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Sample records for dysentery bacillary

  1. [Study on influence of floods on bacillary dysentery incidence in Liaoning province, 2004 -2010].

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    Xu, X; Liu, Z D; Han, D B; Xu, Y Q; Jiang, B F

    2016-05-01

    To understand the influence of floods on bacillary dysentery in Liaoning province. The monthly surveillance data of bacillary dysentery, floods, meteorological and demographic data in Liaoning from 2004 to 2010 were collected. Panel Poisson regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the influence of floods on the incidence of bacillary dysentery in Liaoning. The mean monthly morbidity of bacillary dysentery was 2.17 per 100 000 during the study period, the bacillary dysentery cases mainly occurred in during July-September. Spearman correlation analysis showed that no lagged effect was detected in the influence of floods on the incidence of bacillary dysentery. After adjusting the influence of meteorological factors, panel data analysis showed that the influence of floods on the incidence of bacillary dysentery existed and the incidence rate ratio was 1.439 4(95%CI: 1.408 1-1.471 4). Floods could significantly increase the risk of bacillary dysentery for population in Liaoning.

  2. Patterns of Bacillary Dysentery in China, 2005–2010

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    Han Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the incidence of bacillary dysentery in China has been declining progressively, a considerable disease burden still exists. Few studies have analyzed bacillary dysentery across China and knowledge gaps still exist in the aspects of geographic distribution and ecological drivers, seasonality and its association with meteorological factors, urban-rural disparity, prevalence and distribution of Shigella species. Here, we performed nationwide analyses to fill the above gaps. Geographically, we found that incidence increased along an east-west gradient which was inversely related to the economic conditions of China. Two large endemically high-risk regions in western China and their ecological drivers were identified for the first time. We characterized seasonality of bacillary dysentery incidence and assessed its association with meteorological factors, and saw that it exhibits north-south differences in peak duration, relative amplitude and key meteorological factors. Urban and rural incidences among China’s cities were compared, and disparity associated with urbanization level was invariant in most cities. Balanced decrease of urban and rural incidence was observed for all provinces except Hunan. S. flexneri and S. sonnei were identified as major causative species. Increasing prevalence of S. sonnei and geographic distribution of Shigella species were associated with economic status. Findings and inferences from this study draw broader pictures of bacillary dysentery in mainland China and could provide useful information for better interventions and public health planning.

  3. Distributed lag effects and vulnerable groups of floods on bacillary dysentery in Huaihua, China

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    Liu, Zhi-Dong; Li, Jing; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Guo-Yong; Xu, Xin; Gao, Lu; Liu, Xue-Na; Liu, Qi-Yong; Jiang, Bao-Fa

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the potential links between floods and bacillary dysentery in China is important to develop appropriate intervention programs after floods. This study aimed to explore the distributed lag effects of floods on bacillary dysentery and to identify the vulnerable groups in Huaihua, China. Weekly number of bacillary dysentery cases from 2005-2011 were obtained during flood season. Flood data and meteorological data over the same period were obtained from the China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System. To examine the distributed lag effects, a generalized linear mixed model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model were developed to assess the relationship between floods and bacillary dysentery. A total of 3,709 cases of bacillary dysentery were notified over the study period. The effects of floods on bacillary dysentery continued for approximately 3 weeks with a cumulative risk ratio equal to 1.52 (95% CI: 1.08-2.12). The risks of bacillary dysentery were higher in females, farmers and people aged 15-64 years old. This study suggests floods have increased the risk of bacillary dysentery with 3 weeks’ effects, especially for the vulnerable groups identified. Public health programs should be taken to prevent and control a potential risk of bacillary dysentery after floods.

  4. Quantifying the Impact of Floods on Bacillary Dysentery in Dalian City, China, From 2004 to 2010.

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    Xu, Xin; Ding, Guoyong; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Zhidong; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2017-04-01

    Studies quantifying relationships between floods and diarrheal diseases have mainly been conducted in low-latitude regions. It's therefore increasingly important to examine these relationships in midlatitude regions, where they may have significant public health implications. This study aimed to examine the association between floods and bacillary dysentery in the city of Dalian, China. A generalized additive mixed model was applied to examine the association between floods and bacillary dysentery. The relative risk (RR) of flood impact on bacillary dysentery was estimated. A total of 18,976 cases of bacillary dysentery were reported in Dalian during the study period. Two weeks' lagged effect was detected from the impact of floods on bacillary dysentery. The RR of flood impact on bacillary dysentery was 1.17 (95% CI: 1.03-1.33). Floods have significantly increased the risk of bacillary dysentery in Dalian. More studies should focus on the association between floods and infectious diseases in different regions. Our findings have significant implications for managing the negative health impact of floods in the midlatitude region of China. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:190-195).

  5. Quantitative analysis of burden of bacillary dysentery associated with floods in Hunan, China.

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    Liu, Xuena; Liu, Zhidong; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-03-15

    Jishou and Huaihua, two cities in the west of Hunan Province, had suffered from severe floods because of long-lasting and heavy rainfall during the end of June and July 2012. However, the Disability Adjusted of Life Years (DALYs) of bacillary dysentery caused by the floods have not been examined before. The study aimed to quantify the impact of the floods on the burden of bacillary dysentery in Hunan, China. A unidirectional case-crossover study was firstly conducted to determine the relationship between daily cases of bacillary dysentery and the floods in Jishou and Huaihua of Hunan Province in 2012. Odds ratios (ORs) estimated by conditional logistic regression were used to quantify the risk of the floods on the disease. The years lived with disability (YLDs) of bacillary dysentery attributable to floods were then estimated based on the WHO framework to calculate potential impact fraction in the Burden of Disease study. Multivariable analysis showed that floods were significantly associated with an increased risk of the number of cases of bacillary dysentery (OR=3.270, 95% CI: 1.299-8.228 in Jishou; OR=2.212, 95% CI: 1.052-4.650 in Huaihua). The strongest effect was shown with a 1-day lag in Jishou and a 4-day lag in Huaihua. Attributable YLD per 1000 of bacillary dysentery due to the floods was 0.0296 in Jishou and 0.0157 in Huaihua. Our study confirms that floods have significantly increased the risks of bacillary dysentery in the study areas. In addition, a sudden and severe flooding with a shorter duration may cause more burdens of bacillary dysentery than a persistent and moderate flooding. Public health preparation and intervention programs should be taken to reduce and prevent a potential risk of bacillary dysentery epidemics after floods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Association between meteorological factors and bacillary dysentery incidence in Chaoyang city, China: an ecological study.

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    Zhao, Yang; Zhu, Yaxin; Zhu, Zhiwei; Qu, Bo

    2016-12-09

    To quantify the relationship between meteorological factors and bacillary dysentery incidence. Ecological study. We collected bacillary dysentery incidences and meteorological data of Chaoyang city from the year 1981 to 2010. The climate in this city was a typical northern temperate continental monsoon. All meteorological factors in this study were divided into 4 latent factors: temperature, humidity, sunshine and airflow. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the relationship between meteorological factors and the incidence of bacillary dysentery. Incidences of bacillary dysentery were obtained from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Chaoyang city, and meteorological data were collected from the Bureau of Meteorology in Chaoyang city. The indexes including χ(2), root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), comparative fit index (CFI), standardised root mean square residual (SRMR) and goodness-of-fit index (GFI) were used to evaluate the goodness-of-fit of the theoretical model to the data. The factor loads were used to explore quantitative relationship between bacillary dysentery incidences and meteorological factors. The goodness-of-fit results of the model showing that RMSEA=0.08, GFI=0.84, CFI=0.88, SRMR=0.06 and the χ(2) value is 231.95 (p=0.0) with 15 degrees of freedom. Temperature and humidity factors had positive correlations with incidence of bacillary dysentery, with the factor load of 0.59 and 0.78, respectively. Sunshine had a negative correlation with bacillary dysentery incidence, with a factor load of -0.15. Humidity and temperature should be given greater consideration in bacillary dysentery prevention measures for northern temperate continental monsoon climates, such as that of Chaoyang. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Socio-economic factors of bacillary dysentery based on spatial correlation analysis in Guangxi Province, China.

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    Chengjing Nie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the past decade, bacillary dysentery was still a big public health problem in China, especially in Guangxi Province, where thousands of severe diarrhea cases occur every year. METHODS: Reported bacillary dysentery cases in Guangxi Province were obtained from local Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control. The 14 socio-economic indexes were selected as potential explanatory variables for the study. The spatial correlation analysis was used to explore the associations between the selected factors and bacillary dysentery incidence at county level, which was based on the software of ArcGIS10.2 and GeoDA 0.9.5i. RESULTS: The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of younger than 5-year-old children in total population, the number of hospitals per thousand persons and the rates of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. But the proportion of secondary industry, per capital GDP, per capital government revenue, rural population proportion, popularization rate of tap water in rural area, access rate to the sanitation toilets in rural, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and the rate of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The socio-economic factors can be divided into four aspects, including economic development, health development, medical development and human own condition. The four aspects were not isolated from each other, but interacted with each other.

  8. Investigating the effects of climate variations on bacillary dysentery incidence in northeast China using ridge regression and hierarchical cluster analysis

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    Guo Junqiao

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of climate variations on bacillary dysentery incidence have gained more recent concern. However, the multi-collinearity among meteorological factors affects the accuracy of correlation with bacillary dysentery incidence. Methods As a remedy, a modified method to combine ridge regression and hierarchical cluster analysis was proposed for investigating the effects of climate variations on bacillary dysentery incidence in northeast China. Results All weather indicators, temperatures, precipitation, evaporation and relative humidity have shown positive correlation with the monthly incidence of bacillary dysentery, while air pressure had a negative correlation with the incidence. Ridge regression and hierarchical cluster analysis showed that during 1987–1996, relative humidity, temperatures and air pressure affected the transmission of the bacillary dysentery. During this period, all meteorological factors were divided into three categories. Relative humidity and precipitation belonged to one class, temperature indexes and evaporation belonged to another class, and air pressure was the third class. Conclusion Meteorological factors have affected the transmission of bacillary dysentery in northeast China. Bacillary dysentery prevention and control would benefit from by giving more consideration to local climate variations.

  9. Association between flood and the morbidity of bacillary dysentery in Zibo City, China: a symmetric bidirectional case-crossover study.

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    Zhang, Feifei; Ding, Guoyong; Liu, Zhidong; Zhang, Caixia; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between daily morbidity of bacillary dysentery and flood in 2007 in Zibo City, China, using a symmetric bidirectional case-crossover study. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) on the basis of multivariate model and stratified analysis at different lagged days were calculated to estimate the risk of flood on bacillary dysentery. A total of 902 notified bacillary dysentery cases were identified during the study period. The median of case distribution was 7-year-old and biased to children. Multivariable analysis showed that flood was associated with an increased risk of bacillary dysentery, with the largest OR of 1.849 (95 % CI 1.229-2.780) at 2-day lag. Gender-specific analysis showed that there was a significant association between flood and bacillary dysentery among males only (ORs >1 from lag 1 to lag 5), with the strongest lagged effect at 2-day lag (OR = 2.820, 95 % CI 1.629-4.881), and the result of age-specific indicated that youngsters had a slightly larger risk to develop flood-related bacillary dysentery than older people at one shorter lagged day (OR = 2.000, 95 % CI 1.128-3.546 in youngsters at lag 2; OR = 1.879, 95 % CI 1.069-3.305 in older people at lag 3). Our study has confirmed that there is a positive association between flood and the risk of bacillary dysentery in selected study area. Males and youngsters may be the vulnerable and high-risk populations to develop the flood-related bacillary dysentery. Results from this study will provide recommendations to make available strategies for government to deal with negative health outcomes due to floods.

  10. Association between flood and the morbidity of bacillary dysentery in Zibo City, China: a symmetric bidirectional case-crossover study

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    Zhang, Feifei; Ding, Guoyong; Liu, Zhidong; Zhang, Caixia; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between daily morbidity of bacillary dysentery and flood in 2007 in Zibo City, China, using a symmetric bidirectional case-crossover study. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) on the basis of multivariate model and stratified analysis at different lagged days were calculated to estimate the risk of flood on bacillary dysentery. A total of 902 notified bacillary dysentery cases were identified during the study period. The median of case distribution was 7-year-old and biased to children. Multivariable analysis showed that flood was associated with an increased risk of bacillary dysentery, with the largest OR of 1.849 (95 % CI 1.229-2.780) at 2-day lag. Gender-specific analysis showed that there was a significant association between flood and bacillary dysentery among males only (ORs >1 from lag 1 to lag 5), with the strongest lagged effect at 2-day lag (OR = 2.820, 95 % CI 1.629-4.881), and the result of age-specific indicated that youngsters had a slightly larger risk to develop flood-related bacillary dysentery than older people at one shorter lagged day (OR = 2.000, 95 % CI 1.128-3.546 in youngsters at lag 2; OR = 1.879, 95 % CI 1.069-3.305 in older people at lag 3). Our study has confirmed that there is a positive association between flood and the risk of bacillary dysentery in selected study area. Males and youngsters may be the vulnerable and high-risk populations to develop the flood-related bacillary dysentery. Results from this study will provide recommendations to make available strategies for government to deal with negative health outcomes due to floods.

  11. The Effects of Floods on the Incidence of Bacillary Dysentery in Baise (Guangxi Province, China) from 2004 to 2012.

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    Liu, Xuena; Liu, Zhidong; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Baofa

    2017-02-12

    Research shows potential effects of floods on intestinal infections. Baise, a city in Guangxi Province (China) had experienced several floods between 2004 and 2012 due to heavy and constant precipitation. This study aimed to examine the relationship between floods and the incidence of bacillary dysentery in Baise. A mixed generalized additive model and Spearman correlation were applied to analyze the relationship between monthly incidence of bacillary dysentery and 14 flood events with two severity levels. Data collected from 2004 to 2010 were utilized to estimate the parameters, whereas data from 2011 to 2012 were used to validate the model. There were in total 9255 cases of bacillary dysentery included in our analyses. According to the mixed generalized additive model, the relative risks (RR) of moderate and severe floods on the incidence of bacillary dysentery were 1.40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-1.69) and 1.78 (95% CI: 1.61-1.97), respectively. The regression analysis also indicated that the flood duration was negatively associated with the incidence of bacillary dysentery (with RR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.40-0.86). Therfore, this research suggests that floods exert a significant part in enhancing the risk of bacillary dysentery in Baise. Moreover, severe floods have a higher proportional contribution to the incidence of bacillary dysentery than moderate floods. In addition, short-term floods may contribute more to the incidence of bacillary dysentery than a long-term flood. The findings from this research will provide more evidence to reduce health risks related to floods.

  12. The changing epidemiology of bacillary dysentery and characteristics of antimicrobial resistance of Shigella isolated in China from 2004-2014.

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    Chang, Zhaorui; Zhang, Jing; Ran, Lu; Sun, Junling; Liu, Fengfeng; Luo, Li; Zeng, Lingjia; Wang, Liping; Li, Zhongjie; Yu, Hongjie; Liao, Qiaohong

    2016-11-18

    Bacillary dysentery caused by bacteria of the genus Shigella is a significant public health problem in developing countries such as China. The objective of this study was to analyze the epidemiological pattern of bacillary dysentery, the diversity of the causative agent, and the antimicrobial resistance patterns of Shigella spp. for the purpose of determining the most effective allocation of resources and prioritization of interventions. Surveillance data were acquired from the National Infectious Disease Information Reporting System (2004-2014) and from the sentinel hospital-based surveillance system (2005-2014). We analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution of bacillary dysentery, age and sex distribution, species diversity, and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Shigella spp. The surveillance registry included over 3 million probable cases of bacillary dysentery during the period 2004-2014. The annual incidence rate of bacillary dysentery decreased from 38.03 cases per 100,000 person-years in 2004 to 11.24 cases per 100,000 person-years in 2014. The case-fatality rate decreased from 0.028% in 2004 to 0.003% in 2014. Children aged Shigella flexneri was the most prevalent species that caused bacillary dysentery in China (63.86%), followed by Shigella sonnei (34.89%). Shigella isolates were highly resistant to nalidixic acid (89.13%), ampicillin (88.90%), tetracycline (88.43%), and sulfamethoxazole (82.92%). During the study period, isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime increased from 8.53 and 7.87% in 2005 to 44.65 and 29.94% in 2014, respectively. The incidence rate of bacillary dysentery has undergone an obvious decrease from 2004 to 2014. Priority interventions should be delivered to populations in northwest China and to individuals aged Shigella is a serious public health problem and it is important to consider the susceptibility profile of isolates before determining treatment.

  13. Spatiotemporal pattern of bacillary dysentery in China from 1990 to 2009: what is the driver behind?

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    Zhiwei Xu

    Full Text Available Little is known about the spatiotemporal pattern of bacillary dysentery (BD in China. This study assessed the geographic distribution and seasonality of BD in China over the past two decades.Data on monthly BD cases in 31 provinces of China from January 1990 to December 2009 obtained from Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and data on demographic and geographic factors, as well as climatic factors, were compiled. The spatial distributions of BD in the four periods across different provinces were mapped, and heat maps were created to present the seasonality of BD by geography. A cosinor function combined with Poisson regression was used to quantify the seasonal parameters of BD, and a regression analysis was conducted to identify the potential drivers of morbidity and seasonality of BD.Although most regions of China have experienced considerable declines in BD morbidity over the past two decades, Beijing and Ningxia still had high BD morbidity in 2009. BD morbidity decreased more slowly in North-west China than other regions. BD in China mainly peaked from July to September, with heterogeneity in peak time between regions. Relative humidity was associated with BD morbidity and peak time, and latitude was the major predictor of BD amplitude.The transmission of BD was heterogeneous in China. Improved sanitation and hygiene in North-west China, and better access to clean water and food in the big floating population in some metropolises could be the focus of future preventive interventions against BD. BD control efforts should put more emphasis on those dry areas in summer.

  14. Temperature and atmospheric pressure may be considered as predictors for the occurrence of bacillary dysentery in Guangzhou, Southern China

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    Tiegang Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The control of bacillary dysentery (BD remains a big challenge for China. Methods Negative binomial multivariable regression was used to study relationships between meteorological variables and the occurrence of BD during the period of 2006-2012. Results Each 1°C rise of temperature corresponded to an increase of 3.60% (95%CI, 3.03% to 4.18% in the monthly number of BD cases, whereas a 1 hPa rise in atmospheric pressure corresponded to a decrease in the number of BD cases by 2.85% (95%CI = 3.34% to 2.37% decrease. Conclusions Temperature and atmospheric pressure may be considered as predictors for the occurrence of BD in Guangzhou.

  15. Applied mixed generalized additive model to assess the effect of temperature on the incidence of bacillary dysentery and its forecast.

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    Weiping Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Association between bacillary dysentery (BD disease and temperature has been reported in some studies applying Poisson regression model, however the effect estimation might be biased due to the data autocorrelation. Furthermore the temperature effect distributed in the time of different lags has not been studied either. The purpose of this work was to obtaining the association between the BD counts and the climatic factors such as temperature in the form of the weighted averages, concerning the autocorrelation pattern of the model residuals, and to make short term predictions using the model. The data was collected in the city of Shanghai from 2004 to 2008. METHODS: We used mixed generalized additive model (MGAM to analyze data on bacillary dysentery, temperature and other covariates with autoregressive random effect. Short term predictions were made using MGAM with the moving average of the BD counts. MAIN RESULTS: Our results showed that temperature was significant linearly associated with the logarithm of BD count for temperature in the range from 12°C to 22°C. Optimal weights in the temperature effect have been obtained, in which the one of 1-day-lag was close to 0, and the one of 2-days-lag was the maximum (p-value of the difference was less than 0.05. The predictive model was showing good fitness on the internal data with R(2 value 0.875, and the good short term prediction effect on the external data with correlation coefficient to be 0.859. CONCLUSION: According to the model estimation, corresponding Risk Ratio to affect BD was close to 1.1 when temperature effect goes up for 1°C in the range from 12°C to 22°C. And the 1-day incubation period could be inferred from the model estimation. Good prediction has been made using the predictive MGAM.

  16. The Rising Dominance of Shigella sonnei: An Intercontinental Shift in the Etiology of Bacillary Dysentery.

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    Corinne N Thompson

    Full Text Available Shigellosis is the major global cause of dysentery. Shigella sonnei, which has historically been more commonly isolated in developed countries, is undergoing an unprecedented expansion across industrializing regions in Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East. The precise reasons underpinning the epidemiological distribution of the various Shigella species and this global surge in S. sonnei are unclear but may be due to three major environmental pressures. First, natural passive immunization with the bacterium Plesiomonas shigelloides is hypothesized to protect populations with poor water supplies against S. sonnei. Improving the quality of drinking water supplies would, therefore, result in a reduction in P. shigelloides exposure and a subsequent reduction in environmental immunization against S. sonnei. Secondly, the ubiquitous amoeba species Acanthamoeba castellanii has been shown to phagocytize S. sonnei efficiently and symbiotically, thus allowing the bacteria access to a protected niche in which to withstand chlorination and other harsh environmental conditions in temperate countries. Finally, S. sonnei has emerged from Europe and begun to spread globally only relatively recently. A strong selective pressure from localized antimicrobial use additionally appears to have had a dramatic impact on the evolution of the S. sonnei population. We hypothesize that S. sonnei, which exhibits an exceptional ability to acquire antimicrobial resistance genes from commensal and pathogenic bacteria, has a competitive advantage over S. flexneri, particularly in areas with poorly regulated antimicrobial use. Continuing improvement in the quality of global drinking water supplies alongside the rapid development of antimicrobial resistance predicts the burden and international distribution of S. sonnei will only continue to grow. An effective vaccine against S. sonnei is overdue and may become one of our only weapons against this increasingly dominant and

  17. 应用BP神经网络模型预测福州市山区细菌性痢疾流行%PREDICTION OF BACILLARY DYSENTERY BY BP NEURAL NETWORK MODEL IN MOUNTAINOUS AREA IN FUZHOU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈波; 王李仁; 许旭艳; 郑能雄

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探索BP神经网络在细菌性痢疾预测模型的应用,为细菌性痢疾的预防控制措施提供科学依据.[方法]用Matlab7.2软件包中的神经网络工具箱,以1988~2007年的资料建立福州市山区菌痢流行的BP神经网络模型,并以2008年的资料验证其预测成功率.[结果]神经网络经学习和训练,训练误差下降并趋于稳定,回代相关系数为0.815,模型的预测成功率为10/12.[结论] BP神经网络在气象要素与菌痢发病之间建模是可行的,可以作为预测菌痢流行的一种新方法.%[Objective]To explore application of BP neural network model in prediction of bacillary dysentery, in order to provide the scientific data for making strategies.[Methods]The forecasting model for bacillary dysentery was established by using the neural network toolbox of Matlab7.2 software package.In the studies of forecasting model, the data in Fuzhou from 1988 to 2007 were chosen to analyze.The established forecasting model was also tested by the data of bacillary dysentery in 2008.[Results]After training the neural network, the error of performance decreased and the coefficient of regression was 0.815.The efficiency of the forecasting model for bacillary dysentery was 10/12.[Conclusion]BP neural network model is feasible to analyze the relation of meteorological factors and bacillary dysentery.BP neural network model could be used as a new effective method for forecasting of bacillary dysentery.

  18. 一起山洪暴发污染水源引起菌痢暴发疫情调查%An outbreak of bacillary dysentery caused by flash floods polluted water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 马秀兰; 李志红; 高文征

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解某村细菌性痢疾暴发特点和规律,确定感染来源及传播途径,采取相应措施,控制疫情.方法 对该村全体村民进行排查,对病人及密切接触者进行流行病学调查,同时开展水源及外环境调查,采集饮用水及病人粪便进行实验室检测.结果 该村共发生菌痢病人82例,罹患率为19.52%,经流行病学调查发现患者均引用同一水源,外出不饮用此水源者不患病,实验室检测饮用水大肠杆菌严重超标,从病人粪便中检出宋内氏菌,外环境调查:出现病人前两天该地区普降几十年不遇的暴雨,雨水冲毁了蓄水池防护墙体,使源头水受到污染.结论 本次疫情是由山洪爆发污染水源所致.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the characteristic and the rule of the bacillary dysentery that erupl in village, find the evidence of the source of infection and the way of infection, to take the corresponding measures lo control the bacillary dysentery outbreak. METHODS Carried out epidemiological investigations in villagers, included the close contacts, meanwhile investigate water and environments, collected the drinking water and patients' stool for laboratory test. RESULTS There were 82 patients wilh bacillary dysentery, the attack rate was 19.52%. Epidemiological survey found that all the patients used the same water source, person who didn't use this source were not sick. Laboratory test of drinking water showed E. coli far exceeded, from the stool of patients detected out Sonne dysentery. External environmental investigation found that before the outbreak, the heavy storm which not seen for decades, destroyed the protective wall, so that water source was contaminated. CONCLUSION This outbreak is caused by the flash floods contaminated water sources.

  19. 上海市宝山区细菌性痢疾发病率的ARIMA模型研究%Research on ARIMA model of the incidence of bacillary dysentery in Baosban District of Shanghai City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向伦辉; 袁国平; 茅俭英

    2011-01-01

    Objective To construct the autoregressive integrated moving average model (ARIMA) for predicting the incidence of bacillary dysentery in Baoshan District of Shanghai City. Methods Samples which caught the incidence of bacillary dysentery of native and floating population from 1997 to 2010 in Baoshan District were collected. SPSS 16.0 was used to fit ARIMA, parameter of model was estimated based on maximum likelihood. The structure was determined according to criteria of residual un-correlation and concision, the order of model was confirmed through Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC). Q statistic was used to verify the applicability of the model. Results Statistics assisted estimation of the significance of the fitted autoregressive coefficients. AIC=20.331, BIC = 22.591, statistic of Q(7.060) was smaller than X2/0.05,13(29.819), verifying the applicability of ARIMA (1,1,1) model. It was predicted that the incidence of bacillary dysentery of Baoshan District of Shanghai City in 2011 to 2013 would decrease slightly. Conclusions The ARIMA (1,1,1) model can be used to analyze the bacillary dysentery incidence and make a short-term prediction.%目的 构建上海市宝山区细菌性痢疾发病率的差分自回归移动平均模型( autoregressive integrated moving average model,ARIMA),预测上海市宝山区细菌性痢疾的发病趋势.方法 引用1997 - 2010年上海市宝山区细菌性痢疾年发病率资料,通过SPSS 16.0软件拟合ARIMA模型,采用最大似然法估计模型参数,按照残差不相关原则、简洁原则确定模型结构,依据赤池信息量(Akaike information criterion,AIC)与贝叶斯信息量(Bayesian information criterion,BIC)准则确定模型的阶数,用Q统计量对模型适应性进行检验,建立ARIMA预测模型.结果 自回归参数差异有统计学意义,AIC=20.331,BIC=22.591,统计量Q=7.060<x20.05,13(29.819),检验表明ARIMA(1,1,1)模型是适合的.预测宝山区2011

  20. 三峡库区湖北宜昌段细菌性痢疾发病风险的GM(1,1)模型预测分析%Analysis of bacillary dysentery incidence risk of GM ( 1,1 )model prediction of the Three Gorges Reservoir (Yichang section)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小兵; 杨东杰; 鲁亮; 郭玉红; 赵鑫; 贺圆圆; 张皓; 蒋静

    2011-01-01

    目的 预测三峡库区湖北宜昌段细菌性痢疾发病趋势,为制定针对性的预防控制措施提供依据.方法 根据三峡库区湖北宜昌段1997-2010年细菌性痢疾发病率,建立GM(1,1)模型,进行中长期预测研究.结果 预测模型精度检验C=0.2376,P=1.0,外推预测理想.预测结果显示,2011-2013年三峡库区湖北宜昌段细菌性痢疾年发病率分别为0.985/10万,0.688/10万,0.336/10万.结论 预测表明2011-2013年三峡库区宜昌段细菌性痢疾年发病率呈下降趋势.%Objective To predict the incidence trend of bacillary dysentery in the Three Gorges Reservoir (Yichang section) , and make pertinent measures for prevention. Methods The grey dynamic model was established with the incidence rates of bacillary dysentery in Yichang from 1997 to 2010. The model was used to predict the trend of dysentery for the year 2011 to 2014. Results The model predicted that the incidence rate of bacillary dysentery might be 0.985, 0.688, 0.481 per 100000 person-year respectively for the year 2011 to 2013. Conclusion The model suggested the downward trend of the disease incidence. Comprehensive measures should still be taken to control the risk of dysentery disease transmission in the Three Gorges Reservoir.

  1. 细菌性痢疾流行特点及志贺菌耐药性研究%The epidemic characteristics of Bacillary dysentery and drug resistance of Shigella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国祥; 张传领; 沈利蒙; 楚旭

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究近年来肠道门诊细菌性痢疾流行概况及志贺菌耐药特点,为细菌性痢疾临床治疗和预防控制提供依据.方法 采用志贺菌及沙门菌琼脂培养基培养,可疑菌株经VITEK-32细菌鉴定仪及血清凝集鉴定到群,K-B法检测抗菌药物的酎药性,纸片确认试验检测产超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs),三维试验检测AmpCp-内酰胺酶(AmpC酶).结果 279例细菌性痢疾感染患者主要以宋内志贺菌(201株,占72.4%)和福氏志贺菌(76株,占27.2%)感染为主,且患者主要集中在0~11岁年龄段,占总感染率的71.3%(199/279),高发季节为7-11月.药敏结果显示,志贺菌对氨苄西林、哌拉西林和复方新诺明的酎药率较高,均>60%;对环丙沙星和左旋氧氟沙星的耐药率较低,均<40%,未发现耐哌拉西林/他唑巴坦和亚胺培南的志贺菌.151株志贺菌纸片确认试验为产ESBLs阳性菌株,占54.1%(151/279);未发现AmpC酶阳性者.结论 我院肠道门诊细菌性痢疾以感染宋内志贺菌和福氏志贺菌的婴幼儿为主,且宋内志贺菌有增高趋势,2种志贺菌对部分种类的抗菌药物药敏性差别较大,临床医师应根据菌群鉴定及药物敏感试验结果合理选择抗菌药物.%To investigate the epidemic characteristics and antibiotic resistance of Shigella group causing Bacillary dysen-tery in patients in recent years for the guidance of clinical treatment and prevention and control of bacillary dysentery. Suspi-cious strains isolated from Shigella and Salmonella agar culture were identified to the group by VITEK-32 instrument and ser-um agglutination of bacteria, and K-B method was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The test of paper confirm was used to studuy the producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases ( ESBLs), and three-dimensional test for detection AmpC β lacta-mases ( AmpC enzymes). Among 279 infected patients, the most common groups were Shigella sonnei (201 striains

  2. 深圳市菌痢流行分子特征与对质粒介导的喹诺酮耐药机制%The molecular characteristics of bacillary dysentery epidemic and the antibiotic resistance mechanisms of plasmid mediated quinolones in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡长争; 舒少为; 陈爱平; 黄国清; 周美容

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the molecular characteristics of bacillary dysentery epidemic and the antibiotic resistance mechanisms of plasmid mediated quinolones in Shenzhen.Methods Clinical specimens were collected in 18 hospitals in Shenzhen form January 2010 to Febuary 2014 and isolation cultivation and serotype identiifcation were applied. The plasmid mediated main type of quinolones genes were detected by PCR. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was tested by Agar dilution method. Transcojugants genotype and drug resistance were tested by joint transfer experiment.Results Serological distribution: during all 126 strains ofShigella, there were 108 (87.51%) strains ofShigellalfexneri and 16 (12.70%) strains ofShigella sonnei. The superiority serotype of shigella flexneri was serumⅣ-C, with 42 strains counted for 38.89%. Commonly used antimicrobial susceptibility situation analysis: the sensitivity ofShigella lfexneri to NAl, FEP and GM were signiifcantly lower than that ofShigella sonnei, while the sensitivity ofShigella lfexneri to LEV, GIP, NOR, CAZ and AMC were signiifcantly higher than that ofShigella sonnei (P all < 0.05). Ampliifcation results and sequence analysis: 3 (2.38%) cases with qnr genes, 4 cases with aac6’ genes, and 1 case with qepA genes were checked out in 126 strainsShigella. Minimum inhibitory concentration: compared with receptor bacteria, the MIC of transconjugants on NAL, GIP, LEV, NOR, GM were improved by 2-32 times. Conclusions The main types ofShigella infection in Shenzhen areShigella lfexneri andShigellasonnei. The superiority serotype of shigella lfexneri isⅣ-C. Target gene mutation is the main cause of quinolones resistance. The quinolones resistance of different types of shigella varies signiifcantly.%目的:分析深圳市菌痢流行分子特征及对质粒介导的喹诺酮耐药机制。方法对2010年1月至2014年2月深圳市18家医院收集的临床标本进行分离培养与血清型鉴定,

  3. Bacillary angiomatosis with bone invasion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Lucia Martins; Medeiros, Karina Bittencourt; Landeiro, Luana Gomes; Lucas, Elton Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Bacillary angiomatosis is an infection determined by Bartonella henselae and B. quintana, rare and prevalent in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We describe a case of a patient with AIDS and TCD4+ cells equal to 9/mm3, showing reddish-violet papular and nodular lesions, disseminated over the skin, most on the back of the right hand and third finger, with osteolysis of the distal phalanx observed by radiography. The findings of vascular proliferation with presence of bacilli, on the histopathological examination of the skin and bone lesions, led to the diagnosis of bacillary angiomatosis. Corroborating the literature, in the present case the infection affected a young man (29 years old) with advanced immunosuppression and clinical and histological lesions compatible with the diagnosis. PMID:28099606

  4. intrafamilial person-to-person spread of bacillary dysentery due to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BD. The secondary attack rate per cent (AR%) within families ranged between 7.7% and 80%. Age of ... Children under five years of age constituted 43% of secondary cases. ... Arabia; illness ensued after a visit to Gizan in southwestern Saudi ...

  5. Glucose Absorption by the Bacillary Band of Trichuris muris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Hansen, Michael; Nejsum, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    muris on glucose and/or amino acids for survival in vitro and the absorptive function of the bacillary band. The viability of the worms was evaluated using a motility scale from 0 to 3, and the colorimetric assay Alamar Blue was utilised to measure the metabolic activity. The absorptive function....... Conclusions/Significance Trichuris muris is dependent on glucose for viability in vitro, and the bacillary band has an absorptive function in relation to 6-NBDG, which accumulates within the stichocytes. The absorptive function of the bacillary band calls for an exploration of its possible role in the uptake...

  6. [Overdiagnosis of amebiasis in children with dysentery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltramino, Juan Carlos; Sosa, Horacio; Gamba, Natalia; Busquets, Natalia; Navarro, Lucas; Virgolini, Stella; Ricardo, Omar

    2009-12-01

    There are morphologically identical amebaes, but with differences that can distinguish them; one as pathogenic: Entamoeba histolytica, and the other: Entamoeba dispar, as inoffensive. That brought the new hypothesis that many of the cases treated as amebiasis, weren't so. To identify E. hystolitica in patients with dysentery, supposed to be caused by amebae. Transversal and observational study performed between March 2005 and November 2007 in the city of Santa Fe, Argentina. Stools from children aged 2 months to 15 years-old with dysentery and direct exams with E. hystolitica/ dispar, were studied with ELISA to detect the adhesin of E. histolytica (adhesin Eh). Permanent stains for amebae were done as well as stool cultures. Clinical data were charted. 75 children were studied; 35 were male and 40, female, with a median age of 3 years-old. All of them presented diarrhea with leucocyte, 73% macroscopic blood on stool and 27% detectable on the microscope. Elisa Eh was positive in 21; 3 cases had hematophagous trophozoites. In 15 stool cultures were found: S. flexneri S2 type in 5 cases. Other parasites: 6 (Blastocystis homini 5). In 54 adhesin Eh was negative, 19% of the coulouring detected E. dispar. From 44 stool cultures: S. flexneri S2 type was detected in 13, Shigella sp in 1, C jejuni 5, other: 3. Other parasites: 12 (Blastocystis homini 9). In this group of children with "amebic dysentery", half of them developed invasive bacteriae and only 28% had E. histolytica on stools; that means that the prevalence of positive cases in the population could be 18% to 38% [CI 95% (0.179; 0.381)].

  7. Bacillary angiomatosis in HIV-positive patient from Northeastern Brazil: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Félix da Justa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is a report of disseminated bacillary angiomatosis (BA in a 23-year-old female patient, who is HIV-positive and with fever, weight loss, hepatomegaly, ascites, and papular-nodular skin lesions. The clinical and diagnostic aspects involved in the case were discussed. Bacillary angiomatosis must always be considered in the diagnosis of febrile cutaneous manifestations in AIDS.

  8. Whole-Genome Sequence of Starmerella bacillaris PAS13, a Nonconventional Enological Yeast with Antifungal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos Junior, Wilson José Fernandes; Treu, Laura; da Silva Duarte, Vinícius; Carlot, Milena; Nadai, Chiara; Campanaro, Stefano; Giacomini, Alessio; Corich, Viviana

    2017-08-10

    Starmerella bacillaris is a fermentative yeast commonly found in vineyards. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of S. bacillaris PAS13, a nonconventional enological yeast with a potential role as a biocontrol agent. This gene sequence will provide insights into the genetic basis of yeast activity against gray mold disease (Botrytis cinerea). Copyright © 2017 Lemos Junior et al.

  9. Identification of weather variables sensitive to dysentery in disease-affected county of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianing; Wu, Xiaoxu; Li, Chenlu; Xu, Bing; Hu, Luojia; Chen, Jin; Dai, Shuang

    2017-01-01

    Climate change mainly refers to long-term change in weather variables, and it has significant impact on sustainability and spread of infectious diseases. Among three leading infectious diseases in China, dysentery is exclusively sensitive to climate change. Previous researches on weather variables and dysentery mainly focus on determining correlation between dysentery incidence and weather variables. However, the contribution of each variable to dysentery incidence has been rarely clarified. Therefore, we chose a typical county in epidemic of dysentery as the study area. Based on data of dysentery incidence, weather variables (monthly mean temperature, precipitation, wind speed, relative humidity, absolute humidity, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature) and lagged analysis, we used principal component analysis (PCA) and classification and regression trees (CART) to examine the relationships between the incidence of dysentery and weather variables. Principal component analysis showed that temperature, precipitation, and humidity played a key role in determining transmission of dysentery. We further selected weather variables including minimum temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity based on results of PCA, and used CART to clarify contributions of these three weather variables to dysentery incidence. We found when minimum temperature was at a high level, the high incidence of dysentery occurred if relative humidity or precipitation was at a high level. We compared our results with other studies on dysentery incidence and meteorological factors in areas both in China and abroad, and good agreement has been achieved. Yet, some differences remain for three reasons: not identifying all key weather variables, climate condition difference caused by local factors, and human factors that also affect dysentery incidence. This study hopes to shed light on potential early warnings for dysentery transmission as climate change occurs, and provide a theoretical

  10. A case of bacillary angiomatosis developed at a burn site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Albayrak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillary Angiomatosis (BA is frequently seen in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-induced immunodeficiency. Our patient was a case that developed granuloma-like lesions in the area of a burn, 8 days after being burnt on the upper right arm by scalding water. No indication of immune deficiency was observed and no history of direct contact with cats was evident. By the sixth day of the patient′s admission to our clinic, some of the lesions had reached a diameter of 2.5 cm. An excision biopsy was carried out from the lesions present on the patient. Electron microscopy revealed solitary bacilli located close to the capillary wall. Oral erythromycin treatment was implemented at 250 mg, 4 times a day for 2.5 months. Within this period of treatment, the lesions regressed completely, and a complete cure was achieved. This case demonstrates that BA must be considered in the differential diagnosis of both HIV-infected and immunocompetent patients.

  11. Comparison of bacillary index on slit skin smear with bacillary index of granuloma in leprosy and its relevance to present therapeutic regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sendhil M Kumaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the world moves toward elimination of leprosy, persistence of infective cases in endemic pockets remains a significant problem. The use of clinical criteria to decide the paucibacillary (PB versus multibacillary (MB regimens has greatly simplified therapy at the field setting. However, a small but significant risk of under-treatment of so-called "PB" cases which actually have significant bacillary load exists. This study was undertaken to assess this risk and compare two methods of assessment of bacillary load, namely bacillary index on slit skin smear (BIS versus bacillary index of granuloma (BIG. Aims: To compare BIS with BIG on skin biopsy in consecutive untreated cases of leprosy. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted over a period of 12 months, wherein new untreated patients with leprosy were consecutively recruited. After a thorough clinical examination, each patient underwent slit skin smear (SSS where the BIS was calculated. The same patient also underwent a skin biopsy from a clinical lesion where, the BIG was calculated. SSS and skin biopsy for BIS and BIG respectively were repeated for all patients at the end of therapy for comparison. All patients received therapy according to World Health Organization-Multidrug Therapy Guidelines. Results: The BIG was positive in all cases where the BIS was positive. Significantly, BIG was positive in three cases of borderline tuberculoid leprosy with <5 lesions who received PB regimen, whereas the BIS was negative in all three cases. Conclusion: This study suggests that BIG may be a better indicator of the true bacillary load in leprosy as compared to BIS. Its role in management is significant, at least in tertiary care centers to prevent "under-treatment" of so called PB cases, which may actually warrant MB regimens.

  12. Draft genome sequence of the yeast Starmerella bacillaris (syn., Candida zemplinina) FRI751 isolated from fermenting must of dried Raboso grapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemos Junior, Wilson Jose Fernandes; Treu, Laura; da Silva Duarte, Vinicius

    2017-01-01

    Starmerella bacillaris is an ascomycetous yeast commonly present in enological environments. Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of S. bacillaris FRI751, which will facilitate the study of the characteristics of this interesting enological yeast....

  13. Bacillary Angiomatosis and Bacteremia due to Bartonella quintana in a Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosamaria Fulchini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 63-year-old man treated with alemtuzumab for chronic lymphocytic leukemia who developed multiple angiomatous papules and fever. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR from a skin lesion and blood sample revealed Bartonella quintana as causative agent confirming the diagnosis of bacillary angiomatosis with bacteremia. Treatment with doxycycline, initially in combination with gentamicin, led to complete resolution of the lesions. This case shows the importance of considering bacillary angiomatosis as a rare differential diagnosis of angiomatous lesions in the immunocompromised patient, particularly in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and following lymphocyte depleting treatments as alemtuzumab.

  14. Impacts of floods on dysentery in Xinxiang city, China, during 2004–2010: a time-series Poisson analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Xinxiang, a city in Henan Province, suffered from frequent floods due to persistent and heavy precipitation from 2004 to 2010. In the same period, dysentery was a common public health problem in Xinxiang, with the proportion of reported cases being the third highest among all the notified infectious diseases. Objectives: We focused on dysentery disease consequences of different degrees of floods and examined the association between floods and the morbidity of dysentery on the basis of longitudinal data during the study period. Design: A time-series Poisson regression model was conducted to examine the relationship between 10 times different degrees of floods and the monthly morbidity of dysentery from 2004 to 2010 in Xinxiang. Relative risks (RRs of moderate and severe floods on the morbidity of dysentery were calculated in this paper. In addition, we estimated the attributable contributions of moderate and severe floods to the morbidity of dysentery. Results: A total of 7591 cases of dysentery were notified in Xinxiang during the study period. The effect of floods on dysentery was shown with a 0-month lag. Regression analysis showed that the risk of moderate and severe floods on the morbidity of dysentery was 1.55 (95% CI: 1.42–1.670 and 1.74 (95% CI: 1.56–1.94, respectively. The attributable risk proportions (ARPs of moderate and severe floods to the morbidity of dysentery were 35.53 and 42.48%, respectively. Conclusions: This study confirms that floods have significantly increased the risk of dysentery in the study area. In addition, severe floods have a higher proportional contribution to the morbidity of dysentery than moderate floods. Public health action should be taken to avoid and control a potential risk of dysentery epidemics after floods.

  15. Impacts of floods on dysentery in Xinxiang city, China, during 2004-2010: a time-series Poisson analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wei; Ding, Guoyong; Li, Yifei; Li, Hongkai; Jiang, Baofa

    2014-01-01

    Xinxiang, a city in Henan Province, suffered from frequent floods due to persistent and heavy precipitation from 2004 to 2010. In the same period, dysentery was a common public health problem in Xinxiang, with the proportion of reported cases being the third highest among all the notified infectious diseases. We focused on dysentery disease consequences of different degrees of floods and examined the association between floods and the morbidity of dysentery on the basis of longitudinal data during the study period. A time-series Poisson regression model was conducted to examine the relationship between 10 times different degrees of floods and the monthly morbidity of dysentery from 2004 to 2010 in Xinxiang. Relative risks (RRs) of moderate and severe floods on the morbidity of dysentery were calculated in this paper. In addition, we estimated the attributable contributions of moderate and severe floods to the morbidity of dysentery. A total of 7591 cases of dysentery were notified in Xinxiang during the study period. The effect of floods on dysentery was shown with a 0-month lag. Regression analysis showed that the risk of moderate and severe floods on the morbidity of dysentery was 1.55 (95% CI: 1.42-1.670) and 1.74 (95% CI: 1.56-1.94), respectively. The attributable risk proportions (ARPs) of moderate and severe floods to the morbidity of dysentery were 35.53 and 42.48%, respectively. This study confirms that floods have significantly increased the risk of dysentery in the study area. In addition, severe floods have a higher proportional contribution to the morbidity of dysentery than moderate floods. Public health action should be taken to avoid and control a potential risk of dysentery epidemics after floods.

  16. Impacts of floods on dysentery in Xinxiang city, China, during 2004–2010: a time-series Poisson analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wei; Ding, Guoyong; Li, Yifei; Li, Hongkai; Jiang, Baofa

    2014-01-01

    Background Xinxiang, a city in Henan Province, suffered from frequent floods due to persistent and heavy precipitation from 2004 to 2010. In the same period, dysentery was a common public health problem in Xinxiang, with the proportion of reported cases being the third highest among all the notified infectious diseases. Objectives We focused on dysentery disease consequences of different degrees of floods and examined the association between floods and the morbidity of dysentery on the basis of longitudinal data during the study period. Design A time-series Poisson regression model was conducted to examine the relationship between 10 times different degrees of floods and the monthly morbidity of dysentery from 2004 to 2010 in Xinxiang. Relative risks (RRs) of moderate and severe floods on the morbidity of dysentery were calculated in this paper. In addition, we estimated the attributable contributions of moderate and severe floods to the morbidity of dysentery. Results A total of 7591 cases of dysentery were notified in Xinxiang during the study period. The effect of floods on dysentery was shown with a 0-month lag. Regression analysis showed that the risk of moderate and severe floods on the morbidity of dysentery was 1.55 (95% CI: 1.42–1.670) and 1.74 (95% CI: 1.56–1.94), respectively. The attributable risk proportions (ARPs) of moderate and severe floods to the morbidity of dysentery were 35.53 and 42.48%, respectively. Conclusions This study confirms that floods have significantly increased the risk of dysentery in the study area. In addition, severe floods have a higher proportional contribution to the morbidity of dysentery than moderate floods. Public health action should be taken to avoid and control a potential risk of dysentery epidemics after floods. PMID:25098726

  17. Epidemiologic Investigation of Dysentery in North of Iran: Use of Geographic Information System (GIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadi, Aliasghar; Abedi, Ghassem; Isazadeh, Khatoon; Rostami, Farideh; Siamian, Hasan; Hosseini, Mahbobeh; Asadi-Aliabadi, Mehran

    2016-12-01

    Dysentery is an intestinal inflammation which is created by the microorganisms attacking intestine mucus. Knowing the prevalence of this disease in different societies paves the way for programming and providing treatment and preventive measures. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the epidemiologic pattern and geographical distribution of dysentery based on GIS. This was a cross-sectional and analytical study. The dysentery cases were gathered from the section of contagious diseases in health chancellery of Mazandaran University of medical sciences through a checklist during the years 2008 to 2013. In order to analyze the data, we made use of chi-square test. Then, the GIS software was used to recognize the geographical distribution of the disease. There was reported about 653 cases affected by dysentery and the disease proportion was equal for both men and women. Most of the persons with dysentery was city dwellers. The highest rate of incidents was reported to be in Fereidunkenar in 2011, and the disease was mostly found among farmers, students, and college students. Since dysentery is a disease transmitted from water and food, and in this study, it was found out that the disease sources included using polluted water, vegetables, and lack of appropriate personal hygiene. Therefore, it is essential to take into consideration the health issues. Moreover, the suitable conditions of the geographical area which has the highest rate of incident have paved the way for dysentery occurrence. In addition, using geographic information system (GIS) as a visual instrument can help the stakeholders and officials to elaborate on the death trend and recognize the areas for optimal use of the available resources.

  18. Comparative activity of some veterinary pharmaceutical products in swine dysentery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina, T. Romeo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the diseases that cause great damage in the pig breeding farms, Brachyspyra swine dysentery has a special importance because involve great losses both by growth failure and high mortality andsignificant costs to the prevention and control. The study was conducted in a swine farm in Timis County, where the disease was originally identified in autumn of year 2009. Cumulative adverse conditions have affected the rate of morbidity and mortality. Themost common clinical developments in the unit were usually acute and subacute. Research included: a comparative study of the effectiveness of tiamulin fumarate, hydrogenated and dimetridazole powder in sick acute and subacute forms in piglets, at the weaning period; the comparative study of efficiency in therapy of soluble tiamulin (the tiamulin fumarate-hydrogenated and of the injection of piglets effective and the study of growth indicators: average daily gain.Experiment IGroup I consisted in 15 piglets with an average weight per lot of 7.60 kg/head (batch weight: 114kg received p.o. dimetridazole insoluble powder (Romvac Bucharest, mixed in feed, for 5 days dose of 25 mg/kg.bw. During the observation, two mortalities were recorded, representing 13.33% of the treated lot. Other animals from the group were clinically cured, the signs of the disease gradually disappeared, and the temperature returned to normal enteric symptoms. The observation period after the 21 days of experiment, the batchweight was 114.2 kg, corresponding to growth registered 95.5 g/head/day.Group II, of 15 pigs with enteritis clinical signs, have had an average weight per lot of 7.48 kg/head, and he has undergone treatment with tiamulin product (Novartis Animal Health soluble granules, in drinking water. Treatments were performed for 5 consecutive days at a dose of 60 mg/liter of drinking water. In this group, diarrhea symptoms decreased and general status of the animals gradually improved, no mortality was recorded five days

  19. Diets containing inulin but not lupins help to prevent swine dysentery in experimentally challenged pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C F; Phillips, N D; La, T; Hernandez, A; Mansfield, J; Kim, J C; Mullan, B P; Hampson, D J; Pluske, J R

    2010-10-01

    Swine dysentery is a contagious mucohemorrhagic diarrheal disease caused by the intestinal spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae that colonizes and induces inflammation of the cecum and colon. It has been reported that a diet containing chicory root and sweet lupin can prevent swine dysentery. This experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that inulin in the chicory root rather than galactans in lupins was responsible for protective effects. An experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was undertaken using pigs fed barley- and triticale-based diets, with the main effects being protein source [185 g/kg of canola meal (decreased galactans) or 220 g/kg of lupins (greater galactans)] and inulin supplementation (0 or 80 g/kg). Forty Large White × Landrace pigs weighing 21 ± 3 kg, with 10 pigs per diet, were allowed to adapt to the diets for 2 wk, and then each pig was challenged orally 4 times with a broth culture containing B. hyodysenteriae on consecutive days. Pigs were killed when they showed clinical signs of dysentery or 6 wk postchallenge. Pigs fed diets without inulin had 8.3 times greater risk (P = 0.017) of developing swine dysentery and were 16 times more likely (P = 0.004) to have colon contents that were culture-positive for B. hyodysenteriae, compared with the pigs fed a diet with 80 g/kg of inulin. Diets containing lupins did not prevent pigs from developing clinical swine dysentery; however, inclusion of lupins or inulin or both in the diets delayed the onset of disease compared with the diet based mainly on canola meal (P 0.05) by diet. However the pH values of the ileal digesta were decreased in pigs fed the diet with both lupins and inulin compared with the diet containing only lupins (P pigs against developing swine dysentery.

  20. Effects of the floods on dysentery in north central region of Henan Province, China from 2004 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wei; Ding, Guoyong; Li, Yifei; Li, Hongkai; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2014-11-01

    Zhengzhou, Kaifeng and Xinxiang, the cities in the north central region of Henan Province, suffered from many times floods from 2004 to 2009. We focused on dysentery disease consequences of floods and examined the association between floods and the morbidity of dysentery, based on a longitudinal data. A generalized additive mixed model was conducted to examine the relationship between the monthly morbidity of dysentery and floods from 2004 to 2009 in the study areas. The relative risks (RRs) of the floods risk on the morbidity of dysentery were estimated in each city and the whole region. The RRs on dysentery were 11.47 (95% CI: 8.67-15.33), 1.35 (95% CI: 1.23-3.90) and 2.75 (95% CI: 1.36-4.85) in Kaifeng, Xinxiang and Zhengzhou, respectively. The RR on dysentery in the whole region was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.52-1.82). Our study confirms that flooding has significantly increased the risk of dysentery in the study areas. Additionally, we observed that a sudden and severe flooding can contribute more risk to the morbidity of dysentery than a persistent and moderate flooding. Our findings have significant implications for developing strategies to prevent and reduce health impact of floods. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Severe chronic iron deficiency anaemia secondary to Trichuris dysentery syndrome - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azira N, M S; Zeehaida, M

    2012-12-01

    Trichuris dysentery syndrome is caused by Trichuris trichiura which contributes to one of the most common helminthic infections in the world. It is associated with heavy colonic infection that manifests as mucoid diarrhoea, rectal bleeding, rectal prolapse, iron deficiency anaemia, and finger clubbing. Here, we report a case of trichuris dysentery syndrome complicated with severe chronic iron deficiency anaemia in a 4-year-old girl who required blood transfusion. The nematode was visualized on stool microscopic and colonoscopic examination. A longer duration of anti-helminthic treatment is required to achieve effective and better outcome.

  2. Patterns of asexual reproduction in Nannochloris bacillaris and Marvania geminata (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Maki; Nishikawa, Toshikazu; Kajitani, Hiroyuki; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2007-09-01

    Non-flagellated vegetative green algae of the Trebouxiophyceae propagate mainly by autosporulation. In this manner, the mother cell wall is shed following division of the protoplast in each round of cell division. Binary fission type Nannochloris and budding type Marvania are also included in the Trebouxiophyceae. Phylogenetic trees based on the actin sequences of Trebouxiophyceae members revealed that the binary fission type Nannochloris bacillaris and the budding type Marvania geminata are closely related in a distal monophyletic group. Our results suggest that autosporulation is the ancestral mode of cell division in Trebouxiophyceae. To elucidate how non-autosporulative mechanisms such as binary fission and budding evolved, we focused on the cleavage of the mother cell wall. Cell wall development was analyzed using a cell wall-specific fluorescent dye, Fluostain I. Exfoliation of the mother cell wall was not observed in either N. bacillaris or M. geminata. We then compared the two algae by transmission electron microscopy with rapid freeze fixation and freeze substitution; in both algae, the mother cell wall was cleaved at the site of cell division, but remained adhered to the daughter cell wall. In N. bacillaris, the cleaved mother cell wall gradually degenerated and was not observed in the next cell cycle. In contrast, M. geminata daughter cells entered the growth phase of the next cell cycle bearing the mother and grandmother cell walls, causing the uncovered portion of the plane of division to bulge outward. Such a delay in the degeneration and shedding of the mother cell wall probably led to the development of binary fission and budding.

  3. [Bacillary angiomatosis in an adult infected with HIV-1 at an early stage of immunodepression in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minga, K A; Gberi, I; Boka, M B; Gourvellec, G; Abo, Y; Dohoun, L; Abe, H; Ekra, D; Bonard, D; Danel, C; Huet, C; Salamon, R; Bondurand, A; N'Dri-Yoman, T; Anglaret, X

    2002-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated bacillary angiomatosis has rarely been described in Africa. We report here the first case in Côte d'Ivoire. Although in industrialised countries bacillary angiomatosis has been described in patients with low CD4 count, this episode occurred in the first year following HIV-seroconversion in an adult patient with more than 500 CD4 cells per cubic millimetre. Symptoms rapidly and totally disappeared under erythromycin treatment, although with a relapse two years after the end of the first episode. In Africa where people living with HIV often present chronic cutaneous lesions, bacillary angiomatosis may be under-diagnosed. Bacillary angiomatosis must be systematically considered in face of lesions similar to Kaposi's sarcoma. Improving knowledge on symptoms of bacillary angiomatosis in Africa should lead to better treatment and a better estimation of its true frequency which may be underestimated.

  4. Starmerella bacillaris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mixed fermentations to reduce ethanol content in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englezos, Vasileios; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cravero, Francesco; Torchio, Fabrizio; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Rolle, Luca; Cocolin, Luca

    2016-06-01

    Decreasing the ethanol content in wine is a current challenge, mainly due to the global climate change and to the consumer preference for wines from grapes with increased maturity. In this study, a central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM) approach was used to investigate the potential application of Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candida zemplinina) in combination with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in mixed (co-inoculated and sequential) cultures, to understand better the mechanism of co-habitation and achieve the objective of reducing the ethanol in wines. Laboratory scale fermentations demonstrated a decrease up to 0.7 % (v/v) of ethanol and an increase of about 4.2 g/L of glycerol when S. cerevisiae was inoculated with a delay of 48 h with respect to the inoculation of S. bacillaris. Pilot-scale fermentations, carried out in winemaking conditions, confirmed the laboratory results. This study demonstrates that the combination of strains and inoculation protocol could help to reduce the ethanol content in wines.

  5. The bacillary and macrophage response to hypoxia in tuberculosis and the consequences for T cell antigen recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Gareth; Brandenburg, Julius; Reiling, Norbert; Barry, Clifton Earl; Wilkinson, Robert J; Wilkinson, Katalin A

    2017-03-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a facultative anaerobe and its characteristic pathological hallmark, the granuloma, exhibits hypoxia in humans and in most experimental models. Thus the host and bacillary adaptation to hypoxia is of central importance in understanding pathogenesis and thereby to derive new drug treatments and vaccines.

  6. The influence of diet on the development of swine dysentery upon experimental infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindecrona, R.H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Jensen, B.B.;

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fermented liquid food (FLF) and the addition of lactic acid to a diet based on wheat and barley on the development of swine dysentery in pigs experimentally infected with a Danish field isolate of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Furthermore...... and sugar-beet pulp. The experiment was designed as a randomized-block trial and was performed in triplicate including a total of 192 pigs. After feeding the diets for 2 weeks, six pigs in each group were challenged orally with B. hyodysenteriae and observed for another 4 weeks. After challenge, swine...... dysentery was observed in all feeding groups. The incidence of disease varied between 94% (rice/wheat bran) and 44% (FLF). The effect of diet on faecal shedding of B. hyodysenteriae was statistically significant (P...

  7. The influence of diet on the development of swine dysentery upon experimental infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindecrona, R.H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Jensen, B.B.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fermented liquid food (FLF) and the addition of lactic acid to a diet based on wheat and barley on the development of swine dysentery in pigs experimentally infected with a Danish field isolate of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Furthermore......, to confirm if low non-starch polysaccharide (NSP)-containing diets reduce swine dysentery the effect of different dietary levels of NSP and resistant starch (RS) was evaluated. These diets were based on cooked rice and animal protein, cooked rice and potato starch, cooked rice and wheat bran, or cooked rice...... and sugar-beet pulp. The experiment was designed as a randomized-block trial and was performed in triplicate including a total of 192 pigs. After feeding the diets for 2 weeks, six pigs in each group were challenged orally with B. hyodysenteriae and observed for another 4 weeks. After challenge, swine...

  8. [Increased effectiveness of antibiotic therapy with adaptogens in dysentery and Proteus infection in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereshchagin, I A; Geskina, O D; Bukhteeva, E R

    1982-01-01

    The course of the disease and the host immunological reactivity (IgA, IgM, IgG, CPhI, IgG and IgM antibody titers in the HIT, blood bactericidic properties) were studied in 258 children aged 0 to 14 year suffering from acute dysentery caused by Shigella sonnei and flexneri and enterocolitis of the Proteus etiology. 157 patients were treated with monomycin and kanamycin in combination with adaptogens, such as Eleuterococcus and Echinopanax elatum Nakai L. and 101 patients were treated with the antibiotics alone. It was shown that the use of the adaptogens decreased the periods of the diseases. It is concluded that adaptogens increase the efficacy of antibiotic therapy in children with dysentery and Proteus infection.

  9. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF TYLOSIN AS A TREATMENT OF VIBRIONIC DYSENTERY IN SWINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DOORNENBAL, H

    1965-07-01

    A 5 year history of swine dysentery and treatment has been described.In 1964, a severe outbreak diagnosed as Vibrionic dysentery in 166 litters farrowed from January - March caused a death loss of 30.3 per cent of the total number weaned. This outbreak was not checked with an organic arsenic, sodium arsanilate, which had previously been relatively effective.A subsequent farrow of 133 litters (June - August, 1964) was infected and again sodium arsanilate was ineffective. Microscopic examination of smears of representative fecal samples revealed the presence of a heavy concentration of vibrio-like organisms. Two test-barns, housing 140 and 172 pigs respectively, were treated with tylosin-tartrate, using one side of each barn as a control, while the other side was being treated. Subsequently, the control sides were treated. Both levels of tylosin used, 1 gm and 2 gm per U.S. gallon of water, resulted in the disappearance of fluid feces within 48 hours of treatment. Soft, granular feces were still present 6-9 days after the start of treatment at the 1 gm level, while in case of the 2 gm level of tylosin, all feces were normal on the third day after medication started. Microscopic examination of feces collected on the third day of treatment still revealed the presence of some vibrio-like organisms. However, these organisms could not be detected in examination of feces collected between 10 to 25 days after treatment. In this test there was no recurrence of dysentery.

  10. Epidemiological, clinical and pathogenic features of bacterial dysentery diagnosed clinically: Analysis of 414 patients%临床诊断成人细菌性痢疾414例的流行病学、临床及病原学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娜; 程玉谦; 梁帆; 郭文学; 王淑香; 祁伟

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解某地区细菌性痢疾的临床及流行病学特点、致病菌群分布及耐药情况.方法 以2010年7-9月就诊于某院肠道门诊的414例临床诊断细菌性痢疾患者为研究对象,对患者一般资料、症状体征、病原检测等结果进行统计分析.结果 临床诊断细菌性痢疾患者以青壮年居多(50岁以下者322例,占77.78%);左下腹压痛、脓血便、里急后重等典型临床表现较少见;志贺菌培养阳性率为16.43%(68/414),其中宋内志贺菌65株(95.59%),福氏志贺菌3株(4.41%).志贺菌株对氨苄西林、复方磺胺甲(噁)唑、庆大霉素等耐药率均>95%,甚至高达100.00%;对头孢菌素及部分喹诺酮类抗菌药物敏感,但对环丙沙星、洛美沙星敏感性较以往下降.结论 该地区临床诊断细菌性痢疾患者的临床和流行病学特点较以往有所不同,志贺菌流行菌型变迁、耐药菌株增加,应引起医务工作者注意.%Objective To investigate the clinical and epidemiological features of acute bacterial dysentery and its pathogen distribution and drug resistance. Methods The data of age, occupation, symptoms, signs, and patterns of pathogen from 414 patients with bacillary dysentery between July 2010 and September 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Results Most patients with bacillary dysentery were young adult(322 patients [77. 78%] were under 50 years old) ; The typical clinical manifestations,such as left lower quadrant tenderness, pus and blood stool, and te-nesmus were less commons The positive rate of fecal Shigella culture was 16. 43%(68/414) ,65 (95. 59%) of which were Shigella sonnei, 3 (4. 41%) were Shigella flexneri. Drug-resistant rates of Shigella to ampicillin, trime-thoprim-sulfamethoxazole.and gentamicin were over 95%,even up to 100. 00%; The strains were sensitive to ceph-alosporins and some quinolones, but had a decreased sensitivity to ciprofloxacin and lomefloxacia Conclusion Compared with the

  11. Distribution of Synechococcus sp. and Synechococcus bacillaris in the waters of the Straits of Magellan (April 1995-early austral autumn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, G; Zaccone, R

    1998-10-01

    During the last oceanographic cruise carried out in the Straits of Magellan (April 1995), a serological approach was used in order to determine the distribution and composition of the picophytoplankton community with respect to two cyanobacteria species, Synechococcus sp. and bacillaris, characterized respectively by phycoerythrin and phycocyanin as the main accessory photosynthetic pigment. In the period examined, the Straits were characterized by generally low concentrations of total picophytoplankton (10(5)-10(6) cells/l). The qualitative composition of the community showed the prevalence of the species Synechococcus sp. in the Pacific basin, whereas S. bacillaris appears to be predominant in the central area. The immunofluorescence method proved to be effective in the study of the diversity of these microorganisms in aquatic environments.

  12. Clinical Evaluation of Tylosin as a Treatment of Vibrionic Dysentery in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doornenbal, H.

    1965-01-01

    A 5 year history of swine dysentery and treatment has been described. In 1964, a severe outbreak diagnosed as Vibrionic dysentery in 166 litters farrowed from January — March caused a death loss of 30.3 per cent of the total number weaned. This outbreak was not checked with an organic arsenic, sodium arsanilate, which had previously been relatively effective. A subsequent farrow of 133 litters (June — August, 1964) was infected and again sodium arsanilate was ineffective. Microscopic examination of smears of representative fecal samples revealed the presence of a heavy concentration of vibrio-like organisms. Two test-barns, housing 140 and 172 pigs respectively, were treated with tylosin-tartrate, using one side of each barn as a control, while the other side was being treated. Subsequently, the control sides were treated. Both levels of tylosin used, 1 gm and 2 gm per U.S. gallon of water, resulted in the disappearance of fluid feces within 48 hours of treatment. Soft, granular feces were still present 6-9 days after the start of treatment at the 1 gm level, while in case of the 2 gm level of tylosin, all feces were normal on the third day after medication started. Microscopic examination of feces collected on the third day of treatment still revealed the presence of some vibrio-like organisms. However, these organisms could not be detected in examination of feces collected between 10 to 25 days after treatment. In this test there was no recurrence of dysentery. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:14300858

  13. Intracellular bacillary burden reflects a burst size for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Repasy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that Mycobacterium tuberculosis triggers macrophage necrosis in vitro at a threshold intracellular load of ~25 bacilli. This suggests a model for tuberculosis where bacilli invading lung macrophages at low multiplicity of infection proliferate to burst size and spread to naïve phagocytes for repeated cycles of replication and cytolysis. The current study evaluated that model in vivo, an environment significantly more complex than in vitro culture. In the lungs of mice infected with M. tuberculosis by aerosol we observed three distinct mononuclear leukocyte populations (CD11b(- CD11c(+/hi, CD11b(+/lo CD11c(lo/-, CD11b(+/hi CD11c(+/hi and neutrophils hosting bacilli. Four weeks after aerosol challenge, CD11b(+/hi CD11c(+/hi mononuclear cells and neutrophils were the predominant hosts for M. tuberculosis while CD11b(+/lo CD11c(lo/- cells assumed that role by ten weeks. Alveolar macrophages (CD11b(- CD11c(+/hi were a minority infected cell type at both time points. The burst size model predicts that individual lung phagocytes would harbor a range of bacillary loads with most containing few bacilli, a smaller proportion containing many bacilli, and few or none exceeding a burst size load. Bacterial load per cell was enumerated in lung monocytic cells and neutrophils at time points after aerosol challenge of wild type and interferon-γ null mice. The resulting data fulfilled those predictions, suggesting a median in vivo burst size in the range of 20 to 40 bacilli for monocytic cells. Most heavily burdened monocytic cells were nonviable, with morphological features similar to those observed after high multiplicity challenge in vitro: nuclear condensation without fragmentation and disintegration of cell membranes without apoptotic vesicle formation. Neutrophils had a narrow range and lower peak bacillary burden than monocytic cells and some exhibited cell death with release of extracellular neutrophil traps. Our studies suggest

  14. Cefotaximase and AmpC-producing Shigella flexneri in case of dysentery from southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Oommen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhoea and dysentery caused by Shigella spp. are major public health concerns. Emerging multidrug resistance (MDR in this pathogen further complicates this disease. Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs have been described in this pathogen, which significantly compromises the treatment options for shigellosis. The usual ESBLs seen are sulfhydryl variable (SHV-type; cefotaximases (CTX-M are very uncommonly detected. Here, we report a CTX-M type and AmpC-producing Shigella flexneri from a three-year-old boy residing in Central Kerala, South India.

  15. Experimental Study on the Antibacterial Effect of Origanum Volatile Oil on Dysentery Bacilli In Vivo and In Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖芳; 黄庆华; 扬振德; 许汉林; 高清华

    2004-01-01

    To observe the germistatic and germicidal effects of origanum volatile oil (OVI) on the dysentery bacteria, the abdominal cavity of mice was infected with Shigella sonne (Sh. sonnei) and Shigella flexneri (Sh. flexneri) F2a. After OVI was given to the mice via gastric lavage, the effects of OVI on the infected mice were observed. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) for dysentery bacteria were determined in vitro. The results showed that origanum volatile oil showed obvious protective effect on mice infected with Sh.sonnei and Sh. flexneri F2a. and it had germistatic and germicidal effects on dysentry bacteria. We are led to conclude that origanum volatile oil is an effective medicine against the infection of dysentery bacteria.

  16. Blood concentrations of the cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma during experimentally induced swine dysentery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen-Waern Marianne

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the cytokine response at infection with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae can help understanding disease mechanisme involved during swine dysentery. Since this knowledge is still limited the aim of the present study was to induce dysentery experimentally in pigs and to monitor the development of important immunoregulatory cytokines in blood collected at various stages of the disease. Methods Ten conventional pigs (~23 kg were orally inoculated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae B204T. Eight animals developed muco-haemorrhagic diarrhoea with impaired general body condition. Blood was sampled before inoculation and repeatedly during acute dysentery and recovery periods and cytokine levels of IL-1β, IL-6, Il-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ were measured by ELISA. Results IL-1β was increased at the beginning of the dysentery period and coincided with the appearance of Serum amyloid A and clinical signs of disease. TNF-α increased in all animals after inoculation, with a peak during dysentery, and IL-6 was found in 3 animals during dysentery and in the 2 animals that did not develop clinical signs of disease. IL-10 was found in all sick animals during the recovery period. IFN-γ was not detected on any occasion. Conclusion B. hyodysenteriae inoculation induced production of systemic levels of IL-1β during the dysentery period and increased levels of IL-10 coincided with recovery from dysentery.

  17. Utility of Bacillary Index in Slit Skin Smears in Correlation with Clinical and Histopathological Alterations in Hansen's Disease: An Attempt to Revive a Simple Useful Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premalatha, P; Renuka, I V; Meghana, A; Devi, S I; Charyulu, Pavk; Sampoorna, G

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy, a relatively common chronic contagious disease having diverse modes of clinical presentation, can mimic a variety of unrelated diseases. For proper and adequate treatment, the diagnosis must be made accurately with subtyping which should be done with the help of bacillary index, histopathological features, and clinical correlation. This is extremely important in patient care as paucibacillary and multibacillary types have different modes of treatment. Our aim is to categorize leprosy into various types based on bacillary index, morphological findings both in slit skin smears, and biopsy along with clinical correlation.

  18. Application of Poisson kriging to the mapping of cholera and dysentery incidence in an endemic area of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq M Zahirul

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease maps can serve to display incidence rates geographically, to inform on public health provision about the success or failure of interventions, and to make hypothesis or to provide evidences concerning disease etiology. Poisson kriging was recently introduced to filter the noise attached to rates recorded over sparsely populated administrative units. Its benefit over simple population-weighted averages and empirical Bayesian smoothers was demonstrated by simulation studies using county-level cancer mortality rates. This paper presents the first application of Poisson kriging to the spatial interpolation of local disease rates, resulting in continuous maps of disease rate estimates and the associated prediction variance. The methodology is illustrated using cholera and dysentery data collected in a cholera endemic area (Matlab of Bangladesh. Results The spatial analysis was confined to patrilineally-related clusters of households, known as baris, located within 9 kilometers from the Matlab hospital to avoid underestimating the risk of disease incidence, since patients far away from the medical facilities are less likely to travel. Semivariogram models reveal a range of autocorrelation of 1.1 km for dysentery and 0.37 km for cholera. This result translates into a cholera risk map that is patchier than the dysentery map that shows a large zone of high incidence in the south-central part of the study area, which is quasi-urban. On both maps, lower risk values are found in the Northern part of the study area, which is also the most distant from the Matlab hospital. The weaker spatial continuity of cholera versus dysentery incidence rates resulted in larger kriging variance across the study area. Conclusion The approach presented in this paper enables researchers to incorporate the pattern of spatial dependence of incidence rates into the mapping of risk values and the quantification of the associated uncertainty. Differences

  19. Randomized intervention study of solar disinfection of drinking water in the prevention of dysentery in Kenyan children aged under 5 years

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Preez, M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the results of a randomized controlled intervention study (September 2007 to March 2009) investigating the effect of solar disinfection (SODIS) of drinking water on the incidence of dysentery, nondysentery diarrhea...

  20. Effect of zinc chelate and valnemulin for the treatment of swine dysentery in an experimental challenge study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šperling, Daniel; Čížek, Alois; Smola, Jiří

    2014-02-01

    The aim of study was to determine the influence of zinc chelate, valnemulin and it's combination on Brachyspira hyodysenteriae shedding and morphological changes of colonic mucosa in an experimental model of swine dysentery (SD). The study was performed on pigs coming from a dysentery-free herd. Animals were inoculated by B. hyodysenteriae strain B204. When the clinical signs of SD and B. hyodysenteriae shedding developed, the pigs were divided into four treatment groups. The first group was treated with zinc chelate (250 ml/1000 L in water), second group was given valnemulin in feed at 75 ppm; the third group was given a combination of both and the fourth group was control. The results demonstrated therapeutic effect of valnemulin in pigs with serious SD and did not show therapeutic effect of chelated zinc.

  1. 志贺菌的疫苗研究进展%Advance in the research of vaccine of dysentery bacterium.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛士鹏; 王国富; 吴利先

    2011-01-01

    志贺茵属是人类细菌性痢疾的病原菌,俗称痢疾杆菌,属于革兰氏阴性兼性细胞内致病菌,临床上可引起细菌性痢疾.由于经济发展水平的不平衡、卫生条件不能得到充分的改善、抗药菌株的不断出现,决定了当前迫切需要研制痢疾疫苗.现对第一代(全细胞死疫苗)、第二代(减毒活疫苗)和第三代(亚单位疫苗)痢疾杆菌疫苗的研究进展作一概述.%Shigella, also called dysentery bacterium,is human pathogens of bacterial dysentery that belong to gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogens,can cause clinically shigellosis. Due to the imbalance of economic development, bad sanitation conditions,frequent appearance of drug-resistant germ strains, dysentery vaccine must be researched urgently. This article summarized the shigella vaccine research development of the first generation (entire cell dead vaccine),the second generation (to reduce poisonous live vaccine) and the third generation (Asian unit vaccine).

  2. Absorption of macronutrients and nitrogen balance in children with dysentery fed an amylase-treated energy-dense porridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Mahalanabis, D; Ali, M; Mazumder, R N; Wahed, M A; Fuchs, G J

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the absorption of macronutrients and energy from an energy-dense diet liquefied with amylase from germinated wheat (ARF) in children suffering from acute dysentery. Thirty male children aged 6-35 months presenting with acute dysentery were randomly assigned to receive either an ARF-treated porridge or a standard porridge liquefied with water to make its consistency similar to the ARF porridge. After 24-h stabilization a 72-h metabolic balance was performed. Sixteen children received an ARF-treated porridge and 14 received a standard porridge liquefied with water. The mean +/- SD coefficients of absorption (%) of carbohydrate, fat, protein and energy (ARF porridge vs regular porridge) were 81.4 +/- 11 vs 86.9 +/- 7, 86.1 +/- 10 vs 82.8 +/- 15, 57.3 +/- 12 vs 48.4 +/- 24 and 81.4 +/- 9 vs 83.1 +/- 8, respectively. The stool loss of carbohydrate, protein, fat and energy was similar in the two groups. The net absorption of energy was substantially greater in the ARF-fed than regular porridge-fed children (by 28%, p = 0.01). The nitrogen balance was 6.9 +/- 3.4 mg kg(-1) d(-1) in the ARF porridge group and 1.1 +/- 6.7 mg kg(-1) d(-1) in the regular porridge group (p = 0.01). These results show that, despite being hyperosmolar, an amylase-treated liquefied energy-dense porridge is absorbed as well as a regular porridge by malnourished children with severe dysentery. Consequently, its use substantially increased the absorption of a net amount of macronutrients and resulted in a better nitrogen balance. These results further support this innovative approach of feeding sick children in developing countries.

  3. IgM and IgG antibodies to phenolic glycolipid I from Mycobacterium leprae in leprosy: insight into patient monitoring, erythema nodosum leprosum, and bacillary persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, W R; Meeker, H C; Schuller-Levis, G; Sersen, E; Schwerer, B

    1986-05-01

    Serum IgM and IgG antibodies against Mycobacterium leprae-derived phenolic glycolipid I (PG) were determined in leprosy patients, contacts, and controls by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Anti-PG IgM levels increased from the tuberculoid (TT) to the lepromatous (LL) pole of the disease spectrum. There was a positive linear correlation between anti-PG IgM and bacillary index (BI). Patients with erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) had lower levels of serum anti-PG IgM than non-ENL patients of comparable BI, suggesting that anti-PG IgM is involved in the pathogenesis of ENL. Initial observations indicate that high anti-PG IgM levels in bacillary-negative patients might reflect bacillary persistence. A study of 2 different substrate reagents in the ELISA [2,2'-azino-di(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), 0.1 mM H2O2, serum diluted 1:20, and o-phenylenediamine (OPD), 5 mM H2O2, serum diluted 1:300] showed generally good correlation in detection of anti-PG IgM. However the OPD system detected more paucibacillary disease (BT), while the ABTS system detected the significant effect of ENL on the relationship between BI and anti-PG IgM. Anti-PG IgM was clearly dominant over anti-PG IgG. However, certain patients, including several patients who had upgraded from LL and borderline lepromatous leprosy (BL), showed high levels of anti-PG IgG. Since studies have shown that LL patients are selectively deficient in cell-mediated immunity, T-cell products may be required for the IgM to IgG isotype switch. We conclude that anti-PG IgM is useful for monitoring the bacillary load in individual patients and should prove useful for leprosy control strategies.

  4. Monitoring of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Hanseniaspora uvarum, and Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candida zemplinina) populations during alcoholic fermentation by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiao; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio; Mas, Albert

    2014-11-17

    Various molecular approaches have been applied as culture-independent techniques to monitor wine fermentations over the last decade. Among them, those based on RNA detection have been widely used for yeast cell detection, assuming that RNA only exists in live cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) targeting intracellular rRNA is considered a promising technique for the investigation of wine ecology. For the present study, we applied the FISH technique in combination with epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry to directly quantify populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Hanseniaspora uvarum, and Starmerella bacillaris during alcoholic fermentations. A new specific probe that hybridizes with eight species of Hanseniaspora genus and a second probe specific for Starm. bacillaris were designed, and the conditions for their application to pure cultures, mixed cultures, and wine samples were optimized. Single and mixed fermentations were performed with natural, concentrated must at two different temperatures, 15 °C and 25 °C. The population dynamics revealed that the Sacch. cerevisiae population increased to 10(7)-10(8)cells/ml during all fermentations, whereas H. uvarum and Starm. bacillaris tended to increase in single fermentations but remained at levels similar to their inoculations at 10(6)cells/ml in mixed fermentations. Temperature mainly affected the fermentation duration (slower at the lower temperature) but did not affect the population sizes of the different species. The use of these probes in natural wine fermentations has been validated.

  5. Risk factors associated with swine dysentery in East-European pig production units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko C.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the risk factors for swine dysentery in East-European middle-size to large farrow to finish units with separate breeding and grower-finisher facilities. Ten breeding animals (3-10% of the female inventory and 10 grower tinisher pigs (80-140 days-of age were sampled in each herd for polymerase chain reaction testing (PCR for Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (B hyo in their feces. Of 139 farrow to finish units, 51 (36.7% were positive, 49 (35,3% were negative, and 39 (28.1% were inconclusive for B hyo by PCR. In breeding subunits, twelve variables passed the screening criterion for risk factors (P<.2 for B hyo PCR positivity. The odds of the breeding subunits being B hyo PCR positive were 3.5 times greater when the grower-finisher subunit was positive and the fiber content of the diet was >6%. Use of "all in all out" farrowing policy and having >60% multiparous sows, each reduced the odds of being B hyo PCR positive about fourfold. In growing-finishing subunits, fourteen variables passed the screening criterion for risk factors (P<-2 for B hyo PCR positivity. B hyo PCR positive status of the breeding subunits and higher fiber content of the diet were the most influential variable, with the odds of the grower-finisher subunits being B hyo PCR positive almost eight times greater when the breeding subunit was also B hyo PCR positive. Grower-finisher B hyo PCR positivity was also associated with the percentage of pigs housed on concrete slats, with the odds of being positive 7.5 times higher for subunits where more that 70% of the animals were kept on concrete slats compared to all other floor types. There was a strong association between grower-finisher status and whether the animals were in outdoor lots with the odds of being B hyo PCR positive substantially lower for pigs in outdoor lots compared with all other surfaces.

  6. Bacillary Angiomatosis in an HIV-positive Man with Multiple Risk Factors: A Clinical and Epidemiological Puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrah J Mateen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36-year-old man with advanced AIDS presented with skin lesions, fever and weight loss. Physical examination revealed skin lesions suggestive of bacillary angiomatosis. Diagnostic imaging identified bone lesions, soft tissue masses and a single hepatic lesion. His clinical presentation was most consistent with Bartonella quintana; however, his risk for infection with B quintana was limited to a remote, brief period of homelessness. In contrast, his frequent contact with cats presented substantial potential exposure to Bartonella henselae. Diagnosing a Bartonella infection presents challenges. The detection of bacteremia is hindered by slow growth in BACTEC media (BD Diagnostic Systems, Canada. In the present case, recovery of the organism required blind subcultures after at least eight days of incubation. Speciation by 16s ribosomal RNA analysis confirmed B quintana as the pathogen. Because the patient presented with skin lesions, the diagnosis was straightforward; however, skin lesions are nondiagnostic in some cases. Microbiological confirmation of the diagnosis rests on sufficient clinical suspicion to apply labour-intensive laboratory protocols.

  7. High Iron Requirement for Growth, Photosynthesis, and Low-light Acclimation in the Marine Cyanobacterium Synechococcus bacillaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunda, W. G.; Huntsman, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Iron is a critical nutrient in photosynthesis and limits phytoplankton growth in large regions of the ocean. Most of the iron in phytoplankton occurs in iron-containing proteins in the photosynthetic apparatus, and thus interactions among cellular iron, light, and growth rate are predicted. In agreement with this prediction, decreasing light intensity increased the cellular iron:carbon (Fe:C) ratio needed to support a given growth rate by 2- to 3-fold in both a coastal diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana, and a coastal cyanobacterium Synechococcus bacillaris due to an increase in iron-containing photosynthetic units. However, although the light responses were similar, the cellular Fe:C ratios needed to support a given growth rate were 5- to 8-fold higher in the cyanobacterium than in the diatom, a pattern seen in other Syechococcus isolates and eukaryotic phytoplankton. Due to the high iron requirement for growth and low light acclimation, we might expect Synechococcus to be at a competitive disadvantage in many low-iron and low-light environments. Indeed, it decreases rapidly with depth within the ocean's deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM), where iron and light levels are low and lower-iron requiring eukaryotic algae typically dominate the phytoplankton biomass in the mid to lower DCM.

  8. Solar disinfection of drinking water in the prevention of dysentery in South African children under 5 years: the role of participant motivation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Preez, M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available disinfected water (incidence rate ratio 0.64,95% CI 0.39-1.0, P ) 0.071) but not statistically significant. Compared with the control, participants with higher motivation achieved a significant reduction in dysentery (incidence rate ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0...

  9. Mycobacterium tuberculosis EsxO (Rv2346c) promotes bacillary survival by inducing oxidative stress mediated genomic instability in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Soumitra; Dal Molin, Michael; Ganguli, Geetanjali; Padhi, Avinash; Jena, Prajna; Selchow, Petra; Sengupta, Srabasti; Meuli, Michael; Sander, Peter; Sonawane, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) survives inside the macrophages by modulating the host immune responses in its favor. The 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT-6; esxA) of Mtb is known as a potent virulence and T-cell antigenic determinant. At least 23 such ESAT-6 family proteins are encoded in the genome of Mtb; however, the function of many of them is still unknown. We herein report that ectopic expression of Mtb Rv2346c (esxO), a member of ESAT-6 family proteins, in non-pathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis strain (MsmRv2346c) aids host cell invasion and intracellular bacillary persistence. Further mechanistic studies revealed that MsmRv2346c infection abated macrophage immunity by inducing host cell death and genomic instability as evident from the appearance of several DNA damage markers. We further report that the induction of genomic instability in infected cells was due to increase in the hosts oxidative stress responses. MsmRv2346c infection was also found to induce autophagy and modulate the immune function of macrophages. In contrast, blockade of Rv2346c induced oxidative stress by treatment with ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-L-cysteine prevented the host cell death, autophagy induction and genomic instability in infected macrophages. Conversely, MtbΔRv2346c mutant did not show any difference in intracellular survival and oxidative stress responses. We envision that Mtb ESAT-6 family protein Rv2346c dampens antibacterial effector functions namely by inducing oxidative stress mediated genomic instability in infected macrophages, while loss of Rv2346c gene function may be compensated by other redundant ESAT-6 family proteins. Thus EsxO plays an important role in mycobacterial pathogenesis in the context of innate immunity.

  10. Arsenic availability, toxicity and direct role of GSH and phytochelatins in As detoxification in the green alga Stichococcus bacillaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik-Skowrońska, B; Pirszel, J; Kalinowska, R; Skowroński, T

    2004-12-10

    Accumulation and toxicity of inorganic arsenic forms As(III) and As(V) to the green microalga Stichococcus bacillaris depended on environmental variables. pH of exposure and to a lesser extent elevated concentrations of humic acid, chloride and orthophosphate ions affected arsenic accumulation and its toxicity. As(V) was more toxic than As(III), especially at the near neutral pH 6.8. Intracellular As(V) uptake by algal cells was greater at pH 6.8 than at 8.2. In response to As(III) and As(V) the alga produced phytochelatins (PC(2-3)), but at As(V) exposure, their levels in cells were higher than with As(III), suggesting higher As(V) than As(III) availability and uptake. Arsenic in algal cells occurred in various complexes with non-protein SH groups. Some of these complexes dissociated under acidic conditions, but others were able to dissociate only at an alkaline pH. The former consisted of SH groups of phytochelatins. Those dissociating at an alkaline pH involved SH groups from both glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PC) or their derivatives. In the predominant acid-stable mixed As-SH complex, the ratio of SH (PC(2)) to SH (GSH) was 2:1, which suggests that one molecule of PC(2) (containing two SH groups) together with one molecule of GSH were involved in intracellular complexation of each As atom. This is the first demonstration of GSH involvement in arsenic complexation, in vivo. The intracellular concentration of As was greater than that of non-protein SH groups which suggests that not all the arsenic in algal cells was complexed and detoxified by thiol groups.

  11. Arsenic availability, toxicity and direct role of GSH and phytochelatins in As detoxification in the green alga Stichococcus bacillaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlik-Skowronska, B. [Centre for Ecological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences at Dziekanow Lesny, Experimental Station, Niecala 18/3, 20-080 Lublin (Poland)]. E-mail: pawlik@golem.umcs.lublin.pl; Pirszel, J. [Centre for Ecological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences at Dziekanow Lesny, Experimental Station, Niecala 18/3, 20-080 Lublin (Poland); Kalinowska, R. [Centre for Ecological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences at Dziekanow Lesny, Experimental Station, Niecala 18/3, 20-080 Lublin (Poland); Skowronski, T. [Centre for Ecological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences at Dziekanow Lesny, Experimental Station, Niecala 18/3, 20-080 Lublin (Poland)

    2004-12-10

    Accumulation and toxicity of inorganic arsenic forms As(III) and As(V) to the green microalga Stichococcus bacillaris depended on environmental variables. pH of exposure and to a lesser extent elevated concentrations of humic acid, chloride and orthophosphate ions affected arsenic accumulation and its toxicity. As(V) was more toxic than As(III), especially at the near neutral pH 6.8. Intracellular As(V) uptake by algal cells was greater at pH 6.8 than at 8.2. In response to As(III) and As(V) the alga produced phytochelatins (PC{sub 2-3}), but at As(V) exposure, their levels in cells were higher than with As(III), suggesting higher As(V) than As(III) availability and uptake. Arsenic in algal cells occurred in various complexes with non-protein -SH groups. Some of these complexes dissociated under acidic conditions, but others were able to dissociate only at an alkaline pH. The former consisted of -SH groups of phytochelatins. Those dissociating at an alkaline pH involved -SH groups from both glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PC) or their derivatives. In the predominant acid-stable mixed As-SH complex, the ratio of -SH (PC{sub 2}) to -SH (GSH) was 2:1, which suggests that one molecule of PC{sub 2} (containing two -SH groups) together with one molecule of GSH were involved in intracellular complexation of each As atom. This is the first demonstration of GSH involvement in arsenic complexation, in vivo. The intracellular concentration of As was greater than that of non-protein -SH groups which suggests that not all the arsenic in algal cells was complexed and detoxified by thiol groups.

  12. Antiprotozoal Constituents from Annona cherimola Miller, a Plant Used in Mexican Traditional Medicine for the Treatment of Diarrhea and Dysentery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Fernando; Correa-Basurto, Jose; Barbosa, Elizabeth; Mendez-Luna, David; Yepez-Mulia, Lilian

    2017-01-01

    Background: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae) is a medicinal plant frequently recommended in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea and dysentery. Objective: This work was undertaken to obtain information that support the traditional use of A. cherimola, on pharmacological basis using in vitro and computational experiments. Material and Methods: Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract of the leaves of A. cherimola afforded five phenolic compounds: caffeic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, nicotinflorin, and rutin. Results: The in vitro antiprotozoal assay showed that kaempferol was the most potent antiamoebic and antigiardial compound with IC50 values of 7.9 μg/mL for Entamoeba histolytica and 8.7 μg/mL for Giardia lamblia. Computational molecular docking study showed that kaempferol interacted in a region different than metronidazole in the enzyme pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR). Conclusion: Considering that PFOR is a target of metronidazole; kaempferol may be a lead compound for the development of novel antiprotozoal agent. Also, these findings give support to the use of A. cherimola in the traditional medicine from México for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. SUMMARY Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract of the leaves of Annona cherimola afforded five phenolic compounds: caffeic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, nicotinflorin and rutin. The in vitro antiprotozoal assay showed that kaempferol was the most potent antiamoebic and antigiardial compound with IC50 values of 7.9 μg/mL for Entamoeba histolytica and 8.7 μg/mL for Giardia lamblia. Computational molecular docking study showed that kaempferol interacted in a region different that metronidazole in the enzyme pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase. Abbreviations used: PFOR:Pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, G: lamblia: Giardia lamblia, E: histolytica: Entamoeba histolytica PMID:28216899

  13. Treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Infected Macrophages with Poly(Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid) Microparticles Drives NFκB and Autophagy Dependent Bacillary Killing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lawlor, Ciaran

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of multiple-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has pushed our available repertoire of anti-TB therapies to the limit of effectiveness. This has increased the urgency to develop novel treatment modalities, and inhalable microparticle (MP) formulations are a promising option to target the site of infection. We have engineered poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) MPs which can carry a payload of anti-TB agents, and are successfully taken up by human alveolar macrophages. Even without a drug cargo, MPs can be potent immunogens; yet little is known about how they influence macrophage function in the setting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. To address this issue we infected THP-1 macrophages with Mtb H37Ra or H37Rv and treated with MPs. In controlled experiments we saw a reproducible reduction in bacillary viability when THP-1 macrophages were treated with drug-free MPs. NFκB activity was increased in MP-treated macrophages, although cytokine secretion was unaltered. Confocal microscopy of immortalized murine bone marrow-derived macrophages expressing GFP-tagged LC3 demonstrated induction of autophagy. Inhibition of caspases did not influence the MP-induced restriction of bacillary growth, however, blockade of NFκB or autophagy with pharmacological inhibitors reversed this MP effect on macrophage function. These data support harnessing inhaled PLGA MP-drug delivery systems as an immunotherapeutic in addition to serving as a vehicle for targeted drug delivery. Such "added value" could be exploited in the generation of inhaled vaccines as well as inhaled MDR-TB therapeutics when used as an adjunct to existing treatments.

  14. Sequence types and pleuromutilin susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates from Italian pigs with swine dysentery: 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugna, G; Bonilauri, P; Carra, E; Bergamini, F; Luppi, A; Gherpelli, Y; Magistrali, C F; Nigrelli, A; Alborali, G L; Martelli, P; La, T; Hampson, D J; Merialdi, G

    2015-01-01

    Swine dysentery is a mucohaemorrhagic colitis of pigs caused by infection with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. The disease can be controlled by treatment with antimicrobial agents, with the pleuromutilins tiamulin and valnemulin being widely used. In recent years, the occurrence of B. hyodysenteriae with reduced susceptibility to these drugs has been increasing. The aim of this study was to determine temporal changes in genetic groups and pleuromutilin susceptibility amongst B. hyodysenteriae isolates from Italy. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed on 108 isolates recovered from 87 farms in different regions of Italy from 2003 to 2012, and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for tiamulin and valnemulin were determined. Logistic regression was performed to assess associations between susceptibility to the two antimicrobial agents and genetic group, year and region of isolation. The isolates were allocated to 23 sequence types (STs), with five clonal clusters (Ccs) and seven singletons. More than 50% of isolates were resistant to both pleuromutilins (MIC >2.0 µg/mL for tiamulin and >1.0 µg/mL for valnemulin). All 10 isolates in ST 83 were resistant; these were first isolated in 2011 and came from nine farms, suggesting recent widespread dissemination of a resistant strain. Significant associations were found between the proportion of pleuromutilin susceptible isolates and the genetic group and year of isolation. Although resistant isolates were found in all Ccs, isolates in Ccs 2 and 7 were over five times more likely to be susceptible than those in the other Ccs. A significant trend in the reduction of susceptibility over time also was observed.

  15. Biocontrol Ability and Action Mechanism of Starmerella bacillaris (Synonym Candida zemplinina) Isolated from Wine Musts against Gray Mold Disease Agent Botrytis cinerea on Grape and Their Effects on Alcoholic Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Wilson J; Bovo, Barbara; Nadai, Chiara; Crosato, Giulia; Carlot, Milena; Favaron, Francesco; Giacomini, Alessio; Corich, Viviana

    2016-01-01

    Gray mold is one of the most important diseases of grapevine in temperate climates. This plant pathogen affects plant growth and reduces wine quality. The use of yeasts as biocontrol agents to apply in the vineyard have been investigated in recent years as an alternative to agrochemicals. In this work, fermenting musts obtained from overripe grape berries, therefore more susceptible to infection by fungal pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea, were considered for the selection of yeasts carrying antifungal activity. Thirty-six isolates were identified as Starmerella bacillaris, a species recently proven to be of enological interest. Among them 14 different strains were studied and antifungal activity against B. cinerea was demonstrated, for the first time, to be present in S. bacillaris species. The production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), tested in vitro, was found to be the main responsible of S. bacillaris antifungal effects. All the strains were able to reduce B. cinerea decay on wounded grape berries artificially inoculated with gray mold. The colonization level of wound was very high reaching, after 5 days, a concentration of 10(6) cells per ml of grape juice obtained after berry crushing. At this cell concentration S. bacillaris strains were used to ferment synthetic and natural musts. The sequential yeast inoculation, performed by adding S. cerevisiae 48 h after S. bacillaris, was needed to complete sugar consumption and determined a significant increase in glicerol content and a reduction of ethanol and acetic acid concentrations. The high wound colonization ability, found in this work, together with the propensity to colonize grape berry and the interesting enological traits possessed by the selected S. bacillaris strains allow the use of this yeast as biocontrol agent on vine and grape berries with possible positive effects on must fermentation, although the presence of S. cerevisiae is needed to complete the fermentation process. This work

  16. Biocontrol ability and action mechanismof Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candida zemplinina isolated from wine musts against grey mold disease agent Botrytis cinerea on grape and their effects on alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Josè Fernandes Lemos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gray mold is one of the most important diseases of grapevine in temperate climates. This plant pathogen affects plant growth and reduces wine quality. The use of yeasts as biocontrol agents to apply in the vineyard have been investigated in recent years as an alternative to agrochemicals. In this work, fermenting musts obtained from overripe grape berries, therefore more susceptible to infection by fungal pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea, were considered for the selection of yeasts carrying antifungal activity. Thirty-six isolates were identified as Starmerella bacillaris, a species recently proven to be of enological interest. Among them 14 different strains were studied and antifungal activity against B. cinerea was demonstrated, for the first time, to be present in S. bacillaris species. The production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, tested in vitro, was found to be the main responsible of S. bacillaris antifungal effects. All the strains were able to reduce B. cinerea decay on wounded grape berries artificially inoculated with gray mold. The colonization level of wound was very high reaching, after five days, a concentration of 106 cells per ml of grape juice obtained after berry crushing. At this cell concentration S. bacillaris strains were used to ferment synthetic and natural musts. The sequential yeast inoculation, performed by adding S. cerevisiae 48 h after S. bacillaris, was needed to complete sugar consumption and determined a significant increase in glycerol content and a reduction of ethanol and acetic acid concentrations.The high wound colonization ability, found in this work, together with the propensity to colonize grape berry and the interesting enological traits possessed by the selected S. bacillaris strains allow the use of this yeast as biocontrol agent on vine and grape berries with possible positive effects on must fermentation, although the presence of S. cerevisiae is needed to complete the fermentation process

  17. Distribution of Different Serotypes and Epidemiological Characteristics of Bacillary Dysentery in Beijing from 2009 to 2011%北京市2009-2011年痢疾病原菌菌型分布和流行病学特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新; 刘桂荣; 曲梅; 吴小娜; 贾蕾; 王全意

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the change of serotype and the epidemiological characteristics of Shigella in Beijing from 2009 to 2011. Methods Totally 788 Shigella strains isolated from diarrhea patients in Beijing from 2009 to 2011 were sero-typed. Results Of all the 788 Shigella isolates 597 were Shigella sonnei ( accounting for 75. 76% ), and 188 were Shigella flex-neri ( accounting for 23. 86% ). The highest incidence was found in August and September, and the ages of the patients ranged mainly from 21 to 30 years. Conclusion The epidemic strains during the three years in Beijing are Shigella flexneri and Shigella Sonnei, and Shigella Sonnei is the dominant serotype.%目的 分析2009-2011年北京地区志贺菌的菌型分布及流行病学特征.方法 收集2009-2011年痢疾监测中分离到的志贺菌788株进行血清分型.结果 788株志贺菌中宋内志贺菌597株(占75.76%),福氏志贺菌188株(占23.86%).检出高峰在8、9月份,年龄段以21~30岁为主.结论 近三年北京市志贺菌流行菌型为福氏志贺菌和宋内志贺菌,其中优势菌型为宋内志贺菌.今后痢疾防控应以夏秋季为主.

  18. Angiomatose bacilar: revisão da literatura e documentação iconográfica Bacillary angiomatosis: literature review and iconographic documentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira Velho

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A angiomatose bacilar é uma das bartoneloses humanas. É doença sistêmica de manifestação cutânea freqüente. Caracteriza-se por lesões angioproliferativas causadas pela Bartonella henselae e pela B. quintana, que comprometem especialmente indivíduos imunodeficientes. Deve ser bem conhecida pelos dermatologistas, pois é potencialmente fatal, mas responsiva à antibioterapia. Para estabelecer o diagnóstico nosológico eles deverão sugeri-lo ao anatomopatologista, facilitando a diferenciação histológica, sobretudo, com o granuloma piogênico e o sarcoma de Kaposi. O presente artigo apresenta revisão da literatura e fotografias clínicas, de microscopia de luz e eletrônica de transmissão.Bacillary angiomatosis is one of the human bartoneloses. It is a systemic disease usually affecting the skin. Its angioproliferative lesions are caused by B. henselae and by B. quintana. Such lesions are more frequent in immunodeficient hosts. Dermatologists must be well aware of this disease because it is potentially fatal, though it is treatable with antibiotic therapy. To establish a nosologic diagnosis, dermatologists should refer patients to a pathologist. In so doing, they will facilitate histologic differentiation especially from pyogenic granuloma and Kaposi's sarcoma. This paper presents a literature review of the disease, and includes clinical, light and transmission electron microscope photographs.

  19. Longitudinal ocular survey of 202 Filipino patients with multi-bacillary (MB) leprosy treated with 2 year WHO-multiple drug therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanes, Jesus M; Cellona, Roland V; Balagon, Marivic; Abalos, Rodolfo M; Walsh, Gerald P; Walsh, Douglas S

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the ocular conditions in multibacillary (MB) leprosy patients treated with 2 year WHO multiple drug therapy (MDT), consisting of dapsone, clofazimine and rifampin, a regimen expected to reduce ocular complications of leprosy. We conducted comprehensive eye examinations in 202 Filipino MB leprosy patients before, during, and after WHO 2 year MDT. Assessments were carried out for at least 5 years. Inflammatory "lepra" reactions occurred in 62% (reversal reaction, 52%; erythema nodosum leprosum, 10%); most were mild. Eye abnormalities consisted mostly of diminished corneal sensitivity before MDT (6%) and lagopthalmos (n = 7, 3.4%). Six of 7 lagopthalmos cases occurred in a subset of 132 patients with facial patches (5%). Visual acuity scores, intra-ocular pressures and pupil cycle times were unremarkable. Bacillary invasion, keratitis, episcleritis, iridocyclitis, ectropion, synechiae, glaucoma and cataract formation were not detected. Scleral clofazimine pigmentation was frequent, resolving in most within 3 years of treatment cessation. Facial patches at presentation may denote a higher risk for lagopthalmos. We propose the generally low rates of ocular problems reflected mild lepra reactions, due to anti-inflammatory properties of clofazimine, a relatively young cohort, and a readily accessible community-based clinic permitting earlier diagnosis and prompt treatment.

  20. [The decipher, annotation and textual researches of 7 anti-dysentery prescriptions in the Tangut medical documents unearthed in Khara-Khoto].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Long; Liu, Jing-Yun; Zhang, Ru-Qing

    2013-05-01

    There were 7 anti-dysentery prescriptions in the Tangut medical documents unearthed in Khara-Khoto, preserved in Russia, which were deciphered, annotated and textually researched based on the Tangut tool books like Wenhai (Word Ocean), Tongyin (Homophones), and Fan han he shi zhang zhong zhu (A Tangut-Chinese Timely Gem Dictionary), combining with classical medical documents and application of knowledge of ancient Chinese language. It can be sure that these prescriptions came from the central plains of China during the Song Dynasty, which were made use of by the prescriptions as they were by the physicians of the Western Xia regime, either made modifications and adjustments or without any change. For example, local foods like local sugar and cheese were added. As for the administration and dosage, again, they were applied by following the original one or changing a little according to the local diet customs.

  1. Neonatal gram-negative bacillary late-onset sepsis: A case-control-control study on a prospectively collected database of 5,233 admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Horng; Wu, I Hsyuan; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Chu, Shih-Ming; Lien, Reyin; Huang, Hsuan-Rong; Chiang, Ming-Chou; Fu, Ren-Huei; Hsu, Jen-Fu; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2016-02-01

    Gram-negative bacillary (GNB) bloodstream infections account for 20%-30% of neonatal late-onset sepsis (LOS). We aimed to identify the incidence, clinical characteristics, and risk factors for adverse outcomes in neonates with GNB LOS. All patients with GNB LOS admitted to the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of a university-affiliated teaching hospital in Taiwan from January 1, 2004-December 31, 2011, were enrolled. A case-control-control study was performed to evaluate risk factors for acquisition of neonatal GNB LOS. Of the 5,010 neonates, 290 (5.8%) had a total of 346 episodes of GNB LOS (36.7% of total LOS), with an incidence rate of 13.6 per 10,000 neonate hospital days. The overall mortality rate was 17.6% (51/290), and the sepsis attributable mortality rate was 9.8% (34/346 episodes). After multivariate logistic regression analysis, neonates with prolonged use of total parenteral nutrition (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-2.29; P = .041) were independently associated with acquisition of GNB LOS. The independent predictors of in-hospital mortality were Pseudomonas aeruginosa etiology (OR = 11.45; 95% CI, 2.83-46.24) and underlying secondary pulmonary hypertension (OR = 18.02; 95% CI, 3.28-98.89), renal disease (OR = 17.16; 95% CI, 2.96-99.38), and neuromuscular comorbidities (OR = 2.72; 95% CI, 1.06-7.00). Given the higher illness severity and sepsis-attributable mortality rate of neonatal GNB LOS in the NICU, strategies to reduce the incidence need to be addressed urgently. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Disease: H00299 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H00299 Shigellosis; Bacillary dysentery Shigellosis (bacillary dysentery) is a food... and bloody diarrhea, and tenesmus. Transmission usually occurs via contaminated food and water or through p...eider KR Shigella as a foodborne pathogen and current methods for detection in food...ine development. Curr Opin Infect Dis 21:313-8 (2008) PMID:16954064 (description) Warren BR, Parish ME, Schn

  3. Study on Toxicology of Anti-dysentery Powder in Chinese Veterinary Pharmacopoeia%药典方剂止痢散的毒理学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆大; 谢闪闪; 付本懂; 张长帅; 韦旭斌

    2011-01-01

    为了从现代药理学角度评价止痢散临床用药的安全性,对其进行了毒理学研究.通过小鼠灌胃给药对止痢散的急性毒性进行了测定;以生理盐水对照组、止咳散低剂量组(4 g/kg)、中剂量组(8 g/kg)、高剂量组(16 g/kg)对大鼠连续灌胃给药4周,记录每日饮水量、饲料采食量及每周体重,测定末次给药后24 h及停药2周后血液生化指标及血常规,做病理切片,评定其长期毒性.结果显示:小鼠口服止痢散的LD50为124.8g/kg,95%可信限111.2~142.5 g/kg,单味雄黄的LD50为10.5g/kg,95%可信限9.7~11.1 g/kg;且对大鼠连续灌胃给药4周期间,止痢散低剂量组大鼠没有出现可见的毒性反应;中、高剂量组大鼠呈现出明显毒性反应,具体表现为采食及饮水量减少,体重减轻,消化道充血、出血,肝脏存在炎性细胞浸润、肝细胞水泡变性,肾脏、心脏轻度出血,血清尿素氮、谷丙转氨酶,谷草转氨酶、与碱性磷酸酶升高等;不过高剂量组大鼠用药期间也没有出现死亡;上述毒性反应在停药2周后基本消失.以上结果表明,止痢散的毒性较低,按兽药典规定剂量用药是安全的,但长期使用能引起蓄积作用,造成肝肾损伤,其毒性具有可逆性.%To evaluate the prescription's clinical safety from the perspective of modern pharmacology, studies were made on the toxicology of anti-dysentery powder.In this experiment we examined the acute toxicity of anti-dysentery powder and realgar by intragastric administration in mice; assessed its long-term toxicity in rats through recording the amount of hydroposia and feeds-foraging per day and body weight per week, measuring hematologic and blood biochemical indexed after administration for 24 hours and withdrawal for 2 weeks,and made pathological section after intragastric administration for 4 weeks in rats with low(4 g/kg), middle(8 g/kg), and high( 16 g/kg) dosage groups.The results showed that: the medial

  4. Application of a novel grey self-memory coupling model to forecast the incidence rates of two notifiable diseases in China: dysentery and gonorrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Guo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study, a novel grey self-memory coupling model was developed to forecast the incidence rates of two notifiable infectious diseases (dysentery and gonorrhea; the effectiveness and applicability of this model was assessed based on its ability to predict the epidemiological trend of infectious diseases in China. METHODS: The linear model, the conventional GM(1,1 model and the GM(1,1 model with self-memory principle (SMGM(1,1 model were used to predict the incidence rates of the two notifiable infectious diseases based on statistical incidence data. Both simulation accuracy and prediction accuracy were assessed to compare the predictive performances of the three models. The best-fit model was applied to predict future incidence rates. RESULTS: Simulation results show that the SMGM(1,1 model can take full advantage of the systematic multi-time historical data and possesses superior predictive performance compared with the linear model and the conventional GM(1,1 model. By applying the novel SMGM(1,1 model, we obtained the possible incidence rates of the two representative notifiable infectious diseases in China. CONCLUSION: The disadvantages of the conventional grey prediction model, such as sensitivity to initial value, can be overcome by the self-memory principle. The novel grey self-memory coupling model can predict the incidence rates of infectious diseases more accurately than the conventional model, and may provide useful references for making decisions involving infectious disease prevention and control.

  5. 78 FR 9399 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... many isolates exhibit multiple antibiotic resistance complicates the management of dysentery infections... about forty serotypes of Shigella, causes a more severe disease with a much higher mortality rate than... gene region into a bacterial chromosome. Bacillary dysentery and enteric fevers continue to be...

  6. An outbreak of winter dysentery caused by bovine coronavirus in a high-production dairy cattle herd from a tropical country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Takiuchi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine coronavirus (BCoV is a known cause of winter dysentery (WD in adult cattle. The morbidity of the disease is high, that results in a significant decrease in milk production and consequently, economic losses. In the present study, we report on a classical outbreak of WD that affected a high-production Holstein dairy herd raised in a tropical country. The lactating batch included 154 cows, and 138 (90% presented diarrhea in a short (nine days period of time. Three (2% cows died. The other batches of animals did not become ill. The evolution of the disease in the herd, including the clinical signs and epidemiological features, strongly suggested a WD case. Semi-nested PCR and RFLP confirmed that BCoV was the cause of the infection. Samples tested negative for all other enteric pathogens. This case report highlights the importance of BCoV in WD even in tropical countries such as Brazil.O coronavirus bovino (BCoV pode causar a diarreia de inverno (WD - Winter Dysentery ao infectar bovinos adultos, particularmente em regiões de clima temperado ou frio. A morbidade da doença é alta, resultando em queda na produção de leite e, consequentemente, perdas econômicas. No presente estudo, é descrito um surto clássico de WD acometendo um rebanho de bovinos leiteiros da raça Holandesa PB, de alta produção, proveniente do estado do Paraná. O lote afetado era composto por 154 vacas em lactação, sendo que 138 (90% apresentaram diarreia em um curto (nove dias período de tempo e 3 (2% vacas morreram em consequência da diarreia, desidratação e desequilíbrio eletrolítico. As outras categorias de animais do rebanho (bezerras, novilhas e vacas secas não apresentaram sinal clínico. A evolução da doença clínica, assim como a epidemiologia da infecção sugeriu um quadro clássico de WD. O diagnóstico foi realizado por meio da identificação do BCoV, pela técnica de semi-nested PCR e confirmação por RFLP, em amostra fecal de uma vaca

  7. A high dietary concentration of inulin is necessary to reduce the incidence of swine dysentery in pigs experimentally challenged with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Christian F; Hernández, Aracely; Mansfield, Josie; Hidalgo, Álvaro; La, Tom; Phillips, Nyree D; Hampson, David J; Pluske, John R

    2011-11-01

    A total of sixty surgically castrated male pigs (Large White × Landrace) weighing 31·2 (sd 4·3) kg were used in a randomised block experiment to examine the effect of added dietary inulin (0, 20, 40 and 80 g/kg) on the occurrence of swine dysentery (SD) and on fermentation characteristics in the large intestine after experimental challenge with the causative spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. The pigs were allowed to adapt to the diets for 2 weeks before each pig was challenged orally four times with a broth culture containing B. hyodysenteriae on consecutive days. Increasing dietary levels of inulin linearly (P = 0·001) reduced the risk of pigs developing SD; however, eight out of fifteen pigs fed the diet with 80 g/kg inulin still developed the disease. The pH values in the caecum (P = 0·072) tended to decrease, and in the upper colon, the pH values did decrease (P = 0·047) linearly with increasing inulin levels in the diets, most probably due to a linear increase in the concentration of total volatile fatty acids in the caecum (P = 0·018), upper colon (P = 0·001) and lower colon (P = 0·013). In addition, there was a linear reduction in the proportion of the branched-chain fatty acids isobutyric acid and isovaleric acid in the caecum (P = 0·015 and 0·026) and upper colon (P = 0·011 and 0·013) with increasing levels of dietary inulin. In conclusion, the present study showed that a diet supplemented with a high level of inulin (80 g/kg) but not lower levels reduced the risk of pigs developing SD, possibly acting through a modification of the microbial fermentation patterns in the large intestine.

  8. Observation of Therapeutic Effects of Two Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicines on Piglet' s Yellow- white Dysentery%两种中成药防治仔猪黄白痢的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢四仙; 张建乐

    2012-01-01

    采用中成药“母仔安”给分娩前3d、产仔后7~10d的母猪喂服、“仔痢宁”给已产黄白痢仔猪的母猪喂服3~5d,观察其发病率、病死率及双月仔猪成活率。试验结果表明:服用“母仔安”的产仔母猪所产仔猪发病率下降11.56%,病死率下降15.58%,双月成活率提高9.61%,非病死率下降1.1%;服用“仔痢宁”的母猪所产仔猪发病率下降6.9%,治愈率占发病数的88.9%,病死率下降18.93%,双月成活率提高8.72%,非病死率下降1.86%。%Piglet's yellow -white dysentery was an epidemic gastroenteritis caused by the pathogenic Escherichia coli with multiple serotypes in piglets induced by dysentery, high incidence, difficulty in cure, the high mortality. The test of feeding Muzian of traditional Chinese herbal medicine three days before delivery or 7 -10 days after farrowing and feeding Zilining of traditional Chinese herbal medicines for 3 - 5 days to sows was done to observe the incidence, mortality and survival rate of piglets bimonthly. The results showed that the incidence of piglet' s yellow - white dysentery after feeding Muzian of traditional Chinese herbal medicines to farrowing sows was seen down by | 1.56%, case fatality rate decreased by 15.58%, bimonthly survival rate increased by 9.61%, non - fatality rate decreased by 1.1%. The incidence of piglet' s yellow - white dysentery after feeding Zilining of traditional Chinese herbal medicines decreased by 6.9% , the cure rate of incidence number was 88.9% , case fatality rate decreased by 18.93% . bimonthly survival rate increased bv 8.72% , non -fatality rate decreased by 1.86%.

  9. 基于“三年化疫”理论探讨痢疾发病与气候变化的关联性%Based on the theory of ‘transformation of plague in three years' to explore the correlation between incidence of dysentery and climate changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠第; 张轩; 贺娟

    2013-01-01

    目的:依据“三年化疫”理论研究北京市痢疾发病与3年前气候变化的关联性.方法:提取北京市1970年-2004年35年的痢疾高发年份,分析其3年前的气候变化特点,依据“三年化疫”理论对“异常气候一痢疾发病”进行吻合度评价.结果:痢疾的高发与3年前的异常气候变化有关,尤其是年干为戊、癸、辛的年份.结论:痢疾发病与3年前的气候变化具有相关性, “三年化疫”理论对于痢疾发病的预测具有一定指导意义.%Objective: Based on the theory of 'transformation of plague in three years', to investigate the relationship between the incidence of dysentery and climate changes three years ago. Methods: By extraction of 35 years of dysentery high-risk years in Beijing from 1970 to 2004, and analysis its climate change characteristics three years ago, to evaluate 'the relationship of abnormal climate and dysentery disease' based on the theory of 'transformation of plague in three years'. Results: The high incidence of dysentery was related to the abnormal climate changes three years ago, especially in the Niangan years of wu, gui, xin. Conclusion: The incidence of dysentery was related to the climate changes three years ago, the theory of 'transformation of plague in three years' could predict the dysentery disease.

  10. Investigation on Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections complicated with gram-negative bacillary sepsis%大肠埃希菌尿路感染合并革兰阴性杆菌性败血症调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉莲; 徐涛; 翁杏华; 李磊邦; 马碧蓝

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the main specimen source of Escherichia coli causing gram-negative bacillary sepsis. METHODS Urine culture and blood culture were conducted according to the methods in the National Clinical Laboratory Procedures (3rd edition), using the United States BD9050 fully automatic blood culture systems the identification and the drug susceptibility were analyzed by the French bioMerieux ATBExpression automatic bacterial identification instrument. RESULTS From Jul. 2010 to Jul. 2011, positive blood culture was found in 322 cases, among which 60 out of 90 cases were with E. Coli causing urinary tract infections. CONCLUSION Urinary tract infection is one of the most important ways to cause gram-negative bacillary sepsis. Blood culture and urine culture executed at the same time can contribute to the locating of the focus of infection of sepsis.%目的 调查大肠埃希菌所致的革兰阴性杆菌性败血症主要标本来源.方法 按照卫生部《全国临床检验操作规程》第3版的方法采集尿培养、血培养;血培养用美国BD9050全自动血培养仪;鉴定和药敏试验采用法国生物梅里埃公司ATBExpression自动细菌鉴定仪.结果 2010年7月-2011年7月322份血培养阳性,其中90株大肠埃希菌有60株来自尿路感染,占66.7%.结论 尿路感染是革兰阴性杆菌侵入血流的最主要途径之一;血培养、尿培养同时做,有利于查找败血症感染灶.

  11. Silent iritis in treated bacillary negative leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K; Job, C K

    1996-09-01

    Iridectomy specimens from 59 leprosy patients who had adequate medical records of whom 33 belong to the lepromatous (LL) leprosy variety and 16 normal controls were studied histopathologically. All patients were bacteriologically negative and had received dapsone followed by multidrug therapy (MDT), or MDT only, or only dapsone for varying periods. It was found that leprosy, particularly lepromatous disease, did not significantly decrease the age of formation of cataract. Of the 33 LL patients studied 60.6% had silent iritis. The duration of treatment had no obvious influence on the persistence of iritis. Treatment with only 2 years of MDT for LL patients did not significantly increase the prevalence of persistent silent iritis compared to those who received other types of antileprosy therapy for long periods. It is pointed out that chronic iritis is a serious complication that continues even after the patient is declared clinically and bacteriologically cured, especially in patients who had a history of chronic iritis clinically.

  12. 5.3.Bacterial disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920038 Clinical effect and laboratoryobservation of ofloxacin in the treatment oftyphoid fever,bacillary dysentery and gonor-rhea.ZOU Qiyuan (邹启园),et al.Dept InfectDis,1st Affil Hosp,Chongqing Med Univ,630042.Chin J Intern Med 1991;30 (9):572-574

  13. 致仔猪痢疾沙门氏菌特异性噬菌体的分离与纯化%Isolation and purification of bacteriophage against Salmonella associated piglets dysentery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席利萌; 李陇平; 徐坤; 张智英

    2012-01-01

    【Objective】 The study was to screen bacteriophage against Salmonella isolated in domestic sewage,and to provide certain reference for the development of diarrhea and disease prevention in piglets dysentery.【Method】 Salmonella was isolated and identified as host bacteria from the sicken piglet's feces,the specific bacteriophage screened from sewage through it;After mixing the isolated phage with Staphylococcus aureus(Sau) and Escherichia coli(Eco),the specificity of the phage was validated.【Result】 The Salmonella were identified,and the specific phage isolated and purified can not kill Sau and Eco.【Conclusion】 We got the specific bacteriophage which can only kill the Salmonella,and the bacteriophage is specific.%【目的】筛选仔猪痢疾病原菌沙门氏菌特异性噬菌体,为噬菌体制剂的研制和仔猪痢疾的生物防治提供参考。【方法】从患痢疾仔猪粪便中分离致病菌沙门氏菌,鉴定后以其为宿主菌,从生活污水中筛选、纯化出特异性噬菌体,并以金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌为对照,检测该噬菌体的特异性。【结果】分离到了致病菌沙门氏菌,并得到了纯化的沙门氏菌噬菌体;经检测,该噬菌体只能裂解沙门氏菌,而对金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌没有作用。【结论】得到了纯化的可裂解沙门氏菌的特异性噬菌体。

  14. 上海市痢疾发病率预测自回归求和移动平均模型的构建与应用%Establishing and applying of autoregressive integrated moving average model to predict the incidence rate of dysentery in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎健; 吴寰宇; 李燕婷; 金汇明; 顾宝柯; 袁政安

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveTo explore the feasibility of establishing and applying of autoregressive integrated moving average(ARIMA) model to predict the incidence rate of dysentery in Shanghai,so as to provide the theoretical basis for prevention and control of dysentery. MethodsARIMA model was established based on the monthly incidence rate of dysentery of Shanghai from 1990 to 2007. The parameters of model were estimated through unconditional least squares method, the structure was determined according to criteria of residual un-correlation and concision, and the model goodness-of-fit was determined through Akaike information criterion ( AIC ) and Schwarz Bayesian criterion (SBC). The constructed optimal model was applied to predict the incidence rate of dysentery of Shanghai in 2008 and evaluate the validity of model through comparing the difference of predicted incidence rate and actual one. The incidence rate of dysentery in 2010 was predicted by ARIMA model based on the incidence rate from January 1990 to June 2009. Results The model ARIMA ( 1,1,1 ) (0,1,2) _(12) had a good fitness to the incidence rate with both autoregressive coefficient (AR1= 0. 443 ) during the past time series, moving average coefficient ( MA1 =0. 806) and seasonal moving average coefficient ( SMA1 = 0. 543, SMA2 = 0. 321 ) being statistically significant( P < 0. 01 ). AIC and SBC were 2. 878 and 16. 131 respectively and predicting error was white noise. The mathematic function was ( 1 - 0. 443B) ( 1 - B) ( 1 - B~(12) ) Z_t = ( 1 - 0. 806B) ( 1 - 0. 543B~(12))(1-0. 321B~(2×12) )μ_t,. The predicted incidence rate in 2008 was consistent with the actual one, with the relative error of 6. 78%. The predicted incidence rate of dysentery in 2010 based on the incidence rate from January 1990 to June 2009 would be 9. 390 per 100 thousand. ConclusionARIMA model can be used to fit the changes of incidence rate of dysentery and to forecast the future incidence rate in Shanghai. It is a predicted model of high

  15. On the etiology of an outbreak of winter dysentery in dairy cows in Brazil Sobre a etiologia de um surto de disenteria de inverno em vacas leiteiras no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo E. Brandão

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Winter dysentery (WD is a seasonal infectious disease described worldwide that causes a marked decrease in milk production in dairy cows. In the Northern hemisphere, where the disease is classically recognized, bovine coronavirus (BCoV has been assigned as a major etiologic agent of the disease. Nonetheless, in the Southern hemisphere, an in-deep etiological survey on WD cases had not been carried out. This study aimed to survey for BCoV by nested-RT-PCR, rotavirus by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE and ELISA, bacteria by classical bacteriological methods and PCR for virulence factors and parasites by sugar flotation test on fecal samples of 21 cows from a farm during an outbreak of WD in São Paulo state, Southeastern Brazil. BCoV was detected in all 21 samples, while rotavirus was detected in two symptomatic cows. Escherichia coli, Yersinia intermedia, Providencia rustigianii Proteus penneri, Klebsiella terrigena and Enterobacter aglomerans were detected in samples from both asymptomatic and healthy cows in different associations. The study of E. coli virulence factors revealed that the strains isolated were all apathogenic. Cysts of Eimeria sp. and eggs of Strongyloidea were detected at low numbers in four of the symptomatic cows, with one co-infestation. These results suggest BCoV as the main etiologic agent of the cases of WD in Brazil, a conclusion that, with the clinical and epidemiological patterns of the disease studied herein, match those already described elsewhere. These findings give basis to the development of preventive measures and contribute to the understanding of the etiology of WD.Em vacas leiteiras, a disenteria de inverno (DI é uma doença infecciosa sazonal mundialmente relatada que ocasiona uma marcada queda na produção de leite; no hemisfério Norte, onde a doença é classicamente reconhecida, o coronavirus bovino (BCoV tem um importante papel como agente etiológico. Entretanto, no hemisfério Sul

  16. Achados clínico patológicos durante um surto de disenteria de inverno em bovinos no Rio Grande do Sul Clinic pathological features during a winter dysentery outbreak in cattle in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Petinatti Pavarini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um surto de disenteria de inverno que afetou 10 vacas leiteiras de uma propriedade localizada em Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul. O quadro clínico caracterizou-se por uma diarréia inicialmente líquida esverdeada com estrias de sangue e muco, evoluindo, em alguns animais, para uma diarréia de coloração marrom escura à sanguinolenta, que persistiu, em média, cinco dias. Drástica diminuição na produção de leite e no consumo de alimentos, além de graus variados de depressão também foram observados. Apenas um dos 10 animais afetados morreu. Durante a necropsia, observaram-se mucosas pálidas, conteúdo sanguinolento com presença de grande quantidade de coágulos, principalmente no cólon espiral e petéquias na mucosa do cólon. Os principais achados histológicos foram encontradas no cólon espiral, onde havia criptas dilatadas, sem epitélio de revestimento ou revestidas por epitélio pavimentoso e/ou cuboidal, por vezes com núcleos grandes e nucléolos proeminentes. Algumas criptas eram preenchidas por debris necróticos e polimorfonucleares. Na imuno-histoquímica com anticorpo monoclonal para coronavírus bovino (8F2 em cortes do cólon espiral, havia marcações positivas no citoplasma de enterócitos das criptas, nos debris necróticos destas e em macrófagos na lâmina própria.The report describes a winter dysentery outbreak that affected 10 dairy cows from a ranch located in the county of Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul. The most significant clinical sign was profuse and watery diarrhea, which ranged from a greenish to a brownish coloration and from occasional blood streaks with mucus to a bloody diarrhea. Most cases persisted for 5 days and also included depression, drastic decrease in milk production and in food consumption. Only one of the affected animals died. The necropsy revealed pale mucosa and sanguineous content with high quantity of blood clots, particularly within the spiral colon, and petechiae on the

  17. Military Food Inspection: Its History and Its Effect on Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-15

    or foodborne disease as a result of their being unsound, unwholesome, or contaminated at the time of their issue. There were outbreaks of foodborne...the health of the people.8 Military food inspection was very important in the 60s with the outbreak of the Vietnam conflict. The activities o2 food...to name a few, are bacillary dysentery, Enterotoxigenic E. coli, Salmonellosis , Hepatitis A, and cholera. The mode of transmission for most of these

  18. Building Partnership Capacity at the Ministerial Level to Improve Gender Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    mosquitoborne diseases . Lack of clean drinking water introduces risks of bacillary dysentery, cholera , diarrheal disease , typhoid, hepatitis A, and...leverage the capabilities of U.S. defense and diplomatic resources, as part of an overall strategy, to prevent wars from happening in the first place. By...Security Cooperation, in partnership with various partner-countries and other entities, to advance its strategic interests and to prevent conflicts from

  19. Dyspnea and dysentery: a case report of pleuropulmonary amebiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Merica; Shah, Anita; Lettieri, Christopher

    2010-02-01

    Pleuropulmonary amebiasis is an uncommon complication of Entamoeba histolytica infection. It typically occurs in endemic regions including Central and South America, Africa and the Indian subcontinent. The case of a previously healthy US Army male stationed in Liberia with an acute onset of fevers, abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea is presented. He developed a productive cough with pleuritic chest pain and imaging revealed multiple liver abscesses, with rupture through the diaphragm causing a large right pleural empyema. A positive Entamoeba histolytica serum antibody and pleural fluid antigen confirmed the diagnosis. Surgical drainage of the pleural empyema and medical treatment with antiparasitics were necessary for symptom and disease resolution.

  20. Investigation on the Serotype and Antibiotic Resistance of E.coli Isolated from Piglit's Yellow Dysentery in Large-scale Pig Farms in Zhangjiakou%张家口地区仔猪黄痢病原菌血清型检测及药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾小龙; 刘红彬

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the antibiotic resistance and predominant serotypes of E. coli of yellow dysentery, a total of 90 fecal samples were collected from 20 large-scale pig farms for isolation and identification of E. coli. The virulence of the isolates was tested in mice and the serotype was tested by the agglutination. Finally,a total of 86 E. coli isolates were obtained and 79 of them were tested to be pathogenic,among which 72 isolates were serotyped to belong to 10 kinds of serotypes and the predominant serotypes were 08,0151,0149 and O141. Among all the isolates,50 isolates were resistant to 16 kinds of antibiotics to a greater or less degree. The highest resistance to streptomycin was 100%. The efficient antibiotics were cefotaxime sodium,norfloxa-cin,amikacin and neomycin, with the sensitive ratio of 94% (47/50) ,90% (45/50) ,82% (41/50) , and 80% (40/50) .respectively. All the 50 isolates showed resistance to more than 5 kinds of antibiotics.%为了调查张家口地区仔猪黄痢病例大肠杆菌的耐药性及流行血清型,从发生仔猪黄痢的20个规模化猪场采集90份病料,进行致病性大肠杆菌的分离及生化鉴定.腹腔接种小白鼠以鉴定分离菌的毒力,采用玻板凝集试验和试管凝集试验鉴定分离茵O血清型,并使用16种抗茵药对50株致病性大肠杆菌进行药敏试验.结果表明,从90份病料中分离出86株大肠杆菌,其中致病性大肠杆菌79株.79株致病菌共有10种血清型,其中O8、O151、O149、O141为优势血清型,占能定型分离致病菌株的61.1%.药敏试验结果显示,头孢噻肟钠抑菌作用最强(94%),其次为诺氟沙星(90%)、丁胺卡那霉素(82%)、新霉素(80%).50株大肠杆菌对16种抗菌药均有不同程度的耐药性,对链霉素完全耐药,其中39株为5耐以上的菌株,占供试菌株的78%.

  1. Impacts of tropical cyclones and accompanying precipitation on infectious diarrhea in cyclone landing areas of Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhengyi; Xun, Huanmiao; Zhou, Maigeng; Jiang, Baofa; Wang, Songwang; Guo, Qing; Wang, Wei; Kang, Ruihua; Wang, Xin; Marley, Gifty; Ma, Wei

    2015-01-22

    Zhejiang Province, located in southeastern China, is frequently hit by tropical cyclones. This study quantified the associations between infectious diarrhea and the seven tropical cyclones that landed in Zhejiang from 2005-2011 to assess the impacts of the accompanying precipitation on the studied diseases. A unidirectional case-crossover study design was used to evaluate the impacts of tropical storms and typhoons on infectious diarrhea. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to eliminate multicollinearity. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For all typhoons studied, the greatest impacts on bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea were identified on lag 6 days (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.81-2.93) and lag 5 days (OR = 3.56, 95% CI: 2.98-4.25), respectively. For all tropical storms, impacts on these diseases were highest on lag 2 days (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.41-4.33) and lag 6 days (OR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.69-3.56), respectively. The tropical cyclone precipitation was a risk factor for both bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea when daily precipitation reached 25 mm and 50 mm with the largest OR = 3.25 (95% CI: 1.45-7.27) and OR = 3.05 (95% CI: 2.20-4.23), respectively. Both typhoons and tropical storms could contribute to an increase in risk of bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea in Zhejiang. Tropical cyclone precipitation may also be a risk factor for these diseases when it reaches or is above 25 mm and 50 mm, respectively. Public health preventive and intervention measures should consider the adverse health impacts from tropical cyclones.

  2. Impacts of Tropical Cyclones and Accompanying Precipitation on Infectious Diarrhea in Cyclone Landing Areas of Zhejiang Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhengyi; Xun, Huanmiao; Zhou, Maigeng; Jiang, Baofa; Wang, Songwang; Guo, Qing; Wang, Wei; Kang, Ruihua; Wang, Xin; Marley, Gifty; Ma, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Zhejiang Province, located in southeastern China, is frequently hit by tropical cyclones. This study quantified the associations between infectious diarrhea and the seven tropical cyclones that landed in Zhejiang from 2005–2011 to assess the impacts of the accompanying precipitation on the studied diseases. Method: A unidirectional case-crossover study design was used to evaluate the impacts of tropical storms and typhoons on infectious diarrhea. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to eliminate multicollinearity. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: For all typhoons studied, the greatest impacts on bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea were identified on lag 6 days (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.81–2.93) and lag 5 days (OR = 3.56, 95% CI: 2.98–4.25), respectively. For all tropical storms, impacts on these diseases were highest on lag 2 days (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.41–4.33) and lag 6 days (OR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.69–3.56), respectively. The tropical cyclone precipitation was a risk factor for both bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea when daily precipitation reached 25 mm and 50 mm with the largest OR = 3.25 (95% CI: 1.45–7.27) and OR = 3.05 (95% CI: 2.20–4.23), respectively. Conclusions: Both typhoons and tropical storms could contribute to an increase in risk of bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea in Zhejiang. Tropical cyclone precipitation may also be a risk factor for these diseases when it reaches or is above 25 mm and 50 mm, respectively. Public health preventive and intervention measures should consider the adverse health impacts from tropical cyclones. PMID:25622139

  3. Impacts of Tropical Cyclones and Accompanying Precipitation on Infectious Diarrhea in Cyclone Landing Areas of Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zhejiang Province, located in southeastern China, is frequently hit by tropical cyclones. This study quantified the associations between infectious diarrhea and the seven tropical cyclones that landed in Zhejiang from 2005–2011 to assess the impacts of the accompanying precipitation on the studied diseases. Method: A unidirectional case-crossover study design was used to evaluate the impacts of tropical storms and typhoons on infectious diarrhea. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to eliminate multicollinearity. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results: For all typhoons studied, the greatest impacts on bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea were identified on lag 6 days (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.81–2.93 and lag 5 days (OR = 3.56, 95% CI: 2.98–4.25, respectively. For all tropical storms, impacts on these diseases were highest on lag 2 days (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.41–4.33 and lag 6 days (OR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.69–3.56, respectively. The tropical cyclone precipitation was a risk factor for both bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea when daily precipitation reached 25 mm and 50 mm with the largest OR = 3.25 (95% CI: 1.45–7.27 and OR = 3.05 (95% CI: 2.20–4.23, respectively. Conclusions: Both typhoons and tropical storms could contribute to an increase in risk of bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea in Zhejiang. Tropical cyclone precipitation may also be a risk factor for these diseases when it reaches or is above 25 mm and 50 mm, respectively. Public health preventive and intervention measures should consider the adverse health impacts from tropical cyclones.

  4. 9 CFR 311.10 - Anaplasmosis, anthrax, babesiosis, bacillary hemoglobinuria in cattle, blackleg, bluetongue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anaplasmosis, anthrax, babesiosis... DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.10 Anaplasmosis, anthrax... condemned: (1) Anthrax. (2) Blackleg. (3) Unhealed vaccine lesions (vaccinia). (4) Strangles. (5)...

  5. Spontaneous adult Gram-negative bacillary meningitis in Soweto, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Teckie

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: A disproportionate burden of GNB meningitis fell on the HIV-infected, among whom absent or low CSF white cells was common. Management was complicated by high rates of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins.

  6. Occupational asthma caused by bacillary amylase used in the detergent industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hole, A M; Draper, A; Jolliffe, G; Cullinan, P; Jones, M; Taylor, A J

    2000-12-01

    Four cases are reported of occupational asthma due to amylase derived from Bacillus licheniformis, used in detergent washing powders. It is thought that these are the first reported cases of asthma due to this enzyme in the detergent industry. All four employees (men) were from the same factory and none had a history of asthma or atopy. All developed symptoms of wheeze at work after an initial symptom free period. Symptoms improved during periods away from work. All undertook serial peak flow recordings (not diagnostic) and underwent skin prick tests, radio allergosorbent test (RAST) measurement, and specific bronchial provocation testing. The bronchial provocation testing was performed by a dust tipping method in a single blind manner, with lactose as an inert control and powdered amylase, provided by the employer, as an active agent. Serial measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) were recorded and histamine provocative concentration causing a 20% fall in FEV(1) (PC(20)) tests were determined before and 24 hours after each challenge. Patient 1 developed an isolated early reaction, patient 2 an isolated late reaction, and patients 3 and 4 developed dual reactions. All showed an increased non-specific bronchial responsiveness after active challenge. The introduction of encapsulated enzymes in the detergent industry was followed by a reduction in the incidence of respiratory sensitisation. These patients developed occupational asthma despite working only with encapsulated enzymes. This highlights the importance of careful surveillance after the introduction of new agents in the workplace.

  7. Mycolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis modulate the flow of cholesterol for bacillary proliferation in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Ilke; Baird, Mark; Al-Dulayymi, Juma; Smet, Muriel; Verschoor, Jan; Grooten, Johan

    2017-04-01

    The differentiation of macrophages into lipid-filled foam cells is a hallmark of the lung granuloma that forms in patients with active tuberculosis (TB). Mycolic acids (MAs), the abundant lipid virulence factors in the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), can induce this foam phenotype possibly as a way to perturb host cell lipid homeostasis to support the infection. It is not exactly clear how MAs allow differentiation of foam cells during Mtb infection. Here we investigated how chemically synthetic MAs, each with a defined stereochemistry similar to natural Mtb-associated mycolates, influence cell foamy phenotype and mycobacterial proliferation in murine host macrophages. Using light and laser-scanning-confocal microscopy, we assessed the influence of MA structure first on the induction of granuloma cell types, second on intracellular cholesterol accumulation, and finally on mycobacterial growth. While methoxy-MAs (mMAs) effected multi-vacuolar giant cell formation, keto-MAs (kMAs) induced abundant intracellular lipid droplets that were packed with esterified cholesterol. Macrophages from mice treated with kMA were permissive to mycobacterial growth, whereas cells from mMA treatment were not. This suggests a separate yet key involvement of oxygenated MAs in manipulating host cell lipid homeostasis to establish the state of TB. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. The effect of fermentable carbohydrates on experimental swine dysentery and whip worm infections in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lisbeth E.; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jensen, Tim Kåre;

    2007-01-01

    ingredients were composed. Both diets were based on triticale and barley and supplemented with either rape seed cake (Diet 1) or dried chicory root and sweet lupins (Diet 2). The study had a three-factorial design, with eight groups of pigs receiving Diet I or Diet 2, +/- B. hyodysenteriae, and +/- T suis...

  9. Dysentery caused by Balantidium coli in a petient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma from Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suleyman Yazar; Fevzi Altuntas; Izzet Sahin; Metin Atambay

    2004-01-01

    Balantidium coli is the only parasitic ciliate of man. It is a flattened oval organism covered with cilia, and a gullet at the anterior end. It is infrequently pathogenic for man,although epidemic buds in tropical zones have been described. The infection fundamentally affects the colon and causes variable clinic pictures, from asymptomatic to serious dysenteric forms. We present a case of parasitologically diagnosed as causes of diarrhea in a patient with nonHodgkin's lymphoma from Turkey. In order to find out the causative etiologic agent of diarrhea, stool samples were examined by native, lugol and flotation methods and we detected moving trophozoites, which were approximately 60 μm long and 35 μm wide. These bodies were diagnosed as Balantidium coli. This case underlines that Balantidium coli should also be considered as a possible pathogen in immunocompromised patients with diarrhea.

  10. Risk of underdiagnosing amebic dysentery due to false-negative Entamoeba histolytica antigen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prim, Núria; Escamilla, Pilar; Solé, Roser; Llovet, Teresa; Soriano, Germán; Muñoz, Carmen

    2012-08-01

    Entamoeba histolytica antigen assays on stool are widely used to diagnose amebiasis. We report a case of confirmed amebic colitis with a false-negative antigen detection that became positive after treatment. Our results indicate that these assays may underdiagnose acute amebic infection when used alone and should be used cautiously. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The analysis and health guidance of notified food-borne disease reported by Hebei Provincial Hospital%法定传染病疫情报告中儿童食源性疾病发病统计分析与健康指导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欣; 肖向莉; 李鑫; 王丽; 佘兴红

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo understand the incidence of notified food-borne diseases among children from 2011 to 2013 to provide the evidence for the treatment and nursing. MethodsDescriptive epidemiology was used to conduct to understand the incidence of notified food-borne diseases among children reported by Hebei Provincial Hospital from 2011 to 2013.Results Among the notified food-borne disease, 97.5% was infectious diarrhea except cholera, bacillary dysentery, typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever. The peak of incidence of these diarrhea was winter. The peak of typhoid fever and that of bacillary dysentery were during the period of July-September. The incidence of the typhoid fever was 0.13% and that of bacillary dysentery was 0.93%.ConclusionFood-borne disease is a group of diseases that spread through food. The incidence of these diseases has obvious seasonal characteristic. Health education adopted by doctors and nurses may help the diseases prevention and control.%目的:了解2011年—2013年法定传染病中儿童食源性疾病发病情况,为临床治疗与护理提供科学依据,有针对性进行健康指导。方法:对2011年—2013年我院法定传染病疫情报告中儿童食源性疾病发病情况进行统计分析。结果:其它感染性腹泻病占总食源性疾病的百分率为97.5%,高发季节为第4季度;伤寒、细菌性痢疾占总食源性疾病的0.13%、0.93%,高发季节均为第3季度。结论:食源性疾病是借助食物传播的一组疾病,季节性发病明显,健康指导有助于提高对疾病的防范意识,起到预防作用。

  12. Infectious Diseases and Tropical Cyclones in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jietao; Han, Weixiao; Jiang, Baofa; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Ying

    2017-05-07

    Southeast China is frequently hit by tropical cyclones (TCs) with significant economic and health burdens each year. However, there is a lack of understanding of what infectious diseases could be affected by tropical cyclones. This study aimed to examine the impacts of tropical cyclones on notifiable infectious diseases in southeast China. Disease data between 2005 and 2011 from four coastal provinces in southeast China, including Guangdong, Hainan, Zhejiang, and Fujian province, were collected. Numbers of cases of 14 infectious diseases were compared between risk periods and reference periods for each tropical cyclone. Risk ratios (RRs) were calculated to estimate the risks. TCs were more likely to increase the risk of bacillary dysentery, paratyphoid fever, dengue fever and acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (ps cyclones.

  13. Isolation of Shewanella algae from rectal swabs of patients with bloody diarrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Shewanella algae is an emerging bacteria rarely implicated as a human pathogen. It was infrequently recovered from clinical specimens probably because of inadequate processing of non-fermenting oxidase-positive gram-negative bacilli. We report here isolation of S. algae in pure culture and mixed with E. coli from two cases of acute gastroenteritis with bloody mucous containing diarrhea occurring at the same time. As this organism is not a normal flora of the gut, the possible source of infection may be fish contaminated with the organism. Whether this bacterium can be considered an enteric pathogen needs to be evaluated. The cases were clinically diagnosed as acute bacillary dysentery. The bacterium was identified by 16S r-RNA gene sequence analysis.

  14. 志贺菌检测用抗原研究进展%Advance in research on the antigens for detection of Shigella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧莹; 端青

    2011-01-01

    志贺菌是细菌性痢疾的病原体,目前检测手段主要为常规生化法、免疫学及分子生物学方法,其中免疫学方法快速、便捷,实用性较强.本文综述了志贺茵免疫学检测用抗原的研究进展.%Shigella are the pathogens of bacillary dysentery. Major methods of detection are routine biochemistry detection, immunology detection and molecular biology detection . The immunology detection is rapid, simple and practical. Researches on antigens for detection of Shigella are reviewed.

  15. Research progress on pathogenic mechanism of Shigellae%志贺菌的致病机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国富; 白丽

    2011-01-01

    Shigellae is an important pathogen cause of bacillary dysentery. The pathogenic mechanisms of Shigellae are complicated which include cell mechanism and immunologic mechanism and so on. In this paper, the research progress on microfold cell translacation and epithelium cell infecton, control ing inflammatory reaction, escaping the host cell and inducing macrophage apoptosis are reviewed.%志贺菌是细菌性痢疾的重要病原体.其致病机制复杂,包括细胞机制和免疫机制等多方面.此文就志贺菌M细胞转位与上皮细胞感染抑制炎症反应、逃逸宿主细胞的吞噬作用及诱导巨噬细胞凋亡方面的研究进展作了综述.

  16. The Inside Story of Shigella Invasion of Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayol, Nathalie; Tran Van Nhieu, Guy

    2013-01-01

    As opposed to other invasive pathogens that reside into host cells in a parasitic mode, Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, invades the colonic mucosa but does not penetrate further to survive into deeper tissues. Instead, Shigella invades, replicates, and disseminates within the colonic mucosa. Bacterial invasion and spreading in intestinal epithelium lead to the elicitation of inflammatory responses responsible for the tissue destruction and shedding in the environment for further infection of other hosts. In this article, we highlight specific features of the Shigella arsenal of virulence determinants injected by a type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) that point to the targeting of intestinal epithelial cells as a discrete route of invasion during the initial event of the infectious process. PMID:24086068

  17. Mycobacterium tuberculosis universal stress protein Rv2623 regulates bacillary growth by ATP-Binding: requirement for establishing chronic persistent infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua E Drumm

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous latency and reactivation play a significant role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, yet the mechanisms that regulate these processes remain unclear. The Mycobacterium tuberculosisuniversal stress protein (USP homolog, rv2623, is among the most highly induced genes when the tubercle bacillus is subjected to hypoxia and nitrosative stress, conditions thought to promote latency. Induction of rv2623 also occurs when M. tuberculosis encounters conditions associated with growth arrest, such as the intracellular milieu of macrophages and in the lungs of mice with chronic tuberculosis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that Rv2623 regulates tuberculosis latency. We observed that an Rv2623-deficient mutant fails to establish chronic tuberculous infection in guinea pigs and mice, exhibiting a hypervirulence phenotype associated with increased bacterial burden and mortality. Consistent with this in vivo growth-regulatory role, constitutive overexpression of rv2623 attenuates mycobacterial growth in vitro. Biochemical analysis of purified Rv2623 suggested that this mycobacterial USP binds ATP, and the 2.9-A-resolution crystal structure revealed that Rv2623 engages ATP in a novel nucleotide-binding pocket. Structure-guided mutagenesis yielded Rv2623 mutants with reduced ATP-binding capacity. Analysis of mycobacteria overexpressing these mutants revealed that the in vitro growth-inhibitory property of Rv2623 correlates with its ability to bind ATP. Together, the results indicate that i M. tuberculosis Rv2623 regulates mycobacterial growth in vitro and in vivo, and ii Rv2623 is required for the entry of the tubercle bacillus into the chronic phase of infection in the host; in addition, iii Rv2623 binds ATP; and iv the growth-regulatory attribute of this USP is dependent on its ATP-binding activity. We propose that Rv2623 may function as an ATP-dependent signaling intermediate in a pathway that promotes persistent infection.

  18. COBAS® TaqMan® MTB, smear positivity grade and MGIT culture; correlation analyses of three methods for bacillary quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Aono, Akio; Kato, Tomoko; Takaki, Akiko; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Yuka; Izumi, Kiyohiko; Yi, Lina; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the correlation between the cycle threshold (Ct) value of the COBAS(®) TaqMan(®) MTB (TaqMan MTB), the mycobacterial smear positivity grade, and the time to detection (TTD) in the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) for quantification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). For 57 sputum samples, significant correlations were observed between the Ct value, the smear positivity grade, and the MGIT TTD (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient: r(s) = -0.940, P real-time PCR system, for diagnostic samples.

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Edwardsiella ictaluri isolates from natural outbreaks of bacillary necrosis of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Thanh Dung; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Baele, Margo; Decostere, Annemie

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro susceptibility of 64 Vietnamese isolates of Edwardsiella ictaluri, the causal agent of the infectious disease Bacillus Necrosis Pangasius in Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, using the agar dilution technique. All isolates originated from different farms and were collected between 2002 and 2005. None of the isolates displayed acquired resistance to amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, and nitrofurantoin. Acquired resistance to streptomycin was detected in 83%, to oxytetracycline in 81%, and to trimethoprim in 71% of the isolates, as indicated by a bimodal distribution of the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of these antimicrobials. The MICs of enrofloxacin displayed a monomodal distribution with tailing toward the higher MIC values, possibly indicating reduced susceptibility of a minority of isolates (3 out of the 64). For the quinolone antimicrobial agents flumequin and oxolinic acid, acquired resistance was encountered in 8% and 6% of the strains, respectively. All strains were intrinsically resistant to the polypeptide antimicrobial agent colistin. Seventy-three percent of the isolates were shown to have acquired resistance to at least three antimicrobial agents. The results of this study emphasize the strict need to control both the prophylactic and curative use of antimicrobial agents in Vietnamese aquaculture.

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Universal Stress Protein Rv2623 Regulates Bacillary Growth by ATP Binding: Requirement for Establishing Chronic Persistent Infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drumm, J.; Mi, K; Bilder, P; Sun, M; Lim, J; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, H; Basaraba, R; So, M; Zhu, G; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    Tuberculous latency and reactivation play a significant role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, yet the mechanisms that regulate these processes remain unclear. The Mycobacterium tuberculosisuniversal stress protein (USP) homolog, rv2623, is among the most highly induced genes when the tubercle bacillus is subjected to hypoxia and nitrosative stress, conditions thought to promote latency. Induction of rv2623 also occurs when M. tuberculosis encounters conditions associated with growth arrest, such as the intracellular milieu of macrophages and in the lungs of mice with chronic tuberculosis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that Rv2623 regulates tuberculosis latency. We observed that an Rv2623-deficient mutant fails to establish chronic tuberculous infection in guinea pigs and mice, exhibiting a hypervirulence phenotype associated with increased bacterial burden and mortality. Consistent with this in vivo growth-regulatory role, constitutive overexpression of rv2623 attenuates mycobacterial growth in vitro. Biochemical analysis of purified Rv2623 suggested that this mycobacterial USP binds ATP, and the 2.9-A-resolution crystal structure revealed that Rv2623 engages ATP in a novel nucleotide-binding pocket. Structure-guided mutagenesis yielded Rv2623 mutants with reduced ATP-binding capacity. Analysis of mycobacteria overexpressing these mutants revealed that the in vitro growth-inhibitory property of Rv2623 correlates with its ability to bind ATP. Together, the results indicate that i M. tuberculosis Rv2623 regulates mycobacterial growth in vitro and in vivo, and ii Rv2623 is required for the entry of the tubercle bacillus into the chronic phase of infection in the host; in addition, iii Rv2623 binds ATP; and iv the growth-regulatory attribute of this USP is dependent on its ATP-binding activity. We propose that Rv2623 may function as an ATP-dependent signaling intermediate in a pathway that promotes persistent infection.

  1. Reproductive performance of sows was improved by administration of a sporing bacillary probiotic (Bacillus subtilis C-3102).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritas, S K; Marubashi, T; Filioussis, G; Petridou, E; Christodoulopoulos, G; Burriel, A R; Tzivara, A; Theodoridis, A; Pískoriková, M

    2015-01-01

    This field study assessed the efficacy of a probiotic based on viable spores of Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (Calsporin; Calpis Co. Ltd., Japan) on the health status and productivity of sows and their litters through 2 full, sequential reproductive cycles from service of the first cycle to weaning of the second cycle. Fifty-six sows were allocated to 2 experimental groups, an untreated control (T1) group and a probiotic-treated (T2) group that received the same basal feed as the T1 group plus the probiotic at an approximate allowance of 30 g/t of feed (3 × 10(5) cfu/g). The offspring of T1 and T2 sows were offered basal and T2 creep feed (3 × 10(5) cfu/g), respectively. Health and zootechnical parameters of sows and piglets were recorded. Feeding the probiotic to sows and piglets resulted in significant benefits, observed in both cycles: 1) improved sow body condition during pregnancy (P sow feed consumption, 3) reduced sow weight loss during lactation (P sow weaning-estrus interval (P sows, while a significant improvement of mean daily gain of piglets from birth to weaning was observed in the first cycle of T2 sows. Microbiological examination of fecal samples showed that probiotic treatment significantly reduced both Escherichia coli and Clostridium spp. in piglet feces, particularly during the second cycle. The data suggested that continuous feed supplementation with the probiotic is beneficial for both sows and piglets, since zootechnical benefits were observed in both cycles.

  2. TOXINS AND ANTITOXINS OF BACILLUS DYSENTERIAE SHIGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olitsky, P K; Kligler, I J

    1920-01-01

    With the methods which have been described we have separated an exotoxin and an endotoxin from cultures of the Shiga dysenteric bacillus. The study of the nature and effect of the poison of this microorganism is thus simplified. The two toxins are physically and biologically distinct. The exotoxin is relatively heat-labile, arises in the early period of growth, and yields an antiexotoxic immune serum. The endotoxin, on the other hand, is heat-stable, is formed in the later period of growth, and is not neutralized by the antiexotoxic serum. The exotoxin exhibits a specific affinity for the central nervous organs in the rabbit, giving rise to a characteristic lesion-mainly, hemorrhages, necroses, and possibly a perivascular infiltration in the gray matter of the upper spinal cord and medulla. The endotoxin exerts a typical action on the intestinal tract, producing edema, hemorrhages, necroses, and ulcerations, especially in the large intestine. In dysentery in man the intestinal lesions predominate, but in severe epidemics paralysis and neuritis have been observed (Osler(17)). These facts become specially significant from the standpoint of the serum therapy of bacillary dysentery. A potent antidysenteric serum should contain antibodies against the exotoxin as well as the endotoxin. That such a serum can be produced in horses has been experimentally demonstrated.

  3. Differentiation between Shigella, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) and noninvasive Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Beld, M J C; Reubsaet, F A G

    2012-06-01

    Shigella causes bacillary dysentery and is classified into four species based on their antigen characteristics. This classification does not reflect genetic relatedness; in fact, Shigella species are so related to Escherichia coli , they should be classified as one distinctive species in the genus Escherichia. The differentiation of Shigella and E. coli is even more complicated with the description of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC). EIEC are strains that possess some of the biochemical characteristics of E. coli and have the ability to cause dysentery using the same method of invasion as Shigella does. Sequencing of multiple housekeeping genes indicates that EIEC is more related to Shigella than to non-invasive E. coli. Shigella and EIEC evolved from the same ancestor and form a single pathovar within E. coli. Shigella and EIEC could be separated from other E. coli by a PCR targeting the ipaH-gene; this is a multicopy gene exclusively found in all Shigella and EIEC. It is possible to differentiate Shigella and all E. coli, including EIEC, by using multiple tests, including ipaH-gene PCR, physiological and biochemical typing and serological typing. Based on literature study, a key is designed for daily use in diagnostic laboratories to identify Shigella and all E. coli.

  4. Association of Serpulina hyodysenteriae with the colonic mucosa in experimental swine dysentery studied by fluorescent in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Boye, Mette; Møller, Kristian;

    1998-01-01

    in huge numbers were found colonizing the mucus layer, the luminal epithelium and the crypts of the large intestinal mucosa. The orientation of the spirochaetes to the epithelium appeared to be random. Spirochaetes in clusters or as single cells were invading the epithelium and were occasionally detected...... in the adjacent lamina propria. The distribution of spirochaetes in the mucosa provides further evidence that S. hyodysenteriae is intimately associated with the mucus layer and the epithelium in a random pattern. Furthermore, the results demonstrate the applicability of FISH for specific detection of S....... hyodysenteriae cells in clusters or as single cells in formalin-fixed tissue samples....

  5. CAUSES, JIMMA CITY, SOUTHWEST ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CONCLUSION: There was an epidemic of dysentery in Jimma City from December 12 to 22, 2008 due to ..... Date of the onset of symptoms of the disease in suspected cases of dysentery who visited health facilities ..... dysentery and cholera.

  6. Impacts of different grades of tropical cyclones on infectious diarrhea in Guangdong, 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ruihua; Xun, Huanmiao; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xin; Jiang, Baofa; Ma, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Guangdong province is one of the most vulnerable provinces to tropical cyclones in China. Most prior studies concentrated on the relationship between tropical cyclones and injuries and mortality. This study aimed to explore the impacts of different grades of tropical cyclones on infectious diarrhea incidence in Guangdong province, from 2005 to 2011. Mann-Whitney U test was firstly used to examine if infectious diarrhea were sensitive to tropical cyclone. Then unidirectional 1:1 case-crossover design was performed to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between daily number of infectious diarrhea and tropical cyclone from 2005 to 2011 in Guangdong, China. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to eliminate multicollinearity. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI). There were no significant relationships between tropical cyclone and bacillary dysentery, amebic dysentery, typhoid, and paratyphoid cases. Infectious diarrhea other than cholera, dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid significantly increased after tropical cyclones. The strongest effect were shown on lag 1 day (HRs = 1.95, 95%CI = 1.22, 3.12) and no lagged effect was detected for tropical depression, tropical storm, severe tropical storm and typhoon, with the largest HRs (95%CI) of 2.16 (95%CI = 1.69, 2.76), 2.43 (95%CI = 1.65, 3.58) and 2.21 (95%CI = 1.65, 2.69), respectively. Among children below 5 years old, the impacts of all grades of tropical cyclones were strongest at lag 0 day. And HRs were 2.67 (95%CI = 1.10, 6.48), 2.49 (95%CI = 1.80, 3.44), 4.89 (95%CI = 2.37, 7.37) and 3.18 (95%CI = 2.10, 4.81), respectively. All grades of tropical cyclones could increase risk of other infectious diarrhea. Severe tropical storm has the strongest influence on other infectious diarrhea. The impacts of tropical cyclones on children under 5 years old were higher than total population.

  7. Impacts of different grades of tropical cyclones on infectious diarrhea in Guangdong, 2005-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihua Kang

    Full Text Available Guangdong province is one of the most vulnerable provinces to tropical cyclones in China. Most prior studies concentrated on the relationship between tropical cyclones and injuries and mortality. This study aimed to explore the impacts of different grades of tropical cyclones on infectious diarrhea incidence in Guangdong province, from 2005 to 2011.Mann-Whitney U test was firstly used to examine if infectious diarrhea were sensitive to tropical cyclone. Then unidirectional 1:1 case-crossover design was performed to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between daily number of infectious diarrhea and tropical cyclone from 2005 to 2011 in Guangdong, China. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to eliminate multicollinearity. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs and the 95% confidence intervals (CI.There were no significant relationships between tropical cyclone and bacillary dysentery, amebic dysentery, typhoid, and paratyphoid cases. Infectious diarrhea other than cholera, dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid significantly increased after tropical cyclones. The strongest effect were shown on lag 1 day (HRs = 1.95, 95%CI = 1.22, 3.12 and no lagged effect was detected for tropical depression, tropical storm, severe tropical storm and typhoon, with the largest HRs (95%CI of 2.16 (95%CI = 1.69, 2.76, 2.43 (95%CI = 1.65, 3.58 and 2.21 (95%CI = 1.65, 2.69, respectively. Among children below 5 years old, the impacts of all grades of tropical cyclones were strongest at lag 0 day. And HRs were 2.67 (95%CI = 1.10, 6.48, 2.49 (95%CI = 1.80, 3.44, 4.89 (95%CI = 2.37, 7.37 and 3.18 (95%CI = 2.10, 4.81, respectively.All grades of tropical cyclones could increase risk of other infectious diarrhea. Severe tropical storm has the strongest influence on other infectious diarrhea. The impacts of tropical cyclones on children under 5 years old were higher than total population.

  8. Macrophage Apoptosis Triggered by IpaD from Shigella flexneri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizmendi, Olivia; Picking, William D; Picking, Wendy L

    2016-06-01

    Shigellosis, a potentially severe bacillary dysentery, is an infectious gastrointestinal disease caused by Shigella spp. Shigella invades the human colonic epithelium and avoids clearance by promoting apoptosis of resident immune cells in the gut. This process is dependent on the Shigella type III secretion system (T3SS), which injects effector proteins into target cells to alter their normal cellular functions. Invasion plasmid antigen D (IpaD) is a structural component that forms a complex at the tip of the T3SS apparatus needle. Recently, IpaD has also been shown to indirectly induce apoptosis in B lymphocytes. In this study, we explored the cytotoxicity profile during macrophage infection by Shigella and discovered that the pathogen induces macrophage cell death independent of caspase-1. Our results demonstrate that IpaD triggers apoptosis in macrophages through activation of host caspases accompanied by mitochondrial disruption. Additionally, we found that the IpaD N-terminal domain is necessary for macrophage killing and SipD, a structural homologue from Salmonella, was found to promote similar cytotoxicity. Together, these findings indicate that IpaD is a contributing factor to macrophage cell death during Shigella infection.

  9. A case of fulminating amebic colitis associated with toxic megacolon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Kyung Sik; Lee, Joong Suk; Suh, Soo Jhi [Kyung Hee University Hospital. Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    Amebic colitis was common disease in Korea as well as in the world especially frequent in tropical area such as Africa, India and South America. Clinicopathological forms of this condition were ulcerative rectocolitis (95%), typhloappendicitis (3%), ameboma (1.5%), and fulminating colitis with toxic megacolon (0.5%). The fulminating amebic colitis with toxic megacolon was very rare and dangerous condition which was reported by Wruble on 1966. Toxic megacolon was seen in the cases of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, typhoid fever, cholera, and acute bacillary dysentery. Radiological findings of fulminating amebic colitis with toxic megacolon were megacolon, multiple polypoid filling defects, thumbprinting, and cobble stone appearance, which were resemble with ulcerative colitis. The cause of toxic megacolon was not well known, but it has been speculated that this results from transmural disease with destruction of muscle and the myenteric plexus with resultant loss of muscle tone. Authors experienced a case of fulminating amebic colitis with toxic megacolon which was resemble with ulcerative colitis by radiologically at Kyung Hee University Hospital and reported it with review of the literatures.

  10. Cytosolic Access of Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens: The Shigella Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellouk, Nora; Enninga, Jost

    2016-01-01

    Shigella is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen, which causes bacillary dysentery in humans. A crucial step of Shigella infection is its invasion of epithelial cells. Using a type III secretion system, Shigella injects several bacterial effectors ultimately leading to bacterial internalization within a vacuole. Then, Shigella escapes rapidly from the vacuole, it replicates within the cytosol and spreads from cell-to-cell. The molecular mechanism of vacuolar rupture used by Shigella has been studied in some detail during the recent years and new paradigms are emerging about the underlying molecular events. For decades, bacterial effector proteins were portrayed as main actors inducing vacuolar rupture. This includes the effector/translocators IpaB and IpaC. More recently, this has been challenged and an implication of the host cell in the process of vacuolar rupture has been put forward. This includes the bacterial subversion of host trafficking regulators, such as the Rab GTPase Rab11. The involvement of the host in determining bacterial vacuolar integrity has also been found for other bacterial pathogens, particularly for Salmonella. Here, we will discuss our current view of host factor and pathogen effector implications during Shigella vacuolar rupture and the steps leading to it.

  11. Phage inactivation of foodborne Shigella on ready-to-eat spiced chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Ran; Bao, Hongduo

    2013-01-01

    Shigellosis, also called bacillary dysentery, is an infectious disease caused by Shigella species, including Shigella flexneri, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei, and Shigella boydii. Infection with S. flexneri can result in epidemics, and Shigella-contaminated food is often the source of infection, such as ready-to-eat spiced chicken and duck. Therefore, we investigated the ability of Shigella phages to inhibit pathogenic Shigella spp. in ready-to-eat spiced chicken. Food samples were inoculated with individual species (1 × 10(4) cfu/g) or a mixture (S. flexneri 2a, S. dysenteriae, and S. sonnei) to a total concentration of 3 × 10(4) cfu/g. Single phages or a phage cocktail were added thereafter (1 × 10(8) pfu/g or 3 × 10(8) pfu/g), respectively, and samples were incubated at 4°C for 72 h. In general, the application of more phages (3 × 10(8) pfu/g) was the most effective treatment. Phages could reduce bacterial counts by up to 2 log(10)/g after 48 h incubation when treated with the cocktail, and after 72 h the host could not be detected. Similarly, the host in spiced chicken treated with single phage was also sharply reduced after 72 h incubation. The results suggest that an obligately virulent phage cocktail, such as S. flexneri, S. dysenteriae, and S. sonnei phages, can effectively reduce potential contamination of Shigella spp. in ready-to-eat chicken products.

  12. How Shigella Utilizes Ca(2+) Jagged Edge Signals during Invasion of Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Mariette; Tran Van Nhieu, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery invades intestinal epithelial cells using a type III secretion system (T3SS). Through the injection of type III effectors, Shigella manipulates the actin cytoskeleton to induce its internalization in epithelial cells. At early invasion stages, Shigella induces atypical Ca(2+) responses confined at entry sites allowing local cytoskeletal remodeling for bacteria engulfment. Global Ca(2+) increase in the cell triggers the opening of connexin hemichannels at the plasma membrane that releases ATP in the extracellular milieu, favoring Shigella invasion and spreading through purinergic receptor signaling. During intracellular replication, Shigella regulates inflammatory and death pathways to disseminate within the epithelium. At later stages of infection, Shigella downregulates hemichannel opening and the release of extracellular ATP to dampen inflammatory signals. To avoid premature cell death, Shigella activates cell survival by upregulating the PI3K/Akt pathway and downregulating the levels of p53. Furthermore, Shigella interferes with pro-apoptotic caspases, and orients infected cells toward a slow necrotic cell death linked to mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload. In this review, we will focus on the role of Ca(2+) responses and their regulation by Shigella during the different stages of bacterial infection.

  13. Cross-protection provided by live Shigella mutants lacking major antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szijártó, Valéria; Hunyadi-Gulyás, Eva; Emődy, Levente; Pál, Tibor; Nagy, Gábor

    2013-05-01

    The immune response elicited by Shigella infections is dominated by serotype-specific antibodies recognizing the LPS O-antigens. Although a marked antibody response to invasion plasmid antigens (Ipa-s) shared by all virulent strains is also induced, the varying level of immunity elicited by natural infections is serotype-restricted. Previous vaccines have tried to mimic and achieve this serotype-specific, infection-induced immunity. As, however, the four Shigella species can express 50 different types of O-antigens, current approaches with the aim to induce a broad coverage use a mixture of the most common O-antigens combined in single vaccines. In the current study we present data on an alternative approach to generate immunity protective against multiple serotypes. Mutants lacking both major immune-determinant structures (i.e. the Ipa and O-antigens) were not only highly attenuated, but, unlike their avirulent counterparts still expressing these antigens, elicited a protective immune response to heterologous serotypes in a murine model. Evidence is provided that protection was mediated by the enhanced immunogenic potential of minor conserved antigens. Furthermore, the rough, non-invasive double mutants triggered an immune response different from that induced by the smooth, invasive strains regarding the isotype of antibodies generated. These non-invasive, rough mutants may represent promising candidates for further development into live vaccines for the prophylaxis of bacillary dysentery in areas with multiple endemic serotypes.

  14. Shigella IpaH Family Effectors as a Versatile Model for Studying Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Hiroshi; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2015-01-01

    Shigella spp. are highly adapted human pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis). Via the type III secretion system (T3SS), Shigella deliver a subset of virulence proteins (effectors) that are responsible for pathogenesis, with functions including pyroptosis, invasion of the epithelial cells, intracellular survival, and evasion of host immune responses. Intriguingly, T3SS effector activity and strategies are not unique to Shigella, but are shared by many other bacterial pathogens, including Salmonella, Yersinia, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). Therefore, studying Shigella T3SS effectors will not only improve our understanding of bacterial infection systems, but also provide a molecular basis for developing live bacterial vaccines and antibacterial drugs. One of Shigella T3SS effectors, IpaH family proteins, which have E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and are widely conserved among other bacterial pathogens, are very relevant because they promote bacterial survival by triggering cell death and modulating the host immune responses. Here, we describe selected examples of Shigella pathogenesis, with particular emphasis on the roles of IpaH family effectors, which shed new light on bacterial survival strategies and provide clues about how to overcome bacterial infections.

  15. Enterobacteriaceae infection – diagnosis, antibiotic resistance and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jarząb

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal infections caused by rod-shaped bacteria of the [i]Enterobacteriaceae[/i] genus are one of the major health hazards in countries where sanitation standards are low. [i]Strains[/i] of [i]Shigella,[/i] [i]Salmonella, Escherichia[/i] and [i]Yersinia [/i]are responsible for diarrhea, severe bacillary dysentery, typhoid, other intestinal diseases, as well as genitourinary tract and blood infections. According to the WHO there are 4.5 billion cases every year, of which 1.9 million end in death. This makes intestinal infections third in terms of human disease mortality. In this work we discuss methods of pathogen identification, the mechanism of host-pathogen interaction, and the nature of the ¬host’s immunological response. Due to rising drug resistance we discuss the importance of better pathogen detection, vaccine design and the use of vaccines as a preventive measure against intestinal infections. Special attention is paid to OMP38, a protein isolated from [i]S. flexneri[/i] 3a outer membrane. Since it is known that this protein has good immunogenic properties, it can be used as an antigen or carrier for conjugate vaccines.

  16. Expression of bacterial virulence factors and cytokines during in vitro macrophage infection by enteroinvasive Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Y Bando

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC and Shigellaspp cause bacillary dysentery in humans by invading and multiplying within epithelial cells of the colonic mucosa. Although EIEC and Shigellashare many genetic and biochemical similarities, the illness caused by Shigellais more severe. Thus, genomic and structure-function molecular studies on the biological interactions of these invasive enterobacteria with eukaryotic cells have focused on Shigella rather than EIEC. Here we comparatively studied the interactions of EIEC and of Shigella flexneriwith cultured J774 macrophage-like cells. We evaluated several phenotypes: (i bacterial escape from macrophages after phagocytosis, (ii macrophage death induced by EIEC and S. flexneri, (iii macrophage cytokine expression in response to infection and (iv expression of plasmidial (pINV virulence genes. The results showed thatS. flexneri caused macrophage killing earlier and more intensely than EIEC. Both pathogens induced significant macrophage production of TNF, IL-1 and IL-10 after 7 h of infection. Transcription levels of the gene invasion plasmid antigen-C were lower in EIEC than in S. flexneri throughout the course of the infection; this could explain the diminished virulence of EIEC compared to S. flexneri.

  17. Differentiation and identification of Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli in environmental waters by a molecular method and biochemical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Bing-Mu; Wu, Shu-Fen; Huang, Shih-Wei; Tseng, Yu-Jung; Ji, Dar-Der; Chen, Jung-Sheng; Shih, Feng-Cheng

    2010-02-01

    Both Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) are important human pathogens that are responsible for the majority of cases of endemic bacillary dysentery. However, they are difficult to identify and differentiate by biochemical tests or molecular methods alone. In this study, we developed a procedure to detect Shigella spp. and EIEC from environmental water samples using membrane filtration followed by nutrient broth enrichment, isolation using selective culture plates, and identification of the invasion plasmid antigen H (ipaH) gene by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. Finally, we used a biochemical test and a serological assay to differentiate between Shigella and EIEC. Among the 93 water samples from nine reservoirs and one watershed, 76 (81.7%) water samples of culture plates had candidate colonies of Shigella and EIEC and 5 water samples were positive (5.4%) for a Shigella- and EIEC-specific polymerase chain reaction targeting the ipaH gene. Guided by the molecular method, the biochemical test, and the serological assay, 11 ipaH gene-positive isolates from 5 water samples were all identified as EIEC.

  18. Distinct mutations led to inactivation of type 1 fimbriae expression in Shigella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Bravo

    Full Text Available Shigella spp. are responsible for bacillary dysentery in humans. The acquisition or the modification of the virulence plasmid encoding factors promoting entry of bacteria into and dissemination within epithelial cells was a critical step in the evolution of these bacteria from their Escherichia coli ancestor(s. Incorporation of genomic islands (GI and gene inactivation also shaped interactions between these pathogens and their human host. Sequence analysis of the GI inserted next to the leuX tRNA gene in S. boydii, S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. sonnei and enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC suggests that this region initially carried the fec, yjhATS and fim gene clusters. The fim cluster encoding type I fimbriae is systematically inactivated in both reference strains and clinical isolates and distinct mutations are responsible for this inactivation in at least three phylogenetic groups. To investigate consequences of the presence of fimbriae on the outcome of the interaction of Shigella with host cells, we used a S. flexneri strain harboring a plasmid encoding the E. coli fim operon. Production of fimbriae by this recombinant strain increased the ability of bacteria to adhere to and enter into epithelial cells and had no effect on their ability to disseminate from cell to cell. The observations that production of type I fimbriae increases invasion of epithelial cells and that independent mutations abolish fimbriae production in Shigella suggest that these mutations correspond to pathoadaptive events.

  19. Virulence Factors Associated with Pediatric Shigellosis in Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolinie Batista Nobre da Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shigellosis is a global human health problem and the incidence is highest among children. In the present work, main Shigella virulence genes was examined by PCR and compared to symptoms of pediatric shigellosis. Thirty Shigella isolates were identified from an etiologic study at which 1,339 children ranging 0–10 years old were enrolled. S. flexneri was the most frequent species reaching 60.0% of isolates, 22.2% were S. sonnei, and 6.6% were both S. dysenteriae and S. boydii. All Shigella infected children had diarrhea, but not all were accompanied by others symptoms of bacillary dysentery. Among major virulence genes, the PCR typing revealed ipaBCD was present in all isolates, followed by IpaH7.8, set-1A, set-1B, sen/ospD3, virF, and invE. The pathogenic potential of the ShET-1B subunit was observed in relation to dehydration (P<0.001 and ShET-2 related to the intestinal injury (P=0.033 evidenced by the presence of bloody diarrhea. Our results show associations among symptoms of shigellosis and virulence genes of clinical isolates of Shigella spp.

  20. Virulence factors associated with pediatric shigellosis in Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Carolinie Batista Nobre; de Souza, Maria Carolina Scheffer; Serra, Paula Taquita; Santos, Ivanildes; Balieiro, Antonio; Pieri, Fabio Alessandro; Nogueira, Paulo Afonso; Orlandi, Patrícia Puccinelli

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis is a global human health problem and the incidence is highest among children. In the present work, main Shigella virulence genes was examined by PCR and compared to symptoms of pediatric shigellosis. Thirty Shigella isolates were identified from an etiologic study at which 1,339 children ranging 0-10 years old were enrolled. S. flexneri was the most frequent species reaching 60.0% of isolates, 22.2% were S. sonnei, and 6.6% were both S. dysenteriae and S. boydii. All Shigella infected children had diarrhea, but not all were accompanied by others symptoms of bacillary dysentery. Among major virulence genes, the PCR typing revealed ipaBCD was present in all isolates, followed by IpaH7.8, set-1A, set-1B, sen/ospD3, virF, and invE. The pathogenic potential of the ShET-1B subunit was observed in relation to dehydration (P < 0.001) and ShET-2 related to the intestinal injury (P = 0.033) evidenced by the presence of bloody diarrhea. Our results show associations among symptoms of shigellosis and virulence genes of clinical isolates of Shigella spp.

  1. Multi-locus sequence type analysis of Shigellas pp. isolates from Tehran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavan, Shadi; Nobakht, Maliheh; Rastegar-Lari, Abdolaziz; Owlia, Parviz; Bakhshi, Bita

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Strains of Shigella spp. can cause shigellosis, or bacillary dysentery. that is a public health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe the population structure and genetic relatedness of multidrug resistant S. sonnei and S. flexneri isolated during a one year period from children with diarrhea in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 Shigella spp. were detected during the study period. Twenty MDR isolates of Shigella spp. were randomly selected and used in this study. Bacterial identification was performed by conventional biochemical and serological and confirmed by molecular method. After antimicrobial susceptibility testing, we used Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for subtyping isolates. Results: We found 14 Shigella sonnei and 6 Shigella flexneri isolates. Results of MLST showed five sequence types (ST) (145, 152, 241, 245, 1502) and BURST analysis revealed the largest number of single locus variant (SLV) and highest frequency (FREQ) for ST152. ST 152 with nine members was predicted as the founder by BURST. Frequency for ST 1502 and ST 245 was four isolates and the least frequency was seen for ST 241 and 145 with one and two members, respectively. ST 145 and ST 245 were described as singletons in BURST. All isolates with ST145 and ST245 were identified as Shigella flexneri. Conclusion: Annual Multi locus sequence typing of MDR Shigella would help us in better understanding of dominant species and comparing our results with the same studies in other countries especially our neighbor countries in source tracking purposes.

  2. How Shigella Utilizes Ca2+ Jagged Edge Signals during Invasion of Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Mariette; Tran Van Nhieu, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery invades intestinal epithelial cells using a type III secretion system (T3SS). Through the injection of type III effectors, Shigella manipulates the actin cytoskeleton to induce its internalization in epithelial cells. At early invasion stages, Shigella induces atypical Ca2+ responses confined at entry sites allowing local cytoskeletal remodeling for bacteria engulfment. Global Ca2+ increase in the cell triggers the opening of connexin hemichannels at the plasma membrane that releases ATP in the extracellular milieu, favoring Shigella invasion and spreading through purinergic receptor signaling. During intracellular replication, Shigella regulates inflammatory and death pathways to disseminate within the epithelium. At later stages of infection, Shigella downregulates hemichannel opening and the release of extracellular ATP to dampen inflammatory signals. To avoid premature cell death, Shigella activates cell survival by upregulating the PI3K/Akt pathway and downregulating the levels of p53. Furthermore, Shigella interferes with pro-apoptotic caspases, and orients infected cells toward a slow necrotic cell death linked to mitochondrial Ca2+ overload. In this review, we will focus on the role of Ca2+ responses and their regulation by Shigella during the different stages of bacterial infection. PMID:26904514

  3. Distinct Mutations Led to Inactivation of Type 1 Fimbriae Expression in Shigella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Verónica; Puhar, Andrea; Sansonetti, Philippe; Parsot, Claude; Toro, Cecilia S.

    2015-01-01

    Shigella spp. are responsible for bacillary dysentery in humans. The acquisition or the modification of the virulence plasmid encoding factors promoting entry of bacteria into and dissemination within epithelial cells was a critical step in the evolution of these bacteria from their Escherichia coli ancestor(s). Incorporation of genomic islands (GI) and gene inactivation also shaped interactions between these pathogens and their human host. Sequence analysis of the GI inserted next to the leuX tRNA gene in S. boydii, S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. sonnei and enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) suggests that this region initially carried the fec, yjhATS and fim gene clusters. The fim cluster encoding type I fimbriae is systematically inactivated in both reference strains and clinical isolates and distinct mutations are responsible for this inactivation in at least three phylogenetic groups. To investigate consequences of the presence of fimbriae on the outcome of the interaction of Shigella with host cells, we used a S. flexneri strain harboring a plasmid encoding the E. coli fim operon. Production of fimbriae by this recombinant strain increased the ability of bacteria to adhere to and enter into epithelial cells and had no effect on their ability to disseminate from cell to cell. The observations that production of type I fimbriae increases invasion of epithelial cells and that independent mutations abolish fimbriae production in Shigella suggest that these mutations correspond to pathoadaptive events. PMID:25811616

  4. Safety and colonization of two novel VirG(IcsA)-based live Shigella sonnei vaccine strains in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Todd A; Barnoy, Shoshana; Baqar, Shahida; Ranallo, Ryan T; Nemelka, Kevin W; Venkatesan, Malabi M

    2008-02-01

    Shigella are gram-negative bacterium that cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis). Symptoms include diarrhea and discharge of bloody mucoid stools, accompanied by severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, malaise, and fever. Persons traveling to regions with poor sanitation and crowded conditions become particularly susceptible to shigellosis. Currently a vaccine for Shigella has not been licensed in the United States, and the organism quickly becomes resistant to medications. During the past 10 y, several live attenuated oral Shigella vaccines, including the strain WRSS1, have been tested in humans with considerable success. These Phase I vaccines lack the gene for the protein VirG also known as IcsA, which enables the organism to disseminate in the host target tissue. However, 5% to 20% of the vaccinated volunteers developed mild fever and brief diarrhea, and the removal of additional virulence-associated genes from the vaccine strain may reduce or eliminate these side effects. We administered 2 Shigella sonnei vaccines, WRSs2 and WRSs3, along with WRSS1 to compare their rates of colonization and clinical safety in groups of 5 rhesus macaques. The primate model provides the most physiologically relevant animal system to test the validity and efficacy of vaccine candidates. In this pilot study using a gastrointestinal model of infection, the vaccine candidates WRSs2 and WRSs3, which have additional deletions in the enterotoxin and LPS modification genes, provided better safety and comparable immunogenicity to those of WRSS1.

  5. The Lstest Progress Of Oryzanol%谷维素新用途的最新研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石秀兰; 郝慧

    2013-01-01

    谷维素是从米糠油中提取出来的一种维生素类药物,临床上用来治疗植物神经功能失调、周期性精神病、脑震荡后遗症、更年期综合征、经前期紧张症、血管神经性头痛等。近年来,该药物被用于高脂血症、室性快速心律失常、Ⅱ型糖尿病、小儿多汗症、小儿神经性尿频、消化性溃疡、肠道易激综合症及菌痢等,疗效较好。%Oryzanol is one of the vitamin drugs extracted from rice bran oil,used for the treatment of vegetative dystonia,periodic psychosis,postconcussion syndrome,climacteric syndrome,Premenstrual stress disorder,Angioneurotic headache etc.In recent years,it is used to treat hyperlipidemia,Ventricular tachyarrhythmia,non-insulin dependent diabetes,hyperhidrosis,Pediatric Neurology urinary frequency,functional dyspepsia,peptic ulcer,irritable bowel syndrome,bacillary dysentery etc,and has achieved good curative effect. The detailed introduction is as follows.

  6. A novel plasmid-encoded serotype conversion mechanism through addition of phosphoethanolamine to the O-antigen of Shigella flexneri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiangzheng Sun

    Full Text Available Shigella flexneri is the major pathogen causing bacillary dysentery in developing countries. S. flexneri is divided into at least 16 serotypes based on the combination of antigenic determinants present in the O-antigen. All the serotypes (except for serotype 6 share a basic O-unit containing one N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and three l-rhamnose residues, whereas differences between the serotypes are conferred by phage-encoded glucosylation and/or O-acetylation. Serotype Xv is a newly emerged and the most prevalent serotype in China, which can agglutinate with both MASF IV-1 and 7,8 monoclonal antibodies. The factor responsible for the presence of MASF IV-1 (E1037 epitope has not yet been identified. In this study, we analyzed the LPS structure of serotype Xv strains and found that the MASF IV-1 positive phenotype depends on an O-antigen modification with a phosphoethanolamine (PEtN group attached at position 3 of one of the rhamnose residues. A plasmid carried gene, lpt-O (LPS phosphoethanolamine transferase for O-antigen, mediates the addition of PEtN for serotype Xv and other MASF IV-1 positive strains. These findings reveal a novel serotype conversion mechanism in S. flexneri and show the necessity of further extension of the serotype classification scheme recognizing the MASF IV-1 positive strains as distinctive subtypes.

  7. A novel plasmid-encoded serotype conversion mechanism through addition of phosphoethanolamine to the O-antigen of Shigella flexneri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiangzheng; Knirel, Yuriy A; Lan, Ruiting; Wang, Jianping; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Jin, Dong; Shashkov, Alexander S; Xia, Shengli; Perepelov, Andrei V; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Haiyin; Xu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Shigella flexneri is the major pathogen causing bacillary dysentery in developing countries. S. flexneri is divided into at least 16 serotypes based on the combination of antigenic determinants present in the O-antigen. All the serotypes (except for serotype 6) share a basic O-unit containing one N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and three l-rhamnose residues, whereas differences between the serotypes are conferred by phage-encoded glucosylation and/or O-acetylation. Serotype Xv is a newly emerged and the most prevalent serotype in China, which can agglutinate with both MASF IV-1 and 7,8 monoclonal antibodies. The factor responsible for the presence of MASF IV-1 (E1037) epitope has not yet been identified. In this study, we analyzed the LPS structure of serotype Xv strains and found that the MASF IV-1 positive phenotype depends on an O-antigen modification with a phosphoethanolamine (PEtN) group attached at position 3 of one of the rhamnose residues. A plasmid carried gene, lpt-O (LPS phosphoethanolamine transferase for O-antigen), mediates the addition of PEtN for serotype Xv and other MASF IV-1 positive strains. These findings reveal a novel serotype conversion mechanism in S. flexneri and show the necessity of further extension of the serotype classification scheme recognizing the MASF IV-1 positive strains as distinctive subtypes.

  8. Short-term impacts of floods on enteric infectious disease in Qingdao, China, 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F; Liu, Z; Gao, L; Zhang, C; Jiang, B

    2016-11-01

    The current study aimed to examine the relationship between floods and the three enteric infectious diseases, namely bacillary dysentery (BD), hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) and other infectious diarrhoea (OID) in Qingdao, China. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of floods on BD, HFMD and OID were calculated using a quasi-Poisson generalized linear model, adjusting for daily average temperature, daily average relative humidity, and seasonal and long-term temporal trends. Two separate models within two different periods were designed. Model 1 for the summer period showed that floods were positively associated with BD for 4- to 12-day lags, with the greatest effects for 7-day (RR 1·41, 95% CI 1·22-1·62) and 11-day (RR 1·42, 95% CI 1·22-1·64) lags. Similar findings were found in model 2 for the whole study period for 5- to 12-day lags. However, HFMD and OID were not significantly associated with floods in both models. Results from this study will provide insight into the health risks associated with floods and may help inform public health precautionary measures for such disasters.

  9. How Shigella utilizes Ca2+ jagged edge signals during invasion of epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette eBonnet

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery invades intestinal epithelial cells using a type III secretion system (T3SS. Through the injection of type III effectors, Shigella manipulates the actin cytoskeleton to induce its internalization in epithelial cells. At early invasion stages, Shigella induces atypical Ca2+ responses confined at entry sites allowing local cytoskeletal remodeling for bacteria engulfment. Global Ca2+ increase in the cell triggers the opening of connexin hemichannels at the plasma membrane that releases ATP in the extracellular milieu, favoring Shigella invasion and spreading through purinergic receptor signaling. During intracellular replication, Shigella regulates inflammatory and death pathways to disseminate within the epithelium. At later stages of infection, Shigella downregulates hemichannel opening and the release of extracellular ATP to dampen inflammatory signals. To avoid premature cell death, Shigella activates cell survival by upregulating the PI3K/Akt pathway and downregulating the levels of p53. Furthermore, Shigella interferes with pro-apoptotic caspases, and orients infected cells towards a slow necrotic cell death linked to mitochondrial Ca2+ overload. In this review, we will focus on the role of Ca2+ responses and their regulation by Shigella during the different stages of bacterial infection.

  10. Increased amount of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum and Megasphaera elsdenii in the colonic microbiota of pigs fed a swine dysentery preventive diet containing chicory roots and sweet lupine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, Lars; Thomsen, L.E.; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To investigate which specific bacterial species that were stimulated or inhibited in the proximal colon of pigs when a fructan-rich diet was compared with a diet that contained resistant carbohydrates. The study focussed especially on Bifidobacterial species by using a noncultureable approa...

  11. Winter dysentery in cows associated with Bovine Coronavirus (BCoV Disenteria de inverno associada ao coronavírus bovino (BCoV em vacas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Brandão

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a pesquisa de BCoV e rotavírus em 13 mostras fecais de vacas de surtos de disenteria utilizando uma nested PCR dirigida ao gene RdRp e PAGE, respectivamente. Todas as amostras fecais foram positivas para BCoV e nenhuma delas apresentou-se positiva para rotavírus em PAGE. O encontro de coronavírus bovino em amostras fecais de vacas com disenteria sugere que este vírus possa ser o agente primário envolvido na etiologia dos casos aqui relatados.

  12. Water microbiology. Bacterial pathogens and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, João P S

    2010-10-01

    Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water-cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery-is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases' characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

  13. Investigation of specificity determinants in bacterial tRNA-guanine transglycosylase reveals queuine, the substrate of its eucaryotic counterpart, as inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Biela

    Full Text Available Bacterial tRNA-guanine transglycosylase (Tgt catalyses the exchange of the genetically encoded guanine at the wobble position of tRNAs(His,Tyr,Asp,Asn by the premodified base preQ1, which is further converted to queuine at the tRNA level. As eucaryotes are not able to synthesise queuine de novo but acquire it through their diet, eucaryotic Tgt directly inserts the hypermodified base into the wobble position of the tRNAs mentioned above. Bacterial Tgt is required for the efficient pathogenicity of Shigella sp, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery and, hence, it constitutes a putative target for the rational design of anti-Shigellosis compounds. Since mammalian Tgt is known to be indirectly essential to the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine, it is necessary to create substances which only inhibit bacterial but not eucaryotic Tgt. Therefore, it seems of utmost importance to study selectivity-determining features within both types of proteins. Homology models of Caenorhabditis elegans Tgt and human Tgt suggest that the replacement of Cys158 and Val233 in bacterial Tgt (Zymomonas mobilis Tgt numbering by valine and accordingly glycine in eucaryotic Tgt largely accounts for the different substrate specificities. In the present study we have created mutated variants of Z. mobilis Tgt in order to investigate the impact of a Cys158Val and a Val233Gly exchange on catalytic activity and substrate specificity. Using enzyme kinetics and X-ray crystallography, we gained evidence that the Cys158Val mutation reduces the affinity to preQ1 while leaving the affinity to guanine unaffected. The Val233Gly exchange leads to an enlarged substrate binding pocket, that is necessary to accommodate queuine in a conformation compatible with the intermediately covalently bound tRNA molecule. Contrary to our expectations, we found that a priori queuine is recognised by the binding pocket of bacterial Tgt without, however, being used as a substrate.

  14. Dipstick for rapid diagnosis of Shigella flexneri 2a in stool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faridabano Nato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Shigellosis or bacillary dysentery, an acute bloody diarrhoea, is a major public health burden in developing countries. In the absence of prompt and appropriate treatment, the infection is often fatal, particularly in young malnourished children. Here, we describe a new diagnostic test for rapid detection, in stool, at the bedside of patients, of Shigella flexneri 2a, the most predominant agent of the endemic form of the disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The test is based on the detection of S.flexneri 2a lipopolysaccharide (LPS using serotype 2a-specific monoclonal antibodies coupled to gold particles and displayed on one-step immunochromatographic dipstick. A concentration as low as 20 ng/ml of LPS is detected in distilled water and in reconstituted stools in under 15 minutes. The threshold of detection corresponds to a concentration of 5x10(7 CFU/ml of S. flexneri 2a, which provides an unequivocal positive reaction in three minutes in distilled water and reconstituted stools. The specificity is 100% when tested with a battery of Shigella and unrelated strains, in culture. When tested in Vietnam, on clinical samples, the specificity and sensitivity were 99.2 and 91.5%, respectively. A decrease of the sensitivity during the evaluation on stool samples was observed after five weeks at room temperature and was due to moistening of the dipsticks caused by the humidity of the air during the fifth week of the evaluation. This drawback is now overcome by improving the packaging and providing dipsticks individually wrapped in waterproof bags. CONCLUSION: This simple dipstick-bases test represents a powerful tool for case management and epidemiological surveys.

  15. Molecular and functional profiling of the polyamine content in enteroinvasive E. coli : looking into the gap between commensal E. coli and harmful Shigella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Campilongo

    Full Text Available Polyamines are small molecules associated with a wide variety of physiological functions. Bacterial pathogens have developed subtle strategies to exploit polyamines or manipulate polyamine-related processes to optimize fitness within the host. During the transition from its innocuous E. coli ancestor, Shigella, the aetiological agent of bacillary dysentery, has undergone drastic genomic rearrangements affecting the polyamine profile. A pathoadaptation process involving the speG gene and the cad operon has led to spermidine accumulation and loss of cadaverine. While a higher spermidine content promotes the survival of Shigella within infected macrophages, the lack of cadaverine boosts the pathogenic potential of the bacterium in host tissues. Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC display the same pathogenicity process as Shigella, but have a higher infectious dose and a higher metabolic activity. Pathoadaption events affecting the cad locus have occurred also in EIEC, silencing cadaverine production. Since EIEC are commonly regarded as evolutionary intermediates between E. coli and Shigella, we investigated on their polyamine profile in order to better understand which changes have occurred along the path to pathogenicity. By functional and molecular analyses carried out in EIEC strains belonging to different serotypes, we show that speG has been silenced in one strain only, favouring resistance to oxidative stress conditions and survival within macrophages. At the same time, we observe that the content of spermidine and putrescine, a relevant intermediate in the synthesis of spermidine, is higher in all strains as compared to E. coli. This may represent an evolutionary response to the lack of cadaverine. Indeed, restoring cadaverine synthesis decreases the expression of the speC gene, whose product affects putrescine production. In the light of these results, we discuss the possible impact of pathoadaptation events on the evolutionary emergence of a

  16. Intracellular and membrane-damaging activities of methyl gallate isolated from Terminalia chebula against multidrug-resistant Shigella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharyya, Saurabh; Sarkar, Prodipta; Saha, Dhira R; Patra, Amarendra; Ramamurthy, T; Bag, Prasanta K

    2015-08-01

    Shigella spp. (Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Shigella boydii and Shigella sonnei) cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), which is characterized by bloody mucous diarrhoea. Although a variety of antibiotics have been effective for treatment of shigellosis, options are becoming limited due to globally emerging drug resistance. In the present study, in vitro antibacterial activity of methyl gallate (MG) isolated from Terminalia chebula was determined by performing MIC, minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill kinetic studies. Bacterial membrane-damaging activity of MG was determined by membrane perturbation and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cellular drug accumulation, cell infection and assessment of intracellular activities of MG and reference antibiotics were performed using HeLa cell cultures. The bactericidal activity of MG against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Shigella spp. in comparison with other commonly used drugs including fluoroquinolone was demonstrated here. TEM findings in the present study revealed that MG caused the total disintegration of inner and outer membranes, and leakage of the cytoplasmic contents of S. dysenteriae. The level of accumulation of MG and tetracycline in HeLa cells incubated for 24  h was relatively higher than that of ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid (ratio of intracellular concentration/extracellular concentration of antibiotic for MG and tetracycline>ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid). The viable number of intracellular S. dysenteriae was decreased in a time-dependent manner in the presence of MG (4 × MBC) and reduced to zero within 20  h. The significant intracellular activities of MG suggested that it could potentially be used as an effective antibacterial agent for the treatment of severe infections caused by MDR Shigella spp.

  17. Molecular and functional profiling of the polyamine content in enteroinvasive E. coli : looking into the gap between commensal E. coli and harmful Shigella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campilongo, Rosaria; Di Martino, Maria Letizia; Marcocci, Lucia; Pietrangeli, Paola; Leuzzi, Adriano; Grossi, Milena; Casalino, Mariassunta; Nicoletti, Mauro; Micheli, Gioacchino; Colonna, Bianca; Prosseda, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    Polyamines are small molecules associated with a wide variety of physiological functions. Bacterial pathogens have developed subtle strategies to exploit polyamines or manipulate polyamine-related processes to optimize fitness within the host. During the transition from its innocuous E. coli ancestor, Shigella, the aetiological agent of bacillary dysentery, has undergone drastic genomic rearrangements affecting the polyamine profile. A pathoadaptation process involving the speG gene and the cad operon has led to spermidine accumulation and loss of cadaverine. While a higher spermidine content promotes the survival of Shigella within infected macrophages, the lack of cadaverine boosts the pathogenic potential of the bacterium in host tissues. Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) display the same pathogenicity process as Shigella, but have a higher infectious dose and a higher metabolic activity. Pathoadaption events affecting the cad locus have occurred also in EIEC, silencing cadaverine production. Since EIEC are commonly regarded as evolutionary intermediates between E. coli and Shigella, we investigated on their polyamine profile in order to better understand which changes have occurred along the path to pathogenicity. By functional and molecular analyses carried out in EIEC strains belonging to different serotypes, we show that speG has been silenced in one strain only, favouring resistance to oxidative stress conditions and survival within macrophages. At the same time, we observe that the content of spermidine and putrescine, a relevant intermediate in the synthesis of spermidine, is higher in all strains as compared to E. coli. This may represent an evolutionary response to the lack of cadaverine. Indeed, restoring cadaverine synthesis decreases the expression of the speC gene, whose product affects putrescine production. In the light of these results, we discuss the possible impact of pathoadaptation events on the evolutionary emergence of a polyamine profile

  18. One Gene and Two Proteins: a Leaderless mRNA Supports the Translation of a Shorter Form of the Shigella VirF Regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letizia Di Martino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available VirF, an AraC-like activator, is required to trigger a regulatory cascade that initiates the invasive program of Shigella spp., the etiological agents of bacillary dysentery in humans. VirF expression is activated upon entry into the host and depends on many environmental signals. Here, we show that the virF mRNA is translated into two proteins, the major form, VirF30 (30 kDa, and the shorter VirF21 (21 kDa, lacking the N-terminal segment. By site-specific mutagenesis and toeprint analysis, we identified the translation start sites of VirF30 and VirF21 and showed that the two different forms of VirF arise from differential translation. Interestingly, in vitro and in vivo translation experiments showed that VirF21 is also translated from a leaderless mRNA (llmRNA whose 5′ end is at position +309/+310, only 1 or 2 nucleotides upstream of the ATG84 start codon of VirF21. The llmRNA is transcribed from a gene-internal promoter, which we identified here. Functional analysis revealed that while VirF30 is responsible for activation of the virulence system, VirF21 negatively autoregulates virF expression itself. Since VirF21 modulates the intracellular VirF levels, this suggests that transcription of the llmRNA might occur when the onset of the virulence program is not required. We speculate that environmental cues, like stress conditions, may promote changes in virF mRNA transcription and preferential translation of llmRNA.

  19. The Structures of Coiled-Coil Domains from Type III Secretion System Translocators Reveal Homology to Pore-Forming Toxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, Michael L.; Dickenson, Nicholas E.; Patil, Mrinalini; Keightley, Andrew; Wyckoff, Gerald J.; Picking, William D.; Picking, Wendy L.; Geisbrecht, Brian V. (UMKC); (OKLU)

    2012-03-26

    Many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria utilize type III secretion systems (T3SSs) to alter the normal functions of target cells. Shigella flexneri uses its T3SS to invade human intestinal cells to cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis) that is responsible for over one million deaths per year. The Shigella type III secretion apparatus is composed of a basal body spanning both bacterial membranes and an exposed oligomeric needle. Host altering effectors are secreted through this energized unidirectional conduit to promote bacterial invasion. The active needle tip complex of S. flexneri is composed of a tip protein, IpaD, and two pore-forming translocators, IpaB and IpaC. While the atomic structure of IpaD has been elucidated and studied, structural data on the hydrophobic translocators from the T3SS family remain elusive. We present here the crystal structures of a protease-stable fragment identified within the N-terminal regions of IpaB from S. flexneri and SipB from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium determined at 2.1 {angstrom} and 2.8 {angstrom} limiting resolution, respectively. These newly identified domains are composed of extended-length (114 {angstrom} in IpaB and 71 {angstrom} in SipB) coiled-coil motifs that display a high degree of structural homology to one another despite the fact that they share only 21% sequence identity. Further structural comparisons also reveal substantial similarity to the coiled-coil regions of pore-forming proteins from other Gram-negative pathogens, notably, colicin Ia. This suggests that these mechanistically separate and functionally distinct membrane-targeting proteins may have diverged from a common ancestor during the course of pathogen-specific evolutionary events.

  20. Virulence variations in Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli using the Caenorhabditis elegans model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Crystal Ching; Octavia, Sophie; Mooney, Anne-Marie; Lan, Ruiting

    2015-01-01

    Shigella species and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) belong to the same species genetically, with remarkable phenotypic and genomic similarities. Shigella is the main cause of bacillary dysentery with around 160 million annual cases, while EIEC generally induces a milder disease compared to Shigella. This study aimed to determine virulence variations between Shigella and EIEC using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model host. Caenorhabditis elegans killing- and bacterial colonization assays were performed to examine the potential difference in virulence between Shigella and EIEC strains. Statistically significant difference in the survival rates of nematodes was demonstrated, with Shigella causing death at 88.24 ± 1.20% and EIEC at 94.37 ± 0.70%. The intestinal load of bacteria in the nematodes was found to be 7.65 × 10(4) ± 8.83 × 10(3) and 2.92 × 10(4) ± 6.26 × 10(3) CFU ml(-1) per nematode for Shigella and EIEC, respectively. Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 which carries the Shiga toxin showed the lowest nematode survival rate at 82.6 ± 3.97% and highest bacterial colonization of 1.75 × 10(5) ± 8.17 × 10(4) CFU ml(-1), whereas a virulence plasmid-negative Shigella strain demonstrated 100 ± 0% nematode survival and lowest bacterial accumulation of 1.02 × 10(4) ± 7.23 × 10(2) CFU ml(-1). This study demonstrates C. elegans as an effective model for examining and comparing Shigella and EIEC virulence variation.

  1. ``Black Holes" and Bacterial Pathogenicity: A Large Genomic Deletion that Enhances the Virulence of Shigella spp. and Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurelli, Anthony T.; Fernandez, Reinaldo E.; Bloch, Craig A.; Rode, Christopher K.; Fasano, Alessio

    1998-03-01

    Plasmids, bacteriophages, and pathogenicity islands are genomic additions that contribute to the evolution of bacterial pathogens. For example, Shigella spp., the causative agents of bacillary dysentery, differ from the closely related commensal Escherichia coli in the presence of a plasmid in Shigella that encodes virulence functions. However, pathogenic bacteria also may lack properties that are characteristic of nonpathogens. Lysine decarboxylate (LDC) activity is present in ≈ 90% of E. coli strains but is uniformly absent in Shigella strains. When the gene for LDC, cadA, was introduced into Shigella flexneri 2a, virulence became attenuated, and enterotoxin activity was inhibited greatly. The enterotoxin inhibitor was identified as cadaverine, a product of the reaction catalyzed by LDC. Comparison of the S. flexneri 2a and laboratory E. coli K-12 genomes in the region of cadA revealed a large deletion in Shigella. Representative strains of Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive E. coli displayed similar deletions of cadA. Our results suggest that, as Shigella spp. evolved from E. coli to become pathogens, they not only acquired virulence genes on a plasmid but also shed genes via deletions. The formation of these ``black holes,'' deletions of genes that are detrimental to a pathogenic lifestyle, provides an evolutionary pathway that enables a pathogen to enhance virulence. Furthermore, the demonstration that cadaverine can inhibit enterotoxin activity may lead to more general models about toxin activity or entry into cells and suggests an avenue for antitoxin therapy. Thus, understanding the role of black holes in pathogen evolution may yield clues to new treatments of infectious diseases.

  2. Shigella flexneri infection in Caenorhabditis elegans: cytopathological examination and identification of host responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya T George

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacterium Shigella flexneri is the causative agent of shigellosis, a diarrhoeal disease also known as bacillary dysentery. S. flexneri infects the colonic and rectal epithelia of its primate host and induces a cascade of inflammatory responses that culminates in the destruction of the host intestinal lining. Molecular characterization of host-pathogen interactions in this infection has been challenging due to the host specificity of S. flexneri strains, as it strictly infects humans and non-human primates. Recent studies have shown that S. flexneri infects the soil dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, however, the interactions between S. flexneri and C. elegans at the cellular level and the cause of nematode death are unknown. Here we attempt to gain insight into the complex host-pathogen interactions between S. flexneri and C. elegans. Using transmission electron microscopy, we show that live S. flexneri cells accumulate in the nematode intestinal lumen, produce outer membrane vesicles and invade nematode intestinal cells. Using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis we identified host proteins that are differentially expressed in response to S. flexneri infection. Four of the identified genes, aco-1, cct-2, daf-19 and hsp-60, were knocked down using RNAi and ACO-1, CCT-2 and DAF-19, which were identified as up-regulated in response to S. flexneri infection, were found to be involved in the infection process. aco-1 RNAi worms were more resistant to S. flexneri infection, suggesting S. flexneri-mediated disruption of host iron homeostasis. cct-2 and daf-19 RNAi worms were more susceptible to infection, suggesting that these genes are induced as a protective mechanism by C. elegans. These observations further our understanding of the processes involved in S. flexneri infection of C. elegans, which is immensely beneficial to the routine use of this new in vivo model to study S. flexneri pathogenesis.

  3. Agglutinating secretory IgA preserves intestinal epithelial cell integrity during apical infection by Shigella flexneri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Amandine; Longet, Stéphanie; Corthésy, Blaise

    2013-08-01

    Shigella flexneri, by invading intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and inducing inflammatory responses of the colonic mucosa, causes bacillary dysentery. Although M cells overlying Peyer's patches are commonly considered the primary site of entry of S. flexneri, indirect evidence suggests that bacteria can also use IECs as a portal of entry to the lamina propria. Passive delivery of secretory IgA (SIgA), the major immunoglobulin secreted at mucosal surfaces, has been shown to protect rabbits from experimental shigellosis, but no information exists as to its molecular role in maintaining luminal epithelial integrity. We have established that the interaction of virulent S. flexneri with the apical pole of a model intestinal epithelium consisting of polarized Caco-2 cell monolayers resulted in the progressive disruption of the tight junction network and actin depolymerization, eventually resulting in cell death. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific agglutinating SIgAC5 monoclonal antibody (MAb), but not monomeric IgAC5 or IgGC20 MAbs of the same specificity, achieved protective functions through combined mechanisms, including limitation of the interaction between S. flexneri and epithelial cells, maintenance of the tight junction seal, preservation of the cell morphology, reduction of NF-κB nuclear translocation, and inhibition of proinflammatory mediator secretion. Our results add to the understanding of the function of SIgA-mediated immune exclusion by identifying a mode of action whereby the formation of immune complexes translates into maintenance of the integrity of epithelial cells lining the mucosa. This novel mechanism of protection mediated by SIgA is important to extend the arsenal of effective strategies to fight against S. flexneri mucosal invasion.

  4. Cucurbitacin IIb exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through modulating multiple cellular behaviors of mouse lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wang

    Full Text Available Cucurbitacin IIb (CuIIb is one of the major active compounds in Hemsleyadine tablets which have been used for clinical treatment of bacillary dysentery, enteritis and acute tonsilitis. However, its action mechanism has not been completely understood. This study aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory activity of CuIIb and its underlying mechanism in mitogen-activated lymphocytes isolated from mouse mesenteric lymph nodes. The results showed that CuIIb inhibited the proliferation of concanavalin A (Con A-activated lymphocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. CuIIb treatment arrested their cell cycle in S and G2/M phases probably due to the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and the modulation of p27(Kip1 and cyclin levels. Moreover, the surface expression of activation markers CD69 and CD25 on Con A-activated CD3(+ T lymphocytes was suppressed by CuIIb treatment. Both Con A- and phorbol ester plus ionomycin-induced expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-6 proteins was attenuated upon exposure to CuIIb. Mechanistically, CuIIb treatment suppressed the phosphorylation of JNK and Erk1/2 but not p38 in Con A-activated lymphocytes. Although CuIIb unexpectedly enhanced the phosphorylation of IκB and NF-κB (p65, it blocked the nuclear translocation of NF-κB (p65. In support of this, CuIIb significantly decreased the mRNA levels of IκBα and TNF-α, two target genes of NF-κB, in Con A-activated lymphocytes. In addition, CuIIb downregulated Con A-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and increased cell apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that CuIIb exhibits its anti-inflammatory activity through modulating multiple cellular behaviors and signaling pathways, leading to the suppression of the adaptive immune response.

  5. Molecular detection of lactose fermenting enteroinvasive Escherichia coli from patients with diarrhea in Tehran-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadzadeh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC is one the cause of acute diarrhea and bacillary dysentery in developing countries. Routine diagnostic microbiology tests are not capable to distinguish EIEC from other pathogenic or non-pathogenic E. coli. PCR, targeting ipaH, virF, virB and other virulence genes, is a diagnostic method for detecting E. coli pathotypes. Using PCR, we identified EIEC by PCR targeting ipaH and virF genes among E.coli isolates from patients with diarrhea at the selected hospitals in Tehran.Materials and Methods: Isolates of E. coli were cultured from 140 specimens of   patients with diarrhea using culture and IMViC test. DNA was extracted using commercial kits and and tested  for uidA, ipaH and virF genes by PCR.Results: Totally, 140 E. coli isolates were confirmed by IMViC tests and PCR targeting uidA gene. Of 140 E. coli isolates, 5 (3.6% were positive for the ipaH gene, 4 (2.9% contained virF gene and 4 (2.9% were positive for both ipaH and virF genes.Conclusion: These results indicated that EIEC is a considerable acute diarrheagenic pathogen in adults and infants. More- over, virF gene is suggested  for evaluation of invasiveness of EIEC.Keywords: Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, diarrhea, ipaH, virF

  6. Shigella flexneri serotype 1c derived from serotype 1a by acquisition of gtrIC gene cluster via a bacteriophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Swee-Seong; Carlin, Nils I A; Talukder, Kaisar A; Cam, Phung D; Verma, Naresh K

    2016-06-27

    Shigella spp. are the primary causative agents of bacillary dysentery. Since its emergence in the late 1980s, the S. flexneri serotype 1c remains poorly understood, particularly with regard to its origin and genetic evolution. This article provides a molecular insight into this novel serotype and the gtrIC gene cluster that determines its unique immune recognition. A PCR of the gtrIC cluster showed that serotype 1c isolates from different geographical origins were genetically conserved. An analysis of sequences flanking the gtrIC cluster revealed remnants of a prophage genome, in particular integrase and tRNA(Pro) genes. Meanwhile, Southern blot analyses on serotype 1c, 1a and 1b strains indicated that all the tested serotype 1c strains may have had a common origin that has since remained distinct from the closely related 1a and 1b serotypes. The identification of prophage genes upstream of the gtrIC cluster is consistent with the notion of bacteriophage-mediated integration of the gtrIC cluster into a pre-existing serotype. This is the first study to show that serotype 1c isolates from different geographical origins share an identical pattern of genetic arrangement, suggesting that serotype 1c strains may have originated from a single parental strain. Analysis of the sequence around the gtrIC cluster revealed a new site for the integration of the serotype converting phages of S. flexneri. Understanding the origin of new pathogenic serotypes and the molecular basis of serotype conversion in S. flexneri would provide information for developing cross-reactive Shigella vaccines.

  7. Multi-locus sequence type analysis of Shigellas pp. isolates from Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shadi shahsavan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Strains of Shigella spp. can cause shigellosis, or bacillary dysentery.that is a public health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe the population structure and genetic relatedness of multidrug resistant S. sonnei and S. flexneri isolated during a one year period from children with diarrhea in Tehran, Iran.Materials and Methods: A total of 70 Shigella spp. were detected during the study period . Twenty MDR isolates of Shigella spp. were randomly selected and used in this study. Bacterial identification was performed by conventional biochemical and serological and confirmed by molecular method. After antimicrobial susceptibility testing, we used Multilocus sequence typing (MLST for subtyping isolates.Results: We found 14 Shigella sonnei and 6 Shigella flexneri isolates. Results of MLST showed five sequence types (ST (145, 152, 241, 245, 1502 and BURST analysis revealed the largest number of single locus variant (SLV and highest frequency (FREQ for ST152. ST 152 with nine members was predicted as the founder by BURST. Frequency for ST 1502 and ST 245 was four isolates and the least frequency was seen for ST 241 and 145 with one and two members, respectively. ST 145 and ST 245 were described as singletons in BURST. All isolates with ST145 and ST245 were identified as Shigella flexneri.Conclusion: Annual Multi locus sequence typing of MDR Shigella would help us in better understanding of dominant species and comparing our results with the same studies in other countries especially our neighbor countries in source tracking purposes.Keywords: Shigella, Multilocus sequence typing, Multidrug resistant

  8. How Do the Virulence Factors of Shigella Work Together to Cause Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattock, Emily; Blocker, Ariel J

    2017-01-01

    Shigella is the major cause of bacillary dysentery world-wide. It is divided into four species, named S. flexneri, S. sonnei, S. dysenteriae, and S. boydii, which are distinct genomically and in their ability to cause disease. Shigellosis, the clinical presentation of Shigella infection, is characterized by watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever. Shigella's ability to cause disease has been attributed to virulence factors, which are encoded on chromosomal pathogenicity islands and the virulence plasmid. However, information on these virulence factors is not often brought together to create a detailed picture of infection, and how this translates into shigellosis symptoms. Firstly, Shigella secretes virulence factors that induce severe inflammation and mediate enterotoxic effects on the colon, producing the classic watery diarrhea seen early in infection. Secondly, Shigella injects virulence effectors into epithelial cells via its Type III Secretion System to subvert the host cell structure and function. This allows invasion of epithelial cells, establishing a replicative niche, and causes erratic destruction of the colonic epithelium. Thirdly, Shigella produces effectors to down-regulate inflammation and the innate immune response. This promotes infection and limits the adaptive immune response, causing the host to remain partially susceptible to re-infection. Combinations of these virulence factors may contribute to the different symptoms and infection capabilities of the diverse Shigella species, in addition to distinct transmission patterns. Further investigation of the dominant species causing disease, using whole-genome sequencing and genotyping, will allow comparison and identification of crucial virulence factors and may contribute to the production of a pan-Shigella vaccine.

  9. Aboriginal new world epidemiolgy and medical care, and the impact of Old World disease imports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M T

    1976-11-01

    Various workers, including T. D. Stewart, claim that the aboriginal Americas were relatively disease-free because of the bering Strait cold-screen, eliminating many pathogens, and the paucity of zoonotic infections because of few domestic animals. Evidence of varying validity suggests that precontact Americns had their own strains of treponemic infections, bacillary and amoebic dysenteries, influenza and viral penumonia and other respiratory diseases, salmonellosis and perhaps other food poisoning, various arthritides, some endoparasites such as the ascarids, and several geographically circumscribed diseases such as the rickettsial verruca (Carrion's disease) and New World leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis. Questionably aboriginal are tuberculosis and typhus. Accordingly, virtually all the "crowd-type" ecopathogenic diseases such as smallpox, yellow fever, typhoid, malaria, measles, pertussis, polio, etc., appear to have been absent from the New World, and were only brought in by White conquerors and their Black slaves. My hypothesis is that native American medical care systems--especially in the more culturally advanced areas--were sufficiently sophisticated to deal with native disease entities with reasonable competence. But native medical systems could not cope with the "crowd-type" disease imports that struck Indian and Eskimos as "virgin-field" populations. Reanalysis of native population losses through a genocidal combination of diease, war, slavery and attendant cultural disruption by Dobyns, Cook and others strongly suggest that traditiona estimates underplayed the death toll by a factor of the general order of ten. This would make for an immediately pre-contact Indian population of some 90-111 million instead of the tradition 8-11 million. Evidence is growing that Indians may have been no more susceptible to new pathogens that are other "virgin soil" populations, and thus their immune systems need not be considered less effective than those in other people

  10. In silico analysis to identify vaccine candidates common to multiple serotypes of Shigella and evaluation of their immunogenicity

    KAUST Repository

    Pahil, Sapna

    2017-08-02

    Shigellosis or bacillary dysentery is an important cause of diarrhea, with the majority of the cases occurring in developing countries. Considering the high disease burden, increasing antibiotic resistance, serotype-specific immunity and the post-infectious sequelae associated with shigellosis, there is a pressing need of an effective vaccine against multiple serotypes of the pathogen. In the present study, we used bio-informatics approach to identify antigens shared among multiple serotypes of Shigella spp. This approach led to the identification of many immunogenic peptides. The five most promising peptides based on MHC binding efficiency were a putative lipoprotein (EL PGI I), a putative heat shock protein (EL PGI II), Spa32 (EL PGI III), IcsB (EL PGI IV) and a hypothetical protein (EL PGI V). These peptides were synthesized and the immunogenicity was evaluated in BALB/c mice by ELISA and cytokine assays. The putative heat shock protein (HSP) and the hypothetical protein elicited good humoral response, whereas putative lipoprotein, Spa32 and IcsB elicited good T-cell response as revealed by increased IFN-γ and TNF-α cytokine levels. The patient sera from confirmed cases of shigellosis were also evaluated for the presence of peptide specific antibodies with significant IgG and IgA antibodies against the HSP and the hypothetical protein, bestowing them as potential future vaccine candidates. The antigens reported in this study are novel and have not been tested as vaccine candidates against Shigella. This study offers time and cost-effective way of identifying unprecedented immunogenic antigens to be used as potential vaccine candidates. Moreover, this approach should easily be extendable to find new potential vaccine candidates for other pathogenic bacteria.

  11. 慢性、难治性腹泻病的诊断与治疗进展%Progress of Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Bacillary Diarrhea and Hard Treatment Diarrhea in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江米足

    2005-01-01

    腹泻指每天大便排出量增加,通常与肠道水、电解质转运被破坏而引起大便中水分含量增加有关。小儿胃肠道处理285mL/(kg·d)液体而排出5~10g/(kg·24h)大便,如排大便量超过10g/(kg·24h)则为腹泻。症状持续2周或以上称为慢性腹泻,常与下列因素有关:1.急性感染性腹泻后肠致病原体对肠黏膜损害;2.机体免疫机能低下;3.兰氏贾第鞭毛虫(giardia lamblia)、

  12. Retrospective analysis on infectious diseases admitted to Nanjing Second Hospital nearly 16 years%近16年南京市第二医院收治传染病病种的回顾性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏洪霞; 姚文虎; 徐永林; 池云; 成骢

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解近16年来东南大学附属第二医院(南京市第二院,简称南京二院)传染病收治情况和流行趋势,为该院传染病的诊治提供依据.方法:回顾性分析1994至2009年南京二院每年收治的传染病总数变化、每种传染病总数的变化及具体分布情况.结果:南京二院收治的传染病总数呈现曲线上升的趋势,其中发病总数处于前5位的为麻疹、流行性腮腺炎、水痘、急性细菌性痢疾、百日咳.梅毒、艾滋病等性传播性疾病以及疟疾、狂犬病等病发率呈现上升趋势,严重急性呼吸综合征、人禽流感和甲型H1N1流感等新发传染病均有发生.结论:急性呼吸道传染病仍然是防治的重点,要加强对梅毒、艾滋病的健康宣教,时刻警惕新发传染病的入侵.%Objective: To study the distribution of infectious diseases admitted to Nanjing Second Hospital nearly 16 years in order to provide the theoretical basis of prevention of infectious diseases. Methods: Analyze retrospectively the incidence change of the infectious diseases admitted to Nanjing Second Hospital each year from 1994 to 2009. Results: The total number of infectious diseases showed a rising trend and the top 5 of the total incidence were measles, mumps, chicken pox, acute bacillary dysentery, whooping cough. The morbidities of syphilis, AIDS, malaria and rabies were increasing and the new infectious diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, avian flu and influenza A (H1N1) occurred. Conclusion: Acute respiratory infection is our primary concern. We should strengthen the health education on A1DS and syphilis, keep alert to the emerging of new infectious diseases all the time.

  13. 无锡市2010年-2011年志贺氏菌菌型分布及耐药性分析%Analysis on serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance of Shigella in Wuxi from 2010 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管红霞; 肖勇; 沙丹

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解无锡市近年来在细菌性痢疾监测中分离的志贺氏菌的菌型分布及药物敏感情况.方法:用VITEK 2 Compact全自动微生物分析系统对志贺氏菌进行生化鉴定,血清玻片凝集法进行分型,K-B纸片扩散法进行药敏试验.结果:共分离福氏志贺氏菌14株,占31.11%;宋内志贺氏菌31株,占68.89%.药敏试验结果显示,志贺氏菌对大部分常用药物产生抗药性,除阿莫西林/棒酸和诺氟沙星外,两种志贺氏菌对常用抗生素的耐药性无显著性差异.结论:2010年-2011年无锡市志贺氏菌主要为福氏志贺氏菌和宋内氏志贺氏菌,宋内志贺氏菌为优势菌.志贺氏菌耐药情况严重,临床上应根据当地志贺氏菌流行特点合理选择治疗方案.%Objective:To understand the serotype distribution and drug sensitivity of Shigella isolated in bacillary dys-entery monitoring in recent years.Methods:Biochemical identification was made with the VITEK 2 Compact automated microbial analysis system,serotyping was determined through slide agglutination assays,antibiotic susceptibility was confirmed by Kirby-Bauer method.Results:In total,fourteen strains were Shigella flexneri,accounting for 31.11%.Thirty-on strains were Shigella sonnei,accounting for 68.89%.Drug susceptibility test results showed that Shigella were resistant to most common drugs.In addition to amoxicillin / clavulanic acid and norfloxacin,the two kinds of Shigella bacteria for resistance to common antibiotics had no significant difference.Conclusion:Between 2010 and 2011,the major serotypes of Shigella were Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei.Shigella sonnei was dominant.Antibiotic resistance of Shigella was in serious condition.Accordingly,the clinicians should choose the reasonable antibiotics based on the local drug sensitivity tests.

  14. Co-administration of rIpaB domain of Shigella with rGroEL of S. Typhi enhances the immune responses and protective efficacy against Shigella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitradevi, Sekar Tamil Selvi; Kaur, Gurpreet; Uppalapati, Sivaramakrishna; Yadav, Anandprakash; Singh, Dependrapratap; Bansal, Anju

    2015-11-01

    Shigella species cause severe bacillary dysentery in humans and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The Invasion plasmid antigen (IpaB) protein, which is conserved across all Shigella spp., induces macrophage cell death and is required to invade host cells. The present study evaluates the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the recombinant (r) domain region of IpaB (rIpaB) of S. flexneri. rIpaB was administered either alone or was co-administered with the rGroEL (heat shock protein 60) protein from S. Typhi as an adjuvant in a mouse model of intranasal immunization. The IpaB domain region (37 kDa) of S. flexneri was amplified from an invasion plasmid, cloned, expressed in BL21 Escherichia coli cells and purified. Immunization with the rIpaB domain alone stimulated both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Furthermore, robust antibody (IgG, IgA) and T-cell responses were induced when the rIpaB domain was co-administered with rGroEL. Antibody isotyping revealed higher IgG1 and IgG2a antibody titers and increased interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) secretion in the co-administered group. Immunization of mice with the rIpaB domain alone protected 60%-70% of the mice from lethal infection by S. flexneri, S. boydii and S. sonnei, whereas co-administration with rGroEL increased the protective efficacy to 80%-85%. Organ burden and histopathological studies also revealed a significant reduction in lung infection in the co-immunized mice compared with mice immunized with the rIpaB domain alone. This study emphasizes that the co-administration of the rIpaB domain and rGroEL protein improves immune responses in mice and increases protective efficacy against Shigella infection. This is also the first report to evaluate the potential of the GroEL (Hsp 60) protein of S. Typhi as an adjuvant molecule, thereby overcoming the need for commercial adjuvants.

  15. 临湘市中小学饮用水水质现状及介水传染病发病情况分析%Current situation of drinking water and water-borne communicable infection in the primary and middle schools of Linxiang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅芳; 唐美秀; 刘娟; 彭喜春; 梁绍先; 唐明德

    2011-01-01

    Objective To research the condition of water quality and the incidence of water-bome infection of the primary and middle schools of Linxiang city, and to provide scientific basis for improving drinking water quality and protecting students' physical and mental health.Methods Selecting drinking water samples from 14 primary and middle schools of Linxiang city, the national standard method was used to analyze the quality of the water, and were surveyed by a self-designed questionnaire the incidence of water-bome infection diseases.Results The qualification rate of drinking water was 78.57%, the fecal coliform exceeded the standard in unqualified water.According to the research, in the recent one year, the incidence of enteritis, bacillary dysentery and hepatitis A were 1.80%, 0.19% and 0.06% in the 14 schools.Conclusion Drinking water of the primary and middle schools of Linxiang city is polluted by the fecal coliform.%目的 了解临湘市中小学校饮用水的水质质量及介水传染病的发病情况,为进一步改善饮水质量、保护学生的身心健康提供科学依据.方法 选取临湘市14所中小学校,对生活饮用水按照国家水质分析标准方法进行水质分析,并按照拟定的调查表对学生进行介水传染病的发病情况调查.结果 该市中小学校饮用水合格率仅为78.57%,其中水质不合格主要原因为粪大肠菌群超标;14所学校近1 a饮水学生的肠炎、细菌性痢疾、甲型肝炎的发病率分别为1.80%,O.19%.0.06%.结论 临湘市中小学校的生活饮用水存在粪大肠菌污染隐患.

  16. Identification of critical residues of the serotype modifying O-acetyltransferase of Shigella flexneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanweer Farzaana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thirteen serotypes of Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri have been recognised, all of which are capable of causing bacillary dysentery or shigellosis. With the emergence of the newer S. flexneri serotypes, the development of an effective vaccine has only become more challenging. One of the factors responsible for the generation of serotype diversity is an LPS O-antigen modifying, integral membrane protein known as O-acetyltransferase or Oac. Oac functions by adding an acetyl group to a specific O-antigen sugar, thus changing the antigenic signature of the parent S. flexneri strain. Oac is a membrane protein, consisting of hydrophobic and hydrophilic components. Oac bears homology to several known and predicted acetyltransferases with most homology existing in the N-terminal transmembrane (TM regions. Results In this study, the conserved motifs in the TM regions and in hydrophilic loops of S. flexneri Oac were targeted for mutagenesis with the aim of identifying the amino acid residues essential for the function of Oac. We previously identified three critical arginines–R73, R75 and R76 in the cytoplasmic loop 3 of Oac. Re-establishing that these arginines are critical, in this study we suggest a catalytic role for R73 and a structural role for R75 and R76 in O-acetylation. Serine-glycine motifs (SG 52–53, GS 138–139 and SYG 274–276, phenylalanine-proline motifs (FP 78–79 and FPV 282–84 and a tryptophan-threonine motif (WT141-142 found in TM segments and residues RK 110–111, GR 269–270 and D333 found in hydrophilic loops were also found to be critical to Oac function. Conclusions By studying the effect of the mutations on Oac’s function and assembly, an insight into the possible roles played by the chosen amino acids in Oac was gained. The transmembrane serine-glycine motifs and hydrophilic residues (RK 110–111, GR 269–270 and D333 were shown to have an affect on Oac assembly which suggests a structural role

  17. Analysis of host microRNA function uncovers a role for miR-29b-2-5p in Shigella capture by filopodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkavalli, Ushasree; Aguilar, Carmen; Silva, Ricardo Jorge; Sharan, Malvika; Cruz, Ana Rita; Tawk, Caroline; Maudet, Claire; Mano, Miguel; Eulalio, Ana

    2017-04-01

    MicroRNAs play an important role in the interplay between bacterial pathogens and host cells, participating as host defense mechanisms, as well as exploited by bacteria to subvert host cellular functions. Here, we show that microRNAs modulate infection by Shigella flexneri, a major causative agent of bacillary dysentery in humans. Specifically, we characterize the dual regulatory role of miR-29b-2-5p during infection, showing that this microRNA strongly favors Shigella infection by promoting both bacterial binding to host cells and intracellular replication. Using a combination of transcriptome analysis and targeted high-content RNAi screening, we identify UNC5C as a direct target of miR-29b-2-5p and show its pivotal role in the modulation of Shigella binding to host cells. MiR-29b-2-5p, through repression of UNC5C, strongly enhances filopodia formation thus increasing Shigella capture and promoting bacterial invasion. The increase of filopodia formation mediated by miR-29b-2-5p is dependent on RhoF and Cdc42 Rho-GTPases. Interestingly, the levels of miR-29b-2-5p, but not of other mature microRNAs from the same precursor, are decreased upon Shigella replication at late times post-infection, through degradation of the mature microRNA by the exonuclease PNPT1. While the relatively high basal levels of miR-29b-2-5p at the start of infection ensure efficient Shigella capture by host cell filopodia, dampening of miR-29b-2-5p levels later during infection may constitute a bacterial strategy to favor a balanced intracellular replication to avoid premature cell death and favor dissemination to neighboring cells, or alternatively, part of the host response to counteract Shigella infection. Overall, these findings reveal a previously unappreciated role of microRNAs, and in particular miR-29b-2-5p, in the interaction of Shigella with host cells.

  18. 北京市门头沟区2007~2009年儿童传染病疫情分析%Analysis of epidemic situation of children infectious diseases in Mentougou district of Beijing from 2007 to 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李龙建; 刘英; 曹殿起; 和丽

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析2007 -2009年北京市门头沟区中小学生和幼托儿童传染病疫情,为传染病的预防控制提供科学依据.方法 采用描述流行病学方法,对中小学生和幼托儿童传染病发病资料进行统计分析.结果 该区中小学生和幼托儿童传染病发病分别为827例和501例;发病数居前5位病种依次为手足口病、其他感染性腹泻病、菌痢、甲型H1N1流感 和猩红热;发病月份主要集中在5月、9月和10月.结论 中小学校应以呼吸道传染病和消化道传染病、幼托机构以经接触传播传染病为防控重点;加强传染病的规范管理和监督检查,做好疫苗的免疫预防接种工作,提高公众对传染病的认知程度.%OBJECTIVE To study the epidemic situation of primary, secondary school students and kindergarten children in Mentougou district of Beijing from 2007 to 2009, and to provide scientific evidences for the control and prevention of infectious diseases. METHODS Descriptive epidemiology was used to analyze the data on the epidemic situation of infectious diseases a-mong primary, secondary school students and kindergarten children in Mentougou district. RESULTS The total cases of infectious diseases was 827 in primary and secondary schools and 501 in kindergartens. The top five diseases of the reported number were as following: hand foot and mouth disease, infectious diarrhea, bacillary dysentery, influenza A H1N1, and scarlet fever. Higher prevalences were concentrated on May, September and October. CONCLUSION More attention should be paid to prevent and control of the respiratory and digestive tract of infectious diseases in primary, secondary schools and the contact transmission of infectious diseases in kindergartens. Strengthen normative administration and supervision and inspection of infectious diseases, and do inoculation work of bacterin well about vaccination, and improve cognizant level of the public about infectious diseases.

  19. Tuberculosis genes expressed during persistence and reactivation in the resistant rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, Anup K; Brooks, Megan; Tufariello, JoAnn; Chan, John; Manabe, Yukari C

    2009-01-01

    As previously published, after aerosol infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, New Zealand white rabbits established infection with active bacillary replication, but later contained disease to a paucibacillary state through an effective adaptive response consistent with latency. Despite the heterogeneity among outbred rabbits, the resistant response was uniform. Immunosuppression resulted in reactivation with increased lung bacillary burden. Using this rabbit model, we isolated bacillary RNA from infected rabbit lungs and assessed transcriptional profiles of bacillary genes using RT-PCR to examine genes differentially regulated during active replication, persistence, steroid-induced reactivation, and post-steroid immune reconstitution. Genes involved in hypoxia response (fdxA), resuscitation promoting factors (rpfB), and DNA repair pathways (Rv2191) may be important in bacillary persistence. Further investigation into these gene pathways is warranted.

  20. Disease: H00360 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available inated with Entamoeba histolytica, an extracellular parasitic amoeba causes amoebic colitis... and amoebic liver abscess. Amoebic colitis is characterized by devastating dysentery that usually

  1. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lesions were negative, but light and electron microscopy showed organisms characteristic of bacillary angiomatosis. ... in 1983,' is an infectious disease that affects ... The lesions had appeared at different times during the preceding 2 months.

  2. Diets containing inulin but not lupins help to prevent swine dysentery in experimentally challenged pigs%含有菊粉但不含羽扇豆的饲粮有助预防实验诱导的猪痢疾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hansen C F; Phillips N D; La T; 闫轶洁

    2010-01-01

    @@ 猪痢疾是一种传染性黏膜出血的腹泻疾病,由定植于肠道的猪痢疾短螺旋体引起,能够诱发盲肠和结肠发炎.据报道饲料中添加菊苣根和甜羽扇豆可预防猪痢疾.本试验旨在验证是菊苣根中的菊粉而不是羽扇豆中的半乳糖起到保护作用的假设.试验采用2×2因子设计,生猪采食大麦和黑麦基础饲粮,主效应是蛋白源[18.5%菜粕(低半乳糖)或22%羽扇豆(高半乳糖)]和菊粉添加剂(0或8%).

  3. Tuberculosis genes expressed during persistence and reactivation in the resistant rabbit model

    OpenAIRE

    Kesavan, Anup K.; Brooks, Megan; Tufariello, JoAnn; Chan, John; Manabe, Yukari C.

    2008-01-01

    As previously published, after aerosol infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, New Zealand white rabbits established infection with active bacillary replication, but later contained disease to a paucibacillary state through an effective adaptive response consistent with latency. Despite the heterogeneity among outbred rabbits, the resistant response was uniform. Immunosuppression resulted in reactivation with increased lung bacillary burden. Using this rabbit model, we isolated bacil...

  4. Bartonella Henselae: A New Pathogen for Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Cornejo Medina, William; Departamento Académico de Microbiología Facultad de Medicina Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Vizcarra, Hugo; Programa Especial de Bartolenosis Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Daniel A. Carrión" Facultad de Medicina Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella henselae has recently been recognized as etiological agent of four clinical syndromes: bacillary angiomatosis, bacillary peliosis hepatis, relapsing fever with bacteremia, and cat-scratch disease. The bacterium has been isolated and fully characterized. Application of newer technologies that isolate, amplify and analyze the B. henselae DNA has helped to solve identification and diagnostic problems, and they are redefining our understanding of a few of the clinical syndromes caused ...

  5. 2008-2013年杭州市拱墅区传染病自动预警信息分析%Analysis on performance of communicable disease automatic early warning information system in Gongshu District of Hangzhou City, 2008-2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢健; 徐旭卿; 鲁琴宝

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of communicable disease automatic early warning information system during 2008 to 2013,and provide scientific evidence for the improvement of the system.Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the information obtained from the automatic early warning system from 2008 to 2013 in Gongshu district of Hangzhou City.Results Totally 1 626 warning signals involving 20 kinds of communicable diseases were released by the automatic early warning system from 21 April 2008 to 31 December 2013.The five major diseases were other infectious diarrhea,mumps,measles,bacillary and dysentery,hand foot and mouth disease,accouning for 87.27% of the total number of early warning signals;and 13 of them were verified by field investigation (6 cases of cholera,3 cases of influenza).The predictive value positive (PVP) of early warning was 0.80% and the sensitivity was 85.71%.From warning signal releasing to reporting,the median of the response interval was 0.42 hour.Conclusions The automatic early warning system was stable and effective for the early detection of priority disease as cholera in Gongshu district.%目的 了解2008-2013年杭州市拱墅区传染病自动预警系统运行现状,为优化系统提供依据.方法 应用描述流行病学方法分析2008-2013年拱墅区传染病自动预警信息.结果 2008年4月21日至2013年12月31日拱墅区预警系统共接收到1 626条信号;涉及20种法定传染病,前5位病种依次为其他感染性腹泻病、流行性腮腺炎、麻疹、痢疾和手足口病,占全部预警信号数的87.27%;经现场核实为暴发/流行的信号事件13起,其中霍乱6起,流行性感冒3起,预警系统阳性预测值为0.80%,灵敏度为85.71%;预警响应中位数时间为0.42 h.结论 拱墅区传染病自动预警系统运行良好,对霍乱等重点传染病早期探测发挥了重要作用.

  6. Retrospective Analysis of Antibiotic Resistance and Serotype Distribution of Shigella spp.in China from 1989 to 2010%1989-2010年全国志贺菌属耐药情况及血清群分布回顾性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹阳; 魏殿军; 齐书青

    2013-01-01

    Objective The characteristics of serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance of Shigella spp. Were investigated retrospectively to provide theoretical basis of clinical use of drugs and prevention and control in the bacillary dysentery (shigellosis). Methods The China Knowledge Resources Integral Databases were searched from 1989 to 2010 to record and analyze data on the antimicrobial resistance and serotype distribution of Shigella spp. Results The resistance rate showed a significant increase to most antibiotics after 2000, and was significantly different between North China and South China during the same period. For the serotype distribution of Shigella spp. From 1989 to 2010, Shigella Flexneri (group B) was always the most frequently isolated serogroup, followed by Shigella sonnei (group D). After 2000, there was a significant upward trend in the constituent ratio of group D in south China. And the constituent ratio of group D was always significantly higher in Beijing than that in Shanghai during the past 20 years. Conclusion With the abuse of antibiotics, the drug resistance of Shigella spp. Continues to increase, and serotype distribution changes96 in both north and south China.%目的 回顾性分析1989-2010年全国范围内志贺菌属的药物耐药情况和血清群分布特征,为细菌性痢疾的临床合理用药和预防控制工作提供依据.方法 检索中国知网中国期刊全文数据库1989-2010年关于全国各地区志贺菌属耐药情况和血清群分布数据的全部文献,按照地区和时间跨度分组,分别进行统计学分析.结果 全国范围内志贺菌属对多种抗生素的耐药性在2000年后呈显著增加的趋势,且同一年代内南北方相比差异有统计学意义.1989-2010年全国范围内志贺菌属血清群分布始终以福氏志贺菌(B群)为主,宋内志贺菌(D群)次之.2000年后,南方D群构成比显著上升;北京D群构成比20年来始终明显高于上海.结论 全国范围

  7. 129株志贺菌血清分型及耐药性分析%Serotype distribution and drug resistance of 129 Shigella strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐彩萍; 张颖华; 陈秀华; 刘芸; 丁克颖

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查上海市闵行区2008-2010年志贺菌流行的主要血清型和耐药情况,为细菌性痢疾预防和临床用药提供依据.方法 收集2008-2010年闵行区肠道门诊监测点腹泻患者肛拭样本中分离到的129株志贺菌进行生化鉴定、血清学分型,并用K-B法测定其对10种抗生素的药物敏感情况.结果 129株志贺菌中福氏志贺菌89株,占69.00%,其中F2a型占74.16%;宋内氏志贺菌40株,占31.00%;未分离出其他群型的志贺菌.药敏结果显示,129株志贺菌对四环素、复方新诺明、氨苄西林、利福平和萘啶酸耐药显著,均大于80%;对环丙沙星、阿莫西林比较敏感.但福氏志贺菌与宋内氏志贺菌之间差异有统计学意义;多重耐药率达92.24%以上,以6种耐药为主.结论 该地区2008-2010年志贺菌流行菌型为F2a,福氏志贺氏菌和宋内氏志贺菌对环丙沙星、阿莫西林敏感,对复方新诺明、氨苄西林、四环素、萘啶酸、利福平等多种抗菌药物耐药显著,多重耐药现象日趋严重.应加强耐药性监测.%[Objective]To investigate the stereotyping and antibiotic-susceptibility of Shigella in Minhang District of Shanghai City from 2008 to 2010, and provide evidence for bacillary dysentery prevention and clinical treatment. [ Methods ] Rectal swab specimens of patients with acute diarrhea in intestinal outpatient monitoring points of Minghang District from 2008-2010 were collected for isolation of 129 strains of Shigella by using biochemical test and serum agglutination test. KB method was used for testing antibiotic-susceptibility of Shigella. [Results] A total of 129 strains of Shigella were isolated, among which flexneri Shigella bacteria accounted for 69.00% , Sonnei Shigella bacteria accounted for 31.00%. The rate of resistance to tetracycline, cotrimoxazole, ampicillin, rifampicin and nalidixic acid was significantly higher than 80% respectively. Otherwise, these isolates was

  8. The unit analyze five-year incidence of legal infectious diseases%某部5年法定传染病发病情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝晓艳; 苗凤英

    2011-01-01

    proportion account for 36.56%. The unit infectious disease epidemic sjtuation is unoptimistic, must monitor viral hepatitis, tuberculosis and bacillary dysentery, when the recruit quarantine and education administrat, adopts the inoculationn, the disinfection, the protection and so on comprehensive measure.

  9. Investigation report on the outbreak of diarrhea in the second middle school of Zhushan county in Hubei Province%湖北省竹山县第二中学腹泻病暴发的调查报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙长喜; 沈开忠

    2015-01-01

    Objective To master the characteristics of the outbreak of diarrhea,so as to provide evidences for formulat-ing the measures of control and prevention. Methods Epidemiological data and laboratory data of registered patients were investigated,and descriptive epidemiological method was applied to statistically analyze the data. Results A total of 235 patients were infected, and the morbidity rate was 7.66%. Morbidity rate in cooks was significantly higher than that in students, teaching staff and family members, males higher than females, and on-campus students higher than off-campus students; the water plant supplied drinking water not conforming to the standard of hygiene,and the cooks were not detected timely and transferred from the current position after being infected with bacillary dysentery and di-arrhea. The bacteria was transmitted via water and food,combined with the transmission via intimate contact and carri-ers by flies. Conclusion Management on the hygiene of food and drinking water in the school should be strengthened,environment disinfection and insecticide should be carried out,and the population in epidemic focus of diarrhea should be orally given norfloxacin for prevention; the supervising mechanism of infectious diseases in the school is estab-lished,potential safety hazard is timely dealt with,and water-borne communicable diseases can be prevented.%目的:掌握腹泻病暴发特征,为制定防控措施提供依据。方法调查登记患者的流行病学和实验室等资料,用描述流行病学方法进行统计、分析。结果共发病235例,罹患率7.66%,炊事员发病明显高于学生、教职员工及家属,男性高于女性,住读生高于走读生;水厂供应不符合卫生标准的饮用水和炊事员感染菌痢和腹泻后未被及时发现并调离岗位,通过水和食物交叉传播,并伴密切接触和苍蝇携带传播。结论加强学校饮食和饮用水卫生管理,开展环境消毒和杀

  10. 判定传染病发病时间聚集性五种方法的比较与探讨%Discussion on five methods used for the determination of temporal clustering on infectious diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建伟; 许汴利; 陈豪敏; 康锴; 黄丽莉

    2011-01-01

    探讨并比较判定传染病发病时间聚集性的五种方法.以郑州市金水区2008-2010年细菌性痢疾发病时间聚集性的判定为例,比较可用于传染病发病时间聚集性分析和判定的聚类分析、游程检验、负二项分布、圆分布、集中度五种方法.聚类分析得出5-9月是发病流行期,8月是发病高峰期;游程检验得出2008和2009年月发病具有聚集性(P<0.05),2010年发病月分布具有随机性;集中度法得出2008-2010年每年月发病分布均有一定的聚集性,从M值看聚集程度逐年减弱;圆分布法得出2008-2010年每年均具有发病聚集倾向时间(P<0.01),3年依次为7月11、29日和8月24日;负二项分布拟合得出在年度日发病层面2008和2010年具有聚集性(P>0.05),2009年不具有聚集性(P<0.05).五种方法均可用于传染病发病时间聚集性的分析和判定,可根据不同情况选择.[Introduction] To demonstrate and evaluate five different methods in the determination of temporal clustering on infectious diseases.The incidence rates of bacillary dysentery in Jinshui district,Zhengzhou city,Henan province from 2008 to 2010 were analyzed by 5 different methodsCluster Analysis,Runs Test,Negative Binomial Distribution,Circular Distribution and Concentration Ratio.Through Cluster Analysis,data showed that the epidemic period was from May to Sept.with August as the peak.Runs Test confirmed a cluster of month-incidence in 2008 and 2009 (P<0.05)and a random distribution in 2010.The Concentration Ratio showed a weakened seasonal incidence cluster to a certain extent by M from 2008 to 2010.The Circular Distribution demonstrated an inclining cluster of time (P<0.01) and it was on July 11th and 29th,as well on August 24th in 2008,2009 and 2010.In terms of day-incidence,the Negative Binomial Distribution presented a cluster in 2008 and 2010,but with no significant difference in 2009.The five above said methods could flexibly be used in

  11. 山西省太原市传染病医院2001-2011年疾病谱变迁及常见传染病流行趋势分析%2001-2011 annual changes of disease spectrum and trends analysis of common infectious diseases of the infectious diseases hospital of Taiyuan in Shanxi province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯亦农; 刘宝芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the inpatients species changes of infectious disease hospital from 2001 to 2011 years in Taiyuan,and make relevant recommendations to the trends and prevention strategies for common infectious diseases.Methods The diseases species of the hospital from 2001 to 2011 years and the number of hospitalized patients were retrospectively counted and analyzed.Results The proportion of liver disease hospitalized was always more than 60% in the ten years;The bacillary dysentery decreased from 4.23% in 2006 to 0.96% in 2011 ;The hospitalized patients with measles decreased significantly since 2009,and only 0.26% in 2011 ;In 2008,hand-foot-mouth disease accounted for 3.42% of the hospitalized patients,and it peaked in 2010,accounting for 7.51% ; The number of hospitalized patients with rabies disease rised in 2011,accounting for 0.27%.Conclusion Liver disease is still the major infectious diseases of the hospital;The mumps,chicken pox,scarlet fever and other respiratory diseases as well as hand-foot-mouth disease is a common infectious disease threats to the health of infants and young children,and for the increasing trend of the number of patients with brucellosis hairtetracycline,the tetracycline and brucellosis drugs for children should be promoted to product and sale.The rabies vaccination knowledge should be popularized,and the incidence of rabies should be reduced.%目的 分析2001-2011年太原市传染病医院住院病种的变化,对常见传染病的流行趋势及防治策略提出相关建议.方法 对2001-2011年该院各种疾病病种及住院例数进行回顾性统计分析.结果 肝病的住院比例在十年间始终在60%以上;细菌性痢疾从2006年的4.23%下降至2011年的0.96%;自2009年以后麻疹住院患者明显减少,2011年仅占0.26%;2008年手足口病占住院患者的3.42%,2010年达到高峰,占7.51%;2011年狂犬病住院例数攀升,达到0.27%.结论 肝病仍是该院的主

  12. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the_monk

    well water were found to contribute to the prevalence of intestinal helminth infection, although showed no ... to improper disposal of faecal wastes, poor factors found to significantly affect infestation ..... anaemia, diarrhea and dysentery,.

  13. (Tul.) LP Queiroz

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    Gastrointestinal problems: colic, diarrhea, dysentery ... diarrhea, stomach pain, flatulence, gastritis. Undefined .... and gastric mucosal protection factors of ethanolic extract .... (2005). Life strategy and chemical composition as predictors of the.

  14. SURVEY OF WILD PLANT SEEDS AND THEIR VALUE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study involved oral interview of 100 herb sellers (stall owners) in five selected herbal markets in ... Keywords: herbal market, conservation, ecosystem, genetic resources. .... Investigation revealed that most of the ... Climber Diabetes, dysentery.

  15. 21 CFR 558.115 - Carbadox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bacterial swine enteritis (salmonellosis or necrotic enteritis caused by Salmonella choleraesuis); increased... dysentery); control of bacterial swine enteritis (salmonellosis or necrotic enteritis caused by Salmonella... treatment of bacterial enteritis caused by Escherichia coli and S. choleraesuis susceptible...

  16. Anti-venom potentials of Friedelin isolated from hexane extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... dysentery, cancer, diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis and snake bite remedy. In this report, an attempt has been made to evaluate the bioactive molecules in the plant that are ... The major compound isolated, HXC1 (friedelin), determined using ...

  17. antimicrobial activity of extracts of momordica charantia and alstonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    activity of the plants extracts against viable and pure cultures of the test organisms. Results showed ... medicinal treatment, such as intestinal parasites, dysentery, diarrhoea, gonorrhea, Bilharzia ... Classification and Concentration of Extracts.

  18. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-20

    Aug 20, 2007 ... of the stem bark finds use in the treatment of dysentery, typhoid fever and fungal ... pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, B. cereus, E. coli and S. typhi obtained from the Faculty of .... Physical description: Pale yellow needles (DMSO).

  19. Pollution Sources in the Nigerian Environment and Their Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    disease, cardiovascular problems, brain damage, cancer and others. ... cholera, bacterial and amoebic dysentery, typhoid fever, neurological impairment, cancer, brain damage, kidney ... directly into the water which cause pollution that.

  20. Ubiquity of the water-borne pathogens, Cryptosporidium and Giardia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2001-01-01

    Jan 1, 2001 ... Abstract. The prevalence of the diarrhoea disease caused by the water-borne pathogens ... Giardiapositive cases were recorded in symptomatic. (4.5% and ..... cholera, salmonella, amoebic dysentery, Shigella, or enteropathic.

  1. and Tanga, Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease surveillance system for 13 priority communicable diseases in Tanzania. Retrospective ... existing conditions, and preventing the emergency of new ones and ... dysentery, cerebro-spinal meningitis, cholera, measles, plague, rabies ...

  2. ain defla, algeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hamaidi-Chergui F, Brahim Errahmani M, Debib A, Hamaidi M.S

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... gastroenteritis to severe and sometimes fatal dysentery, cholera, or typhoid [3]. ... Their presence in drinking water indicates that disease-causing .... Wells constructed should be properly ringed and covered to avoid the ...

  3. Microbial deterioration of stored water for users supplied by stand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cally contaminated and may contribute to the spread of diseases such as cholera, hepatitis A, hepatitis E, typhoid, dysentery and. This paper was originally ... cates resistance to treatment processes or that can mimic the environmental ...

  4. TABLE 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BASIS CRISP CRISP

    outbreaks of water associated diseases, especially cholera, that affect the local community periodically. ... diseases that are transmitted by drinking contaminated water such as cholera, dysentery, and ... malfunctioning of the sewage treatment,.

  5. Department of Geography, Kwara State Po

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-05-24

    May 24, 2016 ... principal medium for preventing disease. World Health Organization ... through poor treatment and disposal of excreta ..... is wide spread and the entire courses of the rivers within the ... cholera, typhoid, dysentery, cancer and.

  6. climate change adaptation strategies by local farmers in kilombero ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    cholera, typhoid, dysentery and amoebic diseases. This could be ... disease. High rate spread of waterborne diseases may be boosted by extreme climate conditions that could be ..... and access to prevention and treatment in the paddies of ...

  7. admission patterns and outcomes of paediatric patients admitted at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diarrheal diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality ... epidemics of cholera and dysentery common to this region ... limit the spread of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial ... its relation to age, sex, type of diarrhea, treatment.

  8. Vom work Book Journal, 2011 1st Edition PDF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ailments, skin disorders and diarrhoea (Duke,. 1983). Acacia ... Proteus vulgaris, Shigella dysentery, E. coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aerogenosa, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus albus ... Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Vol. 32(1): ...

  9. diseases and causes of death among the popes 1. introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    present as is to be expected in an older population group, and acute terminal febrile illnesses ... disease, gallstones, cancer, dysentery, the plague, lung infection, gangrene of a leg, ..... Information on the patients' medical histories is limited.

  10. A Dog with Multiple Infections of Enteric Parasitic Zoonosis in Mashhad City, North-East of Iran; a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: In this study, we examined stool specimen from a 3-year-old domesticated dog, which was referred to a veterinary clinic with clinical signs such as nausea or vomiting, dysentery, cachexia and rash in Mashhad city, northeast of Iran. Patient & Methods: A 3-year-old pet dog was referred to veterinary clinic of Mashhad in February 2016 by symptoms including, nausea or vomiting, dysentery, cachexia and rash in Mashhad City, Northeast of Iran. For parasitolog...

  11. Technology Against Terrorism: Structuring Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    shigella dysentery and also have activity Biological Weapons of the Future against dysentery produced by Campylobacter je- Terrorists are unlikely to... ELISA ,"DNA probes, attack. or DNA probes with the target genetic materialamplified by the polymerase chain reaction; It m ay be possible to develop...not been by the following types of approaches: started prior to an attack. 5’ ELISA standd for mzyme-linked immunospeuific assay. 1he EUISA assay is a

  12. LATAR BELAKANG KARAKTERISTIK RESPONDED DALAM PENCEGAHAN PENYAKIT SHIGELLA/DISENTRI YANG DILAKUKAN OLEH MASYARAKAT DI JAKARTA UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Handayani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Research was conducted in North Jakarta and Selected 2 district in Jakarta North that is Tanjung Priok and Koja district as a research region. About 300 respondents which include 140 men and 151 woman from Tanjung Priok district. In Koja district was taken 200 respondents that consist of 101 men and 99 woman. Data processing done with double entry, by using program ISSA (Integrated Survey Analysis and Analysis Data used SPSS (Statistic Package for Social Science. The Research shown 88,7%-89,2% prevent spicy food can overcome dysentery disease of, 55.2% improving clean water can be temporary prevention of dysentery disease, and 56,4%-56,6% personal hygiene able to handle dysentery disease forever. By repairing bathroom (usually used for bath, wash, dump faeces 57.1%-58.4% and fixing garbage 56,2%-57,2% can prevent dysentery disease temporary, while 97,2%-97,4% of drinking traditional medicine (jamu also happen the same thing with dysentery disease. Based on respondents, 96,5%-96,6% using its own medicine/ingredient will prevent dysentery disease. According respondents habit on wash hand about 84.4% respondents wash their hand firstly in the morning and 74.2% washing band before sleep but 64.4% respondents who never wash their band before get dressed. From this research inferential respondents belief to prevent eat spicy food, improving readily clean water, bathroom, garbage place, efficacious of traditional drink, ingredients, washing band habit can be major factors that can prevent community from dysentery disease. The research is part of social Behavior Culture in Overcome Shigella Disease in Jakarta. Keywords: Respondent, Preventing, Shigella Disease

  13. The Janus face of Bartonella quintana recognition by Toll-like receptors (TLRs): a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matera, G.; Liberto, M.C.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Vinci, M.; Quirino, A.; Pulicari, M.C.; Kullberg, B.J.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Netea, M.G.; Foca, A.

    2008-01-01

    Bartonella quintana (B. quintana) is a facultative, intracellular bacterium, which causes trench fever, chronic bacteraemia and bacillary angiomatosis. Little is known about the recognition of B. quintana by the innate immune system. In this review, we address the impact of Toll-like receptors (TLRs

  14. In vitro studies of BMY-28142, a new broad-spectrum cephalosporin.

    OpenAIRE

    Bodey, G.P.; Ho, D H; Leblanc, B.

    1985-01-01

    BMY-28142 was compared with other broad-spectrum antibiotics against gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli. BMY-28142 was highly active against all gram-negative bacilli and especially against Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, and Morganella morganii. Its in vitro activity suggests that BMY-28142 should prove to be useful for the treatment of gram-negative bacillary infections.

  15. BCG vaccination status may predict sputum conversion in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeremiah, Kidola; PrayGod, George; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Failure to convert (persistent sputum and/or culture positivity) while on antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment at the end of the second month of anti-TB therapy has been reported to be a predictor of treatment failure. Factors that could be associated with persistent bacillary positivity at the end...

  16. South African Medical Journal - Vol 105, No 10 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self-expanding metal stent placement for oesophageal cancer without fluoroscopy is ... Pulmonary tuberculosis in a South African regional emergency centre: Can infection control ... Prenatal BoBs in the cytogenetic analysis of products of spontaneous ... Case Report: Bacillary angiomatosis: A rare finding in the setting of ...

  17. Alkaline direct transesterification of different species of Stichococcus for bio-oil production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gargano, Immacolata; Marotta, Raffaele; Andreozzi, Roberto; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Marzocchella, Antonio; Spasiano, Danilo; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    The cost of bio-oil refining from microalgal biomass can be significantly reduced by combining extraction and transesterification. The characterisation and optimisation of the combined steps have been carried out on strains of Stichococcus bacillaris, focusing on catalyst type and concentration,

  18. Tuberculous Pericarditis is Multibacillary and Bacterial Burden Drives High Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jotam G. Pasipanodya

    2015-11-01

    Interpretation: Patients with culture confirmed tuberculous pericarditis have a high bacillary burden, and this bacterial burden drives mortality. Thus proven tuberculosis pericarditis is not a paucibacillary disease. Moreover, the severe immunosuppression suggests limited inflammation. There is a need for the design of a highly bactericidal regimen for this condition.

  19. BCG vaccination status may predict sputum conversion in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: a new consideration for an old vaccine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeremiah, Kidola; Praygod, George Amani; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Failure to convert (persistent sputum and/or culture positivity) while on antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment at the end of the second month of anti-TB therapy has been reported to be a predictor of treatment failure. Factors that could be associated with persistent bacillary positivity at the e...

  20. Study on Antibacterial Activity of the Bark of Garcinia lanceifolia Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Nilutpal Sharma; Kakoti, Bibhuti Bhusan; Gogoi, Barnali

    2014-01-01

    Garcinia lanceifolia Roxb. is an important and endemic medicinal plant of Assam which has been used by various ethnic communities of Northeast India to treat various disorders like dysentery, dyspepsia, and biliousness. The plant is considered to be containing much medicinal value and is also eaten raw or made into pickles by the local people. Our present study has been focused on the evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the methanolic extract of the bark of Garcinia lanceifolia which may lead us to a scientific evidence of the use of this plant in cases of dysentery and diarrhoea. PMID:27437444

  1. 清热药的特点及现代研究%Modern Research and Relationship of Heat-clearing Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞奇; 白明; 苗明三

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore relationship between heat-c1earing traditional Chinese medicine and pharmacological action,traditional Chinese medical indications,modern medical indications,medicine properties,flavour of a medicine,channel tropism,chemical composition.Methods:Use the " properties and flavour of traditional Chinese medicine database systems ",inquiry associated frequency between function " Heat-clearing" and pharmacological action,traditional Chinese medical indications,modern medical indications,medicine properties,flavour of a medicine,channel tropism,chemical composition,according to the frequency,take cover 2/3 of most high frequency for basic area,take cover 2/3 of remaining most high frequency for joint area,remaining for extended area.Results:Basic pharmacological action of heat-clearing traditional Chinese medicine are antibacterial,anti-inflammatory,antitumor,antipyretic,calm,affecting the cardiovascular system,diuresis; TCM basic indications are carbuncle swollen,jaundice,sore throat pain and swelling,boils,vomiting blood,eyes red swelling and pain,heat astringent pain,nose bleeding,edema,inflammation of the throat,erysipelas,headache,snake bite,wind heat cold ; modern medicine basic indications are eczema,bacillary dysentery,hypertension,chronic bronchitis,colds,burns,whooping cough,stomach ulcers,hepatitis,mumps,pneumonia,herpes zoster,edema,pain and swelling of the throat,duodenal ulcer,suppurative otitis media,dermatitis,headache,coronary heart disease,bronchitis,verruca,acute tonsillitis,diarrhea,hyperlipidemia,cough,jaundice;basic medicine properties of heat-cleating TCM are cold,micro-cold;basic flavour of a medicine combined with heatclearing traditional Chinese medicine are bitter,sweet; basic channel tropisms are liver,lung,stomach,large intestine,heart;the basic chemical compositions of heat-cleating traditional Chinese medicine are organic acid,flavonoids,glycosides,alkaloids,sugars,tannins,amino acids,esters,volatile oil

  2. Clinical Analysis of 36 Cases with Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Enteritis in Outpatients%门诊铜绿假单胞菌肠炎36例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂银萍; 白书媛; 王久伶

    2014-01-01

    except for 3 with diabetes or coronary heart disease.They came within 2 to 72 hours after onset of diarrhea;6 cases were at first diagnosed as bacillary dysentery,8 cases as infectious enteritis,22 cases as other diseases.About 1/3 of the patients had only diarrhea.5(13.9%)of the patients had mild fever,17(47.2%) had abdominal pain,17(47.2%) had watery stools,15(41.7%) had vomiting.WBC was normal in 24(61.7%).No cells were found in 26(72.2%) of the stool specimens.Conclusion:Most of our diarrhea patients infected by P.aeruginosa had no co-existing diseases and all had not used any antibiotics or probiotics before coming to our clinics.Their clinical symptoms were mild,and most had no fever,or blood leucocytosis.

  3. Analysis of etiological surveillance results of Shigella spp between 2009 and 2010 in Henan province%2009-2010年河南省志贺菌病原学监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆玉姣; 赵嘉咏; 罗琦; 黄丽莉; 夏胜利

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解河南省2009-2010年细菌性痢疾的病原学特征.方法 以河南省20092010年分离到的482株志贺菌为研究对象,采用血清分型、药物敏感试验及PCR检测毒力基因方法,对其进行病原学检测,以了解志贺菌菌型分布、药物敏感性及毒力基因携带情况.结果 482株志贺菌经形态学与生化鉴定均为志贺菌,共分为两群、13种血清型,福氏志贺菌(B群)占72.0%(347/482),宋内志贺菌(D群)占28.0%(135/482),其中以F2a血清型为主的福氏志贺菌检出率2009年为43.4%(106/245),2010年下降至33.8%( 80/237),宋内志贺菌检出率2009年为13.1%(32/245),2010年上升至43.5%(103/237)..进行药敏试验的1 85株志贺菌株对氨苄西林、甲氧苄嘧啶、四环素、链霉素、萘啶酸等抗生素耐药率两年均大于98%.进行毒力因子检测的182株志贺菌中,携带志贺菌肠毒素1 (set1B)、忐贺菌肠毒素2( set2)、侵袭性质粒H抗原(ipaH)和侵袭相关毒力基(ial)的菌株占67.6%(123/182),携带其中3种毒力因子的菌株占24.2% (44/182).结论 河南省近年来志贺菌流行菌型正在发生改变,对目前常用的抗菌药物表现较高的耐药性,分离菌株中普遍携带有毒力因子.%Objective To explore the etiologic characteristics of bacillary dysentery found in Henan province,between year 2009 and 2010.Methods In order to explore the distribution of bacterial types,drug susceptibility and the virulence gene carrier situation,482 strains of Shigella isolated in Henan province between 2009 and 2010 were pathogen-detected and analyzed by serotype screening,anti-microbial sensitivity test and PCR methods.Results The 482 isolated strains were confirmed to be Shigella by both morphological and biochemical tests.The Shigella strains were divided into 13 serotypes in 2 groups,namely Shigella flexneri ( B group) accounting for 72.0% ( 347/482 ) and Shigella sonnei ( D group),accounting for 28.0% (135

  4. Pathogenic characterization of Shigella isolated from Ningxia%宁夏志贺菌病原学特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭邦成; 刘翔; 郝琼; 闫立群; 谢明英; 景怀琦; 王鑫; 梁俊容

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the distribution and drug susceptibility of Shigella bacteria in Ningxia, and provide the basis for prevention and control of bacillary dysentery through homology analysis of molecular epidemiology. Biochemistry of API20E system was used to identify strains, and the bacteria categories were tested by slide agglutination with a serum. The sensitivity of strain to 10 commonly used antibiotics was detected with Kirby-Bauer assay, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used for molecular typing. The results were analysed by BioNumerics V4. 0 and UPGMA method. Among the 176 Shigella, there were 64 Shigella sonnet (36. 36%) and 112 Shigella flexneri (63. 64%) which containing 52 Shigella flexneri 2b (29. 55%). Results showed that drugs with higher resistance rate were ampicillin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline and rifampin, following by amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole. The most sensitive drugs were ciprofloxa-cin (CIP) , cefotaxime and cephalothin; the test also showed that Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnet had slight difference in resistance spectrum to 10 antibiotics. The 112 Shigella flexneri were divided into 36 banding patterns, in which JZXN11. NX06, JZXN11. NX07, JZXN11. NX021, JZXN11 and NX0025, accounting for 57. 14%, were the main outbreak types in Ningxia. The 64 Shigella sonnet were divided into 21 banding patterns, in which J16X01. NX0011 and J16X01. NX0012 were the 2 epidemic banding patterns, accounting for 31. 25% and 15. 63% respectively. It indicates that in Ningxia, the most popular Shigella bacteria is Shigella flexneri, and F2b is the dominant serotype. The detection rate of F4c and Shigella sonnet have decreased significantly. The drug resistance rate of Shigella to ampicillin (AMP), tetracycline (Te) and amoxicillin (AML) are the highest, and the situation of multi-drug resistance is serious. The PFGE have type presented a diverse epidemicpattern. The advantaged bands are less popular

  5. 分离自腹泻儿童志贺菌的耐药性及分子流行病学研究%Drug resistance and molecular epidemiology of Shigella isolated from children with diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传领; 沈利蒙; 楚旭; 毛剑锋; 董华丽

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Shigella isolated from children with diarrhea for the guidance of clinical treatment and prevention and control of bacillary dysentery.Method A total of 156 strains of Shigella were isolated from feces of children with diarrhea in Zhejiang Xiaoshan Hospital from January 2008 to December 2010.The antimicrobial resistance of the strains was detected by disk diffusion method and the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in these isolates were determined using phenotypic confirmatory test; the isolates of ESBLs producing Shigella sonnei were analyzed by REP-PCR.Result Among 156 strains of Shigella isolated,the most common groups were Shigella sonnei (130 strains,accounting for 83.3%) and Shigella fleaneri (26 strains,accounting for 16.7%),and 81 (51.9%) strains were identified as ESBLs producers,and the positive rates in 2008,2009 and 2010 were 32.0%,41.4% and 59.8%,respectively.The results of antibiotic susceptibility test displayed that the resistance rates of ESBLs producing Shigella to ampicillin,cotrimoxazole,cefotaxime,piperacillin were higher than 90%.However,the resistance rates to cefepime,ceftazidime,levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were low; The resistance of ESBLs producing strains to piperacillin (100% vs.77.3%),cefotaxime(100% vs.0),ceftazidime(14.8% vs.0),cefepime(28.4% vs.0),cotrimoxazole(95.1%vs.86.7%) was significantly higher than that of non-ESBLs producing strains (x2 =20.605,156.000,12.037,24.979,45.040,respectively ;P < 0.05).No isolate was resistant to piperacillin/tazobactam and imipenem.There were 7 genotypes among 74 ESBLs producing Shigella sonnei,respectively type A (50),type B (12),type C (8),type D (1),type E (1),type F (1),and type G (1).Conclusion The isolation rate of ESBLs-producing isolate was high in Shigella from pediatric patients with diarrhea,and the number is going up year by year,and these ESBLs producing Shigella sonnei strains

  6. 上海市闵行区流动人口重点传染病知信行现状调查%Survey on KAP status of major infectious disease among migrants in Minhang District, Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施文平; 申惠国; 刘丽军; 赵黎芳; 苏华林

    2012-01-01

    , Hepatitis A, bacillary dysentery, hand-foot-mouth disease and malaria were 43.57%, 43.32%, 41.32% , 66. 29% and 50. 31% , respectively. Awareness rates of clinical symptoms of hand-foot-mouth disease and Hepatitis E were 38.83% and 15.98% , respectively. The total score of 19 questions among participants ranged from 21 to 95, and the mean was (62.05 ± 13.22). There was significant difference in different age, education level, years living in Shanghai and salary level (P < 0. 05). 37.08 % of the migrants were not satisfied with their living environment, 62.30% of them thought that vaccination was need among adults. The percentages of taking physical examination and physical exercise were 31. 96% and 39.45% , respectively. Conclusion Awareness rates of major disease transmission routes, clinical symptoms of hand-foot-mouth disease, susceptible population of Encephalitis B, Hepatitis C, and Hepatitis E were extremely low. Proper attitude and healthy behavior among migrants needs to be improved in future.

  7. Mental Health Services in Southern Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siegal_D

    Major mental illness exists all over the world with a remarkably similar prevalence. ... Physical health suffers in this environment with malaria and dysentery ... working in the. Southern Sudan or those Healthcare. Professionals in other parts of the world seeking ... return from internal and external displacement. Drugs and ...

  8. Geoelectrical investigation and hydrochemical analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2011-10-04

    Oct 4, 2011 ... with an abundant surface and groundwater resources, but the later is about .... For every measurement taken, the terrameter took three readings since a ... A Philip analog pH meter was used to monitor the pH of all water samples, while the .... it could lead to skin infection, domestic cholera and dysentery.

  9. Microbicidal effect of the lactoferrin peptides Lactoferricin17-30, Lactoferrampin265-284, and Lactoferrin chimera on the parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-Soto, F.; León-Sicairos, N.; Nazmi, K.; Bolscher, J.G.; de la Garza, M.

    2010-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a parasitic protozoan that produces amoebiasis, an intestinal disease characterized by ulcerative colitis and dysentery. In some cases, trophozoites can travel to the liver leading to hepatic abscesses and death. Recently, lactoferrin and lactoferricin B have been shown to b

  10. Shigellosis Caused by CTX-M Type ESBL Producing Shigella flexneri in Two Siblings of Rural Nepal: First Case Report from the Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad Parajuli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shigellosis is an acute infectious disease characterized as severe bloody diarrhea (dysentery and is accountable for a significant burden of morbidity and mortality especially in children under the age of 5 years. Antimicrobial therapy is required in the cases of severe dysentery associated with Shigella. However, emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR strains of Shigella spp. over the last two decades has restricted the use of common therapeutic antimicrobials. In MDR strains, the third-generation cephalosporins have been used for the treatment, but, unfortunately, emerging reports of enzyme mediated β-lactam resistance among Shigella isolates from various parts of the world have greatly compromised the therapy of pediatric dysentery. In Nepal, drug resistant strains of Shigella spp. have been reported, but MDR and extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL producing strains were previously unknown. Here, we report two Shigella flexneri isolates harboring ESBL genotype-CTX-M associated with acute dysentery in two siblings which were presented and treated in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Kathmandu, Nepal.

  11. Shigellosis Caused by CTX-M Type ESBL Producing Shigella flexneri in Two Siblings of Rural Nepal: First Case Report from the Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Govardhan; Pardhe, Bashu Dev; Shakya, Jyotsna; Shakya, Shreena; Pandit, Roshan; Shrestha, Sumesh Shreekhanda; Khanal, Puspa Raj

    2017-01-01

    Shigellosis is an acute infectious disease characterized as severe bloody diarrhea (dysentery) and is accountable for a significant burden of morbidity and mortality especially in children under the age of 5 years. Antimicrobial therapy is required in the cases of severe dysentery associated with Shigella. However, emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of Shigella spp. over the last two decades has restricted the use of common therapeutic antimicrobials. In MDR strains, the third-generation cephalosporins have been used for the treatment, but, unfortunately, emerging reports of enzyme mediated β-lactam resistance among Shigella isolates from various parts of the world have greatly compromised the therapy of pediatric dysentery. In Nepal, drug resistant strains of Shigella spp. have been reported, but MDR and extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing strains were previously unknown. Here, we report two Shigella flexneri isolates harboring ESBL genotype-CTX-M associated with acute dysentery in two siblings which were presented and treated in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Kathmandu, Nepal. PMID:28321350

  12. 836 IJBCS-Article-Anthony Dawet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KODJIO NORBERT

    18-23 g) were infected and treatment began immediately (Day 0), while administration started 72 hours post infection in ... mortality amongst Nigeria's children ... used in the treatment of malaria or fever ... ache, diarrhea, dysentery and as eye remedy. ... or vaccines for the treatment, prevention and ... after infection) to day 3.

  13. Pheromones of the housefly : A chemical and behavioural study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorman, N

    2001-01-01

    Houseflies (Musca domestica L.) often make themselves a nuisance in human and livestock habitations. Moreover, these flies may transmit over a hundred different pathogens. They can transmit intestinal worms or their eggs, and are potential vectors of pathogens of, for example, dysentery,

  14. The medical history of Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberg, Norman G

    2008-05-01

    Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the USA, was often the victim of a panoply of disorders including episodic headaches, dysentery, rheumatism, multiple bone fractures, malaria, possibly tuberculosis, dental problems, diabetes and urinary tract obstruction. Intermittently he experienced anxiety, depression and insomnia; he was an anxious, striving perfectionist, a compulsively controlled man.

  15. Microbicidal effect of the lactoferrin peptides Lactoferricin17-30, Lactoferrampin265-284, and Lactoferrin chimera on the parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-Soto, F.; León-Sicairos, N.; Nazmi, K.; Bolscher, J.G.; de la Garza, M.

    2010-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a parasitic protozoan that produces amoebiasis, an intestinal disease characterized by ulcerative colitis and dysentery. In some cases, trophozoites can travel to the liver leading to hepatic abscesses and death. Recently, lactoferrin and lactoferricin B have been shown to

  16. Unde venis? Amebiasis presenting as appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dennis A; Wilson, Gerald A; Bryan, Charles S

    2013-06-01

    A returning traveler presenting with fever accompanied by abdominal "pressure" and pain proved to have amebic appendicitis, amebic liver abscess, and probable recent amebic dysentery--a rare combination of findings amply illustrating the value of asking "Unde venis--from where do you come?"

  17. Pheromones of the housefly : A chemical and behavioural study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorman, N

    2001-01-01

    Houseflies (Musca domestica L.) often make themselves a nuisance in human and livestock habitations. Moreover, these flies may transmit over a hundred different pathogens. They can transmit intestinal worms or their eggs, and are potential vectors of pathogens of, for example, dysentery, gastroenter

  18. A New Xanthone Glucoside form Swertia davidi Franch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Guang-Yao; XU Kang-Ping; LI Fu-Shuang; XU Xiao-Ping; ZHOU Ying-Jun; TAN Gui-Shan

    2003-01-01

    @@ Swertia davidi Franch (Gentianaceae) is one of the folk medicines which is widely used for treating acute enteritis, icterus and dysentery et al. In our previous research work, a large number of xanthones had been isolated and identified from the S. davidi Franch. Two new structures were established, named daviditin A and daviditin B.[1~3

  19. Carbadox has both temporary and lasting effects on the swine gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics are used in livestock and poultry production to treat and prevent disease as well as to promote animal growth. Carbadox is an in-feed antibiotic that is widely used in swine production to prevent dysentery and to improve feed efficiency. The goal of this study was to characterize the eff...

  20. 2.1.Drug treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920014 Quinolones in treatment of acuteamebic dysentery. YANG Jianguo (杨建国),etal.Dept Infect Dis,Taizhou 2nd Municipal Peo-ple’s Hosp,225300.Chin J Intern Med 1991;30(9):569-571.Seventy-five patients with acute amebic dysen-

  1. Personal Protective Measures Against Insects and Other Arthropods of Military Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE OCT 2009 2. REPORT...true biological vectors of disease, they can mechanically transmit many serious illnesses such as dysentery, cholera, salmonella, shigellosis, and...Malaria Culex , (Oropouche, Aedes - Viral fevers Rift Valley, Chickungunya) All three - Lymphatic filariasis

  2. Prakash et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2014) 11(3):239 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Manipur Centre, Imphal-795004, .... mentioned the use of rhizome against snakebite in district Buner, NWFP, Pakistan (Hamayun et al., 2006). ... used to arrest blood pressure, relieve pain and kill worms (Tang et al., 1990). It .... Constipation, abdominal disorders and dysentery. 14.

  3. Malek et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2012) 9(4):536-541

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among Mandai tribal ... disorders (stomach ache, indigestion, dysentery, and diarrhea), leucorrhea, pain (rheumatic pain, joint pain), skin disorders, ..... Joint pain. Paste prepared from bulbs of Eleutherine palmifolia (L.) Merr. .... Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical.

  4. Intervention sensu Wilson: The only valid approach to microbiological safety of food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mossel, D.A.A.; Kayser, A.

    1984-01-01

    Between December 25th 1983 and January 7th 1984 59 cases of dysentery bacteriologically proven to be caused by Shigella flexneri 2 occurred in the Netherlands. For a further 34 cases of gastroenteritis, strong epidemiological evidence was present to allow the diagnosis of shigellosis. In

  5. M.T. AJAYI, O. SOLOMON AND LO. AJAYI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cholera, poliomyelitis, diarrhoea diseases, dysenteries, infectious hepatitis, ... stage in the fight to prevent the spread of the disease and as Obeng (1991) ... health problems affecting them would go a long way in finding solution to the spread of.

  6. The Dilemmas of Plastic Wastes in a Developing Economy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    typhoid, cholera and dysentery in events of epidemics were intricately ... as to minimise the risk of disease episodes associated with the marketing of ... several people, which was a major source of spread of most epidemics. .... issue whose solution demands a holistic approach to cover every city, town and village;.

  7. Traditional and Medicinal Uses of Banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Sampath Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Banana is the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. It is one of the oldest cultivated plants. All parts of the banana plant have medicinal applications: the flowers in bronchitis and dysentery and on ulcers; cooked flowers are given to diabetics; the astringent plant sap in cases of hysteria, epilepsy, leprosy, fevers, hemorrhages, acute dysentery and diarrhea, and it is applied on hemorrhoids, insect and other stings and bites; young leaves are placed as poultices on burns and other skin afflictions; the astringent ashes of the unripe peel and of the leaves are taken in dysentery and diarrhea and used for treating malignant ulcers; the roots are administered in digestive disorders, dysentery and other ailments; banana seed mucilage is given in cases of diarrhea in India. Antifungal and antibiotic principles are found in the peel and pulp of fully ripe bananas. The antibiotic acts against Mycobacteria. A fungicide in the peel and pulp of green fruits is active against a fungus disease of tomato plants. Norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin are also present in the ripe peel and pulp. The first two elevate blood pressure; serotonin inhibits gastric secretion and stimulates the smooth muscle of the intestines.

  8. State Defense Force Monograph Series. Winter 2006, Medical Support Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    assets for mobile support teams, labs, immunizations, latent TB screening, and post-deployment assessments.” (COL Eric Allely, Maryland State Surgeon...infarctions ! Diabetes ! Mental health problems ! Hypertension ! Diarrhea ! Heat injuries 30 State Defense Force Monograph Series, Summer 2006...for dysentery and vomiting ! Viral meningitis ! Injuries due to off-site fighting ! Tuberculosis ! HIV ! Special medical needs. See Figures 3

  9. AIDS并发杆菌性血管瘤病的临床及影像学表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵大伟; 李宏军

    2009-01-01

    @@ 杆菌性血管瘤病(bacillary angiomatosis)和杆菌性紫癜(bacillary peliosis)作为新的机会性感染出现在AIDS流行的初期,它们都是由横塞巴尔通体(bartonella henselae,过去认为是rochalimaea henselae)和五日热巴尔通体(bartonella quintana,或rochalimaea quintana)感染引起.这两种致病菌为革兰氏阴性杆菌,在实验室中培养非常困难[1].巴尔通体属中有4种对人类致病,分别为杆菌状巴尔通体、横塞巴尔通体(B.henselae)、五日热巴尔通体(B.quintana)和伊丽莎白巴尔通体.

  10. IgM antibodies against phenolic glycolipid I from Mycobacterium leprae in leprosy sera: relationship to bacterial index and erythema nodosum leprosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerer, B; Meeker, H C; Sersen, G; Levis, W R

    1984-01-01

    Serum IgM antibodies against Mycobacterium leprae-derived phenolic glycolipid I (PG) were determined in 121 leprosy patients, in contacts and controls by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Anti-PG IgM levels correlated with disease classification, increasing from the tuberculoid towards the lepromatous pole of the disease spectrum. There was a linear correlation between serum IgM PG-antibody levels and bacillary index (BI), a measure of bacterial load. Elevated anti-PG IgM in bacillary negative patients was usually indicative of active disease, undetected by BI. We conclude that anti-PG IgM levels are valuable for monitoring the degree of disease activity. Serum anti-PG IgM levels were significantly lower in patients with erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) as compared to those without ENL, suggesting that IgM PG-antibodies are also involved in the pathogenesis of ENL.

  11. Investigation of the impact of increased dietary insoluble fiber through the feeding of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on the incidence and severity of Brachyspira-associated colitis in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilberts, Bailey L; Arruda, Paulo H; Kinyon, Joann M; Frana, Tim S; Wang, Chong; Magstadt, Drew R; Madson, Darin M; Patience, John F; Burrough, Eric R

    2014-01-01

    Diet has been implicated as a major factor impacting clinical disease expression of swine dysentery and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae colonization. However, the impact of diet on novel pathogenic strongly beta-hemolytic Brachyspira spp. including "B. hampsonii" has yet to be investigated. In recent years, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a source of insoluble dietary fiber, has been increasingly included in diets of swine. A randomized complete block experiment was used to examine the effect of increased dietary fiber through the feeding of DDGS on the incidence of Brachyspira-associated colitis in pigs. One hundred 4-week-old pigs were divided into five groups based upon inocula (negative control, Brachyspira intermedia, Brachyspira pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae or "B. hampsonii") and fed one of two diets containing no (diet 1) or 30% (diet 2) DDGS. The average days to first positive culture and days post inoculation to the onset of clinical dysentery in the B. hyodysenteriae groups was significantly shorter for diet 2 when compared to diet 1 (P = 0.04 and P = 0.0009, respectively). A similar difference in the average days to first positive culture and days post inoculation to the onset of clinical dysentery was found when comparing the "B. hampsonii" groups. In this study, pigs receiving 30% DDGS shed on average one day prior to and developed swine dysentery nearly twice as fast as pigs receiving 0% DDGS. Accordingly, these data suggest a reduction in insoluble fiber through reducing or eliminating DDGS in swine rations should be considered an integral part of any effective disease elimination strategy for swine dysentery.

  12. Vaccination with recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis PknD attenuates bacterial dissemination to the brain in guinea pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaran Skerry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis PknD to be an important virulence factor required for the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS tuberculosis (TB. Specifically, PknD mediates bacillary invasion of the blood-brain barrier, which can be neutralized by specific antisera, suggesting its potential role as a therapeutic target against TB meningitis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We utilized an aerosol challenge guinea pig model of CNS TB and compared the protective efficacy of recombinant M. tuberculosis PknD subunit protein with that of M. bovis BCG against bacillary dissemination to the brain. BCG vaccination limited the pulmonary bacillary burden after aerosol challenge with virulent M. tuberculosis in guinea pigs and also reduced bacillary dissemination to the brain (P = 0.01. PknD vaccination also offered significant protection against bacterial dissemination to the brain, which was no different from BCG (P>0.24, even though PknD vaccinated animals had almost 100-fold higher pulmonary bacterial burdens. Higher levels of PknD-specific IgG were noted in animals immunized with PknD, but not in BCG-vaccinated or control animals. Furthermore, pre-incubation of M. tuberculosis with sera from PknD-vaccinated animals, but not with sera from BCG-vaccinated or control animals, significantly reduced bacterial invasion in a human blood-brain barrier model (P<0.01. CONCLUSION: Current recommendations for administering BCG at birth are based on protection gained against severe disease, such as TB meningitis, during infancy. We demonstrate that vaccination with recombinant M. tuberculosis PknD subunit offers a novel strategy to protect against TB meningitis, which is equivalent to BCG in a guinea pig model. Moreover, since BCG lacks the PknD sensor, BCG could also be boosted to develop a more effective vaccine against TB meningitis, a devastating disease that disproportionately affects young children.

  13. Ultrastructural observations on five pioneer soil algae from ice denuded areas (King George Island, West Antarctica)

    OpenAIRE

    MASSALSKI, ANDRZEJ; Mrozinska ,Teresa; Olech, Maria

    2001-01-01

    Morphological observations were made using transmission electron microscopy on five species of green soil algae, including Chlorosarcinopsis cf. gelatinosa Chantanachat & Bold, Muriella decolor visher, Tetracystis aeria Brown & Bold, Tetracystis pampae Brown & bold, and Stichococcus bacillaris Nageli. With an exception of the latter species, they are all new records in Antarctica. These species were the important pioneers in the colonization process of the areas recently denuded of ice. Colle...

  14. MECHANISM OF UTILIZATION OF CARBON SOURCES BY FLAGELLATED PROTOZOA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transport of succinate into Euglena gracilis var bacillaris (streptomycin bleached) was investigated with the use of structural analogs and...Studies were begun on identification of the first products formed after succinate uptake. Coupled with this work was the finding that Euglena fixes...C02 may be intimately connected with succinate utilization by Euglena . With the finding of significant heterotrophic C02 fixation by Euglena (bleached

  15. Differential effects of Bartonella henselae on human and feline macro- and micro-vascular endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Berrich, Moez; Kieda, Claudine; Grillon, Catherine; Monteil, Martine; Lamerant, Nathalie; Gavard, Julie; Haddad, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    Bartonella henselae, a zoonotic agent, induces tumors of endothelial cells (ECs), namely bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis in immunosuppressed humans but not in cats. In vitro studies on ECs represent to date the only way to explore the interactions between Bartonella henselae and vascular endothelium. However, no comparative study of the interactions between Bartonella henselae and human (incidental host) ECs vs feline (reservoir host) ECs has been carried out because of the absence of ...

  16. Differential Effects of Bartonella henselae on Human and Feline Macro- and Micro-Vascular Endothelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Moez Berrich; Claudine Kieda; Catherine Grillon; Martine Monteil; Nathalie Lamerant; Julie Gavard; Henri Jean Boulouis; Nadia Haddad

    2011-01-01

    Bartonella henselae, a zoonotic agent, induces tumors of endothelial cells (ECs), namely bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis in immunosuppressed humans but not in cats. In vitro studies on ECs represent to date the only way to explore the interactions between Bartonella henselae and vascular endothelium. However, no comparative study of the interactions between Bartonella henselae and human (incidental host) ECs vs feline (reservoir host) ECs has been carried out because of the absence of any...

  17. Infestation Of Endometrium By Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Bacilli-Cause Of Reproductive Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Gon Chowdhury , Suman Kalyan Paine, Basudev Bhattacharjee and Siddhartha Chatterjee

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Tuberculosis is known to be one of the major diseases, causing infertility in India. The prevalence of tuberculosis causing infertility is different in different countries. Established tubercle infection may cause irreversible infertility, on many occasions as it may affect all the reproductive organs. It also produces lower pregnancy rate in Assisted Reproductive Technology program as well. Tubercular bacillary infestation of the endometrium that is mere presence of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB bacilli on the endometrial surface has been found to affect fertility as well. In this study, we have detected Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB infestation of endometrium, causing implantation failure or early embryonic rejection. In many cases of unexplained infertility, tubercular bacilli infestation of endometrium, has come out to be the root cause of infertility. Association of tubercular bacillary infestation and endometriosis is another cause of concern. Recurrent abortions and ectopic pregnancy may be precipitated by the same genital pathology as well. The presence of very small number of bacilli, which escapes detection by AFB smear, culture or histology, may be detected by polymerase chain reaction techniques. These bacillary infections bring an inflammatory change in the endometrium and produces harmful cytokines which are responsible for implantation failure of micro abortion.

  18. 南宁市传染病医院重症医学科患者现状调查%Investigation on present situation of patients in Department of Critical Care Medicine in Infectious Disease Hospital of Nanning City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林艳荣; 吴锋耀; 刘升; 韦静

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the current situation of intensive care unit (ICU) inpatients in Infectious Disease Hospital of Nanning to provide a reference for the prevention and control of infectious diseases and construction and development of ICU in such a hospital.Methods The clinical data of inpatients from January 2011 to December 2015 in the Infectious Disease Hospital Affiliated to Guangxi Medical University (that is the Fourth People's Hospital of Nanning City) were retrospectively analyzed, and the distributions of patients with various diseases, ages, of the characteristics of children severe infectious diseases in ICU, the numbers of patients with infectious diseases in general ward and ICU, the average time and daily cost of hospitalization and mortality were conducted.Results During 2011 to 2015, 855 cases in ICU were treated, including 709 cases of infectious diseases, 146 cases of non-infectious disease. The top 5 infectious diseases were ranked as follows: tuberculosis, human acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD), viral hepatitis, tetanus, accounting for 96.47% of the total infectious disease inpatients in ICU; there were 25 cases of other legal infectious diseases, accounting for 3.53%, including dengue fever, measles, malaria, chicken pox, mumps, rabies, typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, scrub typhus, bacillary dysentery, leptospirosis, human infections with highly pathogenic H7N9 avian influenza, epidemic hemorrhagic fever, A H1N1 influenza, and besides, critically ill patients carrying virus (viral hepatitis B and AIDS) in 7 pregnant women, 22 surgical patients, and 117 patients with internal medicine diseases were also admitted and treated. The top 4 infectious diseases causing deaths in ICU were tuberculosis, AIDS, viral hepatitis and HFMD: The infectious diseases with top 6 high mortalities in ICU were as follows: rabies, viral hepatitis, AIDS, tuberculosis and tetanus. The age range was wide in this study

  19. Situación de las Enfermedades de Declaración Obligatoria (EDO en Navarra: 2002 Diseases of Compulsory Notification (DCN in Navarra: 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Urtiaga

    2003-04-01

    microbiologically and all appeared in a sporadic way. With respect to the causative serogroup, on 12 occasions Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B was isolated and in the 4 remaining cases serogroup C was isolated. One case was notified in infants of less than 2 years of age (Rate: 10.52 cases per 100,000, another case in children between 2 and 5 years (5.52 cases per 100,000, 5 cases in the age group of 6 to 19 years (Rate: 5.86 cases per 100,000 and the remaining nine cases in the age group of persons aged 20 years or over (2.2 per 100,000. 70 cases of Legionellosis were declared in 2002 (EI: 4.67, all but one under the clinical form of pneumonia. Twenty-two of the cases were presented in the context of two outbreaks with a community origin, which affected 17 and 5 persons respectively. Similarly, there was a notable increase in the declaration of cases of bacillary dysentery, with 6 cases (EI: 2.00, brucellosis, with 10 cases (EI: 1.67 and chickenpox, with 4,346 notified cases (EI: 1.61.

  20. 陕西省十家医院成人急性腹泻诊治与指南存在的差距%The gaps between the guideline and clinical practice of the management of acute diarrhea in adults in Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯凤琴; 王贵强

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the management of acute diarrhea in adult and to assess physician's adherence to guidelines recommended by Manatsathit working group.Methods A multicenter cross-sectional survey was carried out in 10 hospitals in Shaanxi Province with assignment of 40 patients each hospital.The difference of enumeration data between groups was analyzed using chi square test.Quantitative data were compared using t test.Results Data were collected from 400 patients.60.5% (242/400) were female and mean age was (38.4 ± 17.5) years.In Manatsathit guideline,stool examination and stool culture for bacteria are recommended in patients with watery diarrhea with dehydration and in patients with bloody diarrhea.In this survey,of the 64 patients with dehydration,only 38 (59.4%) and 13 (23.3%) patients had done stool routine test and vibriocholera culture,respectively.Compared to Manatsathit guideline,the differences were obvious (x2 32.627 and 84.779,respectively; both P<0.01).Of the 30 patients with bloody diarrhea,25 (83.3%) cases had stool examination done,which was roughly in line with Manatsathit guideline (x2 =3.491,P=0.062).However,stool culture for bacteria was performed only in 3 (10%) patients,which was significantly different with the guideline (x2 =49.091,P< 0.001).Overall,30 (7.5 %) cases were diagnosed with acute bacillary dysentery clinically,and the remaining 370 (92.5%) were diagnosed with acute infectious diarrhea.Of the 370 patients with watery diarrhea,only 189 (51.1%) patients were prescribed with rehydration therapy,which was different with the recommendation of Manatsathit guideline (x2 =239.600,P<0.01).Of the 216 patients who received rehydration therapy,144 (66.7%) cases should be prescribed with oral rehydration salts (ORS) and 72 cases should be prescribed with intravenous fluid replacement according to Manatsathit guideline.However,only 31 (14.4%) were prescribed ORS and up to185 (85.6%) patients received

  1. Invasive amebiasis: an update on diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, José Maria; Salles, Mauro José; Moraes, Luiz Alberto; Silva, Mônica Cristina

    2007-10-01

    In its invasive form, the trophozoite is responsible for clinical syndromes, ranging from classical dysentery to extraintestinal disease with emphasis on hepatic amebiasis. Abdominal pain, tenderness and diarrhea of watery stool, sometimes with blood, are the predominant symptoms of amebic colitis. Besides the microscopic identification of Entamoeba histolytica, diagnosis should be based on the detection of specific antigens in the stool or PCR associated with the occult blood in the stool. Amebic dysentery is treated with metronidazole, followed by a luminal amebicide. The trophozoite reaches the liver causing hepatic amebiasis. Right upper quadrant pain, fever and hepatomegaly are the predominant symptoms. The diagnosis is made by the finding of E. histolytica in the hepatic fluid, or in the necrotic material at the edge of the lesion in a minority of patients, and by detection of antigens or DNA. Ultrasonography is the initial imaging procedure indicated. The local perforation of hepatic lesion leads to important and serious complications.

  2. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI EKSTRAK ETANOL BUAH PARE (Momordica charantia L TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN BAKTERI Shigella dysenteriae SECARA IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the gastrointestinal diseases are dysentery, which is characterized by loose, watery stools with mucus and blood of more than 3 times per day. Dysentery caused by Shigella dysenteriae bacteria, the disease can be treated with an antibacterial nutritious plants, one of which is bitter melon. Plant part used is fruit. Bitter melon fruit (Momordica charantia L contains flavonoids which efficacious as antibacterials. This study aims to determine the effect of extract concentrations against the bacteria Shigella dysenteriae. Antibacterial activity was tested using the disc diffusion method with extract concentrations of 10%, 25% and 50%. Clear zone formed around the paper discs showed inhibition zone. Results showed the ethanol extract of bitter melon extract at concentration 10%, 25% and 50% showed their antibacterial activity against bacteria Shigella dysenteriae with average diameter of inhibition zone 8.3 mm, 9.3 mm and 11.7 mm. Increased concentration of bitter melon fruit extract could increased inhibition zone.

  3. Some Medicinal Plants Used in Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    prescriptions for treating dysentery, nephritis, hypertension and other diseases. The bark is also a sourse for the production of the alkaloid berberine ...which is produced in large wuantities in the Chinese People’s Republic. Berberine preparations have become widely used in medicine for treating...many alkaloids (up to 6-9$), the most important being berberine . There is an annual harvest of approximately 900 tons of wild coptis which is also a

  4. Virulence Mechanisms of Enteroinvasive Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    enteroinvasive strain to initiate infection, it does abortion and death can also result from inges- not address other determinants of virulence. For tion of... abortions in domestic imal models have been used in the study of animals. Humans are the natural reservoirs of enteroinvasive pathogens. The ability of...clinical manifestation rier encountered by shigellae which are invad- is dysentery (36). These data suggest that an ing the colonic mucosa. The effectiveness

  5. Immune Evasion Mechanisms of Entamoeba histolytica: Progression to Disease

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica (Eh) is a protozoan parasite that infects 10% of the world's population and results in 100,000 deaths/year from amebic dysentery and/or liver abscess. In most cases, this extracellular parasite colonizes the colon by high affinity binding to MUC2 mucin without disease symptoms, whereas in some cases, Eh triggers an aggressive inflammatory response upon invasion of the colonic mucosa. The specific host-parasite factors critical for disease pathogenesis are still not well ...

  6. Immune evasion mechanisms of Entamoeba histolytica: progression to disease

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica (Eh) is a protozoan parasite that infects 10% of the world’s population and results in 100,000 deaths/year from amebic dysentery and/or liver abscess. In most cases, this extracellular parasite colonizes the colon by high affinity binding to MUC2 mucin without disease symptoms, whereas in some cases, Eh triggers an aggressive inflammatory response upon invasion of the colonic mucosa. The specific host-parasite factors critical for disease pathogenesis are still not well ...

  7. An Analysis of Medical Ethic Practice by Union and Confederate Medical Departments During the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    also their latrine. Sicknesses Like dysentery, small pox , scurvy51 were common and death from this and other close quarter diseases were corrirrion...applying a cloth saturated with one of the anesthetics over a patient’s face so that a small but effective dose of anesthetic would be effective. This act...There were indeed some physicians that were found to be intoxicated and unfit for duty but the number of those that were; were in deed small in number

  8. Primary Pulmonary Amebiasis Complicated with Multicystic Empyema

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Zakaria; Bayan Al-Share; Khaled Al Asad

    2016-01-01

    Amebiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. While most infections are asymptomatic, the disease could manifest clinically as amebic dysentery and/or extraintestinal invasion in the form of amebic liver abscess or other more rare manifestations such as pulmonary, cardiac, or brain involvement. Herein we are reporting a case of a 24-year-old male with history of Down syndrome who presented with severe right side pneumonia complicated with multicystic empyem...

  9. Challenges and Opportunities for Humanitarian Relief in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-15

    remaining 233,554 cases included plague, malaria, cholera , diphtheria, meningitis, heart disease, shigellosis (infectious dysentery), amoebic dys- entery...mainland, as well as previous terrorist attacks against US targets abroad, notably the embassies in Tanzania and Kenya and the USS Cole in Yemen . In...ogens include viruses such as rotavirus and enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Shigella species. Outbreaks of chol- era have occurred

  10. The in vitro effect of Garden Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) extract on Brachyspira hyodysenteriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutasi, József; Jakab, László; Jurkovich, Viktor; Rafai, Pál

    2016-12-01

    Filtrates of a water extract of commercially available garden thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) were used for studying its possible bactericidal effect on Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative agent of swine dysentery, by agar-diffusion technique. Five of the six studied Brachyspira strains have proven to be sensitive and one moderately sensitive in the in vitro tests. It was concluded that water extract of garden thyme possesses inhibitory effects against B. hyodysenteriae. In vivo experiments are needed to check the validity of this conclusion.

  11. Molecular Evolutionary Relationships of Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli and Shigella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Ruiting; Alles, M. Chehani; Donohoe, Kathy; Marina B Martinez; Reeves, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC), a distinctive pathogenic form of E. coli causing dysentery, is similar in many properties to bacteria placed in the four species of Shigella. Shigella has been separated as a genus but in fact comprises several clones of E. coli. The evolutionary relationships of 32 EIEC strains of 12 serotypes have been determined by sequencing of four housekeeping genes and two plasmid genes which were used previously to determine the relationships of Shigella strains...

  12. Virulence Gene Profile and Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis (MLVA) of Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) Isolates From Patients With Diarrhea in Kerman, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini Nave, Hossein; Mansouri, Shahla; Taati Moghadam, Majid; Moradi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) isolates cause dysentery in humans. Several virulence factors associated with EIEC pathogenesis have been characterized. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) is a PCR-based method that has been used for genotyping bacterial pathogens. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of virulence factor genes in EIEC isolates from patients with diarrhea in Kerman, Iran, as well as the genetic relationship...

  13. Karakterisasi dan Skrining Fitokimia serta Uji Efektivitas Antidiare Ekstrak Etanol Biji Asam Jawa (Tamarindus indica L.) Terhadap Mencit Jantan dengan Metode Transit Intestinal

    OpenAIRE

    Simanjuntak, Nerly Juli Pranita

    2015-01-01

    Tamarind plant traditionally is widely used in the treatment. The part of the plant was used seed for asthma, bronchitis, leprosy, tuberculosis, sores, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dysentery, vertigo and diabetes. The active compound contained in tamarind seeds are phenolic compounds, tannins, fatty acids, flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids and glycosides. The purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristic of simplex and extracts, phytochemical screening and testing antidiarrheal effect...

  14. Isolation and Evaluation of Mucilage of Adansonia digitata Linn as a Suspending Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, S. S.; Katare, Y. S.; Shyale, S. S.; S. S. Bhujbal; Kadam, S.D.; Landge, D. A.; D. V. Shah; J. B. Pawar

    2013-01-01

    Natural excipients can serve as alternative to synthetic products because of local accessibility, biodegradability, eco-friendly nature and cost effectiveness as compared to synthetic products. Therefore, it is a current need to explore natural excipients that can be used as an effective alternative excipient for the formulation of pharmaceutical dosage forms. Adansonia digitata (Malvaceae) has been traditionally used as febrifuge, antiasthmatic and also in the treatment of dysentery, smallpo...

  15. Genotoxicity of Euphorbia hirta: An Allium cepa Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Kwan Yuet Ping; Ibrahim Darah; Umi Kalsom Yusuf; Chen Yeng; Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2012-01-01

    The potential genotoxic effects of methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta which is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseased conditions including asthma, coughs, diarrhea and dysentery was investigated using Allium cepa assay. The extracts of 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 µg/mL were tested on root meristems of A. cepa. Ethylmethanesulfonate was used as positive control and distilled water was used as negative ...

  16. Management of ‘Mukhapaka’ by ‘Haridradi Tail’ w.s.r. to Recurrent Aphthous Ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Dwivedi, Amar P.; Sunita V. Magar; M.A. Lahankar

    2013-01-01

    ‘Mukhpak’ or ‘Sarvasar Rog’ is nothing but a recurrent mouth ulcer or Stomatitis and is also termed as Aphthous ulcer. Over consumption of extremely pungent and spicy food, consuming and chewing of chemical agents like Tobacco-Gutakha, Insomnia, Vitamin deficiency, many life threatening disease like Malignancy, Submucosal fibrosis, Skin disease and disturbances in G.I. tract like Constipation, Dysentery are the main causative factors responsible for this most common ENT ailment. In modern med...

  17. Research Program in Tropical Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-14

    with sickle cell disease, meningitis, dysentery, or evidence of peritonitis, wound infection, pneumonia, tuberculosis or HIV infection were not...of the following: Glucantime, 15% paromomycin cream and traditional medicine ( herbs , leaf and root extracts, topical acid and/or burns). All BDF...and traditional medicine ( herbs , leaf and root extracts, topical acid or burns). All BDF patient Leishmania cultures were negative. An aspirate from

  18. Association between allelic variation due to short tandem repeats in tRNA gene of Entamoeba histolytica and clinical phenotypes of amoebiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Virendra; Ghoshal, Ujjala; Mittal, Balraj; Dhole, Tapan N; Ghoshal, Uday C

    2014-05-01

    Genotypes of Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) may contribute clinical phenotypes of amoebiasis such as amoebic liver abscess (ALA), dysentery and asymptomatic cyst passers state. Hence, we evaluated allelic variation due to short tandem repeats (STRs) in tRNA gene of E. histolytica and clinical phenotypes of amoebiasis. Asymptomatic cyst passers (n=24), patients with dysentery (n=56) and ALA (n=107) were included. Extracted DNA from stool (dysentery, asymptomatic cyst passers) and liver aspirate was amplified using 6 E. histolytica specific tRNA-linked STRs (D-A, A-L, N-K2, R-R, S-Q, and S(TGA)-D) primers. PCR products were subjected to sequencing. Association between allelic variation and clinical phenotypes was analyzed. A total of 9 allelic variations were found in D-A, 8 in A-L, 4 in N-K2, 5 in R-R, 10 in S(TAG)-D and 7 in S-Q loci. A significant association was found between allelic variants and clinical phenotypes of amoebiasis. This study reveals that allelic variation due to short tandem repeats (STRs) in tRNA gene of E. histolytica is associated different clinical outcome of amoebiasis.

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolated from 21 Polish farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmudzki, J; Szczotka, A; Nowak, A; Strzelecka, H; Grzesiak, A; Pejsak, Z

    2012-01-01

    Swine dysentery (SD) is a common disease among pigs worldwide, which contributes to major production losses. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of B. hyodysenteriae, the etiological agent of SD, is mainly performed by the agar dilution method. This method has certain limitations due to difficulties in interpretation of results. The aim of this study was the analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (B. hyodysenteriae) Polish field isolates by broth microdilution procedure. The study was performed on 21 isolates of B. hyodysenteriae, collected between January 2006 to December 2010 from cases of swine dysentery. VetMIC Brachyspira panels with antimicrobial agents (tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, lincomycin, tylosin and ampicillin) were used for susceptibility testing of B. hyodysenteriae. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the broth dilution procedure. The lowest antimicrobial activity was demonstrated for tylosin and lincomycin, with inhibition of bacterial growth using concentrations > 128 microg/ml and 32 microg/ml, respectively. In the case of doxycycline, the MIC values were MIC values for this antibiotic did not exceed 1.0 microg/ml. The results of the present study confirmed that Polish B. hyodysenteriae isolates were susceptible to the main antibiotics (tiamulin and valnemulin) used in treatment of swine dysentery. Further studies are necessary to evaluate a possible slow decrease in susceptibility to tiamulin and valnemulin of B. hyodysenteriae strains in Poland.

  20. [A mathematical model of the seasonal morbidity of shigellosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boev, B V; Bondarenko, V M; Prokop'eva, N V; Raigosa Anaya, M; García de Alba, H; San Román, R T

    1993-01-01

    A new epidemiologically significant mathematical model for the prognosis of seasonal morbidity in dysentery caused by S. flexneri and S. sonnei has been developed. This model may be used for solving problems on the epidemiology of Shigella infections. In this model quantitative ratios are determined by means of the system of nonlinear integral-differential equations in partial derivatives of the first order with edge conditions of the integral type. This model makes it possible to make multiple calculations with a view to obtaining the most probable picture of the development of the epidemic process at individual territories, to ascertain and make prognosis the terms and peaks of morbidity rises year after year in succession. The model permits the evaluation of specific features of the course of dysentery in patients of different ages in different groups of the population, affected by various nosological forms of shigellae. The relationships indicated by the model have been realized in the form of the computer program "SHIGELLA C" permitting multiple calculations of dysentery morbidity by means of an IBM PC/AT.

  1. Global phylogeography and evolutionary history of Shigella dysenteriae type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njamkepo, Elisabeth; Fawal, Nizar; Tran-Dien, Alicia; Hawkey, Jane; Strockbine, Nancy; Jenkins, Claire; Talukder, Kaisar A; Bercion, Raymond; Kuleshov, Konstantin; Kolínská, Renáta; Russell, Julie E; Kaftyreva, Lidia; Accou-Demartin, Marie; Karas, Andreas; Vandenberg, Olivier; Mather, Alison E; Mason, Carl J; Page, Andrew J; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Bizet, Chantal; Gamian, Andrzej; Carle, Isabelle; Sow, Amy Gassama; Bouchier, Christiane; Wester, Astrid Louise; Lejay-Collin, Monique; Fonkoua, Marie-Christine; Hello, Simon Le; Blaser, Martin J; Jernberg, Cecilia; Ruckly, Corinne; Mérens, Audrey; Page, Anne-Laure; Aslett, Martin; Roggentin, Peter; Fruth, Angelika; Denamur, Erick; Venkatesan, Malabi; Bercovier, Hervé; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Chiou, Chien-Shun; Clermont, Dominique; Colonna, Bianca; Egorova, Svetlana; Pazhani, Gururaja P; Ezernitchi, Analia V; Guigon, Ghislaine; Harris, Simon R; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Korzeniowska-Kowal, Agnieszka; Lutyńska, Anna; Gouali, Malika; Grimont, Francine; Langendorf, Céline; Marejková, Monika; Peterson, Lorea A M; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Ngandjio, Antoinette; Podkolzin, Alexander; Souche, Erika; Makarova, Mariia; Shipulin, German A; Ye, Changyun; Žemličková, Helena; Herpay, Mária; Grimont, Patrick A D; Parkhill, Julian; Sansonetti, Philippe; Holt, Kathryn E; Brisse, Sylvain; Thomson, Nicholas R; Weill, François-Xavier

    2016-03-21

    Together with plague, smallpox and typhus, epidemics of dysentery have been a major scourge of human populations for centuries(1). A previous genomic study concluded that Shigella dysenteriae type 1 (Sd1), the epidemic dysentery bacillus, emerged and spread worldwide after the First World War, with no clear pattern of transmission(2). This is not consistent with the massive cyclic dysentery epidemics reported in Europe during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries(1,3,4) and the first isolation of Sd1 in Japan in 1897(5). Here, we report a whole-genome analysis of 331 Sd1 isolates from around the world, collected between 1915 and 2011, providing us with unprecedented insight into the historical spread of this pathogen. We show here that Sd1 has existed since at least the eighteenth century and that it swept the globe at the end of the nineteenth century, diversifying into distinct lineages associated with the First World War, Second World War and various conflicts or natural disasters across Africa, Asia and Central America. We also provide a unique historical perspective on the evolution of antibiotic resistance over a 100-year period, beginning decades before the antibiotic era, and identify a prevalent multiple antibiotic-resistant lineage in South Asia that was transmitted in several waves to Africa, where it caused severe outbreaks of disease.

  2. [Effects of nifuroxazide (Ercefuryl), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and bactisubtil in acute diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbulović-Telalbasić, S

    1991-01-01

    The clinical effects of Nifuroxasid (N), Trimetoprim sulphametoxasol (TS) and Bactisubtil (B) on bacillar dysentery and alimentary toxicoinfections in the patients treated at the Clinic from January 1984 to the end of December 1989 have been analysed. According to the clinical signs, patients have been divided in ten categories of light, mild and heavy forms. In total, 329 cases of bacillar dysentery and 89 cases of alimentary toxicoinfections have been analysed. The following was established: A. Bacilar dysentery: the fastest normalization of the stool was achieved with N in every clinical form (averages 2.2, 3.5 and 4.05 days). With TS the effects were slower (3.0, 3.9 and 4.4 days), but the slowest normalization was recorded with B (3.4, 4.6 and 5.4 days). However, with TS, some Shigella strains showed resistance (in 23 out of 94 antibiograms), which diminished the effects. B. Alimentary toxicoinfections were treated only with N and B, since these forms of diarrhea caused by toxigenic factors were milder. Better results were achieved with N in this case as well.

  3. Leprosy reactions: the effect of gender and household contacts

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    Giuseppe Mastrangelo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Various host-related factors have been reported as relevant risk factors for leprosy reactions. To support a new hypothesis that an antigenic load in local tissues that is sufficient to trigger the immune response may come from an external supply of Mycobacterium leprae organisms, the prevalence of reactional leprosy was assessed against the number of household contacts. The number of contacts was ascertained at diagnosis in leprosy patients coming from an endemic area of Brazil. The prevalence of reactions (patients with reactions/total patients was fitted by binomial regression and the risk difference (RD was estimated with a semi-robust estimation of variance as a measure of effect. Five regression models were fitted. Model 1 included only the main exposure variable "number of household contacts"; model 2 included all four explanatory variables ("contacts", "fertile age", "number of skin lesions" and "bacillary index" that were found to be associated with the outcome upon univariate analysis; models 3-5 contained various combinations of three predictors. Male and female patients were analyzed separately. In females, household contacts were a significant predictor for leprosy reactions in model 1 [crude RD = 0.06; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.01; 0.12] and model 5 (RD = 0.05; CI = 0.02; 0.09, which included contacts, bacillary index and skin lesions as predictors. Other models were unsatisfactory because the joint presence of fertile age and bacillary index was a likely source of multicollinearity. No significant results were obtained for males. The likely interpretation of our findings might suggest that in female patients, leprosy reactions may be triggered by an external spreading of M. leprae by healthy carrier family members. The small number of observations is an obvious limitation of our study which requires larger confirmatory studies.

  4. Differential effects of Bartonella henselae on human and feline macro- and micro-vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrich, Moez; Kieda, Claudine; Grillon, Catherine; Monteil, Martine; Lamerant, Nathalie; Gavard, Julie; Boulouis, Henri Jean; Haddad, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    Bartonella henselae, a zoonotic agent, induces tumors of endothelial cells (ECs), namely bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis in immunosuppressed humans but not in cats. In vitro studies on ECs represent to date the only way to explore the interactions between Bartonella henselae and vascular endothelium. However, no comparative study of the interactions between Bartonella henselae and human (incidental host) ECs vs feline (reservoir host) ECs has been carried out because of the absence of any available feline endothelial cell lines.To this purpose, we have developed nine feline EC lines which allowed comparing the effects of Bartonella strains on human and feline micro-vascular ECs representative of the infection development sites such as skin, versus macro-vascular ECs, such as umbilical vein.Our model revealed intrinsic differences between human (Human Skin Microvascular ECs -HSkMEC and Human Umbilical Vein ECs - iHUVEC) and feline ECs susceptibility to Bartonella henselae infection.While no effect was observed on the feline ECs upon Bartonella henselae infection, the human ones displayed accelerated angiogenesis and wound healing.Noticeable differences were demonstrated between human micro- and macro-vasculature derived ECs both in terms of pseudo-tube formation and healing. Interestingly, Bartonella henselae effects on human ECs were also elicited by soluble factors.Neither Bartonella henselae-infected Human Skin Microvascular ECs clinically involved in bacillary angiomatosis, nor feline ECs increased cAMP production, as opposed to HUVEC.Bartonella henselae could stimulate the activation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) in homologous cellular systems and trigger VEGF production by HSkMECs only, but not iHUVEC or any feline ECs tested.These results may explain the decreased pathogenic potential of Bartonella henselae infection for cats as compared to humans and strongly suggest that an autocrine secretion of VEGF by human skin

  5. Differential effects of Bartonella henselae on human and feline macro- and micro-vascular endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moez Berrich

    Full Text Available Bartonella henselae, a zoonotic agent, induces tumors of endothelial cells (ECs, namely bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis in immunosuppressed humans but not in cats. In vitro studies on ECs represent to date the only way to explore the interactions between Bartonella henselae and vascular endothelium. However, no comparative study of the interactions between Bartonella henselae and human (incidental host ECs vs feline (reservoir host ECs has been carried out because of the absence of any available feline endothelial cell lines.To this purpose, we have developed nine feline EC lines which allowed comparing the effects of Bartonella strains on human and feline micro-vascular ECs representative of the infection development sites such as skin, versus macro-vascular ECs, such as umbilical vein.Our model revealed intrinsic differences between human (Human Skin Microvascular ECs -HSkMEC and Human Umbilical Vein ECs - iHUVEC and feline ECs susceptibility to Bartonella henselae infection.While no effect was observed on the feline ECs upon Bartonella henselae infection, the human ones displayed accelerated angiogenesis and wound healing.Noticeable differences were demonstrated between human micro- and macro-vasculature derived ECs both in terms of pseudo-tube formation and healing. Interestingly, Bartonella henselae effects on human ECs were also elicited by soluble factors.Neither Bartonella henselae-infected Human Skin Microvascular ECs clinically involved in bacillary angiomatosis, nor feline ECs increased cAMP production, as opposed to HUVEC.Bartonella henselae could stimulate the activation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 (VEGFR-2 in homologous cellular systems and trigger VEGF production by HSkMECs only, but not iHUVEC or any feline ECs tested.These results may explain the decreased pathogenic potential of Bartonella henselae infection for cats as compared to humans and strongly suggest that an autocrine secretion of VEGF by human

  6. Potential Role of Yeast Strains Isolated from Grapes in the Production of Taurasi DOCG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte, Maria; Blaiotta, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Twelve samples of Aglianico grapes, collected in different locations of the Taurasi DOCG (Appellation of Controlled and Guaranteed Origin) production area were naturally fermented in sterile containers at room temperature. A total of 70 yeast cultures were isolated from countable WL agar plates: 52 in the middle of the fermentation and 18 at the end. On the basis of ITS-RFLP analysis and ITS sequencing, all cultures collected at the end of fermentations were identified as Saccharomyces (S.) cerevisiae; while, the 52 isolates, collected after 1 week, could be referred to the following species: Metschnikowia (M.) pulcherrima; Starmerella (Star.) bacillaris; Pichia (P.) kudriavzevii; Lachancea (L.) thermotolerans; Hanseniaspora (H.) uvarum; Pseudozyma (Pseud.) aphidis; S. cerevisiae. By means of Interdelta analysis, 18 different biotypes of S. cerevisiae were retrieved. All strains were characterized for ethanol production, SO2 resistance, H2S development, β-glucosidasic, esterasic and antagonistic activities. Fermentation abilities of selected strains were evaluated in micro-fermentations on Aglianico must. Within non-Saccharomyces species, some cultures showed features of technological interest. Antagonistic activity was expressed by some strains of M. pulcherrima, L. thermotolerans, P. kudriavzevii, and S. cerevisiae. Strains of M. pulcherrima showed the highest β-glucosidase activity and proved to be able to produce high concentrations of succinic acid. L. thermotolerans produced both succinic and lactic acids. The lowest amount of acetic acid was produced by M. pulcherrima and L. thermotolerans; while the highest content was recorded for H. uvarum. The strain of Star. bacillaris produced the highest amount of glycerol and was able to metabolize all fructose and malic acid. Strains of M. pulcherrima and H. uvarum showed a low fermentation power (about 4%), while, L. thermotolerans, Star. Bacillaris, and P. kudriavzevii of about 10%. Significant differences were

  7. Ethnic variation in inflammatory profile in tuberculosis.

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    Anna K Coussens

    Full Text Available Distinct phylogenetic lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB cause disease in patients of particular genetic ancestry, and elicit different patterns of cytokine and chemokine secretion when cultured with human macrophages in vitro. Circulating and antigen-stimulated concentrations of these inflammatory mediators might therefore be expected to vary significantly between tuberculosis patients of different ethnic origin. Studies to characterise such variation, and to determine whether it relates to host or bacillary factors, have not been conducted. We therefore compared circulating and antigen-stimulated concentrations of 43 inflammatory mediators and 14 haematological parameters (inflammatory profile in 45 pulmonary tuberculosis patients of African ancestry vs. 83 patients of Eurasian ancestry in London, UK, and investigated the influence of bacillary and host genotype on these profiles. Despite having similar demographic and clinical characteristics, patients of differing ancestry exhibited distinct inflammatory profiles at presentation: those of African ancestry had lower neutrophil counts, lower serum concentrations of CCL2, CCL11 and vitamin D binding protein (DBP but higher serum CCL5 concentrations and higher antigen-stimulated IL-1 receptor antagonist and IL-12 secretion. These differences associated with ethnic variation in host DBP genotype, but not with ethnic variation in MTB strain. Ethnic differences in inflammatory profile became more marked following initiation of antimicrobial therapy, and immunological correlates of speed of elimination of MTB from the sputum differed between patients of African vs. Eurasian ancestry. Our study demonstrates a hitherto unappreciated degree of ethnic heterogeneity in inflammatory profile in tuberculosis patients that associates primarily with ethnic variation in host, rather than bacillary, genotype. Candidate immunodiagnostics and immunological biomarkers of response to antimicrobial therapy

  8. Protease inhibitors activity in lepromatous leprosy and lepra reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemul, V L; Sengupta, S R; Dhole, T N

    1983-01-01

    Serum alpha one antitrypsin levels were measured in 50 healthy age and sex matched controls with 45 lepromatous leprosy cases and 5 cases of lepra reaction. It was noted that the mean level in healthy controls was 281.00 mg%, while the mean levels in LL patients was 421.00 mg% and in LR 570.00 mg%. The elevation of Alpha one antitrypsin was statistically significant in LL patients. It is possible that the rise is a reaction to release of proteases and or higher complement activity, which are the results of a high bacillary loading to formation of immune complexes.

  9. SOIL ALGOLOGICAL SINUSIAE OF URBANIZED ECOSYSTEMS OF DONETSK PRIAZOVYE (THE CASE OF MARIUPOL

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    Shekhovtseva O.G.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During research of urboekosystem of Donetsk Priazovye 105 types and intraspecific algosoil taxons are revealed: Chlorophyta – 42, Cyanoprocaryota – 34, Xanthophyta – 19,Bacillariophyta – 8, Eustigmatophyta – 2. It is often met: Phormidium autumnale, Chlamydomonas elliptica, Chlamydomonas gloeogama, Palmellopsis gelatinosa, Chlorella minutissima, Сhlorella vulgaris, Stichococcus minor, Stichococcus bacillaris, Bracteacoccus minor, Botrydiopsis arhiza, Pleurochloris magna, Navicula mutica, Navicula pelliculosa, Hantzschia amphioxys. Ecological structure of algogroupping: Ch31 P27 X16 C11 H7 B7 СF3 M2 amph1 (105.

  10. Presence of Mycobacterium leprae in epidermal cells of lepromatous skin and its significance

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    Satapathy Jasmita

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A 49-year-old man with lepromatous leprosy treated with dapsone monotherapy for 12 years (1967 to 1979 reported in the hospital in 2003, with relapsed disease. A slit skin smear showed a bacteriological index of 4+. Biopsies from skin lesions before and after anti-leprosy therapy showed features of lepromatous leprosy. Both biopsies showed unusual features of bacillary clumps in epidermal cells demonstrating clearly that dissemination of M. leprae can take place even through unbroken skin. The presence of lepra bacilli in clumps in the epidermis is an indicator that the skin is a potential route of transmission of the disease.

  11. Diagnostic dilemma in Kaposi′s sarcoma

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    Rao Satish

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi′s sarcoma is described as cutaneous and extracutaneous neoplasm predominantly affecting older individuals. Though earlier uncommon and endemic to certain African areas, its incidence is on a rise due to infections with human immunodeficiency virus and also due to transplant-associated immunosuppression. Further, certain benign conditions like Pseudo Kaposi′s sarcoma, certain infective conditions like bacillary angiomatosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome can mimic Kaposi′s sarcoma both clinically and histologically leading to a diagnostic dilemma. We report such a case here.

  12. Differentiation of Haemophilus aegyptius and Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloum, H A; Kilian, M; Mohamed, Z M; Said, M D

    1982-04-01

    This study aimed at clarifying the relationship of Haemophilus aegyptius and Haemophilus influenzae isolated from acute conjunctivitis in Egypt. Twenty-nine freshly isolated strains selected from a large clinical material were examined for morphological and growth characteristics, biochemical properties and susceptibility to selected antibiotics. H. aegyptius strains were clearly differentiated from strains of H. influenzae by their inability to grow on tryptic soy agar containing X + V factors, by their susceptibility to trooleandomycin, by a distinct bacillary morphology, and, in part, by not fermenting xylose. The results confirm that H. aegyptius is distinct from H. influenzae and provides reproducible means of differentiating the two species.

  13. Leprosy among patient contacts: a multilevel study of risk factors.

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    Anna M Sales

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors associated with developing leprosy among the contacts of newly-diagnosed leprosy patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 6,158 contacts and 1,201 leprosy patients of the cohort who were diagnosed and treated at the Leprosy Laboratory of Fiocruz from 1987 to 2007 were included. The contact variables analyzed were sex; age; educational and income levels; blood relationship, if any, to the index case; household or non-household relationship; length of time of close association with the index case; receipt of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BGG vaccine and presence of BCG scar. Index cases variables included sex, age, educational level, family size, bacillary load, and disability grade. Multilevel logistic regression with random intercept was applied. Among the co-prevalent cases, the leprosy-related variables that remained associated with leprosy included type of household contact, [odds ratio (OR = 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.02, 1.73] and consanguinity with the index case, (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.42-2.51. With respect to the index case variables, the factors associated with leprosy among contacts included up to 4 years of schooling and 4 to 10 years of schooling (OR = 2.72, 95% CI: 1.54-4.79 and 2.40, 95% CI: 1.30-4.42, respectively and bacillary load, which increased the chance of leprosy among multibacillary contacts for those with a bacillary index of one to three and greater than three (OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.19-2.17 and OR: 4.07-95% CI: 2.73, 6.09, respectively. Among incident cases, household exposure was associated with leprosy (OR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.29-2.98, compared with non-household exposure. Among the index case risk factors, an elevated bacillary load was the only variable associated with leprosy in the contacts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Biological and social factors appear to be associated with leprosy among co-prevalent cases, whereas the factors related to the

  14. Comparative susceptibility of veliger larvae of four bivalve mollusks to a Vibrio alginolyticus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-González, A; Maeda-Martínez, A N; Sainz, J C; Ascencio-Valle, F

    2002-06-03

    The susceptibility of 7 d old veliger larvae of the scallops Argopecten ventricosus and Nodipecten subnodosus, the penshell Atrina maura, and the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas to a pathogenic strain of Vibrio alginolyticus was investigated by challenging the larvae with different bacterial concentrations in a semi-static assay. The results indicate that the larvae of the 2 scallop species are more susceptible to the V. alginolyticus strain than those of the oyster and the penshell. Signs of the disease were similar to bacillary necrosis described in previous work. Interspecies differences in susceptibility to pathogens are discussed.

  15. ‘ZS-MDR-TB' versus ‘ZR-MDR-TB': improving treatment of MDR-TB by identifying pyrazinamide susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ying; Chiu Chang, Kwok; Leung, Chi-Chiu; Wai Yew, Wing; Gicquel , Brigitte; Fallows, Dorothy; Kaplan, Gilla; Chaisson, Richard E.; Zhang, Wenhong

    2012-01-01

    Indispensable for shortening treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB), pyrazinamide (PZA, Z) is also essential in the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB. While resistance to PZA in MDR-TB is associated with poor treatment outcome, bacillary susceptibility to PZA along with the use of fluoroquinolone (FQ) and second-line injectable drugs (SLIDs) may predict improved treatment success in MDR-TB. Despite a high prevalence of PZA resistance among MDR-TB patients (10%–85%), PZA susce...

  16. Understanding and intervening in HIV-associated tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwood, Neesha; Wilkinson, Robert John

    2015-12-01

    HIV-associated tuberculosis can present as extremes, ranging from acute life-threatening disseminated disease to occult asymptomatic infection. Both ends of this spectrum have distinct pathological correlates and require specific diagnostic and treatment approaches. Novel therapeutics, targeting both pathogen and host, are needed to augment pathogen clearance. In latent tuberculosis infection, enhancement of immune activation could be desirable. Antiretroviral therapy augments the beneficial effects of antitubercular therapy. However, in the context of high bacillary burden, antiretroviral therapy can also result in pathology (tuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome). In the immune reconstituting patient, modulation of immune activation controls tissue destruction. Interventions should also be appropriate and sustainable within the programmatic setting.

  17. The small breathing amplitude at the upper lobes favours the attraction of polymorphonuclear neutrophils to Mycobacterium tuberculosis lesions and helps to understand the evolution towards active disease in an individual-based model

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    Pere-Joan eCardona

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb can induce two kinds of lesions, namely proliferative and exudative. The former are based on the presence of macrophages with controlled induction of intragranulomatous necrosis, and are even able to stop its physical progression, thus avoiding the induction of active tuberculosis (TB. In contrast, the most significant characteristic of exudative lesions is their massive infiltration with polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs, which favour enlargement of the lesions and extracellular growth of the bacilli. We have built an individual-based model (IBM (known as TBPATCH using the NetLogo interface to better understand the progression from Mtb infection to TB. We have tested four main factors previously identified as being able to favour the infiltration of Mtb-infected lesions with PMNs, namely the tolerability of infected macrophages to the bacillary load; the capacity to modulate the Th17 response; the breathing amplitude (large or small in the lower and upper lobes respectively, which influences bacillary drainage at the alveoli; and the encapsulation of Mtb-infected lesions by the interlobular septae that structure the pulmonary parenchyma into secondary lobes. Overall, although all the factors analysed play some role, the small breathing amplitude is the major factor determining whether Mtb-infected lesions become exudative, and thus induce TB, thereby helping to understand why this usually takes place in the upper lobes. This information will be very useful for the design of future prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against TB.

  18. Bioprospecting marine actinomycetes for multidrug-resistant pathogen control from Rameswaram coastal area, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahaab, Femina; Subramaniam, Kalidass

    2017-08-07

    A potent Streptomyces bacillaris strain RAM25C4 was isolated for controlling methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multidrug-resistant bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A total of 131 actinomycetes were isolated from the Rameswaram coastal region, Tamil Nadu, India. Among 131 actinomycetes, maximum number of actinomycetes (55%) isolated at the distance of 3-6 m from seashore. Out of 131 actinomycetes, 85% of the actinomycetes exhibited different degree of antagonistic activity against test pathogens. The antagonistic activity evaluated using actinomycetes direct culture filtrate and culture filtrate extracts. Among these culture filtrate, extracts had supreme antagonistic activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria and the solvent ethyl acetate was the best for extracting secondary metabolites from actinomycetes. In HPTLC analysis, the presence of macrolides, terpenoids, and quinolones was identified in RAM25C4 extract. In GC-MS analysis, various potent compounds such as phenolic compound-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol, alkaloid compound-1H, 5H, pyrrolo (1' 2':3, 4) imidazo, and quinolone compound-1,4-benzenediol, 2,5-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) were identified in the ethyl acetate extract of RAM25C4. The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence of RAM25C4 isolate was deposited in NCBI with name Streptomyces bacillaris strain RAM25C4 and accession number KM513543.

  19. Rapid conversion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to a spherical cell morphotype facilitates tolerance to carbapenems and penicillins but increases susceptibility to antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Leigh G; Turnbull, Lynne; Osvath, Sarah R; Birch, Debra; Charles, Ian G; Whitchurch, Cynthia B

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa tolerates high concentrations of β-lactam antibiotics. Despite inhibiting the growth of the organism, these cell wall-targeting drugs exhibit remarkably little bactericidal activity. However, the mechanisms underlying β-lactam tolerance are currently unclear. Here, we show that P. aeruginosa undergoes a rapid en masse transition from normal rod-shaped cells to viable cell wall-defective spherical cells when treated with β-lactams from the widely used carbapenem and penicillin classes. When the antibiotic is removed, the entire population of spherical cells quickly converts back to the normal bacillary form. Our results demonstrate that these rapid population-wide cell morphotype transitions function as a strategy to survive antibiotic exposure. Taking advantage of these findings, we have developed a novel approach to efficiently kill P. aeruginosa by using carbapenem treatment to induce en masse transition to the spherical cell morphotype and then exploiting the relative fragility and sensitivity of these cells to killing by antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that are relatively inactive against P. aeruginosa bacillary cells. This approach could broaden the repertoire of antimicrobial compounds used to treat P. aeruginosa and serve as a basis for developing new therapeutic agents to combat bacterial infections.

  20. Protective immunity and delayed-type hypersensitivity in C57BL mice after immunization with live Mycobacterium lepraemurium and sonicated bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closs, O; Løvik, M

    1980-07-01

    The immunizing effects of live Mycobacterium lepraemurium (MLM) and bacillary sonic extract (MLMSon) were compared in C57BL mice. MLMSon-immunized mice developed a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction when tested in the footpad with diluted MLMSon. The ability to develop a DTH reaction was transferable with immune cells but not with serum. Footpad testing with live MLM and MLMSon indicated that the specificity of the DTH response induced by MLMSon was different from that induced by infection with live bacilli. Two weeks after footpad inoculation with live MLM, MLMSon-immunized mice developed a strong local reaction to the bacilli. No local reaction developed in these mice after injection of the same number of heat-killed MLM. Studies of bacillary growth after inoculation with live MLM indicated that the bacilli did not multiply in micr previously inoculated with live MLM, but that they multiplied for about 2 weeks in LMLSon-immunized mice versus 4 weeks in the controls. The results suggest that immunization with MLMSon does not by itself induce a protective immune response, but creates a state in which the development of protective immunity is accelerated.

  1. Distinct activities of Bartonella henselae type IV secretion effector proteins modulate capillary-like sprout formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, F; Ellner, Y; Guye, P; Rhomberg, T A; Weber, H; Augustin, H G; Dehio, C

    2009-07-01

    The zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bh) can lead to vasoproliferative tumour lesions in the skin and inner organs known as bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis. The knowledge on the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in this pathogen-triggered angiogenic process is confined by the lack of a suitable animal model and a physiologically relevant cell culture model of angiogenesis. Here we employed a three-dimensional in vitro angiogenesis assay of collagen gel-embedded endothelial cell (EC) spheroids to study the angiogenic properties of Bh. Spheroids generated from Bh-infected ECs displayed a high capacity to form sprouts, which represent capillary-like projections into the collagen gel. The VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system and a subset of its translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) were found to profoundly modulate this Bh-induced sprouting activity. BepA, known to protect ECs from apoptosis, strongly promoted sprout formation. In contrast, BepG, triggering cytoskeletal rearrangements, potently inhibited sprouting. Hence, the here established in vitro model of Bartonella- induced angiogenesis revealed distinct and opposing activities of type IV secretion system effector proteins, which together with a VirB/VirD4-independent effect may control the angiogenic activity of Bh during chronic infection of the vasculature.

  2. Chlorophyll-Protein Complexes from Euglena gracilis and Mutants Deficient in Chlorophyll b: II. Polypeptide Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, F X; Schiff, J A

    1986-01-01

    Chlorophyll-protein complexes (CPs) obtained from thylakoids of Euglena gracilis Klebs var bacillaris Cori contain the following polypeptides (listed in parentheses in order of prominence after Coomassie R-250 staining of polyacrylamide gels): CP Ia (66, 18, 22, 22.5, 27.5, 21, 28, 24, 25.5, and 26 kilodaltons [kD]); CP I (66 kD); CPx (41 kD); LHCP(2) (an oligomer of LHCP) (26.5, 28, and 26 kD); CPy (27 and 19 kD); CPa (54 kD); and LHCP (26.5, 28, and 26 kD). Mutants of bacillaris low in chlorophyll b (Gr(1)BSL, G(1)BU, and O(4)BSL; Chl a/b [mol/mol] = 50-100) which lack CP Ia, LHCP(2), and LHCP also lack or are deficient in polypeptides associated with these complexes in wild-type cells. Mutants G(1) and O(4), which also lack CPy, lack the CPy-associated polypeptides found in wild-type and Gr(1). Using an antiserum which was elicited by and reacts strongly and selectively with the SDS-treated major polypeptide (26.5 kD) of the LHCP complexes of wild-type, this polypeptide is undetectable in the mutants (saturation, consistent with the selective loss of major antenna components but not CP I or CPa from the mutants.

  3. Experimental tuberculosis in the Wistar rat: a model for protective immunity and control of infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Singhal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of many animal models for tuberculosis (TB research, there still exists a need for better understanding of the quiescent stage of disease observed in many humans. Here, we explored the use of the Wistar rat model for the study of protective immunity and control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The kinetics of bacillary growth, evaluated by the colony stimulating assay (CFU and the extent of lung pathology in Mtb infected Wistar rats were dependent on the virulence of the strains and the size of the infecting inoculums. Bacillary growth control was associated with induction of T helper type 1 (Th1 activation, the magnitude of which was also Mtb strain and dose dependent. Histopathology analysis of the infected lungs demonstrated the formation of well organized granulomas comprising epithelioid cells, multinucleated giant cells and foamy macrophages surrounded by large numbers of lymphocytes. The late stage subclinical form of disease was reactivated by immunosuppression leading to increased lung CFU. CONCLUSION: The Wistar rat is a valuable model for better understanding host-pathogen interactions that result in control of Mtb infection and potentially establishment of latent TB. These properties together with the ease of manipulation, relatively low cost and well established use of rats in toxicology and pharmacokinetic analyses make the rat a good animal model for TB drug discovery.

  4. Optimized protocols for Mycobacterium leprae strain management: frozen stock preservation and maintenance in athymic nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombone, Ana Paula Fávaro; Pedrini, Sílvia Cristina Barbosa; Diório, Suzana Madeira; Belone, Andréa de Faria Fernandes; Fachin, Luciana Raquel Vicenzi; do Nascimento, Dejair Caitano; Rosa, Patricia Sammarco

    2014-03-23

    Leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium leprae, is an important infectious disease that is still endemic in many countries around the world, including Brazil. There are currently no known methods for growing M. leprae in vitro, presenting a major obstacle in the study of this pathogen in the laboratory. Therefore, the maintenance and growth of M. leprae strains are preferably performed in athymic nude mice (NU-Foxn1(nu)). The laboratory conditions for using mice are readily available, easy to perform, and allow standardization and development of protocols for achieving reproducible results. In the present report, we describe a simple protocol for purification of bacilli from nude mouse footpads using trypsin, which yields a suspension with minimum cell debris and with high bacterial viability index, as determined by fluorescent microscopy. A modification to the standard method for bacillary counting by Ziehl-Neelsen staining and light microscopy is also demonstrated. Additionally, we describe a protocol for freezing and thawing bacillary stocks as an alternative protocol for maintenance and storage of M. leprae strains.

  5. Alkaline direct transesterification of different species of Stichococcus for bio-oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, Immacolata; Marotta, Raffaele; Andreozzi, Roberto; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Marzocchella, Antonio; Spasiano, Danilo; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino

    2016-12-25

    The cost of bio-oil refining from microalgal biomass can be significantly reduced by combining extraction and transesterification. The characterisation and optimisation of the combined steps have been carried out on strains of Stichococcus bacillaris, focusing on catalyst type and concentration, reaction time and temperature, methanol/biomass ratio, pre-mixing time and water content in the biomass. The bio-oil yield has been referenced as production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). The maximum yield (∼17%) was achieved using dried biomass with alkaline catalyst at 60°C and methanol/biomass weight ratio of 79:1. Alkaline catalyst conditions gave faster reaction rates and higher bio-oil yields than acid catalyst. Yield was also strongly affected by water content in the biomass. A mechanistic interpretation has been proposed to elucidate the effect of the different operating conditions. However, the structural characteristics of the Chlorophyta cell wall can be very different, leading to different bio-oil yields when the same protocol is applied. Therefore, the optimised protocol of direct transesterification for Stichococcus bacillaris strains was tested on other Stichococcus strains and several other Chlorophyta species characterised by a different cell wall structure. It was clearly demonstrated that different results for bio-oil yield were obtained within the same microalgal species and much more within different microalgal genera.

  6. Leprosy Reaction in Thai Population: A 20-Year Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonkiat Suchonwanit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that presents with varying dermatological and neurological symptoms. The leprosy reactions occur over the chronic course of the disease and lead to extensive disability and morbidity. Objective. To analyze and identify the risk factors which contribute to leprosy reactions. Methods. In a retrospective study, we reviewed the medical records of leprosy patients registered at the leprosy clinic, Ramathibodi Hospital, Thailand, between March 1995 and April 2015. One hundred and eight patients were included; descriptive analysis was used for baseline characteristics and a binary logistic regression model was applied for identifying risk factors correlated with leprosy reactions. Results. Of the 108 cases analyzed, 51 were male and 57 were female. The mean age of presentation was 45 years. The borderline tuberculoid type was the most common clinical form. Leprosy reactions were documented in 61 cases (56.5%. The average time to reaction was 8.9 months. From multivariate analysis, risk factors for leprosy reactions were being female, positive bacillary index status, and MB treatment regimen. Conclusions. Leprosy reactions are common complications in leprosy patients. Being female, positive bacillary index status, and multibacillary treatment regimen are significantly associated with the reactions. Early detection in cases with risk factors followed by appropriate treatment could prevent the morbidity of leprosy patients.

  7. IgA antibodies against phenolic glycolipid I from Mycobacterium leprae in serum of leprosy patients and contacts: subclass distribution and relation to disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerer, B; Chujor, C S; Bernheimer, H; Radl, J; Haaijman, J J; Meeker, H C; Sersen, G; Levis, W R

    1989-11-01

    The anti-PGL-I IgA response against phenolic glycolipid I (PGL-I) a specific surface antigen of Mycobacterium leprae, was demonstrated to be essentially of the IgA1 subclass in sera from leprosy patients and contacts. Anti-PGL-I IgA1 mean levels were found to increase significantly from the tuberculoid toward the lepromatous pole of the leprosy disease spectrum, thus resembling the predominating anti-PGL-I IgM response. Furthermore, anti-PGL-I IgA1 values were shown to increase significantly with increasing bacillary load, measured as bacillary index (BI) from skin biopsies. However, a number of BI negative leprosy patients recorded elevated anti-PGL-I IgA1 levels possibly reflecting a persistence of disease activity. Three of 28 household or family contacts of leprosy patients were detected seropositive for anti-PGL-I IgA1. Thus, our results suggest that anti-PGL-I IgA1 may be considered as an additional parameter for the early detection of infection with M. leprae.

  8. Mycobacterial carbohydrate antigens for serological testing of patients with leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, W R; Meeker, H C; Schuller-Levis, G; Sersen, E; Brennan, P J; Fried, P

    1987-11-01

    To determine whether quantitation of antibodies to mycobacterial carbohydrate determinants would be valuable in serodiagnosis and monitoring of leprosy, we tested serum IgM antibody to Mycobacterium leprae phenolic glycolipid I and IgM and IgG antibodies to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. leprae lipoarabinomannan (LAM) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Seventy-one percent of patients with paucibacillary disease and 85.5% of patients with multibacillary disease were positive for at least one of the three antibodies. The 15% of antibody-negative patients with multibacillary disease were mostly long-term-treated patients, with inactive disease by biopsy. There was excellent agreement between M. tuberculosis LAM and M. leprae LAM in detection of antibodies. Bacillary index and levels of both IgG and IgM antibodies to LAM were positively correlated when all patients were analyzed. When patients with a history of erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) were analyzed separately, there was no correlation between IgM or IgG antibody to LAM and bacillary index, a result suggesting a possible role for LAM in the pathogenesis of ENL.

  9. Molecular epidemiology of bovine coronavirus on the basis of comparative analyses of the S gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Lihong; Hägglund, Sara; Hakhverdyan, Mikhayil

    2006-01-01

    Bovine coronavirus (BCoV), a group 2 member of the genus Coronavirus in the family Coronaviridae, is an important pathogen in cattle worldwide. It causes diarrhea in adult animals (winter dysentery), as well as enteric and respiratory diseases in calves. The annual occurrence of BCoV epidemics...... herd, indicating new introduction of virus; (iii) identical sequences in four different Danish herds in samples obtained within 2 months, implying virus transmission between herds; and (iv) that at least two different virus strains were involved in the outbreaks of BCoV in Denmark during the spring...

  10. Leadership, Ethics and Law of War. Discussion Guide for Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Bravery in Iraq,” New York Times, 12 January 2007. 4 Deb Dunham, “My Son’s Gone, but Heroes Fight On,” 14 January 2007. 5 Ed Marek , “Marines Keep...to be suffering from a number of wasting diseases such as tuberculosis, AIDS, and acute dysentery. Some were amputees. Few had even a scrap of...was going on in those prisons. Starvation. Neglect. Disease . You know people were dying in them. The hottest places in hell are reserved for those

  11. -Sitosterol-3-O--D-xylopyranoside from the flowers of Tridax procumbens Linn.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Saxena; Sosanna Albert

    2005-05-01

    Tridax procumbens Linn belongs to the natural order Compositae and is locally known as `Ghamra’. It has been found to possess significant medicinal properties. Its leaves are used in bronchial catarrh, dysentery, diarrhoea and to prevent falling of hair. Its flowers and leaves possess antiseptic, insecticidal and parasiticidal properties, and are also used to check haemorrhage from cuts, bruises and wounds. The present work deals with the isolation and identification of steroidal saponin, characterized as -sitosterol 3-O--D-xylopyranoside, which has been isolated from the flowers of Tridax procumbens Linn.

  12. Neonatal segmental enteritis due to cow′s milk allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavai Arunachalam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cow′s milk protein allergy (CMPA typically presents with persistent diarrhea or dysentery, vomiting and bleeding per rectum in young infants. CMPA is reported to mimic Hirschsprung′s disease and malrotation. We report, a neonate who presented with recurrent attacks of segmental enteritis due to CMPA and the last episode presented with signs of peritonitis. He improved dramatically after elimination of cow′s milk from his diet. CMPA should be considered in artificially fed babies with surgical abdomen and atypical clinical signs and symptoms.

  13. EFFECTIVENESS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF Maytenus rigida Mart. (CELASTRACEAE) IN ETHANOL-INDUCED DAMAGE GASTRIC IN MICE: ANALYSIS OF INVOLVEMENT OF NITRIC OXIDE, PROSTAGLANDINS, OPIOIDS RECEPTORS AND α-2-ADRENERGICS.

    OpenAIRE

    Ãngela MagalhÃes Vieira

    2013-01-01

    Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae) pupularly known as âbom-homemâ, âbom-nomeâ, âCabelo de Negroâ, âCasca-grossaâ, ChapÃu de couroâ or âpau-de-colherâ is a native species in the northeast region of Brazil, used in folk medicine in the tratament of inflammatory diseases, gastrointestinal disorders such diarrhea, dysentery and ulcers, kidney problems, hypertension, impotence and rheumatism. The aim of this work was to demonstrate the possible mechanism (s) of action underlying the gastroprotec...

  14. ANTIOXIDANT, IMMUNOMODULATORY AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITIES OF EMBLICA OFFICINALIS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri S.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Emblica officinalis (Amla is traditionally used for several diseases, and it is believed to increase the defense against diseases. It is particularly used for the treatment of cancer, diabetes, liver disorders, heart disease, ulcer, snake venom, haemorrhage, diarrhea, dysentery, anaemia and ophthalmic disorders. The antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anticancer, cytoprotective, analgesic, antimicrobial, antipyretic, antitussive and gastroprotective are the important properties of amla. Vitamin C, tannins and flavaniods present in amla have very powerful antioxidant activities. Due to rich vitamin C, amla is successfully used in the treatment of human scurvy.

  15. PLEUROPULMONARY AMEBIASIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Albert C.; Childress, Max E.

    1956-01-01

    Pleuropulmonary amebiasis may be manifest without diarrhea or dysentery. In obscure lesions of the right lower lung field, one should always consider pleuropulmonary amebiasis—especially with low grade fever and moderate leukocytosis. Abscess and empyema contents should be examined promptly microscopically or kept warm to preserve the motility of the trophozoites until satisfactory examination is possible. Conservative therapy will successfully manage most cases of pleuropulmonary amebiasis. If a thorough search fails to reveal Entameba histolytica, and the diagnosis is still entertained, a medical therapeutic trial is in order. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:13374556

  16. Amebic perforation of small bowel: an unexpected localization of a fatal complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Mehmet; Ergul, Emre; Donmez, Cem; Sisman, Ibrahim Cagatay; Ulger, Burak Veli; Kusdemir, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    The intestinal protozoan parasite E. histolytica is the causative organism responsible for human amebiasis and amebic dysentery. Although it is primarily an infection of the colon, it may also be spread by hematogenous path to other organs, especially the liver. In general, the clinical spectrum of colorectal amebiasis ranges from the state of asymptomatic carrier to severe fulminant necrotizing colitis with bleeding and perforation. Here we present an extremely rare case of necrotizing amebiasis of small bowel with a fatal outcome (Fig. 1, Ref. 4). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  17. Health and Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available , bacteria, parasites and toxins, and it is a symptom of many of the illness caused by the various pathogens that might be involved in water-related disease. Non-specific diarrhoeal disease is more frequent and causes more deaths globally than cholera...-borne, water-washed, water-vectored or water-based diseases. Among the most typical water-related disease are gastroenteritis, amoebiasis, salmonellosis, dysentery, cholera, typhoid fever and hepatitis. Although there has been a general decline...

  18. CASSIA TORA: A PHYTO-PHARMACOLOGICAL OVERVIEW

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    Das Chandan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cassia tora, a popular Indian medicinal plant, has long been used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. The plant has been found to possess diverse number of pharmacological activities. The present paper gives an account of updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities. The review reveals that wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from the plant and it possess important activities like laxative, skin diseases, ringworm, eye diseases, liver complaint, dysentery and anthelmentic. Various other activities like antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antinociceptive, antiplasmodial, antifungal & antimicrobial, hyperlipemia & hypotensive have also been reported. These reports are very encouraging and indicate that herb should be studied more extensively for its therapeutic benefits.

  19. The Management of Food Poisoning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiTai-ran

    2001-01-01

    This article introduced the characteristics of food poisoning management in China.Food borne diseases are managed in two separate parts by the Ministry of Health in China,Based on different but related laws.Sporadic occurrence of food-borne diseases such as diarrhea,typhoid and dysentery are managed by the "Infectious Diseases Prevention and Control Law" ,while food poisoning outbreaks are managed by the "Food Hygiene Law".Some advantages and disadvantages of this management system will be discussed in the presentation.

  20. Severity of diarrhea and malnutrition among under five-year-old children in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, Farzana; Das, Sumon K; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Farzana, Fahmida D; Latham, Jonathan R; Chisti, Mohammod J; Ud-Din, Abu I M S; Azmi, Ishrat J; Talukder, Kaisar A; Faruque, Abu S G

    2013-08-01

    Enteric pathogens are commonly associated with diarrhea among malnourished children. This study aimed to determine the association between the severity of diarrheal illnesses and malnutrition among under 5-year-old children. During 2010 and 2011, we studied 2,324 under 5-year-old diarrheal children with mild disease (MD) and moderate-to-severe disease (MSD) attending a hospital in Bangladesh. Children with MSD were more likely to be malnourished compared with children with MD (35% versus 24%, P household income (1.71 [1.42, 2.07]). Childhood malnutrition was associated with dysentery and dehydrating diarrhea.

  1. Aroma Profile of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo Wine Fermented by Single and Co-culture Starters of Autochthonous Saccharomyces and Non-saccharomyces Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofalo, Rosanna; Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Di Gianvito, Paola; Pizzoni, Daniel; Arfelli, Giuseppe; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Montepulciano d'Abruzzo is a native grape variety of Vitis vinifera L., grown in central Italy and used for production of high quality red wines. Limited studies have been carried out to improve its enological characteristics through the use of indigenous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The main objective of the present work was to test two indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae (SRS1, RT73), a strain of Starmerella bacillaris (STS12), one of Hanseniaspora uvarum (STS45) and a co-culture of S. cerevisiae (SRS1) and S. bacillaris (STS12), in an experimental cellar to evaluate their role in the sensory characteristic of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo wine. A S. cerevisiae commercial strain was used. Fermentations were conducted under routine Montepulciano d'Abruzzo wine production, in which the main variables were the yeast strains used for fermentation. Basic winemaking parameters, some key chemical analysis and aroma compounds were considered. S. cerevisiae strain dynamics during fermentation were determined by molecular methods. The musts inoculated with the co-culture were characterized by a faster fermentation start and a higher content of glycerol after 3 days of fermentation, as well as the musts added with strains S. bacillaris (STS12) and H. uvarum (STS45). At the end of fermentation the parameters studied were quite similar in all the wines. Total biogenic amines (BA) content of all the wines was low. Ethanolamine was the predominant BA, with a concentration ranging from 21 to 24 mg/l. Wines were characterized by esters and alcohols. In particular, 2-phenylethanol, 3-methylbut-1-yl methanoate, and ethyl ethanoate were the major aroma volatile compounds in all wines. Statistical analysis highlighted the different role played by aroma compounds in the differentiation of wines, even if it was impossible to select a single class of compounds as the most important for a specific yeast. The present study represents a further step toward the use of tailored

  2. Potential Role of Yeast Strains Isolated from Grapes in the Production of Aglianico of Taurasi DOCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eAponte

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Twelve samples of Aglianico grapes, collected in different locations of the Taurasi DOCG (Appellation of Controlled and Guaranteed Origin production area were naturally fermented in sterile containers at room temperature. A total of 70 yeast cultures were isolated from countable WL agar plates: 52 in the middle of the fermentation and 18 at the end. On the basis of ITS-RFLP analysis and ITS sequencing, all cultures collected at the end of fermentations were identified as Saccharomyces (S. cerevisiae; while, the 52 isolates, collected after one week, could be referred to the following species: Metschnikowia (M. pulcherrima; Starmerella (Star. bacillaris; Pichia (P. kudriavzevii; Lachancea (L. thermotolerans; Hanseniaspora (H. uvarum; Pseudozyma (Pseud. aphidis; S. cerevisiae. By means of Interdelta analysis, 18 different biotypes of S. cerevisiae were retrieved. All strains were characterized for ethanol production, SO2 resistance, H2S development, β-glucosidasic, esterasic and antagonistic activities. Fermentation abilities of selected strains were evaluated in micro-fermentations on Aglianico must. Within non-Saccharomyces species, some cultures showed features of technological interest. Antagonistic activity was expressed by some strains of M. pulcherrima, L. thermotolerans, P. kudriavzevii and S. cerevisiae. Strains of M. pulcherrima showed the highest β-glucosidase activity and proved to be able to produce high concentrations of succinic acid. L. thermotolerans produced both succinic and lactic acids. The lowest amount of acetic acid was produced by M. pulcherrima and L. thermotolerans; while the highest content was recorded for H. uvarum. The strain of Star. bacillaris produced the highest amount of glycerol and was able to metabolize all fructose and malic acid. Strains of M. pulcherrima and H. uvarum showed a low fermentation power (about 4%, while, L. thermotolerans, Star. bacillaris and P. kudriavzevii of about 10%. Significant

  3. [Epidemiological situation of the selected infectious diseases in Poland in 1918-1939].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztuka-Polińska, Urszula

    2002-01-01

    In Poland, during twenty years between the first and the second world war modern methods and remedies were created and applied to save the society from biological extermination caused by the epidemics of acute infectious diseases that existed in the larger areas of the country and other diseases that could threaten the society when brought from abroad. Poland regained its independence in 1918 as a country completely destroyed by war and encompassed three partitioned sectors that differed in wealth, class consciousness, various infrastructure, legislation, epidemiological situation of infectious diseases and threats spreading from abroad. Infectious diseases such as typhus fever, typhoid fever, cholera, smallpox, dysentery and other diseases spreading by alimentary tracts caused the greatest epidemiological problem. The considerable number of smallpox cases was noted in 1920-1922. In the thirties only individual cases occurred. Since 1934 no fatal cases of smallpox were registered. In 1919, in Poland 219,688 cases and 18,641 typhus fever deaths were registered. Between 1930 and 1939 the annual number of cases ranged from 2000 to 4000. In Poland each year between the first and the second world war typhoid fever was a serious sanitary problem. The largest outbreak of dysentery occurred in Poland in 1920-1921 and comprised 64,000 cases, among them 10,000 deaths. Acute childhood diseases such as scarlet fever and diphtheria were in Poland endemic. Number of registered cases was variable.

  4. A Dog with Multiple Infections of Enteric Parasitic Zoonosis in Mashhad City, North-East of Iran; a Case Report

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    Mohaghegh M.A. PhD,

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: In this study, we examined stool specimen from a 3-year-old domesticated dog, which was referred to a veterinary clinic with clinical signs such as nausea or vomiting, dysentery, cachexia and rash in Mashhad city, northeast of Iran. Patient & Methods: A 3-year-old pet dog was referred to veterinary clinic of Mashhad in February 2016 by symptoms including, nausea or vomiting, dysentery, cachexia and rash in Mashhad City, Northeast of Iran. For parasitological examination, formalin-ether concentration technique was used. Fecal smears were made from the sediment, stained with iodine and observed by light microscope. Modified Ziehl Neelsen method was used for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. Findings: The animal was infected with 10 disease-causing parasites; Taenia spp., Fasciola spp., Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Acanthocephal spp., Trichuris vulpis, Hook worm, Giardia spp., Blastocystis spp., Eimeria spp., and Cystoisospora spp. Conclusion: Domestic and stray dog could be an important sources for distribution of zoonoses disease especially parasitic agents.

  5. [The influenza pandemic of 1782, with special reference to its occurrence in the Imperial City of Nuremberg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasold, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    In Germany, very little research has been done on the flu pandemic of 1782. The year before, in 1781, an epidemic of dysentery had ravaged Central Europe quite seriously. The flu pandemic began in Germany in spring 1782. It took its origin in the Far East, probably in Imperial China. From there it slowly traveled westward and finally hit Russia and Germany. In early 1782, it arrived in eastern Prussia. Mortality rose, in Königsberg (Kaliningrad) mainly people over 30 died. From the German coast on the Baltic Sea the virus soon crossed over to England and Scotland. Within Germany it slowly moved southward, to places like Berlin, Weimar and further south. In Berlin very many people became sick. In spring 1782, in many parts of Germany, from east to west, people were bed-ridden. In Nuremberg, a young doctor described the symptoms of the disease and the therapy he gave to his patients in a pamphlet but apart from that there are few sources. Probably not many people consulted a doctor. Mortality in Nuremberg, it seems, did not rise very much. The city had been in decline since the 1750s, its population now shrunk even further. When this scourge hit Central Europe, the Holy Roman Empire was in decline, after an attack of famine and pestilence in the early 1770s and that epidemic of dysentery in 1781. It finally collapsed some 25 years later, in 1806, and the Imperial City of Nuremberg was absorbed by the Kingdom of Bavaria.

  6. The Intradermal Reaction in Amebiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Max J.; Scott, Frank

    1970-01-01

    Studies on the amebiasis skin test were carried out in Amerindians living on reserves of Northern Saskatchewan. Results indicate the skin test to be highly sensitive in patients with acute amebic dysentery and in individuals with a history of amebic disease. A high percentage of asymptomatic school children living on a reserve where amebic disease is of common occurrence were also skin reactors. In a similar group of school children living on a reserve where amebic disease had never been reported but where E. histolytica infection rates are high there were very few reactors. A control group of white adults living in a non-endemic area were uniformly negative to the skin test. A comparison with the indirect hemagglutination test showed a good general correlation, but the skin test proved to be more accurate in cases of acute amebic dysentery in children 5 years of age or under. The skin test appears to have potential as a diagnostic technique and may be of considerable value in defining endemic areas of amebic disease. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:4317530

  7. Detection of EnteroinvasiveEscherichia coli by PCR technique in Children with Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    v Aein

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: EnteroinvasiveEscherichia coliis one of the important agents of invasion to intestinal epithelial cells, damage and cell death which due to dysentery. The aim of this study wastoDetection of EnteroinvasiveEscherichia coli by PCR technique from Children’s Diarrheain yasuj. Methods:This cross-sectional study was performed on 200 stool samples taken from children with diarrhea in Yasuj. After initial identification of E.coli strains by culture and biochemical tests, EIEC gene such as ipaH detected by PCR technicque and antibiotic susceptibility of isolates was evaluated by using disc diffusion (CLSI method. Results: Out of all examined samples, 16(8% EIEC were separated. Antibiotic susceptibility test showed that the most susceptible antibiotic is ciprofloxacin for EIEC and also most resistant antibiotic is ceftizoxime. Conclusion: Results showed that EIEC strains have a moderate prevalence than other studies in our study area. Therefore, for importance of this strain to producing dysentery, hospital-wide surveillance using molecular techniques hase been proposed in other regions of country.

  8. Phylogenetic Analyses of Shigella and Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli for the Identification of Molecular Epidemiological Markers: Whole-Genome Comparative Analysis Does Not Support Distinct Genera Designation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Pettengill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a leading cause of bacterial dysentery, Shigella represents a significant threat to public health and food safety. Related, but often overlooked, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC can also cause dysentery. Current typing methods have limited ability to identify and differentiate between these pathogens despite the need for rapid and accurate identification of pathogens for clinical treatment and outbreak response. We present a comprehensive phylogeny of Shigella and EIEC using whole genome sequencing (WGS of 169 samples, constituting unparalleled strain diversity, and observe a lack of monophyly between Shigella and EIEC and among Shigella taxonomic groups. The evolutionary relationships in the phylogeny are supported by analyses of population structure and hierarchical clustering patterns of translated gene homolog abundance. Lastly, we identified a panel of 404 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers specific to each phylogenetic cluster for more accurate identification of Shigella and EIEC. Our findings show that Shigella and EIEC are not distinct evolutionary groups within the E. coli genus and, thus, EIEC as a group is not the ancestor to Shigella. The multiple analyses presented provide evidence for reconsidering the taxonomic placement of Shigella. The SNP markers offer more discriminatory power to molecular epidemiological typing methods involving these bacterial pathogens.

  9. Phylogenetic Analyses of Shigella and Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli for the Identification of Molecular Epidemiological Markers: Whole-Genome Comparative Analysis Does Not Support Distinct Genera Designation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettengill, Emily A; Pettengill, James B; Binet, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    As a leading cause of bacterial dysentery, Shigella represents a significant threat to public health and food safety. Related, but often overlooked, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) can also cause dysentery. Current typing methods have limited ability to identify and differentiate between these pathogens despite the need for rapid and accurate identification of pathogens for clinical treatment and outbreak response. We present a comprehensive phylogeny of Shigella and EIEC using whole genome sequencing of 169 samples, constituting unparalleled strain diversity, and observe a lack of monophyly between Shigella and EIEC and among Shigella taxonomic groups. The evolutionary relationships in the phylogeny are supported by analyses of population structure and hierarchical clustering patterns of translated gene homolog abundance. Lastly, we identified a panel of 404 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers specific to each phylogenetic cluster for more accurate identification of Shigella and EIEC. Our findings show that Shigella and EIEC are not distinct evolutionary groups within the E. coli genus and, thus, EIEC as a group is not the ancestor to Shigella. The multiple analyses presented provide evidence for reconsidering the taxonomic placement of Shigella. The SNP markers offer more discriminatory power to molecular epidemiological typing methods involving these bacterial pathogens.

  10. Clinical and morphological approaches to the differential diagnosis of diphtheric colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Tsinserling

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases is a large group of nosologic forms such as more frequent acute intestinal infection, especially dysentery, chronic inflammatory diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Cron’s disease with lesions of the bowel, antibiotics-associated and ischemic colitis. There are some difficulties in differential diagnostics of inflammatory bowel diseases despite their widespread and tendency to more frequent occurrence. On the one hand, this is largely due to similar clinical picture which is most often presented by diarrhea and abdominal pain of different degree of intensity, and, on the other hand, by the disadvantages of laboratory diagnostics techniques. The article discusses the problem of clinical and morphological aspects of the differential colitis diagnostics with more detailed characteristics of fibrinous colitis of different etiology. The morphological differential diagnostics criteria, as well as a summary table of comparative characteristics of antibiotics-associated pseudomembranous colitis, dysentery, invasive candidiasis of bowel, ulcerative colitis and ischemic colitis have been presented. The importance of an integrated approach to the differential diagnostics of inflammatory bowel diseases, based on the analysis of anamnesis, clinical-laboratory and morphological data is stressed. The algorithm for optimizing of differential diagnostics of inflammatory bowel diseases with recommendations for qualitative morphological examination has been suggested. 

  11. High compliance randomized controlled field trial of solar disinfection of drinking water and its impact on childhood diarrhea in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Kevin G; Samaiyar, Priyajit; du Preez, Martella; Conroy, Ronán M

    2011-09-15

    Recent solar disinfection (SODIS) studies in Bolivia and South Africa have reported compliance rates below 35% resulting in no overall statistically significant benefit associated with disease rates. In this study, we report the results of a 1 year randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of SODIS of drinking water on the incidence of dysentery and nondysentery diarrhea among children of age 6 months to 5 years living in rural communities in Cambodia. We compared 426 children in 375 households using SODIS with 502 children in 407 households with no intervention. Study compliance was greater than 90% with only 5% of children having less than 10 months of follow-up and 2.3% having less than 6 months. Adjusted for water source type, children in the SODIS group had a reduced incidence of dysentery, with an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 0.50 (95% CI 0.27-0.93, p = 0.029). SODIS also had a protective effect against nondysentery diarrhea, with an IRR of 0.37 (95% CI 0.29-0.48, p SODIS is an effective and culturally acceptable point-of-use water treatment method in the culture of rural Cambodia and may be of benefit among similar communities in neighboring South East Asian countries.

  12. A Multigene Approach for Comparing Genealogy of Betacoronavirus from Cattle and Horses

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    Iracema N. Barros

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastroenteritis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among young and newborn animals and is often caused by multiple intestinal infections, with rotavirus and bovine coronavirus (BCoV being the main viral causes in cattle. Given that BCoV is better studied than equine coronaviruses and given the possibility of interspecies transmission of these viruses, this research was designed to compare the partial sequences of the spike glycoprotein (S, hemagglutinin-esterase protein (HE, and nucleoprotein (N genes from coronaviruses from adult cattle with winter dysentery, calves with neonatal diarrhea, and horses. To achieve this, eleven fecal samples from dairy cows with winter dysentery, three from calves, and two from horses, all from Brazil, were analysed. It could be concluded that the enteric BCoV genealogy from newborn and adult cattle is directly associated with geographic distribution patterns, when S and HE genes are taken into account. A less-resolved genealogy exists for the HE and N genes in cattle, with a trend for an age-related segregation pattern. The coronavirus strains from horses revealed Betacoronavirus sequences indistinguishable from those found in cattle, a fact previously unknown.

  13. What do we (not know about the human bartonelloses?

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    Velho Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The human bartonelloses are a group of diseases with a rapidly increasing clinical spectrum. Well known manifestations such as Carrion's disease, trench fever, cat-scratch disease, and bacillary angiomatosis are examples of Bartonella spp. infection. Along with these diseases, recurrent bacteremia, endocarditis, septicemia, erythema nodosum, erythema multiforme, trombocytopenic purpura and other syndromes have been reported having been caused by bacteria of this genus. The infectious process and the pathogenesis of these microorganisms are poorly understood. The bartonelloses may have a benign and self-limited evolution in a host, or a potentially fatal one. These bacteria can provoke a granulomatous or an angioproliferative histopathologic response. As these diseases are not yet well defined, we have reviewed the four main human bartonelloses and have examined unclear points about these emergent diseases.

  14. [Gamma-radiation action on cells of algae Euglena gracilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinkova, E; Zhuchkina, N I; Koltovoĭ, N A; Koltovaia, N A

    2012-01-01

    Considering the potentials of algae Euglena to constitute a part of biological systems of human life support, effects of low radiation doses on algal cells and radiosensitivity dependence on their genotype were studied. In experiments with gamma-irradiation (60Co) of Euglena gracilis, the highest radioresistance was demonstrated by strain Z. OFL; the chloroplasts lacking Z-derived strain showed hypersensitivity to radiation. E. bacillaris and derived chlorophyll-lacking strains W3 and W10 had intermediate radiosensitivity. Irradiation with the doses of up to 10 Gy produced a hormetic effect in the stock strains. Cells death was observed only after irradiation by doses above 100 Gy. The stimulating effect was exerted both on radioresistance and growth rate. Dyes made possible rapid evaluation of the proportion of living and dead cells. Comparison of two survival tests showed that the classic medium inoculation overestimates cell deaths as it disregards the living non-proliferating cells.

  15. Isolated case of mucosal histoid Hansen's disease of the nasal cavity in a post-global elimination era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Santosh K; Jena, Ajay K; Panda, Maitreyee; Mohapatra, Debahuti; Patro, Nibedita; Sahu, Mahesh C

    2015-01-01

    Histoid Hansen's disease is a rare form of multibacillary leprosy with distinct clinical and histopathological features. This type of leprosy is a variant of lepromatous leprosy with a very high bacterial reserve. Of alarming concern is the discovery of an isolated mucosal histoid leprotic lesion inside the nasal cavity of a patient in the post-global leprosy elimination era. Our case had no history of leprosy or exposure to dapsone/multidrug therapy but had a heavy bacillary index. We are reporting this case to highlight the rarity of mucosal lesions due to histoid leprosy and involvement of the nasal cavity, as well as to create awareness and avoid misdiagnosis. This will help facilitate prompt treatment to minimize the complications and deformities of the patient and prevent its spread throughout the community. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A photosynthetic-plasmonic-voltaic cell: Excitation of photosynthetic bacteria and current collection through a plasmonic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonoff, Nathan; Ooms, Matthew D.; Sinton, David

    2014-01-01

    Excitation of photosynthetic biofilms using surface-confined evanescent light fields enables energy dense photobioreactors, while electrode-adhered biofilms can provide electricity directly. Here, we demonstrate concurrent light delivery and electron transport through a plasmonically excited metal film. Biofilms of cyanobacterium Synechococcus bacillaris on 50-nm gold films are excited via the Kretschmann configuration at λ = 670 nm. Cells show light/dark response to plasmonic excitation and grow denser biofilms, closer to the electrode surface, as compared to the direct irradiated case. Directly irradiated biofilms produced average electrical powers of 5.7 μW/m2 and plasmonically excited biofilms produced average electrical powers of 5.8 μW/m2, with individual biofilms producing as much as 12 μW/m2.

  17. A photosynthetic-plasmonic-voltaic cell: Excitation of photosynthetic bacteria and current collection through a plasmonic substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsonoff, Nathan; Ooms, Matthew D.; Sinton, David [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, and Institute for Sustainable Energy, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 3G8 (Canada)

    2014-01-27

    Excitation of photosynthetic biofilms using surface-confined evanescent light fields enables energy dense photobioreactors, while electrode-adhered biofilms can provide electricity directly. Here, we demonstrate concurrent light delivery and electron transport through a plasmonically excited metal film. Biofilms of cyanobacterium Synechococcus bacillaris on 50-nm gold films are excited via the Kretschmann configuration at λ = 670 nm. Cells show light/dark response to plasmonic excitation and grow denser biofilms, closer to the electrode surface, as compared to the direct irradiated case. Directly irradiated biofilms produced average electrical powers of 5.7 μW/m{sup 2} and plasmonically excited biofilms produced average electrical powers of 5.8 μW/m{sup 2}, with individual biofilms producing as much as 12 μW/m{sup 2}.

  18. Experimental challenge studies in Vietnamese catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage), exposed to Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumlish, M; Thanh, P C; Koesling, J; Tung, V T; Gravningen, K

    2010-09-01

    The two main diseases in the pangasius catfish industry are bacillary necrosis of Pangasianodon (BNP) and motile aeromonas septicaemia (MAS), where the aetiological agents have been identified as Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, respectively. In this study, apparently healthy Pangasianodon hypophthalmus were exposed to E. ictaluri, A. hydrophila or both bacterial species by intraperitoneal injection or immersion. There were 20 fish per treatment group, and the bacterial isolates used for the study were recovered from natural infections of BNP or MAS in farmed Vietnamese P. hypophthalmus. The results of the experimental infections mimicked the natural disease outbreaks reported from these pathogens in P. hypophthalmus. Furthermore, it was clearly demonstrated that E. ictaluri was only recovered from the fish exposed to the bacterium and not recovered from the animals receiving A. hydrophila.

  19. Meningitis due to Enterobacter aerogenes subsequent to resection of an acoustic neuroma and abdominal fat graft to the mastoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fida A. Khan

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Meningitis is an uncommon complication of neurosurgical procedures, with an incidence of 1.1% to 2.5%. Although unusual, the frequency of nosocomial Gram-negative meningitis appears to be increasing. Gram-negative meningitis has been documented following disruption of the dura-arachnoid barrier secondary to trauma or surgery. The association of Gram-negative bacillary meningitis with neurosurgical procedures was first reported in the 1940's. Wolff et al. described the association between Enterobacter species and post-neurosurgical infection. More recently, risk factors for nosocomial Enterobacter meningitis have been characterized by Parodi et al. Adipose graft, as an independent risk factor has not yet been reported. A patient with acoustic neuroma resection, who developed bacterial meningitis from an abdominal fat pad graft to a mastoidectomy bed is described. A brief overview was made of post-neurosurgical Gram-negative meningitis.

  20. Effects of low-dose G-CSF formulation on hematology in healthy horses after long-distance transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Yoshiro; Hobo, Seiji; Korosue, Kenji; Ootsuka, Kenji; Kitauchi, Akira; Kikkawa, Risa; Hidaka, Yuichi; Hagio, Mitsuyoshi; Tsuzuki, Nao

    2015-04-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of single-dose filgrastim on hematology in 16 healthy horses after long-distance transportation. Horses were assigned to receive filgrastim (0.23 µg/kg, SC, once; G-CSF group; n=8) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.3 ml, SC, once; control group; n=8) ≤ 1 hr before transportation. Horses were transported 2,530 km using commercial vans over the course of approximately 44 hr. Clinical examinations and hematologic analyses were performed on all horses before and after transportation. Because the post-transportation white blood cell counts and bacillary neutrophil to segmented neutrophil ratio were significantly higher in the G-CSF group, filgrastim may have promoted the mobilization of neutrophils from marrow. Filgrastim deserves a further study for efficacy in preventing horse shipping fever.

  1. Meningitis due to Enterobacter aerogenes subsequent to resection of an acoustic neuroma and abdominal fat graft to the mastoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fida A. Khan

    Full Text Available Meningitis is an uncommon complication of neurosurgical procedures, with an incidence of 1.1% to 2.5%. Although unusual, the frequency of nosocomial Gram-negative meningitis appears to be increasing. Gram-negative meningitis has been documented following disruption of the dura-arachnoid barrier secondary to trauma or surgery. The association of Gram-negative bacillary meningitis with neurosurgical procedures was first reported in the 1940's. Wolff et al. described the association between Enterobacter species and post-neurosurgical infection. More recently, risk factors for nosocomial Enterobacter meningitis have been characterized by Parodi et al. Adipose graft, as an independent risk factor has not yet been reported. A patient with acoustic neuroma resection, who developed bacterial meningitis from an abdominal fat pad graft to a mastoidectomy bed is described. A brief overview was made of post-neurosurgical Gram-negative meningitis.

  2. Bartonella quintana in Ethiopian lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Sally; Abdissa, Alemseged; Adamu, Haileeysus; Tolosa, Tadele; Gashaw, Abebaw

    2012-01-01

    Head and clothing lice from Jimma, Ethiopia were investigated for pathogenic bacteria. Genomic DNA from pools of lice was subjected to PCR analysis for Bartonella spp., Borrelia spp. Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia spp. and Yersinia pestis. All 102 lice pools were negative for the afore mentioned pathogens, with the exception of Bartonella species found among 6 of 65 (9.2%) head lice pools and1 of 33 clothing lice pools. Identification was achieved by sequencing the ribosomal intragenic transcribed spacer region (ITS), revealing all to be Bartonella quintana. Although established as a clothing louse-borne infection, typically causing chronic bacteraemia, trench fever, bacillary angiomatosis and endocarditis, this has only been rarely reported among head lice. The higher numbers of infected head lice pools compared with clothing lice suggests their competence for maintaining this infection within Ethiopia.

  3. Helminth fauna of Talpa spp. in the Palaearctic Realm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, A; Casanova, J C

    2006-03-01

    The helminth fauna of the genus Talpa in the Palaearctic Realm is reviewed. Several helminth species reported in Talpa spp. by a number of authors are discussed, with reference to host specificity, parasite biology, and host ethology, ecology and phylogeny. Twelve species of cestodes were found, two of which exhibit stenoxenous specificity (Staphylocystis bacillaris and Multitesticulata filamentosa). Only three species of trematodes, Ityogonimus lorum, Ityogonimus ocreatus and Combesia macrobursata, are exclusive parasites of Talpa spp. The largest group are nematodes, with 37 species. Species of Tricholinstowia are parasites of holarctic talpids and several species of distinct genera, such as Capillaria, Soboliphyme and Trichuris, are found only in Talpa spp. Only acanthocephalans of the genus Moniliformis have been reported in moles of the genus Talpa. On the basis of these helminthological findings, the close phylogenetic relationship between moles (Talpidae) and shrews (Soricidae) supports the separation of the ordinal levels Soricomorpha and Erinaceomorpha.

  4. Personalized medicine for patients with MDR-TB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaru, Ioana D; Lange, Christoph; Heyckendorf, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The emergence of MDR-TB is a cause of great concern due to difficulties in patient management and poor treatment outcomes. Currently the duration of treatment and the choice of drugs for patients with MDR-TB are standardized in many countries. This might not be the best approach since the optimal therapy may depend on different pathogen- and host-related features. Combining the introduction of technological innovations such as whole bacillary genome sequencing for the identification of drug-resistance-associated mutations, therapeutic drug monitoring and host-directed therapies with an individualized approach to MDR-TB management will likely lead to more tolerable, shorter and more efficient treatment regimens and an increase in the quality of life of those affected by MDR-TB.

  5. Immunoenzymatic visualization of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in Cephalothrix species (Nemertea: Anopla: Palaeonemertea: Cephalotrichidae) and Planocera reticulata (Platyhelminthes: Turbellaria: Polycladida: Planoceridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanu, Mohosena Begum; Mahmud, Yahia; Arakawa, Osamu; Takatani, Tomohiro; Kajihara, Hiroshi; Kawatsu, Kentaro; Hamano, Yonekazu; Asakawa, Manabu; Miyazawa, Keisuke; Noguchi, Tamao

    2004-10-01

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) was localized as brown color in different tissues of an undescribed species of the nemertean genus Cephalothrix (phylum Nemertea) and a turbellarian Planocera reticulata (phylum Platyhelminthes) on light microscopy by means of a monoclonal anti-TTX antibody. In the Cephalothrix sp., TTX was recognized in the vesicles apically arranged in the bacillary cells in the epidermis, basal lamina, the granular cells in the proboscis epithelium, rhynchocoel epithelium, and the vesicles in the basal portion of the intestinal wall near the blood vessels and rhynchocoel. The excretory system and the ovum also showed positive reaction of TTX antigen-antibody. On the other hand, the hermaphrodite flatworm P. reticulata exhibited TTX antigen-antibody complex only in their ovum. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental effort on micro-distribution of TTX in invertebrates.

  6. Distribution of tetrodotoxin in the ribbon worm Lineus alborostratus (Takakura, 1898) (nemertea): Immunoelectron and immunofluorescence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magarlamov, Timur Yu; Shokur, Olga A; Chernyshev, Alexey V

    2016-03-15

    Transmission electron and confocal laser scanning (CLSM) microscopies with monoclonal anti-tetrodotoxin antibodies were used to locate tetrodotoxin (TTX) in tissues and gland cells of the ribbon worm Lineus alborostratus. CLSM studies have shown that the toxin is primarily localized in the cutis (special subepidermal layer) of the body wall and in the glandular epithelium of the proboscis. Immunoelectron micrographs have shown that only subepidermal bacillary gland cells type I in cutis and pseudocnidae-containing and mucoid gland cells manifested TTX-gold labeling. TTX was associated with the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum membrane, and secretory granules of TTX-positive gland cells. These studies indicate that ТТХ is brought into the cytoplasm of the glandular cells of the cutis and proboscis epithelium, where it is associated with membrane-enclosed organelles involved in protein secretion and then concentrated in glandular granules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Acute necrotising pneumonitis associated with Suttonella ornithocola infection in tits (Paridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Becki; Malnick, Henry; Pennycott, Tom W; Macgregor, Shaheed K; John, Shinto K; Duncan, Gwen; Hughes, Laura A; Chantrey, Julian; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2011-04-01

    Suttonella ornithocola, first isolated from the lungs of British tit species in 1996, was found to be a novel bacterium belonging to the family Cardiobacteriaceae. Comprehensive surveillance of garden bird mortality across Great Britain between April 2005 and April 2009 involved post mortem and microbiological examination of 82 tits (Paridae; multiple species) and six long-tailed tits (Aegithalidae; Aegithalos caudatus). S. ornithocola was isolated from six birds submitted from six incidents of morbidity and mortality involving Paridae and Aegithalidae species with a wide geographical distribution. The mortality incidents occurred sporadically at low incidence throughout the study period, which suggested that the infection is endemic in native bird populations, with a seasonal peak during early spring. Histopathological examination showed multiple foci of acute pulmonary necrosis associated with gram-negative cocco-bacillary bacteria. These findings supported the hypothesis that S. ornithocola is a primary pathogen of tits in Great Britain.

  8. Understanding latent tuberculosis: the key to improved diagnostic and novel treatment strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmail, Hanif; Barry, Clifton E; Wilkinson, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of latent tuberculosis (LTBI) is a vital component of tuberculosis elimination but is not efficiently implemented with available diagnostics and therapeutics. The tuberculin skin test and interferon gamma release assays can inform that infection has occurred but do not prove that it persists. Treatment of LTBI with isoniazid targets actively replicating bacilli but not non-replicating populations, prolonging treatment duration. Developing more predictive diagnostic tests and treatments of shorter duration requires a greater understanding of the biology of latent tuberculosis, from both host and bacillary perspectives. In this article we discuss the basis of current diagnosis and treatment of LTBI and review recent developments in understanding the biology of latency that may enable future improved diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:22198298

  9. Redescription of Trichuris pampeana (Nematoda: Trichuridae) from the South American subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum Thomas, 1898 (Rodentia: Octodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin, M Alejandra; Malizia, Ana I

    2005-02-01

    Trichuris pampeana Suriano and Navone, 1994 (Nematoda: Trichuridae) is redescribed from voucher specimens from the type host Ctenomys azarae Thomas, 1903 (Rodentia: Octodontidae) and from parasites collected from 2 populations of the subterranean rodent C. talarum Thomas, 1898 from Mar de Cobo and Necochea, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. After a revision of these nematodes, it was confirmed that the following characters were not considered in the original description: bacillary band, cells from the esophagointestinal junction, ejaculatory duct, vas deferens, adanal papillae, vagina, oviduct, and rectum. Additional information about the spicular sheath, vulva, uteri, and ovary is provided. The morphological features given in this redescription allow to confirm the identity of T. pampeana as a valid species and also to distinguish it more clearly from other species of the genus.

  10. Intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis after macrophage cell death leads to serial killing of host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamed, Deeqa; Boulle, Mikael; Ganga, Yashica; Mc Arthur, Chanelle; Skroch, Steven; Oom, Lance; Catinas, Oana; Pillay, Kelly; Naicker, Myshnee; Rampersad, Sanisha; Mathonsi, Colisile; Hunter, Jessica; Wong, Emily B; Suleman, Moosa; Sreejit, Gopalkrishna; Pym, Alexander S; Lustig, Gila; Sigal, Alex

    2017-01-28

    A hallmark of pulmonary tuberculosis is the formation of macrophage-rich granulomas. These may restrict Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) growth, or progress to central necrosis and cavitation, facilitating pathogen growth. To determine factors leading to Mtb proliferation and host cell death, we used live cell imaging to track Mtb infection outcomes in individual primary human macrophages. Internalization of Mtb aggregates caused macrophage death, and phagocytosis of large aggregates was more cytotoxic than multiple small aggregates containing similar numbers of bacilli. Macrophage death did not result in clearance of Mtb. Rather, it led to accelerated intracellular Mtb growth regardless of prior activation or macrophage type. In contrast, bacillary replication was controlled in live phagocytes. Mtb grew as a clump in dead cells, and macrophages which internalized dead infected cells were very likely to die themselves, leading to a cell death cascade. This demonstrates how pathogen virulence can be achieved through numbers and aggregation states.

  11. Acid fast bacillus pulmonary and extra pulmonary in a laboratory of university hospital center in Antananarivo, Madagascar since 2003-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andry M. Andrianarivelo

    2015-12-01

    Results: During 12 years, 1060 requests have been received to research AFB with 89 cases (8.39% of positivity. Patients were between 9 months and 93 years old. The middle patient age was 41.7 years. Sex-ratio of infected patients was 1.36. There was a significant difference between gender and positive cases (p=0,001. 82 positive cases (93.77% were pulmonary localization and 7 cases of extra pulmonary (6.23%. Conclusions: Despite the lack of screening, the high rate of bacillary pulmonary tuberculosis found was one of the great epidemiological importances because of their contagiousness. It is obvious that only health actions cannot solve the problem of tuberculosis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3576-3580

  12. Host cell modulation by human, animal and plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Siv G E; Kempf, Volkhard A J

    2004-04-01

    Members of the alpha-proteobacteria display a broad range of interactions with higher eukaryotes. Some are pathogens of humans, such as Rickettsia and Bartonella that are associated with diseases like epidemic typhus, trench fever, cat scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis. Others like the Brucella cause abortions in pregnant animals. Yet other species have evolved elaborate interactions with plants; in this group we find both plant symbionts and parasites. Despite radically different host preferences, extreme genome size variations and the absence of toxin genes, similarities in survival strategies and host cell interactions can be recognized among members of the alpha-proteobacteria. Here, we review some of these similarities, with a focus on strategies for modulation of the host target cell.

  13. Multibacillary leprosy by population groups in Brazil: Lessons from an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Mauricio Lisboa; Illarramendi, Ximena; Dupnik, Kathryn Margaret; Hacker, Mariana de Andrea; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Jerônimo, Selma Maria Bezerra; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes

    2017-02-01

    Leprosy remains an important public health problem in Brazil where 28,761 new cases were diagnosed in 2015, the second highest number of new cases detected globally. The disease is caused by Mycobacterium leprae, a pathogen spread by patients with multibacillary (MB) leprosy. This study was designed to identify population groups most at risk for MB disease in Brazil, contributing to new ideas for early diagnosis and leprosy control. A national databank of cases reported in Brazil (2001-2013) was used to evaluate epidemiological characteristics of MB leprosy. Additionally, the databank of a leprosy reference center was used to determine factors associated with higher bacillary loads. A total of 541,090 cases were analyzed. New case detection rates (NCDRs) increased with age, especially for men with MB leprosy, reaching 44.8 new cases/100,000 population in 65-69 year olds. Males and subjects older than 59 years had twice the odds of MB leprosy than females and younger cases (OR = 2.36, CI95% = 2.33-2.38; OR = 1.99, CI95% = 1.96-2.02, respectively). Bacillary load was higher in male and in patients aged 20-39 and 40-59 years compared to females and other age groups. From 2003 to 2013, there was a progressive reduction in annual NCDRs and an increase in the percentage of MB cases and of elderly patients in Brazil. These data suggest reduction of leprosy transmission in the country. Public health policies for leprosy control in endemic areas in Brazil should include activities especially addressed to men and to the elderly in order to further reduce M. leprae transmission.

  14. Correlation between Resistin, Tuberculosis and Khat Addiction: A Study from South Western Province of Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Alvi

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis(TB is a disease of global significance, which accounts for a death in every 15 seconds. Recent studies shows TB is rising in certain parts of the world, and Saudi Arabia is one of them. Several factor contribute in predisposing the subjects for infection including but not limited to addiction to various compounds which have immune modulation properties, such as amphetamines and Heroin etc. Khat a plant whose leaves are chewed for its euphoric effect in east Africa and Arabian Peninsula including Saudi Arabia, is considered as mildly addictive, and its principle compound, Cathinone shares structural and functional similarity with amphetamine a known immunomodulator. Tuberculosis being a disease of immune modulation has a varied spectrum of complex interplay of proinflammatory molecules, resistin is one of them. In the present study, we try to explore the trinity of khat addiction, serum resistin level and tuberculosis by correlating the serum resistin level in non khat addicted healthy subjects, khat addicted healthy subjects, and in patients, both khat addicted and non khat addicted, with active tuberculosis. We observed significantly higher resistin level among the apparently healthy khat addicted subjects as compared to non addicted healthy controls. Thereafter, when we compare the resistin levels between khat addicted and non khat addicted TB patients we did not found significant difference between the two groups. However bacillary load was observe to be significantly higher among the khat addicted TB patient as compare to non addicted one. Validation of above results in animal model revealed dose dependant increase in bacillary growth in the Wistar rats treated with khat. Taken together these results suggest the role of khat in immune modulation albeit in the limited frame of resistin level.

  15. Complement activation in leprosy: a retrospective study shows elevated circulating terminal complement complex in reactional leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia El Idrissi, N; Hakobyan, S; Ramaglia, V; Geluk, A; Morgan, B Paul; Das, P Kumar; Baas, F

    2016-06-01

    Mycobacterium leprae infection gives rise to the immunologically and histopathologically classified spectrum of leprosy. At present, several tools for the stratification of patients are based on acquired immunity markers. However, the role of innate immunity, particularly the complement system, is largely unexplored. The present retrospective study was undertaken to explore whether the systemic levels of complement activation components and regulators can stratify leprosy patients, particularly in reference to the reactional state of the disease. Serum samples from two cohorts were analysed. The cohort from Bangladesh included multi-bacillary (MB) patients with (n = 12) or without (n = 46) reaction (R) at intake and endemic controls (n = 20). The cohort from Ethiopia included pauci-bacillary (PB) (n = 7) and MB (n = 23) patients without reaction and MB (n = 15) patients with reaction. The results showed that the activation products terminal complement complex (TCC) (P ≤ 0·01), C4d (P ≤ 0·05) and iC3b (P ≤ 0·05) were specifically elevated in Bangladeshi patients with reaction at intake compared to endemic controls. In addition, levels of the regulator clusterin (P ≤ 0·001 without R; P < 0·05 with R) were also elevated in MB patients, irrespective of a reaction. Similar analysis of the Ethiopian cohort confirmed that, irrespective of a reaction, serum TCC levels were increased significantly in patients with reactions compared to patients without reactions (P ≤ 0·05). Our findings suggests that serum TCC levels may prove to be a valuable tool in diagnosing patients at risk of developing reactions. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  16. Factors associated with seropositivity for APGL-Iamong household contacts of leprosy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambier, Carlos Gustavo; Wambier, Sarah Perillo de Farias; Furini, Renata Bazan; Simão, João Carlos Lopes; Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani; Foss, Norma Tiraboschi

    2016-02-01

    Leprosy is mainly transmitted among family members who share genetic and ambient factors. The clinical form of leprosy in the index case and kinship could be risk factors for leprosy transmission. High antibody levels in household contacts (HC) in the absence of neural or skin lesions may characterize latent infection. This study aimed to evaluate the association between seropositivity for anti-phenolic glycolipid-I immunoglobulin M antibodies (APGL-I) in HC and the clinical classification of the index case and to analyze the association between APGL-I positivity with other factors such as age, kinship, and gender. We performed a survey among 320 HC of 120 leprosy patients who were evaluated and followed-up in a leprosy outpatient clinic of a university hospital. All HC underwent complete skin examination, peripheral nerve palpation, skin sensory tests, and serologic tests for the detection and quantification of APGL-I. The overall seropositivity rate was 20%, and was greatly affected by kinship. APGL-I seropositivity was higher in siblings (41%), followed by parents (28%), spouses (26%), other (19%), and offspring (14%). Independent risk factors for seropositivity were being siblings (OR 3.3) and being a HC of an index case with indeterminate leprosy (OR 5.3). APGL-I seropositivity was associated with index cases with a bacillary index of 4 (88%; pleprosy. Strict evaluation and follow-up of HC with positive results for APGL-I is recommended. Special attention should be paid during the screening of siblings of the index cases, HC of patients with a high bacillary index, and HC of patients with indeterminate leprosy.

  17. Inter- and intraspecies identification of Bartonella (Rochalimaea) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, V; Raoult, D

    1995-06-01

    Species of the genus Rochalimaea, recently renamed Bartonella, are of a growing medical interest. Bartonella quintana was reported as the cause of trench fever, endocarditis, and bacillary angiomatosis. B. henselae has been implicated in symptoms and infections of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, such as fever, endocarditis, and bacillary angiomatosis, and is involved in the etiology of cat scratch disease. Such a wide spectrum of infections makes it necessary to obtain an intraspecies identification tool in order to perform epidemiological studies. B. vinsonii, B. elizabethae, seven isolates of B. quintana, and four isolates of B. henselae were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after restriction with the infrequently cutting endonucleases NotI, EagI, and SmaI. Specific profiles were obtained for each of the four Bartonella species. Comparison of genomic fingerprints of isolates of the same species showed polymorphism in DNA restriction patterns, and a specific profile was obtained for each isolate. A phylogenetic analysis of the B. quintana isolates was obtained by using the Dice coefficient, UPGMA (unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic averages), and Package Philip programming. Amplification by PCR and subsequent sequencing using an automated laser fluorescent DNA sequencer (Pharmacia) was performed on the intergenic spacer region (ITS) between the 16 and 23S rRNA genes. It was found that each B. henselae isolate had a specific sequence, while the B. quintana isolates fell into only two groups. When endonuclease restriction analysis of the ITS PCR product was done, three enzymes, TaqI, HindIII, and HaeIII, allowed species identification of Bartonella spp. Restriction fragment length polymorphism after PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS may be useful for rapid species identification, and PFGE could be an efficient method for isolate identification.

  18. Artrite de Poncet: relato de caso Poncet's arthritis: case report

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    Louise Cardoso Schweitzer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A doença de Poncet é uma condição clínica rara, caracterizada por um acometimento poliarticular em um paciente com diagnóstico de tuberculose, sem evidência de invasão direta do bacilo nas articulações, configurando uma artrite reativa. Documentamos um caso em Porto Alegre: um homem de 56 anos, com evidência de poliartrite aditiva de grandes articulações, investigada há 5 anos, sem diagnóstico definido. Ele havia sido submetido a uma nefrectomia unilateral há 5 anos, e o exame anatomopatológico do órgão revelou tuberculose renal. O teste tuberculínico atual revelou um forte reator (PPD = 20 mm. Análise do líquido sinovial não demonstrou invasão direta do bacilo. Foi instituído tratamento empírico com tuberculostáticos com remissão clínica após 2 meses. Embasados nesses dados, foi feito diagnóstico de doença de Poncet.Poncet's disease is a rare clinical condition, characterized by polyarticular impairment in a patient diagnosed with tuberculosis, with no evidence of direct bacillary invasion of the joints, constituting reactive arthritis. We report a case of a 56-year old, white male from the city of Porto Alegre, with evidence of additive polyarthritis of the large joints, investigated for five years, and with no defined diagnosis. The patient had undergone unilateral nephrectomy five years before, and the anatomicopathological exam of the specimen revealed renal tuberculosis. The current tuberculin test was strongly reactive (PPD = 20 mm. Analysis of the synovial fluid showed no direct bacillary invasion. Tuberculostatic treatment was initiated and clinical remission occurred after two months. The diagnosis of Poncet's arthritis was established.

  19. Multibacillary leprosy by population groups in Brazil: Lessons from an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illarramendi, Ximena; Dupnik, Kathryn Margaret; Hacker, Mariana de Andrea; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Jerônimo, Selma Maria Bezerra; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes

    2017-01-01

    Background Leprosy remains an important public health problem in Brazil where 28,761 new cases were diagnosed in 2015, the second highest number of new cases detected globally. The disease is caused by Mycobacterium leprae, a pathogen spread by patients with multibacillary (MB) leprosy. This study was designed to identify population groups most at risk for MB disease in Brazil, contributing to new ideas for early diagnosis and leprosy control. Methods A national databank of cases reported in Brazil (2001–2013) was used to evaluate epidemiological characteristics of MB leprosy. Additionally, the databank of a leprosy reference center was used to determine factors associated with higher bacillary loads. Results A total of 541,090 cases were analyzed. New case detection rates (NCDRs) increased with age, especially for men with MB leprosy, reaching 44.8 new cases/100,000 population in 65–69 year olds. Males and subjects older than 59 years had twice the odds of MB leprosy than females and younger cases (OR = 2.36, CI95% = 2.33–2.38; OR = 1.99, CI95% = 1.96–2.02, respectively). Bacillary load was higher in male and in patients aged 20–39 and 40–59 years compared to females and other age groups. From 2003 to 2013, there was a progressive reduction in annual NCDRs and an increase in the percentage of MB cases and of elderly patients in Brazil. These data suggest reduction of leprosy transmission in the country. Conclusion Public health policies for leprosy control in endemic areas in Brazil should include activities especially addressed to men and to the elderly in order to further reduce M. leprae transmission. PMID:28192426

  20. Clinical evaluation of the mycobacteriophage-based assay in rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in respiratory specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Search for a cost-effective, rapid and accurate test has renewed interest in mycobacteriophage as a tool in the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB. There has been no reported data on the performance of phage assay in a high burden, low-resource setting like Kanpur city, India. Aims: To assess the sensitivity and specificity of the FASTPlaque TBTM kit ability to impact the bacillary load in the phage assay and its performance in the sputum smear sample negative cases. Materials and Methods: The study involved a cross-sectional blinded assessment of phage assay using the FASTPlaque TBTM kit on 68 suspected cases of pulmonary TB against sputum smear microscopy by Ziehl-Neilsen staining and culture by the LJ method. Results: The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of the phage assay were 90.7, 96, 97.5 and 85.7%, respectively. The assay was negative in all the five specimens growing mycobacteria other than TB. The sensitivity of the phage assay tended to decrease with the bacillary load. Of the smear-negative cases, three were false negative, and all of which were detected by the phage assay. Smear microscopy (three smears per patient had a sensitivity and specificity of 93 and 64%, respectively. Conclusions: The phage assay has the potential clinical utility as a simple means of rapid and accurate detection of live Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli; however, its performance has been inconsistent across various studies, which highlights that the assay requires a high degree of quality control demanding infrastructure and its performance is vulnerable to common adversities observed in "out of research" practice settings like storage, transport and cross-contamination.

  1. Depletion of M. tuberculosis GlmU from Infected Murine Lungs Effects the Clearance of the Pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Soni

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available M. tuberculosis N-acetyl-glucosamine-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GlmUMtb is a bi-functional enzyme engaged in the synthesis of two metabolic intermediates N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate (GlcNAc-1-P and UDP-GlcNAc, catalyzed by the C- and N-terminal domains respectively. UDP-GlcNAc is a key metabolite essential for the synthesis of peptidoglycan, disaccharide linker, arabinogalactan and mycothiols. While glmUMtb was predicted to be an essential gene, till date the role of GlmUMtb in modulating the in vitro growth of Mtb or its role in survival of pathogen ex vivo / in vivo have not been deciphered. Here we present the results of a comprehensive study dissecting the role of GlmUMtb in arbitrating the survival of the pathogen both in vitro and in vivo. We find that absence of GlmUMtb leads to extensive perturbation of bacterial morphology and substantial reduction in cell wall thickness under normoxic as well as hypoxic conditions. Complementation studies show that the acetyl- and uridyl- transferase activities of GlmUMtb are independently essential for bacterial survival in vitro, and GlmUMtb is also found to be essential for mycobacterial survival in THP-1 cells as well as in guinea pigs. Depletion of GlmUMtb from infected murine lungs, four weeks post infection, led to significant reduction in the bacillary load. The administration of Oxa33, a novel oxazolidine derivative that specifically inhibits GlmUMtb, to infected mice resulted in significant decrease in the bacillary load. Thus our study establishes GlmUMtb as a strong candidate for intervention measures against established tuberculosis infections.

  2. Impact of tuberculosis treatment and antiretroviral therapy on serial RD-1-specific quantitative T-cell readouts (QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube), and relationship to treatment-related outcomes and bacterial burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mthiyane, Thuli; Rustomjee, Roxana; Pym, Alex; Connolly, Cathy; Onyebujoh, Philip; Theron, Grant; Dheda, Keertan

    2015-07-01

    The impact of anti-tuberculosis treatment with and without antiretroviral therapy (ART) on standardized interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) readouts has been studied inadequately in high-burden countries. The QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) test was used to evaluate interferon gamma (IFN-γ) responses longitudinally (0, 3, 6, and 12 months post initiation of tuberculosis (TB)-HIV co-treatment or ART alone) in 82 HIV-infected patients. Of the 65 evaluable participants, 30 were co-infected on ART, 17 were co-infected but not on ART, and 18 were HIV-infected alone and on ART. In HIV-infected and HIV-TB-infected patients on ART, IFN-γ responses increased, whilst they decreased in those not on ART. However, baseline, month 3, and month 6 IFN-γ responses, irrespective of ART, did not differ in TB-HIV co-infected patients who culture-converted compared to those who did not (1.25 vs. 1.05, p=0.5 at baseline; 3.76 vs. 1.15, p=0.2 for month 3; 0.06 vs. 0.7, p=0.3 for month 6). IFN-γ levels did not correlate with the magnitude of sputum bacillary load, smear status, or liquid culture time-to-positivity. As IGRAs do not correlate with 2- or 6-month culture conversion or with markers of bacillary burden, they are unlikely to be useful for the prognostication of treatment outcome in co-infected patients. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Mesozooplankton grazing on picocyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea as inferred from molecular diet analysis.

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    Nisha H Motwani

    Full Text Available Our current knowledge on the microbial component of zooplankton diet is limited, and it is generally assumed that bacteria-sized prey is not directly consumed by most mesozooplankton grazers in the marine food webs. We questioned this assumption and conducted field and laboratory studies to examine picocyanobacteria contribution to the diets of Baltic Sea zooplankton, including copepods. First, qPCR targeting ITS-1 rDNA sequence of the picocyanobacteria Synechococcus spp. was used to examine picocyanobacterial DNA occurrence in the guts of Baltic zooplankton (copepods, cladocerans and rotifers. All field-collected zooplankton were found to consume picocyanobacteria in substantial quantities. In terms of Synechococcus quantity, the individual gut content was highest in cladocerans, whereas biomass-specific gut content was highest in rotifers and copepod nauplii. Moreover, the gut content in copepods was positively related to the picocyanobacteria abundance and negatively to the total phytoplankton abundance in the water column at the time of sampling. This indicates that increased availability of picocyanobacteria resulted in the increased intake of this prey and that copepods may rely more on picoplankton when food in the preferred size range declines. Second, a feeding experiments with a laboratory reared copepod Acartia tonsa fed a mixture of the picocyanobacterium Synechococcus bacillaris and microalga Rhodomonas salina confirmed that copepods ingested Synechococcus, even when the alternative food was plentiful. Finally, palatability of the picocyanobacteria for A. tonsa was demonstrated using uptake of (13C by the copepods as a proxy for carbon uptake in feeding experiment with (13C-labeled S. bacillaris. These findings suggest that, if abundant, picoplankton may become an important component of mesozooplankton diet, which needs to be accounted for in food web models and productivity assessments.

  4. 金樱子茎提取物体外抑菌活性研究%Study on the in vitro Bacteriostatic Activity of Different Solvent Extracts from Caulis Rosae laevigatae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严寒静; 王振伟; 田素英

    2012-01-01

      Caulis Rosae laevigatae was extracted with different solvents to study the bacteriostatic activity of extracts from Caulis R. laevigatae. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Dysentery bacillus, Escherichia coli, Proteusbacillus vulgaris,Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureuswere used as the experimental strains. 80% ethanol Coptis extracts used as comparison. The diameters of inhibition zone were determined by agar plate diffusion method. Then the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) were observed to test dilution methods. The results show that the water solution has no bacteriostasis function to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Dysentery bacillus, Escherichia coli, Proteusbacillus vulgaris; The MIC to Salmonella typhi is 20 mg(crude drugs)/mL; The MIC to Staphylococcus aureus is 10 mg(crude drugs)/mL. 75% ethanol solution has no bacteriostasis function to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Dysentery bacillus, Escherichia coli, Proteusbacillus vulgaris. The MIC to Staphylococcus aureus is 10 mg(crude drugs)/mL. Ethyl acetate solution, chloroform solution, petroleum ether solution have no bacteriostasis function to all of the experimental strains. In Conclusion, the different solution of caulis R. laevigatae have indefinitely bacteriostasis function on common pathogenic bacteria.%  采用纸片扩散法和试管稀释法,研究金樱子茎不同溶剂粗提取物对临床常见病原细菌的抑菌活性.结果表明,金樱子茎水提取物对绿脓杆菌、痢疾杆菌、大肠杆菌、变形杆菌无抑菌活性;对伤寒杆菌的最低抑菌浓度(MIC)为20 mg(生药)/mL;对金黄色葡萄球菌的 MIC 为10 mg(生药)/mL.金樱子茎75%乙醇提取物对绿脓杆菌、伤寒杆菌、痢疾杆菌、大肠杆菌、变形杆菌无抑菌活性;对金黄色葡萄球菌 MIC 为10 mg (生药)/mL.金樱子茎乙酸乙酯、氯仿、石油醚提取物对绿脓杆菌、伤寒杆菌、痢疾杆菌、大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、变形杆菌无抑菌活性

  5. The public health significance of Trichuris trichiura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, L S; Holland, C V; Cooper, E S

    2000-01-01

    An estimated 1049 million persons harbour T. trichiura, including 114 million preschool-age children and 233 million school-age children. The prevalence of T. trichiura is high and may reach 95% in children in many parts of the world where protein energy malnutrition and anaemias are also prevalent and access to medical care and educational opportunities is often limited. The Trichuris dysentery syndrome (TDS) associated with heavy T. trichiura, which includes chronic dysentery, rectal prolapse, anaemia, poor growth, and clubbing of the fingers constitutes an important public health problem, as do lighter but still heavy infections, even if not strictly TDS, especially in children. The profound growth stunting in TDS can be reversed by repeated treatment for the infection and, initially, oral iron. However findings from Jamaica strongly suggest that the significant developmental and cognitive deficits seen are unlikely to disappear without increasing the positive psychological stimulation in the child's environment. The severe stunting in TDS now appears likely to be a reaction at least in part to a chronic inflammatory response and concomitant decreases in plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), increases in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the lamina propria of the colonic mucosa and peripheral blood (which likely decrease appetite and intake of all nutrients) and a decrease in collagen synthesis. Improvements in cognitive performance have been found after treatment for relatively heavy infections (without chronic dysentery) in school-going children; it is unclear precisely how much T. trichiura interferes with children's ability to access educational opportunities, but treatment of infections whenever possible is obviously sensible. The blood loss that can occur in T. trichiura infection is likely to contribute to anaemia, particularly if the child also harbours hookworm, malaria and/or has a low intake of dietary iron. Community control is

  6. ASSESSMENT OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF ACALYPHA HISPIDA

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    B. Bokshi*, M.A.S. Sayeed, M.I. Ahmed, U.K. Karmakar, S.K. Sadhu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic extract of leaves of Acalypha hispida was evaluated for phytochemical, cytotoxic and antibacterial activities. Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, reducing sugars and steroids. Cytotoxic activity was investigated by brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality assay. The extract showed potent cytotoxic effect (LC50 19.95µg/ml which is comparable to standard cytotoxic drug chloramphenicol (LC50 7µg/ml. Antibacterial activity was tested by disk diffusion method. The extract exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhe and moderate activity against Enterococcus coli, Streptococcus saprophyticus and Streptococcus agalactin whereas Shigella dysentery found resistant at 250µg/disc and 500µg/disc.

  7. A Case Report of Fungal Diarrhea in a Preweaned Calf in Iran

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    Azimpour

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Diarrhea is the most common cause of death in neonatal calves. The most important agents of diarrhea in young calves include bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Only limited attention has been paid to the role of fungi in calves’ diarrhea. Case Presentation We report on a neonatal calf with fungal diarrhea caused by Candida albicans. The calf has had dysentery in the previous 10 days despite good appetite. The calf was then treated with oxytetracycline tabulations for 5 days. Conclusions Yeasts and molds are sometimes associated with lesions in the stomach or intestines of scouring calves, but there is very limited information about their role in calf diarrhea. In this study, C. albicans was isolated in a 15-day-old dysenteric calf. These organisms are not a primary cause of diarrhea in calves, but like in children, they are possibly opportunistic pathogens that proliferate and invade the intestinal mucosa following antibiotic therapy.

  8. Content analysis of "Diagnose and treatment of cholera in Shanghan Lun (Treatise on Febrile Diseases)"%《伤寒论·辨霍乱病脉证并治》浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴葆莹; 吴崇旭; 吴崇典

    2010-01-01

    分析篇的内存,在伤寒之类病中出现类似"霍乱"、以严重"吐利"为突出表现的病证,将其冠以"崔乱病"之名.撰用了"霍乱"之名,表明这类胃肠型伤寒之类病的特点,又有"霍乱"与伤寒的"雀乱病"鉴别诊断的意义.%By analyzing "Diagnose and treatment of cholera in Shanghan Lun (Treatise on Febrile Diseases)", we found that such symptoms as serious vomiting and dysentery appeared in febrile diseases, which is similar to cholera. Therefore, Shanghan Lun named it "cholera illness". This name not only clearly manifested the characteristics of such gastrointestinal-febrile disease, but also emphasized the significance of differential diagnosis between cholera with "cholera illness" in febrile diseases.

  9. Uses of Justicia spicigera in medicine and as a source of pigments

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    Itzamná Baqueiro-Peña

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Justicia spicigera (muicle is a plant that has been used from the pre-Hispanic era to contemporary times in Mexico. It has been used in the traditional medicine for healing diseases such as dysentery, diabetes, leukemia, and anemia, just to mention some human disorders. It has been used for obtaining indigo dye after making extraction with water to be used for coloring of baskets, crafts, and clothes. The pigments, as a powder, have been studied for use for coloring foods. The dyeing characteristics of the J. spicigera pigments have antioxidant properties due to the flavonoids content. Since this plant has been used for making infusions to people for curing some physical disorders, today J. spicigera is being studied to take advance of its dyeing and antioxidant properties to be used in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  10. Specific detection of the genus Serpulina, S-hyodysenteriae and S-pilosicoli in porcine intestines by fluorescent rRNA in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Mette; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian;

    1998-01-01

    , for the detection of Serpulina isolates at genus level as well as for specific detection of S. hyodysenteriae and S. pilosicoli in formalin-fixed colon tissue sections from pigs suffering from swine dysentery and porcine colonic spirochaetosis, respectively. Tissue sections were also used from pigs without any......A fluorescent-labelled in situ hybridization method targeting rRNA was devised to facilitate specific identification and diagnosis of diarrhoea and colitis in pigs caused by the genus Serpulina, as well as to distinguish the species Serpulina hyodysenteriae and Serpulina pilosicoli in formalin......-fixed colon tissue sections. A genus-specific oligonucleotide probe SER1410 targeting the five species of porcine Serpulina was thus designed. Furthermore, species specific oligonucleotide probes (Hyo1210, Pilosi209 and Pilosi1405) were also designed to detect, identify and differentiate S. hyodysenteriae...

  11. IN VITRO STUDY OF ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA CAUSATIVE AGENT OF AMOEBIASIS WITH LEMON JUICE AT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATION SHOWED ANTIAMOEBIC PROPERTIES

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    Shrivastava Bhanu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A species of parasite protozoa Entamoeba histolytica causing amoebiasis and amoebic dysentery characteristic include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded. This is a single celled parasitic animal, that infects predominantly humans and other primates. Amoebic infection was first described by Fedor Losch in 1875 in St. Petersburg. In 1890, Sir William Osler reported the first North American case of amoebiasis when he observed amoebae in stool in abscess fluid from physician who previously resided in Panama. So we used the Lemon juice (Citrus at different concentration against Entamoeba histolytica to treat the amoebiasis disease. Entamoeba histolytica shows the variety of growth due to the effect of Lemon juice (Citrus. Lemon juice is ingredient and it has antiamoebic properties against Entamoeba histolytica a causative agent of amoebiasis.

  12. Activity of medicinal plants from Ghana against the parasitic gut protist Blastocystis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremer Christensen, Charlotte; Soelberg, Jens; Stensvold, Christen R

    2015-01-01

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The plants tested in this study were examples of plants historically used to treat or alleviate several types of stomach disorders manifested by e.g. stomachache, diarrhoea or dysentery. These plants have been consumed typically as a decoction, sometimes mixed......; an ethanolic, a warm, and a cold water extract, at a final concentration of 1mg/mL for the initial screening, and in a range from 0.0156 to 1mg/mL for determination of inhibitory concentrations. The obligate anaerobic parasitic gut protist Blastocystis (subtype 4) was used as a 48h old subcultivated isolate...... (IC50) was derived after 24h and 48h. Antimicrobial activity was tested against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria for all 24 plant parts at a final concentration of 1mg/mL. RESULTS: Screening of the 24 different plant parts showed significant anti-Blastocystis activity of six...

  13. Therapeutic methods for diarrhea in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.K. Bhattacharya

    2000-01-01

    @@DEFINITIONAcute diarrhoea is defined as passage of loose or watery stools at least three times in a 24 h period. When loose stools contain blood, it is called bloody diarrhoea (dysentery). It is the consistency of the stools which is most important rather than the frequency. Breast-fed babies often pass “pasty” stools frequently which is not diarrhoea. The mother can often tell accurately whether child has diarrhoea or not. MAGNITUDE OF THE PROBLEMAcute diarrhoea is an important cause of mortality and morbidity particularly in young children in the developing countries. Of the 11.6 million deaths among children less than five years old in all developing countries (1995) due to infectious diseases, 19% deaths are attributed to diarrhoeah]. In 1993, an estimated 3.2 million children below five years of age died from diarrhoea alone; 80 % of these deaths occurred in the first two years of life[2].

  14. Experience on the application of Minor Bupleurum Decoction%小柴胡汤在儿科的临床妙用经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张武标; 张武强

    2011-01-01

    To introduce the experience on the application of Minor Bupleurum Decoction in the treatment of children's common cold high fever, bacterium dysentery, nosebleed, summer fever, chronic suppurative otitis media, nasosinuitis,mumps.Minor Bupleurum Decoction is applied widely in the clinic on the base of good compatibility in Chinese herbal drug.%本文介绍小柴胡汤应用于治疗儿童外感高热、细菌性痢疾、鼻衄、夏季热、慢性化脓性中耳炎、鼻窦炎、流行性腮腺炎的临床妙用经验.只要配伍得当,小柴胡汤能广泛应用于临床.

  15. The Shigella human challenge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, C K; Thura, N; Ranallo, R T; Riddle, M S

    2013-02-01

    Shigella is an important bacterial cause of infectious diarrhoea globally. The Shigella human challenge model has been used since 1946 for a variety of objectives including understanding disease pathogenesis, human immune responses and allowing for an early assessment of vaccine efficacy. A systematic review of the literature regarding experimental shigellosis in human subjects was conducted. Summative estimates were calculated by strain and dose. While a total of 19 studies evaluating nine strains at doses ranging from 10 to 1 × 1010 colony-forming units were identified, most studies utilized the S. sonnei strain 53G and the S. flexneri strain 2457T. Inoculum solution and pre-inoculation buffering has varied over time although diarrhoea attack rates do not appear to increase above 75-80%, and dysentery rates remain fairly constant, highlighting the need for additional dose-ranging studies. Expansion of the model to include additional strains from different serotypes will elucidate serotype and strain-specific outcome variability.

  16. Safety and efficacy of Labisia pumila containing products

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    Muhammad Syafiq Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Labisia pumila is a traditional medicinal plant which has wide therapeutic application including induction of labor and treatment of dysentery, dysmenorrhea and gonorrhea. We aimed for systematic review of the efficacy andsafety of L. pumila extract or its other commercial products availabe in Malaysian market. The marketed 500 mg capsule is composed of 40 mg L. pumila, 10 mg C. caudatum extract and 450 mg excipient. The commercial products did not follow the registration guidelines of Malaysian National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau (NPCB and advertisement guidelines of Malaysian Advertisement Board. Randomized, placebo controlled clinical trials reported the safe consumpotion of L. pumila water extract on postmanoposal women. Information on the efficacy and safety of commercial products are not sufficiently available. Many unregistered products (mostly capsule form are flooded in Malaysian market without having scientific information. Consumption of those products may seriously impair the health of the people.

  17. Intracellular Signaling Mechanisms Pharmacological Action of Jasminum amplexicaule Buch.-Ham. (Oleaceae) on Gastrointestinal Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenhua; Yin, Junqiang; Xie, Xiaolin; Long, Hanwu; Qi, Xiang; Lin, Changhu; Wu, Liangcai

    2014-01-01

    Jasminum amplexicaule Buch-Ham. (Oleaceae) has been commonly used in the traditional medicine in dysentery, diarrhoea and bellyache in China. In the present work, the methanol extract of Jasminum amplexicaule (JME) was examined for pharmacology on human colonic epithelial cell line T84 by the short-circuit current technique. The results showed that pretreatment of T84 cells with JME produced a concentration-dependent (0-1000 μg/mL. EC50 = 0.055 mg/ mL) inhibition effect on adrenalin (Adr.)-induced Cl- secretion. The maximal response was observed at 200 μg/mL. It has been demonstrated that JME has a direct effect on the enterocyte. Our results also demonstrated that the JME exerted inhibitory effect on gastrointestinal Cl(-)secretion that effected by acting on basolateral β-adrenoreceptors. These results suggested that the Chinese traditional medicine of JME can be used for the treatment of acute diarrhea and bellyache.

  18. [Thomas Hodgkin and his disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P

    2012-01-01

    Thomas Hodgkin (1798-1866), born into a family of Quakers, would remain faithful all his life to the principles and rules of the 'Society of Friends'. He studied pharmacy and medicine in London, Edinburgh and Paris. As curator for the museum of pathological anatomy of Guy's Hospital (1825-1837) he introduced modern, organ-based, medicine in England, together with the clinicians Richard Bright and Thomas Addison. In 1832 Hodgkin reported autopsy findings of seven patients who had shown swollen lymph glands and an enlarged spleen, without evidence of tuberculosis, purulent inflammation or cancer. Later the diagnosis 'Hodgkin's disease' would be restricted to lymphomas with giant, multinucleated Reed-Sternberg cells on microscopic examination. Especially in his later years, Hodgkin devoted much time and effort to the emancipation of oppressed or destitute minorities, especially abroad. He died of dysentery on a journey to Palestine and lies buried in Jaffa.

  19. Mimosa pudica L. (Laajvanti): An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Hafsa; Sehgal, Sakshi; Mishra, Anurag; Gupta, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Mimosa pudica L. (Mimosaceae) also referred to as touch me not, live and die, shame plant and humble plant is a prostrate or semi-erect subshrub of tropical America and Australia, also found in India heavily armed with recurved thorns and having sensitive soft grey green leaflets that fold and droop at night or when touched and cooled. These unique bending movements have earned it a status of ‘curiosity plant’. It appears to be a promising herbal candidate to undergo further exploration as evident from its pharmacological profile. It majorly possesses antibacterial, antivenom, antifertility, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, aphrodisiac, and various other pharmacological activities. The herb has been used traditionally for ages, in the treatment of urogenital disorders, piles, dysentery, sinus, and also applied on wounds. This work is an attempt to explore and compile the different pharmacognostic aspects of the action plant M. pudica reported till date. PMID:23055637

  20. Structure of uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase from Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas E; Gardberg, Anna S; Phan, Isabelle Q H; Zhang, Yang; Staker, Bart L; Myler, Peter J; Lorimer, Donald D

    2015-05-01

    Uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase (UAP) catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of UDP-GlcNAc, which is involved in cell-wall biogenesis in plants and fungi and in protein glycosylation. Small-molecule inhibitors have been developed against UAP from Trypanosoma brucei that target an allosteric pocket to provide selectivity over the human enzyme. A 1.8 Å resolution crystal structure was determined of UAP from Entamoeba histolytica, an anaerobic parasitic protozoan that causes amoebic dysentery. Although E. histolytica UAP exhibits the same three-domain global architecture as other UAPs, it appears to lack three α-helices at the N-terminus and contains two amino acids in the allosteric pocket that make it appear more like the enzyme from the human host than that from the other parasite T. brucei. Thus, allosteric inhibitors of T. brucei UAP are unlikely to target Entamoeba UAPs.

  1. Isolation and Evaluation of Mucilage of Adansonia digitata Linn as a Suspending Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Deshmukh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural excipients can serve as alternative to synthetic products because of local accessibility, biodegradability, eco-friendly nature and cost effectiveness as compared to synthetic products. Therefore, it is a current need to explore natural excipients that can be used as an effective alternative excipient for the formulation of pharmaceutical dosage forms. Adansonia digitata (Malvaceae has been traditionally used as febrifuge, antiasthmatic and also in the treatment of dysentery, smallpox, and measles. Reports have indicated that mucilage of the leaves of the plant is edible and nontoxic; hence, the present study is an attempt of isolation and evaluation of mucilage obtained from leaves of Adansonia digitata as suspending agent. Various physicochemical as well as suspending agent properties of mucilage were studied. Mucilage obtained from leaves has shown comparable results with sodium carboxy methyl cellulose.

  2. Genotoxic effect of Lythrum salicaria extract determined by the mussel micronucleus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck-Varanka, Bettina; Kováts, Nóra; Hubai, Katalin; Paulovits, Gábor; Ferincz, Árpád; Horváth, Eszter

    2015-12-01

    A wide range of aquatic plants have been proven to release allelochemicals, of them phenolics and tannin are considered rather widely distributed. Tannins, however, have been demonstrated to have genotoxic capacity. In our study genotoxic potential of Lythrum salicaria L. (Purple Loosestrife, family Lythraceae) was assessed by the mussel micronucleus test, using Unio pictorum. In parallel, total and hydrolysable tannin contents were determined. Results clearly show that the extract had a high hydrolysable tannin content and significant mutagenic effect. As L. salicaria has been long used in traditional medicine for chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, leucorrhoea and blood-spitting, genotoxic potential of the plant should be evaluated not only with regard to potential effects in the aquatic ecosystem, but also assessing its safe use as a medicinal herb.

  3. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF MURRAYA BY USING MOLECULAR MARKER

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    Dutta Amit Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Murraya koenigii is used as a stimulant, stomachic, febrifuge, analgesic and for treatment of diahrea, dysentery and insect bite. In present study, the antimicrobial activity of different part of Murraya kenigii(leaf, root and barkwas investigated by well diffusion method. As per result, plant extract showed a broad spectrum of very significant antibacterial activity of producing a clear zone of inhibition against, E. coli, Serratia, Klebsiella, Aspergillus niger, Fuesarrium, Penicilium, In this study Murraya is tested for antibacterial and antifungal activity by using Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and fungi. In the present investigation, all the extract (methanol, ethanol, acetone, petroleum ether were found to be effective against tested pathogenic strains except aqueous extract. Methanol extract showed more pronounced antimicrobial activity than other extracts.

  4. Acorus calamus (The Healing Plant): a review on its medicinal potential, micropropagation and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Isha; Chaudhary, Priyanka

    2014-01-01

    Acorus calamus L., a tall, perennial, grass-like monocot plant from the Acoraceae family, is a well-known plant in Indian traditional medicines for centuries. It is a highly valued herb as it acts as a rejuvenator for brain and nervous system. It is a main medhya drug, which has the property of improving the memory power and intellect. Rhizomes of the plant are widely used in the treatment of number of ailments such as epilepsy, mental ailments, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, fever, abdominal tumours, kidney and liver troubles, and rheumatism. A. calamus leaves, rhizomes and its essential oil possess many biological activities such as antispasmodic, carminative and are compiled in a simple approach in this review. This review presents a pragmatic description that deals with chemical constituents, toxicology, ethnobotany and pharmacological properties of A. calamus for easy and better understanding of the outstanding medicinal potential of this very special plant and sirens for its conservation.

  5. A COMPREHENSIVE ETHNOMEDICINAL DOCUMENTATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS OF ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, REGION, BANGLADESH

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    Gazi Ziaul Haque Masum*, Biplab Kumar Dash, Shital Kumar Barman and M. Kumer Sen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: An ethnobotanical survey was carried out through semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method in Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh to document the utilization of medicinal plants by local people for general ailments. A total of 87 species belonging to 51 families with their local names, useable parts and mode of application were recorded for their usages for curing at least 70 ailments. Ethnomedicinally most important families are Asteraceae, Combretaceae, Moraceae, Solanaceae, Apocynaceae. These plant species are utilized by local peoples against various ailments such as dysentery, fever, cough, sexual debility, asthma, skin disease, diarrhea, indigestion, wound healing, toothache, malaria, etc. Indigenous knowledge of Kavirajes or knowledgeable local persons have great contributions in formulating applicable strategy for the development of various medicine using plants as either fresh or raw sources or both. These scattered, selective, fast eroding and highly valuable knowledge needs proper documentation.

  6. The dynamic interdependence of amebiasis, innate immunity, and undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerke, Hans P; Petri, William A; Marie, Chelsea S

    2012-11-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan parasite that causes amebic dysentery, greatly contributes to disease burden in the developing world. Efforts to exhaustively characterize the pathogenesis of amebiasis have increased our understanding of the dynamic host-parasite interaction and the process by which E. histolytica trophozoites transition from gut commensals to invaders of the intestinal epithelium. Mouse models of disease continue to be instrumental in this area. At the same time, large-scale studies in human populations have identified genetic and environmental factors that influence susceptibility to amebiasis. Nutritional status has long been known to globally influence immune function. So it is not surprising that undernutrition has emerged as a critical risk factor. A better understanding of how nutritional status affects immunity to E. histolytica will have dramatic implications in the development of novel treatments. Future work should continue to characterize the fascinating host-parasite arms race that occurs at each stage of infection.

  7. Comparison of Azithromycin and Ciprofloxacin in treating adults\\\\\\' acute non amebiasis dysenter

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    Azadeh Erahimzadeh

    2013-02-01

    Results: Out of 84 patients, shigella was diagnosed in 41 (48.8%, 18 patients of whom (43.9% had been treated with azitromycin and 23 cases (56.1% had received ciprofloxacin .In 14 samples (16.7% other microbes had grown (e.g. Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia Coli. Antibiogram of 55 patients showed that 32 (58.2% of them were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and 41 subjects (74.5% to azitromycin .On the third day of treatment the clinical response of the patients was assessed through their probable fever and diarrhea .It was found that 29 cases (93.5% in azitromycin group and 31 patients (88.5% in ciprofloxacin group were a febrile. Thus, no significant difference between the two groups was observed (P=0.6. Conclusion: The present study proved that Azitromycin and Ciprofloxacin have the same efficacy in treating non-amoebic dysentery

  8. The Dynamic Interdependence of Amebiasis, Innate Immunity, and Undernutrition1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerke, Hans P.; Petri, William A.; Marie, Chelsea S.

    2012-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan parasite that causes amebic dysentery, greatly contributes to disease burden in the developing world. Efforts to exhaustively characterize the pathogenesis of amebiasis have increased our understanding of the dynamic host-parasite interaction and the process by which E. histolytica trophozoites transition from gut commensals to invaders of the intestinal epithelium. Mouse models of disease continue to be instrumental in this area. At the same time, large-scale studies in human populations have identified genetic and environmental factors that influence susceptibility to amebiasis. Nutritional status has long been known to globally influence immune function. So it is not surprising that undernutrition has emerged as a critical risk factor. A better understanding of how nutritional status affects immunity to E. histolytica will have dramatic implications in the development of novel treatments. Future work should continue to characterize the fascinating host-parasite arms race that occurs at each stage of infection. PMID:23114864

  9. Primary Pulmonary Amebiasis Complicated with Multicystic Empyema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Ali; Al-Share, Bayan; Al Asad, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Amebiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. While most infections are asymptomatic, the disease could manifest clinically as amebic dysentery and/or extraintestinal invasion in the form of amebic liver abscess or other more rare manifestations such as pulmonary, cardiac, or brain involvement. Herein we are reporting a case of a 24-year-old male with history of Down syndrome who presented with severe right side pneumonia complicated with multicystic empyema resistant to regular medical therapy. Further investigation revealed a positive pleural fluid for E. histolytica cysts and trophozoites. The patient was diagnosed with primary pleuropulmonary amebiasis and he responded promptly to surgical drainage and metronidazole therapy. In patients from endemic areas all physicians should keep a high index of suspicion of amebiasis as a cause of pulmonary disease.

  10. Primary Pulmonary Amebiasis Complicated with Multicystic Empyema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zakaria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amebiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. While most infections are asymptomatic, the disease could manifest clinically as amebic dysentery and/or extraintestinal invasion in the form of amebic liver abscess or other more rare manifestations such as pulmonary, cardiac, or brain involvement. Herein we are reporting a case of a 24-year-old male with history of Down syndrome who presented with severe right side pneumonia complicated with multicystic empyema resistant to regular medical therapy. Further investigation revealed a positive pleural fluid for E. histolytica cysts and trophozoites. The patient was diagnosed with primary pleuropulmonary amebiasis and he responded promptly to surgical drainage and metronidazole therapy. In patients from endemic areas all physicians should keep a high index of suspicion of amebiasis as a cause of pulmonary disease.

  11. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE FLOWERS OF Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC. BAKER EX. K.HEYNE

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    B.AMALA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Flowers of higher plants have been used for centuries for several purposes such as medicine, food and garnishing in many parts of the world. The present study focuses on preliminary phytochemical screening of flowers of Peltophorum pterocarpum was carried out. Peltophorum pterocarpum (belonging to Fabaceae family regarded as one of the most significant plant species in traditional system of medicine. The plant is used in different parts of the world for the treatment of several ailments like stomatitis, insomnia, skin troubles, constipation, ringworm, insomnia, dysentery, muscular pains, sores, and skin disorders and is the source of a diverse kind of chemical constituents such as aliphatic alcohols, fatty acids, amino acids, terpenoids, phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids etc. The presence of various bioactive compounds confirms the application of P.pterocarpum for various ailments by traditional practitioners. However, isolation of individual phytochemical constituents may proceed to find a novel drug.

  12. Review-An overview of Pistacia integerrima a medicinal plant species: Ethnobotany, biological activities and phytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Yamin; Zia, Muhammad; Qayyum, Abdul

    2015-05-01

    Pistacia integerrima with a common name crab's claw is an ethnobotanically important tree native to Asia. Traditionally plant parts particularly its galls have been utilized for treatment of cough, asthma, dysentery, liver disorders and for snake bite. Plant mainly contains alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and sterols in different parts including leaf, stem, bark, galls and fruit. A number of terpenoids, sterols and phenolic compounds have been isolated from Pistacia integerrima extracts. Plant has many biological activities including anti-microbial, antioxidant, analgesic, cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity due to its chemical constituents. This review covers its traditional ethnomedicinal uses along with progresses in biological and phytochemical evaluation of this medicinally important plant species and aims to serve as foundation for further exploration and utilization.

  13. Antiproliferative activity and induction of apoptosis in PC-3 cells by the chalcone cardamonin from Campomanesia adamantium (Myrtaceae) in a bioactivity-guided study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoal, Aislan Cristina Rheder Fagundes; Ehrenfried, Carlos Augusto; Lopez, Begoña Gimenez-Cassina; de Araujo, Thiago Matos; Pascoal, Vinicius D'ávila Bitencourt; Gilioli, Rovilson; Anhê, Gabriel Forato; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia Tasca Goes; Carvalho, João Ernesto de; Stefanello, Maria Elida Alves; Salvador, Marcos José

    2014-02-07

    The Myrtaceae family is a common source of medicines used in the treatment of numerous diseases in South America. In Brazil, fruits of the Campomanesia species are widely used to make liqueurs, juices and sweets, whereas leaves are traditionally employed as a medicine for dysentery, stomach problems, diarrhea, cystitis and urethritis. Ethanol extracts of Campomanesia adamantium (Myrtaceae) leaves and fruits were evaluated against prostate cancer cells (PC-3). The compound (2E)-1-(2,4-dihydroxy-6-methoxyphenyl)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one, cardamonin) was isolated from ethanol extracts of C. adamantium leaves in a bioactivity-guided study and quantified by UPLC-MS/MS. In vitro studies showed that the isolated chalcone cardamonin inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation and decreased the expression of NFkB1. Moreover, analysis by flow cytometry showed that this compound induced DNA fragmentation, suggesting an effect on apoptosis induction in the PC-3 cell line.

  14. Detection of genotoxic, cytotoxic, and protective activities of Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Pabline Marinho; Veronezi, Eduardo; Silva, Carolina R; Chen-Chen, Lee

    2012-06-01

    Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae), popularly known in Brazil as cagaiteira, is a widespread plant species in the Brazilian Cerrado. In folk medicine, the leaves of this plant are used to treat diarrhea and dysentery. The fruits are used for fresh consumption and industrial purposes. Because of the use of this plant as a therapeutic resource and food, the present study evaluated the genotoxic, cytotoxic, antigenotoxic, and anticytotoxic effects of the lyophilized ethanolic leaf extract of E. dysenterica using the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. The genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of this extract were evaluated using the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes, and the cytotoxicity and anticytotoxicity were assessed by the polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocyte ratio. According to our results, the lyophilized ethanolic leaf extract of E. dysenterica exhibited genotoxic and cytotoxic effects at the higher doses and protection against cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxic and cytotoxic actions at all doses tested.

  15. Species-wide whole genome sequencing reveals historical global spread and recent local persistence in Shigella flexneri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Thomas R; Barker, Clare R; Baker, Kate S; Weill, François-Xavier; Talukder, Kaisar Ali; Smith, Anthony M; Baker, Stephen; Gouali, Malika; Pham Thanh, Duy; Jahan Azmi, Ishrat; Dias da Silveira, Wanderley; Semmler, Torsten; Wieler, Lothar H; Jenkins, Claire; Cravioto, Alejandro; Faruque, Shah M; Parkhill, Julian; Wook Kim, Dong; Keddy, Karen H; Thomson, Nicholas R

    2015-08-04

    Shigella flexneri is the most common cause of bacterial dysentery in low-income countries. Despite this, S. flexneri remains largely unexplored from a genomic standpoint and is still described using a vocabulary based on serotyping reactions developed over half-a-century ago. Here we combine whole genome sequencing with geographical and temporal data to examine the natural history of the species. Our analysis subdivides S. flexneri into seven phylogenetic groups (PGs); each containing two-or-more serotypes and characterised by distinct virulence gene complement and geographic range. Within the S. flexneri PGs we identify geographically restricted sub-lineages that appear to have persistently colonised regions for many decades to over 100 years. Although we found abundant evidence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinant acquisition, our dataset shows no evidence of subsequent intercontinental spread of antimicrobial resistant strains. The pattern of colonisation and AMR gene acquisition suggest that S. flexneri has a distinct life-cycle involving local persistence.

  16. Melastoma malabathricum (L. Smith Ethnomedicinal Uses, Chemical Constituents, and Pharmacological Properties: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohd. Joffry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melastoma malabathricum L. (Melastomataceae is one of the 22 species found in the Southeast Asian region, including Malaysia. Considered as native to tropical and temperate Asia and the Pacific Islands, this commonly found small shrub has gained herbal status in the Malay folklore belief as well as the Indian, Chinese, and Indonesian folk medicines. Ethnopharmacologically, the leaves, shoots, barks, seeds, and roots of M. malabathricum have been used to treat diarrhoea, dysentery, hemorrhoids, cuts and wounds, toothache, and stomachache. Scientific findings also revealed the wide pharmacological actions of various parts of M. malabthricum, such as antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, antidiarrheal, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities. Various types of phytochemical constituents have also been isolated and identifed from different parts of M. malabathricum. Thus, the aim of the present review is to present comprehensive information on ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of M. malabathricum.

  17. Isolation and Evaluation of Mucilage of Adansonia digitata Linn as a Suspending Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, S S; Katare, Y S; Shyale, S S; Bhujbal, S S; Kadam, S D; Landge, D A; Shah, D V; Pawar, J B

    2013-01-01

    Natural excipients can serve as alternative to synthetic products because of local accessibility, biodegradability, eco-friendly nature and cost effectiveness as compared to synthetic products. Therefore, it is a current need to explore natural excipients that can be used as an effective alternative excipient for the formulation of pharmaceutical dosage forms. Adansonia digitata (Malvaceae) has been traditionally used as febrifuge, antiasthmatic and also in the treatment of dysentery, smallpox, and measles. Reports have indicated that mucilage of the leaves of the plant is edible and nontoxic; hence, the present study is an attempt of isolation and evaluation of mucilage obtained from leaves of Adansonia digitata as suspending agent. Various physicochemical as well as suspending agent properties of mucilage were studied. Mucilage obtained from leaves has shown comparable results with sodium carboxy methyl cellulose.

  18. Genotoxicity of Euphorbia hirta: an Allium cepa assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuet Ping, Kwan; Darah, Ibrahim; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Yeng, Chen; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2012-06-26

    The potential genotoxic effects of methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta which is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseased conditions including asthma, coughs, diarrhea and dysentery was investigated using Allium cepa assay. The extracts of 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 µg/mL were tested on root meristems of A. cepa. Ethylmethanesulfonate was used as positive control and distilled water was used as negative control. The result showed that mitotic index decreased as the concentrations of E. hirta extract increased. A dose-dependent increase of chromosome aberrations was also observed. Abnormalities scored were stickiness, c-mitosis, bridges and vagrant chromosomes. Micronucleated cells were also observed at interphase. Result of this study confirmed that the methanol extracts of E. hirta exerted significant genotoxic and mitodepressive effects at 1,000 µg/mL.

  19. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF A NEW ALLELOCHEMICAL FROM PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS L.

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    R. N. Yadava* and Shirin Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parthenium hysterophorus L. is commonly known as “Gajar ghas" in Hindi and belongs to family Composite. It is an annual herb erect up to 1.5 m in hight. Its stems is branched and covered with trichomes. Its leaves are pale green, branched and covered with soft fine hairs. In Homoeopathy system, allergies caused by Parthenium can be treated by a drug prepared from Parthenium. Root decoction is useful in dysentery. In the present paper, we report the isolation and structurel elucidation of a new allelochemical identified (I as 3 , 5, 7, 4′ tetrahydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone-3-O--L-galactopyranosyl-(1→3-O--D-arabinopyranosyl-7-O--L-rhamnopyranoside alongwith two known compounds Lutexin (II and Cirsilineol (III from methanolic extract of the stems of this plant by several colour reactions, chemical degradations and spectral analysis.

  20. Therapeutic methods for diarrhoea in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.K. Bhattacharya

    2000-01-01

    Acute diarrhoea may manifest as acute watery diarrhoea or dysentery. The key to the management of acutewatery diarrhoea is correction of dehydration, proper feeding and appropriate use of antibiotic in selectedcases. Correction of dehydration may be done by oral route by using oral rehydration salts solution (ORS)recornmended by WHO/UNICEF or by intravenous administration of fluid and electrolytes, the preferredsolution being Ringer's lactate. Antibiotic is required for severe cholera and shigellosis. Antiparasitic drugsare required for amoebiasis or giardiasis. Use of various antidiarrhoeals is strongly discouraged. Feedingduring diarrhoea is very important. It does not worsen diarrhoea rather hastens recovery and preventsmalnutrition. Supplementation of zinc as an adjunct to rehydration therapy has also been suggested.

  1. Traditional Medicinal Flora of the District Buxar (Bihar, India

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    Ritesh Singh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Buxar district (Bihar,India is one of the less floristically studied regions of central Gangetic plain. The district lacks dense forests and its medicinal flora exclusively consists of dicot angiosperms. A total of 84 species belonging to 27 families were reported in this study. Majority of the reported plants were herbs with highest contribution from family Fabaceae (12. The present paper deals with the traditional uses of these plants. Plants and their part thereof were used to treat diseases such as - malaria, small pox, leprosy, diarrhea, diabetes, rheumatisms, hepatitis A, heart problems, elephantiasis, STDs, asthma, dysentery, in pregnancy complications and against snake and scorpion poisons. Findings will help in conservation and cultivation of these plants.

  2. 超临界CO2萃取穿心莲内酯的实验研究%Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata: Effect of the Solvent Flow Rate,Pressure,and Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees has been extensively used for traditional medicine and help against fever,dysentery,diarrhoea,inflammation,and sore throat. In this study,andrographolide,the main component of this plant was extracted from the leaves of A. paniculata using supercritical carbon dioxide. The operating pressures were varied from 7.50 to 20 MPa,the temperatures were varied from 30℃ to 60℃,and the flow rates were varied 3g sample of A. paniculata ground-dried leaves. The measured extraction rate was found to be about 0.0174g of andrographolide per gram of andrographolide present in the leaves per hour of operation. The future studies must focus on the interaction between the various operating parameters such as temperature,pressure,and flow rate of supercritical carbon dioxide.

  3. Microbiological and Pharmacological Evaluation of the Micropropagated Rubus liebmannii Medicinal Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Arellanes, Adelina; Cornejo-Garrido, Jorge; Rojas-Bribiesca, Gabriela; Nicasio-Torres, María del Pilar; Said-Fernández, Salvador; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Molina-Salinas, Gloria María; Tortoriello, Jaime; Meckes-Fischer, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Rubus liebmannii is an endemic species from Mexico used in traditional medicine primarily to treat dysentery and cough. The in vitro activity against Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica that produces the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant led us to expand the pharmacological and phytochemical research of this species. Gastrointestinal disorders including amebiasis remain one of the health problems that need to be addressed and it is of interest to find alternatives that improve their treatment. Also, it is important to emphasize that R. liebmannii grows wild in the country and is not found in abundance; therefore, alternatives that avoid overexploitation of the natural resource are mandatory. Ongoing with the evaluation of the potentialities that R. liebmannii possesses for treating infectious gastrointestinal diseases, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the biological effects and the chemical composition of the micropropagated plant. PMID:22966243

  4. Parasitic diseases as the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Sun

    2014-06-01

    To determine the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953), death certificates or medical records were analyzed. Out of 7,614 deaths, 5,013 (65.8%) were due to infectious diseases. Although dysentery and tuberculosis were the most common infectious diseases, parasitic diseases had caused 14 deaths: paragonimiasis in 5, malaria in 3, amoebiasis in 2, intestinal parasitosis in 2, ascariasis in 1, and schistosomiasis in 1. These results showed that paragonimiasis, malaria, and amoebiasis were the most fatal parasitic diseases during the early 1950s in the Korean Peninsula. Since schistosomiasis is not endemic to Korea, it is likely that the infected private soldier moved from China or Japan to Korea.

  5. Antibacterial properties of some plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanís, A D; Calzada, F; Cervantes, J A; Torres, J; Ceballos, G M

    2005-08-22

    Antibacterial properties of aqueous and methanolic extracts of 26 medicinal plants used in Mexico to treat gastrointestinal disorders were tested against eight different species of enteropathogens: two Escherichia coli species; two Shigella sonnei species; two Shigella flexneri species; and two Salmonella sp. species. The results showed that all crude extracts exhibited antibacterial activity, at least against one of the microorganisms tested, at concentrations of 8 mg/mL or lower. The extracts from Caesalpinia pulcherria, Chiranthodendron pentadactylon, Cocos nucifera, Geranium mexicanum (aerial parts and roots), Hippocratea excelsa, and Punica granatum possessed strong antibacterial activity against most of the pathogens tested. In general, methanolic extracts were more active than aqueous extracts. Their activity was higher than chloramphenicol but did not exceed that of trimethoprim. Shigella sonnei species showed the highest susceptibility to both extracts. This is the first evaluation of these plants against bacterial pathogen isolates, which cause diarrhea and dysentery in Mexican population.

  6. Phytochemical and biological studies of Ochna species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandi, Anil Kumar Reddy; Lee, Dong-Ung; Tih, Raphaël Ghogomu; Gunasekar, Duvvuru; Bodo, Bernard

    2012-02-01

    The genus Ochna L. (Gr, Ochne; wild pear), belonging to the Ochnaceae family, includes ca. 85 species of evergreen trees, shrubs, and shrublets, distributed in tropical Asia, Africa, and America. Several members of this genus have long been used in folk medicine for treatment of various ailments, such as asthma, dysentery, epilepsy, gastric disorders, menstrual complaints, lumbago, ulcers, as an abortifacient, and as antidote against snake bites. Up to now, ca. 111 constituents, viz. flavonoids (including bi-, tri-, and pentaflavonoids), anthranoids, triterpenes, steroids, fatty acids, and a few others have been identified in the genus. Crude extracts and isolated compounds have been found to exhibit analgesic, anti-HIV-1, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities, lending support to the rationale behind several of its traditional uses. The present review compiles the informations concerning the traditional uses, phytochemistry, and biological activities of Ochna.

  7. Microbiological and Pharmacological Evaluation of the Micropropagated Rubus liebmannii Medicinal Plant

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    Adelina Jiménez-Arellanes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubus liebmannii is an endemic species from Mexico used in traditional medicine primarily to treat dysentery and cough. The in vitro activity against Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica that produces the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant led us to expand the pharmacological and phytochemical research of this species. Gastrointestinal disorders including amebiasis remain one of the health problems that need to be addressed and it is of interest to find alternatives that improve their treatment. Also, it is important to emphasize that R. liebmannii grows wild in the country and is not found in abundance; therefore, alternatives that avoid overexploitation of the natural resource are mandatory. Ongoing with the evaluation of the potentialities that R. liebmannii possesses for treating infectious gastrointestinal diseases, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the biological effects and the chemical composition of the micropropagated plant.

  8. Mimosa pudica L. (Laajvanti: An overview

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    Hafsa Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mimosa pudica L. (Mimosaceae also referred to as touch me not, live and die, shame plant and humble plant is a prostrate or semi-erect subshrub of tropical America and Australia, also found in India heavily armed with recurved thorns and having sensitive soft grey green leaflets that fold and droop at night or when touched and cooled. These unique bending movements have earned it a status of ′curiosity plant′. It appears to be a promising herbal candidate to undergo further exploration as evident from its pharmacological profile. It majorly possesses antibacterial, antivenom, antifertility, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, aphrodisiac, and various other pharmacological activities. The herb has been used traditionally for ages, in the treatment of urogenital disorders, piles, dysentery, sinus, and also applied on wounds. This work is an attempt to explore and compile the different pharmacognostic aspects of the action plant M. pudica reported till date.

  9. Primary Pulmonary Amebiasis Complicated with Multicystic Empyema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Share, Bayan; Al Asad, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Amebiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. While most infections are asymptomatic, the disease could manifest clinically as amebic dysentery and/or extraintestinal invasion in the form of amebic liver abscess or other more rare manifestations such as pulmonary, cardiac, or brain involvement. Herein we are reporting a case of a 24-year-old male with history of Down syndrome who presented with severe right side pneumonia complicated with multicystic empyema resistant to regular medical therapy. Further investigation revealed a positive pleural fluid for E. histolytica cysts and trophozoites. The patient was diagnosed with primary pleuropulmonary amebiasis and he responded promptly to surgical drainage and metronidazole therapy. In patients from endemic areas all physicians should keep a high index of suspicion of amebiasis as a cause of pulmonary disease. PMID:27478673

  10. Mimosa pudica L. (Laajvanti): An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Hafsa; Sehgal, Sakshi; Mishra, Anurag; Gupta, Rajiv

    2012-07-01

    Mimosa pudica L. (Mimosaceae) also referred to as touch me not, live and die, shame plant and humble plant is a prostrate or semi-erect subshrub of tropical America and Australia, also found in India heavily armed with recurved thorns and having sensitive soft grey green leaflets that fold and droop at night or when touched and cooled. These unique bending movements have earned it a status of 'curiosity plant'. It appears to be a promising herbal candidate to undergo further exploration as evident from its pharmacological profile. It majorly possesses antibacterial, antivenom, antifertility, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, aphrodisiac, and various other pharmacological activities. The herb has been used traditionally for ages, in the treatment of urogenital disorders, piles, dysentery, sinus, and also applied on wounds. This work is an attempt to explore and compile the different pharmacognostic aspects of the action plant M. pudica reported till date.

  11. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of Ichnocarpus frutescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Narendra Kumar Singh; V.P. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Ichnocarpusfrutescens R.Br.(Apocynaceae),is a woody climbing shrub,found almost in all parts of India.In India,tribes used this plant as a substitute of Indian Sarsaparilla (Hemidesmus indicus) for the treatment of atrophy,convulsions,cough,delirium,dysentery,measles,splenomegaly,tuberculosis,tumor,diabetes as a lactogogue,antipyretic,demulcent,diaphoretic and in skin diseases.Phytochemical investigations indicate that 28 compounds reported from the plant belong to various chemical category viz.phytosterol,triterpenes,flavonoids and various other phenolic compounds.Pharmacological activities of different parts of the plant reported include antiurolithiatic,hepatoprotective,antioxidant,analgesic,antipyretic,anti-inflammatory,antidiabetic,antihyperlipidemic and antitumor activity.In the present review the literature data on the phytochemical and biological investigations on the I.frutescens are summarized up to March 2011.

  12. In vitro antagonistic activities of Lactobacillus spp. against Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardeau, Marion; Gueguen, Micheline; Smith, David G E; Corona-Barrera, Enrique; Vernoux, Jean Paul

    2009-07-02

    The sensitivity of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli, respectively the causative agents of Swine Dysentery and Porcine Intestinal Spirochaetosis to two probiotic Lactobacillus strains, L. rhamnosus CNCM-I-3698 and L. farciminis CNCM-I-3699 was studied through viability, motility and coaggregation assays. The cell-free supernatant of these lactobacilli contains lactic acid, that is stressful for Brachyspira (leading to the formation of spherical bodies), and lethal. It was demonstrated for the first time the in vitro coaggregation properties of two probiotic Lactobacillus strains (active or heat-treated) with two pathogenic strains of Brachyspira, leading to (1) trapping of spirochaetal cells in a physical network as demonstrated by SEM; (2) inhibition of the motility of Brachyspira. Such in vitro studies should encourage in vivo studies in animal model to evaluate the potential of the use of probiotic lactobacilli through a feeding strategy for the prevention of B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli.

  13. Caso fatal de balantidíase intestinal

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    Maria da Conceição Pinheiro

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Caso fatal de balantidíase em mulher desnutrida de 63 anos, criadora de porcos, da zona rural de Uberaba. A doença evoluiu em oito dias com disenteria, náusea e vômitos, culminando em óbito por enterorragia. A necropsia constatou-se colite ulcerada causada por B. coli, facilmente identificado ao exame histológico do intestino grosso.A fatal case of a 63-year old pig-raising country woman with an eight-day course of nausea, vomiting. dysentery with intestinal bleeding the latter being the direct cause of death. The autopsy showed ulcerative colitis due to B. coli, which was easily observed on histological examination of the large bowel.

  14. A multi-center randomized trial to assess the efficacy of gatifloxacin versus ciprofloxacin for the treatment of shigellosis in Vietnamese children.

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    Ha Vinh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial genus Shigella is the leading cause of dysentery. There have been significant increases in the proportion of Shigella isolated that demonstrate resistance to nalidixic acid. While nalidixic acid is no longer considered as a therapeutic agent for shigellosis, the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin is the current recommendation of the World Health Organization. Resistance to nalidixic acid is a marker of reduced susceptibility to older generation fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. We aimed to assess the efficacy of gatifloxacin versus ciprofloxacin in the treatment of uncomplicated shigellosis in children.We conducted a randomized, open-label, controlled trial with two parallel arms at two hospitals in southern Vietnam. The study was designed as a superiority trial and children with dysentery meeting the inclusion criteria were invited to participate. Participants received either gatifloxacin (10 mg/kg/day in a single daily dose for 3 days or ciprofloxacin (30 mg/kg/day in two divided doses for 3 days. The primary outcome measure was treatment failure; secondary outcome measures were time to the cessation of individual symptoms. Four hundred and ninety four patients were randomized to receive either gatifloxacin (n=249 or ciprofloxacin (n=245, of which 107 had a positive Shigella stool culture. We could not demonstrate superiority of gatifloxacin and observed similar clinical failure rate in both groups (gatifloxacin; 12.0% and ciprofloxacin; 11.0%, p=0.72. The median (inter-quartile range time from illness onset to cessation of all symptoms was 95 (66-126 hours for gatifloxacin recipients and 93 (68-120 hours for the ciprofloxacin recipients (Hazard Ratio [95%CI]=0.98 [0.82-1.17], p=0.83.We conclude that in Vietnam, where nalidixic acid resistant Shigellae are highly prevalent, ciprofloxacin and gatifloxacin are similarly effective for the treatment of acute shigellosis.

  15. The Comparison of Effect of Human Milk and Powdered Milk on the Shigella dysenteriae Invasion in Cell Culture

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    Mahdeye Azadi Aghdam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shigella species are the common etiologic agents of bacterial dysentery. Many epidemiological studies have shown that breastfeeding may protect infants against intestinal infections. Among the components of milk, glycosylated proteins inhibit the adhesion of enteric pathogens in the laboratory. Immunoglobulins mainly secretory immunoglobulin A, glycosylated compounds, and oligosaccharides of breast milk are associated with protection against different intestinal pathogens. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different proteins of breast milk and powdered milk on the invasion of Shigella colonies. Materials and Methods: To accomplish this goal, breast milk samples were provided from two donors in the first 6 months of breastfeeding and powdered milk with different brands were obtained from the market. Then the proteins were extracted by precipitation using ammonium sulfate and dialysis using dialysis bag and protein bands were separated through SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Finally, the obtained milk proteins through Hela cells culture were tested and evaluated for the adhesion and invasion of the Shigella. Results: Our results revealed that the adhesion and invasion of Shigella stains were more inhibited by low concentrations of breast milk proteins in comparison with powdered milk. This concentration was about 2.75 mg/mL for the proteins of breast milk and 0.5 mg/mL for the proteins of powdered milk and this inhibition in different dilutions of breast milk was 71.21% and those of powdered milk was 27.19% in average. There was a significant difference between breast milk and powdered milk (P < 0.5 considering their inhibitory behavior. Conclusion: The results revealed that the components of breast milk inhibit the adhesion and consequently invasion of Shigella and inhibit bacterial dysentery.

  16. Molecular analysis of the bovine coronavirus S1 gene by direct sequencing of diarrheic fecal specimens

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    E. Takiuchi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Bovine coronavirus (BCoV causes severe diarrhea in newborn calves, is associated with winter dysentery in adult cattle and respiratory infections in calves and feedlot cattle. The BCoV S protein plays a fundamental role in viral attachment and entry into the host cell, and is cleaved into two subunits termed S1 (amino terminal and S2 (carboxy terminal. The present study describes a strategy for the sequencing of the BCoV S1 gene directly from fecal diarrheic specimens that were previously identified as BCoV positive by RT-PCR assay for N gene detection. A consensus sequence of 2681 nucleotides was obtained through direct sequencing of seven overlapping PCR fragments of the S gene. The samples did not undergo cell culture passage prior to PCR amplification and sequencing. The structural analysis was based on the genomic differences between Brazilian strains and other known BCoV from different geographical regions. The phylogenetic analysis of the entire S1 gene showed that the BCoV Brazilian strains were more distant from the Mebus strain (97.8% identity for nucleotides and 96.8% identity for amino acids and more similar to the BCoV-ENT strain (98.7% for nucleotides and 98.7% for amino acids. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the hypervariable region of the S1 subunit, these strains clustered with the American (BCoV-ENT, 182NS and Canadian (BCQ20, BCQ2070, BCQ9, BCQ571, BCQ1523 calf diarrhea and the Canadian winter dysentery (BCQ7373, BCQ2590 strains, but clustered on a separate branch of the Korean and respiratory BCoV strains. The BCoV strains of the present study were not clustered in the same branch of previously published Brazilian strains (AY606193, AY606194. These data agree with the genealogical construction and suggest that at least two different BCoV strains are circulating in Brazil.

  17. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Brachyspira Species Isolated from Swine Herds in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirajkar, Nandita S.; Davies, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of swine dysentery, caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and the recently discovered “Brachyspira hampsonii,” have reoccurred in North American swine herds since the late 2000s. Additionally, multiple Brachyspira species have been increasingly isolated by North American diagnostic laboratories. In Europe, the reliance on antimicrobial therapy for control of swine dysentery has been followed by reports of antimicrobial resistance over time. The objectives of our study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility trends of four Brachyspira species originating from U.S. swine herds and to investigate their associations with the bacterial species, genotypes, and epidemiological origins of the isolates. We evaluated the susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae, B. hampsonii, Brachyspira pilosicoli, and Brachyspira murdochii to tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, lincomycin, and tylosin by broth microdilution and that to carbadox by agar dilution. In general, Brachyspira species showed high susceptibility to tiamulin, valnemulin, and carbadox, heterogeneous susceptibility to doxycycline, and low susceptibility to lincomycin and tylosin. A trend of decreasing antimicrobial susceptibility by species was observed (B. hampsonii > B. hyodysenteriae > B. murdochii > B. pilosicoli). In general, Brachyspira isolates from the United States were more susceptible to these antimicrobials than were isolates from other countries. Decreased antimicrobial susceptibility was associated with the genotype, stage of production, and production system from which the isolate originated, which highlights the roles of biosecurity and husbandry in disease prevention and control. Finally, this study also highlights the urgent need for Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-approved clinical breakpoints for Brachyspira species, to facilitate informed therapeutic and control strategies. PMID:27252458

  18. Drug resistant Shigella flexneri in & around Dibrugarh, north-east India

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    Reema Nath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Shigella flexneri is the most common species of Shigella causing diarrhoea and dysentery in Asia including India. Multidrug resistance in Shigella species has been reported worldwide and there is rising concern regarding development of fluoroquinolone resistance. This study was undertaken to find out the resistance pattern of Sh. flexneri, the commonest shigella isolated in Dibrugarh, north east India, including detection of fluoroquinolone resistance and extended spectrum beta lactamases. Methods: Stool samples collected from patients of diarrhoea and dysentery were tested for bacterial enteropathogens. Strains of Shigella species were confirmed by biochemical tests. Speciation was done using commercially available polyvalent antiserum. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method against 18 different antibiotics. Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL detection was done by disc approximation test as well as combination disc method and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of different antibiotics were also measured. Results: Multidrug resistance in Sh. flexneri was found to be common (90.2% and the commonest phenotypic multi-drug resistance profile was ampicillin-tetracycline-co-trimoxazole-nalidixic acid. High resistance to nalidixic acid was detected in 90.3 per cent isolates (MIC >240 μg/ml and ciprofloxacin resistance was seen emerging in this region (11.2%, MIC >4 μg/ml. Present of ESBL was phenotypically confirmed in two cases. Besides the fluoroquinolones, chloramphenicol, piperacillin-tazobactum and the third generation cephalosporins were effective in 87-100 per cent of the isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed high resistance (MIC >240 μg/ml against nalidixic acid in Sh. flexneri isolates. Ciprofloxacin resistance is also emerging in this region. Shigellosis due to ESBL carrying Shigella can become a serious threat to public health. Guidelines for

  19. 马达加斯加马义奇地区阿米巴痢疾感染状况调查分析%Investigation and analysis on amebic infection in Ma Yiqi Region of Madagascar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳文; Pierre; 郭天康; 卢启明; 魏莲花; 韩平治; 张浩军; Andrea; Patrick

    2014-01-01

    目的 对马达加斯加共和国马义奇地区的阿米巴痢疾感染状况进行调查分析. 方法 2013年1-12月,在马达加斯加马义奇地区,对中国援马达加斯加医疗队马义奇医院就诊的当地疑似阿米巴痢疾患者,连续采集3次新鲜粪便标本,显微镜检查溶组织阿米巴滋养体和包囊,统计20092012年该院显微镜检查溶组织阿米巴痢疾的原始记录,对各年份及不同季节阿米巴痢疾的感染率、不同年龄组人群患阿米巴痢疾的比率等进行统计学分析. 结果 2009-2013年分别检测疑似患者254、303、320、263和316例,确诊126、152、165、143和176例,感染率分别为49.7%、50.2%、51.5%、54.4%和55.7%,各年份感染率比较差异均无统计学意义(x2=1.46,P>0.05).雨季感染率分别为80.2%、78.5%、81.7%、80.3%和82.1%,较旱季明显偏高,各年份雨季和旱季感染率差异均有统计学意义(x2=83.82,P<0.01).0~6岁患儿占患者的85.7%,明显高于其他年龄组,各年龄组差异有统计学意义(x2=1 067.6,P<0.01). 结论 马达加斯加马义奇地区阿米巴痢疾常年发病,易感人群多为0~6岁的学龄前儿童,且雨季较旱季感染率明显偏高.%Objective To investigate the infection of amebic dysentery in Ma Yiqi Region of the Republic of Madagascar.Methods From January to December,2013,the fresh stool specimens of all patients of suspected amebic dysentery,treated by the Chinese medical team assisting to Ma Yiqi Hospital were collected for three times consecutively and were examined for the trophozoites and cysts of histolytic ameba under microscope.Furthermore,all original records of histolytic amebic dysentery confirmed microscopically from 2009 to 2012 in this hospital were summarized.The amebic dysentery infection rate in each year and different seasons and the ratio of different age groups with amebic dysentery were statistically analyzed and epidemiologically studied.Results From 2009

  20. Efficacy of moxifloxacin & econazole against multidrug resistant (MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis in murine model

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    U D Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Studies have shown the bactericidal potential of econazole and clotrimazole against Mycobacterium tuberculosis under in vitro and ex vivo conditions along with their synergism with conventional antituberculosis drugs. These molecules were also found to be effective against different multidrug resistant (MDR M. tuberculosis isolates in vitro. Hence the present study was designed to evaluate the in vivo antimycobacterial potential of moxifloxacin and econazole alone and in combination against multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB in a mice model. Methods: Mice were infected with 2.5×10 [7] bacilli of MDR strain of M. tuberculosis by aerosol route of infection. After four weeks of infection, chemotherapy was started orally by moxifloxacin 8.0 mg/kg body wt and econazole 3.3 mg/kg alone and in combination, as well as with four first line anti-tuberculosis drugs as a positive control. The animals were sacrificed and the lungs and spleen were excised under aspetic conditions. The tissues were homogenized with sterile normal saline, an aliquot of the homogenate was plated on Middlebrook 7H11 agar supplemented with oleate albumin dextrose catalase (OADC and incubated at 37°C for four weeks. The number of visible and individual colonies were counted. Results: The first line anti-tuberculosis drugs (RIF+INH+EMB+PZA after eight weeks of therapy had no impact as the bacillary load in lungs and spleens remained unchanged. However, econazole, moxifloxacin alone as well as in combination significantly reduced the bacillary load in lungs as well as in spleens of MDR-TB bacilli infected mice. Interpretation & conclusions: Co-administration of the two drugs (econazole and moxifloxacin to MDR-TB strain JAL-7782 infected mice exhibited additive effect, the efficacy of the drugs in combination being higher as compared with ECZ or MOX alone. These results were substantiated by histopathological studies. This study suggests the utility of

  1. TREATMENT OUTCOMES IN PATIENTS TREATED UNDER RNTCP IN KARAD TUBERCULOSIS UNIT

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    Vandana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP, India. OBJECTIVE: To study the treatment outcomes in patients treated under RNTCP &causes of defaulted, death, failure among them. MATERIAL & METHODS: This study was conducted in Karad Tuberculosis Unit (TU, Satara District, Maharashtra. Under Karad Tuberculosis Unit there were nine PHCs, Sub District Hospital and Krishna Hospital, six Designated Microscopy Centre’s (DMC, three Integrated Counseling and Testing Centre’s (ICTC – KH, SDH and Undale. All patients registered during January2008 to June 2009 i.e.806 were the study subjects. Before commencement of study permission of District Tuberculosis Officer (DTO was taken. STUDY TYPE: Longitudinal (Prospective Study. STUDY PLAN: Patients were interviewed using pre-tested semi structured questionnaires at their residence at the start of treatment, after completion of intensive phase and cohort was further followed up for approximately six months. RESULTS & OBSERVATIONS: Out of 233 new sputum smear positive (NSP patients, 214 had their sputum smear negative at the end of Intensive phase (IP; hence sputum conversion rate was 91.84% in present study. We found that233newsputum smear positive cases out of which 187 were cured. Thus the cure rate was 80.2%.Out of which 506 smear negative and extra pulmonary patients 462 completed treatment hence treatment completion rate was 91.30%. Out of 233 new smear sputum positive cases, 23 died thus death rate was 9.8%, 5 patients were treatment failure thus the failure rate was 2.1 %. 12 patients defaulted the treatment thus defaulted rate was5.15%.Due to tuberculosis 22 (2.7% patients died, 27 (3.3% due to HIV, 17 (2.1% defaulted due to migration, 5 (0.6% defaulted due to addiction of alcohol, 3 (0.4% defaulted due to not relief from symptoms, 1 (0.1% defaulted due to adverse reaction.16 (2% failed in due to initial heavy bacillary load. CONCLUSION: It is observed that our regimens

  2. Differential trend of leprosy in rural and urban area of western Maharashtra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohite, R V; Mohite, V R; Durgawale, P M

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy, major public health problem in Satara District with prevalence rate of 61/10000 population in 1990. With a view to eliminate Leprosy, Government of India launched National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP) in Satara district during July 1990 to overcome the burden of Leprosy with Multi-Drug Treatment and subsequently Modified Leprosy Elimination Campaign and Block Leprosy Awareness Campaign. The objective of the study is to assess the differential trend of Leprosy in rural and urban area of Satara district. Record based retrospective time series study was conducted in Urban Leprosy Control Units and Primary Health Centers of Satara district on NLEP evaluation indicators; prevalence rate, new case detection rate, percentage of cases released from treatment, proportion of female cases among new cases, proportion of multi bacillary cases among new cases, proportion of grade-II disability among new cases and proportion of child cases among new cases. Leprosy elimination was achieved in rural area i.e. prevalence rate trend was recorded in urban area from 0.1/10000 population to 1.1/10000 population since March 2006-07 and trend was statistically significant (chi2 trend = 37.26, p trend was observed in urban area from 39.6% to 52.8% with significant difference (chi2 trend = 5.42, p = 0.01*). Proportion of multi bacillary cases among new cases showed little fluctuation in rural area from 57% to 55.2% but proportion was decreased in urban area from 59.1% to 44.4% and trend was statistically significant (chi2 trend = 29.82, p trend was observed in urban area from 7% to 22.2% since March 2005-06 and proportion was significant (chi2 trend = 15.90, p = 0.0001*). More than 90% cases were released from treatment in rural area but proportion was low in urban area and trend was statistically significant (chi2 trend = 19.38, p < 0.001*). The National Leprosy Eradication Programme showed favorable impact in rural area as compared to urban area in Satara District of

  3. Analysis of the local kinetics and localization of interleukin-1 alpha, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta, during the course of experimental pulmonary tuberculosis.

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    Hernandez-Pando, R; Orozco, H; Arriaga, K; Sampieri, A; Larriva-Sahd, J; Madrid-Marina, V

    1997-01-01

    A mouse model of pulmonary tuberculosis induced by the intratracheal instillation of live and virulent mycobacteria strain H37-Rv was used to examine the relationship of the histopathological findings with the local kinetics production and cellular distribution of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). The histopathological and immunological studies showed two phases of the disease: acute or early and chronic or advanced. The acute phase was characterized by inflammatory infiltrate in the alveolar-capillary interstitium, blood vessels and bronchial wall with formation of granulomas. During this acute phase, which lasted from 1 to 28 days, high percentages of TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha immunostained activated macrophages were observed principally in the interstium-intralveolar inflammatory infiltrate and in granulomas. Electron microscopy studies of these cells, showed extensive rough endoplasmic reticulum, numerous lysosomes and occasional mycobacteria. Double labelling with colloid gold showed that TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha were present in the same cells, but were confined to separate vacuoles near the Golgi area, and mixed in larger vacuoles near to cell membrane. The concentration of TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha as well as their respective mRNAs were elevated in the early phase, particularly at day 3 when the bacillary count decreased. A second peak was seen at days 14 and 21-28 when granulomas appeared and evolved to full maturation. In contrast, TGF-beta production and numbers of immunoreactive cells were low in comparison with the advanced phase of the disease. The chronic phase was characterized by histopathological changes indicative of more severity (i.e. pneumonia, focal necrosis and extensive interstitial fibrosis) with a decrease in the TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha production that coincided with the highest level of TGF-beta. The bacillary counts were highest as the macrophages

  4. Conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated prior to cataract surgery

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    Suto C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikako Suto1,2, Masahiro Morinaga1,2, Tomoko Yagi1,2, Chieko Tsuji3, Hiroshi Toshida41Department of Ophthalmology, Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital, Saitama; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo; 3Department of Clinical Laboratory, Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital, Saitama; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Izunokuni, Shizuoka, JapanObjective: To determine the trends of conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated from patients prior to cataract surgery.Subjects and methods: The study comprised 579 patients (579 eyes who underwent cataract surgery. Specimens were collected by lightly rubbing the inferior palpebral conjunctival sac with a sterile cotton swab 2 weeks before surgery, and then cultured for isolation of bacteria and antimicrobial sensitivity testing. The bacterial isolates and percentage of drug-resistant isolates were compared among age groups and according to whether or not patients had diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, dialysis therapy, oral steroid use, dry eye syndrome, or allergic conjunctivitis.Results: The bacterial isolation rate was 39.2%. There were 191 strains of Gram-positive cocci, accounting for the majority of all isolates (67.0%, among which methicillin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci was the most frequent (127 strains, 44.5%, followed by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (37 strains, 12.7%. All 76 Gram-positive bacillary isolates (26.7% were from the genus Corynebacterium. Among the 16 Gram-negative bacillary isolates (5.9%, the most frequent was Escherichia coli (1.0%. The bacterial isolation rate was higher in patients >60 years old, and was lower in patients with dry eye syndrome, patients under topical treatment for other ocular disorders, and patients with hyperlipidemia. There was no significant difference in bacterial isolation rate with respect to the presence/absence of diabetes mellitus, steroid therapy, dialysis, or

  5. Seroprevalence of Bartonella spp. infection in HIV patients in Catalonia, Spain

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    Cervantes Manuel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the first clinical descriptions of Bartonella infection were associated with immunocompromised patient with bacillary angiomatosis, we currently know that this organism is directly involved in diseases affecting a large number of patients, regardless of their immune status. Cat scratch disease, hepatic peliosis, and some cases of bacteraemia and endocarditis, are directly caused by some species of the genus Bartonella. The purpose of this study was to determinate the prevalence of IgG antibodies against Bartonella henselae and B. quintana in HIV patients and to identify the epidemiological factors involved. Methods Serum samples were collected from HIV patients treated at Hospital de Sabadell. Antibodies to B. henselae and B. quintana from 340 patients were examined by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA. Significance levels for univariate statistical test were determined by the Mann-Whitney U test and χ2 test. Results Of 340 patients, 82 were women and 258 men, with a median age of 42.21 ± 10.35 years (range 16–86 years. Seventy-six (22.3% patients reacted with one or more Bartonella antigens. Of all the factors concerning the seroprevalence rate being studied (age, sex, intravenous drugs use, alcohol consumption, CD4 levels, AIDS, HCV, HBV, residential area, only age was statistically significant. Conclusion A high percentage of HIV patients presents antibodies to Bartonella and is increasing with age.

  6. Pathogenicity and treatment of Bartonella infections.

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    Angelakis, Emmanouil; Raoult, Didier

    2014-07-01

    Bartonella spp. are responsible for emerging and re-emerging diseases around the world. The majority of human infections are caused by Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana and Bartonella bacilliformis, although other Bartonella spp. have also been associated with clinical manifestations in humans. The severity of Bartonella infection correlates with the patient's immune status. Clinical manifestations can range from benign and self-limited to severe and life-threatening disease. Clinical conditions associated with Bartonella spp. include local lymphadenopathy, bacteraemia, endocarditis, and tissue colonisation resulting in bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatis. Without treatment, Bartonella infection can cause high mortality. To date, no single treatment is effective for all Bartonella-associated diseases. In the absence of systematic reviews, treatment decisions for Bartonella infections are based on case reports that test a limited number of patients. Antibiotics do not significantly affect the cure rate in patients with Bartonella lymphadenopathy. Patients with Bartonella spp. bacteraemia should be treated with gentamicin and doxycycline, but chloramphenicol has been proposed for the treatment of B. bacilliformis bacteraemia. Gentamicin in combination with doxycycline is considered the best treatment regimen for endocarditis, and erythromycin is the first-line antibiotic therapy for the treatment of angioproliferative lesions. Rifampicin or streptomycin can be used to treat verruga peruana. In this review, we present recent data and recommendations related to the treatment of Bartonella infections based on the pathogenicity of Bartonella spp.

  7. Strategy for identification & characterization of Bartonella henselae with conventional & molecular methods

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    Kavita Diddi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Bartonella henselae is a fastidious gram-negative bacterium usually causing self limiting infections in immunocompetent individuals but often causes potentially life threatening infection, such as bacillary angiomatosis in immunocompromised patients. Both diagnosis of infections and research into molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis have been hindered by lack of appropriate and reliable diagnostic techniques. We undertook this study to standardize methods to characterize B. henselae in clinical samples to diagnose Bartonella infection correctly. Methods: B. henselae ATCC 49882 strain was procured from American type culture collection, USA. This strain was revived and maintained in the laboratory, and identification and characterization of this strain was done by conventional and molecular techniques, which included culture on various media, staining by different methods including electron microscopy, biochemical analysis by conventional methods and API, polymerase chain reaction (PCR for amplification of citrate synthase gene followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. Results: This organism was biochemically inert due to slow growth and generated unique identification code with API. The amplification of the citrate-synthase gene with primers yielded a 381 bp product followed by specific RFLP profile for B. henselae. Interpretation & conclusions: Bartonella is fastidious and fragile organism and should be handled carefully. Extra effort and careful observation are required to isolate and characterize this organism.

  8. Multiplexed colorimetric detection of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus and Bartonella DNA using gold and silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Matthew; Jiang, Li; Cesarman, Ethel; Erickson, David

    2013-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is an infectious cancer occurring most commonly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients and in endemic regions, such as Sub-Saharan Africa, where KS is among the top four most prevalent cancers. The cause of KS is the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, also called HHV-8), an oncogenic herpesvirus that while routinely diagnosed in developed nations, provides challenges to developing world medical providers and point-of-care detection. A major challenge in the diagnosis of KS is the existence of a number of other diseases with similar clinical presentation and histopathological features, requiring the detection of KSHV in a biopsy sample. In this work we develop an answer to this challenge by creating a multiplexed one-pot detection system for KSHV DNA and DNA from a frequently confounding disease, bacillary angiomatosis. Gold and silver nanoparticle aggregation reactions are tuned for each target and a multi-color change system is developed capable of detecting both targets down to levels between 1 nM and 2 nM. The system developed here could later be integrated with microfluidic sample processing to create a final device capable of solving the two major challenges in point-of-care KS detection.

  9. The Interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Non-Saccharomyces Yeast during Alcoholic Fermentation Is Species and Strain Specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiao; Mas, Albert; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio

    2016-01-01

    The present study analyzes the lack of culturability of different non-Saccharomyces strains due to interaction with Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation. Interaction was followed in mixed fermentations with 1:1 inoculation of S. cerevisiae and ten non-Saccharomyces strains. Starmerella bacillaris, and Torulaspora delbrueckii indicated longer coexistence in mixed fermentations compared with Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima. Strain differences in culturability and nutrient consumption (glucose, alanine, ammonium, arginine, or glutamine) were found within each species in mixed fermentation with S. cerevisiae. The interaction was further analyzed using cell-free supernatant from S. cerevisiae and synthetic media mimicking both single fermentations with S. cerevisiae and using mixed fermentations with the corresponding non-Saccharomyces species. Cell-free S. cerevisiae supernatants induced faster culturability loss than synthetic media corresponding to the same fermentation stage. This demonstrated that some metabolites produced by S. cerevisiae played the main role in the decreased culturability of the other non-Saccharomyces yeasts. However, changes in the concentrations of main metabolites had also an effect. Culturability differences were observed among species and strains in culture assays and thus showed distinct tolerance to S. cerevisiae metabolites and fermentation environment. Viability kit and recovery analyses on non-culturable cells verified the existence of viable but not-culturable status. These findings are discussed in the context of interaction between non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae.

  10. Comparison of the ABI 7700 System (TaqMan) and Competitive PCR for Quantification of IS6110 DNA in Sputum during Treatment of Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardin, L. e.; Chen, Y.; Perkins, M. D.; Teixeira, L.; Cave, M. D.; Eisenach, K. D.

    1998-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis can persist in sputum for long periods of time after the initiation of antituberculosis chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether quantitative estimates of M. tuberculosis DNA in sputum correlate with the numbers of viable bacilli and thus measure the therapeutic response of patients during treatment. Two methods of M. tuberculosis DNA quantification were examined by using DNA isolated from sputum specimens serially collected during the course of chemotherapy. A competitive PCR assay was compared to an automated system of real-time quantification with the ABI Prism 7700 Sequence Detection System (TaqMan). The ABI 7700 system uses standard PCR in conjunction with a fluorogenic probe in which the intensity of fluorescence is proportional to the amount of target DNA present. The results showed that both PCR systems are reproducible and accurate. The amounts of M. tuberculosis DNA quantified in sputum corresponded well with the numbers of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) counted by microscopy. Before initiation of antituberculosis therapy, measures of AFB, M. tuberculosis DNA, and cultivable bacilli were similar, suggesting that quantification of DNA is a good method for measuring the initial bacillary load. However, the rate of disappearance of both AFB and M. tuberculosis DNA did not correlate with the decline in cultivable bacilli in the specimen; therefore, these tests are not appropriate for monitoring treatment efficacy. PMID:9650945

  11. Intracellular fate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in monocytes from normal and infected, interferon-responsive cows as determined by a radiometric method.

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    Zhao, B Y; Czuprynski, C J; Collins, M T

    1999-01-01

    The ability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to survive in bovine monocytes was studied using radiometric (BACTEC) culture, standard plate counting and microscopic counting of acid-fast stained monocyte monolayers. Results of microscopic counts sharply contrasted with results of viable counts determined both by plate counting and radiometric counting. We observed an early phase (the first 6 d after in vitro infection) of intracellular bacillary growth, followed by a later phase of mycobacteriostasis or killing (up to 12 d after in vitro infection) in monocytes from non-infected cows. The data suggest that multiplication and death of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis occur simultaneously in bovine monocytes infected in vitro. Using the BACTEC method, we compared the ability of bovine monocytes from normal cows and cows infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and showing evidence of a strong Thl-like cellular immune response to ingest and inhibit the intracellular growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. There was a trend toward greater phagocytosis and faster killing of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by monocytes from the infected, immune responder cows. However, the observed numbers of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis at each time after monocyte infection were not significantly different between normal and infected cows.

  12. Mycobacterium tuberculosis TlyA Protein Negatively Regulates T Helper (Th) 1 and Th17 Differentiation and Promotes Tuberculosis Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Aejazur; Sobia, Parveen; Dwivedi, Ved Prakash; Bhawsar, Aakansha; Singh, Dhiraj Kumar; Sharma, Pawan; Moodley, Prashini; Van Kaer, Luc; Bishai, William R; Das, Gobardhan

    2015-06-05

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, is an ancient pathogen and a major cause of death worldwide. Although various virulence factors of M. tuberculosis have been identified, its pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. TlyA is a virulence factor in several bacterial infections and is evolutionarily conserved in many Gram-positive bacteria, but its function in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis has not been elucidated. Here, we report that TlyA significantly contributes to the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis. We show that a TlyA mutant M. tuberculosis strain induces increased IL-12 and reduced IL-1β and IL-10 cytokine responses, which sharply contrasts with the immune responses induced by wild type M. tuberculosis. Furthermore, compared with wild type M. tuberculosis, TlyA-deficient M. tuberculosis bacteria are more susceptible to autophagy in macrophages. Consequently, animals infected with the TlyA mutant M. tuberculosis organisms exhibited increased host-protective immune responses, reduced bacillary load, and increased survival compared with animals infected with wild type M. tuberculosis. Thus, M. tuberculosis employs TlyA as a host evasion factor, thereby contributing to its virulence.

  13. ADENOCARCINOMA AND TUBERCULOSIS OF THE SIGMOID COLON AND FALLOPIAN TUBE--A RARE ASSOCIATION. A CASE REPORT AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Lidia; Dănilă, R; Ciobanu, Delia; Ciortescu, Irina; Livadariu, Roxana; Timofte, D

    2016-01-01

    Association of adenocarcinoma and tuberculosis (TB) of the sigmoid colon is a rare clinical condition even in an endemic country as Romania, with challenging diagnosis and treatment. Case report. We present the case of a 57-year-old female patient who was admitted on emergency basis for a diagnosis of obstructive sigmoid adenocarcinoma. The patient was operated on and it an obstructive sigmoid tumor with serosal invasion, adherent (invading) to the body of uterus and left adnexa and urinary bladder serosa, no liver or peritoneal metastases. A sigmoidectomy was performed "en bloc" with subtotal hysterectomy, left adnexectomy and extramucosal cistectomy. The histopathological exam showed a moderately differentiated, ulcerated adenocarcinoma, widely infiltrating the colon wall invading the myometrium. Ziehl Neelsen (ZN) stain identified the presence of metachromatic bacillary structures in the colonic wall, lymph nodes and adnexal areas. Postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged 10 days postoperatively in good clinical condition. After one year when the patient completed the full course of anti-tubercular drugs, a thorough work-up was performed. Colonoscopy, CT of the thorax, abdomen, pelvis showed no signs of recurrence while tumoral marker CEA (1.62 ng/ml - ntuberculosis is included in differential diagnosis for those patients presenting abdominal pain or obstructive digestive symptoms in endemic regions, in this case the absence of TB infection criteria and positive endoscopic biopsy for colonic adenocarcinoma did not allow a complete pre- or perioperative diagnosis.

  14. Unusual Presentation of Necrotic Erythema Nodosum Leprosum on Scalp: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, K D; Madan, A; Garg, V K; Goel, K; Khurana, N

    2015-01-01

    Lepra reactions are acute episodes occurring during the disease process of leprosy and are of 2 types: type 1 or reversal reaction and type 2 reaction or erythema odosumleprosum (ENL). In the episodes of lepra reaction several parts are affected including face and extremities like oral cavity. In the present case report we reported a rare case of lepromatous leprosy with necrotic ENL involving scalp apart from the usual sites. A 58 year old married male presented to us with complaints of spontaneous onset, recurrent eruption of multiple reddish raised painful lesions. Biopsy from the infiltrated skin over the back showed atrophic epidermis, free Grenz zone, diffuse and periadnexal macrophage granulomas with predominant mononuclear infiltrate, appandageal atrophy, fibrosis around the neural structures and leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Fites stain showed strong positivity for M. leprae. His routine blood investigations showed anemia (Hb = 7.8 gm%), neutrophil leukocytosis (TLC = 17,600, DLC = P66L28M4E2) and raised ESR (80 mm in the first hour). These bullous and necrotic lesions in leprosy may be a manifestation of severe type II reactions in patients with very high bacillary load.

  15. Epidermotropism of lepra bacilli in a patient with histoid Hansen's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Rita V; Pilani, Abhishek

    2014-10-01

    Histoid leprosy is a rare form of multibacillary leprosy with distinct clinical and histopathological features. It is a variant of lepromatous leprosy with a very high bacillary load. It appears in patients as relapse after dapsone monotherapy and resistance or rarely, "de novo." Although leprosy is slowly declining the exact mode of transmission is unclear. At least until recently, the most widely held belief was that the disease was transmitted by contact between cases of leprosy and healthy persons. Transmission by the respiratory route is also gaining ground. There are other possibilities such as transmission through insects, which cannot be completely ruled out. However, the present case report possibly suggests the role of skin as a portal of both exit and entry for the bacillus in histoid leprosy transmission. De novo form of histoid leprosy has numerous solid staining bacteria inside the epidermis. The reports show that these bacilli can be eliminated from the intact epidermis, which indicate an unusual role of the skin in the transmission of leprosy.

  16. FT-IR spectroscopy: A powerful tool for studying the inter- and intraspecific biodiversity of cultivable non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from grape must.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeteau, Cédric; Gerhards, Daniel; Terrat, Sebastien; Dequiedt, Samuel; Alexandre, Hervé; Guilloux-Benatier, Michèle; von Wallbrunn, Christian; Rousseaux, Sandrine

    2016-02-01

    The efficiency of the FT-IR technique for studying the inter- and intra biodiversity of cultivable non-Saccharomyces yeasts (NS) present in different must samples was examined. In first, the capacity of the technique FT-IR to study the global diversity of a given sample was compared to the pyrosequencing method, used as a reference technique. Seven different genera (Aureobasidium, Candida, Cryptococcus, Hanseniaspora, Issatchenkia, Metschnikowia and Pichia) were identified by FT-IR and also by pyrosequencing. Thirty-eight other genera were identified by pyrosequencing, but together they represented less than 6% of the average total population of 6 musts. Among the species identified, some of them present organoleptic potentials in winemaking, particularly Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candidazemplinina). So in a second time, we evaluated the capacity of the FT-IR technique to discriminate the isolates of this species because few techniques were able to study intraspecific NS yeast biodiversity. The results obtained were validated by using a classic method as ITS sequencing. Biodiversity at strain level was high: 19 different strains were identified from 58 isolates. So, FT-IR spectroscopy seems to be an accurate and reliable method for identifying major genera present in the musts. The two biggest advantages of the FT-IR are the capacity to characterize intraspecific biodiversity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts and the possibility to discriminate a lot of strains.

  17. Leprosy of the Larynx: A Case Report

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    Mansoureh Momen Heravi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is an ancient deforming disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, which is still poorly understood and often feared by the general public and even by some in the health care professions Fortunately, the outlook for patients has dramatically improved over the last three decades with the introduction of multi-drug treatment and management strategies that have somewhat diminished the stigma of this diagnosis. We report a rare case of leprosy of larynx. A 45 year old man presented with complaints cough, dyspnea and hoarseness since many years ago. Because of demonstration of acid fast bacilli in smear of his sputum, the diagnosis of tuberculosis was made and anti tuberculosis treatment was initiated. But he developed fever and his symptoms exacerbated. In examination there was a tender erythematous nodule on right supraclavicular region, loss of eyebrows and lashes and disseminated hyper and hypo pigmented cutaneous lesions on abdomen, thorax, back with normal chest x ray. Laryngoscopy to rule out laryngeal tuberculosis was done and granulomatous lesion was seen. Laryngeal and skin biopsy was performed which numerous acid fast bacilli, macrophages and foamy cells suggestive of lepromatous leprosy were demonstrated in both specimens. Treatment was started on multi bacillary regime of WHO multidrug therapy. In conclusion, this report highlights the importance of systemic involvement in lepromatous leprosy especially when the initial presentation is laryngitis or respiratory symptoms. Laryngeal leprosy may mistaken with tuberculosis laryngitis due to respiratory problems and existence of acid fast bacilli in respiratory secretions.

  18. Trématodes parasites de poissons marins du littoral de Rio de Janeiro, Brésil

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    Martine Wallet

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Les Trématodes de 35 espèces de poissons marins, d'importance commerciale, collectés dans le littoral de Rio de Janeiro, ont été étudiés. Dix-sept espèces de Trématodes appartenant à 13 familles ont été recensées. Quatre de ces espèces sont référés pour la première fois au Brésil: Diphtherostomum americanum, Diplomonorchis floridensis, Pancreadium otagoensis et Neomegasolena chaetodipteri, neuf dans de nouveaux hôtes: D. americanum, Diplangus paxillus, Hurleytrema shorti, Lecithochirium microstomum, Morascus filiformis, Neolebouria multilobatus, P. otagoensis, Pleorchis mollis et Opechona bacillaris, une a été recontrée dans un hôte mentionné pour la première fois au Brésil: Vitellibaculum spinosum et cinq autres espècies sont déjà répertoriées: Acanthocollaritrema umbilicatum, Bucephalopsis calliocotyle, Bucephalus varicus, Parahemiurus merus et Tergestia pauca. Tergestia selenei est consideré synonyme de T. pauca. Les principales mesures sont données pour chaque espèce.

  19. Sequential Inoculation of Native Non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains for Wine Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Beatriz; Zulian, Laura; Ferreres, Àngela; Pastor, Rosa; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio; Beltran, Gemma; Mas, Albert

    2017-01-01

    The use of non-Saccharomyces yeast for wine making is becoming a common trend in many innovative wineries. The application is normally aimed at increasing aromas, glycerol, reducing acidity, and other improvements. This manuscript focuses on the reproduction of the native microbiota from the vineyard in the inoculum. Thus, native selected yeasts (Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Starmerella bacillaris species and three different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were inoculated sequentially, or only S. cerevisiae (three native strains together or one commercial) was used. Inoculations were performed both in laboratory conditions with synthetic must (400 mL) as well as in industrial conditions (2000 kg of grapes) in red winemaking in two different varieties, Grenache and Carignan. The results showed that all the inoculated S. cerevisiae strains were found at the end of the vinifications, and when non-Saccharomyces yeasts were inoculated, they were found in appreciable populations at mid-fermentation. The final wines produced could be clearly differentiated by sensory analysis and were of similar quality, in terms of sensory analysis panelists’ appreciation. PMID:28769887

  20. Molecular characterization of endolithic cyanobacteria inhabiting exposed dolomite in central Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, William V; Bachofen, Reinhard; Zeyer, Josef

    2003-07-01

    The phototrophic microbial community inhabiting exposed dolomite in the alpine Piora Valley (Switzerland) forms a distinct endolithic bilayer that features adjacent red dolomite (exterior) and green dolomite (interior) layers that are c. 0.5-1 mm below the rock surface. Characterization of the community, with an emphasis on cyanobacteria, was conducted with culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Direct microscopy of green dolomite revealed four distinct morphotypes consistent with Chlorophyta genera Chlorella and Stichococcus and the Cyanobacterial genera Nostoc and Calothrix, whereas only Stichococcus and Nostoc were observed in the red dolomite. Enrichment in BG-11 media resulted in the growth of Chlorella and Stichococcus. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of DNA extracted from the enrichment revealed two dominant phylotypes with sequence similarity to Chlorella osrokiniana chloroplast and the cyanobacteria genus Leptolyngbya. 16S rRNA gene-based DGGE analysis of DNA extracted directly from both layers indicated that although both layers harboured phylotypes most similar to the Cyanobacterial genera Nostoc, Chroococcidiopsis, and Microcoleus, and the Chlorophyte Stichococcus bacillaris, the two layers also harboured unique genera such as Scytonema, and Symploca (red, external layer of dolomite) and Chlorella (green, internal layer of dolomite). The unique community structure of each layer suggests a selection process directed by the pressures of the endolithic environment. We conclude that the overall composition of the phototrophic community closely resembles that of endolithic communities located in extreme habitats, suggesting that a cosmopolitan community inhabits this defined niche.

  1. Abdominal inflammatory masses mimicking neoplasia in children-experience of two centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czauderna, Piotr; Schaarschmidt, Klaus; Komasara, Leszek; Harms, Dieter; Lempe, Michael; Vorpahl, Klaus; Szumera, Malgorzata; Balanda, Alicja

    2005-05-01

    Despite progress in modern imaging, some inflammatory masses are difficult to distinguish clinically from neoplastic processes. In such cases the pathology report has a great distinctive value, but even then the final diagnosis may be difficult to reach. Eight patients with abdominal tumors of inflammatory origin were treated in two institutions, the Department of Pediatric Surgery of the Medical University of Gdansk, Poland, and Helios Center of Pediatric Surgery in Berlin, Germany, during the last 10 years. Four tumors were located in the pelvis, two in the liver, and two in the colonic mesentery. Five of them were inflammatory pseudotumors (two subclassified as inflammatory fibrosarcoma), one had nonspecific inflammatory changes, one was diagnosed as idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis, and one was diagnosed as bacillary angiomatosis. All patients underwent surgical tumor biopsy, excisional in four and incisional in four. All but two children underwent macroscopically complete tumor excision (four primarily, two secondarily). In one case the tumor resolved with antibiotherapy. Surgery in retroperitoneal masses was often extensive and associated with significant complications because of invasive tumor growth. In conclusion, intraabdominal inflammatory lesions may closely mimic neoplasia in children. Clinical doubts result in repeated biopsies, and for this reason excisional biopsy should be preferred. In some cases, when excisional biopsy is not feasible due to invasive growth of the tumor, delayed complete mass excision should follow, despite occasional significant morbidity. The etiology and exact nature of inflammatory pseudotumors are still obscure, and it is unknown whether they represent inflammatory lesions or true neoplasia.

  2. Is Leprosy Control In Urban Slums Possible ? - A Study In Bombay

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    Ganapati R

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Effectiveness of community-based leprosy control operations spanning almost a decade in two locations, a small self settled leprosy colony (I of about 800 subjects as well as a large slum (II with a population of about 20,000 in the metropolitan city of Bombay are compared. New case detection through survey in location I and voluntary reporting in location II during the period 1982-86 is taken as an index of the impact of the intervention, which consisted of field based administration of multi-drug therapy. Though the leprosy colony concentrates an abnormal reservoir of infectious cases in a small population, it was relatively easier to achieve success in reducing the transmission rate through field-based chemotherapy programme. The same degree of success however, could not be achieved in a normal slum. Health care delivery system in relation to leprosy eradication at the grass-root levels has to be planned giving maximum importance to cost-effective methods of identification of multi-bacillary leprosy patients and monitoring their movements carefully during the treatment phase.

  3. Study of 35 Cases of Hansen's Disease, which Required Treatment beyond Fixed Duration--Multi Drug Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethva, M V; Patel, R M; Marfatia, Y S

    2015-01-01

    Multi Drug Therapy (MDT) is the main weapon against leprosy since its inception in 1981. India achieved the level of elimination (disease activity after completion of treatment. Aims of the present study was to study the profile of RFT cases in leprosy treated with FD-MDT, who required extended MDT, duration between completion of FD -MDT and clinical presentation, Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) status, histopathology and type of leprosy at the time of presentation. A prospective study of 35 RFT (Released FromTreatment) cases with signs of activity were recruited in period betveen May 2007 to November 2001. All cases were diagnosed clinically and investigations were done for AFB smear, histopathological examination and Fite Faraco staining. We found that all the 35 cases, which required extended MDT, age group ranged from 10 to 65 years. Majority (71.4%) had taken previous Multi-Bacillary (MB) treatment for 1 year duration. Eleven (31.42%) of cases came within one year, 17 (48.57%) between one to two years and 7 (20%) cases after two years of stopping FD-MDT. AFB smear was positive in 36.84% of cases in which done. Majority of previously diagnosed MB cases presented as BT/TT in histopathology. Thus there is need to search for reliable prognostic markers for therapeutic purposes.

  4. 巴尔通体的宿主动物及传播媒介研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栗冬梅; 刘起勇; 俞东征

    2005-01-01

    巴尔通体(Bartortella)是一属寄生于脊椎动物红细胞内的革兰染色阴性杆菌,可引起人类卡里翁病(Carrion's disease)、猫抓病(cat-sratchdisease,CSD)、战壕热(trench fever)、心内膜炎、杆菌性血管瘤(bacillary angiomatosis,BA)等多种疾病。目前发现的巴尔通体有20余种,8种致病菌,除B.bacilliformis,B.quintana的宿主是人类,其余均寄生于自然界动物体内,并经吸血节肢动物传播。近年来,由于人类巴尔通体感染日益增多,国外对这种病原菌的宿主动物及传播媒介进行了较多的调查研究,以下就这方面的研究工作予以综述。

  5. Serum bactericidal activity from intravenous ciprofloxacin and azlocillin given alone and in combination to healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, P L; Barriere, S L; Hindler, J A; Frost, R W

    1990-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin plus azlocillin have been shown to exhibit in vitro synergy versus a variety of organisms, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study examined this interaction in vivo, testing serum bactericidal activity (SBA) in six healthy male subjects after intravenous administration of ciprofloxacin 4 mg/kg (C), azlocillin 60 mg/kg (A), and the two simultaneously (C/A). Eight different organisms were tested: four isolates of P. aeruginosa with varying susceptibilities to C and A, and one isolate each of Escherichia coli (EC), Staphylococcus aureus (SA) Serratia marcescens (SM), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP), all of which were susceptible to both drugs. Blood samples were collected at the end of 30-min infusions and at 4 and 8 hr. Reciprocal titers were plotted versus time and area under the bactericidal titer curve (AUBC) calculated to assess antibacterial interactions. Results indicated that P. aeruginosa-1 (PA-1), EC, and KP were synergistically killed by C/A. AUBC for PA-1 were C = 36, A = 11, C/A = 144, p less than 0.05. AUBC for EC were C = 1059, A = 180, C/A = 1504, p = 0.05. AUBC for KP were C = 327, A = 97, C/A = 584, p = 005. Additive effects were demonstrated versus all of the other organisms except Serratia marcescens, where an indifferent effect was observed. Ciprofloxacin plus azlocillin may be a useful combination of the treatment of selected Gram-negative bacillary infections.

  6. 一种产血纤维蛋白溶酶菌株的筛选及液体发酵条件的选择%SELECTION OF FERMENT MEDIUM FOR THE SECRETION OF PLASMIN FROM A MARINE BACTERIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晨光; 刘万顺; 魏香

    2001-01-01

    主要进行了产生纤维蛋白溶酶菌株的筛选培养和液体发酵条件的优化等方面的研究工作。结果表明,该菌为一种短杆状菌,革兰氏染色为阴性,具有对血纤维蛋白的产酶依赖性。用此菌作为菌种进行发酵产酶的最适条件为:碳源,木糖1.5%;氮源,血纤维蛋白1.75%;发酵液初始pH7.4;接种量5%;发酵时间24h。%This paper reports for the optimum growth medium for the secretion of plasmin from a marine bacteria named FE 92-8. This bacteria is shortly-bacillary, gram-negative, dependant on the existence of fibrin. The quantity of this bacteria and the activity of plasmin secreted by the bacteria is the highest at below culture condition: carbon source, 1.5 percent xylose; nutrogen source, 1.75 percent fibrin; initial pH 7.4;inoculative quantity,5.0 percent, ferment temperature, 30 centigrade degree, ferment time,24hours.

  7. Risk Factors for Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmanesan Narasimhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, malnutrition, and young age, emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these factors along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli.

  8. Functions of NOD-like receptors (NLRs in human diseases

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    Yifei eZhong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD-like receptors (NLRs are highly conserved cytosolic pattern recognition receptors that perform critical functions in surveying the intracellular environment for the presence of infection, noxious substances, and metabolic perturbations. Sensing of these danger signals by NLRs leads to their oligomerization into large macromolecular scaffolds and the rapid deployment of effector signaling cascades to restore homeostasis. While some NLRs operate by recruiting and activating inflammatory caspases into inflammasomes, others trigger inflammation via alternative routes including the NF-κB, MAPK and IRF pathways. The critical role of NLRs in development and physiology is demonstrated by their clear implications in human diseases. Mutations in the genes encoding NLRP3 or NLRP12 lead to hereditary periodic fever syndromes, while mutations in CARD15 that encodes NOD2 are linked to Crohn’s disease or Blau’s syndrome. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified a number of risk alleles encompassing NLR genes in a host of diseases including allergic rhinitis, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, multi-bacillary leprosy, vitiligo, early-onset menopause, and bone density loss in elderly women. Animal models have allowed the characterization of underlying effector mechanisms in a number of cases. In this review, we highlight the functions of NLRs in health and disease and discuss how the characterization of their molecular mechanisms provides new insights into therapeutic strategies for the management of inflammatory pathologies.

  9. Update on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibel, F; Cambau, E; Aubry, A

    2015-09-01

    Leprosy is an infectious disease that has now been reported for more than 2000 years. The leprosy elimination goal set by the World Health Organization (WHO), i.e. a global prevalence rate Leprosy is a specific infection: (i) it is a chronic infection primarily affecting the skin and peripheral nerves, (ii) Mycobacterium leprae is one of the last bacterial species of medical interest that cannot be cultured in vitro (mainly because of its reductive genome evolution), and (iii) transmission and pathophysiological data is still limited. The various presentations of the disease (Ridley-Jopling and WHO classifications) are correlated with the patient's immune response, bacillary load, and by the delay before diagnosis. Multidrug therapy (dapsone, rifampicin, with or without clofazimine) has been recommended since 1982 as the standard treatment of leprosy; 6 months for patients presenting with paucibacillary leprosy and 12 months for patients presenting with multibacillary leprosy. The worldwide use of leprosy drugs started in the 1980s and their free access since 1995 contributed to the drastic decline in the number of new case patients. Resistant strains are however emerging despite the use of multidrug therapy; identifying and monitoring resistance is still necessary.

  10. Comparative effiacy of marine Streptomyces formulation versus ciproflxacin ophthalmic solution for treating Staphylococcus aureus-induced conjunctivitis in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femina Wahaab

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the efficacy of marine actinomycetes in controlling Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus-induced conjunctivitis in experimental rabbit. Methods: The ethyl acetate extracts of the best isolates of actinomycetes from the soil samples of Rameswaram coastal regions, Tamil Nadu, India, were concentrated and re-constituted in buffer and used as actinomycetes ophthalmic suspension in this study. The anti-inflammatory efficacy of actinomycetes ophthalmic suspension was analysed in controlling S. aureusinduced conjunctivitis in rabbit in comparison with that of ciprofloxacin. Results: Among the four best isolates, the RAM25C4 isolate had the highest antimicrobial activity in the secondary screening. Shelf life studies indicated that the activity can be retained for 75 days when it was stored at 8 °C and the optimum temperature for storage was between –20°C and 30°C. The animal model studies indicated that there was a profound anti-conjunctivitis effect. The actinomycetes ophthalmic suspension had better activity than ciprofloxacin ophthalmic solution. Conclusions: This is the first time to report that Streptomyces bacillaris strain RAM25C4 has antimicrobial effect in controlling ophthalmic pathogen S. aureus under in vitro condition and the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity in controlling S. aureus-induced conjunctivitis.

  11. The Interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Non-Saccharomyces Yeast during Alcoholic Fermentation is Species and Strain Specific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao eWang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the lack of culturability of different non-Saccharomyces strains due to interaction with Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation. Interaction was followed in mixed fermentations with 1:1 inoculation of S. cerevisiae and ten non-Saccharomyces strains. Starmerella bacillaris and Torulaspora delbrueckii indicated longer coexistence in mixed fermentations compared with Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima. Strain differences in culturability and nutrient consumption (glucose, alanine, ammonium, arginine or glutamine were found within each species in mixed fermentation with S. cerevisiae. The interaction was further analyzed using cell-free supernatant from S. cerevisiae and synthetic media mimicking both single fermentations with S. cerevisiae and using mixed fermentations with the corresponding non-Saccharomyces species. Cell-free S. cerevisiae supernatants induced faster culturability loss than synthetic media corresponding to the same fermentation stage. This demonstrated that some metabolites produced by S. cerevisiae played the main role in the decreased culturability of the other non-Saccharomyces yeasts. However, changes in the concentrations of main metabolites had also an effect. Culturability differences were observed among species and strains in culture assays and thus showed distinct tolerance to S. cerevisiae metabolites and fermentation environment. Viability kit and recovery analyses on non-culturable cells verified the existence of viable but not-culturable status. These findings are discussed in the context of interaction between non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae.

  12. Experimental animal modelling for TB vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere-Joan Cardona

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Research for a novel vaccine to prevent tuberculosis is an urgent medical need. The current vaccine, BCG, has demonstrated a non-homogenous efficacy in humans, but still is the gold standard to be improved upon. In general, the main indicator for testing the potency of new candidates in animal models is the reduction of the bacillary load in the lungs at the acute phase of the infection. Usually, this reduction is similar to that induced by BCG, although in some cases a weak but significant improvement can be detected, but none of candidates are able to prevent establishment of infection. The main characteristics of several laboratory animals are reviewed, reflecting that none are able to simulate the whole characteristics of human tuberculosis. As, so far, no surrogate of protection has been found, it is important to test new candidates in several models in order to generate convincing evidence of efficacy that might be better than that of BCG in humans. It is also important to investigate the use of “in silico” and “ex vivo” models to better understand experimental data and also to try to replace, or at least reduce and refine experimental models in animals.

  13. Adhesion and host cell modulation: critical pathogenicity determinants of Bartonella henselae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kempf Volkhard AJ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bartonella henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease and the vasculoproliferative disorders bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatis, contains to date two groups of described pathogenicity factors: adhesins and type IV secretion systems. Bartonella adhesin A (BadA, the Trw system and possibly filamentous hemagglutinin act as promiscous or specific adhesins, whereas the virulence locus (VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system modulates a variety of host cell functions. BadA mediates bacterial adherence to endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins and triggers the induction of angiogenic gene programming. The VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system is responsible for, e.g., inhibition of host cell apoptosis, bacterial persistence in erythrocytes, and endothelial sprouting. The Trw-conjugation system of Bartonella spp. mediates host-specific adherence to erythrocytes. Filamentous hemagglutinins represent additional potential pathogenicity factors which are not yet characterized. The exact molecular functions of these pathogenicity factors and their contribution to an orchestral interplay need to be analyzed to understand B. henselae pathogenicity in detail.

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection induces non-apoptotic cell death of human dendritic cells

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Ruth CM

    2011-10-24

    Abstract Background Dendritic cells (DCs) connect innate and adaptive immunity, and are necessary for an efficient CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response after infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We previously described the macrophage cell death response to Mtb infection. To investigate the effect of Mtb infection on human DC viability, we infected these phagocytes with different strains of Mtb and assessed viability, as well as DNA fragmentation and caspase activity. In parallel studies, we assessed the impact of infection on DC maturation, cytokine production and bacillary survival. Results Infection of DCs with live Mtb (H37Ra or H37Rv) led to cell death. This cell death proceeded in a caspase-independent manner, and without nuclear fragmentation. In fact, substrate assays demonstrated that Mtb H37Ra-induced cell death progressed without the activation of the executioner caspases, 3\\/7. Although the death pathway was triggered after infection, the DCs successfully underwent maturation and produced a host-protective cytokine profile. Finally, dying infected DCs were permissive for Mtb H37Ra growth. Conclusions Human DCs undergo cell death after infection with live Mtb, in a manner that does not involve executioner caspases, and results in no mycobactericidal effect. Nonetheless, the DC maturation and cytokine profile observed suggests that the infected cells can still contribute to TB immunity.

  15. Boyne Valley Nursing Home, Dowth, Drogheda, Meath.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Ruth CM

    2011-10-24

    Abstract Background Dendritic cells (DCs) connect innate and adaptive immunity, and are necessary for an efficient CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response after infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We previously described the macrophage cell death response to Mtb infection. To investigate the effect of Mtb infection on human DC viability, we infected these phagocytes with different strains of Mtb and assessed viability, as well as DNA fragmentation and caspase activity. In parallel studies, we assessed the impact of infection on DC maturation, cytokine production and bacillary survival. Results Infection of DCs with live Mtb (H37Ra or H37Rv) led to cell death. This cell death proceeded in a caspase-independent manner, and without nuclear fragmentation. In fact, substrate assays demonstrated that Mtb H37Ra-induced cell death progressed without the activation of the executioner caspases, 3\\/7. Although the death pathway was triggered after infection, the DCs successfully underwent maturation and produced a host-protective cytokine profile. Finally, dying infected DCs were permissive for Mtb H37Ra growth. Conclusions Human DCs undergo cell death after infection with live Mtb, in a manner that does not involve executioner caspases, and results in no mycobactericidal effect. Nonetheless, the DC maturation and cytokine profile observed suggests that the infected cells can still contribute to TB immunity.

  16. Adhesion and host cell modulation: critical pathogenicity determinants of Bartonella henselae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Bettina; Kempf, Volkhard A J

    2011-04-13

    Bartonella henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease and the vasculoproliferative disorders bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatis, contains to date two groups of described pathogenicity factors: adhesins and type IV secretion systems. Bartonella adhesin A (BadA), the Trw system and possibly filamentous hemagglutinin act as promiscous or specific adhesins, whereas the virulence locus (Vir)B/VirD4 type IV secretion system modulates a variety of host cell functions. BadA mediates bacterial adherence to endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins and triggers the induction of angiogenic gene programming. The VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system is responsible for, e.g., inhibition of host cell apoptosis, bacterial persistence in erythrocytes, and endothelial sprouting. The Trw-conjugation system of Bartonella spp. mediates host-specific adherence to erythrocytes. Filamentous hemagglutinins represent additional potential pathogenicity factors which are not yet characterized. The exact molecular functions of these pathogenicity factors and their contribution to an orchestral interplay need to be analyzed to understand B. henselae pathogenicity in detail.

  17. Adhesins of Bartonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Fiona; Schmidgen, Thomas; Kaiser, Patrick O; Linke, Dirk; Kempf, Volkhard A J

    2011-01-01

    Adhesion to host cells represents the first step in the infection process and one of the decisive features in the pathogenicity of Bartonella spp. B. henselae and B. quintana are considered to be the most important human pathogenic species, responsible for cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, trench fever and other diseases. The ability to cause vasculoproliferative disorders and intraerythrocytic bacteraemia are unique features of the genus Bartonella. Consequently, the interaction with endothelial cells and erythrocytes is a focus in Bartonella research. The genus harbours a variety of trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) such as the Bartonella adhesin A (BadA) of B. henselae and the variably expressed outer-membrane proteins (Vomps) of B. quintana, which display remarkable variations in length and modular construction. These adhesins mediate many of the biologically-important properties of Bartonella spp. such as adherence to endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins and induction of angiogenic gene programming. There is also significant evidence that the laterally acquired Trw-conjugation systems of Bartonella spp. mediate host-specific adherence to erythrocytes. Other potential adhesins are the filamentous haemagglutinins and several outer membrane proteins. The exact molecular functions of these adhesins and their interplay with other pathogenicity factors (e.g., the VirB/D4 type 4 secretion system) need to be analysed in detail to understand how these pathogens adapt to their mammalian hosts.

  18. Revision of the Maastrichtian-Palaeocene charophyte biostratigraphy of the Fontllonga reference section (southern Pyrenees, Catalonia, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, A.; Villalba-Breva, S.; Ferrandez-Cañadell, C.; Martin-Closa

    2016-07-01

    The Fontllonga section is one of the best-known stratigraphic sections wordwide for the study of charophyte biostratigraphy of the Maastrichtian and lower Palaeocene. An updated proposal for the charophyte biostratigraphy of this section is presented after summarizing previous knowledge. The zone of Peckichara cancellata allows the upper Campanian–lowermost Maastrichtian to be characterised in the base of the section (La Maçana Formation). The Microchara punctata biozone represents most of the Maastrichtian (Figuerola Formation). Within this biozone, a Clavator ultimus subzone is proposed to improve characterisation of the lower and middle Maastrichtian. Both the upper and lower boundaries of the Microchara punctata biozone proposed in previous studies are modified based on new occurrences of the index species. A charophyte assemblage belonging to the Dughiella bacillaris biozone is reported for the first time from the middle of the section (Perauba Complex) and provides an age for this unit ranging from the upper Danian to lower Thanetian. A foraminifer assemblage found in the basal marine deposits above the non-marine succession of the Fontllonga section provides new biostratigraphic data to locate the upper boundary of the non-marine succession at least within the upper Thanetian. (Author)

  19. Genetic diversity of culturable Vibrio in an Australian blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis hatchery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Tzu Nin; Bolch, Christopher J S

    2015-09-17

    Bacillary necrosis associated with Vibrio species is the common cause of larval and spat mortality during commercial production of Australian blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. A total of 87 randomly selected Vibrio isolates from various stages of rearing in a commercial mussel hatchery were characterised using partial sequences of the ATP synthase alpha subunit gene (atpA). The sequenced isolates represented 40 unique atpA genotypes, overwhelmingly dominated (98%) by V. splendidus group genotypes, with 1 V. harveyi group genotype also detected. The V. splendidus group sequences formed 5 moderately supported clusters allied with V. splendidus/V. lentus, V. atlanticus, V. tasmaniensis, V. cyclitrophicus and V. toranzoniae. All water sources showed considerable atpA gene diversity among Vibrio isolates, with 30 to 60% of unique isolates recovered from each source. Over half (53%) of Vibrio atpA genotypes were detected only once, and only 7 genotypes were recovered from multiple sources. Comparisons of phylogenetic diversity using UniFrac analysis showed that the culturable Vibrio community from intake, header, broodstock and larval tanks were phylogenetically similar, while spat tank communities were different. Culturable Vibrio associated with spat tank seawater differed in being dominated by V. toranzoniae-affiliated genotypes. The high diversity of V. splendidus group genotypes detected in this study reinforces the dynamic nature of microbial communities associated with hatchery culture and complicates our efforts to elucidate the role of V. splendidus group bacteria in vibriosis.

  20. Outcome of community-acquired pneumonia: influence of age, residence status and antimicrobial treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothe, H; Bauer, T; Marre, R; Suttorp, N; Welte, T; Dalhoff, K

    2008-07-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia remains a major cause of mortality in developed countries. There is much discrepancy in the literature regarding factors influencing the outcome in the elderly population. Data were derived from a multicentre prospective study initiated by the German Competence Network for Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Patients with community-acquired pneumonia (n = 2,647; 1,298 aged or = 65 yrs) were evaluated, of whom 72.3% were hospitalised and 27.7% treated in the community. Clinical history, residence status, course of disease and antimicrobial treatment were prospectively documented. Microbiological investigations included cultures and PCR of respiratory samples and blood cultures. Factors related to mortality were included in multivariate analyses. The overall 30-day mortality was 6.3%. Elderly patients exhibited a significantly higher mortality rate that was independently associated with the following: age; residence status; confusion, urea, respiratory frequency and blood pressure (CURB) score; comorbid conditions; and failure of initial therapy. Increasing age remained predictive of death in the elderly. Nursing home residents showed a four-fold increased mortality rate and an increased rate of gram-negative bacillary infections compared with patients dwelling in the community. The CURB score and cerebrovascular disease were confirmed as independent predictors of death in this subgroup. Age and residence status are independent risk factors for mortality after controlling for comorbid conditions and disease severity. Failure of initial therapy was the only modifiable prognostic factor.

  1. Experimental animal modelling for TB vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Pere-Joan; Williams, Ann

    2017-03-01

    Research for a novel vaccine to prevent tuberculosis is an urgent medical need. The current vaccine, BCG, has demonstrated a non-homogenous efficacy in humans, but still is the gold standard to be improved upon. In general, the main indicator for testing the potency of new candidates in animal models is the reduction of the bacillary load in the lungs at the acute phase of the infection. Usually, this reduction is similar to that induced by BCG, although in some cases a weak but significant improvement can be detected, but none of candidates are able to prevent establishment of infection. The main characteristics of several laboratory animals are reviewed, reflecting that none are able to simulate the whole characteristics of human tuberculosis. As, so far, no surrogate of protection has been found, it is important to test new candidates in several models in order to generate convincing evidence of efficacy that might be better than that of BCG in humans. It is also important to investigate the use of "in silico" and "ex vivo" models to better understand experimental data and also to try to replace, or at least reduce and refine experimental models in animals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Preservation in microbial mats: mineralization by a talc-like phase of a fish embedded in a microbial sarcophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel eIniesto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial mats have been repeatedly suggested to promote early fossilization of macroorganisms. Yet, experimental simulations of this process remain scarce. Here, we report results of 5 year-long experiments performed onfish carcasses to document the influence of microbial mats on mineral precipitation during early fossilization. Carcasses were initially placed on top of microbial mats. After two weeks, fishes became coated by the mats forming a compact sarcophagus, which modified the microenvironment close to the corpses. Our results showed that these conditions favoured the precipitation of a poorly crystalline silicate phase rich in magnesium. This talc-like mineral phase has been detected in three different locations within the carcasses placed in microbial mats for more than 4 years: 1 within inner tissues, colonized by several bacillary cells; 2 at the surface of bones of the upper face of the corpse buried in the mat; and 3 at the surface of several bones such as the dorsal fin which appeared to be gradually replaced by the Mg-silicate phase. This mineral phase has been previously shown to promote bacteria fossilization. Here we provide first experimental evidence that such Mg-rich phase can also be involved in exceptional preservation of animals.

  3. Different phenotypes of CD8+ T cells associated with bacterial load in active tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bruna Daniella de Souza; Trentini, Monalisa Martins; da Costa, Adeliane Castro; Kipnis, Andre; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula

    2014-07-01

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that affects millions of people worldwide with an annual mortality rate of 1.3 million. The mechanisms contributing to the loss of balance of immune responses and progression to active tuberculosis disease are unknown. Although CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and the cytokines they produce are crucial for protection against tuberculosis they have different roles in tuberculosis immunology. The function of CD4+ T cells has been extensively studied; however, less is known about the phenotype and function of CD8+ T cells. This study evaluated the specific expression of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-10, and TGF-β and ex vivo expression of perforin and granzyme-B by CD8+ T cells from active tuberculosis individuals compared with latent infected individuals and non-latent infected individuals. Tuberculosis responses were correlated with the baciloscopy score. We observed that the presence of IL-10 and TGF-β expression and down-expression of granzyme-B in CD8+ T cells correlated with increased sputum bacillary load in active tuberculosis individuals. These findings provide new insights into the role of CD8+ T cells in Mycobacterium tuberculosis disease.

  4. The centenary of the discovery of trench fever, an emerging infectious disease of World War 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstead, Gregory M

    2016-08-01

    In 1915, a British medical officer on the Western Front reported on a soldier with relapsing fever, headache, dizziness, lumbago, and shin pain. Within months, additional cases were described, mostly in frontline troops, and the new disease was called trench fever. More than 1 million troops were infected with trench fever during World War 1, with each affected soldier unfit for duty for more than 60 days. Diagnosis was challenging, because there were no pathognomonic signs and symptoms and the causative organism could not be cultured. For 3 years, the transmission and cause of trench fever were hotly debated. In 1918, two commissions identified that the disease was louse-borne. The bacterium Rickettsia quintana was consistently found in the gut and faeces of lice that had fed on patients with trench fever and its causative role was accepted in the 1920s. The organism was cultured in the 1960s and reclassified as Bartonella quintana; it was also found to cause endocarditis, peliosis hepatis, and bacillary angiomatosis. Subsequently, B quintana infection has been identified in new populations in the Andes, in homeless people in urban areas, and in individuals with HIV. The story of trench fever shows how war can lead to the recrudescence of an infectious disease and how medicine approached an emerging infection a century ago.

  5. Gorey District Hospital, Mc Curtin Street, Gorey, Wexford.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Ruth CM

    2011-10-24

    Abstract Background Dendritic cells (DCs) connect innate and adaptive immunity, and are necessary for an efficient CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response after infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We previously described the macrophage cell death response to Mtb infection. To investigate the effect of Mtb infection on human DC viability, we infected these phagocytes with different strains of Mtb and assessed viability, as well as DNA fragmentation and caspase activity. In parallel studies, we assessed the impact of infection on DC maturation, cytokine production and bacillary survival. Results Infection of DCs with live Mtb (H37Ra or H37Rv) led to cell death. This cell death proceeded in a caspase-independent manner, and without nuclear fragmentation. In fact, substrate assays demonstrated that Mtb H37Ra-induced cell death progressed without the activation of the executioner caspases, 3\\/7. Although the death pathway was triggered after infection, the DCs successfully underwent maturation and produced a host-protective cytokine profile. Finally, dying infected DCs were permissive for Mtb H37Ra growth. Conclusions Human DCs undergo cell death after infection with live Mtb, in a manner that does not involve executioner caspases, and results in no mycobactericidal effect. Nonetheless, the DC maturation and cytokine profile observed suggests that the infected cells can still contribute to TB immunity.

  6. Epidemiology of disability in incident leprosy patients at supervisory urban leprosy unit of Nagpur city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L B Chavan, Prakash Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Leprae, affecting mainly peripheral nerves and skin. Disabilities and deformities are major concerns as it triggers social, economic and psychosocial problems of leprosy patients. In the study, 105 incident leprosy patients registered in a randomly selected Supervisory Urban Leprosy Unit during year 2004-05 were interviewed. Disability was graded as per WHO-2 point scale. There were 52 male and 53 female with median age of 26 years. The WHO grade -II disability was 12.38 % and it was significantly higher among manual workers and housewives (76.92%, P<0.05. Hands and feet disabilities were found in 38.10 % while nobody had eye related disability. Subjects with delayed diagnosis beyond 12 months had significantly higher grade-2 disabilities than diagnosed earlier (P<0.05. Disability rate was also higher in Multi-Bacillary leprosy patients (P<0.001. Ulcer was the most common type of grade-II deformity (61.54 % which was significantly higher in females (P<0.05. Prevalence of disability was found higher in study area than national average. Awareness about Prevention Of Deformities (POD, early diagnosis (<12 months and treatment are recommended to avert visible deformities and hence social stigma in leprosy patients.

  7. Comparison of Sputum-Culture Conversion for Mycobacterium bovis and M. tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Colleen; Cavanaugh, Joseph S; Silk, Benjamin J; Ershova, Julia; Mazurek, Gerald H; LoBue, Philip A; Moonan, Patrick K

    2017-03-01

    Current US guidelines recommend longer treatment for tuberculosis (TB) caused by pyrazinamide-resistant organisms (e.g., Mycobacterium bovis) than for M. tuberculosis TB. We compared treatment response times for patients with M. bovis TB and M. tuberculosis TB reported in the United States during 2006-2013. We included culture-positive, pulmonary TB patients with genotyping results who received standard 4-drug treatment at the time of diagnosis. Time to sputum-culture conversion was defined as time between treatment start date and date of first consistently culture-negative sputum. We analyzed 297 case-patients with M. bovis TB and 30,848 case-patients with M. tuberculosis TB. After 2 months of treatment, 71% of M. bovis and 65% of M. tuberculosis TB patients showed conversion of sputum cultures to negative. Likelihood of culture conversion was higher for M. bovis than for M. tuberculosis, even after controlling for treatment administration type, sex, and a composite indicator of bacillary burden.

  8. Zebrafish embryo model of Bartonella henselae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Amorce; Cha, Byeong J; Amin, Jahanshah; Smith, Lisa K; Anderson, Burt

    2014-10-01

    Bartonella henselae (Bh) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that has been associated with a variety of human diseases, including bacillary angiomatosis that is characterized by vasoproliferative tumor-like lesions on the skin of some immunosuppressed individuals. The study of Bh pathogenesis has been limited to in vitro cell culture systems due to the lack of an animal model. Therefore, we wanted to investigate whether the zebrafish embryo could be used to model human infection with Bh. Our data showed that Tg(fli1:egfp)(y1) zebrafish embryos supported a sustained Bh infection for 7 days with >10-fold bacterial replication when inoculated in the yolk sac. We showed that Bh recruited phagocytes to the site of infection in the Tg(mpx:GFP)uwm1 embryos. Infected embryos showed evidence of a Bh-induced angiogenic phenotype and an increase in the expression of genes encoding pro-inflammatory factors and pro-angiogenic markers. However, infection of zebrafish embryos with a deletion mutant in the major adhesin (BadA) resulted in little or no bacterial replication and a diminished host response, providing the first evidence that BadA is critical for in vivo infection. Thus, the zebrafish embryo provides the first practical model of Bh infection that will facilitate efforts to identify virulence factors and define molecular mechanisms of Bh pathogenesis.

  9. Redescription of Echinocoleus hydrochoeri (Travassos, 1916) (Nematoda: Trichuridae) from Hydrochoeris hydrochaeris Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia: Caviidae) from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, María del Rosario; Eberhardt, María Ayelen Teresita; Bain, Odile; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín

    2013-08-01

    Twenty-eight Capillariinae species have been recorded in rodents; 1 of these species was reported from a caviomorph rodent, Hydrochoeris hydrochaeris (capybara), and placed in the genus Echinocoleus by Moravec (1982). However, both original description and subsequent contributions of Echinocoleus hydrochoeri are poor and incomplete. In this paper, this species is redescribed, and a new geographical distribution is reported. The redescription is based on morphologic and morphometrical features; intestine ends in a cloaca beside ejaculatory duct, caudal bursa composed of 2 large ventrolateral lobes with a fleshy internal part and a membranous external part (they are not united dorsally with a membrane), 1 pair of caudal papillae, terminal part of cylindrical cirrus ornamented with thin and thick spines (and particular pattern distribution), sclerotized spicule in male, and vulvar appendage in female, and 3 bacillary bands (1 ventral and 2 lateral). Generic and specific analyses were performed to establish new standards for future studies on the systematic position of Capillariinae species. This study presents new morphological information and a new record of a capillariid species from Argentina.

  10. 'Z(S)-MDR-TB' versus 'Z(R)-MDR-TB': improving treatment of MDR-TB by identifying pyrazinamide susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Chiu Chang, Kwok; Leung, Chi-Chiu; Wai Yew, Wing; Gicquel, Brigitte; Fallows, Dorothy; Kaplan, Gilla; Chaisson, Richard E; Zhang, Wenhong

    2012-07-01

    Indispensable for shortening treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB), pyrazinamide (PZA, Z) is also essential in the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB. While resistance to PZA in MDR-TB is associated with poor treatment outcome, bacillary susceptibility to PZA along with the use of fluoroquinolone (FQ) and second-line injectable drugs (SLIDs) may predict improved treatment success in MDR-TB. Despite a high prevalence of PZA resistance among MDR-TB patients (10%-85%), PZA susceptibility testing is seldom performed because of technical challenges. To improve treatment of MDR-TB, we propose to: (i) classify MDR-TB into PZA-susceptible MDR-TB (Z(S)-MDR-TB) and PZA-resistant MDR-TB (Z(R)-MDR-TB); (ii) use molecular tests such as DNA sequencing (pncA, gyrA, rrs, etc.) to rapidly identify Z(S)-MDR-TB versus Z(R)-MDR-TB and susceptibility profile for FQ and SLID; (iii) refrain from using PZA in Z(R)-MDR-TB; and (iv) explore the feasibility of shortening the treatment duration of Z(S)-MDR-TB with a regimen comprising PZA plus at least two bactericidal agents especially new agents like TMC207 or PA-824 or delamanid which the bacilli are susceptible to, with one or two other agents. These measures may potentially shorten therapy, save costs, and reduce side effects of MDR-TB treatment.

  11. The first report of new species:Trichuris landak n. sp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Endang Purwaningsih

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study nematode parasites morphology of Hystrix javanica (H. javanica), both through the feces and internal organs. Methods:Feces were observed by direct smear method, internal organs were observed after dissecting the host. Specimens for light microscopy examination were fixed with 70% warm alcohol, cleared and mounted in lactophenol for wet mounting. Specimens for SEM examination were postfixed in cacodylate buffer and glutaraldehyde, dehydrated through a graded series of alcohol and freeze dried. The specimens were attached to stubs with double cello-tape, coated with gold and observed with a JSM5310 LV electron microscope. Figures were made with the aid of a drawing tube attached to Olympus compound microscope, other figures were photographs of scanning electron microscope images. Measurements were given in micrometers as the mean followed by the range in parentheses, unless otherwise stated. Results:The nematode species found in the intestine of H. javanica are Gireterakis girardi and a new species, Trihuris landak. The new species differs with previously reported species from Hystrix because of having stylet and short cervical alae. The pattern of bacillary band is closed to Trichuris trichiurus, the species that infect human, but differs because the surface of its vulva is not covered with densely spine. Conclusions:The species of nematodes found on H. javanica were Gireterakis girardi and a new species Trichuris landak n.sp. Those two species are newly recorded in Indonesia.

  12. Mtp-40 and alpha antigen gene fragment amplification for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Colombian clinical specimens

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    Rosalba Alfonso

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the use of Mtp-40 and alpha antigen polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification fragments for the precise tuberculosis (TB diagnosis was evaluated. One hundred and ninety two different samples were obtained from 113 patients with suspected TB. Mtp-40 and alpha antigen protein genes were amplified by the PCR technique and compared to both the "gold standard" (culture test, as well as the clinical parameters (including a clinical record and X-ray film exam in 113 patients. Thirty-eight of the 113 patients had a presumptive clinical diagnosis of TB; 74% being detected by PCR technique, 58% by culture and 44% by direct microscopic visualization. Weconclude that it is possible to use PCR as a suitable technique for the detection of any mycobacteria by means of the alpha antigen product, or the specific infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by means of the mtp-40 gene. This might be a good supporting tool in difficult clinical TB diagnosis and pauci-bacillary cases.

  13. Active search for leprosy cases in Midwestern Brazil: a serological evaluation of asymptomatic household contacts before and after prophylaxis with bacillus Calmette-Guérin

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    Omesina Maroja Limeira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is a disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that carries a high risk of disability, making early diagnosis mandatory. This study aimed to determine the applicability of anti-PGL-1 IgM antibody detection, using the ML FLOW technique, as an assistant tool for the detection of leprosy infection in asymptomatic household contacts (AHHC of multibacillary leprosy index cases from Midwest Brazil. Serological changes induced by the prophylaxis of these household contacts with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG were also verified. A total of 91 AHHC were assessed, among which, 18.68% (n = 17 presented both positive bacilloscopy and positive anti-PGL-1 IgM serology. Positivity concordance between these two laboratorial exams (Kappa Index = 1; p < 0.001 was indicated, however, one case did not demonstrate concordance between the semiquantitative assessment of anti-PGL-1 IgM and the bacilloscopy index (Kappa Index = 0.96; p < 0.001. Among the 17 AHHC with positive bacilloscopy, eight were reassessed after prophylaxis with BCG and two of them presented negative anti-PGL-1 IgM serology, being these patients who had presented a bacilloscopy index of < 2[+] in the initial assessment. This study shows that anti-PGL-1 IgM detection may be used as a tool to determine the bacillary load in AHHC and to detect immune changes related to prophylaxis by nonspecific vaccination.

  14. The kinetics of uptake and recovery of lanthanum using freshwater algae as biosorbents: comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birungi, Z S; Chirwa, E M N

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the adsorption and desorption kinetics of lanthanum (La) on micro algal cells was investigated. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA) were used for molecular identification of the species. The algal species were found to have 95-98% identities to Desmodesmus multivariabilis, Scenedesmus acuminutus, Chloroidium saccharophilum and Stichococcus bacillaris. The species were cultured and tested independently. D. multivariabilis was found to be the most efficient at adsorbing lanthanum with a maximum sorption capacity (qmax) of 100 mg/g and a high affinity (b) of 4.55 L/g. Desorption of La was also highest in D. multivariabilis with recovery up to 99.63% at initial concentration as high as 100 mg/L. Desorption data fitted best to the modified pseudo second-order with a better correlation coefficient (R(2)) of ⩽0.98 than first order model. The results showed feasibility of lanthanum recovery using algal sorbents, a cost effective method.

  15. The local immune response in ulcerative lesions of Buruli disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiszewski, A E; Becerril, E; Aguilar, L D; Kader, I T A; Myers, W; Portaels, F; Hernàndez Pando, R

    2006-01-01

    Buruli disease (BU) is a progressive necrotic and ulcerative disease of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. BU is considered the third most common mycobacterial disease after tuberculosis and leprosy. Three clinical stages of the cutaneous lesions have been described in BU: pre-ulcerative, ulcerative and healed lesions. In this study we used immunohistochemistry and automated morphometry to determine the percentage of macrophages and of CD4/CD8 lymphocytes and their expression of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. Expression of these cytokines was correlated with the inflammatory response evaluated by histopathology. All the studied BU ulcerative cases showed extensive necrosis and chronic inflammation. The most important feature was the presence or absence of granulomas co-existing with a mixed pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance. When granulomas were present significantly higher expression of IFN-γ was seen, whereas in ulcerative lesions without granulomas there was increased expression of IL-10 and significantly higher bacillary counts. These features correlated with the chronicity of the lesions; longer-lasting lesions showed granulomas. Thus, granulomas were absent from relatively early ulcerative lesions, which contained more bacilli and little IFN-γ, suggesting that at this stage of the disease strong suppression of the protective cellular immune response facilitates proliferation of bacilli. PMID:16487243

  16. Persistence of two non-Saccharomyces yeasts (Hanseniaspora and Starmerella in the cellar

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    Cedric eGrangeteau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Different genera and/or species of yeasts present on grape-berries, in musts and wines are widely described. Nevertheless, the community of non-Saccharomyces yeasts present in the cellar is still given little attention. Thus it is not known if the cellar is a real ecological niche for these yeasts or if it is merely a transient habitat for populations brought in by grape-berries during the winemaking period. This study focused on three species of non-Saccharomyces yeasts commonly encountered during vinification: Starmerella bacillaris (synonymy with Candida zemplinina, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and Hanseniaspora uvarum. More than 1200 isolates were identified at the strain level by FT-IR spectroscopy (207 different FTIR strain pattern. Only a small proportion of non-Saccharomyces yeasts present in musts came directly from grape-berries for the three species studied. Some strains were found in the must in 2 consecutive years and some of them were also found in the cellar environment before the arrival of the harvest of second vintage. This study demonstrates for the first time the persistence of non-Saccharomyces yeast strains from year to year in the cellar. Sulfur dioxide can affect yeast populations in the must and therefore their persistence in the cellar environment.

  17. Recent controversies about MDR and XDR-TB: Global implementation of the WHO shorter MDR-TB regimen and bedaquiline for all with MDR-TB?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheda, Keertan; Cox, Helen; Esmail, Aliasgar; Wasserman, Sean; Chang, Kwok Chiu; Lange, Christoph

    2017-08-29

    Tuberculosis (TB) is now the biggest infectious disease killer worldwide. Although the estimated incidence of TB has marginally declined over several years, it is out of control in some regions including in Africa. The advent of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) threatens to further destabilize control in several regions of the world. Drug-resistant TB constitutes a significant threat because it underpins almost 25% of global TB mortality, is associated with high morbidity, is a threat to healthcare workers and is unsustainably costly to treat. The advent of highly resistant TB with emerging bacillary resistance to newer drugs has raised further concern. Encouragingly, in addition to preventative strategies, several interventions have recently been introduced to curb the drug-resistant TB epidemic, including newer molecular diagnostic tools, new (bedaquiline and delamanid) and repurposed (linezolid and clofazimine) drugs and shorter and individualized treatment regimens. However, there are several controversies that surround the use of new drugs and regimens, including whether, how and to what extent they should be used, and who specifically should be treated so that outcomes are optimally improved without amplifying the burden of drug resistance, and other potential drawbacks, thus sustaining effectiveness of the new drugs. The equipoise surrounding these controversies is discussed and some recommendations are provided. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  18. [THE CHARACTERISTICS OF MORPHOLOGY OF BIOFILM OF PERIODONTIUM UNDER INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF GUMS (CHRONIC CATARRHAL GINGIVITIS, CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS, CANDIDA-ASSOCIATED PERIODONTITIS) ACCORDING RESULTS OF ELECTRONIC MICROSCOPY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolitov, E V; Didenko, L V; Tzarev, V N

    2015-12-01

    The study was carried out to analyze morphology of biofilm of periodontium and to develop electronic microscopic criteria of differentiated diagnostic of inflammatory diseases of gums. The scanning electronic microscopy was applied to analyze samples of bioflm of periodont from 70 patients. Including ten patients with every nosologic form of groups with chronic catarrhal periodontitis. of light, mean and severe degree, chronic catarrhal gingivitis, Candida-associated paroperiodontitis and 20 healthy persons with intact periodontium. The analysis was implemented using dual-beam scanning electronic microscope Quanta 200 3D (FEI company, USA) and walk-through electronic micJEM 100B (JEOL, Japan). To detect marker DNA of periodont pathogenic bacteria in analyzed samples the kit of reagentsfor polymerase chain reaction "MultiDent-5" ("GenLab", Russia). The scanning electronic microscopy in combination with transmission electronic microscopy and polymerase chain reaction permits analyzing structure, composition and degree of development of biofilm of periodontium and to apply differentiated diagnostic of different nosologic forms of inflammatory diseases of periodontium, including light form of chronic periodontitis and gingivitis. The electronic microscopical indications of diseases ofperiodontium of inflammatory character are established: catarrhal gingivitis, (coccal morphological alternate), chronic periodontitis (bacillary morphological alternate), Candida-associated periodontitis (Candida morphological alternate of biofilm ofperiodontium).

  19. Intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis after macrophage cell death leads to serial killing of host cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamed, Deeqa; Boulle, Mikael; Ganga, Yashica; Mc Arthur, Chanelle; Skroch, Steven; Oom, Lance; Catinas, Oana; Pillay, Kelly; Naicker, Myshnee; Rampersad, Sanisha; Mathonsi, Colisile; Hunter, Jessica; Sreejit, Gopalkrishna; Pym, Alexander S; Lustig, Gila; Sigal, Alex

    2017-01-01

    A hallmark of pulmonary tuberculosis is the formation of macrophage-rich granulomas. These may restrict Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) growth, or progress to central necrosis and cavitation, facilitating pathogen growth. To determine factors leading to Mtb proliferation and host cell death, we used live cell imaging to track Mtb infection outcomes in individual primary human macrophages. Internalization of Mtb aggregates caused macrophage death, and phagocytosis of large aggregates was more cytotoxic than multiple small aggregates containing similar numbers of bacilli. Macrophage death did not result in clearance of Mtb. Rather, it led to accelerated intracellular Mtb growth regardless of prior activation or macrophage type. In contrast, bacillary replication was controlled in live phagocytes. Mtb grew as a clump in dead cells, and macrophages which internalized dead infected cells were very likely to die themselves, leading to a cell death cascade. This demonstrates how pathogen virulence can be achieved through numbers and aggregation states. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22028.001 PMID:28130921

  20. Simulation of the Prokaryotic Cell Cycle at http://simon.bio.uva.nl/cellcycle/

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arieh Zaritsky

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial Cell Cycle is presented using the Simulation program CCSim, which employs four parameters related to time (inter-division τ, replication C, division D and size (mass at replication initiation Mi, sufficient to describe and compare bacterial cells under various conditions. The parameter values can be altered and the effects of the alterations can be seen. CCSim is easy to use and presents the kinetics of cell growth in a digestible format. Replicating chromosomes and growing bacillary cells are coupled to parameters that affect the cell cycle and animated. It serves as an educational tool to teach bacteriology and to compare experimental observations with the model best describing cell growth thus improve our understanding of regulatory mechanisms. Examples are displayed of transitions between known physiological states that are consistent with experimental results, including one that explains strange observations. The program predicts enhanced division frequencies after a period of slow replication under thymine limitation if a minimal distance (Eclipse exists between successive replisomes, as observed. Missing features and ways to improve, extend and refine CCSim are proposed, for both single cells and random populations under steady-states of exponential growth and during well-defined transitions. Future improvements and extensions are proposed for single cells and populations.

  1. Simulation of the Prokaryotic Cell Cycle at simon.bio.uva.nl/cellcycle/

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Helmstetter

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial Cell Cycle is presented using the Simulation program CCSim, which employs four parameters related to time (inter-division τ, replication C, division D and size (mass at replication initiation Mi, sufficient to describe and compare bacterial cells under various conditions. The parameter values can be altered and the effects of the alterations can be seen. CCSim is easy to use and presents the kinetics of cell growth in a digestible format. Replicating chromosomes and growing bacillary cells are coupled to parameters that affect the cell cycle and animated. It serves as an educational tool to teach bacteriology and to compare experimental observations with the model best describing cell growth thus improve our understanding of regulatory mechanisms. Examples are displayed of transitions between known physiological states that are consistent with experimental results, including one that explains strange observations. The program predicts enhanced division frequencies after a period of slow replication under thymine limitation if a minimal distance (Eclipse exists between successive replisomes, as observed. Missing features and ways to improve, extend and refine CCSim are proposed, for both single cells and random populations under steady-states of exponential growth and during well-defined transitions. Future improvements and extensions are proposed for single cells and populations.

  2. OPPORTUNITIES TO DIAGNOSE ACTIVE TUBERCULOSIS IN THE PATIENTS WITH CLINICALLY CURED RESPIRATORY TUBERCULOSIS

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    G. S. Balasanyants

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the study: to evaluate the test with tuberculous recombinant allergen (TRA in the patients with effective treatment course due to tuberculosis, to investigate the impact of clinical, epidemiological and social factors on persistence of active tuberculosis.Materials and methods. Patients were divided into 2 groups basing on time period after completion of the main treatment course. Group I – 32 patients (up to 6 months, group II – 63 patients (more than 6 months.Results of the study. Results of TRA tests in Group I remained positive in 34.4% of patients and in Group II - 23.8%. The average size of the induration in Group I made 10 mm(95% CI 6.5-13.3, in Group II – 13 mm (95% CI 8.4-19.7 Patients from Group I had positive results of TRA test more often in case of initial infiltrate form of pulmonary tuberculosis and bacillary excretion. In patients from Group II the positive TRA results correlated with presence of concurrent conditions and exposure to a tuberculosis case in the past. Positive results were confidently more often observed in lonely patients in both groups. TRA test can be a valuable tool to evaluate the risk of tuberculosis relapse after completion of the main treatment course. 

  3. FTA card utility for PCR detection of Mycobacterium leprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Khin Saw; Matsuoka, Masanori; Kai, Masanori; Kyaw, Kyaw; Win, Aye Aye; Shwe, Mu Mu; Thein, Min; Htoo, Maung Maung; Htoon, Myo Thet

    2011-01-01

    The suitability of the FTA® elute card for the collection of slit skin smear (SSS) samples for PCR detection of Mycobacterium leprae was evaluated. A total of 192 SSS leprosy samples, of bacillary index (BI) 1 to 5, were collected from patients attending two skin clinics in Myanmar and preserved using both FTA® elute cards and 70% ethanol tubes. To compare the efficacy of PCR detection of DNA from each BI class, PCR was performed to amplify an M. leprae-specific repetitive element. Of the 192 samples, 116 FTA® elute card and 112 70% ethanol samples were PCR positive for M. leprae DNA. When correlated with BI, area under the curve (AUC) values of the respective receiver-operating characteristic curves were similar for the FTA® elute card and ethanol collection methods (AUC=0.6). Taken together, our results indicate that the FTA® elute card, which enables the collection, transport, and archiving of clinical samples, is an attractive alternative to ethanol preservation for the detection of M. leprae DNA.

  4. Variation of TTC Repeat Pattern In The Dna of Mycobacterium Leprae Isolates Obtained from Archeological Bones and Leprosy Patients From East Nusa Tenggara

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    Dinar Adriaty

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of leprosy or kusta or Morbus Hansen or Hansen’s disease has been known for years, including in Indonesia. Starting from the discovery of Mycobacterium leprae isolates from ancient bone (about 1.000 years B.C, the archaeological excavations results in East Nusa Tenggara, interesting questions arise about how the development of leprosy in eastern Indonesia is. Biology molecular study would become a powerful tool to investigate the presence of leprosy bacillary whether there are similarities between the genomes of M. leprae isolates in the primeval and the present. PCR examinations were performed on mandibular bone fragments from ancient human who lived 1000 years B.C. discovered in archaeological surveys on the island of Lembata and three leprosy patients from East Nusa Tenggara. The DNA extraction was performed using a kit from Qiagen products and its TTC repeating pattern was seen with the method of direct sequencing. It turned out that the TTC profile obtained from samples of archaeological was as many as 13 copies, while the repetition of TTC in three samples of leprosy patients were 15, 17 and 26 copies. The different number of TTC repetition shows the different isolates of M. leprae between in the ancient times and the present. Further studies are needed to verify the differences in the genome that occur, for example from the study of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms.

  5. Ability of innate defence regulator peptides IDR-1002, IDR-HH2 and IDR-1018 to protect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections in animal models.

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    Bruno Rivas-Santiago

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is an ongoing threat to global health, especially with the emergence of multi drug-resistant (MDR and extremely drug-resistant strains that are motivating the search for new treatment strategies. One potential strategy is immunotherapy using Innate Defence Regulator (IDR peptides that selectively modulate innate immunity, enhancing chemokine induction and cell recruitment while suppressing potentially harmful inflammatory responses. IDR peptides possess only modest antimicrobial activity but have profound immunomodulatory functions that appear to be influential in resolving animal model infections. The IDR peptides HH2, 1018 and 1002 were tested for their activity against two M. tuberculosis strains, one drug-sensitive and the other MDR in both in vitro and in vivo models. All peptides showed no cytotoxic activity and only modest direct antimicrobial activity versus M. tuberculosis (MIC of 15-30 µg/ml. Nevertheless peptides HH2 and 1018 reduced bacillary loads in animal models with both the virulent drug susceptible H37Rv strain and an MDR isolate and, especially 1018 led to a considerable reduction in lung inflammation as revealed by decreased pneumonia. These results indicate that IDR peptides have potential as a novel immunotherapy against TB.

  6. Clinical role and importance of fluorescence in situ hybridization method in diagnosis of H pylori infection and determination of clarithromycin resistance in H pylori eradication therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (O)zlem Yilmaz; Ebru Demiray

    2007-01-01

    H pylori is etiologically associated with gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma.Eradicating H pylori may convert rapidly the outcome of related diseases with the use of more accurate diagnostic molecular tests. Indeed some of the tests cannot give the evidence of current infection; H pylori can be detected by noninvasive and invasive methods,the latter requiring an endoscopy. Eradication failure is a big problem in H pylori infection. Recently, clarithromycin resistance in H pylori strains is increasing and eradication therapy of this bacterium is becoming more difficult.Molecular methods have frequently been applied besides phenotypic methods for susceptibility testing to detect clarithromycin resistance due to mutations in the 2143 and 2144 positions of 23S rRNA gene. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method on paraffin embedded tissue is a rapid, accurate and cost-effective method for the detection of H pylori infection and to determine clarithromycin resistance within three hours according to the gold standards as a non-culture method. This method can also be applied to fresh biopsy samples and the isolated colonies from a culture of H pylori, detecting both the culturable bacillary forms and the coccoid forms of H pylori, besides the paraffin embedded tissue sections. This technique is helpful for determining the bacterial density and the results of treatment where clarithromycin has been widely used in populations to increase the efficacy of the treatment and to clarify the treatment failure in vitro.

  7. A Spotlight on Liquefaction: Evidence from Clinical Settings and Experimental Models in Tuberculosis

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    Pere-Joan Cardona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquefaction is one of the most intriguing aspects of human tuberculosis. It is a major cause of the transition from the infection to active disease (tuberculosis, TB as well as the transmission of M. tuberculosis to other persons. This paper reviews the natural history of liquefaction in humans from a pathological and radiological point of view and discusses how the experimental models available can be used to address the topic of liquefaction and cavity formation. Different concepts that have been related to liquefaction, from the influence of immune response to mechanical factors, are reviewed. Synchronic necrosis or apoptosis of infected macrophages in a close area, together with an ineffective fibrosis, appears to be clue in this process, in which macrophages, the immune response, and bacillary load interact usually in a particular scenario: the upper lobes of the lung. The summary would be that even if being a stochastic effect, liquefaction would result if the organization of the intragranulomatous necrosis (by means of fibrosis would be disturbed.

  8. A STUDY OF HIGH DISABILITY RATE AMONG LEPROSY AFFECTED PERSONS IN GWALIOR DISTRICT

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    Pankaj kumar Jain

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Even though India achieved the goal of elimination (i.e point prevalence rate of less than 1case per 10,000 population of leprosy as a public health problem at National level in Dec 2005. Objectives : To determine the prevalence of disability among Leprosy Affected Persons and to determine the factors associated with high disability rates Material & Method: Study Design: Cross Sectional study. Study Population: All registered patients at 16 DDRs in gwalior district. Methodology: The study was divided into two parts. First was the in depth interviews with the study participants, second was detail examination in bright sunlight. Result: In the present study 182 persons were included in the study in which 108 were males and 74 were females. Of these 182 leprosy affected persons, 68 were having no deformity, 38 were having Grade I deformity and 76 were having Grade II deformity Conclusion: The present study hereby concludes that there are multiple factors that determine the disability among leprosy patients. The chances of acquiring disability in leprosy patients increases as the severity of leprosy increases like multi bacillary patients and patients with more number of nerves involved.

  9. EUCOLEUS BOEHMI INFECTION IN THE NASAL CONCHAE AND PARANASAL SINUSES OF RED FOX (VULPES VULPES) ON PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND, CANADA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Alfonso; Aburto, Enrique; Jones, Kathleen; Robbins, William; Conboy, Gary

    2016-04-28

    Eucoleus boehmi (Nematoda: Capillariidae) occurs in the nasal conchae and paranasal sinuses of wild and domestic canids. We surveyed the red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) on Prince Edward Island, Canada, for E. boehmi infection and characterized the associated histopathology. Nasal capillarid infections were detected based on histologic examination of three coronal sections of the nasal cavity and by centrifugal flotation examination (CFE) of rectal feces. Capillarids were detected in histologic sections in 28 of 36 (78%) foxes; detection occurred most frequently in the caudal section (28 foxes) and least in the rostral section (10 foxes). Adult worm morphology was typical for capillarids (stichosome esophagus, bacillary bands, bipolar plugged eggs); E. boehmi eggs were specifically identified based on the characteristic pitted shell wall surface. Adult worms were detected in histologic sections in all 28 and E. boehmi eggs in 21 of the positive foxes. No eggs of Eucoleus aerophilus were observed in any of the sections. Affected foxes had an eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis with goblet cell hyperplasia. Eggs of E. aerophilus were detected on CFE in 20 of 36 (56%) foxes; 19 of the histologically positive foxes were coinfected with E. aerophilus. Eggs of E. boehmi were detected on CFE in 26 of 36 (72%) foxes and were consistent in size and morphology with those described from wild canids, but they differed from those reported from cases of infection in dogs. Prevalence based on identification of eggs on histologic section or CFE indicated 27 of 36 (75%) red foxes examined were infected with E. boehmi.

  10. Tuberculosis of The Parotid Gland in Children A Report of 4 Cases

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    Rajae BORKI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis or bovis that can affect all organs. However being located in the salivary glands is rare, affecting mainly adults between 20 and 50 years, although a few cases were described in children. We reported a series of 4 children with parotid TB diagnosed and treated at the ENT department of the hospital of specialties of Rabat.The average age was 9.25 years and sex ratio M/F was 1. All children were admitted for parotid swelling evolving over an average period of 6 months which fistulized afterwards, a child had also facial paralysis. Histological analysis of the fine-needle aspiration or the sample taken from the fistula confirmed the diagnosis of tuberculosis with the presence of giant cell granuloma with caseous necrosis. All children received anti-bacillary treatment during 6 months, and showed good evolution.Although being rare, the parotid TB in children remains a condition to be considered at the occurrence of any chronic parotid swelling, especially in endemic countries.

  11. Musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS. Part I: Infectious musculoskeletal conditions

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    Tehranzadeh, Jamshid [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California (United States); Department of Radiological Sciences, Rt. 140, 101 The City Drive ZC 5005, CA 92868-3298, Orange (United States); Ter-Oganesyan, Ramon R. [College of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California (United States); Steinbach, Lynne S. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)

    2004-05-01

    The musculoskeletal system can be affected by a variety of abnormalities in association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Although not as common as complications involving other organ systems, such as the pulmonary and the central nervous systems, HIV-associated musculoskeletal disorders are sometimes the initial presentation of the viral illness. Knowledge of the existence and the characteristic appearance of the conditions affecting bone, joint, and muscle in HIV-infected patients is valuable to radiologists for diagnosis and to clinicians for detection and appropriate treatment. We reviewed recent literature to provide a comprehensive assessment of the HIV-associated musculoskeletal disorders, and present radiologic examples from our own collection. This article is divided into two parts. In the first part we review the infectious musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV illness and AIDS, including cellulitis, abscesses, pyomyositis, septic bursitis, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, and bacillary angiomatosis. We also present a comprehensive spectrum of mycobacterial infections, consisting of tuberculous spondylitis and spondylodiskitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis, and tenosynovitis, as well as infections caused by atypical mycobacteria. Part II of this review will concentrate on non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions, including rheumatic disorders and neoplasms. (orig.)

  12. Comparative efifcacy of marineStreptomyces formulation versus ciprolfoxacin ophthalmic solution for treatingStaphylococcus aureus-induced conjunctivitis in animal model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Femina Wahaab; Kalidass Subramaniam; Morris Jawahar

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To report the efficacy of marine actinomycetes in controllingStaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)-induced conjunctivitis in experimental rabbit. Methods: The ethyl acetate extracts of the best isolates of actinomycetes from the soil samples of Rameswaram coastal regions, Tamil Nadu, India, were concentrated and re-constituted in buffer and used as actinomycetes ophthalmic suspension in this study. The anti-inflammatory efficacy of actinomycetes ophthalmic suspension was analysed in controllingS. aureus-induced conjunctivitis in rabbit in comparison with that of ciprofloxacin. Results:Among the four best isolates, theRAM25C4isolate had the highest antimicrobial activity in the secondary screening. Shelf life studies indicated that the activity can be retained for 75 days when it was stored at 8°C and the optimum temperature for storage was between –20°°C and 30°°C. The animal model studies indicated that there was a profound anti-conjunctivitis effect. The actinomycetes ophthalmic suspension had better activity than ciprofloxacin ophthalmic solution. Conclusions:This is the first time to report thatStreptomyces bacillaris strainRAM25C4 has antimicrobial effect in controlling ophthalmic pathogenS. aureus underin vitro condition and thein vivo anti-inflammatory activity in controllingS. aureus-induced conjunctivitis.

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis TlyA Protein Negatively Regulates T Helper (Th) 1 and Th17 Differentiation and Promotes Tuberculosis Pathogenesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Aejazur; Sobia, Parveen; Dwivedi, Ved Prakash; Bhawsar, Aakansha; Singh, Dhiraj Kumar; Sharma, Pawan; Moodley, Prashini; Van Kaer, Luc; Bishai, William R; Das, Gobardhan

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, is an ancient pathogen and a major cause of death worldwide. Although various virulence factors of M. tuberculosis have been identified, its pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. TlyA is a virulence factor in several bacterial infections and is evolutionarily conserved in many Gram-positive bacteria, but its function in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis has not been elucidated. Here, we report that TlyA significantly contributes to the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis. We show that a TlyA mutant M. tuberculosis strain induces increased IL-12 and reduced IL-1β and IL-10 cytokine responses, which sharply contrasts with the immune responses induced by wild type M. tuberculosis. Furthermore, compared with wild type M. tuberculosis, TlyA-deficient M. tuberculosis bacteria are more susceptible to autophagy in macrophages. Consequently, animals infected with the TlyA mutant M. tuberculosis organisms exhibited increased host-protective immune responses, reduced bacillary load, and increased survival compared with animals infected with wild type M. tuberculosis. Thus, M. tuberculosis employs TlyA as a host evasion factor, thereby contributing to its virulence. PMID:25847237

  14. Antiprotozoal Activities of Tiliroside and other Compounds from Sphaeralcea angustifolia (Cav.) G. Don

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    Calzada, Fernando; Basurto, Jose Correa; Barbosa, Elizabeth; Velázquez, Claudia; Hernández, Normand García; Ordoñez Razo, R. M.; Luna, David Mendez; Mulia, Lilian Yepez

    2017-01-01

    Background: Sphaeralcea angustifolia (Malvaceae) is extensively used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea and dysentery. Objective: The current study was to validate the traditional use of S. angustifolia for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery on biological grounds using in vitro antiprotozoal activity and computational experiments. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract, subsequent fractions, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and a sterol were evaluated on Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia trophozoites. Moreover, molecular docking studies on tiliroside were performed; it was tested for its affinity against pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (G/FBPA), two glycolytic enzymes of anaerobic protozoa. Results: Bioassay-guided fractionation of extract of the aerial parts of S. angustifolia gives tiliroside and apigenin, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid, and β-sitosterol. The in vitro antiprotozoal assay showed that tiliroside was the most potent antiprotozoal compound on both protozoa with 50% inhibitory concentration values of 17.5 μg/mL for E. histolytica and 17.4 μg/mL for G. lamblia. Molecular docking studies using tiliroside showed its probable antiprotozoal mechanism with PFOR and G/FBPA. In both cases, tiliroside showed high affinity and inhibition constant theoretic for PFOR (lowest free binding energy from −9.92 kcal/mol and 53.57 μM, respectively) and G/FBPA (free binding energy from −7.17 kcal/mol and 55.5 μM, respectively), like to metronidazole, revealing its potential binding mode at molecular level. Conclusion: The results suggest that tiliroside seems to be a potential antiprotozoal compound responsible for antiamoebic and antigiardial activities of S. angustifolia. Its in vitro antiprotozoal activities are in good agreement with the traditional medicinal use of S. angustifolia in gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea and

  15. Activity of medicinal plants from Ghana against the parasitic gut protist Blastocystis.

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    Bremer Christensen, Charlotte; Soelberg, Jens; Stensvold, Christen R; Jäger, Anna K

    2015-11-04

    The plants tested in this study were examples of plants historically used to treat or alleviate several types of stomach disorders manifested by e.g. stomachache, diarrhoea or dysentery. These plants have been consumed typically as a decoction, sometimes mixed with other flavourings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-Blastocystis activity of 24 plant parts from 21 medicinal plants from Ghana. The medicinal plants were collected in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Every plant part was tested in three different extracts; an ethanolic, a warm, and a cold water extract, at a final concentration of 1 mg/mL for the initial screening, and in a range from 0.0156 to 1mg/mL for determination of inhibitory concentrations. The obligate anaerobic parasitic gut protist Blastocystis (subtype 4) was used as a 48 h old subcultivated isolate in the final concentration of 10(6) cells/mL. Plant extracts inoculated with Blastocystis were incubated at 37 °C for 24 h and 48 h. Both MIC minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90) assays and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) assays were performed after 24 h and 48 h. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was derived after 24 h and 48 h. Antimicrobial activity was tested against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria for all 24 plant parts at a final concentration of 1mg/mL. Screening of the 24 different plant parts showed significant anti-Blastocystis activity of six of the ethanolic extracts: Mallotus oppositifolius, IC50, 24 h 27.8 µg/mL; Vemonia colorata, IC50, 24 h 117.9 µg/mL; Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides, cortex IC50, 24 h 255.6 µg/mL; Clausena anisata, IC50, 24 h 314.0 µg/mL; Z. zanthoxyloides, radix IC50, 24 h 335.7 µg/mL and Eythrina senegalensis, IC50, 24 h 527.6 µg/mL. The reference anti-protozoal agent metronidazole (MTZ) had an IC50, 24 h of 7.6 µg/mL. Only C. anisata showed antimicrobial activity at a concentration of 800 µg/mL. Six ethanolic plant extracts showed significant anti

  16. Rationale for using Peltophorum africanum (Fabaceae) extracts in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizimenyera, S E; Swan, G E; Chikoto, H; Eloff, J N

    2005-06-01

    Peltophorum africanum (Fabaceae) is a deciduous tree widespread in southern Africa. The plant has many ethnomedical and ethnoveterinary uses. Root and bark decoctions are used to treat diarrhoea, dysentery, sore throat, wounds, back and joint pains, HIV-AIDS, venereal diseases and infertility. Pastoralists and rural farmers use the root and bark extracts to treat diarrhoea, dysentery, infertility, and to promote well-being and resistance to diseases in cattle. To evaluate these ethnobotanical leads, dried leaves, stem bark and root bark were extracted with ethanol, acetone, dichloromethane and hexane. Polyphenols in the extract were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method with gallic acid as standard. Qualitative antioxidant activity was screened by spraying thin layer chromatograms (TLC) of the extracts with 0.2% 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), and quantified with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and total antibacterial activity (TAA) were determined by serial microplate dilution for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis, with gentamicin as standard and tetrazolium violet as growth indicator. Acetone and ethanol extracted the largest quantity of material. Polyphenols concentration was 49.2% in acetone extract of the root and 3.8% in dichloromethane extract of the leaf. Antioxidant activity of at least 5 antioxidant compounds as measured by TEAC ranged from 1.34 (ethanol extract of the root) to 0.01 (hexane extract of the leaf). The total antibacterial activity (volume to which active compounds present in 1 g plant material can be diluted and still inhibit bacterial growth) was 1263 ml/g for ethanol extract of the root against S. aureus, and 800 ml/g for acetone extract of the root against P. aeruginosa. There was substantial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with MIC values of 0.08 mg/ml for S. aureus and 0.16 mg

  17. Trapa bispinosa Roxb.: A Review on Nutritional and Pharmacological Aspects

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    Prafulla Adkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trapa bispinosa Roxb. which belongs to the family Trapaceae is a small herb well known for its medicinal properties and is widely used worldwide. Trapa bispinosa or Trapa natans is an important plant of Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine which is used in the problems of stomach, genitourinary system, liver, kidney, and spleen. It is bitter, astringent, stomachic, diuretic, febrifuge, and antiseptic. The whole plant is used in gonorrhea, menorrhagia, and other genital affections. It is useful in diarrhea, dysentery, ophthalmopathy, ulcers, and wounds. These are used in the validated conditions in pitta, burning sensation, dipsia, dyspepsia, hemorrhage, hemoptysis, diarrhea, dysentery, strangely, intermittent fever, leprosy, fatigue, inflammation, urethrorrhea, fractures, erysipelas, lumbago, pharyngitis, bronchitis and general debility, and suppressing stomach and heart burning. Maybe it is due to photochemical content of Trapa bispinosa having high quantity of minerals, ions, namely, Ca, K, Na, Zn, and vitamins; saponins, phenols, alkaloids, H-donation, flavonoids are reported in the plants. Nutritional and biochemical analyses of fruits of Trapa bispinosa in 100 g showed 22.30 and 71.55% carbohydrate, protein contents were 4.40% and 10.80%, a percentage of moisture, fiber, ash, and fat contents were 70.35 and 7.30, 2.05 and 6.35, 2.30 and 8.50, and 0.65 and 1.85, mineral contents of the seeds were 32 mg and 102.85 mg calcium, 1.4 and 3.8 mg Iron, and 121 and 325 mg phosphorus in 100 g, and seeds of Trapa bispinosa produced 115.52 and 354.85 Kcal of energy, in fresh and dry fruits, respectively. Chemical analysis of the fruit and fresh nuts having considerable water content citric acid and fresh fruit which substantiates its importance as dietary food also reported low crude lipid, and major mineral present with confirming good amount of minerals as an iron and manganese potassium were contained in the fruit. Crude fiber, total

  18. The genus Sida L. - A traditional medicine: Its ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and pharmacological data for commercial exploitation in herbal drugs industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinda, Biswanath; Das, Niranjan; Dinda, Subhajit; Dinda, Manikarna; SilSarma, Indrajit

    2015-12-24

    Sida L. (Malvaceae) has been used for centuries in traditional medicines in different countries for the prevention and treatment of different diseases such as diarrhea, dysentery, gastrointestinal and urinary infections, malarial and other fevers, childbirth and miscarriage problems, skin ailments, cardiac and neural problems, asthma, bronchitis and other respiratory problems, weight loss aid, rheumatic and other inflammations, tuberculosis, etc. To assess the scientific evidence for therapeutic potential of Sida L. and to identify the gaps of future research needs. The available information on the ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Sida species was collected via a library and electronic searches in SciFinder, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar for the period, 1933-2015. A variety of ethnomedicinal uses of Sida species have been found in India, China, Afrian and American countries. Phytochemical investigation of this genus has resulted in identification of about 142 chemical constituents, among which alkaloids, flavonoids and ecdysteroids are the predominant groups. The crude extracts and isolates have exhibited a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effects involving antimicrobial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, abortifacient, neuroprotective, cardiovascular and cardioprotective, antimalarial, antitubercular, antidiabetic and antiobesity, antioxidant and nephroprotective activities among others. Ethnopharmacological preparations containing Sida species as an ingredient in India, African and American countries possess good efficacy in health disorders. From the toxicity perspective, only three Sida species have been assessed and found safe for oral use in rats. Pharmacological results supported some of the uses of Sida species in the traditional medicine. Alkaloids, flavonoids, other phenolics and ecdysteroids were perhaps responsible for the activities of extracts of the plants of this genus. No clinical study

  19. What zinc supplementation does and does not achieve in diarrhea prevention: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Mamtani Manju

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of diarrhea has presented indomitable challenges. A preventive strategy that has received significant interest is zinc supplementation. Existing literature including quantitative meta-analyses and systematic reviews tend to show that zinc supplementation is beneficial however evidence to the contrary is augmenting. We therefore conducted an updated and comprehensive meta-analytical synthesis of the existing literature on the effect of zinc supplementation in prevention of diarrhea. Methods EMBASE®, MEDLINE ® and CINAHL® databases were searched for published reviews and meta-analyses on the use of zinc supplementation for the prevention childhood diarrhea. Additional RCTs published following the meta-analyses were also sought. Effect of zinc supplementation on the following five outcomes was studied: incidence of diarrhea, prevalence of diarrhea, incidence of persistent diarrhea, incidence of dysentery and incidence of mortality. The published RCTs were combined using random-effects meta-analyses, subgroup meta-analyses, meta-regression, cumulative meta-analyses and restricted meta-analyses to quantify and characterize the role of zinc supplementation with the afore stated outcomes. Results We found that zinc supplementation has a modest beneficial association (9% reduction with incidence of diarrhea, a stronger beneficial association (19% reduction with prevalence of diarrhea and occurrence of multiple diarrheal episodes (28% reduction but there was significant unexplained heterogeneity across the studies for these associations. Age, continent of study origin, zinc salt and risk of bias contributed significantly to between studies heterogeneity. Zinc supplementation did not show statistically significant benefit in reducing the incidence of persistent diarrhea, dysentery or mortality. In most instances, the 95% prediction intervals for summary relative risk estimates straddled unity. Conclusions Demonstrable

  20. A Multi-Center Randomized Trial to Assess the Efficacy of Gatifloxacin versus Ciprofloxacin for the Treatment of Shigellosis in Vietnamese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, Ha; Anh, Vo Thi Cuc; Anh, Nguyen Duc; Campbell, James I.; Hoang, Nguyen Van Minh; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Nhu, Nguyen Thi Khanh; Minh, Pham Van; Thuy, Cao Thu; Duy, Pham Thanh; Phuong, Le Thi; Loan, Ha Thi; Chinh, Mai Thu; Thao, Nguyen Thi Thu; Tham, Nguyen Thi Hong; Mong, Bui Li; Bay, Phan Van Be; Day, Jeremy N.; Dolecek, Christiane; Lan, Nguyen Phu Huong; Diep, To Song; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Wolbers, Marcel; Baker, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Background The bacterial genus Shigella is the leading cause of dysentery. There have been significant increases in the proportion of Shigella isolated that demonstrate resistance to nalidixic acid. While nalidixic acid is no longer considered as a therapeutic agent for shigellosis, the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin is the current recommendation of the World Health Organization. Resistance to nalidixic acid is a marker of reduced susceptibility to older generation fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. We aimed to assess the efficacy of gatifloxacin versus ciprofloxacin in the treatment of uncomplicated shigellosis in children. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a randomized, open-label, controlled trial with two parallel arms at two hospitals in southern Vietnam. The study was designed as a superiority trial and children with dysentery meeting the inclusion criteria were invited to participate. Participants received either gatifloxacin (10 mg/kg/day) in a single daily dose for 3 days or ciprofloxacin (30 mg/kg/day) in two divided doses for 3 days. The primary outcome measure was treatment failure; secondary outcome measures were time to the cessation of individual symptoms. Four hundred and ninety four patients were randomized to receive either gatifloxacin (n  =  249) or ciprofloxacin (n  =  245), of which 107 had a positive Shigella stool culture. We could not demonstrate superiority of gatifloxacin and observed similar clinical failure rate in both groups (gatifloxacin; 12.0% and ciprofloxacin; 11.0%, p  =  0.72). The median (inter-quartile range) time from illness onset to cessation of all symptoms was 95 (66–126) hours for gatifloxacin recipients and 93 (68–120) hours for the ciprofloxacin recipients (Hazard Ratio [95%CI]  =  0.98 [0.82–1.17], p  =  0.83). Conclusions We conclude that in Vietnam, where nalidixic acid resistant Shigellae are highly prevalent, ciprofloxacin and gatifloxacin are similarly effective for the