Sample records for dyschondroplasia

  1. Serum chemistry and histopathology of broiler femoral head necrosis and tibial dyschondroplasia (United States)

    Femoral head necrosis (FHN) and tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) are two major leg problems in young meat type poultry which cause lameness, bone deformity and infections. Whereas FHN results from disarticulation of the femoral growth plate from the articular cartilage, TD lesions are characterized by i...

  2. Promoter and transcription of type X collagen gene in broiler chickens with tibial dyschondroplasia. (United States)

    Zhang, X; McDaniel, G R; Giambrone, J J; Smith, E


    Type X collagen is produced exclusively in hypertrophic chondrocytes of the growth plate of the proximal tibiotarsus and is believed to play an important role during normal development from chondrogenesis to osteogenesis. Chondrocytes of chickens with tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) fail to attain full hypertrophy and the amount of type X collagen, being a marker of hypertrophy, is likely to be reduced. It is not clear whether transcriptional regulation is functional for expression of the type X collagen gene in TD birds. Nucleotide sequence of the type X collagen gene promoter was determined by sequencing PCR-based DNA clones. Nucleotide identity of this fragment between the normal and TD carriers was 97.6%. Both normal and TD birds were similar in a putative transcription start site, the site of TATAA box, and neither had a CCAAT box. However, there were two gaps in TD carriers, four gaps in normals, and five nucleotide substitution sites. By rapid amplification of cDNA ends by PCR (RACE-PCR), transcription of the gene was assessed using total RNA and mRNA from both normal chondrocytes and TD lesions at 3 and 4 wk of age. The RACE-PCR product for type X collagen mRNA was detectable in both normal and TD birds at two stages. No difference was found between them. This result does not support the hypothesis that transcriptional regulation of type X collagen gene is important in TD development of chickens. Variations in the promoter region did not affect transcription of type X collagen gene in TD carrier chickens.

  3. The Differential Expression of Cadherin 1 (CDH1) in the Growth Plate of Tibial Dyschondroplasia in Broiler Chickens at the Early Stage%肉鸡胫骨软骨发育不良早期钙黏蛋白1(CDH1)差异表达研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田文霞; 郭定宗; 李家奎; 王瑞; 覃平; 宁官保; 乔建钢; 李宏全; 毕丁仁; 潘思轶


    The aim of this study was to explore the differential expression of cadherin 1 (CDH1) in the growth plate of broiler chickens with tibial dyschondroplasia CTD) induced by thiram at the early stage. Chickens were dissected and growth plates were fixed in 4% paraform respectively in 4 ℃ at days 1, 2 and 6. RNA was extracted from the growth plates of control and thiram-fed chickens. Then differential expression of CDH1 was identified by real-time PCR and immunohis-tology. The results showed that expression of CDHl was up-regulated on the growth plate of thi-ram-diet fed group. CDHl protein synthesis mainly lied in cytoplasm of the prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocyte in control or TD growth plates. No expression was discovered at prolif- erative zone and low expression was detected at calcification zone. Remarkably increased CDH1 was detected in TD growth plates at days 1, 2 and 6 after feeding thiram diet, which mirrored with their mRNA differential expression, and highly increased CDH1 staining was clearly seen at days 2 and 6 respectively. It was suggested that CDH1 was associated with cell adhesion, blood vessel invasion and it also regulated Wnt/p-cat signal transmission with other regulator among en-dochondral bone formation.%为研究福美双诱发肉鸡胫骨软骨发育不良(Tibial Dyschondroplasia,TD)早期钙黏蛋白1(CDH1)的差异表达,基础日粮中添加福美双,在试验第1、2、6天,对试验鸡进行剖杀,迅速采取胫骨生长板故入4%多聚甲醛溶液于4℃固定,做CDH1免疫组化分析;提取对照组和饲喂福美双组的生长板总RNA,采用Real-time PCR对CDH1 基因进行差异表达验证.结果钙黏蛋白1 (CDH1/E-cadherin)基因在TD生长板表达上调,在对照和TD软骨生长板,其蛋白合成主要在前肥大、肥大区软骨细胞质,增殖区软骨细胞无表达,钙化区软骨细胞表达少,在饲喂福美双第1、2、6天其表达增加与定量PCR变化结果相

  4. 磷源对福美双诱导的肉鸡胫骨软骨发育不良及骨骼钙、磷代谢的影响%Effects of Phosphorous Sources on Thiram-Induced Tibia Dyschondroplasia and Bone Calcium-Phosphorus Metabolism in Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂广运; 白世平; 张克英; 彭西; 丁雪梅; 曾秋凤


    This trial was conducted to investigate the effects of mono-dicalcium phosphate ( MDCP) and dical-ciumphosphate (DCP) on thiram-induced tibia dyschondroplasia (TD) and bone calcium-phosphorus metabolism in broilers. A total of 120 Cobb broilers at 1 day of age were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatments according to phosphorous sources (DCP and MDCP) at 1 to 21 d, and each treatment had 60 broilers. At 22 to 42 d, the experimental design consisted of a 2 x2 factorial arrangement for 4 treatments. The broilers fed diets with DCP or MDCP at 1 to 21 d were divided into two treatments at 22 d and they were fed diets with two levels of thiram (0, 100 mg/kg). Each treatment was three replicates with ten broilers in each replicate. While the thiram diet was fed only at 22 to 28 d and then they were switched to normal diets without thiram. The results showed as follows: 1) TD scores of broilers from MDCP group were lower than those of broilers from DCP group at 35 d (P = 0. 09) , however, it showed no significant difference for TD scores at 28 and 42 d between the two phosphorus sources (P >0. 05). Thiram significantly increased TD scores of broilers at 28, 35 and 42 d (P <0. 05). 2) The interactions were significant for tibia ash, Ca and P contents at 35 d (P < 0.05). Tibia ash, Ca, and P contents of broilers from MDCP group were significantly higher than those of broilers from DCP group under thiram-induced condition at 35 d. 3) Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) content of broilers from DCP group was higher than that of broilers from DCP group at 35 d (P =0. 12). MDCP may slow down the development of thiram-induced TD compared with DCP, which is related to calcium-phosphorus metabolism. It shows no significant influence on final TD scores between the two phosphorus sources. [Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2012, 24(9) : 1674-1682]%本试验旨在研究磷酸一二钙(MDCP)和磷酸氢钙(DCP)对福美双诱导的肉鸡胫骨软骨发育不良(TD)及骨骼

  5. Efeito dos ionóforos e do balanço eletrolítico da dieta sobre o desempenho e a incidência de discondroplasia tibial em frangos de corte na fase inicial Effect of ionophores and acid-base balance on performance and incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia in 21-d old broiler chicks

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    José Rodrigo Galli Franco


    -base balance of diets (DEB on young broiler chicks (one to twenty one days of age performance and incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia (TD. One thousand and sixty one day old "Cobb" male broilers chickens were allotted to a completely randomized design in 3 x 2 factorial arrangement (DEB = 230, 260 and 290 mEq/kg x ionophores = lasalocid e salinomicin and two control treatments (230 and 260 mEq/kg. The ionophores x DEB interaction, for weight at 21 days (W21 and feed intake (FI, was unrolled and, by using lasalocid, it was observed quadratic effect, in function of DEB levels for W21 and FI. Minimum values for these variables were obtained at levels of 261 and 268 mEq/kg, respectively. When salinomycin was used, DEB effect was observed. Feed: gain ratio was influenced neither by ionophores nor by DEB. In the contrasts comparison, the better W21 was observed when the ionophores were added to the diets, but for the feed intake and feed: gain ratio no differences were observed. In the comparisons between ionophores, the birds fed salinomycin showed better weight than those fed lasalocid. There was no effect of salinomycin on the epiphysis areas, independently of DEB, however, when lasalocid was used, these areas increased, as DEB levels increased. It was concluded that the use of diets with lasalocid reduced the broiler chicks performance, and the birds fed salinomycin showed better W21 and were not affected by DEB on TD incidence. However, when lasalocid was used, the bone areas increase, that characterized TD, as DEB levels increased.

  6. cDNA芯片筛选肉鸡胫骨软骨发育不良相关基因%Screening of Associated Genes in the Growth Plate of Broiler Chickens with Tibial Dyschondroplasia by cDNA Microarrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田文霞; 刘红霞; 喻进; 卢晓晓; 宁官保; 李宏全


    本研究旨在应用cDNA芯片技术筛选福美双诱导的肉鸡胫骨软骨发育不良(TD)相关基因,提取对照组和饲喂福美双组第2、4、8、10、15、20天的AA肉鸡生长板组织总RNA,制备cRNA探针,分别与cDNA芯片杂交,重新筛选肉鸡TD差异表达克隆.结果表明:得到第2、4、8、10、15、20天2.0倍以上差异表达克隆分别为151、90、240、589、718和733个,共计1 398个.基因本体分析表明,上述差异基因分别参与调节、信号转导、转录、RNA加工与修饰、翻译、蛋白折叠和蛋白水解、运输、氧化还原、生物合成、细胞周期、增殖分化、细胞凋亡、细胞粘附、免疫应答与防御反应、应激反应、电子链传递和糖基化等生物学过程;氧化磷酸化、糖酵解与糖异生、黏着斑、细胞骨架调节、ECM-受体相互作用、MAPK、钙信号转导通路、Wnt、胰岛素信号通路、TGF-β信号通路、泛素介导的蛋白水解、神经活性的配体-受体相互作用、VEGF、GnRH、酮体的合成与分解、细胞因子与其受体的相互作用等多条代谢途径与肉鸡TD有关.为从分子水平阐明肉鸡胫骨软骨发育不良发病机制提供可靠的生物信息学依据.

  7. Construction of Subtracted cDNA Library of the Early Growth Plate in Broiler Chickens with Thiram-induced Tibial Dyschondroplasia%福美双诱发肉鸡胫骨软骨发育不良早期生长板消减cDNA文库的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁官保; 郭定宗; 田文霞; 王瑞; 覃平; 乔建钢; 李宏全; 李家奎; 毕丁仁; 潘思轶


    [Objective] An experiment was conducted to construct subtracted cDNA library for selecting time series genes differentially expressed in the TD growth plate of broiler chickens at the early stage with cDNA microarray. [Method] AVIAN (AV) broiler chicks at 7 days of age were randomly divided into two groups. After fasting overnight, they were fed with regular diet (control) or the same diet containing 100 mg/kg thiram for 48h to induce TD (thiram diet-fed). Forward and reverse-subtracted eDNA libraries were generated by suppression subtractive hybridization technology (SSH). Identification of the inserted cDNA fragments in subtractive library was done using PCR. One hundred clones were randomly selected for further DNA sequencing, blast homology analysis and function prediction. [Result] A total of 2 227 positive clones were obtained and the size of inserts was between 200 bp and 1 000 bp. There were 97 homologous gene sequences shared more than 99% identity with genes known in chicken (Gallus gallus). Non-redundancy of sequenced genes was 68.7%. Meanwhile, 3 clones were found to be novel EST as no functional clues were associated with them by bioinformatic analysis. Most of these genes are involved in matrix formation,endochondral ossification and remodelling, developmental regulation, signal transduction, electron transport in mitochondrial respiratory chain and vascularization. [ Conclusion ] Successfully produced cDNA library would make a good foundation for further printing cDNA microarray, screening differential expression genes of TD growth plates at different stages, and also may provide new insights into understanding the pathogenesis of TD.%[目的]为应用cDNA芯片技术筛选肉鸡胫骨软骨发育不良(TD)时序性差异表达基因,本研究构建了早期生长板消减cDNA文库.[方法]将7日龄AV肉鸡随机分为两组,对照组(control,C)饲以基础日粮,试验组(thiram diet-fed,T)饲以基础日粮添加福美双100 mg·kg(-1),2 d后继续饲以墓础日粮,诱发肉鸡TD.应用抑制消减杂交技术(SSH)构建正反向消减cDNA文库,用PCR验证两个文库中克隆的插入片段,随机抽取100个阳性克隆测序,对所测序列同源性分析和功能预测.[结果]从两个文库共获得2 227个有效阳性克隆,插入片段大小主要分布在200--1 000bp之间;所测序列中有97条ESTs与GenBank中的鸡基因序列同源性达到99%,且非冗余度达到68.7%;此外,有3条ESTs未找到同源序列.这些基因具有构成细胞外基质,参与软骨内骨化和骨的重构,调节骨发育,行使信号转导、血管发生,参与电子传递及能量代谢等功能.[结论]成功构建了消减cDNA文库,将为进一步点制cDNA芯片,筛选不同阶段的差异表达基因奠定了基础,也为肉鸡TD机理研究提供新线索.

  8. Differences in metabolic parameters and gene expression related to osteochondrosis/osteoarthrosis in pigs fed 25-hydroxyvitamin D3


    Jefferies, David; Farquharson, Colin; Thomson, Jill; Smith, William; Seawright, Elaine; McCormack, Heather; Whitehead, Colin


    Osteochondrosis/osteoarthrosis (OC/OA) are common terms for various joint pathologies that occur in pigs. Pathologies that may contribute to these disorders have been described, but the primary cause(s) remain unknown. We hypothesised that as OC has some similarities to dyschondroplasia, which involves a failure of growth plate chondrocytes to fully differentiate and hypertrophy, treatment with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-D) might reduce the incidence and/or severity of lesions in pigs, as it do...

  9. Photogrammetry: a Non-Invasive and Objective Method for Detecting Locomotion Problems in Broiler Chickens

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    AS Mendes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Locomotion problems in broiler chickens can cause economic losses of up to 40% of the total revenues due to carcass condemnation and downgrading at processing. Leg disorders, such as femoral lesions, tibial dyschondroplasia, and spondylolisthesis, substantially impact the welfare of chickens as these disorders can prevent birds from reaching the feeders and drinkers, thus reducing feed and water intake. The most important issues related to broiler welfare reported in the last two decades are their growing sensitivity to metabolic and locomotion problems due to the fast growth rates and inactivity. Traditional methods for the determination of gait score include the manual scoring of animal behavior in the broiler house. Recorded video images can also be used for manual scoring of chicken gait score. However, scoring of some animal-based information by human experts and manual methods remain difficult, time consuming and expensive when implemented at farm level. In an effort to objectively detect leg disorders, this study aimed at validating the photogrammetry technique as a non-invasive method for identifying locomotion problems in broilers. Photogrammetry allows determining the geometric properties of broilers from digital photos that are processed and analyzed using a computer software. Results obtained using photogrammetry were tested for their correlation with those obtained by accepted methodologies, including gait score and macroscopic examination of femoral degeneration and tibial dyschondroplasia. The photogrammetry results agreed with the results of the afore mentioned accepted methods.

  10. Esthesioneuroblastoma in Maffucci's syndrome

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    Kurian, Sobha; Crowell, Edward B. [West Virginia University, Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Health Science Center, Morgantown (United States); Ertan, Esmer; Rassekh, Christopher [West Virginia University, Department of Otolaryngology, Morgantown (United States); Ducatman, Barbara [West Virginia University, Department of Pathology, Morgantown (United States)


    Maffucci's syndrome consists of multiple cutaneous hemangiomas, dyschondroplasia, and enchondromas with potential for malignant change. We report a case of a 33-year-old man with Maffucci's syndrome who presented with a several month history of nasal congestion, facial pain, and diminished vision in his left eye. Radiological studies showed a large soft tissue mass centered in the sinonasal area, extending bilaterally into maxillary sinuses and orbits with compression of left optic nerve. Biopsy of the mass showed esthesioneuroblastoma (olfactory neuroblastoma). Chemotherapy resulted in initial improvement, but the tumor recurred and did not respond to further treatment, resulting in his death. Sarcomatous tumors are reported in Maffucci's syndrome, but this is a rare case of a neuroendocrine tumor in a patient with Maffucci's syndrome. (orig.)

  11. Effect of antibiotics on in vitro and in vivo avian cartilage degradation. (United States)

    Peters, T L; Fulton, R M; Roberson, K D; Orth, M W


    Antibiotics are used in the livestock industry not only to treat disease but also to promote growth and increase feed efficiency in less than ideal sanitary conditions. However, certain antibiotic families utilized in the poultry industry have recently been found to adversely affect bone formation and cartilage metabolism in dogs, rats, and humans. Therefore, the first objective of this study was to determine if certain antibiotics used in the poultry industry would inhibit in vitro cartilage degradation. The second objective was to determine if the antibiotics found to inhibit in vitro cartilage degradation also induced tibial dyschondroplasia in growing broilers. Ten antibiotics were studied by an avian explant culture system that is designed to completely degrade tibiae over 16 days. Lincomycin, tylosin tartrate, gentamicin, erythromycin, and neomycin sulfate did not inhibit degradation at any concentration tested. Doxycycline (200 microg/ml), oxytetracycline (200 microg/ml), enrofloxacin (200 and 400 microg/ml), ceftiofur (400 microg/ml), and salinomycin (10 microg/ml) prevented complete cartilage degradation for up to 30 days in culture. Thus, some of the antibiotics did inhibit cartilage degradation in developing bone. Day-old chicks were then administered the five antibiotics at 25%, 100%, or 400% above their recommended dose levels and raised until 21 days of age. Thiram, a fungicide known to induce experimental tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), was given at 20 ppm. Birds were then killed by cervical dislocation, and each proximal tibiotarsus was visually examined for TD lesions. The results showed that none of these antibiotics significantly induced TD in growing boilers at any concentration tested, whereas birds given 20 ppm thiram had a 92% incidence rate.

  12. Differences in metabolic parameters and gene expression related to osteochondrosis/osteoarthrosis in pigs fed 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. (United States)

    Jefferies, David; Farquharson, Colin; Thomson, Jill; Smith, William; Seawright, Elaine; McCormack, Heather; Whitehead, Colin


    Osteochondrosis/osteoarthrosis (OC/OA) are common terms for various joint pathologies that occur in pigs. Pathologies that may contribute to these disorders have been described, but the primary cause(s) remain unknown. We hypothesised that as OC has some similarities to dyschondroplasia, which involves a failure of growth plate chondrocytes to fully differentiate and hypertrophy, treatment with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-D) might reduce the incidence and/or severity of lesions in pigs, as it does in chickens with dyschondroplasia. Control pigs were fed a commercial diet ad libitum. In the treated group this diet was supplemented with 25-D at 0.1 mg/kg. Ten pigs from each of the control and treated groups were sampled at 7, 12, 16 and 21 weeks. Treatment with 25-D had no effect on the incidence or severity of OC/OA lesions. Cartilage dry weight, total collagen content and proteoglycan content, and plasma levels oftotal calcium, inorganic phosphorous, vitamin C, insuline-like growth factor-I, parathyroid hormone and tumour necrosis factor alpha were unaffected by treatment. In addition, none of these parameters were correlated with the incidence or severity of OC/OA lesions. The mRNA expression levels of 21 out of 23 genes assayed by RT-PCR were unaltered in articular cartilage from OA lesion samples as compared to normal articular cartilage. However, collagen type II was reduced and collagen type X increased in OA lesion and near lesion samples. These results suggest that OA in pigs may share some features of osteoarthritis in other mammalian species.

  13. Incorporation of Cestrum diurnum leaf improves intestinal Ca transport in broilers. (United States)

    Chennaiah, S; Qadri, S S Y H; Reddy, C V K; Rama Rao, S V; Shyamsunder, G; Raghuramulu, N


    The economy of Ca utilization is under the control of vitamin D(3), particularly its active metabolite 1,25-dihydroxy cholecalciferol [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)]. In sufficient Ca absorption leads to tibial dyschondroplasia resulting in not attaining optimum body weight. Our earlier studies [T.P. Prema, N. Raghuramulu, Phytochemistry 37 (1994) 167] have shown that the Cestrum diurnum (CD) leaves contain vitamin D(3) metabolites. It was felt whether incorporation of CD as a source of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) could improve the Ca absorption in broilers. Four groups of 60 birds each were fed with either normal diet or normal diet+0.25% CD or normal diet without vitamin D(3) or normal diet without vitamin D(3)+0.25% CD leaf powder for 45 days. In subsample of six birds it was observed that incorporation of CD leaves in the feed had the maximal effect on all the parameters studied. The results indicate that the intestinal Ca transport as represented by Serosa/Mucosa (S/M) ratio was found to be significantly (p<0.01) higher in broilers fed diet with CD leaf powder and the 1alpha hydroxylase activity in kidney is significantly (p<0.001) higher in negative controls. On the other hand the supplementation of CD leaves enhanced the serum Ca, body weight, tibia weight, density and strength resulting in the disappearance of tibial dyschondroplasia. No lesions of toxicity were observed in any of the soft tissue examined. The results suggest that the incorporation of CD leaf powder in poultry feed could be beneficial to the poultry.

  14. The role of Matrix Gla Protein in ossification and recovery of the avian growth plate

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    Harel eDan


    Full Text Available ECM mineralization is an essential physiologic process in bone, teeth, and hypertrophic cartilage. Matrix Gla Protein (MGP, an inhibitor of mineralization, is expressed by chondrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells to inhibit calcification of those soft tissues.Tibial Dyschondroplasia (TD, a skeletal abnormality apparent as a plug of non-vascularized, non-mineralized, white opaque cartilage in the tibial growth plate of avian species can serve as a good model for studying process and genes involved in matrix mineralization and calcification. In this work, we studied the involvement of MGP in the development of TD, as well as in the processes of spontaneous and induced recovery from this syndrome. First, we found that during normal bone development, MGP is expressed in specific time and locations, starting from wide spread expression in the yet un-ossified diaphysis during embryonic development, to specific expression in hypertrophic chondrocytes adjacent to the chondro-osseous junction and the secondary ossification center just prior to calcification. In addition, we show that MGP is not expressed in the impaired TD lesion, however when the lesion begins to heal, it strongly express MGP prior to its calcification. Moreover, we show that when calcification is inhibited, a gap is formed between the expression zones of MGP and BMP2 and that this gap is closed during the healing process. To conclude, we suggest that MGP, directly or through interaction with BMP2, plays a role as ossification regulator, rather then simple inhibitor that acts prior to ossification.

  15. Genetic analysis of leg problems and growth in a random mating broiler population. (United States)

    González-Cerón, F; Rekaya, R; Anthony, N B; Aggrey, S E


    Improvement in growth has been widely reported as the cause of increased incidence of leg problems in broiler chickens. We report herein the genetic relationship between growth and leg problems in a random mating broiler control population. The traits studied were valgus (VL), varus (VR), and tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), which were expressed on a binary scale of 0 (normal) and 1 (abnormal); growth rates from 0 to 4 wk (BWG 0-4) and from 0 to 6 wk of age (BWG 0-6); and residual feed intake from 5 to 6 wk of age (RFI 5-6). A threshold-linear mixed model was employed for the joint analysis of the categorical and linear traits. Incidences of VL, VR, and TD were 26, 4, and 2%, respectively. Heritability of leg problems ranged from 0.11 to 0.13. Phenotypic correlations alluded to an unfavorable relationship between growth and leg problems; however, the genetic relationship between growth and leg problems was extremely weak, ranging from 0.01 to 0.08. There is, therefore, a basis for genetic improvement in leg problems. However, improved management practices would also be important to reduce incidence of leg problems in broiler chickens.

  16. Effect of the analgesic butorphanol on activity behaviour in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). (United States)

    Buchwalder, T; Huber-Eicher, B


    During fattening, the bodyweight of modern broad-breasted turkeys increases considerably within a very short space of time. In particular, the breast muscles increase disproportionately. This leads to a disadvantageous distribution in weight, and as a consequence, to a disturbed leg position and skeletal deformations like antitrochanteric degeneration, tibial dyschondroplasia, bending, twisting and rotation of the tibia, osteochondrosis, osteomyelitis, rickets, and epiphyseolysis of the femoral head increases. This cases of degenerative joint disease cause severe pain in humans and there are indications that this is also true for turkeys. The purpose of this study was to determine if behaviour indicative of such pain in turkeys of the B.U.T. Big 6 breeding line could be attenuated by administering a quick-acting analgesic, butorphanol. Twelve pairs of turkeys were tested at the ages of 7 and 12 weeks. One bird in each pair received an analgesic opioid injection, while the other one received a control injection of physiologically balanced saline solution. The time the birds spent putting weight on their legs, i.e., 'walking' and 'standing' and the distance covered by the birds were recorded during the 30 min periods before and after the application of the drug. At week seven the treated birds spent significantly more time putting weight on their legs than control birds. At week 12, the same tendency was observed. No significant differences were found in the distances covered by the animals. It is concluded that fattening turkeys reduce the time they are putting weight on their legs because these behaviours may be associated with pain.

  17. Locomotor problems in broilers reared on new and re-used litter

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    Ibiara Correia Lima Almeida Paz


    Full Text Available Two field trials were conducted to assess locomotor problems in broilers. Males and females broilers were used from two commercial strains reared on two different litter materials, new and re-used. In the first experiment (E1 rice husks and wood shavings were used as new litter, and in the second experiment (E2 the same litter was re-used. A batch of one-day-old chicks (2968 was reared randomly distributed in experimental pens, in a 2x2x2 factorial scheme (two genetic strains, two sexes and two litter materials. The same fodder and water were available to all birds ad libitum. Broilers locomotion problems were evaluated using the characteristics of gait score, incidence of valgus and varus, foot-pad lesions, degeneration, femoral, tibial dyschondroplasia, spondylolisthesis and breast calluses. The number of birds with high gait score was less than 30% in the two experiments. Males presented higher gait score (GS (28.46% GS 1 and 2 compared to females, 20.98%; greater incidence of angular deformities (26.62% with valgus compared to 14.71% of the female; and femoral degenerative joint lesions (70.83% in average, compared to 55.16% of the female, and the correlation between these traits varied from 0.18 to 0.87 (P<0.05. There was an increase of foot-pad lesions in re-used litter leading to poor welfare. The use of rice husks in deep litter for broiler production might be a viable alternative of wood shavings.

  18. Selecting appropriate bedding to reduce locomotion problems in broilers

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    ICL Almeida Paz


    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out at the Poultry Sector of the School of Agrarian Sciences of the Federal University of Grande Dourados to evaluate the incidence of leg problems in broilers reared on two distinct types of bedding material: rice husks or wood shavings, both new and reused. In both trials, a randomized experimental design was applied in factorial arrangement (2 x 2 x 2 using two genetic strains (Cobb® or Ross®; two sexes (male or female, and two litter materials (rice husks or wood shavings. In each trial 1080 one day pullets were reared equally divided in the treatments. The birds were placed in 4.5 m² boxes at a density of 10 birds m-2. All birds were fed diets with equal nutritional density, and water was offered ad libitum. Feeds were divided in three phases: starter diet (1 - 21 days, grower diet (22 - 35 days, and finisher diet (36 - 45 days. On day 45, fifty birds were randomly selected in each experiment to evaluate flock leg problems. The following parameters were analyzed: gait score, incidence of valgus and varus disorder, footpad dermatitis, femoral degeneration, tibial dyschondroplasia, and spondylolisthesis. Ambient temperature during rearing and litter caking and moisture content were recorded in four boxes per treatment. The analytical hierarchy process was used to organize the data into specific criteria. Several criteria, related to the attributes that were determinant according to the statistical analysis, were chosen in order to provide the best input to the process. Results indicated that new wood-shavings bedding was the most appropriate bedding to prevent locomotion problems, followed by new rice husks, reused wood shavings, and reused rice husks. However, when leg problems were associated to sex and genetic strain, male Ross birds strain presented less problems when reared on new rice husks, followed by new wood shavings

  19. Influence of light-dark schedules and stocking density on behaviour, risk of leg problems and occurrence of chronic fear in broilers. (United States)

    Sanotra, G S; Lund, J Damkjer; Vestergaard, K S


    1. The aims of this study were to determine (1) the effect of light-dark schedules on the walking ability, the risk of tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) as well as the duration of tonic immobility (TI) reactions in commercial broiler flocks and (2) the effect of a daily dark period and reduced density on the behaviour of broiler chickens. 2. Experiment 1. Group 1 had a 2 to 8 h daily dark period from 2 to 26 d of age (light-dark programme A) at a stocking density of 28.4 chicks/m2. Group 2 had 8 h of darkness daily from 2 to 38 d of age (light-dark programme B) at 24 chicks/m2. The control group had 24 h continuous light at 28.4 chicks/m2. 3. Experiment 2. Behaviour was studied with and without a daily 8 h dark period and at high (30 chicks/m2) and low (18 chicks/m2) stocking densities. 4. Programme B reduced the prevalence of impaired walking ability, corresponding to gait score > 2, when compared with controls. The effect on walking ability corresponding to gait score > 0 approached significance. 5. Both light-dark programmes reduced the occurrence of TD. Programme B (combined with reduced stocking density), however, had the greater effect. 6. Both light-dark programmes reduced the duration of TI, compared with controls (mean = 426 s) Programme B resulted in a larger reduction (alpha = -156.9 s) than programme A (alpha = -117.0). 7. The proportions of chicks drinking, eating, pecking, scratching, standing and performing vertical wing-shakes increased--both when the 8 h dark period and the reduced stocking density were applied separately and in combination (experiment 2). 8. For all behaviours, except standing, the effect of the dark period was largest in broilers kept at the high stocking density (d 40).

  20. Effect of the level of cholecalciferol supplementation of broiler breeder hen diets on the performance and bone abnormalities of the progeny fed diets containing various levels of calcium or 25-hydroxycholecalciferol. (United States)

    Atencio, A; Edwards, H M; Pesti, G M


    Four experiments were conducted using Ross x Ross chicks hatched from broiler breeder hens fed various levels of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3; 0 to 4,000 IU/kg of diet) to determine the effect of the maternal diet on the performance and leg abnormalities of the progeny. Chicks hatched from eggs laid by the hens at different ages were used in experiments 1 to 4. The studies were conducted in an ultraviolet light-free environment as split plot designs, with Ca levels or 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD3) in the chicks' diet as the whole plot, and vitamin D3 in the maternal diet as a subplot. Chicks in experiments 1 and 2 were fed 2 levels of Ca (0.63% or 0.90%) and chicks in experiments 3 and 4 were fed 6 levels of 25-OHD3 (0 to 40 microg/kg of diet). Significant increases in body weight gain (BWG) of the progeny were observed in experiments 1, 2, and 4 as the vitamin D3 level in the maternal diet increased. Chicks hatched from eggs laid by hens fed the highest levels of D3 had the highest tibia ash. Significant reductions in Ca rickets incidence (experiments 1 and 2) and tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) incidence (experiment 1) were observed as the level of vitamin D3 in the maternal diet increased. Chicks fed lower levels of Ca had lower BWG and tibia ash and higher incidences of TD and Ca rickets than chicks fed higher levels of Ca. Increasing the level of 25-OHD3 in the chicks' diet significantly improved BWG, tibia ash, and plasma Ca and reduced TD and Ca rickets incidence. An overall evaluation of the study indicates that chicks from hens fed the highest levels of vitamin D3 and fed high levels of Ca or 25-OHD3 had the highest BWG, tibia ash, and plasma Ca, and the lowest incidences of TD and Ca rickets.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Colet


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTVitamin D is added to broiler diets to supply its physiological requirement for bone formation. The fast growth rate of modern broilers is often associated with poor bone formation. Increasing vitamin D supplementation levels and the use of more available sources have applied to try to prevent leg problems, to increase carcass yield, and to improve the performance of broilers. The present study evaluated three vitamin D supplementation levels (1 3,500 IU (control; (2 control + 1,954 IU of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol; and (3 control + 3,500 IU of vitamin D in broiler diets supplied up to 21 days of age. The objective was to investigate if the vitamin D levels above the recommendations could reduce leg problems in broilers. In this experiment, a total of 1,296 one-day-old male and female Cobb(r 500 broilers were used. A 2 x 3 factorial arrangement was applied, consisting of two sexes and three vitamin D levels. No difference was found between the levels of vitamin D (p > 0.05, the performance of males or females, the gait score, the valgus and varus incidence, the tibial dyschondroplasia incidence, the occurance of femoral degeneration, the bone colorimetric, and the carcass yield. Parts yield differences were found (p > 0.05, except for liver and intestine yields. We concluded that the lowest tested vitamin D level (3,500 IU per kilogram of feed added to the diet was the best choice in terms of cost/benefit to help minimizing leg problems in broilers.

  2. Incubation lighting schedules and their interaction with matched or mismatched post hatch lighting schedules: Effects on broiler bone development and leg health at slaughter age. (United States)

    van der Pol, Carla W; van Roovert-Reijrink, Inge A M; Aalbers, Gerald; Kemp, Bas; van den Brand, Henry


    The incidence of leg pathologies in broiler chickens with a developmental origin may be decreased by stimulating embryonic bone development through lighting schedules during incubation, but this may depend on post hatch lighting conditions. Aim was to investigate how lighting schedules during incubation and their interactions with matched or mismatched lighting schedules post hatch affected bone development and leg health at slaughter age. In a 3×2 factorial designed experiment, eggs were incubated under continuous cool white LED light (Inc24L), 16h of light, 8h of darkness (Inc16L:8D), or continuous darkness (Inc24D) from set till hatch. After hatch, broilers were housed under continuous light (PH24L, to match Inc24L and Inc24D) or 16h of light, 8h of darkness (PH16L:8D, to match Inc16L:8D). Gait scores were determined on D21, D28, and D34. After slaughter on D35, legs were scored for varus-valgus deformities, rotated tibia, tibial dyschondroplasia, bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO), epiphyseolysis, and epiphyseal plate abnormalities from 1=absent to 4=severe. Femur and tibia dimensions and mineral density were determined. Inc24L led to more epiphyseal plate abnormalities than Inc16L:8D or Inc24D. Inc24D led to more BCO than Inc16L:8D. Gait scores on D21, D28, and D34, and bone dimensions did not differ between treatments. Inc24L led to higher femur mineral density than Inc24D with Inc16L:8D intermediate. Providing a chicken with a matched post hatch lighting schedule did not affect most measurements of bone development and health. It can be concluded that a circadian incubation lighting schedule may improve leg health in broilers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 25-羟基维生素D3在动物营养中的应用%A review of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in animal nutrition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩进诚; 姚军虎; 郑永祥


      文章综述了25-羟基维生素D3(25-OH D3)在动物(主要是家禽)营养中的研究进展:①25-OH D3改善肉鸡生长性能,但会受到基础饲粮钙、磷和维生素D3(VD3)水平的影响;②25-OH D3改善肉鸡骨骼质量,降低TD(胫骨软骨发育不良)发病率,但受到肉鸡品系的影响;③25-OH D3增加肉鸡植酸磷回肠末端消化率,但未影响肠道(内源)植酸酶活性;④25-OH D3调节肉鸡肠道形态和免疫机能;⑤25-OH D3改善产蛋鸡产蛋后期蛋壳质量;⑥以家禽骨骼和蛋壳质量为评价指标,25-OH D3生物学活性为VD3的1~2.5倍;⑦以家禽肾脏钙化评价,25-OH D3的毒性约为VD3的5~10倍。%Research on 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH D3) in animal (especially in poultry) nutrition is reviewed. 25-OH D3 improves growth performance of broiler chicks, whereas the re⁃sponses are influenced by the levels of calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D3 in basal diets. 25-OH D3 enhances bone quality and decreases TD (tibial dyschondroplasia) incidence, but this ef⁃fect is influenced by genetic background of birds. 25-OH D3 increases the distal ileum digest⁃ibility of phytate-phosphorus, but it does not influence the intestinal (endogenous) phytase activ⁃ities. 25-OH D3 regulates intestine structure and immunity. 25-OH D3 improves egg shell quali⁃ty in elder laying hens. Bone mineralization and egg shell quality as the criteria, 25-OH D3 is 1 to 2.5 times as effective as vitamin D3. On the basis of renal calcification, 25-OH D3 is 5 to 10 times more toxic than vitamin D3 in poultry.