothalamus and hippocampus. In this sense, this review presents a general view about mitochondrial dysfunction in obesity, including related alterations, such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis, and focusing on the whole organism, covering alterations in peripheral tissues, BBB, and CNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Delirium Accompanied by Cholinergic Deficiency and Organ Failure in a 73-Year-Old Critically Ill Patient: Physostigmine as a Therapeutic Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Zujalovic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Delirium is a common problem in ICU patients, resulting in prolonged ICU stay and increased mortality. A cholinergic deficiency in the central nervous system is supposed to be a relevant pathophysiologic process in delirium. Acetylcholine is a major transmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system influencing several organs (e.g., heart and kidneys and the inflammatory response too. This perception might explain that delirium is not an individual symptom, but rather a part of a symptom complex with various disorders of the whole organism. The cholinergic deficiency could not be quantified up to now. Using the possibility of bedside determination of the acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE activity, we assumed to objectify the cholinergic homeostasis within minutes. As reported here, the postoperative delirium was accompanied by a massive hemodynamic and renal deterioration of unclear genesis. We identified the altered AChE activity as a plausible pathophysiological mechanism. The pharmacological intervention with the indirect parasympathomimetic physostigmine led to a quick and lasting improvement of the patient’s cognitive, hemodynamic, and renal status. In summary, severe delirium is not always an attendant phenomenon of critical illness. It might be causal for multiple organ deterioration if it is based on cholinergic deficiency and has to be treated at his pathophysiological roots whenever possible.

  11. Spinal cholinergic involvement after treatment with aspirin and paracetamol in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Kommalage, Mahinda; Höglund, A Urban

    2004-01-01

    Aspirin and paracetamol have been shown to suppress non-inflammatory pain conditions like thermal, visceral and mechanical pain in mice and rats. The non-inflammatory antinociception appears to be mediated by central receptor mechanisms, such as the cholinergic system. In this study, we tested...... the hypothesis that the non-inflammatory antinociception of aspirin and paracetamol could be mediated by an increase of intraspinal acetylcholine release. Microdialysis probes were placed intraspinally in anesthetized rats for acetylcholine sampling. Subcutaneously administered aspirin 100 and 300 mg....../kg increased, while paracetamol 300 mg/kg decreased intraspinal acetylcholine release. Intraspinal drug administration did not affect acetylcholine release. Our results suggest that an increased intraspinal acetylcholine release could be involved in part of the non-inflammatory pain suppression by aspirin...

  12. Unprotected daily sun exposure is differently associated with central adiposity and beta-cell dysfunction by gender: The Korean national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES) V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohn, Jung Hun [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, In Ho [Department of Dermatology, Hallym University Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of); Park, Juri; Ryu, Ohk Hyun; Lee, Seong Jin; Kim, Doo-Man; Ihm, Sung-Hee; Choi, Moon-Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Eun-Gyoung, E-mail: hegletter@hallym.or.kr [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Background: Ultraviolet irradiation by sun exposure has been associated with both harms and benefits to metabolic health. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether unprotected daily sun exposure is associated with the prevalence of diabetes and explore the underlying mechanism. Methods: We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey V from 2010 to 2011. Participants 19–60 years of age were asked about the average amount of time they had been exposed to direct sunlight per day since the age of 19. We categorized participants into three groups with different levels of lifetime daily sun exposure and explored the association of sun exposure with the prevalence of diabetes. Results: The risk of diabetes was higher in subjects with more than 5 h of unprotected sun exposure per day, with an odds ratio of 2.39 (95% CI 1.75–3.25), compared to those with less than 2 h of sun exposure, and the association remained significant after adjusting for diabetes risk factors. Long-term sun exposure was associated with increased central obesity and the possibility of an increase in visceral adiposity, especially among women, and with decrease in beta cell function and peripheral adiposity or percent body fat in men. Conclusions: Our study provides a cutoff for upper limit of sun exposure and suggests unprotected daily sun exposure for more than 5 h should be avoided to prevent diabetes. Increased central adiposity and decreased beta cell function were observed in women and men, respectively, who had long-term unprotected daily sun exposure. - Highlights: • Sun exposure for more than 5 h per day is associated with diabetes risk. • Insulin resistance associated with visceral adiposity may play a role in women. • Insulin secretory defect may explain diabetes risk in men.

  13. Unprotected daily sun exposure is differently associated with central adiposity and beta-cell dysfunction by gender: The Korean national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES) V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohn, Jung Hun; Kwon, In Ho; Park, Juri; Ryu, Ohk Hyun; Lee, Seong Jin; Kim, Doo-Man; Ihm, Sung-Hee; Choi, Moon-Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Hong, Eun-Gyoung

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ultraviolet irradiation by sun exposure has been associated with both harms and benefits to metabolic health. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether unprotected daily sun exposure is associated with the prevalence of diabetes and explore the underlying mechanism. Methods: We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey V from 2010 to 2011. Participants 19–60 years of age were asked about the average amount of time they had been exposed to direct sunlight per day since the age of 19. We categorized participants into three groups with different levels of lifetime daily sun exposure and explored the association of sun exposure with the prevalence of diabetes. Results: The risk of diabetes was higher in subjects with more than 5 h of unprotected sun exposure per day, with an odds ratio of 2.39 (95% CI 1.75–3.25), compared to those with less than 2 h of sun exposure, and the association remained significant after adjusting for diabetes risk factors. Long-term sun exposure was associated with increased central obesity and the possibility of an increase in visceral adiposity, especially among women, and with decrease in beta cell function and peripheral adiposity or percent body fat in men. Conclusions: Our study provides a cutoff for upper limit of sun exposure and suggests unprotected daily sun exposure for more than 5 h should be avoided to prevent diabetes. Increased central adiposity and decreased beta cell function were observed in women and men, respectively, who had long-term unprotected daily sun exposure. - Highlights: • Sun exposure for more than 5 h per day is associated with diabetes risk. • Insulin resistance associated with visceral adiposity may play a role in women. • Insulin secretory defect may explain diabetes risk in men

  14. Dysfunctional Families: One Central Theme in Two Fictional Works of Tony Morrison, Song of Solomon and Sula Familias Disfuncionales: Un Tema Central en Dos Novelas de Toni Morrison, Canción de Salomón y Sula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Gómez R.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Toni Morrison, Nobel Prize winner (1993, has been recognized as one of the most prominent novelists in the USA today. Her novels Song of Solomon and Sula rank enormous and original literary creativity through which she shows what it means to survive as an individual in the black families of America. Hence, this article explores the desperation and vulnerabilities of children who grow up in dysfunctional families and how they experience trauma and pain from their parents' unconventional actions and behaviors. The article accounts of the irregular experiences that the main characters of these two novels have to confront at hostile homes as they grow up changed, different from other children, and lack the essential educational guidance that prepare them for adulthood. Children are forced to assume unnatural roles within their families and, consequently, become dysfunctional members of society.En la actualidad, Toni Morrison, ganadora del premio Nóbel (1993, ha sido reconocida como una de las novelistas más prominentes de los Estados Unidos. Sus novelas Canción de Salomón y Sula gozan de poseer una enorme creatividad literaria a través de la cual presenta lo que significa sobrevivir como un miembro de las familias de raza negra en Norteamérica. Por ello, este artículo explora las vulnerabilidades de niños que crecen dentro de familias disfuncionales y de cómo sufren afectivamente a causa de las acciones y comportamientos poco convencionales de sus padres. El artículo discute las experiencias irregulares que los personajes principales de estas dos novelas tienen que enfrentar en hogares hostiles a medida que crecen diferentes a otros niños, carentes de la orientación educativa esencial que los prepare para la vida adulta. Los menores de edad son obligados a asumir roles anormales dentro de sus familias y en consecuencia se convierten en miembros disfuncionales de la sociedad.

  15. Inhaled ammonium persulphate inhibits non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic relaxations in the guinea pig isolated trachea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellabianca, A; Faniglione, M; De Angelis, S; Colucci, M; Cervio, M; Balestra, B; Tonini, S; Candura, S M

    2010-01-01

    Persulphates can act both as irritants and sensitizers in inducing occupational asthma. A dysfunction of nervous control regulating the airway tone has been hypothesized as a mechanism underlying bronchoconstriction in asthma. It was the aim of this study to investigate whether inhaled ammonium persulphate affects the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) inhibitory innervation, the cholinergic nerve-mediated contraction or the muscular response to the spasmogens, carbachol or histamine, in the guinea pig epithelium-free, isolated trachea. Male guinea pigs inhaled aerosols containing ammonium persulphate (10 mg/m(3) for 30 min for 5 days during 3 weeks). Control animals inhaled saline aerosol. NANC relaxations to electrical field stimulation at 3 Hz were evaluated in whole tracheal segments as intraluminal pressure changes. Drugs inactivating peptide transmission, nitric oxide synthase, carbon monoxide production by haem oxygenase-2 and soluble guanylyl cyclase were used to assess the involvement of various inhibitory neurotransmitters. Carbachol and histamine cumulative concentration-response curves were obtained. In both groups, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide participated to the same extent as inhibitory neurotransmitters. In exposed animals, the tracheal NANC relaxations were reduced to 45.9 +/- 12.1% (p guinea pig airways. This may represent a novel mechanism contributing to persulphate-induced asthma. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Cholinergic Neurons in the Basal Forebrain Promote Wakefulness by Actions on Neighboring Non-Cholinergic Neurons: An Opto-Dialysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zant, Janneke C; Kim, Tae; Prokai, Laszlo; Szarka, Szabolcs; McNally, James; McKenna, James T; Shukla, Charu; Yang, Chun; Kalinchuk, Anna V; McCarley, Robert W; Brown, Ritchie E; Basheer, Radhika

    2016-02-10

    Understanding the control of sleep-wake states by the basal forebrain (BF) poses a challenge due to the intermingled presence of cholinergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic neurons. All three BF neuronal subtypes project to the cortex and are implicated in cortical arousal and sleep-wake control. Thus, nonspecific stimulation or inhibition studies do not reveal the roles of these different neuronal types. Recent studies using optogenetics have shown that "selective" stimulation of BF cholinergic neurons increases transitions between NREM sleep and wakefulness, implicating cholinergic projections to cortex in wake promotion. However, the interpretation of these optogenetic experiments is complicated by interactions that may occur within the BF. For instance, a recent in vitro study from our group found that cholinergic neurons strongly excite neighboring GABAergic neurons, including the subset of cortically projecting neurons, which contain the calcium-binding protein, parvalbumin (PV) (Yang et al., 2014). Thus, the wake-promoting effect of "selective" optogenetic stimulation of BF cholinergic neurons could be mediated by local excitation of GABA/PV or other non-cholinergic BF neurons. In this study, using a newly designed opto-dialysis probe to couple selective optical stimulation with simultaneous in vivo microdialysis, we demonstrated that optical stimulation of cholinergic neurons locally increased acetylcholine levels and increased wakefulness in mice. Surprisingly, the enhanced wakefulness caused by cholinergic stimulation was abolished by simultaneous reverse microdialysis of cholinergic receptor antagonists into BF. Thus, our data suggest that the wake-promoting effect of cholinergic stimulation requires local release of acetylcholine in the basal forebrain and activation of cortically projecting, non-cholinergic neurons, including the GABAergic/PV neurons. Optogenetics is a revolutionary tool to assess the roles of particular groups of neurons in behavioral

  17. Cholinergic effects of HI-6 in Soman poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, T.M.; Lockwood, P.A.; Lundy, P.M.; Valdes, J.J.; Whalley, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    The authors conduct studies to determine the role of cholinergic mechanisms in the antidotal effects of HI-6 in soman poisoning. The effects of HI-6 were studied in discrete brain areas and elevation of acetylcholine or choline levels in vivo as well as on muscarinic receptor binding and high affinity Ch uptake (HAChT) in vitro. The effect of pralidoxime chloride was studied on the same cholinergic mechanisms to compare its effects with HI-6. Methyl-tritium-choline chloride and tritium-quinuclidinyl benzilate were used in the experiments on male Wistar rats. The influence of antidotal treatments on time to death in soman intoxicated rats is shown. The effects of soman and its antidotal treatments on regional bain ChE activity are shown. The most significant protection was afforded by simultaneous treatment with both HI-6 and ATS

  18. Cholinergic modulation of the hippocampal region and memory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haam, Juhee; Yakel, Jerrel L

    2017-08-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) plays an important role in memory function and has been implicated in aging-related dementia, in which the impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning strongly manifests. Cholinergic neurons densely innervate the hippocampus, mediating the formation of episodic as well as semantic memory. Here, we will review recent findings on acetylcholine's modulation of memory function, with a particular focus on hippocampus-dependent learning, and the circuits involved. In addition, we will discuss the complexity of ACh actions in memory function to better understand the physiological role of ACh in memory. This is an article for the special issue XVth International Symposium on Cholinergic Mechanisms. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  19. Regulation of drugs affecting striatal cholinergic activity by corticostriatal projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladinsky, H.

    1986-01-01

    Research demonstrates that the chronic degeneration of the corticostriatal excitatory pathway makes the cholinergic neurons of the striatum insensitive to the neuropharmacological action of a number of different drugs. Female rats were used; they were killed and after the i.v. infusion of tritium-choline precursor, choline acetyltransferase activity was measured. Striatal noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin content was measured by electrochemical detection coupled with high pressure liquid chromatography. Uptake of tritium-glutamic acid was estimated. The data were analyzed statistically. It is shown that there is evidence that the effects of a number of drugs capable of depressing cholinergic activity through receptor-mediated responses are operative only if the corticostriatal pathway is integral. Neuropharmacological responses in the brain appear to be the result of an interaction between several major neurotransmitter systems

  20. Cholinergic receptor binding in the frontal cortex of suicide victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, M.

    1986-01-01

    Because there is a high incidence of individuals diagnosed as having an affective disorder who subsequently commit suicide, the author thought it would be of interest to determine QNB binding in the brains of a large sample of suicide victims, and to compare the findings with a well-matched control group. Brain samples were obtained at autopsy from 22 suicide victims and 22 controls. Frontal cortex samples were diseected, frozen, and stored until assayed. Samples of tissue homogenate were incubated in duplicate with 10 concentrations of tritium-QNB. Specific binding was determined with and without atropine. The results confirmed previous studies in which no changes were noted in suicide versus control brains. While the findings neither disprove nor support the cholinergic hypothesis of depression, they do suggest that the neurochemical basis for the in vivo observations of increased responsivity of depressed individuals to muscarinic cholinergic agents might not involve changes in receptors estimated by QNB binding

  1. Genetically-induced cholinergic hyper-innervation enhances taste learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin eNeseliler

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute inhibition of acetylcholine (ACh has been shown to impair many forms of simple learning, and notably conditioned taste aversion (CTA. The most adhered-to theory that has emerged as a result of this work—that ACh increases a taste’s perceived novelty, and thereby its associability—would be further strengthened by evidence showing that enhanced cholinergic function improves learning above normal levels. Experimental testing of this corollary hypothesis has been limited, however, by side-effects of pharmacological ACh agonism and by the absence of a model that achieves long-term increases in cholinergic signaling. Here, we present this further test of the ACh hypothesis, making use of mice lacking the p75 pan-neurotrophin receptor gene, which show a resultant over-abundance of cholinergic neurons in subregions of the basal forebrain (BF. We first demonstrate that the p75-/- abnormality directly affects portions of the CTA circuit, locating mouse gustatory cortex (GC using a functional assay and then using immunohistochemisty to demonstrate cholinergic hyperinnervation of GC in the mutant mice—hyperinnervation that is unaccompanied by changes in cell numbers or compensatory changes in muscarinic receptor densities. We then demonstrate that both p75-/- and wild-type mice learn robust CTAs, which extinguish more slowly in the mutants. Further testing to distinguish effects on learning from alterations in memory retention demonstrate that p75-/- mice do in fact learn stronger CTAs than wild-type mice. These data provide novel evidence for the hypothesis linking ACh and taste learning.

  2. Cholinergic neuromodulation controls directed temporal communication in neocortex in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita K Roopun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine is the primary neuromodulator involved in cortical arousal in mammals. Cholinergic modulation is involved in conscious awareness, memory formation and attention – processes that involve intercommunication between different cortical regions. Such communication is achieved in part through temporal structuring of neuronal activity by population rhythms, particularly in the beta and gamma frequency ranges (12 – 80 Hz. Here we demonstrate, using in vitro and in silico models, that spectrally identical patterns of beta2 and gamma rhythms are generated in primary sensory areas and polymodal association areas by fundamentally different local circuit mechanisms: Glutamatergic excitation induced beta2 frequency population rhythms only in layer 5 association cortex whereas cholinergic neuromodulation induced this rhythm only in layer 5 primary sensory cortex. This region-specific sensitivity of local circuits to cholinergic modulation allowed for control of the extent of cortical temporal interactions. Furthermore, the contrasting mechanisms underlying these beta2 rhythms produced a high degree of directionality, favouring an influence of association cortex over primary auditory cortex.

  3. Cholinergic Neuromodulation Controls Directed Temporal Communication in Neocortex in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopun, Anita K.; LeBeau, Fiona E.N.; Rammell, James; Cunningham, Mark O.; Traub, Roger D.; Whittington, Miles A.

    2010-01-01

    Acetylcholine is the primary neuromodulator involved in cortical arousal in mammals. Cholinergic modulation is involved in conscious awareness, memory formation and attention – processes that involve intercommunication between different cortical regions. Such communication is achieved in part through temporal structuring of neuronal activity by population rhythms, particularly in the beta and gamma frequency ranges (12–80 Hz). Here we demonstrate, using in vitro and in silico models, that spectrally identical patterns of beta2 and gamma rhythms are generated in primary sensory areas and polymodal association areas by fundamentally different local circuit mechanisms: Glutamatergic excitation induced beta2 frequency population rhythms only in layer 5 association cortex whereas cholinergic neuromodulation induced this rhythm only in layer 5 primary sensory cortex. This region-specific sensitivity of local circuits to cholinergic modulation allowed for control of the extent of cortical temporal interactions. Furthermore, the contrasting mechanisms underlying these beta2 rhythms produced a high degree of directionality, favouring an influence of association cortex over primary auditory cortex. PMID:20407636

  4. Basal forebrain cholinergic systems in primate brain: Anatomical organization and role in the pathology of aging and dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.L.; Cork, L.C.; Hedreen, J.C.; Kitt, C.A.; Struble, R.G.; Walker, L.C.; Whitehouse, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the anatomical organization of the Chl-4 system: evidence implicating this system in the pathology of AD and related disorders; and hypothetical models by which dysfunction and, eventually, death of these cells may account for some of the neurochemical/neuropathological changes observed in the brains of individuals with AD and related dementias. The topography of Chl-4 projections has been analyzed by injecting tritium-amino acids in proximity to cell bodies of the Chl-4 cell group. It is suggested that reductions in cholinergic markers (activites of ChAT and AChE, high-affinity uptake of choline, and synthesis of acetylcholine from C 14-glucose) in the neocortex appear to be the most severe, consistent, and perhaps earliest transmitter specific abnormalities occurring in the amygdala, hippocampus, and neocortex

  5. Cholinergic drugs as therapeutic tools in inflammatory diseases: participation of neuronal and non-neuronal cholinergic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, María Elena

    2013-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is synthesized by choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) from acetylcoenzime A and choline. This reaction occurs not only in pre-ganglionic fibers of the autonomic nervous system and post-ganglionic parasympathetic nervous fibers but also in non neuronal cells. This knowledge led to expand the role of ACh as a neurotransmitter and to consider it as a "cytotransmitter" and also to evaluate the existence of a non-neuronal cholinergic system comprising ACh, ChAT, acetylcholinesterase, and the nicotinic and muscarinic ACh receptors, outside the nervous system. This review analyzes the participation of cholinergic system in inflammation and discusses the role of different muscarinic and nicotinic drugs that are being used to treat skin inflammatory disorders, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as well as, intestinal inflammation and systemic inflammatory diseases, among others, to assess the potential application of these compounds as therapeutic tools.

  6. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Keane

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a progressive, neurodegenerative condition that has increasingly been linked with mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of the electron transport chain. This inhibition leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of cellular energy levels, which can consequently cause cellular damage and death mediated by oxidative stress and excitotoxicity. A number of genes that have been shown to have links with inherited forms of PD encode mitochondrial proteins or proteins implicated in mitochondrial dysfunction, supporting the central involvement of mitochondria in PD. This involvement is corroborated by reports that environmental toxins that inhibit the mitochondrial respiratory chain have been shown to be associated with PD. This paper aims to illustrate the considerable body of evidence linking mitochondrial dysfunction with neuronal cell death in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc of PD patients and to highlight the important need for further research in this area.

  7. Attentional function and basal forebrain cholinergic neuron morphology during aging in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Brian E; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M; Ash, Jessica A; Strawderman, Myla S; Alldred, Melissa J; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mufson, Elliott J; Strupp, Barbara J

    2016-12-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) exhibit intellectual disability and develop Alzheimer's disease-like neuropathology during the third decade of life. The Ts65Dn mouse model of DS exhibits key features of both disorders, including impairments in learning, attention and memory, as well as atrophy of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs). The present study evaluated attentional function in relation to BFCN morphology in young (3 months) and middle-aged (12 months) Ts65Dn mice and disomic (2N) controls. Ts65Dn mice exhibited attentional dysfunction at both ages, with greater impairment in older trisomics. Density of BFCNs was significantly lower for Ts65Dn mice independent of age, which may contribute to attentional dysfunction since BFCN density was positively associated with performance on an attention task. BFCN volume decreased with age in 2N but not Ts65Dn mice. Paradoxically, BFCN volume was greater in older trisomic mice, suggestive of a compensatory response. In sum, attentional dysfunction occurred in both young and middle-aged Ts65Dn mice, which may in part reflect reduced density and/or phenotypic alterations in BFCNs.

  8. Effects of Pyridostigmine in Flinders Line Rats Differing in Cholinergic Sensitivity (AIBS GWI 0055)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overstreet, David

    1999-01-01

    .... The second aim was to determine whether pyridostigmine had prophylactic effects against the organophosphates chlorpyrifos and diisopropylfluorophosphate regardless of innate cholinergic sensitivity...

  9. Development of myenteric cholinergic neurons in ChAT-Cre;R26R-YFP mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Marlene M; Bornstein, Joel C; Young, Heather M

    2013-10-01

    Cholinergic neurons are the major excitatory neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS), and include intrinsic sensory neurons, interneurons, and excitatory motor neurons. Cholinergic neurons have been detected in the embryonic ENS; however, the development of these neurons has been difficult to study as they are difficult to detect prior to birth using conventional immunohistochemistry. In this study we used ChAT-Cre;R26R-YFP mice to examine the development of cholinergic neurons in the gut of embryonic and postnatal mice. Cholinergic (YFP+) neurons were first detected at embryonic day (E)11.5, and the proportion of cholinergic neurons gradually increased during pre- and postnatal development. At birth, myenteric cholinergic neurons comprised less than half of their adult proportions in the small intestine (25% of myenteric neurons were YFP+ at P0 compared to 62% in adults). The earliest cholinergic neurons appear to mainly project anally. Projections into the presumptive circular muscle were first observed at E14.5. A subpopulation of cholinergic neurons coexpress calbindin through embryonic and postnatal development, but only a small proportion coexpressed neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Our study shows that cholinergic neurons in the ENS develop over a protracted period of time. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Cholinergic control of visual categorisation in macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos C. Aggelopoulos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh is a neurotransmitter acting via muscarinic and nicotinic receptors that is implicated in several cognitive functions and impairments, such as Alzheimer’s disease. It is believed to especially affect the acquisition of new information, which is particularly important when behaviour needs to be adapted to new situations and to novel sensory events. Categorisation, the process of assigning stimuli to a category, is a cognitive function that also involves information acquisition. The role of ACh on categorisation has not been previously studied. We have examined the effects of scopolamine, an antagonist of muscarinic ACh receptors, on visual categorisation in macaque monkeys using familiar and novel stimuli. When the peripheral effects of scopolamine on the parasympathetic nervous system were controlled for, categorisation performance was disrupted following systemic injections of scopolamine. This impairment was observed only when the stimuli that needed to be categorised had not been seen before. In other words, the monkeys were not impaired by the central action of scopolamine in categorising a set of familiar stimuli (stimuli which they had categorised successfully in previous sessions. Categorisation performance also deteriorated as the stimulus became less salient by an increase in the level of visual noise. However, scopolamine did not cause additional performance disruptions for difficult categorisation judgements at lower coherence levels. Scopolamine, therefore, specifically affects the assignment of new exemplars to established cognitive categories, presumably by impairing the processing of novel information. Since we did not find an effect of scopolamine in the categorisation of familiar stimuli, scopolamine had no significant central action on other cognitive functions such as perception, attention, memory or executive control within the context of our categorisation task.

  11. Cholinergic enhancement reduces orientation-specific surround suppression but not visual crowding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Kosovicheva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh reduces the spatial spread of excitatory fMRI responses in early visual cortex and the receptive field sizes of V1 neurons. We investigated the perceptual consequences of these physiological effects of ACh with surround suppression and crowding, two tasks that involve spatial interactions between visual field locations. Surround suppression refers to the reduction in perceived stimulus contrast by a high-contrast surround stimulus. For grating stimuli, surround suppression is selective for the relative orientations of the center and surround, suggesting that it results from inhibitory interactions in early visual cortex. Crowding refers to impaired identification of a peripheral stimulus in the presence of flankers and is thought to result from excessive integration of visual features. We increased synaptic ACh levels by administering the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil to healthy human subjects in a placebo-controlled, double-blind design. In Exp. 1, we measured surround suppression of a central grating using a contrast discrimination task with three conditions: 1 surround grating with the same orientation as the center (parallel, 2 surround orthogonal to the center, or 3 no surround. Contrast discrimination thresholds were higher in the parallel than in the orthogonal condition, demonstrating orientation-specific surround suppression (OSSS. Cholinergic enhancement reduced thresholds only in the parallel condition, thereby reducing OSSS. In Exp. 2, subjects performed a crowding task in which they reported the identity of a peripheral letter flanked by letters on either side. We measured the critical spacing between the target and flanking letters that allowed reliable identification. Cholinergic enhancement had no effect on critical spacing. Our findings suggest that ACh reduces spatial interactions in tasks involving segmentation of visual field locations but that these effects may be limited to early visual cortical

  12. Cholinergic Machinery as Relevant Target in Acute Lymphoblastic T Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana Dobrovinskaya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Various types of non-neuronal cells, including tumors, are able to produce acetylcholine (ACh, which acts as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor. T lymphocytes represent a key component of the non-neuronal cholinergic system. T cells-derived ACh is involved in a stimulation of their activation and proliferation, and acts as a regulator of immune response. The aim of the present work was to summarize the data about components of cholinergic machinery in T lymphocytes, with an emphasis on the comparison of healthy and leukemic T cells. Cell lines derived from acute lymphoblastic leukemias of T lineage (T-ALL were found to produce a considerably higher amount of ACh than healthy T lumphocytes. Additionally, ACh produced by T-ALL is not efficiently hydrolyzed, because acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity is drastically decreased in these cells. Up-regulation of muscarinic ACh receptors was also demonstrated at expression and functional level, whereas nicotinic ACh receptors seem to play a less important role and not form functional channels in cells derived from T-ALL. We hypothesized that ACh over-produced in T-ALL may act as an autocrine growth factor and play an important role in leukemic clonal expansion through shaping of intracellular Ca2+ signals. We suggest that cholinergic machinery may be attractive targets for new drugs against T-ALL. Specifically, testing of high affinity antagonists of muscarinic ACh receptors as well as antagomiRs, which interfere with miRNAs involved in the suppression of AChE expression, may be the first choice options.

  13. Nitric oxide and the non-adrenergic non-cholinergic neurotransmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckxstaens, G. E.; Pelckmans, P. A.

    1997-01-01

    In the early 1960s, the first evidence was reported demonstrating neurally mediated responses in the presence of adrenergic and cholinergic antagonists, leading to the introduction of the concept of non-adrenergic non-cholinergic neurotransmission. The inhibitory component of this part of the

  14. Cholinergic neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus regulate mouse brown adipose tissue metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hoon Jeong

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: DMH cholinergic neurons directly send efferent signals to sympathetic premotor neurons in the Rpa. Elevated cholinergic input to this area reduces BAT activity through activation of M2 mAChRs on serotonergic neurons. Therefore, the direct DMHACh–Rpa5-HT pathway may mediate physiological heat-defense responses to elevated environmental temperature.

  15. Bladder, Bowel, and Sexual Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuji Sakakibara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder dysfunction (urinary urgency/frequency, bowel dysfunction (constipation, and sexual dysfunction (erectile dysfunction (also called “pelvic organ” dysfunctions are common nonmotor disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD. In contrast to motor disorders, pelvic organ autonomic dysfunctions are often nonresponsive to levodopa treatment. The brain pathology causing the bladder dysfunction (appearance of overactivity involves an altered dopamine-basal ganglia circuit, which normally suppresses the micturition reflex. By contrast, peripheral myenteric pathology causing slowed colonic transit (loss of rectal contractions and central pathology causing weak strain and paradoxical anal sphincter contraction on defecation (PSD, also called as anismus are responsible for the bowel dysfunction. In addition, hypothalamic dysfunction is mostly responsible for the sexual dysfunction (decrease in libido and erection in PD, via altered dopamine-oxytocin pathways, which normally promote libido and erection. The pathophysiology of the pelvic organ dysfunction in PD differs from that in multiple system atrophy; therefore, it might aid in differential diagnosis. Anticholinergic agents are used to treat bladder dysfunction in PD, although these drugs should be used with caution particularly in elderly patients who have cognitive decline. Dietary fibers, laxatives, and “prokinetic” drugs such as serotonergic agonists are used to treat bowel dysfunction in PD. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors are used to treat sexual dysfunction in PD. These treatments might be beneficial in maximizing the patients' quality of life.

  16. Bladder, bowel, and sexual dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Ryuji; Kishi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Emina; Tateno, Fuyuki; Uchiyama, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Yamanishi, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    Bladder dysfunction (urinary urgency/frequency), bowel dysfunction (constipation), and sexual dysfunction (erectile dysfunction) (also called "pelvic organ" dysfunctions) are common nonmotor disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD). In contrast to motor disorders, pelvic organ autonomic dysfunctions are often nonresponsive to levodopa treatment. The brain pathology causing the bladder dysfunction (appearance of overactivity) involves an altered dopamine-basal ganglia circuit, which normally suppresses the micturition reflex. By contrast, peripheral myenteric pathology causing slowed colonic transit (loss of rectal contractions) and central pathology causing weak strain and paradoxical anal sphincter contraction on defecation (PSD, also called as anismus) are responsible for the bowel dysfunction. In addition, hypothalamic dysfunction is mostly responsible for the sexual dysfunction (decrease in libido and erection) in PD, via altered dopamine-oxytocin pathways, which normally promote libido and erection. The pathophysiology of the pelvic organ dysfunction in PD differs from that in multiple system atrophy; therefore, it might aid in differential diagnosis. Anticholinergic agents are used to treat bladder dysfunction in PD, although these drugs should be used with caution particularly in elderly patients who have cognitive decline. Dietary fibers, laxatives, and "prokinetic" drugs such as serotonergic agonists are used to treat bowel dysfunction in PD. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors are used to treat sexual dysfunction in PD. These treatments might be beneficial in maximizing the patients' quality of life.

  17. A cellular and regulatory map of the cholinergic nervous system of C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Laura; Kratsios, Paschalis; Serrano-Saiz, Esther; Sheftel, Hila; Mayo, Avi E; Hall, David H; White, John G; LeBoeuf, Brigitte; Garcia, L Rene; Alon, Uri; Hobert, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Nervous system maps are of critical importance for understanding how nervous systems develop and function. We systematically map here all cholinergic neuron types in the male and hermaphrodite C. elegans nervous system. We find that acetylcholine (ACh) is the most broadly used neurotransmitter and we analyze its usage relative to other neurotransmitters within the context of the entire connectome and within specific network motifs embedded in the connectome. We reveal several dynamic aspects of cholinergic neurotransmitter identity, including a sexually dimorphic glutamatergic to cholinergic neurotransmitter switch in a sex-shared interneuron. An expression pattern analysis of ACh-gated anion channels furthermore suggests that ACh may also operate very broadly as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. As a first application of this comprehensive neurotransmitter map, we identify transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that control cholinergic neurotransmitter identity and cholinergic circuit assembly. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12432.001 PMID:26705699

  18. Long-term relationships between cholinergic tone, synchronous bursting and synaptic remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Kaufman

    Full Text Available Cholinergic neuromodulation plays key roles in the regulation of neuronal excitability, network activity, arousal, and behavior. On longer time scales, cholinergic systems play essential roles in cortical development, maturation, and plasticity. Presumably, these processes are associated with substantial synaptic remodeling, yet to date, long-term relationships between cholinergic tone and synaptic remodeling remain largely unknown. Here we used automated microscopy combined with multielectrode array recordings to study long-term relationships between cholinergic tone, excitatory synapse remodeling, and network activity characteristics in networks of cortical neurons grown on multielectrode array substrates. Experimental elevations of cholinergic tone led to the abrupt suppression of episodic synchronous bursting activity (but not of general activity, followed by a gradual growth of excitatory synapses over hours. Subsequent blockage of cholinergic receptors led to an immediate restoration of synchronous bursting and the gradual reversal of synaptic growth. Neither synaptic growth nor downsizing was governed by multiplicative scaling rules. Instead, these occurred in a subset of synapses, irrespective of initial synaptic size. Synaptic growth seemed to depend on intrinsic network activity, but not on the degree to which bursting was suppressed. Intriguingly, sustained elevations of cholinergic tone were associated with a gradual recovery of synchronous bursting but not with a reversal of synaptic growth. These findings show that cholinergic tone can strongly affect synaptic remodeling and synchronous bursting activity, but do not support a strict coupling between the two. Finally, the reemergence of synchronous bursting in the presence of elevated cholinergic tone indicates that the capacity of cholinergic neuromodulation to indefinitely suppress synchronous bursting might be inherently limited.

  19. Long-term Relationships between Cholinergic Tone, Synchronous Bursting and Synaptic Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Maya; Corner, Michael A.; Ziv, Noam E.

    2012-01-01

    Cholinergic neuromodulation plays key roles in the regulation of neuronal excitability, network activity, arousal, and behavior. On longer time scales, cholinergic systems play essential roles in cortical development, maturation, and plasticity. Presumably, these processes are associated with substantial synaptic remodeling, yet to date, long-term relationships between cholinergic tone and synaptic remodeling remain largely unknown. Here we used automated microscopy combined with multielectrode array recordings to study long-term relationships between cholinergic tone, excitatory synapse remodeling, and network activity characteristics in networks of cortical neurons grown on multielectrode array substrates. Experimental elevations of cholinergic tone led to the abrupt suppression of episodic synchronous bursting activity (but not of general activity), followed by a gradual growth of excitatory synapses over hours. Subsequent blockage of cholinergic receptors led to an immediate restoration of synchronous bursting and the gradual reversal of synaptic growth. Neither synaptic growth nor downsizing was governed by multiplicative scaling rules. Instead, these occurred in a subset of synapses, irrespective of initial synaptic size. Synaptic growth seemed to depend on intrinsic network activity, but not on the degree to which bursting was suppressed. Intriguingly, sustained elevations of cholinergic tone were associated with a gradual recovery of synchronous bursting but not with a reversal of synaptic growth. These findings show that cholinergic tone can strongly affect synaptic remodeling and synchronous bursting activity, but do not support a strict coupling between the two. Finally, the reemergence of synchronous bursting in the presence of elevated cholinergic tone indicates that the capacity of cholinergic neuromodulation to indefinitely suppress synchronous bursting might be inherently limited. PMID:22911726

  20. Long-term relationships between cholinergic tone, synchronous bursting and synaptic remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Maya; Corner, Michael A; Ziv, Noam E

    2012-01-01

    Cholinergic neuromodulation plays key roles in the regulation of neuronal excitability, network activity, arousal, and behavior. On longer time scales, cholinergic systems play essential roles in cortical development, maturation, and plasticity. Presumably, these processes are associated with substantial synaptic remodeling, yet to date, long-term relationships between cholinergic tone and synaptic remodeling remain largely unknown. Here we used automated microscopy combined with multielectrode array recordings to study long-term relationships between cholinergic tone, excitatory synapse remodeling, and network activity characteristics in networks of cortical neurons grown on multielectrode array substrates. Experimental elevations of cholinergic tone led to the abrupt suppression of episodic synchronous bursting activity (but not of general activity), followed by a gradual growth of excitatory synapses over hours. Subsequent blockage of cholinergic receptors led to an immediate restoration of synchronous bursting and the gradual reversal of synaptic growth. Neither synaptic growth nor downsizing was governed by multiplicative scaling rules. Instead, these occurred in a subset of synapses, irrespective of initial synaptic size. Synaptic growth seemed to depend on intrinsic network activity, but not on the degree to which bursting was suppressed. Intriguingly, sustained elevations of cholinergic tone were associated with a gradual recovery of synchronous bursting but not with a reversal of synaptic growth. These findings show that cholinergic tone can strongly affect synaptic remodeling and synchronous bursting activity, but do not support a strict coupling between the two. Finally, the reemergence of synchronous bursting in the presence of elevated cholinergic tone indicates that the capacity of cholinergic neuromodulation to indefinitely suppress synchronous bursting might be inherently limited.

  1. Bovine pancreatic polypeptide as an antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, G.Z.; Lu, L.; Qian, J.; Xue, B.G.

    1987-01-01

    In dispersed acini from rat pancreas, it was found that bovine pancreatic polypeptide (BPP) and its C-fragment hexapeptide amide (PP-6), at concentrations of 0.1 and 30 μM, respectively, could significantly inhibit amylase secretion stimulated by carbachol, and this inhibition by BPP was dose dependent. 45 Ca outflux induced by carbachol was also inhibited by BPP or PP-6, but they had no effect on cholecystokinin octapeptide- (CCK-8) or A23187-stimulated 45 Ca outflux. BPP was also capable of displacing the specific binding of [ 3 H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate to its receptors, and it possessed a higher affinity (K/sub i/35nM) than carbachol (K/sub i/ 1.8 μM) in binding with M-receptors. It is concluded from this study that BPP acts as an antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in rat pancreatic acini. In addition, BPP inhibited the potentiation of amylase secretion caused by the combination of carbachol plus secretin or vasoactive intestinal peptide. This may be a possible explanation of the inhibitory effect of BPP on secretin-induced pancreatic enzyme secretion shown in vivo, since pancreatic enzyme secretion stimulated by secretin under experimental conditions may be the result of potentiation of enzyme release produced by the peptide in combination with a cholinergic stimulant

  2. Electroacupuncture at Zusanli Prevents Severe Scalds-Induced Gut Ischemia and Paralysis by Activating the Cholinergic Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn injuries may result in gastrointestinal paralysis, and barrier dysfunction due to gut ischemia and lowered vagus excitability. In this study we investigate whether electroacupuncture (EA at Zusanli (ST36 could prevent severe scalds-induced gut ischemia, paralysis, and barrier dysfunction and whether the protective role of EA at ST36 is related to the vagus nerve. 35% burn area rats were divided into six groups: (a EAN: EA nonchannel acupoints followed by scald injury; (b EA: EA at ST36 after scald injury; (c VGX/EA: vagotomy (VGX before EA at ST36 and scald injury; (d VGX/EAN: VGX before EAN and scald injury; (e atropine/EA: applying atropine before scald injury and then EA at ST36; (f atropine/EAN: applying atropine before scald injury and then EA at nonchannel acupoints. EA at the Zusanli point significantly promoted the intestinal impelling ratio and increased the amount of mucosal blood flow after scald injury. The plasma diamine oxidase (DAO and intestinal permeability decreased significantly after scald injury in the EA group compared with others. However, EA after atropine injection or cervical vagotomy failed to improve intestinal motility and mucosa blood flow suggesting that the mechanism of EA may be related to the activation of the cholinergic nerve pathway.

  3. Involvement of dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways in the induction of yawning and genital grooming by the aqueous extract of Saccharum officinarum L. (sugarcane) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberini, Maria T; Gamberini, Maria C; Nasello, Antonia G

    2015-01-01

    Yawning, associated with genital grooming, is a physiological response that may be used for elucidating the mechanism of action of drugs. Preliminary analysis showed that aqueous extract (AE) of Saccharum induced yawns in rats. So, we aimed to quantify these behavioral responses and investigate the pharmacological mechanisms involved in these actions. During 120 min, after AE administration, the yawns and the genital grooming were quantified at 10 min intervals. Since dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways are implied in these responses, AE were evaluated in the presence of haloperidol 0.5 mg/kg and atropine 2 mg/kg. AE 0.5 g/kg increased the yawns, effect that was blocked both by haloperidol and atropine. Genital grooming could only be stimulated by AE 0.5 g/kg when dopaminergic receptors were blocked by haloperidol. However, it was inhibited when atropine was previously administered. So, we demonstrated a central action of Saccharum and it was postulated that neural circuits with the participation of dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways are involved. The fact that AE is comprised of innumerous compounds could justify the extract's distinct responses. Also, we cannot disregard the presence of different neural circuits that count on the participation of dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways and could be activated by the same induction agent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of acute administration of nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic agonists and antagonists on performance in different cost-benefit decision making tasks in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Ian A; Gilbert, Ryan J; Bizon, Jennifer L; Setlow, Barry

    2012-12-01

    Alterations in cost-benefit decision making accompany numerous neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and addiction. Central cholinergic systems have been linked to the etiology and/or treatment of many of these conditions, but little is known about the role of cholinergic signaling in cost-benefit decision making. The goal of these experiments was to determine how cholinergic signaling is involved in cost-benefit decision making, using a behavioral pharmacological approach. Male Long-Evans rats were trained in either "probability discounting" or "delay discounting" tasks, in which rats made discrete-trial choices between a small food reward and a large food reward associated with either varying probabilities of omission or varying delays to delivery, respectively. The effects of acute administration of different doses of nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists were assessed in each task. In the probability discounting task, acute nicotine administration (1.0 mg/kg) significantly increased choice of the large risky reward, and control experiments suggested that this was due to robust nicotine-induced impairments in behavioral flexibility. In the delay discounting task, the muscarinic antagonists scopolamine (0.03, 0.1, and 0.3 mg/kg) and atropine (0.3 mg/kg) both significantly increased choice of the small immediate reward. Neither mecamylamine nor oxotremorine produced reliable effects on either of the decision making tasks. These data suggest that cholinergic receptors play multiple roles in decision making contexts which include consideration of reward delay or probability. These roles should be considered when targeting these receptors for therapeutic purposes.

  5. Effects of acute administration of nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic agonists and antagonists on performance in different cost–benefit decision making tasks in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Ian A.; Gilbert, Ryan J.; Bizon, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Alterations in cost–benefit decision making accompany numerous neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and addiction. Central cholinergic systems have been linked to the etiology and/or treatment of many of these conditions, but little is known about the role of cholinergic signaling in cost–benefit decision making. Objectives The goal of these experiments was to determine how cholinergic signaling is involved in cost–benefit decision making, using a behavioral pharmacological approach. Methods Male Long-Evans rats were trained in either “probability discounting” or “delay discounting” tasks, in which rats made discrete-trial choices between a small food reward and a large food reward associated with either varying probabilities of omission or varying delays to delivery, respectively. The effects of acute administration of different doses of nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists were assessed in each task. Results In the probability discounting task, acute nicotine administration (1.0 mg/kg) significantly increased choice of the large risky reward, and control experiments suggested that this was due to robust nicotine-induced impairments in behavioral flexibility. In the delay discounting task, the muscarinic antagonists scopolamine (0.03, 0.1, and 0.3 mg/kg) and atropine (0.3 mg/kg) both significantly increased choice of the small immediate reward. Neither mecamylamine nor oxotremorine produced reliable effects on either of the decision making tasks. Conclusions These data suggest that cholinergic receptors play multiple roles in decision making contexts which include consideration of reward delay or probability. These roles should be considered when targeting these receptors for therapeutic purposes. PMID:22760484

  6. Single-Cell Gene Expression Analysis of Cholinergic Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus of the Hypothalamus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hoon Jeong

    Full Text Available The cholinoceptive system in the hypothalamus, in particular in the arcuate nucleus (ARC, plays a role in regulating food intake. Neurons in the ARC contain multiple neuropeptides, amines, and neurotransmitters. To study molecular and neurochemical heterogeneity of ARC neurons, we combine single-cell qRT-PCR and single-cell whole transcriptome amplification methods to analyze expression patterns of our hand-picked 60 genes in individual neurons in the ARC. Immunohistochemical and single-cell qRT-PCR analyses show choline acetyltransferase (ChAT-expressing neurons in the ARC. Gene expression patterns are remarkably distinct in each individual cholinergic neuron. Two-thirds of cholinergic neurons express tyrosine hydroxylase (Th mRNA. A large subset of these Th-positive cholinergic neurons is GABAergic as they express the GABA synthesizing enzyme glutamate decarboxylase and vesicular GABA transporter transcripts. Some cholinergic neurons also express the vesicular glutamate transporter transcript gene. POMC and POMC-processing enzyme transcripts are found in a subpopulation of cholinergic neurons. Despite this heterogeneity, gene expression patterns in individual cholinergic cells appear to be highly regulated in a cell-specific manner. In fact, membrane receptor transcripts are clustered with their respective intracellular signaling and downstream targets. This novel population of cholinergic neurons may be part of the neural circuitries that detect homeostatic need for food and control the drive to eat.

  7. Cholinergic enhancement of visual attention and neural oscillations in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Markus; Kluge, Christian; Bach, Dominik; Bradbury, David; Heinze, Hans Jochen; Dolan, Raymond J; Driver, Jon

    2012-03-06

    Cognitive processes such as visual perception and selective attention induce specific patterns of brain oscillations. The neurochemical bases of these spectral changes in neural activity are largely unknown, but neuromodulators are thought to regulate processing. The cholinergic system is linked to attentional function in vivo, whereas separate in vitro studies show that cholinergic agonists induce high-frequency oscillations in slice preparations. This has led to theoretical proposals that cholinergic enhancement of visual attention might operate via gamma oscillations in visual cortex, although low-frequency alpha/beta modulation may also play a key role. Here we used MEG to record cortical oscillations in the context of administration of a cholinergic agonist (physostigmine) during a spatial visual attention task in humans. This cholinergic agonist enhanced spatial attention effects on low-frequency alpha/beta oscillations in visual cortex, an effect correlating with a drug-induced speeding of performance. By contrast, the cholinergic agonist did not alter high-frequency gamma oscillations in visual cortex. Thus, our findings show that cholinergic neuromodulation enhances attentional selection via an impact on oscillatory synchrony in visual cortex, for low rather than high frequencies. We discuss this dissociation between high- and low-frequency oscillations in relation to proposals that lower-frequency oscillations are generated by feedback pathways within visual cortex. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Orexin receptor activation generates gamma band input to cholinergic and serotonergic arousal system neurons and drives an intrinsic Ca2+-dependent resonance in LDT and PPT cholinergic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru eIshibashi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of the waking state is a shift in EEG power to higher frequencies with epochs of synchronized intracortical gamma activity (30-60 Hz - a process associated with high-level cognitive functions. The ascending arousal system, including cholinergic laterodorsal (LDT and pedunculopontine (PPT tegmental neurons and serotonergic dorsal raphe (DR neurons, promotes this state. Recently, this system has been proposed as a gamma wave generator, in part, because some neurons produce high-threshold, Ca2+-dependent oscillations at gamma frequencies. However, it is not known whether arousal-related inputs to these neurons generate such oscillations, or whether such oscillations are ever transmitted to neuronal targets. Since key arousal input arises from hypothalamic orexin (hypocretin neurons, we investigated whether the unusually noisy, depolarizing orexin current could provide significant gamma input to cholinergic and serotonergic neurons, and whether such input could drive Ca2+-dependent oscillations. Whole-cell recordings in brain slices were obtained from mice expressing Cre-induced fluorescence in cholinergic LDT and PPT, and serotonergic DR neurons. After first quantifying reporter expression accuracy in cholinergic and serotonergic neurons, we found that the orexin current produced significant high frequency, including gamma, input to both cholinergic and serotonergic neurons. Then, by using a dynamic clamp, we found that adding a noisy orexin conductance to cholinergic neurons induced a Ca2+-dependent resonance that peaked in the theta and alpha frequency range (4 - 14 Hz and extended up to 100 Hz. We propose that this orexin current noise and the Ca2+ dependent resonance work synergistically to boost the encoding of high-frequency synaptic inputs into action potentials and to help ensure cholinergic neurons fire during EEG activation. This activity could reinforce thalamocortical states supporting arousal, REM sleep and intracortical

  9. Optogenetic stimulation of cholinergic projection neurons as an alternative for deep brain stimulation for Alzheimer's treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, James; Chen, Yuanxin; Zhao, Zhen; Li, Xuping; Xue, Zhong; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2013-03-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the cholinergic nuclei has emerged as a powerful potential treatment for neurodegenerative disease and is currently in a clinical trial for Alzheimer's therapy. While effective in treatment for a number of conditions from depression to epilepsy, DBS remains somewhat unpredictable due to the heterogeneity of the projection neurons that are activated, including glutamatergic, GABAergic, and cholinergic neurons, leading to unacceptable side effects ranging from apathy to depression or even suicidal behavior. It would be highly advantageous to confine stimulation to specific populations of neurons, particularly in brain diseases involving complex network interactions such as Alzheimer's. Optogenetics, now firmly established as an effective approach to render genetically-defined populations of cells sensitive to light activation including mice expressing Channelrhodopsin-2 specifically in cholinergic neurons, provides just this opportunity. Here we characterize the light activation properties and cell density of cholinergic neurons in healthy mice and mouse models of Alzheimer's disease in order to evaluate the feasibility of using optogenetic modulation of cholinergic synaptic activity to slow or reverse neurodegeneration. This paper is one of the very first reports to suggest that, despite the anatomical depth of their cell bodies, cholinergic projection neurons provide a better target for systems level optogenetic modulation than cholinergic interneurons found in various brain regions including striatum and the cerebral cortex. Additionally, basal forebrain channelrhodopsin-expressing cholinergic neurons are shown to exhibit normal distribution at 60 days and normal light activation at 40 days, the latest timepoints observed. The data collected form the basis of ongoing computational modeling of light stimulation of entire populations of cholinergic neurons.

  10. Directed differentiation of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yao; Qu, Zhuang-Yin; Cao, Shi-Ying; Li, Qi; Ma, Lixiang; Krencik, Robert; Xu, Min; Liu, Yan

    2016-06-15

    Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) play critical roles in learning, memory and cognition. Dysfunction or degeneration of BFCNs may connect to neuropathology, such as Alzheimer's disease, Down's syndrome and dementia. Generation of functional BFCNs may contribute to the studies of cell-based therapy and pathogenesis that is related to learning and memory deficits. Here we describe a detail method for robust generation of BFCNs from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). In this method, BFCN progenitors are patterned from hESC or hiPSC-derived primitive neuroepithelial cells, with the treatment of sonic hedgehog (SHH) or combination with its agonist Purmorphamine, and by co-culturing with human astrocytes. At day 20, ∼90% hPSC-derived progenitors expressed NKX2.1, which is a transcriptional marker for MGE. Moreover, around 40% of NKX2.1+ cells co-expressed OLIG2 and ∼15% of NKX2.1+ cells co-expressed ISLET1, which are ventral markers. At day 35, ∼40% neurons robustly express ChAT, most of which are co-labeled with NKX2.1, ISLET1 and FOXG1, indicating the basal forebrain-like identity. At day 45, these neurons express mature neuronal markers MAP2, Synapsin, and VAChT. In this method, undefined conditions including genetic modification or cell-sorting are avoided. As a choice, feeder free conditions are used to avoid ingredients of animal origin. Moreover, Purmorphamine can be substituted for SHH to induce ventral progenitors effectively and economically. We provide an efficient method to generate BFCNs from multiple hPSC lines, which offers the potential application for disease modeling and pharmacological studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The muscarinic stimulation of phospholipid labeling in hippocampus is independent of its cholinergic input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, S.K.; Boast, C.A.; Agranoff, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    The authors have examined the role of cholinergic innervation on the acetylcholine (ACh)-induced 'phospholipid labeling effect' (PLE) in synaptosomes derived from the hippocampus. The hippocampus supports a robust PLE and its sole cholinergic input from the septal nuclei can be readily disrupted by the placement of lesions in the fornix. The lesion is expected to cause degeneration of cholinergic presynaptic fibers, but should have little effect on the integrity of postsynaptic structures, and thus provide a means of further localizing the synaptosomal PLE. (Auth.)

  12. The involvement of cholinergic neurons in the spreading of tau pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eSimon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Long time ago, it was described the selective loss of cholinergic neurons during the development of Alzheimer disease. Recently, it has been suggested that tau protein may play a role in that loss of cholinergic neurons through a mechanism involving the interaction of extracellular tau with M1/M3 muscarinic receptors present in the cholinergic neurons. This interaction between tau and muscarinic receptors may be a way, although not the only one, to explain the spreading of tau pathology occurring in Alzheimer disease.

  13. Cholinergic denervation of the hippocampal formation does not produce long-term changes in glucose metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrell, L.E.; Davis, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    Decreased glucose metabolism is found in Alzheimer's disease associated with a loss of cholinergic neurons. The relationship between the chronic cholinergic denervation produced by medial septal lesions and glucose metabolism was studied using 2-deoxy-D-[ 3 H]glucose in the rat hippocampal formation. Hippocampal glucose metabolism was increased 1 week after medial septal lesions. Three weeks after lesions, glucose metabolism was profoundly suppressed in all regions. By 3 months, intraregional hippocampal glucose metabolism had returned to control values. Our results demonstrate that chronic cholinergic denervation of the hippocampal formation does not result in permanent alterations of metabolic activity

  14. Whole-Brain Monosynaptic Afferent Inputs to Basal Forebrain Cholinergic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongfeng Hu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS robustly modulates many important behaviors, such as arousal, attention, learning and memory, through heavy projections to cortex and hippocampus. However, the presynaptic partners governing BFCS activity still remain poorly understood. Here, we utilized a recently developed rabies virus-based cell-type-specific retrograde tracing system to map the whole-brain afferent inputs of the BFCS. We found that the BFCS receives inputs from multiple cortical areas, such as orbital frontal cortex, motor cortex, and insular cortex, and that the BFCS also receives dense inputs from several subcortical nuclei related to motivation and stress, including lateral septum (LS, central amygdala (CeA, paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVH, dorsal raphe (DRN and parabrachial nucleus (PBN. Interestingly, we found that the BFCS receives inputs from the olfactory areas and the entorhinal-hippocampal system. These results greatly expand our knowledge about the connectivity of the mouse BFCS and provided important preliminary indications for future exploration of circuit function.

  15. Effects of cholinergic deafferentation of the rhinal cortex on visual recognition memory in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchi, Janita; Saunders, Richard C; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2005-02-08

    Excitotoxic lesion studies have confirmed that the rhinal cortex is essential for visual recognition ability in monkeys. To evaluate the mnemonic role of cholinergic inputs to this cortical region, we compared the visual recognition performance of monkeys given rhinal cortex infusions of a selective cholinergic immunotoxin, ME20.4-SAP, with the performance of monkeys given control infusions into this same tissue. The immunotoxin, which leads to selective cholinergic deafferentation of the infused cortex, yielded recognition deficits of the same magnitude as those produced by excitotoxic lesions of this region, providing the most direct demonstration to date that cholinergic activation of the rhinal cortex is essential for storing the representations of new visual stimuli and thereby enabling their later recognition.

  16. Outcome of Patients with Cholinergic Insecticide Poisoning Treated with Gastric Lavage: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekkattukunnel Andrews

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Number or timing of GL does not show any association with mortality while multiple GL had protective effect against development of late RF and IMS. Hence, GL might be beneficial in cholinergic insecticide poisoning.

  17. Choline metabolism as a basis for the selective vulnerability of cholinergic neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The unique propensity of cholinergic neurons to use choline for two purposes--ACh and membrane phosphatidylcholine synthesis--may contribute to their selective vulnerability in Alzheimer's disease and other cholinergic neurodegenerative disorders. When physiologically active, the neurons use free choline taken from the 'reservoir' in membrane phosphatidylcholine to synthesize ACh; this can lead to an actual decrease in the quantity of membrane per cell. Alzheimer's disease (but not Down's syndrome, or other neurodegenerative disorders) is associated with characteristic neurochemical lesions involving choline and ethanolamine: brain levels of these compounds are diminished, while those of glycerophosphocholine and glycerophosphoethanolamine (breakdown products of their respective membrane phosphatides) are increased, both in cholinergic and noncholinergic brain regions. Perhaps this metabolic disturbance and the tendency of cholinergic neurons to 'export' choline--in the form of ACh--underlie the selective vulnerability of the neurons. Resulting changes in membrane composition could abnormally expose intramembraneous proteins such as amyloid precursor protein to proteases.

  18. Burden of Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balon, Richard

    2017-01-02

    Similar to the burden of other diseases, the burden of sexual dysfunction has not been systematically studied. However, there is growing evidence of various burdens (e.g., economic, symptomatic, humanistic) among patients suffering from sexual dysfunctions. The burden of sexual dysfunction has been studied a bit more often in men, namely the burden of erectile dysfunction (ED), premature ejaculation (PE) and testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS). Erectile dysfunction is frequently associated with chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and depression. These conditions could go undiagnosed, and ED could be a marker of those diseases. The only available report from the United Kingdom estimated the total economic burden of ED at £53 million annually in terms of direct costs and lost productivity. The burden of PE includes significant psychological distress: anxiety, depression, lack of sexual confidence, poor self-esteem, impaired quality of life, and interpersonal difficulties. Some suggest that increase in female sexual dysfunction is associated with partner's PE, in addition to significant interpersonal difficulties. The burden of TDS includes depression, sexual dysfunction, mild cognitive impairment, and osteoporosis. One UK estimate of the economic burden of female sexual dysfunctions demonstrated that the average cost per patient was higher than the per annum cost of ED. There are no data on burden of paraphilic disorders. The burden of sexual dysfunctions is underappreciated and not well studied, yet it is significant for both the patients and the society.

  19. Dysfunction of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases in Alzheimer’'s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Z. Suo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although mutations and variations of several genes have been identified to be involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD, the efforts towards understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease still have a long journey to go. One such effort is to identify the signal transduction deficits, for which previous studies have suggested that the central problems appear to be at the interface between G proteins and their coupled receptors. G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs are a small family of serine/threonine protein kinases primarily acting at the “receptor-G protein interface””. Recent studies have indicated the possible involvement of GRK, primarily GRK2 and GRK5, dysfunction in the pathogenesis of AD. It seems that mild, soluble, β-amyloid accumulation can lead to a reduced membrane (functional and an elevated cytosolic GRK2/5. The increased cytosolic GRK2 appears to be colocalized with damaged mitochondria and neurofibrillary tangles. Moreover, the total levels of GRK2, not only in the brain, but also in peripheral blood samples, are increased in a manner inversely correlated with the patient's cognitive levels. The deficiency of GRK5, on the other hand, impairs presynaptic M2 autoreceptor desensitization, which leads to a reduced acetylcholine release, axonal/synaptic degenerative changes, and associated amnestic, mild cognitive impairment. It also promotes an evil cycle to further increase Beta-amyloid accumulation and exaggerates brain inflammation, possibly even the basal forebrain cholinergic degeneration. Therefore, continuous efforts in this direction are necessary before translating the knowledge to any therapeutic strategies.

  20. Modeling Parkinson’s Disease Falls Associated With Brainstem Cholinergic Systems Decline

    OpenAIRE

    Kucinski, Aaron; Sarter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the primary disease-defining symptoms, approximately half of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) suffer from postural instability, impairments in gait control and a propensity for falls. Consistent with evidence from patients, we previously demonstrated that combined striatal dopamine (DA) and basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic cell loss causes falls in rats traversing dynamic surfaces. Because evidence suggests that degeneration of brainstem cholinergic neurons arising from t...

  1. Cholinergic axon length reduced by 300 meters in the brain of an Alzheimer mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Gitte; Jensen, Morten Skovgaard; West, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    Modern stereological techniques have been used to show that the total length of the cholinergic fibers in the cerebral cortex of the APPswe/PS1deltaE9 mouse is reduced by almost 300 meters at 18 months of age and has a nonlinear relationship to the amount of transgenetically-induced amyloidosis. ....... These data provide rigorous quantitative morphological evidence that Alzheimer's-like amyloidosis affects the axons of the cholinergic enervation of the cerebral cortex....

  2. Synthesis of (±)-I-125-iodobenzovesamicol - A cholinergic neuron marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Y.W.; Van Dort, M.E.; Wieland, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors are focusing efforts on developing markers for the cholinergic neuron. Vesamicol (VA) has been adopted as a basis for the design of a presynaptic cholinergic nerve marker. Benzovesamicol, an analog of VA, is equipotent with VA and displays remarkable bulk tolerance in the 5-position. They have synthesized (±)-[I-125]-5-iodobenzovesamicol, and have conducted in vivo screening with it in mice

  3. Impairment of the nerve growth factor pathway driving amyloid accumulation in cholinergic neurons: the incipit of the Alzheimer′s disease story?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Triaca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current idea behind brain pathology is that disease is initiated by mild disturbances of common physiological processes. Overtime, the disruption of the neuronal homeostasis will determine irreversible degeneration and neuronal apoptosis. This could be also true in the case of nerve growth factor (NGF alterations in sporadic Alzheimer′s disease (AD, an age-related pathology characterized by cholinergic loss, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In fact, the pathway activated by NGF, a key neurotrophin for the metabolism of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN, is one of the first homeostatic systems affected in prodromal AD. NGF signaling dysfunctions have been thought for decades to occur in AD late stages, as a mere consequence of amyloid-driven disruption of the retrograde axonal transport of neurotrophins to BFCN. Nowadays, a wealth of knowledge is potentially opening a new scenario: NGF signaling impairment occurs at the onset of AD and correlates better than amyloid load with cognitive decline. The recent acceleration in the characterization of anatomical, functional and molecular profiles of early AD is aimed at maximizing the efficacy of existing treatments and setting novel therapies. Accordingly, the elucidation of the molecular events underlying APP metabolism regulation by the NGF pathway in the septo-hippocampal system is crucial for the identification of new target molecules to slow and eventually halt mild cognitive impairment (MCI and its progression toward AD.

  4. Gut dysfunction in Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Adreesh; Biswas, Atanu; Das, Shyamal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Early involvement of gut is observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and symptoms such as constipation may precede motor symptoms. α-Synuclein pathology is extensively evident in the gut and appears to follow a rostrocaudal gradient. The gut may act as the starting point of PD pathology with spread toward the central nervous system. This spread of the synuclein pathology raises the possibility of prion-like propagation in PD pathogenesis. Recently, the role of gut microbiota in PD pathogenesis has received attention and some phenotypic correlation has also been shown. The extensive involvement of the gut in PD even in its early stages has led to the evaluation of enteric α-synuclein as a possible biomarker of early PD. The clinical manifestations of gastrointestinal dysfunction in PD include malnutrition, oral and dental disorders, sialorrhea, dysphagia, gastroparesis, constipation, and defecatory dysfunction. These conditions are quite distressing for the patients and require relevant investigations and adequate management. Treatment usually involves both pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures. One important aspect of gut dysfunction is its contribution to the clinical fluctuations in PD. Dysphagia and gastroparesis lead to inadequate absorption of oral anti-PD medications. These lead to response fluctuations, particularly delayed-on and no-on, and there is significant relationship between levodopa pharmacokinetics and gastric emptying in patients with PD. Therefore, in such cases, alternative routes of administration or drug delivery systems may be required. PMID:27433087

  5. Lesions of the basal forebrain cholinergic system in mice disrupt idiothetic navigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam S Hamlin

    Full Text Available Loss of integrity of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons is a consistent feature of Alzheimer's disease, and measurement of basal forebrain degeneration by magnetic resonance imaging is emerging as a sensitive diagnostic marker for prodromal disease. It is also known that Alzheimer's disease patients perform poorly on both real space and computerized cued (allothetic or uncued (idiothetic recall navigation tasks. Although the hippocampus is required for allothetic navigation, lesions of this region only mildly affect idiothetic navigation. Here we tested the hypothesis that the cholinergic medial septo-hippocampal circuit is important for idiothetic navigation. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons were selectively lesioned in mice using the toxin saporin conjugated to a basal forebrain cholinergic neuronal marker, the p75 neurotrophin receptor. Control animals were able to learn and remember spatial information when tested on a modified version of the passive place avoidance test where all extramaze cues were removed, and animals had to rely on idiothetic signals. However, the exploratory behaviour of mice with cholinergic basal forebrain lesions was highly disorganized during this test. By contrast, the lesioned animals performed no differently from controls in tasks involving contextual fear conditioning and spatial working memory (Y maze, and displayed no deficits in potentially confounding behaviours such as motor performance, anxiety, or disturbed sleep/wake cycles. These data suggest that the basal forebrain cholinergic system plays a specific role in idiothetic navigation, a modality that is impaired early in Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Serotonin 5-HT4 receptors and forebrain cholinergic system: receptor expression in identified cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas-Cazorla, Raúl; Vilaró, M Teresa

    2015-11-01

    Activation of serotonin 5-HT4 receptors has pro-cognitive effects on memory performance. The proposed underlying neurochemical mechanism is the enhancement of acetylcholine release in frontal cortex and hippocampus elicited by 5-HT4 agonists. Although 5-HT4 receptors are present in brain areas related to cognition, e.g., hippocampus and cortex, the cellular localization of the receptors that might modulate acetylcholine release is unknown at present. We have analyzed, using dual label in situ hybridization, the cellular localization of 5-HT4 receptor mRNA in identified neuronal populations of the rat basal forebrain, which is the source of the cholinergic innervation to cortex and hippocampus. 5-HT4 receptor mRNA was visualized with isotopically labeled oligonucleotide probes, whereas cholinergic, glutamatergic, GABAergic and parvalbumin-synthesizing neurons were identified with digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotide probes. 5-HT4 receptor mRNA was not detected in the basal forebrain cholinergic cell population. In contrast, basal forebrain GABAergic, parvalbumin synthesizing, and glutamatergic cells contained 5-HT4 receptor mRNA. Hippocampal and cortical glutamatergic neurons also express this receptor. These results indicate that 5-HT4 receptors are not synthesized by cholinergic cells, and thus would be absent from cholinergic terminals. In contrast, several non-cholinergic cell populations within the basal forebrain and its target hippocampal and cortical areas express these receptors and are thus likely to mediate the enhancement of acetylcholine release elicited by 5-HT4 agonists.

  7. Loneliness and Sexual Dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1987-01-01

    Argues that sexual dysfunctions result from early childhood experiences which were originally nonsexual in nature. Contends that psychological difficulties centered around problems of loneliness tend to generate certain sexual dysfunctions. Extends and explores suggestion that genesis of sexual conflicts is in nonsexual infant separation anxiety…

  8. Generation patterns of four groups of cholinergic neurons in rat cervical spinal cord: a combined tritiated thymidine autoradiographic and choline acetyltransferase immunocytochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, P.E.; Barber, R.P.; Vaughn, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    This report examines the generation of cholinergic neurons in the spinal cord in order to determine whether the transmitter phenotype of neurons is associated with specific patterns of neurogenesis. Previous immunocytochemical studies identified four groups of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive neurons in the cervical enlargement of the rat spinal cord. These cell groups vary in both somatic size and location along the previously described ventrodorsal neurogenic gradient of the spinal cord. Thus, large (and small) motoneurons are located in the ventral horn, medium-sized partition cells are found in the intermediate gray matter, small central canal cluster cells are situated within lamina X, and small dorsal horn neurons are scattered predominantly through laminae III-V. The relationships among the birthdays of these four subsets of cholinergic neurons have been examined by combining 3H-thymidine autoradiography and ChAT immunocytochemistry. Embryonic day 11 was the earliest time that neurons were generated within the cervical enlargement. Large and small ChAT-positive motoneurons were produced on E11 and 12, with 70% of both groups being born on E11. ChAT-positive partition cells were produced between E11 and 13, with their peak generation occurring on E12. Approximately 70% of the cholinergic central canal cluster and dorsal horn cells were born on E13, and the remainder of each of these groups was generated on E14. Other investigators have shown that all neurons within the rat cervical spinal cord are produced in a ventrodorsal sequence between E11 and E16. In contrast, ChAT-positive neurons are born only from E11 to E14 and are among the earliest cells generated in the ventral, intermediate, and dorsal subdivisions of the spinal cord

  9. [Social dysfunction in schizotypy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wachter, O; De La Asuncion, J; Sabbe, B; Morrens, M

    2016-01-01

    Schizotypy is a personality organisation that is closely related to schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia and is characterised by deficits in social functioning. Although the dimensions of social dysfunction have not yet been fully explored certain aspects of social dysfunction are promising predictive markers for schizophrenia. To describe schizotypy and its influence on social functioning. We reviewed the literature systematically using the online databases PubMed and PsycINFO. The disorder known as schizotypy lies at the basis of schizotypal personality disorder. Both disorders are characterised by an increased risk for schizophrenia. The social dysfunctioning seen in schizotypy corresponds to the social dysfunction seen in schizophrenia. Impairments in social cognition are causal factors of this social dysfunction. Both the negative and the positive dimension of schizotypy influence social cognition. More focused, objective and interactive research to the various aspects of social functioning in schizotypy is needed in order to discover potential premorbid markers for schizophrenia.

  10. TASK Channels on Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Modulate Electrocortical Signatures of Arousal by Histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Michael T; Du, Guizhi; Bayliss, Douglas A; Horner, Richard L

    2015-10-07

    Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons are the main source of cortical acetylcholine, and their activation by histamine elicits cortical arousal. TWIK-like acid-sensitive K(+) (TASK) channels modulate neuronal excitability and are expressed on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, but the role of TASK channels in the histamine-basal forebrain cholinergic arousal circuit is unknown. We first expressed TASK channel subunits and histamine Type 1 receptors in HEK cells. Application of histamine in vitro inhibited the acid-sensitive K(+) current, indicating a functionally coupled signaling mechanism. We then studied the role of TASK channels in modulating electrocortical activity in vivo using freely behaving wild-type (n = 12) and ChAT-Cre:TASK(f/f) mice (n = 12), the latter lacking TASK-1/3 channels on cholinergic neurons. TASK channel deletion on cholinergic neurons significantly altered endogenous electroencephalogram oscillations in multiple frequency bands. We then identified the effect of TASK channel deletion during microperfusion of histamine into the basal forebrain. In non-rapid eye movement sleep, TASK channel deletion on cholinergic neurons significantly attenuated the histamine-induced increase in 30-50 Hz activity, consistent with TASK channels contributing to histamine action on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. In contrast, during active wakefulness, histamine significantly increased 30-50 Hz activity in ChAT-Cre:TASK(f/f) mice but not wild-type mice, showing that the histamine response depended upon the prevailing cortical arousal state. In summary, we identify TASK channel modulation in response to histamine receptor activation in vitro, as well as a role of TASK channels on cholinergic neurons in modulating endogenous oscillations in the electroencephalogram and the electrocortical response to histamine at the basal forebrain in vivo. Attentive states and cognitive function are associated with the generation of γ EEG activity. Basal forebrain

  11. Co-expression of Cholinergic and Noradrenergic Phenotypes in Human and Non-Human Autonomic Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Weihe, Eberhard; Schütz, Burkhard; Hartschuh, Wolfgang; Anlauf, Martin; Schäfer, Martin K.; Eiden, Lee E.

    2005-01-01

    It has long been known that the sympathetic innervation of the sweat glands is cholinergic in most mammalian species, and that during development, rodent sympathetic cholinergic sweat gland innervation transiently expresses noradrenergic traits. We show here that some noradrenergic traits persist in cholinergic sympathetic innervation of the sweat glands in rodents, but that lack of expression of the vesicular monoamine transporter renders these cells functionally non-noradrenergic. Adult hum...

  12. Variable expression of GFP in different populations of peripheral cholinergic neurons of ChATBAC-eGFP transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T Christopher; Bond, Cherie E; Hoover, Donald B

    2018-03-01

    Immunohistochemistry is used widely to identify cholinergic neurons, but this approach has some limitations. To address these problems, investigators developed transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) directed by the promoter for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the acetylcholine synthetic enzyme. Although, it was reported that these mice express GFP in all cholinergic neurons and non-neuronal cholinergic cells, we could not detect GFP in cardiac cholinergic nerves in preliminary experiments. Our goals for this study were to confirm our initial observation and perform a qualitative screen of other representative autonomic structures for the presences of GFP in cholinergic innervation of effector tissues. We evaluated GFP fluorescence of intact, unfixed tissues and the cellular localization of GFP and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), a specific cholinergic marker, in tissue sections and intestinal whole mounts. Our experiments identified two major tissues where cholinergic neurons and/or nerve fibers lacked GFP: 1) most cholinergic neurons of the intrinsic cardiac ganglia and all cholinergic nerve fibers in the heart and 2) most cholinergic nerve fibers innervating airway smooth muscle. Most cholinergic neurons in airway ganglia stained for GFP. Cholinergic systems in the bladder and intestines were fully delineated by GFP staining. GFP labeling of input to ganglia with long preganglionic projections (vagal) was sparse or weak, while that to ganglia with short preganglionic projections (spinal) was strong. Total absence of GFP might be due to splicing out of the GFP gene. Lack of GFP in nerve projections from GFP-positive cell bodies might reflect a transport deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Lysosomal Storage Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario de la Mata

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs describe a heterogeneous group of rare inherited metabolic disorders that result from the absence or loss of function of lysosomal hydrolases or transporters, resulting in the progressive accumulation of undigested material in lysosomes. The accumulation of substances affects the function of lysosomes and other organelles, resulting in secondary alterations such as impairment of autophagy, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and apoptosis. LSDs frequently involve the central nervous system (CNS, where neuronal dysfunction or loss results in progressive neurodegeneration and premature death. Many LSDs exhibit signs of mitochondrial dysfunction, which include mitochondrial morphological changes, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, diminished ATP production and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Furthermore, reduced autophagic flux may lead to the persistence of dysfunctional mitochondria. Gaucher disease (GD, the LSD with the highest prevalence, is caused by mutations in the GBA1 gene that results in defective and insufficient activity of the enzyme β-glucocerebrosidase (GCase. Decreased catalytic activity and/or instability of GCase leads to accumulation of glucosylceramide (GlcCer and glucosylsphingosine (GlcSph in the lysosomes of macrophage cells and visceral organs. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported to occur in numerous cellular and mouse models of GD. The aim of this manuscript is to review the current knowledge and implications of mitochondrial dysfunction in LSDs.

  14. Angiotensin II inhibits cortical cholinergic function: Implications for cognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, J.M.; Barnes, N.M.; Costall, B.; Horovitz, Z.P.; Ironside, J.W.; Naylor, R.J.; Williams, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    In the present studies we have shown that angiotensin II (AT II), in a concentration-dependent manner in rat tissue (10(-9)-10(-5) M) or at a single concentration in human tissue (10(-6) M), can inhibit potassium-stimulated release of [3H]acetylcholine ( [3H]Ach) from slices of rat entorhinal cortex and human temporal cortex preloaded with [3H]choline for the biochemical analyses. The inhibitory effects of AT II (10(-6) M) were antagonised by the specific AT II receptor antagonist [1-sarcosine, 8-threonine]AT II in a concentration-dependent manner in rat tissue (10(-11)-10(-8) M) and at the single concentration employed in the human studies (10(-7) M). Also demonstrated were other components of the angiotensin system in the human temporal cortex; ACE activity was present (1.03 nmol min-1 mg-1 protein), as were AT II recognition sites (Bmax = 8.6 fmol mg-1 protein). It is hypothesised that the potential cognitive enhancing properties of ACE inhibitors may reflect their action to prevent the formation of AT II and so remove an inhibitory modulator of cholinergic function

  15. Cholinergic modulation of cognitive processing: insights drawn from computational models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehren L Newman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine plays an important role in cognitive function, as shown by pharmacological manipulations that impact working memory, attention, episodic memory and spatial memory function. Acetylcholine also shows striking modulatory influences on the cellular physiology of hippocampal and cortical neurons. Modeling of neural circuits provides a framework for understanding how the cognitive functions may arise from the influence of acetylcholine on neural and network dynamics. We review the influences of cholinergic manipulations on behavioral performance in working memory, attention, episodic memory and spatial memory tasks, the physiological effects of acetylcholine on neural and circuit dynamics, and the computational models that provide insight into the functional relationships between the physiology and behavior. Specifically, we discuss the important role of acetylcholine in governing mechanisms of active maintenance in working memory tasks and in regulating network dynamics important for effective processing of stimuli in attention and episodic memory tasks. We also propose that theta rhythm play a crucial role as an intermediary between the physiological influences of acetylcholine and behavior in episodic and spatial memory tasks. We conclude with a synthesis of the existing modeling work and highlight future directions that are likely to be rewarding given the existing state of the literature for both empiricists and modelers.

  16. Replicated Risk Nicotinic Cholinergic Receptor Genes for Nicotine Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjun Zuo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs play important roles in nicotine dependence (ND and influence the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD in smokers. We compiled the associations between nicotinic cholinergic receptor genes (CHRNs and ND/CPD that were replicated across different studies, reviewed the expression of these risk genes in human/mouse brains, and verified their expression using independent samples of both human and mouse brains. The potential functions of the replicated risk variants were examined using cis-eQTL analysis or predicted using a series of bioinformatics analyses. We found replicated and significant associations for ND/CPD at 19 SNPs in six genes in three genomic regions (CHRNB3-A6, CHRNA5-A3-B4 and CHRNA4. These six risk genes are expressed in at least 18 distinct areas of the human/mouse brain, with verification in our independent human and mouse brain samples. The risk variants might influence the transcription, expression and splicing of the risk genes, alter RNA secondary or protein structure. We conclude that the replicated associations between CHRNB3-A6, CHRNA5-A3-B4, CHRNA4 and ND/CPD are very robust. More research is needed to examine how these genetic variants contribute to the risk for ND/CPD.

  17. Memory-Relevant Mushroom Body Output Synapses Are Cholinergic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnstedt, Oliver; Owald, David; Felsenberg, Johannes; Brain, Ruth; Moszynski, John-Paul; Talbot, Clifford B; Perrat, Paola N; Waddell, Scott

    2016-03-16

    Memories are stored in the fan-out fan-in neural architectures of the mammalian cerebellum and hippocampus and the insect mushroom bodies. However, whereas key plasticity occurs at glutamatergic synapses in mammals, the neurochemistry of the memory-storing mushroom body Kenyon cell output synapses is unknown. Here we demonstrate a role for acetylcholine (ACh) in Drosophila. Kenyon cells express the ACh-processing proteins ChAT and VAChT, and reducing their expression impairs learned olfactory-driven behavior. Local ACh application, or direct Kenyon cell activation, evokes activity in mushroom body output neurons (MBONs). MBON activation depends on VAChT expression in Kenyon cells and is blocked by ACh receptor antagonism. Furthermore, reducing nicotinic ACh receptor subunit expression in MBONs compromises odor-evoked activation and redirects odor-driven behavior. Lastly, peptidergic corelease enhances ACh-evoked responses in MBONs, suggesting an interaction between the fast- and slow-acting transmitters. Therefore, olfactory memories in Drosophila are likely stored as plasticity of cholinergic synapses. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cholinergic regulation of protein phosphorylation in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haycock, J.W.; Browning, M.D.; Greengard, P.

    1988-01-01

    Chromaffin cells were isolated from bovine adrenal medullae and maintained in primary culture. After prelabeling with 32 PO 4 , exposure of the chromaffin cells to acetylcholine increased the phosphorylation of a M/sub r/ ≅ 100,000 protein and a M/sub r/ ≅ 60,000 protein (tyrosine hydroxylase), visualized after separation of total cellular proteins in NaDodSO 4 /polyacrylamide gels. Immunoprecipitation with antibodies to three known phosphoproteins (100-kDa, 87-kDa, and protein III) revealed an acetylcholine-dependent phosphorylation of these proteins. These three proteins were also shown to be present in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells by immunolabeling techniques. 100-kDa is a M/sub r/ ≅ 100,000 protein selectively phosphorylated by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III, 87-kDa is a M/sub r/ ≅ 87,000 protein selectively phosphorylated by protein kinase C, and protein III is a phosphoprotein doublet of M/sub r/ ≅ 74,000 (IIIa) and M/sub r/ ≅ 55,000 (IIIb) phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I. The data demonstrate that cholinergic activation of chromaffin cells increases the phosphorylation of several proteins and that several protein kinase systems may be involved in these effects

  19. BMP9 ameliorates amyloidosis and the cholinergic defect in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Rebecca M; Norman, Timothy A; Haydar, Tarik F; Slack, Barbara E; Leeman, Susan E; Blusztajn, Jan Krzysztof; Mellott, Tiffany J

    2013-11-26

    Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) promotes the acquisition of the cholinergic phenotype in basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) during development and protects these neurons from cholinergic dedifferentiation following axotomy when administered in vivo. A decline in BFCN function occurs in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and contributes to the AD-associated memory deficits. We infused BMP9 intracerebroventricularly for 7 d in transgenic AD model mice expressing green fluorescent protein specifically in cholinergic neurons (APP.PS1/CHGFP) and in wild-type littermate controls (WT/CHGFP). We used 5-mo-old mice, an age when the AD transgenics display early amyloid deposition and few cholinergic defects, and 10-mo-old mice, by which time these mice exhibit established disease. BMP9 infusion reduced the number of Aβ42-positive amyloid plaques in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of 5- and 10-mo-old APP.PS1/CHGFP mice and reversed the reductions in choline acetyltransferase protein levels in the hippocampus of 10-mo-old APP.PS1/CHGFP mice. The treatment increased cholinergic fiber density in the hippocampus of both WT/CHGFP and APP.PS1/CHGFP mice at both ages. BMP9 infusion also increased hippocampal levels of neurotrophin 3, insulin-like growth factor 1, and nerve growth factor and of the nerve growth factor receptors, tyrosine kinase receptor A and p75/NGFR, irrespective of the genotype of the mice. These data show that BMP9 administration is effective in reducing the Aβ42 amyloid plaque burden, reversing cholinergic neuron abnormalities, and generating a neurotrophic milieu for BFCN in a mouse model of AD and provide evidence that the BMP9-signaling pathway may constitute a therapeutic target for AD.

  20. Diastolic dysfunction characterizes cirrhotic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush O. Somani

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: Present study shows that although diastolic dysfunction is a frequent event in cirrhosis, it is usually of mild degree and does not correlate with severity of liver dysfunction. There are no significant differences in echocardiographic parameters between alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis. HRS is not correlated to diastolic dysfunction in cirrhotic patients. There is no difference in survival at one year between patients with or without diastolic dysfunction. Diastolic dysfunction in cirrhosis is unrelated to circulatory dysfunction, ascites and HRS.

  1. Protective role of rosmarinic acid on amyloid beta 42-induced echoic memory decline: Implication of oxidative stress and cholinergic impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar Gok, Deniz; Hidisoglu, Enis; Ocak, Guzide Ayse; Er, Hakan; Acun, Alev Duygu; Yargıcoglu, Piraye

    2018-04-13

    In the present study, we examined whether rosmarinic acid (RA) reverses amyloid β (Aβ) induced reductions in antioxidant defense, lipid peroxidation, cholinergic damage as well as the central auditory deficits. For this purpose, Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups; Sham(S), Sham + RA (SR), Aβ42 peptide (Aβ) and Aβ42 peptide + RA (AβR) groups. Rat model of Alzheimer was established by bilateral injection of Aβ42 peptide (2,2 nmol/10 μl) into the lateral ventricles. RA (50 mg/kg, daily) was administered orally by gavage for 14 days after intracerebroventricular injection. At the end of the experimental period, we recorded the auditory event related potentials (AERPs) and mismatch negativity (MMN) response to assess auditory functions followed by histological and biochemical analysis. Aβ42 injection led to a significant increase in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) but decreased the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) and glutathione levels. Moreover, Aβ42 injection resulted in a reduction in the acetylcholine content and acetylcholine esterase activity. RA treatment prevented the observed alterations in the AβR group. Furthermore, RA attenuated the increased Aβ staining and astrocyte activation. We also found that Aβ42 injection decreased the MMN response and theta power/coherence of AERPs, suggesting an impairing effect on auditory discrimination and echoic memory processes. RA treatment reversed the Aβ42 related alterations in AERP parameters. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that RA prevented Aβ-induced antioxidant-oxidant imbalance and cholinergic damage, which may contribute to the improvement of neural network dynamics of auditory processes in this rat model. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Effects of repeated exposure to white noise on central cholinergic activity in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, H

    1988-03-01

    Acute (45 min) exposure to noise has been shown to decrease sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake activity in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the rat. In the present experiment, the effects of repeated noise exposure on choline uptake in these two brain regions were studied. Rats were exposed to 100-dB white noise in ten 45-min sessions. Tolerance developed to the effects of noise on choline uptake. In addition, the effects were found to be classically conditionable to cues in the exposure environment. These data may have important implications in understanding the health hazard of noise exposure in both the public and occupational environments.

  3. [Regulation of acetylcholine synthesis in presynaptic endings of cholinergic neurons of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchek, S; Dolezhal, V; Richny, Ia

    1984-01-01

    Data on the acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis in nerve cells with special attention to its control are summarized in the paper. At rest or during moderate synaptic activity, the concentration of ACh in the compartment of its synthesis probably corresponds to the equilibrium between the substrates and products in the reaction catalysed by choline acetyltransferase. The release of ACh is followed by a transfer of ACh from the compartment of its synthesis to the compartment of release, and, automatically, by the synthesis of new ACh until a new equilibrium is reached in the compartment of synthesis. In addition, synaptic activity and the release of ACh support the synthesis of new ACh in the following ways: choline carriers are disinhibited by lowering the concentration of ACh in the nerve endings, and the transport of choline from the extracellular fluid to the cell interior according to its electro-chemical gradient is thus facilitated; the concentration of choline in the extracellular fluid is increased in the vicinity of the nerve endings as a consequence of the hydrolysis of the released ACh; postactivation hyperpolarization of the nerve endings brings about an increase of the choline transport and concentration in the nerve endings; presumably, the stimulation of muscarinic receptors brings about a further increase in the choline concentration in the vicinity of the nerve endings by the phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis intensification in postsynaptic cells; the decrease in the concentration of acetyl-CoA (as a consequence of the resynthesis of ACh) increases the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase and the production of acetyl-CoA; conceivably, the increase in the concentration of Ca2+ ions in the nerve endings assists direct passage of acetyl-CoA from the mitochondria to the cytosol of the nerve endings, where the synthesis of ACh occurs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. [Method of immunocytochemical demonstration of cholinergic neurons in the central nervous system of laboratory animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzhevskiĭ, D E; Grigor'ev, I P; Kirik, O V; Zelenkova, N M; Sukhorukova, E G

    2013-01-01

    A protocol of immunocytochemical demonstration of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), a key enzyme of acetylcholine synthesis, in paraffin sections of the brain of some laboratory animals, is presented. The method is simple, gives fairly reproducible results and allows for demonstration of ChAT in neurons, nerve fibers, and terminals in preparations of at least three species of laboratory animals including rat, rabbit, and cat. Different kinds of fixation (10% formalin, 4% paraformaldehyde, or zinc-ethanol-formaldehyde) were found suitable for immunocytochemical visualization of ChAT, however, optimal results were obtained with the application of zinc-ethanol-formaldehyde

  5. Development of cardiac parasympathetic neurons, glial cells, and regional cholinergic innervation of the mouse heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregoso, S P; Hoover, D B

    2012-09-27

    Very little is known about the development of cardiac parasympathetic ganglia and cholinergic innervation of the mouse heart. Accordingly, we evaluated the growth of cholinergic neurons and nerve fibers in mouse hearts from embryonic day 18.5 (E18.5) through postnatal day 21(P21). Cholinergic perikarya and varicose nerve fibers were identified in paraffin sections immunostained for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). Satellite cells and Schwann cells in adjacent sections were identified by immunostaining for S100β calcium binding protein (S100) and brain-fatty acid binding protein (B-FABP). We found that cardiac ganglia had formed in close association to the atria and cholinergic innervation of the atrioventricular junction had already begun by E18.5. However, most cholinergic innervation of the heart, including the sinoatrial node, developed postnatally (P0.5-P21) along with a doubling of the cross-sectional area of cholinergic perikarya. Satellite cells were present throughout neonatal cardiac ganglia and expressed primarily B-FABP. As they became more mature at P21, satellite cells stained strongly for both B-FABP and S100. Satellite cells appeared to surround most cardiac parasympathetic neurons, even in neonatal hearts. Mature Schwann cells, identified by morphology and strong staining for S100, were already present at E18.5 in atrial regions that receive cholinergic innervation at later developmental times. The abundance and distribution of S100-positive Schwann cells increased postnatally along with nerve density. While S100 staining of cardiac Schwann cells was maintained in P21 and older mice, Schwann cells did not show B-FABP staining at these times. Parallel development of satellite cells and cholinergic perikarya in the cardiac ganglia and the increase in abundance of Schwann cells and varicose cholinergic nerve fibers in the atria suggest that neuronal-glial interactions could be important for development of the parasympathetic nervous

  6. Upregulating Nonneuronal Cholinergic Activity Decreases TNF Release from Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lv

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonneuronal cholinergic system plays a primary role in maintaining homeostasis. It has been proved that endogenous neuronal acetylcholine (ACh could play an anti-inflammatory role, and exogenous cholinergic agonists could weaken macrophages inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation through activation of α7 subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR. We assumed that nonneuronal cholinergic system existing in macrophages could modulate inflammation through autocrine ACh and expressed α7nAChR on the cells. Therefore, we explored whether LPS continuous stimulation could upregulate the nonneuronal cholinergic activity in macrophages and whether increasing autocrine ACh could decrease TNF release from the macrophages. The results showed that, in RAW264.7 cells incubated with LPS for 20 hours, the secretion of ACh was significantly decreased at 4 h and then gradually increased, accompanied with the enhancement of α7nAChR expression level. The release of TNF was greatly increased from RAW264.7 cells at 4 h and 8 h exposure to LPS; however, it was suppressed at 20 h. Upregulating choline acetyltransferase (ChAT expression through ChAT gene transfection could enhance ACh secretion and reduce TNF release from the infected RAW264. 7cells. The results indicated that LPS stimulation could modulate the activity of nonneuronal cholinergic system of RAW264.7 cells. Enhancing autocrine ACh production could attenuate TNF release from RAW264.7 cells.

  7. Cholinergic and VIPergic effects on thyroid hormone secretion in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahren, B.

    1985-01-01

    The thyroid gland is known to harbor cholinergic and VIPergic nerves. In the present study, the influences of cholinergic stimulation by carbachol, cholinergic blockade by methylatropine and stimulation with various VIP sequences on basal, TSH-induced and VIP-induced thyroid hormone secretion were investigated in vivo in mice. The mice were pretreated with 125 I and thyroxine; the subsequent release of 125 I is an estimation of thyroid hormone secretion. It was found that basal radioiodine secretion was inhibited by both carbachol and methylatropine. Furthermore, TSH-induced radioiodine secretion was inhibited already by a low dose of carbachol. Moreover, a high dose of carbachol could inhibit VIP-induced radioiodine secretion. Methylatropine did not influence TSH- or VIP-stimulated radioiodine secretion, but counteracted the inhibitory action of carbachol on TSH- and VIP-induced radioiodine release. In addition, contrary to VIP, six various synthesized VIP fragments had no effect on basal or stimulated radioiodine release. It is concluded that basal thyroid hormone secretion is inhibited by both cholinergic activation and blockade. Furthermore, TSH-induced thyroid hormone secretion is more sensitive to inhibition with cholinergic stimulation than is VIP-induced thyroid hormone secretion. In addition, the VIP stimulation of thyroid hormone secretion seems to require the full VIP sequence

  8. Cognitive performance as a zeitgeber: cognitive oscillators and cholinergic modulation of the SCN entrain circadian rhythms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard J Gritton

    Full Text Available The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN is the primary circadian pacemaker in mammals that can synchronize or entrain to environmental cues. Although light exerts powerful influences on SCN output, other non-photic stimuli can modulate the SCN as well. We recently demonstrated that daily performance of a cognitive task requiring sustained periods of attentional effort that relies upon basal forebrain (BF cholinergic activity dramatically alters circadian rhythms in rats. In particular, normally nocturnal rats adopt a robust diurnal activity pattern that persists for several days in the absence of cognitive training. Although anatomical and pharmacological data from non-performing animals support a relationship between cholinergic signaling and circadian rhythms, little is known about how endogenous cholinergic signaling influences SCN function in behaving animals. Here we report that BF cholinergic projections to the SCN provide the principal signal allowing for the expression of cognitive entrainment in light-phase trained animals. We also reveal that oscillator(s outside of the SCN drive cognitive entrainment as daily timed cognitive training robustly entrains SCN-lesioned arrhythmic animals. Ablation of the SCN, however, resulted in significant impairments in task acquisition, indicating that SCN-mediated timekeeping benefits new learning and cognitive performance. Taken together, we conclude that cognition entrains non-photic oscillators, and cholinergic signaling to the SCN serves as a temporal timestamp attenuating SCN photic-driven rhythms, thereby permitting cognitive demands to modulate behavior.

  9. Measurement of functional cholinergic innervation in rat heart with a novel vesamicol receptor ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffeen, Paul R.; Efange, S.M.N.; Haidet, George C.; McKnite, Scott; Langason, Rosemary B.; Khare, A.B.; Pennington, Jennifer; Lurie, Keith G.

    1996-01-01

    Regional differences in cholinergic activity in the cardiac conduction system have been difficult to study. We tested the utility of (+)-m-[ 125 I]iodobenzyl)trozamicol(+)-[ 125 I]MIBT), a novel radioligand that binds to the vesamicol receptor located on the synaptic vesicle in presynaptic cholinergic neurons, as a functional marker of cholinergic activity in the conduction system. The (+)-[ 125 I]MIBT was injected intravenously into four rats. Three hours later, the rats were killed and their hearts were frozen. Quantitative autoradiography was performed on 20-micron-thick sections that were subsequently stained for acetylcholinesterase to identify specific conduction-system elements. Marked similarities existed between (+)-[ 125 I]MIBT uptake and acetylcholinesterase-positive regions. Optical densitometric analysis of regional (+)-[ 125 I]MIBT uptake revealed significantly greater (+)-[ 125 I]MIBT binding (nCi/mg) in the atrioventricular node (AVN) and His bundle regions compared with other conduction and contractile elements (AVN: 3.43 ± 0.37; His bundle: 2.16 ± 0.30; right bundle branch: 0.95 ± 0.13; right atrium: 0.68 ± 0.05; right ventricle: 0.57 ± 0.03; and left ventricle: 0.57 ± 0.03; p 125 I]MIBT binds avidly to cholinergic nerve tissue innervating specific conduction-system elements. Thus, (+)-[ 125 I]MIBT may be a useful functional marker in studies on cholinergic innervation in the cardiac conduction system

  10. Internal cholinergic regulation of learning and recall in a model of olfactory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licurgo Benemann Almeida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the olfactory system, cholinergic modulation has been associated with contrast modulation and changes in receptive fields in the olfactory bulb, as well the learning of odor associations in olfactory cortex. Computational modeling and behavioral studies suggest that cholinergic modulation could improve sensory processing and learning while preventing pro-active interference when task demands are high. However, how sensory inputs and/or learning regulate incoming modulation has not yet been elucidated. We here use a computational model of the olfactory bulb, piriform cortex (PC and horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB to explore how olfactory learning could regulate cholinergic inputs to the system in a closed feedback loop. In our model, the novelty of an odor is reflected in firing rates and sparseness of cortical neurons in response to that odor and these firing rates can directly regulate learning in the system by modifying cholinergic inputs to the system. In the model, cholinergic neurons reduce their firing in response to familiar odors – reducing plasticity in the PC, but increase their firing in response to novel odor – increasing PC plasticity. Recordings from HDB neurons in awake behaving rats reflect predictions from the model by showing that a subset of neurons decrease their firing as an odor becomes familiar.

  11. Chronic Cerebral Ischaemia Forms New Cholinergic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Zakharova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was a comparative analysis of cholinergic synaptic organization following learning and memory in normal and chronic cerebral ischaemic rats in the Morris water maze model. Choline acetyltransferase and protein content were determined in subpopulations of presynapses of “light” and “heavy” synaptosomal fractions of the cortex and the hippocampus, and the cholinergic projective and intrinsic systems of the brain structures were taken into consideration. We found a strong involvement of cholinergic systems, both projective and intrinsic, in all forms of cognition. Each form of cognition had an individual cholinergic molecular profile and the cholinergic synaptic compositions in the ischaemic rat brains differed significantly from normal ones. Our data demonstrated that under ischaemic conditions, instead of damaged connections new key synaptic relationships, which were stable against pathological influences and able to restore damaged cognitive functions, arose. The plasticity of neurochemical links in the individual organization of certain types of cognition gave a new input into brain pathology and can be used in the future for alternative corrections of vascular and other degenerative dementias.

  12. Spinal Cord Dysfunction (SCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Spinal Cord Dysfunction (SCD) module supports the maintenance of local and national registries for the tracking of patients with spinal cord injury and disease...

  13. Radial nerve dysfunction (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The radial nerve travels down the arm and supplies movement to the triceps muscle at the back of the upper arm. ... the wrist and hand. The usual causes of nerve dysfunction are direct trauma, prolonged pressure on the ...

  14. Chronic pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Dee; Sarton, Julie

    2014-10-01

    The successful treatment of women with vestibulodynia and its associated chronic pelvic floor dysfunctions requires interventions that address a broad field of possible pain contributors. Pelvic floor muscle hypertonicity was implicated in the mid-1990s as a trigger of major chronic vulvar pain. Painful bladder syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and temporomandibular jaw disorder are known common comorbidities that can cause a host of associated muscular, visceral, bony, and fascial dysfunctions. It appears that normalizing all of those disorders plays a pivotal role in reducing complaints of chronic vulvar pain and sexual dysfunction. Though the studies have yet to prove a specific protocol, physical therapists trained in pelvic dysfunction are reporting success with restoring tissue normalcy and reducing vulvar and sexual pain. A review of pelvic anatomy and common findings are presented along with suggested physical therapy management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Arslan, Ahmet; Koç, Omer Nadir; Dalkiliç, Turker; Naderi, Sait

    2010-07-01

    Sacroiliac joint dysfunction is a disorder presenting with low back and groin pain. It should be taken into consideration during the preoperative differential diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation, lumbar spinal stenosis and facet syndrome. Four cases with sacroiliac dysfunction are presented. The clinical and radiological signs supported the evidence of sacroiliac dysfunction, and exact diagnosis was made after positive response to sacroiliac joint block. A percutaneous sacroiliac fixation provided pain relief in all cases. The mean VAS scores reduced from 8.2 to 2.2. It is concluded that sacroiliac joint dysfunction diagnosis requires a careful physical examination of the sacroiliac joints in all cases with low back and groin pain. The diagnosis is made based on positive response to the sacroiliac block. Sacroiliac fixation was found to be effective in carefully selected cases.

  16. Erec tile dysfunction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-01-29

    Jan 29, 2009 ... Successful treatment of ED has been demonstrated to ... Incidence. Sexual dysfunction is highly prevalent in men and women. ... an important role in the integration and control of reproductive and sexual .... stress disorder.

  17. Expression of non-neuronal cholinergic system in maxilla of rat in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acetylcholine (ACh is known to be a key neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous systems, which is also produced in a variety of non-neuronal tissues and cell. The existence of ACh in maxilla in vivo and potential regulation role for osteogenesis need further study. RESULTS: Components of the cholinergic system (ACh, esterase, choline acetyltransferase, high-affinity choline uptake, n- and mAChRs were determined in maxilla of rat in vivo, by means of Real-Time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results showed RNA for CarAT, carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase member 20 (Slc25a20, VAChT, OCTN2, OCT1, OCT3, organic cation transporter member 4 (Slc22a4, AChE, BChE, nAChR subunits α1, α2, α3, α5, α7, α10, β1, β2, β4, γ and mAChR subunits M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 were detected in rat's maxilla. RNA of VAChT, AChE, nAChR subunits α2, β1, β4 and mAChR subunits M4 had abundant expression (2-ΔCt > 0.03. Immunohistochemical staining was conducted for ACh, VAChT, nAChRα7 and AChE. ACh was expressed in mesenchymal cells, chondroblast, bone and cartilage matrix and bone marrow cells, The VAChT expression was very extensively while ACh receptor α7 was strongly expressed in newly formed bone matrix of endochondral and bone marrow ossification, AchE was found only in mesenchymal stem cells, cartilage and bone marrow cells. CONCLUSIONS: ACh might exert its effect on the endochondral and bone marrow ossification, and bone matrix mineralization in maxilla.

  18. Pseudotumor Cerebri and Glymphatic Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Luciano de Souza Bezerra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to virtually all organ systems of the body, the central nervous system was until recently believed to be devoid of a lymphatic system. The demonstration of a complex system of paravascular channels formed by the endfeet of astroglial cells ultimately draining into the venous sinuses has radically changed this idea. The system is subsidized by the recirculation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF through the brain parenchyma along paravascular spaces (PVSs and by exchanges with the interstitial fluid (IF. Aquaporin-4 channels are the chief transporters of water through these compartments. This article hypothesizes that glymphatic dysfunction is a major pathogenetic mechanism underpinning idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH. The rationale for the hypothesis springs from MRI studies, which have shown many signs related to IIH without evidence of overproduction of CSF. We propose that diffuse retention of IF is a direct consequence of an imbalance of glymphatic flow. This imbalance, in turn, may result from an augmented flow from the arterial PVS into the IF, by impaired outflow of the IF into the paravenous spaces, or both. Our hypothesis is supported by the facts that (i visual loss, one of the main complications of IIH, is secondary to the impaired drainage of the optic nerve, a nerve richly surrounded by water channels and with a long extracranial course in its meningeal sheath; (ii there is a high association between IIH and obesity, a condition related to paravascular inflammation and lymphatic disturbance, and (iii glymphatic dysfunction has been related to the deposition of β-amyloid in Alzheimer’s disease. We conclude that the concept of glymphatic dysfunction provides a new perspective for understanding the pathophysiology of IIH; it may likewise entice the development of novel therapeutic approaches aiming at enhancing the flow between the CSF, the glymphatic system, and the dural sinuses.

  19. Pseudotumor Cerebri and Glymphatic Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Marcio Luciano de Souza; Ferreira, Ana Carolina Andorinho de Freitas; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to virtually all organ systems of the body, the central nervous system was until recently believed to be devoid of a lymphatic system. The demonstration of a complex system of paravascular channels formed by the endfeet of astroglial cells ultimately draining into the venous sinuses has radically changed this idea. The system is subsidized by the recirculation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) through the brain parenchyma along paravascular spaces (PVSs) and by exchanges with the interstitial fluid (IF). Aquaporin-4 channels are the chief transporters of water through these compartments. This article hypothesizes that glymphatic dysfunction is a major pathogenetic mechanism underpinning idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). The rationale for the hypothesis springs from MRI studies, which have shown many signs related to IIH without evidence of overproduction of CSF. We propose that diffuse retention of IF is a direct consequence of an imbalance of glymphatic flow. This imbalance, in turn, may result from an augmented flow from the arterial PVS into the IF, by impaired outflow of the IF into the paravenous spaces, or both. Our hypothesis is supported by the facts that (i) visual loss, one of the main complications of IIH, is secondary to the impaired drainage of the optic nerve, a nerve richly surrounded by water channels and with a long extracranial course in its meningeal sheath; (ii) there is a high association between IIH and obesity, a condition related to paravascular inflammation and lymphatic disturbance, and (iii) glymphatic dysfunction has been related to the deposition of β-amyloid in Alzheimer's disease. We conclude that the concept of glymphatic dysfunction provides a new perspective for understanding the pathophysiology of IIH; it may likewise entice the development of novel therapeutic approaches aiming at enhancing the flow between the CSF, the glymphatic system, and the dural sinuses.

  20. Acetylcholine receptors and cholinergic ligands: biochemical and genetic aspects in Torpedo californica and Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    This study evaluates the biochemical and genetic aspects of the acetylcholine receptor proteins and cholinergic ligands in Drosophila melanogaster and Torpedo californica. Included are (1) a comparative study of nicotinic ligand-induced cation release from acetylcholine receptors isolated from Torpedo californica and from Drosophila melanogaster, (2) solution studies of the cholinergic ligands, nikethamide and ethamivan, aimed at measuring internal molecular rotational barriers in solvents of different polarity; and (3) the isolation and characterization of the gene(s) for the acetylcholine receptor in Drosophila melasogaster. Acetylcholine receptor proteins isolated from Drosphila melanogaster heads were found to behave kinetically similar (with regards to cholinergic ligand-induced 155 Eu: 3+ displacement from prelabeled proteins) to receptor proteins isolated from Torpedo californica electric tissue, providing additional biochemical evidence for the existence of a Drosophila acetylcholine receptor

  1. Cholinergic Neurons - Keeping Check on Amyloid beta in the Cerebral Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saak V. Ovsepian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The physiological relevance of the uptake of ligands with no apparent trophic functions via the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR remains unclear. Herein, we propose a homeostatic role for this in clearance of amyloid β (Aβ in the brain. We hypothesize that uptake of Aβ in conjunction with p75NTR followed by its degradation in lysosomes endows cholinergic basalo-cortical projections enriched in this receptor a facility for maintaining physiological levels of Aβ in target areas. Thus, in addition to the diffuse modulator influence and channeling of extra-thalamic signals, cholinergic innervations could supply the cerebral cortex with an elaborate system for Aβ drainage. Interpreting the emerging relationship of new molecular data with established role of cholinergic modulator system in regulating cortical network dynamics should provide new insights into the brain physiology and mechanisms of neuro-degenerative diseases.

  2. Enhancement of learning capacity and cholinergic synaptic function by carnitine in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, S; Tadenuma, T; Tanaka, Y; Fukui, F; Kobayashi, S; Ohashi, Y; Kawabata, T

    2001-10-15

    The effects of a carnitine derivative, acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR), on the cognitive and cholinergic activities of aging rats were examined. Rats were given ALCAR (100 mg/kg) per os for 3 months and were subjected to the Hebb-Williams tasks and a new maze task, AKON-1, to assess their learning capacity. The learning capacity of the ALCAR-treated group was superior to that of the control. Cholinergic activities were determined with synaptosomes isolated from the cortices. The high-affinity choline uptake by synaptosomes, acetylcholine synthesis in synaptosomes, and acetylcholine release from synaptosomes on membrane depolarization were all enhanced in the ALCAR group. This study indicates that chronic administration of ALCAR increases cholinergic synaptic transmission and consequently enhances learning capacity as a cognitive function in aging rats. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Selective retrograde labeling of cholinergic neurons with [3H]choline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnoli, P.; Beaudet, A.; Stella, M.; Cuenod, M.

    1981-01-01

    Evidence is presented which is consistent with a specific retrograde labeling of cholinergic neurons following [ 3 H]choline application in their zone of termination. [ 3 H]Choline injection in the rat hippocampus leads to perikaryal retrograde labeling in the ipsilateral medial septal nuclease and nucleus of the diagonal band, thus delineating an established cholinergic pathway, while only diffuse presumably anterograde labeling was observed in the lateral septum, the entorhinal cortex, and the opposite hippocampus. After [ 3 H]choline injection in the pigeon visual Wulst, only the ipsilateral thalamic relay, of all inputs, showed similar perikaryal retrograde labeling, an observation supporting the suggestion that at least some thalamo-Wulst neurons are cholinergic

  4. Neuro-immune interactions via the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallowitsch-Puerta, Margot; Pavlov, Valentin A.

    2010-01-01

    The overproduction of TNF and other cytokines can cause the pathophysiology of numerous diseases. Controlling cytokine synthesis and release is critical for preventing unrestrained inflammation and maintaining health. Recent studies identified an efferent vagus nerve-based mechanism termed “the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway” that controls cytokine production and inflammation. Here we review current advances related to the role of this pathway in neuro-immune interactions that prevent excessive inflammation. Experimental evidence indicates that vagus nerve cholinergic anti-inflammatory signaling requires alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on non-neuronal cytokine producing cells. Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists inhibit cytokine release and protect animals in a variety of experimental lethal inflammatory models. Knowledge related to the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway can be exploited in therapeutic approaches directed towards counteracting abnormal chronic and hyper-activated inflammatory responses. PMID:17289087

  5. Selective Activation of Cholinergic Interneurons Enhances Accumbal Phasic Dopamine Release: Setting the Tone for Reward Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Cachope

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine plays a critical role in motor control, addiction, and reward-seeking behaviors, and its release dynamics have traditionally been linked to changes in midbrain dopamine neuron activity. Here, we report that selective endogenous cholinergic activation achieved via in vitro optogenetic stimulation of nucleus accumbens, a terminal field of dopaminergic neurons, elicits real-time dopamine release. This mechanism occurs via direct actions on dopamine terminals, does not require changes in neuron firing within the midbrain, and is dependent on glutamatergic receptor activity. More importantly, we demonstrate that in vivo selective activation of cholinergic interneurons is sufficient to elicit dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Therefore, the control of accumbal extracellular dopamine levels by endogenous cholinergic activity results from a complex convergence of neurotransmitter/neuromodulator systems that may ultimately synergize to drive motivated behavior.

  6. A cholinergic contribution to the circulatory responses evoked at the onset of handgrip exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vianna, Lauro C; Fadel, Paul J; Secher, Niels H

    2015-01-01

    A cholinergic (muscarinic) contribution to the initial circulatory response to exercise in humans remains controversial. Herein, we posit that this may be due to exercise mode with a cholinergic contribution being important during isometric handgrip exercise, where the hyperemic response......-induced fall in SVR and, thereby, augmented the pressor response (+13 ± 3 mmHg at 10 s; P exercise. These findings suggest that a cholinergic mechanism is important for the BP...... resistance (SVR) in young healthy males, while performing either 20 s of isometric handgrip contraction at 40% maximum voluntary contraction (protocol 1; n = 9) or 20 s of low-intensity leg cycling exercise (protocol 2; n = 8, 42 ± 8 W). Exercise trials were conducted under control (no drug) conditions...

  7. Asynchronous Cholinergic Drive Correlates with Excitation-Inhibition Imbalance via a Neuronal Ca2+ Sensor Protein

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    Keming Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Excitation-inhibition imbalance in neural networks is widely linked to neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. However, how genetic factors alter neuronal activity, leading to excitation-inhibition imbalance, remains unclear. Here, using the C. elegans locomotor circuit, we examine how altering neuronal activity for varying time periods affects synaptic release pattern and animal behavior. We show that while short-duration activation of excitatory cholinergic neurons elicits a reversible enhancement of presynaptic strength, persistent activation results to asynchronous and reduced cholinergic drive, inducing imbalance between endogenous excitation and inhibition. We find that the neuronal calcium sensor protein NCS-2 is required for asynchronous cholinergic release in an activity-dependent manner and dampens excitability of inhibitory neurons non-cell autonomously. The function of NCS-2 requires its Ca2+ binding and membrane association domains. These results reveal a synaptic mechanism implicating asynchronous release in regulation of excitation-inhibition balance.

  8. Localization of pre- and postsynaptic cholinergic markers in rodent forebrain : A brief history and comparison of rat and mouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, E. A.; Keijser, J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Rat and mouse models are widely used for studies in cognition and pathophysiology, among others. Here, we sought to determine to what extent these two model species differ for cholinergic and cholinoceptive features. For this purpose, we focused on cholinergic innervation patterns based on choline

  9. Cholinergic enhancement reduces functional connectivity and BOLD variability in visual extrastriate cortex during selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Emiliano; Handjaras, Giacomo; Bernardi, Giulio; Pietrini, Pietro; Furey, Maura L

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing cholinergic function improves performance on various cognitive tasks and alters neural responses in task specific brain regions. We have hypothesized that the changes in neural activity observed during increased cholinergic function reflect an increase in neural efficiency that leads to improved task performance. The current study tested this hypothesis by assessing neural efficiency based on cholinergically-mediated effects on regional brain connectivity and BOLD signal variability. Nine subjects participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover fMRI study. Following an infusion of physostigmine (1 mg/h) or placebo, echo-planar imaging (EPI) was conducted as participants performed a selective attention task. During the task, two images comprised of superimposed pictures of faces and houses were presented. Subjects were instructed periodically to shift their attention from one stimulus component to the other and to perform a matching task using hand held response buttons. A control condition included phase-scrambled images of superimposed faces and houses that were presented in the same temporal and spatial manner as the attention task; participants were instructed to perform a matching task. Cholinergic enhancement improved performance during the selective attention task, with no change during the control task. Functional connectivity analyses showed that the strength of connectivity between ventral visual processing areas and task-related occipital, parietal and prefrontal regions reduced significantly during cholinergic enhancement, exclusively during the selective attention task. Physostigmine administration also reduced BOLD signal temporal variability relative to placebo throughout temporal and occipital visual processing areas, again during the selective attention task only. Together with the observed behavioral improvement, the decreases in connectivity strength throughout task-relevant regions and BOLD variability within stimulus

  10. Cholinergic basal forebrain structures are not essential for mediation of the arousing action of glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelkes, Zoltán; Abdurakhmanova, Shamsiiat; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja

    2017-09-18

    The cholinergic basal forebrain contributes to cortical activation and receives rich innervations from the ascending activating system. It is involved in the mediation of the arousing actions of noradrenaline and histamine. Glutamatergic stimulation in the basal forebrain results in cortical acetylcholine release and suppression of sleep. However, it is not known to what extent the cholinergic versus non-cholinergic basal forebrain projection neurones contribute to the arousing action of glutamate. To clarify this question, we administered N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), a glutamate agonist, into the basal forebrain in intact rats and after destruction of the cholinergic cells in the basal forebrain with 192 immunoglobulin (Ig)G-saporin. In eight Han-Wistar rats with implanted electroencephalogram/electromyogram (EEG/EMG) electrodes and guide cannulas for microdialysis probes, 0.23 μg 192 IgG-saporin was administered into the basal forebrain, while the eight control animals received artificial cerebrospinal fluid. Two weeks later, a microdialysis probe targeted into the basal forebrain was perfused with cerebrospinal fluid on the baseline day and for 3 h with 0.3 mmNMDA on the subsequent day. Sleep-wake activity was recorded for 24 h on both days. NMDA exhibited a robust arousing effect in both the intact and the lesioned rats. Wakefulness was increased and both non-REM and REM sleep were decreased significantly during the 3-h NMDA perfusion. Destruction of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurones did not abolish the wake-enhancing action of NMDA. Thus, the cholinergic basal forebrain structures are not essential for the mediation of the arousing action of glutamate. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  11. Adenosine Inhibits the Excitatory Synaptic Inputs to Basal Forebrain Cholinergic, GABAergic and Parvalbumin Neurons in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun eYang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Coffee and tea contain the stimulants caffeine and theophylline. These compounds act as antagonists of adenosine receptors. Adenosine promotes sleep and its extracellular concentration rises in association with prolonged wakefulness, particularly in the basal forebrain (BF region involved in activating the cerebral cortex. However, the effect of adenosine on identified BF neurons, especially non-cholinergic neurons, is incompletely understood. Here we used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in mouse brain slices prepared from two validated transgenic mouse lines with fluorescent proteins expressed in GABAergic or parvalbumin (PV neurons to determine the effect of adenosine. Whole-cell recordings were made BF cholinergic neurons and from BF GABAergic & PV neurons with the size (>20 µm and intrinsic membrane properties (prominent H-currents corresponding to cortically projecting neurons. A brief (2 min bath application of adenosine (100 μM decreased the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in all groups of BF cholinergic, GABAergic and PV neurons we recorded. In addition, adenosine decreased the frequency of miniature EPSCs in BF cholinergic neurons. Adenosine had no effect on the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in cholinergic neurons or GABAergic neurons with large H-currents but reduced them in a group of GABAergic neurons with smaller H-currents. All effects of adenosine were blocked by a selective, adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT, 1 μM. Adenosine had no postsynaptic effects. Taken together, our work suggests that adenosine promotes sleep by an A1-receptor mediated inhibition of glutamatergic inputs to cortically-projecting cholinergic and GABA/PV neurons. Conversely, caffeine and theophylline promote attentive wakefulness by inhibiting these A1 receptors in BF thereby promoting the high-frequency oscillations in the cortex required for

  12. Participation of the cholinergic system in the ethanol-induced suppression of paradoxical sleep in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Papale

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbance is among the many consequences of ethanol abuse in both humans and rodents. Ethanol consumption can reduce REM or paradoxical sleep (PS in humans and rats, respectively. The first aim of this study was to develop an animal model of ethanol-induced PS suppression. This model administered intragastrically (by gavage to male Wistar rats (3 months old, 200-250 g 0.5 to 3.5 g/kg ethanol. The 3.5 g/kg dose of ethanol suppressed the PS stage compared with the vehicle group (distilled water during the first 2-h interval (0-2 h; 1.3 vs 10.2; P < 0.001. The second aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which ethanol suppresses PS. We examined the effects of cholinergic drug pretreatment. The cholinergic system was chosen because of the involvement of cholinergic neurotransmitters in regulating the sleep-wake cycle. A second set of animals was pretreated with 2.5, 5.0, and 10 mg/kg pilocarpine (cholinergic agonist or atropine (cholinergic antagonist. These drugs were administered 1 h prior to ethanol (3.5 g/kg or vehicle. Treatment with atropine prior to vehicle or ethanol produced a statistically significant decrease in PS, whereas pilocarpine had no effect on minutes of PS. Although the mechanism by which ethanol induces PS suppression is not fully understood, these data suggest that the cholinergic system is not the only system involved in this interaction.

  13. Animal models of erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehlata V Gajbhiye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models have contributed to a great extent to understanding and advancement in the field of sexual medicine. Many current medical and surgical therapies in sexual medicine have been tried based on these animal models. Extensive literature search revealed that the compiled information is limited. In this review, we describe various experimental models of erectile dysfunction (ED encompassing their procedures, variables of assessment, advantages and disadvantages. The search strategy consisted of review of PubMed based articles. We included original research work and certain review articles available in PubMed database. The search terms used were "ED and experimental models," "ED and nervous stimulation," "ED and cavernous nerve stimulation," "ED and central stimulation," "ED and diabetes mellitus," "ED and ageing," "ED and hypercholesteremia," "ED and Peyronie′s disease," "radiation induced ED," "telemetric recording," "ED and mating test" and "ED and non-contact erection test."

  14. Age-related changes in nicotine response of cholinergic and non-cholinergic laterodorsal tegmental neurons: implications for the heightened adolescent susceptibility to nicotine addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Holm; Ishibashi, Masaru; Nielsen, Michael Linnemann

    2014-01-01

    The younger an individual starts smoking, the greater the likelihood that addiction to nicotine will develop, suggesting that neurobiological responses vary across age to the addictive component of cigarettes. Cholinergic neurons of the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) are importantly involved...... in the development of addiction, however, the effects of nicotine on LDT neuronal excitability across ontogeny are unknown. Nicotinic effects on LDT cells across different age groups were examined using calcium imaging and whole-cell patch clamping. Within the youngest age group (P7–P15), nicotine induced larger...... intracellular calcium transients and inward currents. Nicotine induced a greater number of excitatory synaptic currents in the youngest animals, whereas larger amplitude inhibitory synaptic events were induced in cells from the oldest animals (P15–P34). Nicotine increased neuronal firing of cholinergic cells...

  15. Age-dependent loss of cholinergic neurons in learning and memory-related brain regions and impaired learning in SAMP8 mice with trigeminal nerve damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yifan He; Jihong Zhu; Fang Huang; Liu Qin; Wenguo Fan; Hongwen He

    2014-01-01

    The tooth belongs to the trigeminal sensory pathway. Dental damage has been associated with impairments in the central nervous system that may be mediated by injury to the trigeminal nerve. In the present study, we investigated the effects of damage to the inferior alveolar nerve, an important peripheral nerve in the trigeminal sensory pathway, on learning and memory be-haviors and structural changes in related brain regions, in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Inferior alveolar nerve transection or sham surgery was performed in middle-aged (4-month-old) or elderly (7-month-old) senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice. When the middle-aged mice reached 8 months (middle-aged group 1) or 11 months (middle-aged group 2), and the elderly group reached 11 months, step-down passive avoidance and Y-maze tests of learn-ing and memory were performed, and the cholinergic system was examined in the hippocampus (Nissl staining and acetylcholinesterase histochemistry) and basal forebrain (choline acetyltrans-ferase immunohistochemistry). In the elderly group, animals that underwent nerve transection had fewer pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions, fewer cholinergic ifbers in the CA1 and dentate gyrus, and fewer cholinergic neurons in the medial septal nucleus and vertical limb of the diagonal band, compared with sham-operated animals, as well as showing impairments in learning and memory. Conversely, no signiifcant differences in histology or be-havior were observed between middle-aged group 1 or group 2 transected mice and age-matched sham-operated mice. The present ifndings suggest that trigeminal nerve damage in old age, but not middle age, can induce degeneration of the septal-hippocampal cholinergic system and loss of hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and ultimately impair learning ability. Our results highlight the importance of active treatment of trigeminal nerve damage in elderly patients and those with Alzheimer’s disease, and

  16. Biology of Sexual Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Mysore Nagaraj

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexual activity is a multifaceted activity, involving complex interactions between the nervous system, the endocrine system, the vascular system and a variety of structures that are instrumental in sexual excitement, intercourse and satisfaction. Sexual function has three components i.e., desire, arousal and orgasm. Many sexual dysfunctions can be categorized according to the phase of sexual response that is affected. In actual clinical practice however, sexual desire, arousal and orgasmic difficulties more often than not coexist, suggesting an integration of phases. Sexual dysfunction can result from a wide variety of psychological and physiological causes including derangements in the levels of sex hormones and neurotrensmitters. This review deals with the biology of different phases of sexual function as well as implications of hormones and neurotransmitters in sexual dysfunction

  17. Exercise and reproductive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, E C; Brzyski, R G

    1999-01-01

    To provide an overview of our current understanding of exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction and an approach to its evaluation and management. A MEDLINE search was performed to review all articles with title words related to menstrual dysfunction, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, exercise, and athletic activities from 1966 to 1998. The pathophysiology, proposed mechanisms, clinical manifestations, evaluation, and management of exercise-associated reproductive dysfunction were compiled. Exercise-induced menstrual irregularity appears to be multifactorial in origin and remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The underlying mechanisms are mainly speculative. Clinical manifestations range from luteal phase deficiency to anovulation, amenorrhea, and even delayed menarche. Evaluation should include a thorough history and a complete physical plus pelvic examination. Most cases are reversible with dietary and exercise modifications. Hormonal replacement in cases of a prolonged hypoestrogenic state with evidence of increased bone loss is recommended, although the long-term consequences of prolonged hormonal deficiency are ill-defined.

  18. Immune dysfunction in cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipeki, Nora; Antal-Szalmas, Peter; Lakatos, Peter L; Papp, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Innate and adaptive immune dysfunction, also referred to as cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction syndrome, is a major component of cirrhosis, and plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of both the acute and chronic worsening of liver function. During the evolution of the disease, acute decompensation events associated with organ failure(s), so-called acute-on chronic liver failure, and chronic decompensation with progression of liver fibrosis and also development of disease specific complications, comprise distinct clinical entities with different immunopathology mechanisms. Enhanced bacterial translocation associated with systemic endotoxemia and increased occurrence of systemic bacterial infections have substantial impacts on both clinical situations. Acute and chronic exposure to bacteria and/or their products, however, can result in variable clinical consequences. The immune status of patients is not constant during the illness; consequently, alterations of the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes result in very different dynamic courses. In this review we give a detailed overview of acquired immune dysfunction and its consequences for cirrhosis. We demonstrate the substantial influence of inherited innate immune dysfunction on acute and chronic inflammatory processes in cirrhosis caused by the pre-existing acquired immune dysfunction with limited compensatory mechanisms. Moreover, we highlight the current facts and future perspectives of how the assessment of immune dysfunction can assist clinicians in everyday practical decision-making when establishing treatment and care strategies for the patients with end-stage liver disease. Early and efficient recognition of inappropriate performance of the immune system is essential for overcoming complications, delaying progression and reducing mortality. PMID:24627592

  19. Neuromodulation in bladder dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S T; Neal, D E

    1998-10-01

    Neuromodulation is one option for the management of a wide variety of lower urinary tract disorders, including non-neuropathic and neuropathic bladder dysfunctions. The mechanisms of action of the reported techniques remain unclear; urodynamic changes are minimal, but symptomatic improvements are common. Although the treatment is relatively free from side-effects compared with more aggressive surgical options, the placebo effect is likely to be significant. Its exact cost effectiveness is unclear, but the technology is a welcome addition to the range of treatment options for lower urinary tract dysfunctions, such as urgency and urge incontinence.

  20. Alpha-lipoic acid protects oxidative stress, changes in cholinergic system and tissue histopathology during co-exposure to arsenic-dichlorvos in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Nidhi; Flora, Govinder; Kushwaha, Pramod; Flora, Swaran J S

    2014-01-01

    We investigated protective efficacy of α-lipoic acid (LA), an antioxidant against arsenic and DDVP co-exposed rats. Biochemical variables suggestive of oxidative stress, neurological dysfunction, and tissue histopathological alterations were determined. Male rats were exposed either to 50 ppm sodium arsenite in drinking water or in combination with DDVP (4 mg/kg, subcutaneously) for 10 weeks. α-Lipoic acid (50mg/kg, pos) was also co-administered in above groups. Arsenic exposure led to significant oxidative stress along, hepatotoxicity, hematotoxicity and altered brain biogenic amines levels accompanied by increased arsenic accumulation in blood and tissues. These altered biochemical variables were supported by histopathological examinations leading to oxidative stress and cell death. These biochemical alterations were significantly restored by co-administration of α-lipoic acid with arsenic and DDVP alone and concomitantly. The results indicate that arsenic and DDVP induced oxidative stress and cholinergic dysfunction can be significantly protected by the supplementation of α-lipoic acid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Tiliacora triandra, an Anti-Intoxication Plant, Improves Memory Impairment, Neurodegeneration, Cholinergic Function, and Oxidative Stress in Hippocampus of Ethanol Dependence Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattaporn Phunchago

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays an important role in brain dysfunctions induced by alcohol. Since less therapeutic agent against cognitive deficit and brain damage induced by chronic alcohol consumption is less available, we aimed to assess the effect of Tiliacora triandra extract, a plant possessing antioxidant activity, on memory impairment, neuron density, cholinergic function, and oxidative stress in hippocampus of alcoholic rats. Male Wistar rats were induced ethanol dependence condition by semivoluntary intake of alcohol for 15 weeks. Alcoholic rats were orally given T. triandra at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg·kg−1BW for 14 days. Memory assessment was performed every 7 days while neuron density, activities of AChE, SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px and, MDA level in hippocampus were assessed at the end of study. Interestingly, the extract mitigated the increased escape latency, AChE and MDA level. The extract also mitigated the decreased retention time, SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities, and neurons density in hippocampus induced by alcohol. These data suggested that the extract improved memory deficit in alcoholic rats partly via the decreased oxidative stress and the suppression of AChE. Therefore, T. triandra is the potential reagent for treating brain dysfunction induced by alcohol. However, further researches are necessary to understand the detail mechanism and possible active ingredient.

  2. Activation of vascular cholinergic and adrenergic receptors induced by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alya, G.

    1999-10-01

    Activation of vascular cholinergic receptors and adrenoceptors plays an important role in vasomotoricity and peripheric vascular resistance. These factors are essential in maintaining a stable blood pressure. The aim of this study is to investigate the radiosensitivity differences between vascular cholinergic receptors and adrenoceptors, and consequently to determinate the effects of ionizing radiation (whole body irradiation) on contractile response regulation of vascular smooth muscle fibers VSMF isolated from rat portal vein. Our results show that Clonidine, (non-specific adrenergic agonist), and phenylephrine which is more specific α1-adrenoceptor agonist, increase the VSMF contractions. The maximum effect is obtained at 10 -5 - 3.10 -5 M. On irradiated rats (1-3-5 Gy), there is an important shift thus, the maximal response (E m ax) can be obtained in lower concentrations of clonidine and phenylephrine. Irradiation deceases the contractile responses of VSMF mediated by cholinergic stimulation, in a dose dependant manner. With E m ax 1 Gy>E m ax 3 Gy>E m ax 5 Gy. Irradiated muscular fibers became less sensitive to acetylcholine, thus 3.10 -8 M. A. ch induced more than 50% of contraction force increase in normal conditions. This concentration induce generally a negligible effect after irradiation. The results reveal the existence of radiosensitivity differences between vascular cholinergic and adrenergic receptors. (author)

  3. Cholinergic Modulation of Cortical Microcircuits Is Layer-Specific: Evidence from Rodent, Monkey and Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Obermayer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh signaling shapes neuronal circuit development and underlies specific aspects of cognitive functions and behaviors, including attention, learning, memory and motivation. During behavior, activation of muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs and nAChRs by ACh alters the activation state of neurons, and neuronal circuits most likely process information differently with elevated levels of ACh. In several brain regions, ACh has been shown to alter synaptic strength as well. By changing the rules for synaptic plasticity, ACh can have prolonged effects on and rearrange connectivity between neurons that outlasts its presence. From recent discoveries in the mouse, rat, monkey and human brain, a picture emerges in which the basal forebrain (BF cholinergic system targets the neocortex with much more spatial and temporal detail than previously considered. Fast cholinergic synapses acting on a millisecond time scale are abundant in the mammalian cerebral cortex, and provide BF cholinergic neurons with the possibility to rapidly alter information flow in cortical microcircuits. Finally, recent studies have outlined novel mechanisms of how cholinergic projections from the BF affect synaptic strength in several brain areas of the rodent brain, with behavioral consequences. This review highlights these exciting developments and discusses how these findings translate to human brain circuitries.

  4. Cholinergic enhancement modulates neural correlates of selective attention and emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Paul; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Thiel, Christiane M; Driver, Jon; Dolan, Raymond J

    2003-09-01

    Neocortical cholinergic afferents are proposed to influence both selective attention and emotional processing. In a study of healthy adults we used event-related fMRI while orthogonally manipulating attention and emotionality to examine regions showing effects of cholinergic modulation by the anticholinesterase physostigmine. Either face or house pictures appeared at task-relevant locations, with the alternative picture type at irrelevant locations. Faces had either neutral or fearful expressions. Physostigmine increased relative activity within the anterior fusiform gyrus for faces at attended, versus unattended, locations, but decreased relative activity within the posterolateral occipital cortex for houses in attended, versus unattended, locations. A similar pattern of regional differences in the effect of physostigmine on cue-evoked responses was also present in the absence of stimuli. Cholinergic enhancement augmented the relative neuronal response within the middle fusiform gyrus to fearful faces, whether at attended or unattended locations. By contrast, physostigmine influenced responses in the orbitofrontal, intraparietal and cingulate cortices to fearful faces when faces occupied task-irrelevant locations. These findings suggest that acetylcholine may modulate both selective attention and emotional processes through independent, region-specific effects within the extrastriate cortex. Furthermore, cholinergic inputs to the frontoparietal cortex may influence the allocation of attention to emotional information.

  5. Control of cerebral cortical blood flow by stimulation of basal forebrain cholinergic areas in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Harumi; Uchida, Sae; Kagitani, Fusako; Maruyama, Naoki

    2011-05-01

    We examined whether activity of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) regulates regional cerebral cortical blood flow (rCBF) in mice, using laser speckle and laser Doppler flowmetry. In anesthetized mice, unilateral focal stimulation, either electrical or chemical, of the NBM increased rCBF of the ipsilateral cerebral cortex in the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes, independent of changes in systemic blood pressure. Most of vasodilative responses to low intensity stimuli (2 times threshold intensity: 2T) were abolished by atropine (a muscarinic cholinergic blocker), whereas responses to higher intensity stimuli (3T) were abolished by atropine and mecamylamine (a nicotinic cholinergic blocker). Blood flow changes were largest when the tip of the electrode was located within the area containing cholinergic neurons shown by choline acetyltransferase-immunocytochemistry. These results suggest that cholinergic projections from basal forebrain neurons in mice cause vasodilation in the ipsilateral cerebral cortex by a combination of muscarinic and nicotinic mechanisms, as previously found in rats and cats.

  6. Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in the non-obese diabetic mouse model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, F. A.; Vosters, J. L.; Roescher, N.; Broekstra, N.; Tak, P. P.; Vervoordeldonk, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) has been shown to reduce inflammation in animal models, while abrogation of the pathway increases inflammation. We investigated whether modulation of CAP influences inflammation in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model for Sjögren's

  7. Effect of Estradiol on Neurotrophin Receptors in Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons: Relevance for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakowsky, Andrea; Milne, Michael R; Waldvogel, Henry J; Faull, Richard L

    2016-12-17

    The basal forebrain is home to the largest population of cholinergic neurons in the brain. These neurons are involved in a number of cognitive functions including attention, learning and memory. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) are particularly vulnerable in a number of neurological diseases with the most notable being Alzheimer's disease, with evidence for a link between decreasing cholinergic markers and the degree of cognitive impairment. The neurotrophin growth factor system is present on these BFCNs and has been shown to promote survival and differentiation on these neurons. Clinical and animal model studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on neurodegeneration in BFCNs. It is believed that E2 interacts with neurotrophin signaling on cholinergic neurons to mediate these beneficial effects. Evidence presented in our recent study confirms that altering the levels of circulating E2 levels via ovariectomy and E2 replacement significantly affects the expression of the neurotrophin receptors on BFCN. However, we also showed that E2 differentially regulates neurotrophin receptor expression on BFCNs with effects depending on neurotrophin receptor type and neuroanatomical location. In this review, we aim to survey the current literature to understand the influence of E2 on the neurotrophin system, and the receptors and signaling pathways it mediates on BFCN. In addition, we summarize the physiological and pathophysiological significance of E2 actions on the neurotrophin system in BFCN, especially focusing on changes related to Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Extensive Lesions of Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Neurons Do Not Impair Spatial Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuckovich, Joseph A.; Semel, Mara E.; Baxter, Mark G.

    2004-01-01

    A recent study suggests that lesions to all major areas of the cholinergic basal forebrain in the rat (medial septum, horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca, and nucleus basalis magnocellularis) impair a spatial working memory task. However, this experiment used a surgical technique that may have damaged cerebellar Purkinje cells. The…

  9. Cholinergic Septo-Hippocampal Innervation Is Required for Trace Eyeblink Classical Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontan-Lozano, Angela; Troncoso, Julieta; Munera, Alejandro; Carrion, Angel Manuel; Delgado-Garcia, Jose Maria

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effects of a selective lesion in rats, with 192-IgG-saporin, of the cholinergic neurons located in the medial septum/diagonal band (MSDB) complex on the acquisition of classical and instrumental conditioning paradigms. The MSDB lesion induced a marked deficit in the acquisition, but not in the retrieval, of eyeblink classical…

  10. Cholinergic stimulation enhances Bayesian belief updating in the deployment of spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossel, Simone; Bauer, Markus; Mathys, Christoph; Adams, Rick A; Dolan, Raymond J; Stephan, Klaas E; Friston, Karl J

    2014-11-19

    The exact mechanisms whereby the cholinergic neurotransmitter system contributes to attentional processing remain poorly understood. Here, we applied computational modeling to psychophysical data (obtained from a spatial attention task) under a psychopharmacological challenge with the cholinesterase inhibitor galantamine (Reminyl). This allowed us to characterize the cholinergic modulation of selective attention formally, in terms of hierarchical Bayesian inference. In a placebo-controlled, within-subject, crossover design, 16 healthy human subjects performed a modified version of Posner's location-cueing task in which the proportion of validly and invalidly cued targets (percentage of cue validity, % CV) changed over time. Saccadic response speeds were used to estimate the parameters of a hierarchical Bayesian model to test whether cholinergic stimulation affected the trial-wise updating of probabilistic beliefs that underlie the allocation of attention or whether galantamine changed the mapping from those beliefs to subsequent eye movements. Behaviorally, galantamine led to a greater influence of probabilistic context (% CV) on response speed than placebo. Crucially, computational modeling suggested this effect was due to an increase in the rate of belief updating about cue validity (as opposed to the increased sensitivity of behavioral responses to those beliefs). We discuss these findings with respect to cholinergic effects on hierarchical cortical processing and in relation to the encoding of expected uncertainty or precision. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3415735-08$15.00/0.

  11. Modulation of cholinergic airway reactivity and nitric oxide production by endogenous arginase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meurs, Herman; Hamer, M.A M; Pethe, S; Vadon-Le Goff, S; Boucher, J.-L; Zaagsma, Hans

    1 Cholinergic airway constriction is functionally antagonized by agonist-induced constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS)-derived nitric oxide (NO). Since cNOS and arginase, which hydrolyzes L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea, use L-arginine as a common substrate, competition between both enzymes

  12. Cholinergic Modulation during Acquisition of Olfactory Fear Conditioning Alters Learning and Stimulus Generalization in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavesi, Eloisa; Gooch, Allison; Lee, Elizabeth; Fletcher, Max L.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of cholinergic neurotransmission in olfactory fear learning. Mice receiving pairings of odor and foot shock displayed fear to the trained odor the following day. Pretraining injections of the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine had no effect on subsequent freezing, while the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine significantly…

  13. The effect of the augmentation of cholinergic neurotransmission by nicotine on EEG indices of visuospatial attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logemann, H.N.A.; Bocker, K.B.E.; Deschamps, P.K.H.; Kemner, C.; Kenemans, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    The cholinergic system has been implicated in visuospatial attention but the exact role remains unclear. In visuospatial attention, bias refers to neuronal signals that modulate the sensitivity of sensory cortex, while disengagement refers to the decoupling of attention making reorienting possible.

  14. Hippocampal “cholinergic interneurons” visualized with the choline acetyltransferase promoter: anatomical distribution, intrinsic membrane properties, neurochemical characteristics, and capacity for cholinergic modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Feng; Catudio-Garrett, Elizabeth; Gábriel, Robert; Wilhelm, Marta; Erdelyi, Ferenc; Szabo, Gabor; Deisseroth, Karl; Lawrence, Josh

    2015-01-01

    Release of acetylcholine (ACh) in the hippocampus (HC) occurs during exploration, arousal, and learning. Although the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca (MS-DBB) is the major extrinsic source of cholinergic input to the HC, cholinergic neurons intrinsic to the HC also exist but remain poorly understood. Here, ChAT-tauGFP and ChAT-CRE/Rosa26YFP (ChAT-Rosa) mice were examined in HC. The HC of ChAT-tauGFP mice was densely innervated with GFP-positive axons, often accompanied by large GFP-positive structures, some of which were Neurotrace/DAPI-negative and likely represent large axon terminals. In the HC of ChAT-Rosa mice, ChAT-YFP cells were Neurotrace-positive and more abundant in CA3 and dentate gyrus than CA1 with partial overlap with calretinin/VIP. Moreover, an anti-ChAT antibody consistently showed ChAT immunoreactivity in ChAT-YFP cells from MS-DBB but rarely from HC. Furthermore, ChAT-YFP cells from CA1 stratum radiatum/stratum lacunosum moleculare (SR/SLM) exhibited a stuttering firing phenotype but a delayed firing phenotype in stratum pyramidale (SP) of CA3. Input resistance and capacitance were also different between CA1 SR/LM and CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells. Bath application of ACh increased firing frequency in all ChAT-YFP cells; however, cholinergic modulation was larger in CA1 SR/SLM than CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells. Finally, CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells exhibited a wider AP half-width and weaker cholinergic modulation than YFP-negative CA3 pyramidal cells. Consistent with CRE expression in a subpopulation of principal cells, optogenetic stimulation evoked glutamatergic postsynaptic currents in CA1 SR/SLM interneurons. In conclusion, the presence of fluorescently labeled hippocampal cells common to both ChAT-tauGFP and ChAT-Rosa mice are in good agreement with previous reports on the existence of cholinergic interneurons, but both transgenic mouse lines exhibited unexpected anatomical features that departed considerably from earlier observations. PMID:25798106

  15. Hippocampal "cholinergic interneurons" visualized with the choline acetyltransferase promoter: anatomical distribution, intrinsic membrane properties, neurochemical characteristics, and capacity for cholinergic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Feng; Catudio-Garrett, Elizabeth; Gábriel, Robert; Wilhelm, Marta; Erdelyi, Ferenc; Szabo, Gabor; Deisseroth, Karl; Lawrence, Josh

    2015-01-01

    Release of acetylcholine (ACh) in the hippocampus (HC) occurs during exploration, arousal, and learning. Although the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca (MS-DBB) is the major extrinsic source of cholinergic input to the HC, cholinergic neurons intrinsic to the HC also exist but remain poorly understood. Here, ChAT-tauGFP and ChAT-CRE/Rosa26YFP (ChAT-Rosa) mice were examined in HC. The HC of ChAT-tauGFP mice was densely innervated with GFP-positive axons, often accompanied by large GFP-positive structures, some of which were Neurotrace/DAPI-negative and likely represent large axon terminals. In the HC of ChAT-Rosa mice, ChAT-YFP cells were Neurotrace-positive and more abundant in CA3 and dentate gyrus than CA1 with partial overlap with calretinin/VIP. Moreover, an anti-ChAT antibody consistently showed ChAT immunoreactivity in ChAT-YFP cells from MS-DBB but rarely from HC. Furthermore, ChAT-YFP cells from CA1 stratum radiatum/stratum lacunosum moleculare (SR/SLM) exhibited a stuttering firing phenotype but a delayed firing phenotype in stratum pyramidale (SP) of CA3. Input resistance and capacitance were also different between CA1 SR/LM and CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells. Bath application of ACh increased firing frequency in all ChAT-YFP cells; however, cholinergic modulation was larger in CA1 SR/SLM than CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells. Finally, CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells exhibited a wider AP half-width and weaker cholinergic modulation than YFP-negative CA3 pyramidal cells. Consistent with CRE expression in a subpopulation of principal cells, optogenetic stimulation evoked glutamatergic postsynaptic currents in CA1 SR/SLM interneurons. In conclusion, the presence of fluorescently labeled hippocampal cells common to both ChAT-tauGFP and ChAT-Rosa mice are in good agreement with previous reports on the existence of cholinergic interneurons, but both transgenic mouse lines exhibited unexpected anatomical features that departed considerably from earlier observations.

  16. Hippocampal cholinergic interneurons visualized with the choline acetyltransferase promoter: anatomical distribution, intrinsic membrane properties, neurochemical characteristics, and capacity for cholinergic modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng eYi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Release of acetylcholine (ACh in the hippocampus (HC occurs during exploration, arousal, and learning. Although the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca (MS-DBB is the major extrinsic source of cholinergic input to the HC, cholinergic neurons intrinsic to the HC also exist but remain poorly understood. Here, ChAT-tauGFP and ChAT-CRE/Rosa26YFP (ChAT-Rosa mice were examined in HC. The HC of ChAT-tauGFP mice was densely innervated with GFP-positive axons, often accompanied by large GFP-positive structures, some of which were Neurotrace/DAPI-negative and likely represent large axon terminals. In the HC of ChAT-Rosa mice, ChAT-YFP cells were Neurotrace-positive and more abundant in CA3 and dentate gyrus than CA1 with partial overlapping with calretinin/VIP. Moreover, an anti-ChAT antibody consistently showed ChAT immunoreactivity in ChAT-YFP cells from MS-DBB but rarely from HC. Furthermore, ChAT-YFP cells from CA1 stratum radiatum/stratum lacunosum moleculare (SR/SLM exhibited a stuttering firing phenotype but a delayed firing phenotype in stratum pyramidale (SP of CA3. Input resistance and capacitance were also different between CA1 SR/LM and CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells. Bath application of ACh increased firing frequency in all ChAT-YFP cells; however, cholinergic modulation was larger in CA1 SR/SLM than CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells. Finally, CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells exhibited a wider AP half-width and weaker cholinergic modulation than YFP-negative CA3 pyramidal cells. Consistent with CRE expression in a subpopulation of principal cells, optogenetic stimulation evoked glutamatergic postsynaptic currents in CA1 SR/SLM interneurons. In conclusion, the presence of fluorescently labeled hippocampal cells common to both ChAT-Rosa and ChAT-tauGFP mice are in good agreement with previous reports on the existence of cholinergic interneurons, but both transgenic mouse lines exhibited unexpected anatomical features that departed considerably from earlier observations.

  17. Learning history and cholinergic modulation in the dorsal hippocampus are necessary for rats to infer the status of a hidden event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Cynthia D; Flesher, M Melissa; Nocera, Nathanial A; Fanselow, Michael S; Blaisdell, Aaron P

    2016-06-01

    Identifying statistical patterns between environmental stimuli enables organisms to respond adaptively when cues are later observed. However, stimuli are often obscured from detection, necessitating behavior under conditions of ambiguity. Considerable evidence indicates decisions under ambiguity rely on inference processes that draw on past experiences to generate predictions under novel conditions. Despite the high demand for this process and the observation that it deteriorates disproportionately with age, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We developed a rodent model of decision-making during ambiguity to examine features of experience that contribute to inference. Rats learned either a simple (positive patterning) or complex (negative patterning) instrumental discrimination between the illumination of one or two lights. During test, only one light was lit while the other relevant light was blocked from physical detection (covered by an opaque shield, rendering its status ambiguous). We found experience with the complex negative patterning discrimination was necessary for rats to behave sensitively to the ambiguous test situation. These rats behaved as if they inferred the presence of the hidden light, responding differently than when the light was explicitly absent (uncovered and unlit). Differential expression profiles of the immediate early gene cFos indicated hippocampal involvement in the inference process while localized microinfusions of the muscarinic antagonist, scopolamine, into the dorsal hippocampus caused rats to behave as if only one light was present. That is, blocking cholinergic modulation prevented the rat from inferring the presence of the hidden light. Collectively, these results suggest cholinergic modulation mediates recruitment of hippocampal processes related to past experiences and transfer of these processes to make decisions during ambiguous situations. Our results correspond with correlations observed between human brain

  18. Hippocampal P3-like auditory event-related potentials are disrupted in a rat model of cholinergic degeneration in Alzheimer's disease: reversal by donepezil treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Bettina; Mørk, Arne; Kristiansen, Uffe; Bastlund, Jesper Frank

    2014-01-01

    P300 (P3) event-related potentials (ERPs) have been suggested to be an endogenous marker of cognitive function and auditory oddball paradigms are frequently used to evaluate P3 ERPs in clinical settings. Deficits in P3 amplitude and latency reflect some of the neurological dysfunctions related to several psychiatric and neurological diseases, e.g., Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, only a very limited number of rodent studies have addressed the back-translational validity of the P3-like ERPs as suitable markers of cognition. Thus, the potential of rodent P3-like ERPs to predict pro-cognitive effects in humans remains to be fully validated. The current study characterizes P3-like ERPs in the 192-IgG-SAP (SAP) rat model of the cholinergic degeneration associated with AD. Following training in a combined auditory oddball and lever-press setup, rats were subjected to bilateral intracerebroventricular infusion of 1.25 μg SAP or PBS (sham lesion) and recording electrodes were implanted in hippocampal CA1. Relative to sham-lesioned rats, SAP-lesioned rats had significantly reduced amplitude of P3-like ERPs. P3 amplitude was significantly increased in SAP-treated rats following pre-treatment with 1 mg/kg donepezil. Infusion of SAP reduced the hippocampal choline acetyltransferase activity by 75%. Behaviorally defined cognitive performance was comparable between treatment groups. The present study suggests that AD-like deficits in P3-like ERPs may be mimicked by the basal forebrain cholinergic degeneration induced by SAP. SAP-lesioned rats may constitute a suitable model to test the efficacy of pro-cognitive substances in an applied experimental setup.

  19. Postirradiation cardiovascular dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, R.N.; Cockerham, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    Cardiovascular dysfunction may be defined as the inability of any element of the cardiovascular system to perform adequately upon demand, leading to inadequate performance and nutritive insufficiency of various parts of the body. Exposure to supralethal doses of radiation (accidental and therapeutic) has been show to induce significant alterations in cardiovascular function in man. These findings indicate that, after irradiation, cardiovascular function is a major determinant of continued performance and even survival. For the two persons who received massive radiation doses (45 and 88 Gy, respectively) in criticality accidents, the inability to maintain systematic arterial blood pressure (AP) was the immediate cause of death. In a study of cancer patients given partial-body irradiation, two acute lethalities were attributed to myocardial infarction after an acute hypotensive episode during the first few hours postexposure. Although radiation-induced cardiovascular dysfunction has been observed in many species, its severity, duration, and even etiology may vary with the species, level of exposure, and dose rate. For this reason, our consideration of the effects of radiation on cardiovascular performance is limited to the circulatory derangements that occur in rat, dog, and monkey after supralethal doses and lead to radiation-induced cardiovascular dysfunction in these experimental models. The authors consider other recent data as they pertain to the etiology of cardiovascular dysfunction in irradiated animals

  20. Female sexual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a controversial condition, which has prompted much debate regarding its aetiology, components, and even its existence. Our inability to work together as clinicians, psychologists, patients, and advocates hinders our understanding of FSD, and we will only improve...

  1. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Gliomas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Katsetos, C.D.; Anni, H.; Dráber, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 3 (2013), s. 216-227 ISSN 1071-9091 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12050 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : gliomas * mitochondrial dysfunction * microtubule proteins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.883, year: 2013

  2. Erectile Dysfunction (ED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talking to Your Kids About VirginityTalking to Your Kids About Sex Home Diseases and Conditions Erectile Dysfunction (ED) Condition ... Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control ... and Toddlers Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors ...

  3. Mitochondrial dysfunction in epilepsy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Kunz, W.S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2012), s. 35-40 ISSN 1567-7249 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/05/2015; GA ČR GA309/08/0292 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : epilepsy * mitochondrial dysfunction * neurodegeneration Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.025, year: 2012

  4. Cholinergic markers in the cortex and hippocampus of some animal species and their correlation to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta-Salazar, E; Cuellar-Lemus, C A; Díaz-Cintra, S; Feria-Velasco, A I

    2014-10-01

    The cholinergic system includes neurons located in the basal forebrain and their long axons that reach the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. This system modulates cognitive function. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and ageing, cognitive impairment is associated with progressive damage to cholinergic fibres, which leads us to the cholinergic hypothesis for AD. The AD produces alterations in the expression and activity of acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE), enzymes specifically related to cholinergic system function. Both proteins play a role in cholinergic transmission, which is altered in both the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus due to ageing and AD. Dementia disorders are associated with the severe destruction and disorganisation of the cholinergic projections extending to both structures. Specific markers, such as anti-ChAT and anti-AChE antibodies, have been used in light immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy assays to study this system in adult members of certain animal species. This paper reviews the main immunomorphological studies of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus in some animal species with particular emphasis on the cholinergic system and its relationship with the AD. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamic changes in GABAA receptors on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons following sleep deprivation and recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Barbara E

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basal forebrain (BF cholinergic neurons play an important role in cortical activation and arousal and are active in association with cortical activation of waking and inactive in association with cortical slow wave activity of sleep. In view of findings that GABAA receptors (Rs and inhibitory transmission undergo dynamic changes as a function of prior activity, we investigated whether the GABAARs on cholinergic cells might undergo such changes as a function of their prior activity during waking vs. sleep. Results In the brains of rats under sleep control (SC, sleep deprivation (SD or sleep recovery (SR conditions in the 3 hours prior to sacrifice, we examined immunofluorescent staining for β2–3 subunit GABAARs on choline acetyltransferase (ChAT immunopositive (+ cells in the magnocellular BF. In sections also stained for c-Fos, β2–3 GABAARs were present on ChAT+ neurons which expressed c-Fos in the SD group alone and were variable or undetectable on other ChAT+ cells across groups. In dual-immunostained sections, the luminance of β2–3 GABAARs over the membrane of ChAT+ cells was found to vary significantly across conditions and to be significantly higher in SD than SC or SR groups. Conclusion We conclude that membrane GABAARs increase on cholinergic cells as a result of activity during sustained waking and reciprocally decrease as a result of inactivity during sleep. These changes in membrane GABAARs would be associated with increased GABA-mediated inhibition of cholinergic cells following prolonged waking and diminished inhibition following sleep and could thus reflect a homeostatic process regulating cholinergic cell activity and thereby indirectly cortical activity across the sleep-waking cycle.

  6. Effect of dexmedetomidine on rats with convulsive status epilepticus and association with activation of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kai-Liang; Liu, Xin-Qiu; Yao, Yu-Long; Ye, Ming-Rong; Han, Yao-Guo; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Gang; Lei, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is a neurological disease with contraction and extension of limbs, leading to damage of hippocampus and cognition. This study aimed to explore the effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on the cognitive function and neuroinflammation in CSE rats. All rats were divided into control group, CSE group and DEX group. Morris water maze test was used to measure cognitive function. Acute hippocampal slices were made to detect long-term potentiation (LTP). Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure serum levels of IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), S-100β and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Our results showed that DEX improved the memory damage caused by CSE. DEX reduced seizure severity and increased the amplitudes and sustainable time of LTP, and also inhibited the hippocampal expression of α7-nAChR and IL-1β in CSE rats. DEX treatment decreased serum IL-1β, TNF-α and S-100β levels and increased BDNF levels. The effects of DEX on seizure severity and LTP could be simulated by nicotine or attenuated by concurrent α-bungarotoxin (α-BGT) treatment. In conclusions, DEX significantly improved spatial cognitive dysfunction, reduced seizure severity and increased LTP in CSE rats. Improvements by DEX were closely related to enhancement of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dysfunctions in public psychiatric bureaucracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, L R

    1988-03-01

    The author describes common dysfunctions in public psychiatric organizations according to the model of bureaucracy articulated by Max Weber. Dysfunctions are divided into the categories of goal displacement, outside interference, unclear authority structure and hierarchy, and informal relations in the work place. The author emphasizes the bureaucratic nature of public psychiatry and the need for mental health professionals to understand the dysfunctions of the organizations in which they work, including the impact of these dysfunctions on the provision of quality care.

  8. Central presbycusis: an emerging view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, George A

    2012-07-01

    Age-related dysfunction of the central auditory system (central presbycusis) is common but rarely looked for by those who provide aural rehabilitation. Patients who complain of difficulty hearing in noise--the key symptom of central presbycusis--are generally disadvantaged with conventional rehabilitation. This symptom should be documented with commercially available speech-in-noise tests, which use materials that are uncomplicated to administer. Those patients who perform poorly on such tests should have a customized rehabilitation program aimed at optimizing their remaining communication abilities. Otolaryngologists who provide auditory rehabilitation may wish to consider expanding their practices to meet the communication needs of older patients with central presbycusis. Central presbycusis is an emerging area for basic and clinical research in auditory neurotology, particularly in the relation of cognitive dysfunction to impaired auditory processing.

  9. [Thyroid dysfunction and amiodarone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Jandira; Carvalho, Patrícia; Molina, M Auxiliadora; Rebelo, Marta; Dias, Patrícia; Vieira, José Diniz; Costa, José M Nascimento

    2013-02-01

    Although most patients remain clinically euthyroid, some develop amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism (HPEAI) or hypothyroidism (HPOAI). The authors present a retrospective analysis of ten patients with amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction. Six patients were female and mean amiodarone intake was 17.7 months. HPOIA was more common (six patients). From all the patients with HPEAI, two had type 2, one had type 1, and one had type 3 hyperthyroidism. Symptoms suggestive of thyroid dysfunction occurred in five patients, most of them with HPOAI. In HPEAI, the most frequent symptom was exacerbation of arrhythmia (three patients). Discontinuation of amiodarone and treatment with levothyroxine was chosen in 83.3% of the HPOAI cases, while thyonamide treatment with corticosteroids and without amiodarone was the option in 75% of the HPEAI cases. There were three deaths, all in patients with HPEAI. HPEAI is potentially fatal. The clinical picture may be vague, so the thyroid monitoring is mandatory.

  10. Cholinergic modulation of dopamine pathways through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kloet, S.F.; Mansvelder, H.D.; de Vries, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine addiction is highly prevalent in current society and is often comorbid with other diseases. In the central nervous system, nicotine acts as an agonist for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and its effects depend on location and receptor composition. Although nicotinic receptors are

  11. Thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Baba KA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Khalid A El Baba1, Sami T Azar21Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Bahrain Specialist Hospital, Manama, Bahrain; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, American University of Beirut-Medical Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Timely treatment of thyroid disease during pregnancy is important in preventing adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Thyroid abnormalities are very often subclinical in nature and not easily recognized without specific screening programs. Even mild maternal thyroid hormone deficiency may lead to neurodevelopment complications in the fetus. The main diagnostic indicator of thyroid disease is the measurement of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine levels. Availability of gestation-age-specific thyroid-stimulating hormone thresholds is an important aid in the accurate diagnosis and treatment of thyroid dysfunction. Pregnancy-specific free thyroxine thresholds not presently available are also required. Large-scale intervention trials are urgently needed to assess the efficacy of preconception or early pregnancy screening for thyroid disorders. Accurate interpretation of both antepartum and postpartum levels of thyroid hormones is important in preventing pregnancy-related complication secondary to thyroid dysfunction. This article sheds light on the best ways of management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy in order to prevent any possible maternal or fetal complication.Keywords: TSH, HCG, TBG

  12. Effects of acute exposure to chlorpyrifos on cholinergic and non-cholinergic targets in normal and high-fat fed male C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondakala, Sandeep; Lee, Jung Hwa; Ross, Matthew K; Howell, George E

    2017-12-15

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate in the United States with 36.5% of adults being classified as obese. Compared to normal individuals, obese individuals have noted pathophysiological alterations which may alter the toxicokinetics of xenobiotics and therefore alter their toxicities. However, the effects of obesity on the toxicity of many widely utilized pesticides has not been established. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine if the obese phenotype altered the toxicity of the most widely used organophosphate (OP) insecticide, chlorpyrifos (CPS). Male C57BL/6J mice were fed normal or high-fat diet for 4weeks and administered a single dose of vehicle or CPS (2.0mg/kg; oral gavage) to assess cholinergic (acetylcholinesterase activities) and non-cholinergic (carboxylesterase and endocannabinoid hydrolysis) endpoints. Exposure to CPS significantly decreased red blood cell acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, but not brain AChE activity, in both diet groups. Further, CPS exposure decreased hepatic carboxylesterase activity and hepatic hydrolysis of a major endocannabinoid, anandamide, in a diet-dependent manner with high-fat diet fed animals being more sensitive to CPS-mediated inhibition. These in vivo studies were corroborated by in vitro studies using rat primary hepatocytes, which demonstrated that fatty acid amide hydrolase and CES activities were more sensitive to CPS-mediated inhibition than 2-arachidonoylglycerol hydrolase activity. These data demonstrate hepatic CES and FAAH activities in high-fat diet fed mice were more potently inhibited than those in normal diet fed mice following CPS exposure, which suggests that the obese phenotype may exacerbate some of the non-cholinergic effects of CPS exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Age-related changes in nicotine response of cholinergic and non-cholinergic laterodorsal tegmental neurons: implications for the heightened adolescent susceptibility to nicotine addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Mark H.; Ishibashi, Masaru; Nielsen, Michael L.; Leonard, Christopher S.; Kohlmeier, Kristi A.

    2015-01-01

    The younger an individual starts smoking, the greater the likelihood that addiction to nicotine will develop, suggesting that neurobiological responses vary across age to the addictive component of cigarettes. Cholinergic neurons of the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) are importantly involved in the development of addiction, however, the effects of nicotine on LDT neuronal excitability across ontogeny are unknown. Nicotinic effects on several parameters affecting LDT cells across different age groups were examined using calcium imaging and whole-cell patch clamping. Within the youngest age group (P7-P15), nicotine was found to induce larger intracellular calcium transients and inward currents. Nicotine induced a greater number of excitatory synaptic currents in the youngest animals, whereas larger amplitude inhibitory synaptic events were induced in cells from the oldest animals (P15-P34). Nicotine increased neuronal firing of cholinergic cells to a greater degree in younger animals, possibly linked to development associated differences found in nicotinic effects on action potential shape and afterhyperpolarization. We conclude that in addition to age-associated alterations of several properties expected to affect resting cell excitability, parameters affecting cell excitability are altered by nicotine differentially across ontogeny. Taken together, our data suggest that nicotine induces a larger excitatory response in cholinergic LDT neurons from the youngest animals, which could result in a greater excitatory output from these cells to target regions involved in development of addiction. Such output would be expected to be promotive of addiction; therefore, ontogenetic differences in nicotine-mediated increases in the excitability of the LDT could contribute to the differential susceptibility to nicotine addiction seen across age. PMID:24863041

  14. Neurotransmitter-based strategies for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Devsmita; Phillips, Cristy; Hsieh, Wayne; Sumanth, Krithika; Dang, Van; Salehi, Ahmad

    2014-10-03

    Down syndrome (DS) is a multisystem disorder affecting the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, neurological, hematopoietic, and musculoskeletal systems and is characterized by significant cognitive disability and a possible common pathogenic mechanism with Alzheimer's disease. During the last decade, numerous studies have supported the notion that the triplication of specific genes on human chromosome 21 plays a significant role in cognitive dysfunction in DS. Here we reviewed studies in trisomic mouse models and humans, including children and adults with DS. In order to identify groups of genes that contribute to cognitive disability in DS, multiple mouse models of DS with segmental trisomy have been generated. Over-expression of these particular genes in DS can lead to dysfunction of several neurotransmitter systems. Therapeutic strategies for DS have either focused on normalizing the expression of triplicated genes with important roles in DS or restoring the function of these systems. Indeed, our extensive review of studies on the pathogenesis of DS suggests that one plausible strategy for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction is to target the cholinergic, serotonergic, GABA-ergic, glutamatergic, and norepinephrinergic system. However, a fundamental strategy for treatment of cognitive dysfunction in DS would include reducing to normal levels the expression of specific triplicated genes in affected systems before the onset of neurodegeneration. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Noradrenergic Dysfunction in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases—An Overview of Imaging Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Peterson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Noradrenergic dysfunction contributes to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's Disease (AD and Parkinson's Disease (PD. Conventional therapeutic strategies seek to enhance cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in AD and PD, respectively, and few studies have examined noradrenergic dysfunction as a target for medication development. We review the literature of noradrenergic dysfunction in AD and PD with a focus on human imaging studies that implicate the locus coeruleus (LC circuit. The LC sends noradrenergic projections diffusely throughout the cerebral cortex and plays a critical role in attention, learning, working memory, and cognitive control. The LC undergoes considerable degeneration in both AD and PD. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging have facilitated greater understanding of how structural and functional alteration of the LC may contribute to cognitive decline in AD and PD. We discuss the potential roles of the noradrenergic system in the pathogenesis of AD and PD with an emphasis on postmortem anatomical studies, structural MRI studies, and functional MRI studies, where we highlight changes in LC connectivity with the default mode network (DMN. LC degeneration may accompany deficient capacity in suppressing DMN activity and increasing saliency and task control network activities to meet behavioral challenges. We finish by proposing potential and new directions of research to address noradrenergic dysfunction in AD and PD.

  16. Urotensin II modulates rapid eye movement sleep through activation of brainstem cholinergic neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador; Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Sánchez-Alavez, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    administration of UII into the PPT nucleus increases REM sleep without inducing changes in the cortical blood flow. Intracerebroventricular injection of UII enhances both REM sleep and wakefulness and reduces slow-wave sleep 2. Intracerebroventricular, but not local, administration of UII increases cortical...... dorsal tegmental nuclei. This distribution suggests that the UII system is involved in functions regulated by acetylcholine, such as the sleep-wake cycle. Here, we tested the hypothesis that UII influences cholinergic PPT neuron activity and alters rapid eye movement (REM) sleep patterns in rats. Local...... synaptic transmission because it persisted in the presence of TTX and antagonists of ionotropic glutamate, GABA, and glycine receptors. Collectively, these results suggest that UII plays a role in the regulation of REM sleep independently of its cerebrovascular actions by directly activating cholinergic...

  17. Demodex canis regulates cholinergic system mediated immunosuppressive pathways in canine demodicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, P; Nigam, R; Singh, A; Nakade, U P; Sharma, A; Garg, S K; Singh, S K

    2017-09-01

    Demodex canis infestation in dogs remains one of the main challenges in veterinary dermatology. The exact pathogenesis of canine demodicosis is unknown but an aberration in immune status is considered very significant. No studies have underpinned the nexus between induction of demodicosis and neural immunosuppressive pathways so far. We have evaluated the involvement of cholinergic pathways in association with cytokines regulation as an insight into the immuno-pathogenesis of canine demodicosis in the present study. Remarkable elevations in circulatory immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 and cholinesterase activity were observed in dogs with demodicosis. Simultaneously, remarkable reduction in circulatory pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha level was observed in dogs with demodicosis. Findings of the present study evidently suggest that Demodex mites might be affecting the cholinergic pathways to induce immunosuppression in their host and then proliferate incessantly in skin microenvironment to cause demodicosis.

  18. Uranium chronic contamination effects on the cholinergic system: in vivo and in vitro approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensoussan, H.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium (U) is a heavy metal which occurs naturally in the environment. It is both a chemical and a radiological toxicant. The aim of this work was: (i) to assess the effects of U chronic exposure on the cholinergic system (biosynthesis and breakdown enzymes, receptors and on behaviour of adult, young or predisposed to neuro-degenerative illness (ApoE KO) rodents; (ii) to grasp the neurotoxic effects of U on human neuronal cells. In vivo, this work shows a structure- (cortex more sensitive than hippocampus), rodent model- (young more sensitive than adults), time- (sub-chronic exposure more harmful than chronic exposure), exposure level- and isotope-dependent effect of U. In vitro, the study underlined the neuro-cytotoxic U potential and the presence of uranium precipitates in cells. These results show the deleterious impact of U on neuronal cells, and demonstrate that U induces impairments on the cholinergic system and the behaviour of rodents. (author)

  19. Cholinergic neuromodulation changes phase response curve shape and type in cortical pyramidal neurons.

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    Klaus M Stiefel

    Full Text Available Spike generation in cortical neurons depends on the interplay between diverse intrinsic conductances. The phase response curve (PRC is a measure of the spike time shift caused by perturbations of the membrane potential as a function of the phase of the spike cycle of a neuron. Near the rheobase, purely positive (type I phase-response curves are associated with an onset of repetitive firing through a saddle-node bifurcation, whereas biphasic (type II phase-response curves point towards a transition based on a Hopf-Andronov bifurcation. In recordings from layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in cortical slices, cholinergic action, consistent with down-regulation of slow voltage-dependent potassium currents such as the M-current, switched the PRC from type II to type I. This is the first report showing that cholinergic neuromodulation may cause a qualitative switch in the PRCs type implying a change in the fundamental dynamical mechanism of spike generation.

  20. Effect of bite-raised condition on the hippocampal cholinergic system of aged SAMP8 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Tasuku; Mori, Daisuke; Miyake, Hidekazu; Fujiwara, Shuu; Ono, Yumie; Takahashi, Toru; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2012-06-27

    Occlusal disharmony induces chronic stress, which results in learning deficits in association with the morphologic changes in the hippocampus, e.g., neuronal degeneration and increased hypertrophied glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells. To investigate the mechanisms underlying impaired hippocampal function resulting from occlusal disharmony, we examined the effects of the bite-raised condition on the septohippocampal cholinergic system by assessing acetylcholine release in the hippocampus and choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the medial septal nucleus in aged SAMP8 mice that underwent the bite raising procedure. Aged bite-raised mice showed decreased acetylcholine release in the hippocampus and a reduced number of choline acetyltransferase-immunopositive neurons in the medial septal nucleus compared to age-matched control mice. These findings suggest that the bite-raised condition in aged SAMP8 mice enhances the age-related decline in the septohippocampal cholinergic system, leading to impaired learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The cholinergic-inducing effect of BMP4 on rat's cerebral neural stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Yan; Xue Yilong; Luo Yun; Tian Lei; Pan Jingkun; Cui Xin

    2004-01-01

    The cholinergic-inducing effect of BMP4 on isolated and cultivated rat's cerebral neural stem cells (NSC) was examined. NSC isolated from two months old rat's brain region like hippocampus and striatum was cultivated in a DMEM/F12 medium containing EGF and bFGF, and was identified with morphological character and nestin immunocytochemistry test. After 24 hours, cultivating the NSC with the BMP4-added medium for 7-8 days, then the microscopical change were observed, ChAT and nestin double-labelling immunocytochemistry test was done. Results showed that about 34% NSC of neuron-like character was observed by microscope in the paper. That ChAT-positive cells coexist with nestin-positive cells was found by immunocytochemistry test. There were 28% ChAT-positive cells and 38% nestin-positive cells in the study. Cholinergic neurons differentiated from NSC could be induced by adding BMP4 to the medium

  2. Cholinergic modulation of visual and attentional brain responses in Alzheimer's disease and in health

    OpenAIRE

    Bentley, P.; Driver, J.; Dolan, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Visuo-attentional deficits occur early in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and are considered more responsive to pro-cholinergic therapy than characteristic memory disturbances. We hypothesised that neural responses in AD during visual attentional processing would be impaired relative to controls, yet partially susceptible to improvement with cholinesterase inhibition. We studied 16 mild AD patients and 17 age-matched healthy controls, using fMRI-scanning to enable within-subject placebo-controlled c...

  3. Selective effects of cholinergic modulation on task performance during selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, Maura L; Pietrini, Pietro; Haxby, James V; Drevets, Wayne C

    2008-03-01

    The cholinergic neurotransmitter system is critically linked to cognitive functions including attention. The current studies were designed to evaluate the effect of a cholinergic agonist and an antagonist on performance during a selective visual attention task where the inherent salience of attended/unattended stimuli was modulated. Two randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover studies were performed, one (n=9) with the anticholinesterase physostigmine (1.0 mg/h), and the other (n=30) with the anticholinergic scopolamine (0.4 mc/kg). During the task, two double-exposure pictures of faces and houses were presented side by side. Subjects were cued to attend to either the face or the house component of the stimuli, and were instructed to perform a matching task with the two exemplars from the attended category. The cue changed every 4-7 trials to instruct subjects to shift attention from one stimulus component to the other. During placebo in both studies, reaction time (RT) associated with the first trial following a cued shift in attention was longer than RT associated with later trials (pattention to houses condition (pattention to faces. Scopolamine increased RT relative to placebo selectively during trials greater than one (pattention to faces condition (pselective attention (ie trials greater than 1). Moreover, effects of cholinergic manipulation depend on the selective attention condition (ie faces vs houses), which may suggest that cholinergic activity interacts with stimulus salience. The findings are discussed within the context of the role of acetylcholine both in stimulus processing and stimulus salience, and in establishing attention biases through top-down and bottom-up mechanisms of attention.

  4. Neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway ameliorates disease in rat collagen-induced arthritis.

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    Yaakov A Levine

    Full Text Available The inflammatory reflex is a physiological mechanism through which the nervous system maintains immunologic homeostasis by modulating innate and adaptive immunity. We postulated that the reflex might be harnessed therapeutically to reduce pathological levels of inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis by activating its prototypical efferent arm, termed the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. To explore this, we determined whether electrical neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway reduced disease severity in the collagen-induced arthritis model.Rats implanted with vagus nerve cuff electrodes had collagen-induced arthritis induced and were followed for 15 days. Animals underwent active or sham electrical stimulation once daily from day 9 through the conclusion of the study. Joint swelling, histology, and levels of cytokines and bone metabolism mediators were assessed.Compared with sham treatment, active neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway resulted in a 52% reduction in ankle diameter (p = 0.02, a 57% reduction in ankle diameter (area under curve; p = 0.02 and 46% reduction overall histological arthritis score (p = 0.01 with significant improvements in inflammation, pannus formation, cartilage destruction, and bone erosion (p = 0.02, accompanied by numerical reductions in systemic cytokine levels, not reaching statistical significance. Bone erosion improvement was associated with a decrease in serum levels of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL from 132±13 to 6±2 pg/mL (mean±SEM, p = 0.01.The severity of collagen-induced arthritis is reduced by neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway delivered using an implanted electrical vagus nerve stimulation cuff electrode, and supports the rationale for testing this approach in human inflammatory disorders.

  5. Distinct roles of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in spatial and object recognition memory

    OpenAIRE

    Kana Okada; Kayo Nishizawa; Tomoko Kobayashi; Shogo Sakata; Kazuto Kobayashi

    2015-01-01

    Recognition memory requires processing of various types of information such as objects and locations. Impairment in recognition memory is a prominent feature of amnesia and a symptom of Alzheimer?s disease (AD). Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons contain two major groups, one localized in the medial septum (MS)/vertical diagonal band of Broca (vDB), and the other in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM). The roles of these cell groups in recognition memory have been debated, and it remai...

  6. Striatal cholinergic interneurons and D2 receptor-expressing GABAergic medium spiny neurons regulate tardive dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordia, Tanuja; Zhang, Danhui; Perez, Xiomara A; Quik, Maryka

    2016-12-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a drug-induced movement disorder that arises with antipsychotics. These drugs are the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and are also prescribed for major depression, autism, attention deficit hyperactivity, obsessive compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is thus a need for therapies to reduce TD. The present studies and our previous work show that nicotine administration decreases haloperidol-induced vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) in rodent TD models, suggesting a role for the nicotinic cholinergic system. Extensive studies also show that D2 dopamine receptors are critical to TD. However, the precise involvement of striatal cholinergic interneurons and D2 medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in TD is uncertain. To elucidate their role, we used optogenetics with a focus on the striatum because of its close links to TD. Optical stimulation of striatal cholinergic interneurons using cholineacetyltransferase (ChAT)-Cre mice expressing channelrhodopsin2-eYFP decreased haloperidol-induced VCMs (~50%), with no effect in control-eYFP mice. Activation of striatal D2 MSNs using Adora2a-Cre mice expressing channelrhodopsin2-eYFP also diminished antipsychotic-induced VCMs, with no change in control-eYFP mice. In both ChAT-Cre and Adora2a-Cre mice, stimulation or mecamylamine alone similarly decreased VCMs with no further decline with combined treatment, suggesting nAChRs are involved. Striatal D2 MSN activation in haloperidol-treated Adora2a-Cre mice increased c-Fos + D2 MSNs and decreased c-Fos + non-D2 MSNs, suggesting a role for c-Fos. These studies provide the first evidence that optogenetic stimulation of striatal cholinergic interneurons and GABAergic MSNs modulates VCMs, and thus possibly TD. Moreover, they suggest nicotinic receptor drugs may reduce antipsychotic-induced TD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lesions of cholinergic pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus neurons fail to affect cocaine or heroin self-administration or conditioned place preference in rats.

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    Stephan Steidl

    Full Text Available Cholinergic input to the ventral tegmental area (VTA is known to contribute to reward. Although it is known that the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg provides an important source of excitatory input to the dopamine system, the specific role of PPTg cholinergic input to the VTA in cocaine reward has not been previously determined. We used a diphtheria toxin conjugated to urotensin-II (Dtx::UII, the endogenous ligand for urotensin-II receptors expressed by PPTg cholinergic but not glutamatergic or GABAergic cells, to lesion cholinergic PPTg neurons. Dtx::UII toxin infusion resulted in the loss of 95.78 (±0.65% of PPTg cholinergic cells but did not significantly alter either cocaine or heroin self-administration or the development of cocaine or heroin conditioned place preferences. Thus, cholinergic cells originating in PPTg do not appear to be critical for the rewarding effects of cocaine or of heroin.

  8. Methyl-CpG binding-protein 2 function in cholinergic neurons mediates cardiac arrhythmogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, José A; Ward, Christopher S; Wehrens, Xander H T; Neul, Jeffrey L

    2016-11-15

    Sudden unexpected death occurs in one quarter of deaths in Rett Syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). People with RTT show a variety of autonomic nervous system (ANS) abnormalities and mouse models show similar problems including QTc interval prolongation and hypothermia. To explore the role of cardiac problems in sudden death in RTT, we characterized cardiac rhythm in mice lacking Mecp2 function. Male and female mutant mice exhibited spontaneous cardiac rhythm abnormalities including bradycardic events, sinus pauses, atrioventricular block, premature ventricular contractions, non-sustained ventricular arrhythmias, and increased heart rate variability. Death was associated with spontaneous cardiac arrhythmias and complete conduction block. Atropine treatment reduced cardiac arrhythmias in mutant mice, implicating overactive parasympathetic tone. To explore the role of MeCP2 within the parasympathetic neurons, we selectively removed MeCP2 function from cholinergic neurons (MeCP2 ChAT KO), which recapitulated the cardiac rhythm abnormalities, hypothermia, and early death seen in RTT male mice. Conversely, restoring MeCP2 only in cholinergic neurons rescued these phenotypes. Thus, MeCP2 in cholinergic neurons is necessary and sufficient for autonomic cardiac control, thermoregulation, and survival, and targeting the overactive parasympathetic system may be a useful therapeutic strategy to prevent sudden unexpected death in RTT.

  9. Transplantation of Human Chorion-Derived Cholinergic Progenitor Cells: a Novel Treatment for Neurological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Alireza; Maleki-Jamshid, Ali; Sanooghi, Davood; Milan, Peiman Brouki; Rahmani, Arash; Sefat, Farshid; Shahpasand, Koorosh; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Bakhtiari, Mehrdad; Belali, Rafie; Faghihi, Faezeh; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Perry, George; Mozafari, Masoud

    2018-03-16

    A neurological disorder is any disorder or abnormality in the nervous system. Among different neurological disorders, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is recognized as the sixth leading cause of death globally. Considerable research has been conducted to find pioneer treatments for this devastating disorder among which cell therapy has attracted remarkable attentions over the last decade. Up to now, targeted differentiation into specific desirable cell types has remained a major obstacle to clinical application of cell therapy. Also, potential risks including uncontrolled growth of stem cells could be disastrous. In our novel protocol, we used basal forebrain cholinergic progenitor cells (BFCN) derived from human chorion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hC-MSCs) which made it possible to obtain high-quality population of cholinergic neurons and in vivo in much shorter time period than previous established methods. Remarkably, the transplanted progenitors fully differentiated to cholinergic neurons which in turn integrated in higher cortical networks of host brains, resulting in significant improvement in cognitive assessments. This method may have profound implications in cell therapies for any other neurodegenerative disorders. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  10. Acetylcholine content and viability of cholinergic neurons are influenced by the activity of protein histidine phosphatase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The first mammalian protein histidine phosphatase (PHP) was discovered in the late 90s of the last century. One of the known substrates of PHP is ATP-citrate lyase (ACL), which is responsible - amongst other functions - for providing acetyl-CoA for acetylcholine synthesis in neuronal tissues. It has been shown in previous studies that PHP downregulates the activity of ACL by dephosphorylation. According to this our present work focused on the influence of PHP activity on the acetylcholine level in cholinergic neurons. Results The amount of PHP in SN56 cholinergic neuroblastoma cells was increased after overexpression of PHP by using pIRES2-AcGFP1-PHP as a vector. We demonstrated that PHP overexpression reduced the acetylcholine level and induced cell death. The acetylcholine content of SN56 cells was measured by fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Overexpression of the inactive H53A-PHP mutant also induced cell damage, but in a significantly reduced manner. However, this overexpression of the inactive PHP mutant did not change the acetylcholine content of SN56 cells significantly. In contrast, PHP downregulation, performed by RNAi-technique, did not induce cell death, but significantly increased the acetylcholine content in SN56 cells. Conclusions We could show for the first time that PHP downregulation increased the acetylcholine level in SN56 cells. This might be a potential therapeutic strategy for diseases involving cholinergic deficits like Alzheimer's disease. PMID:22436051

  11. Topographic Organization of Cholinergic Innervation From the Basal Forebrain to the Visual Cortex in the Rat

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    Frédéric Huppé-Gourgues

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter for the regulation of visual attention, plasticity, and perceptual learning. It is released in the visual cortex predominantly by cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain, where stimulation may produce potentiation of visual processes. However, little is known about the fine organization of these corticopetal projections, such as whether basal forebrain neurons projecting to the primary and secondary visual cortical areas (V1 and V2, respectively are organized retinotopically. The aim of this study was to map these basal forebrain-V1/V2 projections. Microinjections of the fluorescent retrograde tracer cholera toxin b fragment in different sites within V1 and V2 in Long–Evans rats were performed. Retrogradely labeled cell bodies in the horizontal and vertical limbs of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB and VDB, respectively, nucleus basalis magnocellularis, and substantia innominata (SI, were mapped ex vivo with a computer-assisted microscope stage controlled by stereological software. Choline acetyltranferase immunohistochemistry was used to identify cholinergic cells. Our results showed a predominance of cholinergic projections coming from the HDB. These projections were not retinotopically organized but projections to V1 arised from neurons located in the anterior HDB/SI whereas projections to V2 arised from neurons located throughout the whole extent of HDB/SI. The absence of a clear topography of these projections suggests that BF activation can stimulate visual cortices broadly.

  12. Cholinergic and dopaminergic activities in senile dementia of Lewy body type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, E K; Marshall, E; Perry, R H; Irving, D; Smith, C J; Blessed, G; Fairbairn, A F

    1990-01-01

    Analyses of brain tissue in a recently identified group of elderly demented patients suggest a neurochemical basis for some of the clinical features. Senile dementia of the Lewy body type (SDLT) can be distinguished from classical Alzheimer disease (AD) clinically by its acute presentation with confusion frequently accompanied by visual hallucinations, and neuropathologically by the presence of Lewy bodies and senile plaques (but not generally neurofibrillary tangles) in the cerebral cortex. Reductions in the cortical cholinergic enzyme choline acetyltransferase were more pronounced in individuals with (80%) compared to those without (50%) hallucinations and correlated strongly with mental test scores in the group as a whole. In the caudate nucleus, dopamine levels were related to the number of neurons in the substantia nigra, there being a 40-60% loss of both in SDLT--probably accounting for mild extrapyramidal features in some of these cases--compared with an 80% loss in Parkinson disease and no change in AD. The cholinergic correlates of mental impairment in SDLT together with the relative absence of cortical neurofibrillary tangles and evidence for postsynaptic cholinergic receptor compensation raise the question of whether this type of dementia may be more amenable to cholinotherapy than classical AD.

  13. The benefits of cholinergic enhancement during perceptual learning are long-lasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel eRokem

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh regulates many aspects of cognition, including attention and memory. Previous research in animal models has shown that plasticity in sensory systems often depends on the behavioral relevance of a stimulus and/or task. However, experimentally increasing ACh release in the cortex can result in experience-dependent plasticity, even in the absence of behavioral relevance. In humans, the pharmacological enhancement of ACh transmission by administration of the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil during performance of a perceptual task increases the magnitude of perceptual learning (PL and its specificity to physical parameters of the stimuli used for training. Behavioral effects of PL have previously been shown to persist for many months. In the present study, we tested whether enhancement of PL by donepezil is also long-lasting. Healthy human subjects were trained on a motion direction discrimination task during cholinergic enhancement, and follow-up testing was performed 5-15 months after the end of training and without additional drug administration. Increases in performance associated with training under donepezil were evident in follow-up retesting, indicating that cholinergic enhancement has beneficial long-term effects on PL. These findings suggest that cholinergic enhancement of training procedures used to treat clinical disorders should improve long-term outcomes of these procedures.

  14. Is There a Canonical Cortical Circuit for the Cholinergic System? Anatomical Differences Across Common Model Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Jennifer J; Disney, Anita A

    2018-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is believed to act as a neuromodulator in cortical circuits that support cognition, specifically in processes including learning, memory consolidation, vigilance, arousal and attention. The cholinergic modulation of cortical processes is studied in many model systems including rodents, cats and primates. Further, these studies are performed in cortical areas ranging from the primary visual cortex to the prefrontal cortex and using diverse methodologies. The results of these studies have been combined into singular models of function-a practice based on an implicit assumption that the various model systems are equivalent and interchangeable. However, comparative anatomy both within and across species reveals important differences in the structure of the cholinergic system. Here, we will review anatomical data including innervation patterns, receptor expression, synthesis and release compared across species and cortical area with a focus on rodents and primates. We argue that these data suggest no canonical cortical model system exists for the cholinergic system. Further, we will argue that as a result, care must be taken both in combining data from studies across cortical areas and species, and in choosing the best model systems to improve our understanding and support of human health.

  15. Is There a Canonical Cortical Circuit for the Cholinergic System? Anatomical Differences Across Common Model Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J. Coppola

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh is believed to act as a neuromodulator in cortical circuits that support cognition, specifically in processes including learning, memory consolidation, vigilance, arousal and attention. The cholinergic modulation of cortical processes is studied in many model systems including rodents, cats and primates. Further, these studies are performed in cortical areas ranging from the primary visual cortex to the prefrontal cortex and using diverse methodologies. The results of these studies have been combined into singular models of function—a practice based on an implicit assumption that the various model systems are equivalent and interchangeable. However, comparative anatomy both within and across species reveals important differences in the structure of the cholinergic system. Here, we will review anatomical data including innervation patterns, receptor expression, synthesis and release compared across species and cortical area with a focus on rodents and primates. We argue that these data suggest no canonical cortical model system exists for the cholinergic system. Further, we will argue that as a result, care must be taken both in combining data from studies across cortical areas and species, and in choosing the best model systems to improve our understanding and support of human health.

  16. Spontaneous Vesicle Fusion Is Differentially Regulated at Cholinergic and GABAergic Synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haowen Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The locomotion of C. elegans is balanced by excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter release at neuromuscular junctions. However, the molecular mechanisms that maintain the balance of synaptic transmission remain enigmatic. Here, we investigated the function of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in triggering spontaneous release at cholinergic and GABAergic synapses. Recordings of the miniature excitatory/inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs and mIPSCs, respectively showed that UNC-2/CaV2 and EGL-19/CaV1 channels are the two major triggers for spontaneous release. Notably, however, Ca2+-independent spontaneous release was observed at GABAergic but not cholinergic synapses. Functional screening led to the identification of hypomorphic unc-64/Syntaxin-1A and snb-1/VAMP2 mutants in which mEPSCs are severely impaired, whereas mIPSCs remain unaltered, indicating differential regulation of these currents at cholinergic and GABAergic synapses. Moreover, Ca2+-independent spontaneous GABA release was nearly abolished in the hypomorphic unc-64 and snb-1 mutants, suggesting distinct mechanisms for Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent spontaneous release.

  17. Reorganization of Motor Cortex by Vagus Nerve Stimulation Requires Cholinergic Innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsey, Daniel R; Hays, Seth A; Khodaparast, Navid; Ruiz, Andrea; Das, Priyanka; Rennaker, Robert L; Kilgard, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with forelimb training drives robust, specific reorganization of movement representations in the motor cortex. The mechanisms that underlie VNS-dependent enhancement of map plasticity are largely unknown. The cholinergic nucleus basalis (NB) is a critical substrate in cortical plasticity, and several studies suggest that VNS activates cholinergic circuitry. We examined whether the NB is required for VNS-dependent enhancement of map plasticity in the motor cortex. Rats were trained to perform a lever pressing task and then received injections of the immunotoxin 192-IgG-saporin to selectively lesion cholinergic neurons of the NB. After lesion, rats underwent five days of motor training during which VNS was paired with successful trials. At the conclusion of behavioral training, intracortical microstimulation was used to document movement representations in motor cortex. VNS paired with forelimb training resulted in a substantial increase in the representation of proximal forelimb in rats with an intact NB compared to untrained controls. NB lesions prevent this VNS-dependent increase in proximal forelimb area and result in representations similar to untrained controls. Motor performance was similar between groups, suggesting that differences in forelimb function cannot account for the difference in proximal forelimb representation. Together, these findings indicate that the NB is required for VNS-dependent enhancement of plasticity in the motor cortex and may provide insight into the mechanisms that underlie the benefits of VNS therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Vascular dysfunction in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Lesley J; Morton, Jude S; Davidge, Sandra T

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a complex disorder which affects an estimated 5% of all pregnancies worldwide. It is diagnosed by hypertension in the presence of proteinuria after the 20th week of pregnancy and is a prominent cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. As delivery is currently the only known treatment, preeclampsia is also a leading cause of preterm delivery. Preeclampsia is associated with maternal vascular dysfunction, leading to serious cardiovascular risk both during and following pregnancy. Endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased peripheral resistance, is an integral part of the maternal syndrome. While the cause of preeclampsia remains unknown, placental ischemia resulting from aberrant placentation is a fundamental characteristic of the disorder. Poor placentation is believed to stimulate the release of a number of factors including pro- and antiangiogenic factors and inflammatory activators into the maternal systemic circulation. These factors are critical mediators of vascular function and impact the endothelium in distinctive ways, including enhanced endothelial oxidative stress. The mechanisms of action and the consequences on the maternal vasculature will be discussed in this review. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Administration of NaHS attenuates footshock-induced pathologies and emotional and cognitive dysfunction in triple transgenic Alzheimer’s mice

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    Hei-Jen eHuang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by progressive cognitive decline and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Increasing evidence indicates that environmental risk factors in young adults may accelerate cognitive loss in AD and that hydrogen sulfide (H2S may represent an innovative treatment to slow the progression of AD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of NaHS, an H2S donor, in a triple transgenic AD mouse model (3×Tg-AD under footshock with situational reminders (SRs. Inescapable footshock with SRs induced anxiety and cognitive dysfunction as well as a decrease in the levels of plasma H2S and GSH and an increase in IL-6 levels in 3×Tg-AD mice. Under footshock with SR stimulus, amyloid deposition, tau protein hyperphosphorylation, and microgliosis were highly increased in the stress-responsive brain structures, including the hippocampus and amygdala, of the AD mice. Oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1 levels were also increased, and the level of inactivated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β (pSer9 was decreased in the hippocampi of AD mice subjected to footshock with SRs. Furthermore, the numbers of cholinergic neurons in the medial septum/diagonal band of Broca (MS/DB and noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC were also decreased in the 3×Tg-AD mice under footshock with SRs. These biochemical hallmarks and pathological presentations were all alleviated by the semi-acute administration of NaHS in the AD mice. Together, these findings suggest that footshock with SRs induces the impairment of spatial cognition and emotion, which involve pathological changes in the peripheral and central systems, including the hippocampus, MS/DB, LC, and BLA, and that the administration of NaHS may be a candidate strategy to ameliorate the progression of neurodegeneration.

  20. New pharmacological approaches to the cholinergic system: an overview on muscarinic receptor ligands and cholinesterase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Nigel H; Reale, Marcella; Tata, Ada M

    2013-08-01

    The cholinergic system is expressed in neuronal and in non-neuronal tissues. Acetylcholine (ACh), synthesized in and out of the nervous system can locally contribute to modulation of various cell functions (e.g. survival, proliferation). Considering that the cholinergic system and its functions are impaired in a number of disorders, the identification of new pharmacological approaches to regulate cholinergic system components appears of great relevance. The present review focuses on recent pharmacological drugs able to modulate the activity of cholinergic receptors and thereby, cholinergic function, with an emphasis on the muscarinic receptor subtype, and additionally covers the cholinesterases, the main enzymes involved in ACh hydrolysis. The presence and function of muscarinic receptor subtypes both in neuronal and non-neuronal cells has been demonstrated using extensive pharmacological data emerging from studies on transgenic mice. The possible involvement of ACh in different pathologies has been proposed in recent years and is becoming an important area of study. Although the lack of selective muscarinic receptor ligands has for a long time limited the definition of therapeutic treatment based on muscarinic receptors as targets, some muscarinic ligands such as cevimeline (patents US4855290; US5571918) or xanomeline (patent, US5980933) have been developed and used in pre-clinical or in clinical studies for the treatment of nervous system diseases (Alzheimer' and Sjogren's diseases). The present review focuses on the potential implications of muscarinic receptors in different pathologies, including tumors. Moreover, the future use of muscarinic ligands in therapeutic protocols in cancer therapy will be discussed, considering that some muscarinic antagonists currently used in the treatment of genitourinary disease (e.g. darifenacin, patent, US5096890; US6106864) have also been demonstrated to arrest tumor progression in nude mice. The involvement of muscarinic

  1. The role of muscarinic cholinergic signaling in cost-benefit decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fobbs, Wambura

    Animals regularly face decisions that affect both their immediate success and long term survival. Such decisions typically involve some form of cost-benefit analysis and engage a number of high level cognitive processes, including learning, memory and motivational influences. While decision making has been a focus of study for over a century, it's only in the last 20 years that researchers have begun to identify functional neural circuits that subserve different forms of cost-benefit decision making. Even though the cholinergic system is both functionally and anatomically positioned to modulate cost-benefit decision circuits, the contribution of the cholinergic system to decision making has been little studied. In this thesis, I investigated the cognitive and neural contribution of muscarinic cholinergic signaling to cost-benefit decision making. I, first, re-examined the effects of systemic administration of 0.3 mg/kg atropine on delay and probability discounting tasks and found that blockade of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by atropine induced suboptimal choices (impulsive and risky) in both tasks. Since the effect on delay discounting was restricted to the No Cue version of the delay discounting task, I concluded that muscarinic cholinergic signaling mediates both forms of cost-benefit decision making and is selectively engaged when decisions require valuation of reward options whose costs are not externally signified. Second, I assessed the impact of inactivating the nucleus basalis (NBM) on both forms decision making and the effect of injecting atropine locally into the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), or nucleus accumbens (NAc) core during the No Cue version of the delay discounting task. I discovered that although NBM inactivation failed to affect delay discounting, it induced risk aversion in the probability discounting task; and blockade of intra- NAc core, but not intra-OFC or intra-BLA, muscarinic cholinergic signaling lead to

  2. Understanding Muscle Dysfunction in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Rutherford

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME is a debilitating disorder of unknown aetiology, characterised by severe disabling fatigue in the absence of alternative diagnosis. Historically, there has been a tendency to draw psychological explanations for the origin of fatigue; however, this model is at odds with findings that fatigue and accompanying symptoms may be explained by central and peripheral pathophysiological mechanisms, including effects of the immune, oxidative, mitochondrial, and neuronal pathways. For example, patient descriptions of their fatigue regularly cite difficulty in maintaining muscle activity due to perceived lack of energy. This narrative review examined the literature for evidence of biochemical dysfunction in CFS/ME at the skeletal muscle level. Methods. Literature was examined following searches of PUB MED, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar, using key words such as CFS/ME, immune, autoimmune, mitochondria, muscle, and acidosis. Results. Studies show evidence for skeletal muscle biochemical abnormality in CFS/ME patients, particularly in relation to bioenergetic dysfunction. Discussion. Bioenergetic muscle dysfunction is evident in CFS/ME, with a tendency towards an overutilisation of the lactate dehydrogenase pathway following low-level exercise, in addition to slowed acid clearance after exercise. Potentially, these abnormalities may lead to the perception of severe fatigue in CFS/ME.

  3. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction and neuroinflammation; Cardiac surgery and abdominal surgery are not the same

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Iris B.; van Leeuwen, Barbara L.; Mariani, Massimo A.; Kraneveld, Aletta D.; Schoemaker, Regien G.

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a debilitating surgical complication, with cardiac surgery patients at particular risk. To gain insight in the mechanisms underlying the higher incidence of POCD after cardiac versus non-cardiac surgery, systemic and central inflammatory changes,

  4. Histamine H3 Receptors Decrease Dopamine Release in the Ventral Striatum by Reducing the Activity of Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaschin, Rafael Koerich; Osterstock, Guillaume; Ducrot, Charles; Leino, Sakari; Bourque, Marie-Josée; Prado, Marco A M; Prado, Vania Ferreira; Salminen, Outi; Rannanpää Née Nuutinen, Saara; Trudeau, Louis-Eric

    2018-04-15

    Histamine H 3 receptors are widely distributed G i -coupled receptors whose activation reduces neuronal activity and inhibits release of numerous neurotransmitters. Although these receptors are abundantly expressed in the striatum, their modulatory role on activity-dependent dopamine release is not well understood. Here, we observed that histamine H 3 receptor activation indirectly diminishes dopamine overflow in the ventral striatum by reducing cholinergic interneuron activity. Acute brain slices from C57BL/6 or channelrhodopsin-2-transfected DAT-cre mice were obtained, and dopamine transients evoked either electrically or optogenetically were measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. The H 3 agonist α-methylhistamine significantly reduced electrically- evoked dopamine overflow, an effect blocked by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine, suggesting involvement of cholinergic interneurons. None of the drug treatments targeting H 3 receptors affected optogenetically evoked dopamine overflow, indicating that direct H 3 -modulation of dopaminergic axons is unlikely. Next, we used qPCR and confirmed the expression of histamine H 3 receptor mRNA in cholinergic interneurons, both in ventral and dorsal striatum. Activation of H 3 receptors by α-methylhistamine reduced spontaneous firing of cholinergic interneurons in the ventral, but not in the dorsal striatum. Resting membrane potential and number of spontaneous action potentials in ventral-striatal cholinergic interneurons were significantly reduced by α-methylhistamine. Acetylcholine release from isolated striatal synaptosomes, however, was not altered by α-methylhistamine. Together, these results indicate that histamine H 3 receptors are important modulators of dopamine release, specifically in the ventral striatum, and that they do so by decreasing the firing rate of cholinergic neurons and, consequently, reducing cholinergic tone on dopaminergic axons. Copyright © 2018 IBRO

  5. Ciliary dysfunction and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, C A; Héon, E; Zhen, M

    2010-01-01

    Obesity associates with increased health risks such as heart disease, stroke and diabetes. The steady rise in the obese population worldwide poses an increasing burden on health systems. Genetic factors contribute to the development of obesity, and the elucidation of their physiological functions helps to understand the cause, and improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment for this disorder. Primary cilia are evolutionarily conserved organelles whose dysfunctions lead to human disorders now defined as ciliopathies. Human ciliopathies present pleiotropic and overlapping phenotypes that often include retinal degeneration, cystic renal anomalies and obesity. Increasing evidence implicates an intriguing involvement of cilia in lipid/energy homeostasis. Here we discuss recent studies in support of the key roles of ciliary genes in the development and pathology of obesity in various animal models. Genes affecting ciliary development and function may pose promising candidate underlying genetic factors that contribute to the development of common obesity.

  6. Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    Full Text Available Abstract Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction (PPCD is an insidious syndrome characterized by prominent disorders of higher visual processing. It affects both dorsal (occipito-parietal and ventral (occipito-temporal pathways, disturbing visuospatial processing and visual recognition, respectively. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman presenting with progressive impairment of visual functions. Neurologic examination showed agraphia, alexia, hemispatial neglect (left side visual extinction, complete Balint's syndrome and visual agnosia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed circumscribed atrophy involving the bilateral parieto-occipital regions, slightly more predominant to the right . Our aim was to describe a case of this syndrome, to present a video showing the main abnormalities, and to discuss this unusual presentation of dementia. We believe this article can contribute by improving the recognition of PPCD.

  7. Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Fábio Henrique de Gobbi; Machado, Gislaine Cristina Lopes; Morillo, Lilian Schafirovits; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi

    2010-01-01

    Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction (PPCD) is an insidious syndrome characterized by prominent disorders of higher visual processing. It affects both dorsal (occipito-parietal) and ventral (occipito-temporal) pathways, disturbing visuospatial processing and visual recognition, respectively. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman presenting with progressive impairment of visual functions. Neurologic examination showed agraphia, alexia, hemispatial neglect (left side visual extinction), complete Balint’s syndrome and visual agnosia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed circumscribed atrophy involving the bilateral parieto-occipital regions, slightly more predominant to the right. Our aim was to describe a case of this syndrome, to present a video showing the main abnormalities, and to discuss this unusual presentation of dementia. We believe this article can contribute by improving the recognition of PPCD. PMID:29213665

  8. Epilepsy and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

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    Russell P. Saneto DO, PhD

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease. In a large cohort of children and adolescents with mitochondrial disease (n = 180, over 48% of patients developed seizures. The majority (68% of patients were younger than 3 years and medically intractable (90%. The electroencephalographic pattern of multiregional epileptiform discharges over the left and right hemisphere with background slowing occurred in 62%. The epilepsy syndrome, infantile spasms, was seen in 17%. Polymerase γ mutations were the most common genetic etiology of seizures, representing Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (14%. The severity of disease in those patients with epilepsy was significant, as 13% of patients experienced early death. Simply the loss of energy production cannot explain the development of seizures or all patients with mitochondrial dysfunction would have epilepsy. Until the various aspects of mitochondrial physiology that are involved in proper brain development are understood, epilepsy and its treatment will remain unsatisfactory.

  9. Cholinergic stimulation prevents the development of autoimmune diabetes: Evidence for the modulation of Th17 effector cells via an IFNgamma-dependent mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junu George

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Type I diabetes (T1D results from T cell-mediated damage of pancreatic β-cells and loss of insulin production. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway represents a physiological link connecting the central nervous and immune systems via vagus nerve, and functions to control the release of proinflammatory cytokines. Using the multiple-low-dose streptozotocin (MLD-STZ model to induce experimental autoimmune diabetes, we investigated the potential of regulating the development of hyperglycemia through administration of paraoxon, a highly specific acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI. We demonstrate that pretreatment with paraoxon prevented hyperglycemia in STZ-treated C57BL/6 mice. This correlated with a reduction in T cell infiltration into pancreatic islets and preservation of the structure and functionality of β-cells. Gene expression analysis of pancreatic tissue revealed that increased peripheral cholinergic activity prevented STZ-mediated loss of insulin production, this being associated with a reduction in IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-17 proinflammatory cytokines. Intracellular cytokine analysis in splenic T cells demonstrated that inhibition of AChE led to a shift in STZ-induced immune response from a predominantly disease-causing IL-17-expressing Th17 cells to IFNγ-positive Th1 cells. Consistent with this conclusion, inhibition of AChE failed to prevent STZ-induced hyperglycemia in IFNγ-deficient mice. Our results provide mechanistic evidence for the prevention of murine T1D by inhibition of AChE and suggest a promising strategy for modulating disease severity.

  10. Case of Unilateral Peripheral Cone Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujin Mochizuki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Peripheral cone dystrophy is a subgroup of cone dystrophy, and only 4 cases have been reported. We present a patient with unilateral peripheral cone dysfunction and report the functional changes determined by electrophysiological tests and ultrastructural changes determined by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. Case: A 34-year-old woman complained of blurred vision in both eyes. Our examination showed that her visual acuity was 0.05 OD and 0.2 OS. A relative afferent pupillary defect was present in her right eye. The results of slit-lamp examination, ophthalmoscopy, and fluorescein angiography were normal except for pallor of the right optic disc. SD-OCT showed a diffuse thinning of the retina in the posterior pole of the right eye. A severe constriction of the visual fields was found in both eyes but more in the right eye. The photopic full-field electroretinograms (ERGs were reduced in the right eye but normal in the left eye. The multifocal ERGs were severely reduced throughout the visual field except in the central area of the right eye. The multifocal ERGs from the left eye were normal. The pattern visual evoked responses were within the normal range in both eyes. She had a 5-year history of sniffing paint thinner. Results: Although the visual dysfunction was initially suspected to be due to psychological problems from the results of subjective tests, objective tests indicated a peripheral cone dysfunction in the right eye. The pathophysiological mechanism and the relationship with thinner sniffing were not determined. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that peripheral cone dysfunction can occur unilaterally. Electrophysiology and SD-OCT are valuable tests to perform to determine the pathogenesis of unusual ocular findings objectively.

  11. Working with Chronically Dysfunctional Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Robert; And Others

    This paper reviews family therapy with chronically dysfunctional families including the development of family therapy and current trends which appear to give little guidance toward working with severely dysfunctional families. A theoretical stance based upon the systems approach to family functioning and pathology is presented which suggests: (1)…

  12. Organizational Dysfunctions: Sources and Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Pasieczny

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The purpose of this article is to identify and describe various types and sources of organizational dysfunctions. Research Design & Methods: The findings are based on literature review and an ongoing empirical research project conducted in private sector organisations. The empirical study can be situated within interpretative approach. In this qualitative project open interviews and observations were used to collect data. Findings: The study indicates that various types and sources of organizational dysfunctions can be identified in organizations operating in Poland. The sources of dysfunctions may be found both within the organization and its environment. Regardless of its specific features, most of the dysfunctions may be interpreted as an undesirable goal displacement. Very often areas of these dysfunctions are strongly interconnected and create a system that hinders organizational performance. Yet, it is difficult to study these phenomena as respondents are unwilling, for various reasons, to disclose the problems faced by their organizations. Implications & Recommendations: The results imply that the issue of organisational dysfunctions requires open, long-lasting and comparative studies. Recommendations for further studies are formulated in the last section of the paper. Contribution & Value Added: The paper provides insight into "the dark side of organising" by identifying sources and areas of dysfunctions. It also reveals difficulties connected with conducting research on dysfunctions in the Polish context.

  13. Bladder Dysfunction and Vesicoureteral Reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Sillén

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this overview the influence of functional bladder disturbances and of its treatment on the resolution of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR in children is discussed. Historically both bladder dysfunction entities, the overactive bladder (OAB and the dysfunctional voiding (DV, have been described in conjunction with VUR. Treatment of the dysfunction was also considered to influence spontaneous resolution in a positive way. During the last decades, however, papers have been published which could not support these results. Regarding the OAB, a prospective study with treatment of the bladder overactivity with anticholinergics, did not influence spontaneous resolution rate in children with a dysfunction including also the voiding phase, DV and DES (dysfunctional elimination syndrome, most studies indicate a negative influence on the resolution rate of VUR in children, both before and after the age for bladder control, both with and without treatment. However, a couple of uncontrolled studies indicate that there is a high short-term resolution rate after treatment with flow biofeedback. It should be emphasized that the voiding phase dysfunctions (DV and DES are more severe than the genuine filling phase dysfunction (OAB, with an increased frequency of UTI and renal damage in the former groups. To be able to answer the question if treatment of bladder dysfunction influence the resolution rate of VUR in children, randomized controlled studies must be performed.

  14. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Metabolic Syndrome and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Ghosh, Balaram

    2013-01-01

    Though severe or refractory asthma merely affects less than 10% of asthma population, it consumes significant health resources and contributes significant morbidity and mortality. Severe asthma does not fell in the routine definition of asthma and requires alternative treatment strategies. It has been observed that asthma severity increases with higher body mass index. The obese-asthmatics, in general, have the features of metabolic syndrome and are progressively causing a significant burden for both developed and developing countries thanks to the westernization of the world. As most of the features of metabolic syndrome seem to be originated from central obesity, the underlying mechanisms for metabolic syndrome could help us to understand the pathobiology of obese-asthma condition. While mitochondrial dysfunction is the common factor for most of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome, such as central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, the involvement of mitochondria in obese-asthma pathogenesis seems to be important as mitochondrial dysfunction has recently been shown to be involved in airway epithelial injury and asthma pathogenesis. This review discusses current understanding of the overlapping features between metabolic syndrome and asthma in relation to mitochondrial structural and functional alterations with an aim to uncover mechanisms for obese-asthma. PMID:23840225

  15. Muscle dysfunction in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Frank; Jones, L W; Andersen, J L

    2014-01-01

    dysfunction in cancer patients lies in the correlation to vital clinical end points such as cancer-specific and all-cause mortality, therapy complications and quality of life (QoL). Such associations strongly emphasize the need for effective therapeutic countermeasures to be developed and implemented...... implications of muscle dysfunction in cancer patients. The efficacy of exercise training to prevent and/or mitigate cancer-related muscle dysfunction is also discussed. DESIGN: We identified 194 studies examining muscular outcomes in cancer patients by searching PubMed and EMBASE databases. RESULTS: Muscle...... dysfunction is evident across all stages of the cancer trajectory. The causes of cancer-related muscle dysfunction are complex, but may involve a wide range of tumor-, therapy- and/or lifestyle-related factors, depending on the clinical setting of the individual patient. The main importance of muscle...

  16. Elimination of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter in the striatum reveals regulation of behaviour by cholinergic-glutamatergic co-transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica S Guzman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cholinergic neurons in the striatum are thought to play major regulatory functions in motor behaviour and reward. These neurons express two vesicular transporters that can load either acetylcholine or glutamate into synaptic vesicles. Consequently cholinergic neurons can release both neurotransmitters, making it difficult to discern their individual contributions for the regulation of striatal functions. Here we have dissected the specific roles of acetylcholine release for striatal-dependent behaviour in mice by selective elimination of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT from striatal cholinergic neurons. Analysis of several behavioural parameters indicates that elimination of VAChT had only marginal consequences in striatum-related tasks and did not affect spontaneous locomotion, cocaine-induced hyperactivity, or its reward properties. However, dopaminergic sensitivity of medium spiny neurons (MSN and the behavioural outputs in response to direct dopaminergic agonists were enhanced, likely due to increased expression/function of dopamine receptors in the striatum. These observations indicate that previous functions attributed to striatal cholinergic neurons in spontaneous locomotor activity and in the rewarding responses to cocaine are mediated by glutamate and not by acetylcholine release. Our experiments demonstrate how one population of neurons can use two distinct neurotransmitters to differentially regulate a given circuitry. The data also raise the possibility of using VAChT as a target to boost dopaminergic function and decrease high striatal cholinergic activity, common neurochemical alterations in individuals affected with Parkinson's disease.

  17. Optogenetic activation of septal cholinergic neurons suppresses sharp wave ripples and enhances theta oscillations in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, Marie; Varga, Viktor; Berényi, Antal; Papp, Edit; Barthó, Péter; Venance, Laurent; Freund, Tamás F; Buzsáki, György

    2014-09-16

    Theta oscillations in the limbic system depend on the integrity of the medial septum. The different populations of medial septal neurons (cholinergic and GABAergic) are assumed to affect different aspects of theta oscillations. Using optogenetic stimulation of cholinergic neurons in ChAT-Cre mice, we investigated their effects on hippocampal local field potentials in both anesthetized and behaving mice. Cholinergic stimulation completely blocked sharp wave ripples and strongly suppressed the power of both slow oscillations (0.5-2 Hz in anesthetized, 0.5-4 Hz in behaving animals) and supratheta (6-10 Hz in anesthetized, 10-25 Hz in behaving animals) bands. The same stimulation robustly increased both the power and coherence of theta oscillations (2-6 Hz) in urethane-anesthetized mice. In behaving mice, cholinergic stimulation was less effective in the theta (4-10 Hz) band yet it also increased the ratio of theta/slow oscillation and theta coherence. The effects on gamma oscillations largely mirrored those of theta. These findings show that medial septal cholinergic activation can both enhance theta rhythm and suppress peri-theta frequency bands, allowing theta oscillations to dominate.

  18. Gastrointestinal Autonomic Dysfunction in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong-Seok Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, gastrointestinal dysfunctions in Parkinson’s disease (PD are well-recognized problems and are known to be an initial symptom in the pathological process that eventually results in PD. Gastrointestinal symptoms may result from the involvement of either the central or enteric nervous systems, or these symptoms may be side effects of antiparkinsonian medications. Weight loss, excessive salivation, dysphagia, nausea/gastroparesis, constipation, and defecation dysfunction all may occur. Increased identification and early detection of these symptoms can result in a significant improvement in the quality of life for PD patients.

  19. Potentiation by cholinesterase inhibitors of cholinergic activity in rat isolated stomach and colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvie, Emma M; Cellek, Selim; Sanger, Gareth J

    2008-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors stimulate gastrointestinal (GI) motility and are potential treatments of conditions associated with inadequate GI motility. The ability of itopride to facilitate neuronally (predominantly cholinergic) mediated contractions of rat isolated stomach, evoked by electrical field stimulation (EFS), has been compared with other cholinesterase inhibitors and with tegaserod, a clinically effective prokinetic and non-selective 5-HT(4) receptor agonist which also facilitates GI cholinergic function. Neostigmine greatly increased EFS-evoked contractions over a narrow concentration range (0.01-1 microM; 754+/-337% facilitation at 1 microM); higher concentrations (1, 3 microM) also increased muscle tension. Donepezil increased EFS-evoked contractions gradually over the full range of concentrations (0.01-10 microM; maximum increase 516+/-20% at 10 microM). Itopride increased the contractions even more gradually, rising to 188+/-84% at 10 microM. The butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor iso-OMPA 0.01-10 microM also increased EFS-evoked contractions, to a maximum of 36+/-5.0% at 10 microM, similar to that caused by tegaserod (35+/-5.2% increase at 1 microM). The effects of tegaserod, but not itopride were inhibited by the 5-HT(4) receptor antagonist SB-204070A 0.3 microM. In rat isolated colon, neostigmine was again the most efficacious, causing a defined maximum increase in EFS-evoked contractions (343+/-82% at 10 microM), without changing muscle tension. Maximum increases caused by donepezil and itopride were, respectively, 57.6+/-20 and 43+/-15% at 10 microM. These data indicate that the abilities of different AChE inhibitors to increase GI cholinergic activity differ markedly. Understanding the reasons is essential if AChE inhibitors are to be optimally developed as GI prokinetics.

  20. The motilin receptor agonist erythromycin stimulates hunger and food intake through a cholinergic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, Eveline; Vos, Rita; Janssen, Pieter; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Depoortere, Inge; Tack, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Motilin-induced phase III contractions have been identified as a hunger signal. These phase III contractions occur as part of the migrating motor complex (MMC), a contractility pattern of the gastrointestinal tract during fasting. The mechanism involved in this association between subjective hunger feelings and gastrointestinal motility during the MMC is largely unknown, however, as is its ability to stimulate food intake. We sought to 1) investigate the occurrence of hunger peaks and their relation to phase III contractions, 2) evaluate whether this relation was cholinergically driven, and 3) assess the ability of the motilin receptor agonist erythromycin to induce food intake. An algorithm was developed to detect hunger peaks. The association with phase III contractions was studied in 14 healthy volunteers [50% men; mean ± SEM age: 25 ± 2 y; mean ± SEM body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 23 ± 1]. The impact of pharmacologically induced phase III contractions on the occurrence of hunger peaks and the involvement of a cholinergic pathway were assessed in 14 healthy volunteers (43% men; age: 29 ± 3 y; BMI: 23 ± 1). Last, the effect of erythromycin administration on food intake was examined in 15 healthy volunteers (40% men; age: 28 ± 3 y; BMI: 22 ± 1). The occurrence of hunger peaks and their significant association with phase III contractions was confirmed (P hunger peaks (P hunger feelings through a cholinergic pathway. Moreover, erythromycin stimulated food intake, suggesting a physiologic role of motilin as an orexigenic signal from the gastrointestinal tract. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02633579. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Cholinergic modulation of epithelial integrity in the proximal colon of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesko, Szilvia; Wessler, Ignaz; Gäbel, Gotthold; Petto, Carola; Pfannkuche, Helga

    2013-01-01

    Within the gut, acetylcholine (ACh) is synthesised by enteric neurons, as well as by 'non-neuronal' epithelial cells. In studies of non-intestinal epithelia, ACh was involved in the generation of an intact epithelial barrier. In the present study, primary cultured porcine colonocytes were used to determine whether treatment with exogenous ACh or expression of endogenous epithelium-derived ACh may modulate epithelial tightness in the gastrointestinal tract. Piglet colonocytes were cultured on filter membranes for 8 days. The tightness of the growing epithelial cell layer was evaluated by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). To determine whether ACh modulates the tightness of the cell layer, cells were treated with cholinergic, muscarinic and/or nicotinic agonists and antagonists. Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), cholinergic receptors and ACh were determined by immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and HPLC, respectively. Application of the cholinergic agonist carbachol (10 µm) and the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine (10 µM) resulted in significantly higher TEER values compared to controls. The effect was completely inhibited by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. Application of atropine alone (without any agonist) led to significantly lower TEER values compared to controls. Synthesis of ACh by epithelial cells was proven by detection of muscarinic and nicotinic receptor mRNAs, immunohistochemical detection of ChAT and detection of ACh by HPLC. ACh is strongly involved in the regulation of epithelial tightness in the proximal colon of pigs via muscarinic pathways. Non-neuronal ACh seems to be of particular importance for epithelial cells forming a tight barrier. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Differentiated NSC-34 motoneuron-like cells as experimental model for cholinergic neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Oliver; Böhm, Julia; Dahm, Michael; Brück, Stefan; Beyer, Cordian; Johann, Sonja

    2013-06-01

    Alpha-motoneurons appear to be exceedingly affected in neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Morphological and physiological degeneration of this neuronal phenotype is typically characterized by a marked decrease of neuronal markers and by alterations of cholinergic metabolism such as reduced choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression. The motoneuron-like cell line NSC-34 is a hybrid cell line produced by fusion of neuroblastoma with mouse motoneuron-enriched primary spinal cord cells. In order to further establish this cell line as a valid model system to investigate cholinergic neurodegeneration, NSC-34 cells were differentiated by serum deprivation and additional treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (atRA). Cell maturation was characterized by neurite outgrowth and increased expression of neuronal and cholinergic markers, including MAP2, GAP-43 and ChAT. Subsequently, we used differentiated NSC-34 cells to study early degenerative responses following exposure to various neurotoxins (H2O2, TNF-α, and glutamate). Susceptibility to toxin-induced cell death was determined by means of morphological changes, expression of neuronal marker proteins, and the ratio of pro-(Bax) to anti-(Bcl-2) apoptotic proteins. NSC-34 cells respond to low doses of neurotoxins with increased cell death of remaining undifferentiated cells with no obvious adverse effects on differentiated cells. Thus, the different vulnerability of differentiated and undifferentiated NSC-34 cells to neurotoxins is a key characteristic of NSC-34 cells and has to be considered in neurotoxic studies. Nonetheless, application of atRA induced differentiation of NSC-34 cells and provides a suitable model to investigate molecular events linked to neurodegeneration of differentiated neurons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cholinergic and serotonergic modulation of visual information processing in monkey V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimegi, Satoshi; Kimura, Akihiro; Sato, Akinori; Aoyama, Chisa; Mizuyama, Ryo; Tsunoda, Keisuke; Ueda, Fuyuki; Araki, Sera; Goya, Ryoma; Sato, Hiromichi

    2016-09-01

    The brain dynamically changes its input-output relationship depending on the behavioral state and context in order to optimize information processing. At the molecular level, cholinergic/monoaminergic transmitters have been extensively studied as key players for the state/context-dependent modulation of brain function. In this paper, we review how cortical visual information processing in the primary visual cortex (V1) of macaque monkey, which has a highly differentiated laminar structure, is optimized by serotonergic and cholinergic systems by examining anatomical and in vivo electrophysiological aspects to highlight their similarities and distinctions. We show that these two systems have a similar layer bias for axonal fiber innervation and receptor distribution. The common target sites are the geniculorecipient layers and geniculocortical fibers, where the appropriate gain control is established through a geniculocortical signal transformation. Both systems exert activity-dependent response gain control across layers, but in a manner consistent with the receptor subtype. The serotonergic receptors 5-HT1B and 5HT2A modulate the contrast-response curve in a manner consistent with bi-directional response gain control, where the sign (facilitation/suppression) is switched according to the firing rate and is complementary to the other. On the other hand, cholinergic nicotinic/muscarinic receptors exert mono-directional response gain control without a sign reversal. Nicotinic receptors increase the response magnitude in a multiplicative manner, while muscarinic receptors exert both suppressive and facilitative effects. We discuss the implications of the two neuromodulator systems in hierarchical visual signal processing in V1 on the basis of the developed laminar structure. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Cholinergic Nociceptive Mechanisms in Rat Meninges and Trigeminal Ganglia: Potential Implications for Migraine Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelukhina, Irina; Mikhailov, Nikita; Abushik, Polina; Nurullin, Leniz; Nikolsky, Evgeny E; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2017-01-01

    Parasympathetic innervation of meninges and ability of carbachol, acetylcholine (ACh) receptor (AChR) agonist, to induce headaches suggests contribution of cholinergic mechanisms to primary headaches. However, neurochemical mechanisms of cholinergic regulation of peripheral nociception in meninges, origin place for headache, are almost unknown. Using electrophysiology, calcium imaging, immunohistochemistry, and staining of meningeal mast cells, we studied effects of cholinergic agents on peripheral nociception in rat hemiskulls and isolated trigeminal neurons. Both ACh and carbachol significantly increased nociceptive firing in peripheral terminals of meningeal trigeminal nerves recorded by local suction electrode. Strong nociceptive firing was also induced by nicotine, implying essential role of nicotinic AChRs in control of excitability of trigeminal nerve endings. Nociceptive firing induced by carbachol was reduced by muscarinic antagonist atropine, whereas the action of nicotine was prevented by the nicotinic blocker d-tubocurarine but was insensitive to the TRPA1 antagonist HC-300033. Carbachol but not nicotine induced massive degranulation of meningeal mast cells known to release multiple pro-nociceptive mediators. Enzymes terminating ACh action, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase, were revealed in perivascular meningeal nerves. The inhibitor of AChE neostigmine did not change the firing per se but induced nociceptive activity, sensitive to d-tubocurarine, after pretreatment of meninges with the migraine mediator CGRP. This observation suggested the pro-nociceptive action of endogenous ACh in meninges. Both nicotine and carbachol induced intracellular Ca 2+ transients in trigeminal neurons partially overlapping with expression of capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1 receptors. Trigeminal nerve terminals in meninges, as well as dural mast cells and trigeminal ganglion neurons express a repertoire of pro-nociceptive nicotinic and muscarinic AChRs, which

  5. Immunolocalization of choline acetyltransferase of common type in the central brain mass of Octopus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Casini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified in the vertebrate frog, is widely distributed among the animal kingdom. The presence of a large amount of acetylcholine in the nervous system of cephalopods is well known from several biochemical and physiological studies. However, little is known about the precise distribution of cholinergic structures due to a lack of a suitable histochemical technique for detecting acetylcholine. The most reliable method to visualize the cholinergic neurons is the immunohistochemical localization of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase, the synthetic enzyme of acetylcholine. Following our previous study on the distribution patterns of cholinergic neurons in the Octopus vulgaris visual system, using a novel antibody that recognizes choline acetyltransferase of the common type (cChAT, now we extend our investigation on the octopus central brain mass. When applied on sections of octopus central ganglia, immunoreactivity for cChAT was detected in cell bodies of all central brain mass lobes with the notable exception of the subfrontal and subvertical lobes. Positive varicosed nerves fibers where observed in the neuropil of all central brain mass lobes.

  6. Immunolocalization of choline acetyltransferase of common type in the central brain mass of Octopus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casini, A; Vaccaro, R; D'Este, L; Sakaue, Y; Bellier, J P; Kimura, H; Renda, T G

    2012-07-19

    Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified in the vertebrate frog, is widely distributed among the animal kingdom. The presence of a large amount of acetylcholine in the nervous system of cephalopods is well known from several biochemical and physiological studies. However, little is known about the precise distribution of cholinergic structures due to a lack of a suitable histochemical technique for detecting acetylcholine. The most reliable method to visualize the cholinergic neurons is the immunohistochemical localization of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase, the synthetic enzyme of acetylcholine. Following our previous study on the distribution patterns of cholinergic neurons in the Octopus vulgaris visual system, using a novel antibody that recognizes choline acetyltransferase of the common type (cChAT), now we extend our investigation on the octopus central brain mass. When applied on sections of octopus central ganglia, immunoreactivity for cChAT was detected in cell bodies of all central brain mass lobes with the notable exception of the subfrontal and subvertical lobes. Positive varicosed nerves fibers where observed in the neuropil of all central brain mass lobes.

  7. [Thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Juan J; Iglesias, Pedro; Donnay, Sergio

    2015-10-21

    Recent clinical practice guidelines on thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy have changed health care provided to pregnant women, although their recommendations are under constant revision. Trimester- and area-specific reference ranges for serum thyroid-stimulating hormone are required for proper diagnosis of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. There is no doubt on the need of therapy for overt hypothyroidism, while therapy for subclinical hypothyroidism is controversial. Further research is needed to settle adverse effects of isolated hypothyroxinemia and thyroid autoimmunity. Differentiation between hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease and the usually self-limited gestational transient thyrotoxicosis is critical. It is also important to recognize risk factors for postpartum thyroiditis. Supplementation with iodine is recommended to maintain adequate iodine nutrition during pregnancy and avoid serious consequences in offspring. Controversy remains about universal screening for thyroid disease during pregnancy or case-finding in high-risk women. Opinions of some scientific societies and recent cost-benefit studies favour universal screening. Randomized controlled studies currently under development should reduce the uncertainties that still remain in this area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Sleep and dreaming: induction and mediation of REM sleep by cholinergic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, J A

    1992-12-01

    The most important recent work on the neurobiology of sleep has focused on the precise cellular and biochemical mechanisms of rapid eye movement sleep mediation. Direct and indirect evidence implicates acetylcholine-containing neurons in the peribrachial pons as critical in the triggering and maintenance of rapid eye movement sleep. Other new studies provide support for the hypothesis that the cholinergic generator system is gated during waking by serotonergic and noradrenergic influences. A growing consensus regarding the basic neurobiology has stimulated new thinking about the brain basis of consciousness during waking and dreaming.

  9. Sympathetic ingrowth: A result of cholinergic nerve injury in the adult mammalian brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes sympathetic ingrowth, its regulation and function. The study leads to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that probably underlie the regulation of other neuronal rearrangements. The authors examine tritium-2-deoxyglucose uptake in the hippocampal formation after septal leasions. Preliminary experiments suggest that the septo-hippocampal fibers do influence tritium-2-deoxyglucose uptake throughout the hippocampal formation in normal animals. If sympathetic ingrowth also can influence this uptake, this could provide further evidence for an adaptive role of this noradrenergic replacement of cholinergic neurons

  10. The role of the intrinsic cholinergic system of the striatum: What have we learned from TAN recordings in behaving animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apicella, Paul

    2017-09-30

    Cholinergic interneurons provide rich local innervation of the striatum and play an important role in controlling behavior, as evidenced by the variety of movement and psychiatric disorders linked to disrupted striatal cholinergic transmission. Much progress has been made in recent years regarding our understanding of how these interneurons contribute to the processing of information in the striatum. In particular, investigation of the activity of presumed striatal cholinergic interneurons, identified as tonically active neurons or TANs in behaving animals, has pointed to their role in the signaling and learning of the motivational relevance of environmental stimuli. Although the bulk of this work has been conducted in monkeys, several studies have also been carried out in behaving rats, but information remains rather disparate across studies and it is still questionable whether rodent TANs correspond to TANs described in monkeys. Consequently, our current understanding of the function of cholinergic transmission in the striatum is challenged by the rapidly growing, but often confusing literature on the relationship between TAN activity and specific behaviors. As regards the precise nature of the information conveyed by the cholinergic TANs, a recent influential view emphasized that these local circuit neurons may play a special role in the processing of contextual information that is important for reinforcement learning and selection of appropriate actions. This review provides a summary of recent progress in TAN physiology from which it is proposed that striatal cholinergic interneurons are crucial elements for flexible switching of behaviors under changing environmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chaoborus and gasterosteus anti-predator responses in Daphnia pulex are mediated by independent cholinergic and gabaergic neuronal signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda C Weiss

    Full Text Available Many prey species evolved inducible defense strategies that protect effectively against predation threats. Especially the crustacean Daphnia emerged as a model system for studying the ecology and evolution of inducible defenses. Daphnia pulex e.g. shows different phenotypic adaptations against vertebrate and invertebrate predators. In response to the invertebrate phantom midge larvae Chaoborus (Diptera D. pulex develops defensive morphological defenses (neckteeth. Cues originating from predatory fish result in life history changes in which resources are allocated from somatic growth to reproduction. While there are hints that responses against Chaoborus cues are transmitted involving cholinergic neuronal pathways, nothing is known about the neurophysiology underlying the transmission of fish related cues. We investigated the neurophysiological basis underlying the activation of inducible defenses in D. pulex using induction assays with the invertebrate predator Chaoborus and the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus. Predator-specific cues were combined with neuro-effective substances that stimulated or inhibited the cholinergic and gabaergic nervous system. We show that cholinergic-dependent pathways are involved in the perception and transmission of Chaoborus cues, while GABA was not involved. Thus, the cholinergic nervous system independently mediates the development of morphological defenses in response to Chaoborus cues. In contrast, only the inhibitory effect of GABA significantly influence fish-induced life history changes, while the application of cholinergic stimulants had no effect in combination with fish related cues. Our results show that cholinergic stimulation mediates signal transmission of Chaoborus cues leading to morphological defenses. Fish cues, which are responsible for predator-specific life history adaptations involve gabaergic control. Our study shows that both pathways are independent and thus potentially

  12. Elevated Hippocampal Cholinergic Neurostimulating Peptide precursor protein (HCNP-pp) mRNA in the amygdala in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Sabrina; Seney, Marianne L; Argibay, Pablo; Sibille, Etienne

    2015-04-01

    The amygdala is innervated by the cholinergic system and is involved in major depressive disorder (MDD). Evidence suggests a hyper-activate cholinergic system in MDD. Hippocampal Cholinergic Neurostimulating Peptide (HCNP) regulates acetylcholine synthesis. The aim of the present work was to investigate expression levels of HCNP-precursor protein (HCNP-pp) mRNA and other cholinergic-related genes in the postmortem amygdala of MDD patients and matched controls (females: N = 16 pairs; males: N = 12 pairs), and in the mouse unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) model that induced elevated anxiety-/depressive-like behaviors (females: N = 6 pairs; males: N = 6 pairs). Results indicate an up-regulation of HCNP-pp mRNA in the amygdala of women with MDD (p < 0.0001), but not males, and of UCMS-exposed mice (males and females; p = 0.037). HCNP-pp protein levels were investigated in the human female cohort, but no difference was found. There were no differences in gene expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), muscarinic (mAChRs) or nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) between MDD subjects and controls or UCMS and control mice, except for an up-regulation of AChE in UCMS-exposed mice (males and females; p = 0.044). Exploratory analyses revealed a baseline expression difference of cholinergic signaling-related genes between women and men (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, elevated amygdala HCNP-pp expression may contribute to mechanisms of MDD in women, potentially independently from regulating the cholinergic system. The differential expression of genes between women and men could also contribute to the increased vulnerability of females to develop MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Low-level hydrogen sulfide and central nervous system dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Kaye H; Thrasher, Jack D; Gray, Michael R

    2010-08-01

    Forty-nine adults living in Lovington, Tatum, and Artesia, the sour gas/oil sector of Southeastern New Mexico, were tested for neurobehavioral impairment. Contributing hydrogen sulfide were (1) an anaerobic sewage plant; (2) two oil refineries; (3) natural gas/oil wells and (4) a cheese-manufacturing plant and its waste lagoons. Comparisons were to unexposed Wickenburg, Arizona, adults. Neurobehavioral functions were measured in 26 Lovington adults including 23 people from Tatum and Artesia, New Mexico, and 42 unexposed Arizona people. Participants completed questionnaires including chemical exposures, symptom frequencies and the Profile of Mood States. Measurements included balance, reaction time, color discrimination, blink reflex, visual fields, grip strength, hearing, vibration, problem solving, verbal recall, long-term memory, peg placement, trail making and fingertip number writing errors (FTNWE). Average numbers of abnormalities and test scores were adjusted for age, gender, educational level, height and weight, expressed as percent predicted (% pred) and compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Ages and educational attainment of the three groups were not statistically significantly different (ssd). Mean values of Lovington residents were ssd from the unexposed Arizona people for simple and choice reaction times, balance with eyes open and closed, visual field score, hearing and grip strength. Culture Fair, digit symbol substitution, vocabulary, verbal recall, peg placement, trail making A and B, FTNWE, information, picture completion and similarities were also ssd. The Lovington adults who averaged 11.8 abnormalities were ssd from, Tatum-Artesia adults who had 3.6 and from unexposed subjects with 2.0. Multiple source community hydrogen sulfide exposures impaired neurobehavioral functions.

  14. Cholinergic cells in the nucleus basalis of mice express the N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor subunit NR2C and its replacement by the NR2B subunit enhances frontal and amygdaloid acetylcholine levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Souza Silva, M. A.; Dolga, Amalia; Pieri, I.; Marchetti, L.; Eisel, U. L. M.; Huston, J. P.; Dere, E.

    2006-01-01

    It is known that glutamatergic and cholinergic systems interact functionally at the level of the cholinergic basal forebrain. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) is a multiprotein complex composed of NR1, NR2 and/or NR3 subunits. The subunit composition of NMDA-R of cholinergic cells in the

  15. Antidepressant-like properties of sildenafil in a genetic rat model of depression: Role of cholinergic cGMP-interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebenberg, Nico; Brink, Christiaan; Brand, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Background: The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)/nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway has been implicated in the neurobiology of depression. Recently we suggested a possible complex interaction between the cholinergic and NO-cGMP pathways in the antidepressant-like response....... Conclusions: Using a genetic animal model of depression, we have confirmed the antidepressant-like property of sildenafil following “unmasking” by concomitant block of muscarinic receptors. These findings hint at a novel interaction between the cGMP and cholinergic systems in depression, and suggest...

  16. Thyroid hormone modulates the development of cholinergic terminal fields in the rat forebrain: relation to nerve growth factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J D; Butcher, L L; Woolf, N J

    1991-04-24

    Hyperthyroidism, induced in rat pups by the daily intraperitoneal administration of 1 microgram/g body weight triiodothyronine, facilitated the development of ChAT fiber plexuses in brain regions innervated by basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, leading to an earlier and increased expression of cholinergic markers in those fibers in the cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. A similar enhancement was seen in the caudate-putamen complex. This histochemical profile was correlated with an accelerated appearance of ChAT-positive telencephalic puncta, as well as with a larger total number of cholinergic terminals expressed, which persisted throughout the eight postnatal week, the longest time examined in the present study. Hypothyroidism was produced in rat pups by adding 0.5% propylthiouracil to the dams' diet beginning the day after birth. This dietary manipulation resulted in the diminished expression of ChAT in forebrain fibers and terminals. Hypothyroid treatment also reduced the quantity of ChAT puncta present during postnatal weeks 2 and 3, and, from week 4 and continuing through week 6, the number of ChAT-positive terminals in the telencephalic regions examined was actually less than the amount extant during the former developmental epoch. Immunostaining for nerve growth factor receptor (NGF-R), which is associated almost exclusively with ChAT-positive somata and fibers in the basal forebrain, demonstrated a different time course of postnatal development. Forebrain fibers and terminals demonstrating NGF-R were maximally visualized 1 week postnatally, a time at which these same neuronal elements evinced minimal ChAT-like immunopositivity. Thereafter and correlated with increased immunoreactivity for ChAT, fine details of NGF-R stained fibers were observed less frequently. Although propylthiouracil administration decreased NGF-R immunodensity, no alteration in the development of that receptor was observed as a function of triiodothyronine treatment. Cholinergic

  17. Cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, K S; Steinmetz, J; Rasmussen, L S

    2009-01-01

    This review describes the incidence, risk factors, and long-term consequences of cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is increasingly being recognized as an important complication, especially in the elderly. A highly sensitive neuropsychol......This review describes the incidence, risk factors, and long-term consequences of cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is increasingly being recognized as an important complication, especially in the elderly. A highly sensitive...... neuropsychological test battery must be used to detect POCD and a well-matched control group is very useful for the analysis and interpretation of the test RESULTS: Cardiovascular surgery is associated with a high incidence of POCD. Cardiopulmonary bypass was thought to explain this difference, but randomized...

  18. Sexual dysfunction associated with infertility'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-07-15

    Jul 15, 1989 ... incidence of sexual dysfunction during this phase; loss of libido was the ... association with decreased orgasmic response and diminished sexual satisfaction (Fig. 2). ..... Human Sexual Inadequacy. Boston: Little, Brown,.

  19. Oral Health and Erectile Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Vijendra P.; Nettemu, Sunil K.; Nettem, Sowmya; Hosadurga, Rajesh; Nayak, Sangeeta U.

    2017-01-01

    Ample evidence strongly supports the fact that periodontal disease is a major risk factor for various systemic diseases namely cardio-vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, etc. Recently, investigators focussed on exploring the link between chronic periodontitis (CP) and erectile dysfunction (ED) by contributing to the endothelial dysfunction. Both the diseases share common risk factors. Various studies conducted in different parts of the world in recent years reported the evidence linking this...

  20. Psychological model of adolescent dysfunctionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetkov A. V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available teenage dysfunctionality could be caused by a number of factors, which are an integral part of modern life. Particularly, in this work we considered such factors as uncertainty, frustration, and a mismatch of sexual behavior setting. The path analysis based on using structural equations. The results proved that teenage dysfunctionality is a consequence of the direct effect of the interconnection between moral reflection and moral and ethical responsibility on the perception level of social frustration, corporeality and sexual mismatch.

  1. Thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Nazarpour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy has a huge impact on the thyroid function in both healthy women and those that have thyroid dysfunction. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women is relatively high. Objective: The objective of this review was to increase awareness and to provide a review on adverse effect of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmune positivity on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this review, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched with appropriate keywords for relevant English manuscript. We used a variety of studies, including randomized clinical trials, cohort (prospective and retrospective, case-control and case reports. Those studies on thyroid disorders among non-pregnant women and articles without adequate quality were excluded. Results: Overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism has several adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. Overt hyperthyroidism was associated with miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, preeclampsia and fetal thyroid dysfunction. Overt hypothyroidism was associated with abortion, anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, placental abruption, postpartum hemorrhage, premature birth, low birth weight, intrauterine fetal death, increased neonatal respiratory distress and infant neuro developmental dysfunction. However the adverse effect of subclinical hypothyroidism, and thyroid antibody positivity on pregnancy outcomes was not clear. While some studies demonstrated higher chance of placental abruption, preterm birth, miscarriage, gestational hypertension, fetal distress, severe preeclampsia and neonatal distress and diabetes in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity; the other ones have not reported these adverse effects. Conclusion: While the impacts of overt thyroid dysfunction on feto-maternal morbidities have been clearly

  2. Interaction of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons with the glucocorticoid system in stress regulation and cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saswati ePaul

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A substantial number of studies on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN have provided compelling evidence for their role in the etiology of stress, cognitive aging, Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and other neurodegenerative diseases. BFCN project to a broad range of cortical sites and limbic structures, including the hippocampus, and are involved in stress and cognition. In particular, the hippocampus, the primary target tissue of the glucocorticoid stress hormones, is associated with cognitive function in tandem with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis modulation. The present review summarizes glucocorticoid and HPA axis research to date in an effort to establish the manner in which stress affects the release of acetylcholine, glucocorticoids, and their receptor in the context of cognitive processes. We attempt to provide the molecular interactive link between the glucocorticoids and cholinergic system that contributes to BFCN degeneration in stress-induced acceleration of cognitive decline in aging and AD. We also discuss the importance of animal models in facilitating such studies for pharmacological use, which could help decipher disease states and propose leads for pharmacological intervention.

  3. Evaluation of Cholinergic Deficiency in Preclinical Alzheimer’s Disease Using Pupillometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Frost

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cortical cholinergic deficiency is prominent in Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and published findings of diminished pupil flash response in AD suggest that this deficiency may extend to the visual cortical areas and anterior eye. Pupillometry is a low-cost, noninvasive technique that may be useful for monitoring cholinergic deficits which generally lead to memory and cognitive disorders. The aim of the study was to evaluate pupillometry for early detection of AD by comparing the pupil flash response (PFR in AD (N=14 and cognitively normal healthy control (HC, N=115 participants, with the HC group stratified according to high (N=38 and low (N=77 neocortical amyloid burden (NAB. Constriction phase PFR parameters were significantly reduced in AD compared to HC (maximum acceleration p<0.05, maximum velocity p<0.0005, average velocity p<0.005, and constriction amplitude p<0.00005. The high-NAB HC subgroup had reduced PFR response cross-sectionally, and also a greater decline longitudinally, compared to the low-NAB subgroup, suggesting changes to pupil response in preclinical AD. The results suggest that PFR changes may occur in the preclinical phase of AD. Hence, pupillometry has a potential as an adjunct for noninvasive, cost-effective screening for preclinical AD.

  4. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies of dopaminergic/cholinergic interactions in the baboon brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewey, S.L.; Brodie, J.D.; Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Schlyer, D.J.; King, P.T.; Alexoff, D.L.; Volkow, N.D.; Shiue, C.Y.; Wolf, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    Interactions between the dopaminergic D2 receptor system and the muscarinic cholinergic system in the corpus striatum of adult female baboons (Papio anubis) were examined using positron emission tomography (PET) combined with [18F]N-methylspiroperidol [( 18F]NMSP) (to probe D2 receptor availability) and [N-11C-methyl]benztropine (to probe muscarinic cholinergic receptor availability). Pretreatment with benztropine, a long-lasting anticholinergic drug, bilaterally reduced the incorporation of radioactivity in the corpus striatum but did not alter that observed in the cerebellum or the rate of metabolism of [18F]NMSP in plasma. Pretreatment with unlabelled NMSP, a potent dopaminergic antagonist, reduced the incorporation of [N-11C-methyl]benztropine in all brain regions, with the greatest effect being in the corpus striatum greater than cortex greater than thalamus greater than cerebellum, but did not alter the rate of metabolism of the labelled benztropine in the plasma. These reductions in the incorporation of either [18F]NMSP or [N-11C-methyl]benztropine exceeded the normal variation in tracer incorporation in repeated studies in the same animal. This study demonstrates that PET can be used as a tool for investigating interactions between neurochemically different yet functionally linked neurotransmitters systems in vivo and provides insight into the consequences of multiple pharmacologic administration

  5. Outcomes from two forms of training for first-responder competency in cholinergic crisis management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreatta, Pamela; Klotz, Jessica J; Madsen, James M; Hurst, Charles G; Talbot, Thomas B

    2015-04-01

    Military and civilian first responders must be able to recognize and effectively manage mass disaster casualties. Clinical management of injuries resulting from nerve agents provides different challenges for first responders than those of conventional weapons. We evaluated the impact of a mixed-methods training program on competency acquisition in cholinergic crisis clinical management using multimedia with either live animal or patient actor examples, and hands-on practice using SimMan3G mannequin simulators. A purposively selected sample of 204 civilian and military first responders who had not previously completed nerve agent training were assessed pre- and post-training for knowledge, performance, self-efficacy, and affective state. We conducted analysis of variance with repeated measures; statistical significance p 20%, performance > 50%, self-efficacy > 34%, and affective state > 15%. There were no significant differences between the live animal and patient actor groups. These findings could aid in the specification of training for first-responder personnel in military and civilian service. Although less comprehensive than U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense courses, the training outcomes associated with this easily distributed program demonstrate its value in increasing the competency of first responders in recognizing and managing a mass casualty cholinergic event. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  6. Selective immunotoxic lesions of basal forebrain cholinergic cells: effects on learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Mark G; Bucci, David J; Gorman, Linda K; Wiley, Ronald G; Gallagher, Michela

    2013-10-01

    Male Long-Evans rats were given injections of either 192 IgG-saporin, an apparently selective toxin for basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (LES), or vehicle (CON) into either the medial septum and vertical limb of the diagonal band (MS/VDB) or bilaterally into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis and substantia innominata (nBM/SI). Place discrimination in the Morris water maze assessed spatial learning, and a trial-unique matching-to-place task in the water maze assessed memory for place information over varying delays. MS/VDB-LES and nBM/SI-LES rats were not impaired relative to CON rats in acquisition of the place discrimination, but were mildly impaired relative to CON rats in performance of the memory task even at the shortest delay, suggesting a nonmnemonic deficit. These results contrast with effects of less selective lesions, which have been taken to support a role for basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in learning and memory. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Altitude acclimatization improves submaximal cognitive performance in mice and involves an imbalance of the cholinergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Narbona, R; Delgado-García, J M; López-Ramos, J C

    2013-06-15

    The aim of this work was to reveal a hypothetical improvement of cognitive abilities in animals acclimatized to altitude and performing under ground level conditions, when looking at submaximal performance, once seen that it was not possible when looking at maximal scores. We modified contrasted cognitive tasks (object recognition, operant conditioning, eight-arm radial maze, and classical conditioning of the eyeblink reflex), increasing their complexity in an attempt to find performance differences in acclimatized animals vs. untrained controls. In addition, we studied, through immunohistochemical quantification, the expression of choline acetyltransferase and acetyl cholinesterase, enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of acetylcholine, in the septal area, piriform and visual cortexes, and the hippocampal CA1 area of animals submitted to acute hypobaric hypoxia, or acclimatized to this simulated altitude, to find a relationship between the cholinergic system and a cognitive improvement due to altitude acclimatization. Results showed subtle improvements of the cognitive capabilities of acclimatized animals in all of the tasks when performed under ground-level conditions (although not before 24 h), in the three tasks used to test explicit memory (object recognition, operant conditioning in the Skinner box, and eight-arm radial maze) and (from the first conditioning session) in the classical conditioning task used to evaluate implicit memory. An imbalance of choline acetyltransferase/acetyl cholinesterase expression was found in acclimatized animals, mainly 24 h after the acclimatization period. In conclusion, altitude acclimatization improves cognitive capabilities, in a process parallel to an imbalance of the cholinergic system.

  8. Cholinergic nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in dementia of Alzheimer, Parkinson and Lewy body types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, E K; Smith, C J; Court, J A; Perry, R H

    1990-01-01

    Cholinergic nicotinic and muscarinic receptor binding were measured in post mortem human brain tissue, using low (nM) concentrations of (3H)-nicotine to detect predominately the high affinity nicotinic site and (3H)-N-methylscopolamine in the presence and absence of 3 x 10(-4) M carbachol to measure both the low and high affinity agonist subtypes of the muscarinic receptor group. Consistent with most previous reports, the nicotinic but not muscarinic binding was reduced in the different forms of dementia associated with cortical cholinergic deficits, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, senile dementia of Lewy body type (SDLT) and Down's syndrome (over 50 years). Analysis of (3H)-nicotine binding displaced by a range of carbachol concentrations (10(-9)-10(-3) M) indicated 2 binding sites for nicotine and that the high affinity rather than low affinity site was reduced in Alzheimer's disease. In all 3 cortical areas investigated (temporal, parietal and occipital) there were increases in the low affinity muscarinic site in Parkinson's disease and SDLT but not Alzheimer's disease or middle-aged Down's syndrome. This observation raised the question of whether the presence of neurofibrillary tangles (evident in the latter but not former 2 disorders) is incompatible with denervation-induced muscarinic supersensitivity in cholinoceptive neurons which include cortical pyramids generally affeted by tangle formation.

  9. [3H]cytisine binding to nicotinic cholinergic receptors in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabreza, L.A.; Dhawan, S.; Kellar, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    Cytisine, a ganglionic agonist, competes with high affinity for brain nicotinic cholinergic receptors labeled by any of several nicotinic 3 H-agonist ligands. Here we have examined the binding of [ 3 H]cytisine in rat brain homogenates. [ 3 H]Cytisine binds with high affinity (Kd less than 1 nM), and specific binding represented 60-90% of total binding at all concentrations examined up to 15 nM. The nicotinic cholinergic agonists nicotine, acetylcholine, and carbachol compete with high affinity for [ 3 H]cytisine binding sites, whereas among nicotinic receptor antagonists only dihydro-beta-erythroidine competes with high affinity (in the nanomolar range). Comparison of binding in several brain regions showed that [ 3 H]cytisine binding is higher in the thalamus, striatum, and cortex than in the hippocampus, cerebellum, or hypothalamus. The pharmacology and brain regional distribution of [ 3 H]cytisine binding sites are those predicted for neuronal nicotinic receptor agonist recognition sites. The high affinity and low nonspecific binding of [ 3 H]cytisine should make it a very useful ligand for studying neuronal nicotinic receptors

  10. Neural stem cells was induced to differentiate into cholinergic neurons in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Yan; Xu Yilong; Pan Jingkun; Tian Lei; Gao Yuhong; Guo Shuilong

    2004-01-01

    The cholinergic-inducing effect of BMP4 on isolated and cultivated rat's cerebral neural stem cells (NSCs) was examined. NSCs which were isolated from two month's old rat's brain region like hippocampus and striatum were cultivated in a medium containing EGF and bFGF, and were identified with morphological character by microscope and nestin immunocytochemistry test. After 24 hours, half NSCs were cultivated with a BMP4-added medium as a experimental group instead of the primary medium, while the an other half NSCs being cultivated with the primary medium as a control group. After 8 days the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) of the cultivated cells was observated by indirect immunofluorescence test. Results showed that more positive cells were found in the experimental group, and the fluorescence intensity were stronger; while less positive cells were found in the control group, and the fluorescence intensity was weaker. The differentiational efficiency of the NSCs was examined by FITC-labelled Flow Cytometry. The results showed that about 16% cells of the experimental group appeared ChAT-positive, while that of control group only 7%. So BMP4 may have the function of inducing NSCs to differentiate into neurons with cholinergic characteristic. (authors)

  11. Opposing Cholinergic and Serotonergic Modulation of Layer 6 in Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Sparks

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Prefrontal cortex is a hub for attention processing and receives abundant innervation from cholinergic and serotonergic afferents. A growing body of evidence suggests that acetylcholine (ACh and serotonin (5-HT have opposing influences on tasks requiring attention, but the underlying neurophysiology of their opposition is unclear. One candidate target population is medial prefrontal layer 6 pyramidal neurons, which provide feedback modulation of the thalamus, as well as feed-forward excitation of cortical interneurons. Here, we assess the response of these neurons to ACh and 5-HT using whole cell recordings in acute brain slices from mouse cortex. With application of exogenous agonists, we show that individual layer 6 pyramidal neurons are bidirectionally-modulated, with ACh and 5-HT exerting opposite effects on excitability across a number of concentrations. Next, we tested the responses of layer 6 pyramidal neurons to optogenetic release of endogenous ACh or 5-HT. These experiments were performed in brain slices from transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin in either ChAT-expressing cholinergic neurons or Pet1-expressing serotonergic neurons. Light-evoked endogenous neuromodulation recapitulated the effects of exogenous neurotransmitters, showing opposing modulation of layer 6 pyramidal neurons by ACh and 5-HT. Lastly, the addition of 5-HT to either endogenous or exogenous ACh significantly suppressed the excitation of pyramidal neurons in prefrontal layer 6. Taken together, this work suggests that the major corticothalamic layer of prefrontal cortex is a substrate for opposing modulatory influences on neuronal activity that could have implications for regulation of attention.

  12. Opposing Cholinergic and Serotonergic Modulation of Layer 6 in Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Daniel W; Tian, Michael K; Sargin, Derya; Venkatesan, Sridevi; Intson, Katheron; Lambe, Evelyn K

    2017-01-01

    Prefrontal cortex is a hub for attention processing and receives abundant innervation from cholinergic and serotonergic afferents. A growing body of evidence suggests that acetylcholine (ACh) and serotonin (5-HT) have opposing influences on tasks requiring attention, but the underlying neurophysiology of their opposition is unclear. One candidate target population is medial prefrontal layer 6 pyramidal neurons, which provide feedback modulation of the thalamus, as well as feed-forward excitation of cortical interneurons. Here, we assess the response of these neurons to ACh and 5-HT using whole cell recordings in acute brain slices from mouse cortex. With application of exogenous agonists, we show that individual layer 6 pyramidal neurons are bidirectionally-modulated, with ACh and 5-HT exerting opposite effects on excitability across a number of concentrations. Next, we tested the responses of layer 6 pyramidal neurons to optogenetic release of endogenous ACh or 5-HT. These experiments were performed in brain slices from transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin in either ChAT-expressing cholinergic neurons or Pet1-expressing serotonergic neurons. Light-evoked endogenous neuromodulation recapitulated the effects of exogenous neurotransmitters, showing opposing modulation of layer 6 pyramidal neurons by ACh and 5-HT. Lastly, the addition of 5-HT to either endogenous or exogenous ACh significantly suppressed the excitation of pyramidal neurons in prefrontal layer 6. Taken together, this work suggests that the major corticothalamic layer of prefrontal cortex is a substrate for opposing modulatory influences on neuronal activity that could have implications for regulation of attention.

  13. Cholinergic Potentiation of Restoration of Visual Function after Optic Nerve Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Chamoun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing cortical plasticity and brain connectivity may improve residual vision following a visual impairment. Since acetylcholine plays an important role in attention and neuronal plasticity, we explored whether potentiation of the cholinergic transmission has an effect on the visual function restoration. To this end, we evaluated for 4 weeks the effect of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil on brightness discrimination, visually evoked potentials, and visual cortex reactivity after a bilateral and partial optic nerve crush in adult rats. Donepezil administration enhanced brightness discrimination capacity after optic nerve crush compared to nontreated animals. The visually evoked activation of the primary visual cortex was not restored, as measured by evoked potentials, but the cortical neuronal activity measured by thallium autometallography was not significantly affected four weeks after the optic nerve crush. Altogether, the results suggest a role of the cholinergic system in postlesion cortical plasticity. This finding agrees with the view that restoration of visual function may involve mechanisms beyond the area of primary damage and opens a new perspective for improving visual rehabilitation in humans.

  14. The effect of the augmentation of cholinergic neurotransmission by nicotine on EEG indices of visuospatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logemann, H N A; Böcker, K B E; Deschamps, P K H; Kemner, C; Kenemans, J L

    2014-03-01

    The cholinergic system has been implicated in visuospatial attention but the exact role remains unclear. In visuospatial attention, bias refers to neuronal signals that modulate the sensitivity of sensory cortex, while disengagement refers to the decoupling of attention making reorienting possible. In the current study we investigated the effect of facilitating cholinergic neurotransmission by nicotine (Nicorette Freshmint 2mg, polacrilex chewing gum) on behavioral and electrophysiological indices of bias and disengagement. Sixteen non-smoking participants performed in a Visual Spatial Cueing (VSC) task while EEG was recorded. A randomized, single-blind, crossover design was implemented. Based on the scarce literature, it was expected that nicotine would specifically augment disengagement related processing, especially manifest as an increase of the modulation of the Late Positive Deflection (LPD) by validity of cueing. No effect was expected on bias related components (cue-locked: EDAN, LDAP; target-locked: P1 and N1 modulations). Results show weak indications for a reduction of the reaction time validity effect by nicotine, but only for half of the sample in which the validity effect on the pretest was largest. Nicotine reduced the result of bias as indexed by a reduced P1 modulation by validity, especially in subjects with strong peripheral responses to nicotine. Nicotine did not affect ERP manifestations of the directing of bias (EDAN, LDAP) or disengagement (LPD). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dysfunctional stress responses in chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woda, Alain; Picard, Pascale; Dutheil, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    Many dysfunctional and chronic pain conditions overlap. This review describes the different modes of chronic deregulation of the adaptive response to stress which may be a common factor for these conditions. Several types of dysfunction can be identified within the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis: basal hypercortisolism, hyper-reactivity, basal hypocortisolism and hypo-reactivity. Neuroactive steroid synthesis is another component of the adaptive response to stress. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated form DHEA-S, and progesterone and its derivatives are synthetized in cutaneous, nervous, and adipose cells. They are neuroactive factors that act locally. They may have a role in the localization of the symptoms and their levels can vary both in the central nervous system and in the periphery. Persistent changes in neuroactive steroid levels or precursors can induce localized neurodegeneration. The autonomic nervous system is another component of the stress response. Its dysfunction in chronic stress responses can be expressed by decreased basal parasympathethic activity, increased basal sympathetic activity or sympathetic hyporeactivity to a stressful stimulus. The immune and genetic systems also participate. The helper-T cells Th1 secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1-β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, whereas Th2 secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines: IL-4, IL-10, IGF-10, IL-13. Chronic deregulation of the Th1/Th2 balance can occur in favor of anti- or pro-inflammatory direction, locally or systemically. Individual vulnerability to stress can be due to environmental factors but can also be genetically influenced. Genetic polymorphisms and epigenetics are the main keys to understanding the influence of genetics on the response of individuals to constraints. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Subtle learning and memory impairment in an idiopathic rat model of Alzheimer's disease utilizing cholinergic depletions and β-amyloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibel, S H; Weishaupt, N; Regis, A M; Hong, N S; Keeley, R J; Balog, R J; Bye, C M; Himmler, S M; Whitehead, S N; McDonald, R J

    2016-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a disease of complex etiology, involving multiple risk factors. When these risk factors are presented concomitantly, cognition and brain pathology are more severely compromised than if those risk factors were presented in isolation. Reduced cholinergic tone and elevated amyloid-beta (Aβ) load are pathological hallmarks of AD. The present study sought to investigate brain pathology and alterations in learning and memory when these two factors were presented together in rats. Rats received either sham surgeries, cholinergic depletions of the medial septum, intracerebroventricular Aβ25-35 injections, or both cholinergic depletion and Aβ25-35 injections (Aβ+ACh group). The Aβ+ACh rats were unimpaired in a striatal dependent visual discrimination task, but had impaired acquisition in the standard version of the Morris water task. However, these rats displayed normal Morris water task retention and no impairment in acquisition of a novel platform location during a single massed training session. Aβ+ACh rats did not have exacerbated brain pathology as indicated by activated astroglia, activated microglia, or accumulation of Aβ. These data suggest that cholinergic depletions and Aβ injections elicit subtle cognitive deficits when behavioural testing is conducted shortly after the presentation of these factors. These factors might have altered hippocampal synaptic plasticity and thus resemble early AD pathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Learning to Ignore: A Modeling Study of a Decremental Cholinergic Pathway and Its Influence on Attention and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Nicolas; Chiba, Andrea A.; Nitz, Douglas A.; Krichmar, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Learning to ignore irrelevant stimuli is essential to achieving efficient and fluid attention, and serves as the complement to increasing attention to relevant stimuli. The different cholinergic (ACh) subsystems within the basal forebrain regulate attention in distinct but complementary ways. ACh projections from the substantia innominata/nucleus…

  18. Effect of Estradiol on Neurotrophin Receptors in Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons: Relevance for Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakowsky, Andrea; Milne, Michael R.; Waldvogel, Henry J.; Faull, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    The basal forebrain is home to the largest population of cholinergic neurons in the brain. These neurons are involved in a number of cognitive functions including attention, learning and memory. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) are particularly vulnerable in a number of neurological diseases with the most notable being Alzheimer’s disease, with evidence for a link between decreasing cholinergic markers and the degree of cognitive impairment. The neurotrophin growth factor system is present on these BFCNs and has been shown to promote survival and differentiation on these neurons. Clinical and animal model studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on neurodegeneration in BFCNs. It is believed that E2 interacts with neurotrophin signaling on cholinergic neurons to mediate these beneficial effects. Evidence presented in our recent study confirms that altering the levels of circulating E2 levels via ovariectomy and E2 replacement significantly affects the expression of the neurotrophin receptors on BFCN. However, we also showed that E2 differentially regulates neurotrophin receptor expression on BFCNs with effects depending on neurotrophin receptor type and neuroanatomical location. In this review, we aim to survey the current literature to understand the influence of E2 on the neurotrophin system, and the receptors and signaling pathways it mediates on BFCN. In addition, we summarize the physiological and pathophysiological significance of E2 actions on the neurotrophin system in BFCN, especially focusing on changes related to Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:27999310

  19. Role of the thalamic parafascicular nucleus cholinergic system in the modulation of acute corneal nociception in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeal Tamaddonfard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of microinjections of acetylcholine (a cholinergic agonist, physostigmine (a cholinesterase inhibitor, atropine (an antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors and hexamethonium (an antagonist of nicotinic cholinergic receptors into the parafascicular nucleus of thalamus on the acute corneal nociception in rats. Acute corneal nociception was induced by putting a drop of 5 M NaCl solution onto the corneal surface of the eye and the number of eye wipes was counted during the first 30s. Both acetylcholine and physostigmine at the same doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 μg significantly (P < 0.05 reduced the number of eye wipes. The intensity of corneal nociception was not changed when atropine and hexamethonium were used alone. Atropine (4 μg, but not hexamethonium (4 μg significantly (P < 0.05 prevented acetylcholine (2 μg- and physostigmine (2 μg-induced antinociceptive effects. The results indicated that at the level of the parafascicular nucleus of thalamus, the muscarinic cholinergic receptors might be involved in the antinociceptive effects of acetylcholine and physostigmine.

  20. Impaired hippocampal acetylcholine release parallels spatial memory deficits in Tg2576 mice subjected to basal forebrain cholinergic degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bettina; Mørk, Arne; Plath, Niels

    2013-01-01

    (BFCD) in 3 months old male Tg2576 mice to co-express cholinergic degeneration with Aβ overexpression as these characteristics constitutes key hallmarks of AD. At 9 months, SAP lesioned Tg2576 mice were cognitively impaired in two spatial paradigms addressing working memory and mid to long-term memory...

  1. Change of cholinergic transmission and memory deficiency induced by injection of b-amyloid protein into NBM of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The change of cholinergic transmission of b-amyloid protein (b-AP) treated rats was studied by intracerebral microdialysis sampling combined with HPLC analysis. b-AP1-40 was injected into nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM). Passive avoidance response test (step-down test) and delayed alternation task were used for memory testing. The impairment of memory after injection of b-AP1-40 into NBM exhibited mainly the deficiency of short-term working memory. One week after injection of b-AP1-40 the release of acetylcholine (ACh) from frontal cortex of freely-moving rats decreased significantly, and the response of cholinergic nerve ending to the action of high [K+] solution was rather weak. In control animals the percentage of increase of ACh- release during behavioral performance was 57%, while in b-AP1-40 - treated rats it was 34%. The temporary in-crease of the ACh-release of the rat put into a new place was also significantly diminished in b-AP1-40 -treated rats. The results show that the injection of b-AP1-40 into NBM impairs the cholinergic transmission in frontal cortex, and the impairment of cholinergic transmission may be the main cause of the deficit of working memory.

  2. Effect of Estradiol on Neurotrophin Receptors in Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons: Relevance for Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Kwakowsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The basal forebrain is home to the largest population of cholinergic neurons in the brain. These neurons are involved in a number of cognitive functions including attention, learning and memory. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs are particularly vulnerable in a number of neurological diseases with the most notable being Alzheimer’s disease, with evidence for a link between decreasing cholinergic markers and the degree of cognitive impairment. The neurotrophin growth factor system is present on these BFCNs and has been shown to promote survival and differentiation on these neurons. Clinical and animal model studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of 17β-estradiol (E2 on neurodegeneration in BFCNs. It is believed that E2 interacts with neurotrophin signaling on cholinergic neurons to mediate these beneficial effects. Evidence presented in our recent study confirms that altering the levels of circulating E2 levels via ovariectomy and E2 replacement significantly affects the expression of the neurotrophin receptors on BFCN. However, we also showed that E2 differentially regulates neurotrophin receptor expression on BFCNs with effects depending on neurotrophin receptor type and neuroanatomical location. In this review, we aim to survey the current literature to understand the influence of E2 on the neurotrophin system, and the receptors and signaling pathways it mediates on BFCN. In addition, we summarize the physiological and pathophysiological significance of E2 actions on the neurotrophin system in BFCN, especially focusing on changes related to Alzheimer’s disease.

  3. Long-term effects of cholinergic basal forebrain lesions on neuropeptide Y and somatostatin immunoreactivity in rat neocortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaykema, R.P.A.; Compaan, J.C.; Nyakas, C.; Horvath, E.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of cholinergic basal forebrain lesions on immunoreactivity to somatostatin (SOM-i) and neuropeptide-Y (NPY-i) was investigated in the rat parietal cortex, 16-18 months after multiple bilateral ibotenic acid injections in the nucleus basalis complex. As a result of the lesion, the

  4. Walnut supplementation reverses the scopolamine-induced memory impairment by restoration of cholinergic function via mitigating oxidative stress in rats: a potential therapeutic intervention for age related neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Saida; Batool, Zehra; Ahmad, Saara; Siddiqui, Rafat Ali; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2018-02-01

    The brain is highly susceptible to the damaging effects of oxidative reactive species. The free radicals which are produced as a consequence of aerobic respiration can cause cumulative oxygen damage which may lead to age-related neurodegeneration. Scopolamine, the anti-muscarinic agent, induces amnesia and oxidative stress similar to that observed in the older age. Studies suggest that antioxidants derived from plant products may provide protection against oxidative stress. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the attenuation of scopolamine-induced memory impairment and oxidative stress by walnut supplementation in rats. Rats in test group were administrated with walnut suspension (400 mg/kg/day) for four weeks. Both control and walnut-treated rats were then divided into saline and scopolamine-treated groups. Rats in the scopolamine group were injected with scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg dissolved in saline) five minutes before the start of each memory test. Memory was assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM), Morris water maze (MWM), and novel object recognition task (NOR) followed by estimation of regional acetylcholine levels and acetylcholinesterase activity. In the next phase, brain oxidative status was determined by assaying lipid peroxidation, and measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activities. Results showed that scopolamine-treatment impaired memory function, caused cholinergic dysfunction, and induced oxidative stress in rats compared to that saline-treated controls. These impairments were significantly restored by pre-administration of walnut. This study demonstrates that antioxidant properties of walnut may provide augmented effects on cholinergic function by reducing oxidative stress and thus improving memory performance.

  5. Libidibia ferrea Mature Seeds Promote Antinociceptive Effect by Peripheral and Central Pathway: Possible Involvement of Opioid and Cholinergic Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Sawada, Luis Armando; Monteiro, Vanessa Sâmia da Conçeição; Rabelo, Guilherme Rodrigues; Dias, Germana Bueno; Da Cunha, Maura; do Nascimento, José Luiz Martins; Bastos, Gilmara de Nazareth Tavares

    2014-01-01

    Libidibia ferrea (LF) is a medicinal plant that holds many pharmacological properties. We evaluated the antinociceptive effect in the LF aqueous seed extract and Lipidic Portion of Libidibia ferrea (LPLF), partially elucidating their mechanisms. Histochemical tests and Gas chromatography of the LPLF were performed to characterize its fatty acids. Acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction, formalin-induced pain, and hot-plate test in mice were employed in the study. In all experiments, aqueou...

  6. Automated Comprehensive Evaluation of mTBI Visual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    of the NODe . Subtask 1: Statistical analysis of NODe data from controls and mTBI patients: COMPLETED Data Processing : Automated data analyses are...order visual processing dysfunctions on a large population of Warfighters with acute mTBI as compared to healthy age-matched controls . This study also... controls ) military personnel will be recruited from the patient population at Womack Army Medical Center (WAMC). The central hypothesis is that a NODe test

  7. Facilitation and inhibition by capsaicin of cholinergic neurotransmission in the guinea-pig small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Christian; Mang, Christian F; Kilbinger, Heinz

    2006-01-01

    The effects of capsaicin on [3H]acetylcholine release and muscle contraction were studied on the myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle preparation of the guinea-pig ileum preincubated with [3H]choline. Capsaicin concentration-dependently increased both basal [3H]acetylcholine release (pEC50 7.0) and muscle tone (pEC50 6.1). The facilitatory effects of capsaicin were antagonized by 1 microM capsazepine (pK (B) 7.0 and 7.6), and by the combined blockade of NK1 and NK3 tachykinin receptors with the antagonists CP99994 plus SR142801 (each 0.1 microM). This suggests that stimulation by capsaicin of TRPV1 receptors on primary afferent fibres causes a release of tachykinins which, in turn, mediate via NK1 and NK3 receptors an increase in acetylcholine release. The capsaicin-induced acetylcholine release was significantly enhanced by the NO synthase inhibitor L-NG-nitroarginine (100 microM). This indicates that tachykinins released from sensory neurons also stimulate nitrergic neurons and thus lead, via NO release, to inhibition of acetylcholine release. Capsaicin concentration-dependently reduced the electrically-evoked [3H]acetylcholine release (pEC50 6.4) and twitch contractions (pEC50 5.9). The inhibitory effects were not affected by either capsazepine, NK1 and NK3 receptor antagonists, the cannabinoid CB1 antagonist SR141716A or by L-NG-nitroarginine. Desensitization of TRPV1 receptors by a short exposure to 3 microM capsaicin abolished the facilitatory responses to a subsequent administration, but did not modify the inhibitory effects. In summary, capsaicin has a dual effect on cholinergic neurotransmission. The facilitatory effect is indirect and involves tachykinin release and excitation of NK1 and NK3 receptors on cholinergic neurons. The inhibition of acetylcholine release may be due to a decrease of Ca2+ influx into cholinergic neurons.

  8. Nicotinic cholinergic antagonists: a novel approach for the treatment of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippiello, P M

    2006-01-01

    Evidence supports the hypothesis that normalization of cholinergic tone by selective antagonism of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (NNRs) may ameliorate the core symptoms of autism. As often is the case, epidemiology has provided the first important clues. It is well recognized that psychiatric patients are significantly more often smokers than the general population. The only known exceptions are obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), catatonic schizophrenia and interestingly, autism. In this regard, clinical studies with nicotine have demonstrated amelioration of symptoms of a number of diseases and disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, ADHD and Tourette's syndrome. Nicotine's agonist properties at CNS NNRs have been implicated in these effects and support the concept of self-medication as a strong motivation for smoking in cognitively compromised individuals. On the other hand, the inverse correlation between autism and smoking suggests that smoking does not provide symptomatic relief and may actually be indicative of an active avoidance of nicotine's agonist effects in this disorder. Neuroanatomical evidence is consistent with this idea based on the presence of hypercholinergic architecture in the autistic brain, particularly during the first few years of development, making the avoidance of further stimulation of an already hyperactive cholinergic system plausible. This may also explain why stimulants (known to increase dopamine levels as do NNR agonists) appear to aggravate autistic symptoms and why studies with cholinesterase inhibitors that increase acetylcholine levels in the brain have yielded variable effects in autism. Taken together, the evidence suggests the possibility that nicotinic cholinergic antagonism may in fact be palliative. Pharmacological evidence supports this hypothesis. For example, antidepressants, many of which are now known to be non-competitive NNR antagonists, have been used successfully to treat a

  9. Heavy metal uranium affects the brain cholinergic system in rat following sub-chronic and chronic exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensoussan, Helene; Grancolas, Line; Dhieux-Lestaevel, Bernadette; Delissen, Olivia; Vacher, Claire-Marie; Dublineau, Isabelle; Voisin, Philippe; Gourmelon, Patrick; Taouis, Mohammed; Lestaevel, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Uranium is a heavy metal naturally present in the environment that may be chronically ingested by the population. Previous studies have shown that uranium is present in the brain and alters behaviour, notably locomotor activity, sensorimotor ability, sleep/wake cycle and the memory process, but also metabolism of neurotransmitters. The cholinergic system mediates many cognitive systems, including those disturbed after chronic exposure to uranium i.e., spatial memory, sleep/wake cycle and locomotor activity. The objective of this study was to assess whether these disorders follow uranium-induced alteration of the cholinergic system. In comparison with 40 control rats, 40 rats drank 40 mg/L uranyl nitrate for 1.5 or 9 months. Cortex and hippocampus were removed and gene expression and protein level were analysed to determine potential changes in cholinergic receptors and acetylcholine levels. The expression of genes showed various alterations in the two brain areas after short- and long-term exposure. Nevertheless, protein levels of the choline acetyltransferase enzyme (ChAT), the vesicular transporter of acetylcholine (VAChT) and the nicotinic receptor β2 sub-unit (nAChRβ2) were unmodified in all cases of the experiment and muscarinic receptor type 1 (m1AChR) protein level was disturbed only after 9 months of exposure in the cortex (-30%). Acetylcholine levels were unchanged in the hippocampus after 1.5 and 9 months, but were decreased in the cortex after 1.5 months only (-22%). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was also unchanged in the hippocampus but decreased in the cortex after 1.5 and 9 months (-16% and -18%, respectively). Taken together, these data indicate that the cholinergic system is a target of uranium exposure in a structure-dependent and time-dependent manner. These cholinergic alterations could participate in behavioural impairments.

  10. Satureja bachtiarica ameliorate beta-amyloid induced memory impairment, oxidative stress and cholinergic deficit in animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soodi, Maliheh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Dashti, Abolfazl; Sepand, Mohammad Reza; Moradi, Shahla

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular deposition of Beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is the main finding in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which damages cholinergic neurons through oxidative stress and reduces the cholinergic neurotransmission. Satureja bachtiarica is a medicinal plant from the Lamiaceae family which was widely used in Iranian traditional medicine. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible protective effects of S. bachtiarica methanolic extract on Aβ induced spatial memory impairment in Morris Water Maze (MWM), oxidative stress and cholinergic neuron degeneration. Pre- aggregated Aβ was injected into the hippocampus of each rat bilaterally (10 μg/rat) and MWM task was performed 14 days later to evaluate learning and memory function. Methanolic extract of S.bachtiarica (10, 50 and 100 mg/Kg) was injected intraperitoneally for 19 consecutive days, after Aβ injection. After the probe test the brain tissue were collected and lipid peroxidation, Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and Cholin Acetyl Transferees (ChAT) immunorectivity were measured in the hippocampus. Intrahipocampal injection of Aβ impaired learning and memory in MWM in training days and probe trail. Methanolic extract of S. bachtiarica (50 and 100 mg/Kg) could attenuate Aβ-induced memory deficit. ChAT immunostaining revealed that cholinergic neurons were loss in Aβ- injected group and S. bachtiarica (100 mg/Kg) could ameliorate Aβ- induced ChAT reduction in the hippocampus. Also S. bachtiarica could ameliorate Aβ-induced lipid peroxidation and AChE activity increase in the hippocampus. In conclusion our study represent that S.bachtiarica methanolic extract can improve Aβ-induced memory impairment and cholinergic loss then we recommended this extract as a candidate for further investigation in treatment of AD.

  11. Blockade of central nicotine acetylcholine receptor signaling attenuate ghrelin-induced food intake in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, S L; Hrabovszky, E; Hansson, C; Jerlhag, E; Alvarez-Crespo, M; Skibicka, K P; Molnar, C S; Liposits, Z; Engel, J A; Egecioglu, E

    2010-12-29

    Here we sought to determine whether ghrelin's central effects on food intake can be interrupted by nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) blockade. Ghrelin regulates mesolimbic dopamine neurons projecting from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens, partly via cholinergic VTA afferents originating in the laterodorsal tegmental area (LDTg). Given that these cholinergic projections to the VTA have been implicated in natural as well as drug-induced reinforcement, we sought to investigate the role of cholinergic signaling in ghrelin-induced food intake as well as fasting-induced food intake, for which endogenous ghrelin has been implicated. We found that i.p. treatment with the non-selective centrally active nAChR antagonist, mecamylamine decreased fasting-induced food intake in both mice and rats. Moreover, central administration of mecamylamine decreased fasting-induced food intake in rats. I.c.v. ghrelin-induced food intake was suppressed by mecamylamine i.p. but not by hexamethonium i.p., a peripheral nAChR antagonist. Furthermore, mecamylamine i.p. blocked food intake following ghrelin injection into the VTA. Expression of the ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1A, was found to co-localize with choline acetyltransferase, a marker of cholinergic neurons, in the LDTg. Finally, mecamylamine treatment i.p. decreased the ability of palatable food to condition a place preference. These data suggest that ghrelin-induced food intake is partly mediated via nAChRs and that nicotinic blockade decreases the rewarding properties of food. Copyright © 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Vocal cord dysfunction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Blakeslee E; Kemp, James S

    2007-06-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction is characterised by paradoxical vocal cord adduction that occurs during inspiration, resulting in symptoms of dyspnoea, wheeze, chest or throat tightness and cough. Although the condition is well described in children and adults, confusion with asthma often triggers the use of an aggressive treatment regimen directed against asthma. The laryngoscopic demonstration of vocal cord adduction during inspiration has been considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of vocal cord dysfunction, but historical factors and pulmonary function findings may provide adequate clues to the correct diagnosis. Speech therapy, and in some cases psychological counselling, is often beneficial in this disorder. The natural course and prognosis of vocal cord dysfunction are still not well described in adults or children.

  13. Sexual dysfunctions in psoriatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabela Sarbu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated disorder with a worldwide occurrence characterized by well-defined infiltrated erythematous papules and plaques, covered by silvery white or yellowish scales. It is a physically, socially and emotionally invalidating disorder that affects 1-2% of the population. Sexual health is an important part of general health and sexual dysfunctions can negatively affect self-esteem, confidence, interpersonal relationships and the quality of life. Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI, Psoriasis Disability Index (PDI and the Impact of Psoriasis on Quality of Life (IPSO questionnaire are all questionnaires used to assess the quality of life of patients with psoriasis and each has one question regarding sexual dysfunction. Several scales were also designed to particularly assess sexual satisfaction in men and women. The aim of this paper is to perform an overview of the existing studies on sexual dysfunction in psoriatic patients.

  14. Cognitive dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana eGuimarães

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Multiple Sclerosis (MS prevalence studies of community and clinical samples, indicate that 45–60% of patients are cognitively impaired. These cognitive dysfunctions have been traditionally described as heterogeneous, but more recent studies suggest that there is a specific pattern of MS-related cognitive dysfunctions. With the advent of disease-modifying medications for MS and emphasis on early intervention and treatment, detection of cognitive impairment at its earliest stage becomes particularly important. In this review the authors address: the cognitive domains most commonly impaired in MS (memory, attention, executive functions, speed of information processing and visual spatial abilities; the physiopathological mechanism implied in MS cognitive dysfunction and correlated brain MRI features; the importance of neuropsychological assessment of MS patients in different stages of the disease and the influence of its course on cognitive performance; the most used tests and batteries for neuropsychological assessment; therapeutic strategies to improve cognitive abilities.

  15. Regulatory changes in presynaptic cholinergic function assessed in rapid autopsy material from patients with Alzheimer disease: Implications for etiology and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slotkin, T.A.; Seidler, F.J.; Crain, B.J.; Bell, J.M.; Bissette, G.; Nemeroff, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    Brain regions from patients with or without Alzheimer disease (AD) were obtained within 2 hr of death and examined for indices of presynaptic cholinergic function. Consistent with loss of cholinergic projections, cerebral cortical areas involved in AD exhibited decreased choline acetyltransferase activity. However, remaining nerve terminals in these regions displayed marked up-regulation of synaptosomal high affinity [ 3 H]choline uptake, a result indicative of relative cholinergic hyperactivity. As choline uptake is also rate-limiting in acetylcholine biosynthesis, these findings have implications for both therapy and identification of causes contributing to neuronal death in AD

  16. Bladder Dysfunction and Urinary Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    F. faizi

    2009-01-01

      "nIn the name of God. Dear colleagues, ladies and gentlemen, it is a great honor to be here. Bladder dysfunction is serious enough to seek serious help. If you may know I am working in a private clinic which it is impossible to follow the patients so this lecture is based on unusual and rare cases who came to me. Bladder dysfunction (BD) is common among 30% of young and old people who are suffering from it, however it is more common in old ages. According to a research, women ...

  17. Hormonal Changes and Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Eric S; Frederick, Natasha N; Bober, Sharon L

    2017-11-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common concern for many patients with cancer after treatment. Hormonal changes as a result of cancer-directed therapy can affect both male and female sexual health. This has the potential to significantly impact patients' quality of life, but is underreported and undertreated in the oncology setting. This review discusses commonly reported sexual issues and the role that hormonal changes play in this dysfunction. Although medical and psychosocial intervention strategies exist, there is a clear need for further research to formally develop programming that can assist people whose sexual health has been impacted by cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The development of the cholinergic system in rat hippocampus following postnatal X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Barak, J.

    1981-01-01

    Postnatal X-irradiation of the rat hippocampus results in a marked reduction in the number of the postnatally developing granular neurons in the dentate gyrus and also caused a marked increase in the specific activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (CAT) and a slight but consistent increase in the activity per whole hippocampus of AChE. The effect of irradiation on the granular neurons and on the cholinergic enzymes was found to be dose and age dependent. Drastic increase in specific enzymatic activities is also observed in the irradiated cerebellum whose granular neurons differentiate postnatally and to a lesser extent in the cerebral cortex in which cell formation is accomplished prior to birth. (Auth.)

  19. A review study on medicinal plants affecting amnesia through cholinergic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baradaran Azar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurotransmitter modification is an important method for the treatment of memory loss or amnesia. Cholinomimetic drugs, particularly, acetylcholine esterase inhibitors are the mainstream in pharmacotherapy of amnesia. Donepezil, tacrine, galantamine, and rivastigmine are cholinesterase inhibitors which are widely used in the treatment of amnesia, however, their therapeutic effects are not significant. Therefore, other possibilities including herbal medicine sources have been considered for memory loss therapy. There are some Medicinal plants with cholinomimetic property which mostly possess antioxidant activity, too. These plants may not only ameliorate amnesia but also can be a good source for drug discovery. In this paper other than introducing the medicinal plants and their components affective on cholinergic system and effective on memory loss, their probable advantages over synthetic drugs are discussed.

  20. Synthesis of dibenzodioxazocines and their effects on cholinesterases and muscarinic cholinergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaál, J; Batke, J; Borsodi, A; Rózsa, L; Somogyi, G

    1989-01-01

    A new family of tricyclic compounds, the dibenzodioxazocines were synthesized. These compounds were the following: 2-chloro-12-(2-piperidino-ethyl)-dibenzo d,g 1,3,6 dioxazocine hydrochloride: EGYT-2347, 2-chloro-12-(3-dimethylamino-2-methyl-propyl)-dibenzo [d,g] [1,3,6]-dibenzodioxazocine hydrochloride: EGYT-2509, 2-chloro-12-(3-dimethylamino-propyl)-dibenzo [d,g] [1,3,6] dioxazocine-maleate: EGYT-2474 and 2-chloro-12-2-(4-methyl-piperazino)-ethyl-dibenzo [d,g] [1,3,6]-dioxazocine-dihydrochloride: EGYT-2541. These compounds are inhibitors of both butyryl- and acetylcholinesterase to and they exhibited relatively good anticholinergic properties in receptor binding experiments. The most selective inhibitor of butyrylcholinesterase is the compound EGYT-2347 (Ki = 1.5 x 10(-7) M) which strongly binds to rat brain muscarinic cholinergic receptor (KD = 4.1 x 10(-8) M).

  1. Aspects of mental health dysfunction among survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Miranda M; Ziff, Oliver J; Wang, Sarra; Cave, Joshua; Janardhanan, Pradeep; Winter, David L; Kelly, Julie; Mehta, Susan; Jenkinson, Helen; Frobisher, Clare; Reulen, Raoul C; Hawkins, Michael M

    2015-09-29

    Some previous studies have reported that survivors of childhood cancer are at an increased risk of developing long-term mental health morbidity, whilst others have reported that this is not the case. Therefore, we analysed 5-year survivors of childhood cancer using the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS) to determine the risks of aspects of long-term mental health dysfunction. Within the BCCSS, 10 488 survivors completed a questionnaire that ascertained mental health-related information via 10 questions from the Short Form-36 survey. Internal analyses were conducted using multivariable logistic regression to determine risk factors for mental health dysfunction. External analyses were undertaken using direct standardisation to compare mental health dysfunction in survivors with UK norms. This study has shown that overall, childhood cancer survivors had a significantly higher prevalence of mental health dysfunction for 6/10 questions analysed compared to UK norms. Central nervous system (CNS) and bone sarcoma survivors reported the greatest dysfunction, compared to expected, with significant excess dysfunction in 10 and 6 questions, respectively; the excess ranged from 4.4-22.3% in CNS survivors and 6.9-15.9% in bone sarcoma survivors. Compared to expected, excess mental health dysfunction increased with attained age; this increase was greatest for reporting 'limitations in social activities due to health', where the excess rose from 4.5% to 12.8% in those aged 16-24 and 45+, respectively. Within the internal analyses, higher levels of educational attainment and socio-economic classification were protective against mental health dysfunction. Based upon the findings of this large population-based study, childhood cancer survivors report significantly higher levels of mental health dysfunction than those in the general population, where deficits were observed particularly among CNS and bone sarcoma survivors. Limitations were also observed to increase

  2. beta-Adrenergic and cholinergic receptors in hypertension-induced hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatner, D.E.; Kirby, D.A.; Homcy, C.J.; Vatner, S.F.

    1985-01-01

    Perinephritic hypertension was produced in dogs by wrapping one kidney with silk and removing the contralateral kidney 1 week later. Mean arterial pressure rose from 104 +/- 3 to 156 +/- 11 mm Hg, while left ventricular free wall weight, normalized for body weight, was increased by 49%. Muscarinic, cholinergic receptor density measured with [ 3 H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate, fell in hypertensive left ventricles (181 +/- 19 fmol/mg, n = 6; p less than 0.01) as compared with that found in normal left ventricles (272 +/- 16 fmol/mg, n = 8), while receptor affinity was not changed. The beta-adrenergic receptor density, measured by binding studies with [ 3 H]-dihydroalprenolol, rose in the hypertensive left ventricles (108 +/- 10 fmol/mg, n = 7; p less than 0.01) as compared with that found in normal left ventricles (68.6 +/- 5.2 fmol/mg, n = 15), while beta-adrenergic receptor affinity decreased in the hypertensive left ventricles (10.4 +/- 1.2 nM) compared with that found in the normal left ventricles (5.0 +/- 0.7 nM). Plasma norepinephrine levels were similar in the two groups, but myocardial norepinephrine levels were depressed (p less than 0.05) in dogs with hypertension. Moderate left ventricular hypertrophy induced by long-term aortic banding in dogs resulted in elevations in beta-adrenergic receptor density (115 +/- 14 fmol/mg) and decreases in affinity (10.4 +/- 2.2 nM) similar to those observed in the dogs with left ventricular hypertrophy induced by hypertension. Thus, these results suggest that perinephritic hypertension in the dog induces divergent effects on cholinergic and beta-adrenergic receptor density. The increased beta-adrenergic receptor density and decreased affinity may be a characteristic of left ventricular hypertrophy rather than hypertension

  3. Adolescent Intermittent Alcohol Exposure: Deficits in Object Recognition Memory and Forebrain Cholinergic Markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Scott Swartzwelder

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence (AIE are of intensive interest and investigation. The effects of AIE on learning and memory and the neural functions that drive them are of particular interest as clinical findings suggest enduring deficits in those cognitive domains in humans after ethanol abuse during adolescence. Although studies of such deficits after AIE hold much promise for identifying mechanisms and therapeutic interventions, the findings are sparse and inconclusive. The present results identify a specific deficit in memory function after AIE and establish a possible neural mechanism of that deficit that may be of translational significance. Male rats (starting at PND-30 received exposure to AIE (5g/kg, i.g. or vehicle and were allowed to mature into adulthood. At PND-71, one group of animals was assessed using the spatial-temporal object recognition (stOR test to evaluate memory function. A separate group of animals was used to assess the density of cholinergic neurons in forebrain areas Ch1-4 using immunohistochemistry. AIE exposed animals manifested deficits in the temporal component of the stOR task relative to controls, and a significant decrease in the number of ChAT labeled neurons in forebrain areas Ch1-4. These findings add to the growing literature indicating long-lasting neural and behavioral effects of AIE that persist into adulthood and indicate that memory-related deficits after AIE depend upon the tasks employed, and possibly their degree of complexity. Finally, the parallel finding of diminished cholinergic neuron density suggests a possible mechanism underlying the effects of AIE on memory and hippocampal function as well as possible therapeutic or preventive strategies for AIE.

  4. Characterization of cholinergic muscarinic receptor-stimulated phosphoinositide metabolism in brain from immature rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balduini, W.; Murphy, S.D.; Costa, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrolysis of phosphoinositides elicited by stimulation of cholinergic muscarinic receptors has been studied in brain from neonatal (7-day-old) rats in order to determine: (1) whether the neonatal rat could provide a good model system to study this signal-transduction pathway; and (2) whether potential differences with adult nerve tissue would explain the differential, age-related effects of cholinergic agonists. Accumulation of [3H] inositol phosphates in [3H]inositol prelabeled slices from neonatal and adult rats was measured as an index of phosphoinositide metabolism. Full (acetylcholine, methacholine, carbachol) and partial (oxotremorine, bethanechol) agonists had qualitatively similar, albeit quantitatively different, effects in neonatal and adult rats. Atropine and pirenzepine effectively blocked the carbachol-induced response with inhibition constants of 1.2 and 20.7 nM, respectively. In all brain areas, response to all agonists was higher in neonatal than adult rats, and in hippocampus and cerebral cortex the response was higher than in cerebellum or brainstem. The relative intrinsic activity of partial agonists was higher in the latter two areas (0.6-0.7) than in the former two (0.3-0.4). Carbachol-stimulated phosphoinositide metabolism in brain areas correlated well with the binding of [3H]QNB (r2 = 0.627) and, particularly, with [3H]pirenzepine (r2 = 0.911). In cerebral cortex the effect of carbachol was additive to that of norepinephrine and glutamate. The presence of calcium (250-500 microM) was necessary for maximal response to carbachol to be elicited; the EC50 value for Ca2+ was 65.4 microM. Addition of EDTA completely abolished the response. Removal of sodium ions from the incubation medium reduced the response to carbachol by 50%

  5. Pauses in Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons: What is Revealed by Their Common Themes and Variations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Feng Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Striatal cholinergic interneurons, the so-called tonically active neurons (TANs, pause their firing in response to sensory cues and rewards during classical conditioning and instrumental tasks. The respective pause responses observed can demonstrate many commonalities, such as constant latency and duration, synchronous occurrence in a population of cells, and coincidence with phasic activities of midbrain dopamine neurons (DANs that signal reward predictions and errors. Pauses can however also show divergent properties. Pause latencies and durations can differ in a given TAN between appetitive vs. aversive outcomes in classical conditioning, initial excitation can be present or absent, and a second pause can variably follow a rebound. Despite more than 20 years of study, the functions of these pause responses are still elusive. Our understanding of pause function is hindered by an incomplete understanding of how pauses are generated. In this mini-review article, we compare pause types, as well as current key hypotheses for inputs underlying pauses that include dopamine-induced inhibition through D2-receptors, a GABA input from ventral tegmental area, and a prolonged afterhyperpolarization induced by excitatory input from the cortex or from the thalamus. We review how each of these mechanisms alone explains some but not all aspects of pause responses. These mechanisms might need to operate in specific but variable sets of sequences to generate a full range of pause responses. Alternatively, these mechanisms might operate in conjunction with an underlying control mechanism within cholinergic interneurons which could potentially provide a framework to generate the common themes and variations seen amongst pause responses.

  6. VTA GABA neurons modulate specific learning behaviours through the control of dopamine and cholinergic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan C Creed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mesolimbic reward system is primarily comprised of the ventral tegmental area (VTA and the nucleus accumbens (NAc as well as their afferent and efferent connections. This circuitry is essential for learning about stimuli associated with motivationally-relevant outcomes. Moreover, addictive drugs affect and remodel this system, which may underlie their addictive properties. In addition to DA neurons, the VTA also contains approximately 30% ɣ-aminobutyric acid (GABA neurons. The task of signalling both rewarding and aversive events from the VTA to the NAc has mostly been ascribed to DA neurons and the role of GABA neurons has been largely neglected until recently. GABA neurons provide local inhibition of DA neurons and also long-range inhibition of projection regions, including the NAc. Here we review studies using a combination of in vivo and ex vivo electrophysiology, pharmacogenetic and optogenetic manipulations that have characterized the functional neuroanatomy of inhibitory circuits in the mesolimbic system, and describe how GABA neurons of the VTA regulate reward and aversion-related learning. We also discuss pharmacogenetic manipulation of this system with benzodiazepines (BDZs, a class of addictive drugs, which act directly on GABAA receptors located on GABA neurons of the VTA. The results gathered with each of these approaches suggest that VTA GABA neurons bi-directionally modulate activity of local DA neurons, underlying reward or aversion at the behavioural level. Conversely, long-range GABA projections from the VTA to the NAc selectively target cholinergic interneurons (CINs to pause their firing and temporarily reduce cholinergic tone in the NAc, which modulates associative learning. Further characterization of inhibitory circuit function within and beyond the VTA is needed in order to fully understand the function of the mesolimbic system under normal and pathological conditions.

  7. Hormonal Responses to Cholinergic Input Are Different in Humans with and without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Chowdhury

    Full Text Available Peripheral muscarinic acetylcholine receptors regulate insulin and glucagon release in rodents but their importance for similar roles in humans is unclear. Bethanechol, an acetylcholine analogue that does not cross the blood-brain barrier, was used to examine the role of peripheral muscarinic signaling on glucose homeostasis in humans with normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n = 10, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 11, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; n = 9. Subjects received four liquid meal tolerance tests, each with a different dose of oral bethanechol (0, 50, 100, or 150 mg given 60 min before a meal containing acetaminophen. Plasma pancreatic polypeptide (PP, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, glucose, glucagon, C-peptide, and acetaminophen concentrations were measured. Insulin secretion rates (ISRs were calculated from C-peptide levels. Acetaminophen and PP concentrations were surrogate markers for gastric emptying and cholinergic input to islets. The 150 mg dose of bethanechol increased the PP response 2-fold only in the IGT group, amplified GLP-1 release in the IGT and T2DM groups, and augmented the GIP response only in the NGT group. However, bethanechol did not alter ISRs or plasma glucose, glucagon, or acetaminophen concentrations in any group. Prior studies showed infusion of xenin-25, an intestinal peptide, delays gastric emptying and reduces GLP-1 release but not ISRs when normalized to plasma glucose levels. Analysis of archived plasma samples from this study showed xenin-25 amplified postprandial PP responses ~4-fold in subjects with NGT, IGT, and T2DM. Thus, increasing postprandial cholinergic input to islets augments insulin secretion in mice but not humans.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01434901.

  8. Laminar pattern of cholinergic and adrenergic receptors in rat visual cortex using quantitative receptor autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schliebs, R.; Walch, C.

    1989-01-01

    The laminar distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, including the M1-receptor subtype, of beta-adrenergic receptors, and noradrenaline uptake sites, was studied in the adult rat visual, frontal, somatosensory and motor cortex, using quantitative receptor autoradiography. In the visual cortex, the highest density of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors was found in layer I. From layer II/III to layer V binding decreases continueously reaching a constant binding level in layers V and VI. This laminar pattern of muscarinic receptor density differs somewhat from that observed in the non-visual cortical regions examined: layer II/III contained the highest receptor density followed by layer I and IV: lowest density was found in layer V and VI. The binding profile of the muscarinic cholinergic M1-subtype through the visual cortex shows a peak in cortical layer II and in the upper part of layer VI, whereas in the non-visual cortical regions cited the binding level was high in layer II/III, moderate in layer I and IV, and low in layer VI. Layers I to IV of the visual cortex contained the highest beta-adrenergic receptor densities, whereas only low binding levels were observed in the deeper layers. A similar laminar distribution was found also in the frontal, somatosensory and motor cortex. The density of noradrenaline uptake sites was high in all layers of the cortical regions studied, but with noradrenaline uptake sites somewhat more concentrated in the superficial layers than in deeper ones. The distinct laminar pattern of cholinergic and noradrenergic receptor sites indicates a different role for acetylcholine and noradrenaline in the functional anatomy of the cerebral cortex, and in particular, the visual cortex. (author)

  9. Laminar pattern of cholinergic and adrenergic receptors in rat visual cortex using quantitative receptor autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schliebs, R; Walch, C [Leipzig Univ. (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin; Stewart, M G [Open Univ., Milton Keynes (UK)

    1989-01-01

    The laminar distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, including the M1-receptor subtype, of beta-adrenergic receptors, and noradrenaline uptake sites, was studied in the adult rat visual, frontal, somatosensory and motor cortex, using quantitative receptor autoradiography. In the visual cortex, the highest density of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors was found in layer I. From layer II/III to layer V binding decreases continueously reaching a constant binding level in layers V and VI. This laminar pattern of muscarinic receptor density differs somewhat from that observed in the non-visual cortical regions examined: layer II/III contained the highest receptor density followed by layer I and IV: lowest density was found in layer V and VI. The binding profile of the muscarinic cholinergic M1-subtype through the visual cortex shows a peak in cortical layer II and in the upper part of layer VI, whereas in the non-visual cortical regions cited the binding level was high in layer II/III, moderate in layer I and IV, and low in layer VI. Layers I to IV of the visual cortex contained the highest beta-adrenergic receptor densities, whereas only low binding levels were observed in the deeper layers. A similar laminar distribution was found also in the frontal, somatosensory and motor cortex. The density of noradrenaline uptake sites was high in all layers of the cortical regions studied, but with noradrenaline uptake sites somewhat more concentrated in the superficial layers than in deeper ones. The distinct laminar pattern of cholinergic and noradrenergic receptor sites indicates a different role for acetylcholine and noradrenaline in the functional anatomy of the cerebral cortex, and in particular, the visual cortex. (author).

  10. Modulation of memory and visuospatial processes by biperiden and rivastigmine in elderly healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezenberg, E.; Verkes, R.J.; Sabbe, B.G.C.; Ruigt, G.S.F.; Hulstijn, W.

    2006-01-01

    Rationale The central cholinergic system is implicated in cognitive functioning. The dysfunction of this system is expressed in many diseases like Alzheimer's disease, dementia of Lewy body, Parkinson's disease and vascular dementia. In recent animal studies, it was found that selective cholinergic

  11. Modulation of memory and visuospatial processes by biperiden and rivastigmine in elderly healthy subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezenberg, E.; Verkes, R.J.; Sabbe, B.G.C.; Ruigt, G.S.F.; Hulstijn, W.

    2005-01-01

    RATIONALE: The central cholinergic system is implicated in cognitive functioning. The dysfunction of this system is expressed in many diseases like Alzheimer's disease, dementia of Lewy body, Parkinson's disease and vascular dementia. In recent animal studies, it was found that selective cholinergic

  12. Diverse roles of neurotensin agonists in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona eBoules

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available NT is a tridecapeptide that is found in the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. NT behaves as a neurotransmitter in the brain and as a hormone in the gut. Additionally, NT acts as a neuromodulator to several neurotransmitter systems including dopaminergic, sertonergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic and cholinergic systems. Due to its association with such a wide variety of neurotransmitters, NT has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several central nervous system (CNS disorders such as schizophrenia, drug abuse, Parkinson’s disease, pain, central control of blood pressure, eating disorders, as well as, cancer and inflammation. The present review will focus on the role that NT and its analogs play in schizophrenia, endocrine function, pain, psychostimulant abuse, and Parkinson’s disease.

  13. Medical therapy and smell dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellings, P. W.; Rombaux, P.

    2009-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is deemed to be a significant contributor to poor quality of life in different nasal inflammatory conditions like common cold, allergic rhinitis, and acute and chronic rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyps (NP). The mechanism underlying olfactory impairment in

  14. Sweating dysfunction in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinn, L; Schrag, A; Viswanathan, R; Lees, A; Quinn, N; Bloem, Bastiaan R.

    2003-01-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence and nature of sweating disturbances in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and investigated their correlation with other clinical features and with Quality of Life (QoL) measures. A questionnaire on symptoms and consequences of sweating dysfunction was

  15. Ageing with neurogenic bowel dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Faaborg, Pia Møller; Finnerup, Nanna Brix

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study with postal survey was to describe changes in the patterns of neurogenic bowel dysfunction and bowel management in a population of people with spinal cord injury (SCI) followed for two decades. In 1996, a validated questionnaire on bowel function was sent to the...

  16. Defining sphincter of oddi dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funch-Jensen, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Sphincter of Oddi (SO) dysmotility may give rise to pain. The golden standard for the demonstration of SO dysfunction is endoscopic manometry. A number of abnormalities are observed in patients with postcholecystectomy pain and in patients with idiopathic recurrent pancreatitis. Criteria for defi...

  17. Future Targets for Female Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Melissa; Yoon, Hana; Goldstein, Irwin

    2016-08-01

    Female sexual function reflects a dynamic interplay of central and peripheral nervous, vascular, and endocrine systems. The primary challenge in the development of novel treatments for female sexual dysfunction is the identification and targeted modulation of excitatory sexual circuits using pharmacologic treatments that facilitate the synthesis, release, and/or receptor binding of neurochemicals, peptides, and hormones that promote female sexual function. To develop an evidence-based state-of-the-art consensus report that critically integrates current knowledge of the therapeutic potential for known molecular and cellular targets to facilitate the physiologic processes underlying female sexual function. State-of-the-art review representing the opinions of international experts developed in a consensus process during a 1-year period. Expert opinion was established by grading the evidence-based medical literature, intensive internal committee discussion, public presentation, and debate. Scientific investigation is urgently needed to expand knowledge and foster development of future treatments that maintain genital tissue integrity, enhance genital physiologic responsiveness, and optimize positive subjective appraisal of internal and external sexual cues. This article critically condenses the current knowledge of therapeutic manipulation of molecular and cellular targets within biological systems responsible for female sexual physiologic function. Future treatment targets include pharmacologic modulation of emotional learning circuits, restoration of normal tactile sensation, growth factor therapy, gene therapy, stem cell-based therapies, and regenerative medicine. Concurrent use of centrally and peripherally acting therapies could optimize treatment response. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of the alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonists clonidine and rilmenidine, and antagonists yohimbine and efaroxan, on the spinal cholinergic receptor system in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Höglund, A Urban

    2004-01-01

    Cholinergic agonists produce spinal antinociception via mechanisms involving an increased release of intraspinal acetylcholine. The cholinergic receptor system interacts with several other receptor types, such as alpha2-adrenergic receptors. To fully understand these interactions, the effects...... of various receptor ligands on the cholinergic system must be investigated in detail. This study was initiated to investigate the effects of the alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonists clonidine and rilmenidine and the alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonists yohimbine and efaroxan on spinal cholinergic receptors......, all ligands possessed affinity for nicotinic receptors. Clonidine and yohimbine binding was best fit to a one site binding curve and rilmenidine and efaroxan to a two site binding curve. The present study demonstrates that the tested alpha2-adrenergic receptor ligands affect intraspinal acetylcholine...

  19. Impaired social interaction and enhanced sensitivity to phencyclidine-induced deficits in novel object recognition in rats with cortical cholinergic denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, S; Kehr, J; Olson, L; Mattsson, A

    2011-11-10

    Dysregulated cholinergic neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, particularly negative symptoms and cognitive deficits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of neocortical cholinergic innervation and of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) on social interaction and novel object recognition (NOR), a declarative memory task. The cholinergic corticopetal projection was lesioned by local infusion of the immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin into nucleus basalis magnocellularis of adult male Lister hooded rats. Behavior was assessed 2.5 weeks later in a social interaction paradigm followed by the NOR task. We found that selective cholinergic denervation of neocortex led to a significant reduction in duration of social interaction, specifically active social interaction. Acute administration of PCP (1.0 mg/kg, s.c.) caused a marked decrease of active social interaction, such that there was no longer a difference between intact and denervated animals. Neither cholinergic denervation alone, nor PCP (1.0 mg/kg, s.c.) alone blocked the ability of rats to recognize a novel object. However, when animals lacking cortical cholinergic innervation were challenged by PCP, they were no longer able to recognize a novel object. This study indicates that rats lacking cholinergic innervation of neocortex have impaired social interaction and specifically that the duration of active contact is shortened. Animals with severe cortical cholinergic hypofunction maintain the ability to perform in a declarative memory test, although the task is carried out less intensively. However, a provocation of psychosis-like behavior by a dose of PCP that does not by itself impair performance in normal animals, will abolish the ability to recognize novel objects in animals lacking cortical cholinergic innervation. The present findings support a possible role for cortical cholinergic hypofunction in the negative and cognitive

  20. Autonomic dysfunction in cirrhosis and portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dümcke, Christine Winkler; Møller, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension are frequently associated with signs of circulatory dysfunction and peripheral polyneuropathy, which includes defects of the autonomic nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction, which is seen in both alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis and increases...

  1. Bridging disparate symptoms of schizophrenia: a Triple network dysfunction theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza eNekovarova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder with variable symptomatology, traditionally divided into positive and negative symptoms, and cognitive deficits. Yet, the etiology of this disorder has yet to be fully understood.Recent findings suggest that alteration of the basic sense of self-awareness may be an essential distortion of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In addition, extensive research of social and mentalizing abilities has stressed the role of distortion of social skills in schizophrenia.This article aims to propose and support a concept of triple brain network model of the dysfunctional switching between default mode and central executive network related to the aberrant activity of salience network. This model could represent a unitary mechanism of a wide array of symptom domains present in schizophrenia including the deficit of SELF (self-awareness and self-representation and theory of mind (ToM dysfunctions along with the traditional positive, negative and cognitive domains. We review previous studies which document the dysfunctions of SELF and ToM in schizophrenia together with neuroimaging data elucidating the triple brain network model as a common neuronal substrate of this dysfunction.

  2. Age-dependent cognitive dysfunction in untreated hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins da Silva, Ana; Cavaco, Sara; Fernandes, Joana; Samões, Raquel; Alves, Cristina; Cardoso, Márcio; Kelly, Jeffery W; Monteiro, Cecília; Coelho, Teresa

    2018-02-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in hereditary transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis has been described in patients whose disease course was modified by liver transplant. However, cognitive dysfunction has yet to be investigated in those patients. Moreover, CNS involvement in untreated patients or asymptomatic mutation carriers remains to be studied. A series of 340 carriers of the TTRVal30Met mutation (180 symptomatic and 160 asymptomatic) underwent a neuropsychological assessment, which included the Dementia Rating Scale-2 (DRS-2), auditory verbal learning test, semantic fluency, phonemic fluency, and trail making test. Cognitive deficits were identified at the individual level, after adjusting the neuropsychological test scores for demographic characteristics (sex, age, and education), based on large national normative data. The presence of cognitive dysfunction was determined by deficit in DRS-2 and/or multiple cognitive domains. Participants were also screened for depression based on a self-report questionnaire. The frequency of cognitive dysfunction was higher (p = 0.003) in symptomatic (9%) than in asymptomatic (2%) carriers. Among older carriers (≥ 50 years), the frequency of cognitive dysfunction was higher (p hereditary TTR amyloidosis patients with peripheral polyneuropathy, even in the early stages of the disease.

  3. History of the Treatment of Female Sexual Dysfunction(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinplatz, Peggy J

    2018-01-22

    This article reviews the history of the treatment of women's sexual problems from the Victorian era to the twenty-first century. The contextual nature of determining what constitutes female sexual psychopathology is highlighted. Conceptions of normal sexuality are subject to cultural vagaries, making it difficult to identify female sexual dysfunctions. A survey of the inclusion, removal, and collapsing of women's sexual diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders from 1952 to 2013 illuminates the biases in the various editions. Masters and Johnson's models of sexual response and dysfunction paved the way for the diagnosis and treatment of women's sexual dysfunctions. Their sex therapy paradigm is described. Conceptions of and treatments for anorgasmia, arousal difficulties, vaginismus, dyspareunia, and low desire are reviewed. The medicalization of human sexuality and the splintering of sex therapy are discussed, along with current trends and new directions in sexual health care for women. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology Volume 14 is May 7, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  4. Dysfunctional HCN ion channels in neurological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo C. DiFrancesco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN channels are expressed as four different isoforms (HCN1-4 in the heart and in the central and peripheral nervous systems. HCN channels are activated by membrane hyperpolarization at voltages close to resting membrane potentials and carry the hyperpolarization-activated current, dubbed If (funny current in heart and Ih in neurons. HCN channels contribute in several ways to neuronal activity and are responsible for many important cellular functions, including cellular excitability, generation and modulation of rhythmic activity, dendritic integration, transmission of synaptic potentials and plasticity phenomena. Because of their role, defective HCN channels are natural candidates in the search for potential causes of neurological disorders in humans. Several data, including growing evidence that some forms of epilepsy are associated with HCN mutations, support the notion of an involvement of dysfunctional HCN channels in different experimental models of the disease. Additionally, some anti-epileptic drugs are known to modify the activity of the Ih current. HCN channels are widely expressed in the peripheral nervous system and recent evidence has highlighted the importance of the HCN2 isoform in the transmission of pain. HCN channels are also present in the midbrain system, where they finely regulate the activity of dopaminergic neurons, and a potential role of these channels in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease has recently emerged. The function of HCN channels is regulated by specific accessory proteins, which control the correct expression and modulation of the neuronal Ih current. Alteration of these proteins can severely interfere with the physiological channel function, potentially predisposing to pathological conditions. In this review we address the present knowledge of the association between HCN dysfunctions and neurological diseases, including clinical, genetic and

  5. Erectile dysfunction among men attending surgical outpatients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Erectile dysfunction is becoming a public health issue with high incidences reported in community studies. Objective: To evaluate the characteristics and outcome of treatment in men with erectile dysfunction in a tertiary center in Ibadan southwestern Nigeria. Methods: Data of men with erectile dysfunction was ...

  6. Endosulfan and cholinergic (muscarinic) transmission: effect on electroencephalograms and [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate in pigeon brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, M.; Agrawal, A.K.; Gopal, K.; Sur, R.N.; Seth, P.K.

    1986-01-01

    Single exposure of endosulfan (5 mg/kg) to pigeons (Columbia livia) caused neuronal hyperexcitability as evidence by spike discharges of 200-500 μV in the electroencephalograms (EEG) from the telencephalon and hyperstriatum, but there was not effect on the ectostriatal area. Cholinergic (muscarinic) receptor binding study using [ 3 H]quinuclidinyl benzilate ([ 3 H]QNB) as a specific ligand indicated that a single exposure to 5 mg/kg of endosulfan caused a significant increase in [ 3 H]QNB binding to the striatal membrane. Behavior study further indicated that a single dose of 200 μg/kg of oxotremorine produced a significant induction in the tremor in endosulfan-pretreated pigeons. The results of this behavioral and biochemical study indicate the involvement of a cholinergic (muscarinic) transmitter system in endosulfan-induced neurotoxicity

  7. Quercetin treatment regulates the Na+,K+-ATPase activity, peripheral cholinergic enzymes, and oxidative stress in a rat model of demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fabiano B; Gutierres, Jessié M; Beckmann, Diego; Santos, Rosmarini P; Thomé, Gustavo R; Baldissarelli, Jucimara; Stefanello, Naiara; Andrades, Amanda; Aiello, Graciane; Ripplinger, Angel; Lucio, Bruna M; Ineu, Rafael; Mazzanti, Alexandre; Morsch, Vera; Schetinger, Maria Rosa; Andrade, Cinthia M

    2018-07-01

    Quercetin is reported to exert a plethora of health benefits through many different mechanisms of action. This versatility and presence in the human diet has attracted the attention of the scientific community, resulting in a huge output of in vitro and in vivo (preclinical) studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that quercetin can protect Na + ,K + -ATPase activity in the central nervous system, reestablish the peripheral cholinesterases activities, and reduce oxidative stress during demyelination events in rats. In line with this expectation, our study aims to find out how quercetin acts on the Na + ,K + -ATPase activity in the central nervous system, peripheral cholinesterases, and stress oxidative markers in an experimental model of demyelinating disease. Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: vehicle, quercetin, ethidium bromide (EB), and EB plus quercetin groups. The animals were treated once a day with vehicle (ethanol 20%) or quercetin 50 mg/kg for 7 (demyelination phase, by gavage) or 21 days (remyelination phase) after EB (0.1%, 10 μL) injection (intrapontine).The encephalon was removed, and the pons, hypothalamus, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum were dissected to verify the Na + ,K + -ATPase activity. Our results showed that quercetin protected against reduction in Na + ,K + -ATPase in the pons and cerebellum in the demyelination phase, and it increased the activity of this enzyme in the remyelination phase. During the demyelination, quercetin promoted the increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in whole blood and lymphocytes induced by EB, and it reduced the increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in lymphocytes in the remyelination phase. On day 7, EB increased the superoxide dismutase and decreased catalase activities, as well as increased the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels. Taken together, these results indicated that quercetin regulates the Na + ,K + -ATPase activity, affects the alterations of redox state

  8. Oral Health and Erectile Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijendra P; Nettemu, Sunil K; Nettem, Sowmya; Hosadurga, Rajesh; Nayak, Sangeeta U

    2017-01-01

    Ample evidence strongly supports the fact that periodontal disease is a major risk factor for various systemic diseases namely cardio-vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, etc. Recently, investigators focussed on exploring the link between chronic periodontitis (CP) and erectile dysfunction (ED) by contributing to the endothelial dysfunction. Both the diseases share common risk factors. Various studies conducted in different parts of the world in recent years reported the evidence linking this relationship as well as improvement in ED with periodontal treatment. Systemic exposure to the periodontal pathogen and periodontal infection-induced systemic inflammation was thought to associate with these conditions. The objective of this review was to highlight the evidence of the link between CP and ED and the importance of oral health in preventing the systemic conditions.

  9. COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTIONS IN DIABETIC POLYNEUROPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirena Valkova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of our study was to examine cognitive status, short – term memory, delayed recall and the retention of visual information in diabetics with polyneuropathy and to establish the impacts of some risk factors on cognitive performance.Contingent and methods: We assessed 47 diabetic patients with polyneuropathy, using the Mini Mental State Examination, 10 words test, the Benton visual retention test and the Hamilton scale.Results: Global cognitive dysfunction, decline in verbal memory and visual retention and tendency for depressive mood were observed. We found statistically significant interaction of ageing, sex, severity of pain, duration and late onset of diabetes mellitus (DM on cognitive functioning. Therapy association on cognition was not found.Conclusions: Our study confirms the hypothesis of global cognitive dysfunction, associated with diabetic polyneuropathy. The interactions of sex and pain severity require further study. We arise a hypothesis of asymmetrical brain injury in diabetics.

  10. Oral health and erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijendra P Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ample evidence strongly supports the fact that periodontal disease is a major risk factor for various systemic diseases namely cardio-vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, etc. Recently, investigators focussed on exploring the link between chronic periodontitis (CP and erectile dysfunction (ED by contributing to the endothelial dysfunction. Both the diseases share common risk factors. Various studies conducted in different parts of the world in recent years reported the evidence linking this relationship as well as improvement in ED with periodontal treatment. Systemic exposure to the periodontal pathogen and periodontal infection-induced systemic inflammation was thought to associate with these conditions. The objective of this review was to highlight the evidence of the link between CP and ED and the importance of oral health in preventing the systemic conditions.

  11. Transcriptional Profiling of Cholinergic Neurons From Basal Forebrain Identifies Changes in Expression of Genes Between Sleep and Wake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonova, Elena V; Gilliland, Jason DA; Tanis, Keith Q; Podtelezhnikov, Alexei A; Rigby, Alison M; Galante, Raymond J; Finney, Eva M; Stone, David J; Renger, John J; Pack, Allan I; Winrow, Christopher J

    2017-06-01

    To assess differences in gene expression in cholinergic basal forebrain cells between sleeping and sleep-deprived mice sacrificed at the same time of day. Tg(ChAT-eGFP)86Gsat mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under control of the choline acetyltransferase (Chat) promoter were utilized to guide laser capture of cholinergic cells in basal forebrain. Messenger RNA expression levels in these cells were profiled using microarrays. Gene expression in eGFP(+) neurons was compared (1) to that in eGFP(-) neurons and to adjacent white matter, (2) between 7:00 am (lights on) and 7:00 pm (lights off), (3) between sleep-deprived and sleeping animals at 0, 3, 6, and 9 hours from lights on. There was a marked enrichment of ChAT and other markers of cholinergic neurons in eGFP(+) cells. Comparison of gene expression in these eGFP(+) neurons between 7:00 am and 7:00 pm revealed expected differences in the expression of clock genes (Arntl2, Per1, Per2, Dbp, Nr1d1) as well as mGluR3. Comparison of expression between spontaneous sleep and sleep-deprived groups sacrificed at the same time of day revealed a number of transcripts (n = 55) that had higher expression in sleep deprivation compared to sleep. Genes upregulated in sleep deprivation predominantly were from the protein folding pathway (25 transcripts, including chaperones). Among 42 transcripts upregulated in sleep was the cold-inducible RNA-binding protein. Cholinergic cell signatures were characterized. Whether the identified genes are changing as a consequence of differences in behavioral state or as part of the molecular regulatory mechanism remains to be determined. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Transplantation of NSC-derived cholinergic neuron-like cells improves cognitive function in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, G; Zhang, W; Li, M; Ni, J; Wang, P

    2015-04-16

    The ability to selectively control the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) into cholinergic neurons in vivo would be an important step toward cell replacement therapy. First, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-NSCs were induced to differentiate into cholinergic neuron-like cells (CNLs) with retinoic acid (RA) pre-induction followed by nerve growth factor (NGF) induction. Then, these CNLs were transplanted into bilateral hippocampus of APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Behavioral parameters showed by Morris water maze (MWM) tests and the percentages of GFP-labeled cholinergic neurons of CNL transplanted mice were compared with those of controls. Brain levels of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) mRNA and proteins were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting, ChAT activity and acetylcholine (ACh) concentration were also evaluated by ChAT activity and ACh concentration assay kits. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that 80.3±1.5% NSCs differentiated into CNLs after RA pre-induction followed by NGF induction in vitro. Three months after transplantation, 82.4±6.3% CNLs differentiated into cholinergic neurons in vivo. APP/PS1 mice transplanted with CNLs showed a significant improvement in learning and memory ability compared with control groups at different time points. Furthermore, CNLs transplantation dramatically increased in the expressions of ChAT mRNA and protein, as well ChAT activity and ACh concentration in APP/PS1 mice. Our findings support the prospect of using NSC-derived CNLs in developing therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantitative Imaging of Cholinergic Interneurons Reveals a Distinctive Spatial Organization and a Functional Gradient across the Mouse Striatum.

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    Miriam Matamales

    Full Text Available Information processing in the striatum requires the postsynaptic integration of glutamatergic and dopaminergic signals, which are then relayed to the output nuclei of the basal ganglia to influence behavior. Although cellularly homogeneous in appearance, the striatum contains several rare interneuron populations which tightly modulate striatal function. Of these, cholinergic interneurons (CINs have been recently shown to play a critical role in the control of reward-related learning; however how the striatal cholinergic network is functionally organized at the mesoscopic level and the way this organization influences striatal function remains poorly understood. Here, we systematically mapped and digitally reconstructed the entire ensemble of CINs in the mouse striatum and quantitatively assessed differences in densities, spatial arrangement and neuropil content across striatal functional territories. This approach demonstrated that the rostral portion of the striatum contained a higher concentration of CINs than the caudal striatum and that the cholinergic content in the core of the ventral striatum was significantly lower than in the rest of the regions. Additionally, statistical comparison of spatial point patterns in the striatal cholinergic ensemble revealed that only a minor portion of CINs (17% aggregated into cluster and that they were predominantly organized in a random fashion. Furthermore, we used a fluorescence reporter to estimate the activity of over two thousand CINs in naïve mice and found that there was a decreasing gradient of CIN overall function along the dorsomedial-to-ventrolateral axis, which appeared to be independent of their propensity to aggregate within the striatum. Altogether this work suggests that the regulation of striatal function by acetylcholine across the striatum is highly heterogeneous, and that signals originating in external afferent systems may be principally determining the function of CINs in the

  14. Hippocampal long term memory: effect of the cholinergic system on local protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, Daniele; Cerbai, Francesca; Di Russo, Jacopo; Boscaro, Francesca; Giannetti, Ambra; Petkova-Kirova, Polina; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Giovannini, Maria Grazia

    2013-11-01

    The present study was aimed at establishing a link between the cholinergic system and the pathway of mTOR and its downstream effector p70S6K, likely actors in long term memory encoding. We performed in vivo behavioral experiments using the step down inhibitory avoidance test (IA) in adult Wistar rats to evaluate memory formation under different conditions, and immunohistochemistry on hippocampal slices to evaluate the level and the time-course of mTOR and p70S6K activation. We also examined the effect of RAPA, inhibitor of mTORC1 formation, and of the acetylcholine (ACh) muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine (SCOP) or ACh nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (MECA) on short and long term memory formation and on the functionality of the mTOR pathway. Acquisition test was performed 30 min after i.c.v. injection of RAPA, a time sufficient for the drug to diffuse to CA1 pyramidal neurons, as demonstrated by MALDI-TOF-TOF imaging. Recall test was performed 1 h, 4 h or 24 h after acquisition. To confirm our results we performed in vitro experiments on live hippocampal slices: we evaluated whether stimulation of the cholinergic system with the cholinergic receptor agonist carbachol (CCh) activated the mTOR pathway and whether the administration of the above-mentioned antagonists together with CCh could revert this activation. We found that (1) mTOR and p70S6K activation in the hippocampus were involved in long term memory formation; (2) RAPA administration caused inhibition of mTOR activation at 1 h and 4 h and of p70S6K activation at 4 h, and long term memory impairment at 24 h after acquisition; (3) scopolamine treatment caused short but not long term memory impairment with an early increase of mTOR/p70S6K activation at 1 h followed by stabilization at longer times; (4) mecamylamine plus scopolamine treatment caused short term memory impairment at 1 h and 4 h and reduced the scopolamine-induced increase of mTOR/p70S6K activation at 1 h and 4 h; (5

  15. Ambulatory anaesthesia and cognitive dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lars S; Steinmetz, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    serious adverse outcomes, hence difficult to obtain sound scientific evidence for avoiding complications. RECENT FINDINGS: Few studies have assessed recovery of cognitive function after ambulatory surgery, but it seems that both propofol and modern volatile anaesthetics are rational choices for general...... anaesthesia in the outpatient setting. Cognitive complications such as delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction are less frequent in ambulatory surgery than with hospitalization. SUMMARY: The elderly are especially susceptible to adverse effects of the hospital environment such as immobilisation...

  16. Insulin dysfunction and Tau pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura eEl Khoury

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD include senile plaques of β-amyloid (Aβ peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF. NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD.Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99% is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease.Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM and type 2 diabetes (T2DM are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment.Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting on Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia.

  17. Clozapine-Induced Cardiovascular Side Effects and Autonomic Dysfunction: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica W. Y. Yuen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clozapine is the antipsychotic of choice for treatment-resistant schizophrenia and has minimal risk for extrapyramidal symptoms. Therapeutic benefits, however, are accompanied by a myriad of cardiometabolic side-effects. The specific reasons for clozapine's high propensity to cause adverse cardiometabolic events remain unknown, but it is believed that autonomic dysfunction may play a role in many of these.Objective: This systematic review summarizes the literature on autonomic dysfunction and related cardiovascular side effects associated with clozapine treatment.Method: A search of the EMBASE, MEDLINE, and EBM Cochrane databases was conducted using the search terms antipsychotic agents, antipsychotic drug*, antipsychotic*, schizophrenia, schizophren*, psychos*, psychotic*, mental ill*, mental disorder*, neuroleptic*, cardiovascular*, cardiovascular diseases, clozapine*, clozaril*, autonomic*, sympathetic*, catecholamine*, norepinephrine, noradrenaline, epinephrine, adrenaline.Results: The search yielded 37 studies that were reviewed, of which only 16 studies have used interventions to manage cardiovascular side effects. Side effects reported in the studies include myocarditis, orthostatic hypotension and tachycardia. These were attributed to sympathetic hyperactivity, decreased vagal contribution, blockade of cholinergic and adrenergic receptors, reduced heart rate variability and elevated catecholamines with clozapine use. Autonomic neuropathy was identified by monitoring blood pressure and heart rate changes in response to stimuli and by spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Metoprolol, lorazepam, atenolol, propranolol, amlodipine, vasopressin and norepinephrine infusion were used to treat tachycardia and fluctuations in blood pressure, yet results were limited to case reports.Conclusion: The results indicate there is a lack of clinical studies investigating autonomic dysfunction and a limited use of interventions to manage

  18. Erectile dysfunction and amatorial cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpi, Giovanni Maria; Contalbi, Gianfranco; Ciociola, E; Mihalca, Radu

    2008-09-01

    Today cycling is considered a useful form of exercise for reducing cardiovascular risk, but it may also represent a risk factor for erectile dysfunction and perineal-genital paresthesia. These disorders are attributed to the local reduction of oxygen in the perineal-genital area, secondary to the perineal compression. Numerous studies have been carried out measuring the penile oxygen pressure or penile blood flow by echo-colour-Doppler: a reduced inflow of blood and oxygen to the cavernous tissue was demonstrated. The attention of the specialist is therefore concentrated on the compression of the perineum on the bicycle saddle and how to reduce this through the position of the cyclist on the bicycle (i.e. height and tilt of the saddle), the different shapes of saddle available (i.e. noseless, grooved, wide, etc.) and the padding materials of the saddle. In order to reduce perineal compression, the posterior part of the saddle should be as wide as the distance between the two ischiatic tuberosities. In addition, the saddle should be studied on the basis of the biotype of the cyclist: ectomorphic, mesomorphic or endomorphic. However, in the genesis of the erectile dysfunction of the cyclist, apart from the above-mentioned factors, an "individual predisposition to developing erectile dysfunction" linked to the perineal-genital anatomy (i.e. type of insertion of the perineum into the root of the penis, number of layers of the tunica albuginea of the corpus cavernosum) cannot be excluded.

  19. Diaphragm Dysfunction in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supinski, Gerald S; Morris, Peter E; Dhar, Sanjay; Callahan, Leigh Ann

    2018-04-01

    The diaphragm is the major muscle of inspiration, and its function is critical for optimal respiration. Diaphragmatic failure has long been recognized as a major contributor to death in a variety of systemic neuromuscular disorders. More recently, it is increasingly apparent that diaphragm dysfunction is present in a high percentage of critically ill patients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In these patients, diaphragm weakness is thought to develop from disuse secondary to ventilator-induced diaphragm inactivity and as a consequence of the effects of systemic inflammation, including sepsis. This form of critical illness-acquired diaphragm dysfunction impairs the ability of the respiratory pump to compensate for an increased respiratory workload due to lung injury and fluid overload, leading to sustained respiratory failure and death. This review examines the presentation, causes, consequences, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders that result in acquired diaphragm dysfunction during critical illness. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mitochondrial disease and endocrine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jasmine; Rahman, Joyeeta; Achermann, John C; Dattani, Mehul T; Rahman, Shamima

    2017-02-01

    Mitochondria are critical organelles for endocrine health; steroid hormone biosynthesis occurs in these organelles and they provide energy in the form of ATP for hormone production and trafficking. Mitochondrial diseases are multisystem disorders that feature defective oxidative phosphorylation, and are characterized by enormous clinical, biochemical and genetic heterogeneity. To date, mitochondrial diseases have been found to result from >250 monogenic defects encoded across two genomes: the nuclear genome and the ancient circular mitochondrial genome located within mitochondria themselves. Endocrine dysfunction is often observed in genetic mitochondrial diseases and reflects decreased intracellular production or extracellular secretion of hormones. Diabetes mellitus is the most frequently described endocrine disturbance in patients with inherited mitochondrial diseases, but other endocrine manifestations in these patients can include growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadism, adrenal dysfunction, hypoparathyroidism and thyroid disease. Although mitochondrial endocrine dysfunction frequently occurs in the context of multisystem disease, some mitochondrial disorders are characterized by isolated endocrine involvement. Furthermore, additional monogenic mitochondrial endocrine diseases are anticipated to be revealed by the application of genome-wide next-generation sequencing approaches in the future. Understanding the mitochondrial basis of endocrine disturbance is key to developing innovative therapies for patients with mitochondrial diseases.

  1. Involvement of cholinergic and adenosinergic systems on the branchial immune response of experimentally infected silver catfish with Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, M D; Souza, C F; Doleski, P H; Moreira, K L S; da Veiga, M L; da Rocha, M I U M; Santos, R C V; Baldisserotto, B

    2018-01-01

    It has been recognized that the cholinergic and adenosinergic systems have an essential role in immune and inflammatory responses during bacterial fish pathogens, such as the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and adenosine deaminase (ADA), which are responsible for catalysis of the anti-inflammatory molecules acetylcholine (ACh) and adenosine (Ado) respectively. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the cholinergic and adenosinergic systems on the immune response and inflammatory process in gills of experimentally infected Rhamdia quelen with Streptococcus agalactiae. Acetylcholinesterase activity decreased, while ACh levels increased in gills of infected animals compared to uninfected animals. On the other hand, a significant increase in ADA activity with a concomitant decrease in Ado levels was observed in infected animals compared to uninfected animals. Based on this evidence, we concluded that infection by S. agalactiae in silver catfish alters the cholinergic and adenosinergic systems, suggesting the involvement of AChE and ADA activities on immune and inflammatory responses, regulating the ACh and Ado levels. In summary, the downregulation of AChE activity exerts an anti-inflammatory profile in an attempt to reduce or prevent the tissue damage, while the upregulation of ADA activity exerts a pro-inflammatory profile, contributing to disease pathophysiology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Cholinergic Receptor Binding in Alzheimer Disease and Healthy Aging: Assessment In Vivo with Positron Emission Tomography Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultzer, David L; Melrose, Rebecca J; Riskin-Jones, Hannah; Narvaez, Theresa A; Veliz, Joseph; Ando, Timothy K; Juarez, Kevin O; Harwood, Dylan G; Brody, Arthur L; Mandelkern, Mark A

    2017-04-01

    To compare regional nicotinic cholinergic receptor binding in older adults with Alzheimer disease (AD) and healthy older adults in vivo and to assess relationships between receptor binding and clinical symptoms. Using cross-sectional positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging and structured clinical assessment, outpatients with mild to moderate AD (N = 24) and healthy older adults without cognitive complaints (C group; N = 22) were studied. PET imaging of α4β2* nicotinic cholinergic receptor binding using 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-3-(2(S)azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (2FA) and clinical measures of global cognition, attention/processing speed, verbal memory, visuospatial memory, and neuropsychiatric symptoms were used. 2FA binding was lower in the AD group compared with the C group in the medial thalamus, medial temporal cortex, anterior cingulate, insula/opercula, inferior caudate, and brainstem (p healthy older adults, lower receptor binding may be associated with slower processing speed. Cholinergic receptor binding in vivo may reveal links to other key brain changes associated with aging and AD and may provide a potential molecular treatment target. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Cholinergic blockade under working memory demands encountered by increased rehearsal strategies: evidence from fMRI in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Bianca; Thienel, Renate; Reske, Martina; Kellermann, Thilo; Sheldrick, Abigail J; Halfter, Sarah; Radenbach, Katrin; Shah, Nadim J; Habel, Ute; Kircher, Tilo T J

    2012-06-01

    The connection between cholinergic transmission and cognitive performance has been established in behavioural studies. The specific contribution of the muscarinic receptor system on cognitive performance and brain activation, however, has not been evaluated satisfyingly. To investigate the specific contribution of the muscarinic transmission on neural correlates of working memory, we examined the effects of scopolamine, an antagonist of the muscarinic receptors, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fifteen healthy male, non-smoking subjects performed a fMRI scanning session following the application of scopolamine (0.4 mg, i.v.) or saline in a placebo-controlled, repeated measure, pseudo-randomized, single-blind design. Working memory was probed using an n-back task. Compared to placebo, challenging the cholinergic transmission with scopolamine resulted in hypoactivations in parietal, occipital and cerebellar areas and hyperactivations in frontal and prefrontal areas. These alterations are interpreted as compensatory strategies used to account for downregulation due to muscarinic acetylcholine blockade in parietal and cerebral storage systems by increased activation in frontal and prefrontal areas related to working memory rehearsal. Our results further underline the importance of cholinergic transmission to working memory performance and determine the specific contribution of muscarinic transmission on cerebral activation associated with executive functioning.

  4. ESC-Derived Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Ameliorate the Cognitive Symptoms Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease in Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yue

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs is associated with cognitive impairments of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, implying that BFCNs hold potentials in exploring stem cell-based replacement therapy for AD. However, studies on derivation of BFCNs from embryonic stem cells (ESCs are limited, and the application of ESC-derived BFCNs remains to be determined. Here, we report on differentiation approaches for directing both mouse and human ESCs into mature BFCNs. These ESC-derived BFCNs exhibit features similar to those of their in vivo counterparts and acquire appropriate functional properties. After transplantation into the basal forebrain of AD model mice, ESC-derived BFCN progenitors predominantly differentiate into mature cholinergic neurons that functionally integrate into the endogenous basal forebrain cholinergic projection system. The AD mice grafted with mouse or human BFCNs exhibit improvements in learning and memory performances. Our findings suggest a promising perspective of ESC-derived BFCNs in the development of stem cell-based therapies for treatment of AD.

  5. Catecholaminergic and cholinergic systems of mouse brain are modulated by LMN diet, rich in theobromine, polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fernández, Laura; Esteban, Gerard; Giralt, Mercedes; Valente, Tony; Bolea, Irene; Solé, Montse; Sun, Ping; Benítez, Susana; Morelló, José Ramón; Reguant, Jordi; Ramírez, Bartolomé; Hidalgo, Juan; Unzeta, Mercedes

    2015-04-01

    The possible modulatory effect of the functional LMN diet, rich in theobromine, polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids, on the catecholaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmission, affecting cognition decline during aging has been studied. 129S1/SvlmJ mice were fed for 10, 20, 30 and 40 days with either LMN or control diets. The enzymes involved in catecholaminergic and cholinergic metabolism were determined by both immunohistological and western blot analyses. Noradrenalin, dopamine and other metabolites were quantified by HPLC analysis. Theobromine, present in cocoa, the main LMN diet component, was analysed in parallel using SH-SY5Y and PC12 cell lines. An enhanced modulatory effect on both cholinergic and catecholaminergic transmissions was observed on 20 day fed mice. Similar effect was observed with theobromine, besides its antioxidant capacity inducing SOD-1 and GPx expression. The enhancing effect of the LMN diet and theobromine on the levels of acetylcholine-related enzymes, dopamine and specially noradrenalin confirms the beneficial role of this diet on the "cognitive reserve" and hence a possible reducing effect on cognitive decline underlying aging and Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Pharmacological Mechanisms of Cortical Enhancement Induced by the Repetitive Pairing of Visual/Cholinergic Stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Il Kang

    Full Text Available Repetitive visual training paired with electrical activation of cholinergic projections to the primary visual cortex (V1 induces long-term enhancement of cortical processing in response to the visual training stimulus. To better determine the receptor subtypes mediating this effect the selective pharmacological blockade of V1 nicotinic (nAChR, M1 and M2 muscarinic (mAChR or GABAergic A (GABAAR receptors was performed during the training session and visual evoked potentials (VEPs were recorded before and after training. The training session consisted of the exposure of awake, adult rats to an orientation-specific 0.12 CPD grating paired with an electrical stimulation of the basal forebrain for a duration of 1 week for 10 minutes per day. Pharmacological agents were infused intracortically during this period. The post-training VEP amplitude was significantly increased compared to the pre-training values for the trained spatial frequency and to adjacent spatial frequencies up to 0.3 CPD, suggesting a long-term increase of V1 sensitivity. This increase was totally blocked by the nAChR antagonist as well as by an M2 mAChR subtype and GABAAR antagonist. Moreover, administration of the M2 mAChR antagonist also significantly decreased the amplitude of the control VEPs, suggesting a suppressive effect on cortical responsiveness. However, the M1 mAChR antagonist blocked the increase of the VEP amplitude only for the high spatial frequency (0.3 CPD, suggesting that M1 role was limited to the spread of the enhancement effect to a higher spatial frequency. More generally, all the drugs used did block the VEP increase at 0.3 CPD. Further, use of each of the aforementioned receptor antagonists blocked training-induced changes in gamma and beta band oscillations. These findings demonstrate that visual training coupled with cholinergic stimulation improved perceptual sensitivity by enhancing cortical responsiveness in V1. This enhancement is mainly mediated by n

  7. Myocardial Infarction Causes Transient Cholinergic Transdifferentiation of Cardiac Sympathetic Nerves via gp130.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivas, Antoinette; Gardner, Ryan T; Wang, Lianguo; Ripplinger, Crystal M; Woodward, William R; Habecker, Beth A

    2016-01-13

    Sympathetic and parasympathetic control of the heart is a classic example of norepinephrine (NE) and acetylcholine (ACh) triggering opposing actions. Sympathetic NE increases heart rate and contractility through activation of β receptors, whereas parasympathetic ACh slows the heart through muscarinic receptors. Sympathetic neurons can undergo a developmental transition from production of NE to ACh and we provide evidence that mouse cardiac sympathetic nerves transiently produce ACh after myocardial infarction (MI). ACh levels increased in viable heart tissue 10-14 d after MI, returning to control levels at 21 d, whereas NE levels were stable. At the same time, the genes required for ACh synthesis increased in stellate ganglia, which contain most of the sympathetic neurons projecting to the heart. Immunohistochemistry 14 d after MI revealed choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in stellate sympathetic neurons and vesicular ACh transporter immunoreactivity in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cardiac sympathetic fibers. Finally, selective deletion of the ChAT gene from adult sympathetic neurons prevented the infarction-induced increase in cardiac ACh. Deletion of the gp130 cytokine receptor from sympathetic neurons prevented the induction of cholinergic genes after MI, suggesting that inflammatory cytokines induce the transient acquisition of a cholinergic phenotype in cardiac sympathetic neurons. Ex vivo experiments examining the effect of NE and ACh on rabbit cardiac action potential duration revealed that ACh blunted both the NE-stimulated decrease in cardiac action potential duration and increase in myocyte calcium transients. This raises the possibility that sympathetic co-release of ACh and NE may impair adaptation to high heart rates and increase arrhythmia susceptibility. Sympathetic neurons normally make norepinephrine (NE), which increases heart rate and the contractility of cardiac myocytes. We found that, after myocardial infarction, the sympathetic neurons

  8. Pannus-Related Mechanical Valve Dysfunction Leading to Hemodynamic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Shiraishi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical prosthetic valve dysfunction caused by pannus formation is rare. Pannus restricts movement of prosthetic valve leaflets, resulting in severe aortic regurgitation. We describe the case of a 77-year-old woman who presented to the emergency room with increasing dyspnea, ischemia, and shock secondary to mechanical aortic valve dysfunction. Transesophageal echocardiography showed a blockade of the leaflets of the mechanical aortic valve, with severe aortic regurgitation. She underwent emergent cardiac surgery for aortic valve replacement. Pannus formation should be considered as a potential cause of acute severe aortic regurgitation in a patient with a small-sized mechanical aortic prosthesis in the supra-annular position. On a pathological exam, extensive pannus was found on the ventricular side of the prosthetic valve, extending from the ring into the central orifice. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(1.000: 50-53

  9. Maternal thyroid dysfunction and risk of seizure in the child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter; Wu, Chunsen

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for brain development, and maternal thyroid disease may affect child neurocognitive development. Some types of seizures may also depend upon early exposure of the developing central nervous system, and we hypothesized that maternal thyroid dysfunction could increase...... the risk of seizure in the child. In a Danish population-based study we included 1,699,693 liveborn singletons, and from the Danish National Hospital Register we obtained information on maternal diagnosis of hyper- or hypothyroidism and neonatal seizure, febrile seizure, and epilepsy in the child. Maternal...... diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction before or after birth of the child was registered in two percent of the singleton births. In adjusted analyses, maternal hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism first time diagnosed after birth of the child were associated with a significant increased risk of epilepsy...

  10. Modeling the Interaction between β-Amyloid Aggregates and Choline Acetyltransferase Activity and Its Relation with Cholinergic Dysfunction through Two-Enzyme/Two-Compartment Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedia Fgaier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of β-amyloid aggregates on activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT which is responsible for synthesizing acetylcholine (ACh in human brain is investigated through the two-enzyme/two-compartment (2E2C model where the presynaptic neuron is considered as compartment 1 while both the synaptic cleft and the postsynaptic neuron are considered as compartment 2 through suggesting three different kinetic mechanisms for the inhibition effect. It is found that the incorporation of ChAT inhibition by β-amyloid aggregates into the 2E2C model is able to yield dynamic solutions for concentrations of generated β-amyloid, ACh, choline, acetate, and pH in addition to the rates of ACh synthesis and ACh hydrolysis in compartments 1 and 2. It is observed that ChAT activity needs a high concentration of β-amyloid aggregates production rate. It is found that ChAT activity is reduced significantly when neurons are exposed to high levels of β-amyloid aggregates leading to reduction in levels of ACh which is one of the most significant physiological symptoms of AD. Furthermore, the system of ACh neurocycle is dominated by the oscillatory behavior when ChAT enzyme is completely inhibited by β-amyloid. It is observed that the direct inactivation of ChAT by β-amyloid aggregates may be a probable mechanism contributing to the development of AD.

  11. Lycopene modulates cholinergic dysfunction, Bcl-2/Bax balance, and antioxidant enzymes gene transcripts in monosodium glutamate (E621) induced neurotoxicity in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Kadry; Abouzed, Tarek; Nasr, Sherif

    2016-04-01

    The effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on brain tissue and the relative ability of lycopene to avert these neurotoxic effects were investigated. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were distributed into 4 groups: group I, untreated (placebo); group II, injected with MSG (5 mg·kg(-1)) s.c.; group III, gastrogavaged with lycopene (10 mg·kg(-1)) p.o.; and group IV received MSG with lycopene with the same mentioned doses for 30 days. The results showed that MSG induced elevation in lipid peroxidation marker and perturbation in the antioxidant homeostasis and increased the levels of brain and serum cholinesterase (ChE), total creatine phosphokinase (CPK), creatine phosphokinase isoenzymes BB (CPK-BB), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities and gene expression were increased and glutathione content was reduced in the MSG-challenged rats, and these effects were ameliorated by lycopene. Furthermore, MSG induced apoptosis in brain tissues reflected in upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax while lycopene upregulated the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Our results indicate that lycopene appears to be highly effective in relieving the toxic effects of MSG by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and inducing modifications in the activity of cholinesterase and antioxidant pathways. Interestingly, lycopene protects brain tissue by inhibiting apoptosis signaling induced by MSG.

  12. ANALISIS DYSFUNCTIONAL AUDIT BEHAVIOR: SEBUAH PENDEKATAN KARAKTERISTIK PERSONAL AUDITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Wahyudin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk memperoleh bukti empiris pengaruh locus of control terhadap ki-                                    nerja auditor,  turnover intention dan pengaruh kinerja pada perilaku dysfunctional audit. Data yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah data primer dalam bentuk kuesioner dimana subjek penelitiannya adalah para auditor yang bekerja untuk Kantor Akuntan Publik (KAP di Jateng. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM and Liniear Structural Relationship (LISREL digunakan untuk menguji hipotesis. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah locus of control berpengaruh secara bermakna pada kinerja auditor, turnover intention, sangat berpengaruh pada dysfunctional audit behavior. Sebaliknya, locus of control dan turnover intention  tidak berpengaruh pada dysfunctional audit behavior. This research aims at finding out the influence of locus of control on the performance of auditor, the influence of locus of control and performance on turnover intention and the influence of locus of control, turnover intention, and performance on dysfunctional audit behavior.The data used are auditors, worked for Accountant Public Office in Central Java. SEM and LISREL are used to test the hypothesis. The results of study are locus of control, auditor performance, turnover intention influence significantly dysfunctional audit behavior. However, both locus of control and turnover intention are not influential.

  13. dysfunction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pulmonary vascular resistance falls and left coronary blood flow diminishes. Decreased ... The septal and posterior walls of the left ventricle, as well .... pathologische A e und Physiologie und für klinische Medizin, Berlin 1911; 203: 413–420. 3.

  14. New advances in pharmacological approaches to the cholinergic system: an overview on muscarinic receptor ligands and cholinesterase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Nigel H.; Reale, Marcella; Tata, Ada Maria

    2016-01-01

    The cholinergic system is expressed in neuronal and in non-neuronal tissues. Acetylcholine (ACh), synthesized in and out of the nervous system can locally contribute to modulation of various cell functions (e.g. survival, proliferation). Considering that the cholinergic system and its functions are impaired in a number of disorders, the identification of new pharmacological approaches to regulate cholinergic system components appears of great relevance. The present review focuses on recent pharmacological drugs able to modulate the activity of cholinergic receptors and thereby, cholinergic function, with an emphasis on the muscarinic receptor subtype, and additionally covers the cholinesterases, the main enzymes involved in ACh hydrolysis. The presence and function of muscarinic receptor subtypes both in neuronal and non-neuronal cells has been demonstrated using extensive pharmacological data emerging from studies on transgenic mice. The possible involvement of ACh in different pathologies has been proposed in recent years and is becoming an important area of study. Although the lack of selective muscarinic receptor ligands has for a long time limited the definition of therapeutic treatment based on muscarinic receptors as targets, some muscarinic ligands such as cevimeline (patents US4855290; US5571918) or xanomeline (patent, US5980933) have been developed and used in pre-clinical or in clinical studies for the treatment of nervous system diseases (Alzheimer’ and Sjogren’s diseases). The present review focuses on the potential implications of muscarinic receptors in different pathologies, including tumors. Moreover, the future use of muscarinic ligands in therapeutic protocols in cancer therapy will be discussed, considering that some muscarinic antagonists currently used in the treatment of genitourinary disease (e.g. darifenacin, patent, US5096890; US6106864) have also been demonstrated to arrest tumor progression in nude mice. The involvement of muscarinic

  15. Differential effects of lipopolysaccharide on energy metabolism in murine microglial N9 and cholinergic SN56 neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimaszewska-Łata, Joanna; Gul-Hinc, Sylwia; Bielarczyk, Hanna; Ronowska, Anna; Zyśk, Marlena; Grużewska, Katarzyna; Pawełczyk, Tadeusz; Szutowicz, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    There are significant differences between acetyl-CoA and ATP levels, enzymes of acetyl-CoA metabolism, and toll-like receptor 4 contents in non-activated microglial N9 and non-differentiated cholinergic SN56 neuroblastoma cells. Exposition of N9 cells to lipopolysaccharide caused concentration-dependent several-fold increases of nitrogen oxide synthesis, accompanied by inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, aconitase, and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex activities, and by nearly proportional depletion of acetyl-CoA, but by relatively smaller losses in ATP content and cell viability (about 5%). On the contrary, SN56 cells appeared to be insensitive to direct exposition to high concentration of lipopolysaccharide. However, exogenous nitric oxide resulted in marked inhibition pyruvate dehydrogenase and aconitase activities, depletion of acetyl-CoA, along with respective loss of SN56 cells viability. These data indicate that these two common neurodegenerative signals may differentially affect energy-acetyl-CoA metabolism in microglial and cholinergic neuronal cell compartments in the brain. Moreover, microglial cells appeared to be more resistant than neuronal cells to acetyl-CoA and ATP depletion evoked by these neurodegenerative conditions. Together, these data indicate that differential susceptibility of microglia and cholinergic neuronal cells to neurotoxic signals may result from differences in densities of toll-like receptors and degree of disequilibrium between acetyl-CoA provision in mitochondria and its utilization for energy production and acetylation reactions in each particular group of cells. There are significant differences between acetyl-CoA and ATP levels and enzymes of acetyl-CoA metabolism in non-activated microglial N9 and non-differentiated cholinergic SN56 neuroblastoma cells. Pathological stimulation of microglial toll-like receptors (TLRs) triggered excessive synthesis of microglia-derived nitric oxide (NO)/NOO radicals that

  16. Cholinergic PET imaging in infections and inflammation using {sup 11}C-donepezil and {sup 18}F-FEOBV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Nis Pedersen; Hoegsberg Schleimann, Mariane [Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus (Denmark); Alstrup, Aage K.O.; Knudsen, Karoline; Jakobsen, Steen; Bender, Dirk; Gormsen, Lars C.; Borghammer, Per [Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Centre, Aarhus C (Denmark); Mortensen, Frank V. [Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Aarhus (Denmark); Madsen, Line Bille [Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Histopathology, Aarhus (Denmark); Breining, Peter [Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Aarhus (Denmark); Petersen, Mikkel Steen [Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Clinical Immunology, Aarhus (Denmark); Dagnaes-Hansen, Frederik [Aarhus University, Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2017-03-15

    Immune cells utilize acetylcholine as a paracrine-signaling molecule. Many white blood cells express components of the cholinergic signaling pathway, and these are up-regulated when immune cells are activated. However, in vivo molecular imaging of cholinergic signaling in the context of inflammation has not previously been investigated. We performed positron emission tomography (PET) using the glucose analogue 18F-FDG, and 11C-donepezil and 18F-FEOBV, markers of acetylcholinesterase and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, respectively. Mice were inoculated subcutaneously with Staphylococcus aureus, and PET scanned at 24, 72, 120, and 144 h post-inoculation. Four pigs with post-operative abscesses were also imaged. Finally, we present initial data from human patients with infections, inflammation, and renal and lung cancer. In mice, the FDG uptake in abscesses peaked at 24 h and remained stable. The 11C-donepezil and 18F-FEOBV uptake displayed progressive increase, and at 120-144 h was nearly at the FDG level. Moderate 11C-donepezil and slightly lower 18F-FEOBV uptake were seen in pig abscesses. PCR analyses suggested that the 11C-donepezil signal in inflammatory cells is derived from both acetylcholinesterase and sigma-1 receptors. In humans, very high 11C-donepezil uptake was seen in a lobar pneumonia and in peri-tumoral inflammation surrounding a non-small cell lung carcinoma, markedly superseding the 18F-FDG uptake in the inflammation. In a renal clear cell carcinoma no 11C-donepezil uptake was seen. The time course of cholinergic tracer accumulation in murine abscesses was considerably different from 18F-FDG, demonstrating in the 11C-donepezil and 18F-FEOBV image distinct aspects of immune modulation. Preliminary data in humans strongly suggest that 11C-donepezil can exhibit more intense accumulation than 18F-FDG at sites of chronic inflammation. Cholinergic PET imaging may therefore have potential applications for basic research into cholinergic

  17. Effects of cholinergic compounds on the axon-Schwann cell relationship in the squid nerve fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, J

    1975-04-01

    The effects of acetylcholine, carbamylcholine, D-tubocurarine, eserine, and alpha-bungarotoxin on the Schwann cell electrical potential of resting and stimulated squid nerve fibers were studied. Acetylcholine (10-7 M) and barbamylcholine (10-6 M) induce a prolonged hyper polarization in the Schwann cells of the unstimulated nerve fiber. In the presence of carbamylcholine (10-6 M) the behavior of the Schwann cell membrane to changes in the external potassium concentration approximates the behavior of an ideal potassium electrode. D-Tubocurarine (10-9 M) blocks the hyperpolarizing effects of nerve impulse trains and carbamylcholine (10-6 M), whereas at the same concentration eserine prolongs the Schwann cell hyperpolarizations induced by axon stimulation or by acetylcholine (10-7 M). alpha-Bungarotoxin (10-9M) also blocks the hyperpolarizing effect of nerve impulse trains and of carbamylcholine. D-Tubocurarine (10-5M) protects the Schwann cells against the irreversible action of alpha-bungarotoxin. These results show the existence of acetylcholine receptors in the Schwann cell membrane. Preliminary measurements of the binding of 125I-alpha bungarotoxin to the plasma membranes isolated from squid nerves also indicate the presence of acetylcholine receptors. These findings support the involvement of cholinergic mechanisms in the axon-Schwann cell relationship previously described.

  18. Deformation of attractor landscape via cholinergic presynaptic modulations: a computational study using a phase neuron model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kanamaru

    Full Text Available Corticopetal acetylcholine (ACh is released transiently from the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM into the cortical layers and is associated with top-down attention. Recent experimental data suggest that this release of ACh disinhibits layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons (PYRs via muscarinic presynaptic effects on inhibitory synapses. Together with other possible presynaptic cholinergic effects on excitatory synapses, this may result in dynamic and temporal modifications of synapses associated with top-down attention. However, the system-level consequences and cognitive relevance of such disinhibitions are poorly understood. Herein, we propose a theoretical possibility that such transient modifications of connectivity associated with ACh release, in addition to top-down glutamatergic input, may provide a neural mechanism for the temporal reactivation of attractors as neural correlates of memories. With baseline levels of ACh, the brain returns to quasi-attractor states, exhibiting transitive dynamics between several intrinsic internal states. This suggests that top-down attention may cause the attention-induced deformations between two types of attractor landscapes: the quasi-attractor landscape (Q-landscape, present under low-ACh, non-attentional conditions and the attractor landscape (A-landscape, present under high-ACh, top-down attentional conditions. We present a conceptual computational model based on experimental knowledge of the structure of PYRs and interneurons (INs in cortical layers 1 and 2/3 and discuss the possible physiological implications of our results.

  19. Changes in the cholinergic system of rat sciatic nerve and skeletal muscle following suspension induced disuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. C.; Misulis, K. E.; Dettbarn, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Muscle disused induced changes in the cholinergic system of sciatic nerve, slow twitch soleus (SOL) and fast twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle were studied in rats. Rats with hindlimbs suspended for 2 to 3 weeks showed marked elevation in the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in sciatic nerve (38%), in SOL (108%) and in EDL (67%). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in SOL increased by 163% without changing the molecular forms pattern of 4S, 10S, 12S, and 16S. No significant changes in activity and molecular forms pattern of AChE were seen in EDL or in AChE activity of sciatic nerve. Nicotinic receptor binding of 3H-acetylcholine was increased in both muscles. When measured after 3 weeks of hindlimb suspension the normal distribution of type 1 fibers in SOL was reduced and a corresponding increase in type IIa and IIb fibers is seen. In EDL no significant change in fiber proportion is observed. Muscle activity, such as loadbearing, appears to have a greater controlling influence on the characteristics of the slow twitch SOL muscle than upon the fast twitch EDL muscle.

  20. Cholinergic pairing with visual activation results in long-term enhancement of visual evoked potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Il Kang

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh contributes to learning processes by modulating cortical plasticity in terms of intensity of neuronal activity and selectivity properties of cortical neurons. However, it is not known if ACh induces long term effects within the primary visual cortex (V1 that could sustain visual learning mechanisms. In the present study we analyzed visual evoked potentials (VEPs in V1 of rats during a 4-8 h period after coupling visual stimulation to an intracortical injection of ACh analog carbachol or stimulation of basal forebrain. To clarify the action of ACh on VEP activity in V1, we individually pre-injected muscarinic (scopolamine, nicotinic (mecamylamine, alpha7 (methyllycaconitine, and NMDA (CPP receptor antagonists before carbachol infusion. Stimulation of the cholinergic system paired with visual stimulation significantly increased VEP amplitude (56% during a 6 h period. Pre-treatment with scopolamine, mecamylamine and CPP completely abolished this long-term enhancement, while alpha7 inhibition induced an instant increase of VEP amplitude. This suggests a role of ACh in facilitating visual stimuli responsiveness through mechanisms comparable to LTP which involve nicotinic and muscarinic receptors with an interaction of NMDA transmission in the visual cortex.

  1. Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in the non-obese diabetic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, F A; Vosters, J L; Roescher, N; Broekstra, N; Tak, P P; Vervoordeldonk, M J

    2015-10-01

    Activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) has been shown to reduce inflammation in animal models, while abrogation of the pathway increases inflammation. We investigated whether modulation of CAP influences inflammation in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model for Sjögren's syndrome and type 1 diabetes. The alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) was stimulated with AR-R17779 or nicotine in NOD mice. In a second study, unilateral cervical vagotomy was performed. α7nAChR expression, focus scores, and salivary flow were evaluated in salivary glands (SG) and insulitis score in the pancreas. Cytokines were measured in serum and SG. α7nAChR was expressed on myoepithelial cells in SG. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels were reduced in SG after AR-R17779 treatment and tumor necrosis factor production was increased in the SG of the vagotomy group compared to controls. Focus score and salivary flow were unaffected. NOD mice developed diabetes more rapidly after vagotomy, but at completion of the study there were no statistically significant differences in number of mice that developed diabetes or in insulitis scores. Intervention of the CAP in NOD mice leads to minimal changes in inflammatory cytokines, but did not affect overall inflammation and function of SG or development of diabetes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Lesion Decreases Neurotrophin Signaling without Affecting Tau Hyperphosphorylation in Genetically Susceptible Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Marion T; Coulson, Elizabeth J

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, irreversible neurodegenerative disease that destroys memory and cognitive function. Aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein are a prominent feature in the brain of patients with AD, and are a major contributor to neuronal toxicity and disease progression. However, the factors that initiate the toxic cascade that results in tau hyperphosphorylation in sporadic AD are unknown. Here we investigated whether degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) and/or a resultant decrease in neurotrophin signaling cause aberrant tau hyperphosphorylation. Our results reveal that the loss of BFCNs in pre-symptomatic pR5 (P301L) tau transgenic mice results in a decrease in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and reduced TrkB receptor activation. However, there was no exacerbation of the levels of phosphorylated tau or its aggregation in the hippocampus of susceptible mice. Furthermore the animals' performance in a hippocampal-dependent learning and memory task was unaltered, and no changes in hippocampal synaptic markers were observed. This suggests that tau pathology is likely to be regulated independently of BFCN degeneration and the corresponding decrease in hippocampal neurotrophin levels, although these features may still contribute to disease etiology.

  3. Synthesis of the 123I- and 125I-labeled cholinergic nerve marker (-)-5-iodobenzovesamicol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dort, M.E.; Jung, Y.-W.; Gildersleeve, D.L.; Hagen, C.A.; Kuhl, D.E.; Wieland, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    The highly toxic curaremimetic and cholinergic neuron marker (-)-5-iodobenzovesamicol (IBVM) has been labeled with iodine-125 and iodine-123. [ 125 I]IBVM, suitable for animal distribution and ex vivo autoradiographic studies, was synthesized by solid-state exchanger; isolated yields were 65-89% with specific activities in the range of 130-200 Ci/mmol. The synthesis of no-carrier-added (-)-5-[ 125 I]IBVM from the corresponding chiral (-)-5-(tri-n-butyltin) derivative using Na 125 I was evaluated using the oxidants H 2 O 2 , peracetic acid and chloramine-T. Both peracetic acid and chloramine-T gave good yields (70-95%). However, when Na 123 I was utilized, acceptable yields of [ 123 I]IBVM were obtained only with chloramine-T. Distribution analyses of [ 125 I]IBVM and [ 123 I]IBVM in mice 4 h following intravenous administration show essentially equivalent concentrations of the two tracers in the four brain regions sampled. The exceptionally high specific activity of [ 123 I]IBVM has made possible the evaluation of this radiotracer in humans. (Author)

  4. Cholinergic and dopaminergic neuronal differentiation of human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marei, Hany El Sayed; El-Gamal, Aya; Althani, Asma; Afifi, Nahla; Abd-Elmaksoud, Ahmed; Farag, Amany; Cenciarelli, Carlo; Thomas, Caceci; Anwarul, Hasan

    2018-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can differentiate into various cell types such as cartilage, bone, and fat cells. Recent studies have shown that induction of MSCs in vitro by growth factors including epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) causes them to differentiate into neural like cells. These cultures also express ChAT, a cholinergic marker; and TH, a dopaminergic marker for neural cells. To establish a protocol with maximum differentiation potential, we examined MSCs under three experimental culture conditions using neural induction media containing FGF2, EGF, BMP-9, retinoic acid, and heparin. Adipose-derived MSCs were extracted and expanded in vitro for 3 passages after reaching >80% confluency, for a total duration of 9 days. Cells were then characterized by flow cytometry for CD markers as CD44 positive and CD45 negative. MSCs were then treated with neural induction media and were characterized by morphological changes and Q-PCR. Differentiated MSCs expressed markers for immature and mature neurons; β Tubulin III (TUBB3) and MAP2, respectively, showing the neural potential of these cells to differentiate into functional neurons. Improved protocols for MSCs induction will facilitate and ensure the reproducibility and standard production of MSCs for therapeutic applications in neurodegenerative diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Nicotinic cholinergic receptor in brain detected by binding of. cap alpha. -(/sup 3/H)bungarotoxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eterovic, V A; Bennett, E L

    1974-01-01

    ..cap alpha..-(/sup 3/H)bungarotoxin was prepared by catalytic reduction of iodinated ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin with tritium gas. Crude mitochondrial fraction from rat cerebral cortex bound 40 x 10/sup -15/ to 60 x 10/sup -15/ moles of ..cap alpha..-(/sup 3/H)bungarotoxin per mg of protein. This binding was reduced by 50% in the presence of approx. 10/sup -6/ M d-tubocurarine or nicotine, 10/sup -5/ M acetylcholine, 10/sup -4/ M carbamylcholine or decamethonium or 10/sup -3/ M atropine. Hexamethonium and eserine were the least effective of the drugs tested. Crude mitochondrial fraction was separated into myelin, nerve endings, and mitochondria. The highest binding of toxin per mg of protein was found in nerve endings, as well as the greatest inhibition of toxin binding by d-tubocurarine. Binding of ..cap alpha..-(/sup 3/H)bungarotoxin to membranes obtained by osmotic shock of the crude mitochondrial fraction indicates that the receptor for the toxin is membrane bound. /sup 125/I-labeled ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin, prepared with Na/sup 125/I and chloramine T, was highly specific for the acetylcholine receptor in diaphragm, however, it was less specific and less reliable than ..cap alpha..-(/sup 3/H)bungarotoxin in brain. It is concluded that a nicotinic cholinergic receptor exists in brain, and that ..cap alpha..-(/sup 3/H)bungarotoxin is a suitable probe for this receptor.

  6. Direction-selective circuitry in rat retina develops independently of GABAergic, cholinergic and action potential activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Sun

    Full Text Available The ON-OFF direction selective ganglion cells (DSGCs in the mammalian retina code image motion by responding much more strongly to movement in one direction. They do so by receiving inhibitory inputs selectively from a particular sector of processes of the overlapping starburst amacrine cells, a type of retinal interneuron. The mechanisms of establishment and regulation of this selective connection are unknown. Here, we report that in the rat retina, the morphology, physiology of the ON-OFF DSGCs and the circuitry for coding motion directions develop normally with pharmacological blockade of GABAergic, cholinergic activity and/or action potentials for over two weeks from birth. With recent results demonstrating light independent formation of the retinal DS circuitry, our results strongly suggest the formation of the circuitry, i.e., the connections between the second and third order neurons in the visual system, can be genetically programmed, although emergence of direction selectivity in the visual cortex appears to require visual experience.

  7. Atrophy and structural covariance of the cholinergic basal forebrain in primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teipel, Stefan; Raiser, Theresa; Riedl, Lina; Riederer, Isabelle; Schroeter, Matthias L; Bisenius, Sandrine; Schneider, Anja; Kornhuber, Johannes; Fliessbach, Klaus; Spottke, Annika; Grothe, Michel J; Prudlo, Johannes; Kassubek, Jan; Ludolph, Albert; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Straub, Sarah; Otto, Markus; Danek, Adrian

    2016-10-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by profound destruction of cortical language areas. Anatomical studies suggest an involvement of cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) in PPA syndromes, particularly in the area of the nucleus subputaminalis (NSP). Here we aimed to determine the pattern of atrophy and structural covariance as a proxy of structural connectivity of BF nuclei in PPA variants. We studied 62 prospectively recruited cases with the clinical diagnosis of PPA and 31 healthy older control participants from the cohort study of the German consortium for frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). We determined cortical and BF atrophy based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Patterns of structural covariance of BF with cortical regions were determined using voxel-based partial least square analysis. We found significant atrophy of total BF and BF subregions in PPA patients compared with controls [F(1, 82) = 20.2, p covariance analysis in healthy controls revealed associations of the BF nuclei, particularly the NSP, with left hemispheric predominant prefrontal, lateral temporal, and parietal cortical areas, including Broca's speech area (p covariance of the BF nuclei mostly with right but not with left hemispheric cortical areas (p covariance of the BF with left hemispheric cortical areas in healthy aging towards right hemispheric cortical areas in PPA, possibly reflecting a consequence of the profound and early destruction of cortical language areas in PPA. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Young Human Cholinergic Neurons Respond to Physiological Regulators and Improve Cognitive Symptoms in an Animal Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Annamaria Morelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The degeneration of cholinergic neurons of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM in the basal forebrain (BF is associated to the cognitive decline of Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients. To date no resolutive therapies exist. Cell-based replacement therapy is a strategy currently under consideration, although the mechanisms underlying the generation of stem cell-derived NBM cholinergic neurons able of functional integration remain to be clarified. Since fetal brain is an optimal source of neuronal cells committed towards a specific phenotype, this study is aimed at isolating cholinergic neurons from the human fetal NBM (hfNBMs in order to study their phenotypic, maturational and functional properties. Extensive characterization confirmed the cholinergic identity of hfNBMs, including positivity for specific markers (such as choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholine (Ach release. Electrophysiological measurements provided the functional validation of hfNBM cells, which exhibited the activation of peculiar sodium (INa and potassium (IK currents, as well as the presence of functional cholinergic receptors. Accordingly, hfNBMs express both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, which were activated by Ach. The hfNBMs cholinergic phenotype was regulated by the nerve growth factor (NGF, through the activation of the high-affinity NGF receptor TrkA, as well as by 17-β-estradiol through a peculiar recruitment of its own receptors. When intravenously administered in NBM-lesioned rats, hfNBMs determined a significant improvement in memory functions. Histological examination of brain sections showed that hfNBMs (labeled with PKH26 fluorescent dye prior to administration reached the damaged brain areas. The study provides a useful model to study the ontogenetic mechanisms regulating the development and maintenance of the human brain cholinergic system and to assess new lines of research, including disease modeling, drug discovery and cell-based therapy for AD.

  9. Statins prevent cognitive impairment after sepsis by reverting neuroinflammation, and microcirculatory/endothelial dysfunction.

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    Reis, Patricia A; Alexandre, Pedro C B; D'Avila, Joana C; Siqueira, Luciana D; Antunes, Barbara; Estato, Vanessa; Tibiriça, Eduardo V; Verdonk, Franck; Sharshar, Tarek; Chrétien, Fabrice; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C; Bozza, Fernando A

    2017-02-01

    Acute brain dysfunction is a frequent condition in sepsis patients and is associated with increased mortality and long-term neurocognitive consequences. Impaired memory and executive function are common findings in sepsis survivors. Although neuroinflammation and blood-brain barrier dysfunction have been associated with acute brain dysfunction and its consequences, no specific treatments are available that prevent cognitive impairment after sepsis. Experimental sepsis was induced in Swiss Webster mice by intraperitoneal injection of cecal material (5mg/kg, 500μL). Control groups (n=5/group each experiment) received 500μL of saline. Support therapy recover (saline 0.9%, 1mL and imipenem 30mg/kg) were applied (6, 24 and 48h post injection, n=5-10/group, each experiment), together or not with additive orally treatment with statins (atorvastatin/simvastatin 20mg/kg b.w.). Survival rate was monitored at 6, 24 and 48h. In a setting of experiments, animals were euthanized at 6 and 24h after induction for biochemical, immunohistochemistry and intravital analysis. Statins did not prevented mortality in septic mice, however survivors presented lower clinical score. At another setting of experiments, after 15days, mice survivors from fecal supernatant peritoneal sepsis presented cognitive dysfunction for contextual hippocampal and aversive amygdala-dependent memories, which was prevented by atorvastatin/simvastatin treatment. Systemic and brain tissue levels of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines and activation of microglial were lower in septic mice treated with statins. Brain lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidase levels were also reduced by statins treatment. Intravital examination of the brain vessels of septic animals revealed decreased functional capillary density and increased rolling and adhesion of leukocytes, and blood flow impairment, which were reversed by treatment with statins. In addition, treatment with statins restored the cholinergic vasodilator response

  10. Proximal tubular dysfunction as an indicator of chronic graft dysfunction

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    N.O.S. Câmara

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available New strategies are being devised to limit the impact of renal sclerosis on graft function. Individualization of immunosuppression, specifically the interruption of calcineurin-inhibitors has been tried in order to promote better graft survival once chronic graft dysfunction has been established. However, the long-term impact of these approaches is still not totally clear. Nevertheless, patients at higher risk for tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis (TA/IF development should be carefully monitored for tubular function as well as glomerular performance. Since tubular-interstitial impairment is an early event in TA/IF pathogenesis and associated with graft function, it seems reasonable that strategies directed at assessing tubular structural integrity and function would yield important functional and prognostic data. The measurement of small proteins in urine such as α-1-microglobulin, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, alpha/pi S-glutathione transferases, β-2 microglobulin, and retinol binding protein is associated with proximal tubular cell dysfunction. Therefore, its straightforward assessment could provide a powerful tool in patient monitoring and ongoing clinical assessment of graft function, ultimately helping to facilitate longer patient and graft survival associated with good graft function.

  11. Erectile dysfunction in methadone maintenance patients: a cross sectional study in northern iran.

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    Seyed Hamzeh Hosseini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction affects quality of life and is a common dysfunction in drug abusers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of erectile dysfunction in drug abusers on methadone maintenance therapy to reduce this drug side effect in the future studies.This cross-sectional study was conducted with two hundred addicted individuals on methadone maintenance therapy. Erectile dysfunction was surveyed using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF. Finally, all data were collected and analyzed by descriptive statistics such as measures of variability and central tendency and Chi-squared (χ(2 test using SPSS Version18.0 software.The amount of the total frequency of erectile dysfunction was pointed 30 or less among the two hundred patients and included the moderate and severe cases. In this study, the number of patients with erectile dysfunction was fifty three (26.5%.The frequency of erectile dysfunction in our study was approximately 1.5 times of prevalence of the public (16.1%. In this study, all the factors related to sexual function such as erectile function, libido, orgasm, and sexual pleasure showed a decline among drug abusers.

  12. Erectile dysfunction in haemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumtaz, A.; Hussain, S.; Nazir, M.

    2009-01-01

    There is a very high prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction (ED) in dialysis patients. There is no as such available data on ED and factors affecting it in our patients. Analytical, cross-sectional, hospital based study conducted from January to March 2008, Haemodialysis unit of Shalimar and Mayo Hospital, Lahore. All male patients of end stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance haemodialysis therapy, whose spouses are alive and able to perform intercourse, were included in the study. Patient with cognitive and communication deficits were excluded from study. International index of erectile function-5 (IIEF-5), adopted in Urdu was used for the determination of prevalence of erectile function. Categorization of erectile dysfunction was done as mild, moderate and severe. Demographic data were collected and certain laboratory parameters (haemoglobin, haematocrit, urea, HBsAg and Anti HCV) were sent. Total numbers of patient were fifty. Major cause of ESRD was diabetes mellitus 28 (56%). Most of the patients 33 (66%) have passed 10th grade or they were under 10th grade. Prevalence of ED was 86% with mean IIEF-5 score of 10.36+-7.13. Majority of patients 33 (64.7%) were suffering from severe degree of ED. Factors responsible for ED are diabetes mellitus, age more than 50 year, high pre dialysis urea and Anti HCV positive patients. In this study, smoking, duration of dialysis and monthly spending is not related with ED. Majority of the patients suffering from ESRD, on maintenance haemodialysis are having ED. None of the patients suffering from ED were taking any treatment for it. Haemodialysis does not improve sexual dysfunction. Major factors responsible for ED are diabetes mellitus, age more than 50 years, high pre dialysis urea and Anti HCV positive patients. (author)

  13. Personality Changes in Patients with Vestibular Dysfunction

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    Paul eSmith

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The vestibular system is a sensory system that has evolved to detect linear and angular acceleration of the head in all planes so that the brain is not predominantly reliant on visual information to determine self-motion. Since the vestibular system first evolved in invertebrate species in order to detect gravitational vertical, it is likely that the central nervous system has developed a special dependence upon vestibular input. In addition to the deficits in eye movement and postural reflexes that occur following vestibular dysfunction, there is convincing evidence that vestibular loss also causes cognitive and emotional disorders, some of which may be due to the reflexive deficits and some of which are related to the role that ascending vestibular pathways to the limbic system and cortex play in the sense of spatial orientation. Beyond this, however, patients with vestibular disorders have been reported to experience other personality changes that suggest that vestibular sensation is implicated in the sense of self. These are depersonalisation and derealisation symptoms such as feeling ‘spaced out’, ‘body feeling strange’ and ‘not feeling in control of self’. We suggest in this review that these symptoms suggest that the vestibular system may make a unique contribution to the concept of self through the information regarding self-motion and self-location that it transmits, albeit indirectly, to areas of the brain such as the temporo-parietal junction.

  14. Cognitive dysfunction in pediatric multiple sclerosis

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    Suppiej A

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Agnese Suppiej,1 Elisa Cainelli1,2 1Child Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Pediatric University Hospital, Padua, Italy; 2Lifespan Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory (LCNL, Department of General Psychology, University of Padua, Italy Abstract: Cognitive and neuropsychological impairments are well documented in adult ­multiple sclerosis (MS. Research has only recently focused on cognitive disabilities in pediatric cases, highlighting some differences between pediatric and adult cases. Impairments in several functions have been reported in children, particularly in relation to attention, processing speed, visual–motor skills, and language. Language seems to be particularly vulnerable in pediatric MS, unlike in adults in whom it is usually preserved. Deficits in executive functions, which are considered MS-specific in adults, have been inconsistently reported in children. In children, as compared to adults, the relationship between cognitive dysfunctions and the two other main symptoms of MS, fatigue and psychiatric disorders, was poorly explored. Furthermore, data on the correlations of cognitive impairments with clinical and neuroimaging features are scarce in children, and the results are often incongruent; interestingly, involvement of corpus callosum and reduced thalamic volume differentiated patients identified as having a cognitive impairment from those without a cognitive impairment. Further studies about pediatric MS are needed in order to better understand the impact of the disease on brain development and the resulting effect on cognitive functions, particularly with respect to different therapeutic strategies. Keywords: central nervous system, child, deficit, IQ, inflammatory demyelination, neuropsychological

  15. Endothelial dysfunction: a comprehensive appraisal

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    Vilariño Jorge O

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The endothelium is a thin monocelular layer that covers all the inner surface of the blood vessels, separating the circulating blood from the tissues. It is not an inactive organ, quite the opposite. It works as a receptor-efector organ and responds to each physical or chemical stimulus with the release of the correct substance with which it may maintain vasomotor balance and vascular-tissue homeostasis. It has the property of producing, independently, both agonistic and antagonistic substances that help to keep homeostasis and its function is not only autocrine, but also paracrine and endocrine. In this way it modulates the vascular smooth muscle cells producing relaxation or contraction, and therefore vasodilatation or vasoconstriction. The endothelium regulating homeostasis by controlling the production of prothrombotic and antithrombotic components, and fibrynolitics and antifibrynolitics. Also intervenes in cell proliferation and migration, in leukocyte adhesion and activation and in immunological and inflammatory processes. Cardiovascular risk factors cause oxidative stress that alters the endothelial cells capacity and leads to the so called endothelial "dysfunction" reducing its capacity to maintain homeostasis and leads to the development of pathological inflammatory processes and vascular disease. There are different techniques to evaluate the endothelium functional capacity, that depend on the amount of NO produced and the vasodilatation effect. The percentage of vasodilatation with respect to the basal value represents the endothelial functional capacity. Taking into account that shear stress is one of the most important stimulants for the synthesis and release of NO, the non-invasive technique most often used is the transient flow-modulate "endothelium-dependent" post-ischemic vasodilatation, performed on conductance arteries such as the brachial, radial or femoral arteries. This vasodilatation is compared with the

  16. Drug addiction and sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaazaa, Adham; Bella, Anthony J; Shamloul, Rany

    2013-09-01

    This article attempts to review the most current and the well-established facts concerning drug addiction and sexual dysfunction. Surprisingly, even though alcohol is prevalent in many societies with many myths surrounding its sexual-enhancing effects, current scientific research cannot provide a solid conclusion on its effect on sexual function. Unfortunately, the same concept applies to tobacco smoking; however, most of the current knowledge tends to support the notion that it, indeed, can negatively affect sexual function. Similar ambiguities also prevail with substances of abuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Orgasmic Dysfunction after Radical Prostatectomy

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    Paolo Capogrosso

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In addition to urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction, several other impairments of sexual function potentially occurring after radical prostatectomy (RP have been described; as a whole, these less frequently assessed disorders are referred to as neglected side effects. In particular, orgasmic dysfunctions (ODs have been reported in a non-negligible number of cases, with detrimental impacts on patients’ overall sexual life. This review aimed to comprehensively discuss the prevalence and physiopathology of post-RP ODs, as well as potential treatment options. Orgasm-associated incontinence (climacturia has been reported to occur in between 20% and 93% of patients after RP. Similarly, up to 19% of patients complain of postoperative orgasm-associated pain, mainly referred pain at the level of the penis. Moreover, impairment in the sensation of orgasm or even complete anorgasmia has been reported in 33% to 77% of patients after surgery. Clinical and surgical factors including age, the use of a nerve-sparing technique, and robotic surgery have been variably associated with the risk of ODs after RP, although robust and reliable data allowing for a proper estimation of the risk of postoperative orgasmic function impairment are still lacking. Likewise, little evidence regarding the management of postoperative ODs is currently available. In general, physicians should be aware of the prevalence of ODs after RP, in order to properly counsel all patients both preoperatively and immediately post-RP about the potential occurrence of bothersome and distressful changes in their overall sexual function.

  18. Orgasmic Dysfunction after Radical Prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventimiglia, Eugenio; Cazzaniga, Walter; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    In addition to urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction, several other impairments of sexual function potentially occurring after radical prostatectomy (RP) have been described; as a whole, these less frequently assessed disorders are referred to as neglected side effects. In particular, orgasmic dysfunctions (ODs) have been reported in a non-negligible number of cases, with detrimental impacts on patients' overall sexual life. This review aimed to comprehensively discuss the prevalence and physiopathology of post-RP ODs, as well as potential treatment options. Orgasm-associated incontinence (climacturia) has been reported to occur in between 20% and 93% of patients after RP. Similarly, up to 19% of patients complain of postoperative orgasm-associated pain, mainly referred pain at the level of the penis. Moreover, impairment in the sensation of orgasm or even complete anorgasmia has been reported in 33% to 77% of patients after surgery. Clinical and surgical factors including age, the use of a nerve-sparing technique, and robotic surgery have been variably associated with the risk of ODs after RP, although robust and reliable data allowing for a proper estimation of the risk of postoperative orgasmic function impairment are still lacking. Likewise, little evidence regarding the management of postoperative ODs is currently available. In general, physicians should be aware of the prevalence of ODs after RP, in order to properly counsel all patients both preoperatively and immediately post-RP about the potential occurrence of bothersome and distressful changes in their overall sexual function. PMID:28459142

  19. Insulin Resistance and Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance precedes and predicts the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in susceptible humans, underscoring its important role in the complex pathogenesis of this disease. Insulin resistance contributes to multiple tissue defects characteristic of T2D, including reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive tissues, increased hepatic glucose production, increased lipolysis in adipose tissue, and altered insulin secretion. Studies of individuals with insulin resistance, both with established T2D and high-risk individuals, have consistently demonstrated a diverse array of defects in mitochondrial function (i.e., bioenergetics, biogenesis and dynamics). However, it remains uncertain whether mitochondrial dysfunction is primary (critical initiating defect) or secondary to the subtle derangements in glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and defective insulin secretion present early in the course of disease development. In this chapter, we will present the evidence linking mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance, and review the potential for mitochondrial targets as a therapeutic approach for T2D.

  20. Cognitive Dysfunctions in Epileptic Syndromes

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    Semih Ayta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Some children with epilepsy display a low level of intelligence, learning disabilities, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, mood disorders and anxiety. Besides specific learning disabilities like reading, writing, arithmetics, learning problems may involve other major areas of intellectual functions such as speech and language, attention, memory, fine motor coordination. Even in the presence of common pathology that leads to epilepsy and mental dysfunctions, seizures cause additional cognitive problems. Age at seizure onset, type of seizures and epileptic syndromes are some variables that determine the effect of epilepsy on cognition. As recurrent seizures may have some negative impact on the developing brain, the use of antiepileptic drugs should be considered not only to aim reducing seizures but also to prevent possible seizure-induced cortical dysfunctions. Epilepsy is a disorder requiring a complicated psychological adjustment for the patients and indeed is a disease that affects the whole family. Thus, the management of epilepsy must include educational, psychotherapeutic and behavioral interventions as well as drug treatment.