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Sample records for dysentery amebic

  1. Risk of underdiagnosing amebic dysentery due to false-negative Entamoeba histolytica antigen detection.

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    Prim, Núria; Escamilla, Pilar; Solé, Roser; Llovet, Teresa; Soriano, Germán; Muñoz, Carmen

    2012-08-01

    Entamoeba histolytica antigen assays on stool are widely used to diagnose amebiasis. We report a case of confirmed amebic colitis with a false-negative antigen detection that became positive after treatment. Our results indicate that these assays may underdiagnose acute amebic infection when used alone and should be used cautiously. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Amebic liver abscess

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    Hepatic amebiasis; Extraintestinal amebiasis; Abscess - amebic liver ... Amebic liver abscess is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. This parasite causes amebiasis , an intestinal infection that is also called ...

  3. A case of fulminating amebic colitis associated with toxic megacolon

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    Cho, Kyung Sik; Lee, Joong Suk; Suh, Soo Jhi [Kyung Hee University Hospital. Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    Amebic colitis was common disease in Korea as well as in the world especially frequent in tropical area such as Africa, India and South America. Clinicopathological forms of this condition were ulcerative rectocolitis (95%), typhloappendicitis (3%), ameboma (1.5%), and fulminating colitis with toxic megacolon (0.5%). The fulminating amebic colitis with toxic megacolon was very rare and dangerous condition which was reported by Wruble on 1966. Toxic megacolon was seen in the cases of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, typhoid fever, cholera, and acute bacillary dysentery. Radiological findings of fulminating amebic colitis with toxic megacolon were megacolon, multiple polypoid filling defects, thumbprinting, and cobble stone appearance, which were resemble with ulcerative colitis. The cause of toxic megacolon was not well known, but it has been speculated that this results from transmural disease with destruction of muscle and the myenteric plexus with resultant loss of muscle tone. Authors experienced a case of fulminating amebic colitis with toxic megacolon which was resemble with ulcerative colitis by radiologically at Kyung Hee University Hospital and reported it with review of the literatures.

  4. [Overdiagnosis of amebiasis in children with dysentery].

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    Beltramino, Juan Carlos; Sosa, Horacio; Gamba, Natalia; Busquets, Natalia; Navarro, Lucas; Virgolini, Stella; Ricardo, Omar

    2009-12-01

    There are morphologically identical amebaes, but with differences that can distinguish them; one as pathogenic: Entamoeba histolytica, and the other: Entamoeba dispar, as inoffensive. That brought the new hypothesis that many of the cases treated as amebiasis, weren't so. To identify E. hystolitica in patients with dysentery, supposed to be caused by amebae. Transversal and observational study performed between March 2005 and November 2007 in the city of Santa Fe, Argentina. Stools from children aged 2 months to 15 years-old with dysentery and direct exams with E. hystolitica/ dispar, were studied with ELISA to detect the adhesin of E. histolytica (adhesin Eh). Permanent stains for amebae were done as well as stool cultures. Clinical data were charted. 75 children were studied; 35 were male and 40, female, with a median age of 3 years-old. All of them presented diarrhea with leucocyte, 73% macroscopic blood on stool and 27% detectable on the microscope. Elisa Eh was positive in 21; 3 cases had hematophagous trophozoites. In 15 stool cultures were found: S. flexneri S2 type in 5 cases. Other parasites: 6 (Blastocystis homini 5). In 54 adhesin Eh was negative, 19% of the coulouring detected E. dispar. From 44 stool cultures: S. flexneri S2 type was detected in 13, Shigella sp in 1, C jejuni 5, other: 3. Other parasites: 12 (Blastocystis homini 9). In this group of children with "amebic dysentery", half of them developed invasive bacteriae and only 28% had E. histolytica on stools; that means that the prevalence of positive cases in the population could be 18% to 38% [CI 95% (0.179; 0.381)].

  5. Amebic Meningoencephalitis and Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    diseases infection in the United States and coined the term “primary amebic meningoencephalitis.”4 Later studies showed that PAM was a recently discovered...filaments. Clumps of bacteria or debris may attach to the uroid. Naegleria sp divide by promitosis, wherein the nucleolus and nuclear membrane persist...inoculated onto the center of an agar plate that has been precoated with bacteria , and incubated at 37°C. Biopsy or autopsy material should be

  6. Amebic infection in humans.

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    Choudhuri, Gourdas; Rangan, Murali

    2012-07-01

    Clinical human infections with the protozoa Entamoeba histolytica is still estimated to occur in 50 million people worldwide, of which approximately 100,000 die annually. Although most clinical symptoms are due to involvement of the large intestine, 1 % present with involvement of the liver in the form of a liver abscess, a potentially fatal condition. Distinguishing an invasive form (E. histolytica) from a morphologically identical non-invasive one (E. dispar) requires molecular or enzymatic characterization. Further, the pattern of infection, interpretation of presence of antibodies in the host, manifestations of disease, approach to investigations and strategies for management remain complex. This article also provides a comprehensive review of the parasite and host factors that govern the complex relationship of the prozoa and humans, and tries to explain why some develop a particular form of the disease in endemic zones. Application of modern imaging and image guided therapy seems to be playing a major role in diagnosis and management of the potentially most serious form of the disease, amebic liver abscess. Despite lack of controlled studies there is a tendency to lower the threshold of their use in clinical practice, and indeed in-hospital mortality rate seems to be falling for amebic liver abscess. In a world getting increasingly swamped by non-infectious metabolic diseases, awareness of amebic infections, its bed-side diagnosis, the use of appropriate laboratory tests, and decision making in management are shrinking. This review tries to update the scientific developments in amebiasis.

  7. Amebic abscess of urachal remnants.

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    Catanzaro, D; Mirk, P; Carbone, A; Macis, G; Danza, F M

    2001-06-01

    We report a rare case of amebic abscess of the urachus, mimicking an urachal neoplasm: no previous reports of amebic infection of the urachus were found in the literature. The challenges of the differential diagnosis between urachal abscess and carcinomas based both on clinical and radiological data are discussed.

  8. Amebic abscess of urachal remnants

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    Catanzaro, Daniela; Mirk, Paoletta; Carbone, Arnaldo; Macis, Giuseppe; Danza, Francesco Maria

    2001-06-01

    We report a rare case of amebic abscess of the urachus, mimicking an urachal neoplasm: no previous reports of amebic infection of the urachus were found in the literature. The challenges of the differential diagnosis between urachal abscess and carcinomas based both on clinical and radiological data are discussed.

  9. Amebic perforation of small bowel: an unexpected localization of a fatal complication.

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    Ozer, Mehmet; Ergul, Emre; Donmez, Cem; Sisman, Ibrahim Cagatay; Ulger, Burak Veli; Kusdemir, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    The intestinal protozoan parasite E. histolytica is the causative organism responsible for human amebiasis and amebic dysentery. Although it is primarily an infection of the colon, it may also be spread by hematogenous path to other organs, especially the liver. In general, the clinical spectrum of colorectal amebiasis ranges from the state of asymptomatic carrier to severe fulminant necrotizing colitis with bleeding and perforation. Here we present an extremely rare case of necrotizing amebiasis of small bowel with a fatal outcome (Fig. 1, Ref. 4). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  10. Amebic osteomyelitis in an immunocompromised patient.

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    Breland, Matthew; Beckmann, Nicholas

    2016-09-01

    Acanthamoeba spp. are pathogenic protozoa that are uncommonly encountered. They tend to infect immunocompromised patients, most often causing cutaneous lesions and in some instances granulomatous amebic encephalitis, as well as rare instances of dissemination to other organs. We present a case of amebic osteomyelitis of the fibula in a patient with rejection of a transplanted kidney who was chronically immune-suppressed.

  11. [Latex agglutination test in amebic liver abscess].

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    Gómez Maganda y Silva, T; García Carrizosa, R; Torres Valadez, F; Ortiz Ramírez, E; Villaseñor de la Parra, C; Flores González, A; Gómez García, E

    1978-01-01

    Amebic hepatic abscesses are one of the most frequent and serious complications of intestinal amibiasis. Although many methods exists with which the diagnosis can be made, frequently problems do arise. Serologic reactions play an important role in the diagnosis of amebic hepatic abscess. Among the most useful of the serological tests, is that which evaluates agglutination with latex particles. Latex agglutination was positive in 98.5% of 200 cases of proved amebic hepatic abscess. The pros and cons of the utility of this test compared with other serological tests are discussed. It is concluded that or the especialist as well as the general practicioner latex agglutination can be extremely useful in the diagnosis of amebic hepatic abscess.

  12. Varied Clinical Manifestations of Amebic Colitis.

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    Cooper, Chad J; Fleming, Rhonda; Boman, Darius A; Zuckerman, Marc J

    2015-11-01

    Invasive amebiasis is common worldwide, but infrequently observed in the United States. It is associated with considerable morbidity in patients residing in or traveling to endemic areas. We review the clinical and endoscopic manifestations of amebic colitis to alert physicians to the varied clinical manifestations of this potentially life-threatening disease. Copyright ©Most patients present with watery or bloody diarrhea. Less common presentations of amebic colitis include abdominal pain, overt gastrointestinal bleeding, exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease, or the incidental association with colon cancer. Amebic liver abscesses are the most frequent complication. Rectosigmoid involvement may be found on colonoscopy; however, most case series have reported that the cecum is the most commonly involved site, followed by the ascending colon. Endoscopic evaluation should be used to assist in the diagnosis, with attention to the observation of colonic inflammation, ulceration, and amebic trophozoites on histopathological examination.

  13. Amebic osteomyelitis in an immunocompromised patient

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    Matthew Breland, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Acanthamoeba spp. are pathogenic protozoa that are uncommonly encountered. They tend to infect immunocompromised patients, most often causing cutaneous lesions and in some instances granulomatous amebic encephalitis, as well as rare instances of dissemination to other organs. We present a case of amebic osteomyelitis of the fibula in a patient with rejection of a transplanted kidney who was chronically immune-suppressed.

  14. Amebic liver abscesses masquerading as pyemic abscesses.

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    Nattakom, S; Serrato, P; Bright, T; Anaya, A; Stubbers, S; Verghese, A

    2001-12-15

    We describe a 50-year-old man who presented with multiple liver abscesses that suggested biliary sepsis or portal pyemia. A wet preparation of a sample of aspirate showed the presence of amebic trophozoites, and subsequent serological testing for amebae was strongly reactive.

  15. Acute amebic appendicitis: report of a rare case.

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    Singh, Naorem Gopendro; Mannan, A A S Rifat; Kahvic, Mirza

    2010-01-01

    Acute appendicitis of amebic origin is considered a rare cause of acute appendicitis. We report a case of amebic appendicitis presenting with fever, severe pain in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen and rebound tenderness. Lab investigations revealed neutrophilic leukocytosis. The patient underwent appendectomy. Histopathological examination revealed numerous Entameba histolytica trophozoites in the mucosa of the appendix. Acute appendicitis of amebic origin does not appear frequently. Appendicular amebiasis can give the clinical features of acute appendicitis and should be treated accordingly.

  16. Fulminant amebic colitis in an HIV-infected homosexual man.

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    Ishioka, Haruhiko; Umezawa, Masami; Hatakeyama, Shuji

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of fulminant amebic colitis in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected homosexual man. The patient developed colonic perforation over a short time despite empirical therapy with metronidazole, and underwent right hemicolectomy. Amebic colitis was pathologically diagnosed by identifying invasive trophozoites of Entamoeba in a surgical specimen. Amebic colitis is one of the important differential diagnoses of acute abdomen in HIV-infected patients and/or homosexual men, especially in East Asia. Although fulminant amebic colitis is a rare manifestation of amebiasis, early diagnosis and treatment are thought to be important to improve the outcome of this highly fatal complication.

  17. Unusual complication of amebic liver abscess: Hepatogastricfistula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Amebic liver abscess is a parasitic disease which isoften encountered in tropical countries. A hepatogastricfistula secondary to an amebic liver abscess is a rarecomplication of this disease and there are only a handfulof reported cases in literature. Here we present a caseof an amebic liver abscess which was complicated withthe development of a hepatogastric fistula. The patientpresented with the Jaundice, pain and distension ofabdomen. The Jaundice and pain improved partially afterhe had an episode of brownish black colored increasein frequency of stools for 5 to 6 d. Patient also hadascites and anemia. He was a chronic alcohol drinker.Esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed in view ofthe above findings. It showed a fistulous opening withbilious secretions along the lesser curvature of thestomach. On imaging multiple liver abscesses seenincluding one in sub capsular location. The patient wasmanaged conservatively with antiamebic medicationsalong with proton pump inhibitors. The pigtail drainageof the sub capsular abscess was done. The patientimproved significantly. The repeat endoscopy performedafter about two months showed reduction in fistulasize. A review of the literature shows that hepatogastricfistulas can be managed conservatively with medicationsand drainage, endoscopically with biliary stenting or withsurgical excision.

  18. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri, Karachi, Pakistan.

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    Shakoor, Sadia; Beg, Mohammad Asim; Mahmood, Syed Faisal; Bandea, Rebecca; Sriram, Rama; Noman, Fatima; Ali, Farheen; Visvesvara, Govinda S; Zafar, Afia

    2011-02-01

    We report 13 cases of Naegleria fowleri primary amebic meningoencephalitis in persons in Karachi, Pakistan, who had no history of aquatic activities. Infection likely occurred through ablution with tap water. An increase in primary amebic meningoencephalitis cases may be attributed to rising temperatures, reduced levels of chlorine in potable water, or deteriorating water distribution systems.

  19. Amebic liver abscess and polycystic liver disease

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    Karan V. S. Rana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic liver disease is a rare disorder which remains asymptomatic. Infection of cyst is a major complication and is usually pyogenic. We report a rare case of amebic liver abscess in a patient with polycystic liver disease. In our search we found one such case report. Clinical features and radiological findings are usually sufficient, but atypical history and the presence of multiple hepatic abscesses in CT scan delayed diagnosis in our case. Histopathology of the cyst wall and enzyme immunoassay asserted the diagnosis.

  20. Amebic liver abscess in Iranian children

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    Khotaii Gh

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Although amebic liver abscess can be a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in all ages, there are few reports dealing with this entity in children. Twenty-four children with amebic liver abscess. Ages ranging between 8 weeks and 14.5 years were managed at the Tehran university hospital of children, Iran, between November 1987, and October 2001. The most frequency presentation was high-grade fever and right upper quadrant pain, associated with tender hepatomegaly, leukocytosis and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The diagnosis was confirmed by elevated indirect hemagglutination titers and ultrasonograpy of the liver. Unlike the experience in adult patients, none of the patients had concomitant jaundice and significant derangement of liver enzymes. The abscesses were likely to be solitary (22 of 24 patients. There were 17 males and 7 females. Most patients (80% were between 8 weeks to 14.5 years of age. In five patients possible predisposing factors were tuberculosis, chickenpox, tetralogy of fallot and thalassemia major. All patients received metronidazole (50 mg/kg/day, followed by a therapeutic course of a luminal amebicide. There was no death despite a mean delay of 15 days before presentation to our hospital. In conclusion a high index of suspicion, early institution of metronidazole therapy and aspiration of abscesses with potential to rupture are believed to have contributed to the better outcome in these children when compared with results in previous reports.

  1. Acute amebic appendicitis: Report of a rare case

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    Singh Naorem

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute appendicitis of amebic origin is considered a rare cause of acute appendicitis. We report a case of amebic appendicitis presenting with fever, severe pain in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen and rebound tenderness. Lab investigations revealed neutrophilic leukocytosis. The patient underwent appendectomy. Histopathological examination revealed numerous Entameba histolytica trophozoites in the mucosa of the appendix. Acute appendicitis of amebic origin does not appear frequently. Appendicular amebiasis can give the clinical features of acute appendicitis and should be treated accordingly.

  2. Recurrent amebic liver abscesses over a 16-year period: A case report

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    D. Creemers-Schild; P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry); L.G. Visser; J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); P.J. Wismans (Pieter)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Amebic liver abscess is a rare disease in high-income countries. Recurrence of amebic liver abscess is even rarer with only a few previous reports. Here we present a patient who developed three subsequent amebic liver abscesses over a sixteen-year period. Case presentation: A

  3. Recurrent amebic liver abscesses over a 16-year period: A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Creemers-Schild; P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry); L.G. Visser; J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); P.J. Wismans (Pieter)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Amebic liver abscess is a rare disease in high-income countries. Recurrence of amebic liver abscess is even rarer with only a few previous reports. Here we present a patient who developed three subsequent amebic liver abscesses over a sixteen-year period. Case presentation: A

  4. INMUNOGLOBULINA G EN PACIENTE CON ABSCESO HEPÁTICO AMEBIANO Inmunoglobulin-IgG antibodies- in one patients with amebic liver abscess

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    Análida Elizabeth Pinilla Roa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La infección por Entamoeba histo­lytica puede causar disentería y absceso hepático amebiano, enfermedades de alta morbi-mortalidad. Los estudios seroepidemio­lógicos han demostrado que la mayoría (81-100% de los pacientes con absceso hepático amebiano y hasta la mitad en la colitis amebiana desarrollan inmuno­globulina G (IgG específica para E. histolytica, que persiste por varios años. Por tal motivo, hay controversia acerca de la utilidad de la prueba de ELISA IgG para el diagnóstico de absceso hepático amebiano en países tropicales, donde se ha reportado una alta prevalencia de la enfermedad. Se presenta el seguimiento, durante 32 meses, mediante IgG de un paciente de 69 años, proveniente del Chocó en Colombia, con diagnóstico de absceso hepático amebiano, comprobado mediante ecografía, ELISA para IgG, e inmunodifusión y por la respuesta al tratamiento con metronidazol. Las pruebas inmunodiagnósticas han permanecido positivas durante el seguimiento.Entamoeba histolytica causes dysentery and amebic liver abscess diseases, with high morbid and mortality. Seroepidemiological surveys have shown that 81-100% of patients with amebic liver abscess and 50% of patients with amebic colitis developed specific anti-E. histolytica IgG antibodies which may persist for several years. For this reason the usefulness of the ELISA test for IgG antibodies in amebic liver abscess diagnosis has been questioned in tropical countries where prevalence of the disease is high. This paper presents the follow-up during 32 months of the IgG antibodies in a 69 year old patient from Chocó (Colombia, with one amebic liver abscess confirmed by liver ultrasound, ELISA IgG and inmunodifution, who response to treatment with metronidazole. The immunodiagnostic tests have been consistently positive during follow-up.

  5. Endoscopic findings and lesion distribution in amebic colitis.

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    Horiki, Noriyuki; Furukawa, Keiichi; Kitade, Takashi; Sakuno, Takashi; Katsurahara, Masaki; Harada, Tetsuro; Tano, Shunsuke; Yamada, Reiko; Hamada, Yasuhiko; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kyosuke; Gabazza, Esteban C; Ishii, Naoki; Fukuda, Katsuyuki; Omata, Fumio; Fujita, Yoshiyuki; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Takei, Yoshiyuki

    2015-06-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 55 symptomatic patients with amebic colitis that visited at St. Luke's International Hospital and Mie University Hospital from 1994 through 2013. To diagnose amebic colitis, 40 patients underwent total colonoscopy within 1 week after hospital visiting and before receiving any treatment. The percentage of characteristic endoscopic findings of amebic colitis including discrete ulcers or erosions with white or yellow exudates were 0% in terminal ileum, 93% in cecum, 28% in ascending, 25% in transverse, 15% in descending, 20% in sigmoid colon and 45% in rectum. The rectal lesions in 55% of patients with amebic colitis were nonspecific. The trophozoite identification rate by direct smear of intestinal tract washings performed during colonoscopy was 88%. The protozoan identification rate was 70% in biopsy specimens taken from the periphery of the characteristic discrete ulcers. Total colonoscopy should be considered for the diagnosis of amebic colitis. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Amebic liver abscess in Tarapoto-Peru].

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    Samaniego, L; Calderón, J; Rodríguez, J; Zegarra, W; Alegre, P; Ramírez, H

    1992-01-01

    In order to know the incidence and epidemiologic features of the Amebic Hepatic Abscess we realized this study in the medicine service. 86.67% were males, the average age was 41.38 +/- 18.60 years old being more frequent between 30 and 69 years old (74.48%). The more affected were farmers (60%), students (10%) and Housekeepers (6.67%). The average time of the disease was 12.12 +/- 6.35 dias. The most frequent symptoms were abdominal pain in the upper right quadrant (96.66%), Hepatomegaly (83.33%), Fever (82.22%), Diarrhea (37.77%), Nausea (36.66%), Jaundice (33.33%). The initial diagnosis was AHA (45.55%), acute cholecystitis (14.44%), generalized infectious syndrome (7.77%), acute hepatitis (6.66%). The most frequent studies was: echography (98.85%). AHA alone was in the right lobe (84.05%), left lobe (14.49%). The bigger abscess was of 12 cm in diameter. The treatment was metronidazole + antibioticos (37.78%), metronidazole + antibiotico+percutaneous drainage (24.45%), Metronidazole + surgical drainage (3.33%). The complications were right pleural effusion (8.89%), peritonitis (5.56%) and pioneumothorax (1.11%). The hospitalization time was 14 +/- 8.02 days. There was one death (1.11%). The AHA was ones of each 76 deliveries in our medicine service.

  7. APPLICATION OF POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FOR DIAGNOSING AMEBIC LIVER ABSCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭增柱; 王正仪; 安亦军; 祝宏

    1996-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been applied in diagnosing amebic liver infection by detecting pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica DNA in liver aspirates. Oligonucleotide primers found to he specific for the gene encoding the 30 kDa molecule of this pathogenic ameba were used in the test. Liver aspirates obtained from 23 patients with amebic liver abscess substantiated by typical clinical rnanifastation or with very high titres of anti-E histtolytica antibodies by ELISA were found to he positive by PCR. Fourteen controlsamples (3 cases of bacterial liver abscess, I of liver cancer and 10 of other abscess) were all found to be negative to this reaction. The results suggested PCR to he a specific and sensitive tool for diagnosing amebic liver abscess infections.

  8. Evaluation of the C-Terminal Fragment of Entamoeba histolytica Gal/GalNAc Lectin Intermediate Subunit as a Vaccine Candidate against Amebic Liver Abscess.

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    Xiangyang Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is an intestinal protozoan parasite that causes amoebiasis, including amebic dysentery and liver abscesses. E. histolytica invades host tissues by adhering onto cells and phagocytosing them depending on the adaptation and expression of pathogenic factors, including Gal/GalNAc lectin. We have previously reported that E. histolytica possesses multiple CXXC sequence motifs, with the intermediate subunit of Gal/GalNAc lectin (i.e., Igl as a key factor affecting the amoeba's pathogenicity. The present work showed the effect of immunization with recombinant Igl on amebic liver abscess formation and the corresponding immunological properties.A prokaryotic expression system was used to prepare the full-length Igl and the N-terminal, middle, and C-terminal fragments (C-Igl of Igl. Vaccine efficacy was assessed by challenging hamsters with an intrahepatic injection of E. histolytica trophozoites. Hamsters intramuscularly immunized with full-length Igl and C-Igl were found to be 92% and 96% immune to liver abscess formation, respectively. Immune-response evaluation revealed that C-Igl can generate significant humoral immune responses, with high levels of antibodies in sera from immunized hamsters inhibiting 80% of trophozoites adherence to mammalian cells and inducing 80% more complement-mediated lysis of trophozoites compared with the control. C-Igl was further assessed for its cellular response by cytokine-gene qPCR analysis. The productions of IL-4 (8.4-fold and IL-10 (2-fold in the spleen cells of immunized hamsters were enhanced after in vitro stimulation. IL-4 expression was also supported by increased programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 gene.Immunobiochemical characterization strongly suggests the potential of recombinant Igl, especially the C-terminal fragment, as a vaccine candidate against amoebiasis. Moreover, protection through Th2-cell participation enabled effective humoral immunity against amebic liver abscesses.

  9. Evaluation of the C-Terminal Fragment of Entamoeba histolytica Gal/GalNAc Lectin Intermediate Subunit as a Vaccine Candidate against Amebic Liver Abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Xiangyang; Feng, Meng; Guan, Yue; Man, Suqin; Fu, Yongfeng; Cheng, Xunjia; Tachibana, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an intestinal protozoan parasite that causes amoebiasis, including amebic dysentery and liver abscesses. E. histolytica invades host tissues by adhering onto cells and phagocytosing them depending on the adaptation and expression of pathogenic factors, including Gal/GalNAc lectin. We have previously reported that E. histolytica possesses multiple CXXC sequence motifs, with the intermediate subunit of Gal/GalNAc lectin (i.e., Igl) as a key factor affecting the amoeba's pathogenicity. The present work showed the effect of immunization with recombinant Igl on amebic liver abscess formation and the corresponding immunological properties. A prokaryotic expression system was used to prepare the full-length Igl and the N-terminal, middle, and C-terminal fragments (C-Igl) of Igl. Vaccine efficacy was assessed by challenging hamsters with an intrahepatic injection of E. histolytica trophozoites. Hamsters intramuscularly immunized with full-length Igl and C-Igl were found to be 92% and 96% immune to liver abscess formation, respectively. Immune-response evaluation revealed that C-Igl can generate significant humoral immune responses, with high levels of antibodies in sera from immunized hamsters inhibiting 80% of trophozoites adherence to mammalian cells and inducing 80% more complement-mediated lysis of trophozoites compared with the control. C-Igl was further assessed for its cellular response by cytokine-gene qPCR analysis. The productions of IL-4 (8.4-fold) and IL-10 (2-fold) in the spleen cells of immunized hamsters were enhanced after in vitro stimulation. IL-4 expression was also supported by increased programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 gene. Immunobiochemical characterization strongly suggests the potential of recombinant Igl, especially the C-terminal fragment, as a vaccine candidate against amoebiasis. Moreover, protection through Th2-cell participation enabled effective humoral immunity against amebic liver abscesses.

  10. Fulminant Amebic Colitis after Corticosteroid Therapy: A Systematic Review.

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    Debbie-Ann Shirley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Amebic colitis, caused by intestinal infection with the parasite, Entamoeba histolytica, is a common cause of diarrhea worldwide. Fulminant amebic colitis is the most devastating complication of this infection, associated with both high mortality and morbidity. We conducted a review of the English literature to describe cases of fulminant amebic colitis associated with exposure to corticosteroid medications in order to identify the risk factors for poor outcome and determine difficulties in diagnosis and treatment.Articles reporting severe and fulminant forms of amebic colitis between 1991 and 2016 were collected. 525 records were screened to identify 24 cases for qualitative analysis associated with corticosteroid use. Cases arose from areas of high endemicity or travel to such areas. Most cases (14 of 24, 58% were given corticosteroids for initially misdiagnosed colitis, mainly inflammatory bowel, resulting in rapid progression of disease. Nearly half of all cases underwent surgical intervention, and 25% of cases died, despite all patients eventually receiving treatment with metronidazole. The odds of death did not differ significantly by prior misdiagnosis, co-morbidities, bowel perforation or need for surgery.Infection with E. histolytica should be considered prior to the administration of corticosteroids, in particular for patients residing in endemic areas or those with appropriate travel history, especially prior to the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. The development of preventative and treatment interventions are needed to improve outcomes of fulminant disease.

  11. Fulminant Amebic Colitis after Corticosteroid Therapy: A Systematic Review

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    Shirley, Debbie-Ann; Moonah, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Background Amebic colitis, caused by intestinal infection with the parasite, Entamoeba histolytica, is a common cause of diarrhea worldwide. Fulminant amebic colitis is the most devastating complication of this infection, associated with both high mortality and morbidity. We conducted a review of the English literature to describe cases of fulminant amebic colitis associated with exposure to corticosteroid medications in order to identify the risk factors for poor outcome and determine difficulties in diagnosis and treatment. Methodology and Principal Findings Articles reporting severe and fulminant forms of amebic colitis between 1991 and 2016 were collected. 525 records were screened to identify 24 cases for qualitative analysis associated with corticosteroid use. Cases arose from areas of high endemicity or travel to such areas. Most cases (14 of 24, 58%) were given corticosteroids for initially misdiagnosed colitis, mainly inflammatory bowel, resulting in rapid progression of disease. Nearly half of all cases underwent surgical intervention, and 25% of cases died, despite all patients eventually receiving treatment with metronidazole. The odds of death did not differ significantly by prior misdiagnosis, co-morbidities, bowel perforation or need for surgery. Conclusions and Significance Infection with E. histolytica should be considered prior to the administration of corticosteroids, in particular for patients residing in endemic areas or those with appropriate travel history, especially prior to the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. The development of preventative and treatment interventions are needed to improve outcomes of fulminant disease. PMID:27467600

  12. Diagnosis of amebic liver abscess and amebic colitis by detection of Entamoeba histolytica DNA in blood, urine, and saliva by a real-time PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Rashidul; Kabir, Mamun; Noor, Zannatun; Rahman, S M Mazidur; Mondal, Dinesh; Alam, Faisal; Rahman, Intekhab; Al Mahmood, Abdullh; Ahmed, Nooruddin; Petri, William A

    2010-08-01

    The noninvasive diagnosis of amebic liver abscess is challenging, as most patients at the time of diagnosis do not have a concurrent intestinal infection with Entamoeba histolytica. Fecal testing for E. histolytica parasite antigen or DNA is negative in most patients. A real-time PCR assay was evaluated for detection of E. histolytica DNA in blood, urine, and saliva samples from amebic liver abscess as well as amebic colitis patients in Bangladesh. A total of 98 amebic liver abscess and 28 amebic colitis patients and 43 control subjects were examined. The real-time PCR assay detected E. histolytica DNA in 49%, 77%, and 69% of blood, urine, and saliva specimens from the amebic liver abscess patients. For amebic colitis the sensitivity of the real-time PCR assay for detection of E. histolytica DNA in blood, urine, and saliva was 36%, 61%, and 64%, respectively. All blood, urine, and saliva samples from control subjects were negative by the real-time PCR assay for E. histolytica DNA. When the real-time PCR assay results of the urine and saliva specimens were taken together (positive either in urine or saliva), the real-time PCR assay was 97% and 89% sensitive for detection of E. histolytica DNA in liver abscess and intestinal infection, respectively. We conclude that the detection of E. histolytica DNA in saliva and urine could be used as a diagnostic tool for amebic liver abscess.

  13. [Study on influence of floods on bacillary dysentery incidence in Liaoning province, 2004 -2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Liu, Z D; Han, D B; Xu, Y Q; Jiang, B F

    2016-05-01

    To understand the influence of floods on bacillary dysentery in Liaoning province. The monthly surveillance data of bacillary dysentery, floods, meteorological and demographic data in Liaoning from 2004 to 2010 were collected. Panel Poisson regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the influence of floods on the incidence of bacillary dysentery in Liaoning. The mean monthly morbidity of bacillary dysentery was 2.17 per 100 000 during the study period, the bacillary dysentery cases mainly occurred in during July-September. Spearman correlation analysis showed that no lagged effect was detected in the influence of floods on the incidence of bacillary dysentery. After adjusting the influence of meteorological factors, panel data analysis showed that the influence of floods on the incidence of bacillary dysentery existed and the incidence rate ratio was 1.439 4(95%CI: 1.408 1-1.471 4). Floods could significantly increase the risk of bacillary dysentery for population in Liaoning.

  14. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis diagnosed in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, J A; Spudis, E V; McLean, W; White, J; Visvesvara, G S

    1983-01-01

    Reported is a case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis diagnosed in the emergency department. The patient, a previously healthy teenager, developed Naegleria meningoencephalitis after swimming in a freshwater public pool. The Naegleria caused acute fulminating infection culminating in the death of the patient 36 hours after admission. Results of a spinal tap, together with the history of swimming in warm fresh water, led to the emergency department diagnosis.

  15. Patterns of Bacillary Dysentery in China, 2005–2010

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    Han Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the incidence of bacillary dysentery in China has been declining progressively, a considerable disease burden still exists. Few studies have analyzed bacillary dysentery across China and knowledge gaps still exist in the aspects of geographic distribution and ecological drivers, seasonality and its association with meteorological factors, urban-rural disparity, prevalence and distribution of Shigella species. Here, we performed nationwide analyses to fill the above gaps. Geographically, we found that incidence increased along an east-west gradient which was inversely related to the economic conditions of China. Two large endemically high-risk regions in western China and their ecological drivers were identified for the first time. We characterized seasonality of bacillary dysentery incidence and assessed its association with meteorological factors, and saw that it exhibits north-south differences in peak duration, relative amplitude and key meteorological factors. Urban and rural incidences among China’s cities were compared, and disparity associated with urbanization level was invariant in most cities. Balanced decrease of urban and rural incidence was observed for all provinces except Hunan. S. flexneri and S. sonnei were identified as major causative species. Increasing prevalence of S. sonnei and geographic distribution of Shigella species were associated with economic status. Findings and inferences from this study draw broader pictures of bacillary dysentery in mainland China and could provide useful information for better interventions and public health planning.

  16. Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba Amebic Encephalitis with Neurotoxoplasmosis Coinfection in a Patient with Advanced HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrucha-Dilanchian, Paula; Chan, Joseph C.; Castellano-Sanchez, Amilcar; Hirzel, Alicia; Laowansiri, Panthipa; Tuda, Claudio; Visvesvara, Govinda S.; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Ratzan, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a patient with advanced HIV infection and Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba amebic encephalitis with Toxoplasma gondii coinfection. A multidisciplinary effort and state-of-the-art diagnostic techniques were required for diagnosis. Our patient is the first reported case of an HIV-infected person with dual Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba amebic encephalitis with neurotoxoplasmosis coinfection.

  17. 马达加斯加马义奇地区阿米巴痢疾感染状况调查分析%Investigation and analysis on amebic infection in Ma Yiqi Region of Madagascar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳文; Pierre; 郭天康; 卢启明; 魏莲花; 韩平治; 张浩军; Andrea; Patrick

    2014-01-01

    目的 对马达加斯加共和国马义奇地区的阿米巴痢疾感染状况进行调查分析. 方法 2013年1-12月,在马达加斯加马义奇地区,对中国援马达加斯加医疗队马义奇医院就诊的当地疑似阿米巴痢疾患者,连续采集3次新鲜粪便标本,显微镜检查溶组织阿米巴滋养体和包囊,统计20092012年该院显微镜检查溶组织阿米巴痢疾的原始记录,对各年份及不同季节阿米巴痢疾的感染率、不同年龄组人群患阿米巴痢疾的比率等进行统计学分析. 结果 2009-2013年分别检测疑似患者254、303、320、263和316例,确诊126、152、165、143和176例,感染率分别为49.7%、50.2%、51.5%、54.4%和55.7%,各年份感染率比较差异均无统计学意义(x2=1.46,P>0.05).雨季感染率分别为80.2%、78.5%、81.7%、80.3%和82.1%,较旱季明显偏高,各年份雨季和旱季感染率差异均有统计学意义(x2=83.82,P<0.01).0~6岁患儿占患者的85.7%,明显高于其他年龄组,各年龄组差异有统计学意义(x2=1 067.6,P<0.01). 结论 马达加斯加马义奇地区阿米巴痢疾常年发病,易感人群多为0~6岁的学龄前儿童,且雨季较旱季感染率明显偏高.%Objective To investigate the infection of amebic dysentery in Ma Yiqi Region of the Republic of Madagascar.Methods From January to December,2013,the fresh stool specimens of all patients of suspected amebic dysentery,treated by the Chinese medical team assisting to Ma Yiqi Hospital were collected for three times consecutively and were examined for the trophozoites and cysts of histolytic ameba under microscope.Furthermore,all original records of histolytic amebic dysentery confirmed microscopically from 2009 to 2012 in this hospital were summarized.The amebic dysentery infection rate in each year and different seasons and the ratio of different age groups with amebic dysentery were statistically analyzed and epidemiologically studied.Results From 2009

  18. Identification of weather variables sensitive to dysentery in disease-affected county of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianing; Wu, Xiaoxu; Li, Chenlu; Xu, Bing; Hu, Luojia; Chen, Jin; Dai, Shuang

    2017-01-01

    Climate change mainly refers to long-term change in weather variables, and it has significant impact on sustainability and spread of infectious diseases. Among three leading infectious diseases in China, dysentery is exclusively sensitive to climate change. Previous researches on weather variables and dysentery mainly focus on determining correlation between dysentery incidence and weather variables. However, the contribution of each variable to dysentery incidence has been rarely clarified. Therefore, we chose a typical county in epidemic of dysentery as the study area. Based on data of dysentery incidence, weather variables (monthly mean temperature, precipitation, wind speed, relative humidity, absolute humidity, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature) and lagged analysis, we used principal component analysis (PCA) and classification and regression trees (CART) to examine the relationships between the incidence of dysentery and weather variables. Principal component analysis showed that temperature, precipitation, and humidity played a key role in determining transmission of dysentery. We further selected weather variables including minimum temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity based on results of PCA, and used CART to clarify contributions of these three weather variables to dysentery incidence. We found when minimum temperature was at a high level, the high incidence of dysentery occurred if relative humidity or precipitation was at a high level. We compared our results with other studies on dysentery incidence and meteorological factors in areas both in China and abroad, and good agreement has been achieved. Yet, some differences remain for three reasons: not identifying all key weather variables, climate condition difference caused by local factors, and human factors that also affect dysentery incidence. This study hopes to shed light on potential early warnings for dysentery transmission as climate change occurs, and provide a theoretical

  19. Risk of fatal amebic meningoencephalitis from waterborne Naegleria fowleri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallenbeck, William H.; Brenniman, Gary R.

    1989-03-01

    Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fatal disease of the central nervous system caused primarily by the free-living ameba, Naegleria fowleri. PAM is primarily associated with swimming in various types of fresh water. World literature was reviewed in order to derive a risk analysis model that would be helpful in the management of PAM. The management of PAM risk is difficult, and the prevention of PAM is almost impossible. However, it is reassuring that the cases and risks estimated by the risk model are usually small, with individual annual risk on the order of 10-6.

  20. A rare case of survival from primary amebic meningoencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parshotam Lal Gautam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM is a rare and fatal disease of central nervous system (CNS caused by Naegleria fowleri, an ameba found in soils and warm waters. It enters the CNS after insufflation of infected water by attaching itself to the olfactory nerves. The infection is usually difficult to diagnose and has a poor prognosis. The present case is one such case in which CSF examination led us to the diagnosis of PAM and finally to a favorable outcome when treated with Amphoterracin B and antibiotics.

  1. Distributed lag effects and vulnerable groups of floods on bacillary dysentery in Huaihua, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Dong; Li, Jing; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Guo-Yong; Xu, Xin; Gao, Lu; Liu, Xue-Na; Liu, Qi-Yong; Jiang, Bao-Fa

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the potential links between floods and bacillary dysentery in China is important to develop appropriate intervention programs after floods. This study aimed to explore the distributed lag effects of floods on bacillary dysentery and to identify the vulnerable groups in Huaihua, China. Weekly number of bacillary dysentery cases from 2005-2011 were obtained during flood season. Flood data and meteorological data over the same period were obtained from the China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System. To examine the distributed lag effects, a generalized linear mixed model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model were developed to assess the relationship between floods and bacillary dysentery. A total of 3,709 cases of bacillary dysentery were notified over the study period. The effects of floods on bacillary dysentery continued for approximately 3 weeks with a cumulative risk ratio equal to 1.52 (95% CI: 1.08-2.12). The risks of bacillary dysentery were higher in females, farmers and people aged 15-64 years old. This study suggests floods have increased the risk of bacillary dysentery with 3 weeks’ effects, especially for the vulnerable groups identified. Public health programs should be taken to prevent and control a potential risk of bacillary dysentery after floods.

  2. Peroxynitrite and Peroxiredoxin in the Pathogenesis of Experimental Amebic Liver Abscess

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    Judith Pacheco-Yepez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms by which Entamoeba histolytica causes amebic liver abscess (ALA are still not fully understood. Amebic mechanisms of adherence and cytotoxic activity are pivotal for amebic survival but apparently do not directly cause liver abscess. Abundant evidence indicates that chronic inflammation (resulting from an inadequate immune response is probably the main cause of ALA. Reports referring to inflammatory mechanisms of liver damage mention a repertoire of toxic molecules by the immune response (especially nitric oxide and reactive oxygen intermediates and cytotoxic substances released by neutrophils and macrophages after being lysed by amoebas (e.g., defensins, complement, and proteases. Nevertheless, recent evidence downplays these mechanisms in abscess formation and emphasizes the importance of peroxynitrite (ONOO−. It seems that the defense mechanism of amoebas against ONOO−, namely, the amebic thioredoxin system (including peroxiredoxin, is superior to that of mammals. The aim of the present text is to define the importance of ONOO− as the main agent of liver abscess formation during amebic invasion, and to explain the superior capacity of amoebas to defend themselves against this toxic agent through the peroxiredoxin and thioredoxin system.

  3. Peroxynitrite and Peroxiredoxin in the Pathogenesis of Experimental Amebic Liver Abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Yepez, Judith; Gutierrez-Meza, Manuel; Larsen, Bruce Allan; Campos-Rodriguez, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms by which Entamoeba histolytica causes amebic liver abscess (ALA) are still not fully understood. Amebic mechanisms of adherence and cytotoxic activity are pivotal for amebic survival but apparently do not directly cause liver abscess. Abundant evidence indicates that chronic inflammation (resulting from an inadequate immune response) is probably the main cause of ALA. Reports referring to inflammatory mechanisms of liver damage mention a repertoire of toxic molecules by the immune response (especially nitric oxide and reactive oxygen intermediates) and cytotoxic substances released by neutrophils and macrophages after being lysed by amoebas (e.g., defensins, complement, and proteases). Nevertheless, recent evidence downplays these mechanisms in abscess formation and emphasizes the importance of peroxynitrite (ONOO−). It seems that the defense mechanism of amoebas against ONOO−, namely, the amebic thioredoxin system (including peroxiredoxin), is superior to that of mammals. The aim of the present text is to define the importance of ONOO− as the main agent of liver abscess formation during amebic invasion, and to explain the superior capacity of amoebas to defend themselves against this toxic agent through the peroxiredoxin and thioredoxin system. PMID:24822193

  4. [Amebiasis and amebic liver abscess in Mexico: a present-day public health problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escandón Romero, C; García Manzo, N T; Escobedo de la Peña, J; Hernández Ramos, J M; Olvera Alvarez, J; Cabral Soto, J

    1996-01-01

    Amebiasis still remains as a major public health problem in the world. It is one of the most common reasons for medical consult. There are more than half a million cases of amebiasis just at the Mexican Institute of the Social Security. There is still a lack of epidemiologic information on amebiasis in Mexico. To describe the secular trend fro amebiasis and for amebic liver abscess in the Mexican population, as well as in those covered by IMSS Solidaridad. An ecologic trend study was carried on. Incidence rate of amebiasis in all of its forms of presentation, and of amebic liver abscess, were plotted against each year for the 1986-1994 period. Amebiasis incidence in all of its forms of presentation showed a stable trend in this period, as it was seen with amebic liver abscess. Amebiasis is more common in the first years of life. On the contrary, amebic liver abscess showed an inverted 'J' pattern; its occurrence is higher in the extreme years of life. Fatality rates have shown a descendent trend. Amebiasis reflects socioeconomic conditions in Mexico and the fact that Mexican is still an endless culture. There is a need to promote health education, better diagnostic procedures and detection of asymptomatic carriers. Health policies for mothers that are asymptomatic carriers should be reviewed, due to the high rates of amebiasis and amebic liver abscess in children under one year of age.

  5. Quantifying the Impact of Floods on Bacillary Dysentery in Dalian City, China, From 2004 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Ding, Guoyong; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Zhidong; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2017-04-01

    Studies quantifying relationships between floods and diarrheal diseases have mainly been conducted in low-latitude regions. It's therefore increasingly important to examine these relationships in midlatitude regions, where they may have significant public health implications. This study aimed to examine the association between floods and bacillary dysentery in the city of Dalian, China. A generalized additive mixed model was applied to examine the association between floods and bacillary dysentery. The relative risk (RR) of flood impact on bacillary dysentery was estimated. A total of 18,976 cases of bacillary dysentery were reported in Dalian during the study period. Two weeks' lagged effect was detected from the impact of floods on bacillary dysentery. The RR of flood impact on bacillary dysentery was 1.17 (95% CI: 1.03-1.33). Floods have significantly increased the risk of bacillary dysentery in Dalian. More studies should focus on the association between floods and infectious diseases in different regions. Our findings have significant implications for managing the negative health impact of floods in the midlatitude region of China. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:190-195).

  6. Amebic Liver Abscess in Israeli Travelers: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachish, Tamar; Wieder-Finesod, Anat; Schwartz, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Amebic liver abscess (ALA) is endemic in developing countries. The epidemiology and clinical characteristics of the disease in developing countries are well described. Travelers from nonendemic countries can serve as a model for the natural history of ALA. Currently, the available literature on travelers is limited. This is a retrospective observational study on Israeli travelers diagnosed with ALA. Data regarding travel history, clinical presentation, imaging, and treatment were collected and analyzed. Among 6,867 ill returning Israeli travelers, amebiasis was diagnosed in 53 travelers (0.77%), of whom 14 were with ALA (0.2%). Twelve ALA cases (86%) had an exposure in the Indian subcontinent. The male to female ratio was 1:1, with no significant clinical differences between the sexes. The average lag period between exposure and onset of symptoms was 17.1 months. The lack of male predominance and the prolonged lag period may imply that behavioral factors are pivotal in the development of ALA. Larger case series of travelers are required. PMID:26928829

  7. Quantitative analysis of burden of bacillary dysentery associated with floods in Hunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuena; Liu, Zhidong; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-03-15

    Jishou and Huaihua, two cities in the west of Hunan Province, had suffered from severe floods because of long-lasting and heavy rainfall during the end of June and July 2012. However, the Disability Adjusted of Life Years (DALYs) of bacillary dysentery caused by the floods have not been examined before. The study aimed to quantify the impact of the floods on the burden of bacillary dysentery in Hunan, China. A unidirectional case-crossover study was firstly conducted to determine the relationship between daily cases of bacillary dysentery and the floods in Jishou and Huaihua of Hunan Province in 2012. Odds ratios (ORs) estimated by conditional logistic regression were used to quantify the risk of the floods on the disease. The years lived with disability (YLDs) of bacillary dysentery attributable to floods were then estimated based on the WHO framework to calculate potential impact fraction in the Burden of Disease study. Multivariable analysis showed that floods were significantly associated with an increased risk of the number of cases of bacillary dysentery (OR=3.270, 95% CI: 1.299-8.228 in Jishou; OR=2.212, 95% CI: 1.052-4.650 in Huaihua). The strongest effect was shown with a 1-day lag in Jishou and a 4-day lag in Huaihua. Attributable YLD per 1000 of bacillary dysentery due to the floods was 0.0296 in Jishou and 0.0157 in Huaihua. Our study confirms that floods have significantly increased the risks of bacillary dysentery in the study areas. In addition, a sudden and severe flooding with a shorter duration may cause more burdens of bacillary dysentery than a persistent and moderate flooding. Public health preparation and intervention programs should be taken to reduce and prevent a potential risk of bacillary dysentery epidemics after floods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Amebic colitis can mimic tuberculosis and inflammatory bowel disease on endoscopy and biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Sanjay A

    2009-04-01

    Biopsies of 11 patients with histopathologically diagnosed amebic colitis was evaluated; endoscopically, they were suspected to have tuberculosis or inflammatory bowel disease. Amebiasis was suggested in the differential diagnosis in only 3 cases. Three patients had purely rectal or sigmoid involvement, whereas the others had ileocecal, cecal, ascending, or transverse colon disease. The biopsies showed cryptitis and depletion of mucin but no crypt branching. Crypt abscesses were seen in one biopsy. Trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica were seen in the exudate in all cases. The trophozoites were round to oval, approximately 25 to 40 microm in diameter and had a single, round nucleus and periodic acid-Schiff-positive cytoplasm. Phagocytosed erythrocytes were present in the trophozoites. Some features of ulcerative colitis and infectious colitis, such as cryptitis and crypt abscesses, are also seen in amebic colitis. Amebic colitis must be included in the differential diagnosis of all patients with suspected inflammatory bowel disease and tuberculosis.

  9. Amebic lung abscess with coexisting lung adenocarcinoma: a unusual case of amebiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hailong; Min, Xiangyang; Li, Shuai; Feng, Meng; Zhang, Guofeng; Yi, Xianghua

    2014-01-01

    Amebic lung abscess with concurrent lung cancer, but without either a liver abscess or amebic colitis, is extremely uncommon. Here, we report a 70-year-old man presenting with pulmonary amebiasis and coexisting lung adenocarcinoma. During his first-time hospitalization, the diagnosis of lung amebiasis was confirmed by morphological observation and PCR in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sediments of pleural effusion. Almost four months later, the patient was readmitted to hospital for similar complaints. On readmission, lung adenocarcinoma was diagnosed by liquid-based sputum cytology and thought to be delayed because coexisting amebic lung abscess. This case demonstrated that sediments of pleural effusion may be used for further pathological examination after routine cytology has shown negative results. At the same time, we concluded that lung cancer may easily go undetected in the patients with pulmonary amebiasis and repetitive evaluation by cytology and imaging follow-up are useful to find potential cancer.

  10. Therapeutical efficacy of CT-guided relief puncture in amebic liver abscesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfeld, L.; Boitz, F.; Poehls, C.; Cimanowski, N.

    1987-09-01

    Amebic liver abscesses are the most frequent clinical manifestations of the extra-intestinal amebiasis and have to be considered as a serious complication in the course of disease. The abscesses have by their risk of rupturing and bacterial superinfection quoad vitam an unfavourable prognosis. CT-guided relief punctures can, as it is demonstrated by two cases of critical amebic abscesses, effectively improve the therapy with systemic amebicides, prevent imminent rupture and contribute to the healing of the abscesses. Thus a surgical treatment of the abscess was not necessary.

  11. Association between meteorological factors and bacillary dysentery incidence in Chaoyang city, China: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Zhu, Yaxin; Zhu, Zhiwei; Qu, Bo

    2016-12-09

    To quantify the relationship between meteorological factors and bacillary dysentery incidence. Ecological study. We collected bacillary dysentery incidences and meteorological data of Chaoyang city from the year 1981 to 2010. The climate in this city was a typical northern temperate continental monsoon. All meteorological factors in this study were divided into 4 latent factors: temperature, humidity, sunshine and airflow. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the relationship between meteorological factors and the incidence of bacillary dysentery. Incidences of bacillary dysentery were obtained from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Chaoyang city, and meteorological data were collected from the Bureau of Meteorology in Chaoyang city. The indexes including χ(2), root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), comparative fit index (CFI), standardised root mean square residual (SRMR) and goodness-of-fit index (GFI) were used to evaluate the goodness-of-fit of the theoretical model to the data. The factor loads were used to explore quantitative relationship between bacillary dysentery incidences and meteorological factors. The goodness-of-fit results of the model showing that RMSEA=0.08, GFI=0.84, CFI=0.88, SRMR=0.06 and the χ(2) value is 231.95 (p=0.0) with 15 degrees of freedom. Temperature and humidity factors had positive correlations with incidence of bacillary dysentery, with the factor load of 0.59 and 0.78, respectively. Sunshine had a negative correlation with bacillary dysentery incidence, with a factor load of -0.15. Humidity and temperature should be given greater consideration in bacillary dysentery prevention measures for northern temperate continental monsoon climates, such as that of Chaoyang. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Impacts of floods on dysentery in Xinxiang city, China, during 2004–2010: a time-series Poisson analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Xinxiang, a city in Henan Province, suffered from frequent floods due to persistent and heavy precipitation from 2004 to 2010. In the same period, dysentery was a common public health problem in Xinxiang, with the proportion of reported cases being the third highest among all the notified infectious diseases. Objectives: We focused on dysentery disease consequences of different degrees of floods and examined the association between floods and the morbidity of dysentery on the basis of longitudinal data during the study period. Design: A time-series Poisson regression model was conducted to examine the relationship between 10 times different degrees of floods and the monthly morbidity of dysentery from 2004 to 2010 in Xinxiang. Relative risks (RRs of moderate and severe floods on the morbidity of dysentery were calculated in this paper. In addition, we estimated the attributable contributions of moderate and severe floods to the morbidity of dysentery. Results: A total of 7591 cases of dysentery were notified in Xinxiang during the study period. The effect of floods on dysentery was shown with a 0-month lag. Regression analysis showed that the risk of moderate and severe floods on the morbidity of dysentery was 1.55 (95% CI: 1.42–1.670 and 1.74 (95% CI: 1.56–1.94, respectively. The attributable risk proportions (ARPs of moderate and severe floods to the morbidity of dysentery were 35.53 and 42.48%, respectively. Conclusions: This study confirms that floods have significantly increased the risk of dysentery in the study area. In addition, severe floods have a higher proportional contribution to the morbidity of dysentery than moderate floods. Public health action should be taken to avoid and control a potential risk of dysentery epidemics after floods.

  13. Impacts of floods on dysentery in Xinxiang city, China, during 2004-2010: a time-series Poisson analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wei; Ding, Guoyong; Li, Yifei; Li, Hongkai; Jiang, Baofa

    2014-01-01

    Xinxiang, a city in Henan Province, suffered from frequent floods due to persistent and heavy precipitation from 2004 to 2010. In the same period, dysentery was a common public health problem in Xinxiang, with the proportion of reported cases being the third highest among all the notified infectious diseases. We focused on dysentery disease consequences of different degrees of floods and examined the association between floods and the morbidity of dysentery on the basis of longitudinal data during the study period. A time-series Poisson regression model was conducted to examine the relationship between 10 times different degrees of floods and the monthly morbidity of dysentery from 2004 to 2010 in Xinxiang. Relative risks (RRs) of moderate and severe floods on the morbidity of dysentery were calculated in this paper. In addition, we estimated the attributable contributions of moderate and severe floods to the morbidity of dysentery. A total of 7591 cases of dysentery were notified in Xinxiang during the study period. The effect of floods on dysentery was shown with a 0-month lag. Regression analysis showed that the risk of moderate and severe floods on the morbidity of dysentery was 1.55 (95% CI: 1.42-1.670) and 1.74 (95% CI: 1.56-1.94), respectively. The attributable risk proportions (ARPs) of moderate and severe floods to the morbidity of dysentery were 35.53 and 42.48%, respectively. This study confirms that floods have significantly increased the risk of dysentery in the study area. In addition, severe floods have a higher proportional contribution to the morbidity of dysentery than moderate floods. Public health action should be taken to avoid and control a potential risk of dysentery epidemics after floods.

  14. Impacts of floods on dysentery in Xinxiang city, China, during 2004–2010: a time-series Poisson analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wei; Ding, Guoyong; Li, Yifei; Li, Hongkai; Jiang, Baofa

    2014-01-01

    Background Xinxiang, a city in Henan Province, suffered from frequent floods due to persistent and heavy precipitation from 2004 to 2010. In the same period, dysentery was a common public health problem in Xinxiang, with the proportion of reported cases being the third highest among all the notified infectious diseases. Objectives We focused on dysentery disease consequences of different degrees of floods and examined the association between floods and the morbidity of dysentery on the basis of longitudinal data during the study period. Design A time-series Poisson regression model was conducted to examine the relationship between 10 times different degrees of floods and the monthly morbidity of dysentery from 2004 to 2010 in Xinxiang. Relative risks (RRs) of moderate and severe floods on the morbidity of dysentery were calculated in this paper. In addition, we estimated the attributable contributions of moderate and severe floods to the morbidity of dysentery. Results A total of 7591 cases of dysentery were notified in Xinxiang during the study period. The effect of floods on dysentery was shown with a 0-month lag. Regression analysis showed that the risk of moderate and severe floods on the morbidity of dysentery was 1.55 (95% CI: 1.42–1.670) and 1.74 (95% CI: 1.56–1.94), respectively. The attributable risk proportions (ARPs) of moderate and severe floods to the morbidity of dysentery were 35.53 and 42.48%, respectively. Conclusions This study confirms that floods have significantly increased the risk of dysentery in the study area. In addition, severe floods have a higher proportional contribution to the morbidity of dysentery than moderate floods. Public health action should be taken to avoid and control a potential risk of dysentery epidemics after floods. PMID:25098726

  15. Clinical manifestations and endoscopic findings of amebic colitis in a United States-Mexico border city: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Rhonda; Cooper, Chad J; Ramirez-Vega, Ruben; Huerta-Alardin, Ana; Boman, Darius; Zuckerman, Marc J

    2015-12-14

    Invasive amebiasis is not frequently seen in the United States. It is associated with considerable morbidity in patients residing in or traveling to endemic areas. We report a case series of patients with amebic colitis in a United States-Mexico border city to alert physicians to the varied clinical manifestations. Nine patients were diagnosed with amebic colitis. Mean age was 56 (38-83), 6 were males, and all were Hispanic. Common symptoms were diarrhea (56 %), hematochezia (33 %) and abdominal bloating (11 %). The diagnosis of amebic colitis was established in the following ways: 8 patients by colonoscopy with biopsy, 1 by surgery for colonic obstruction. The diagnosis of amebic colitis was confirmed in 8 patients (89 %) by amebic trophozoites present in histopathologic sections. One patient was diagnosed with amebic colitis based upon clinical symptoms, colitis on colonoscopy and visualization of amebic trophozoites on stool examination. In the 8 patients in whom colonoscopy was done, 6 (75 %) had inflammation with rectosigmoid involvement and 5 (62.5 %) had ulcerations. Infection resolved after treatment with metronidazole in most patients; however, one patient developed a liver abscess and another had a colonic perforation and later developed a liver abscess. The occurrence of amebic colitis in this United States-Mexico border city hospital population was low, but in some cases potentially life-threatening. Physicians should be alert to the less common presentations of amebic colitis, such as overt gastrointestinal bleeding, exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease, and the incidental finding of association with colon cancer, or a surgical abdomen. Rectosigmoid involvement was typically found on colonoscopy.

  16. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil infiltration intensity as consequence of Entamoeba histolytica density in amebic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Gonzalez, Sonia M; de Uribe, Marleny Lunar; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2009-04-01

    It has been suggested that the damage observed in invasive amebiasis is related to interactions between polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites. We analyzed the relation between infiltrating inflammatory cell populations and E. histolytica density in intestinal amebic lesions. Biopsies obtained endoscopically from patients with amebic colitis were analyzed to describe their morphologic abnormalities. Cellular populations and E. histolytica trophozoites were measured quantitatively in order to assess the correlation between infiltrating inflammatory cell populations and parasite density. Amebic lesions were most often located in the colon (55%). The histopathologic diagnoses were colitis in 31%, erosive colitis in 26%, and ulcerated colitis in 24%. The predominant cellular populations found in the lesions were lymphocytes (59.8%) (3,672 +/- 2,413/mm(2)) followed by PMN (17%) (1,038 +/- 1,171 PMN/mm(2)) (p < 0.01). A higher density of PMN infiltration was observed in severe cases. Cellular populations predictive of the presence of E. histolytica trophozoites (p = 0.047) were PMN (p = 0.019) and lymphocytes (p = 0.033). The highest association was found between E. histolytica trophozoites and PMN (p = 0.0221). Neutrophils and lymphocytes, particularly the former, are associated significantly with the density of parasites. Our findings support the theory that PMN interaction with E. histolytica contributes to the pathogenesis of amebic intestinal lesions.

  17. [Amebic colitis and liver abscess complicated by high serum procalcitonin in acute myeloid leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Eijiro; Nomura, Kei; Nakamura, Takayuki; Morishige, Satoshi; Seki, Ritsuko; Imamura, Rie; Hashiguchi, Michitoshi; Osaki, Kouichi; Mizuno, Shinichi; Nagafuji, Koji; Okamura, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    We present a case of amebic colitis and liver abscess complicated by acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with high serum procalcitonin (PCT). A 61-year-old Japanese man seen at our hospital for severe diarrhea and high fever was found to have multiple ulcers in the transverse and sigmoid colon and rectum by colonoscopy and biopsies were conducted. Immature leukocytes with mild anemia and thrombocytopenia were seen in peripheral blood, necessitating bone marrow aspiration and biopsy that yielded a diagnosis of AML (FAB M4Eo). Serum C-reactive protein and PCT were extremely elevated. Blood cultures for bacteria and fungi were negative. Multiple low-density areas in the liver were found in abdominal computed tomography. Histological colon biopsy findings revealed amebic colitis, strongly suggesting amebic liver abscess. Metronidazole treatment was initiated for amebiasis and subsequent standard chemotherapy for AML was followed after fever was lowered. Hematological and cytogenetic CR was maintained with good clinical condition. Few case reports have been published in Japan to date on amebic colitis and liver abscess complicated by AML and no reports have been made on PCT elevation caused by amebiasis. In conclusion, differential diagnosis of amebiasis is necessary in addition to that of bacterial or fungal infection in serum PCT elevation.

  18. Fatal Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis Due to Balamuthia mandrillaris in New Mexico: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindyck, Talia N; Dvorscak, Lauren E; Hart, Blaine L; Palestine, Michael D; Gallant, Joel E; Allen, Sarah E; SantaCruz, Karen S

    2014-09-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is a free-living amoeba that can cause granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE). We report a case in an individual with a history of alcohol abuse, cocaine use, and ditch water exposure. This is the first reported case of GAE due to B mandrillaris in New Mexico.

  19. Ileocecal masses in patients with amebic liver abscess: Etiology and management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sri Prakash Misra; Vatsala Misra; Manisha Dwivedi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the causes of ileocecal mass in patients with amebic liver abscess.METHODS: Patients with amebic liver abscess and ileocecal mass were carefully examined and investigated by contrast-enhanced CT scan followed by colonoscopy and histological examination of biopsy materials from lesions during colonoscopy.RESULTS: Ileocecal masses were found in seventeen patients with amebic liver abscess. The cause of the mass was ameboma in 14 patients, cecal tuberculosis in 2 patients and adenocarcinoma of the cecum in 1 patient. Colonic ulcers were noted in five of the six (83%) patients with active diarrhea at presentation. The ileocecal mass in all these patients was ameboma. Ulcers were seen in only one of the 11 (9%) patients without diarrhea. The difference was statistically significant from the group with diarrhea (P< 0.005).CONCLUSION: Ileocecal mass is not an uncommon finding in patients with amebic liver abscess. Although,the ileocecal mass is due to ameboma formation in most cases, it should not be assumed that this is the case in all patients. Colonoscopy and histological examination of the target biopsies are mandatory to avoid missing a more sinister lesion.

  20. Epidemiologic Investigation of Dysentery in North of Iran: Use of Geographic Information System (GIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadi, Aliasghar; Abedi, Ghassem; Isazadeh, Khatoon; Rostami, Farideh; Siamian, Hasan; Hosseini, Mahbobeh; Asadi-Aliabadi, Mehran

    2016-12-01

    Dysentery is an intestinal inflammation which is created by the microorganisms attacking intestine mucus. Knowing the prevalence of this disease in different societies paves the way for programming and providing treatment and preventive measures. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the epidemiologic pattern and geographical distribution of dysentery based on GIS. This was a cross-sectional and analytical study. The dysentery cases were gathered from the section of contagious diseases in health chancellery of Mazandaran University of medical sciences through a checklist during the years 2008 to 2013. In order to analyze the data, we made use of chi-square test. Then, the GIS software was used to recognize the geographical distribution of the disease. There was reported about 653 cases affected by dysentery and the disease proportion was equal for both men and women. Most of the persons with dysentery was city dwellers. The highest rate of incidents was reported to be in Fereidunkenar in 2011, and the disease was mostly found among farmers, students, and college students. Since dysentery is a disease transmitted from water and food, and in this study, it was found out that the disease sources included using polluted water, vegetables, and lack of appropriate personal hygiene. Therefore, it is essential to take into consideration the health issues. Moreover, the suitable conditions of the geographical area which has the highest rate of incident have paved the way for dysentery occurrence. In addition, using geographic information system (GIS) as a visual instrument can help the stakeholders and officials to elaborate on the death trend and recognize the areas for optimal use of the available resources.

  1. Comparative activity of some veterinary pharmaceutical products in swine dysentery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina, T. Romeo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the diseases that cause great damage in the pig breeding farms, Brachyspyra swine dysentery has a special importance because involve great losses both by growth failure and high mortality andsignificant costs to the prevention and control. The study was conducted in a swine farm in Timis County, where the disease was originally identified in autumn of year 2009. Cumulative adverse conditions have affected the rate of morbidity and mortality. Themost common clinical developments in the unit were usually acute and subacute. Research included: a comparative study of the effectiveness of tiamulin fumarate, hydrogenated and dimetridazole powder in sick acute and subacute forms in piglets, at the weaning period; the comparative study of efficiency in therapy of soluble tiamulin (the tiamulin fumarate-hydrogenated and of the injection of piglets effective and the study of growth indicators: average daily gain.Experiment IGroup I consisted in 15 piglets with an average weight per lot of 7.60 kg/head (batch weight: 114kg received p.o. dimetridazole insoluble powder (Romvac Bucharest, mixed in feed, for 5 days dose of 25 mg/kg.bw. During the observation, two mortalities were recorded, representing 13.33% of the treated lot. Other animals from the group were clinically cured, the signs of the disease gradually disappeared, and the temperature returned to normal enteric symptoms. The observation period after the 21 days of experiment, the batchweight was 114.2 kg, corresponding to growth registered 95.5 g/head/day.Group II, of 15 pigs with enteritis clinical signs, have had an average weight per lot of 7.48 kg/head, and he has undergone treatment with tiamulin product (Novartis Animal Health soluble granules, in drinking water. Treatments were performed for 5 consecutive days at a dose of 60 mg/liter of drinking water. In this group, diarrhea symptoms decreased and general status of the animals gradually improved, no mortality was recorded five days

  2. Socio-economic factors of bacillary dysentery based on spatial correlation analysis in Guangxi Province, China.

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    Chengjing Nie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the past decade, bacillary dysentery was still a big public health problem in China, especially in Guangxi Province, where thousands of severe diarrhea cases occur every year. METHODS: Reported bacillary dysentery cases in Guangxi Province were obtained from local Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control. The 14 socio-economic indexes were selected as potential explanatory variables for the study. The spatial correlation analysis was used to explore the associations between the selected factors and bacillary dysentery incidence at county level, which was based on the software of ArcGIS10.2 and GeoDA 0.9.5i. RESULTS: The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of younger than 5-year-old children in total population, the number of hospitals per thousand persons and the rates of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. But the proportion of secondary industry, per capital GDP, per capital government revenue, rural population proportion, popularization rate of tap water in rural area, access rate to the sanitation toilets in rural, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and the rate of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The socio-economic factors can be divided into four aspects, including economic development, health development, medical development and human own condition. The four aspects were not isolated from each other, but interacted with each other.

  3. Diets containing inulin but not lupins help to prevent swine dysentery in experimentally challenged pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C F; Phillips, N D; La, T; Hernandez, A; Mansfield, J; Kim, J C; Mullan, B P; Hampson, D J; Pluske, J R

    2010-10-01

    Swine dysentery is a contagious mucohemorrhagic diarrheal disease caused by the intestinal spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae that colonizes and induces inflammation of the cecum and colon. It has been reported that a diet containing chicory root and sweet lupin can prevent swine dysentery. This experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that inulin in the chicory root rather than galactans in lupins was responsible for protective effects. An experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was undertaken using pigs fed barley- and triticale-based diets, with the main effects being protein source [185 g/kg of canola meal (decreased galactans) or 220 g/kg of lupins (greater galactans)] and inulin supplementation (0 or 80 g/kg). Forty Large White × Landrace pigs weighing 21 ± 3 kg, with 10 pigs per diet, were allowed to adapt to the diets for 2 wk, and then each pig was challenged orally 4 times with a broth culture containing B. hyodysenteriae on consecutive days. Pigs were killed when they showed clinical signs of dysentery or 6 wk postchallenge. Pigs fed diets without inulin had 8.3 times greater risk (P = 0.017) of developing swine dysentery and were 16 times more likely (P = 0.004) to have colon contents that were culture-positive for B. hyodysenteriae, compared with the pigs fed a diet with 80 g/kg of inulin. Diets containing lupins did not prevent pigs from developing clinical swine dysentery; however, inclusion of lupins or inulin or both in the diets delayed the onset of disease compared with the diet based mainly on canola meal (P 0.05) by diet. However the pH values of the ileal digesta were decreased in pigs fed the diet with both lupins and inulin compared with the diet containing only lupins (P pigs against developing swine dysentery.

  4. Effects of the floods on dysentery in north central region of Henan Province, China from 2004 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wei; Ding, Guoyong; Li, Yifei; Li, Hongkai; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2014-11-01

    Zhengzhou, Kaifeng and Xinxiang, the cities in the north central region of Henan Province, suffered from many times floods from 2004 to 2009. We focused on dysentery disease consequences of floods and examined the association between floods and the morbidity of dysentery, based on a longitudinal data. A generalized additive mixed model was conducted to examine the relationship between the monthly morbidity of dysentery and floods from 2004 to 2009 in the study areas. The relative risks (RRs) of the floods risk on the morbidity of dysentery were estimated in each city and the whole region. The RRs on dysentery were 11.47 (95% CI: 8.67-15.33), 1.35 (95% CI: 1.23-3.90) and 2.75 (95% CI: 1.36-4.85) in Kaifeng, Xinxiang and Zhengzhou, respectively. The RR on dysentery in the whole region was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.52-1.82). Our study confirms that flooding has significantly increased the risk of dysentery in the study areas. Additionally, we observed that a sudden and severe flooding can contribute more risk to the morbidity of dysentery than a persistent and moderate flooding. Our findings have significant implications for developing strategies to prevent and reduce health impact of floods. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of Eosinophils and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in Interleukin-25-Mediated Protection from Amebic Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Zannatun; Watanabe, Koji; Abhyankar, Mayuresh M.; Burgess, Stacey L.; Buonomo, Erica L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The parasite Entamoeba histolytica is a cause of diarrhea in infants in low-income countries. Previously, it was shown that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production was associated with increased risk of E. histolytica diarrhea in children. Interleukin-25 (IL-25) is a cytokine that is produced by intestinal epithelial cells that has a role in maintenance of gut barrier function and inhibition of TNF-α production. IL-25 expression was decreased in humans and in the mouse model of amebic colitis. Repletion of IL-25 blocked E. histolytica infection and barrier disruption in mice, increased gut eosinophils, and suppressed colonic TNF-α. Depletion of eosinophils with anti-Siglec-F antibody prevented IL-25-mediated protection. In contrast, depletion of TNF-α resulted in resistance to amebic infection. We concluded that IL-25 provides protection from amebiasis, which is dependent upon intestinal eosinophils and suppression of TNF-α. PMID:28246365

  6. Role of Eosinophils and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in Interleukin-25-Mediated Protection from Amebic Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zannatun Noor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The parasite Entamoeba histolytica is a cause of diarrhea in infants in low-income countries. Previously, it was shown that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α production was associated with increased risk of E. histolytica diarrhea in children. Interleukin-25 (IL-25 is a cytokine that is produced by intestinal epithelial cells that has a role in maintenance of gut barrier function and inhibition of TNF-α production. IL-25 expression was decreased in humans and in the mouse model of amebic colitis. Repletion of IL-25 blocked E. histolytica infection and barrier disruption in mice, increased gut eosinophils, and suppressed colonic TNF-α. Depletion of eosinophils with anti-Siglec-F antibody prevented IL-25-mediated protection. In contrast, depletion of TNF-α resulted in resistance to amebic infection. We concluded that IL-25 provides protection from amebiasis, which is dependent upon intestinal eosinophils and suppression of TNF-α.

  7. [Colonic perforation due to invasive amebic colitis during anti-TNF therapy for spondyloarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan Pablo; Molina, María del Pilar

    2014-01-01

    TNF blockade has been successful in the treatment of some rheumatic diseases such as spondyloarthritis. Many infectious complications have been reported with anti-TNF therapy, mainly bacterial, mycobacterial, viral and fungal infections. Entamoeba histolytica is an extracellular protozoan parasite that mainly causes colitis and hepatic abscess; bowel perforation is an uncommon complication with high mortality. TNF is considered the principal mediator of cell immunity against amebiasis. Initially, it is chemotactic to E. histolytica, enhancing its adherence to enterocyte via galactose inhibitable lectin, and then activating macrophages to kill ameba though the release of NO, so that TNF blocking could be harmful, increasing amebic virulence. We describe the case of a 46-year-old woman with spondyloarthritis who presented a colonic perforation due to invasive amebic colitis during anti-TNF use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Localization of Entamoeba histolytica amebopore in amebic liver abscesses in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, A; Monterrubio, D; Nequiz, M; López, R; Olivos, A; García de Léon, C; Tello, E; Salaiza, N; Ramos, E; Gudiño, M; Montfort, I; Pérez-Tamayo, R

    2008-12-01

    Amebopore was purified from axenically grown trophozoites of the Entamoeba histolytica strain HM1:IMSS. The purification procedure involved Mono Q anion-exchange chromatography and electroelution. Sequence analysis of the final product revealed that amebopore A was completely pure. Polyclonal antibodies against the purified amebopore were obtained from rabbits, and Western blot studies demonstrated their specificity. Sections of experimental, acute (1, 2, 3, and 4 days), amebic liver abscesses produced in hamsters were stained with the anti-amebopore antibody; in all the analyzed stages, amebopore appeared as a constitutively expressed cytoplasmic molecule in trophozoites. No extracellular or hepatocyte-membrane amebopore was found. This study is the first to trace amebopore in an in vivo model of amebic liver abscesses.

  9. Severe chronic iron deficiency anaemia secondary to Trichuris dysentery syndrome - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azira N, M S; Zeehaida, M

    2012-12-01

    Trichuris dysentery syndrome is caused by Trichuris trichiura which contributes to one of the most common helminthic infections in the world. It is associated with heavy colonic infection that manifests as mucoid diarrhoea, rectal bleeding, rectal prolapse, iron deficiency anaemia, and finger clubbing. Here, we report a case of trichuris dysentery syndrome complicated with severe chronic iron deficiency anaemia in a 4-year-old girl who required blood transfusion. The nematode was visualized on stool microscopic and colonoscopic examination. A longer duration of anti-helminthic treatment is required to achieve effective and better outcome.

  10. Successful treatment of an adolescent with Naegleria fowleri primary amebic meningoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linam, W Matthew; Ahmed, Mubbasheer; Cope, Jennifer R; Chu, Craig; Visvesvara, Govinda S; da Silva, Alexandre J; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Green, Jerril

    2015-03-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a thermophilic, free-living ameba that causes primary amebic meningoencephalitis. The infections are nearly always fatal. We present the third well-documented survivor of this infection in North America. The patient's survival most likely resulted from a variety of factors: early identification and treatment, use of a combination of antimicrobial agents (including miltefosine), and management of elevated intracranial pressure based on the principles of traumatic brain injury.

  11. Role of Eosinophils and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in Interleukin-25-Mediated Protection from Amebic Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Zannatun; Watanabe, Koji; Abhyankar, Mayuresh M; Burgess, Stacey L; Buonomo, Erica L; Cowardin, Carrie A; Petri, William A

    2017-02-28

    The parasite Entamoeba histolytica is a cause of diarrhea in infants in low-income countries. Previously, it was shown that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production was associated with increased risk of E. histolytica diarrhea in children. Interleukin-25 (IL-25) is a cytokine that is produced by intestinal epithelial cells that has a role in maintenance of gut barrier function and inhibition of TNF-α production. IL-25 expression was decreased in humans and in the mouse model of amebic colitis. Repletion of IL-25 blocked E. histolytica infection and barrier disruption in mice, increased gut eosinophils, and suppressed colonic TNF-α. Depletion of eosinophils with anti-Siglec-F antibody prevented IL-25-mediated protection. In contrast, depletion of TNF-α resulted in resistance to amebic infection. We concluded that IL-25 provides protection from amebiasis, which is dependent upon intestinal eosinophils and suppression of TNF-α.IMPORTANCE The intestinal epithelial barrier is important for protection from intestinal amebiasis. We discovered that the intestinal epithelial cytokine IL-25 was suppressed during amebic colitis in humans and that protection could be restored in the mouse model by IL-25 administration. IL-25 acted via eosinophils and suppressed TNF-α. This work illustrates a previously unrecognized pathway of innate mucosal immune response. Copyright © 2017 Noor et al.

  12. Investigating the effects of climate variations on bacillary dysentery incidence in northeast China using ridge regression and hierarchical cluster analysis

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    Guo Junqiao

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of climate variations on bacillary dysentery incidence have gained more recent concern. However, the multi-collinearity among meteorological factors affects the accuracy of correlation with bacillary dysentery incidence. Methods As a remedy, a modified method to combine ridge regression and hierarchical cluster analysis was proposed for investigating the effects of climate variations on bacillary dysentery incidence in northeast China. Results All weather indicators, temperatures, precipitation, evaporation and relative humidity have shown positive correlation with the monthly incidence of bacillary dysentery, while air pressure had a negative correlation with the incidence. Ridge regression and hierarchical cluster analysis showed that during 1987–1996, relative humidity, temperatures and air pressure affected the transmission of the bacillary dysentery. During this period, all meteorological factors were divided into three categories. Relative humidity and precipitation belonged to one class, temperature indexes and evaporation belonged to another class, and air pressure was the third class. Conclusion Meteorological factors have affected the transmission of bacillary dysentery in northeast China. Bacillary dysentery prevention and control would benefit from by giving more consideration to local climate variations.

  13. Microbiome-mediated neutrophil recruitment via CXCR2 and protection from amebic colitis.

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    Koji Watanabe

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The disease severity of Entamoeba histolytica infection ranges from asymptomatic to life-threatening. Recent human and animal data implicate the gut microbiome as a modifier of E. histolytica virulence. Here we have explored the association of the microbiome with susceptibility to amebiasis in infants and in the mouse model of amebic colitis. Dysbiosis occurred symptomatic E. histolytica infection in children, as evidenced by a lower Shannon diversity index of the gut microbiota. To test if dysbiosis was a cause of susceptibility, wild type C57BL/6 mice (which are innately resistant to E. histiolytica infection were treated with antibiotics prior to cecal challenge with E. histolytica. Compared with untreated mice, antibiotic pre-treated mice had more severe colitis and delayed clearance of E. histolytica. Gut IL-25 and mucus protein Muc2, both shown to provide innate immunity in the mouse model of amebic colitis, were lower in antibiotic pre-treated mice. Moreover, dysbiotic mice had fewer cecal neutrophils and myeloperoxidase activity. Paradoxically, the neutrophil chemoattractant chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL2, as well as IL-1β, were higher in the colon of mice with antibiotic-induced dysbiosis. Neutrophils from antibiotic pre-treated mice had diminished surface expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR2, potentially explaining their inability to migrate to the site of infection. Blockade of CXCR2 increased susceptibility of control non-antibiotic treated mice to amebiasis. In conclusion, dysbiosis increased the severity of amebic colitis due to decreased neutrophil recruitment to the gut, which was due in part to decreased surface expression on neutrophils of CXCR2.

  14. Association between flood and the morbidity of bacillary dysentery in Zibo City, China: a symmetric bidirectional case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feifei; Ding, Guoyong; Liu, Zhidong; Zhang, Caixia; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between daily morbidity of bacillary dysentery and flood in 2007 in Zibo City, China, using a symmetric bidirectional case-crossover study. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) on the basis of multivariate model and stratified analysis at different lagged days were calculated to estimate the risk of flood on bacillary dysentery. A total of 902 notified bacillary dysentery cases were identified during the study period. The median of case distribution was 7-year-old and biased to children. Multivariable analysis showed that flood was associated with an increased risk of bacillary dysentery, with the largest OR of 1.849 (95 % CI 1.229-2.780) at 2-day lag. Gender-specific analysis showed that there was a significant association between flood and bacillary dysentery among males only (ORs >1 from lag 1 to lag 5), with the strongest lagged effect at 2-day lag (OR = 2.820, 95 % CI 1.629-4.881), and the result of age-specific indicated that youngsters had a slightly larger risk to develop flood-related bacillary dysentery than older people at one shorter lagged day (OR = 2.000, 95 % CI 1.128-3.546 in youngsters at lag 2; OR = 1.879, 95 % CI 1.069-3.305 in older people at lag 3). Our study has confirmed that there is a positive association between flood and the risk of bacillary dysentery in selected study area. Males and youngsters may be the vulnerable and high-risk populations to develop the flood-related bacillary dysentery. Results from this study will provide recommendations to make available strategies for government to deal with negative health outcomes due to floods.

  15. Association between flood and the morbidity of bacillary dysentery in Zibo City, China: a symmetric bidirectional case-crossover study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feifei; Ding, Guoyong; Liu, Zhidong; Zhang, Caixia; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between daily morbidity of bacillary dysentery and flood in 2007 in Zibo City, China, using a symmetric bidirectional case-crossover study. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) on the basis of multivariate model and stratified analysis at different lagged days were calculated to estimate the risk of flood on bacillary dysentery. A total of 902 notified bacillary dysentery cases were identified during the study period. The median of case distribution was 7-year-old and biased to children. Multivariable analysis showed that flood was associated with an increased risk of bacillary dysentery, with the largest OR of 1.849 (95 % CI 1.229-2.780) at 2-day lag. Gender-specific analysis showed that there was a significant association between flood and bacillary dysentery among males only (ORs >1 from lag 1 to lag 5), with the strongest lagged effect at 2-day lag (OR = 2.820, 95 % CI 1.629-4.881), and the result of age-specific indicated that youngsters had a slightly larger risk to develop flood-related bacillary dysentery than older people at one shorter lagged day (OR = 2.000, 95 % CI 1.128-3.546 in youngsters at lag 2; OR = 1.879, 95 % CI 1.069-3.305 in older people at lag 3). Our study has confirmed that there is a positive association between flood and the risk of bacillary dysentery in selected study area. Males and youngsters may be the vulnerable and high-risk populations to develop the flood-related bacillary dysentery. Results from this study will provide recommendations to make available strategies for government to deal with negative health outcomes due to floods.

  16. The Effects of Floods on the Incidence of Bacillary Dysentery in Baise (Guangxi Province, China) from 2004 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuena; Liu, Zhidong; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Baofa

    2017-02-12

    Research shows potential effects of floods on intestinal infections. Baise, a city in Guangxi Province (China) had experienced several floods between 2004 and 2012 due to heavy and constant precipitation. This study aimed to examine the relationship between floods and the incidence of bacillary dysentery in Baise. A mixed generalized additive model and Spearman correlation were applied to analyze the relationship between monthly incidence of bacillary dysentery and 14 flood events with two severity levels. Data collected from 2004 to 2010 were utilized to estimate the parameters, whereas data from 2011 to 2012 were used to validate the model. There were in total 9255 cases of bacillary dysentery included in our analyses. According to the mixed generalized additive model, the relative risks (RR) of moderate and severe floods on the incidence of bacillary dysentery were 1.40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-1.69) and 1.78 (95% CI: 1.61-1.97), respectively. The regression analysis also indicated that the flood duration was negatively associated with the incidence of bacillary dysentery (with RR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.40-0.86). Therfore, this research suggests that floods exert a significant part in enhancing the risk of bacillary dysentery in Baise. Moreover, severe floods have a higher proportional contribution to the incidence of bacillary dysentery than moderate floods. In addition, short-term floods may contribute more to the incidence of bacillary dysentery than a long-term flood. The findings from this research will provide more evidence to reduce health risks related to floods.

  17. The influence of diet on the development of swine dysentery upon experimental infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindecrona, R.H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Jensen, B.B.;

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fermented liquid food (FLF) and the addition of lactic acid to a diet based on wheat and barley on the development of swine dysentery in pigs experimentally infected with a Danish field isolate of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Furthermore...... and sugar-beet pulp. The experiment was designed as a randomized-block trial and was performed in triplicate including a total of 192 pigs. After feeding the diets for 2 weeks, six pigs in each group were challenged orally with B. hyodysenteriae and observed for another 4 weeks. After challenge, swine...... dysentery was observed in all feeding groups. The incidence of disease varied between 94% (rice/wheat bran) and 44% (FLF). The effect of diet on faecal shedding of B. hyodysenteriae was statistically significant (P...

  18. The influence of diet on the development of swine dysentery upon experimental infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindecrona, R.H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Jensen, B.B.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fermented liquid food (FLF) and the addition of lactic acid to a diet based on wheat and barley on the development of swine dysentery in pigs experimentally infected with a Danish field isolate of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Furthermore......, to confirm if low non-starch polysaccharide (NSP)-containing diets reduce swine dysentery the effect of different dietary levels of NSP and resistant starch (RS) was evaluated. These diets were based on cooked rice and animal protein, cooked rice and potato starch, cooked rice and wheat bran, or cooked rice...... and sugar-beet pulp. The experiment was designed as a randomized-block trial and was performed in triplicate including a total of 192 pigs. After feeding the diets for 2 weeks, six pigs in each group were challenged orally with B. hyodysenteriae and observed for another 4 weeks. After challenge, swine...

  19. [Increased effectiveness of antibiotic therapy with adaptogens in dysentery and Proteus infection in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereshchagin, I A; Geskina, O D; Bukhteeva, E R

    1982-01-01

    The course of the disease and the host immunological reactivity (IgA, IgM, IgG, CPhI, IgG and IgM antibody titers in the HIT, blood bactericidic properties) were studied in 258 children aged 0 to 14 year suffering from acute dysentery caused by Shigella sonnei and flexneri and enterocolitis of the Proteus etiology. 157 patients were treated with monomycin and kanamycin in combination with adaptogens, such as Eleuterococcus and Echinopanax elatum Nakai L. and 101 patients were treated with the antibiotics alone. It was shown that the use of the adaptogens decreased the periods of the diseases. It is concluded that adaptogens increase the efficacy of antibiotic therapy in children with dysentery and Proteus infection.

  20. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF TYLOSIN AS A TREATMENT OF VIBRIONIC DYSENTERY IN SWINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DOORNENBAL, H

    1965-07-01

    A 5 year history of swine dysentery and treatment has been described.In 1964, a severe outbreak diagnosed as Vibrionic dysentery in 166 litters farrowed from January - March caused a death loss of 30.3 per cent of the total number weaned. This outbreak was not checked with an organic arsenic, sodium arsanilate, which had previously been relatively effective.A subsequent farrow of 133 litters (June - August, 1964) was infected and again sodium arsanilate was ineffective. Microscopic examination of smears of representative fecal samples revealed the presence of a heavy concentration of vibrio-like organisms. Two test-barns, housing 140 and 172 pigs respectively, were treated with tylosin-tartrate, using one side of each barn as a control, while the other side was being treated. Subsequently, the control sides were treated. Both levels of tylosin used, 1 gm and 2 gm per U.S. gallon of water, resulted in the disappearance of fluid feces within 48 hours of treatment. Soft, granular feces were still present 6-9 days after the start of treatment at the 1 gm level, while in case of the 2 gm level of tylosin, all feces were normal on the third day after medication started. Microscopic examination of feces collected on the third day of treatment still revealed the presence of some vibrio-like organisms. However, these organisms could not be detected in examination of feces collected between 10 to 25 days after treatment. In this test there was no recurrence of dysentery.

  1. A review of the proposed role of neutrophils in rodent amebic liver abscess models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael; Gutiérrez-Meza, Manuel; Jarillo-Luna, Rosa Adriana; Drago-Serrano, María Elisa; Abarca-Rojano, Edgar; Ventura-Juárez, Javier; Cárdenas-Jaramillo, Luz María; Pacheco-Yepez, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Host invasion by Entamoeba histolytica, the pathogenic agent of amebiasis, can lead to the development of amebic liver abscess (ALA). Due to the difficulty of exploring host and amebic factors involved in the pathogenesis of ALA in humans, most studies have been conducted with animal models (e.g., mice, gerbils, and hamsters). Histopathological findings reveal that the chronic phase of ALA in humans corresponds to lytic or liquefactive necrosis, whereas in rodent models there is granulomatous inflammation. However, the use of animal models has provided important information on molecules and mechanisms of the host/parasite interaction. Hence, the present review discusses the possible role of neutrophils in the effector immune response in ALA in rodents. Properly activated neutrophils are probably successful in eliminating amebas through oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms, including neutrophil degranulation, the generation of free radicals (O2−, H2O2, HOCl) and peroxynitrite, the activation of NADPH-oxidase and myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzymes, and the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). On the other hand, if amebas are not eliminated in the early stages of infection, they trigger a prolonged and exaggerated inflammatory response that apparently causes ALAs. Genetic differences in animals and humans are likely to be key to a successful host immune response. PMID:26880421

  2. A review of the proposed role of neutrophils in rodent amebic liver abscess models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos-Rodríguez Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Host invasion by Entamoeba histolytica, the pathogenic agent of amebiasis, can lead to the development of amebic liver abscess (ALA. Due to the difficulty of exploring host and amebic factors involved in the pathogenesis of ALA in humans, most studies have been conducted with animal models (e.g., mice, gerbils, and hamsters. Histopathological findings reveal that the chronic phase of ALA in humans corresponds to lytic or liquefactive necrosis, whereas in rodent models there is granulomatous inflammation. However, the use of animal models has provided important information on molecules and mechanisms of the host/parasite interaction. Hence, the present review discusses the possible role of neutrophils in the effector immune response in ALA in rodents. Properly activated neutrophils are probably successful in eliminating amebas through oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms, including neutrophil degranulation, the generation of free radicals (O2−, H2O2, HOCl and peroxynitrite, the activation of NADPH-oxidase and myeloperoxidase (MPO enzymes, and the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs. On the other hand, if amebas are not eliminated in the early stages of infection, they trigger a prolonged and exaggerated inflammatory response that apparently causes ALAs. Genetic differences in animals and humans are likely to be key to a successful host immune response.

  3. Immunization with the Entamoeba histolytica surface metalloprotease EhMSP-1 protects hamsters from amebic liver abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncolato, Eduardo C; Teixeira, José E; Barbosa, José E; Zambelli Ramalho, Leandra N; Huston, Christopher D

    2015-02-01

    Diarrhea and amebic liver abscesses due to invasive Entamoeba histolytica infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. Entamoeba histolytica adherence and cell migration, two phenotypes linked to virulence, are both aberrant in trophozoites deficient in the metallosurface protease EhMSP-1, which is a homologue of the Leishmania vaccine candidate leishmanolysin (GP63). We examined the potential of EhMSP-1 for use as a vaccine antigen to protect against amebic liver abscesses. First, existing serum samples from South Africans naturally infected with E. histolytica were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the presence of EhMSP-1-specific IgG. Nine of 12 (75%) people with anti-E. histolytica IgG also had EhMSP-1-specific IgG antibodies. We next used a hamster model of amebic liver abscess to determine the effect of immunization with a mixture of four recombinant EhMSP-1 protein fragments. EhMSP-1 immunization stimulated a robust IgG antibody response. Furthermore, EhMSP-1 immunization of hamsters reduced development of severe amebic liver abscesses following intrahepatic injection of E. histolytica by a combined rate of 68% in two independent animal experiments. Purified IgG from immunized compared to control animals bound to the surface of E. histolytica trophozoites and accelerated amebic lysis via activation of the classical complement cascade. We concluded that EhMSP-1 is a promising antigen that warrants further study to determine its full potential as a target for therapy and/or prevention of invasive amebiasis.

  4. Immunization with the Entamoeba histolytica Surface Metalloprotease EhMSP-1 Protects Hamsters from Amebic Liver Abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncolato, Eduardo C.; Teixeira, José E.; Barbosa, José E.; Zambelli Ramalho, Leandra N.

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhea and amebic liver abscesses due to invasive Entamoeba histolytica infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. Entamoeba histolytica adherence and cell migration, two phenotypes linked to virulence, are both aberrant in trophozoites deficient in the metallosurface protease EhMSP-1, which is a homologue of the Leishmania vaccine candidate leishmanolysin (GP63). We examined the potential of EhMSP-1 for use as a vaccine antigen to protect against amebic liver abscesses. First, existing serum samples from South Africans naturally infected with E. histolytica were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the presence of EhMSP-1-specific IgG. Nine of 12 (75%) people with anti-E. histolytica IgG also had EhMSP-1-specific IgG antibodies. We next used a hamster model of amebic liver abscess to determine the effect of immunization with a mixture of four recombinant EhMSP-1 protein fragments. EhMSP-1 immunization stimulated a robust IgG antibody response. Furthermore, EhMSP-1 immunization of hamsters reduced development of severe amebic liver abscesses following intrahepatic injection of E. histolytica by a combined rate of 68% in two independent animal experiments. Purified IgG from immunized compared to control animals bound to the surface of E. histolytica trophozoites and accelerated amebic lysis via activation of the classical complement cascade. We concluded that EhMSP-1 is a promising antigen that warrants further study to determine its full potential as a target for therapy and/or prevention of invasive amebiasis. PMID:25452550

  5. The changing epidemiology of bacillary dysentery and characteristics of antimicrobial resistance of Shigella isolated in China from 2004-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhaorui; Zhang, Jing; Ran, Lu; Sun, Junling; Liu, Fengfeng; Luo, Li; Zeng, Lingjia; Wang, Liping; Li, Zhongjie; Yu, Hongjie; Liao, Qiaohong

    2016-11-18

    Bacillary dysentery caused by bacteria of the genus Shigella is a significant public health problem in developing countries such as China. The objective of this study was to analyze the epidemiological pattern of bacillary dysentery, the diversity of the causative agent, and the antimicrobial resistance patterns of Shigella spp. for the purpose of determining the most effective allocation of resources and prioritization of interventions. Surveillance data were acquired from the National Infectious Disease Information Reporting System (2004-2014) and from the sentinel hospital-based surveillance system (2005-2014). We analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution of bacillary dysentery, age and sex distribution, species diversity, and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Shigella spp. The surveillance registry included over 3 million probable cases of bacillary dysentery during the period 2004-2014. The annual incidence rate of bacillary dysentery decreased from 38.03 cases per 100,000 person-years in 2004 to 11.24 cases per 100,000 person-years in 2014. The case-fatality rate decreased from 0.028% in 2004 to 0.003% in 2014. Children aged Shigella flexneri was the most prevalent species that caused bacillary dysentery in China (63.86%), followed by Shigella sonnei (34.89%). Shigella isolates were highly resistant to nalidixic acid (89.13%), ampicillin (88.90%), tetracycline (88.43%), and sulfamethoxazole (82.92%). During the study period, isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime increased from 8.53 and 7.87% in 2005 to 44.65 and 29.94% in 2014, respectively. The incidence rate of bacillary dysentery has undergone an obvious decrease from 2004 to 2014. Priority interventions should be delivered to populations in northwest China and to individuals aged Shigella is a serious public health problem and it is important to consider the susceptibility profile of isolates before determining treatment.

  6. First case of amebic liver abscess 22 years after the first occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nespola Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 72-year-old man consulted in November 2012 for abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant. The patient had a history of suspected hepatic amebiasis treated in Senegal in 1985 and has not traveled to endemic areas since 1990. Abdominal CT scan revealed a liver abscess. At first, no parasitological tests were performed and the patient was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Only after failure of this therapy, serology and PCR performed after liver abscess puncture established the diagnosis of hepatic amebiasis. The patient was treated with metronidazole and tiliquinol-tilbroquinol. Amebic liver abscess is the most frequent extra-intestinal manifestation. Hepatic amebiasis 22 years after the last visit to an endemic area is exceptional and raises questions on the mechanisms of latency and recurrence of these intestinal protozoan parasites.

  7. Review: amebic liver abscess in children - the role of diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merten, D.F.; Kirks, D.R.

    1984-12-01

    Amebiasis, infection with the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, affects at least 10% of the world's population, with an incidence exceeding 30% in tropical and subtropical regions. Amebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most common extraintestinal form of invasive amebiasis and is a serious life-threatening disease in children. Recent experience indicates the prognosis of ALA in childhood to be improved with early identification of abscesses and prompt institution of treatment. The authors incorporate experience with a case of ALA in infancy with a review of current literature (1974-1983) to delineate clinical and radiologic features of ALA in childhood and further define the role of hepatic imaging in the diagnosis and treatment.

  8. First case of amebic liver abscess 22 years after the first occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespola, Benoît; Betz, Valérie; Brunet, Julie; Gagnard, Jean-Charles; Krummel, Yves; Hansmann, Yves; Hannedouche, Thierry; Christmann, Daniel; Pfaff, Alexander W.; Filisetti, Denis; Pesson, Bernard; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    A 72-year-old man consulted in November 2012 for abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant. The patient had a history of suspected hepatic amebiasis treated in Senegal in 1985 and has not traveled to endemic areas since 1990. Abdominal CT scan revealed a liver abscess. At first, no parasitological tests were performed and the patient was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Only after failure of this therapy, serology and PCR performed after liver abscess puncture established the diagnosis of hepatic amebiasis. The patient was treated with metronidazole and tiliquinol-tilbroquinol. Amebic liver abscess is the most frequent extra-intestinal manifestation. Hepatic amebiasis 22 years after the last visit to an endemic area is exceptional and raises questions on the mechanisms of latency and recurrence of these intestinal protozoan parasites. PMID:26088504

  9. Clinical Evaluation of Tylosin as a Treatment of Vibrionic Dysentery in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doornenbal, H.

    1965-01-01

    A 5 year history of swine dysentery and treatment has been described. In 1964, a severe outbreak diagnosed as Vibrionic dysentery in 166 litters farrowed from January — March caused a death loss of 30.3 per cent of the total number weaned. This outbreak was not checked with an organic arsenic, sodium arsanilate, which had previously been relatively effective. A subsequent farrow of 133 litters (June — August, 1964) was infected and again sodium arsanilate was ineffective. Microscopic examination of smears of representative fecal samples revealed the presence of a heavy concentration of vibrio-like organisms. Two test-barns, housing 140 and 172 pigs respectively, were treated with tylosin-tartrate, using one side of each barn as a control, while the other side was being treated. Subsequently, the control sides were treated. Both levels of tylosin used, 1 gm and 2 gm per U.S. gallon of water, resulted in the disappearance of fluid feces within 48 hours of treatment. Soft, granular feces were still present 6-9 days after the start of treatment at the 1 gm level, while in case of the 2 gm level of tylosin, all feces were normal on the third day after medication started. Microscopic examination of feces collected on the third day of treatment still revealed the presence of some vibrio-like organisms. However, these organisms could not be detected in examination of feces collected between 10 to 25 days after treatment. In this test there was no recurrence of dysentery. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:14300858

  10. Cefotaximase and AmpC-producing Shigella flexneri in case of dysentery from southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Oommen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhoea and dysentery caused by Shigella spp. are major public health concerns. Emerging multidrug resistance (MDR in this pathogen further complicates this disease. Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs have been described in this pathogen, which significantly compromises the treatment options for shigellosis. The usual ESBLs seen are sulfhydryl variable (SHV-type; cefotaximases (CTX-M are very uncommonly detected. Here, we report a CTX-M type and AmpC-producing Shigella flexneri from a three-year-old boy residing in Central Kerala, South India.

  11. Experimental Study on the Antibacterial Effect of Origanum Volatile Oil on Dysentery Bacilli In Vivo and In Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖芳; 黄庆华; 扬振德; 许汉林; 高清华

    2004-01-01

    To observe the germistatic and germicidal effects of origanum volatile oil (OVI) on the dysentery bacteria, the abdominal cavity of mice was infected with Shigella sonne (Sh. sonnei) and Shigella flexneri (Sh. flexneri) F2a. After OVI was given to the mice via gastric lavage, the effects of OVI on the infected mice were observed. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) for dysentery bacteria were determined in vitro. The results showed that origanum volatile oil showed obvious protective effect on mice infected with Sh.sonnei and Sh. flexneri F2a. and it had germistatic and germicidal effects on dysentry bacteria. We are led to conclude that origanum volatile oil is an effective medicine against the infection of dysentery bacteria.

  12. Blood concentrations of the cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma during experimentally induced swine dysentery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen-Waern Marianne

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the cytokine response at infection with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae can help understanding disease mechanisme involved during swine dysentery. Since this knowledge is still limited the aim of the present study was to induce dysentery experimentally in pigs and to monitor the development of important immunoregulatory cytokines in blood collected at various stages of the disease. Methods Ten conventional pigs (~23 kg were orally inoculated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae B204T. Eight animals developed muco-haemorrhagic diarrhoea with impaired general body condition. Blood was sampled before inoculation and repeatedly during acute dysentery and recovery periods and cytokine levels of IL-1β, IL-6, Il-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ were measured by ELISA. Results IL-1β was increased at the beginning of the dysentery period and coincided with the appearance of Serum amyloid A and clinical signs of disease. TNF-α increased in all animals after inoculation, with a peak during dysentery, and IL-6 was found in 3 animals during dysentery and in the 2 animals that did not develop clinical signs of disease. IL-10 was found in all sick animals during the recovery period. IFN-γ was not detected on any occasion. Conclusion B. hyodysenteriae inoculation induced production of systemic levels of IL-1β during the dysentery period and increased levels of IL-10 coincided with recovery from dysentery.

  13. Association between amebic liver abscess and Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection in Taiwanese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Mao-Yuan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Invasive amebiasis is an emerging parasitic disorder in Taiwan, especially in patients diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Thirty-three Taiwanese subjects with amebic liver abscess (ALA were examined and a possible correlation between ALA and HIV infection was investigated. Results Among ALA patients, the proportion of HIV-positive individuals increased during the study period. ALA was the first major clinical presentation in 54% of HIV patients with ALA. Overall, 58% (14/24 of HIV-infected patients had a CD4+ count > 200 cells/μL and 82.1% (23/28 had no concurrent opportunistic infection or other evidence of HIV infection. There was no marked difference in clinical characteristics between HIV-positive and HIV-negative ALA patients except the level of leukocytosis. Conclusion While the clinical characteristics described herein cannot be used to determine whether ALA patients have HIV infection, routine HIV testing is recommended in patients with ALA, even in the absence of HIV symptoms.

  14. Analysis of the Bacterial Diversity in Liver Abscess: Differences Between Pyogenic and Amebic Abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna-Fabián, Miriam E; Zermeño, Valeria; Ximénez, Cecilia; Flores, Janin; Romero, Miguel F; Diaz, Daniel; Argueta, Jesús; Moran, Patricia; Valadez, Alicia; Cerritos, René

    2016-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated that virulence in Entamoeba histolytica is triggered in the presence of both pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria species using in vitro and in vivo experimental animal models. In this study, we examined samples aspirated from abscess material obtained from patients who were clinically diagnosed with amebic liver abscess (ALA) or pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). To determine the diversity of bacterial species in the abscesses, we performed partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In addition, the E. histolytica and Entamoeba dispar species were genotyped using tRNA-linked short tandem repeats as specific molecular markers. The association between clinical data and bacterial and parasite genotypes were examined through a correspondence analysis. The results showed the presence of numerous bacterial groups. These taxonomic groups constitute common members of the gut microbiota, although all of the detected bacterial species have a close phylogenetic relationship with bacterial pathogens. Furthermore, some patients clinically diagnosed with PLA and ALA were coinfected with E. dispar or E. histolytica, which suggests that the virulence of these parasites increased in the presence of bacteria. However, no specific bacterial groups were associated with this effect. Together, our results suggest a nonspecific mechanism of virulence modulation by bacteria in Entamoeba.

  15. Application of Poisson kriging to the mapping of cholera and dysentery incidence in an endemic area of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq M Zahirul

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease maps can serve to display incidence rates geographically, to inform on public health provision about the success or failure of interventions, and to make hypothesis or to provide evidences concerning disease etiology. Poisson kriging was recently introduced to filter the noise attached to rates recorded over sparsely populated administrative units. Its benefit over simple population-weighted averages and empirical Bayesian smoothers was demonstrated by simulation studies using county-level cancer mortality rates. This paper presents the first application of Poisson kriging to the spatial interpolation of local disease rates, resulting in continuous maps of disease rate estimates and the associated prediction variance. The methodology is illustrated using cholera and dysentery data collected in a cholera endemic area (Matlab of Bangladesh. Results The spatial analysis was confined to patrilineally-related clusters of households, known as baris, located within 9 kilometers from the Matlab hospital to avoid underestimating the risk of disease incidence, since patients far away from the medical facilities are less likely to travel. Semivariogram models reveal a range of autocorrelation of 1.1 km for dysentery and 0.37 km for cholera. This result translates into a cholera risk map that is patchier than the dysentery map that shows a large zone of high incidence in the south-central part of the study area, which is quasi-urban. On both maps, lower risk values are found in the Northern part of the study area, which is also the most distant from the Matlab hospital. The weaker spatial continuity of cholera versus dysentery incidence rates resulted in larger kriging variance across the study area. Conclusion The approach presented in this paper enables researchers to incorporate the pattern of spatial dependence of incidence rates into the mapping of risk values and the quantification of the associated uncertainty. Differences

  16. Randomized intervention study of solar disinfection of drinking water in the prevention of dysentery in Kenyan children aged under 5 years

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Preez, M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the results of a randomized controlled intervention study (September 2007 to March 2009) investigating the effect of solar disinfection (SODIS) of drinking water on the incidence of dysentery, nondysentery diarrhea...

  17. A homosexual japanese man with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus genotype ae, concurrent with amebic colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaguchi, Kohsaku; KOBASHI, HARUHIKO; Takaki,Akinobu; Kato, Jun; Nawa,Toru; Tatsukawa, Masashi; ISHIKAWA, SHIN; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Miyake,Yasuhiro; Shiratori, Yasushi

    2007-01-01

    We report herein a case with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus genotype Ae, concurrent with amebic colitis. A 39-year-old homosexual Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with jaundice. Laboratory tests showed an elevation of transaminase and positivity for hepatitis B surface antigen and IgM-type antibody to hepatitis B core antigen. The hepatitis B virus genotype was determined to be Ae. Furthermore, a mud-like stool with blood and mucous had sometimes been noted during the past ...

  18. The expression of REG 1A and REG 1B is increased during acute amebic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kristine M; Guo, Xiaoti; Elkahloun, Abdel G; Mondal, Dinesh; Bardhan, Pradip K; Sugawara, Akira; Duggal, Priya; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A

    2011-09-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan parasite, is an important cause of diarrhea and colitis in the developing world. Amebic colitis is characterized by ulceration of the intestinal mucosa. We performed microarray analysis of intestinal biopsies during acute and convalescent amebiasis in order to identify genes potentially involved in tissue injury or repair. Colonic biopsy samples were obtained from 8 patients during acute E. histolytica colitis and again 60 days after recovery. Gene expression in the biopsies was evaluated using microarray, and confirmed by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). REG 1A and REG 1B were the most up-regulated of all genes in the human intestine in acute versus convalescent E. histolytica disease: as determined by microarray, the levels of induction were 7.4-fold and 10.7 fold for REG 1A and B; p=0.003 and p=0.006 respectively. Increased expression of REG 1A and REG 1B protein in the colonic crypt epithelial cells during acute amebiasis was similarly observed by immunohistochemistry. Because REG 1 protein is anti-apoptotic and pro-proliferative, and since E. histolytica induces apoptosis of the intestinal epithelium as part of its disease process, we next tested if REG 1 might be protective during amebiasis by preventing parasite-induced apoptosis. Intestinal epithelial cells from REG 1-/- mice were found to be more susceptible to spontaneous, and parasite-induced, apoptosis in vitro (p=0.03). We concluded that REG 1A and REG 1B were upregulated during amebiasis and may function to protect the intestinal epithelium from parasite-induced apoptosis. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Effect of zinc chelate and valnemulin for the treatment of swine dysentery in an experimental challenge study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šperling, Daniel; Čížek, Alois; Smola, Jiří

    2014-02-01

    The aim of study was to determine the influence of zinc chelate, valnemulin and it's combination on Brachyspira hyodysenteriae shedding and morphological changes of colonic mucosa in an experimental model of swine dysentery (SD). The study was performed on pigs coming from a dysentery-free herd. Animals were inoculated by B. hyodysenteriae strain B204. When the clinical signs of SD and B. hyodysenteriae shedding developed, the pigs were divided into four treatment groups. The first group was treated with zinc chelate (250 ml/1000 L in water), second group was given valnemulin in feed at 75 ppm; the third group was given a combination of both and the fourth group was control. The results demonstrated therapeutic effect of valnemulin in pigs with serious SD and did not show therapeutic effect of chelated zinc.

  20. 志贺菌的疫苗研究进展%Advance in the research of vaccine of dysentery bacterium.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛士鹏; 王国富; 吴利先

    2011-01-01

    志贺茵属是人类细菌性痢疾的病原菌,俗称痢疾杆菌,属于革兰氏阴性兼性细胞内致病菌,临床上可引起细菌性痢疾.由于经济发展水平的不平衡、卫生条件不能得到充分的改善、抗药菌株的不断出现,决定了当前迫切需要研制痢疾疫苗.现对第一代(全细胞死疫苗)、第二代(减毒活疫苗)和第三代(亚单位疫苗)痢疾杆菌疫苗的研究进展作一概述.%Shigella, also called dysentery bacterium,is human pathogens of bacterial dysentery that belong to gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogens,can cause clinically shigellosis. Due to the imbalance of economic development, bad sanitation conditions,frequent appearance of drug-resistant germ strains, dysentery vaccine must be researched urgently. This article summarized the shigella vaccine research development of the first generation (entire cell dead vaccine),the second generation (to reduce poisonous live vaccine) and the third generation (Asian unit vaccine).

  1. The monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor an anti-inflammatory peptide; therapeutics originating from amebic abscess of the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Juan R

    2011-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica in culture produces a pentapeptide (MQCNS). This oligopeptide inhibits the in vitro and in vivo locomotion of human monocytes, hence its denomination Monocyte Locomotion Inhibitory Factor (MLIF). The original isolated peptide and its synthetic construct display similar effects, among others, being inhibition of the respiratory burst in monocytes and neutrophils, decrease of Dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) skin hypersensitivity in guinea pigs and gerbils, and delay of mononuclear leukocytes in human Rebuck skin windows with inhibition of vascular cell Very late antigen (VLA)-4 and Vascular adhesion molecules (VCAM) in endothelia and monocytes. The MLIF molecular mechanism of action is unknown, but data reveal its implication in Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and Mitogenactivated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. This could explain MLIF multiplicity of biological effects. On the other hand, the amebic peptide has been useful in treating experimental amebiasis of the liver. The amebic peptide is effective in reducing inflammation induced by carragenin and arthritis in a Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model. Microarray data from experimental arthritis revealed an MLIF gene expression profile that includes genes that are involved in apoptosis, cell adhesion, extracellular matrix, and inflammation / chemotaxis. MLIF could be involved in unsuspected biological factions because there is increasing data on the peptide effect on several cell activities. This review also presents uses of MLIF as described in patents.

  2. Unusual multiple large abscesses of the liver: interest of the radiological features and the real-time PCR to distinguish between bacterial and amebic etiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Chaussade, Hélène; Thellier, Marc; Poussing, Sophie; Bastides, Frédéric; Bailly, Eric; Lanotte, Philippe; Alison, Daniel; Brunereau, Laurent; Bernard, Louis; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of amebiasis generating 19 large liver abscesses. Such a quantity of abscesses is rare, especially when occurring in a young casual traveler without any immunodeficiency disorders. A possible co-infection was excluded. By contrast, the amebic etiology was confirmed by means of serology and real-time PCR.

  3. Use of the Novel Therapeutic Agent Miltefosine for the Treatment of Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis: Report of 1 Fatal and 1 Surviving Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Jennifer R; Conrad, Dennis A; Cohen, Naiomi; Cotilla, Manuel; DaSilva, Alexandre; Jackson, Jonathan; Visvesvara, Govinda S

    2016-03-15

    Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fulminant central nervous system infection caused by the thermophilic free-living ameba Naegleria fowleri. Few survivals have been documented and adequate treatment is lacking. We report 2 PAM cases, 1 fatal and 1 surviving, treated with the novel antiparasitic agent miltefosine.

  4. Assessment of blood–brain barrier penetration of miltefosine used to treat a fatal case of granulomatous amebic encephalitis possibly caused by an unusual Balamuthia mandrillaris strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Sharon L.; Atkins, Jane T.; Gennuso, Rosemaria; Kofos, Danny; Sriram, Rama R.; Dorlo, Thomas P. C.; Hayes, Teresa; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Kucerova, Zuzana; Guglielmo, B. Joseph; Visvesvara, Govinda S.

    2015-01-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris, a free-living ameba, causes rare but frequently fatal granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE). Few patients have survived after receiving experimental drug combinations, with or without brain lesion excisions. Some GAE survivors have been treated with a multi-drug regimen in

  5. Spatiotemporal pattern of bacillary dysentery in China from 1990 to 2009: what is the driver behind?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Xu

    Full Text Available Little is known about the spatiotemporal pattern of bacillary dysentery (BD in China. This study assessed the geographic distribution and seasonality of BD in China over the past two decades.Data on monthly BD cases in 31 provinces of China from January 1990 to December 2009 obtained from Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and data on demographic and geographic factors, as well as climatic factors, were compiled. The spatial distributions of BD in the four periods across different provinces were mapped, and heat maps were created to present the seasonality of BD by geography. A cosinor function combined with Poisson regression was used to quantify the seasonal parameters of BD, and a regression analysis was conducted to identify the potential drivers of morbidity and seasonality of BD.Although most regions of China have experienced considerable declines in BD morbidity over the past two decades, Beijing and Ningxia still had high BD morbidity in 2009. BD morbidity decreased more slowly in North-west China than other regions. BD in China mainly peaked from July to September, with heterogeneity in peak time between regions. Relative humidity was associated with BD morbidity and peak time, and latitude was the major predictor of BD amplitude.The transmission of BD was heterogeneous in China. Improved sanitation and hygiene in North-west China, and better access to clean water and food in the big floating population in some metropolises could be the focus of future preventive interventions against BD. BD control efforts should put more emphasis on those dry areas in summer.

  6. The Rising Dominance of Shigella sonnei: An Intercontinental Shift in the Etiology of Bacillary Dysentery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne N Thompson

    Full Text Available Shigellosis is the major global cause of dysentery. Shigella sonnei, which has historically been more commonly isolated in developed countries, is undergoing an unprecedented expansion across industrializing regions in Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East. The precise reasons underpinning the epidemiological distribution of the various Shigella species and this global surge in S. sonnei are unclear but may be due to three major environmental pressures. First, natural passive immunization with the bacterium Plesiomonas shigelloides is hypothesized to protect populations with poor water supplies against S. sonnei. Improving the quality of drinking water supplies would, therefore, result in a reduction in P. shigelloides exposure and a subsequent reduction in environmental immunization against S. sonnei. Secondly, the ubiquitous amoeba species Acanthamoeba castellanii has been shown to phagocytize S. sonnei efficiently and symbiotically, thus allowing the bacteria access to a protected niche in which to withstand chlorination and other harsh environmental conditions in temperate countries. Finally, S. sonnei has emerged from Europe and begun to spread globally only relatively recently. A strong selective pressure from localized antimicrobial use additionally appears to have had a dramatic impact on the evolution of the S. sonnei population. We hypothesize that S. sonnei, which exhibits an exceptional ability to acquire antimicrobial resistance genes from commensal and pathogenic bacteria, has a competitive advantage over S. flexneri, particularly in areas with poorly regulated antimicrobial use. Continuing improvement in the quality of global drinking water supplies alongside the rapid development of antimicrobial resistance predicts the burden and international distribution of S. sonnei will only continue to grow. An effective vaccine against S. sonnei is overdue and may become one of our only weapons against this increasingly dominant and

  7. Absorption of macronutrients and nitrogen balance in children with dysentery fed an amylase-treated energy-dense porridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Mahalanabis, D; Ali, M; Mazumder, R N; Wahed, M A; Fuchs, G J

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the absorption of macronutrients and energy from an energy-dense diet liquefied with amylase from germinated wheat (ARF) in children suffering from acute dysentery. Thirty male children aged 6-35 months presenting with acute dysentery were randomly assigned to receive either an ARF-treated porridge or a standard porridge liquefied with water to make its consistency similar to the ARF porridge. After 24-h stabilization a 72-h metabolic balance was performed. Sixteen children received an ARF-treated porridge and 14 received a standard porridge liquefied with water. The mean +/- SD coefficients of absorption (%) of carbohydrate, fat, protein and energy (ARF porridge vs regular porridge) were 81.4 +/- 11 vs 86.9 +/- 7, 86.1 +/- 10 vs 82.8 +/- 15, 57.3 +/- 12 vs 48.4 +/- 24 and 81.4 +/- 9 vs 83.1 +/- 8, respectively. The stool loss of carbohydrate, protein, fat and energy was similar in the two groups. The net absorption of energy was substantially greater in the ARF-fed than regular porridge-fed children (by 28%, p = 0.01). The nitrogen balance was 6.9 +/- 3.4 mg kg(-1) d(-1) in the ARF porridge group and 1.1 +/- 6.7 mg kg(-1) d(-1) in the regular porridge group (p = 0.01). These results show that, despite being hyperosmolar, an amylase-treated liquefied energy-dense porridge is absorbed as well as a regular porridge by malnourished children with severe dysentery. Consequently, its use substantially increased the absorption of a net amount of macronutrients and resulted in a better nitrogen balance. These results further support this innovative approach of feeding sick children in developing countries.

  8. Risk factors associated with swine dysentery in East-European pig production units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko C.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the risk factors for swine dysentery in East-European middle-size to large farrow to finish units with separate breeding and grower-finisher facilities. Ten breeding animals (3-10% of the female inventory and 10 grower tinisher pigs (80-140 days-of age were sampled in each herd for polymerase chain reaction testing (PCR for Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (B hyo in their feces. Of 139 farrow to finish units, 51 (36.7% were positive, 49 (35,3% were negative, and 39 (28.1% were inconclusive for B hyo by PCR. In breeding subunits, twelve variables passed the screening criterion for risk factors (P<.2 for B hyo PCR positivity. The odds of the breeding subunits being B hyo PCR positive were 3.5 times greater when the grower-finisher subunit was positive and the fiber content of the diet was >6%. Use of "all in all out" farrowing policy and having >60% multiparous sows, each reduced the odds of being B hyo PCR positive about fourfold. In growing-finishing subunits, fourteen variables passed the screening criterion for risk factors (P<-2 for B hyo PCR positivity. B hyo PCR positive status of the breeding subunits and higher fiber content of the diet were the most influential variable, with the odds of the grower-finisher subunits being B hyo PCR positive almost eight times greater when the breeding subunit was also B hyo PCR positive. Grower-finisher B hyo PCR positivity was also associated with the percentage of pigs housed on concrete slats, with the odds of being positive 7.5 times higher for subunits where more that 70% of the animals were kept on concrete slats compared to all other floor types. There was a strong association between grower-finisher status and whether the animals were in outdoor lots with the odds of being B hyo PCR positive substantially lower for pigs in outdoor lots compared with all other surfaces.

  9. Amebic liver abscess with bacterial superinfection in a patient with no epidemiologic risk factors Absceso hepático amebiano sobreinfectado sin antecedentes epidemiológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sánchez-Pobre

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The amebic liver abscess is uncommon in developed countries like Spain, but the incidence is increasing probably due to the migratory movements of the population. We report a case of an amebic abscess, initially unsuspected due to the absence of epidemiologic risk factors and the negative serology for amebiasis, in the early stages of the disease.El absceso hepático amebiano es infrecuente en países desarrollados, como lo es el caso de España, pero su incidencia está aumentando, posiblemente en relación con los movimientos migratorios de la población. Presentamos un caso de absceso hepático amebiano, no sospechado inicialmente, debido a la ausencia de antecedentes epidemiológicos y a la negatividad de las pruebas serológicas en las fases iniciales de enfermedad.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of detection of intestinal amebiasis by using serology and specific-amebic-antigen assays among persons with or without human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sui-Yuan; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Ji, Dar-Der; Lo, Yi-Chun; Wu, Cheng-Hsin; Wu, Pei-Ying; Liu, Wen-Chun; Hung, Chien-Ching; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2008-09-01

    Among 345 persons who underwent indirect hemagglutination (IHA) serological assays and assays of specific amebic antigens in their stool samples, 24 of 36 (66.7%) who were seropositive for Entamoeba histolytica had intestinal amebiasis as determined by antigen assays compared with 2 of 309 (0.2%) who were seronegative (odds ratio, 307; 95% confidence interval, 64.9 to 1,451). The estimated cost to detect a case of intestinal amebiasis by serology followed by antigen assays ($52) could be reduced by 74.3% and 69.9%, respectively, compared with the costs of the concurrent use of both assays ($202) and the antigen assays alone ($173). Our finding suggests that IHA assays followed by specific-amebic-antigen assays can be cost-effective in the diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis among persons with or without human immunodeficiency virus infection who are at risk for E. histolytica infection.

  11. Solar disinfection of drinking water in the prevention of dysentery in South African children under 5 years: the role of participant motivation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Preez, M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available disinfected water (incidence rate ratio 0.64,95% CI 0.39-1.0, P ) 0.071) but not statistically significant. Compared with the control, participants with higher motivation achieved a significant reduction in dysentery (incidence rate ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0...

  12. Temperature and atmospheric pressure may be considered as predictors for the occurrence of bacillary dysentery in Guangzhou, Southern China

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    Tiegang Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The control of bacillary dysentery (BD remains a big challenge for China. Methods Negative binomial multivariable regression was used to study relationships between meteorological variables and the occurrence of BD during the period of 2006-2012. Results Each 1°C rise of temperature corresponded to an increase of 3.60% (95%CI, 3.03% to 4.18% in the monthly number of BD cases, whereas a 1 hPa rise in atmospheric pressure corresponded to a decrease in the number of BD cases by 2.85% (95%CI = 3.34% to 2.37% decrease. Conclusions Temperature and atmospheric pressure may be considered as predictors for the occurrence of BD in Guangzhou.

  13. Applied mixed generalized additive model to assess the effect of temperature on the incidence of bacillary dysentery and its forecast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Association between bacillary dysentery (BD disease and temperature has been reported in some studies applying Poisson regression model, however the effect estimation might be biased due to the data autocorrelation. Furthermore the temperature effect distributed in the time of different lags has not been studied either. The purpose of this work was to obtaining the association between the BD counts and the climatic factors such as temperature in the form of the weighted averages, concerning the autocorrelation pattern of the model residuals, and to make short term predictions using the model. The data was collected in the city of Shanghai from 2004 to 2008. METHODS: We used mixed generalized additive model (MGAM to analyze data on bacillary dysentery, temperature and other covariates with autoregressive random effect. Short term predictions were made using MGAM with the moving average of the BD counts. MAIN RESULTS: Our results showed that temperature was significant linearly associated with the logarithm of BD count for temperature in the range from 12°C to 22°C. Optimal weights in the temperature effect have been obtained, in which the one of 1-day-lag was close to 0, and the one of 2-days-lag was the maximum (p-value of the difference was less than 0.05. The predictive model was showing good fitness on the internal data with R(2 value 0.875, and the good short term prediction effect on the external data with correlation coefficient to be 0.859. CONCLUSION: According to the model estimation, corresponding Risk Ratio to affect BD was close to 1.1 when temperature effect goes up for 1°C in the range from 12°C to 22°C. And the 1-day incubation period could be inferred from the model estimation. Good prediction has been made using the predictive MGAM.

  14. Antiprotozoal Constituents from Annona cherimola Miller, a Plant Used in Mexican Traditional Medicine for the Treatment of Diarrhea and Dysentery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Fernando; Correa-Basurto, Jose; Barbosa, Elizabeth; Mendez-Luna, David; Yepez-Mulia, Lilian

    2017-01-01

    Background: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae) is a medicinal plant frequently recommended in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea and dysentery. Objective: This work was undertaken to obtain information that support the traditional use of A. cherimola, on pharmacological basis using in vitro and computational experiments. Material and Methods: Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract of the leaves of A. cherimola afforded five phenolic compounds: caffeic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, nicotinflorin, and rutin. Results: The in vitro antiprotozoal assay showed that kaempferol was the most potent antiamoebic and antigiardial compound with IC50 values of 7.9 μg/mL for Entamoeba histolytica and 8.7 μg/mL for Giardia lamblia. Computational molecular docking study showed that kaempferol interacted in a region different than metronidazole in the enzyme pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR). Conclusion: Considering that PFOR is a target of metronidazole; kaempferol may be a lead compound for the development of novel antiprotozoal agent. Also, these findings give support to the use of A. cherimola in the traditional medicine from México for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. SUMMARY Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract of the leaves of Annona cherimola afforded five phenolic compounds: caffeic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, nicotinflorin and rutin. The in vitro antiprotozoal assay showed that kaempferol was the most potent antiamoebic and antigiardial compound with IC50 values of 7.9 μg/mL for Entamoeba histolytica and 8.7 μg/mL for Giardia lamblia. Computational molecular docking study showed that kaempferol interacted in a region different that metronidazole in the enzyme pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase. Abbreviations used: PFOR:Pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, G: lamblia: Giardia lamblia, E: histolytica: Entamoeba histolytica PMID:28216899

  15. Meningoencefalitis amebiana primaria: comunicacion de dos nuevos casos Venezolanos Primary amebic meningoencephalitis: two new cases report from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Petit

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La meningoencefalitis amebiana primaria (MAP es infrecuente. Describimos dos nuevos casos de MAP en pacientes Venezolanos. Caso 1, Varón de 10 años, con fiebre, cefalea, vómitos y debilidad generalizada, y antecedente de inmersión en un estanque de agua días antes del inicio de sus síntomas, falleciendo 72 horas después del ingreso. Caso 2, Varón de 23 años con historia de cefalea, fiebre, vómitos, somnolencia y cambios de conducta. El paciente falleció 40 horas después. El estudio neuropatológico en ambos casos reveló MAP por Naegleria fowleri. La encefalitis por amebas anfizoicas debe sospecharse en casos de meningoencefalitis asépticas.Primary amebic menigoencephalitis (PAM is rare. Two cases of PAM in Venezuelan patients are described. Case 1, a 10 year-old male with headache, fever, vomiting. The patient swam in a water reservoir before the onset of his disease. He died during his third hospital day. Case 2, a 23 year-old male with a history of headache, fever, vomiting, drowsiness, and behavioral disturbances. The patient died on his second hospital day. The diagnosis in both cases was PAM due to Naegleria fowleri. Central nervous system infection by free-living amebas should be considered in meningoencephalitides with bacterial-free cerebro-spinal fluid.

  16. Entamoeba histolytica-Encoded Homolog of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Contributes to Mucosal Inflammation during Amebic Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngobeni, Renay; Abhyankar, Mayuresh M; Jiang, Nona M; Farr, Laura A; Samie, Amidou; Haque, Rashidul; Moonah, Shannon N

    2017-04-15

    Understanding the mechanisms by which Entamoeba histolytica drives gut inflammation is critical for the development of improved preventive and therapeutic strategies. E. histolytica encodes a homolog of the human cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Here, we investigated the role of E. histolytica MIF (EhMIF) during infection. We found that the concentration of fecal EhMIF correlated with the level of intestinal inflammation in persons with intestinal amebiasis. Mice treated with antibodies that specifically block EhMIF had reduced chemokine expression and neutrophil infiltration in the mucosa. In addition to antibody-mediated neutralization, we used a genetic approach to test the effect of EhMIF on mucosal inflammation. Mice infected with parasites overexpressing EhMIF had increased chemokine expression, neutrophil influx, and mucosal damage. Together, these results uncover a specific parasite protein that increases mucosal inflammation, expands our knowledge of host-parasite interaction during amebic colitis, and highlights a potential immunomodulatory target. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The pathology of experimentally induced cecal amebiasis in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Liver changes and amebic liver abscess formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadee, K.; Meerovitch, E.

    1985-01-01

    The pathogenesis of experimentally induced cecal amebiasis in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) was studied from 5 to 60 days after inoculation. Ulcerative lesions were noted 10 to 60 days after inoculation. The sequential development of lesions was asynchronous and progressed from destruction of the interglandular epithelium and of glandular crypt elements to loss of mucosa and formation of granulomatous lesions in the submucosa involving the muscularis mucosae. Pathologic changes in the liver correlated with the formation of ulcerative cecal lesions. Subacute hepatic changes showed lymphocytic portal infiltrate, Kupffer cell hyperplasia, multinucleated giant cells, granuloma formation, and sinusoidal mononuclear and granulocytic infiltrates. Metastatic amebic liver abscesses occurred as early as 10 days after inoculation, and small abscesses were found in the portal areas of the right liver lobe. The sequential development and pathologic manifestation of the infection and the usefulness of the gerbil for the study of human intestinal amebiasis are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:4014436

  18. Unde venis? Amebiasis presenting as appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dennis A; Wilson, Gerald A; Bryan, Charles S

    2013-06-01

    A returning traveler presenting with fever accompanied by abdominal "pressure" and pain proved to have amebic appendicitis, amebic liver abscess, and probable recent amebic dysentery--a rare combination of findings amply illustrating the value of asking "Unde venis--from where do you come?"

  19. Expression, purification, and evaluation of recombinant LecA as a candidate for an amebic colitis vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, L; Abhyankar, M; Noor, Z; Read, K; Pedersen, K; White, R; Fox, C; Petri, W A; Lyerly, D

    2014-02-26

    Entamoeba histolytica, which causes amebic colitis and liver abscess, is considered a major enteric pathogen in residents and travelers to developing countries where the disease is endemic. Interaction of this protozoan parasite with the intestine is mediated through the binding of the trophozoite stage to intestinal mucin and epithelium via a galactose and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (Gal/GalNAc) lectin comprised of a disulfide linked heavy (ca. 180 kDa) and light chain (ca. 35 kDa) and a noncovalently bound intermediate subunit (ca. 150 kDa). Our efforts to develop a vaccine against this pathogen have focused on an internal 578 amino acid fragment, designated LecA, located within the cysteine-rich region of the heavy chain subunit because: (i) it is a major target of adherence-blocking antibodies of seropositive individuals and (ii) vaccination with his-tagged LecA provides protection in animal models. We developed a purification process for preparing highly purified non-tagged LecA using a codon-optimized gene expressed in Escherichia coli. The process consisted of: (i) cell lysis, collection and washing of inclusion bodies; (ii) solubilization and refolding of denatured LecA; and (iii) a polishing gel filtration step. The purified fragment existed primarily as a random coil with β-sheet structure, contained low endotoxin and nucleic acid, was highly immunoreactive, and elicited antibodies that recognized native lectin and that inhibited in vitro adherence of trophozoites to CHO cells. Immunization of CBA mice with LecA resulted in significant protection against cecal colitis. Our procedure yields sufficient amounts of highly purified LecA for future studies on stability, immunogenicity, and protection with protein-adjuvant formulations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Notes from the field: primary amebic meningoencephalitis associated with ritual nasal rinsing--St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin islands, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    On November 21, 2012, the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) Department of Health documented the first case and death from primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in the territory. PAM, a rare and almost universally fatal condition, results when Naegleria fowleri, a free-living thermophilic ameba found in warm freshwater, enters the nose and migrates to the brain. The patient was a man aged 47 years whose only reported freshwater exposures were the use of tap water for daily household activities and for ablution, a ritual cleansing that he practiced several times a day in preparation for Islamic prayer. Ablution can include nasal rinsing. On November 16, 2012, the patient had visited the emergency department with a headache; he was treated symptomatically and released. The following day, the patient returned to the emergency department by ambulance with fever, confusion, agitation, and a severe headache, for which he was admitted. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies were consistent with bacterial meningitis, and antibiotics were started. On November 18, neurologic findings included fixed nonresponsive pupils, no response in the upper or lower extremities, muted plantar responses, and no response to verbal commands. Microscopic examination of the CSF obtained from a second lumbar puncture revealed motile amebic trophozoites. CSF specimens sent to CDC for confirmatory testing were positive for N. fowleri by real-time polymerase chain reaction testing. On the morning of November 21, the patient was pronounced brain dead based on neurologic criteria.

  1. Amebic colitis in an antigenically and serologically negative patient: usefulness of a small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene-based polymerase chain reaction in diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaymani-Mohammadi, Shahram; Coyle, Christina M; Factor, Stephen M; Petri, William A

    2008-11-01

    Specific identification of Entamoeba histolytica in clinical specimens is an essential confirmatory diagnostic step in the management of amebiasis. Here, we report an unusual case of amebic colitis in a 20-year-old female immigrant from South China. The patient had experienced diarrhea, crampy abdominal pain, and fever for approximately 3 weeks prior to admission to hospital and had treated herself at home with metronidazole. On admission, stool microscopy and serology for E. histolytica were negative. Because the clinical findings raised the suspicion of Clostridium difficile fulminant colitis, she underwent a subtotal colectomy. Histopathology revealed flask-shaped ulcers characteristic of amebic colitis. Consequently, E. histolytica DNA was detected by a sensitive small-subunit rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from feces, and the patient was successfully treated for amebiasis with metronidazole. This case exemplifies the relative insensitivity of serologic tests for the diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis and the difficulties encountered in detecting the parasite antigen in a patient partially treated with metronidazole. We conclude that when the possibility of invasive intestinal amebiasis is suspected, detecting the parasite DNA directly in the stool sample by PCR using E. histolytica-specific primers may be an alternative, noninvasive, and reliable tool for the specific diagnosis of the disease.

  2. Tratamento da amebíase intestinal por meio de pequenas quantidades diárias de etofamida, usadas em esquemas de curta duração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Carlos Levi

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available Por meio da etofamida, trataram os autores 40 indivíduos acometidos de amebíase intestinal e representados por crianças e adultos de ambos os sexos. Os esquemas posológicos recomendados para os componentes de dois grupos de 20 elementos foram os seguintes: A 100 mg três vezes em 24 horas, durante cinco dias; B 100 mg, cinco vezes em 24 horas, durante três dias. Foi expressiva a percentagem global de 90% de curas obtidas, mas a administração de maior quantidade diária da droga, durante período mais curto, mostrou-se dotada de melhor efetividade e possibilitou a eliminação da parasitose de todas as pessoas medicadas. O estudo que efetuaram, correspondente à amebíase intestinal assintomática, oligossintomática ou aparente como colite crônica, deixou patente a eficácia do remédio usado, que praticamente não causou distúrbios colaterais e pode ser prescrito segundo planejamentos singelos e executáveis com facilidade.

  3. Prevalent HLA Class II Alleles in Mexico City Appear to Confer Resistance to the Development of Amebic Liver Abscess.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric G Hernández

    Full Text Available Amebiasis is an endemic disease and a public health problem throughout Mexico, although the incidence rates of amebic liver abscess (ALA vary among the geographic regions of the country. Notably, incidence rates are high in the northwestern states (especially Sonora with a rate of 12.57/100,000 inhabitants compared with the central region (Mexico City with a rate of 0.69/100,000 inhabitants. These data may be related to host genetic factors that are partially responsible for resistance or susceptibility. Therefore, we studied the association of the HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles with resistance or susceptibility to ALA in two Mexican populations, one each from Mexico City and Sonora. Ninety ALA patients were clinically diagnosed by serology and sonography. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. To establish the genetic identity of both populations, 15 short tandem repeats (STRs were analyzed with multiplexed PCR, and the allelic frequencies of HLA were studied by PCR-SSO using LUMINEX technology. The allele frequencies obtained were compared to an ethnically matched healthy control group (146 individuals. We observed that both affected populations differed genetically from the control group. We also found interesting trends in the population from Mexico City. HLA-DQB1*02 allele frequencies were higher in ALA patients compared to the control group (0.127 vs 0.047; p= 0.01; pc= NS; OR= 2.9, 95% CI= 1.09-8.3. The less frequent alleles in ALA patients were HLA-DRB1*08 (0.118 vs 0.238 in controls; p= 0.01; pc= NS; OR= 0.42, 95% CI= 0.19-0.87 and HLA-DQB1*04 (0.109 vs 0.214; p= 0.02; pc= NS; OR= 0.40, 95% CI= 0.20-0.94. The haplotype HLA-DRB1*08/-DQB1*04 also demonstrated a protective trend against the development of this disease (0.081 vs. 0.178; p=0.02; pc=NS; OR= 0.40, 95% CI= 0.16-0.93. These trends suggest that the prevalent alleles in the population of Mexico City may be associated with protection against the

  4. Prevalent HLA Class II Alleles in Mexico City Appear to Confer Resistance to the Development of Amebic Liver Abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Eric G.; Granados, Julio; Partida-Rodríguez, Oswaldo; Valenzuela, Olivia; Rascón, Edgar; Magaña, Ulises; Escamilla-Tilch, Mónica; López-Reyes, Alberto; Nieves-Ramírez, Miriam; González, Enrique; Morán, Patricia; Rojas, Liliana; Valadez, Alicia; Luna, Alexandra; Estrada, Francisco J.; Maldonado, Carmen; Ximénez, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Amebiasis is an endemic disease and a public health problem throughout Mexico, although the incidence rates of amebic liver abscess (ALA) vary among the geographic regions of the country. Notably, incidence rates are high in the northwestern states (especially Sonora with a rate of 12.57/100,000 inhabitants) compared with the central region (Mexico City with a rate of 0.69/100,000 inhabitants). These data may be related to host genetic factors that are partially responsible for resistance or susceptibility. Therefore, we studied the association of the HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles with resistance or susceptibility to ALA in two Mexican populations, one each from Mexico City and Sonora. Ninety ALA patients were clinically diagnosed by serology and sonography. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. To establish the genetic identity of both populations, 15 short tandem repeats (STRs) were analyzed with multiplexed PCR, and the allelic frequencies of HLA were studied by PCR-SSO using LUMINEX technology. The allele frequencies obtained were compared to an ethnically matched healthy control group (146 individuals). We observed that both affected populations differed genetically from the control group. We also found interesting trends in the population from Mexico City. HLA-DQB1*02 allele frequencies were higher in ALA patients compared to the control group (0.127 vs 0.047; p= 0.01; pc= NS; OR= 2.9, 95% CI= 1.09-8.3). The less frequent alleles in ALA patients were HLA-DRB1*08 (0.118 vs 0.238 in controls; p= 0.01; pc= NS; OR= 0.42, 95% CI= 0.19-0.87) and HLA-DQB1*04 (0.109 vs 0.214; p= 0.02; pc= NS; OR= 0.40, 95% CI= 0.20-0.94). The haplotype HLA-DRB1*08/-DQB1*04 also demonstrated a protective trend against the development of this disease (0.081 vs. 0.178; p=0.02; pc=NS; OR= 0.40, 95% CI= 0.16-0.93). These trends suggest that the prevalent alleles in the population of Mexico City may be associated with protection against the development of ALA

  5. Sequence types and pleuromutilin susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates from Italian pigs with swine dysentery: 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugna, G; Bonilauri, P; Carra, E; Bergamini, F; Luppi, A; Gherpelli, Y; Magistrali, C F; Nigrelli, A; Alborali, G L; Martelli, P; La, T; Hampson, D J; Merialdi, G

    2015-01-01

    Swine dysentery is a mucohaemorrhagic colitis of pigs caused by infection with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. The disease can be controlled by treatment with antimicrobial agents, with the pleuromutilins tiamulin and valnemulin being widely used. In recent years, the occurrence of B. hyodysenteriae with reduced susceptibility to these drugs has been increasing. The aim of this study was to determine temporal changes in genetic groups and pleuromutilin susceptibility amongst B. hyodysenteriae isolates from Italy. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed on 108 isolates recovered from 87 farms in different regions of Italy from 2003 to 2012, and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for tiamulin and valnemulin were determined. Logistic regression was performed to assess associations between susceptibility to the two antimicrobial agents and genetic group, year and region of isolation. The isolates were allocated to 23 sequence types (STs), with five clonal clusters (Ccs) and seven singletons. More than 50% of isolates were resistant to both pleuromutilins (MIC >2.0 µg/mL for tiamulin and >1.0 µg/mL for valnemulin). All 10 isolates in ST 83 were resistant; these were first isolated in 2011 and came from nine farms, suggesting recent widespread dissemination of a resistant strain. Significant associations were found between the proportion of pleuromutilin susceptible isolates and the genetic group and year of isolation. Although resistant isolates were found in all Ccs, isolates in Ccs 2 and 7 were over five times more likely to be susceptible than those in the other Ccs. A significant trend in the reduction of susceptibility over time also was observed.

  6. Use of recombinant Entamoeba histolytica cysteine proteinase 1 to identify a potent inhibitor of amebic invasion in a human colonic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez-López, Samuel G; Herdman, Scott; Hirata, Ken; Choi, Min-Ho; Choe, Youngchool; Craik, Charles; Caffrey, Conor R; Hansell, Elisabeth; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Chen, Yen Ting; Roush, William R; McKerrow, James; Eckmann, Lars; Guo, Jianhua; Stanley, Samuel L; Reed, Sharon L

    2007-07-01

    Cysteine proteinases are key virulence factors of the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. We have shown that cysteine proteinases play a central role in tissue invasion and disruption of host defenses by digesting components of the extracellular matrix, immunoglobulins, complement, and cytokines. Analysis of the E. histolytica genome project has revealed more than 40 genes encoding cysteine proteinases. We have focused on E. histolytica cysteine proteinase 1 (EhCP1) because it is one of two cysteine proteinases unique to invasive E. histolytica and is highly expressed and released. Recombinant EhCP1 was expressed in Escherichia coli and refolded to an active enzyme with a pH optimum of 6.0. We used positional-scanning synthetic tetrapeptide combinatorial libraries to map the specificity of the P1 to P4 subsites of the active site cleft. Arginine was strongly preferred at P2, an unusual specificity among clan CA proteinases. A new vinyl sulfone inhibitor, WRR483, was synthesized based on this specificity to target EhCP1. Recombinant EhCP1 cleaved key components of the host immune system, C3, immunoglobulin G, and pro-interleukin-18, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. EhCP1 localized to large cytoplasmic vesicles, distinct from the sites of other proteinases. To gain insight into the role of secreted cysteine proteinases in amebic invasion, we tested the effect of the vinyl sulfone cysteine proteinase inhibitors K11777 and WRR483 on invasion of human colonic xenografts. The resultant dramatic inhibition of invasion by both inhibitors in this human colonic model of amebiasis strongly suggests a significant role of secreted amebic proteinases, such as EhCP1, in the pathogenesis of amebiasis.

  7. Diagnosis of amebic liver abscess by means of an anzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay Diagnóstico de absceso hepático amibiano mediante el inmunoensayo enzimático ligado a una enzima (ELISA)

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Amebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most frequent extraintestinal complication of amibiasis; its clinical presentation is generally acute, and it is considered a medical emergency. Patients manifest general symptoms, accompanied by pain in the right hypochondrium that can irradiate to the shoulder; painful hepatomegalia is a suggestive but not diagnostic sign; it should be distinguished from pyogenic liver abscess and necrotic hepatoma; for the diagnostic approach to ALA imagenologic exams and ...

  8. Diagnosis of amebic liver abscess by means of an anzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay Diagnóstico de absceso hepático amibiano mediante el inmunoensayo enzimático ligado a una enzima (ELISA)

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Humberto Botero Garcés; Astrid Gómez Muñoz; Arturo Jaraba Medina; Amanda Castaño González

    2001-01-01

    Amebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most frequent extraintestinal complication of amibiasis; its clinical presentation is generally acute, and it is considered a medical emergency. Patients manifest general symptoms, accompanied by pain in the right hypochondrium that can irradiate to the shoulder; painful hepatomegalia is a suggestive but not diagnostic sign; it should be distinguished from pyogenic liver abscess and necrotic hepatoma; for the diagnostic approach to ALA imagenologic exams and ...

  9. [The decipher, annotation and textual researches of 7 anti-dysentery prescriptions in the Tangut medical documents unearthed in Khara-Khoto].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Long; Liu, Jing-Yun; Zhang, Ru-Qing

    2013-05-01

    There were 7 anti-dysentery prescriptions in the Tangut medical documents unearthed in Khara-Khoto, preserved in Russia, which were deciphered, annotated and textually researched based on the Tangut tool books like Wenhai (Word Ocean), Tongyin (Homophones), and Fan han he shi zhang zhong zhu (A Tangut-Chinese Timely Gem Dictionary), combining with classical medical documents and application of knowledge of ancient Chinese language. It can be sure that these prescriptions came from the central plains of China during the Song Dynasty, which were made use of by the prescriptions as they were by the physicians of the Western Xia regime, either made modifications and adjustments or without any change. For example, local foods like local sugar and cheese were added. As for the administration and dosage, again, they were applied by following the original one or changing a little according to the local diet customs.

  10. Anti-amebic antibody activity in patients, determined with antigens prepared from virulent parasites (indirect hemagglutination assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israeli, Eitan; Talis, Batya; Peled, Nehama; Snier, Rachella; El-On, Joseph

    2007-09-01

    The serology of amebiasis is affected by low sensitivity and specificity. To evaluate the advantage of the indirect hemagglutination assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the diagnosis of amebiasis, using Entamoeba histolytica soluble antigen (macerated amebic antigens) prepared from four different virulent isolates, continuously cultivated in the presence of the original enteric bacteria. Using IHA and ELISA with MAA antigen we examined 147 sera samples from patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, and 11 sera from amebiasis cases (confirmed by microscopy and copro-antigen ELISA). Of 104 of the 147 (70.7%) symptomatic cases that were amebiasis positive by IHA, 81 (55.1%) were positive by MAA-ELISA. In addition, of 11 amebiasis cases confirmed by microscopy and copro-antigen ELISA, 7 (64%) were amebiasis positive by both tests. Four species of bacteria were isolated from the ameba cultures: Escherichia coli, Morganella morganii, Proteus mirabilis, and Streptococcus lactis. Elimination of the bacteria from the cultures by an antibiotics cocktail containing gentamicin, imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam and vancomycin was the preferred method. Absorption of patients' sera to bacterial antigen prior to serological analysis had only a marginal effect. These results indicate a correlation of 61% between the ELISA developed in this study and the IHA tests in the diagnosis of amebiasis.

  11. 应用BP神经网络模型预测福州市山区细菌性痢疾流行%PREDICTION OF BACILLARY DYSENTERY BY BP NEURAL NETWORK MODEL IN MOUNTAINOUS AREA IN FUZHOU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈波; 王李仁; 许旭艳; 郑能雄

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探索BP神经网络在细菌性痢疾预测模型的应用,为细菌性痢疾的预防控制措施提供科学依据.[方法]用Matlab7.2软件包中的神经网络工具箱,以1988~2007年的资料建立福州市山区菌痢流行的BP神经网络模型,并以2008年的资料验证其预测成功率.[结果]神经网络经学习和训练,训练误差下降并趋于稳定,回代相关系数为0.815,模型的预测成功率为10/12.[结论] BP神经网络在气象要素与菌痢发病之间建模是可行的,可以作为预测菌痢流行的一种新方法.%[Objective]To explore application of BP neural network model in prediction of bacillary dysentery, in order to provide the scientific data for making strategies.[Methods]The forecasting model for bacillary dysentery was established by using the neural network toolbox of Matlab7.2 software package.In the studies of forecasting model, the data in Fuzhou from 1988 to 2007 were chosen to analyze.The established forecasting model was also tested by the data of bacillary dysentery in 2008.[Results]After training the neural network, the error of performance decreased and the coefficient of regression was 0.815.The efficiency of the forecasting model for bacillary dysentery was 10/12.[Conclusion]BP neural network model is feasible to analyze the relation of meteorological factors and bacillary dysentery.BP neural network model could be used as a new effective method for forecasting of bacillary dysentery.

  12. Abscesos amebianos de hígado: Tres años de experiencia Amebic liver abscesses: Three years´experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Nari

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: los abscesos amebianos hepáticos se presentan frecuentemente en zonas endémicas, teniendo mal pronóstico si no son diagnosticados y tratados adecuadamente. Objetivo: evaluar nuestros resultados, ampliar la clasificación ultrasonográfica utilizada y proponer un algoritmo terapéutico. Diseño: retrospectivo observacional. Método: revisión de los expedientes clínicos de los pacientes y valoración de los siguientes datos: sexo, edad, signo-sintomatología, métodos complementarios de imágenes y laboratorio, tamaño, localización, estancia hospitalaria y tratamiento. Resultados: fueron tratados 16 abscesos, 9 fueron hombres, la media etaria fue de 30,56 años, todos fueron únicos, 14 se localizaron en el lóbulo derecho, la media en medida fue de 63,25 milímetros, 10 fueron del tipo coleccionado en la clasificación de N’Gbesso. Siete pacientes tuvieron buena respuesta con el tratamiento médico, en 6 se realizó drenaje percutáneo y en 3 cirugía. La morbilidad fue del 12,5% y la mortalidad del 0%. La estancia hospitalaria global tuvo una media de 7,68 días. Conclusión: nuestros resultados son similares a otras series, el agregado a la clasificación de N’Gbesso de abscesos intermedios y complicados o con signos de alarma mejora la orientación terapéutica, creemos que el drenaje precoz en abscesos coleccionados de 5 o más cm mejora la sintomatología y disminuye la estancia hospitalaria.Background: amebic liver abscess is frequently seen in endemic regions, and has a poor prognosis when diagnosis and treatment are inappropriate. Aim: to evaluate and compare our own results; to propose a new classification and therapeutic algorithm. Design: an observational and retrospective study. Method: medical records were reviewed for sex, age, signs and symptoms, images, laboratory tests, size, location, treatment, hospital stay, and morbidity-mortality. Results: sixteen patients with amebic liver abscess had been treated

  13. The first association of a primary amebic meningoencephalitis death with culturable Naegleria fowleri in tap water from a US treated public drinking water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Jennifer R; Ratard, Raoult C; Hill, Vincent R; Sokol, Theresa; Causey, Jonathan Jake; Yoder, Jonathan S; Mirani, Gayatri; Mull, Bonnie; Mukerjee, Kimberly A; Narayanan, Jothikumar; Doucet, Meggie; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Poole, Charla N; Akingbola, Olugbenga A; Ritter, Jana M; Xiong, Zhenggang; da Silva, Alexandre J; Roellig, Dawn; Van Dyke, Russell B; Stern, Harlan; Xiao, Lihua; Beach, Michael J

    2015-04-15

    Naegleria fowleri is a climate-sensitive, thermophilic ameba found in warm, freshwater lakes and rivers. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), which is almost universally fatal, occurs when N. fowleri-containing water enters the nose, typically during swimming, and migrates to the brain via the olfactory nerve. In August 2013, a 4-year-old boy died of meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology in a Louisiana hospital. Clinical and environmental testing and a case investigation were initiated to determine the cause of death and to identify potential exposures. Based on testing of cerebrospinal fluid and brain specimens, the child was diagnosed with PAM. His only reported water exposure was tap water; in particular, tap water that was used to supply water to a lawn water slide on which the child had played extensively prior to becoming ill. Water samples were collected from both the home and the water distribution system that supplied the home and tested; N. fowleri was identified in water samples from both the home and the water distribution system. This case is the first reported PAM death associated with culturable N. fowleri in tap water from a US treated drinking water system. This case occurred in the context of an expanding geographic range for PAM beyond southern states, with recent case reports from Minnesota, Kansas, and Indiana. This case also highlights the role of adequate disinfection throughout drinking water distribution systems and the importance of maintaining vigilance when operating drinking water systems using source waters with elevated temperatures. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Ensaio clínico com etofamida no tratamento da amebíase intestinal crônica em crianças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Huggins

    1975-04-01

    Full Text Available Os AA. trataram 40 crianças portadoras de amebíase intestinal crônica, cujas idades variaram entre dois (três casos a seis anos (cinco doentes, com Etofamida na apresentação de suspensão (cada 5 ml contém 100 mg da substância ativa, na dose de 100 mg cinco vezes ao dia e durante três dias consecutivos (dose total de 1,5 g. O controle de cura parasitológica foi realizado pelas técnicas de Faust e cols. e de Hoffman, Pons e Janer no 10., 15.° e 25.° dias após o tratamento, sendo também usada a hematoxilina férrica neste último controle. Obtiveram os AA. 90% de cura parasitológica (36 enfermos e excelente tolerância ao medicamento.A new antiamebic agent, Ethophamide, was tried in the treatment of 40 children suffering chronic intestinal amebiasis, of both sexes, and aged from two (three patient to six years old (five patients. The drug was given in oral suspension containing 2% of Ethophamide, and the dosage used was 500 mg daily for three days. Laboratorial controls were made before the treatment and repeated 10, 15, and 25 days after its completion, and consisting of Faust & cols., Hoffman, Pons and Janer mehods, and iron hematoxylin (on the 25th day. After the treatment 36 patients (or 90% were cured, and the tolerance to medication was considered very good. In the light of the excellent results obtained, the Authors concludes that Ethophamide could be the drug of choice for the treatment of amebiasis.

  15. Conjugation of metronidazole with dextran: a potential pharmaceutical strategy to control colonic distribution of the anti-amebic drug susceptible to metabolism by colonic microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooseong; Yang, Yejin; Kim, Dohoon; Jeong, Seongkeun; Yoo, Jin-Wook; Yoon, Jeong-Hyun; Jung, Yunjin

    2017-01-01

    Metronidazole (MTDZ), the drug of choice for the treatment of protozoal infections such as luminal amebiasis, is highly susceptible to colonic metabolism, which may hinder its conversion from a colon-specific prodrug to an effective anti-amebic agent targeting the entire large intestine. Thus, in an attempt to control the colonic distribution of the drug, a polymeric colon-specific prodrug, MTDZ conjugated to dextran via a succinate linker (Dex-SA-MTDZ), was designed. Upon treatment with dextranase for 8 h, the degree of Dex-SA-MTDZ depolymerization (%) with a degree of substitution (mg of MTDZ bound in 100 mg of Dex-SA-MTDZ) of 7, 17, and 30 was 72, 38, and 8, respectively, while that of dextran was 85. Depolymerization of Dex-SA-MTDZ was found to be necessary for the release of MTDZ, because dextranase pretreatment ensures that de-esterification occurs between MTDZ and the dextran backbone. In parallel, Dex-SA-MTDZ with a degree of substitution of 17 was found not to release MTDZ upon incubation with the contents of the small intestine and stomach of rats, but it released MTDZ when incubated with rat cecal contents (including microbial dextranases). Moreover, Dex-SA-MTDZ exhibited prolonged release of MTDZ, which contrasts with drug release by small molecular colon-specific prodrugs, MTDZ sulfate and N-nicotinoyl-2-{2-(2-methyl-5-nitroimidazol-1-yl)ethyloxy}-d,l-glycine. These prodrugs were eliminated very rapidly, and no MTDZ was detected in the cecal contents. Consistent with these in vitro results, we found that oral gavage of Dex-SA-MTDZ delivered MTDZ (as MTDZ conjugated to [depolymerized] dextran) to the distal colon. However, upon oral gavage of the small molecular prodrugs, no prodrugs were detected in the distal colon. Collectively, these data suggest that dextran conjugation is a potential pharmaceutical strategy to control the colonic distribution of drugs susceptible to colonic microbial metabolism. PMID:28243064

  16. Study on Toxicology of Anti-dysentery Powder in Chinese Veterinary Pharmacopoeia%药典方剂止痢散的毒理学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆大; 谢闪闪; 付本懂; 张长帅; 韦旭斌

    2011-01-01

    为了从现代药理学角度评价止痢散临床用药的安全性,对其进行了毒理学研究.通过小鼠灌胃给药对止痢散的急性毒性进行了测定;以生理盐水对照组、止咳散低剂量组(4 g/kg)、中剂量组(8 g/kg)、高剂量组(16 g/kg)对大鼠连续灌胃给药4周,记录每日饮水量、饲料采食量及每周体重,测定末次给药后24 h及停药2周后血液生化指标及血常规,做病理切片,评定其长期毒性.结果显示:小鼠口服止痢散的LD50为124.8g/kg,95%可信限111.2~142.5 g/kg,单味雄黄的LD50为10.5g/kg,95%可信限9.7~11.1 g/kg;且对大鼠连续灌胃给药4周期间,止痢散低剂量组大鼠没有出现可见的毒性反应;中、高剂量组大鼠呈现出明显毒性反应,具体表现为采食及饮水量减少,体重减轻,消化道充血、出血,肝脏存在炎性细胞浸润、肝细胞水泡变性,肾脏、心脏轻度出血,血清尿素氮、谷丙转氨酶,谷草转氨酶、与碱性磷酸酶升高等;不过高剂量组大鼠用药期间也没有出现死亡;上述毒性反应在停药2周后基本消失.以上结果表明,止痢散的毒性较低,按兽药典规定剂量用药是安全的,但长期使用能引起蓄积作用,造成肝肾损伤,其毒性具有可逆性.%To evaluate the prescription's clinical safety from the perspective of modern pharmacology, studies were made on the toxicology of anti-dysentery powder.In this experiment we examined the acute toxicity of anti-dysentery powder and realgar by intragastric administration in mice; assessed its long-term toxicity in rats through recording the amount of hydroposia and feeds-foraging per day and body weight per week, measuring hematologic and blood biochemical indexed after administration for 24 hours and withdrawal for 2 weeks,and made pathological section after intragastric administration for 4 weeks in rats with low(4 g/kg), middle(8 g/kg), and high( 16 g/kg) dosage groups.The results showed that: the medial

  17. Application of a novel grey self-memory coupling model to forecast the incidence rates of two notifiable diseases in China: dysentery and gonorrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Guo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study, a novel grey self-memory coupling model was developed to forecast the incidence rates of two notifiable infectious diseases (dysentery and gonorrhea; the effectiveness and applicability of this model was assessed based on its ability to predict the epidemiological trend of infectious diseases in China. METHODS: The linear model, the conventional GM(1,1 model and the GM(1,1 model with self-memory principle (SMGM(1,1 model were used to predict the incidence rates of the two notifiable infectious diseases based on statistical incidence data. Both simulation accuracy and prediction accuracy were assessed to compare the predictive performances of the three models. The best-fit model was applied to predict future incidence rates. RESULTS: Simulation results show that the SMGM(1,1 model can take full advantage of the systematic multi-time historical data and possesses superior predictive performance compared with the linear model and the conventional GM(1,1 model. By applying the novel SMGM(1,1 model, we obtained the possible incidence rates of the two representative notifiable infectious diseases in China. CONCLUSION: The disadvantages of the conventional grey prediction model, such as sensitivity to initial value, can be overcome by the self-memory principle. The novel grey self-memory coupling model can predict the incidence rates of infectious diseases more accurately than the conventional model, and may provide useful references for making decisions involving infectious disease prevention and control.

  18. An outbreak of winter dysentery caused by bovine coronavirus in a high-production dairy cattle herd from a tropical country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Takiuchi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine coronavirus (BCoV is a known cause of winter dysentery (WD in adult cattle. The morbidity of the disease is high, that results in a significant decrease in milk production and consequently, economic losses. In the present study, we report on a classical outbreak of WD that affected a high-production Holstein dairy herd raised in a tropical country. The lactating batch included 154 cows, and 138 (90% presented diarrhea in a short (nine days period of time. Three (2% cows died. The other batches of animals did not become ill. The evolution of the disease in the herd, including the clinical signs and epidemiological features, strongly suggested a WD case. Semi-nested PCR and RFLP confirmed that BCoV was the cause of the infection. Samples tested negative for all other enteric pathogens. This case report highlights the importance of BCoV in WD even in tropical countries such as Brazil.O coronavirus bovino (BCoV pode causar a diarreia de inverno (WD - Winter Dysentery ao infectar bovinos adultos, particularmente em regiões de clima temperado ou frio. A morbidade da doença é alta, resultando em queda na produção de leite e, consequentemente, perdas econômicas. No presente estudo, é descrito um surto clássico de WD acometendo um rebanho de bovinos leiteiros da raça Holandesa PB, de alta produção, proveniente do estado do Paraná. O lote afetado era composto por 154 vacas em lactação, sendo que 138 (90% apresentaram diarreia em um curto (nove dias período de tempo e 3 (2% vacas morreram em consequência da diarreia, desidratação e desequilíbrio eletrolítico. As outras categorias de animais do rebanho (bezerras, novilhas e vacas secas não apresentaram sinal clínico. A evolução da doença clínica, assim como a epidemiologia da infecção sugeriu um quadro clássico de WD. O diagnóstico foi realizado por meio da identificação do BCoV, pela técnica de semi-nested PCR e confirmação por RFLP, em amostra fecal de uma vaca

  19. A high dietary concentration of inulin is necessary to reduce the incidence of swine dysentery in pigs experimentally challenged with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Christian F; Hernández, Aracely; Mansfield, Josie; Hidalgo, Álvaro; La, Tom; Phillips, Nyree D; Hampson, David J; Pluske, John R

    2011-11-01

    A total of sixty surgically castrated male pigs (Large White × Landrace) weighing 31·2 (sd 4·3) kg were used in a randomised block experiment to examine the effect of added dietary inulin (0, 20, 40 and 80 g/kg) on the occurrence of swine dysentery (SD) and on fermentation characteristics in the large intestine after experimental challenge with the causative spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. The pigs were allowed to adapt to the diets for 2 weeks before each pig was challenged orally four times with a broth culture containing B. hyodysenteriae on consecutive days. Increasing dietary levels of inulin linearly (P = 0·001) reduced the risk of pigs developing SD; however, eight out of fifteen pigs fed the diet with 80 g/kg inulin still developed the disease. The pH values in the caecum (P = 0·072) tended to decrease, and in the upper colon, the pH values did decrease (P = 0·047) linearly with increasing inulin levels in the diets, most probably due to a linear increase in the concentration of total volatile fatty acids in the caecum (P = 0·018), upper colon (P = 0·001) and lower colon (P = 0·013). In addition, there was a linear reduction in the proportion of the branched-chain fatty acids isobutyric acid and isovaleric acid in the caecum (P = 0·015 and 0·026) and upper colon (P = 0·011 and 0·013) with increasing levels of dietary inulin. In conclusion, the present study showed that a diet supplemented with a high level of inulin (80 g/kg) but not lower levels reduced the risk of pigs developing SD, possibly acting through a modification of the microbial fermentation patterns in the large intestine.

  20. Observation of Therapeutic Effects of Two Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicines on Piglet' s Yellow- white Dysentery%两种中成药防治仔猪黄白痢的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢四仙; 张建乐

    2012-01-01

    采用中成药“母仔安”给分娩前3d、产仔后7~10d的母猪喂服、“仔痢宁”给已产黄白痢仔猪的母猪喂服3~5d,观察其发病率、病死率及双月仔猪成活率。试验结果表明:服用“母仔安”的产仔母猪所产仔猪发病率下降11.56%,病死率下降15.58%,双月成活率提高9.61%,非病死率下降1.1%;服用“仔痢宁”的母猪所产仔猪发病率下降6.9%,治愈率占发病数的88.9%,病死率下降18.93%,双月成活率提高8.72%,非病死率下降1.86%。%Piglet's yellow -white dysentery was an epidemic gastroenteritis caused by the pathogenic Escherichia coli with multiple serotypes in piglets induced by dysentery, high incidence, difficulty in cure, the high mortality. The test of feeding Muzian of traditional Chinese herbal medicine three days before delivery or 7 -10 days after farrowing and feeding Zilining of traditional Chinese herbal medicines for 3 - 5 days to sows was done to observe the incidence, mortality and survival rate of piglets bimonthly. The results showed that the incidence of piglet' s yellow - white dysentery after feeding Muzian of traditional Chinese herbal medicines to farrowing sows was seen down by | 1.56%, case fatality rate decreased by 15.58%, bimonthly survival rate increased by 9.61%, non - fatality rate decreased by 1.1%. The incidence of piglet' s yellow - white dysentery after feeding Zilining of traditional Chinese herbal medicines decreased by 6.9% , the cure rate of incidence number was 88.9% , case fatality rate decreased by 18.93% . bimonthly survival rate increased bv 8.72% , non -fatality rate decreased by 1.86%.

  1. 一起山洪暴发污染水源引起菌痢暴发疫情调查%An outbreak of bacillary dysentery caused by flash floods polluted water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 马秀兰; 李志红; 高文征

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解某村细菌性痢疾暴发特点和规律,确定感染来源及传播途径,采取相应措施,控制疫情.方法 对该村全体村民进行排查,对病人及密切接触者进行流行病学调查,同时开展水源及外环境调查,采集饮用水及病人粪便进行实验室检测.结果 该村共发生菌痢病人82例,罹患率为19.52%,经流行病学调查发现患者均引用同一水源,外出不饮用此水源者不患病,实验室检测饮用水大肠杆菌严重超标,从病人粪便中检出宋内氏菌,外环境调查:出现病人前两天该地区普降几十年不遇的暴雨,雨水冲毁了蓄水池防护墙体,使源头水受到污染.结论 本次疫情是由山洪爆发污染水源所致.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the characteristic and the rule of the bacillary dysentery that erupl in village, find the evidence of the source of infection and the way of infection, to take the corresponding measures lo control the bacillary dysentery outbreak. METHODS Carried out epidemiological investigations in villagers, included the close contacts, meanwhile investigate water and environments, collected the drinking water and patients' stool for laboratory test. RESULTS There were 82 patients wilh bacillary dysentery, the attack rate was 19.52%. Epidemiological survey found that all the patients used the same water source, person who didn't use this source were not sick. Laboratory test of drinking water showed E. coli far exceeded, from the stool of patients detected out Sonne dysentery. External environmental investigation found that before the outbreak, the heavy storm which not seen for decades, destroyed the protective wall, so that water source was contaminated. CONCLUSION This outbreak is caused by the flash floods contaminated water sources.

  2. 基于“三年化疫”理论探讨痢疾发病与气候变化的关联性%Based on the theory of ‘transformation of plague in three years' to explore the correlation between incidence of dysentery and climate changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠第; 张轩; 贺娟

    2013-01-01

    目的:依据“三年化疫”理论研究北京市痢疾发病与3年前气候变化的关联性.方法:提取北京市1970年-2004年35年的痢疾高发年份,分析其3年前的气候变化特点,依据“三年化疫”理论对“异常气候一痢疾发病”进行吻合度评价.结果:痢疾的高发与3年前的异常气候变化有关,尤其是年干为戊、癸、辛的年份.结论:痢疾发病与3年前的气候变化具有相关性, “三年化疫”理论对于痢疾发病的预测具有一定指导意义.%Objective: Based on the theory of 'transformation of plague in three years', to investigate the relationship between the incidence of dysentery and climate changes three years ago. Methods: By extraction of 35 years of dysentery high-risk years in Beijing from 1970 to 2004, and analysis its climate change characteristics three years ago, to evaluate 'the relationship of abnormal climate and dysentery disease' based on the theory of 'transformation of plague in three years'. Results: The high incidence of dysentery was related to the abnormal climate changes three years ago, especially in the Niangan years of wu, gui, xin. Conclusion: The incidence of dysentery was related to the climate changes three years ago, the theory of 'transformation of plague in three years' could predict the dysentery disease.

  3. 三峡库区湖北宜昌段细菌性痢疾发病风险的GM(1,1)模型预测分析%Analysis of bacillary dysentery incidence risk of GM ( 1,1 )model prediction of the Three Gorges Reservoir (Yichang section)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小兵; 杨东杰; 鲁亮; 郭玉红; 赵鑫; 贺圆圆; 张皓; 蒋静

    2011-01-01

    目的 预测三峡库区湖北宜昌段细菌性痢疾发病趋势,为制定针对性的预防控制措施提供依据.方法 根据三峡库区湖北宜昌段1997-2010年细菌性痢疾发病率,建立GM(1,1)模型,进行中长期预测研究.结果 预测模型精度检验C=0.2376,P=1.0,外推预测理想.预测结果显示,2011-2013年三峡库区湖北宜昌段细菌性痢疾年发病率分别为0.985/10万,0.688/10万,0.336/10万.结论 预测表明2011-2013年三峡库区宜昌段细菌性痢疾年发病率呈下降趋势.%Objective To predict the incidence trend of bacillary dysentery in the Three Gorges Reservoir (Yichang section) , and make pertinent measures for prevention. Methods The grey dynamic model was established with the incidence rates of bacillary dysentery in Yichang from 1997 to 2010. The model was used to predict the trend of dysentery for the year 2011 to 2014. Results The model predicted that the incidence rate of bacillary dysentery might be 0.985, 0.688, 0.481 per 100000 person-year respectively for the year 2011 to 2013. Conclusion The model suggested the downward trend of the disease incidence. Comprehensive measures should still be taken to control the risk of dysentery disease transmission in the Three Gorges Reservoir.

  4. 上海市宝山区细菌性痢疾发病率的ARIMA模型研究%Research on ARIMA model of the incidence of bacillary dysentery in Baosban District of Shanghai City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向伦辉; 袁国平; 茅俭英

    2011-01-01

    Objective To construct the autoregressive integrated moving average model (ARIMA) for predicting the incidence of bacillary dysentery in Baoshan District of Shanghai City. Methods Samples which caught the incidence of bacillary dysentery of native and floating population from 1997 to 2010 in Baoshan District were collected. SPSS 16.0 was used to fit ARIMA, parameter of model was estimated based on maximum likelihood. The structure was determined according to criteria of residual un-correlation and concision, the order of model was confirmed through Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC). Q statistic was used to verify the applicability of the model. Results Statistics assisted estimation of the significance of the fitted autoregressive coefficients. AIC=20.331, BIC = 22.591, statistic of Q(7.060) was smaller than X2/0.05,13(29.819), verifying the applicability of ARIMA (1,1,1) model. It was predicted that the incidence of bacillary dysentery of Baoshan District of Shanghai City in 2011 to 2013 would decrease slightly. Conclusions The ARIMA (1,1,1) model can be used to analyze the bacillary dysentery incidence and make a short-term prediction.%目的 构建上海市宝山区细菌性痢疾发病率的差分自回归移动平均模型( autoregressive integrated moving average model,ARIMA),预测上海市宝山区细菌性痢疾的发病趋势.方法 引用1997 - 2010年上海市宝山区细菌性痢疾年发病率资料,通过SPSS 16.0软件拟合ARIMA模型,采用最大似然法估计模型参数,按照残差不相关原则、简洁原则确定模型结构,依据赤池信息量(Akaike information criterion,AIC)与贝叶斯信息量(Bayesian information criterion,BIC)准则确定模型的阶数,用Q统计量对模型适应性进行检验,建立ARIMA预测模型.结果 自回归参数差异有统计学意义,AIC=20.331,BIC=22.591,统计量Q=7.060<x20.05,13(29.819),检验表明ARIMA(1,1,1)模型是适合的.预测宝山区2011

  5. The experience of diagnosis and treatment of one amebic liver abscess patient after kidney transplantation%肾移植术后引起疑似阿米巴肝脓肿的诊治体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭; 陈虹; 黄云帆; 范铁艳; 赵青春

    2013-01-01

    一例肾移植术后患者出现发热、右上腹痛、果酱样便、肝脓肿,明确诊断后,给予抗阿米巴治疗、脓肿穿刺引流及脓腔冲洗,观察患者预后.治疗26d后患者体温完全降至正常,脓肿逐渐缩小.及时诊断、避免误诊,是提高移植术后阿米巴感染治疗成功率的关键.%One patient after kidney transplantation suffered from fever,upper-right abdominal pain,diarrhea,bloody stools,liver abscess.After diagnosis the antiamebic therapy,percutaneous drainage and pus cavity flushing were given and the prognosis of the patient was observed.Fever disappeared,abscess gradually cured after twenty-six days therapy.Timely diagnosis and avoiding misdiagnosis were the key of successful treatment for amebic liver abscess after transplantation.

  6. Primary Pulmonary Amebiasis Complicated with Multicystic Empyema

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Zakaria; Bayan Al-Share; Khaled Al Asad

    2016-01-01

    Amebiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. While most infections are asymptomatic, the disease could manifest clinically as amebic dysentery and/or extraintestinal invasion in the form of amebic liver abscess or other more rare manifestations such as pulmonary, cardiac, or brain involvement. Herein we are reporting a case of a 24-year-old male with history of Down syndrome who presented with severe right side pneumonia complicated with multicystic empyem...

  7. Diagnóstico de absceso hepático amibiano mediante el inmunoensayo enzimático ligado a una enzima (ELISA Diagnosis of amebic liver abscess by means of an anzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Humberto Botero Garcés

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available El absceso hepático amibiano (aha es la complicación extraintestinal más frecuente de la amibiasis; su cuadro clínico es generalmente agudo y se lo considera una urgencia médica. Se manifiesta con síntomas generales, acompañado de dolor en hipocondrio derecho, que se puede irradiar al hombro; la hepatomegalia dolorosa es un signo sugestivo pero no diagnóstico; debe diferenciarse del absceso hepático piógeno y del hepatoma necrótico; para el enfoque diagnóstico se requieren ayudas imaginológicas y pruebas de laboratorio como las inmunológicas. En este estudio se puso a punto la prueba de ELISA para la determinación de anticuerpos antiamibianos en sueros controles de pacientes con AHA, estandarizada en el Instituto Nacional de Salud de Bogotá. Además se evaluaron 67 muestras de pacientes con sospecha clínica de AHA, procedentes del Hospital González Valencia de Bucaramanga y del Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl de Medellín. El 70.2% de los sueros problema evaluados fueron positivos, con una tasa de positividad significativamente mayor en los procedentes de Bucaramanga. Amebic liver abscess (ALA is the most frequent extraintestinal complication of amibiasis; its clinical presentation is generally acute, and it is considered a medical emergency. Patients manifest general symptoms, accompanied by pain in the right hypochondrium that can irradiate to the shoulder; painful hepatomegalia is a suggestive but not diagnostic sign; it should be distinguished from pyogenic liver abscess and necrotic hepatoma; for the diagnostic approach to ALA imagenologic exams and laboratory tests are required, among the latter the immunologic ones. In this study we used the ELISA test for the determination of antiamebic antibodies in control ALA sera, as described by the National Institute of Health Bogotá, Colombia (7. Furthermore, 67 serum samples were evaluated from patients with clinic suspicion of ALA. Of these 70.2 were positive

  8. 2.1.Drug treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920014 Quinolones in treatment of acuteamebic dysentery. YANG Jianguo (杨建国),etal.Dept Infect Dis,Taizhou 2nd Municipal Peo-ple’s Hosp,225300.Chin J Intern Med 1991;30(9):569-571.Seventy-five patients with acute amebic dysen-

  9. The Intradermal Reaction in Amebiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Max J.; Scott, Frank

    1970-01-01

    Studies on the amebiasis skin test were carried out in Amerindians living on reserves of Northern Saskatchewan. Results indicate the skin test to be highly sensitive in patients with acute amebic dysentery and in individuals with a history of amebic disease. A high percentage of asymptomatic school children living on a reserve where amebic disease is of common occurrence were also skin reactors. In a similar group of school children living on a reserve where amebic disease had never been reported but where E. histolytica infection rates are high there were very few reactors. A control group of white adults living in a non-endemic area were uniformly negative to the skin test. A comparison with the indirect hemagglutination test showed a good general correlation, but the skin test proved to be more accurate in cases of acute amebic dysentery in children 5 years of age or under. The skin test appears to have potential as a diagnostic technique and may be of considerable value in defining endemic areas of amebic disease. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:4317530

  10. 致仔猪痢疾沙门氏菌特异性噬菌体的分离与纯化%Isolation and purification of bacteriophage against Salmonella associated piglets dysentery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席利萌; 李陇平; 徐坤; 张智英

    2012-01-01

    【Objective】 The study was to screen bacteriophage against Salmonella isolated in domestic sewage,and to provide certain reference for the development of diarrhea and disease prevention in piglets dysentery.【Method】 Salmonella was isolated and identified as host bacteria from the sicken piglet's feces,the specific bacteriophage screened from sewage through it;After mixing the isolated phage with Staphylococcus aureus(Sau) and Escherichia coli(Eco),the specificity of the phage was validated.【Result】 The Salmonella were identified,and the specific phage isolated and purified can not kill Sau and Eco.【Conclusion】 We got the specific bacteriophage which can only kill the Salmonella,and the bacteriophage is specific.%【目的】筛选仔猪痢疾病原菌沙门氏菌特异性噬菌体,为噬菌体制剂的研制和仔猪痢疾的生物防治提供参考。【方法】从患痢疾仔猪粪便中分离致病菌沙门氏菌,鉴定后以其为宿主菌,从生活污水中筛选、纯化出特异性噬菌体,并以金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌为对照,检测该噬菌体的特异性。【结果】分离到了致病菌沙门氏菌,并得到了纯化的沙门氏菌噬菌体;经检测,该噬菌体只能裂解沙门氏菌,而对金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌没有作用。【结论】得到了纯化的可裂解沙门氏菌的特异性噬菌体。

  11. Amebic and cytomegalovirus colitis mimic ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Tzu Weng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a 50-year-old man who suffered from progressively bloody diarrhea for 2 months. A colonoscopy revealed pancolonic mucosal inflammation, ulceration, and spontaneous bleeding. Ulcerative colitis was initially diagnosed and sulfasalazine was prescribed. Hypoalbuminemia and renal function deterioration developed 1 year later. Steroids were prescribed for suspected nephrotic syndrome. His bloody diarrhea and abdominal symptoms worsened after steroid use. Progressive sepsis and acute renal function deterioration also developed. Positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV antibody was found during routine hemodialysis screening. An episode of colon perforation occurred and surgery was performed. The resected colon showed amoeba, cytomegalovirus, and fungal infection. The patient died of sepsis. In this report, we discuss how to diagnose ulcerative colitis. It is important to exclude infection before using an immunosuppressive agent.

  12. 细菌性痢疾流行特点及志贺菌耐药性研究%The epidemic characteristics of Bacillary dysentery and drug resistance of Shigella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国祥; 张传领; 沈利蒙; 楚旭

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究近年来肠道门诊细菌性痢疾流行概况及志贺菌耐药特点,为细菌性痢疾临床治疗和预防控制提供依据.方法 采用志贺菌及沙门菌琼脂培养基培养,可疑菌株经VITEK-32细菌鉴定仪及血清凝集鉴定到群,K-B法检测抗菌药物的酎药性,纸片确认试验检测产超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs),三维试验检测AmpCp-内酰胺酶(AmpC酶).结果 279例细菌性痢疾感染患者主要以宋内志贺菌(201株,占72.4%)和福氏志贺菌(76株,占27.2%)感染为主,且患者主要集中在0~11岁年龄段,占总感染率的71.3%(199/279),高发季节为7-11月.药敏结果显示,志贺菌对氨苄西林、哌拉西林和复方新诺明的酎药率较高,均>60%;对环丙沙星和左旋氧氟沙星的耐药率较低,均<40%,未发现耐哌拉西林/他唑巴坦和亚胺培南的志贺菌.151株志贺菌纸片确认试验为产ESBLs阳性菌株,占54.1%(151/279);未发现AmpC酶阳性者.结论 我院肠道门诊细菌性痢疾以感染宋内志贺菌和福氏志贺菌的婴幼儿为主,且宋内志贺菌有增高趋势,2种志贺菌对部分种类的抗菌药物药敏性差别较大,临床医师应根据菌群鉴定及药物敏感试验结果合理选择抗菌药物.%To investigate the epidemic characteristics and antibiotic resistance of Shigella group causing Bacillary dysen-tery in patients in recent years for the guidance of clinical treatment and prevention and control of bacillary dysentery. Suspi-cious strains isolated from Shigella and Salmonella agar culture were identified to the group by VITEK-32 instrument and ser-um agglutination of bacteria, and K-B method was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The test of paper confirm was used to studuy the producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases ( ESBLs), and three-dimensional test for detection AmpC β lacta-mases ( AmpC enzymes). Among 279 infected patients, the most common groups were Shigella sonnei (201 striains

  13. 上海市痢疾发病率预测自回归求和移动平均模型的构建与应用%Establishing and applying of autoregressive integrated moving average model to predict the incidence rate of dysentery in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎健; 吴寰宇; 李燕婷; 金汇明; 顾宝柯; 袁政安

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveTo explore the feasibility of establishing and applying of autoregressive integrated moving average(ARIMA) model to predict the incidence rate of dysentery in Shanghai,so as to provide the theoretical basis for prevention and control of dysentery. MethodsARIMA model was established based on the monthly incidence rate of dysentery of Shanghai from 1990 to 2007. The parameters of model were estimated through unconditional least squares method, the structure was determined according to criteria of residual un-correlation and concision, and the model goodness-of-fit was determined through Akaike information criterion ( AIC ) and Schwarz Bayesian criterion (SBC). The constructed optimal model was applied to predict the incidence rate of dysentery of Shanghai in 2008 and evaluate the validity of model through comparing the difference of predicted incidence rate and actual one. The incidence rate of dysentery in 2010 was predicted by ARIMA model based on the incidence rate from January 1990 to June 2009. Results The model ARIMA ( 1,1,1 ) (0,1,2) _(12) had a good fitness to the incidence rate with both autoregressive coefficient (AR1= 0. 443 ) during the past time series, moving average coefficient ( MA1 =0. 806) and seasonal moving average coefficient ( SMA1 = 0. 543, SMA2 = 0. 321 ) being statistically significant( P < 0. 01 ). AIC and SBC were 2. 878 and 16. 131 respectively and predicting error was white noise. The mathematic function was ( 1 - 0. 443B) ( 1 - B) ( 1 - B~(12) ) Z_t = ( 1 - 0. 806B) ( 1 - 0. 543B~(12))(1-0. 321B~(2×12) )μ_t,. The predicted incidence rate in 2008 was consistent with the actual one, with the relative error of 6. 78%. The predicted incidence rate of dysentery in 2010 based on the incidence rate from January 1990 to June 2009 would be 9. 390 per 100 thousand. ConclusionARIMA model can be used to fit the changes of incidence rate of dysentery and to forecast the future incidence rate in Shanghai. It is a predicted model of high

  14. On the etiology of an outbreak of winter dysentery in dairy cows in Brazil Sobre a etiologia de um surto de disenteria de inverno em vacas leiteiras no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo E. Brandão

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Winter dysentery (WD is a seasonal infectious disease described worldwide that causes a marked decrease in milk production in dairy cows. In the Northern hemisphere, where the disease is classically recognized, bovine coronavirus (BCoV has been assigned as a major etiologic agent of the disease. Nonetheless, in the Southern hemisphere, an in-deep etiological survey on WD cases had not been carried out. This study aimed to survey for BCoV by nested-RT-PCR, rotavirus by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE and ELISA, bacteria by classical bacteriological methods and PCR for virulence factors and parasites by sugar flotation test on fecal samples of 21 cows from a farm during an outbreak of WD in São Paulo state, Southeastern Brazil. BCoV was detected in all 21 samples, while rotavirus was detected in two symptomatic cows. Escherichia coli, Yersinia intermedia, Providencia rustigianii Proteus penneri, Klebsiella terrigena and Enterobacter aglomerans were detected in samples from both asymptomatic and healthy cows in different associations. The study of E. coli virulence factors revealed that the strains isolated were all apathogenic. Cysts of Eimeria sp. and eggs of Strongyloidea were detected at low numbers in four of the symptomatic cows, with one co-infestation. These results suggest BCoV as the main etiologic agent of the cases of WD in Brazil, a conclusion that, with the clinical and epidemiological patterns of the disease studied herein, match those already described elsewhere. These findings give basis to the development of preventive measures and contribute to the understanding of the etiology of WD.Em vacas leiteiras, a disenteria de inverno (DI é uma doença infecciosa sazonal mundialmente relatada que ocasiona uma marcada queda na produção de leite; no hemisfério Norte, onde a doença é classicamente reconhecida, o coronavirus bovino (BCoV tem um importante papel como agente etiológico. Entretanto, no hemisfério Sul

  15. Achados clínico patológicos durante um surto de disenteria de inverno em bovinos no Rio Grande do Sul Clinic pathological features during a winter dysentery outbreak in cattle in Rio Grande do Sul

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    Saulo Petinatti Pavarini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um surto de disenteria de inverno que afetou 10 vacas leiteiras de uma propriedade localizada em Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul. O quadro clínico caracterizou-se por uma diarréia inicialmente líquida esverdeada com estrias de sangue e muco, evoluindo, em alguns animais, para uma diarréia de coloração marrom escura à sanguinolenta, que persistiu, em média, cinco dias. Drástica diminuição na produção de leite e no consumo de alimentos, além de graus variados de depressão também foram observados. Apenas um dos 10 animais afetados morreu. Durante a necropsia, observaram-se mucosas pálidas, conteúdo sanguinolento com presença de grande quantidade de coágulos, principalmente no cólon espiral e petéquias na mucosa do cólon. Os principais achados histológicos foram encontradas no cólon espiral, onde havia criptas dilatadas, sem epitélio de revestimento ou revestidas por epitélio pavimentoso e/ou cuboidal, por vezes com núcleos grandes e nucléolos proeminentes. Algumas criptas eram preenchidas por debris necróticos e polimorfonucleares. Na imuno-histoquímica com anticorpo monoclonal para coronavírus bovino (8F2 em cortes do cólon espiral, havia marcações positivas no citoplasma de enterócitos das criptas, nos debris necróticos destas e em macrófagos na lâmina própria.The report describes a winter dysentery outbreak that affected 10 dairy cows from a ranch located in the county of Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul. The most significant clinical sign was profuse and watery diarrhea, which ranged from a greenish to a brownish coloration and from occasional blood streaks with mucus to a bloody diarrhea. Most cases persisted for 5 days and also included depression, drastic decrease in milk production and in food consumption. Only one of the affected animals died. The necropsy revealed pale mucosa and sanguineous content with high quantity of blood clots, particularly within the spiral colon, and petechiae on the

  16. Epidemiological, clinical and pathogenic features of bacterial dysentery diagnosed clinically: Analysis of 414 patients%临床诊断成人细菌性痢疾414例的流行病学、临床及病原学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娜; 程玉谦; 梁帆; 郭文学; 王淑香; 祁伟

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解某地区细菌性痢疾的临床及流行病学特点、致病菌群分布及耐药情况.方法 以2010年7-9月就诊于某院肠道门诊的414例临床诊断细菌性痢疾患者为研究对象,对患者一般资料、症状体征、病原检测等结果进行统计分析.结果 临床诊断细菌性痢疾患者以青壮年居多(50岁以下者322例,占77.78%);左下腹压痛、脓血便、里急后重等典型临床表现较少见;志贺菌培养阳性率为16.43%(68/414),其中宋内志贺菌65株(95.59%),福氏志贺菌3株(4.41%).志贺菌株对氨苄西林、复方磺胺甲(噁)唑、庆大霉素等耐药率均>95%,甚至高达100.00%;对头孢菌素及部分喹诺酮类抗菌药物敏感,但对环丙沙星、洛美沙星敏感性较以往下降.结论 该地区临床诊断细菌性痢疾患者的临床和流行病学特点较以往有所不同,志贺菌流行菌型变迁、耐药菌株增加,应引起医务工作者注意.%Objective To investigate the clinical and epidemiological features of acute bacterial dysentery and its pathogen distribution and drug resistance. Methods The data of age, occupation, symptoms, signs, and patterns of pathogen from 414 patients with bacillary dysentery between July 2010 and September 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Results Most patients with bacillary dysentery were young adult(322 patients [77. 78%] were under 50 years old) ; The typical clinical manifestations,such as left lower quadrant tenderness, pus and blood stool, and te-nesmus were less commons The positive rate of fecal Shigella culture was 16. 43%(68/414) ,65 (95. 59%) of which were Shigella sonnei, 3 (4. 41%) were Shigella flexneri. Drug-resistant rates of Shigella to ampicillin, trime-thoprim-sulfamethoxazole.and gentamicin were over 95%,even up to 100. 00%; The strains were sensitive to ceph-alosporins and some quinolones, but had a decreased sensitivity to ciprofloxacin and lomefloxacia Conclusion Compared with the

  17. Invasive amebiasis: an update on diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, José Maria; Salles, Mauro José; Moraes, Luiz Alberto; Silva, Mônica Cristina

    2007-10-01

    In its invasive form, the trophozoite is responsible for clinical syndromes, ranging from classical dysentery to extraintestinal disease with emphasis on hepatic amebiasis. Abdominal pain, tenderness and diarrhea of watery stool, sometimes with blood, are the predominant symptoms of amebic colitis. Besides the microscopic identification of Entamoeba histolytica, diagnosis should be based on the detection of specific antigens in the stool or PCR associated with the occult blood in the stool. Amebic dysentery is treated with metronidazole, followed by a luminal amebicide. The trophozoite reaches the liver causing hepatic amebiasis. Right upper quadrant pain, fever and hepatomegaly are the predominant symptoms. The diagnosis is made by the finding of E. histolytica in the hepatic fluid, or in the necrotic material at the edge of the lesion in a minority of patients, and by detection of antigens or DNA. Ultrasonography is the initial imaging procedure indicated. The local perforation of hepatic lesion leads to important and serious complications.

  18. Entamoeba histolytica: fecal antigen capture immunoassay for the diagnosis of enteric amebiasis by a monoclonal antibody Entamoeba histolytica: imunodiagnóstico, através de captura de antígeno fecal em amebíase entérica por um anticorpo monoclonal

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    Haydeé Urdaneta

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Amebiasis continues to be of epidemiological importance in underdeveloped countries. Clinical diagnosis and epidemiological setting in a region are based on the fecal microscopic identification of cysts or trophozoites. This procedure requires well trained personnel, is laborious, of low sensitivity and frequently yields false-positives results. The present study was designed to develop an immuno-enzymatic fecal 96 kDa antigen capture test (COPROELISA-Eh more sensitive and specific than microscopic diagnosis of amebiasis. Triplicates of 177 stool samples processed by the formol-ether concentration method, were defined as positive or negative by three experienced microscopic observers. Another aliquot was submitted to the antigen capture test by a monoclonal antibody against a specific membrane antigen of pathogenic strains of Entamoeba histolytica. Optical densities were interpreted as positive when they exceeded the mean value of negative samples plus two standard deviations. COPROELISA-Eh showed a 94.4% sensitivity, 98.3% specificity, 96.2% positive predictive value and 97.6% negative predictive value for the detection of E. histolytica in feces. COPROELISA-Eh is more sensitive and specific than microscopic examination, does not require specially trained personnel and allows the simultaneous processing of a large number of samples.A amebíase mantém sua importância epidemiológica em países subdesenvolvidos onde sua prevalência a converteu na parasitose de maior morbidade e mortalidade após malaria e esquistosomose. Em regra, tanto o diagnóstico clínico como os levantamentos epidemiológicos assentam na identificação microscópica de cistos e/ou trofozoítos em extractos fecais. Este procedimento requer pessoal muito bem treinado, é laborioso, e frequentemente fornece resultados contraditórios. Para obviar estas dificuldades, no presente trabalho montamos uma técnica de diagnóstico imunoenzimático baseado na captura de um ant

  19. Immune Evasion Mechanisms of Entamoeba histolytica: Progression to Disease

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica (Eh) is a protozoan parasite that infects 10% of the world's population and results in 100,000 deaths/year from amebic dysentery and/or liver abscess. In most cases, this extracellular parasite colonizes the colon by high affinity binding to MUC2 mucin without disease symptoms, whereas in some cases, Eh triggers an aggressive inflammatory response upon invasion of the colonic mucosa. The specific host-parasite factors critical for disease pathogenesis are still not well ...

  20. Immune evasion mechanisms of Entamoeba histolytica: progression to disease

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica (Eh) is a protozoan parasite that infects 10% of the world’s population and results in 100,000 deaths/year from amebic dysentery and/or liver abscess. In most cases, this extracellular parasite colonizes the colon by high affinity binding to MUC2 mucin without disease symptoms, whereas in some cases, Eh triggers an aggressive inflammatory response upon invasion of the colonic mucosa. The specific host-parasite factors critical for disease pathogenesis are still not well ...

  1. Avaliação de pirogênios em produtos de uso veterinário pelos testes da hipertermia em coelhos e do lisado de amebócitos do Limulus Pyrogens in veterinary products by the rabbit pyrogen test and the Limulus amoebocyte lysate test

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    Thiago Barth

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se a avaliação de pirogênios em produtos veterinários de uso parenteral, pelo método da hipertermia em coelhos, calculando-se, para o teste das amostras, doses com concentrações de três a sete vezes superiores à terapêutica. Preconizou-se como resposta positiva o aumento de temperatura de 0,6°C. Utilizou-se também o ensaio do lisado de amebócitos do Limulus (LAL por geleificação, semiquantitativo, executando o teste de interferentes, validando o procedimento e estabelecendo a máxima diluição válida para a análise de cada produto. Paralelamente, efetuou-se avaliação comparativa de amostras com o método do LAL cromogênico, quantitativo, demonstrando correlação e reprodutibilidade dos resultados. Avaliaram-se vinte e oito produtos de diferentes classes farmacológicas, observando-se que dois não cumpriram as especificações, sendo reprovados. Sugere-se que as especificações estudadas sejam adotadas, contribuindo para aprimorar o controle de contaminantes, garantindo a qualidade e a segurança dos produtos veterinários.The rabbit pyrogen test was used to evaluate veterinary products, suggesting the temperature rise of 0.6°C as the ending point for the positive results. The test doses were calculated based on the therapeutic dose increased from three to seven times. The semi-quantitative Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL gel clot test was performed and compared to the LAL spectrophotometric chromogenic, quantitative assay. The comparative evaluation of the samples showed correlation and reproducibility of the results. The interference test was carried out, the procedure validated and the maximum valid dilution established for the analysis of the products without Pharmacopoeial specifications. Two of the twenty-eight products of different pharmacological groups evaluated didn't meet the requirements and were reproved. The specifications investigated are suggested to be used for the purity evaluation of the

  2. ANTI-AMEBIC ACTIVITY OF DIOSGENIN ON NAEGLERIA FOWLERI TROPHOZOITES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabablert, Jundee; Tiewcharoen, Supathra; Auewarakul, Prasert; Atithep, Thassanant; Lumlerdkij, Natchagorn; Vejaratpimol, Renu; Junnu, Virach

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of diosgenin against Naegleria fowleri trophozoites at the cellular and molecular levels. Diosgenin (100 μg/ml; 241.2 μM) had a 100% inhibitory effect on N. fowleri trophozoites (5 x 10(5) cell/ml). Scanning electron micrograph revealed diosgenin decreased the number of sucker-like apparatuses and food cup formation among N. fowleri trophozoites at 3 and 6 hours post-exposure, respectively. Diosgenin down-regulated the nf cysteine protease gene expression of N. fowleri trophozoites at 6 and 12 hours post-exposure. The toxicity to mammalian cells caused by diosgenin at therapeutic dose was less than amphotericin B, the current drug used to treat N. fowleri infections. Our findings suggest diosgenin has activity against the surface membrane and the nf cysteine pro tease of N. fowleri trophozoites. However, the other mechanisms of action of diosgenin against N. fowleri trophozoites require further exploration.

  3. Amebic colitis: new insights into pathogenesis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercu, Tracy E; Petri, William A; Behm, Jr W

    2007-10-01

    Amebiasis, caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, affects more than 50 million people worldwide, with over 100,000 deaths annually. The majority of cases are asymptomatic; however, significant morbidity and mortality are associated with illness in the remaining 10% of cases. Recent advances in the understanding of the mechanism of infection by E. histolytica, the role of the innate immune system, and the role of genetic disposition to infection will allow the development of novel detection and treatment methods. The disease mechanisms, clinical findings, therapeutic strategies, and important developments regarding amebiasis are discussed here.

  4. Dyspnea and dysentery: a case report of pleuropulmonary amebiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Merica; Shah, Anita; Lettieri, Christopher

    2010-02-01

    Pleuropulmonary amebiasis is an uncommon complication of Entamoeba histolytica infection. It typically occurs in endemic regions including Central and South America, Africa and the Indian subcontinent. The case of a previously healthy US Army male stationed in Liberia with an acute onset of fevers, abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea is presented. He developed a productive cough with pleuritic chest pain and imaging revealed multiple liver abscesses, with rupture through the diaphragm causing a large right pleural empyema. A positive Entamoeba histolytica serum antibody and pleural fluid antigen confirmed the diagnosis. Surgical drainage of the pleural empyema and medical treatment with antiparasitics were necessary for symptom and disease resolution.

  5. Investigation on the Serotype and Antibiotic Resistance of E.coli Isolated from Piglit's Yellow Dysentery in Large-scale Pig Farms in Zhangjiakou%张家口地区仔猪黄痢病原菌血清型检测及药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾小龙; 刘红彬

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the antibiotic resistance and predominant serotypes of E. coli of yellow dysentery, a total of 90 fecal samples were collected from 20 large-scale pig farms for isolation and identification of E. coli. The virulence of the isolates was tested in mice and the serotype was tested by the agglutination. Finally,a total of 86 E. coli isolates were obtained and 79 of them were tested to be pathogenic,among which 72 isolates were serotyped to belong to 10 kinds of serotypes and the predominant serotypes were 08,0151,0149 and O141. Among all the isolates,50 isolates were resistant to 16 kinds of antibiotics to a greater or less degree. The highest resistance to streptomycin was 100%. The efficient antibiotics were cefotaxime sodium,norfloxa-cin,amikacin and neomycin, with the sensitive ratio of 94% (47/50) ,90% (45/50) ,82% (41/50) , and 80% (40/50) .respectively. All the 50 isolates showed resistance to more than 5 kinds of antibiotics.%为了调查张家口地区仔猪黄痢病例大肠杆菌的耐药性及流行血清型,从发生仔猪黄痢的20个规模化猪场采集90份病料,进行致病性大肠杆菌的分离及生化鉴定.腹腔接种小白鼠以鉴定分离菌的毒力,采用玻板凝集试验和试管凝集试验鉴定分离茵O血清型,并使用16种抗茵药对50株致病性大肠杆菌进行药敏试验.结果表明,从90份病料中分离出86株大肠杆菌,其中致病性大肠杆菌79株.79株致病菌共有10种血清型,其中O8、O151、O149、O141为优势血清型,占能定型分离致病菌株的61.1%.药敏试验结果显示,头孢噻肟钠抑菌作用最强(94%),其次为诺氟沙星(90%)、丁胺卡那霉素(82%)、新霉素(80%).50株大肠杆菌对16种抗菌药均有不同程度的耐药性,对链霉素完全耐药,其中39株为5耐以上的菌株,占供试菌株的78%.

  6. Primary Pulmonary Amebiasis Complicated with Multicystic Empyema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Ali; Al-Share, Bayan; Al Asad, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Amebiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. While most infections are asymptomatic, the disease could manifest clinically as amebic dysentery and/or extraintestinal invasion in the form of amebic liver abscess or other more rare manifestations such as pulmonary, cardiac, or brain involvement. Herein we are reporting a case of a 24-year-old male with history of Down syndrome who presented with severe right side pneumonia complicated with multicystic empyema resistant to regular medical therapy. Further investigation revealed a positive pleural fluid for E. histolytica cysts and trophozoites. The patient was diagnosed with primary pleuropulmonary amebiasis and he responded promptly to surgical drainage and metronidazole therapy. In patients from endemic areas all physicians should keep a high index of suspicion of amebiasis as a cause of pulmonary disease.

  7. Primary Pulmonary Amebiasis Complicated with Multicystic Empyema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zakaria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amebiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. While most infections are asymptomatic, the disease could manifest clinically as amebic dysentery and/or extraintestinal invasion in the form of amebic liver abscess or other more rare manifestations such as pulmonary, cardiac, or brain involvement. Herein we are reporting a case of a 24-year-old male with history of Down syndrome who presented with severe right side pneumonia complicated with multicystic empyema resistant to regular medical therapy. Further investigation revealed a positive pleural fluid for E. histolytica cysts and trophozoites. The patient was diagnosed with primary pleuropulmonary amebiasis and he responded promptly to surgical drainage and metronidazole therapy. In patients from endemic areas all physicians should keep a high index of suspicion of amebiasis as a cause of pulmonary disease.

  8. Primary Pulmonary Amebiasis Complicated with Multicystic Empyema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Share, Bayan; Al Asad, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Amebiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. While most infections are asymptomatic, the disease could manifest clinically as amebic dysentery and/or extraintestinal invasion in the form of amebic liver abscess or other more rare manifestations such as pulmonary, cardiac, or brain involvement. Herein we are reporting a case of a 24-year-old male with history of Down syndrome who presented with severe right side pneumonia complicated with multicystic empyema resistant to regular medical therapy. Further investigation revealed a positive pleural fluid for E. histolytica cysts and trophozoites. The patient was diagnosed with primary pleuropulmonary amebiasis and he responded promptly to surgical drainage and metronidazole therapy. In patients from endemic areas all physicians should keep a high index of suspicion of amebiasis as a cause of pulmonary disease. PMID:27478673

  9. 深圳市菌痢流行分子特征与对质粒介导的喹诺酮耐药机制%The molecular characteristics of bacillary dysentery epidemic and the antibiotic resistance mechanisms of plasmid mediated quinolones in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡长争; 舒少为; 陈爱平; 黄国清; 周美容

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the molecular characteristics of bacillary dysentery epidemic and the antibiotic resistance mechanisms of plasmid mediated quinolones in Shenzhen.Methods Clinical specimens were collected in 18 hospitals in Shenzhen form January 2010 to Febuary 2014 and isolation cultivation and serotype identiifcation were applied. The plasmid mediated main type of quinolones genes were detected by PCR. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was tested by Agar dilution method. Transcojugants genotype and drug resistance were tested by joint transfer experiment.Results Serological distribution: during all 126 strains ofShigella, there were 108 (87.51%) strains ofShigellalfexneri and 16 (12.70%) strains ofShigella sonnei. The superiority serotype of shigella flexneri was serumⅣ-C, with 42 strains counted for 38.89%. Commonly used antimicrobial susceptibility situation analysis: the sensitivity ofShigella lfexneri to NAl, FEP and GM were signiifcantly lower than that ofShigella sonnei, while the sensitivity ofShigella lfexneri to LEV, GIP, NOR, CAZ and AMC were signiifcantly higher than that ofShigella sonnei (P all < 0.05). Ampliifcation results and sequence analysis: 3 (2.38%) cases with qnr genes, 4 cases with aac6’ genes, and 1 case with qepA genes were checked out in 126 strainsShigella. Minimum inhibitory concentration: compared with receptor bacteria, the MIC of transconjugants on NAL, GIP, LEV, NOR, GM were improved by 2-32 times. Conclusions The main types ofShigella infection in Shenzhen areShigella lfexneri andShigellasonnei. The superiority serotype of shigella lfexneri isⅣ-C. Target gene mutation is the main cause of quinolones resistance. The quinolones resistance of different types of shigella varies signiifcantly.%目的:分析深圳市菌痢流行分子特征及对质粒介导的喹诺酮耐药机制。方法对2010年1月至2014年2月深圳市18家医院收集的临床标本进行分离培养与血清型鉴定,

  10. Genital infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hiroshi; Kaneuchi, Masanori; Furuta, Itsuko; Yamaya, Yukie; Hatanaka, Kanako C; Takeda, Mahito; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Sakuragi, Noriaki

    2014-05-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is estimated to infect approximately 1% of the global population. In Japan, the prevalence of amebic dysentery has been increasing, with more than 800 patients newly diagnosed annually. However, genital infection with E. histolytica is uncommon even in endemic areas. We present a case of vaginitis caused by E. histolytica. A 50-year-old Japanese woman without history of overseas travel presented to a nearby clinic with increased vaginal discharge. She had hemorrhagic erosion at the uterine cervix with yellowish vaginal discharge, and was referred to our hospital for exclusion of malignancy. Cervical cytology revealed periodic acid-Schiff-positive protozoa not aggregating around squamous cells, and thus amebic vaginitis was suspected. We performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses and identified E. histolytica. The vaginitis was treated with metronidazole, and the disappearance of amebic protozoa was confirmed by cytology and PCR. Therefore, it may be important to obtain early diagnosis by cervical cytology and PCR.

  11. Progress towards development of a vaccine for amebiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, S L

    1997-01-01

    The application of molecular biologic techniques over the past decade has seen a tremendous growth in our knowledge of the biology of Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amebic dysentery and amebic liver abscess. This approach has also led to the identification and structural characterization of three amebic antigens, the serine-rich Entamoeba histolytica protein (SREHP), the 170-kDa subunit of the Gal/GalNAc binding lectin, and the 29-kDa cysteine-rich protein, which all show promise as recombinant antigen-based vaccines to prevent amebiasis. In recent studies, an immunogenic dodecapeptide derived from the SREHP molecule has been genetically fused to the B subunit of cholera toxin, to create a recombinant protein capable of inducing both antiamebic and anti-cholera toxin antibodies when administered by the oral route. Continued progress in this area will bring us closer to the goal of a cost-effective oral combination "enteric pathogen" vaccine, capable of inducing protective mucosal immune responses to several clinically important enteric diseases, including amebiasis. PMID:9336666

  12. Proteomic comparison of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar and the role of E. histolytica alcohol dehydrogenase 3 in virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H Davis

    Full Text Available The protozoan intestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica infects millions of people worldwide and is capable of causing amebic dysentery and amebic liver abscess. The closely related species Entamoeba dispar colonizes many more individuals, but this organism does not induce disease. To identify molecular differences between these two organisms that may account for their differential ability to cause disease in humans, we used two-dimensional gel-based (DIGE proteomic analysis to compare whole cell lysates of E. histolytica and E. dispar. We observed 141 spots expressed at a substantially (>5-fold higher level in E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS than E. dispar and 189 spots showing the opposite pattern. Strikingly, 3 of 4 proteins consistently identified as different at a greater than 5-fold level between E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS and E. dispar were identical to proteins recently identified as differentially expressed between E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS and the reduced virulence strain E. histolytica Rahman. One of these was E. histolytica alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (EhADH3. We found that E. histolytica possesses a higher level of NADP-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase activity than E. dispar and that some EhADH3 can be localized to the surface of E. histolytica. Episomal overexpression of EhADH3 in E. histolytica trophozoites resulted in only subtle phenotypic differences in E. histolytica virulence in animal models of amebic colitis and amebic liver abscess, making it difficult to directly link EhADH3 levels to virulence differences between E. histolytica and less-pathogenic Entamoeba.

  13. Real-time analysis of gut flora in Entamoeba histolytica infected patients of Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Anil Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amebic dysentery is caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica and the ingestion of quadrinucleate cyst of E. histolytica from fecally contaminated food or water initiates infection. Excystation occurs in the lumen of small intestine, where motile and potentially invasive trophozoites germinate from cysts. The ability of trophozoites to interact and digest gut bacteria is apparently important for multiplication of the parasite and its pathogenicity; however the contribution of resident bacterial flora is not well understood. We quantified the population of Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Ruminococcus, Lactobacillus, Clostridium leptum subgroup, Clostridium coccoides subgroup, Eubacterium, Campylobacter, Methanobrevibacter smithii and Sulphur reducing bacteria using genus specific primers in healthy (N = 22 vs amebic patients (E. histolytica positive, N = 17 stool samples by Real-time PCR. Results Absolute quantification of Bacteroides (p = .001, Closrtridium coccoides subgroup (p = 0.002, Clostridium leptum subgroup (p = 0.0001, Lactobacillus (p = 0.037, Campylobacter (p = 0.0014 and Eubacterium (p = 0.038 show significant drop in their population however, significant increase in Bifdobacterium (p = 0.009 was observed where as the population of Ruminococcus (p = 0.33 remained unaltered in healthy vs amebic patients (E. histolytica positive. We also report high prevalence of nimE gene in stool samples of both healthy volunteers and amebic patients. No significant decrease in nimE gene copy number was observed before and after the treatment with antiamebic drug. Conclusions Our results show significant alteration in predominant gut bacteria in E. histolytica infected individuals. The frequent episodes of intestinal amoebic dysentery thus result in depletion of few predominant genera in gut that may lead to poor digestion and absorption of food in intestine. It further disturbs

  14. A Multilocus Sequence Typing System (MLST) reveals a high level of diversity and a genetic component to Entamoeba histolytica virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The outcome of an Entamoeba histolytica infection is variable and can result in either asymptomatic carriage, immediate or latent disease (diarrhea/dysentery/amebic liver abscess). An E. histolytica multilocus genotyping system based on tRNA gene-linked arrays has shown that genetic differences exist among parasites isolated from patients with different symptoms however, the tRNA gene-linked arrays cannot be located in the current assembly of the E. histolytica Reference genome (strain HM-1:IMSS) and are highly variable. Results To probe the population structure of E. histolytica and identify genetic markers associated with clinical outcome we identified in E. histolytica positive samples selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by multiplexed massive parallel sequencing. Profile SNPs were selected which, compared to the reference strain HM-1:IMSS sequence, changed an encoded amino acid at the SNP position, and were present in independent E. histolytica isolates from different geographical origins. The samples used in this study contained DNA isolated from either xenic strains of E. histolytica trophozoites established in culture or E. histolytica positive clinical specimens (stool and amebic liver abscess aspirates). A record of the SNPs present at 16 loci out of the original 21 candidate targets was obtained for 63 of the initial 84 samples (63% of asymptomatically colonized stool samples, 80% of diarrheal stool, 73% of xenic cultures and 84% of amebic liver aspirates). The sequences in all the 63 samples both passed sequence quality control metrics and also had the required greater than 8X sequence coverage for all 16 SNPs in order to confidently identify variants. Conclusions Our work is in agreement with previous findings of extensive diversity among E. histolytica isolates from the same geographic origin. In phylogenetic trees, only four of the 63 samples were able to group in two sets of two with greater than 50% confidence. Two SNPs in the

  15. Presence and diagnosis of amebic infestation in Turkish patients with active ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozin, Yasemin; Kilic, Mesut Zeki Yalin; Nadir, Isilay; Tayfur, Oyku; Ertas, Arzu; Ulker, Aysel; Sahin, Burhan

    2009-09-01

    It is difficult to definitively diagnose acute amebiasis, particularly when this condition is superimposed on inflammatory bowel disease. Our goals in this study were to determine the prevalence of amebiasis in individuals with active ulcerative colitis, and to identify clinical and laboratory parameters that are of value for diagnosing amebiasis in this patient group. The subjects were 111 patients (76 women, 35 men) with confirmed active ulcerative colitis who attended our hospital's Inflammatory Bowel Disease Outpatient Clinic between May 2002 and March 2006. In each case, a detailed medical history was collected, blood samples were tested for inflammatory markers, and stool samples were evaluated for presence of amebae using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for detection of Entamoeba histolytica antigen. The clinical and laboratory variables for the ELISA-positive and ELISA-negative groups were compared. Amebiasis was detected in 35 (31.5%) of the subjects. Patient age, disease duration, endoscopic activity index, serum C-reactive protein level, and white blood cell count were not useful for diagnosing amebiasis in this patient group. Given the high rate of amebiasis observed in our patients with active ulcerative colitis, we recommend that, in Turkey any individual with ulcerative colitis who presents with symptoms of disease activation should be tested for ameba using antigen detection kits. A high index of suspicion is especially important in any region where E. histolytica is endemic. 2009 European Federation of Internal Medicine.

  16. The differentiation of amebic colitis from inflammatory bowel disease on endoscopic mucosal biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Reecha; Balekuduru, Avinash; Simon, Ebby George; Alexander, Manika; Pulimood, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal amebiasis is one of the important differential diagnoses of Inflammatory Bowel Disorders in areas where it is highly prevalent. Studies comparing the clinical, endoscopic and histological features of these disorders have never been done, so we undertook this study. A retrospective study comparing mucosal biopsies of 14 consecutive cases of intestinal amebiasis with 14 cases of Ulcerative colitis and 12 cases of Crohn's disease. A total of 65 biopsies from patients with amebiasis, 56 biopsies from patients with Crohn's disease and 65 biopsies of patients with Ulcerative colitis were reviewed. Discrete small ulcers less than 2 cm in diameter in the cecum or rectosigmoid, with intervening normal mucosa, were the most common finding on endoscopy in patients with amebiasis. On histology, necrotic material admixed with mucin, proteinaceous exudate and blood clot lining ulcers, significant surface epithelial changes such as shortening and tufting adjacent to sites of ulceration, mild chronic inflammation extending into the deep mucosa and mild architectural alteration were features of amebiasis. Trophozoite forms of ameba were seen in the necrotic material lining sites of ulceration or lying separately, as well as over intact mucosa. Necrotic material lining ulcers was less common in IBD, but chronic inflammation, crypt abscess formation and architectural alteration were more severe.

  17. [A Case of Peristomal Cutaneous Ulcer Following Amebic Colitis Caused by Entamoeba histolytica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yu; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Jun; Kobayashi, Seiki; Sato, Tomotaka

    2016-01-01

    A 66-year-old Japanese male with a history of a rectal ulcer and rectovesical fistula following brachytherapy and radiotherapy for prostate cancer, who had undergone colostomy and vesicotomy presented with a painful peristomal ulcer of approximately 5 x 2.5cm adjacent to the direction of 6 o'clock of the stoma in his left lower abdomen. Although he was admitted to be treated with intravenous antibiotics and topical debridement, the ulcer was rapidly increasing. In the laboratory findings, WBC was 12,400/μL, CRP was 16.9 mg/dL, ESR was 105mm in the first hour. Contrast enhanced CT images showed a wide high density area of skin and subcutaneous tissue around the stoma and dillitation of the transverse and descending colon. Colonoscopy showed furred profound ulcers in the rectum. A biopsy from the ulcer floor submitted to histopathology showed necrotic tissue with a mixed inflammatory infiltrates mainly composed of neutrophils and lymphocytes in the dermis. We suspected pyoderma gangrenosum with an inflammatory bowel disease in the beginning. Although he was started on oral prednisolone 60 mg daily, the ulcer did not respond to treatment. Additional methylprednisolone pulse therapy, intravenous cyclosporine and granulocytapheresis were also ineffective. A biopsy specimen from the skin ulcer margin showed erythrophagocytosis by trophozoites of amebae which were identified on PAS stained slides. The PCR method and stool examination showed positive for Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica), but serum antibodies were negative. Within two weeks of treatment with oral metronidazole 2,250 mg/day and topical metronidazole ointment, resolution of the ulcer was observed, then the prednisolone dosage was tapered. A split-thickness skin graft was used to cover the ulcer with a successful result. Even though we originally misdiagnosed this case, we finally reached a diagnosis of amebiasis. It is important to take account of amebiasis in the differential diagnosis of intractable ulcers which can be contaminated by feces.

  18. Prevalence and importance of amebic infestation in patients with ulcerative colitis in two regions in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Aliye; Dolapcioglu, Can; Alis, Halil; Dolay, Kemal; Yasar, Nurgul; Boduroglu, Omer; Cildas, Aydin; Bolukbas, Fusun F; Bolukbas, Cengiz

    2009-06-01

    We investigated the prevalence of amebiasis in patients with ulcerative colitis residing in two geographical regions with different socioeconomic status and climatic conditions, and its effect on the age of onset, duration, localization, and activity of disease. Ninety patients from a high socioeconomic location (group I) and 28 cases from a low socioeconomic location (group II) were enrolled. Median age at disease onset was significantly higher in group I compared with in group II. Prevalence of amebiasis in group I was significantly lower than in group II. A considerably number of patients with amebiasis in group I had a history of travel to the cities with a lower socioeconomic level, mainly located in the east of Turkey. There was a strong relationship between presence of amebiasis and history of travel to eastern parts of Turkey among residents from the northwestern part of Turkey. Median age and age at time of diagnosis were significantly lower in patients with amebiasis compared with those without infection. In patients with mild disease activity, prevalence of amebiasis was significantly lower compared with those with moderate or severe disease activity. In conclusion, prevalence of amebiasis was markedly higher in the southeast compared to the northwest of Turkey. Travel to regions with low socioeconomic status may be considered a risk factor for amebiasis in patients with ulcerative colitis. Amebiasis enhances disease activity in ulcerative colitis.

  19. Analysis of the isomerase and chaperone-like activities of an amebic PDI (EhPDI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Rosa E; Minchaca, Alexis Z; Villagrana, Salvador; Meléndez-López, Samuel G; Ramos, Marco A

    2015-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerases (PDI) are eukaryotic oxidoreductases that catalyze the formation and rearrangement of disulfide bonds during folding of substrate proteins. Structurally, PDI enzymes share as a common feature the presence of at least one active thioredoxin-like domain. PDI enzymes are also involved in holding, refolding, and degradation of unfolded or misfolded proteins during stressful conditions. The EhPDI enzyme (a 38 kDa polypeptide with two active thioredoxin-like domains) has been used as a model to gain insights into protein folding and disulfide bond formation in E. histolytica. Here, we performed a functional complementation assay, using a ΔdsbC mutant of E. coli, to test whether EhPDI exhibits isomerase activity in vivo. Our preliminary results showed that EhPDI exhibits isomerase activity; however, further mutagenic analysis revealed significant differences in the functional role of each thioredoxin-like domain. Additional studies confirmed that EhPDI protects heat-labile enzymes against thermal inactivation, extending our knowledge about its chaperone-like activity. The characterization of EhPDI, as an oxidative folding catalyst with chaperone-like function, represents the initial step to dissect the molecular mechanisms involved in protein folding in E. histolytica.

  20. The effect of fermentable carbohydrates on experimental swine dysentery and whip worm infections in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lisbeth E.; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jensen, Tim Kåre;

    2007-01-01

    ingredients were composed. Both diets were based on triticale and barley and supplemented with either rape seed cake (Diet 1) or dried chicory root and sweet lupins (Diet 2). The study had a three-factorial design, with eight groups of pigs receiving Diet I or Diet 2, +/- B. hyodysenteriae, and +/- T suis...

  1. Dysentery caused by Balantidium coli in a petient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma from Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suleyman Yazar; Fevzi Altuntas; Izzet Sahin; Metin Atambay

    2004-01-01

    Balantidium coli is the only parasitic ciliate of man. It is a flattened oval organism covered with cilia, and a gullet at the anterior end. It is infrequently pathogenic for man,although epidemic buds in tropical zones have been described. The infection fundamentally affects the colon and causes variable clinic pictures, from asymptomatic to serious dysenteric forms. We present a case of parasitologically diagnosed as causes of diarrhea in a patient with nonHodgkin's lymphoma from Turkey. In order to find out the causative etiologic agent of diarrhea, stool samples were examined by native, lugol and flotation methods and we detected moving trophozoites, which were approximately 60 μm long and 35 μm wide. These bodies were diagnosed as Balantidium coli. This case underlines that Balantidium coli should also be considered as a possible pathogen in immunocompromised patients with diarrhea.

  2. intrafamilial person-to-person spread of bacillary dysentery due to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BD. The secondary attack rate per cent (AR%) within families ranged between 7.7% and 80%. Age of ... Children under five years of age constituted 43% of secondary cases. ... Arabia; illness ensued after a visit to Gizan in southwestern Saudi ...

  3. The dynamic interdependence of amebiasis, innate immunity, and undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerke, Hans P; Petri, William A; Marie, Chelsea S

    2012-11-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan parasite that causes amebic dysentery, greatly contributes to disease burden in the developing world. Efforts to exhaustively characterize the pathogenesis of amebiasis have increased our understanding of the dynamic host-parasite interaction and the process by which E. histolytica trophozoites transition from gut commensals to invaders of the intestinal epithelium. Mouse models of disease continue to be instrumental in this area. At the same time, large-scale studies in human populations have identified genetic and environmental factors that influence susceptibility to amebiasis. Nutritional status has long been known to globally influence immune function. So it is not surprising that undernutrition has emerged as a critical risk factor. A better understanding of how nutritional status affects immunity to E. histolytica will have dramatic implications in the development of novel treatments. Future work should continue to characterize the fascinating host-parasite arms race that occurs at each stage of infection.

  4. The Dynamic Interdependence of Amebiasis, Innate Immunity, and Undernutrition1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerke, Hans P.; Petri, William A.; Marie, Chelsea S.

    2012-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan parasite that causes amebic dysentery, greatly contributes to disease burden in the developing world. Efforts to exhaustively characterize the pathogenesis of amebiasis have increased our understanding of the dynamic host-parasite interaction and the process by which E. histolytica trophozoites transition from gut commensals to invaders of the intestinal epithelium. Mouse models of disease continue to be instrumental in this area. At the same time, large-scale studies in human populations have identified genetic and environmental factors that influence susceptibility to amebiasis. Nutritional status has long been known to globally influence immune function. So it is not surprising that undernutrition has emerged as a critical risk factor. A better understanding of how nutritional status affects immunity to E. histolytica will have dramatic implications in the development of novel treatments. Future work should continue to characterize the fascinating host-parasite arms race that occurs at each stage of infection. PMID:23114864

  5. Human intestinal epithelial cells produce proinflammatory cytokines in response to infection in a SCID mouse-human intestinal xenograft model of amebiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seydel, K B; Li, E; Swanson, P E; Stanley, S L

    1997-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica causes amebic dysentery and amebic liver abscess, diseases associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. E. histolytica infection appears to involve the initial attachment of amebic trophozoites to intestinal epithelial cells, followed by lysis of these cells and subsequent invasion into the submucosa. A recent in vitro study (L. Eckmann, S. L. Reed, J. R. Smith, and M. F. Kagnoff, J. Clin. Invest. 96:1269-1279, 1995) demonstrated that incubation of E. histolytica trophozoites with epithelial cell lines results in epithelial cell production of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-8, suggesting that intestinal epithelial cell production of cytokines might play a role in the inflammatory response and tissue damage seen in intestinal amebiasis. To determine whether intestinal epithelial cell production of IL-1 and IL-8 occurs in response to E. histolytica infection in vivo and as an approach to studying the specific interactions between amebic trophozoites and human intestine, we used a SCID mouse-human intestinal xenograft (SCID-HU-INT) model of disease, where human intestinal xenografts were infected with virulent E. histolytica trophozoites. Infection of xenografts with E. histolytica trophozoites resulted in extensive tissue damage, which was associated with the development of an early inflammatory response composed primarily of neutrophils. Using oligonucleotide primers that specifically amplify human IL-1beta and IL-8, we could demonstrate by reverse transcription PCR that mRNA for both IL-1beta and IL-8 is produced by human intestinal xenografts in response to amebic infection. The increase in human intestinal IL-1beta and IL-8 in response to invasive amebiasis was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays specific for human IL-1beta and IL-8. Using immunohistochemistry, we confirmed that human intestinal epithelial cells were the source of IL-8 in infected xenografts

  6. Effects of Cd+2, Cu+2, Ba+2 and Co+2 ions on Entamoeba histolytica cysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Umit Aksoy; Sebnem Ustun; Hande Dagci; Suleyman Yazar

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The effects of cobalt, copper, cadmium and barium ions on the cysts of Entamoeba histolytica (E.histolytica),an amebic dysentery agent, cultured in Robinson medium were investigated.METHODS: E. histolytica cysts and trophozoites isolated from a patient with amebiasis were cultivated in the medium,incubated at 37 ℃ for a period of 4 days and 40x104/ml amebic cysts were then transferred to a fresh medium. At the second stage, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mM of selected metal ions were added to the medium, and the effects of these ions on parasitic reproduction compared with the control group were observed.RESULTS: It was determined that the number of living parasites in all the groups containing metal ions decreased significantly rtarting from 30 minutes (P<0.01). CuCl2 showed the highest lethal effect on E.histolytita cysts, whereas the lowest lethal effect was observed with CoCl2. It was also seen that the number of living cells was decreased as the ion concentration and exposure time were increased, and that there were no living paasites in the medium at the end of 24 h (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: It may be stated that the effect of everincreasing contamination of the environment with metal waste materials on parasites should be investigated further.

  7. Human Amebiasis: Breaking the Paradigm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Partida

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available For over 30 years it has been established that the Entamoeba histolytica protozoan included two biologically and genetically different species, one with a pathogenic phenotype called E. histolytica and the other with a non-pathogenic phenotype called Entamoeba dispar. Both of these amoebae species can infect humans. E. histolytica has been considered as a potential pathogen that can cause serious damage to the large intestine (colitis, dysentery and other extraintestinal organs, mainly the liver (amebic liver abscess, whereas E. dispar is a species that interacts with humans in a commensal relationship, causing no symptoms or any tissue damage. This paradigm, however, should be reconsidered or re-evaluated. In the present work, we report the detection and genotyping of E. dispar sequences of DNA obtained from patients with amebic liver abscesses, including the genotyping of an isolate obtained from a Brazilian patient with a clinical diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis that was previously characterized as an E. dispar species. The genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis performed by our group has shown the existence of several different genotypes of E. dispar that can be associated to, or be potentiality responsible for intestinal or liver tissue damage, similar to that observed with E. histolytica.

  8. Immune Response of Amebiasis and Immune Evasion by Entamoeba histolytica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite and the causative agent of amebiasis. It is estimated approximately 1% of humans are infected with E. histolytica, resulting in an estimate of 100,000 deaths annually. Clinical manifestations of amebic infection range widely from asymptomatic to severe symptoms, including dysentery and extra-intestinal abscesses. Like other infectious diseases, it is assumed that only ~20% of infected individuals develop symptoms, and genetic factors of both the parasite and humans as well as the environmental factors, e.g., microbiota, determine outcome of infection. There are multiple essential steps in amebic infection: degradation of and invasion into the mucosal layer, adherence to the intestinal epithelium, invasion into the tissues, and dissemination to other organs. While the mechanisms of invasion and destruction of the host tissues by the amebae during infection have been elucidated at the molecular levels, it remains largely uncharacterized how the parasite survive in the host by evading and attacking host immune system. Recently, the strategies for immune evasion by the parasite have been unraveled, including immunomodulation to suppress IFN-γ production, elimination of immune cells and soluble immune mediators, and metabolic alterations against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species to fend off the attack from immune system. In this review, we summarized the latest knowledge on immune reaction and immune evasion during amebiasis. PMID:27242782

  9. Human Amebiasis: Breaking the Paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximénez, Cecilia; Cerritos, Rene; Rojas, Liliana; Dolabella, Silvio; Morán, Patricia; Shibayama, Mineko; González, Enrique; Valadez, Alicia; Hernández, Eric; Valenzuela, Olivia; Limón, Angélica; Partida, Oswaldo; Silva, Edwards F

    2010-01-01

    For over 30 years it has been established that the Entamoeba histolytica protozoan included two biologically and genetically different species, one with a pathogenic phenotype called E. histolytica and the other with a non-pathogenic phenotype called Entamoeba dispar. Both of these amoebae species can infect humans. E. histolytica has been considered as a potential pathogen that can cause serious damage to the large intestine (colitis, dysentery) and other extraintestinal organs, mainly the liver (amebic liver abscess), whereas E. dispar is a species that interacts with humans in a commensal relationship, causing no symptoms or any tissue damage. This paradigm, however, should be reconsidered or re-evaluated. In the present work, we report the detection and genotyping of E. dispar sequences of DNA obtained from patients with amebic liver abscesses, including the genotyping of an isolate obtained from a Brazilian patient with a clinical diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis that was previously characterized as an E. dispar species. The genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis performed by our group has shown the existence of several different genotypes of E. dispar that can be associated to, or be potentiality responsible for intestinal or liver tissue damage, similar to that observed with E. histolytica. PMID:20617021

  10. A ten year (1999-2008) retrospective study of amoebiasis in University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhana, F; Jamaiah, I; Rohela, M; Abdul-Aziz, N M; Nissapatorn, V

    2009-12-01

    This is a ten year (1999-2008) retrospective study of amebiasis in patients admitted to UMMC. A total of 34 cases were analyzed. The most common were amebic liver abscess 22(65%) and the rest were amoebic dysentery 12(35%). Majority of the cases occurred among Malaysians 29(85%), with Chinese 14(41%), followed by the Malays 9(26%) and the Indians 6(18%). Foreigners made up of one Indonesian, one Pakistani and three Myanmarese and constituted 5(15%) of the total cases. Males 24(71%) were more commonly affected. Most of the cases occurred between the age group of 40-49 years, 8(23%) and 60 years and above, 8(23%). Age group of 20-50 years constituted 20(60%) of the cases. The most common clinical presentations were fever with chills and rigors 26(76%), diarrhoea 20 (59%), right hypochondrium pain 17(50%), abdominal pain 17(50%), hepatomegaly 16 (47%) and jaundice 7(20%). All were discharged well after treatment except for one case of death in a 69-year-old Chinese male with amebic liver abscess.

  11. Immune Response of Amebiasis and Immune Evasion by Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite and the causative agent of amebiasis. It is estimated approximately 1% of humans are infected with E. histolytica, resulting in an estimate of 100,000 deaths annually. Clinical manifestations of amebic infection range widely from asymptomatic to severe symptoms, including dysentery and extra-intestinal abscesses. Like other infectious diseases, it is assumed that only ~20% of infected individuals develop symptoms, and genetic factors of both the parasite and humans as well as the environmental factors, e.g., microbiota, determine outcome of infection. There are multiple essential steps in amebic infection: degradation of and invasion into the mucosal layer, adherence to the intestinal epithelium, invasion into the tissues, and dissemination to other organs. While the mechanisms of invasion and destruction of the host tissues by the amebae during infection have been elucidated at the molecular levels, it remains largely uncharacterized how the parasite survive in the host by evading and attacking host immune system. Recently, the strategies for immune evasion by the parasite have been unraveled, including immunomodulation to suppress IFN-γ production, elimination of immune cells and soluble immune mediators, and metabolic alterations against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species to fend off the attack from immune system. In this review, we summarized the latest knowledge on immune reaction and immune evasion during amebiasis.

  12. Identification of an avirulent Entamoeba histolytica strain with unique tRNA-linked short tandem repeat markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escueta-de Cadiz, Aleyla; Kobayashi, Seiki; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2010-03-01

    Highly polymorphic, non-coding short tandem repeats (STR) are scattered between the tRNA genes in Entamoeba histolytica in a unique tandemly arrayed organization. STR markers that correlate with the virulence of individual E. histolytica strains have recently been reported. Here we evaluated the usefulness of tRNA-linked STR loci as genetic markers in identifying virulent and avirulent strains of E. histolytica from 37 Japanese E. histolytica samples (12 diarrheic/dysenteric, 20 amebic liver abscess (ALA), and 5 asymptomatic cases). Twenty three genotypes, assigned by combining the STR sequence types from all 6 STR loci, were identified. One to 8 new STR sequence types per locus were also discovered. Genotypes found in asymptomatic isolates were highly polymorphic (4 out of 5 genotypes were unique to this group), while in symptomatic isolates, almost half of the genotypes were shared between diarrhea/dysentery and ALA. One asymptomatic isolate (KU27) showed unique STR patterns in 4 loci. This strain, though associated with the typical pathogenic zymodeme II, failed to induce amebic liver abscess by animal challenge, which suggests that inherently avirulent E. histolytica strains exist, that are associated with unique genotypes. Furthermore, STR genotyping and in vivo challenge of 2 other asymptomatic isolates (KU14 and KU26) verified the covert virulence of these strains.

  13. Association of Serpulina hyodysenteriae with the colonic mucosa in experimental swine dysentery studied by fluorescent in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Boye, Mette; Møller, Kristian;

    1998-01-01

    in huge numbers were found colonizing the mucus layer, the luminal epithelium and the crypts of the large intestinal mucosa. The orientation of the spirochaetes to the epithelium appeared to be random. Spirochaetes in clusters or as single cells were invading the epithelium and were occasionally detected...... in the adjacent lamina propria. The distribution of spirochaetes in the mucosa provides further evidence that S. hyodysenteriae is intimately associated with the mucus layer and the epithelium in a random pattern. Furthermore, the results demonstrate the applicability of FISH for specific detection of S....... hyodysenteriae cells in clusters or as single cells in formalin-fixed tissue samples....

  14. Knockdown of Five Genes Encoding Uncharacterized Proteins Inhibits Entamoeba histolytica Phagocytosis of Dead Host Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sateriale, Adam; Miller, Peter; Huston, Christopher D

    2016-04-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite that causes invasive amebiasis, which is endemic to many developing countries and characterized by dysentery and liver abscesses. The virulence of E. histolytica correlates with the degree of host cell engulfment, or phagocytosis, and E. histolytica phagocytosis alters amebic gene expression in a feed-forward manner that results in an increased phagocytic ability. Here, we used a streamlined RNA interference screen to silence the expression of 15 genes whose expression was upregulated in phagocytic E. histolytica trophozoites to determine whether these genes actually function in the phagocytic process. When five of these genes were silenced, amebic strains with significant decreases in the ability to phagocytose apoptotic host cells were produced. Phagocytosis of live host cells, however, was largely unchanged, and the defects were surprisingly specific for phagocytosis. Two of the five encoded proteins, which we named E. histolytica ILWEQ (EhILWEQ) and E. histolytica BAR (EhBAR), were chosen for localization via SNAP tag labeling and localized to the site of partially formed phagosomes. Therefore, both EhILWEQ and EhBAR appear to contribute to E. histolytica virulence through their function in phagocytosis, and the large proportion (5/15 [33%]) of gene-silenced strains with a reduced ability to phagocytose host cells validates the previously published microarray data set demonstrating feed-forward control of E. histolytica phagocytosis. Finally, although only limited conclusions can be drawn from studies using the virulence-deficient G3 Entamoeba strain, the relative specificity of the defects induced for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells but not healthy cells suggests that cell killing may play a rate-limiting role in the process of Entamoeba histolytica host cell engulfment.

  15. Knockdown of Five Genes Encoding Uncharacterized Proteins Inhibits Entamoeba histolytica Phagocytosis of Dead Host Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sateriale, Adam; Miller, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite that causes invasive amebiasis, which is endemic to many developing countries and characterized by dysentery and liver abscesses. The virulence of E. histolytica correlates with the degree of host cell engulfment, or phagocytosis, and E. histolytica phagocytosis alters amebic gene expression in a feed-forward manner that results in an increased phagocytic ability. Here, we used a streamlined RNA interference screen to silence the expression of 15 genes whose expression was upregulated in phagocytic E. histolytica trophozoites to determine whether these genes actually function in the phagocytic process. When five of these genes were silenced, amebic strains with significant decreases in the ability to phagocytose apoptotic host cells were produced. Phagocytosis of live host cells, however, was largely unchanged, and the defects were surprisingly specific for phagocytosis. Two of the five encoded proteins, which we named E. histolytica ILWEQ (EhILWEQ) and E. histolytica BAR (EhBAR), were chosen for localization via SNAP tag labeling and localized to the site of partially formed phagosomes. Therefore, both EhILWEQ and EhBAR appear to contribute to E. histolytica virulence through their function in phagocytosis, and the large proportion (5/15 [33%]) of gene-silenced strains with a reduced ability to phagocytose host cells validates the previously published microarray data set demonstrating feed-forward control of E. histolytica phagocytosis. Finally, although only limited conclusions can be drawn from studies using the virulence-deficient G3 Entamoeba strain, the relative specificity of the defects induced for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells but not healthy cells suggests that cell killing may play a rate-limiting role in the process of Entamoeba histolytica host cell engulfment. PMID:26810036

  16. Unique posttranslational modifications of chitin-binding lectins of Entamoeba invadens cyst walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dellen, Katrina L; Chatterjee, Anirban; Ratner, Daniel M; Magnelli, Paula E; Cipollo, John F; Steffen, Martin; Robbins, Phillips W; Samuelson, John

    2006-05-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, which causes amebic dysentery and liver abscesses, is spread via chitin-walled cysts. The most abundant protein in the cyst wall of Entamoeba invadens, a model for amebic encystation, is a lectin called EiJacob1. EiJacob1 has five tandemly arrayed, six-Cys chitin-binding domains separated by low-complexity Ser- and Thr-rich spacers. E. histolytica also has numerous predicted Jessie lectins and chitinases, which contain a single, N-terminal eight-Cys chitin-binding domain. We hypothesized that E. invadens cyst walls are composed entirely of proteins with six-Cys or eight-Cys chitin-binding domains and that some of these proteins contain sugars. E. invadens genomic sequences predicted seven Jacob lectins, five Jessie lectins, and three chitinases. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that mRNAs encoding Jacobs, Jessies, and chitinases are increased during E. invadens encystation, while mass spectrometry showed that the cyst wall is composed of an approximately 30:70 mix of Jacob lectins (cross-linking proteins) and Jessie and chitinase lectins (possible enzymes). Three Jacob lectins were cleaved prior to Lys at conserved sites (e.g., TPSVDK) in the Ser- and Thr-rich spacers between chitin-binding domains. A model peptide was cleaved at the same site by papain and E. invadens Cys proteases, suggesting that the latter cleave Jacob lectins in vivo. Some Jacob lectins had O-phosphodiester-linked carbohydrates, which were one to seven hexoses long and had deoxysugars at reducing ends. We concluded that the major protein components of the E. invadens cyst wall all contain chitin-binding domains (chitinases, Jessie lectins, and Jacob lectins) and that the Jacob lectins are differentially modified by site-specific Cys proteases and O-phosphodiester-linked glycans.

  17. The Jacob2 lectin of the Entamoeba histolytica cyst wall binds chitin and is polymorphic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip K Ghosh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The infectious and diagnostic form of Entamoeba histolytica (Eh, cause of amebic dysentery and liver abscess, is the quadranucleate cyst. The cyst wall of Entamoeba invadens (Ei, a model for Eh, is composed of chitin fibrils and three sets of chitin-binding lectins that cross-link chitin fibrils (multivalent Jacob lectins, self-aggregate (Jessie lectins, and remodel chitin (chitinase. The goal here was to determine how well the Ei model applies to Entamoeba cysts from humans.An Eh Jacob lectin (EhJacob2 has three predicted chitin-binding domains surrounding a large, Ser-rich spacer. Recombinant EhJacob2 made in transfected Eh trophozoites binds to particulate chitin. Sequences of PCR products using primers flanking the highly polymorphic spacer of EhJacob2 may be used to distinguish Entamoeba isolates. Antibodies to the EhJacob2, EhJessie3, and chitinase each recognize cyst walls of clinical isolates of Entamoeba. While numerous sera from patients with amebic intestinal infections and liver abscess recognize recombinant EhJacob1 and EhJessie3 lectins, few of these sera recognize recombinant EhJacob2.The EhJacob2 lectin binds chitin and is polymorphic, and Jacob2, Jessie3, and chitinase are present in cyst walls of clinical isolates of Entamoeba. These results suggest there are substantial similarities between cysts of the human pathogen (Eh and the in vitro model (Ei, even though there are quantitative and qualitative differences in their chitin-binding lectins.

  18. Impacts of different grades of tropical cyclones on infectious diarrhea in Guangdong, 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ruihua; Xun, Huanmiao; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xin; Jiang, Baofa; Ma, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Guangdong province is one of the most vulnerable provinces to tropical cyclones in China. Most prior studies concentrated on the relationship between tropical cyclones and injuries and mortality. This study aimed to explore the impacts of different grades of tropical cyclones on infectious diarrhea incidence in Guangdong province, from 2005 to 2011. Mann-Whitney U test was firstly used to examine if infectious diarrhea were sensitive to tropical cyclone. Then unidirectional 1:1 case-crossover design was performed to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between daily number of infectious diarrhea and tropical cyclone from 2005 to 2011 in Guangdong, China. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to eliminate multicollinearity. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI). There were no significant relationships between tropical cyclone and bacillary dysentery, amebic dysentery, typhoid, and paratyphoid cases. Infectious diarrhea other than cholera, dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid significantly increased after tropical cyclones. The strongest effect were shown on lag 1 day (HRs = 1.95, 95%CI = 1.22, 3.12) and no lagged effect was detected for tropical depression, tropical storm, severe tropical storm and typhoon, with the largest HRs (95%CI) of 2.16 (95%CI = 1.69, 2.76), 2.43 (95%CI = 1.65, 3.58) and 2.21 (95%CI = 1.65, 2.69), respectively. Among children below 5 years old, the impacts of all grades of tropical cyclones were strongest at lag 0 day. And HRs were 2.67 (95%CI = 1.10, 6.48), 2.49 (95%CI = 1.80, 3.44), 4.89 (95%CI = 2.37, 7.37) and 3.18 (95%CI = 2.10, 4.81), respectively. All grades of tropical cyclones could increase risk of other infectious diarrhea. Severe tropical storm has the strongest influence on other infectious diarrhea. The impacts of tropical cyclones on children under 5 years old were higher than total population.

  19. Impacts of different grades of tropical cyclones on infectious diarrhea in Guangdong, 2005-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihua Kang

    Full Text Available Guangdong province is one of the most vulnerable provinces to tropical cyclones in China. Most prior studies concentrated on the relationship between tropical cyclones and injuries and mortality. This study aimed to explore the impacts of different grades of tropical cyclones on infectious diarrhea incidence in Guangdong province, from 2005 to 2011.Mann-Whitney U test was firstly used to examine if infectious diarrhea were sensitive to tropical cyclone. Then unidirectional 1:1 case-crossover design was performed to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between daily number of infectious diarrhea and tropical cyclone from 2005 to 2011 in Guangdong, China. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to eliminate multicollinearity. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs and the 95% confidence intervals (CI.There were no significant relationships between tropical cyclone and bacillary dysentery, amebic dysentery, typhoid, and paratyphoid cases. Infectious diarrhea other than cholera, dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid significantly increased after tropical cyclones. The strongest effect were shown on lag 1 day (HRs = 1.95, 95%CI = 1.22, 3.12 and no lagged effect was detected for tropical depression, tropical storm, severe tropical storm and typhoon, with the largest HRs (95%CI of 2.16 (95%CI = 1.69, 2.76, 2.43 (95%CI = 1.65, 3.58 and 2.21 (95%CI = 1.65, 2.69, respectively. Among children below 5 years old, the impacts of all grades of tropical cyclones were strongest at lag 0 day. And HRs were 2.67 (95%CI = 1.10, 6.48, 2.49 (95%CI = 1.80, 3.44, 4.89 (95%CI = 2.37, 7.37 and 3.18 (95%CI = 2.10, 4.81, respectively.All grades of tropical cyclones could increase risk of other infectious diarrhea. Severe tropical storm has the strongest influence on other infectious diarrhea. The impacts of tropical cyclones on children under 5 years old were higher than total population.

  20. CAUSES, JIMMA CITY, SOUTHWEST ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CONCLUSION: There was an epidemic of dysentery in Jimma City from December 12 to 22, 2008 due to ..... Date of the onset of symptoms of the disease in suspected cases of dysentery who visited health facilities ..... dysentery and cholera.

  1. [Intestinal parasitoses in children of an Indian community of Bolivian altiplano].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, D; Gaumerais, H; Basset-Pougnet, A

    1986-01-01

    A survey about motion parasitosis has been carried out on one hundred Indians (Quechua ethnic group) living in a hamlet called Amarete located in the Bolivian Altiplano. This community is living in a place difficult to reach (11,100 feet) where many pre-Colombian traditions are still alive. All children were parasitized, 75% of them were carrier of 3 to 5 parasites. Infestation with ascaris (91%) is the most frequent and the risks of getting amebic dysentery (Entamoeba histolytica 41%) and balantidial (Balantidium coli 8%) are high. Many other parasites (8 kinds of protozoa , 5 kinds of helminths) can be observed; more especially, we noticed that 20% of the pupils used to be carrier operculated eggs. Tenia embryophores (more probably Taenia solium found in 2 children) made us aware of possibilities of cysticercosis. An other problem lays on general hygiene and hygiene of the water since feces danger is responsible of important parasitologic loads. Results are compared with a fecal study carried out on a population from the Altiplano region but living now in the plain. Amazonian Indian population in previous or recent contact with occidental civilization show the same variations of parasitologic repartition between Amarete hamlet and the transplanted population of Altiplano region. The role played by the acculturation could be discussed.

  2. Hepato-pulmonary amebiasis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Prasad Shenoy

    Full Text Available Infections with Entamoeba histolytica are seen worldwide and are more prevalent in the tropics. About 90% of infections are asymptomatic, and the remaining 10% produce a spectrum of clinical syndromes, ranging from dysentery to abscesses of the liver or other organs. Extra-intestinal infection by E. histolytica most often involves liver. Pleuro-pulmonary involvement, seen as the second most common extra-intestinal pattern of infection, is frequently associated with amebic liver abscess. Pulmonary amebiasis occurs in about 2-3% of patients with invasive amebiasis. We report herein the case of a 45-year-old male presenting with hepato-pulmonary amebiasis. The diagnosis was established from direct examination of sputum, in which trophozoites of E. histolytica were detected, and by serology. Following treatment with metronidazole and chloroquine, the clinical evolution improved significantly. On regular follow-up visits, the patient was asymptomatic. This case report reiterates the need for collaboration between clinicians and microbiologists for timely diagnosis of such infections.

  3. Pathogenesis of Intestinal Amebiasis: From Molecules to Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Cantellano, Martha; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2000-01-01

    In spite of a wealth of knowledge on the biochemistry and cellular and molecular biology of Entamoeba histolytica, little has been done to apply these advances to our understanding of the lesions observed in patients with intestinal amebiasis. In this review, the pathological and histological findings in acute amebic colitis are related to the molecular mechanisms of E. histolytica pathogenicity described to date. Infection of the human colon by E. histolytica produces focal ulceration of the intestinal mucosa, resulting in dysentery (diarrhea with blood and mucus). Although a complete picture has not yet been achieved, the basic mechanisms involved in the production of focal lytic lesions include complex multifactorial processes in which lectins facilitate adhesion, proteases degrade extracellular matrix components, porins help nourish the parasite and may also kill incoming polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages, and motility is used by the parasite to invade deeper layers of the colon. In addition, E. histolytica has developed mechanisms to modulate the immune response during acute infection. Nevertheless, much still needs to be unraveled to understand how this microscopic parasite has earned its well-deserved histolytic name. PMID:10756002

  4. Immune evasion mechanisms of Entamoeba histolytica: progression to disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmin eBegum

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica (Eh is a protozoan parasite that infects 10% of the world’s population and results in 100,000 deaths/year from amebic dysentery and/or liver abscess. In most cases, this extracellular parasite colonizes the colon by high affinity binding to MUC2 mucin without disease symptoms, whereas in some cases, Eh triggers an aggressive inflammatory response upon invasion of the colonic mucosa. The specific host-parasite factors critical for disease pathogenesis are still not well characterized. From the parasite, the signature events that lead to disease progression are cysteine protease cleavage of the C-terminus of MUC2 that dissolves the mucus layer followed by Eh binding and cytotoxicity of the mucosal epithelium. The host mounts an ineffective excessive host pro-inflammatory response following contact with host cells that causes tissue damage and participates in disease pathogenesis as Eh escapes host immune clearance by mechanisms that are not completely understood. Ameba can modulate or destroy effector immune cells by inducing neutrophil apoptosis and suppressing respiratory burst or nitric oxide (NO production from macrophages. Eh adherence to the host cells also induce multiple cytotoxic effects that can promote cell death through phagocytosis, apoptosis or by trogocytosis (ingestion of living cells that might play critical roles in immune evasion. This review focuses on the immune evasion mechanisms that Eh uses to survive and induce disease manifestation in the host.

  5. Prostaglandin E2 Produced by Entamoeba histolytica Signals via EP4 Receptor and Alters Claudin-4 to Increase Ion Permeability of Tight Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, Manigandan; Moreau, France; Chadee, Kris

    2011-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite that causes amebic dysentery characterized by severe watery diarrhea. Unfortunately, the parasitic factors involved in the pathogenesis of diarrhea are poorly defined. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a host lipid mediator associated with diarrheal diseases. Intriguingly, E. histolytica produces and secretes this inflammatory molecule. We investigated the mechanism whereby ameba-derived PGE2 induces the onset of diarrhea by altering ion permeability of paracellular tight junctions (TJs) in colonic epithelia. PGE2 decreased barrier integrity of TJs in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as measured by transepithelial resistance. PGE2 signals were selectively transduced via the EP4 receptor. Furthermore, PGE2 signaling decreased TJ integrity, as revealed by EP receptor-specific agonist and antagonist studies. Loss of mucosal barrier integrity corresponded with increased ion permeability across TJs. Subcellular fractionation and confocal microscopy studies highlighted a significant spatial alteration of an important TJ protein, claudin-4, that corresponded with increased sodium ion permeability through TJs toward the lumen. Moreover, PGE2-induced luminal chloride secretion was a prerequisite for alterations at TJs. Thus, the gradient of NaCl created across epithelia could serve as a trigger for osmotic water flow that leads to diarrhea. Our results highlight a pathological role for E. histolytica-derived PGE2 in the onset of diarrhea. PMID:21683675

  6. Ethanol and isopropanol in concentrations present in hand sanitizers sharply reduce excystation of Giardia and Entamoeba and eliminate oral infectivity of Giardia cysts in gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Aparajita; Bandini, Giulia; Motari, Edwin; Samuelson, John

    2015-11-01

    Enteric protozoan parasites, which are spread by the fecal-oral route, are important causes of diarrhea (Giardia duodenalis) and amebic dysentery (Entamoeba histolytica). Cyst walls of Giardia and Entamoeba have a single layer composed of fibrils of β-1,3-linked GalNAc and β-1,4-linked GlcNAc (chitin), respectively. The goal here was to determine whether hand sanitizers that contain ethanol or isopropanol as the active microbicide might reduce transmission of these parasites. We found that treatment with these alcohols with or without drying in a rotary evaporator (to model rapid evaporation of sanitizers on hands) kills 85 to 100% of cysts of G. duodenalis and 90 to 100% of cysts of Entamoeba invadens (a nonpathogenic model for E. histolytica), as shown by nuclear labeling with propidium iodide and failure to excyst in vitro. Alcohols with or without drying collapsed the cyst walls of Giardia but did not collapse the cyst walls of Entamoeba. To validate the in vitro results, we showed that treatment with alcohols eliminated oral infection of gerbils by 1,000 G. duodenalis cysts, while a commercial hand sanitizer (Purell) killed E. invadens cysts that were directly applied to the hands. These results suggest that expanded use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers might reduce the transmission of Giardia and Entamoeba.

  7. [Sensibility of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites to ivermectin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Salazar, Francisco; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito D; Vargas-Villareal, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Amebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is a problem of public world health. The most frequent clinical presentation are the dysentery and the amebic liver abscess. Fifty millions of cases and more than 100.000 deaths for this disease are reported annually worldwide. The life cycle of E. histolytica has two phases: trophozoite and cyst. Trophozoites are the causal agent of disease. The effective treatment for the amebiasis includes drugs with serious collateral effects. Ivermectin is a macrolid with activity against endoparasites and ectoparasites causing strongiloidosis, filariasis, oncocercosis, scabiasis and pediculosis. The use of ivermectin has been extended almost worldwide; it is recognized as a safe drug. The main objective of this study was to determine in vitro sensibility of trophozoites of E. histolytica was to the treatment with ivermectin. To determine the sensibility of the parasites to the drug, E. histolytica was cultivated in PEHPS medium. During its logarithmic growth phase the trophozoites were exposed to different concentrations of ivermectin. As controls other antiparasitic drugs were used. For each drug, serial dilutions were prepared, and mixed in culture tubes with parasites (2 x 104 cells/ml). They were incubated for 72 h and then the percentage of growth inhibition was calculated by Probit analysis. Ivermectin showed activity against trophozoites of E. histolytica. The 50% of growth inhibition of ivermectin was 6.40 mg/ml. This dose was higher than for other anti parasitic drugs. Its activity in vivo in animal models remains to be demonstrated.

  8. Identification and significance of Naegleria fowleri isolated from the hot spring which related to the first primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) patient in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Min-Che; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Tao, Chi-Wei; Lin, Wei-Chen; Tsai, Hsiu-Feng; Ji, Dar-Der; Shen, Shu-Min; Chen, Jung-Sheng; Shih, Feng-Cheng; Huang, Yu-Li

    2013-08-01

    Naegleria fowleri can cause primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, a rapidly developing and highly lethal infectious disease. The first confirmed case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in Taiwan was reported in November 2011, in which the patient visited a thermal spring recreational area 1 week prior to hospitalisation. Water sampling was performed to verify the presence of Naegleria at the facility. According to our results, 32% and 20% of recreational water samples were contaminated with Naegleria spp. and Acanthamoeba spp., respectively. The genotypes of Naegleria identified at the hot spring included N. fowleri, Naegleria australiensis and Naegleria lovaniensis. Using PCR, it was determined that the strain of N. fowleri in one sample possessed the same genotype 2 as the clinical isolate. Thus, the thermal spring was suggested to be the likely source of infection. This is the first known instance of simultaneously isolating N. fowleri from both a patient as well as from a hot spring in Taiwan. Following this initial study, the pools at the thermal spring recreational area were drained, scrubbed and disinfected, and a follow-up study was performed 1 month later. Naegleria fowleri was not detected in follow-up testing; however, other Naegleria spp. were identified. We postulate that the biofilm in the waterlines may have provided a reservoir for free-living amoebae. The presence/absence of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria spp. did not differ significantly with any measured parameters related to water quality; however, a high percentage of the thermal water pool samples were contaminated with Naegleria or Acanthamoeba. Thus, amoebic contamination may present a serious threat to the health of humans who engage in leisure activities at thermal springs.

  9. Increased amount of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum and Megasphaera elsdenii in the colonic microbiota of pigs fed a swine dysentery preventive diet containing chicory roots and sweet lupine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, Lars; Thomsen, L.E.; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To investigate which specific bacterial species that were stimulated or inhibited in the proximal colon of pigs when a fructan-rich diet was compared with a diet that contained resistant carbohydrates. The study focussed especially on Bifidobacterial species by using a noncultureable approa...

  10. Winter dysentery in cows associated with Bovine Coronavirus (BCoV Disenteria de inverno associada ao coronavírus bovino (BCoV em vacas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Brandão

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a pesquisa de BCoV e rotavírus em 13 mostras fecais de vacas de surtos de disenteria utilizando uma nested PCR dirigida ao gene RdRp e PAGE, respectivamente. Todas as amostras fecais foram positivas para BCoV e nenhuma delas apresentou-se positiva para rotavírus em PAGE. O encontro de coronavírus bovino em amostras fecais de vacas com disenteria sugere que este vírus possa ser o agente primário envolvido na etiologia dos casos aqui relatados.

  11. Hepatic amebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Salles

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Amebiasis can be considered the most aggressive disease of the human intestine, responsible in its invasive form for clinical syndromes, ranging from the classic dysentery of acute colitis to extra-intestinal disease, with emphasis on hepatic amebiasis, unsuitably named amebic liver abscess. Found worldwide, with a high incidence in India, tropical regions of Africa, Mexico and other areas of Central America, it has been frequently reported in Amazonia. The trophozoite reaches the liver through the portal system, provoking enzymatic focal necrosis of hepatocytes and multiple micro-abscesses that coalesce to develop a single lesion whose central cavity contains a homogeneous thick liquid, with typically reddish brown and yellow color similar to "anchovy paste". Right upper quadrant pain, fever and hepatomegaly are the predominant symptoms of hepatic amebiasis. Jaundice is reported in cases with multiple lesions or a very large abscess, and it affects the prognosis adversely. Besides chest radiography, ultrasonography and computerized tomography have brought remarkable contributions to the diagnosis of hepatic abscesses. The conclusive diagnosis is made however by the finding of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in the pus and by the detection of serum antibodies to the amoeba. During the evolution of hepatic amebiasis, in spite of the availability of highly effective drugs, some important complications may occur with regularity and are a result of local perforation with extension into the pleural and pericardium cavities, causing pulmonary abscesses and purulent pericarditis, respectively The ruptures into the abdominal cavity may lead to subphrenic abscesses and peritonitis. The treatment of hepatic amebiasis is made by medical therapy, with metronidazole as the initial drug, followed by a luminal amebicide. In patients with large abscesses, showing signs of imminent rupture, and especially those who do not respond to medical treatment, a

  12. Characterization of an Entamoeba histolytica High-Mobility-Group Box Protein Induced during Intestinal Infection ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhyankar, Mayuresh M.; Hochreiter, Amelia E.; Hershey, Jessica; Evans, Clive; Zhang, Yan; Crasta, Oswald; Sobral, Bruno W. S.; Mann, Barbara J.; Petri, William A.; Gilchrist, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    The unicellular eukaryote Entamoeba histolytica is a human parasite that causes amebic dysentery and liver abscess. A genome-wide analysis of gene expression modulated by intestinal colonization and invasion identified an upregulated transcript that encoded a putative high-mobility-group box (HMGB) protein, EhHMGB1. We tested if EhHMGB1 encoded a functional HMGB protein and determined its role in control of parasite gene expression. Recombinant EhHMGB1 was able to bend DNA in vitro, a characteristic of HMGB proteins. Core conserved residues required for DNA bending activity in other HMGB proteins were demonstrated by mutational analysis to be essential for EhHMGB1 activity. EhHMGB1 was also able to enhance the binding of human p53 to its cognate DNA sequence in vitro, which is expected for an HMGB1 protein. Confocal microscopy, using antibodies against the recombinant protein, confirmed its nuclear localization. Overexpression of EhHMGB1 in HM1:IMSS trophozoites led to modulation of 33 transcripts involved in a variety of cellular functions. Of these, 20 were also modulated at either day 1 or day 29 in the mouse model of intestinal amebiasis. Notably, four transcripts with known roles in virulence, including two encoding Gal/GalNAc lectin light chains, were modulated in response to EhHMGB1 overexpression. We concluded that EhHMGB1 was a bona fide HMGB protein with the capacity to recapitulate part of the modulation of parasite gene expression seen during adaptation to the host intestine. PMID:18658254

  13. Analysis on entamoeba histolytica strain-specific gene in amebic liver abscess aspirates%对阿米巴肝脓液中的溶组织内阿米巴种特异基因的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭增柱; 安亦军; 谢云秋

    2003-01-01

    目的:分析引发肝脓肿的溶组织内阿米巴虫株的种特异基因(SSG)的差异.方法:直接从阿米巴肝脓液中扩增溶组织内阿米巴SSG,以溶组织内阿米巴HM-1: IMSS株SSG扩增产物为探针,用southern杂交的方法分析SSG的多态性.结果:扩增出的HM-1:IMSS株的SSG长650bp;14例阿米巴肝脓肿患者的肝脓液中有4例未检出溶组织内阿米巴的SSG基因,其余10例的SSG具多态性,在650bp-980bp之间呈梯形分布.结论:使受检者致病的溶组织内阿米巴虫株存在种内差异,其临床意义有待进一步研究.

  14. 农村生活污水处理厂中阿米巴原虫的定量检测%Quantitative detection of amebic protozoa from rural domestic wastewater treatment plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔丙健; 孔晓; 金德才; 白志辉; 张洪勋

    2015-01-01

    [目的]自由生活的棘阿米巴属(Acanthamoeba spp.)和哈曼属原虫(Hartmannella vermiformis)普遍存在于自然界的土壤和各种水体中,这两个属中的某些种类被认为对人和动物具有潜在的致病性,应用染料法实时荧光定量PCR技术建立特异性强、灵敏度高及重复性好的快速检测阿米巴虫的方法具有实际意义.[方法]采用非培养方法选择适合低拷贝基因检测的荧光染料BRYT Green(R) dye用于农村生活污水处理厂不同工艺阶段水样中Acanthamoeba spp.和HVermiformis 18S rRNA基因的检测和定量分析.[结果]在整个处理工艺流程中均检测到Acanthamoeba spp.和H.Vermiformis,并呈现出不同的变化趋势,进水中分别达到8.70× 105拷贝/L和1.84×106拷贝/L.与进水相比,调节池、好氧池和膜池中阿米巴原虫的数量均降低了1-2个数量级,但是出水中Acanthamoeba spp.则出现增加趋势.[结论]对阿米巴原虫可能造成的潜在健康危害应引起重视,并有必要作为污水处理达标的补充标准.

  15. Diagnóstico de absceso hepático amibiano mediante el inmunoensayo enzimático ligado a una enzima (ELISA) Diagnosis of amebic liver abscess by means of an anzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    El absceso hepático amibiano (aha) es la complicación extraintestinal más frecuente de la amibiasis; su cuadro clínico es generalmente agudo y se lo considera una urgencia médica. Se manifiesta con síntomas generales, acompañado de dolor en hipocondrio derecho, que se puede irradiar al hombro; la hepatomegalia dolorosa es un signo sugestivo pero no diagnóstico; debe diferenciarse del absceso hepático piógeno y del hepatoma necrótico; para el enfoque diagnóstico se requieren ayudas imaginológi...

  16. Diagnóstico de absceso hepático amibiano mediante el inmunoensayo enzimático ligado a una enzima (ELISA) Diagnosis of amebic liver abscess by means of an anzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Humberto Botero Garcés; Astrid Gómez Muñoz; Arturo Jaraba Medina; Amanda Castaño González

    2001-01-01

    El absceso hepático amibiano (aha) es la complicación extraintestinal más frecuente de la amibiasis; su cuadro clínico es generalmente agudo y se lo considera una urgencia médica. Se manifiesta con síntomas generales, acompañado de dolor en hipocondrio derecho, que se puede irradiar al hombro; la hepatomegalia dolorosa es un signo sugestivo pero no diagnóstico; debe diferenciarse del absceso hepático piógeno y del hepatoma necrótico; para el enfoque diagnóstico se requieren ayudas imaginológi...

  17. [The complicated intestinal amebiasis in emergency surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostishev, V K; Khrupkin, V I; Afanas'ev, A N; Gorbacheva, I V; Bragin, M A

    2009-01-01

    18 patients with complicated forms of intestinal amebiasis were operated on acute appendicitis, liver abscess or total necrotic colitis. Appendectomy, abscess drainage and colon resection were performed respectively. There were no postoperative deaths. Features of amebic appendicitis and total necrotic amebic colitis are described using clinical cases demonstrations. Recommendations for the treatment of these forms of amebiasis are given.

  18. Hepatogastric fistula: A rare complication of liver abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrihari Anikhindi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rupture of amebic liver abscess into stomach is a rare complication. We report a case of a young male presenting with haematemesis due to a rupture of left lobe amebic liver abscess into stomach. We discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare clinical entity.

  19. Five prevalent antiprotozoal herbal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Azadbakht1

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available , (Received 21 Jun, 2008 ; Accepted 12 Nov, 2008 AbstractAccording to the statistics provided by the World Health Organization (WHO, about 80% of the world population nowadays uses herbal drugs for treatment of diseases. Natural products obtained from medicinal plants, serve as a great source for drug production and are the main basis of new drug compounds. Unicellular organisms (Protozoa are the cause of deaths and spread of diseases in various societies, especially in developing countries. There are anti-malaria herbal dugs produced from various medicinal plants, some of which are used for treatment of the disease and some under study. The first anti-malaria drug was quinine, produced from bark of the Cinchona tree. Recently, the drug artemisinin has been introduced by Chinese scientists for the treatment of malaria and is currently used extensively. Coetaneous leishmaniosis (salak is one of the endemic diseases in most parts of Iran. Common drugs used against leishmaniosis (such as glucantim, have severe side-effects and in 10 to 25% of cases, there is a recurrence of the disease. Emetine is one of the drugs obtained from a root of the plant Ipecac, which is used for treatment of the disease sub-cutaneously. Giardiasis is an acute protozoan infection usually with no clinical symptoms, however, may appear as acute or chronic diarrhea. According to the announcement of WHO, more than 2/3 of the world’s population is infected with intestinal parasites and the prevalence of giardia is higher than other intestinal parasites. Herbal drugs, such as wild garlic, eucalyptus and thyme, are some of the major plants which can annihilate the giarda cysts. Annually, 75000 to 100000 people die of amebiasis (dysentery worldwide. Due to the motility of the organism, it causes sever pathological changes and sometimes colon ulcers, and if entered into the blood stream, it may appear as liver or brain abscess. Medicinal plants such as ipecac, mango, and papaya

  20. Neurologic amebiasis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris in an Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, Nicholas A; Ali, Ibne; Higbie, Christine; Jackson, Jonathan; Pirie, Gordon; Bauer, Rudy

    2016-01-01

    A 4-5-month-old intact male Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus) was presented to the Baton Rouge Zoo's veterinary hospital with an acute onset of obtundation that was diagnosed with amebic encephalitis. Histologic examination revealed numerous amebic trophozoites within necrotic foci, affecting the occipital cerebrum and surrounding the mesencephalic aqueduct. The etiologic agent, Balamuthia mandrillaris, was determined by multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and indirect fluorescent antibody test. The current report documented a case of amebic encephalitis within the order Chiroptera. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Disease: H00360 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available inated with Entamoeba histolytica, an extracellular parasitic amoeba causes amoebic colitis... and amoebic liver abscess. Amoebic colitis is characterized by devastating dysentery that usually

  2. Amebiasis presenting as acute appendicitis: Report of a case and review of Japanese literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ito

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: We report a case of acute amebic appendicitis in a 31-year-old woman and review the ages at presentation, causative factors, treatments, and outcomes of 11 cases reported in Japan between 1995 and 2013.

  3. Acanthamoeba Keratitis FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Amebic Encephalitis (GAE); Keratitis Parasites Home Share Compartir Acanthamoeba Keratitis FAQs On this Page What is Acanthamoeba ... developing Acanthamoeba keratitis? Infection of the Eye with Acanthamoeba What is Acanthamoeba keratitis? Acanthamoeba keratitis is a ...

  4. Effect of zinc on Entamoeba histolytica pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Robledo, G B; Carrero, J C; Ortiz-Ortiz, L

    1999-06-01

    The present study analyzes the effects of zinc on Entamoeba histolytica activity and on its pathogenicity. Metal activity was evaluated in vitro with regard to the parasite's viability, replication, and adhesion to epithelial cells and in vivo with regard to its pathogenicity. The results obtained in vitro show that zinc at 1.0 mM concentration does not affect amebic viability; however, it does decrease amebic replication and adhesion (P vivo studies performed on a model of experimental liver abscess in the hamster indicate that the intraperitoneal administration of a single dose of zinc at 48 h after the intrahepatic inoculation of amebic trophozoites significantly inhibits (P vivo as manifested by inhibition of amebic pathogenicity.

  5. Primary Amoebic (Naegleria fowleri Meningoencephalitis Presenting as Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sharma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM is a rare entity. Usual presenting features are fever, headache and seizures with meningeal signs and this disease carries high mortality rate. We present a case report of PAM presenting as status epilepticus.

  6. Amebiasis presenting as acute appendicitis: Report of a case and review of Japanese literature

    OpenAIRE

    Daisuke Ito; Shojirou Hata; Shimizu Seiichiro; Kaoru Kobayashi; Masanori Teruya; Michio Kaminishi

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Outside of these high-risk regions, acute amebic appendicitis is considerably rarer and the mortality rate is much higher than with non-amebic appendicitis. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 31-year-old woman presented with fever and right lower abdominal pain with no history of traveling abroad or sexual infection. Computed tomography revealed a dilated appendix and thickened cecal and ascending colon walls. She underwent an appendectomy for appendicitis. Owing to a lack of symptom re...

  7. Cutaneous amebiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimsza, M E; Berg, R A

    1983-04-01

    An infant with cutaneous amebiasis of the vulva and amebic liver abscess is described. Epidemiologic investigations and serologic studies were crucial in establishing the diagnosis. The vulvar amebic ulcers responded dramatically to metronidazole therapy. Cutaneous amebiasis is a rare complication of Entamoeba histolytica infection which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of perineovulvar or penile ulcers. Cutaneous amebiasis may also occur on the abdominal wall surrounding a draining hepatic abscess, colostomy site, or laparotomy incision.

  8. Predictive value of endoscopic findings in the diagnosis of active intestinal amebiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, N; Shimbo, T; Akiyama, J; Nakashima, R; Niikura, R; Nishimura, S; Yada, T; Watanabe, K; Oka, S; Uemura, N

    2012-04-01

    Endoscopic diagnosis of amebic colitis can be difficult because its appearance may mimic other forms of colonic disease. The aim of this study was to identify predictive endoscopic findings for amebic colitis. Patients with suspected amebic colitis based on distinctive endoscopic findings such as aphthae or erosions, ulcers, exudates, or a bump, were included in the study. A total of 157 patients were selected, 50 of whom had amebic colitis. The sensitivity and specificity of endoscopic findings that were significantly associated with amebic colitis were: cecal lesions (80% and 54%), multiple number of lesions (96% and 29%), presence of aphthae or erosions (84% and 37%), and presence of exudate (88% and 74%). Multivariate analysis revealed that the best combination of findings to predict amebic colitis was the presence of cecal lesions, multiple lesions, and exudates, which corresponded to an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.89 (95% confidence interval 0.82-0.95). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. 78 FR 9399 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... many isolates exhibit multiple antibiotic resistance complicates the management of dysentery infections... about forty serotypes of Shigella, causes a more severe disease with a much higher mortality rate than... gene region into a bacterial chromosome. Bacillary dysentery and enteric fevers continue to be...

  10. Parasitological and serological studies on amoebiasis and other intestinal parasitic infections in the rural sector around Recife, Northeast Brazil Estudos sorológicos e parasitológicos na amebíase e em outras infecções parasito-intestinais no setor rural dos arredores de Recife, nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    José Felipe Gonçalves; Masanobu Tanabe; Francisco de Paula de Melo Medeiros; Fernando José Gonçalves; Ivanize da Silva Aca; Severa Regina Nunes da Motta; Seiki Tateno; Tsutomu Takeuchi

    1990-01-01

    Parasitological examinations were carried out during July to December, 1989, on 485 inhabitants of four villages in São Lourenço da Mata, 25 km northwest of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Approximately 99.6% of the inhabitants were infected with at least one species of intestinal parasites. A high prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni (82.1%), hookworm (80.2%) Trichuris trichiura (69.9%), Ascaris lumbricoides (61.9%) and Entamoeba coli (36.7%) infections were demonstrated. Test tube cultivation reve...

  11. Antibodies against Entamoeba histolytica in individuals with intestinal amoebiasis presenting cysts and/or trophozoites in the feces Anticorpos anti-Entamoeba histolylica em indivíduos com amebíase intestinal apresentando cistos e/ou trofozoitas nas fezes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Carvalho

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples were obtained from 154 individuals infected with Entamoeba histolytica (78 symptomatic and 76 asymptomatic. Twelve had trophozoites in the feces whereas 142 had only cysts. The sera were used to test the existence of antibodies anti-Entamoeba histolytica employing the Indirect Hemagglutination (IHA, Indirect Immunofluoresccnce (IFAT, Complement Fixation Reaction (CFR and Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP. For those individuals with trophozoites in their feces, 75.0 were positive by IHA and IFAT, 83.0 by CFR and 41.7 by CIEP. In individuals who had only cysts, positive results by the same tests were respectively, 5.6%, 12.0%, 19.0% and 5.6%. The difference in relation to the tilers of antibodies detected through IHA, IFAT, CFR and CIEP and in relation to the presence of trophozoites or cysts in the feces was significative for four immunological reactions when X², was employed (P Amostras de soros foram obtidas de 154 indivíduos comprovadamente parasitados pela Entamoeba histolytica (78 sintomáticos c 76 assintomáticos. Doze apresentavam trofozoitas nas fezes, enquanto 142 tinham apenas cistos. Os soros foram utilizados para testar a ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Entamoeba histolytica, empregando-se para tal, Reação de Hemaglutinação Indireta (HAI, Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI, Reação de Fixação de Complemento (RFC e Contraimunoeletroforese (CIEP. Entre os soros dos indivíduos com trofozoitas em suas fezes, 75,0% foram positivos para HAI e RIFI, 83,3% por RFC, e 41,7% por CIEP. Nos indivíduos que tinham apenas cistos, resultados positivos pelos mesmos testes foram respectivamente, 5,6%; 12,0%; 19,0% c 5,6%. A diferença cm relação aos títulos de anticorpos detectados através de HAI, RIFI, RFC e CIEP e em relação à presença de trofozoitas ou cistos nas fezes foi significativa para as quatro reações imunológicas, quando X² foi empregado (P < 0,05.

  12. DETECTION OF ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA ANTIGEN IN LIVER PUS AND SERUM WITH ELISA FOR THE AETIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF AMEBIC LIVER ABSCESS%应用ELISA检测阿米巴脓抗原和循环抗原诊断阿米巴肝脓肿的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安亦军; 郭增柱; 谢云秋

    1999-01-01

    应用ELISA法检测阿米巴肝脓肿患者脓液和血标本中的阿米巴抗原.结果42例患者中有41例检出脓抗原,检出率为97.6%,其中包括8例镜检阿米巴滋养体阳性和33例镜检阴性者;有39例检出循环抗原,检出率为92.9%.脓抗原阳性反应强度高于循环抗原者(P<0.05).各种对照标本的阿米巴抗原检出率为0.提示可用ELISA抗原检测法替代镜检和培养法进行阿米巴肝脓肿的病原学诊断.

  13. Diagnóstico de amebíase intestinal utilizando métodos coproscópicos e imunológicos em amostra da população da área metropolitana de Belém, Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Póvoa Marinete Marins

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo expõe a comparação de métodos de diagnóstico de Entamoeba histolytica em amostra da população de Belém do Pará. Foram analisadas amostras fecais de crianças e adultos (Grupo I, amostras fecais e soros de adultos (Grupo II e material fecal de crianças (Grupo III. Nos grupos I e III foram empregados os métodos direto com lugol (MD, Faust e cols. (MFF e ELISA (detecção de coproantígeno anti-GIAP de E. histolytica; no grupo II, MD, hematoxilina férrica (HF, MFF, ELISA e reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI para detecção de anticorpos IgG. A positividade encontrada foi de 10,50%, empregando (MD + MFF e de 28,99% pelo ELISA. Não houve correlação entre positividade e grupo etário. No Grupo II (n = 87, a positividade encontrada foi de 4,59% pelos métodos coproscópicos (MD + MFF, 8,04% por HF, 4,59% pela RIFI e 21,83% pelo ELISA. O teste de ELISA foi o mais sensível para todos os grupos. Conclui-se que a RIFI ainda não é ferramenta útil para diagnóstico desta protozoose. O teste de ELISA, de fácil execução, foi feito em 1/3 do tempo usado para HF e RIFI, melhorando a qualidade do diagnóstico. Recomenda-se o ELISA como método de diagnóstico nos caso suspeitos de infecções com E. histolytica.

  14. Distribution of Different Serotypes and Epidemiological Characteristics of Bacillary Dysentery in Beijing from 2009 to 2011%北京市2009-2011年痢疾病原菌菌型分布和流行病学特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新; 刘桂荣; 曲梅; 吴小娜; 贾蕾; 王全意

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the change of serotype and the epidemiological characteristics of Shigella in Beijing from 2009 to 2011. Methods Totally 788 Shigella strains isolated from diarrhea patients in Beijing from 2009 to 2011 were sero-typed. Results Of all the 788 Shigella isolates 597 were Shigella sonnei ( accounting for 75. 76% ), and 188 were Shigella flex-neri ( accounting for 23. 86% ). The highest incidence was found in August and September, and the ages of the patients ranged mainly from 21 to 30 years. Conclusion The epidemic strains during the three years in Beijing are Shigella flexneri and Shigella Sonnei, and Shigella Sonnei is the dominant serotype.%目的 分析2009-2011年北京地区志贺菌的菌型分布及流行病学特征.方法 收集2009-2011年痢疾监测中分离到的志贺菌788株进行血清分型.结果 788株志贺菌中宋内志贺菌597株(占75.76%),福氏志贺菌188株(占23.86%).检出高峰在8、9月份,年龄段以21~30岁为主.结论 近三年北京市志贺菌流行菌型为福氏志贺菌和宋内志贺菌,其中优势菌型为宋内志贺菌.今后痢疾防控应以夏秋季为主.

  15. Diets containing inulin but not lupins help to prevent swine dysentery in experimentally challenged pigs%含有菊粉但不含羽扇豆的饲粮有助预防实验诱导的猪痢疾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hansen C F; Phillips N D; La T; 闫轶洁

    2010-01-01

    @@ 猪痢疾是一种传染性黏膜出血的腹泻疾病,由定植于肠道的猪痢疾短螺旋体引起,能够诱发盲肠和结肠发炎.据报道饲料中添加菊苣根和甜羽扇豆可预防猪痢疾.本试验旨在验证是菊苣根中的菊粉而不是羽扇豆中的半乳糖起到保护作用的假设.试验采用2×2因子设计,生猪采食大麦和黑麦基础饲粮,主效应是蛋白源[18.5%菜粕(低半乳糖)或22%羽扇豆(高半乳糖)]和菊粉添加剂(0或8%).

  16. Sensibilidad de trofozoítos de Entamoeba histolytica a ivermectina Sensibility of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites to ivermectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco González-Salazar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La amibiasis producida por Entamoeba histolytica es un problema de salud pública. Las formas clínicas más frecuentes son la disentería y el absceso hepático amibiano. En el mundo se notifican anualmente 50 millones de casos y más de 100 000 muertes por esta enfermedad. El ciclo de vida de E. histolytica tiene dos fases: trofozoíto y quiste. Los trofozoítos son los responsables de producir enfermedad. El tratamiento actual para la amibiasis incluye medicamentos con efectos colaterales serios. La ivermectina es un macrólido con actividad contra endoparásitos y ectoparásitos causantes de strongiloidosis, filariasis, oncocercosis, sarna y pediculosis. Su uso está extendido a casi todo el mundo y se lo reconoce como un medicamento seguro. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la sensiblidad in vitro de trofozoítos de E. histolytica al tratamiento con ivermectina. Para determinar su sensibilidad a la droga, se utilizaron trofozoítos de E. histolytica cultivados en medio PEHPS. Durante su fase de crecimiento logarítmico se expusieron a diferentes concentraciones de ivermectina. Como controles se usaron otras drogas antiparasitarias. Se prepararon diluciones seriadas de cada droga, luego se agregaron a tubos con parásitos (2 x 10(4 células/ml. Se incubó por 72 h y luego se determinó el porcentaje de inhibición de crecimiento calculado por análisis Probit. La ivermectina tiene actividad contra trofozoítos de E. histolytica. La dosis de ivermectina que produjo el 50% de inhibición de crecimiento fue de 6.40 mg/ml. Esta dosis fue mayor a la encontrada con otras drogas antiparasitarias. Falta demostrar su actividad in vivo en modelos animales.Amebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is a problem of public world health. The most frequent clinical presentation are the dysentery and the amebic liver abscess. Fifty millions of cases and more than 100.000 deaths for this disease are reported annually worldwide. The life cycle of E

  17. Colonoscopic diagnosis of amebiasis: a case series and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ko-Chao; Lu, Chien-Chang; Hu, Wan-Hsiang; Lin, Shung-Eing; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms make diagnosis of amebiasis difficult. Certain colonoscopic findings predict amebic colitis while others suggest different diagnoses. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic capability of colonic evaluation of amebiasis. We retrospectively reviewed data of all amebiasis cases admitted to our institution between 2003 and 2012. Cases were diagnosed by clinical presentation, laboratory examinations, and colonoscopy with biopsy and microscopic examination. Patients were stratified as right-sided colitis and proctosigmoiditis. A systematic review was conducted by searching Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar using key words amebiasis, amebic colitis, amebic proctosigmoiditis, colonoscopy, and Entamoeba histolytica. Data were extracted from articles meeting the inclusion criteria. Colonoscopic findings were described and studies were assessed for quality. The current series included 20 patients (5 male, 15 female, median age 51), 7 with amebic liver abscess and 13 with amebic colitis. Colonoscopic findings of right-sided colitis included aphthae or erosions, ulcers, exudates, or edematous swollen mucosa in cecum, and findings for proctosigmoiditis were edematous swollen mucosa with bloody exudate. In 25 studies, colonoscopic findings of 41 patients (36 male, 5 female, median age 43.39 years) included mainly ulcers in the cecum and rectum, ulcerated mass, and edematous mucosa; and in fewer patients, submucosal invasion suggestive of colon cancer, bleeding ulcers, proctitis, and ulcers with aphthae in rectum. Colonic evaluation of suspected amebiasis is of diagnostic value when accompanied by biopsy and microscopic identification of Entamoeba species. Colonoscopic manifestations vary between right-sided colitis and proctosigmoiditis.

  18. Microbes and microbial toxins: paradigms for microbial-mucosal interactions. VI. Entamoeba histolytica: parasite-host interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, S L; Reed, S L

    2001-06-01

    The protozoan intestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. E. histolytica causes two major clinical syndromes, amebic colitis and amebic liver abscess. Recent advances in the development of in vitro and in vivo models of disease, new genetic approaches, the identification of key E. histolytica virulence factors, and the recognition of crucial elements of the host response to infection have led to significant insights into the pathogenesis of amebic infection. E. histolytica virulence factors include 1) a surface galactose binding lectin that mediates E. histolytica binding to host cells and may contribute to amebic resistance to complement, 2) amebapores, small peptides capable of lysing cells, which may play a role in killing intestinal epithelial cells, hepatocytes, and host defense cells, and 3) a family of secreted cysteine proteinases that play a key role in E. histolytica tissue invasion, evasion of host defenses, and parasite induction of gut inflammation. Amebae can both lyse host cells and induce their suicide through programmed cell death. The host response is also an important factor in the outcome of infection, and neutrophils may play a key role in contributing to the tissue damage seen in amebiasis and in controlling amebic infection.

  19. The future for vaccine development against Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Jeanie; St-Pierre, Joëlle; Chadee, Kris

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amebiasis, one of the top three parasitic causes of mortality worldwide. In the majority of infected individuals, E. histolytica asymptomatically colonizes the large intestine, while in others, the parasite breaches the mucosal epithelial barrier to cause amebic colitis and can disseminate to soft organs to cause abscesses. Vaccinations using native and recombinant forms of the parasite Gal-lectin have been successful in protecting animals against intestinal amebiasis and amebic liver abscess. Protection against amebic liver abscesses has also been reported by targeting other E. histolytica components including the serine-rich protein and the 29-kDa-reductase antigen. To date, vaccines against the Gal-lectin hold the most promise but clinical trials will be required to validate its efficacy in humans. Here, we review the current strategies and future perspectives involved in the development of a vaccine against E. histolytica.

  20. The future for vaccine development against Entamoeba histolytica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Jeanie; St-Pierre, Joëlle; Chadee, Kris

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amebiasis, one of the top three parasitic causes of mortality worldwide. In the majority of infected individuals, E. histolytica asymptomatically colonizes the large intestine, while in others, the parasite breaches the mucosal epithelial barrier to cause amebic colitis and can disseminate to soft organs to cause abscesses. Vaccinations using native and recombinant forms of the parasite Gal-lectin have been successful in protecting animals against intestinal amebiasis and amebic liver abscess. Protection against amebic liver abscesses has also been reported by targeting other E. histolytica components including the serine-rich protein and the 29-kDa-reductase antigen. To date, vaccines against the Gal-lectin hold the most promise but clinical trials will be required to validate its efficacy in humans. Here, we review the current strategies and future perspectives involved in the development of a vaccine against E. histolytica. PMID:24504133

  1. Exploring the possible role of lysine acetylation on Entamoeba histolytica virulence: a focus on the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Contreras, L; Hernández-Ramírez, V I; Lagunes-Guillén, A E; Montaño, Sarita; Chávez-Munguía, B; Sánchez-Ramírez, B; Talamás-Rohana, P

    2013-01-01

    Cytoskeleton remodeling can be regulated, among other mechanisms, by lysine acetylation. The role of acetylation on cytoskeletal and other proteins of Entamoeba histolytica has been poorly studied. Dynamic rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton are crucial for amebic motility and capping formation, processes that may be effective means of evading the host immune response. Here we report the possible effect of acetylation on the actin cytoskeleton dynamics and in vivo virulence of E. histolytica. Using western blot, immunoprecipitation, microscopy assays, and in silico analysis, we show results that strongly suggest that the increase in Aspirin-induced cytoplasm proteins acetylation reduced cell movement and capping formation, likely as a consequence of alterations in the structuration of the actin cytoskeleton. Additionally, intrahepatic inoculation of Aspirin-treated trophozoites in hamsters resulted in severe impairment of the amebic virulence. Taken together, these results suggest an important role for lysine acetylation in amebic invasiveness and virulence.

  2. Exploring the Possible Role of Lysine Acetylation on Entamoeba histolytica Virulence: A Focus on the Dynamics of the Actin Cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. López-Contreras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytoskeleton remodeling can be regulated, among other mechanisms, by lysine acetylation. The role of acetylation on cytoskeletal and other proteins of Entamoeba histolytica has been poorly studied. Dynamic rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton are crucial for amebic motility and capping formation, processes that may be effective means of evading the host immune response. Here we report the possible effect of acetylation on the actin cytoskeleton dynamics and in vivo virulence of E. histolytica. Using western blot, immunoprecipitation, microscopy assays, and in silico analysis, we show results that strongly suggest that the increase in Aspirin-induced cytoplasm proteins acetylation reduced cell movement and capping formation, likely as a consequence of alterations in the structuration of the actin cytoskeleton. Additionally, intrahepatic inoculation of Aspirin-treated trophozoites in hamsters resulted in severe impairment of the amebic virulence. Taken together, these results suggest an important role for lysine acetylation in amebic invasiveness and virulence.

  3. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the_monk

    well water were found to contribute to the prevalence of intestinal helminth infection, although showed no ... to improper disposal of faecal wastes, poor factors found to significantly affect infestation ..... anaemia, diarrhea and dysentery,.

  4. (Tul.) LP Queiroz

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    Gastrointestinal problems: colic, diarrhea, dysentery ... diarrhea, stomach pain, flatulence, gastritis. Undefined .... and gastric mucosal protection factors of ethanolic extract .... (2005). Life strategy and chemical composition as predictors of the.

  5. SURVEY OF WILD PLANT SEEDS AND THEIR VALUE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study involved oral interview of 100 herb sellers (stall owners) in five selected herbal markets in ... Keywords: herbal market, conservation, ecosystem, genetic resources. .... Investigation revealed that most of the ... Climber Diabetes, dysentery.

  6. 21 CFR 558.115 - Carbadox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bacterial swine enteritis (salmonellosis or necrotic enteritis caused by Salmonella choleraesuis); increased... dysentery); control of bacterial swine enteritis (salmonellosis or necrotic enteritis caused by Salmonella... treatment of bacterial enteritis caused by Escherichia coli and S. choleraesuis susceptible...

  7. Anti-venom potentials of Friedelin isolated from hexane extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... dysentery, cancer, diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis and snake bite remedy. In this report, an attempt has been made to evaluate the bioactive molecules in the plant that are ... The major compound isolated, HXC1 (friedelin), determined using ...

  8. antimicrobial activity of extracts of momordica charantia and alstonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    activity of the plants extracts against viable and pure cultures of the test organisms. Results showed ... medicinal treatment, such as intestinal parasites, dysentery, diarrhoea, gonorrhea, Bilharzia ... Classification and Concentration of Extracts.

  9. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-20

    Aug 20, 2007 ... of the stem bark finds use in the treatment of dysentery, typhoid fever and fungal ... pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, B. cereus, E. coli and S. typhi obtained from the Faculty of .... Physical description: Pale yellow needles (DMSO).

  10. Pollution Sources in the Nigerian Environment and Their Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    disease, cardiovascular problems, brain damage, cancer and others. ... cholera, bacterial and amoebic dysentery, typhoid fever, neurological impairment, cancer, brain damage, kidney ... directly into the water which cause pollution that.

  11. Ubiquity of the water-borne pathogens, Cryptosporidium and Giardia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2001-01-01

    Jan 1, 2001 ... Abstract. The prevalence of the diarrhoea disease caused by the water-borne pathogens ... Giardiapositive cases were recorded in symptomatic. (4.5% and ..... cholera, salmonella, amoebic dysentery, Shigella, or enteropathic.

  12. and Tanga, Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease surveillance system for 13 priority communicable diseases in Tanzania. Retrospective ... existing conditions, and preventing the emergency of new ones and ... dysentery, cerebro-spinal meningitis, cholera, measles, plague, rabies ...

  13. ain defla, algeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hamaidi-Chergui F, Brahim Errahmani M, Debib A, Hamaidi M.S

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... gastroenteritis to severe and sometimes fatal dysentery, cholera, or typhoid [3]. ... Their presence in drinking water indicates that disease-causing .... Wells constructed should be properly ringed and covered to avoid the ...

  14. Microbial deterioration of stored water for users supplied by stand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cally contaminated and may contribute to the spread of diseases such as cholera, hepatitis A, hepatitis E, typhoid, dysentery and. This paper was originally ... cates resistance to treatment processes or that can mimic the environmental ...

  15. TABLE 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BASIS CRISP CRISP

    outbreaks of water associated diseases, especially cholera, that affect the local community periodically. ... diseases that are transmitted by drinking contaminated water such as cholera, dysentery, and ... malfunctioning of the sewage treatment,.

  16. Department of Geography, Kwara State Po

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-05-24

    May 24, 2016 ... principal medium for preventing disease. World Health Organization ... through poor treatment and disposal of excreta ..... is wide spread and the entire courses of the rivers within the ... cholera, typhoid, dysentery, cancer and.

  17. climate change adaptation strategies by local farmers in kilombero ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    cholera, typhoid, dysentery and amoebic diseases. This could be ... disease. High rate spread of waterborne diseases may be boosted by extreme climate conditions that could be ..... and access to prevention and treatment in the paddies of ...

  18. admission patterns and outcomes of paediatric patients admitted at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diarrheal diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality ... epidemics of cholera and dysentery common to this region ... limit the spread of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial ... its relation to age, sex, type of diarrhea, treatment.

  19. Vom work Book Journal, 2011 1st Edition PDF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ailments, skin disorders and diarrhoea (Duke,. 1983). Acacia ... Proteus vulgaris, Shigella dysentery, E. coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aerogenosa, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus albus ... Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Vol. 32(1): ...

  20. diseases and causes of death among the popes 1. introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    present as is to be expected in an older population group, and acute terminal febrile illnesses ... disease, gallstones, cancer, dysentery, the plague, lung infection, gangrene of a leg, ..... Information on the patients' medical histories is limited.

  1. A Dog with Multiple Infections of Enteric Parasitic Zoonosis in Mashhad City, North-East of Iran; a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: In this study, we examined stool specimen from a 3-year-old domesticated dog, which was referred to a veterinary clinic with clinical signs such as nausea or vomiting, dysentery, cachexia and rash in Mashhad city, northeast of Iran. Patient & Methods: A 3-year-old pet dog was referred to veterinary clinic of Mashhad in February 2016 by symptoms including, nausea or vomiting, dysentery, cachexia and rash in Mashhad City, Northeast of Iran. For parasitolog...

  2. Disease: H00299 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H00299 Shigellosis; Bacillary dysentery Shigellosis (bacillary dysentery) is a food... and bloody diarrhea, and tenesmus. Transmission usually occurs via contaminated food and water or through p...eider KR Shigella as a foodborne pathogen and current methods for detection in food...ine development. Curr Opin Infect Dis 21:313-8 (2008) PMID:16954064 (description) Warren BR, Parish ME, Schn

  3. Technology Against Terrorism: Structuring Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    shigella dysentery and also have activity Biological Weapons of the Future against dysentery produced by Campylobacter je- Terrorists are unlikely to... ELISA ,"DNA probes, attack. or DNA probes with the target genetic materialamplified by the polymerase chain reaction; It m ay be possible to develop...not been by the following types of approaches: started prior to an attack. 5’ ELISA standd for mzyme-linked immunospeuific assay. 1he EUISA assay is a

  4. Pleuropulmonary amebiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Suh, Soo Ji; Ra, Woo Youn; Woo, Won Hyung [Kyungpook National University, School of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-03-15

    Nineteen cases of pleuropulmonary amebiasis was proved by needle aspiration or surgery as complication of amebic liver abscess during the period from June, 1969 to August, 1971 at Kyungpook National University Hospital. The results obtained are as follows: 1. Male to female ratio was about 3:1 and most of cases belonged to the 4th through 6th decades. 2. The most frequent complaint was upper abdominal pain and the most frequent abnormal physical finding was hepatomegaly. 3. Abnormalities seen in the chest films were: (a) Elevation of right diaphragm: (b) Empyema and (c) Pulmonary consolidation. 4. The pleuropulmonary amebiasis was seen in 26% of amebic liver abscess.

  5. Diagnóstico de amebíase intestinal utilizando métodos coproscópicos e imunológicos em amostra da população da área metropolitana de Belém, Pará, Brasil Diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis using coproscopic and immunological methods in a population sample in Greater Metropolitan Belém, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinete Marins Póvoa

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available O artigo expõe a comparação de métodos de diagnóstico de Entamoeba histolytica em amostra da população de Belém do Pará. Foram analisadas amostras fecais de crianças e adultos (Grupo I, amostras fecais e soros de adultos (Grupo II e material fecal de crianças (Grupo III. Nos grupos I e III foram empregados os métodos direto com lugol (MD, Faust e cols. (MFF e ELISA (detecção de coproantígeno anti-GIAP de E. histolytica; no grupo II, MD, hematoxilina férrica (HF, MFF, ELISA e reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI para detecção de anticorpos IgG. A positividade encontrada foi de 10,50%, empregando (MD + MFF e de 28,99% pelo ELISA. Não houve correlação entre positividade e grupo etário. No Grupo II (n = 87, a positividade encontrada foi de 4,59% pelos métodos coproscópicos (MD + MFF, 8,04% por HF, 4,59% pela RIFI e 21,83% pelo ELISA. O teste de ELISA foi o mais sensível para todos os grupos. Conclui-se que a RIFI ainda não é ferramenta útil para diagnóstico desta protozoose. O teste de ELISA, de fácil execução, foi feito em 1/3 do tempo usado para HF e RIFI, melhorando a qualidade do diagnóstico. Recomenda-se o ELISA como método de diagnóstico nos caso suspeitos de infecções com E. histolytica.We compare diagnostic methods for Entamoeba histolytica in fecal samples from the city of Belém, Pará, Brazil. We analyze stool samples from children and adults (Group I; stool and serum samples from adults (Group II; and stool samples from children (Group III. In groups I and III, we used direct examination with lugol (DM, Faust et al (FM, and ELISA (detection of E. histolytica anti-GIAP coproantigen and in group II, DM, iron hematoxylin staining (IHS, FM, ELISA, and the indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT for detection of IgG antibodies. Positivity was 10.50% by DM plus FM and 28.99% by ELISA. There was no correlation between positivity and age group. In Group II (n = 87, the positive rate was 4.59% by DM plus FM, 8.04% by IHS, 4.59% by IFAT, and 21.83% by ELISA. The ELISA test was the most sensitive for all groups. IFAT alone is still not a useful tool for diagnosis of E. histolytica infection. The ELISA test is simple, performed in one-third of cases used for IHS and IFAT, and greatly improves quality of diagnosis. We recommend this as the method of choice for diagnosis of suspected E. histolytica infection.

  6. 阿米巴可能是致人感染某些疾病的传播媒介和贮存宿主——记从阿米巴原虫内新发现的一些病原菌%Amoeba May be the Vehicle of Transmission ond Reservoir Host for Human Infected Diseases-A Description of Newfound Pathogenic Bacteria from Amebic Protozoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李子华

    2009-01-01

    早在20年前就不断有人发现,阿米巴原虫内可寄生有多种细菌,近年来又从临床标本的阿米巴中继续分离出多种胞内共生菌.因此,关于它们对人类的致病性渐受人们重视,对携带有胞内寄生或共生菌的阿米巴原虫,作为人类致病菌的传播媒介和多种病原菌的贮存宿主,已渐渐提高了认识,并对它们在分类学地位进行大量的研究.而这类胞内寄生或共生菌,已成为当前严重关注的传染源问题.文章综述了目前已发现的阿米巴共生菌、共生菌的种类和阿米巴与军团菌及军团样菌的关系,并介绍实验诊断的部分方法.

  7. Aspectos imunológicos e parasitológicos em Biomphalaria tenagophila infectadas por Schistosoma mansoni e outros Digenea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Doralice de Souza Luro

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento de amebócitos de Biomphalaria tenagophila infectadas por Schistosoma mansoni, por outros Digenea e a resistência à superinfecção, presente em infecções mistas. Foi verificada a atividade fagocitária dos amebócitos, o número destas células circulantes, a reação amebocitária nos tecidos, o perfil eletroforético da hemolinfa, além da reação de imunodifusão. Concluiu-se que moluscos infectados por outros Digenea apresentam resistência à superinfecção por S. mansoni, sendo que os amebócitos parecem não ter participação direta na destruição dos esporocistos de S. mansoni nesta eventualidade. Nos moluscos infectados observou-se maior número de amebócitos circulantes e aumento de capacidade fagocitária destas células.

  8. [Amebiasis. Surgical treatment in 1989].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler Morales, L; Mier y Díaz, J; Melgoza Ortiz, C; Blanco Benavides, R; Medina González, E

    1989-01-01

    Even when the number of patients with invasive amebiasis has decreased, the internist and surgeon must be alert in case that the patient requires an operation. Amebic liver abscess is treated medically; percutaneous evacuation is rarely used and surgical drainage is made when there is not response to medical treatment or there is high risk of abscess rupture. Operation is mandatory when the abscess has ruptured to the abdominal cavity or through the pericardial sac. In fulminant colitis it is necessary to resect the diseased portion of the colon without primary anastomoses. Amebic apendicitis is difficult to diagnosis before an operation. It may be suspected in cases of apendicitis if the cecal wall is inflammed. Colon ameboma requires medical treatment except if it is associated with necrosis or perforation. In a four year period (1985-1988) 294 patients with diagnosis of invasive amebiasis were admitted to three hospitals of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Mexico City. 218 had hepatic abscess, 45 required surgical drainage with four deaths (9%) and four not operated patients died. In this series only four patients had their abscess drained percutaneously. 31 patients with amebic colitis were treated; three required colonic resection with one death. Ameboma was seen in five patients and there were 11 cases of amebic apendicitis. No deaths occurred in these last two groups.

  9. In vitro efficacy of corifungin against Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Anjan; Tunac, Josefino B; Silva-Olivares, Angélica; Galindo-Gómez, Silvia; Shibayama, Mineko; McKerrow, James H

    2014-01-01

    Painful blinding keratitis and fatal granulomatous amebic encephalitis are caused by the free-living amebae Acanthamoeba spp. Several prescription eye medications are used to treat Acanthamoeba keratitis, but the infection can be difficult to control because of recurrence of infection. For the treatment of encephalitis, no single drug was found useful, and in spite of the use of a combination of multiple drugs, the mortality rate remains high. Therefore, efficient, novel drugs are urgently needed for the treatment of amebic keratitis and granulomatous amebic encephalitis. In this study, we identified corifungin, a water-soluble polyene macrolide, as amebicidal. In vitro, it was effective against both the trophozoites and the cysts. Transmission electron microscopy of Acanthamoeba castellanii incubated with corifungin showed the presence of swollen mitochondria, electron-dense granules, degeneration of cytoplasm architecture, and loss of nuclear chromatin structure. These changes were followed by lysis of amebae. Corifungin also induced the encystment process of A. castellanii. There were alterations in the cyst cell wall followed by lysis of the cysts. Corifungin is a promising therapeutic option for keratitis and granulomatous amebic encephalitis.

  10. Efficacy and safety of paromomycin for treating amebiasis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Tadashi; Koga, Michiko; Shimizu, Shoichi; Miura, Toshiyuki; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Kimura, Mikio

    2013-12-01

    The clinical management of amebiasis is a growing concern, particularly among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals who are predisposed to severe illness. Treatment with a luminal amebicide is strongly recommended following acute-stage treatment with a nitroimidazole. In 2004, the Japanese Research Group on Chemotherapy of Tropical Diseases introduced paromomycin, which was not nationally licensed, and offered it to a number of patients. From 2004 to 2011, 143 case records of amebiasis (123 with amebic colitis, 16 with amebic liver abscess, and 4 with both) in which patients were treated with paromomycin, mainly 1,500 mg/day for 9 or 10 days following metronidazole treatment, were submitted. Among 123 evaluable cases, 23 (18.7%) experienced possible adverse effects, the most common being diarrhea (17/123, 13.8%) and other gastrointestinal problems that were resolved after the completion or discontinuation of treatment. In addition, single cases of bloody stools associated with Clostridium difficile colitis, skin rash, and the elevation of liver enzymes were also reported, although the causal relationship was not clear. HIV infection did not appear to increase the incidence of adverse drug effects. Each of the 11 asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic amebic colitis cases became negative for stool cysts after paromomycin treatment. Paromomycin was shown to be safe and well tolerated, as well as effective in a special subset of amebic colitis cases. © 2013.

  11. Amebiasis presenting as acute appendicitis: Report of a case and review of Japanese literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Daisuke; Hata, Shojirou; Seiichiro, Shimizu; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Teruya, Masanori; Kaminishi, Michio

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Outside of these high-risk regions, acute amebic appendicitis is considerably rarer and the mortality rate is much higher than with non-amebic appendicitis. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 31-year-old woman presented with fever and right lower abdominal pain with no history of traveling abroad or sexual infection. Computed tomography revealed a dilated appendix and thickened cecal and ascending colon walls. She underwent an appendectomy for appendicitis. Owing to a lack of symptom resolution, we performed a pathologic examination of the appendix again that revealed multiple Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites; the serum amebic antibody was positive. She was treated postoperatively with metronidazole for amebiasis and discharged on postoperative day 12. DISCUSSION The mortality rate and frequency of severe postoperative intraabdominal complications were higher in the Japanese literature (1995–2013) (25% and 33%, respectively) than in other developed countries (3.3% and 19.4%, respectively). Japan is a low-risk area for amebiasis; many physicians fail to consider amebiasis in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen. It is important to conduct further examinations, including those for amebiasis, when appendectomy does not resolve acute appendicitis. CONCLUSION We report a case of acute amebic appendicitis in a 31-year-old woman and review the ages at presentation, causative factors, treatments, and outcomes of 11 cases reported in Japan between 1995 and 2013. PMID:25460473

  12. Aspectos imunológicos e parasitológicos em Biomphalaria tenagophila infectadas por Schistosoma mansoni e outros Digenea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralice de Souza Luro Balan

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento de amebócitos de Biomphalaria tenagophila infectadas por Schistosoma mansoni, por outros Digenea e a resistência à superinfecção, presente em infecções mistas. Foi verificada a atividade fagocitária dos amebócitos, o número destas células circulantes, a reação amebocitária nos tecidos, o perfil eletroforético da hemolinfa, além da reação de imunodifusão. Concluiu-se que moluscos infectados por outros Digenea apresentam resistência à superinfecção por S. mansoni, sendo que os amebócitos parecem não ter participação direta na destruição dos esporocistos de S. mansoni nesta eventualidade. Nos moluscos infectados observou-se maior número de amebócitos circulantes e aumento de capacidade fagocitária destas células.

  13. G protein signaling in the parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Dustin E; Siderovski, David P

    2013-01-01

    The parasite Entamoeba histolytica causes amebic colitis and systemic amebiasis. Among the known amebic factors contributing to pathogenesis are signaling pathways involving heterotrimeric and Ras superfamily G proteins. Here, we review the current knowledge of the roles of heterotrimeric G protein subunits, Ras, Rho and Rab GTPase families in E. histolytica pathogenesis, as well as of their downstream signaling effectors and nucleotide cycle regulators. Heterotrimeric G protein signaling likely modulates amebic motility and attachment to and killing of host cells, in part through activation of an RGS-RhoGEF (regulator of G protein signaling–Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor) effector. Rho family GTPases, as well as RhoGEFs and Rho effectors (formins and p21-activated kinases) regulate the dynamic actin cytoskeleton of E. histolytica and associated pathogenesis-related cellular processes, such as migration, invasion, phagocytosis and evasion of the host immune response by surface receptor capping. A remarkably large family of 91 Rab GTPases has multiple roles in a complex amebic vesicular trafficking system required for phagocytosis and pinocytosis and secretion of known virulence factors, such as amebapores and cysteine proteases. Although much remains to be discovered, recent studies of G protein signaling in E. histolytica have enhanced our understanding of parasitic pathogenesis and have also highlighted possible targets for pharmacological manipulation. PMID:23519208

  14. Fatal Naegleria fowleri Meningoencephalitis, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglia, Massimo; Gatti, Simonetta; Rossetti, Flavio; Alaggio, Rita; Laverda, Anna Maria; Zhou, Ling; Xiao, Lihua; Visvesvara, Govinda S.

    2004-01-01

    We report the first case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis in Italy, in a 9-year-old boy. Clinical course was fulminant, and diagnosis was made by identifying amebas in stained brain sections and by indirect immunofluorescence analysis. Naegleria fowleri was characterized as genotype I on the basis of polymerase chain reaction test results. PMID:15504272

  15. Amebiasis presenting as acute appendicitis: Report of a case and review of Japanese literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Daisuke; Hata, Shojirou; Seiichiro, Shimizu; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Teruya, Masanori; Kaminishi, Michio

    2014-01-01

    Outside of these high-risk regions, acute amebic appendicitis is considerably rarer and the mortality rate is much higher than with non-amebic appendicitis. A 31-year-old woman presented with fever and right lower abdominal pain with no history of traveling abroad or sexual infection. Computed tomography revealed a dilated appendix and thickened cecal and ascending colon walls. She underwent an appendectomy for appendicitis. Owing to a lack of symptom resolution, we performed a pathologic examination of the appendix again that revealed multiple Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites; the serum amebic antibody was positive. She was treated postoperatively with metronidazole for amebiasis and discharged on postoperative day 12. The mortality rate and frequency of severe postoperative intraabdominal complications were higher in the Japanese literature (1995-2013) (25% and 33%, respectively) than in other developed countries (3.3% and 19.4%, respectively). Japan is a low-risk area for amebiasis; many physicians fail to consider amebiasis in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen. It is important to conduct further examinations, including those for amebiasis, when appendectomy does not resolve acute appendicitis. We report a case of acute amebic appendicitis in a 31-year-old woman and review the ages at presentation, causative factors, treatments, and outcomes of 11 cases reported in Japan between 1995 and 2013. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Granulomatous encephalitis, intracranial arteritis, and mycotic aneurysm due to a free-living ameba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, A J; Sotelo-Avila, C; Alcalá, H; Willaert, E

    1980-01-01

    Primary amebic meningoencephalitis and granulomatous amebic encephalitis are well recognized clinicopathological entities caused by free-living amebas. Associated arteritis and "mycotic aneurysms" with infiltration of intracranial arteries by lymphocytes, amebic trophozoites and cysts have not been previously reported. A 26-month-old girl had a 3-week history of encephalitis, characterized, initially, by vomiting and low-grade fever. Subsequently, she developed ataxia, generalized weakness, lethargy, and esotropia. The first CSF showed 490 RBC/microliters, 705 WBC/microliters with 90% mononuclears. Her pupils reacted briskly to light. Moderate nuchal rigidity, nystagmus, fixed downward gaze, anisocoria, bilateral 6th nerve palsy, left arm monoparesis and left Babinski were present. CAT scan revealed slight symmetrical dilatation of anterior horns of lateral ventricles and an area of abnormal enhancement above the 3rd ventricle. She died 14 days after admission, 5 weeks after onset of symptoms. The brain showed focal necrotizing encephalopathy, involving thalami, cerebellum, brain stem, and cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord. Numerous free-living amebic trophozoites and cysts were present within a chronic granulomatous encephalitis. There were trombosis of basilar, posterior cerebral, and vertebral arteries with profuse chronic panarteritis, fibrinoid necrosis, and mycotic aneurysms.

  17. Hsp60 is targeted to a cryptic mitochondrion-derived organelle ("crypton") in the microaerophilic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Z; Ghosh, S; Frisardi, M; Rosenthal, B; Rogers, R; Samuelson, J

    1999-03-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a microaerophilic protozoan parasite in which neither mitochondria nor mitochondrion-derived organelles have been previously observed. Recently, a segment of an E. histolytica gene was identified that encoded a protein similar to the mitochondrial 60-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp60 or chaperonin 60), which refolds nuclear-encoded proteins after passage through organellar membranes. The possible function and localization of the amebic Hsp60 were explored here. Like Hsp60 of mitochondria, amebic Hsp60 RNA and protein were both strongly induced by incubating parasites at 42 degreesC. 5' and 3' rapid amplifications of cDNA ends were used to obtain the entire E. histolytica hsp60 coding region, which predicted a 536-amino-acid Hsp60. The E. histolytica hsp60 gene protected from heat shock Escherichia coli groEL mutants, demonstrating the chaperonin function of the amebic Hsp60. The E. histolytica Hsp60, which lacked characteristic carboxy-terminal Gly-Met repeats, had a 21-amino-acid amino-terminal, organelle-targeting presequence that was cleaved in vivo. This presequence was necessary to target Hsp60 to one (and occasionally two or three) short, cylindrical organelle(s). In contrast, amebic alcohol dehydrogenase 1 and ferredoxin, which are bacteria-like enzymes, were diffusely distributed throughout the cytosol. We suggest that the Hsp60-associated, mitochondrion-derived organelle identified here be named "crypton," as its structure was previously hidden and its function is still cryptic.

  18. Drug: D02125 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5.8625 D02125.gif Anti-amebic; Antimalarial; Suppressant [lupus erythematosus] [DS:H00360 H00361] ATC code: P01BA01 Indications: Mala...ria, Amebiasis Chloroquine should be administered with caution to patients having G

  19. Drug: D06051 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CTICIDES AND REPELLENTS P01 ANTIPROTOZOALS P01A AGENTS AGAINST AMOEBIASIS AND OTHER...51.gif Anti-amebic ATC code: P01AC04 Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] P ANTIPARASITIC PRODUCTS, INSE

  20. LATAR BELAKANG KARAKTERISTIK RESPONDED DALAM PENCEGAHAN PENYAKIT SHIGELLA/DISENTRI YANG DILAKUKAN OLEH MASYARAKAT DI JAKARTA UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Handayani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Research was conducted in North Jakarta and Selected 2 district in Jakarta North that is Tanjung Priok and Koja district as a research region. About 300 respondents which include 140 men and 151 woman from Tanjung Priok district. In Koja district was taken 200 respondents that consist of 101 men and 99 woman. Data processing done with double entry, by using program ISSA (Integrated Survey Analysis and Analysis Data used SPSS (Statistic Package for Social Science. The Research shown 88,7%-89,2% prevent spicy food can overcome dysentery disease of, 55.2% improving clean water can be temporary prevention of dysentery disease, and 56,4%-56,6% personal hygiene able to handle dysentery disease forever. By repairing bathroom (usually used for bath, wash, dump faeces 57.1%-58.4% and fixing garbage 56,2%-57,2% can prevent dysentery disease temporary, while 97,2%-97,4% of drinking traditional medicine (jamu also happen the same thing with dysentery disease. Based on respondents, 96,5%-96,6% using its own medicine/ingredient will prevent dysentery disease. According respondents habit on wash hand about 84.4% respondents wash their hand firstly in the morning and 74.2% washing band before sleep but 64.4% respondents who never wash their band before get dressed. From this research inferential respondents belief to prevent eat spicy food, improving readily clean water, bathroom, garbage place, efficacious of traditional drink, ingredients, washing band habit can be major factors that can prevent community from dysentery disease. The research is part of social Behavior Culture in Overcome Shigella Disease in Jakarta. Keywords: Respondent, Preventing, Shigella Disease

  1. Diagnostic tests for amoebic liver abscess: comparison of enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos I. Restrepo

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available The liver abscess is the most frequent extraintestinal complication of intestinal amoebiasis: its diagnosis is suggested by the clinical picture but it must be confirmed by paraclinic tests. Themost stringent diagnosis requires identification of E. histolytica. But this is possible only in a few cases. Serological tests greatly improve the diagnosis of this severe complication of amoebiasis. We compared the Enzyme Linfed Immunosorbent Assay and the Counterimmunoeletrophoresis techniques. Both techniques were used to detect amoebic antibodies in 50 control patients, 30 patients with liver abscess and 30 patients with intestinal amoebiasis. All the sera from control patients gave negative results iin both techniques. When analysing the sera from patients with intestinal amoebiasis, 10% of them were positive by ELISA but non by CIE. The sera of patients with liver abscess, we found that 90% were positive by the ELISA method and 66.6% by the CIE technique. In patients with amoebic liver abscess, the results showed that the ELISA was more sensitive than the CIE, as it presented a higher sensitivity (100% than that of the CIE technique (66%.O abscesso hepático é a complicação mais freqüente da amebíase intestinal: o seu diagnótico sugere-se pelo quadro clínico, mas é confirmado pelos estudos paraclínicos. Para confirmar o diagnóstico precisa-se identificar a E. histolytica, o que é apenas possível em muito poucos casos. As provas sorolôgicas melhoram notadamente o diagnóstico das complicações severas da amebíase. Em nosso estudo comparamos o teste de ELISA e a Contraimunoeletroforese (CIE. Ambas as técnicas foram utilizadas para detectar anticorpos contra ameba em 50 pacientes sem amebíase, 30 pacientes com abscesso hepático e 30 com amebíase intestinal. Todos os soros dos pacientes sem amebíase foram negativos por ambas as técnicas. Quando analisamos os soros dos pacientes com amebíase intestinal, encontrou-se que 10% destes

  2. Study on Antibacterial Activity of the Bark of Garcinia lanceifolia Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Nilutpal Sharma; Kakoti, Bibhuti Bhusan; Gogoi, Barnali

    2014-01-01

    Garcinia lanceifolia Roxb. is an important and endemic medicinal plant of Assam which has been used by various ethnic communities of Northeast India to treat various disorders like dysentery, dyspepsia, and biliousness. The plant is considered to be containing much medicinal value and is also eaten raw or made into pickles by the local people. Our present study has been focused on the evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the methanolic extract of the bark of Garcinia lanceifolia which may lead us to a scientific evidence of the use of this plant in cases of dysentery and diarrhoea. PMID:27437444

  3. Amoebic Liver Abscess. A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A amebíase é uma das doenças parasitárias mais comuns no mundo. As principais formas invasivas da doença são a colite amebiana e o abcesso hepático. Apresenta-se o caso clínico de um homem de 42 anos admitido com um quadro agudo de febre elevada e dor abdominal no hipocôndrio direito com dois dias de evolução. A tomografia axial computorizada do abdómen revelou a presença de 3 lesões abcedadas a nível do lobo direito do fígado. Tratando-se de um doente residente em área endémica de ameb...

  4. Involvement of the actin cytoskeleton and p21rho-family GTPases in the pathogenesis of the human protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.D. Godbold

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that infection with the enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica kills more than 50,000 people a year. Central to the pathogenesis of this organism is its ability to directly lyse host cells and cause tissue destruction. Amebic lesions show evidence of cell lysis, tissue necrosis, and damage to the extracellular matrix. The specific molecular mechanisms by which these events are initiated, transmitted, and effected are just beginning to be uncovered. In this article we review what is known about host cell adherence and contact-dependent cytolysis. We cover the involvement of the actin cytoskeleton and small GTP-binding proteins of the p21rho-family in the process of cell killing and phagocytosis, and also look at how amebic interactions with molecules of the extracellular matrix contribute to its cytopathic effects.

  5. Parasitic disease of the liver and biliary tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdulrahman

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Several parasites infest liver or biliary tree, either during their maturation stages or as adult worms. Bile iry tree parasites may cause pancreatitis, cholecystitis, biliary tree obstruction, recurrent cholangitis, biliary tree strictures and some may lead to cholangiocarcinoma. This review discusses the hepatobiliary parasites, and shows our experience in diagnosis and management of these parasites. Ultrasonography of the liver is diagnostic in schistosomiasis, hydatid cysts, amebic liver abscess, ascariasis and other biliary tree parasites showing bile duct dilatation. Percutaneous aspiration under ultrasonography guidance of hydatid liver cysts or amebic abscess are effective measures in management. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP is safe and effective in diagnosis and management of biliary tree parasites.

  6. Asymptomatic aneurysm of the cavernous and supraclinoid internal carotid artery in a patient with Balamuthia mandrillaris encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Ludwig D; Khan, Majid A; Fratkin, Jonathan D; Hanigan, William C

    2011-08-01

    This is the first report to our knowledge of the successful treatment of an asymptomatic mycotic aneurysm associated with Balamuthia mandrillaris encephalitis. A 27-year-old male with end-stage renal disease presented with generalized seizures following renal transplantation. MRI demonstrated multiple brain masses and an aneurysm of the cavernous and supraclinoid carotid artery. Autopsy of the donor's brain revealed Balamuthia encephalitis. The patient was placed on an anti-amebic regimen, his condition improved, and 126 days after the kidney transplant, MRI brain showed resolution of the aneurysm and improvement of the enhancing lesions. Balamuthia mandrillaris has been shown to cause a granulomatous encephalitis, with prominent vasculitis. This is the first report to demonstrate the risk of aneurysm formation associated with this infection. Prolonged anti-amebic treatment resulted in resolution of the aneurysm without clinical evidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  7. Regulation of adherence and virulence by the Entamoeba histolytica lectin cytoplasmic domain, which contains a beta2 integrin motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, R R; Ramakrishnan, G; Rogers, J B; Lockhart, L A; Mann, B J; Petri, W A

    1998-08-01

    Killing of human cells by the parasite Entamoeba histolytica requires adherence via an amebic cell surface lectin. Lectin activity in the parasite is regulated by inside-out signaling. The lectin cytoplasmic domain has sequence identity with a region of the beta2 integrin cytoplasmic tail implicated in regulation of integrin-mediated adhesion. Intracellular expression of a fusion protein containing the cytoplasmic domain of the lectin has a dominant negative effect on extracellular lectin-mediated cell adherence. Mutation of the integrin-like sequence abrogates the dominant negative effect. Amebae expressing the dominant negative mutant are less virulent in an animal model of amebiasis. These results suggest that inside-out signaling via the lectin cytoplasmic domain may control the extracellular adhesive activity of the amebic lectin and provide in vivo demonstration of the lectin's role in virulence.

  8. Pyogenic versus amoebic liver abscesses: A comparative clinical study in a series of 58 patients Absceso hepático piógeno versus amebiano: Estudio clínico comparativo de una serie de 58 casos

    OpenAIRE

    A. Cosme; E. Ojeda; Zamarreño, I.; Bujanda, L.; G. Garmendia; M. J. Echeverría; Benavente, J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: to compare the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) and with amebic liver abscess (AHA) in order to determine the potential factors that may help improve diagnosis and treatment for this disease. Material and method: a retrospective study of clinical histories of 45 patients with PLA and 13 with ALA, diagnosed between 1985 and 2005 in Donostia Hospital in San Sebastián. Results: among the 45 patients with PLA (30 men and 15 wome...

  9. Amebiasis in HIV-1-Infected Japanese Men: Clinical Features and Response to Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Koji; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Cadiz, Aleyla Escueta-de; Tanuma, Junko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Oka, Shinichi

    2011-01-01

    Invasive amebic diseases caused by Entamoeba histolytica are increasing among men who have sex with men and co-infection of ameba and HIV-1 is an emerging problem in developed East Asian countries. To characterize the clinical and epidemiological features of invasive amebiasis in HIV-1 patients, the medical records of 170 co-infected cases were analyzed retrospectively, and E. histolytica genotype was assayed in 14 cases. In this series of HIV-1-infected patients, clinical presentation of invasive amebiasis was similar to that described in the normal host. High fever, leukocytosis and high CRP were associated with extraluminal amebic diseases. Two cases died from amebic colitis (resulting in intestinal perforation in one and gastrointestinal bleeding in one), and three cases died from causes unrelated to amebiasis. Treatment with metronidazole or tinidazole was successful in the other 165 cases. Luminal treatment was provided to 83 patients following metronidazole or tinidazole treatment. However, amebiasis recurred in 6 of these, a frequency similar to that seen in patients who did not receive luminal treatment. Recurrence was more frequent in HCV-antibody positive individuals and those who acquired syphilis during the follow-up period. Various genotypes of E. histolytica were identified in 14 patients but there was no correlation between genotype and clinical features. The outcome of metronidazole and tinidazole treatment of uncomplicated amebiasis was excellent even in HIV-1-infected individuals. Luminal treatment following metronidazole or tinidazole treatment does not reduce recurrence of amebiasis in high risk populations probably due to amebic re-infection. PMID:21931875

  10. Amebiasis in HIV-1-infected Japanese men: clinical features and response to therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Watanabe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive amebic diseases caused by Entamoeba histolytica are increasing among men who have sex with men and co-infection of ameba and HIV-1 is an emerging problem in developed East Asian countries. To characterize the clinical and epidemiological features of invasive amebiasis in HIV-1 patients, the medical records of 170 co-infected cases were analyzed retrospectively, and E. histolytica genotype was assayed in 14 cases. In this series of HIV-1-infected patients, clinical presentation of invasive amebiasis was similar to that described in the normal host. High fever, leukocytosis and high CRP were associated with extraluminal amebic diseases. Two cases died from amebic colitis (resulting in intestinal perforation in one and gastrointestinal bleeding in one, and three cases died from causes unrelated to amebiasis. Treatment with metronidazole or tinidazole was successful in the other 165 cases. Luminal treatment was provided to 83 patients following metronidazole or tinidazole treatment. However, amebiasis recurred in 6 of these, a frequency similar to that seen in patients who did not receive luminal treatment. Recurrence was more frequent in HCV-antibody positive individuals and those who acquired syphilis during the follow-up period. Various genotypes of E. histolytica were identified in 14 patients but there was no correlation between genotype and clinical features. The outcome of metronidazole and tinidazole treatment of uncomplicated amebiasis was excellent even in HIV-1-infected individuals. Luminal treatment following metronidazole or tinidazole treatment does not reduce recurrence of amebiasis in high risk populations probably due to amebic re-infection.

  11. Aspectos imunológicos e parasitológicos em Biomphalaria tenagophila infectadas por Schistosoma mansoni e outros Digenea Immunological and parasitological aspects of Biomphalaria tenagophila infected by Schistosoma mansoni and other Digenea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralice de Souza Luro Balan

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento de amebócitos de Biomphalaria tenagophila infectadas por Schistosoma mansoni, por outros Digenea e a resistência à superinfecção, presente em infecções mistas. Foi verificada a atividade fagocitária dos amebócitos, o número destas células circulantes, a reação amebocitária nos tecidos, o perfil eletroforético da hemolinfa, além da reação de imunodifusão. Concluiu-se que moluscos infectados por outros Digenea apresentam resistência à superinfecção por S. mansoni, sendo que os amebócitos parecem não ter participação direta na destruição dos esporocistos de S. mansoni nesta eventualidade. Nos moluscos infectados observou-se maior número de amebócitos circulantes e aumento de capacidade fagocitária destas células.The behavior of Biomphalaria tenagophila amoebocytes was studied in infections produced by Schistosoma mansoni and other Digenea, The resistance to superinfection was also verified in mixed infections. Data on amoebocyte phagocytic activity, on the number of amoebocytes in hemolymph, and on amoebocyte tissue ractions were obtained and eletrophoretic and imunodiffusion examinations of the hemolymph were carried out. It was concluded that the snails infected with Digenea show resistance to superinfection with S. mansoni. Apparently sporocysts are not destroyed by the action of amoebocytes. An increase in amoebocyte phagocytic activity was discovered in infected snails. Immunoeletrophoresis shows quantitative and qualitative differences in the hemolymph of the infected snails.

  12. Leptin Protects Host Cells from Entamoeba histolytica Cytotoxicity by a STAT3-Dependent Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerke, Hans P.; Paul, Shom N.; Mackey, Aaron J.; Petri, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The adipocytokine leptin links nutritional status to immune function. Leptin signaling protects from amebiasis, but the molecular mechanism is not understood. We developed an in vitro model of ameba-host cell interaction to test the hypothesis that leptin prevents ameba-induced apoptosis in host epithelial cells. We demonstrated that activation of mammalian leptin signaling increased cellular resistance to amebic cytotoxicity, including caspase-3 activation. Exogenous expression of the leptin receptor conferred resistance in susceptible cells, and leptin stimulation enhanced protection. A series of leptin receptor signaling mutants showed that resistance to amebic cytotoxicity was dependent on activation of STAT3 but not the Src homology-2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase (SHP-2) or STAT5. A common polymorphism in the leptin receptor (Q223R) that increases susceptibility to amebiasis in humans and mice was found to increase susceptibility to amebic cytotoxicity in single cells. The Q223R polymorphism also decreased leptin-dependent STAT3 activation by 21% relative to that of the wild-type (WT) receptor (P = 0.035), consistent with a central role of STAT3 signaling in protection. A subset of genes uniquely regulated by STAT3 in response to leptin was identified. Most notable were the TRIB1 and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) genes, which have opposing roles in the regulation of apoptosis. Overall apoptotic genes were highly enriched in this gene set (P leptin regulation of host apoptotic genes via STAT3 is responsible for protection. This is the first demonstration of a mammalian signaling pathway that restricts amebic pathogenesis and represents an important advance in our mechanistic understanding of how leptin links nutrition and susceptibility to infection. PMID:22331430

  13. US and CT findings of rectal amebian abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guelek, B. [Dept. of Radiology, Adana Numune Teaching Hospital, Gar-Adana (Turkey); Oenel, S. [Dept. of General Surgery, Adana Numune Teaching Hospital, Gar-Adana (Turkey)

    1999-05-01

    An interesting case of rectal amebic abscess is presented. Ultrasound and CT images provided the diagnosis of a cystic intramural mass at the rectal wall of a young man, who complained of pelvic pain, constipation, and fever. His clinical history of amebiasis and the finding of trophozoids and cysts at the stool swap confirmed the diagnosis. Intravenous metronidazole therapy cured the disease and led to total disappearance of the mass, and clinical well-being. (orig.) With 4 figs., 6 refs.

  14. [Free-living amoebae as vehicles of pathogenic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derda, Monika; Sułek-Stankiewicz, Anna; Hadaś, Edward

    2006-01-01

    The free-living amoebae are ubiquitous organisms. They are found in humid soil and all water reservoirs, i.e. fresh, sea, freezing and hot water. They mainly feed on bacteria. Pathogenic properties of amoebae and the mechanisms underlying pathological changes induced during human infection have not yet been fully elucidated. They are the causative agents of primary amoebic meningo-encephalitis (PAM), granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE), a chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system, amebic keratitis (AK), a chronic eye infection; amebic pneumitis (AP), a chronic lung infection, and skin infection. Only a few isolates are strongly and permanently pathogenic to humans. Some isolates lose their pathogenic properties after one passage. It has been assumed that such "temporary", unstable pathogenic properties of the amoebae may be caused by internal factors carried by them. It is generally known that the free-living amoebae may be naturally infected with pathogenic bacteria, which have the ability to survive for a long time and to proliferate in the amoebae cells. The role of the amoeba in the process of maintaining, propagating and transmitting human pathogens has not been well recognized. It has been suggested that some infections can be acquired by inhaling aerosols containing amoebae cells filled with bacteria. The presence of bacteria inside the free-living amoebae possess a great challenge to organisations responsible for testing and inspecting the quality and cleanliness of surface waters, swimming pools and drinking water intakes.

  15. Activity, stability and folding analysis of the chitinase from Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Patricia L A; Minchaca, Alexis Z; Mares, Rosa E; Ramos, Marco A

    2016-02-01

    Human amebiasis, caused by the parasitic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, remains as a significant public health issue in developing countries. The life cycle of the parasite compromises two main stages, trophozoite and cyst, linked by two major events: encystation and excystation. Interestingly, the cyst stage has a chitin wall that helps the parasite to withstand harsh environmental conditions. Since the amebic chitinase, EhCHT1, has been recognized as a key player in both encystation and excystation, it is plausible to consider that specific inhibition could arrest the life cycle of the parasite and, thus, stop the infection. However, to selectively target EhCHT1 it is important to recognize its unique biochemical features to have the ability to control its cellular function. Hence, to gain further insights into the structure-function relationship, we conducted an experimental approach to examine the effects of pH, temperature, and denaturant concentration on the enzymatic activity and protein stability. Additionally, dependence on in vivo oxidative folding was further studied using a bacterial model. Our results attest the potential of EhCHT1 as a target for the design and development of new or improved anti-amebic therapeutics. Likewise, the potential of the oxidoreductase EhPDI, involved in oxidative folding of amebic proteins, was also confirmed.

  16. A whole-genome RNAi screen uncovers a novel role for human potassium channels in cell killing by the parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Chelsea; Verkerke, Hans P; Theodorescu, Dan; Petri, William A

    2015-09-08

    The parasite Entamoeba histolytica kills human cells resulting in ulceration, inflammation and invasion of the colonic epithelium. We used the cytotoxic properties of ameba to select a genome-wide RNAi library to reveal novel host factors that control susceptibility to amebic killing. We identified 281 candidate susceptibility genes and bioinformatics analyses revealed that ion transporters were significantly enriched among susceptibility genes. Potassium (K(+)) channels were the most common transporter identified. Their importance was further supported by colon biopsy of humans with amebiasis that demonstrated suppressed K(+) channel expression. Inhibition of human K(+) channels by genetic silencing, pharmacologic inhibitors and with excess K(+) protected diverse cell types from E. histolytica-induced death. Contact with E. histolytica parasites triggered K(+) channel activation and K(+) efflux by intestinal epithelial cells, which preceded cell killing. Specific inhibition of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels was highly effective in preventing amebic cytotoxicity in intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages. Blockade of K(+) efflux also inhibited caspase-1 activation, IL-1β secretion and pyroptotic death in THP-1 macrophages. We concluded that K(+) channels are host mediators of amebic cytotoxicity in multiple cells types and of inflammasome activation in macrophages.

  17. Cultivation of Pathogenic and Opportunistic Free-Living Amebas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Frederick L.

    2002-01-01

    Free-living amebas are widely distributed in soil and water, particularly members of the genera Acanthamoeba and Naegleria. Since the early 1960s, they have been recognized as opportunistic human pathogens, capable of causing infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. Naegleria is the causal agent of a fulminant CNS condition, primary amebic meningoencephalitis; Acanthamoeba is responsible for a more chronic and insidious infection of the CNS termed granulomatous amebic encephalitis, as well as amebic keratitis. Balamuthia sp. has been recognized in the past decade as another ameba implicated in CNS infections. Cultivation of these organisms in vitro provides the basis for a better understanding of the biology of these amebas, as well as an important means of isolating and identifying them from clinical samples. Naegleria and Acanthamoeba can be cultured axenically in cell-free media or on tissue culture cells as feeder layers and in cultures with bacteria as a food source. Balamuthia, which has yet to be isolated from the environment, will not grow on bacteria. Instead, it requires tissue culture cells as feeder layers or an enriched cell-free medium. The recent identification of another ameba, Sappinia diploidea, suggests that other free-living forms may also be involved as causal agents of human infections. PMID:12097243

  18. [Amebicidal plants extracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derda, Monika; Hadaś, Edward; Thiem, Barbara; Sułek, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The free-living amoebae from genus Acanthamoeba are the causative agents of granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE), a chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system; amebic keratitis (AK), a chronic eye infection; amebic pneumitis (AP), a chronic lung infection, and skin infection. Chemotherapy of Acanthamoeba infection is problematic. The majority of infections have been fatal. Only a few cases are reported to have been treated successfully with very highly toxic drugs. The therapy might be succeed, if the diagnosis and therapy is made at very early stage of infection. In our experiments we used the following plant extracts: Solidago virgaurea, Solidago graminifolia, Rubus chamaemorus, Pueraria lobata, and natural plants products as ellagic acid and puerarin. Those therapeutic agents and plants extracts have been tested in vitro for amebicidal or amebostatic activity against pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp. Our results showed that methanol extracts obtained from plants are active against axenic pathogenic Acanthamoeba sp. trophozoites in vitro at concentration below 0.1 mg/ml. Further studies are needed to investigate whether these extracts are also effective in vivo in animal model of infection with Acanthamoeba sp.

  19. Molecular nature of virulence in Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivos-García, Alfonso; Saavedra, Emma; Ramos-Martínez, Espiridión; Nequiz, Mario; Pérez-Tamayo, Ruy

    2009-12-01

    For many years virulence of pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica has been attributed to the capacity of the parasite to destroy tissues through the expression and/or secretion of various molecules. Such view is supported mainly by in vitro experimentation, whereas data obtained by using animal models of the disease have clearly demonstrated that the host's inflammatory response is primarily responsible for tissue damage. This review analyzes the content and/or activity of some of the presumed toxic amebic molecules present in amebic strains with different degrees of virulence compared to various parasite in vitro functions that are supposed to correlate with in vivo virulence. The analysis suggests that amebic virulence is primarily determined by the parasite's capacity to adapt and survive the aerobic conditions present in animal tissues. This initial episode in the host-parasite relationship is an absolute requirement for the further development of tissue lesions, which result from the concerted action of many molecules derived from both, the host and the parasite.

  20. [Induction of protective antiamebic immunity in hamsters with heterologous antigens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Cardoso, J M; Jiménez, E; de Jesús Bernal, M; Kumate, J

    1989-01-01

    Two hundred and twenty-five Syrian golden hamsters were used. Twenty five of them served as the control group. All other hamsters were intradermal immunized, once a week for four weeks, with a mixture of amebic proteins, mixed with complete Freund adjuvant, obtained from 5 x 10(5) homogenized dead amebic trophozoites from five different strains. Each group of hamsters (five groups of 40 animals each) were immunized with one of the following strains: E. histolytica HM-531, HJ-1, HM1-IMSS, E. chattoni PM-4 and PM-5. All hamsters, including those from the control group, were later inoculated with 0.2 mL equivalent to 1 x 10(5) live trophozoites from the different strains grown in axenic TYI-S-33 medium. Inoculation was performed by direct injection into the liver. The hamsters were sacrificed eight days later and their livers examined. All non-immunized animals showed extensive gross hepatic nodular abscesses. The liver of immunized hamsters showed mild to moderate lesions: the histopathological striking feature was non-specific granulomata. It is concluded that the immunized animals inoculated with homologous stock showed protective immunity to amebic infections. In other cases, immunity was seen though they were inoculated with a heterologous stock.

  1. Mental Health Services in Southern Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siegal_D

    Major mental illness exists all over the world with a remarkably similar prevalence. ... Physical health suffers in this environment with malaria and dysentery ... working in the. Southern Sudan or those Healthcare. Professionals in other parts of the world seeking ... return from internal and external displacement. Drugs and ...

  2. Geoelectrical investigation and hydrochemical analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2011-10-04

    Oct 4, 2011 ... with an abundant surface and groundwater resources, but the later is about .... For every measurement taken, the terrameter took three readings since a ... A Philip analog pH meter was used to monitor the pH of all water samples, while the .... it could lead to skin infection, domestic cholera and dysentery.

  3. Microbicidal effect of the lactoferrin peptides Lactoferricin17-30, Lactoferrampin265-284, and Lactoferrin chimera on the parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-Soto, F.; León-Sicairos, N.; Nazmi, K.; Bolscher, J.G.; de la Garza, M.

    2010-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a parasitic protozoan that produces amoebiasis, an intestinal disease characterized by ulcerative colitis and dysentery. In some cases, trophozoites can travel to the liver leading to hepatic abscesses and death. Recently, lactoferrin and lactoferricin B have been shown to b

  4. Shigellosis Caused by CTX-M Type ESBL Producing Shigella flexneri in Two Siblings of Rural Nepal: First Case Report from the Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad Parajuli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shigellosis is an acute infectious disease characterized as severe bloody diarrhea (dysentery and is accountable for a significant burden of morbidity and mortality especially in children under the age of 5 years. Antimicrobial therapy is required in the cases of severe dysentery associated with Shigella. However, emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR strains of Shigella spp. over the last two decades has restricted the use of common therapeutic antimicrobials. In MDR strains, the third-generation cephalosporins have been used for the treatment, but, unfortunately, emerging reports of enzyme mediated β-lactam resistance among Shigella isolates from various parts of the world have greatly compromised the therapy of pediatric dysentery. In Nepal, drug resistant strains of Shigella spp. have been reported, but MDR and extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL producing strains were previously unknown. Here, we report two Shigella flexneri isolates harboring ESBL genotype-CTX-M associated with acute dysentery in two siblings which were presented and treated in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Kathmandu, Nepal.

  5. Shigellosis Caused by CTX-M Type ESBL Producing Shigella flexneri in Two Siblings of Rural Nepal: First Case Report from the Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Govardhan; Pardhe, Bashu Dev; Shakya, Jyotsna; Shakya, Shreena; Pandit, Roshan; Shrestha, Sumesh Shreekhanda; Khanal, Puspa Raj

    2017-01-01

    Shigellosis is an acute infectious disease characterized as severe bloody diarrhea (dysentery) and is accountable for a significant burden of morbidity and mortality especially in children under the age of 5 years. Antimicrobial therapy is required in the cases of severe dysentery associated with Shigella. However, emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of Shigella spp. over the last two decades has restricted the use of common therapeutic antimicrobials. In MDR strains, the third-generation cephalosporins have been used for the treatment, but, unfortunately, emerging reports of enzyme mediated β-lactam resistance among Shigella isolates from various parts of the world have greatly compromised the therapy of pediatric dysentery. In Nepal, drug resistant strains of Shigella spp. have been reported, but MDR and extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing strains were previously unknown. Here, we report two Shigella flexneri isolates harboring ESBL genotype-CTX-M associated with acute dysentery in two siblings which were presented and treated in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Kathmandu, Nepal. PMID:28321350

  6. 836 IJBCS-Article-Anthony Dawet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KODJIO NORBERT

    18-23 g) were infected and treatment began immediately (Day 0), while administration started 72 hours post infection in ... mortality amongst Nigeria's children ... used in the treatment of malaria or fever ... ache, diarrhea, dysentery and as eye remedy. ... or vaccines for the treatment, prevention and ... after infection) to day 3.

  7. Pheromones of the housefly : A chemical and behavioural study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorman, N

    2001-01-01

    Houseflies (Musca domestica L.) often make themselves a nuisance in human and livestock habitations. Moreover, these flies may transmit over a hundred different pathogens. They can transmit intestinal worms or their eggs, and are potential vectors of pathogens of, for example, dysentery,

  8. The medical history of Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberg, Norman G

    2008-05-01

    Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the USA, was often the victim of a panoply of disorders including episodic headaches, dysentery, rheumatism, multiple bone fractures, malaria, possibly tuberculosis, dental problems, diabetes and urinary tract obstruction. Intermittently he experienced anxiety, depression and insomnia; he was an anxious, striving perfectionist, a compulsively controlled man.

  9. Microbicidal effect of the lactoferrin peptides Lactoferricin17-30, Lactoferrampin265-284, and Lactoferrin chimera on the parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-Soto, F.; León-Sicairos, N.; Nazmi, K.; Bolscher, J.G.; de la Garza, M.

    2010-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a parasitic protozoan that produces amoebiasis, an intestinal disease characterized by ulcerative colitis and dysentery. In some cases, trophozoites can travel to the liver leading to hepatic abscesses and death. Recently, lactoferrin and lactoferricin B have been shown to

  10. Pheromones of the housefly : A chemical and behavioural study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorman, N

    2001-01-01

    Houseflies (Musca domestica L.) often make themselves a nuisance in human and livestock habitations. Moreover, these flies may transmit over a hundred different pathogens. They can transmit intestinal worms or their eggs, and are potential vectors of pathogens of, for example, dysentery, gastroenter

  11. A New Xanthone Glucoside form Swertia davidi Franch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Guang-Yao; XU Kang-Ping; LI Fu-Shuang; XU Xiao-Ping; ZHOU Ying-Jun; TAN Gui-Shan

    2003-01-01

    @@ Swertia davidi Franch (Gentianaceae) is one of the folk medicines which is widely used for treating acute enteritis, icterus and dysentery et al. In our previous research work, a large number of xanthones had been isolated and identified from the S. davidi Franch. Two new structures were established, named daviditin A and daviditin B.[1~3

  12. Carbadox has both temporary and lasting effects on the swine gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics are used in livestock and poultry production to treat and prevent disease as well as to promote animal growth. Carbadox is an in-feed antibiotic that is widely used in swine production to prevent dysentery and to improve feed efficiency. The goal of this study was to characterize the eff...

  13. Personal Protective Measures Against Insects and Other Arthropods of Military Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE OCT 2009 2. REPORT...true biological vectors of disease, they can mechanically transmit many serious illnesses such as dysentery, cholera, salmonella, shigellosis, and...Malaria Culex , (Oropouche, Aedes - Viral fevers Rift Valley, Chickungunya) All three - Lymphatic filariasis

  14. Prakash et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2014) 11(3):239 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Manipur Centre, Imphal-795004, .... mentioned the use of rhizome against snakebite in district Buner, NWFP, Pakistan (Hamayun et al., 2006). ... used to arrest blood pressure, relieve pain and kill worms (Tang et al., 1990). It .... Constipation, abdominal disorders and dysentery. 14.

  15. Malek et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2012) 9(4):536-541

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among Mandai tribal ... disorders (stomach ache, indigestion, dysentery, and diarrhea), leucorrhea, pain (rheumatic pain, joint pain), skin disorders, ..... Joint pain. Paste prepared from bulbs of Eleutherine palmifolia (L.) Merr. .... Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical.

  16. Intervention sensu Wilson: The only valid approach to microbiological safety of food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mossel, D.A.A.; Kayser, A.

    1984-01-01

    Between December 25th 1983 and January 7th 1984 59 cases of dysentery bacteriologically proven to be caused by Shigella flexneri 2 occurred in the Netherlands. For a further 34 cases of gastroenteritis, strong epidemiological evidence was present to allow the diagnosis of shigellosis. In

  17. 5.3.Bacterial disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920038 Clinical effect and laboratoryobservation of ofloxacin in the treatment oftyphoid fever,bacillary dysentery and gonor-rhea.ZOU Qiyuan (邹启园),et al.Dept InfectDis,1st Affil Hosp,Chongqing Med Univ,630042.Chin J Intern Med 1991;30 (9):572-574

  18. M.T. AJAYI, O. SOLOMON AND LO. AJAYI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cholera, poliomyelitis, diarrhoea diseases, dysenteries, infectious hepatitis, ... stage in the fight to prevent the spread of the disease and as Obeng (1991) ... health problems affecting them would go a long way in finding solution to the spread of.

  19. The Dilemmas of Plastic Wastes in a Developing Economy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    typhoid, cholera and dysentery in events of epidemics were intricately ... as to minimise the risk of disease episodes associated with the marketing of ... several people, which was a major source of spread of most epidemics. .... issue whose solution demands a holistic approach to cover every city, town and village;.

  20. Traditional and Medicinal Uses of Banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Sampath Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Banana is the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. It is one of the oldest cultivated plants. All parts of the banana plant have medicinal applications: the flowers in bronchitis and dysentery and on ulcers; cooked flowers are given to diabetics; the astringent plant sap in cases of hysteria, epilepsy, leprosy, fevers, hemorrhages, acute dysentery and diarrhea, and it is applied on hemorrhoids, insect and other stings and bites; young leaves are placed as poultices on burns and other skin afflictions; the astringent ashes of the unripe peel and of the leaves are taken in dysentery and diarrhea and used for treating malignant ulcers; the roots are administered in digestive disorders, dysentery and other ailments; banana seed mucilage is given in cases of diarrhea in India. Antifungal and antibiotic principles are found in the peel and pulp of fully ripe bananas. The antibiotic acts against Mycobacteria. A fungicide in the peel and pulp of green fruits is active against a fungus disease of tomato plants. Norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin are also present in the ripe peel and pulp. The first two elevate blood pressure; serotonin inhibits gastric secretion and stimulates the smooth muscle of the intestines.

  1. State Defense Force Monograph Series. Winter 2006, Medical Support Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    assets for mobile support teams, labs, immunizations, latent TB screening, and post-deployment assessments.” (COL Eric Allely, Maryland State Surgeon...infarctions ! Diabetes ! Mental health problems ! Hypertension ! Diarrhea ! Heat injuries 30 State Defense Force Monograph Series, Summer 2006...for dysentery and vomiting ! Viral meningitis ! Injuries due to off-site fighting ! Tuberculosis ! HIV ! Special medical needs. See Figures 3

  2. Investigation of the impact of increased dietary insoluble fiber through the feeding of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on the incidence and severity of Brachyspira-associated colitis in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilberts, Bailey L; Arruda, Paulo H; Kinyon, Joann M; Frana, Tim S; Wang, Chong; Magstadt, Drew R; Madson, Darin M; Patience, John F; Burrough, Eric R

    2014-01-01

    Diet has been implicated as a major factor impacting clinical disease expression of swine dysentery and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae colonization. However, the impact of diet on novel pathogenic strongly beta-hemolytic Brachyspira spp. including "B. hampsonii" has yet to be investigated. In recent years, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a source of insoluble dietary fiber, has been increasingly included in diets of swine. A randomized complete block experiment was used to examine the effect of increased dietary fiber through the feeding of DDGS on the incidence of Brachyspira-associated colitis in pigs. One hundred 4-week-old pigs were divided into five groups based upon inocula (negative control, Brachyspira intermedia, Brachyspira pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae or "B. hampsonii") and fed one of two diets containing no (diet 1) or 30% (diet 2) DDGS. The average days to first positive culture and days post inoculation to the onset of clinical dysentery in the B. hyodysenteriae groups was significantly shorter for diet 2 when compared to diet 1 (P = 0.04 and P = 0.0009, respectively). A similar difference in the average days to first positive culture and days post inoculation to the onset of clinical dysentery was found when comparing the "B. hampsonii" groups. In this study, pigs receiving 30% DDGS shed on average one day prior to and developed swine dysentery nearly twice as fast as pigs receiving 0% DDGS. Accordingly, these data suggest a reduction in insoluble fiber through reducing or eliminating DDGS in swine rations should be considered an integral part of any effective disease elimination strategy for swine dysentery.

  3. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI EKSTRAK ETANOL BUAH PARE (Momordica charantia L TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN BAKTERI Shigella dysenteriae SECARA IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the gastrointestinal diseases are dysentery, which is characterized by loose, watery stools with mucus and blood of more than 3 times per day. Dysentery caused by Shigella dysenteriae bacteria, the disease can be treated with an antibacterial nutritious plants, one of which is bitter melon. Plant part used is fruit. Bitter melon fruit (Momordica charantia L contains flavonoids which efficacious as antibacterials. This study aims to determine the effect of extract concentrations against the bacteria Shigella dysenteriae. Antibacterial activity was tested using the disc diffusion method with extract concentrations of 10%, 25% and 50%. Clear zone formed around the paper discs showed inhibition zone. Results showed the ethanol extract of bitter melon extract at concentration 10%, 25% and 50% showed their antibacterial activity against bacteria Shigella dysenteriae with average diameter of inhibition zone 8.3 mm, 9.3 mm and 11.7 mm. Increased concentration of bitter melon fruit extract could increased inhibition zone.

  4. A surface membrane protein of Entamoeba histolytica functions as a receptor for human chemokine IL-8: its role in the attraction of trophozoites to inflammation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Valencia, J Daniel; Pérez-Yépez, Eloy Andrés; Ayala-Sumuano, Jorge Tonatiuh; Franco, Elizabeth; Meza, Isaura

    2015-12-01

    Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites respond to the presence of IL-8, moving by chemotaxis towards the source of the chemokine. IL-8 binds to the trophozoite membrane and triggers a response that activates signaling pathways that in turn regulate actin/myosin cytoskeleton organisation to initiate migration towards the chemokine, suggesting the presence of a receptor for IL-8 in the parasite. Antibodies directed to the human IL-8 receptor (CXCR1) specifically recognised a 29 kDa protein in trophozoite membrane fractions. The same protein was immunoprecipitated by this antibody from total amebic extracts. Peptide analysis of the immunoprecipitated protein revealed a sequence with high homology to a previously identified amebic outer membrane peroxiredoxin and a motif within the third loop of human CXCR1, which is an important site for IL-8 binding and activation of signaling processes. Immunodetection assays demonstrated that the anti-human CXCR1 antibody binds to the 29 kDa protein in a different but close site to where IL-8 binds to the trophozoite surface membrane, suggesting that human and amebic receptors for this chemokine share common epitopes. In the context of the human intestinal environment, a receptor for IL-8 could be a great advantage for E. histolytica trophozoite survival, as they could reach an inflammatory milieu containing abundant nutrients. In addition, it has been suggested that the high content of accessible thiol groups of the protein and its peroxidase activity could provide protection in the oxygen rich milieu of colonic lesions, allowing trophozoite invasion of other tissues and escape from the host immune response.

  5. Radiologic analysis of amebiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. Y.; Lee, Y. H.; Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-06-15

    The amebiasis is a common diseases in Korea as well as worldwide especially frequent in tropical area such as India, Africa and South America. The diagnosis of amebiasis remain difficult and complex, despite of many diagnostic method, for example, direct stool test for ameba, many immunologic studies and biopsy. Authors analyzed radiologically the patient who have had confirmed as a amebiasis from June, 1976 to September, 1979 at Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The results as follows: 1. The amebic liver abscess was a most common from of the amebiasis in Korea, which were 40 cases among 56 cases. Plain abdomen showed huge hepatomegaly, compression and displacement in hepatic flexure of colon, and reflex gas distension in almost cases. Chest P-A showed nonspecific right lower lung findings from secondary to right upper abdominal pathology, such as elevated right diaphragm (61.3%), pleural effusion (60.0%), right lower lung consolidation (37.5%) and abscess cavities (5.0%). Liver scan showed large space occupying lesion, most commonly situated in right lobe of liver (68.6%). 2. Among total 15 cases of the amebic colitis, positive findings on barium enema were 80%. Barium enama showed spas and irritability (89.2%), narrowing of lumen and lack of distensibility (71.4%) and deformity of cecum (20.0%). Involved site was cecum, ascending colon, rectosigmoid, transeverse and descending colon in order of frequency. Unusual involvement of terminal ileum was 2 cases. 3. Combined cases of amebic liver abscess and colitis were 4 cases (27.7%)

  6. Studio del comportamento di Acanthamoeba. polyphaga in presenza di Legionella pneumophila e di altri batteri ad habitat acquatico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bondi

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Le amebe a vita libera sono state oggetto di diversi studi negli ultimi anni, non solo per le loro potenzialità patogene nei confronti dell’uomo, ma anche per l’importante ruolo che svolgono in natura, dove agiscono come predatori in grado di controllare le popolazioni batteriche. Alcuni degli organismi fagocitati però possono evitare la lisi fagosomiale e mantenere la loro condizione vitale a livello intracellulare, divenendo endosimbionti. Le amebe fungono così da riserva per questi batteri, proteggendoli da difficili condizioni extracellulari e provvedendo ad un ambiente consono alla loro replicazione. Tale tipo di interazione è particolarmente studiata in Legionella pneumophila, dal momento che l’ampia diffusione di questo germe, nonché la sua virulenza, pare siano fortemente influenzate dalla capacità di parassitare protozoi appartenenti ai generi Acanthamoeba, Naegleria e Balamuthia. Al fine di ottenere maggiori informazioni sui fattori favorenti o inibenti lo sviluppo di questi protozoi, è stato studiato il comportamento di un ceppo di Acanthamoeba polyphaga coltivato, in solido e in liquido, in associazione con L. pneumophila ed altri batteri ad habitat acquatico (Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Achromobacter, Burkholderia. Su tappeti di cellule batteriche allestiti in Non Nutrient Agar (NNA, A.polyphaga si è mostrata in grado di moltiplicarsi utilizzando come nutrimento tutti i ceppi testati, nonostante alcuni, come Burkholderia cepacia SSV6 e Achromobacter xylox SS28, risultino più idonei al suo sviluppo. In piastre a pozzetti addizionate di acqua condottata autoclavata, il protozoo ha mostrato una buona capacità di sopravvivenza, non risultando inoltre influenzato dalla presenza di legionella o dei batteri acquatici testati. Dal momento che, fra i batteri descritti come capaci di vita intra-amebica, sono inclusi patogeni quali Chlamydia, Legionella, Listeria e Rickettsiae, risulta necessario riconsiderare la rilevanza clinica

  7. Some Medicinal Plants Used in Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    prescriptions for treating dysentery, nephritis, hypertension and other diseases. The bark is also a sourse for the production of the alkaloid berberine ...which is produced in large wuantities in the Chinese People’s Republic. Berberine preparations have become widely used in medicine for treating...many alkaloids (up to 6-9$), the most important being berberine . There is an annual harvest of approximately 900 tons of wild coptis which is also a

  8. Virulence Mechanisms of Enteroinvasive Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    enteroinvasive strain to initiate infection, it does abortion and death can also result from inges- not address other determinants of virulence. For tion of... abortions in domestic imal models have been used in the study of animals. Humans are the natural reservoirs of enteroinvasive pathogens. The ability of...clinical manifestation rier encountered by shigellae which are invad- is dysentery (36). These data suggest that an ing the colonic mucosa. The effectiveness

  9. An Analysis of Medical Ethic Practice by Union and Confederate Medical Departments During the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    also their latrine. Sicknesses Like dysentery, small pox , scurvy51 were common and death from this and other close quarter diseases were corrirrion...applying a cloth saturated with one of the anesthetics over a patient’s face so that a small but effective dose of anesthetic would be effective. This act...There were indeed some physicians that were found to be intoxicated and unfit for duty but the number of those that were; were in deed small in number

  10. Military Food Inspection: Its History and Its Effect on Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-15

    or foodborne disease as a result of their being unsound, unwholesome, or contaminated at the time of their issue. There were outbreaks of foodborne...the health of the people.8 Military food inspection was very important in the 60s with the outbreak of the Vietnam conflict. The activities o2 food...to name a few, are bacillary dysentery, Enterotoxigenic E. coli, Salmonellosis , Hepatitis A, and cholera. The mode of transmission for most of these

  11. Challenges and Opportunities for Humanitarian Relief in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-15

    remaining 233,554 cases included plague, malaria, cholera , diphtheria, meningitis, heart disease, shigellosis (infectious dysentery), amoebic dys- entery...mainland, as well as previous terrorist attacks against US targets abroad, notably the embassies in Tanzania and Kenya and the USS Cole in Yemen . In...ogens include viruses such as rotavirus and enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Shigella species. Outbreaks of chol- era have occurred

  12. The in vitro effect of Garden Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) extract on Brachyspira hyodysenteriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutasi, József; Jakab, László; Jurkovich, Viktor; Rafai, Pál

    2016-12-01

    Filtrates of a water extract of commercially available garden thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) were used for studying its possible bactericidal effect on Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative agent of swine dysentery, by agar-diffusion technique. Five of the six studied Brachyspira strains have proven to be sensitive and one moderately sensitive in the in vitro tests. It was concluded that water extract of garden thyme possesses inhibitory effects against B. hyodysenteriae. In vivo experiments are needed to check the validity of this conclusion.

  13. Molecular Evolutionary Relationships of Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli and Shigella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Ruiting; Alles, M. Chehani; Donohoe, Kathy; Marina B Martinez; Reeves, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC), a distinctive pathogenic form of E. coli causing dysentery, is similar in many properties to bacteria placed in the four species of Shigella. Shigella has been separated as a genus but in fact comprises several clones of E. coli. The evolutionary relationships of 32 EIEC strains of 12 serotypes have been determined by sequencing of four housekeeping genes and two plasmid genes which were used previously to determine the relationships of Shigella strains...

  14. Virulence Gene Profile and Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis (MLVA) of Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) Isolates From Patients With Diarrhea in Kerman, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini Nave, Hossein; Mansouri, Shahla; Taati Moghadam, Majid; Moradi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) isolates cause dysentery in humans. Several virulence factors associated with EIEC pathogenesis have been characterized. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) is a PCR-based method that has been used for genotyping bacterial pathogens. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of virulence factor genes in EIEC isolates from patients with diarrhea in Kerman, Iran, as well as the genetic relationship...

  15. Karakterisasi dan Skrining Fitokimia serta Uji Efektivitas Antidiare Ekstrak Etanol Biji Asam Jawa (Tamarindus indica L.) Terhadap Mencit Jantan dengan Metode Transit Intestinal

    OpenAIRE

    Simanjuntak, Nerly Juli Pranita

    2015-01-01

    Tamarind plant traditionally is widely used in the treatment. The part of the plant was used seed for asthma, bronchitis, leprosy, tuberculosis, sores, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dysentery, vertigo and diabetes. The active compound contained in tamarind seeds are phenolic compounds, tannins, fatty acids, flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids and glycosides. The purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristic of simplex and extracts, phytochemical screening and testing antidiarrheal effect...

  16. Isolation and Evaluation of Mucilage of Adansonia digitata Linn as a Suspending Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, S. S.; Katare, Y. S.; Shyale, S. S.; S. S. Bhujbal; Kadam, S.D.; Landge, D. A.; D. V. Shah; J. B. Pawar

    2013-01-01

    Natural excipients can serve as alternative to synthetic products because of local accessibility, biodegradability, eco-friendly nature and cost effectiveness as compared to synthetic products. Therefore, it is a current need to explore natural excipients that can be used as an effective alternative excipient for the formulation of pharmaceutical dosage forms. Adansonia digitata (Malvaceae) has been traditionally used as febrifuge, antiasthmatic and also in the treatment of dysentery, smallpo...

  17. Genotoxicity of Euphorbia hirta: An Allium cepa Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Kwan Yuet Ping; Ibrahim Darah; Umi Kalsom Yusuf; Chen Yeng; Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2012-01-01

    The potential genotoxic effects of methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta which is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseased conditions including asthma, coughs, diarrhea and dysentery was investigated using Allium cepa assay. The extracts of 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 µg/mL were tested on root meristems of A. cepa. Ethylmethanesulfonate was used as positive control and distilled water was used as negative ...

  18. Building Partnership Capacity at the Ministerial Level to Improve Gender Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    mosquitoborne diseases . Lack of clean drinking water introduces risks of bacillary dysentery, cholera , diarrheal disease , typhoid, hepatitis A, and...leverage the capabilities of U.S. defense and diplomatic resources, as part of an overall strategy, to prevent wars from happening in the first place. By...Security Cooperation, in partnership with various partner-countries and other entities, to advance its strategic interests and to prevent conflicts from

  19. Management of ‘Mukhapaka’ by ‘Haridradi Tail’ w.s.r. to Recurrent Aphthous Ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Dwivedi, Amar P.; Sunita V. Magar; M.A. Lahankar

    2013-01-01

    ‘Mukhpak’ or ‘Sarvasar Rog’ is nothing but a recurrent mouth ulcer or Stomatitis and is also termed as Aphthous ulcer. Over consumption of extremely pungent and spicy food, consuming and chewing of chemical agents like Tobacco-Gutakha, Insomnia, Vitamin deficiency, many life threatening disease like Malignancy, Submucosal fibrosis, Skin disease and disturbances in G.I. tract like Constipation, Dysentery are the main causative factors responsible for this most common ENT ailment. In modern med...

  20. Research Program in Tropical Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-14

    with sickle cell disease, meningitis, dysentery, or evidence of peritonitis, wound infection, pneumonia, tuberculosis or HIV infection were not...of the following: Glucantime, 15% paromomycin cream and traditional medicine ( herbs , leaf and root extracts, topical acid and/or burns). All BDF...and traditional medicine ( herbs , leaf and root extracts, topical acid or burns). All BDF patient Leishmania cultures were negative. An aspirate from

  1. Naegleria meningitis : a rare survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain R

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute amebic meningoencephalitis caused by free-living amebae naegleria fowleri is extremely rare and uniformly fatal with only seven survivals reported till date. An interesting case of naegleria meningitis diagnosed by wet mount cytology of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and treated with amphoterecin B, rifampicin and ornidazole with complete recovery is presented. In cases of suspected pyogenic meningitis, if CSF staining, antigen detection or culture is negative for bacteria, a wet mount cytology of CSF for naegleria is suggested. Early treatment with amphoterecin B and rifampicin may improve survival.

  2. A fatal case of Naegleria fowleri meningoencephalitis in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mei-Yu; Lee, Ming-Shih; Shyu, Ling-Yuh; Lin, Wei-Chen; Hsiao, Pei-Ching; Wang, Chi-Ping; Ji, Dar-Der; Chen, Ke-Min; Lai, Shih-Chan

    2013-04-01

    After bathing at a hot spring resort, a 75-year-old man presented to the emergency department because of seizure-like attack with loss of conscious. This is the first case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) caused by Naegleria fowleri in Taiwan. PAM was diagnosed based on detection of actively motile trophozoites in cerebrospinal fluid using a wet-mount smear and the Liu's stain. The amoebae were further confirmed by PCR and gene sequencing. In spite of administering amphotericin B treatment, the patient died 25 days later.

  3. Acanthamoeba keratitis after photorefractive keratectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldawy, Roger M; Sutphin, John E; Wagoner, Michael D

    2002-02-01

    A 37-year-old women developed severe suppurative keratitis immediately after having photorefractive keratectomy in her left eye. The keratitis was unresponsive to intensive topical antibiotic agents and topical and systemic steroids. Although the differential diagnosis included nonmicrobial and fungal keratitis, the clinical course and confocal microscopy suggested, and subsequent histopathologic examination confirmed, a diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis. The amebic contamination probably resulted from exposure of the deepithelialized cornea to contaminated freshwater in a northern Wisconsin marsh. This case emphasizes the importance of encouraging patients with epithelial defects and bandage soft contact lenses to avoid exposure to contaminated freshwater until reepithelialization is complete.

  4. SNAP-tag technology optimized for use in Entamoeba histolytica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Sateriale

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite responsible for invasive intestinal and extraintestinal amebiasis. The pathology of amebiasis is still poorly understood, which can be largely attributed to lack of molecular tools. Here we present the optimization of SNAP-tag technology via codon optimization specific for E. histolytica. The resultant SNAP protein is highly expressed in amebic trophozoites, and shows proper localization when tagged with an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal. We further demonstrate the capabilities of this system using super resolution microscopy, done for the first time in E. histolytica.

  5. Focal inflammatory diseases of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oto, Aytekin; Akhan, Okan; Oezmen, Mustafa

    1999-10-01

    Inflammatory lesions constitute an important subgroup of focal liver lesions. They may mimic primary or metastatic neoplastic lesions and their differentiation from neoplasia is clinically very important since management of the patient significantly changes. Radiologists should have an important role in both the diagnosis and therapy of these lesions by performing percutaneous aspirations and drainages. In this review we discussed the radiological findings of pyogenic abscesses, amebic abscesses, candidiasis, tuberculosis, hydatic cysts, fascioliasis, ascariasis, schistosomiasis, and sarcoidosis with a special emphasis on US, CT and MR characteristics.

  6. Fatal disease: misplaced amebae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, S.A.

    1977-04-01

    More than 75 cases of primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAME) have been reported within the past twenty years. By 1970, it was obvious to most investigators that there was an association of the majority of cases of PAME with a recent history of swimming or diving in warm water of high organic content. Lakes, rivers, ponds, swimming pools, drainage ditches, hot springs, domestic waste water, septic-tank effluent, and bathtubs--all have been linked to PAME. Because of the widespread distribution and survival of the organisms and the projected growth of new power plants and new industries, it can be expected that the number of cases of PAME will increase. (CAJ)

  7. Identification of Paenibacillus as a Symbiont in Acanthamoeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschio, Vinicius José; Corção, Gertrudes; Bücker, Francielle; Caumo, Karin; Rott, Marilise Brittes

    2015-09-01

    Amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba occur worldwide and in addition to being pathogens, are important vehicles for microorganisms with clinical and environmental importance. This study aimed to evaluate the profiling of endosymbionts in 12 isolates of Acanthamoeba using V3 region of 16S rDNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing. The DGGE enabled us to characterize the endosymbionts diversity in isolates of Acanthamoeba, and to identify Paenibacillus sp., an emerging pathogen, as an amoebic endosymbiont. The results of this study demonstrated that Acanthamoeba is capable of transporting a large number of endosymbionts. This is the first study that reports, the presence of Paenibacillus sp. as amebic symbiont.

  8. Association between allelic variation due to short tandem repeats in tRNA gene of Entamoeba histolytica and clinical phenotypes of amoebiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Virendra; Ghoshal, Ujjala; Mittal, Balraj; Dhole, Tapan N; Ghoshal, Uday C

    2014-05-01

    Genotypes of Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) may contribute clinical phenotypes of amoebiasis such as amoebic liver abscess (ALA), dysentery and asymptomatic cyst passers state. Hence, we evaluated allelic variation due to short tandem repeats (STRs) in tRNA gene of E. histolytica and clinical phenotypes of amoebiasis. Asymptomatic cyst passers (n=24), patients with dysentery (n=56) and ALA (n=107) were included. Extracted DNA from stool (dysentery, asymptomatic cyst passers) and liver aspirate was amplified using 6 E. histolytica specific tRNA-linked STRs (D-A, A-L, N-K2, R-R, S-Q, and S(TGA)-D) primers. PCR products were subjected to sequencing. Association between allelic variation and clinical phenotypes was analyzed. A total of 9 allelic variations were found in D-A, 8 in A-L, 4 in N-K2, 5 in R-R, 10 in S(TAG)-D and 7 in S-Q loci. A significant association was found between allelic variants and clinical phenotypes of amoebiasis. This study reveals that allelic variation due to short tandem repeats (STRs) in tRNA gene of E. histolytica is associated different clinical outcome of amoebiasis.

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolated from 21 Polish farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmudzki, J; Szczotka, A; Nowak, A; Strzelecka, H; Grzesiak, A; Pejsak, Z

    2012-01-01

    Swine dysentery (SD) is a common disease among pigs worldwide, which contributes to major production losses. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of B. hyodysenteriae, the etiological agent of SD, is mainly performed by the agar dilution method. This method has certain limitations due to difficulties in interpretation of results. The aim of this study was the analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (B. hyodysenteriae) Polish field isolates by broth microdilution procedure. The study was performed on 21 isolates of B. hyodysenteriae, collected between January 2006 to December 2010 from cases of swine dysentery. VetMIC Brachyspira panels with antimicrobial agents (tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, lincomycin, tylosin and ampicillin) were used for susceptibility testing of B. hyodysenteriae. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the broth dilution procedure. The lowest antimicrobial activity was demonstrated for tylosin and lincomycin, with inhibition of bacterial growth using concentrations > 128 microg/ml and 32 microg/ml, respectively. In the case of doxycycline, the MIC values were MIC values for this antibiotic did not exceed 1.0 microg/ml. The results of the present study confirmed that Polish B. hyodysenteriae isolates were susceptible to the main antibiotics (tiamulin and valnemulin) used in treatment of swine dysentery. Further studies are necessary to evaluate a possible slow decrease in susceptibility to tiamulin and valnemulin of B. hyodysenteriae strains in Poland.

  10. [A mathematical model of the seasonal morbidity of shigellosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boev, B V; Bondarenko, V M; Prokop'eva, N V; Raigosa Anaya, M; García de Alba, H; San Román, R T

    1993-01-01

    A new epidemiologically significant mathematical model for the prognosis of seasonal morbidity in dysentery caused by S. flexneri and S. sonnei has been developed. This model may be used for solving problems on the epidemiology of Shigella infections. In this model quantitative ratios are determined by means of the system of nonlinear integral-differential equations in partial derivatives of the first order with edge conditions of the integral type. This model makes it possible to make multiple calculations with a view to obtaining the most probable picture of the development of the epidemic process at individual territories, to ascertain and make prognosis the terms and peaks of morbidity rises year after year in succession. The model permits the evaluation of specific features of the course of dysentery in patients of different ages in different groups of the population, affected by various nosological forms of shigellae. The relationships indicated by the model have been realized in the form of the computer program "SHIGELLA C" permitting multiple calculations of dysentery morbidity by means of an IBM PC/AT.

  11. Global phylogeography and evolutionary history of Shigella dysenteriae type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njamkepo, Elisabeth; Fawal, Nizar; Tran-Dien, Alicia; Hawkey, Jane; Strockbine, Nancy; Jenkins, Claire; Talukder, Kaisar A; Bercion, Raymond; Kuleshov, Konstantin; Kolínská, Renáta; Russell, Julie E; Kaftyreva, Lidia; Accou-Demartin, Marie; Karas, Andreas; Vandenberg, Olivier; Mather, Alison E; Mason, Carl J; Page, Andrew J; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Bizet, Chantal; Gamian, Andrzej; Carle, Isabelle; Sow, Amy Gassama; Bouchier, Christiane; Wester, Astrid Louise; Lejay-Collin, Monique; Fonkoua, Marie-Christine; Hello, Simon Le; Blaser, Martin J; Jernberg, Cecilia; Ruckly, Corinne; Mérens, Audrey; Page, Anne-Laure; Aslett, Martin; Roggentin, Peter; Fruth, Angelika; Denamur, Erick; Venkatesan, Malabi; Bercovier, Hervé; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Chiou, Chien-Shun; Clermont, Dominique; Colonna, Bianca; Egorova, Svetlana; Pazhani, Gururaja P; Ezernitchi, Analia V; Guigon, Ghislaine; Harris, Simon R; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Korzeniowska-Kowal, Agnieszka; Lutyńska, Anna; Gouali, Malika; Grimont, Francine; Langendorf, Céline; Marejková, Monika; Peterson, Lorea A M; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Ngandjio, Antoinette; Podkolzin, Alexander; Souche, Erika; Makarova, Mariia; Shipulin, German A; Ye, Changyun; Žemličková, Helena; Herpay, Mária; Grimont, Patrick A D; Parkhill, Julian; Sansonetti, Philippe; Holt, Kathryn E; Brisse, Sylvain; Thomson, Nicholas R; Weill, François-Xavier

    2016-03-21

    Together with plague, smallpox and typhus, epidemics of dysentery have been a major scourge of human populations for centuries(1). A previous genomic study concluded that Shigella dysenteriae type 1 (Sd1), the epidemic dysentery bacillus, emerged and spread worldwide after the First World War, with no clear pattern of transmission(2). This is not consistent with the massive cyclic dysentery epidemics reported in Europe during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries(1,3,4) and the first isolation of Sd1 in Japan in 1897(5). Here, we report a whole-genome analysis of 331 Sd1 isolates from around the world, collected between 1915 and 2011, providing us with unprecedented insight into the historical spread of this pathogen. We show here that Sd1 has existed since at least the eighteenth century and that it swept the globe at the end of the nineteenth century, diversifying into distinct lineages associated with the First World War, Second World War and various conflicts or natural disasters across Africa, Asia and Central America. We also provide a unique historical perspective on the evolution of antibiotic resistance over a 100-year period, beginning decades before the antibiotic era, and identify a prevalent multiple antibiotic-resistant lineage in South Asia that was transmitted in several waves to Africa, where it caused severe outbreaks of disease.

  12. [Effects of nifuroxazide (Ercefuryl), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and bactisubtil in acute diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbulović-Telalbasić, S

    1991-01-01

    The clinical effects of Nifuroxasid (N), Trimetoprim sulphametoxasol (TS) and Bactisubtil (B) on bacillar dysentery and alimentary toxicoinfections in the patients treated at the Clinic from January 1984 to the end of December 1989 have been analysed. According to the clinical signs, patients have been divided in ten categories of light, mild and heavy forms. In total, 329 cases of bacillar dysentery and 89 cases of alimentary toxicoinfections have been analysed. The following was established: A. Bacilar dysentery: the fastest normalization of the stool was achieved with N in every clinical form (averages 2.2, 3.5 and 4.05 days). With TS the effects were slower (3.0, 3.9 and 4.4 days), but the slowest normalization was recorded with B (3.4, 4.6 and 5.4 days). However, with TS, some Shigella strains showed resistance (in 23 out of 94 antibiograms), which diminished the effects. B. Alimentary toxicoinfections were treated only with N and B, since these forms of diarrhea caused by toxigenic factors were milder. Better results were achieved with N in this case as well.

  13. Nitric oxide production and nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Hernández, Saúl; Rodríguez-Monroy, Marco A; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia; Jarillo-Luna, Adriana; Carrasco-Yepez, Marisela; Miliar-García, Angel; Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael

    2007-07-01

    Free-living ameba Naegleria fowleri produces an acute and fatal infectious disease called primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), whose pathophysiological mechanism is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in PAM. Although NO has a cytotoxic effect on various parasites, it is produced by others as part of the pathology, as is the case with Entamoeba histolytica. To test for the production of NO, we analyzed whether antibodies against mammalian NO synthase isoforms (neuronal, inducible, and endothelial) presented immunoreactivity to N. fowleri proteins. We found that the trophozoites produced NO in vitro. The Western blot results, which showed N. fowleri trophozoites, contained proteins that share epitopes with the three described mammalian NOS, but have relative molecular weights different than those described in the literature, suggesting that N. fowleri may contain undescribed NOS isoforms. Moreover, we found that trophozoites reacted to the NOS2 antibody, in amebic cultures as well as in the mouse brain infected with N. fowleri, suggesting that nitric oxide may participate in the pathogenesis of PAM. Further research aimed at determining whether N. fowleri contains active novel NOS isoforms could lead to the design of new therapies against this parasite.

  14. Naegleria fowleri lysate induces strong cytopathic effects and pro-inflammatory cytokine release in rat microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yang-Jin; Park, Chang-Eun; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Lee, Jinyoung; Jung, Suk-Yul; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2011-09-01

    Naegleria fowleri, a ubiquitous free-living ameba, causes fatal primary amebic meningoencephalitis in humans. N. fowleri trophozoites are known to induce cytopathic changes upon contact with microglial cells, including necrotic and apoptotic cell death and pro-inflammatory cytokine release. In this study, we treated rat microglial cells with amebic lysate to probe contact-independent mechanisms for cytotoxicity, determining through a combination of light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy whether N. fowleri lysate could effect on both necrosis and apoptosis on microglia in a time- as well as dose-dependent fashion. A (51)Cr release assay demonstrated pronounced lysate induction of cytotoxicity (71.5%) toward microglial cells by 24 hr after its addition to cultures. In an assay of pro-inflammatory cytokine release, microglial cells treated with N. fowleri lysate produced TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, though generation of the former 2 cytokines was reduced with time, and that of the last increased throughout the experimental period. In summary, N. fowleri lysate exerted strong cytopathic effects on microglial cells, and elicited pro-inflammatory cytokine release as a primary immune response.

  15. Biophysical studies on calcium and carbohydrate binding to carbohydrate recognition domain of Gal/GalNAc lectin from Entamoeba histolytica: insights into host cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rupali; Verma, Kuldeep; Chandra, Mintu; Mukherjee, Madhumita; Datta, Sunando

    2016-09-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, an enteric parasite expresses a Gal/GalNAc-specific lectin that contributes to its virulence by establishing adhesion to host cell. In this study, carbohydrate recognition domain of Hgl (EhCRD) was purified and biophysical studies were conducted to understand the thermodynamic basis of its binding to carbohydrate and Ca(++) Here, we show that carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of the lectin binds to calcium through DPN motif. To decipher the role of calcium in carbohydrate binding and host cell adhesion, biophysical and cell-based studies were carried out. We demonstrated that the presence of the cation neither change the affinity of the lectin for carbohydrates nor alters its conformation. Mutation of the calcium-binding motif in EhCRD resulted in complete loss of ability to bind calcium but retained its affinity for carbohydrates. Purified EhCRD significantly diminished adhesion of the amebic trophozoites to Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells as well as triggered red blood cell agglutination. The calcium-binding defective mutant abrogated amebic adhesion to CHO cells similar to the wild-type protein, but it failed to agglutinate RBCs suggesting a differential role of the cation in these two processes. This study provides the first molecular description of the role of calcium in Gal/GalNAc mediated host cell adhesion.

  16. Comparison of clinical and environmental isolates of Acanthamoeba based on morphology, protease and gelatinase activity, and the cysteine proteinase gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil M. Penuliar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Acanthamoeba spp. are opportunistic pathogens that cause amebic keratitis and granulomatous amebic encephalitis in man. Recent attempts to correlate pathogenicity with species have been proven difficult due to inconsistencies in morphology-based classification. The objectives of this study were: (1 to compare clinical and environmental isolates based on morphology, protease and gelatinase activity, and the cysteine proteinase (CP gene, and (2 to determine whether these features can be used to differentiate the isolates. Results show some degree of variation in trophozoite and cyst morphology. Zymography, demonstrated gross differences in banding patterns, and the protease activity of clinical isolates was greater than the environmental isolates (p-value < 0.01. Amplification of the CP gene yielded two bands in the environmental isolates, approximately 755 bp and 440 bp in length. In contrast, only one band, either the 755 bp or 440 bp band was amplified in the clinical isolates. The results confirmed the limitations of morphology in differentiating Acanthamoeba species, and suggest that zymography, protease activity, and detection of the CP gene are useful reference tests to distinguish pathogenic from non-pathogenic isolates.

  17. Naegleria fowleri Lysate Induces Strong Cytopathic Effects and Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Release in Rat Microglial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yang-Jin; Park, Chang-Eun; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Lee, Jinyoung; Jung, Suk-Yul

    2011-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri, a ubiquitous free-living ameba, causes fatal primary amebic meningoencephalitis in humans. N. fowleri trophozoites are known to induce cytopathic changes upon contact with microglial cells, including necrotic and apoptotic cell death and pro-inflammatory cytokine release. In this study, we treated rat microglial cells with amebic lysate to probe contact-independent mechanisms for cytotoxicity, determining through a combination of light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy whether N. fowleri lysate could effect on both necrosis and apoptosis on microglia in a time- as well as dose-dependent fashion. A 51Cr release assay demonstrated pronounced lysate induction of cytotoxicity (71.5%) toward microglial cells by 24 hr after its addition to cultures. In an assay of pro-inflammatory cytokine release, microglial cells treated with N. fowleri lysate produced TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, though generation of the former 2 cytokines was reduced with time, and that of the last increased throughout the experimental period. In summary, N. fowleri lysate exerted strong cytopathic effects on microglial cells, and elicited pro-inflammatory cytokine release as a primary immune response. PMID:22072830

  18. Immunity to Acanthamoeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, A

    1991-01-01

    Human serum contains antibodies, mainly of the IgM and IgG isotypes, to pathogenic species of Acanthamoeba. This, as well as the capacity of these amebas to activate complement via the alternative pathway, may be a first-line defense against acanthamoeba infections in humans. Both antibody and complement appear to be important in promoting recognition of these amebas by phagocytic cells such as neutrophils. However, killing of amebas by neutrophils is dependent on lymphokine/monokine priming of the neutrophil. This priming augments the respiratory-burst activity and release of lysosomal enzymes of neutrophils in their response to the ameba. The products of the oxygen-dependent respiratory burst appear to be of prime importance in the killing of this free-living ameba. Antibodies also may prevent tissue invasion by Acanthamoeba by inhibiting its adherence, phagocytic activity, and migration and by neutralizing cytopathogenic amebic agents. Studies on experimental Acanthamoeba infections in mice showed marked species and strain specificity with regard to induction of protection with amebic antigens. Immune compromise or, alternatively, invasion at unique body sites in healthy individuals may form the basis for human infection with Acanthamoeba.

  19. Laboratory Diagnosis of Amebiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanyuksel, Mehmet; Petri, William A.

    2003-01-01

    The detection of Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amebiasis, is an important goal of the clinical microbiology laboratory. To assess the scope of E. histolytica infection, it is necessary to utilize accurate diagnostic tools. As more is discovered about the molecular and cell biology of E. histolytica, there is great potential for further understanding the pathogenesis of amebiasis. Molecular biology-based diagnosis may become the technique of choice in the future because establishment of these protozoa in culture is still not a routine clinical laboratory process. In all cases, combination of serologic tests with detection of the parasite (by antigen detection or PCR) offers the best approach to diagnosis, while PCR techniques remain impractical in many developing country settings. The detection of amebic markers in serum in patients with amebic colitis and liver abscess appears promising but is still only a research tool. On the other hand, stool antigen detection tests offer a practical, sensitive, and specific way for the clinical laboratory to detect intestinal E. histolytica. All the current tests suffer from the fact that the antigens detected are denatured by fixation of the stool specimen, limiting testing to fresh or frozen samples. PMID:14557296

  20. A mutation in the leptin receptor is associated with Entamoeba histolytica infection in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Priya; Guo, Xiaoti; Haque, Rashidul; Peterson, Kristine M.; Ricklefs, Stacy; Mondal, Dinesh; Alam, Faisal; Noor, Zannatun; Verkerke, Hans P.; Marie, Chelsea; Leduc, Charles A.; Jr., Streamson C. Chua; Jr., Martin G. Myers; Leibel, Rudolph L.; Houpt, Eric; Gilchrist, Carol A.; Sher, Alan; Porcella, Stephen F.; Jr., William A. Petri

    2011-01-01

    Malnutrition substantially increases susceptibility to Entamoeba histolytica in children. Leptin is a hormone produced by adipocytes that inhibits food intake, influences the immune system, and is suppressed in malnourished children. Therefore we hypothesized that diminished leptin function may increase susceptibility to E. histolytica infection. We prospectively observed a cohort of children, beginning at preschool age, for infection by the parasite E. histolytica every other day over 9 years and evaluated them for genetic variants in leptin (LEP) and the leptin receptor (LEPR). We found increased susceptibility to intestinal infection by this parasite associated with an amino acid substitution in the cytokine receptor homology domain 1 of LEPR. Children carrying the allele for arginine (223R) were nearly 4 times more likely to have an infection compared with those homozygous for the ancestral glutamine allele (223Q). An association of this allele with amebic liver abscess was also determined in an independent cohort of adult patients. In addition, mice carrying at least 1 copy of the R allele of Lepr were more susceptible to infection and exhibited greater levels of mucosal destruction and intestinal epithelial apoptosis after amebic infection. These findings suggest that leptin signaling is important in mucosal defense against amebiasis and that polymorphisms in the leptin receptor explain differences in susceptibility of children in the Bangladesh cohort to amebiasis. PMID:21393862

  1. Risk factors for intestinal invasive amebiasis in Japan, 2003-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Naoyoshi; Shimbo, Takuro; Akiyama, Junichi; Nakashima, Ryo; Nishimura, So; Yada, Tomoyuki; Watanabe, Koji; Oka, Shinichi; Uemura, Naomi

    2012-05-01

    We determined yearly change in prevalence and risk factors for amebic colitis caused by intestinal invasive amebiasis among persons who underwent endoscopy and assessed differences between HIV-positive and HIV-negative persons in Japan. A total of 10,930 patients were selected for analysis, of whom 54 had amebic colitis. Prevalence was in 2009 (0.88%, 12/1360) compared with 2003 (0.16%, 3/1904). Male sex (odds ratio [OR] 8.39, 95% CI 1.99-35.40), age <50 years (OR 4.73, 95% CI 2.43-9.20), history of syphilis (OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.40-5.99), and HIV infection (OR 15.85, 95% CI 7.93-31.70) were independent risk factors. No differences in risk factors were identified between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. Contact with commercial sex workers was a new risk factor among HIV-negative patients. Homosexual intercourse, rather than immunosuppressed status, appears to be a risk factor among HIV-positive patients.

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of indirect immunofluorescence assay for intestinal invasive amebiasis and impact of HIV infection in a non-endemic country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Naoyoshi; Shimbo, Takuro; Akiyama, Junichi; Niikura, Ryota; Watanabe, Koji; Oka, Shinichi; Uemura, Naomi

    2012-12-01

    To diagnose amebic colitis (AC), serologic tests have the advantage of being inexpensive, noninvasive, and easy to perform, but few studies have investigated their utility, especially in a non-endemic country. A total of 299 symptomatic patients (165 HIV-infected patients) who underwent endoscopy and indirect immunofluorescence (IF) assay were analyzed between 2003 and 2009. The diagnosis of AC was defined as detection of amebic trophozoites from biopsy specimens or intestinal fluid sample via endoscopy. Forty-five patients (29 HIV-infected patients) were diagnosed with AC. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) for the IF assay was excellent (0.90), and a cut-off value of 100 provided 89% sensitivity and 87% specificity. ROC-AUC was slightly lower in patients with HIV infection (0.88) than in those without HIV infection (0.94). Among HIV-infected patients, ROC-AUC showed no significant differences between different CD4+ cell counts. The IF assay is useful for diagnosing AC in symptomatic patients with and those without HIV infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Entamoeba histolytica Phagocytosis of Human Erythrocytes Involves PATMK, a Member of the Transmembrane Kinase Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettner, Douglas R; Huston, Christopher D; Linford, Alicia S; Buss, Sarah N; Houpt, Eric; Sherman, Nicholas E; Petri, William A

    2008-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the cause of amebic colitis and liver abscess. This parasite induces apoptosis in host cells and utilizes exposed ligands such as phosphatidylserine to ingest the apoptotic corpses and invade deeper into host tissue. The purpose of this work was to identify amebic proteins involved in the recognition and ingestion of dead cells. A member of the transmembrane kinase family, phagosome-associated TMK96 (PATMK), was identified in a proteomic screen for early phagosomal proteins. Anti-peptide affinity-purified antibody produced against PATMK demonstrated that it was a type I integral membrane protein that was expressed on the trophozoite surface, and that co-localized with human erythrocytes at the site of contact. The role of PATMK in erythrophagocytosis in vitro was demonstrated by: (i) incubation of ameba with anti-PATMK antibodies; (ii) PATMK mRNA knock-down using a novel shRNA expression system; and (iii) expression of a carboxy-truncation of PATMK (PATMKΔ932). Expression of the carboxy-truncation of PATMKΔ932 also caused a specific reduction in the ability of E. histolytica to establish infection in the intestinal model of amebiasis, however these amebae retained the ability to cause hepatic abscesses when directly injected in the liver. In conclusion, PATMK was identified as a member of the TMK family that participates in erythrophagocytosis and is uniquely required for intestinal infection. PMID:18208324

  4. Entamoeba histolytica phagocytosis of human erythrocytes involves PATMK, a member of the transmembrane kinase family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R Boettner

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is the cause of amebic colitis and liver abscess. This parasite induces apoptosis in host cells and utilizes exposed ligands such as phosphatidylserine to ingest the apoptotic corpses and invade deeper into host tissue. The purpose of this work was to identify amebic proteins involved in the recognition and ingestion of dead cells. A member of the transmembrane kinase family, phagosome-associated TMK96 (PATMK, was identified in a proteomic screen for early phagosomal proteins. Anti-peptide affinity-purified antibody produced against PATMK demonstrated that it was a type I integral membrane protein that was expressed on the trophozoite surface, and that co-localized with human erythrocytes at the site of contact. The role of PATMK in erythrophagocytosis in vitro was demonstrated by: (i incubation of ameba with anti-PATMK antibodies; (ii PATMK mRNA knock-down using a novel shRNA expression system; and (iii expression of a carboxy-truncation of PATMK (PATMK(delta932. Expression of the carboxy-truncation of PATMK(delta932 also caused a specific reduction in the ability of E. histolytica to establish infection in the intestinal model of amebiasis, however these amebae retained the ability to cause hepatic abscesses when directly injected in the liver. In conclusion, PATMK was identified as a member of the TMK family that participates in erythrophagocytosis and is uniquely required for intestinal infection.

  5. Host-parasite interactions and mechanisms of infection in amebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriptiastuti Suriptiastuti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Amebiasis is caused by E. histolytica, which is the only species pathogenic in humans, while the pathogeneicity of E. dispar and E. moshkovskii is still unclear. The disease is endemic in the developing countries, mainly due to poor sanitation and lack of clean water supplies. Infection occurs by ingestion of E. histolytica cysts in fecally contaminated food or water. Excystation in the small intestine releases motile invasive trophozoites which migrate to the large intestine, adhere to the colonic epithelium by means of galactose and an amebic surface antigen, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific lectin. This results in killing of epithelial cells, neutrophils, and lymphocytes by the trophozoites, presumably through secretion of the pore-forming proteins called amebapores and activation of caspase 3. The trophozoite virulence factor, cysteine proteinase, induces an inflammatory response, resulting in neutrophil-mediated damage. Hematogenous spread of trophozoites causes extraintestinal amebiasis, particularly amebic liver abscess (ALA, in the formation of which caspase 3 presumably also plays a role. The trophozoites in the liver induce tissue destruction, cellular necrosis and formation of microabcesses that coalesce into a large solitary abscess in 65-75% of cases. Results from pediatric studies reveal that partial immunity is acquired after infection with E.histolytica, the immunity however declining with age.

  6. Does the eosinophil have a protective role in amebiasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Osuna Martha

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available While normal human eosinophils are destroyed in vitro by virulent Entamoeba histolytica, notwhistanding the presence of antibodies and complement, activated eosinophils promptly destroy the parasite although dying also at the end of the process. To study the possible in vivo participation of eosinophils in invasive amebiasis, we compared the induction of experimental amebic abscess of the liver (AAL in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus previously made eosinophilic through Toxocara canis antigen injection and in normal control gerbils. After intraportal inoculation of 10(5 ameba trophozoites (6 and 24 hr, the ratio of gerbils with AAL, as well as the number and size of the microabscesses was comparable in eosinophilic and control gerbils. However, at 96 hr the number and size of the microabscesses were significanly smaller (p<0.05 in eosinophilic gerbils. On the other hand the actuarial AAL survival curve up to 45 days post-amebic inoculation was signficantly (p<0.05 shifted to the right in controls. These results suggest that antigen-induced eosinophilia may exert a protective effect against AAL in gerbils.

  7. Host-parasite interactions and mechanisms of infection in amebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriptiastuti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Amebiasis is caused by E. histolytica, which is the only species pathogenic in humans, while the pathogeneicity of E. dispar and E. moshkovskii is still unclear. The disease is endemic in the developing countries, mainly due to poor sanitation and lack of clean water supplies. Infection occurs by ingestion of E. histolytica cysts in fecally contaminated food or water. Excystation in the small intestine releases motile invasive trophozoites which migrate to the large intestine, adhere to the colonic epithelium by means of galactose and an amebic surface antigen, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific lectin. This results in killing of epithelial cells, neutrophils, and lymphocytes by the trophozoites, presumably through secretion of the pore-forming proteins called amebapores and activation of caspase 3. The trophozoite virulence factor, cysteine proteinase, induces an inflammatory response, resulting in neutrophil-mediated damage. Hematogenous spread of trophozoites causes extraintestinal amebiasis, particularly amebic liver abscess (ALA, in the formation of which caspase 3 presumably also plays a role. The trophozoites in the liver induce tissue destruction, cellular necrosis and formation of microabcesses that coalesce into a large solitary abscess in 65-75% of cases. Results from pediatric studies reveal that partial immunity is acquired after infection with E.histolytica, the immunity however declining with age.

  8. Increased Risk for Entamoeba histolytica Infection and Invasive Amebiasis in HIV Seropositive Men Who Have Sex with Men in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chien-Ching; Ji, Dar-Der; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Lee, Ya-Tien; Hsu, Shui-Yuan; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Wu, Cheng-Hsin; Chan, Yun-Hsien; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Liu, Wen-Chun; Colebunders, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Background Incidence of Entamoeba histolytica infection and clinical manifestations and treatment response of invasive amebiasis (IA) in HIV-infected patients have rarely been investigated before. Methodology/Principal Findings At the National Taiwan University Hospital, medical records of HIV-infected patients who received a diagnosis of IA between 1994 and 2005 were reviewed. The incidence of amebiasis was investigated in serial blood and stool samples from 670 and 264 HIV-infected patients, respectively, using serological and specific amebic antigen assays. DNA extracted from stool samples containing E. histolytica were analyzed by PCR, sequenced, and compared. Sixty-four (5.8%) of 1,109 HIV-infected patients had 67 episodes of IA, and 89.1% of them were men having sex with men (MSM). The CD4 count at diagnosis of IA was significantly higher than that of the whole cohort (215 cells/µL vs. 96 cells/µL). Forty episodes (59.7%) were liver abscesses, 52 (77.6%) colitis, and 25 (37.3%) both liver abscesses and colitis. Fever resolved after 3.5 days of metronidazole therapy (range, 1–11 days). None of the patients died. The incidence of E. histolytica infection in MSM was higher than that in other risk groups assessed by serological assays (1.99 per 100 person-years [PY] vs. 0 per 100 PY; pamebiasis than patients from other risk groups. Despite immunosuppression, amebic liver abscesses and colitis responded favorably to treatment. PMID:18301730

  9. Multicentric ameboma of the colon mimicking Crohn′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biggs Saravanan Ramachandran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica infection can lead to colitis, colonic perforation abscess, and ameboma formation. Amebic colitis is common in developing countries, with its varied and nonspecific symptoms. Amebomas can occur rarely due to the formation of excess granulation tissue which usually occurs in cecum and ascending colon. A 64-year-old lady presented with abdominal pain and mass in the right side of abdomen. Imaging showed multicentric colonic masses. On colonoscopy multiple stricturizing ulcerated lesions involving cecum, ascending, proximal transverse colon, and splenic flexure were seen, which were suggestive of Crohn′s disease or multicentric neoplasm. Histopathological examination revealed multicentric lesion with focal necrosis and trophozoites of E. histolytica. Diagnosis of ameboma was made and antiamoebic treatment was started. She had full resolution of symptoms. We present this case since it is a case of ameboma, a rare complication of amebic colitis with an extremely rare presentation of multiple ulcerated stricturizing lesions, involving cecum, ascending, transverse colon, and splenic flexure which typically resembled Crohn′s disease.

  10. Prevention of intestinal amebiasis by vaccination with the Entamoeba histolytica Gal/GalNac lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpt, Eric; Barroso, Lisa; Lockhart, Lauren; Wright, Rhonda; Cramer, Carole; Lyerly, David; Petri, William A

    2004-01-26

    Prevention of intestinal infection by Entamoeba histolytica would block both invasive disease and parasite transmission. The amebic Gal/GalNAc lectin mediates parasite adherence to the colonic surface and fecal anti-lectin IgA is associated with protection from intestinal reinfection in children. We tested if vaccination with the E. histolytica Gal/GalNAc lectin could prevent cecal infection in a C3H mouse model of amebic colitis. Two trials using native lectin purified from the parasite and two trials using a 64 kDa recombinant fragment ("LecA") were performed with a combined intranasal and intraperitoneal immunization regimen using cholera toxin and Freund's adjuvants, respectively. Two weeks after immunization mice were challenged intracecally with trophozoites, and 4-12 weeks after challenge mice were sacrificed for histopathologic evaluation of infection. Vaccination prevented intestinal infection with efficacies of 84 and 100% in the two native lectin trials and 91 and 34% in the two LecA trials. Mice with detectable pre-challenge fecal anti-lectin IgA responses were significantly more resistant to infection than mice without fecal anti-lectin IgA responses. These results show for the first time that immunization with the Gal/GalNAc lectin can prevent intestinal amebiasis in mice and suggest a protective role for fecal anti-lectin IgA in vivo.

  11. [Liver abscesses - one of possible causes of fever of unknown origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husa, P; Freibergerová, M; Svacinka, R; Nebeský, T; Neubauer, J; Robek, O; Turanská, K; Zimová, I

    2009-04-01

    Liver abscess is a focal suppurative liver process. According to the etiology liver abscesses are divided into bacterial (pyogenic), and parasiti (amebic). Parasitic cysts (e.g. caused by Echinococcus granulosus) can be secondary bacterial infected and their clinical and laboratory manifestations are like pyogenic abscesses. In clinical manifestation of liver abscesses dominates fever of unknown origin. Authors present two characteristic cases of liver abscesses as a Case reports. The origin of multiple pyogenic abscesses of mixed etiology (Enterococcus faecium, E. coli ESBL, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis) in 73-years old man was either in secondary infected liver hematomas after his fall and injury or in intrascapular subcutaneous abscess with spreading of microbes by blood stream into liver. Some of liver abscesses were evacuated during surgical laparotomy; the residual ones were puncted by radiologist under CT control. The patient was treated with combination of meropenem, vancomycin, metronidazol (4 weeks), and fluconazole (20 days). Antibiotic treatment with per oral doxycycline was continuing after patient's discharge from the hospital for 3 weeks. Three amebic liver abscesses were diagnosed in 27-years old man of Indian origin. The treatment was based on drainage of abscesses under CT control a long-term metronidazol treatment.

  12. Impacts of tropical cyclones and accompanying precipitation on infectious diarrhea in cyclone landing areas of Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhengyi; Xun, Huanmiao; Zhou, Maigeng; Jiang, Baofa; Wang, Songwang; Guo, Qing; Wang, Wei; Kang, Ruihua; Wang, Xin; Marley, Gifty; Ma, Wei

    2015-01-22

    Zhejiang Province, located in southeastern China, is frequently hit by tropical cyclones. This study quantified the associations between infectious diarrhea and the seven tropical cyclones that landed in Zhejiang from 2005-2011 to assess the impacts of the accompanying precipitation on the studied diseases. A unidirectional case-crossover study design was used to evaluate the impacts of tropical storms and typhoons on infectious diarrhea. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to eliminate multicollinearity. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For all typhoons studied, the greatest impacts on bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea were identified on lag 6 days (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.81-2.93) and lag 5 days (OR = 3.56, 95% CI: 2.98-4.25), respectively. For all tropical storms, impacts on these diseases were highest on lag 2 days (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.41-4.33) and lag 6 days (OR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.69-3.56), respectively. The tropical cyclone precipitation was a risk factor for both bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea when daily precipitation reached 25 mm and 50 mm with the largest OR = 3.25 (95% CI: 1.45-7.27) and OR = 3.05 (95% CI: 2.20-4.23), respectively. Both typhoons and tropical storms could contribute to an increase in risk of bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea in Zhejiang. Tropical cyclone precipitation may also be a risk factor for these diseases when it reaches or is above 25 mm and 50 mm, respectively. Public health preventive and intervention measures should consider the adverse health impacts from tropical cyclones.

  13. Impacts of Tropical Cyclones and Accompanying Precipitation on Infectious Diarrhea in Cyclone Landing Areas of Zhejiang Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhengyi; Xun, Huanmiao; Zhou, Maigeng; Jiang, Baofa; Wang, Songwang; Guo, Qing; Wang, Wei; Kang, Ruihua; Wang, Xin; Marley, Gifty; Ma, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Zhejiang Province, located in southeastern China, is frequently hit by tropical cyclones. This study quantified the associations between infectious diarrhea and the seven tropical cyclones that landed in Zhejiang from 2005–2011 to assess the impacts of the accompanying precipitation on the studied diseases. Method: A unidirectional case-crossover study design was used to evaluate the impacts of tropical storms and typhoons on infectious diarrhea. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to eliminate multicollinearity. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: For all typhoons studied, the greatest impacts on bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea were identified on lag 6 days (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.81–2.93) and lag 5 days (OR = 3.56, 95% CI: 2.98–4.25), respectively. For all tropical storms, impacts on these diseases were highest on lag 2 days (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.41–4.33) and lag 6 days (OR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.69–3.56), respectively. The tropical cyclone precipitation was a risk factor for both bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea when daily precipitation reached 25 mm and 50 mm with the largest OR = 3.25 (95% CI: 1.45–7.27) and OR = 3.05 (95% CI: 2.20–4.23), respectively. Conclusions: Both typhoons and tropical storms could contribute to an increase in risk of bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea in Zhejiang. Tropical cyclone precipitation may also be a risk factor for these diseases when it reaches or is above 25 mm and 50 mm, respectively. Public health preventive and intervention measures should consider the adverse health impacts from tropical cyclones. PMID:25622139

  14. Impacts of Tropical Cyclones and Accompanying Precipitation on Infectious Diarrhea in Cyclone Landing Areas of Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zhejiang Province, located in southeastern China, is frequently hit by tropical cyclones. This study quantified the associations between infectious diarrhea and the seven tropical cyclones that landed in Zhejiang from 2005–2011 to assess the impacts of the accompanying precipitation on the studied diseases. Method: A unidirectional case-crossover study design was used to evaluate the impacts of tropical storms and typhoons on infectious diarrhea. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to eliminate multicollinearity. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results: For all typhoons studied, the greatest impacts on bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea were identified on lag 6 days (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.81–2.93 and lag 5 days (OR = 3.56, 95% CI: 2.98–4.25, respectively. For all tropical storms, impacts on these diseases were highest on lag 2 days (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.41–4.33 and lag 6 days (OR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.69–3.56, respectively. The tropical cyclone precipitation was a risk factor for both bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea when daily precipitation reached 25 mm and 50 mm with the largest OR = 3.25 (95% CI: 1.45–7.27 and OR = 3.05 (95% CI: 2.20–4.23, respectively. Conclusions: Both typhoons and tropical storms could contribute to an increase in risk of bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea in Zhejiang. Tropical cyclone precipitation may also be a risk factor for these diseases when it reaches or is above 25 mm and 50 mm, respectively. Public health preventive and intervention measures should consider the adverse health impacts from tropical cyclones.

  15. Increased risk for Entamoeba histolytica infection and invasive amebiasis in HIV seropositive men who have sex with men in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ching Hung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Incidence of Entamoeba histolytica infection and clinical manifestations and treatment response of invasive amebiasis (IA in HIV-infected patients have rarely been investigated before. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At the National Taiwan University Hospital, medical records of HIV-infected patients who received a diagnosis of IA between 1994 and 2005 were reviewed. The incidence of amebiasis was investigated in serial blood and stool samples from 670 and 264 HIV-infected patients, respectively, using serological and specific amebic antigen assays. DNA extracted from stool samples containing E. histolytica were analyzed by PCR, sequenced, and compared. Sixty-four (5.8% of 1,109 HIV-infected patients had 67 episodes of IA, and 89.1% of them were men having sex with men (MSM. The CD4 count at diagnosis of IA was significantly higher than that of the whole cohort (215 cells/microL vs. 96 cells/microL. Forty episodes (59.7% were liver abscesses, 52 (77.6% colitis, and 25 (37.3% both liver abscesses and colitis. Fever resolved after 3.5 days of metronidazole therapy (range, 1-11 days. None of the patients died. The incidence of E. histolytica infection in MSM was higher than that in other risk groups assessed by serological assays (1.99 per 100 person-years [PY] vs. 0 per 100 PY; p<0.0001 and amebic antigen assays (3.16 per 100 PY vs. 0.68 per 100 PY; p = 0.12. In multiple logistic regression analysis, only MSM was significantly associated with acquisition of E. histolytica infection (adjusted odds ratio, 14.809; p = 0.01. Clustering of E. histolytica isolates by sequencing analyses from geographically-unrelated patients suggested person-to-person transmission. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HIV-infected MSM were at significantly higher risk of amebiasis than patients from other risk groups. Despite immunosuppression, amebic liver abscesses and colitis responded favorably to treatment.

  16. Epidemiology, Clinical Features and Outcome of Liver Abscess: A single Reference Center Experience in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtak Talib Abbas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the etiology, clinical presentation, management and outcome of liver abscess in adult patients admitted at Hamad general hospital, Qatar. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to involve all adult patients who sequentially encountered episodes of liver abscess during the period from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2010. Blood cultures were drawn from all patients in the first 24 hours after admission. In addition, all patients had stool examinations and indirect Hemagglutination test for Entameba histolytica. Aspiration of abscess was done under CT guidance and aspirated pus was sent for gram stain and culture. Results: In total, 67 patients were admitted with liver abscess; 56 patients with pyogenic liver abscess and 11 with amebic liver abscess. There were 61 (91% males and six (9% females and their mean age was 47.4 ± 18.5 years. Fever, abdominal pain and vomiting were the commonest presenting features. Of the 56 pyogenic liver abscess patients, four discharged against medical advice and seven refused all invasive procedures and were treated with antibiotics for six weeks. The remaining 44 (79% patients were treated with antibiotics and one or more invasive procedures, while one patient was treated surgically. The commonest organism isolated was Klebseilla pneumonia found in 21 patients (38%. The mean duration of hospitalization was 13.6 ± 8.1 days; the mean duration of antibiotic therapy was 34.7 ± 40.6 days, and one patient died. In contrast, all amebic liver abscess patients underwent ultrasound guided aspiration and showed good response to metronidazole treatment. Their mean duration of hospitalization was 7.7 ± 4.1 days, mean duration of therapy was 11.8 ± 2.1 days, and all patients were cured. Conclusion: Pyogenic liver abscess was more common than amebic liver abscess with Klebseilla pneumonia being the commonest organism. With good medical measures and early drainage of liver abscess, surgical

  17. Technical advances in trigger-induced RNA interference gene silencing in the parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohamed I; Foda, Bardees M; Suresh, Susmitha; Singh, Upinder

    2016-03-01

    Entamoeba histolytica has a robust endogenous RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. There are abundant 27 nucleotide (nt) anti-sense small RNAs (AS sRNAs) that target genes for silencing and the genome encodes many genes involved in the RNAi pathway such as Argonaute proteins. Importantly, an E. histolytica gene with numerous AS sRNAs can function as a "trigger" to induce silencing of a gene that is fused to the trigger. Thus, the amebic RNAi pathway regulates gene expression relevant to amebic biology and has additionally been harnessed as a tool for genetic manipulation. In this study we have further improved the trigger-induced gene silencing method. We demonstrate that rather than using the full-length gene, a short portion of the coding region fused to a trigger is sufficient to induce silencing; the first 537 bp of the E. histolytica rhomboid gene (EhROM1) fused in-frame to the trigger was sufficient to silence EhROM1. We also demonstrated that the trigger method could silence two amebic genes concomitantly; fusion of the coding regions of EhROM1 and transcription factor, EhMyb, in-frame to a trigger gene resulted in both genes being silenced. Alternatively, two genes can be silenced sequentially: EhROM1-silenced parasites with no drug selection plasmid were transfected with trigger-EhMyb, resulting in parasites with both EhROM1 and EhMyb silenced. With all approaches tested, the trigger-mediated silencing was substantive and silencing was maintained despite loss of the G418 selectable marker. All gene silencing was associated with generation of AS sRNAs to the silenced gene. We tested the reversibility of the trigger system using inhibitors of histone modifications but found that the silencing was highly stable. This work represents a technical advance in the trigger gene silencing method in E. histolytica. Approaches that readily silence multiple genes add significantly to the genetic toolkit available to the ameba research community. Copyright © 2016

  18. Molecular epidemiology of bovine coronavirus on the basis of comparative analyses of the S gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Lihong; Hägglund, Sara; Hakhverdyan, Mikhayil

    2006-01-01

    Bovine coronavirus (BCoV), a group 2 member of the genus Coronavirus in the family Coronaviridae, is an important pathogen in cattle worldwide. It causes diarrhea in adult animals (winter dysentery), as well as enteric and respiratory diseases in calves. The annual occurrence of BCoV epidemics...... herd, indicating new introduction of virus; (iii) identical sequences in four different Danish herds in samples obtained within 2 months, implying virus transmission between herds; and (iv) that at least two different virus strains were involved in the outbreaks of BCoV in Denmark during the spring...

  19. Leadership, Ethics and Law of War. Discussion Guide for Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Bravery in Iraq,” New York Times, 12 January 2007. 4 Deb Dunham, “My Son’s Gone, but Heroes Fight On,” 14 January 2007. 5 Ed Marek , “Marines Keep...to be suffering from a number of wasting diseases such as tuberculosis, AIDS, and acute dysentery. Some were amputees. Few had even a scrap of...was going on in those prisons. Starvation. Neglect. Disease . You know people were dying in them. The hottest places in hell are reserved for those

  20. -Sitosterol-3-O--D-xylopyranoside from the flowers of Tridax procumbens Linn.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Saxena; Sosanna Albert

    2005-05-01

    Tridax procumbens Linn belongs to the natural order Compositae and is locally known as `Ghamra’. It has been found to possess significant medicinal properties. Its leaves are used in bronchial catarrh, dysentery, diarrhoea and to prevent falling of hair. Its flowers and leaves possess antiseptic, insecticidal and parasiticidal properties, and are also used to check haemorrhage from cuts, bruises and wounds. The present work deals with the isolation and identification of steroidal saponin, characterized as -sitosterol 3-O--D-xylopyranoside, which has been isolated from the flowers of Tridax procumbens Linn.

  1. Neonatal segmental enteritis due to cow′s milk allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavai Arunachalam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cow′s milk protein allergy (CMPA typically presents with persistent diarrhea or dysentery, vomiting and bleeding per rectum in young infants. CMPA is reported to mimic Hirschsprung′s disease and malrotation. We report, a neonate who presented with recurrent attacks of segmental enteritis due to CMPA and the last episode presented with signs of peritonitis. He improved dramatically after elimination of cow′s milk from his diet. CMPA should be considered in artificially fed babies with surgical abdomen and atypical clinical signs and symptoms.

  2. EFFECTIVENESS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF Maytenus rigida Mart. (CELASTRACEAE) IN ETHANOL-INDUCED DAMAGE GASTRIC IN MICE: ANALYSIS OF INVOLVEMENT OF NITRIC OXIDE, PROSTAGLANDINS, OPIOIDS RECEPTORS AND α-2-ADRENERGICS.

    OpenAIRE

    Ãngela MagalhÃes Vieira

    2013-01-01

    Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae) pupularly known as âbom-homemâ, âbom-nomeâ, âCabelo de Negroâ, âCasca-grossaâ, ChapÃu de couroâ or âpau-de-colherâ is a native species in the northeast region of Brazil, used in folk medicine in the tratament of inflammatory diseases, gastrointestinal disorders such diarrhea, dysentery and ulcers, kidney problems, hypertension, impotence and rheumatism. The aim of this work was to demonstrate the possible mechanism (s) of action underlying the gastroprotec...

  3. ANTIOXIDANT, IMMUNOMODULATORY AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITIES OF EMBLICA OFFICINALIS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri S.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Emblica officinalis (Amla is traditionally used for several diseases, and it is believed to increase the defense against diseases. It is particularly used for the treatment of cancer, diabetes, liver disorders, heart disease, ulcer, snake venom, haemorrhage, diarrhea, dysentery, anaemia and ophthalmic disorders. The antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anticancer, cytoprotective, analgesic, antimicrobial, antipyretic, antitussive and gastroprotective are the important properties of amla. Vitamin C, tannins and flavaniods present in amla have very powerful antioxidant activities. Due to rich vitamin C, amla is successfully used in the treatment of human scurvy.

  4. PLEUROPULMONARY AMEBIASIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Albert C.; Childress, Max E.

    1956-01-01

    Pleuropulmonary amebiasis may be manifest without diarrhea or dysentery. In obscure lesions of the right lower lung field, one should always consider pleuropulmonary amebiasis—especially with low grade fever and moderate leukocytosis. Abscess and empyema contents should be examined promptly microscopically or kept warm to preserve the motility of the trophozoites until satisfactory examination is possible. Conservative therapy will successfully manage most cases of pleuropulmonary amebiasis. If a thorough search fails to reveal Entameba histolytica, and the diagnosis is still entertained, a medical therapeutic trial is in order. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:13374556

  5. Health and Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available , bacteria, parasites and toxins, and it is a symptom of many of the illness caused by the various pathogens that might be involved in water-related disease. Non-specific diarrhoeal disease is more frequent and causes more deaths globally than cholera...-borne, water-washed, water-vectored or water-based diseases. Among the most typical water-related disease are gastroenteritis, amoebiasis, salmonellosis, dysentery, cholera, typhoid fever and hepatitis. Although there has been a general decline...

  6. CASSIA TORA: A PHYTO-PHARMACOLOGICAL OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Chandan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cassia tora, a popular Indian medicinal plant, has long been used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. The plant has been found to possess diverse number of pharmacological activities. The present paper gives an account of updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities. The review reveals that wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from the plant and it possess important activities like laxative, skin diseases, ringworm, eye diseases, liver complaint, dysentery and anthelmentic. Various other activities like antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antinociceptive, antiplasmodial, antifungal & antimicrobial, hyperlipemia & hypotensive have also been reported. These reports are very encouraging and indicate that herb should be studied more extensively for its therapeutic benefits.

  7. The Management of Food Poisoning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiTai-ran

    2001-01-01

    This article introduced the characteristics of food poisoning management in China.Food borne diseases are managed in two separate parts by the Ministry of Health in China,Based on different but related laws.Sporadic occurrence of food-borne diseases such as diarrhea,typhoid and dysentery are managed by the "Infectious Diseases Prevention and Control Law" ,while food poisoning outbreaks are managed by the "Food Hygiene Law".Some advantages and disadvantages of this management system will be discussed in the presentation.

  8. Severity of diarrhea and malnutrition among under five-year-old children in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, Farzana; Das, Sumon K; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Farzana, Fahmida D; Latham, Jonathan R; Chisti, Mohammod J; Ud-Din, Abu I M S; Azmi, Ishrat J; Talukder, Kaisar A; Faruque, Abu S G

    2013-08-01

    Enteric pathogens are commonly associated with diarrhea among malnourished children. This study aimed to determine the association between the severity of diarrheal illnesses and malnutrition among under 5-year-old children. During 2010 and 2011, we studied 2,324 under 5-year-old diarrheal children with mild disease (MD) and moderate-to-severe disease (MSD) attending a hospital in Bangladesh. Children with MSD were more likely to be malnourished compared with children with MD (35% versus 24%, P household income (1.71 [1.42, 2.07]). Childhood malnutrition was associated with dysentery and dehydrating diarrhea.

  9. Comparison of real-time PCR methods for the detection of Naegleria fowleri in surface water and sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Ashleigh; Mull, Bonnie J; Levy, Karen; Hill, Vincent R

    2015-05-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a thermophilic free-living ameba found in freshwater environments worldwide. It is the cause of a rare but potentially fatal disease in humans known as primary amebic meningoencephalitis. Established N. fowleri detection methods rely on conventional culture techniques and morphological examination followed by molecular testing. Multiple alternative real-time PCR assays have been published for rapid detection of Naegleria spp. and N. fowleri. Foursuch assays were evaluated for the detection of N. fowleri from surface water and sediment. The assays were compared for thermodynamic stability, analytical sensitivity and specificity, detection limits, humic acid inhibition effects, and performance with seeded environmental matrices. Twenty-one ameba isolates were included in the DNA panel used for analytical sensitivity and specificity analyses. N. fowleri genotypes I and III were used for method performance testing. Two of the real-time PCR assays were determined to yield similar performance data for specificity and sensitivity for detecting N. fowleri in environmental matrices.

  10. Naegleria fowleri: Diagnosis, Pathophysiology of Brain Inflammation, and Antimicrobial Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, J Jeffrey; Levy, Rebecca A

    2016-09-21

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a very rare disease with a high mortality rate. PAM is caused by Naegleria fowleri, an amoeba which resides in freshwater lakes and ponds and can survive in inadequately chlorinated pools ( Lopez, C.; Budge, P.; Chen, J., et al. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis: a case report and literature review . Pediatr. Emerg. Care 2012 , 28 , 272 - 276 ). In the past 50 years, there have been over 130 cases of Naegleria induced PAM in the United States with only three known survivors; one survivor was diagnosed and treated at Arkansas Children's Hospital. Successful treatment of PAM started with a rapid diagnosis, extensive antimicrobial therapy including an investigational medication miltefosine, supportive care, an intraventricular shunt, and hypothermia. These treatments address different aspects of the disease process. Increased understanding of the diagnosis and treatment of PAM is important especially for patients who present with meningitis-like findings during the summer months.

  11. Primary meningoencephalitis by Naegleria fowleri: first reported case from Mangalore, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Shalini; Wilson, Godwin; Prashanth, H V; Vidyalakshmi, K; Dhanashree, B; Bharath, R

    2002-01-01

    A fatal case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in a 5-month-old infant is described. The disease may have been contracted during bathing. The source of water was from an artificial well. The clinical presentation, the isolation of the ameba from the cerebrospinal fluid, the poor response to amphotericin B, and the ultimate fatal outcome are all consistent with the diagnosis of PAM. On the basis of its ability to grow at temperatures above 30 degrees C, the morphology of the trophozoite, and the presence of flagellate forms, the ameba was identified as Naegleria fowleri. Pathogenic N. fowleri amebae were recovered from samples of water from the well. To our knowledge this case represents the second case of PAM in an infant in the absence of the history of swimming.

  12. Ameboma Mimicking Submucosal Tumor of the Colon in an Elderly

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    Shen-Yung Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ameboma is a rare presentation of intestinal amebiasis, which is caused by infection with Entamoeba histolytica. Amebomas are generally concentric and can be difficult to differentiate from carcinoma in the gastrointestinal tract, which are commonly seen in elderly patients. Radiological studies or colonoscopy can be difficult to provide the diagnosis. We present an elderly man with an ameboma in the ascending colon, which manifested as a submucosal tumor in the radiological or endoscopic studies. His serum antiamebic serology test was positive. He received surgery because of poor response to medical treatment. A full course of antiamebic therapy followed by a luminal agent were given and he had a smooth postoperative course without relapse of amebic infection. Although the elderly population has a higher incidence of colonic malignancy, ameboma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of submucosal tumors in the colon, especially in patients with an insidious onset of disease.

  13. Association between periodontal disease and septicemia due to pyogenic hepatic abscess

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    Análida Elizabeth Pinilla

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Case of a 65 year-old man with type-2 diabetes mellitus for 15 years who complained of abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant associated with unquantified fever and weight loss over a period of 25 days. In the emergency room, he presented tachycardia, tachypnea and fever of 37 º C, diffuse abdominal pain from light palpation without peritoneal irritation or right upper quadrant tenderness upon fist percussion test. Within a few hours the patient evolved to septic shock and required transfer to the intermediate care unit. The abdominal computerized axial tomography showed multiloculated hepatic abscess. Percutaneous drainage was performed with the culture positive for Escherichia coli and Fusobacterium spp. Then, the differential diagnosis was made between pyogenic or amebic liver abscess. Subsequently, oral cavity examination revealed severe periodontal disease with coronal destruction; therefore, extraction was scheduled.

  14. RNA interference in Entamoeba histolytica: implications for parasite biology and gene silencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanbang; Pompey, Justine M; Singh, Upinder

    2011-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a major health threat to people in developing countries, where it causes invasive diarrhea and liver abscesses. The study of this important human pathogen has been hindered by a lack of tools for genetic manipulation. Recently, a number of genetic approaches based on variations of the RNAi method have been successfully developed and cloning of endogenous small-interfering RNAs from E. histolytica revealed an abundant population of small RNAs with an unusual 5′-polyphosphate structure. However, little is known about the implications of these findings to amebic biology or the mechanisms of gene silencing in this organism. In this article we review the literature relevant to RNAi in E. histolytica, discuss its implications for advances in gene silencing in this organism and outline potential future directions towards understanding the repertoire of RNAi and its impact on the biology of this deep-branching eukaryotic parasite. PMID:21162639

  15. An unusual cause of dyspnoea complicating right upper abdominal swelling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanjay Kumar Mandal; Partha Pratim Chakraborty; Rana Bhattacharjee; Subhasis Roy Chowdhury; Shounak Majumdar

    2006-01-01

    A middle aged, non-addict male presented with right upper abdominal pain and swelling with respiratory distress. Examination revealed central cyanosis, bipedal pitting edema with prominentepigastric and back veins.Liver was enlarged, tender, spanned 20 cm without any splenomegaly or ascites. Other systems were clinically normal. Laboratory investigations showed polymorphonuclear leucocytosis with slightly deranged liver function. Abdominal ultrasonography showed an abscess in the right lobe of the liver with compressed inferior vena cava (IVC), middle and left hepatic veins.Arterial blood gas (ABG) documented hypoxia with orthodeoxia and air-contrast echocardiography was suggestive of an intrapulmonary shunt. A diagnosis of hepato-pulmonary syndrome (HPS) was made with near normal liver function secondary to amebic liver abscess.It reversed completely following successful treatment of the liver abscess.

  16. The immune response to Naegleria fowleri amebae and pathogenesis of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano-Cabral, Francine; Cabral, Guy A

    2007-11-01

    The genus Naegleria is comprised of a group of free-living ameboflagellates found in diverse habitats worldwide. Over 30 species have been isolated from soil and water but only Naegleria fowleri (N. fowleri) has been associated with human disease. Naegleria fowleri causes primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a fatal disease of the central nervous system. The pathogenesis of PAM and the role of host immunity to N. fowleri are poorly understood. Strategies for combating infection are limited because disease progression is rapid and N. fowleri has developed strategies to evade the immune system. The medical significance of these free-living ameboflagellates should not be underestimated, not only because they are agents of human disease, but also because they can serve as reservoirs of pathogenic bacteria.

  17. Tratamento da colite amebiana não disentérica com dose única de Teclozan

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    Donald Huggins

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores trataram 30 pacientes portadores de colite amebiana não disentérica, de ambos os sexos (17 homens e 13 mulheres, com idades compreendidas entre 15 (dois casos a 55 anos (um doente, na Disciplina de Doenças Infecciosas. Parasitárias da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. A posologia administrada foi de 1.500 mg em dose única e os resultados avaliados pelas técnicas de Hoffman, raspado da mucosa retaí, retossigmoidoscopia (em 16 enfermos e exame direto com ou sem coloração pelo lugol, foram de 80% (24 doentes de cura clínica e laboratorial. Nenhuma manifestação colateral foi relatada petos pacientas e concluem os autores que o Teclozan administrado em nova posologia, representa valioso subsídio no tratamento da amebíase intestinal.

  18. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for the detection and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderaro, Adriana; Piergianni, Maddalena; Buttrini, Mirko; Montecchini, Sara; Piccolo, Giovanna; Gorrini, Chiara; Rossi, Sabina; Chezzi, Carlo; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; Medici, Maria Cristina; De Conto, Flora

    2015-01-01

    Detection of Entamoeba histolytica and its differentiation from Entamoeba dispar is an important goal of the clinical parasitology laboratory. The aim of this study was the identification and differentiation of E. histolytica and E. dispar by MALDI-TOF MS, in order to evaluate the application of this technique in routine diagnostic practice. MALDI-TOF MS was applied to 3 amebic reference strains and to 14 strains isolated from feces that had been differentiated by molecular methods in our laboratory. Protein extracts from cultures of these strains (axenic cultures for the 3 reference strains and monoxenic cultures for the 14 field isolates) were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS and the spectra obtained were analyzed by statistical software. Five peaks discriminating between E. histolytica and E. dispar reference strains were found by protein profile analysis: 2 peaks (8,246 and 8,303 Da) specific for E. histolytica and 3 (4,714; 5,541; 8,207 Da) for E. dispar. All clinical isolates except one showed the discriminating peaks expected for the appropriate species. For 2 fecal samples from which 2 strains (1 E. histolytica and 1 E. dispar) out of the 14 included in this study were isolated, the same discriminating peaks found in the corresponding isolated amebic strains were detected after only 12h (E. histolytica) and 24h (E. dispar) of incubation of the fecal samples in Robinson's medium without serum. Our study shows that MALDI-TOF MS can be used to discriminate between E. histolytica and E. dispar using in vitro xenic cultures and it also could have potential for the detection of these species in clinical samples.

  19. Acanthamoeba spp. as agents of disease in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano-Cabral, Francine; Cabral, Guy

    2003-04-01

    Acanthamoeba spp. are free-living amebae that inhabit a variety of air, soil, and water environments. However, these amebae can also act as opportunistic as well as nonopportunistic pathogens. They are the causative agents of granulomatous amebic encephalitis and amebic keratitis and have been associated with cutaneous lesions and sinusitis. Immuno compromised individuals, including AIDS patients, are particularly susceptible to infections with Acanthamoeba. The immune defense mechanisms that operate against Acanthamoeba have not been well characterized, but it has been proposed that both innate and acquired immunity play a role. The ameba's life cycle includes an active feeding trophozoite stage and a dormant cyst stage. Trophozoites feed on bacteria, yeast, and algae. However, both trophozoites and cysts can retain viable bacteria and may serve as reservoirs for bacteria with human pathogenic potential. Diagnosis of infection includes direct microscopy of wet mounts of cerebrospinal fluid or stained smears of cerebrospinal fluid sediment, light or electron microscopy of tissues, in vitro cultivation of Acanthamoeba, and histological assessment of frozen or paraffin-embedded sections of brain or cutaneous lesion biopsy material. Immunocytochemistry, chemifluorescent dye staining, PCR, and analysis of DNA sequence variation also have been employed for laboratory diagnosis. Treatment of Acanthamoeba infections has met with mixed results. However, chlorhexidine gluconate, alone or in combination with propamidene isethionate, is effective in some patients. Furthermore, effective treatment is complicated since patients may present with underlying disease and Acanthamoeba infection may not be recognized. Since an increase in the number of cases of Acanthamoeba infections has occurred worldwide, these protozoa have become increasingly important as agents of human disease.

  20. Growth of the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica in 5-azacytidine has limited effects on parasite gene expression

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    Hackney Jason A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In higher eukaryotes DNA methylation regulates important biological functions including silencing of gene expression and protection from adverse effects of retrotransposons. In the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, a DNA methyltransferase has been identified and treatment with 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC, a potent inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase, has been reported to attenuate parasite virulence. However, the overall extent of DNA methylation and its subsequent effects on global gene expression in this parasite are currently unknown. Results In order to identify the genome-wide effects of DNA methylation in E. histolytica, we used a short oligonucleotide microarray representing 9,435 genes (~95% of all annotated amebic genes and compared the expression profile of E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS parasites with those treated with 23 μM 5-AzaC for up to one week. Overall, 2.1% of genes tested were transcriptionally modulated under these conditions. 68 genes were upregulated and 131 genes down regulated (2-fold change; p-value E. histolytica: (i genes that were endogenously silenced by genomic DNA methylation and for which 5-AzaC treatment induced transcriptional de-repression, and (ii genes that have genomic DNA methylation, but which were not endogenously silenced by the methylation. We identified among the genes down regulated by 5-AzaC treatment a cysteine proteinase (2.m00545 and lysozyme (52.m00148 both of which have known roles in amebic pathogenesis. Decreased expression of these genes in the 5-AzaC treated E. histolytica may account in part for the parasites reduced cytolytic abilities. Conclusion This work represents the first genome-wide analysis of DNA-methylation in Entamoeba histolytica and indicates that DNA methylation has relatively limited effects on gene expression in this parasite.

  1. Evidence for Lateral Transfer of Genes Encoding Ferredoxins, Nitroreductases, NADH Oxidase, and Alcohol Dehydrogenase 3 from Anaerobic Prokaryotes to Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Julie E. J.; Wang, Amy; Field, Jessica; Morrison, Hilary G.; McArthur, Andrew G.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; Loftus, Brendan J.; Samuelson, John

    2002-01-01

    Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica are amitochondriate, microaerophilic protists which use fermentation enzymes like those of bacteria to survive anaerobic conditions within the intestinal lumen. Genes encoding fermentation enzymes and related electron transport peptides (e.g., ferredoxins) in giardia organisms and amebae are hypothesized to be derived from either an ancient anaerobic eukaryote (amitochondriate fossil hypothesis), a mitochondrial endosymbiont (hydrogen hypothesis), or anaerobic bacteria (lateral transfer hypothesis). The goals here were to complete the molecular characterization of giardial and amebic fermentation enzymes and to determine the origins of the genes encoding them, when possible. A putative giardia [2Fe-2S]ferredoxin which had a hypothetical organelle-targeting sequence at its N terminus showed similarity to mitochondrial ferredoxins and the hydrogenosomal ferredoxin of Trichomonas vaginalis (another luminal protist). However, phylogenetic trees were star shaped, with weak bootstrap support, so we were unable to confirm or rule out the endosymbiotic origin of the giardia [2Fe-2S]ferredoxin gene. Putative giardial and amebic 6-kDa ferredoxins, ferredoxin-nitroreductase fusion proteins, and oxygen-insensitive nitroreductases each tentatively supported the lateral transfer hypothesis. Although there were not enough sequences to perform meaningful phylogenetic analyses, the unique common occurrence of these peptides and enzymes in giardia organisms, amebae, and the few anaerobic prokaryotes suggests the possibility of lateral transfer. In contrast, there was more robust phylogenetic evidence for the lateral transfer of G. lamblia genes encoding an NADH oxidase from a gram-positive coccus and a microbial group 3 alcohol dehydrogenase from thermoanaerobic prokaryotes. In further support of lateral transfer, the G. lamblia NADH oxidase and adh3 genes appeared to have an evolutionary history distinct from those of E. histolytica. PMID

  2. Inflammatory reaction in experimental hepatic amebiasis. An ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, V.; Martinez-Palomo, A.

    1988-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of tissue necrosis produced by the human protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of human amebiasis, appeared to be the lack of inflammatory reaction to the invading trophozoites. Recent evidence suggests, however, that inflammatory cells do appear during early stages of amebic destructive lesions and that they contribute to the establishment of foci of tissue necrosis in intestinal and liver lesions. The present analysis of the fine-structural changes that take place during early stages of amebic liver abscesses induced in hamsters after the intraportal inoculation of axenic amebas has shown that large numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are recruited around invading amebas. These leukocytes lyse as a consequence of contact-mediated damage induced by the trophozoites. Amebas were also capable of ingesting apparently intact PMNs. Macrophages and eosinophils were also recruited at the foci of inflammation. At all times examined, trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica survived in spite of being in close contact with PMNs or degranulating eosinophils. The ultrastructural observations have also shown the lack of direct contact between amebas and liver parenchymal cells during the initial stages of the focal liver necrosis induced by the parasite, therefore supporting the view that hepatic damage may be effected indirectly through lysis of inflammatory cells. The results also provide a basis for the understanding of the induction of experimental protective immunity against invasive amebiasis, a process which seems to be mostly dependent on cellular mechanisms. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:3337207

  3. Toll-like Receptor Signaling Activation by Entamoeba histolytica Induces Beta Defensin 2 in Human Colonic Epithelial Cells: Its Possible Role as an Element of the Innate Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Sumuano, Jorge-Tonatiuh; Téllez-López, Victor M.; Domínguez-Robles, M. del Carmen; Shibayama-Salas, Mineko; Meza, Isaura

    2013-01-01

    Background Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan parasite of humans, produces dysenteric diarrhea, intestinal mucosa damage and extraintestinal infection. It has been proposed that the intestinal microbiota composition could be an important regulatory factor of amebic virulence and tissue invasion, particularly if pathogenic bacteria are present. Recent in vitro studies have shown that Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites induced human colonic CaCo2 cells to synthesize TLR-2 and TLR-4 and proinflammatory cytokines after binding to the amebic Gal/GalNac lectin carbohydrate recognition domain. The magnitude of the inflammatory response induced by trophozoites and the subsequent cell damage were synergized when cells had previously been exposed to pathogenic bacteria. Methodology/Principal Findings We show here that E. histolytica activation of the classic TLR pathway in CaCo2 cells is required to induce β defensin-2 (HBD2) mRNA expression and production of a 5-kDa cationic peptide with similar properties to the antimicrobial HBD2 expressed by CaCo2 cells exposed to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. The induced peptide showed capacity to permeabilize membranes of bacteria and live trophozoites. This activity was abrogated by inhibition of TLR2/4-NFκB pathway or by neutralization with an anti-HBD2 antibody. Conclusions/Significance Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites bind to human intestinal cells and induce expression of HBD2; an antimicrobial molecule with capacity to destroy pathogenic bacteria and trophozoites. HDB2's possible role as a modulator of the course of intestinal infections, particularly in mixed ameba/bacteria infections, is discussed. PMID:23469306

  4. [Seroepidemiology of amebiasis in the northern region of the Republic of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isibasi, A; González, C; Ortíz, V; Muy, M; Paniagua, J; Blanco, F; Pelayo, R; Magdaleno, V; Ramírez, A; Kumate, J

    1990-01-01

    The object of paper has been the study of amebic seroepidemiology in the northern region of Mexico, by means of an immunoenzymatic assay in solid phase (ELISA). The proteic antigen was obtained from axenic culture of E. histolytica's trophozoites of strain HM1:IMSS, by means of solubilization with phenoxy polyethoxyethanol (Triton X-100). Standardization of the method was obtained by analysis of 80 sera from patients with both a clinical and radiologic diagnosis of amebic hepatic abscess and 80 sera from healthy patients. The sensitivity reached 95% and the specificity was 90.7%. 15,457 sera from eight Mexican northern states were tested as part of the National Seroepidemiologic Survey. A semiautomatic BIOMEK 1,000 (Beckman Ins.) equipment was used. The positive ratio varied between 2.0% in Southern Baja California and 4.92% in Chihuahua, with an average ratio for the whole group of 3.34%. The first three places, in descending order, are Chihuahua (4.92%), Sinaloa (4.01%) and Northern Baja California (3.78%). The positive man: woman ratio was 0.87:1 and fluctuated between 0.38:1 in Coahuila and 1.76:1 in Nuevo Leon. In the whole sample the positive ratio of men was 3.00% and in women was 3.43%. The antibody profile related to age, is similar to diseases reported to be highly endemic; the percentage of positive sera rose progressively up to the age of 20 years (4.05%), at which a plateau occurred with a slight descending tendency up to 60 years of age (3.54%), after which a clear descent in the positive index is seen. No important variations were observed when comparing groups of ages and sexes. The antibody level seems to show an inverse relationship with the incidence rate of amebiasis.

  5. Efficacy of saccharomyces boulardii with antibiotics in acute amoebiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei; Najaf Dehbashi; Kamyar Yazdanparast; Afshin Shafaghi

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To compare the efficacy of antibiotics therapy alone with antibiotics and saccharomyces boulardii in treatment of acute amebiasis.METHODS: In a double blind, random clinical trial on patients with acute intestinal amoebiasis, 57 adult patients with acute amoebiasis, diagnosed with clinical manifestations (acute mucous bloody diarrhea) and amebic trophozoites engulfing RBCs found in stool were enrolled in the study.Regimen 1 induded metronidazole (750 mg Tid) and iodoquinol (630 mg Tid) for 10 days. Regimen 2 contained capsules of lyophilized saccharomyces boulardii (250 mg Tid) orally in addition to regimen 1. Patients were re-examined at two and four weeks after the treatment, and stool examination was performed at the end of week 4. Student′s t-test, χ2and McNemar′s tests were used for statistical analysis.RESULTS: Three patients refused to participate. The other 54 patients were randomized to receive either regimen 1 or regimen 2 (Groups 1 and 2 respectively, each with 27patients). The two groups were similar regarding their age,sex and clinical manifestations. In Group 1, diarrhea lasted 48.0±18.5 hours and in Group 2,12.0±3.7 hours (P<0.0001).In Group 1, the durations of fever and abdominal pain were 24.0±8.8 and 24.0±7.3 hours and in Group 2 they were 12.0±5.3 and 12.0±3.2 hours, respectively (P<0.001).Duration of headache was similar in both groups. At week 4, amebic cysts were detected in 5 cases (18.5 %) of Group 1 but in none of the Group 2 (P<0.02).CONCLUSION: Adding saccharomyces boulardii to antibiotics in the treatment of acute amebiasis seems to decrease the duration of clinical symptoms and cyst passage.

  6. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for the detection and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Calderaro

    Full Text Available Detection of Entamoeba histolytica and its differentiation from Entamoeba dispar is an important goal of the clinical parasitology laboratory. The aim of this study was the identification and differentiation of E. histolytica and E. dispar by MALDI-TOF MS, in order to evaluate the application of this technique in routine diagnostic practice. MALDI-TOF MS was applied to 3 amebic reference strains and to 14 strains isolated from feces that had been differentiated by molecular methods in our laboratory. Protein extracts from cultures of these strains (axenic cultures for the 3 reference strains and monoxenic cultures for the 14 field isolates were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS and the spectra obtained were analyzed by statistical software. Five peaks discriminating between E. histolytica and E. dispar reference strains were found by protein profile analysis: 2 peaks (8,246 and 8,303 Da specific for E. histolytica and 3 (4,714; 5,541; 8,207 Da for E. dispar. All clinical isolates except one showed the discriminating peaks expected for the appropriate species. For 2 fecal samples from which 2 strains (1 E. histolytica and 1 E. dispar out of the 14 included in this study were isolated, the same discriminating peaks found in the corresponding isolated amebic strains were detected after only 12h (E. histolytica and 24h (E. dispar of incubation of the fecal samples in Robinson's medium without serum. Our study shows that MALDI-TOF MS can be used to discriminate between E. histolytica and E. dispar using in vitro xenic cultures and it also could have potential for the detection of these species in clinical samples.

  7. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry for the Detection and Differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderaro, Adriana; Piergianni, Maddalena; Buttrini, Mirko; Montecchini, Sara; Piccolo, Giovanna; Gorrini, Chiara; Rossi, Sabina; Chezzi, Carlo; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; Medici, Maria Cristina; De Conto, Flora

    2015-01-01

    Detection of Entamoeba histolytica and its differentiation from Entamoeba dispar is an important goal of the clinical parasitology laboratory. The aim of this study was the identification and differentiation of E. histolytica and E. dispar by MALDI-TOF MS, in order to evaluate the application of this technique in routine diagnostic practice. MALDI-TOF MS was applied to 3 amebic reference strains and to 14 strains isolated from feces that had been differentiated by molecular methods in our laboratory. Protein extracts from cultures of these strains (axenic cultures for the 3 reference strains and monoxenic cultures for the 14 field isolates) were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS and the spectra obtained were analyzed by statistical software. Five peaks discriminating between E. histolytica and E. dispar reference strains were found by protein profile analysis: 2 peaks (8,246 and 8,303 Da) specific for E. histolytica and 3 (4,714; 5,541; 8,207 Da) for E. dispar. All clinical isolates except one showed the discriminating peaks expected for the appropriate species. For 2 fecal samples from which 2 strains (1 E. histolytica and 1 E. dispar) out of the 14 included in this study were isolated, the same discriminating peaks found in the corresponding isolated amebic strains were detected after only 12h (E. histolytica) and 24h (E. dispar) of incubation of the fecal samples in Robinson’s medium without serum. Our study shows that MALDI-TOF MS can be used to discriminate between E. histolytica and E. dispar using in vitro xenic cultures and it also could have potential for the detection of these species in clinical samples. PMID:25874612

  8. Actinomyces and an unidentified ameba associated with an intrauterine device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pien, F D; Navin, J J; Carty, F

    1981-05-01

    A case report is presented of an asymptomatic 29-year-old Hawaiian patient with an IUD who had Actinomyces and an unidentified ameba in a Papanicolaou smear and in whom both organisms disappeared upon removal of the IUD. The patient presented for a routine pelvic examination as part of an employment physical. She denied any significant gastrointestinal or vaginal symptoms as well as any history of foreign travel. The patient reported that she had worn the same IUD for 9 years and that it had caused her no discomfort. A pelvic examination revealed a friable, papular cervix. The Papanicolaou smear revealed the presence of both amebae and colonies of Actinomyces. The findings were confirmed by the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, which reported an intense, acute and chronic inflammatory reaction marked by the presence of amebae and Actinomyces species colonies. The patient returned 4 months later for a repeat pelvic examination and removal of her IUD. At that time a cervical smear showed only amebae. The patient was seen again 3 months following the IUD removal. She reported that her vaginal discharge had decreased. A repeat Papanicolaou smear was completely normal. Faulkner and Ory have reported a 5-fold increase of pelvic inflammatory disease among IUD users compared to nonusers. Among pelvic infections found to be associated with IUD users is genital actinomycosis. Many of these patients are asymptomatic with only cytologic evidence of Actinomyces, but these patients can progress to pelvic inflammation and abscess formation. Reports have recently described the presence of amebic trophozoites in IUD users. The main purpose in reporting this case is to alert the tropical medicine specialist to this entity. Amebic colonization appears to respond completely to IUD removal, and there is no need for additional medical or surgical treatment.

  9. Control of Entamoeba histolytica adherence involves metallosurface protease 1, an M8 family surface metalloprotease with homology to leishmanolysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Jose E; Sateriale, Adam; Bessoff, Kovi E; Huston, Christopher D

    2012-06-01

    Invasive amebiasis due to Entamoeba histolytica infection is an important cause of morbidity in developing countries. The E. histolytica genome contains two homologues to the metalloprotease leishmanolysin gene, Entamoeba histolytica MSP-1 (EhMSP-1) and EhMSP-2, while the commensal ameba Entamoeba dispar has lost EhMSP-1. In this study, we sought to characterize E. histolytica metallosurface protease 1 (EhMSP-1). Using immunoprecipitation and a model substrate, we found that EhMSP-1 was a functional metalloprotease. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry revealed that EhMSP-1 localized to the cell surface and revealed the existence of distinct, nonclonal trophozoite populations with high and low EhMSP-1 surface abundance that became synchronized following serum starvation. Phenotypic assays were performed after silencing EhMSP-1. Adherence of EhMSP-1-deficient trophozoites to tissue culture cell monolayers was more than five times greater than that of control amebas, but surface staining of several antigens, including the galactose adherence lectin, was unchanged. EhMSP-1 silencing similarly increased adherence to both viable and apoptotic Jurkat lymphocytes. Tissue culture cell monolayer destruction was reduced by EhMSP-1 silencing, although it was blocked almost completely by inhibiting cysteine proteases. Consistent with a primary defect in regulation of amebic adherence, EhMSP-1 silencing also resulted in reduced mobility on tissue culture cell monolayers and in increased phagocytosis. In conclusion, EhMSP-1 was shown to be a surface metalloprotease involved in regulation of amebic adherence, with additional effects on cell motility, cell monolayer destruction, and phagocytosis.

  10. Toll-like receptor signaling activation by Entamoeba histolytica induces beta defensin 2 in human colonic epithelial cells: its possible role as an element of the innate immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge-Tonatiuh Ayala-Sumuano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan parasite of humans, produces dysenteric diarrhea, intestinal mucosa damage and extraintestinal infection. It has been proposed that the intestinal microbiota composition could be an important regulatory factor of amebic virulence and tissue invasion, particularly if pathogenic bacteria are present. Recent in vitro studies have shown that Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites induced human colonic CaCo2 cells to synthesize TLR-2 and TLR-4 and proinflammatory cytokines after binding to the amebic Gal/GalNac lectin carbohydrate recognition domain. The magnitude of the inflammatory response induced by trophozoites and the subsequent cell damage were synergized when cells had previously been exposed to pathogenic bacteria. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show here that E. histolytica activation of the classic TLR pathway in CaCo2 cells is required to induce β defensin-2 (HBD2 mRNA expression and production of a 5-kDa cationic peptide with similar properties to the antimicrobial HBD2 expressed by CaCo2 cells exposed to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. The induced peptide showed capacity to permeabilize membranes of bacteria and live trophozoites. This activity was abrogated by inhibition of TLR2/4-NFκB pathway or by neutralization with an anti-HBD2 antibody. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites bind to human intestinal cells and induce expression of HBD2; an antimicrobial molecule with capacity to destroy pathogenic bacteria and trophozoites. HDB2's possible role as a modulator of the course of intestinal infections, particularly in mixed ameba/bacteria infections, is discussed.

  11. [Epidemiological situation of the selected infectious diseases in Poland in 1918-1939].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztuka-Polińska, Urszula

    2002-01-01

    In Poland, during twenty years between the first and the second world war modern methods and remedies were created and applied to save the society from biological extermination caused by the epidemics of acute infectious diseases that existed in the larger areas of the country and other diseases that could threaten the society when brought from abroad. Poland regained its independence in 1918 as a country completely destroyed by war and encompassed three partitioned sectors that differed in wealth, class consciousness, various infrastructure, legislation, epidemiological situation of infectious diseases and threats spreading from abroad. Infectious diseases such as typhus fever, typhoid fever, cholera, smallpox, dysentery and other diseases spreading by alimentary tracts caused the greatest epidemiological problem. The considerable number of smallpox cases was noted in 1920-1922. In the thirties only individual cases occurred. Since 1934 no fatal cases of smallpox were registered. In 1919, in Poland 219,688 cases and 18,641 typhus fever deaths were registered. Between 1930 and 1939 the annual number of cases ranged from 2000 to 4000. In Poland each year between the first and the second world war typhoid fever was a serious sanitary problem. The largest outbreak of dysentery occurred in Poland in 1920-1921 and comprised 64,000 cases, among them 10,000 deaths. Acute childhood diseases such as scarlet fever and diphtheria were in Poland endemic. Number of registered cases was variable.

  12. A Dog with Multiple Infections of Enteric Parasitic Zoonosis in Mashhad City, North-East of Iran; a Case Report

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    Mohaghegh M.A. PhD,

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: In this study, we examined stool specimen from a 3-year-old domesticated dog, which was referred to a veterinary clinic with clinical signs such as nausea or vomiting, dysentery, cachexia and rash in Mashhad city, northeast of Iran. Patient & Methods: A 3-year-old pet dog was referred to veterinary clinic of Mashhad in February 2016 by symptoms including, nausea or vomiting, dysentery, cachexia and rash in Mashhad City, Northeast of Iran. For parasitological examination, formalin-ether concentration technique was used. Fecal smears were made from the sediment, stained with iodine and observed by light microscope. Modified Ziehl Neelsen method was used for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. Findings: The animal was infected with 10 disease-causing parasites; Taenia spp., Fasciola spp., Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Acanthocephal spp., Trichuris vulpis, Hook worm, Giardia spp., Blastocystis spp., Eimeria spp., and Cystoisospora spp. Conclusion: Domestic and stray dog could be an important sources for distribution of zoonoses disease especially parasitic agents.

  13. [The influenza pandemic of 1782, with special reference to its occurrence in the Imperial City of Nuremberg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasold, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    In Germany, very little research has been done on the flu pandemic of 1782. The year before, in 1781, an epidemic of dysentery had ravaged Central Europe quite seriously. The flu pandemic began in Germany in spring 1782. It took its origin in the Far East, probably in Imperial China. From there it slowly traveled westward and finally hit Russia and Germany. In early 1782, it arrived in eastern Prussia. Mortality rose, in Königsberg (Kaliningrad) mainly people over 30 died. From the German coast on the Baltic Sea the virus soon crossed over to England and Scotland. Within Germany it slowly moved southward, to places like Berlin, Weimar and further south. In Berlin very many people became sick. In spring 1782, in many parts of Germany, from east to west, people were bed-ridden. In Nuremberg, a young doctor described the symptoms of the disease and the therapy he gave to his patients in a pamphlet but apart from that there are few sources. Probably not many people consulted a doctor. Mortality in Nuremberg, it seems, did not rise very much. The city had been in decline since the 1750s, its population now shrunk even further. When this scourge hit Central Europe, the Holy Roman Empire was in decline, after an attack of famine and pestilence in the early 1770s and that epidemic of dysentery in 1781. It finally collapsed some 25 years later, in 1806, and the Imperial City of Nuremberg was absorbed by the Kingdom of Bavaria.

  14. TOXINS AND ANTITOXINS OF BACILLUS DYSENTERIAE SHIGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olitsky, P K; Kligler, I J

    1920-01-01

    With the methods which have been described we have separated an exotoxin and an endotoxin from cultures of the Shiga dysenteric bacillus. The study of the nature and effect of the poison of this microorganism is thus simplified. The two toxins are physically and biologically distinct. The exotoxin is relatively heat-labile, arises in the early period of growth, and yields an antiexotoxic immune serum. The endotoxin, on the other hand, is heat-stable, is formed in the later period of growth, and is not neutralized by the antiexotoxic serum. The exotoxin exhibits a specific affinity for the central nervous organs in the rabbit, giving rise to a characteristic lesion-mainly, hemorrhages, necroses, and possibly a perivascular infiltration in the gray matter of the upper spinal cord and medulla. The endotoxin exerts a typical action on the intestinal tract, producing edema, hemorrhages, necroses, and ulcerations, especially in the large intestine. In dysentery in man the intestinal lesions predominate, but in severe epidemics paralysis and neuritis have been observed (Osler(17)). These facts become specially significant from the standpoint of the serum therapy of bacillary dysentery. A potent antidysenteric serum should contain antibodies against the exotoxin as well as the endotoxin. That such a serum can be produced in horses has been experimentally demonstrated.

  15. Detection of EnteroinvasiveEscherichia coli by PCR technique in Children with Diarrhea

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    v Aein

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: EnteroinvasiveEscherichia coliis one of the important agents of invasion to intestinal epithelial cells, damage and cell death which due to dysentery. The aim of this study wastoDetection of EnteroinvasiveEscherichia coli by PCR technique from Children’s Diarrheain yasuj. Methods:This cross-sectional study was performed on 200 stool samples taken from children with diarrhea in Yasuj. After initial identification of E.coli strains by culture and biochemical tests, EIEC gene such as ipaH detected by PCR technicque and antibiotic susceptibility of isolates was evaluated by using disc diffusion (CLSI method. Results: Out of all examined samples, 16(8% EIEC were separated. Antibiotic susceptibility test showed that the most susceptible antibiotic is ciprofloxacin for EIEC and also most resistant antibiotic is ceftizoxime. Conclusion: Results showed that EIEC strains have a moderate prevalence than other studies in our study area. Therefore, for importance of this strain to producing dysentery, hospital-wide surveillance using molecular techniques hase been proposed in other regions of country.

  16. Differentiation between Shigella, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) and noninvasive Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Beld, M J C; Reubsaet, F A G

    2012-06-01

    Shigella causes bacillary dysentery and is classified into four species based on their antigen characteristics. This classification does not reflect genetic relatedness; in fact, Shigella species are so related to Escherichia coli , they should be classified as one distinctive species in the genus Escherichia. The differentiation of Shigella and E. coli is even more complicated with the description of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC). EIEC are strains that possess some of the biochemical characteristics of E. coli and have the ability to cause dysentery using the same method of invasion as Shigella does. Sequencing of multiple housekeeping genes indicates that EIEC is more related to Shigella than to non-invasive E. coli. Shigella and EIEC evolved from the same ancestor and form a single pathovar within E. coli. Shigella and EIEC could be separated from other E. coli by a PCR targeting the ipaH-gene; this is a multicopy gene exclusively found in all Shigella and EIEC. It is possible to differentiate Shigella and all E. coli, including EIEC, by using multiple tests, including ipaH-gene PCR, physiological and biochemical typing and serological typing. Based on literature study, a key is designed for daily use in diagnostic laboratories to identify Shigella and all E. coli.

  17. Phylogenetic Analyses of Shigella and Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli for the Identification of Molecular Epidemiological Markers: Whole-Genome Comparative Analysis Does Not Support Distinct Genera Designation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Pettengill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a leading cause of bacterial dysentery, Shigella represents a significant threat to public health and food safety. Related, but often overlooked, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC can also cause dysentery. Current typing methods have limited ability to identify and differentiate between these pathogens despite the need for rapid and accurate identification of pathogens for clinical treatment and outbreak response. We present a comprehensive phylogeny of Shigella and EIEC using whole genome sequencing (WGS of 169 samples, constituting unparalleled strain diversity, and observe a lack of monophyly between Shigella and EIEC and among Shigella taxonomic groups. The evolutionary relationships in the phylogeny are supported by analyses of population structure and hierarchical clustering patterns of translated gene homolog abundance. Lastly, we identified a panel of 404 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers specific to each phylogenetic cluster for more accurate identification of Shigella and EIEC. Our findings show that Shigella and EIEC are not distinct evolutionary groups within the E. coli genus and, thus, EIEC as a group is not the ancestor to Shigella. The multiple analyses presented provide evidence for reconsidering the taxonomic placement of Shigella. The SNP markers offer more discriminatory power to molecular epidemiological typing methods involving these bacterial pathogens.

  18. Phylogenetic Analyses of Shigella and Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli for the Identification of Molecular Epidemiological Markers: Whole-Genome Comparative Analysis Does Not Support Distinct Genera Designation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettengill, Emily A; Pettengill, James B; Binet, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    As a leading cause of bacterial dysentery, Shigella represents a significant threat to public health and food safety. Related, but often overlooked, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) can also cause dysentery. Current typing methods have limited ability to identify and differentiate between these pathogens despite the need for rapid and accurate identification of pathogens for clinical treatment and outbreak response. We present a comprehensive phylogeny of Shigella and EIEC using whole genome sequencing of 169 samples, constituting unparalleled strain diversity, and observe a lack of monophyly between Shigella and EIEC and among Shigella taxonomic groups. The evolutionary relationships in the phylogeny are supported by analyses of population structure and hierarchical clustering patterns of translated gene homolog abundance. Lastly, we identified a panel of 404 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers specific to each phylogenetic cluster for more accurate identification of Shigella and EIEC. Our findings show that Shigella and EIEC are not distinct evolutionary groups within the E. coli genus and, thus, EIEC as a group is not the ancestor to Shigella. The multiple analyses presented provide evidence for reconsidering the taxonomic placement of Shigella. The SNP markers offer more discriminatory power to molecular epidemiological typing methods involving these bacterial pathogens.

  19. Clinical and morphological approaches to the differential diagnosis of diphtheric colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Tsinserling

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases is a large group of nosologic forms such as more frequent acute intestinal infection, especially dysentery, chronic inflammatory diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Cron’s disease with lesions of the bowel, antibiotics-associated and ischemic colitis. There are some difficulties in differential diagnostics of inflammatory bowel diseases despite their widespread and tendency to more frequent occurrence. On the one hand, this is largely due to similar clinical picture which is most often presented by diarrhea and abdominal pain of different degree of intensity, and, on the other hand, by the disadvantages of laboratory diagnostics techniques. The article discusses the problem of clinical and morphological aspects of the differential colitis diagnostics with more detailed characteristics of fibrinous colitis of different etiology. The morphological differential diagnostics criteria, as well as a summary table of comparative characteristics of antibiotics-associated pseudomembranous colitis, dysentery, invasive candidiasis of bowel, ulcerative colitis and ischemic colitis have been presented. The importance of an integrated approach to the differential diagnostics of inflammatory bowel diseases, based on the analysis of anamnesis, clinical-laboratory and morphological data is stressed. The algorithm for optimizing of differential diagnostics of inflammatory bowel diseases with recommendations for qualitative morphological examination has been suggested. 

  20. High compliance randomized controlled field trial of solar disinfection of drinking water and its impact on childhood diarrhea in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Kevin G; Samaiyar, Priyajit; du Preez, Martella; Conroy, Ronán M

    2011-09-15

    Recent solar disinfection (SODIS) studies in Bolivia and South Africa have reported compliance rates below 35% resulting in no overall statistically significant benefit associated with disease rates. In this study, we report the results of a 1 year randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of SODIS of drinking water on the incidence of dysentery and nondysentery diarrhea among children of age 6 months to 5 years living in rural communities in Cambodia. We compared 426 children in 375 households using SODIS with 502 children in 407 households with no intervention. Study compliance was greater than 90% with only 5% of children having less than 10 months of follow-up and 2.3% having less than 6 months. Adjusted for water source type, children in the SODIS group had a reduced incidence of dysentery, with an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 0.50 (95% CI 0.27-0.93, p = 0.029). SODIS also had a protective effect against nondysentery diarrhea, with an IRR of 0.37 (95% CI 0.29-0.48, p SODIS is an effective and culturally acceptable point-of-use water treatment method in the culture of rural Cambodia and may be of benefit among similar communities in neighboring South East Asian countries.

  1. A Multigene Approach for Comparing Genealogy of Betacoronavirus from Cattle and Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iracema N. Barros

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastroenteritis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among young and newborn animals and is often caused by multiple intestinal infections, with rotavirus and bovine coronavirus (BCoV being the main viral causes in cattle. Given that BCoV is better studied than equine coronaviruses and given the possibility of interspecies transmission of these viruses, this research was designed to compare the partial sequences of the spike glycoprotein (S, hemagglutinin-esterase protein (HE, and nucleoprotein (N genes from coronaviruses from adult cattle with winter dysentery, calves with neonatal diarrhea, and horses. To achieve this, eleven fecal samples from dairy cows with winter dysentery, three from calves, and two from horses, all from Brazil, were analysed. It could be concluded that the enteric BCoV genealogy from newborn and adult cattle is directly associated with geographic distribution patterns, when S and HE genes are taken into account. A less-resolved genealogy exists for the HE and N genes in cattle, with a trend for an age-related segregation pattern. The coronavirus strains from horses revealed Betacoronavirus sequences indistinguishable from those found in cattle, a fact previously unknown.

  2. 金樱子茎提取物体外抑菌活性研究%Study on the in vitro Bacteriostatic Activity of Different Solvent Extracts from Caulis Rosae laevigatae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严寒静; 王振伟; 田素英

    2012-01-01

      Caulis Rosae laevigatae was extracted with different solvents to study the bacteriostatic activity of extracts from Caulis R. laevigatae. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Dysentery bacillus, Escherichia coli, Proteusbacillus vulgaris,Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureuswere used as the experimental strains. 80% ethanol Coptis extracts used as comparison. The diameters of inhibition zone were determined by agar plate diffusion method. Then the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) were observed to test dilution methods. The results show that the water solution has no bacteriostasis function to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Dysentery bacillus, Escherichia coli, Proteusbacillus vulgaris; The MIC to Salmonella typhi is 20 mg(crude drugs)/mL; The MIC to Staphylococcus aureus is 10 mg(crude drugs)/mL. 75% ethanol solution has no bacteriostasis function to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Dysentery bacillus, Escherichia coli, Proteusbacillus vulgaris. The MIC to Staphylococcus aureus is 10 mg(crude drugs)/mL. Ethyl acetate solution, chloroform solution, petroleum ether solution have no bacteriostasis function to all of the experimental strains. In Conclusion, the different solution of caulis R. laevigatae have indefinitely bacteriostasis function on common pathogenic bacteria.%  采用纸片扩散法和试管稀释法,研究金樱子茎不同溶剂粗提取物对临床常见病原细菌的抑菌活性.结果表明,金樱子茎水提取物对绿脓杆菌、痢疾杆菌、大肠杆菌、变形杆菌无抑菌活性;对伤寒杆菌的最低抑菌浓度(MIC)为20 mg(生药)/mL;对金黄色葡萄球菌的 MIC 为10 mg(生药)/mL.金樱子茎75%乙醇提取物对绿脓杆菌、伤寒杆菌、痢疾杆菌、大肠杆菌、变形杆菌无抑菌活性;对金黄色葡萄球菌 MIC 为10 mg (生药)/mL.金樱子茎乙酸乙酯、氯仿、石油醚提取物对绿脓杆菌、伤寒杆菌、痢疾杆菌、大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、变形杆菌无抑菌活性

  3. The analysis and health guidance of notified food-borne disease reported by Hebei Provincial Hospital%法定传染病疫情报告中儿童食源性疾病发病统计分析与健康指导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欣; 肖向莉; 李鑫; 王丽; 佘兴红

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo understand the incidence of notified food-borne diseases among children from 2011 to 2013 to provide the evidence for the treatment and nursing. MethodsDescriptive epidemiology was used to conduct to understand the incidence of notified food-borne diseases among children reported by Hebei Provincial Hospital from 2011 to 2013.Results Among the notified food-borne disease, 97.5% was infectious diarrhea except cholera, bacillary dysentery, typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever. The peak of incidence of these diarrhea was winter. The peak of typhoid fever and that of bacillary dysentery were during the period of July-September. The incidence of the typhoid fever was 0.13% and that of bacillary dysentery was 0.93%.ConclusionFood-borne disease is a group of diseases that spread through food. The incidence of these diseases has obvious seasonal characteristic. Health education adopted by doctors and nurses may help the diseases prevention and control.%目的:了解2011年—2013年法定传染病中儿童食源性疾病发病情况,为临床治疗与护理提供科学依据,有针对性进行健康指导。方法:对2011年—2013年我院法定传染病疫情报告中儿童食源性疾病发病情况进行统计分析。结果:其它感染性腹泻病占总食源性疾病的百分率为97.5%,高发季节为第4季度;伤寒、细菌性痢疾占总食源性疾病的0.13%、0.93%,高发季节均为第3季度。结论:食源性疾病是借助食物传播的一组疾病,季节性发病明显,健康指导有助于提高对疾病的防范意识,起到预防作用。

  4. The public health significance of Trichuris trichiura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, L S; Holland, C V; Cooper, E S

    2000-01-01

    An estimated 1049 million persons harbour T. trichiura, including 114 million preschool-age children and 233 million school-age children. The prevalence of T. trichiura is high and may reach 95% in children in many parts of the world where protein energy malnutrition and anaemias are also prevalent and access to medical care and educational opportunities is often limited. The Trichuris dysentery syndrome (TDS) associated with heavy T. trichiura, which includes chronic dysentery, rectal prolapse, anaemia, poor growth, and clubbing of the fingers constitutes an important public health problem, as do lighter but still heavy infections, even if not strictly TDS, especially in children. The profound growth stunting in TDS can be reversed by repeated treatment for the infection and, initially, oral iron. However findings from Jamaica strongly suggest that the significant developmental and cognitive deficits seen are unlikely to disappear without increasing the positive psychological stimulation in the child's environment. The severe stunting in TDS now appears likely to be a reaction at least in part to a chronic inflammatory response and concomitant decreases in plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), increases in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the lamina propria of the colonic mucosa and peripheral blood (which likely decrease appetite and intake of all nutrients) and a decrease in collagen synthesis. Improvements in cognitive performance have been found after treatment for relatively heavy infections (without chronic dysentery) in school-going children; it is unclear precisely how much T. trichiura interferes with children's ability to access educational opportunities, but treatment of infections whenever possible is obviously sensible. The blood loss that can occur in T. trichiura infection is likely to contribute to anaemia, particularly if the child also harbours hookworm, malaria and/or has a low intake of dietary iron. Community control is

  5. Infectious Diseases and Tropical Cyclones in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jietao; Han, Weixiao; Jiang, Baofa; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Ying

    2017-05-07

    Southeast China is frequently hit by tropical cyclones (TCs) with significant economic and health burdens each year. However, there is a lack of understanding of what infectious diseases could be affected by tropical cyclones. This study aimed to examine the impacts of tropical cyclones on notifiable infectious diseases in southeast China. Disease data between 2005 and 2011 from four coastal provinces in southeast China, including Guangdong, Hainan, Zhejiang, and Fujian province, were collected. Numbers of cases of 14 infectious diseases were compared between risk periods and reference periods for each tropical cyclone. Risk ratios (RRs) were calculated to estimate the risks. TCs were more likely to increase the risk of bacillary dysentery, paratyphoid fever, dengue fever and acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (ps cyclones.

  6. Isolation of Shewanella algae from rectal swabs of patients with bloody diarrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Shewanella algae is an emerging bacteria rarely implicated as a human pathogen. It was infrequently recovered from clinical specimens probably because of inadequate processing of non-fermenting oxidase-positive gram-negative bacilli. We report here isolation of S. algae in pure culture and mixed with E. coli from two cases of acute gastroenteritis with bloody mucous containing diarrhea occurring at the same time. As this organism is not a normal flora of the gut, the possible source of infection may be fish contaminated with the organism. Whether this bacterium can be considered an enteric pathogen needs to be evaluated. The cases were clinically diagnosed as acute bacillary dysentery. The bacterium was identified by 16S r-RNA gene sequence analysis.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF ACALYPHA HISPIDA

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    B. Bokshi*, M.A.S. Sayeed, M.I. Ahmed, U.K. Karmakar, S.K. Sadhu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic extract of leaves of Acalypha hispida was evaluated for phytochemical, cytotoxic and antibacterial activities. Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, reducing sugars and steroids. Cytotoxic activity was investigated by brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality assay. The extract showed potent cytotoxic effect (LC50 19.95µg/ml which is comparable to standard cytotoxic drug chloramphenicol (LC50 7µg/ml. Antibacterial activity was tested by disk diffusion method. The extract exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhe and moderate activity against Enterococcus coli, Streptococcus saprophyticus and Streptococcus agalactin whereas Shigella dysentery found resistant at 250µg/disc and 500µg/disc.

  8. A Case Report of Fungal Diarrhea in a Preweaned Calf in Iran

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    Azimpour

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Diarrhea is the most common cause of death in neonatal calves. The most important agents of diarrhea in young calves include bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Only limited attention has been paid to the role of fungi in calves’ diarrhea. Case Presentation We report on a neonatal calf with fungal diarrhea caused by Candida albicans. The calf has had dysentery in the previous 10 days despite good appetite. The calf was then treated with oxytetracycline tabulations for 5 days. Conclusions Yeasts and molds are sometimes associated with lesions in the stomach or intestines of scouring calves, but there is very limited information about their role in calf diarrhea. In this study, C. albicans was isolated in a 15-day-old dysenteric calf. These organisms are not a primary cause of diarrhea in calves, but like in children, they are possibly opportunistic pathogens that proliferate and invade the intestinal mucosa following antibiotic therapy.

  9. Content analysis of "Diagnose and treatment of cholera in Shanghan Lun (Treatise on Febrile Diseases)"%《伤寒论·辨霍乱病脉证并治》浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴葆莹; 吴崇旭; 吴崇典

    2010-01-01

    分析篇的内存,在伤寒之类病中出现类似"霍乱"、以严重"吐利"为突出表现的病证,将其冠以"崔乱病"之名.撰用了"霍乱"之名,表明这类胃肠型伤寒之类病的特点,又有"霍乱"与伤寒的"雀乱病"鉴别诊断的意义.%By analyzing "Diagnose and treatment of cholera in Shanghan Lun (Treatise on Febrile Diseases)", we found that such symptoms as serious vomiting and dysentery appeared in febrile diseases, which is similar to cholera. Therefore, Shanghan Lun named it "cholera illness". This name not only clearly manifested the characteristics of such gastrointestinal-febrile disease, but also emphasized the significance of differential diagnosis between cholera with "cholera illness" in febrile diseases.

  10. Uses of Justicia spicigera in medicine and as a source of pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzamná Baqueiro-Peña

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Justicia spicigera (muicle is a plant that has been used from the pre-Hispanic era to contemporary times in Mexico. It has been used in the traditional medicine for healing diseases such as dysentery, diabetes, leukemia, and anemia, just to mention some human disorders. It has been used for obtaining indigo dye after making extraction with water to be used for coloring of baskets, crafts, and clothes. The pigments, as a powder, have been studied for use for coloring foods. The dyeing characteristics of the J. spicigera pigments have antioxidant properties due to the flavonoids content. Since this plant has been used for making infusions to people for curing some physical disorders, today J. spicigera is being studied to take advance of its dyeing and antioxidant properties to be used in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  11. Specific detection of the genus Serpulina, S-hyodysenteriae and S-pilosicoli in porcine intestines by fluorescent rRNA in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Mette; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian;

    1998-01-01

    , for the detection of Serpulina isolates at genus level as well as for specific detection of S. hyodysenteriae and S. pilosicoli in formalin-fixed colon tissue sections from pigs suffering from swine dysentery and porcine colonic spirochaetosis, respectively. Tissue sections were also used from pigs without any......A fluorescent-labelled in situ hybridization method targeting rRNA was devised to facilitate specific identification and diagnosis of diarrhoea and colitis in pigs caused by the genus Serpulina, as well as to distinguish the species Serpulina hyodysenteriae and Serpulina pilosicoli in formalin......-fixed colon tissue sections. A genus-specific oligonucleotide probe SER1410 targeting the five species of porcine Serpulina was thus designed. Furthermore, species specific oligonucleotide probes (Hyo1210, Pilosi209 and Pilosi1405) were also designed to detect, identify and differentiate S. hyodysenteriae...

  12. IN VITRO STUDY OF ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA CAUSATIVE AGENT OF AMOEBIASIS WITH LEMON JUICE AT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATION SHOWED ANTIAMOEBIC PROPERTIES

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    Shrivastava Bhanu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A species of parasite protozoa Entamoeba histolytica causing amoebiasis and amoebic dysentery characteristic include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded. This is a single celled parasitic animal, that infects predominantly humans and other primates. Amoebic infection was first described by Fedor Losch in 1875 in St. Petersburg. In 1890, Sir William Osler reported the first North American case of amoebiasis when he observed amoebae in stool in abscess fluid from physician who previously resided in Panama. So we used the Lemon juice (Citrus at different concentration against Entamoeba histolytica to treat the amoebiasis disease. Entamoeba histolytica shows the variety of growth due to the effect of Lemon juice (Citrus. Lemon juice is ingredient and it has antiamoebic properties against Entamoeba histolytica a causative agent of amoebiasis.

  13. Activity of medicinal plants from Ghana against the parasitic gut protist Blastocystis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremer Christensen, Charlotte; Soelberg, Jens; Stensvold, Christen R

    2015-01-01

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The plants tested in this study were examples of plants historically used to treat or alleviate several types of stomach disorders manifested by e.g. stomachache, diarrhoea or dysentery. These plants have been consumed typically as a decoction, sometimes mixed......; an ethanolic, a warm, and a cold water extract, at a final concentration of 1mg/mL for the initial screening, and in a range from 0.0156 to 1mg/mL for determination of inhibitory concentrations. The obligate anaerobic parasitic gut protist Blastocystis (subtype 4) was used as a 48h old subcultivated isolate...... (IC50) was derived after 24h and 48h. Antimicrobial activity was tested against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria for all 24 plant parts at a final concentration of 1mg/mL. RESULTS: Screening of the 24 different plant parts showed significant anti-Blastocystis activity of six...

  14. Therapeutic methods for diarrhea in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.K. Bhattacharya

    2000-01-01

    @@DEFINITIONAcute diarrhoea is defined as passage of loose or watery stools at least three times in a 24 h period. When loose stools contain blood, it is called bloody diarrhoea (dysentery). It is the consistency of the stools which is most important rather than the frequency. Breast-fed babies often pass “pasty” stools frequently which is not diarrhoea. The mother can often tell accurately whether child has diarrhoea or not. MAGNITUDE OF THE PROBLEMAcute diarrhoea is an important cause of mortality and morbidity particularly in young children in the developing countries. Of the 11.6 million deaths among children less than five years old in all developing countries (1995) due to infectious diseases, 19% deaths are attributed to diarrhoeah]. In 1993, an estimated 3.2 million children below five years of age died from diarrhoea alone; 80 % of these deaths occurred in the first two years of life[2].

  15. Experience on the application of Minor Bupleurum Decoction%小柴胡汤在儿科的临床妙用经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张武标; 张武强

    2011-01-01

    To introduce the experience on the application of Minor Bupleurum Decoction in the treatment of children's common cold high fever, bacterium dysentery, nosebleed, summer fever, chronic suppurative otitis media, nasosinuitis,mumps.Minor Bupleurum Decoction is applied widely in the clinic on the base of good compatibility in Chinese herbal drug.%本文介绍小柴胡汤应用于治疗儿童外感高热、细菌性痢疾、鼻衄、夏季热、慢性化脓性中耳炎、鼻窦炎、流行性腮腺炎的临床妙用经验.只要配伍得当,小柴胡汤能广泛应用于临床.

  16. 志贺菌检测用抗原研究进展%Advance in research on the antigens for detection of Shigella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧莹; 端青

    2011-01-01

    志贺菌是细菌性痢疾的病原体,目前检测手段主要为常规生化法、免疫学及分子生物学方法,其中免疫学方法快速、便捷,实用性较强.本文综述了志贺茵免疫学检测用抗原的研究进展.%Shigella are the pathogens of bacillary dysentery. Major methods of detection are routine biochemistry detection, immunology detection and molecular biology detection . The immunology detection is rapid, simple and practical. Researches on antigens for detection of Shigella are reviewed.

  17. The Shigella human challenge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, C K; Thura, N; Ranallo, R T; Riddle, M S

    2013-02-01

    Shigella is an important bacterial cause of infectious diarrhoea globally. The Shigella human challenge model has been used since 1946 for a variety of objectives including understanding disease pathogenesis, human immune responses and allowing for an early assessment of vaccine efficacy. A systematic review of the literature regarding experimental shigellosis in human subjects was conducted. Summative estimates were calculated by strain and dose. While a total of 19 studies evaluating nine strains at doses ranging from 10 to 1 × 1010 colony-forming units were identified, most studies utilized the S. sonnei strain 53G and the S. flexneri strain 2457T. Inoculum solution and pre-inoculation buffering has varied over time although diarrhoea attack rates do not appear to increase above 75-80%, and dysentery rates remain fairly constant, highlighting the need for additional dose-ranging studies. Expansion of the model to include additional strains from different serotypes will elucidate serotype and strain-specific outcome variability.

  18. Research progress on pathogenic mechanism of Shigellae%志贺菌的致病机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国富; 白丽

    2011-01-01

    Shigellae is an important pathogen cause of bacillary dysentery. The pathogenic mechanisms of Shigellae are complicated which include cell mechanism and immunologic mechanism and so on. In this paper, the research progress on microfold cell translacation and epithelium cell infecton, control ing inflammatory reaction, escaping the host cell and inducing macrophage apoptosis are reviewed.%志贺菌是细菌性痢疾的重要病原体.其致病机制复杂,包括细胞机制和免疫机制等多方面.此文就志贺菌M细胞转位与上皮细胞感染抑制炎症反应、逃逸宿主细胞的吞噬作用及诱导巨噬细胞凋亡方面的研究进展作了综述.

  19. Safety and efficacy of Labisia pumila containing products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Syafiq Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Labisia pumila is a traditional medicinal plant which has wide therapeutic application including induction of labor and treatment of dysentery, dysmenorrhea and gonorrhea. We aimed for systematic review of the efficacy andsafety of L. pumila extract or its other commercial products availabe in Malaysian market. The marketed 500 mg capsule is composed of 40 mg L. pumila, 10 mg C. caudatum extract and 450 mg excipient. The commercial products did not follow the registration guidelines of Malaysian National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau (NPCB and advertisement guidelines of Malaysian Advertisement Board. Randomized, placebo controlled clinical trials reported the safe consumpotion of L. pumila water extract on postmanoposal women. Information on the efficacy and safety of commercial products are not sufficiently available. Many unregistered products (mostly capsule form are flooded in Malaysian market without having scientific information. Consumption of those products may seriously impair the health of the people.

  20. Intracellular Signaling Mechanisms Pharmacological Action of Jasminum amplexicaule Buch.-Ham. (Oleaceae) on Gastrointestinal Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenhua; Yin, Junqiang; Xie, Xiaolin; Long, Hanwu; Qi, Xiang; Lin, Changhu; Wu, Liangcai

    2014-01-01

    Jasminum amplexicaule Buch-Ham. (Oleaceae) has been commonly used in the traditional medicine in dysentery, diarrhoea and bellyache in China. In the present work, the methanol extract of Jasminum amplexicaule (JME) was examined for pharmacology on human colonic epithelial cell line T84 by the short-circuit current technique. The results showed that pretreatment of T84 cells with JME produced a concentration-dependent (0-1000 μg/mL. EC50 = 0.055 mg/ mL) inhibition effect on adrenalin (Adr.)-induced Cl- secretion. The maximal response was observed at 200 μg/mL. It has been demonstrated that JME has a direct effect on the enterocyte. Our results also demonstrated that the JME exerted inhibitory effect on gastrointestinal Cl(-)secretion that effected by acting on basolateral β-adrenoreceptors. These results suggested that the Chinese traditional medicine of JME can be used for the treatment of acute diarrhea and bellyache.

  1. [Thomas Hodgkin and his disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P

    2012-01-01

    Thomas Hodgkin (1798-1866), born into a family of Quakers, would remain faithful all his life to the principles and rules of the 'Society of Friends'. He studied pharmacy and medicine in London, Edinburgh and Paris. As curator for the museum of pathological anatomy of Guy's Hospital (1825-1837) he introduced modern, organ-based, medicine in England, together with the clinicians Richard Bright and Thomas Addison. In 1832 Hodgkin reported autopsy findings of seven patients who had shown swollen lymph glands and an enlarged spleen, without evidence of tuberculosis, purulent inflammation or cancer. Later the diagnosis 'Hodgkin's disease' would be restricted to lymphomas with giant, multinucleated Reed-Sternberg cells on microscopic examination. Especially in his later years, Hodgkin devoted much time and effort to the emancipation of oppressed or destitute minorities, especially abroad. He died of dysentery on a journey to Palestine and lies buried in Jaffa.

  2. Mimosa pudica L. (Laajvanti): An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Hafsa; Sehgal, Sakshi; Mishra, Anurag; Gupta, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Mimosa pudica L. (Mimosaceae) also referred to as touch me not, live and die, shame plant and humble plant is a prostrate or semi-erect subshrub of tropical America and Australia, also found in India heavily armed with recurved thorns and having sensitive soft grey green leaflets that fold and droop at night or when touched and cooled. These unique bending movements have earned it a status of ‘curiosity plant’. It appears to be a promising herbal candidate to undergo further exploration as evident from its pharmacological profile. It majorly possesses antibacterial, antivenom, antifertility, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, aphrodisiac, and various other pharmacological activities. The herb has been used traditionally for ages, in the treatment of urogenital disorders, piles, dysentery, sinus, and also applied on wounds. This work is an attempt to explore and compile the different pharmacognostic aspects of the action plant M. pudica reported till date. PMID:23055637

  3. Structure of uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase from Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas E; Gardberg, Anna S; Phan, Isabelle Q H; Zhang, Yang; Staker, Bart L; Myler, Peter J; Lorimer, Donald D

    2015-05-01

    Uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase (UAP) catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of UDP-GlcNAc, which is involved in cell-wall biogenesis in plants and fungi and in protein glycosylation. Small-molecule inhibitors have been developed against UAP from Trypanosoma brucei that target an allosteric pocket to provide selectivity over the human enzyme. A 1.8 Å resolution crystal structure was determined of UAP from Entamoeba histolytica, an anaerobic parasitic protozoan that causes amoebic dysentery. Although E. histolytica UAP exhibits the same three-domain global architecture as other UAPs, it appears to lack three α-helices at the N-terminus and contains two amino acids in the allosteric pocket that make it appear more like the enzyme from the human host than that from the other parasite T. brucei. Thus, allosteric inhibitors of T. brucei UAP are unlikely to target Entamoeba UAPs.

  4. Isolation and Evaluation of Mucilage of Adansonia digitata Linn as a Suspending Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Deshmukh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural excipients can serve as alternative to synthetic products because of local accessibility, biodegradability, eco-friendly nature and cost effectiveness as compared to synthetic products. Therefore, it is a current need to explore natural excipients that can be used as an effective alternative excipient for the formulation of pharmaceutical dosage forms. Adansonia digitata (Malvaceae has been traditionally used as febrifuge, antiasthmatic and also in the treatment of dysentery, smallpox, and measles. Reports have indicated that mucilage of the leaves of the plant is edible and nontoxic; hence, the present study is an attempt of isolation and evaluation of mucilage obtained from leaves of Adansonia digitata as suspending agent. Various physicochemical as well as suspending agent properties of mucilage were studied. Mucilage obtained from leaves has shown comparable results with sodium carboxy methyl cellulose.

  5. Genotoxic effect of Lythrum salicaria extract determined by the mussel micronucleus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck-Varanka, Bettina; Kováts, Nóra; Hubai, Katalin; Paulovits, Gábor; Ferincz, Árpád; Horváth, Eszter

    2015-12-01

    A wide range of aquatic plants have been proven to release allelochemicals, of them phenolics and tannin are considered rather widely distributed. Tannins, however, have been demonstrated to have genotoxic capacity. In our study genotoxic potential of Lythrum salicaria L. (Purple Loosestrife, family Lythraceae) was assessed by the mussel micronucleus test, using Unio pictorum. In parallel, total and hydrolysable tannin contents were determined. Results clearly show that the extract had a high hydrolysable tannin content and significant mutagenic effect. As L. salicaria has been long used in traditional medicine for chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, leucorrhoea and blood-spitting, genotoxic potential of the plant should be evaluated not only with regard to potential effects in the aquatic ecosystem, but also assessing its safe use as a medicinal herb.

  6. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF MURRAYA BY USING MOLECULAR MARKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta Amit Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Murraya koenigii is used as a stimulant, stomachic, febrifuge, analgesic and for treatment of diahrea, dysentery and insect bite. In present study, the antimicrobial activity of different part of Murraya kenigii(leaf, root and barkwas investigated by well diffusion method. As per result, plant extract showed a broad spectrum of very significant antibacterial activity of producing a clear zone of inhibition against, E. coli, Serratia, Klebsiella, Aspergillus niger, Fuesarrium, Penicilium, In this study Murraya is tested for antibacterial and antifungal activity by using Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and fungi. In the present investigation, all the extract (methanol, ethanol, acetone, petroleum ether were found to be effective against tested pathogenic strains except aqueous extract. Methanol extract showed more pronounced antimicrobial activity than other extracts.

  7. Acorus calamus (The Healing Plant): a review on its medicinal potential, micropropagation and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Isha; Chaudhary, Priyanka

    2014-01-01

    Acorus calamus L., a tall, perennial, grass-like monocot plant from the Acoraceae family, is a well-known plant in Indian traditional medicines for centuries. It is a highly valued herb as it acts as a rejuvenator for brain and nervous system. It is a main medhya drug, which has the property of improving the memory power and intellect. Rhizomes of the plant are widely used in the treatment of number of ailments such as epilepsy, mental ailments, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, fever, abdominal tumours, kidney and liver troubles, and rheumatism. A. calamus leaves, rhizomes and its essential oil possess many biological activities such as antispasmodic, carminative and are compiled in a simple approach in this review. This review presents a pragmatic description that deals with chemical constituents, toxicology, ethnobotany and pharmacological properties of A. calamus for easy and better understanding of the outstanding medicinal potential of this very special plant and sirens for its conservation.

  8. A COMPREHENSIVE ETHNOMEDICINAL DOCUMENTATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS OF ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, REGION, BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazi Ziaul Haque Masum*, Biplab Kumar Dash, Shital Kumar Barman and M. Kumer Sen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: An ethnobotanical survey was carried out through semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method in Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh to document the utilization of medicinal plants by local people for general ailments. A total of 87 species belonging to 51 families with their local names, useable parts and mode of application were recorded for their usages for curing at least 70 ailments. Ethnomedicinally most important families are Asteraceae, Combretaceae, Moraceae, Solanaceae, Apocynaceae. These plant species are utilized by local peoples against various ailments such as dysentery, fever, cough, sexual debility, asthma, skin disease, diarrhea, indigestion, wound healing, toothache, malaria, etc. Indigenous knowledge of Kavirajes or knowledgeable local persons have great contributions in formulating applicable strategy for the development of various medicine using plants as either fresh or raw sources or both. These scattered, selective, fast eroding and highly valuable knowledge needs proper documentation.

  9. Comparison of Azithromycin and Ciprofloxacin in treating adults\\\\\\' acute non amebiasis dysenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Erahimzadeh

    2013-02-01

    Results: Out of 84 patients, shigella was diagnosed in 41 (48.8%, 18 patients of whom (43.9% had been treated with azitromycin and 23 cases (56.1% had received ciprofloxacin .In 14 samples (16.7% other microbes had grown (e.g. Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia Coli. Antibiogram of 55 patients showed that 32 (58.2% of them were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and 41 subjects (74.5% to azitromycin .On the third day of treatment the clinical response of the patients was assessed through their probable fever and diarrhea .It was found that 29 cases (93.5% in azitromycin group and 31 patients (88.5% in ciprofloxacin group were a febrile. Thus, no significant difference between the two groups was observed (P=0.6. Conclusion: The present study proved that Azitromycin and Ciprofloxacin have the same efficacy in treating non-amoebic dysentery

  10. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE FLOWERS OF Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC. BAKER EX. K.HEYNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.AMALA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Flowers of higher plants have been used for centuries for several purposes such as medicine, food and garnishing in many parts of the world. The present study focuses on preliminary phytochemical screening of flowers of Peltophorum pterocarpum was carried out. Peltophorum pterocarpum (belonging to Fabaceae family regarded as one of the most significant plant species in traditional system of medicine. The plant is used in different parts of the world for the treatment of several ailments like stomatitis, insomnia, skin troubles, constipation, ringworm, insomnia, dysentery, muscular pains, sores, and skin disorders and is the source of a diverse kind of chemical constituents such as aliphatic alcohols, fatty acids, amino acids, terpenoids, phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids etc. The presence of various bioactive compounds confirms the application of P.pterocarpum for various ailments by traditional practitioners. However, isolation of individual phytochemical constituents may proceed to find a novel drug.

  11. Review-An overview of Pistacia integerrima a medicinal plant species: Ethnobotany, biological activities and phytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Yamin; Zia, Muhammad; Qayyum, Abdul

    2015-05-01

    Pistacia integerrima with a common name crab's claw is an ethnobotanically important tree native to Asia. Traditionally plant parts particularly its galls have been utilized for treatment of cough, asthma, dysentery, liver disorders and for snake bite. Plant mainly contains alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and sterols in different parts including leaf, stem, bark, galls and fruit. A number of terpenoids, sterols and phenolic compounds have been isolated from Pistacia integerrima extracts. Plant has many biological activities including anti-microbial, antioxidant, analgesic, cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity due to its chemical constituents. This review covers its traditional ethnomedicinal uses along with progresses in biological and phytochemical evaluation of this medicinally important plant species and aims to serve as foundation for further exploration and utilization.

  12. Antiproliferative activity and induction of apoptosis in PC-3 cells by the chalcone cardamonin from Campomanesia adamantium (Myrtaceae) in a bioactivity-guided study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoal, Aislan Cristina Rheder Fagundes; Ehrenfried, Carlos Augusto; Lopez, Begoña Gimenez-Cassina; de Araujo, Thiago Matos; Pascoal, Vinicius D'ávila Bitencourt; Gilioli, Rovilson; Anhê, Gabriel Forato; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia Tasca Goes; Carvalho, João Ernesto de; Stefanello, Maria Elida Alves; Salvador, Marcos José

    2014-02-07

    The Myrtaceae family is a common source of medicines used in the treatment of numerous diseases in South America. In Brazil, fruits of the Campomanesia species are widely used to make liqueurs, juices and sweets, whereas leaves are traditionally employed as a medicine for dysentery, stomach problems, diarrhea, cystitis and urethritis. Ethanol extracts of Campomanesia adamantium (Myrtaceae) leaves and fruits were evaluated against prostate cancer cells (PC-3). The compound (2E)-1-(2,4-dihydroxy-6-methoxyphenyl)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one, cardamonin) was isolated from ethanol extracts of C. adamantium leaves in a bioactivity-guided study and quantified by UPLC-MS/MS. In vitro studies showed that the isolated chalcone cardamonin inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation and decreased the expression of NFkB1. Moreover, analysis by flow cytometry showed that this compound induced DNA fragmentation, suggesting an effect on apoptosis induction in the PC-3 cell line.

  13. Detection of genotoxic, cytotoxic, and protective activities of Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Pabline Marinho; Veronezi, Eduardo; Silva, Carolina R; Chen-Chen, Lee

    2012-06-01

    Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae), popularly known in Brazil as cagaiteira, is a widespread plant species in the Brazilian Cerrado. In folk medicine, the leaves of this plant are used to treat diarrhea and dysentery. The fruits are used for fresh consumption and industrial purposes. Because of the use of this plant as a therapeutic resource and food, the present study evaluated the genotoxic, cytotoxic, antigenotoxic, and anticytotoxic effects of the lyophilized ethanolic leaf extract of E. dysenterica using the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. The genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of this extract were evaluated using the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes, and the cytotoxicity and anticytotoxicity were assessed by the polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocyte ratio. According to our results, the lyophilized ethanolic leaf extract of E. dysenterica exhibited genotoxic and cytotoxic effects at the higher doses and protection against cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxic and cytotoxic actions at all doses tested.

  14. Species-wide whole genome sequencing reveals historical global spread and recent local persistence in Shigella flexneri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Thomas R; Barker, Clare R; Baker, Kate S; Weill, François-Xavier; Talukder, Kaisar Ali; Smith, Anthony M; Baker, Stephen; Gouali, Malika; Pham Thanh, Duy; Jahan Azmi, Ishrat; Dias da Silveira, Wanderley; Semmler, Torsten; Wieler, Lothar H; Jenkins, Claire; Cravioto, Alejandro; Faruque, Shah M; Parkhill, Julian; Wook Kim, Dong; Keddy, Karen H; Thomson, Nicholas R

    2015-08-04

    Shigella flexneri is the most common cause of bacterial dysentery in low-income countries. Despite this, S. flexneri remains largely unexplored from a genomic standpoint and is still described using a vocabulary based on serotyping reactions developed over half-a-century ago. Here we combine whole genome sequencing with geographical and temporal data to examine the natural history of the species. Our analysis subdivides S. flexneri into seven phylogenetic groups (PGs); each containing two-or-more serotypes and characterised by distinct virulence gene complement and geographic range. Within the S. flexneri PGs we identify geographically restricted sub-lineages that appear to have persistently colonised regions for many decades to over 100 years. Although we found abundant evidence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinant acquisition, our dataset shows no evidence of subsequent intercontinental spread of antimicrobial resistant strains. The pattern of colonisation and AMR gene acquisition suggest that S. flexneri has a distinct life-cycle involving local persistence.

  15. Melastoma malabathricum (L. Smith Ethnomedicinal Uses, Chemical Constituents, and Pharmacological Properties: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohd. Joffry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melastoma malabathricum L. (Melastomataceae is one of the 22 species found in the Southeast Asian region, including Malaysia. Considered as native to tropical and temperate Asia and the Pacific Islands, this commonly found small shrub has gained herbal status in the Malay folklore belief as well as the Indian, Chinese, and Indonesian folk medicines. Ethnopharmacologically, the leaves, shoots, barks, seeds, and roots of M. malabathricum have been used to treat diarrhoea, dysentery, hemorrhoids, cuts and wounds, toothache, and stomachache. Scientific findings also revealed the wide pharmacological actions of various parts of M. malabthricum, such as antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, antidiarrheal, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities. Various types of phytochemical constituents have also been isolated and identifed from different parts of M. malabathricum. Thus, the aim of the present review is to present comprehensive information on ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of M. malabathricum.

  16. Isolation and Evaluation of Mucilage of Adansonia digitata Linn as a Suspending Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, S S; Katare, Y S; Shyale, S S; Bhujbal, S S; Kadam, S D; Landge, D A; Shah, D V; Pawar, J B

    2013-01-01

    Natural excipients can serve as alternative to synthetic products because of local accessibility, biodegradability, eco-friendly nature and cost effectiveness as compared to synthetic products. Therefore, it is a current need to explore natural excipients that can be used as an effective alternative excipient for the formulation of pharmaceutical dosage forms. Adansonia digitata (Malvaceae) has been traditionally used as febrifuge, antiasthmatic and also in the treatment of dysentery, smallpox, and measles. Reports have indicated that mucilage of the leaves of the plant is edible and nontoxic; hence, the present study is an attempt of isolation and evaluation of mucilage obtained from leaves of Adansonia digitata as suspending agent. Various physicochemical as well as suspending agent properties of mucilage were studied. Mucilage obtained from leaves has shown comparable results with sodium carboxy methyl cellulose.

  17. Genotoxicity of Euphorbia hirta: an Allium cepa assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuet Ping, Kwan; Darah, Ibrahim; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Yeng, Chen; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2012-06-26

    The potential genotoxic effects of methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta which is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseased conditions including asthma, coughs, diarrhea and dysentery was investigated using Allium cepa assay. The extracts of 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 µg/mL were tested on root meristems of A. cepa. Ethylmethanesulfonate was used as positive control and distilled water was used as negative control. The result showed that mitotic index decreased as the concentrations of E. hirta extract increased. A dose-dependent increase of chromosome aberrations was also observed. Abnormalities scored were stickiness, c-mitosis, bridges and vagrant chromosomes. Micronucleated cells were also observed at interphase. Result of this study confirmed that the methanol extracts of E. hirta exerted significant genotoxic and mitodepressive effects at 1,000 µg/mL.

  18. The Inside Story of Shigella Invasion of Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayol, Nathalie; Tran Van Nhieu, Guy

    2013-01-01

    As opposed to other invasive pathogens that reside into host cells in a parasitic mode, Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, invades the colonic mucosa but does not penetrate further to survive into deeper tissues. Instead, Shigella invades, replicates, and disseminates within the colonic mucosa. Bacterial invasion and spreading in intestinal epithelium lead to the elicitation of inflammatory responses responsible for the tissue destruction and shedding in the environment for further infection of other hosts. In this article, we highlight specific features of the Shigella arsenal of virulence determinants injected by a type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) that point to the targeting of intestinal epithelial cells as a discrete route of invasion during the initial event of the infectious process. PMID:24086068

  19. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF A NEW ALLELOCHEMICAL FROM PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Yadava* and Shirin Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parthenium hysterophorus L. is commonly known as “Gajar ghas" in Hindi and belongs to family Composite. It is an annual herb erect up to 1.5 m in hight. Its stems is branched and covered with trichomes. Its leaves are pale green, branched and covered with soft fine hairs. In Homoeopathy system, allergies caused by Parthenium can be treated by a drug prepared from Parthenium. Root decoction is useful in dysentery. In the present paper, we report the isolation and structurel elucidation of a new allelochemical identified (I as 3 , 5, 7, 4′ tetrahydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone-3-O--L-galactopyranosyl-(1→3-O--D-arabinopyranosyl-7-O--L-rhamnopyranoside alongwith two known compounds Lutexin (II and Cirsilineol (III from methanolic extract of the stems of this plant by several colour reactions, chemical degradations and spectral analysis.

  20. Therapeutic methods for diarrhoea in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.K. Bhattacharya

    2000-01-01

    Acute diarrhoea may manifest as acute watery diarrhoea or dysentery. The key to the management of acutewatery diarrhoea is correction of dehydration, proper feeding and appropriate use of antibiotic in selectedcases. Correction of dehydration may be done by oral route by using oral rehydration salts solution (ORS)recornmended by WHO/UNICEF or by intravenous administration of fluid and electrolytes, the preferredsolution being Ringer's lactate. Antibiotic is required for severe cholera and shigellosis. Antiparasitic drugsare required for amoebiasis or giardiasis. Use of various antidiarrhoeals is strongly discouraged. Feedingduring diarrhoea is very important. It does not worsen diarrhoea rather hastens recovery and preventsmalnutrition. Supplementation of zinc as an adjunct to rehydration therapy has also been suggested.

  1. Traditional Medicinal Flora of the District Buxar (Bihar, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Singh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Buxar district (Bihar,India is one of the less floristically studied regions of central Gangetic plain. The district lacks dense forests and its medicinal flora exclusively consists of dicot angiosperms. A total of 84 species belonging to 27 families were reported in this study. Majority of the reported plants were herbs with highest contribution from family Fabaceae (12. The present paper deals with the traditional uses of these plants. Plants and their part thereof were used to treat diseases such as - malaria, small pox, leprosy, diarrhea, diabetes, rheumatisms, hepatitis A, heart problems, elephantiasis, STDs, asthma, dysentery, in pregnancy complications and against snake and scorpion poisons. Findings will help in conservation and cultivation of these plants.

  2. 超临界CO2萃取穿心莲内酯的实验研究%Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata: Effect of the Solvent Flow Rate,Pressure,and Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees has been extensively used for traditional medicine and help against fever,dysentery,diarrhoea,inflammation,and sore throat. In this study,andrographolide,the main component of this plant was extracted from the leaves of A. paniculata using supercritical carbon dioxide. The operating pressures were varied from 7.50 to 20 MPa,the temperatures were varied from 30℃ to 60℃,and the flow rates were varied 3g sample of A. paniculata ground-dried leaves. The measured extraction rate was found to be about 0.0174g of andrographolide per gram of andrographolide present in the leaves per hour of operation. The future studies must focus on the interaction between the various operating parameters such as temperature,pressure,and flow rate of supercritical carbon dioxide.

  3. Microbiological and Pharmacological Evaluation of the Micropropagated Rubus liebmannii Medicinal Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Arellanes, Adelina; Cornejo-Garrido, Jorge; Rojas-Bribiesca, Gabriela; Nicasio-Torres, María del Pilar; Said-Fernández, Salvador; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Molina-Salinas, Gloria María; Tortoriello, Jaime; Meckes-Fischer, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Rubus liebmannii is an endemic species from Mexico used in traditional medicine primarily to treat dysentery and cough. The in vitro activity against Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica that produces the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant led us to expand the pharmacological and phytochemical research of this species. Gastrointestinal disorders including amebiasis remain one of the health problems that need to be addressed and it is of interest to find alternatives that improve their treatment. Also, it is important to emphasize that R. liebmannii grows wild in the country and is not found in abundance; therefore, alternatives that avoid overexploitation of the natural resource are mandatory. Ongoing with the evaluation of the potentialities that R. liebmannii possesses for treating infectious gastrointestinal diseases, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the biological effects and the chemical composition of the micropropagated plant. PMID:22966243

  4. Parasitic diseases as the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Sun

    2014-06-01

    To determine the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953), death certificates or medical records were analyzed. Out of 7,614 deaths, 5,013 (65.8%) were due to infectious diseases. Although dysentery and tuberculosis were the most common infectious diseases, parasitic diseases had caused 14 deaths: paragonimiasis in 5, malaria in 3, amoebiasis in 2, intestinal parasitosis in 2, ascariasis in 1, and schistosomiasis in 1. These results showed that paragonimiasis, malaria, and amoebiasis were the most fatal parasitic diseases during the early 1950s in the Korean Peninsula. Since schistosomiasis is not endemic to Korea, it is likely that the infected private soldier moved from China or Japan to Korea.

  5. Antibacterial properties of some plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanís, A D; Calzada, F; Cervantes, J A; Torres, J; Ceballos, G M

    2005-08-22

    Antibacterial properties of aqueous and methanolic extracts of 26 medicinal plants used in Mexico to treat gastrointestinal disorders were tested against eight different species of enteropathogens: two Escherichia coli species; two Shigella sonnei species; two Shigella flexneri species; and two Salmonella sp. species. The results showed that all crude extracts exhibited antibacterial activity, at least against one of the microorganisms tested, at concentrations of 8 mg/mL or lower. The extracts from Caesalpinia pulcherria, Chiranthodendron pentadactylon, Cocos nucifera, Geranium mexicanum (aerial parts and roots), Hippocratea excelsa, and Punica granatum possessed strong antibacterial activity against most of the pathogens tested. In general, methanolic extracts were more active than aqueous extracts. Their activity was higher than chloramphenicol but did not exceed that of trimethoprim. Shigella sonnei species showed the highest susceptibility to both extracts. This is the first evaluation of these plants against bacterial pathogen isolates, which cause diarrhea and dysentery in Mexican population.

  6. Phytochemical and biological studies of Ochna species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandi, Anil Kumar Reddy; Lee, Dong-Ung; Tih, Raphaël Ghogomu; Gunasekar, Duvvuru; Bodo, Bernard

    2012-02-01

    The genus Ochna L. (Gr, Ochne; wild pear), belonging to the Ochnaceae family, includes ca. 85 species of evergreen trees, shrubs, and shrublets, distributed in tropical Asia, Africa, and America. Several members of this genus have long been used in folk medicine for treatment of various ailments, such as asthma, dysentery, epilepsy, gastric disorders, menstrual complaints, lumbago, ulcers, as an abortifacient, and as antidote against snake bites. Up to now, ca. 111 constituents, viz. flavonoids (including bi-, tri-, and pentaflavonoids), anthranoids, triterpenes, steroids, fatty acids, and a few others have been identified in the genus. Crude extracts and isolated compounds have been found to exhibit analgesic, anti-HIV-1, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities, lending support to the rationale behind several of its traditional uses. The present review compiles the informations concerning the traditional uses, phytochemistry, and biological activities of Ochna.

  7. Microbiological and Pharmacological Evaluation of the Micropropagated Rubus liebmannii Medicinal Plant

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    Adelina Jiménez-Arellanes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubus liebmannii is an endemic species from Mexico used in traditional medicine primarily to treat dysentery and cough. The in vitro activity against Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica that produces the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant led us to expand the pharmacological and phytochemical research of this species. Gastrointestinal disorders including amebiasis remain one of the health problems that need to be addressed and it is of interest to find alternatives that improve their treatment. Also, it is important to emphasize that R. liebmannii grows wild in the country and is not found in abundance; therefore, alternatives that avoid overexploitation of the natural resource are mandatory. Ongoing with the evaluation of the potentialities that R. liebmannii possesses for treating infectious gastrointestinal diseases, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the biological effects and the chemical composition of the micropropagated plant.

  8. Mimosa pudica L. (Laajvanti: An overview

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    Hafsa Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mimosa pudica L. (Mimosaceae also referred to as touch me not, live and die, shame plant and humble plant is a prostrate or semi-erect subshrub of tropical America and Australia, also found in India heavily armed with recurved thorns and having sensitive soft grey green leaflets that fold and droop at night or when touched and cooled. These unique bending movements have earned it a status of ′curiosity plant′. It appears to be a promising herbal candidate to undergo further exploration as evident from its pharmacological profile. It majorly possesses antibacterial, antivenom, antifertility, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, aphrodisiac, and various other pharmacological activities. The herb has been used traditionally for ages, in the treatment of urogenital disorders, piles, dysentery, sinus, and also applied on wounds. This work is an attempt to explore and compile the different pharmacognostic aspects of the action plant M. pudica reported till date.

  9. Mimosa pudica L. (Laajvanti): An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Hafsa; Sehgal, Sakshi; Mishra, Anurag; Gupta, Rajiv

    2012-07-01

    Mimosa pudica L. (Mimosaceae) also referred to as touch me not, live and die, shame plant and humble plant is a prostrate or semi-erect subshrub of tropical America and Australia, also found in India heavily armed with recurved thorns and having sensitive soft grey green leaflets that fold and droop at night or when touched and cooled. These unique bending movements have earned it a status of 'curiosity plant'. It appears to be a promising herbal candidate to undergo further exploration as evident from its pharmacological profile. It majorly possesses antibacterial, antivenom, antifertility, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, aphrodisiac, and various other pharmacological activities. The herb has been used traditionally for ages, in the treatment of urogenital disorders, piles, dysentery, sinus, and also applied on wounds. This work is an attempt to explore and compile the different pharmacognostic aspects of the action plant M. pudica reported till date.

  10. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of Ichnocarpus frutescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Narendra Kumar Singh; V.P. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Ichnocarpusfrutescens R.Br.(Apocynaceae),is a woody climbing shrub,found almost in all parts of India.In India,tribes used this plant as a substitute of Indian Sarsaparilla (Hemidesmus indicus) for the treatment of atrophy,convulsions,cough,delirium,dysentery,measles,splenomegaly,tuberculosis,tumor,diabetes as a lactogogue,antipyretic,demulcent,diaphoretic and in skin diseases.Phytochemical investigations indicate that 28 compounds reported from the plant belong to various chemical category viz.phytosterol,triterpenes,flavonoids and various other phenolic compounds.Pharmacological activities of different parts of the plant reported include antiurolithiatic,hepatoprotective,antioxidant,analgesic,antipyretic,anti-inflammatory,antidiabetic,antihyperlipidemic and antitumor activity.In the present review the literature data on the phytochemical and biological investigations on the I.frutescens are summarized up to March 2011.

  11. In vitro antagonistic activities of Lactobacillus spp. against Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardeau, Marion; Gueguen, Micheline; Smith, David G E; Corona-Barrera, Enrique; Vernoux, Jean Paul

    2009-07-02

    The sensitivity of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli, respectively the causative agents of Swine Dysentery and Porcine Intestinal Spirochaetosis to two probiotic Lactobacillus strains, L. rhamnosus CNCM-I-3698 and L. farciminis CNCM-I-3699 was studied through viability, motility and coaggregation assays. The cell-free supernatant of these lactobacilli contains lactic acid, that is stressful for Brachyspira (leading to the formation of spherical bodies), and lethal. It was demonstrated for the first time the in vitro coaggregation properties of two probiotic Lactobacillus strains (active or heat-treated) with two pathogenic strains of Brachyspira, leading to (1) trapping of spirochaetal cells in a physical network as demonstrated by SEM; (2) inhibition of the motility of Brachyspira. Such in vitro studies should encourage in vivo studies in animal model to evaluate the potential of the use of probiotic lactobacilli through a feeding strategy for the prevention of B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli.

  12. Caso fatal de balantidíase intestinal

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    Maria da Conceição Pinheiro

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Caso fatal de balantidíase em mulher desnutrida de 63 anos, criadora de porcos, da zona rural de Uberaba. A doença evoluiu em oito dias com disenteria, náusea e vômitos, culminando em óbito por enterorragia. A necropsia constatou-se colite ulcerada causada por B. coli, facilmente identificado ao exame histológico do intestino grosso.A fatal case of a 63-year old pig-raising country woman with an eight-day course of nausea, vomiting. dysentery with intestinal bleeding the latter being the direct cause of death. The autopsy showed ulcerative colitis due to B. coli, which was easily observed on histological examination of the large bowel.

  13. A multi-center randomized trial to assess the efficacy of gatifloxacin versus ciprofloxacin for the treatment of shigellosis in Vietnamese children.

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    Ha Vinh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial genus Shigella is the leading cause of dysentery. There have been significant increases in the proportion of Shigella isolated that demonstrate resistance to nalidixic acid. While nalidixic acid is no longer considered as a therapeutic agent for shigellosis, the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin is the current recommendation of the World Health Organization. Resistance to nalidixic acid is a marker of reduced susceptibility to older generation fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. We aimed to assess the efficacy of gatifloxacin versus ciprofloxacin in the treatment of uncomplicated shigellosis in children.We conducted a randomized, open-label, controlled trial with two parallel arms at two hospitals in southern Vietnam. The study was designed as a superiority trial and children with dysentery meeting the inclusion criteria were invited to participate. Participants received either gatifloxacin (10 mg/kg/day in a single daily dose for 3 days or ciprofloxacin (30 mg/kg/day in two divided doses for 3 days. The primary outcome measure was treatment failure; secondary outcome measures were time to the cessation of individual symptoms. Four hundred and ninety four patients were randomized to receive either gatifloxacin (n=249 or ciprofloxacin (n=245, of which 107 had a positive Shigella stool culture. We could not demonstrate superiority of gatifloxacin and observed similar clinical failure rate in both groups (gatifloxacin; 12.0% and ciprofloxacin; 11.0%, p=0.72. The median (inter-quartile range time from illness onset to cessation of all symptoms was 95 (66-126 hours for gatifloxacin recipients and 93 (68-120 hours for the ciprofloxacin recipients (Hazard Ratio [95%CI]=0.98 [0.82-1.17], p=0.83.We conclude that in Vietnam, where nalidixic acid resistant Shigellae are highly prevalent, ciprofloxacin and gatifloxacin are similarly effective for the treatment of acute shigellosis.

  14. The Comparison of Effect of Human Milk and Powdered Milk on the Shigella dysenteriae Invasion in Cell Culture

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    Mahdeye Azadi Aghdam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shigella species are the common etiologic agents of bacterial dysentery. Many epidemiological studies have shown that breastfeeding may protect infants against intestinal infections. Among the components of milk, glycosylated proteins inhibit the adhesion of enteric pathogens in the laboratory. Immunoglobulins mainly secretory immunoglobulin A, glycosylated compounds, and oligosaccharides of breast milk are associated with protection against different intestinal pathogens. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different proteins of breast milk and powdered milk on the invasion of Shigella colonies. Materials and Methods: To accomplish this goal, breast milk samples were provided from two donors in the first 6 months of breastfeeding and powdered milk with different brands were obtained from the market. Then the proteins were extracted by precipitation using ammonium sulfate and dialysis using dialysis bag and protein bands were separated through SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Finally, the obtained milk proteins through Hela cells culture were tested and evaluated for the adhesion and invasion of the Shigella. Results: Our results revealed that the adhesion and invasion of Shigella stains were more inhibited by low concentrations of breast milk proteins in comparison with powdered milk. This concentration was about 2.75 mg/mL for the proteins of breast milk and 0.5 mg/mL for the proteins of powdered milk and this inhibition in different dilutions of breast milk was 71.21% and those of powdered milk was 27.19% in average. There was a significant difference between breast milk and powdered milk (P < 0.5 considering their inhibitory behavior. Conclusion: The results revealed that the components of breast milk inhibit the adhesion and consequently invasion of Shigella and inhibit bacterial dysentery.

  15. Molecular analysis of the bovine coronavirus S1 gene by direct sequencing of diarrheic fecal specimens

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    E. Takiuchi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Bovine coronavirus (BCoV causes severe diarrhea in newborn calves, is associated with winter dysentery in adult cattle and respiratory infections in calves and feedlot cattle. The BCoV S protein plays a fundamental role in viral attachment and entry into the host cell, and is cleaved into two subunits termed S1 (amino terminal and S2 (carboxy terminal. The present study describes a strategy for the sequencing of the BCoV S1 gene directly from fecal diarrheic specimens that were previously identified as BCoV positive by RT-PCR assay for N gene detection. A consensus sequence of 2681 nucleotides was obtained through direct sequencing of seven overlapping PCR fragments of the S gene. The samples did not undergo cell culture passage prior to PCR amplification and sequencing. The structural analysis was based on the genomic differences between Brazilian strains and other known BCoV from different geographical regions. The phylogenetic analysis of the entire S1 gene showed that the BCoV Brazilian strains were more distant from the Mebus strain (97.8% identity for nucleotides and 96.8% identity for amino acids and more similar to the BCoV-ENT strain (98.7% for nucleotides and 98.7% for amino acids. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the hypervariable region of the S1 subunit, these strains clustered with the American (BCoV-ENT, 182NS and Canadian (BCQ20, BCQ2070, BCQ9, BCQ571, BCQ1523 calf diarrhea and the Canadian winter dysentery (BCQ7373, BCQ2590 strains, but clustered on a separate branch of the Korean and respiratory BCoV strains. The BCoV strains of the present study were not clustered in the same branch of previously published Brazilian strains (AY606193, AY606194. These data agree with the genealogical construction and suggest that at least two different BCoV strains are circulating in Brazil.

  16. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Brachyspira Species Isolated from Swine Herds in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirajkar, Nandita S.; Davies, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of swine dysentery, caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and the recently discovered “Brachyspira hampsonii,” have reoccurred in North American swine herds since the late 2000s. Additionally, multiple Brachyspira species have been increasingly isolated by North American diagnostic laboratories. In Europe, the reliance on antimicrobial therapy for control of swine dysentery has been followed by reports of antimicrobial resistance over time. The objectives of our study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility trends of four Brachyspira species originating from U.S. swine herds and to investigate their associations with the bacterial species, genotypes, and epidemiological origins of the isolates. We evaluated the susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae, B. hampsonii, Brachyspira pilosicoli, and Brachyspira murdochii to tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, lincomycin, and tylosin by broth microdilution and that to carbadox by agar dilution. In general, Brachyspira species showed high susceptibility to tiamulin, valnemulin, and carbadox, heterogeneous susceptibility to doxycycline, and low susceptibility to lincomycin and tylosin. A trend of decreasing antimicrobial susceptibility by species was observed (B. hampsonii > B. hyodysenteriae > B. murdochii > B. pilosicoli). In general, Brachyspira isolates from the United States were more susceptible to these antimicrobials than were isolates from other countries. Decreased antimicrobial susceptibility was associated with the genotype, stage of production, and production system from which the isolate originated, which highlights the roles of biosecurity and husbandry in disease prevention and control. Finally, this study also highlights the urgent need for Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-approved clinical breakpoints for Brachyspira species, to facilitate informed therapeutic and control strategies. PMID:27252458

  17. Drug resistant Shigella flexneri in & around Dibrugarh, north-east India

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    Reema Nath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Shigella flexneri is the most common species of Shigella causing diarrhoea and dysentery in Asia including India. Multidrug resistance in Shigella species has been reported worldwide and there is rising concern regarding development of fluoroquinolone resistance. This study was undertaken to find out the resistance pattern of Sh. flexneri, the commonest shigella isolated in Dibrugarh, north east India, including detection of fluoroquinolone resistance and extended spectrum beta lactamases. Methods: Stool samples collected from patients of diarrhoea and dysentery were tested for bacterial enteropathogens. Strains of Shigella species were confirmed by biochemical tests. Speciation was done using commercially available polyvalent antiserum. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method against 18 different antibiotics. Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL detection was done by disc approximation test as well as combination disc method and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of different antibiotics were also measured. Results: Multidrug resistance in Sh. flexneri was found to be common (90.2% and the commonest phenotypic multi-drug resistance profile was ampicillin-tetracycline-co-trimoxazole-nalidixic acid. High resistance to nalidixic acid was detected in 90.3 per cent isolates (MIC >240 μg/ml and ciprofloxacin resistance was seen emerging in this region (11.2%, MIC >4 μg/ml. Present of ESBL was phenotypically confirmed in two cases. Besides the fluoroquinolones, chloramphenicol, piperacillin-tazobactum and the third generation cephalosporins were effective in 87-100 per cent of the isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed high resistance (MIC >240 μg/ml against nalidixic acid in Sh. flexneri isolates. Ciprofloxacin resistance is also emerging in this region. Shigellosis due to ESBL carrying Shigella can become a serious threat to public health. Guidelines for

  18. Importancia de las prostaglandinas en la amibiasis hepática The importance of prostaglandins in hepatic amebiasis

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    Blanca Sánchez-Ramírez

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Las prostaglandinas son importantes mediadores inflamatorios, pero también desempeñan un papel importante como reguladoras de las funciones de los linfocitos y los macrófagos. La inoculación por vía intrahepática o intraportal de trofozoitos viables de Entamoeba histolytica en hámsteres se caracteriza por una rápida respuesta inflamatoria aguda, en la cual los trofozoitos amibianos se ven rodeados sucesivamente por leucocitos polimorfonucleares, linfocitos y macrófagos. La incapacidad de estas células para contrarrestar la invasión amibiana ha sido demostrada en varios estudios. La prostaglandina E2 (PGE2 tiene potentes efectos sobre las células de la respuesta inmune; su participación durante la formación del absceso hepático se reportó recientemente. En este artículo hacemos una revisión de los hallazgos de los últimos años en relación con el estudio de los mediadores bioquímicos de la inflamación durante la infección con E. histolytica, y su posible participación en el establecimiento de la respuesta inmune en el huésped.Prostaglandins are important mediators of inflammation; they also play a role in the regulation of both lymphocyte and macrophage functions. Hamster's liver lesions resulting from intraportal or intrahepatic inoculation of living Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites are characterized by an acute inflammatory response, where trophozoites are successively surrounded by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, lymphocytes, and macrophages. Incapability of these cells to counteract amebic invasion has been demonstrated in some studies. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 has potent effects on immune cells; its participation in amebic liver abscess has been reported recently. This paper presents a review of recent discoveries on biochemical mediators produced during inflammation due to Entamoeba histolytica infection, and their possible role in establishing the host's immune response.

  19. Entamoeba histolytica: increase of enterotoxicity and of 53- and 75-kDa cysteine proteinases in a clone of higher virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-García, F; Chávez-Dueñas, L; Tsutsumi, V; Posadas del Río, F; López-Revilla, R

    1995-05-01

    We compared the enterotoxicity and cysteine proteinases (CP) of the low-virulence Entamoeba histolytica HM1 strain with the highly virulent 1659 clone, derived from HM1 by hamster liver passages. Enterotoxicity of 50,000 freeze-thawed trophozoites was determined on 0.28-cm2 intestinal segments mounted in Ussing chambers; CP activity of Nonidet-P40 amebal lysates was assayed by gelatin-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and carbobenzoxy-L-arginine-L-arginyl-p-nitroaniline, a CP-specific substrate. Treatment of gerbil cecum segments with amebal lysates caused an immediate fall of their electrophysiologic properties (potential difference, short-circuit current, and transmural resistance) whose decay rates were clearly faster with 1659 than with HM1 lysates. Nonimmune and immune antiamebic human sera and the CP-specific inhibitor E-64 (trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido(4-guanidino)butane) prevented the fall of the electrophysiologic properties. Gelatinases, less active in HM1 than in 1659 trophozoites, were better preserved in lysates containing 10 mM p-hydroxymercuribenzoate (pHMB) to prevent autoproteolysis: in lysates without pHMB nearly no gelatinase bands were observed in HM1 samples, whereas intense 30K, 35K, 44K, and 75K bands were seen in 1659 samples; in lysates with pHMB only 53K and 75K bands were found that were much more intense in 1659 samples, 75K being barely visible in HM1 samples. The overall CP activity was 17 times higher in 1659 than in HM1 lysates, was inhibited by E-64 (mean inhibitory dose, 20 microM), was stimulated by 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) 3.7 times in HM1 and 2.4 times in 1659 lysates, and was reactivated by ME in lysates containing pHMB. Most of the CP activity in HM1 lysates sedimented at 15,600g but predominated in 1659 supernatants. The increase of E. histolytica virulence thus correlates with a remarkable increase both of in vitro enterotoxicity and of two CPs (53K and 75K), suggesting that these proteinases are

  20. The MAK16 Gene of Entamoeba histolytica and Its Identification in Isolates from Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisóstomo-Vázquez, María del Pilar; Marevelez-Acosta, Víctor Alberto; Flores-Luna, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    To identify sequences of Entamoeba histolytica associated with the development of amebic liver abscess (ALA) in hamsters, subtractive hybridization of cDNA from E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS under 2 growth conditions was performed: 1) cultured in axenic medium and 2) isolated from experimental ALA in hamsters. For this procedure, 6 sequences were obtained. Of these sequences, the mak16 gene was selected for amplification in 29 cultures of E. histolytica isolated from the feces of 10 patients with intestinal symptoms and 19 asymptomatic patients. Only 5 of the 10 isolates obtained from symptomatic patients developed ALA and amplified the mak16 gene, whereas the 19 isolates from asymptomatic patients did not amplify the mak16 gene nor did they develop ALA. Based on the results of Fisher's exact test (P<0.001), an association was inferred between the presence of the mak16 gene of E. histolytica and the ability to develop ALA in hamsters and with the patient's symptoms (P=0.02). The amplification of the mak16 gene suggests that it is an important gene in E. histolytica because it was present in the isolates from hamsters that developed liver damage. PMID:25246723

  1. Identification of peptidases in highly pathogenic vs. weakly pathogenic Naegleria fowleri amebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Ishan K; Jamerson, Melissa; Cabral, Guy A; Marciano-Cabral, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri, a free-living ameba, is the causative agent of Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis. Highly pathogenic mouse-passaged amebae (Mp) and weakly pathogenic axenically grown (Ax) N. fowleri were examined for peptidase activity. Zymography and azocasein peptidase activity assays demonstrated that Mp and Ax N. fowleri exhibited a similar peptidase pattern. Prominent for whole cell lysates, membranes and conditioned medium (CM) from Mp and Ax amebae was the presence of an activity band of approximately 58 kDa that was sensitive to E64, a cysteine peptidase inhibitor. However, axenically grown N. fowleri demonstrated a high level of this peptidase activity in membrane preparations. The inhibitor E64 also reduced peptidase activity in ameba-CM consistent with the presence of secreted cysteine peptidases. Exposure of Mp amebae to E64 reduced their migration through matrigel that was used as an extracellular matrix, suggesting a role for cysteine peptidases in invasion of the central nervous system (CNS). The collective results suggest that the profile of peptidases is not a discriminative marker for distinguishing Mp from Ax N. fowleri. However, the presence of a prominent level of activity for cysteine peptidases in N. fowleri membranes and CM, suggests that these enzymes may serve to facilitate passage of the amebae into the CNS.

  2. Corifungin, a new drug lead against Naegleria, identified from a high-throughput screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Anjan; Tunac, Josefino B; Galindo-Gómez, Silvia; Silva-Olivares, Angélica; Shibayama, Mineko; McKerrow, James H

    2012-11-01

    Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rapidly fatal infection caused by the free-living ameba Naegleria fowleri. The drug of choice in treating PAM is the antifungal antibiotic amphotericin B, but its use is associated with severe adverse effects. Moreover, few patients treated with amphotericin B have survived PAM. Therefore, fast-acting and efficient drugs are urgently needed for the treatment of PAM. To facilitate drug screening for this pathogen, an automated, high-throughput screening methodology was developed and validated for the closely related species Naegleria gruberi. Five kinase inhibitors and an NF-kappaB inhibitor were hits identified in primary screens of three compound libraries. Most importantly for a preclinical drug discovery pipeline, we identified corifungin, a water-soluble polyene macrolide with a higher activity against Naegleria than that of amphotericin B. Transmission electron microscopy of N. fowleri trophozoites incubated with different concentrations of corifungin showed disruption of cytoplasmic and plasma membranes and alterations in mitochondria, followed by complete lysis of amebae. In vivo efficacy of corifungin in a mouse model of PAM was confirmed by an absence of detectable amebae in the brain and 100% survival of mice for 17 days postinfection for a single daily intraperitoneal dose of 9 mg/kg of body weight given for 10 days. The same dose of amphotericin B did not reduce ameba growth, and mouse survival was compromised. Based on these results, the U.S. FDA has approved orphan drug status for corifungin for the treatment of PAM.

  3. Development of a rapid, simple method for detecting Naegleria fowleri visually in water samples by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahittikorn, Aongart; Mori, Hirotake; Popruk, Supaluk; Roobthaisong, Amonrattana; Sutthikornchai, Chantira; Koompapong, Khuanchai; Siri, Sukhontha; Sukthana, Yaowalark; Nacapunchai, Duangporn

    2015-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri is the causative agent of the fatal disease primary amebic meningoencephalitis. Detection of N. fowleri using conventional culture and biochemical-based assays is time-consuming and laborious, while molecular techniques, such as PCR, require laboratory skills and expensive equipment. We developed and evaluated a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the virulence-related gene for N. fowleri. Time to results is about 90 min and amplification products were easily detected visually using hydroxy naphthol blue. The LAMP was highly specific after testing against related microorganisms and able to detect one trophozoite, as determined with spiked water and cerebrospinal fluid samples. The assay was then evaluated with a set of 80 water samples collected during the flooding crisis in Thailand in 2011, and 30 natural water samples from border areas of northern, eastern, western, and southern Thailand. N. fowleri was detected in 13 and 10 samples using LAMP and PCR, respectively, with a Kappa coefficient of 0.855. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a LAMP assay for N. fowleri. Due to its simplicity, speed, and high sensitivity, the LAMP method described here might be useful for quickly detecting and diagnosing N. fowleri in water and clinical samples, particularly in resource-poor settings.

  4. Improved Method for the Detection and Quantification of Naegleria fowleri in Water and Sediment Using Immunomagnetic Separation and Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mull, Bonnie J; Narayanan, Jothikumar; Hill, Vincent R

    2013-01-01

    Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rare and typically fatal infection caused by the thermophilic free-living ameba, Naegleria fowleri. In 2010, the first confirmed case of PAM acquired in Minnesota highlighted the need for improved detection and quantification methods in order to study the changing ecology of N. fowleri and to evaluate potential risk factors for increased exposure. An immunomagnetic separation (IMS) procedure and real-time PCR TaqMan assay were developed to recover and quantify N. fowleri in water and sediment samples. When one liter of lake water was seeded with N. fowleri strain CDC:V212, the method had an average recovery of 46% and detection limit of 14 amebas per liter of water. The method was then applied to sediment and water samples with unknown N. fowleri concentrations, resulting in positive direct detections by real-time PCR in 3 out of 16 samples and confirmation of N. fowleri culture in 6 of 16 samples. This study has resulted in a new method for detection and quantification of N. fowleri in water and sediment that should be a useful tool to facilitate studies of the physical, chemical, and biological factors associated with the presence and dynamics of N. fowleri in environmental systems.

  5. Naegleria fowleri glycoconjugates with residues of α-D-mannose are involved in adherence of trophozoites to mouse nasal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Yepez, Maricela; Campos-Rodriguez, Rafael; Godinez-Victoria, Marycarmen; Rodriguez-Monroy, Marco Aurelio; Jarillo-Luna, Adriana; Bonilla-Lemus, Patricia; De Oca, Arturo Contis-Montes; Rojas-Hernandez, Saul

    2013-10-01

    We analyzed the possible role of glycoconjugates containing α-D-mannose and α-D-glucose residues in adherence of trophozoites to mouse nasal epithelium. Trophozoites incubated with 20 μg of one of three different lectins which preferentially recognized these residues were inoculated intranasally in Balb/c mice. Mouse survival was 40% with Pisum sativum and Canavalia ensiformis and 20% with Galanthus nivalis amebic pretreatment, compared with 0% survival for control animals administered trophozoites without pretreatment. Possibly some of the glycoproteins found in Naegleria fowleri represent an adherence factor. Differences in the saccharide sequences of the Naegleria species, even on the same glycoconjugate structure, could explain the different results corresponding to the distinct pretreatments (C. ensiformis, G. nivalis, and P. sativum). We found a higher expression of glycoconjugates recognized by P. sativum in Naegleria lovaniensis than N. fowleri, probably due to the higher number of oligosaccharides containing an α-1,6-linked fucose moiety expressed on the former species.

  6. Risk for transmission of Naegleria fowleri from solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S L; Metzger, R; Chen, J G; Laham, F R; Martin, M; Kipper, S W; Smith, L E; Lyon, G M; Haffner, J; Ross, J E; Rye, A K; Johnson, W; Bodager, D; Friedman, M; Walsh, D J; Collins, C; Inman, B; Davis, B J; Robinson, T; Paddock, C; Zaki, S R; Kuehnert, M; DaSilva, A; Qvarnstrom, Y; Sriram, R; Visvesvara, G S

    2014-01-01

    Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) caused by the free-living ameba (FLA) Naegleria fowleri is a rare but rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system (CNS) affecting predominantly young, previously healthy persons. No effective chemotherapeutic prophylaxis or treatment has been identified. Recently, three transplant-associated clusters of encephalitis caused by another FLA, Balamuthia mandrillaris, have occurred, prompting questions regarding the suitability of extra-CNS solid organ transplantation from donors with PAM. During 1995-2012, 21 transplant recipients of solid organs donated by five patients with fatal cases of PAM were reported in the United States. None of the recipients developed PAM, and several recipients tested negative for N. fowleri by serology. However, historical PAM case reports and animal experiments with N. fowleri, combined with new postmortem findings from four patients with PAM, suggest that extra-CNS dissemination of N. fowleri can occur and might pose a risk for disease transmission via transplantation. The risks of transplantation with an organ possibly harboring N. fowleri should be carefully weighed for each individual recipient against the potentially greater risk of delaying transplantation while waiting for another suitable organ. In this article, we present a case series and review existing data to inform such risk assessments.

  7. Contact-independent cell death of human microglial cells due to pathogenic Naegleria fowleri trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Daesik; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2008-12-01

    Free-living Naegleria fowleri leads to a fatal infection known as primary amebic meningoencephalitis in humans. Previously, the target cell death could be induced by phagocytic activity of N. fowleri as a contact-dependent mechanism. However, in this study we investigated the target cell death under a non-contact system using a tissue-culture insert. The human microglial cells, U87MG cells, co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites for 30 min in a non-contact system showed morphological changes such as the cell membrane destruction and a reduction in the number. By fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis, U87MG cells co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites in a non-contact system showed a significant increase of apoptotic cells (16%) in comparison with that of the control or N. fowleri lysate. When U87MG cells were co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites in a non-contact system for 30 min, 2 hr, and 4 hr, the cytotoxicity of amebae against target cells was 40.5, 44.2, and 45.6%, respectively. By contrast, the cytotoxicity of non-pathogenic N. gruberi trophozoites was 10.2, 12.4, and 13.2%, respectively. These results suggest that the molecules released from N. fowleri in a contact-independent manner as well as phagocytosis in a contact-dependent manner may induce the host cell death.

  8. Development of a rapid, simple method for detecting Naegleria fowleri visually in water samples by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aongart Mahittikorn

    Full Text Available Naegleria fowleri is the causative agent of the fatal disease primary amebic meningoencephalitis. Detection of N. fowleri using conventional culture and biochemical-based assays is time-consuming and laborious, while molecular techniques, such as PCR, require laboratory skills and expensive equipment. We developed and evaluated a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay targeting the virulence-related gene for N. fowleri. Time to results is about 90 min and amplification products were easily detected visually using hydroxy naphthol blue. The LAMP was highly specific after testing against related microorganisms and able to detect one trophozoite, as determined with spiked water and cerebrospinal fluid samples. The assay was then evaluated with a set of 80 water samples collected during the flooding crisis in Thailand in 2011, and 30 natural water samples from border areas of northern, eastern, western, and southern Thailand. N. fowleri was detected in 13 and 10 samples using LAMP and PCR, respectively, with a Kappa coefficient of 0.855. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a LAMP assay for N. fowleri. Due to its simplicity, speed, and high sensitivity, the LAMP method described here might be useful for quickly detecting and diagnosing N. fowleri in water and clinical samples, particularly in resource-poor settings.

  9. Survey for the presence of Naegleria fowleri amebae in lake water used to cool reactors at a nuclear power generating plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamerson, Melissa; Remmers, Kenneth; Cabral, Guy; Marciano-Cabral, Francine

    2009-04-01

    Water from Lake Anna in Virginia, a lake that is used to cool reactors at a nuclear power plant and for recreational activities, was assessed for the presence of Naegleria fowleri, an ameba that causes primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). This survey was undertaken because it has been reported that thermally enriched water fosters the propagation of N. fowleri and, hence, increases the risk of infection to humans. Of 16 sites sampled during the summer of 2007, nine were found to be positive for N. fowleri by a nested polymerase chain reaction assay. However, total ameba counts, inclusive of N. fowleri, never exceeded 12/50 mL of lake water at any site. No correlation was obtained between the conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and pH of water and presence of N. fowleri. To date, cases of PAM have not been reported from this thermally enriched lake. It is postulated that predation by other protozoa and invertebrates, disturbance of the water surface from recreational boating activities, or the presence of bacterial or fungal toxins, maintain the number N. fowleri at a low level in Lake Anna.

  10. Effect of Clinoptilolite and Sepiolite Nanoclays on Human and Parasitic Highly Phagocytic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano-Magaña, Yanis; Flores-Santos, Leticia; Montes de Oca, Georgina; González-Montiel, Alfonso; Laclette, Juan-Pedro; Carrero, Julio-César

    2015-01-01

    Nanoclays have potential applications in biomedicine raising the need to evaluate their toxicity in in vitro models as a first approach to its biocompatibility. In this study, in vitro toxicity of clinoptilolite and sepiolite nanoclays (NC) was analyzed in highly phagocytic cultures of amoebas and human and mice macrophages. While amebic viability was significantly affected only by sepiolite NC at concentrations higher than 0.1 mg/mL, the effect on macrophage cultures was dependent on the origin of the cells. Macrophages derived from human peripheral blood monocytes were less affected in viability (25% decrease at 48 h), followed by the RAW 264.7 cell line (40%), and finally, macrophages derived from mice bone marrow monocytes (98%). Moreover, the cell line and mice macrophages die mainly by necrosis, whereas human macrophages exhibit increased apoptosis. Cytokine expression analysis in media of sepiolite NC treated cultures showed a proinflammatory profile (INFγ, IL-1α, IL-8, and IL-6), in contrast with clinoptilolite NC that induced lees cytokines with concomitant production of IL-10. The results show that sepiolite NC is more toxic to amoebas and macrophages than clinoptilolite NC, mostly in a time and dose-dependent manner. However, the effect of sepiolite NC was comparable with talc powder suggesting that both NC have low cytotoxicity in vitro.

  11. Effect of Clinoptilolite and Sepiolite Nanoclays on Human and Parasitic Highly Phagocytic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanis Toledano-Magaña

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoclays have potential applications in biomedicine raising the need to evaluate their toxicity in in vitro models as a first approach to its biocompatibility. In this study, in vitro toxicity of clinoptilolite and sepiolite nanoclays (NC was analyzed in highly phagocytic cultures of amoebas and human and mice macrophages. While amebic viability was significantly affected only by sepiolite NC at concentrations higher than 0.1 mg/mL, the effect on macrophage cultures was dependent on the origin of the cells. Macrophages derived from human peripheral blood monocytes were less affected in viability (25% decrease at 48 h, followed by the RAW 264.7 cell line (40%, and finally, macrophages derived from mice bone marrow monocytes (98%. Moreover, the cell line and mice macrophages die mainly by necrosis, whereas human macrophages exhibit increased apoptosis. Cytokine expression analysis in media of sepiolite NC treated cultures showed a proinflammatory profile (INFγ, IL-1α, IL-8, and IL-6, in contrast with clinoptilolite NC that induced lees cytokines with concomitant production of IL-10. The results show that sepiolite NC is more toxic to amoebas and macrophages than clinoptilolite NC, mostly in a time and dose-dependent manner. However, the effect of sepiolite NC was comparable with talc powder suggesting that both NC have low cytotoxicity in vitro.

  12. Effect of Clinoptilolite and Sepiolite Nanoclays on Human and Parasitic Highly Phagocytic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano-Magaña, Yanis; Flores-Santos, Leticia; Montes de Oca, Georgina; González-Montiel, Alfonso; Laclette, Juan-Pedro; Carrero, Julio-César

    2015-01-01

    Nanoclays have potential applications in biomedicine raising the need to evaluate their toxicity in in vitro models as a first approach to its biocompatibility. In this study, in vitro toxicity of clinoptilolite and sepiolite nanoclays (NC) was analyzed in highly phagocytic cultures of amoebas and human and mice macrophages. While amebic viability was significantly affected only by sepiolite NC at concentrations higher than 0.1 mg/mL, the effect on macrophage cultures was dependent on the origin of the cells. Macrophages derived from human peripheral blood monocytes were less affected in viability (25% decrease at 48 h), followed by the RAW 264.7 cell line (40%), and finally, macrophages derived from mice bone marrow monocytes (98%). Moreover, the cell line and mice macrophages die mainly by necrosis, whereas human macrophages exhibit increased apoptosis. Cytokine expression analysis in media of sepiolite NC treated cultures showed a proinflammatory profile (INFγ, IL-1α, IL-8, and IL-6), in contrast with clinoptilolite NC that induced lees cytokines with concomitant production of IL-10. The results show that sepiolite NC is more toxic to amoebas and macrophages than clinoptilolite NC, mostly in a time and dose-dependent manner. However, the effect of sepiolite NC was comparable with talc powder suggesting that both NC have low cytotoxicity in vitro. PMID:26090385

  13. Impaired consciousness revealing a cerebral amebiasis in an immunocompetent adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane Ezzouine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amebiasis is a parasitic infection with manifestations, mainly digestives. It is rarely described extra-gastrointestinal locations including the brain. We report the case of a patient aged 42, made five months earlier for an appendectomy, and was admitted to the ICU after a convalescent stable uncomplicated. At admission, he was 12/15 in Glasgow and had a right hemiplegia. Brain CT revealed a discrete diffuse hypodensities perilesional edema. An abdominal ultrasound found an aspect for multiple hepatic abscesses. Abscess puncture was performed, which was not conclusive, and no seed could be identified. On Ultrasound, no cardiac abnormalities were found, and no endocarditis was present. And since the appearance macroscopic (chocolate-brown, amebic serology is performed and has been highly positive. The therapeutic management included an intubation and ventilation as well as a tri-antibiotic-based ceftriaxon, metronidazol and gentamycin. Confirmation of amebiasis required high doses of metronidazol for an extended period. The replay of the play was an appendectomy for an amebome. Evolution was favorable. Amebiasis can have extraintestinal locations, issues to think about including the cerebral forms.

  14. Data set for the proteomics analysis of the endomembrane system from the unicellular Entamoeba histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Perdomo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite agent of amebiasis, an infectious disease of the human intestine and liver. This parasite contact and kills human cells by an active process involving pathogenic factors. Cellular traffic and secretion activities are poorly characterized in E. histolytica. In this work, we took advantage of a wide proteomic analysis to search for principal components of the endomembrane system in E. histolytica. A total of 5683 peptides matching with 1531 proteins (FDR of 1% were identified which corresponds to roughly 20% of the total amebic proteome. Bioinformatics investigations searching for domain homologies (Smart and InterProScan programs and functional descriptions (KEGG and GO terms allowed this data to be organized into distinct categories. This data represents the first in-depth proteomics analysis of subcellular compartments in E. histolytica and allows a detailed map of vesicle traffic components in an ancient single-cell organism that lacks a stereotypical ER and Golgi apparatus to be established. The data are related to [1].

  15. Improved Method for the Detection and Quantification of Naegleria fowleri in Water and Sediment Using Immunomagnetic Separation and Real-Time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie J. Mull

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM is a rare and typically fatal infection caused by the thermophilic free-living ameba, Naegleria fowleri. In 2010, the first confirmed case of PAM acquired in Minnesota highlighted the need for improved detection and quantification methods in order to study the changing ecology of N. fowleri and to evaluate potential risk factors for increased exposure. An immunomagnetic separation (IMS procedure and real-time PCR TaqMan assay were developed to recover and quantify N. fowleri in water and sediment samples. When one liter of lake water was seeded with N. fowleri strain CDC:V212, the method had an average recovery of 46% and detection limit of 14 amebas per liter of water. The method was then applied to sediment and water samples with unknown N. fowleri concentrations, resulting in positive direct detections by real-time PCR in 3 out of 16 samples and confirmation of N. fowleri culture in 6 of 16 samples. This study has resulted in a new method for detection and quantification of N. fowleri in water and sediment that should be a useful tool to facilitate studies of the physical, chemical, and biological factors associated with the presence and dynamics of N. fowleri in environmental systems.

  16. Encephalon Condition in Chronic Alcohol Intoxication and the Role of Amoebic Invasion of this Organ in the Development of Ethanol Attraction in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Shormanov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This presentation reviews data from studies on the encephalon in 27 men ranging in age from 21 to 51 years, showing signs of chronic alcohol intoxication and who died from causes other than skull injury and 14 control subjects. The specimens were fixed in formalin or Karnua liquid, filled with paraffin and then examined, utilizing a variety of histological, histochemical and morphometric techniques. The data refers to the structural changes in the various tissue components of the brain (nervous, glia-cells, arteries, veins, as well as pertinent information concerning the presence of Protozoa in all the sections examined which according to their morphological signs and behavioral reactions indicate that amoeba had been present. The degree of cerebral tissue insemination by these parasites has been demonstrated. The condition of the membranes of these microorganisms, their cytoplasm, nucleus and nucleoli as well as the chromatoid corpuscles has been assessed and recorded. The ability of these microorganisms to split, migrate within the CNS limits, to trigger incitement and dystrophic changes and in the case of death – calcification or exulceration is shown. Further, the issue of species characteristics of amoeba occurring in the patients’ brains is discussed. The hypothesis of a possible link of amebic invasion with the development of alcohol dependence in humans is proposed.

  17. Thermal ecology of Naegleria fowleri from a power plant cooling reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, H W; McLaughlin, G L

    1990-07-01

    The pathogenic, free-living amoeba Naegleria fowleri is the causative agent of human primary amebic meningoencephalitis. N. fowleri has been isolated from thermally elevated aquatic environments worldwide, but temperature factors associated with occurrence of the amoeba remain undefined. In this study, a newly created cooling reservoir (Clinton Lake, Illinois) was surveyed for Naegleria spp. before and after thermal additions from a nuclear power plant. Water and sediment samples were collected from heated and unheated arms of the reservoir and analyzed for the presence of thermophilic Naegleria spp. and pathogenic N. fowleri. Amoebae were identified by morphology, in vitro cultivation, temperature tolerance, mouse pathogenicity assay, and DNA restriction fragment length analysis. N. fowleri was isolated from the thermally elevated arm but not from the ambient-temperature arm of the reservoir. The probability of isolating thermophilic Naegleria and pathogenic N. fowleri increased significantly with temperature. Repetitive DNA restriction fragment profiles of the N. fowleri Clinton Lake isolates and a known N. fowleri strain of human origin were homogeneous.

  18. Isolation and Genotyping of Acanthamoeba spp. as Neglected Parasites in North of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Azar; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Daryani, Ahmad; Sharif, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Acanthamoeba, a free-living amoeba, is widely distributed in the environment, water sources, soil, dust, and air. It can cause keratitis in contact lens wearers with poor hygiene and also fatal granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of this study was to gain some insights into the distribution and genotypes of the potentially pathogenic species of Acanthamoeba present in water sources in north of Iran. Total 43 Acanthamoeba species were isolated from 77 water samples taken from different water sources within the Mazandaran province in Northern Iran (Sari city and suburbs). Isolates were identified based on cyst and trophozoite morphological characteristics as well genetics. PCR fragments corresponding to the small-subunit 18S rRNA gene were sequenced for 20 of 43 positive isolates. The results revealed that 83.3% of sequenced isolates belonged to the T4 genotype and the rest belonged to the T2 genotype. Our results indicated that Acanthamoeba is widely distributed in Sari city. As the incidence in Iran of amoebic keratitis has increased in recent years, the exact estimation of the prevalence of this amoeba and its predominant genotype may play a crucial role in prevention of the disease. Sari city has several rivers, seashores, and natural recreational amenities, which attract visitors during the year. This is the first report of Acanthamoeba genotypes from water sources in Sari city, Mazandaran province of Iran, and the results suggest that more attention is needed to protect the visiting population and immunocompromised individuals. PMID:27658596

  19. The MAK16 gene of Entamoeba histolytica and its identification in isolates from patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisóstomo-Vázquez, María del Pilar; Marevelez-Acosta, Víctor Alberto; Flores-Luna, Andrés; Jiménez-Cardoso, Enedina

    2014-08-01

    To identify sequences of Entamoeba histolytica associated with the development of amebic liver abscess (ALA) in hamsters, subtractive hybridization of cDNA from E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS under 2 growth conditions was performed: 1) cultured in axenic medium and 2) isolated from experimental ALA in hamsters. For this procedure, 6 sequences were obtained. Of these sequences, the mak16 gene was selected for amplification in 29 cultures of E. histolytica isolated from the feces of 10 patients with intestinal symptoms and 19 asymptomatic patients. Only 5 of the 10 isolates obtained from symptomatic patients developed ALA and amplified the mak16 gene, whereas the 19 isolates from asymptomatic patients did not amplify the mak16 gene nor did they develop ALA. Based on the results of Fisher's exact test (Phistolytica and the ability to develop ALA in hamsters and with the patient's symptoms (P=0.02). The amplification of the mak16 gene suggests that it is an important gene in E. histolytica because it was present in the isolates from hamsters that developed liver damage.

  20. Multisite clinical evaluation of a rapid test for Entamoeba histolytica in stool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerke, Hans P; Hanbury, Blake; Siddique, Abdullah; Samie, Amidou; Haque, Rashidul; Herbein, Joel; Petri, William A

    2015-02-01

    Rapid point-of-care detection of enteric protozoa in diarrheal stool is desirable in clinical and research settings to efficiently determine the etiology of diarrhea. We analyzed the ability of the third-generation E. histolytica Quik Chek assay developed by Techlab to detect amebic antigens in fecal samples collected from independent study populations in South Africa and Bangladesh. We compared the performance of this recently released rapid test to that of the commercially available ProSpecT Entamoeba histolytica microplate assay from Remel and the E. histolytica II enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) from Techlab, using real-time and nested-PCR for Entamoeba species to resolve any discrepant results. After discrepant resolution, The E. histolytica Quik Chek assay exhibited sensitivity and specificity compared to the E. histolytica II ELISA of 98.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92.9% to 99.8%) and 100% (95% CI, 99.0% to 100%), respectively. Compared to the ProSpecT microplate assay, the E. histolytica Quik Chek (Quik Chek) assay exhibited 97.0% sensitivity (95% CI, 91.5% to 99.4%) and 100% specificity (95% CI, 99.0% to 100%). Our results indicate that the Quik Chek is a robust assay for the specific detection of E. histolytica trophozoites in unfixed frozen clinical stool samples.