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Sample records for dyscalculia combined evidence

  1. Neuroanatomical correlates of developmental dyscalculia: combined evidence from morphometry and tractography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rykhlevskaia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor mathematical abilities adversely affect academic and career opportunities. The neuroanatomical basis of developmental dyscalculia (DD, a specific learning deficit with prevalence rates exceeding 5%, is poorly understood. We used structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to examine macro- and micro-structural impairments in 7-9 year old children with DD, compared to a group of typically developing (TD children matched on age, gender, intelligence, reading abilities and working memory capacity. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM revealed reduced grey matter (GM bilaterally in superior parietal lobule, intra-parietal sulcus, fusiform gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and right anterior temporal cortex in children with DD. VBM analysis also showed reduced white matter (WM volume in right temporal-parietal cortex. DTI revealed reduced fractional anisotropy (FA in this WM region, pointing to significant right hemisphere micro-structural impairments. Furthermore, FA in this region was correlated with numerical operations but not verbal mathematical reasoning or word reading. Atlas-based tract mapping identified the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and caudal forceps major as key pathways impaired in DD. DTI tractography suggests that long-range WM projection fibers linking the right fusiform gyrus with temporal-parietal WM are a specific source of vulnerability in DD. Network and classification analysis suggest that DD in children may be characterized by multiple dysfunctional circuits arising from a core WM deficit. Our findings link GM and WM abnormalities in children with DD and they point to macro- and micro-structural abnormalities in right hemisphere temporal-parietal WM, and pathways associated with it, as key neuroanatomical correlates of DD.

  2. ADHD and Dyscalculia: Evidence for Independent Familial Transmission

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    Monuteaux, Michael C.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Herzig, Kathleen; Navsaria, Neha; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The familial relationship between dyscalculia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was assessed. We conducted a familial risk analysis using probands with and without ADHD of both genders and their first-degree relatives. Participants were assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and a cognitive test battery. We found elevated…

  3. Old/New Effect of Digital Memory Retrieval in Chinese Dyscalculia: Evidence from ERP

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    Wang, Enguo; Du, Chenguang; Ma, Yujun

    2017-01-01

    This study reports the neurophysiological and behavioral correlates of digital memory retrieval features in Chinese individuals with and without dyscalculia. A total of 18 children with dyscalculia (ages 11.5-13.5) and 18 controls were tested, and their event-related potentials were digitally recorded simultaneously with behavior measurement.…

  4. Basic Number Processing Deficits in Developmental Dyscalculia: Evidence from Eye Tracking

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    Moeller, K.; Neuburger, S.; Kaufmann, L.; Landerl, K.; Nuerk, H. C.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that developmental dyscalculia is associated with a subitizing deficit (i.e., the inability to quickly enumerate small sets of up to 3 objects). However, the nature of this deficit has not previously been investigated. In the present study the eye-tracking methodology was employed to clarify whether (a) the subitizing…

  5. Preliminary evidence for performance enhancement following parietal lobe stimulation in Developmental Dyscalculia.

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    Iuculano, Teresa; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 7% of the population exhibit difficulties in dealing with numbers and performing arithmetic, a condition named Developmental Dyscalculia (DD), which significantly affects the educational and professional outcomes of these individuals, as it often persists into adulthood. Research has mainly focused on behavioral rehabilitation, while little is known about performance changes and neuroplasticity induced by the concurrent application of brain-behavioral approaches. It has been shown that numerical proficiency can be enhanced by applying a small-yet constant-current through the brain, a non-invasive technique named transcranial electrical stimulation (tES). Here we combined a numerical learning paradigm with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in two adults with DD to assess the potential benefits of this methodology to remediate their numerical difficulties. Subjects learned to associate artificial symbols to numerical quantities within the context of a trial and error paradigm, while tDCS was applied to the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). The first subject (DD1) received anodal stimulation to the right PPC and cathodal stimulation to the left PPC, which has been associated with numerical performance's improvements in healthy subjects. The second subject (DD2) received anodal stimulation to the left PPC and cathodal stimulation to the right PPC, which has been shown to impair numerical performance in healthy subjects. We examined two indices of numerical proficiency: (i) automaticity of number processing; and (ii) mapping of numbers onto space. Our results are opposite to previous findings with non-dyscalculic subjects. Only anodal stimulation to the left PPC improved both indices of numerical proficiency. These initial results represent an important step to inform the rehabilitation of developmental learning disabilities, and have relevant applications for basic and applied research in cognitive neuroscience, rehabilitation, and education.

  6. Preliminary evidence for performance enhancement following parietal lobe stimulation in Developmental Dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa eIuculano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 7% of the population exhibit difficulties in dealing with numbers and performing arithmetic, a condition named Developmental Dyscalculia (DD, which significantly affects the educational and professional outcomes of these individuals, as it often persists into adulthood. Research has mainly focused on behavioral rehabilitation, while little is known about performance changes and neuroplasticity induced by the concurrent application of brain-behavioral approaches. It has been shown that numerical proficiency can be enhanced by applying a small – yet constant – current through the brain, a non-invasive technique named transcranial electrical stimulation (tES. Here we combined a numerical learning paradigm with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS in two adults with DD to assess the potential benefits of this methodology to remediate their numerical difficulties. Subjects learned to associate artificial symbols to numerical quantities within the context of a trial and error paradigm, while tDCS was applied to the posterior parietal cortex (PPC. The first subject (DD1 received anodal stimulation to the right PPC and cathodal stimulation to the left PPC, which has been associated with numerical performance’s improvements in healthy subjects. The second subject (DD2 received anodal stimulation to the left PPC and cathodal stimulation to the right PPC, which has been shown to impair numerical performance in healthy subjects. We examined two indices of numerical proficiency: (i automaticity of number processing; and (ii mapping of numbers onto space. Our results are opposite to previous findings with non-dyscalculic subjects. Only anodal stimulation to the left PPC improved both indices of numerical proficiency. These initial results represent an important step to inform the rehabilitation of developmental learning disabilities, and have relevant applications for basic and applied research in cognitive neuroscience, rehabilitation

  7. Dyscalculia: Characteristics, Causes, and Treatments

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    Gavin R. Price

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental Dyscalculia (DD is a learning disorder affecting the ability to acquire school-level arithmetic skills, affecting approximately 3-6% of individuals. Progress in understanding the root causes of DD and how best to treat it have been impeded by lack of widespread research and variation in characterizations of the disorder across studies. However, recent years have witnessed significant growth in the field, and a growing body of behavioral and neuroimaging evidence now points to an underlying deficit in the representation and processing of numerical magnitude information as a potential core deficit in DD. An additional product of the recent progress in understanding DD is the resurgence of a distinction between ‘primary’ and ‘secondary’ developmental dyscalculia. The first appears related to impaired development of brain mechanisms for processing numerical magnitude information, while the latter refers to mathematical deficits stemming from external factors such as poor teaching, low socio-economic status, and behavioral attention problems or domain-general cognitive deficits. Increased awareness of this distinction going forward, in combination with longitudinal empirical research, offers great potential for deepening our understanding of the disorder and developing effective educational interventions.

  8. Dyscalculia: from brain to education.

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    Butterworth, Brian; Varma, Sashank; Laurillard, Diana

    2011-05-27

    Recent research in cognitive and developmental neuroscience is providing a new approach to the understanding of dyscalculia that emphasizes a core deficit in understanding sets and their numerosities, which is fundamental to all aspects of elementary school mathematics. The neural bases of numerosity processing have been investigated in structural and functional neuroimaging studies of adults and children, and neural markers of its impairment in dyscalculia have been identified. New interventions to strengthen numerosity processing, including adaptive software, promise effective evidence-based education for dyscalculic learners.

  9. Dyscalculia and Other Learning Problems in Arithmetic: A Historical Perspective.

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    Sharma, Mahesh C.

    1986-01-01

    Evidence on learning problems due to dyscalculia is surveyed. Definitions, factors responsible for dyscalculia, split-brain research and hemispheric roles, mathematics learning problems and personality, materials for instruction, and levels of knowing mathematics are among the topics discussed with an extensive list of references. (MNS)

  10. The Link between Logic, Mathematics and Imagination: Evidence from Children with Developmental Dyscalculia and Mathematically Gifted Children

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    Morsanyi, Kinga; Devine, Amy; Nobes, Alison; Szucs, Denes

    2013-01-01

    This study examined performance on transitive inference problems in children with developmental dyscalculia (DD), typically developing controls matched on IQ, working memory and reading skills, and in children with outstanding mathematical abilities. Whereas mainstream approaches currently consider DD as a domain-specific deficit, we hypothesized…

  11. Dyscalculia in Harrow

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    Messenger, Chris; Emerson, Jane; Bird, Ronit

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer three definitions of dyscalculia, then describe the background and initial progress of the Harrow Dyscalculia Project. Their project in Harrow is associated with ongoing research into numeracy and brain development led by Brian Butterworth, Professor of Cognitive Neuropsychology at UCL. Pupils from Harrow schools…

  12. Residual number processing in dyscalculia.

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelletti, M.; Price, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia - a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts - is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and ca...

  13. Patterns of developmental dyscalculia with or without dyslexia.

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    Tressoldi, Patrizio E; Rosati, Mario; Lucangeli, Daniela

    2007-08-01

    This study has been conducted in order to investigate the extent to which some characteristics of dyscalculia may be common to dyslexia. Seven multiple single-cases were studied: two children with dyslexia only, two with dyscalculia only, and three more children with comorbidity of dyslexia and dyscalculia. Each participant was assessed with a standardized comprehensive battery of arithmetical, reading, and cognitive tests. We observed that a clinical impairment in mental and written calculations, arithmetical facts retrieval, number comparison, number alignment, and identification of arithmetical signs may appear with a normal reading capacity and independently of a short-term verbal memory deficit. These findings add convergent support to the evidence mainly obtained from group comparisons that the more distinctive characteristics of dyscalculia are functionally independent of dyslexia.

  14. Understanding Dyscalculia for Teaching

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    Vaidya, Sheila Rao

    2004-01-01

    Dyscalculia, a poor understanding of the number concept and the number system, is a learning problem affecting many individuals. However, less is known about this disability than about the reading disability, dyslexia, because society accepts learning problems in mathematics as quite normal. This article provides a summary of the research on…

  15. Dyscalculia: Neuroscience and Education

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    Kaufmann, Liane

    2008-01-01

    Background: Developmental dyscalculia is a heterogeneous disorder with largely dissociable performance profiles. Though our current understanding of the neurofunctional foundations of (adult) numerical cognition has increased considerably during the past two decades, there are still many unanswered questions regarding the developmental pathways of…

  16. Residual number processing in dyscalculia.

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    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia - a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts - is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.

  17. Residual number processing in dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinella Cappelletti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.

  18. The diagnosis and management of dyscalculia

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Liane; von Aster, Michael

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dyscalculia is defined as difficulty acquiring basic arithmetic skills that is not explained by low intelligence or inadequate schooling. About 5% of children in primary schools are affected. Dyscalculia does not improve without treatment. METHODS: In this article, we selectively review publications on dyscalculia from multiple disciplines (medicine, psychology, neuroscience, education/special education). RESULTS: Many children and adolescents with dyscalculia have associate...

  19. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia

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    Henik Avishai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Methods Fourteen university students that were diagnosed as suffering from developmental dyscalculia--intelligence and reading abilities in the normal range and no indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--and 14 matched controls were tested using the attention networks test - interactions. All participants were given preliminary tests to measure mathematical abilities, reading, attention and intelligence. Results The results revealed deficits in the alerting network--a larger alerting effect--and in the executive function networks--a larger congruity effect in developmental dyscalculia participants. The interaction between the alerting and executive function networks was also modulated by group. In addition, developmental dyscalculia participants were slower to respond in the non-cued conditions. Conclusions These results imply specific attentional deficits in pure developmental dyscalculia. Namely, those with developmental dyscalculia seem to be deficient in the executive function and alertness networks. They suffer from difficulty in recruiting attention, in addition to the deficits in numerical processing.

  20. Dyscalculia: awareness and student support.

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    Kirk, Kirsty; Payne, Bob

    Dyscalculia is a learning need that requires assessment and provision of reasonable adjustments. Although there have been numerous discussions about how to identify, assess and support dyscalculic children, there is less information available covering further and higher education, and even less concerned with the education of health professionals. This article aims to address this deficit, to discuss the disparity often felt by educators, and to raise awareness of the impact of dyscalculia on student nurses.

  1. Developmental dyscalculia: a dysconnection syndrome?

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    Kucian, Karin; Ashkenazi, Simone Schwizer; Hänggi, Jürgen; Rotzer, Stephanie; Jäncke, Lutz; Martin, Ernst; von Aster, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Numerical understanding is important for everyday life. For children with developmental dyscalculia (DD), numbers and magnitudes present profound problems which are thought to be based upon neuronal impairments of key regions for numerical understanding. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible differences in white matter fibre integrity between children with DD and controls using diffusion tensor imaging. White matter integrity and behavioural measures were evaluated in 15 children with developmental dyscalculia aged around 10 years and 15 matched controls. The main finding, obtained by a whole brain group comparison, revealed reduced fractional anisotropy in the superior longitudinal fasciculus in children with developmental dyscalculia. In addition, a region of interest analysis exhibited prominent deficits in fibres of the superior longitudinal fasciculus adjacent to the intraparietal sulcus, which is thought to be the core region for number processing. To conclude, our results outline deficient fibre projection between parietal, temporal and frontal regions in children with developmental dyscalculia, and therefore raise the question of whether dyscalculia can be seen as a dysconnection syndrome. Since the superior longitudinal fasciculus is involved in the integration and control of distributed brain processes, the present results highlight the importance of considering broader domain-general mechanisms in the diagnosis and therapy of dyscalculia.

  2. Developmental Dyscalculia Is a Familial Learning Disability.

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    Shalev, Ruth S.; Manor, Orly; Kerem, Batsheva; Ayali, Mady; Badichi, Navah; Friedlander, Yechiel; Gross-Tsur, Varda

    2001-01-01

    Siblings and parents of 39 children with dyscalculia were assessed for arithmetic, reading, and attention disorders. Findings indicated a familial prevalence of dyscalculia almost tenfold higher than expected for the general population and suggest that dyscalculia, like other learning disabilities, has a significant familial aggregation,…

  3. Acalculia and dyscalculia.

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    Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Mónica

    2002-12-01

    Even though it is generally recognized that calculation ability represents a most important type of cognition, there is a significant paucity in the study of acalculia. In this paper the historical evolution of calculation abilities in humankind and the appearance of numerical concepts in child development are reviewed. Developmental calculation disturbances (developmental dyscalculia) are analyzed. It is proposed that calculation ability represents a multifactor skill, including verbal, spatial, memory, body knowledge, and executive function abilities. A general distinction between primary and secondary acalculias is presented, and different types of acquired calculation disturbances are analyzed. The association between acalculia and aphasia, apraxia and dementia is further considered, and special mention to the so-called Gerstmann syndrome is made. A model for the neuropsychological assessment of numerical abilities is proposed, and some general guidelines for the rehabilitation of calculation disturbances are presented.

  4. Temporal abnormalities in children with developmental dyscalculia.

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    Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Rappo, Gaetano; Pepi, Annamaria; Pavan, Andrea; Martino, Davide

    2012-01-01

    Recent imaging studies have associated Developmental dyscalculia (DD) to structural and functional alterations corresponding Parietal and the Prefrontal cortex (PFC). Since these areas were shown also to be involved in timing abilities, we hypothesized that time processing is abnormal in DD. We compared time processing abilities between 10 children with pure DD (8 years old) and 11 age-matched healthy children. Results show that the DD group underestimated duration of a sub-second scale when asked to perform a time comparison task. The timing abnormality observed in our DD participants is consistent with evidence of a shared fronto-parietal neural network for representing time and quantity.

  5. Time processing in dyscalculia.

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    Cappelletti, Marinella; Freeman, Elliot D; Butterworth, Brian L

    2011-01-01

    To test whether atypical number development may affect other types of quantity processing, we investigated temporal discrimination in adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD). This also allowed us to test whether number and time may be sub-served by a common quantity system or decision mechanisms: if they do, both should be impaired in dyscalculia, but if number and time are distinct they should dissociate. Participants judged which of two successively presented horizontal lines was longer in duration, the first line being preceded by either a small or a large number prime ("1" or "9") or by a neutral symbol ("#"), or in a third task participants decided which of two Arabic numbers (either "1," "5," "9") lasted longer. Results showed that (i) DD's temporal discriminability was normal as long as numbers were not part of the experimental design, even as task-irrelevant stimuli; however (ii) task-irrelevant numbers dramatically disrupted DD's temporal discriminability the more their salience increased, though the actual magnitude of the numbers had no effect; in contrast (iii) controls' time perception was robust to the presence of numbers but modulated by numerical quantity: therefore small number primes or numerical stimuli seemed to make durations appear shorter than veridical, but longer for larger numerical prime or numerical stimuli. This study is the first to show spared temporal discrimination - a dimension of continuous quantity - in a population with a congenital number impairment. Our data reinforce the idea of a partially shared quantity system across numerical and temporal dimensions, which supports both dissociations and interactions among dimensions; however, they suggest that impaired number in DD is unlikely to originate from systems initially dedicated to continuous quantity processing like time.

  6. Numerical and Non-Numerical Ordinality Processing in Children with and without Developmental Dyscalculia: Evidence from fMRI

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    Kaufmann, L.; Vogel, S. E.; Starke, M.; Kremser, C.; Schocke, M.

    2009-01-01

    Ordinality is--beyond numerical magnitude (i.e., quantity)--an important characteristic of the number system. There is converging empirical evidence that (intra)parietal brain regions mediate number magnitude processing. Furthermore, recent findings suggest that the human intraparietal sulcus (IPS) supports magnitude and ordinality in a…

  7. Working Memory for Serial Order Is Dysfunctional in Adults With a History of Developmental Dyscalculia: Evidence From Behavioral and Neuroimaging Data.

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    Attout, Lucie; Salmon, Eric; Majerus, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that order working memory (WM) may be specifically associated with numerical abilities. This study explored behavioral performance and neural networks associated with verbal WM in adults with a history of developmental dyscalculia (DD). The DD group performed significantly poorer but with the same precision than the control group in order WM tasks and showed a lower activation of the right middle frontal gyrus during the order WM and the alphabetical order judgment tasks. This study suggests a persistent impairment in order WM in adults with DD, characterized by more general difficulties in controlled activation of order information.

  8. Developing test materials for dyscalculia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenskov, Lena; Bent, Lindhardt,

    Aims, requirements and context for the development of test materials for dyscalculia are analyzed. The test materials are to be used for Grade 4 pupils in Danish primary schools. Preliminary results are presented from focus group interview with adolescents and adults, who see themselves as being...

  9. Manifestations of Dyslexia and Dyscalculia

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    Osisanya, Ayo; Lazarus, Kelechi; Adewunmi, Abiodun

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of dyslexia and dyscalculia among persons with academic deficits in English Language and Mathematics in public primary schools in Ibadan metropolis. A correlational survey study, sampling 477 pupils who were between the ages of eight and 12 years, and in 4th and 5th grades with the use of four research…

  10. Developmental Dyscalculia and Medical Assessment.

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    Shalev, Ruth S.; Gross-Tsur, Varda

    1993-01-01

    Medical evaluation of seven third-grade children with developmental dyscalculia in a mainstream setting identified neurological conditions (including petit mal seizures, Gerstmann syndrome, and attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity) in all the children. Findings suggest that children who are not improving academically should undergo…

  11. Manifestations of Dyslexia and Dyscalculia

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    Osisanya, Ayo; Lazarus, Kelechi; Adewunmi, Abiodun

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of dyslexia and dyscalculia among persons with academic deficits in English Language and Mathematics in public primary schools in Ibadan metropolis. A correlational survey study, sampling 477 pupils who were between the ages of eight and 12 years, and in 4th and 5th grades with the use of four research…

  12. Inhibitory ability of children with developmental dyscalculia.

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    Zhang, Huaiying; Wu, Hanrong

    2011-02-01

    Inhibitory ability of children with developmental dyscalculia (DD) was investigated to explore the cognitive mechanism underlying DD. According to the definition of developmental dyscalculia, 19 children with DD-only and 10 children with DD&RD (DD combined with reading disability) were selected step by step, children in two control groups were matched with children in case groups by gender and age, and the match ratio was 1:1. Psychological testing software named DMDX was used to measure inhibitory ability of the subjects. The differences of reaction time in number Stroop tasks and differences of accuracy in incongruent condition of color-word Stroop tasks and object inhibition tasks between DD-only children and their controls reached significant levels (P<0.05), and the differences of reaction time in number Stroop tasks between dyscalculic and normal children did not disappear after controlling the non-executive components. The difference of accuracy in color-word incongruent tasks between children with DD&RD and normal children reached significant levels (P<0.05). Children with DD-only confronted with general inhibitory deficits, while children with DD&RD confronted with word inhibitory deficits only.

  13. Residual number processing in dyscalculia

    OpenAIRE

    Marinella Cappelletti; Cathy J. Price

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and ca...

  14. Serial-order learning impairment and hypersensitivity-to-interference in dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visscher, Alice; Szmalec, Arnaud; Van Der Linden, Lize; Noël, Marie-Pascale

    2015-11-01

    In the context of heterogeneity, the different profiles of dyscalculia are still hypothetical. This study aims to link features of mathematical difficulties to certain potential etiologies. First, we wanted to test the hypothesis of a serial-order learning deficit in adults with dyscalculia. For this purpose we used a Hebb repetition learning task. Second, we wanted to explore a recent hypothesis according to which hypersensitivity-to-interference hampers the storage of arithmetic facts and leads to a particular profile of dyscalculia. We therefore used interfering and non-interfering repeated sequences in the Hebb paradigm. A final test was used to assess the memory trace of the non-interfering sequence and the capacity to manipulate it. In line with our predictions, we observed that people with dyscalculia who show good conceptual knowledge in mathematics but impaired arithmetic fluency suffer from increased sensitivity-to-interference compared to controls. Secondly, people with dyscalculia who show a deficit in a global mathematical test suffer from a serial-order learning deficit characterized by a slow learning and a quick degradation of the memory trace of the repeated sequence. A serial-order learning impairment could be one of the explanations for a basic numerical deficit, since it is necessary for the number-word sequence acquisition. Among the different profiles of dyscalculia, this study provides new evidence and refinement for two particular profiles.

  15. Time processing in dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marinella eCappelletti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To test whether atypical number development may affect other types of quantity processing, we investigated temporal discrimination in adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD. This also allowed us to test whether (1 number and time may be sub-served by a common quantity system or decision mechanisms –in which case they may both be impaired, or (2 whether number and time are distinct –and therefore they may dissociate. Participants judged which of two successively presented horizontal lines was longer in duration, the first line being preceded by either a small or a large number prime (‘1’ or ‘9’ or by a neutral symbol (‘#’, or in third task decide which of two Arabic numbers (either ‘1’, ‘5’, ’9’ lasted longer. Results showed that (i DD’s temporal discriminability was normal as long as numbers were not part of the experimental design even as task-irrelevant stimuli; however (ii task-irrelevant numbers dramatically disrupted DD’s temporal discriminability, the more their salience increased, though the actual magnitude of the numbers had no effect; and in contrast (iii controls’ time perception was robust to the presence of numbers but modulated by numerical quantity such that small number primes or numerical stimuli made durations appear shorter than veridical and the opposite for larger numerical prime or numerical stimuli. This study is the first to investigate continuous quantity as time in a population with a congenital number impairment and to show that atypical development of numerical competence leaves continuous quantity processing spared. Our data support the idea of a partially shared quantity system across numerical and temporal dimensions, which allows dissociations and interactions among dimensions; furthermore, they suggest that impaired number in DD is unlikely to originate from systems initially dedicated to continuous quantity processing like time.

  16. Naming Speed in Dyslexia and Dyscalculia

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    Willburger, Edith; Fussenegger, Barbara; Moll, Kristina; Wood, Guilherme; Landerl, Karin

    2008-01-01

    In four carefully selected samples of 8- to 10-year old children with dyslexia (but age adequate arithmetic skills), dyscalculia (but age adequate reading skills), dyslexia/dyscalculia and controls a domain-general deficit in rapid automatized naming (RAN) was found for both dyslexia groups. Dyscalculic children exhibited a domain-specific deficit…

  17. Dyscalculia and the Calculating Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapin, Isabelle

    2016-08-01

    Dyscalculia, like dyslexia, affects some 5% of school-age children but has received much less investigative attention. In two thirds of affected children, dyscalculia is associated with another developmental disorder like dyslexia, attention-deficit disorder, anxiety disorder, visual and spatial disorder, or cultural deprivation. Infants, primates, some birds, and other animals are born with the innate ability, called subitizing, to tell at a glance whether small sets of scattered dots or other items differ by one or more item. This nonverbal approximate number system extends mostly to single digit sets as visual discrimination drops logarithmically to "many" with increasing numerosity (size effect) and crowding (distance effect). Preschoolers need several years and specific teaching to learn verbal names and visual symbols for numbers and school agers to understand their cardinality and ordinality and the invariance of their sequence (arithmetic number line) that enables calculation. This arithmetic linear line differs drastically from the nonlinear approximate number system mental number line that parallels the individual number-tuned neurons in the intraparietal sulcus in monkeys and overlying scalp distribution of discrete functional magnetic resonance imaging activations by number tasks in man. Calculation is a complex skill that activates both visual and spatial and visual and verbal networks. It is less strongly left lateralized than language, with approximate number system activation somewhat more right sided and exact number and arithmetic activation more left sided. Maturation and increasing number skill decrease associated widespread non-numerical brain activations that persist in some individuals with dyscalculia, which has no single, universal neurological cause or underlying mechanism in all affected individuals.

  18. [Dyscalculia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    The information society has raised the value of numeracy. This is a challenge to schools and societies, because individual differences are large already in basic number sense and calculation skills. Approximately 5-7 % of school children have extensive difficulties to keep with the speed of curricular demands, i.e. one child in every classroom. These children often have difficulties in other areas of learning too, but disorders in learning can also manifest only in mathematics. Undiagnosed and untreated mathematical disorders become a lifelong handicap creating a barrier to vocational education. They also hinder independent management of mathematical activities of daily living. Low numeracy is a measurable social problem. Intensive and early special education or neuropsychological rehabilitation can diminish the negative effects of the disorders.

  19. Dyscalculia: Issues for Practice in Educational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillum, James

    2012-01-01

    Dyscalculia has been described as a specific learning difficulty affecting the ability to acquire arithmetical skills. In recent years, it has become a topic for discussion in the popular media, yet there has been little research undertaken by educational psychologists. This paper provides a summary of neuroscientific research into the development…

  20. Numerical Distance Effect in Developmental Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Sarit; Mark-Zigdon, Nitza; Henik, Avishai

    2009-01-01

    Children in third and fourth grades suffering from developmental dyscalculia (DD) and typically developing children were asked to compare numbers to a standard. In two separate blocks, they were asked to compare a number between 1 and 9 to 5, or a two-digit number between 10 and 99 to 55. In the single-digit comparisons, DD children were…

  1. Dyscalculia: Issues for Practice in Educational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillum, James

    2012-01-01

    Dyscalculia has been described as a specific learning difficulty affecting the ability to acquire arithmetical skills. In recent years, it has become a topic for discussion in the popular media, yet there has been little research undertaken by educational psychologists. This paper provides a summary of neuroscientific research into the development…

  2. Heterogeneity of Developmental Dyscalculia: Cases with Different Deficit Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Träff, Ulf; Olsson, Linda; Östergren, Rickard; Skagerlund, Kenny

    2016-01-01

    Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) has long been thought to be a monolithic learning disorder that can be attributed to a specific neurocognitive dysfunction. However, recent research has increasingly recognized the heterogeneity of DD, where DD can be differentiated into subtypes in which the underlying cognitive deficits and neural dysfunctions may differ. The aim was to further understand the heterogeneity of developmental dyscalculia (DD) from a cognitive psychological perspective. Utilizing four children (8-9 year-old) we administered a comprehensive cognitive test battery that shed light on the cognitive-behavioral profile of each child. The children were compared against norm groups of aged-matched peers. Performance was then contrasted against predominant hypotheses of DD, which would also give insight into candidate neurocognitive correlates. Despite showing similar mathematical deficits, these children showed remarkable interindividual variability regarding cognitive profile and deficits. Two cases were consistent with the approximate number system deficit account and also the general magnitude-processing deficit account. These cases showed indications of having domain-general deficits as well. One case had an access deficit in combination with a general cognitive deficit. One case suffered from general cognitive deficits only. The results showed that DD cannot be attributed to a single explanatory factor. These findings support a multiple deficits account of DD and suggest that some cases have multiple deficits, whereas other cases have a single deficit. We discuss a previously proposed distinction between primary DD and secondary DD, and suggest hypotheses of dysfunctional neurocognitive correlates responsible for the displayed deficits.

  3. Dyslexia and Dyscalculia: Two Learning Disorders with Different Cognitive Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landerl, Karin; Fussenegger, Barbara; Moll, Kristina; Willburger, Edith

    2009-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that dyslexia and dyscalculia are associated with two largely independent cognitive deficits, namely a phonological deficit in the case of dyslexia and a deficit in the number module in the case of dyscalculia. In four groups of 8- to 10-year-olds (42 control, 21 dyslexic, 20 dyscalculic, and 26…

  4. Double Dissociation of Functions in Developmental Dyslexia and Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly; Henik, Avishai

    2006-01-01

    This work examines the association between symbols and their representation in adult developmental dyscalculia and dyslexia. Experiment 1 used comparative judgment of numerals, and it was found that in physical comparisons (e.g., 3-5 vs. 3-5) the dyscalculia group showed a significantly smaller congruity effect than did the dyslexia and the…

  5. The Added Value of Eye-tracking in Diagnosing Dyscalculia: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sietske eVan Viersen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared eye movements and performance of a nine-year-old girl with Developmental Dyscalculia (DD on a series of number line tasks to those of a group of typically developing (TD children (n = 10, in order to answer the question whether eye-tracking data from number line estimation tasks can be a useful tool to discriminate between TD children and children with a number processing deficit. Quantitative results indicated that the child with dyscalculia performed worse on all symbolic number line tasks compared to the control group, indicated by a low linear fit (R2 and a low accuracy measured by mean percent absolute error. In contrast to the control group, her magnitude representations seemed to be better represented by a logarithmic than a linear fit. Furthermore, qualitative analyses on the data of the child with dyscalculia revealed more unidentifiable fixation patterns in the processing of multi-digit numbers and more dysfunctional estimation strategy use in one third of the estimation trials as opposed to approximately 10% in the control group. In line with her dyscalculia diagnosis, these results confirm the difficulties with spatially representing and manipulating numerosities on a number line, resulting in inflexible and inadequate estimation or processing strategies. It can be concluded from this case study that eye-tracking data can be used to discern different number processing and estimation strategies in TD children and children with a number processing deficit. Hence, eye-tracking data in combination with number line estimation tasks might be a valuable and promising addition to current diagnostic measures.

  6. The added value of eye-tracking in diagnosing dyscalculia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Viersen, Sietske; Slot, Esther M; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Van't Noordende, Jaccoline E; Leseman, Paul P M

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared eye movements and performance of a 9-year-old girl with Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) on a series of number line tasks to those of a group of typically developing (TD) children (n = 10), in order to answer the question whether eye-tracking data from number line estimation tasks can be a useful tool to discriminate between TD children and children with a number processing deficit. Quantitative results indicated that the child with dyscalculia performed worse on all symbolic number line tasks compared to the control group, indicated by a low linear fit (R (2)) and a low accuracy measured by mean percent absolute error. In contrast to the control group, her magnitude representations seemed to be better represented by a logarithmic than a linear fit. Furthermore, qualitative analyses on the data of the child with dyscalculia revealed more unidentifiable fixation patterns in the processing of multi-digit numbers and more dysfunctional estimation strategy use in one third of the estimation trials as opposed to ~10% in the control group. In line with her dyscalculia diagnosis, these results confirm the difficulties with spatially representing and manipulating numerosities on a number line, resulting in inflexible and inadequate estimation or processing strategies. It can be concluded from this case study that eye-tracking data can be used to discern different number processing and estimation strategies in TD children and children with a number processing deficit. Hence, eye-tracking data in combination with number line estimation tasks might be a valuable and promising addition to current diagnostic measures.

  7. Identifying Dyscalculia Symptoms Related to Magnocellular Reasoning Using Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Greger Siem; Babic, Ankica

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study that has developed a mobile software application for assisting diagnosis of learning disabilities in mathematics, called dyscalculia, and measuring correlations between dyscalculia symptoms and magnocellular reasoning. Usually, software aids for dyscalculic individuals are focused on both assisting diagnosis and teaching the material. The software developed in this study however maintains a specific focus on the former, and in the process attempts to capture alleged correlations between dyscalculia symptoms and possible underlying causes of the condition. Classification of symptoms is performed by k-Nearest Neighbor algorithm classifying five parameters evaluating user's skills, returning calculated performance in each category as well as correlation strength between detected symptoms and magnocellular reasoning abilities. Expert evaluations has found the application to be appropriate and productive for its intended purpose, proving that mobile software is a suitable and valuable tool for assisting dyscalculia diagnosis and identifying root causes of developing the condition.

  8. Developmental dyscalculia is related to visuo-spatial memory and inhibition impairment ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Szucs, Denes; Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Gabriel, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is thought to be a specific impairment of mathematics ability. Currently dominant cognitive neuroscience theories of developmental dyscalculia suggest that it originates from the impairment of the magnitude representation of the human brain, residing in the intraparietal sulcus, or from impaired connections between number symbols and the magnitude representation. However, behavioral research offers several alternative theories for developmental dyscalculia and neuro-...

  9. The "where" and "what" in developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henik, Avishai; Rubinsten, Orly; Ashkenazi, Sarit

    2011-08-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a congenital deficit that affects the ability to acquire arithmetical skills. Individuals with DD have problems learning standard number facts and procedures. Estimates of the prevalence rate of DD are similar to those of developmental dyslexia. Recent reports and discussions suggest that those with DD suffer from specific deficits (e.g., subitizing, comparative judgment). Accordingly, DD has been described as a domain-specific disorder that involves particular brain areas (e.g., intra-parietal sulcus). However, we and others have found that DD is characterized by additional deficiencies and may be affected by domain-general (e.g., attention) factors. Hence "pure DD" might be rather rare and not as pure as one would think. We suggest that the heterogeneity of symptoms that commonly characterize learning disabilities needs to be taken into account in future research and treatment.

  10. Foundational numerical capacities and the origins of dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Brian

    2010-12-01

    One important cause of very low attainment in arithmetic (dyscalculia) seems to be a core deficit in an inherited foundational capacity for numbers. According to one set of hypotheses, arithmetic ability is built on an inherited system responsible for representing approximate numerosity. One account holds that this is supported by a system for representing exactly a small number (less than or equal to four4) of individual objects. In these approaches, the core deficit in dyscalculia lies in either of these systems. An alternative proposal holds that the deficit lies in an inherited system for sets of objects and operations on them (numerosity coding) on which arithmetic is built. I argue that a deficit in numerosity coding, not in the approximate number system or the small number system, is responsible for dyscalculia. Nevertheless, critical tests should involve both longitudinal studies and intervention, and these have yet to be carried out.

  11. Mathematics anxiety in children with developmental dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tannock Rosemary

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Math anxiety, defined as a negative affective response to mathematics, is known to have deleterious effects on math performance in the general population. However, the assumption that math anxiety is directly related to math performance, has not yet been validated. Thus, our primary objective was to investigate the effects of math anxiety on numerical processing in children with specific deficits in the acquisition of math skills (Developmental Dyscalculia; DD by using a novel affective priming task as an indirect measure. Methods Participants (12 children with DD and 11 typically-developing peers completed a novel priming task in which an arithmetic equation was preceded by one of four types of priming words (positive, neutral, negative or related to mathematics. Children were required to indicate whether the equation (simple math facts based on addition, subtraction, multiplication or division was true or false. Typically, people respond to target stimuli more quickly after presentation of an affectively-related prime than after one that is unrelated affectively. Result Participants with DD responded faster to targets that were preceded by both negative primes and math-related primes. A reversed pattern was present in the control group. Conclusion These results reveal a direct link between emotions, arithmetic and low achievement in math. It is also suggested that arithmetic-affective priming might be used as an indirect measure of math anxiety.

  12. An open trial assessment of "The Number Race", an adaptive computer game for remediation of dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Laurent

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a companion article 1, we described the development and evaluation of software designed to remediate dyscalculia. This software is based on the hypothesis that dyscalculia is due to a "core deficit" in number sense or in its access via symbolic information. Here we review the evidence for this hypothesis, and present results from an initial open-trial test of the software in a sample of nine 7–9 year old children with mathematical difficulties. Methods Children completed adaptive training on numerical comparison for half an hour a day, four days a week over a period of five-weeks. They were tested before and after intervention on their performance in core numerical tasks: counting, transcoding, base-10 comprehension, enumeration, addition, subtraction, and symbolic and non-symbolic numerical comparison. Results Children showed specific increases in performance on core number sense tasks. Speed of subitizing and numerical comparison increased by several hundred msec. Subtraction accuracy increased by an average of 23%. Performance on addition and base-10 comprehension tasks did not improve over the period of the study. Conclusion Initial open-trial testing showed promising results, and suggested that the software was successful in increasing number sense over the short period of the study. However these results need to be followed up with larger, controlled studies. The issues of transfer to higher-level tasks, and of the best developmental time window for intervention also need to be addressed.

  13. Numerical Estimation in Adults with and without Developmental Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias, Sandrine; Gregoire, Jacques; Noel, Marie-Pascale

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that developmental dyscalculia (DD) is either due to a defect of the approximate number system (ANS) or to an impaired access between that system and symbolic numbers. Several studies have tested these two hypotheses in children with DD but none has dealt with adults who had experienced DD as children. This study aimed to…

  14. Computer Based Screening Dyscalculia: Cognitive and Neuropsychological Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangoz, Banu; Altun, Arif; Olkun, Sinan; Kacar, Funda

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical skills are becoming increasingly critical for achieving academic and professional success. Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a childhood-onset disorder characterized by the presence of abnormalities in the acquisition of arithmetic skills affecting approximately 5% of school age children. Diagnosing students with possible dyscalculia…

  15. Findings of Studies on Dyscalculia--A Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, B. William Dharma; Kumar, S. Praveen

    2012-01-01

    Children with learning disabilities face problems in acquiring the basic skills needed for learning. Dyscalculia is one among those learning disorders which affects the ability to acquire arithmetic skills that are needed to perform mathematical calculations. However this is a learning difficulty which is often not recognized. The objectives of…

  16. Neural Correlates of Symbolic Number Comparison in Developmental Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussolin, Christophe; De Volder, Anne; Grandin, Cecile; Schlogel, Xavier; Nassogne, Marie-Cecile; Noel, Marie-Pascale

    2010-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a deficit in number processing and arithmetic that affects 3-6% of schoolchildren. The goal of the present study was to analyze cerebral bases of DD related to symbolic number processing. Children with DD aged 9-11 years and matched children with no learning disability history were investigated using fMRI. The two…

  17. Gender Differences in Developmental Dyscalculia Depend on Diagnostic Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Goswami, Usha; Szucs, Denes

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a learning difficulty specific to mathematics learning. The prevalence of DD may be equivalent to that of dyslexia, posing an important challenge for effective educational provision. Nevertheless, there is no agreed definition of DD and there are controversies surrounding cutoff decisions, specificity and gender…

  18. Developmental Dyscalculia and Low Numeracy in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Winnie Wai Lan; Au, Terry K.; Tang, Joey

    2013-01-01

    Children struggle with mathematics for different reasons. Developmental dyscalculia and low numeracy--two kinds of mathematical difficulties--may have their roots, respectively, in poor understanding of exact non-symbolic numerosities and of symbolic numerals. This study was the first to explore whether Chinese children, despite cultural and…

  19. Dyscalculia Defined. NetNews. Volume 5, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    LDA of Minnesota, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this issue of "NetNews" is dyscalculia, or math disability. Most of the attention over the years has been on reading and writing difficulties, thus leading to the belief that math difficulties are not very common or serious. However, it has been estimated that about 6% of school-age children experience significant math difficulties.…

  20. Emotional and Behavioral Characteristics over a Six-Year Period in Youths with Persistent and Nonpersistent Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Judith G.; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Manor, Orly; Shalev, Ruth S.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined behavior problems in a matched sample of 58 youths with persistent dyscalculia (PD) and nonpersistent dyscalculia (NPD). Participants were classified as having dyscalculia at age 10-11 years. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist for their children at ages 10-11, 13-14, and 16-17 years, while the youths did so at the…

  1. Developmental dyscalculia is related to visuo-spatial memory and inhibition impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Denes; Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Gabriel, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is thought to be a specific impairment of mathematics ability. Currently dominant cognitive neuroscience theories of developmental dyscalculia suggest that it originates from the impairment of the magnitude representation of the human brain, residing in the intraparietal sulcus, or from impaired connections between number symbols and the magnitude representation. However, behavioral research offers several alternative theories for developmental dyscalculia and neuro-imaging also suggests that impairments in developmental dyscalculia may be linked to disruptions of other functions of the intraparietal sulcus than the magnitude representation. Strikingly, the magnitude representation theory has never been explicitly contrasted with a range of alternatives in a systematic fashion. Here we have filled this gap by directly contrasting five alternative theories (magnitude representation, working memory, inhibition, attention and spatial processing) of developmental dyscalculia in 9-10-year-old primary school children. Participants were selected from a pool of 1004 children and took part in 16 tests and nine experiments. The dominant features of developmental dyscalculia are visuo-spatial working memory, visuo-spatial short-term memory and inhibitory function (interference suppression) impairment. We hypothesize that inhibition impairment is related to the disruption of central executive memory function. Potential problems of visuo-spatial processing and attentional function in developmental dyscalculia probably depend on short-term memory/working memory and inhibition impairments. The magnitude representation theory of developmental dyscalculia was not supported.

  2. Developmental Dyscalculia and Basic Numerical Capacities: A Study of 8--9-Year-Old Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landerl, Karin; Bevan, Anna; Butterworth, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-one 8- and 9-year-old children selected for dyscalculia, reading difficulties or both, were compared to controls on a range of basic number processing tasks. Children with dyscalculia only had impaired performance on the tasks despite high-average performance on tests of IQ, vocabulary and working memory tasks. Children with reading…

  3. Symbolic and Nonsymbolic Number Comparison in Children with and without Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussolin, Christophe; Mejias, Sandrine; Noel, Marie-Pascale

    2010-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a pervasive difficulty affecting number processing and arithmetic. It is encountered in around 6% of school-aged children. While previous studies have mainly focused on general cognitive functions, the present paper aims to further investigate the hypothesis of a specific numerical deficit in dyscalculia. The…

  4. Dyscalculia and Access Arrangements for Exams and Assessments. NIACE Briefing Sheet 87

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Adult Continuing Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Dyscalculia is considered to be a learning difficulty or difference. It is increasingly being recognised and "diagnosed" within adult learning. However, practitioners are often unclear about whether learners who are considered to have dyscalculia are entitled to access arrangements for examinations and assessments, and which access…

  5. Developmental dyscalculia and low numeracy in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Winnie Wai Lan; Au, Terry K; Tang, Joey

    2013-05-01

    Children struggle with mathematics for different reasons. Developmental dyscalculia and low numeracy - two kinds of mathematical difficulties - may have their roots, respectively, in poor understanding of exact non-symbolic numerosities and of symbolic numerals. This study was the first to explore whether Chinese children, despite cultural and linguistic factors supporting their mathematical learning, also showed such mathematical difficulties and whether such difficulties have measurable impact on children's early school mathematical performance. First-graders, classified as dyscalculia, low numeracy, or normal achievement, were compared for their performance in various school mathematical tasks requiring a grasp of non-symbolic numerosities (i.e., non-symbolic tasks) or an understanding of symbolic numerals (i.e., symbolic tasks). Children with dyscalculia showed poorer performance than their peers in non-symbolic tasks but not symbolic ones, whereas those with low numeracy showed poorer performance in symbolic tasks but not non-symbolic ones. As hypothesized, these findings suggested that dyscalculia and low numeracy were distinct deficits and caused by deficits in non-symbolic and symbolic processing, respectively. These findings went beyond prior research that only documented generally low mathematical achievements for these two groups of children. Moreover, these deficits appeared to be persistent and could not be remedied simply through day-to-day school mathematical learning. The present findings highlighted the importance of tailoring early learning support for children with these distinct deficits, and pointed to future directions for the screening of such mathematical difficulties among Chinese children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stealth Assessment in ITS - A Study for Developmental Dyscalculia

    OpenAIRE

    Klingler, Severin; Käser, Tanja; Busetto, Alberto Giovanni; Solenthaler, Barbara; Kohn, Juliane; von Aster, Michael; Gross, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent tutoring systems are adapting the curriculum to the needs of the student. The integration of stealth assessments of student traits into tutoring systems, i.e. the automatic detection of student characteristics has the potential to re?ne this adaptation. We present a pipeline for integrating automatic assessment seamlessly into a tutoring system and apply the method to the case of developmental dyscalculia (DD). The proposed classi?er is based on user inputs only, allowing non-intr...

  7. Meta analysis a guide to calibrating and combining statistical evidence

    CERN Document Server

    Kulinskaya, Elena; Staudte, Robert G

    2008-01-01

    Meta Analysis: A Guide to Calibrating and Combining Statistical Evidence acts as a source of basic methods for scientists wanting to combine evidence from different experiments. The authors aim to promote a deeper understanding of the notion of statistical evidence.The book is comprised of two parts - The Handbook, and The Theory. The Handbook is a guide for combining and interpreting experimental evidence to solve standard statistical problems. This section allows someone with a rudimentary knowledge in general statistics to apply the methods. The Theory provides the motivation, theory and results of simulation experiments to justify the methodology.This is a coherent introduction to the statistical concepts required to understand the authors' thesis that evidence in a test statistic can often be calibrated when transformed to the right scale.

  8. Digital memory encoding in Chinese dyscalculia: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Enguo; Qin, Shutao; Chang, MengYan; Zhu, Xiangru

    2014-10-22

    This study reports the neurophysiological and behavioral correlates of digital memory encoding features in Chinese individuals with and without dyscalculia. Eighteen children with dyscalculia (ages 11.5-13.5) and 18 matched controls were tested, and their event-related potentials (ERPs) were digitally recorded simultaneously with behavioral measures. The results showed that both groups had a significant Dm effect, and this effect was greater in the control group. In the 300-400-ms, 400-500-ms, and 600-700-ms processing stages, both groups showed significant differences of digital memory encoding in the frontal, central, and parietal regions. In the 500-600-ms period, the Dm effect in the control group was significantly greater than that in the dyscalculia group only in the parietal region. These results suggest that individuals with dyscalculia exhibit impaired digital memory encoding and deficits in psychological resource allocation.

  9. Evidence Combination From an Evolutionary Game Theory Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinyang; Han, Deqiang; Dezert, Jean; Deng, Yong; Shyr, Yu

    2016-09-01

    Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is a primary methodology for multisource information fusion because it is good at dealing with uncertain information. This theory provides a Dempster's rule of combination to synthesize multiple evidences from various information sources. However, in some cases, counter-intuitive results may be obtained based on that combination rule. Numerous new or improved methods have been proposed to suppress these counter-intuitive results based on perspectives, such as minimizing the information loss or deviation. Inspired by evolutionary game theory, this paper considers a biological and evolutionary perspective to study the combination of evidences. An evolutionary combination rule (ECR) is proposed to help find the most biologically supported proposition in a multievidence system. Within the proposed ECR, we develop a Jaccard matrix game to formalize the interaction between propositions in evidences, and utilize the replicator dynamics to mimick the evolution of propositions. Experimental results show that the proposed ECR can effectively suppress the counter-intuitive behaviors appeared in typical paradoxes of evidence theory, compared with many existing methods. Properties of the ECR, such as solution's stability and convergence, have been mathematically proved as well.

  10. Combination antifungal therapy: a critical review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, L

    2008-05-01

    Invasive fungal infections have extremely high rates of morbidity and mortality, particularly in immunocompromised hosts. Combination antifungal therapy is conceptually attractive as a life-saving measure. However, in-vitro and in-vivo evidence is often conflicting and clinical trials in this area are limited. Most clinical studies show similar outcomes for combination antifungal therapy when compared to monotherapy, although secondary endpoints and sub-analyses often show advantages for the combinations in endpoints such as culture sterilisation. The logistics of large clinical trials of combination therapy are highly complex. Combination of antifungals with immune modulators is an exciting new research area. Until more data are available, clinicians should approach combination antifungal therapy with caution.

  11. Evidence for Early Morphological Decomposition: Combining Masked Priming with Magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Minna; Monahan, Philip J.; Poeppel, David

    2011-01-01

    Are words stored as morphologically structured representations? If so, when during word recognition are morphological pieces accessed? Recent masked priming studies support models that assume early decomposition of (potentially) morphologically complex words. The electrophysiological evidence, however, is inconsistent. We combined masked…

  12. Neurocognitive accounts of developmental dyscalculia and its remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuculano, T

    2016-01-01

    Numbers are one of the most pervasive stimulus categories in our environment and an integral foundation of modern society. Yet, up to 20% of individuals fail to understand, represent, and manipulate numbers and form the basis of arithmetic, a condition termed developmental dyscalculia (DD). Multiple cognitive and neural systems including those that serve numerical, mnemonic, visuospatial, and cognitive control functions have independently been implicated in the etiology of DD, yet most studies have not taken a comprehensive or dynamic view of the disorder. This chapter supports the view of DD as a multifaceted neurodevelopmental disorder that is the result of multiple aberrancies at one or multiple levels of the information processing hierarchy, which supports successful arithmetic learning, and suggests that interventions should target all these systems to achieve successful outcomes, at the behavioral and neural levels.

  13. The prevalence of developmental dyscalculia in Brazilian public school system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, José Alexandre; Cecato, Angela Maria Traldi; Martins, Marielza Regina Ismael; Grecca, Kelly Regina Risso; Pierini, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    The goal of the study was to assess public school children at the end of the first stage of elementary school. We used a protocol applied concurrently with a writing test in the form of an unexpected activity in 28 public schools; 2,893 children assessed, 687 exhibited performance below 58 points, 184 were excluded due to change of address or lack of consent; 503 children subjected to a test of intellectual capacity and reading assessment and 71 considered intellectually disabled were excluded. 226 (7.8%) children, who could read, write, and had normal intellectual level, met the criteria of developmental dyscalculia (DD), 98 female and 128 male. The most influential factors in the prevalence were socioeconomic levels of the schools neighborhood, education level of parents, and being male, as demonstrated by the odds ratio and multiple logistic regression analysis. Further studies should be done so that educational policies are taken.

  14. The prevalence of developmental dyscalculia in Brazilian public school system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre Bastos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The goal of the study was to assess public school children at the end of the first stage of elementary school. We used a protocol applied concurrently with a writing test in the form of an unexpected activity in 28 public schools; 2,893 children assessed, 687 exhibited performance below 58 points, 184 were excluded due to change of address or lack of consent; 503 children subjected to a test of intellectual capacity and reading assessment and 71 considered intellectually disabled were excluded. 226 (7.8% children, who could read, write, and had normal intellectual level, met the criteria of developmental dyscalculia (DD, 98 female and 128 male. The most influential factors in the prevalence were socioeconomic levels of the schools neighborhood, education level of parents, and being male, as demonstrated by the odds ratio and multiple logistic regression analysis. Further studies should be done so that educational policies are taken.

  15. Impact of Instructional Resources on Mathematics Performance of Learners with Dyscalculia in Integrated Primary Schools, Arusha City, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusta, Nyudule; Karugu, Geoffrey; Muthee, Jessica; Tekle, Tesfu

    2016-01-01

    Learners with dyscalculia in the integrated primary schools in Arusha have been performing poorly in the Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE). Thus, the journal sought to investigate the impact of instructional resources on mathematics performance of learners with dyscalculia in integrated primary schools found in Arusha city, Tanzania. The…

  16. Relationships between number and space processing in adults with and without dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussolin, Christophe; Martin, Romain; Schiltz, Christine

    2011-09-01

    A large body of evidence indicates clear relationships between number and space processing in healthy and brain-damaged adults, as well as in children. The present paper addressed this issue regarding atypical math development. Adults with a diagnosis of dyscalculia (DYS) during childhood were compared to adults with average or high abilities in mathematics across two bisection tasks. Participants were presented with Arabic number triplets and had to judge either the number magnitude or the spatial location of the middle number relative to the two outer numbers. For the numerical judgment, adults with DYS were slower than both groups of control peers. They were also more strongly affected by the factors related to number magnitude such as the range of the triplets or the distance between the middle number and the real arithmetical mean. By contrast, adults with DYS were as accurate and fast as adults who never experienced math disability when they had to make a spatial judgment. Moreover, number-space congruency affected performance similarly in the three experimental groups. These findings support the hypothesis of a deficit of number magnitude representation in DYS with a relative preservation of some spatial mechanisms in DYS. Results are discussed in terms of direct and indirect number-space interactions.

  17. Nature and origins of mathematics difficulties in very preterm children: a different etiology than developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Victoria; Gilmore, Camilla; Cragg, Lucy; Clayton, Sarah; Marlow, Neil; Johnson, Samantha

    2015-02-01

    Children born very preterm (mathematics learning difficulties that are out of proportion to other academic and cognitive deficits. However, the etiology of mathematics difficulties in very preterm children is unknown. We sought to identify the nature and origins of preterm children's mathematics difficulties. One hundred and fifteen very preterm children aged 8-10 y were assessed in school with a control group of 77 term-born classmates. Achievement in mathematics, working memory, visuospatial processing, inhibition, and processing speed were assessed using standardized tests. Numerical representations and specific mathematics skills were assessed using experimental tests. Very preterm children had significantly poorer mathematics achievement, working memory, and visuospatial skills than term-born controls. Although preterm children had poorer performance in specific mathematics skills, there was no evidence of imprecise numerical representations. Difficulties in mathematics were associated with deficits in visuospatial processing and working memory. Mathematics difficulties in very preterm children are associated with deficits in working memory and visuospatial processing not numerical representations. Thus, very preterm children's mathematics difficulties are different in nature from those of children with developmental dyscalculia. Interventions targeting general cognitive problems, rather than numerical representations, may improve very preterm children's mathematics achievement.

  18. The Mental Number Line in Dyscalculia: Impaired Number Sense or Access From Symbolic Numbers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafay, Anne; St-Pierre, Marie-Catherine; Macoir, Joël

    2016-03-25

    Numbers may be manipulated and represented mentally over a compressible number line oriented from left to right. According to numerous studies, one of the primary reasons for dyscalculia is related to improper understanding of the mental number line. Children with dyscalculia usually show difficulty when they have to place Arabic numbers on a physical number line. However, it remains unclear whether they have a deficit with the mental number line per se or a deficit with accessing it from nonsymbolic and/or symbolic numbers. Quebec French-speaking 8- to 9-year-old children with (24) and without (37) dyscalculia were assessed with transcoding tasks (number-to-positionandposition-to-number) designed to assess the acuity of the mental number line with Arabic and spoken numbers as well as with analogic numerosities. Results showed that children with dyscalculia produced a larger percentage absolute error than children without mathematics difficulties in every task except the number-to-position transcoding task with analogic numerosities. Hence, these results suggested that children with dyscalculia do not have a general deficit of the mental number line but rather a deficit with accessing it from symbolic numbers.

  19. Old/New Effect of Digital Memory Retrieval in Chinese Dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Enguo; Du, Chenguang; Ma, Yujun

    This study reports the neurophysiological and behavioral correlates of digital memory retrieval features in Chinese individuals with and without dyscalculia. A total of 18 children with dyscalculia (ages 11.5-13.5) and 18 controls were tested, and their event-related potentials were digitally recorded simultaneously with behavior measurement. Behavioral data showed that the dyscalculia group had lower hit rates and higher false rates than the control group. The electroencephalography results showed that both groups had a significant old/new effect and that this effect was greater in the control group. In the 300 to 400 ms processing stages, both groups showed significant differences in digital memory retrieval in the frontal regions. In the 400 to 500 and 500 to 600 ms epochs, the old/new effect in the control group was significantly greater than it was in the dyscalculia group at the frontal, central, and parietal regions. In the 600 to 700 ms processing stages, both groups showed significant differences in digital memory retrieval in the frontal, central, parietal, and occipital regions. These results suggest that individuals with dyscalculia exhibit impaired digital memory retrieval. Extraction failure may be an important cause of calculation difficulties.

  20. Combination of evidence in recommendation systems characterized by distance functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, L. M. (Luis Mateus)

    2002-01-01

    Recommendation systems for different Document Networks (DN) such as the World Wide Web (WWW), Digitnl Libarries, or Scientific Databases, often make use of distance functions extracted from relationships among documents and between documents and semantic tags. For instance, documents In the WWW are related via a hyperlink network, while documents in bibliographic databases are related by citation and collaboration networks.Furthermore, documents can be related to semantic tags such as keywords used to describe their content, The distance functions computed from these relations establish associative networks among items of the DN, and allow recommendation systems to identify relevant associations for iudividoal users. The process of recommendation can be improved by integrating associative data from different sources. Thus we are presented with a problem of combining evidence (about assochaons between items) from different sonrces characterized by distance functions. In this paper we summarize our work on (1) inferring associations from semi-metric distance functions and (2) combining evidence from different (distance) associative DN.

  1. Combined evidence annotation of transposable elements in genome sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Quesneville

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Transposable elements (TEs are mobile, repetitive sequences that make up significant fractions of metazoan genomes. Despite their near ubiquity and importance in genome and chromosome biology, most efforts to annotate TEs in genome sequences rely on the results of a single computational program, RepeatMasker. In contrast, recent advances in gene annotation indicate that high-quality gene models can be produced from combining multiple independent sources of computational evidence. To elevate the quality of TE annotations to a level comparable to that of gene models, we have developed a combined evidence-model TE annotation pipeline, analogous to systems used for gene annotation, by integrating results from multiple homology-based and de novo TE identification methods. As proof of principle, we have annotated "TE models" in Drosophila melanogaster Release 4 genomic sequences using the combined computational evidence derived from RepeatMasker, BLASTER, TBLASTX, all-by-all BLASTN, RECON, TE-HMM and the previous Release 3.1 annotation. Our system is designed for use with the Apollo genome annotation tool, allowing automatic results to be curated manually to produce reliable annotations. The euchromatic TE fraction of D. melanogaster is now estimated at 5.3% (cf. 3.86% in Release 3.1, and we found a substantially higher number of TEs (n = 6,013 than previously identified (n = 1,572. Most of the new TEs derive from small fragments of a few hundred nucleotides long and highly abundant families not previously annotated (e.g., INE-1. We also estimated that 518 TE copies (8.6% are inserted into at least one other TE, forming a nest of elements. The pipeline allows rapid and thorough annotation of even the most complex TE models, including highly deleted and/or nested elements such as those often found in heterochromatic sequences. Our pipeline can be easily adapted to other genome sequences, such as those of the D. melanogaster heterochromatin or other

  2. Processing ordinality and quantity: the case of developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly; Sury, Dana

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to quantity processing, up to date, the nature of ordinality has received little attention from researchers despite the fact that both quantity and ordinality are embodied in numerical information. Here we ask if there are two separate core systems that lie at the foundations of numerical cognition: (1) the traditionally and well accepted numerical magnitude system but also (2) core system for representing ordinal information. We report two novel experiments of ordinal processing that explored the relation between ordinal and numerical information processing in typically developing adults and adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD). Participants made "ordered" or "non-ordered" judgments about 3 groups of dots (non-symbolic numerical stimuli; in Experiment 1) and 3 numbers (symbolic task: Experiment 2). In contrast to previous findings and arguments about quantity deficit in DD participants, when quantity and ordinality are dissociated (as in the current tasks), DD participants exhibited a normal ratio effect in the non-symbolic ordinal task. They did not show, however, the ordinality effect. Ordinality effect in DD appeared only when area and density were randomized, but only in the descending direction. In the symbolic task, the ordinality effect was modulated by ratio and direction in both groups. These findings suggest that there might be two separate cognitive representations of ordinal and quantity information and that linguistic knowledge may facilitate estimation of ordinal information.

  3. Do subitizing deficits in developmental dyscalculia involve pattern recognition weakness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Sarit; Mark-Zigdon, Nitza; Henik, Avishai

    2013-01-01

    The abilities of children diagnosed with developmental dyscalculia (DD) were examined in two types of object enumeration: subitizing, and small estimation (5-9 dots). Subitizing is usually defined as a fast and accurate assessment of a number of small dots (range 1 to 4 dots), and estimation is an imprecise process to assess a large number of items (range 5 dots or more). Based on reaction time (RT) and accuracy analysis, our results indicated a deficit in the subitizing and small estimation range among DD participants in relation to controls. There are indications that subitizing is based on pattern recognition, thus presenting dots in a canonical shape in the estimation range should result in a subitizing-like pattern. In line with this theory, our control group presented a subitizing-like pattern in the small estimation range for canonically arranged dots, whereas the DD participants presented a deficit in the estimation of canonically arranged dots. The present finding indicates that pattern recognition difficulties may play a significant role in both subitizing and subitizing deficits among those with DD.

  4. Processing ordinality and quantity: the case of developmental dyscalculia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly Rubinsten

    Full Text Available In contrast to quantity processing, up to date, the nature of ordinality has received little attention from researchers despite the fact that both quantity and ordinality are embodied in numerical information. Here we ask if there are two separate core systems that lie at the foundations of numerical cognition: (1 the traditionally and well accepted numerical magnitude system but also (2 core system for representing ordinal information. We report two novel experiments of ordinal processing that explored the relation between ordinal and numerical information processing in typically developing adults and adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD. Participants made "ordered" or "non-ordered" judgments about 3 groups of dots (non-symbolic numerical stimuli; in Experiment 1 and 3 numbers (symbolic task: Experiment 2. In contrast to previous findings and arguments about quantity deficit in DD participants, when quantity and ordinality are dissociated (as in the current tasks, DD participants exhibited a normal ratio effect in the non-symbolic ordinal task. They did not show, however, the ordinality effect. Ordinality effect in DD appeared only when area and density were randomized, but only in the descending direction. In the symbolic task, the ordinality effect was modulated by ratio and direction in both groups. These findings suggest that there might be two separate cognitive representations of ordinal and quantity information and that linguistic knowledge may facilitate estimation of ordinal information.

  5. Memory abilities in children with subtypes of dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, Mónica; Matute, Esmeralda; Pinto, Noemí; Ardila, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    This study examines (a) mathematical skills of 2 subgroups of children with developmental dyscalculia (DD)--1 group with DD only and a second group with DD plus reading disorders (RDD)-and (b) analyzes the memory skills of both groups of children. Fifty 11- and 12-year-old children were selected from public schools in Guadalajara, Mexico. Seventeen children had DD only, 13 had RDD, and 20 were normal controls. Testing included 10 calculation and 6 memory subtests taken from the Evaluación Neuropsicológica Infantil (Matute, Rosselli, Ardila, and Ostrosky, in press). Results indicated that children with DD and children with RDD show a similar pattern of mathematical impairment. Both subgroups had significantly lower scores than the control group in working memory tasks. In addition, the RDD group had significantly lower scores than the control group in visual learning and semantic memory. Although the RDD group scored lower than the DD group in most memory tests, this difference did not reach significance. Working memory tests (digits backwards and sentence repetition) appeared to be the best predictors of mathematical test scores and may represent a major cognitive defect in children with specific defects in mathematics.

  6. Co-Occurrence of Developmental Disorders: The Case of Developmental Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly

    2009-01-01

    Five to seven percent of children experience severe difficulties in learning mathematics and/or reading. Current trials that are focused on identifying biological markers suggest that these learning disabilities, known as Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) and Dyslexia (for reading), are due to underlying brain dysfunctions. One ongoing controversy…

  7. Developmental Trajectory of Number Acuity Reveals a Severe Impairment in Developmental Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Manuela; Facoetti, Andrea; Trussardi, Anna Noemi; Berteletti, Ilaria; Conte, Stefano; Lucangeli, Daniela; Dehaene, Stanisalas; Zorzi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is a learning disability that affects the acquisition of knowledge about numbers and arithmetic. It is widely assumed that numeracy is rooted on the "number sense", a core ability to grasp numerical quantities that humans share with other animals and deploy spontaneously at birth. To probe the links between number sense…

  8. Number Processing and Heterogeneity of Developmental Dyscalculia: Subtypes with Different Cognitive Profiles and Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagerlund, Kenny; Träff, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated if developmental dyscalculia (DD) in children with different profiles of mathematical deficits has the same or different cognitive origins. The defective approximate number system hypothesis and the access deficit hypothesis were tested using two different groups of children with DD (11-13 years old): a group with…

  9. Dysfunctional Neural Network of Spatial Working Memory Contributes to Developmental Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotzer, S.; Loenneker, T.; Kucian, K.; Martin, E.; Klaver, P.; von Aster, M.

    2009-01-01

    The underlying neural mechanisms of developmental dyscalculia (DD) are still far from being clearly understood. Even the behavioral processes that generate or influence this heterogeneous disorder are a matter of controversy. To date, the few studies examining functional brain activation in children with DD mainly focus on number and counting…

  10. Are dyslexia and dyscalculia associated with Rolandic epilepsy? A short report on ten Italian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavese, Carlotta; Rigardetto, Roberto; Viano, Vilma; Vittorini, Roberta; Bassi, Bianca; Pieri, Ilaria; Capizzi, Giorgio

    2007-12-01

    Rolandic epilepsy (RE) is the most common childhood epilepsy syndrome with a good, long-term outcome. Nevertheless, some studies indicate that children with RE have more scholastic and neuropsychological problems than controls. The purpose of this study was to describe neuropsychological findings in a small group of Italian children with RE, focusing on dyslexia and dyscalculia. Possible correlations between these findings and the age-at-onset of seizures, duration of active epilepsy, frequency, type and localization of epileptic discharges were examined. Children affected by RE, aged nine to eleven years were selected from patients admitted to the outpatient service of our Clinic. They underwent cognitive evaluation, specific evaluation for dyslexia and dyscalculia, and awake and sleep EEG recordings. We found two patients out of the ten with dyscalculia, one of whom also had characteristics of dyslexia. This small study suggests that dyscalculia and dyslexia might be more frequent than expected in children with RE. No significant correlations between this finding and EEG, seizure-frequency or age-at-onset of epilepsy were found in our patients.

  11. Probing the Nature of Deficits in the "Approximate Number System" in Children with Persistent Developmental Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugden, Stephanie; Ansari, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we examined whether children with Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) exhibit a deficit in the so-called "Approximate Number System" (ANS). To do so, we examined a group of elementary school children who demonstrated persistent low math achievement over 4 years and compared them to typically developing (TD), aged-matched…

  12. Impaired Acuity of the Approximate Number System Underlies Mathematical Learning Disability (Dyscalculia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Many children have significant mathematical learning disabilities (MLD, or dyscalculia) despite adequate schooling. The current study hypothesizes that MLD partly results from a deficiency in the Approximate Number System (ANS) that supports nonverbal numerical representations across species and throughout development. In this study of 71 ninth…

  13. Co-Occurrence of Developmental Disorders: The Case of Developmental Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly

    2009-01-01

    Five to seven percent of children experience severe difficulties in learning mathematics and/or reading. Current trials that are focused on identifying biological markers suggest that these learning disabilities, known as Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) and Dyslexia (for reading), are due to underlying brain dysfunctions. One ongoing controversy…

  14. Dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion from a left posterior peri-insular infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S; Cai, X; Klein, J P

    2014-01-01

    The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  15. Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia, and Left-Right Confusion from a Left Posterior Peri-Insular Infarct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhattacharyya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  16. Developmental dyscalculia in children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsies in a Brazilian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomé, Ursula; Paixão Alves, Sandra Regina da; Guerreiro, Sabrina Mendonça; Machado da Costa, Célia Regina Carvalho; Souza Moreira, Fernanda de; Bandeira Lima, Andrea; Ferreira Tavares, Maria Rita; Souza Maia Filho, Heber

    2014-04-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent chronic disorders of childhood which can threaten child development and mental health. Among cognitive disorders, dyscalculia is one of the most important. In this study, 39 children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsy underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessment to determine the intellectual level, math skills, reading and writing performance and neuropsychological profile. It was observed that the mathematical ability was below schooling expectations in a higher frequency than expected. There were no significant differences in mathematical performance among groups divided by number of antiepileptic drugs used, duration of disease and types and frequency of seizures. There was a positive correlation with intelligence quotient and attentional and reading level. These results suggest the existence not only of dyscalculia, but the concurrence of attentional and reading problems for the poor mathematical performance in this population.

  17. Developmental dyscalculia in children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsies in a Brazilian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Thomé

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent chronic disorders of childhood which can threaten child development and mental health. Among cognitive disorders, dyscalculia is one of the most important. In this study, 39 children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsy underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessment to determine the intellectual level, math skills, reading and writing performance and neuropsychological profile. It was observed that the mathematical ability was below schooling expectations in a higher frequency than expected. There were no significant differences in mathematical performance among groups divided by number of antiepileptic drugs used, duration of disease and types and frequency of seizures. There was a positive correlation with intelligence quotient and attentional and reading level. These results suggest the existence not only of dyscalculia, but the concurrence of attentional and reading problems for the poor mathematical performance in this population.

  18. Development of Computer Play Pedagogy Intervention for Children with Low Conceptual Understanding in Basic Mathematics Operation Using the Dyscalculia Feature Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Syah, Nor Elleeiana; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Murphy, Belinda Pingguan; Lim, Einly

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the development of a basic computer-based play pedagogy intervention using a dyscalculia-remedy-oriented approach such as repetition and number orientation manipulation, and the investigation of its effect on children displaying dyscalculia characteristics. This computer play was evaluated in a group of 50 seven-year-old…

  19. Developmental dyscalculia: compensatory mechanisms in left intraparietal regions in response to nonsymbolic magnitudes

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    Starke Marc

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies investigating the neural mechanisms underlying developmental dyscalculia are scarce and results are thus far inconclusive. Main aim of the present study is to investigate the neural correlates of nonsymbolic number magnitude processing in children with and without dyscalculia. Methods 18 children (9 with dyscalculia were asked to solve a non-symbolic number magnitude comparison task (finger patterns during brain scanning. For the spatial control task identical stimuli were employed, instructions varying only (judgment of palm rotation. This design enabled us to present identical stimuli with identical visual processing requirements in the experimental and the control task. Moreover, because numerical and spatial processing relies on parietal brain regions, task-specific contrasts are expected to reveal true number-specific activations. Results Behavioral results during scanning reveal that despite comparable (almost at ceiling performance levels, task-specific activations were stronger in dyscalculic children in inferior parietal cortices bilaterally (intraparietal sulcus, supramarginal gyrus, extending to left angular gyrus. Interestingly, fMRI signal strengths reflected a group × task interaction: relative to baseline, controls produced significant deactivations in (intraparietal regions bilaterally in response to number but not spatial processing, while the opposite pattern emerged in dyscalculics. Moreover, beta weights in response to number processing differed significantly between groups in left – but not right – (intraparietal regions (becoming even positive in dyscalculic children. Conclusion Overall, findings are suggestive of (a less consistent neural activity in right (intraparietal regions upon processing nonsymbolic number magnitudes; and (b compensatory neural activity in left (intraparietal regions in developmental dyscalculia.

  20. Objectively combining AR5 instrumental period and paleoclimate climate sensitivity evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Lewis (Nicholas); P.D. Grünwald (Peter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractCombining instrumental period evidence regarding equilibrium climate sensitivity with largely independent paleoclimate proxy evidence should enable a more constrained sensitivity estimate to be obtained. Previous, subjective Bayesian approaches involved selection of a prior probability

  1. A case study of arithmetic facts dyscalculia caused by a hypersensitivity-to-interference in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visscher, Alice; Noël, Marie-Pascale

    2013-01-01

    While the heterogeneity of developmental dyscalculia is increasingly recognized, the different profiles have not yet been clearly established. Among the features underpinning types of developmental dyscalculia suggested in the literature, an impairment in arithmetic fact retrieval is particularly prominent. In this paper, we present a case study of an adult woman (DB) with very good cognitive capacities suffering from a specific and developmental arithmetic fact retrieval deficit. We test the main hypotheses about developmental dyscalculia derived from literature. We first explore the influential hypothesis of an approximate number system deficit, through estimation tasks, comparison tasks and a priming comparison task. Secondly, we evaluate whether DB's mathematical deficiencies are caused by a rote verbal memory deficit, using tasks involving completion of expressions, and reciting automatic series such as the alphabet and the months of the year. Alternatively, taking into account the extreme similarity of the arithmetic facts, we propose that a heightened sensitivity to interference could have prevented DB from memorizing the arithmetic facts. The pattern of DB's results on different tasks supports this hypothesis. Our findings identify a new etiology of a specific impairment of arithmetic facts storage, namely a hypersensitivity-to-interference.

  2. A New Approach to Evidence Combination and Its Application to Targets Recognition in Image Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang-zhou; SHI Wen-kang; DU Feng

    2007-01-01

    The classical Dempster's combination rule is the most popular rule of combinations, but it is a poor solution for the management of the evidence conflict at the normalization step. When deal with high conflict information it can even involve counter-intuitive results. Based on evidence distance, some inherent characters of evidences are extracted, and discount method to combine conflicting evidence was proposed. The discount method can be also used to fuse image sequences to recognize targets. Examples show that the proposed method can provide reasonable results with good convergence efficiency.

  3. Combined expectancies: electrophysiological evidence for the adjustment of expectancy effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Münte Thomas F

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When subjects use cues to prepare for a likely stimulus or a likely response, reaction times are facilitated by valid cues but prolonged by invalid cues. In studies on combined expectancy effects, two cues can independently give information regarding two dimensions of the forthcoming task. In certain situations, cueing effects on one dimension are reduced when the cue on the other dimension is invalid. According to the Adjusted Expectancy Model, cues affect different processing levels and a mechanism is presumed which is sensitive to the validity of early level cues and leads to online adjustment of expectancy effects at later levels. To examine the predictions of this model cueing of stimulus modality was combined with response cueing. Results Behavioral measures showed the interaction of cueing effects. Electrophysiological measures of the lateralized readiness potential (LRP and the N200 amplitude confirmed the predictions of the model. The LRP showed larger effects of response cues on response activation when modality cues were valid rather than invalid. N200 amplitude was largest with valid modality cues and invalid response cues, medium with invalid modality cues, and smallest with two valid cues. Conclusion Findings support the view that the validity of early level expectancies modulates the effects of late level expectancies, which included response activation and response conflict in the present study.

  4. Improvement method for the combining rule of Dempster-Shafer evidence theory based on reliability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ping; Yang Genqing

    2005-01-01

    An improvement method for the combining rule of Dempster evidence theory is proposed. Different from Dempster theory, the reliability of evidences isn't identical; and varies with the event. By weight evidence according to their reliability, the effect of unreliable evidence is reduced, and then get the fusion result that is closer to the truth. An example to expand the advantage of this method is given. The example proves that this method is helpful to find a correct result.

  5. [Role of pediatricians in the diagnosis and therapy of dyslexia, dysgraphia and dyscalculia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, Katalin; Lakos, Renáta

    2013-02-10

    Pediatricians play an important role in the diagnosis and therapy of children with dyslexia, dysgraphia or dyscalculia. These syndromes strongly affect children's school performance. Children with dyslexia, dysgraphia or dyscalculia show a significant underachievement in reading, writing or counting and their failure to meet the school requirements undermines their self confidence and positive self-concept. As a result, children with learning problems often become aggressive, frustrated or play the clown in the classroom. According to the Hungarian law children with any learning difficulties have the right to get special education by their specific symptoms. In the realisation of the law and equity the pediatrician's expertise is essential and has an important role in the therapeutical procedures. However, the pediatrician's role is more complex than writing an opinion. Pediatricians can help by giving a detailed description about these syndromes and explain them how they can help their child, what are the main difficulties during the child's studies, what kind of therapies can be efficient and how they can make their child's school years easier. During the assessment most of the parents ask the following questions: What does dyslexia, dyscalculia or dysgraphia exactly mean? Is it a handicap or a learning difficulty? Could the child live a normal life? With the proper answer and with an inclusive attitude pediatricians can help both the parents and the children to create a liveable lifestyle and make their children's schoolwork more successful. The authors' opinions are to close the medical and the pedagogical view, because without the cooperation of these two scientific fields, the theme affected parents, children and teachers cannot get proper help to find better solution and support for their problems. In the survey the authors intend to give a complex view about the symptoms of these syndromes and try to give useful advice for pediatricians how they can support

  6. An educational method for evaluating the resistance to the treatment in the diagnosis of dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Chiappini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a didactical method that has been proven effective for evaluating the “resistance to the treatment” of the student is presented. This parameter is essential for distinguishing the learning difficulties in mathematics from the learning disorder of dyscalculia. The method is based on GimmeFive, an application that has been designed to develop skills in mental calculation of multi-digit additions and subtractions. In this paper we present the results of two experiments conducted with groups of students respectively with learning difficulties in mathematics and dyscalculia. These experiments allowed to show the effectiveness of the didactical method in the evaluation of the resistance to the treatment and to discuss the features that make it adequate for the evaluation of the learning disorder. An educational method for evaluating the resistance to the treatment in the diagnosis of dyscalculiaIn questo lavoro viene presentato un metodo didattico che si è dimostrato efficace per valutare la resistenza al trattamento dello studente che è uno dei parametri fondamentali per distinguere la difficoltà di apprendimento in matematica dal disturbo di apprendimento noto come discalculia. Il metodo si basa sull’uso dell’applicazione GimmeFive che è stata progettata per sviluppare competenze nel calcolo mentale di addizioni e sottrazioni a più cifre. In questo lavoro vengono presentati risultati di due sperimentazioni condotte con gruppi di studenti rispettivamente con difficoltà di apprendimento e con diagnosi di discalculia. Queste sperimentazioni hanno consentito di mostrare l’efficacia del metodo didattico nella valutazione della resistenza al trattamento e di discutere le caratteristiche che lo rendono adeguato per la valutazione del disturbo di apprendimento.

  7. Brain Hyper-Connectivity and Operation-Specific Deficits during Arithmetic Problem Solving in Children with Developmental Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Ashkenazi, Sarit; Chen, Tianwen; Young, Christina B.; Geary, David C.; Menon, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is marked by specific deficits in processing numerical and mathematical information despite normal intelligence (IQ) and reading ability. We examined how brain circuits used by young children with DD to solve simple addition and subtraction problems differ from those used by typically developing (TD) children who…

  8. An Electro-Physiological Temporal Principal Component Analysis of Processing Stages of Number Comparison in Developmental Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltesz, Fruzsina; Szucs, Denes

    2009-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) still lacks a generally accepted definition. A major problem is that the cognitive component processes contributing to arithmetic performance are still poorly defined. By a reanalysis of our previous event-related brain potential (ERP) data (Soltesz et al., 2007) here our objective was to identify and compare…

  9. Principles underlying the design of "The Number Race", an adaptive computer game for remediation of dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Laurent

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adaptive game software has been successful in remediation of dyslexia. Here we describe the cognitive and algorithmic principles underlying the development of similar software for dyscalculia. Our software is based on current understanding of the cerebral representation of number and the hypotheses that dyscalculia is due to a "core deficit" in number sense or in the link between number sense and symbolic number representations. Methods "The Number Race" software trains children on an entertaining numerical comparison task, by presenting problems adapted to the performance level of the individual child. We report full mathematical specifications of the algorithm used, which relies on an internal model of the child's knowledge in a multidimensional "learning space" consisting of three difficulty dimensions: numerical distance, response deadline, and conceptual complexity (from non-symbolic numerosity processing to increasingly complex symbolic operations. Results The performance of the software was evaluated both by mathematical simulations and by five weeks of use by nine children with mathematical learning difficulties. The results indicate that the software adapts well to varying levels of initial knowledge and learning speeds. Feedback from children, parents and teachers was positive. A companion article 1 describes the evolution of number sense and arithmetic scores before and after training. Conclusion The software, open-source and freely available online, is designed for learning disabled children aged 5–8, and may also be useful for general instruction of normal preschool children. The learning algorithm reported is highly general, and may be applied in other domains.

  10. Dyscalculia and elements of the developmental Gerstmann syndrome in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellacy, F; Peter, B

    1978-06-01

    Fourteen (14) dyscalculic school children were drawn from a larger population of learning-disabled children. The subjects were divided into two groups, those with normal-or-better reading ability and those with dyslexia equal in degree to their dyscalculia. Both groups showed a variety of behavioral deficits in addition to those comprising Gerstmann's syndrome and were notably poor in auditory and visual discrimination and motor coordination. Good readers showed severely-impaired ability to make right-left discriminations, while the poor readers were average in this ability. Poor readers showed marked impairment of word fluency and hand writing, while good readers were average in this regard. The dyscalculia and reading deficits reported here appear unrelated to central-language impairment. Subjects with all four elements of the developmental Gerstmann's syndrome did not constitute an homogeneous behavioral group and were found among samples of both good and poor readers. The pattern of behavioral deficits shown by these subjects suggests cerebral impairment rather than slow maturation as a probable etiology. While the DGS is not useful as a behavioral description, its value as a possible localizing neurological sign cannot yet be ruled out.

  11. Objectively combining AR5 instrumental period and paleoclimate climate sensitivity evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nicholas; Grünwald, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Combining instrumental period evidence regarding equilibrium climate sensitivity with largely independent paleoclimate proxy evidence should enable a more constrained sensitivity estimate to be obtained. Previous, subjective Bayesian approaches involved selection of a prior probability distribution reflecting the investigators' beliefs about climate sensitivity. Here a recently developed approach employing two different statistical methods—objective Bayesian and frequentist likelihood-ratio—is used to combine instrumental period and paleoclimate evidence based on data presented and assessments made in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Probabilistic estimates from each source of evidence are represented by posterior probability density functions (PDFs) of physically-appropriate form that can be uniquely factored into a likelihood function and a noninformative prior distribution. The three-parameter form is shown accurately to fit a wide range of estimated climate sensitivity PDFs. The likelihood functions relating to the probabilistic estimates from the two sources are multiplicatively combined and a prior is derived that is noninformative for inference from the combined evidence. A posterior PDF that incorporates the evidence from both sources is produced using a single-step approach, which avoids the order-dependency that would arise if Bayesian updating were used. Results are compared with an alternative approach using the frequentist signed root likelihood ratio method. Results from these two methods are effectively identical, and provide a 5-95% range for climate sensitivity of 1.1-4.05 K (median 1.87 K).

  12. A simple network agreement-based approach for combining evidences in a heterogeneous sensor network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Eusebio-Grande

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research we investigate how the evidences provided by both static and mobile nodes that are part of a heterogenous sensor network can be combined to have trustworthy results. A solution relying on a network agreement-based approach was implemented and tested.

  13. Mental additions and verbal-domain interference in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Irene C; Caviola, Sara; Cornoldi, Cesare; Lucangeli, Daniela

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the involvement of verbal and visuo-spatial domains in solving addition problems with carrying in a sample of children diagnosed with developmental dyscalculia (DD) divided into two groups: (i) those with DD alone and (ii) those with DD and dyslexia. Age and stage matched typically developing (TD) children were also studied. The addition problems were presented horizontally or vertically and associated with verbal or visuo-spatial information. Study results showed that DD children's performance on mental calculation tasks was more impaired when they tackled horizontally presented addition problems compared to vertically presented ones that are associated to verbal domain involvement. The performance pattern in the two DD groups was found to be similar. The theoretical, clinical and educational implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Gender differences in developmental dyscalculia depend on diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Amy; Soltész, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Goswami, Usha; Szűcs, Dénes

    2013-10-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a learning difficulty specific to mathematics learning. The prevalence of DD may be equivalent to that of dyslexia, posing an important challenge for effective educational provision. Nevertheless, there is no agreed definition of DD and there are controversies surrounding cutoff decisions, specificity and gender differences. In the current study, 1004 British primary school children completed mathematics and reading assessments. The prevalence of DD and gender ratio were estimated in this sample using different criteria. When using absolute thresholds, the prevalence of DD was the same for both genders regardless of the cutoff criteria applied, however gender differences emerged when using a mathematics-reading discrepancy definition. Correlations between mathematics performance and the control measures selected to identify a specific learning difficulty affect both prevalence estimates and whether a gender difference is in fact identified. Educational implications are discussed.

  15. Symbolic and non-symbolic number magnitude processing in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Cañizares, Danilka; Reigosa Crespo, Vivian; González Alemañy, Eduardo

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if children with Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) exhibit a general deficit in magnitude representations or a specific deficit in the connection of symbolic representations with the corresponding analogous magnitudes. DD was diagnosed using a timed arithmetic task. The experimental magnitude comparison tasks were presented in non-symbolic and symbolic formats. DD and typically developing (TD) children showed similar numerical distance and size congruity effects. However, DD children performed significantly slower in the symbolic task. These results are consistent with the access deficit hypothesis, according to which DD children's deficits are caused by difficulties accessing magnitude information from numerical symbols rather than in processing numerosities per se.

  16. Mathematical difficulties in nonverbal learning disability or co-morbid dyscalculia and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Irene C; Bomba, Monica; Caviola, Sara; Broggi, Fiorenza; Neri, Francesca; Lucangeli, Daniela; Nacinovich, Renata

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the weaknesses of children with different profiles of mathematical difficulties, testing children with nonverbal learning disability (NLD), co-morbid dyscalculia and dyslexia (D&D), or typical development (TD). Sixteen children with NLD, 15 with D&D, and 16 with TD completed tasks derived from Butterworth (2003 ) and divided into: a capacity subscale (i.e., a number-dots comparison task, a number comparison task, and a dots comparison task); and an achievement subscale (i.e., mental calculations and arithmetical fact retrieval). Children with NLD were impaired in the dots comparison task, children with D&D in the mental calculation and arithmetical facts.

  17. Improved evidence combination approach%一种改进的证据合成方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘希亮; 陈桂明

    2013-01-01

    In D-S evidence theory,conflict coefficient cannot well depict the conflict between evidence,and counterintuitive results generate in the combination of highly conflicting evidence.Aiming at this question,this paper proposed a new combination approach from the aspect of clustering analysis.Firstly,it built up cosine similarity space,in which cosine between evidence vectors was used to measure the similarity degree,and then classified the evidence by way of conflict evidence detection coefficient.Moreover,it introduced conflict proportion coefficient to decide the modified method-local modification or full modification according to its similarity.Finally,it input the modified evidence to D-S combination formula.Application examples prove that this approach can differentiate conflict evidence,processes good stability,classification precision and convergence speed,so it is suitable for the combination of similarity evidence and conflict evidence.%D-S证据理论不能很好地描述证据之间的冲突,而且证据高度冲突时合成规则会得出反直观的结果.针对这一问题,提出了一种改进的证据合成方法.首先建立余弦相似度空间,利用证据向量之间的夹角余弦度量证据相似性程度,通过冲突证据检测因子对其进行分类;然后引入冲突比例因子决定证据的修正方法,利用相似度对其进行局部修正或全局修正;最后将修正后的证据代入D-S公式进行合成.应用实例证明,该方法能够判定冲突证据,实现冲突证据和相似性证据的合成,具有较好的稳定性、分类精度和收敛速度.

  18. Diagnosing developmental dyscalculia on the basis of reliable single case FMRI methods: promises and limitations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Johannes Dinkel

    Full Text Available FMRI-studies are mostly based on a group study approach, either analyzing one group or comparing multiple groups, or on approaches that correlate brain activation with clinically relevant criteria or behavioral measures. In this study we investigate the potential of fMRI-techniques focusing on individual differences in brain activation within a test-retest reliability context. We employ a single-case analysis approach, which contrasts dyscalculic children with a control group of typically developing children. In a second step, a support-vector machine analysis and cluster analysis techniques served to investigate similarities in multivariate brain activation patterns. Children were confronted with a non-symbolic number comparison and a non-symbolic exact calculation task during fMRI acquisition. Conventional second level group comparison analysis only showed small differences around the angular gyrus bilaterally and the left parieto-occipital sulcus. Analyses based on single-case statistical procedures revealed that developmental dyscalculia is characterized by individual differences predominantly in visual processing areas. Dyscalculic children seemed to compensate for relative under-activation in the primary visual cortex through an upregulation in higher visual areas. However, overlap in deviant activation was low for the dyscalculic children, indicating that developmental dyscalculia is a disorder characterized by heterogeneous brain activation differences. Using support vector machine analysis and cluster analysis, we tried to group dyscalculic and typically developing children according to brain activation. Fronto-parietal systems seem to qualify for a distinction between the two groups. However, this was only effective when reliable brain activations of both tasks were employed simultaneously. Results suggest that deficits in number representation in the visual-parietal cortex get compensated for through finger related aspects of number

  19. Diagnosing developmental dyscalculia on the basis of reliable single case FMRI methods: promises and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkel, Philipp Johannes; Willmes, Klaus; Krinzinger, Helga; Konrad, Kerstin; Koten, Jan Willem

    2013-01-01

    FMRI-studies are mostly based on a group study approach, either analyzing one group or comparing multiple groups, or on approaches that correlate brain activation with clinically relevant criteria or behavioral measures. In this study we investigate the potential of fMRI-techniques focusing on individual differences in brain activation within a test-retest reliability context. We employ a single-case analysis approach, which contrasts dyscalculic children with a control group of typically developing children. In a second step, a support-vector machine analysis and cluster analysis techniques served to investigate similarities in multivariate brain activation patterns. Children were confronted with a non-symbolic number comparison and a non-symbolic exact calculation task during fMRI acquisition. Conventional second level group comparison analysis only showed small differences around the angular gyrus bilaterally and the left parieto-occipital sulcus. Analyses based on single-case statistical procedures revealed that developmental dyscalculia is characterized by individual differences predominantly in visual processing areas. Dyscalculic children seemed to compensate for relative under-activation in the primary visual cortex through an upregulation in higher visual areas. However, overlap in deviant activation was low for the dyscalculic children, indicating that developmental dyscalculia is a disorder characterized by heterogeneous brain activation differences. Using support vector machine analysis and cluster analysis, we tried to group dyscalculic and typically developing children according to brain activation. Fronto-parietal systems seem to qualify for a distinction between the two groups. However, this was only effective when reliable brain activations of both tasks were employed simultaneously. Results suggest that deficits in number representation in the visual-parietal cortex get compensated for through finger related aspects of number representation in

  20. Combination of Evidence with Different Weighting Factors: A Novel Probabilistic-Based Dissimilarity Measure Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the invalidation problem of Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence (DS with high conflict in multisensor data fusion, this paper presents a novel combination approach of conflict evidence with different weighting factors using a new probabilistic dissimilarity measure. Firstly, an improved probabilistic transformation function is proposed to map basic belief assignments (BBAs to probabilities. Then, a new dissimilarity measure integrating fuzzy nearness and introduced correlation coefficient is proposed to characterize not only the difference between basic belief functions (BBAs but also the divergence degree of the hypothesis that two BBAs support. Finally, the weighting factors used to reassign conflicts on BBAs are developed and Dempster’s rule is chosen to combine the discounted sources. Simple numerical examples are employed to demonstrate the merit of the proposed method. Through analysis and comparison of the results, the new combination approach can effectively solve the problem of conflict management with better convergence performance and robustness.

  1. Combining a GLP-1 receptor agonist and basal insulin: study evidence and practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carris, Nicholas W; Taylor, James R; Gums, John G

    2014-12-01

    Most patients with diabetes mellitus require multiple medications to achieve glycemic goals. Considering this and the increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes worldwide, the need for effective combination therapy is pressing. Basal insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are frequently used to treat type 2 diabetes. Though both classes of medication are exclusively injectable, which may cause initial hesitation from providers, evidence for their combined use is substantial. This review summarizes the theoretical benefit, supporting evidence, and implementation of a combined basal insulin-GLP-1 receptor agonist regimen. Basal insulin added to a GLP-1 receptor agonist reduces hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) without weight gain or significantly increased hypoglycemia. A GLP-1 receptor agonist added to basal insulin reduces HbA1c and body weight. Compared with the addition of meal-time insulin to basal insulin, a GLP-1 receptor agonist produces similar or greater reduction in HbA1c, weight loss instead of weight gain, and less hypoglycemia. Gastrointestinal adverse events are common with GLP-1 receptor agonists, especially during initiation and titration. However, combination with basal insulin is not expected to augment expected adverse events that come with using a GLP-1 receptor agonist. Basal insulin can be added to a GLP-1 receptor agonist with a slow titration to target goal fasting plasma glucose. In patients starting a GLP-1 receptor agonist, the dose of basal insulin should be decreased by 20 % in patients with an HbA1c ≤8 %. The evidence from 15 randomized prospective studies supports the combined use of a GLP-1 receptor agonist with basal insulin in a broad range of patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes.

  2. About dyscalculia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenskov, Lena

    2010-01-01

    Oplevelser, forskning, uddannelsespolitik: Fem slags oplevet usikkerhed ved vanskeligheder ved at meningsgøre tal og størrelser. Fem tilgange til dyskalkuli i forskning. Fire usikkerheder i uddannelsessystemet....

  3. The rationale of combination antifungal therapy in severely immunocompromised patients: empiricism versus evidence-based medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamilos, Georgios; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2006-08-01

    Despite expansion of the antifungal armamentarium over the past decade, the mortality rate for invasive fungal infections remains high in severely immunocompromised patients. Furthermore, in recent years, difficult-to-treat invasive infections caused by rare molds and yeasts have emerged in high-risk patients receiving antifungal prophylaxis or empirical treatment. Antifungal combinations are increasingly used in clinical practice to improve outcomes for refractory mycoses because of the suboptimal efficacy of current antifungal agents. Herein we review recent advances in the area of antifungal combinations in high-risk patients to separate empiricism from evidence-based medicine. Thus far, the benefits of combination antifungal therapy have been difficult to prove for invasive fungal infections other than cryptococcal meningitis. The recent introduction of a new class of antifungal agents (the echinocandins) and extended-spectrum triazoles has rejuvenated interest in studying those combinations for difficult-to-treat aspergillosis, as recent observational studies show promise. In view of the evolving epidemiology of invasive fungal infections, combination antifungal therapy could be most valuable in preemptive management of carefully selected high-risk patients; however, this should be studied in appropriate trials.

  4. Weighted Combination of Conflicting Evidence Based on Evidence Vadance%基于证据方差的加权证据组合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩德强; 韩崇昭; 邓勇; 杨艺

    2011-01-01

    Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is widely used in the rields of decision-level information fusion. To suppress the counter-inuitive results encountered when using Dempster's rule of combination, a modified sequential weighted evidence combination approach based on variance of evidence is propose. According to Jousselme's distance, variance of bodies of evidence is defined. In each combination step,the weights are generated based on the variances of the sequences of available evidence combination results before and after adding new arriving body of evidence. Then the weights generated are used to modify the bodies of evidence including the previous combination result and the new arriving body of evidence at current step. Finally, according the Dempster's rule of combination, the weighted average combination result can be obtained. Some numerical examples provided show the efficiency and rationality of the proposed approach.%DS证据理论在决策级信息融合中有着广泛应用.针对证据组合时的某些反直观结果问题提出一种新的基于证据方差的序贯式加权证据组合方法.首先基于Jousselme证据距离定义了证据方差.每一步证据组合时,依据当前既有证据组合结果序列的方差及当前步新证据加入后的序列方差来生成权重.基于所获权重修正新到证据及前一步组合结果,最后利用Dempster规则完成当前步证据组合.算例分析表明所提方法是合理有效的.

  5. Development of magnitude processing in children with developmental dyscalculia: space, time, and number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagerlund, Kenny; Träff, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a learning disorder associated with impairments in a preverbal non-symbolic approximate number system (ANS) pertaining to areas in and around the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). The current study sought to enhance our understanding of the developmental trajectory of the ANS and symbolic number processing skills, thereby getting insight into whether a deficit in the ANS precedes or is preceded by impaired symbolic and exact number processing. Recent work has also suggested that humans are endowed with a shared magnitude system (beyond the number domain) in the brain. We therefore investigated whether children with DD demonstrated a general magnitude deficit, stemming from the proposed magnitude system, rather than a specific one limited to numerical quantity. Fourth graders with DD were compared to age-matched controls and a group of ability-matched second graders, on a range of magnitude processing tasks pertaining to space, time, and number. Children with DD displayed difficulties across all magnitude dimensions compared to age-matched peers and showed impaired ANS acuity compared to the younger, ability-matched control group, while exhibiting intact symbolic number processing. We conclude that (1) children with DD suffer from a general magnitude-processing deficit, (2) a shared magnitude system likely exists, and (3) a symbolic number-processing deficit in DD tends to be preceded by an ANS deficit.

  6. Development of magnitude processing in children with developmental dyscalculia: Space, time and number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny eSkagerlund

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyscalculia (DD is a learning disorder associated with impairments in a preverbal non-symbolic approximate number system (ANS pertaining to areas in and around the intraparietal sulcus (IPS. The current study sought to enhance our understanding of the developmental trajectory of the ANS and symbolic number processing skills, thereby getting insight into whether a deficit in the ANS precedes or is preceded by impaired symbolic and exact number processing. Recent work has also suggested that humans are endowed with a shared magnitude system (beyond the number domain in the brain. We therefore investigated whether children with DD demonstrated a general magnitude deficit, stemming from the proposed magnitude system, rather than a specific one limited to numerical quantity. Fourth graders with DD were compared to age-matched controls and a group of ability-matched second graders, on a range of magnitude processing tasks pertaining to space, time, and number. Children with DD displayed difficulties across all magnitude dimensions compared to age-matched peers and showed impaired ANS acuity compared to the younger, ability-matched control group, while exhibiting intact symbolic number processing. We conclude that (1 children with DD suffer from a general magnitude-processing deficit, (2 a shared magnitude system likely exists, and (3 a symbolic number-processing deficit in DD tends to be preceded by an ANS deficit.

  7. Working memory deficits in developmental dyscalculia: The importance of serial order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attout, Lucie; Majerus, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Although a number of studies suggests a link between working memory (WM) storage capacity of short-term memory and calculation abilities, the nature of verbal WM deficits in children with developmental dyscalculia (DD) remains poorly understood. We explored verbal WM capacity in DD by focusing on the distinction between memory for item information (the items to be retained) and memory for order information (the order of the items within a list). We hypothesized that WM for order could be specifically related to impaired numerical abilities given that recent studies suggest close interactions between the representation of order information in WM and ordinal numerical processing. We investigated item and order WM abilities as well as basic numerical processing abilities in 16 children with DD (age: 8-11 years) and 16 typically developing children matched on age, IQ, and reading abilities. The DD group performed significantly poorer than controls in the order WM condition but not in the item WM condition. In addition, the DD group performed significantly slower than the control group on a numerical order judgment task. The present results show significantly reduced serial order WM abilities in DD coupled with less efficient numerical ordinal processing abilities, reflecting more general difficulties in explicit processing of ordinal information.

  8. Probing the nature of deficits in the 'Approximate Number System' in children with persistent Developmental Dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugden, Stephanie; Ansari, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    In the present study we examined whether children with Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) exhibit a deficit in the so-called 'Approximate Number System' (ANS). To do so, we examined a group of elementary school children who demonstrated persistent low math achievement over 4 years and compared them to typically developing (TD), aged-matched controls. The integrity of the ANS was measured using the Panamath (www.panamath.org) non-symbolic numerical discrimination test. Children with DD demonstrated imprecise ANS acuity indexed by larger Weber fraction (w) compared to TD controls. Given recent findings showing that non-symbolic numerical discrimination is affected by visual parameters, we went further and investigated whether children performed differently on trials on which number of dots and their overall area were either congruent or incongruent with each other. This analysis revealed that differences in w were only found between DD and TD children on the incongruent trials. In addition, visuo-spatial working memory strongly predicts individual differences in ANS acuity (w) during the incongruent trials. Thus the purported ANS deficit in DD can be explained by a difficulty in extracting number from an array of dots when area is anti-correlated with number. These data highlight the role of visuo-spatial working memory during the extraction process, and demonstrate that close attention needs to be paid to perceptual processes invoked by tasks thought to represent measures of the ANS.

  9. Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and medical students' needs for learning and using statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Margaret

    2009-02-07

    Much has been written on the learning needs of dyslexic and dyscalculic students in primary and early secondary education. However, it is not clear that the necessary disability support staff and specialist literature are available to ensure that these needs are being adequately met within the context of learning statistics and general quantitative skills in the self-directed learning environments encountered in higher education. This commentary draws attention to dyslexia and dyscalculia as two potentially unrecognized conditions among undergraduate medical students and in turn, highlights key developments from recent literature in the diagnosis of these conditions. With a view to assisting medical educators meet the needs of dyscalculic learners and the more varied needs of dyslexic learners, a comprehensive list of suggestions is provided as to how learning resources can be designed from the outset to be more inclusive. A hitherto neglected area for future research is also identified through a call for a thorough investigation of the meaning of statistical literacy within the context of the undergraduate medical curriculum.

  10. A general number-to-space mapping deficit in developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, S; Sury, D; Moeller, K; Rubinsten, O; Nuerk, H-C

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on developmental dyscalculia (DD) suggested that deficits in the number line estimation task are related to a failure to represent number magnitude linearly. This conclusion was derived from the observation of logarithmically shaped estimation patterns. However, recent research questioned this idea of an isomorphic relationship between estimation patterns and number magnitude representation. In the present study, we evaluated an alternative hypothesis: impairments in the number line estimation task are due to a general deficit in mapping numbers onto space. Adults with DD and a matched control group had to learn linear and non-linear layouts of the number line via feedback. Afterwards, we assessed their performance how well they learnt the new number-space mappings. We found irrespective of the layouts worse performance of adults with DD. Additionally, in case of the linear layout, we observed that their performance did not differ from controls near reference points, but that differences between groups increased as the distance to reference point increased. We conclude that worse performance of adults with DD in the number line task might be due a deficit in mapping numbers onto space which can be partly overcome relying on reference points.

  11. Non-symbolic numerical distance effect in children with and without developmental dyscalculia: a parametric fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucian, Karin; Loenneker, Thomas; Martin, Ernst; von Aster, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated areas of brain activation related to non-symbolic distance effects in children with and without developmental dyscalculia (DD). We examined 15 children with DD (11.3 years) and 15 controls (10.6 years) by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Both groups displayed similar behavioral performance, but differences in brain activation were observed, particularly in the supplementary motor area and the right fusiform gyrus, where children with DD demonstrated stronger activation. These results suggest that dyscalculic children engage areas attributed to higher difficulty in response selection more than control children, possibly due to a deficient development of a spatial number representation in DD.

  12. Combining evidence, biomedical literature and statistical dependence: new insights for functional annotation of gene sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgun Anita

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale genomic studies based on transcriptome technologies provide clusters of genes that need to be functionally annotated. The Gene Ontology (GO implements a controlled vocabulary organised into three hierarchies: cellular components, molecular functions and biological processes. This terminology allows a coherent and consistent description of the knowledge about gene functions. The GO terms related to genes come primarily from semi-automatic annotations made by trained biologists (annotation based on evidence or text-mining of the published scientific literature (literature profiling. Results We report an original functional annotation method based on a combination of evidence and literature that overcomes the weaknesses and the limitations of each approach. It relies on the Gene Ontology Annotation database (GOA Human and the PubGene biomedical literature index. We support these annotations with statistically associated GO terms and retrieve associative relations across the three GO hierarchies to emphasise the major pathways involved by a gene cluster. Both annotation methods and associative relations were quantitatively evaluated with a reference set of 7397 genes and a multi-cluster study of 14 clusters. We also validated the biological appropriateness of our hybrid method with the annotation of a single gene (cdc2 and that of a down-regulated cluster of 37 genes identified by a transcriptome study of an in vitro enterocyte differentiation model (CaCo-2 cells. Conclusion The combination of both approaches is more informative than either separate approach: literature mining can enrich an annotation based only on evidence. Text-mining of the literature can also find valuable associated MEDLINE references that confirm the relevance of the annotation. Eventually, GO terms networks can be built with associative relations in order to highlight cooperative and competitive pathways and their connected molecular functions.

  13. The lipoprotein lipase gene in combined hyperlipidemia: evidence of a protective allele depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malloy Mary J

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL, a key enzyme in lipid metabolism, catalyzes the hydrolysis of triglycerides (TG from TG-rich lipoproteins, and serves a bridging function that enhances the cellular uptake of lipoproteins. Abnormalities in LPL function are associated with pathophysiological conditions, including familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH. Whereas two LPL susceptibility alleles were found to co-segregate in a few FCH kindred, a role for common, protective alleles remains unexplored. The LPL Ser447Stop (S447X allele is associated with anti-atherogenic lipid profiles and a modest reduction in risk for coronary disease. We hypothesize that significant depletion of the 447X allele exists in combined hyperlipidemia cases versus controls. A case-control design was employed. The polymorphism was assessed by restriction assay in 212 cases and 161 controls. Genotypic, allelic, and phenotypic associations were examined. Results We found evidence of significant allelic (447Xcontrol: 0.130 vs. 447Xcase: 0.031, χ2 = 29.085; 1df; p 2 = 26.09; 1df; p Conclusion These findings suggest a role for the S447X polymorphism in combined hyperlipidemia and demonstrate the importance of evaluating both susceptibility and protective genetic risk factors.

  14. A case of combination of evidence in the Dempster-Shafer theory inconsistent with evaluation of probabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Brodzik, Andrzej K

    2011-01-01

    The Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence accumulation is one of the main tools for combining data obtained from multiple sources. In this paper a special case of combination of two bodies of evidence with non-zero conflict coefficient is considered. It is shown that application of the Dempster-Shafer rule of combination in this case leads to an evaluation of masses of the combined bodies that is different from the evaluation of the corresponding probabilities obtained by application of the law of total probability. This finding supports the view that probabilistic interpretation of results of the Dempster-Shafer analysis in the general case is not appropriate.

  15. SCGPred: A Score-based Method for Gene Structure Prediction by Combining Multiple Sources of Evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Li; Qingan Ren; Yang Weng; Haoyang Cai; Yunmin Zhu; Yizheng Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Predicting protein-coding genes still remains a significant challenge. Although a variety of computational programs that use commonly machine learning methods have emerged, the accuracy of predictions remains a low level when implementing in large genomic sequences. Moreover, computational gene finding in newly sequenced genomes is especially a difficult task due to the absence of a training set of abundant validated genes. Here we present a new gene-finding program, SCGPred,to improve the accuracy of prediction by combining multiple sources of evidence.SCGPred can perform both supervised method in previously well-studied genomes and unsupervised one in novel genomes. By testing with datasets composed of large DNA sequences from human and a novel genome of Ustilago maydi, SCGPred gains a significant improvement in comparison to the popular ab initio gene predictors. We also demonstrate that SCGPred can significantly improve prediction in novel genomes by combining several foreign gene finders with similarity alignments, which is superior to other unsupervised methods. Therefore, SCGPred can serve as an alternative gene-finding tool for newly sequenced eukaryotic genomes. The program is freely available at http://bio.scu.edu.cn/SCGPred/.

  16. Symbolic and non symbolic numerical representation in adults with and without developmental dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furman Tamar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The question whether Developmental Dyscalculia (DD; a deficit in the ability to process numerical information is the result of deficiencies in the non symbolic numerical representation system (e.g., a group of dots or in the symbolic numerical representation system (e.g., Arabic numerals has been debated in scientific literature. It is accepted that the non symbolic system is divided into two different ranges, the subitizing range (i.e., quantities from 1-4 which is processed automatically and quickly, and the counting range (i.e., quantities larger than 4 which is an attention demanding procedure and is therefore processed serially and slowly. However, so far no study has tested the automaticity of symbolic and non symbolic representation in DD participants separately for the subitizing and the counting ranges. Methods DD and control participants undergo a novel version of the Stroop task, i.e., the Enumeration Stroop. They were presented with a random series of between one and nine written digits, and were asked to name either the relevant written digit (in the symbolic task or the relevant quantity of digits (in the non symbolic task while ignoring the irrelevant aspect. Result DD participants, unlike the control group, didn't show any congruency effect in the subitizing range of the non symbolic task. Conclusion These findings suggest that DD may be impaired in the ability to process symbolic numerical information or in the ability to automatically associate the two systems (i.e., the symbolic vs. the non symbolic. Additionally DD have deficiencies in the non symbolic counting range.

  17. Latent evidence detection using a combination of near infrared and high dynamic range photography: an example using bloodstains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, John; Montes, Ronald

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we use bloodstains to illustrate an approach for identifying latent evidence on dark cloth using near infrared (NIR) photography combined with high dynamic range (HDR) photography techniques. NIR photography alone has been used to capture latent evidence that cannot be seen in normal ambient light. HDR techniques combine multiple bracketed photographs of the same image to increase the dynamic range of the photograph which can provide greater contrast. Using NIR photography alone, we were able to detect a bloodstain up to a 1/16 dilution, an improvement over previous studies. Combining NIR photography with the HDR process resulted in a noticeable increase in visibility up to 1/16 dilution when compared to NIR photographs alone. At 1/32 dilution, we were able to detect bloodstains that were not visible using NIR alone. NIR is a useful tool for imaging latent evidence, and combining NIR with HDR consistently provides better results over NIR alone.

  18. Weighted Combination of Conflicting Evidence Based on Evidence Classification%基于证据分类的加权冲突证据组合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进花; 吴迪; 曹洁; 李军

    2013-01-01

    In order to combine highly conflicting evidence efficiently,a new evidence combination rule making use of evidence classfication was proposed based on triangular norm and discount factor analyse. First, utilizing average evidence distance and discount factor based on triangular norm, the evidence was classified into three categories: reliability, no conflict and conflict. The discounting factors of the former two categories of evidences were set to one, which keeps the evidence hold of the right hypothesis to a great extant and makes the fusion results focus onto the right hypothesis more strongly. Then the was improved evidence weight was obtained based on evidence distance, and the modified evidence was obtained by verifying the conflicting evidence according to the weighting rule in order to eliminate the conflict. Finally, according to the Dempster's rule, the modified evidence was combined. Numerical examples show the efficiency and rationality of the proposed approach.%为了有效融合高度冲突的证据,在三角模算子和折扣因子分析的基础上,提出了一种基于证据分类的冲突证据融合规则.采用基于3角模算子定义的平均证据距离与冲突因子将证据分成可信任证据、不冲突证据和冲突证据三类,并赋予可信任证据和不冲突证据折扣因子1,极大程度上保留了证据对正确假设的支持;然后基于证据距离定义了改进的证据权重,基于加权原则对冲突证据进行合成得到修正的证据体,从而消除证据间的冲突;最后利用Dempster规则完成证据组合.算法分析表明所提方法是合理有效的.

  19. Timing of emotion representation in right and left occipital region: Evidence from combined TMS-EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattavelli, Giulia; Rosanova, Mario; Casali, Adenauer G; Papagno, Costanza; Romero Lauro, Leonor J

    2016-07-01

    Neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies provide evidence of hemispheric differences in processing faces and, in particular, emotional expressions. However, the timing of emotion representation in the right and left hemisphere is still unclear. Transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) was used to explore cortical responsiveness during behavioural tasks requiring processing of either identity or expression of faces. Single-pulse TMS was delivered 100ms after face onset over the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) while continuous EEG was recorded using a 60-channel TMS-compatible amplifier; right premotor cortex (rPMC) was also stimulated as control site. The same face stimuli with neutral, happy and fearful expressions were presented in separate blocks and participants were asked to complete either a facial identity or facial emotion matching task. Analyses performed on posterior face specific EEG components revealed that mPFC-TMS reduced the P1-N1 component. In particular, only when an explicit expression processing was required, mPFC-TMS interacted with emotion type in relation to hemispheric side at different timing; the first P1-N1 component was affected in the right hemisphere whereas the later N1-P2 component was modulated in the left hemisphere. These findings support the hypothesis that the frontal cortex exerts an early influence on the occipital cortex during face processing and suggest a different timing of the right and left hemisphere involvement in emotion discrimination.

  20. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  1. L-MTP-PE and zoledronic acid combination in osteosarcoma: preclinical evidence of positive therapeutic combination for clinical transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biteau, Kevin; Guiho, Romain; Chatelais, Mathias; Taurelle, Julien; Chesneau, Julie; Corradini, Nadège; Heymann, Dominique; Redini, Françoise

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma, the most frequent malignant primary bone tumor in pediatric patients is characterized by osteolysis promoting tumor growth. Lung metastasis is the major bad prognosis factor of this disease. Zoledronic Acid (ZA), a potent inhibitor of bone resorption is currently evaluated in phase III randomized studies in Europe for the treatment of osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. The beneficial effect of the liposomal form of Muramyl-TriPeptide-Phosphatidyl Ethanolamine (L-mifamurtide, MEPACT®), an activator of macrophage populations has been demonstrated to eradicate lung metastatic foci in osteosarcoma. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefit and the safety of the ZA and L-mifamurtide combination in preclinical models of osteosarcoma, as a prerequisite before translation to patients. The effects of ZA (100 μg/kg) and L-mifamurtide (1 mg/kg) were investigated in vivo in xenogeneic and syngeneic mice models of osteosarcoma, at clinical (tumor proliferation, spontaneous lung metastases development), radiological (bone microarchitecture by microCT analysis), biological and histological levels. No interference between the two drugs could be observed on ZA-induced bone protection and on L-mifamurtide-induced inhibition of lung metastasis development. Unexpectedly, ZA and L-mifamurtide association induced an additional and in some cases synergistic inhibition of primary tumor progression. L-mifamurtide has no effect on tumor proliferation in vitro or in vivo, and macrophage population was not affected at the tumor site whatever the treatment. This study evidenced for the first time a significant inhibition of primary osteosarcoma progression when both drugs are combined. This result constitutes a first proof-of-principle for clinical application in osteosarcoma patients.

  2. Developmental Changes in the Profiles of Dyscalculia: An Explanation Based on a Double Exact-and-Approximate Number Representation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Marie-Pascale; Rousselle, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Studies on developmental dyscalculia (DD) have tried to identify a basic numerical deficit that could account for this specific learning disability. The first proposition was that the number magnitude representation of these children was impaired. However, Rousselle and Noël (2007) brought data showing that this was not the case but rather that these children were impaired when processing the magnitude of symbolic numbers only. Since then, incongruent results have been published. In this paper, we will propose a developmental perspective on this issue. We will argue that the first deficit shown in DD regards the building of an exact representation of numerical value, thanks to the learning of symbolic numbers, and that the reduced acuity of the approximate number magnitude system appears only later and is secondary to the first deficit.

  3. Co-amorphous simvastatin and glipizide combinations show improved physical stability without evidence of intermolecular interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löbmann, Korbinian; Strachan, Clare; Grohganz, Holger

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to prepare a co-amorphous drug/drug combination between two BCS class II drugs, simvastatin (SVS) and glipizide (GPZ). This pharmacologically relevant combination of two drugs could produce a promising candidate for formulations intended for combination therapy...

  4. Combinations of techniques that effectively change health behavior : evidence from meta-Cart analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, E.; Buuren, S. van; Genugten, L. van; Verheijden, M.W.; Empelen, P. van

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Many health-promoting interventions combine multiple behavior change techniques (BCTs) to maximize effectiveness. Although, in theory, BCTs can amplify each other, the available meta-analyses have not been able to identify specific combinations of techniques that provide synergistic effec

  5. Combination therapy in severe Acinetobacter baumannii infections: an update on the evidence to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Utili, Riccardo; Zarrilli, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogen increasingly causing hospital-acquired infections in critically ill patients. In this review, we summarize the current mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in A. baumannii and describe in detail recent in vitro and in vivo experimental data on the activity of antimicrobial combinations against this microorganism. We then introduce the rationale for the use of combination antibiotic therapy in resistant A. baumannii infections. Finally, we present and critically discuss both uncontrolled clinical studies and the few randomized clinical trials of combination antimicrobial therapy for these infections, with a special focus on ongoing multinational trials and optimal approach to future research in this field.

  6. Phylogeny of subclass Scuticociliatia (Protozoa, Ciliophora) using combined data inferred from genetic, morphological, and morphogenetic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhenzhen; Wang, Yangang; Lin, Xiaofeng; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.; Song, Weibo

    2010-07-01

    Gene sequence-based genealogies of scuticociliates are different from those produced by morphological analyses. For this reason, 11 representative scuticociliates and two ambiguously related genera were chosen to test the ability of combined phylogenetic analyses using both gene sequences and morphological/morphogenetic characteristics. Analyses of both the SSrRNA gene sequences and the combined datasets revealed a consistent branching pattern. While the terminal branches and the order level relationships were generally well resolved, the family level relationships remain unresolved. However, two other trees based on ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region sequences and morphological/morphogenetic characters showed limited information, due to a lack of informative sites in these two datasets. Our data suggest, however, that the combined analysis of morphological/morphogenetic characters and gene sequences did produce some changes to the phylogenetic estimates of this group.

  7. Combined trust model based on evidence theory in iterated prisoner's dilemma game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Zhang, Bin; Zhu, Weidong

    2011-01-01

    In the iterated prisoner's dilemma game, agents often play defection based on mutual distrust for the sake of their own benefits. However, most game strategies and mechanisms are limited for strengthening cooperative behaviour in the current literature, especially in noisy environments. In this article, we construct a combined trust model by combining the locally owned information and the recommending information from other agents and develop a combined trust strategy in the iterated prisoner's dilemma game. The proposed game strategy can provide not only a higher payoff for agents, but also a trust mechanism for the system. Furthermore, agents can form their own reputation evaluations upon their opponents and make more rational and precise decisions under our framework. Simulations of application are performed to show the performance of the proposed strategy in noise-free and noisy environments.

  8. Mental Practice Combined with Motor Rehabilitation to Treat Upper Limb Hemiparesis of Post-Stroke Patients: Clinical and Experimental Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Sergio; Lattari, Eduardo; Paes, Flávia; Rocha, Nuno B.F.; Nardi, Antonio E.; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Mura, Gioia; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Carta, Mauro G.; Campos, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the major causes of disability in the world. Due to the extended lifetime of the world's population, the number of people affected by stroke has increased substantially over the last years. Stroke may lead to sensorimotor deficits, usually causing hemiplegia or hemiparesia. In order to reduce motor deficits and accelerate functional recovery, MP combined with motor rehabilitation was introduced to the rehabilitation process of post-stroke patients. Evidence has shown that MP combining with motor rehabilitation based on activities of daily living was more effective than conventional motor rehabilitation used per se. This combination proved very useful and effective, with significant results in improvement of motor deficits in post-stroke patients. However, further studies must be conducted to determine specific parameters, such as type of imagery, frequency or duration. PMID:27346996

  9. Mental Practice Combined with Motor Rehabilitation to Treat Upper Limb Hemiparesis of Post-Stroke Patients: Clinical and Experimental Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Sergio; Lattari, Eduardo; Paes, Flávia; Rocha, Nuno B F; Nardi, Antonio E; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Mura, Gioia; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Carta, Mauro G; Campos, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the major causes of disability in the world. Due to the extended lifetime of the world's population, the number of people affected by stroke has increased substantially over the last years. Stroke may lead to sensorimotor deficits, usually causing hemiplegia or hemiparesia. In order to reduce motor deficits and accelerate functional recovery, MP combined with motor rehabilitation was introduced to the rehabilitation process of post-stroke patients. Evidence has shown that MP combining with motor rehabilitation based on activities of daily living was more effective than conventional motor rehabilitation used per se. This combination proved very useful and effective, with significant results in improvement of motor deficits in post-stroke patients. However, further studies must be conducted to determine specific parameters, such as type of imagery, frequency or duration.

  10. Clinical evidence and mechanistic basis for vildagliptin's effect in combination with insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schweizer A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Anja Schweizer,1 James E Foley,2 Wolfgang Kothny,2 Bo Ahrén31Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland; 2Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 3Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, SwedenAbstract: Due to the progressive nature of type 2 diabetes, many patients need insulin as add-on to oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs in order to maintain adequate glycemic control. Insulin therapy primarily targets elevated fasting glycemia but is less effective to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia. In addition, the risk of hypoglycemia limits its effectiveness and there is a concern of weight gain. These drawbacks may be overcome by combining insulin with incretin-based therapies as these increase glucose sensitivity of both the α- and β-cells, resulting in improved postprandial glycemia without the hypoglycemia and weight gain associated with increasing the dose of insulin. The dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin has also been shown to protect from hypoglycemia by enhancing glucagon counterregulation. The effectiveness of combining vildagliptin with insulin was demonstrated in three different studies in which vildagliptin decreased A1C levels when added to insulin therapy without increasing hypoglycemia. This was established with and without concomitant metformin therapy. Furthermore, the effectiveness of vildagliptin appears to be greater when insulin is used as a basal regimen as opposed to being used to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia, since improvement in insulin secretion likely plays a minor role when relatively high doses of insulin are administered before meals. This article reviews the clinical experience with the combination of vildagliptin and insulin and discusses the mechanistic basis for the beneficial effects of the combination. The data support the use of vildagliptin in combination with insulin in general and, in line with emerging clinical practice, suggest that treating patients with

  11. Adolescents with Developmental Dyscalculia Do Not Have a Generalized Magnitude Deficit – Processing of Discrete and Continuous Magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaskey, Ursina; von Aster, Michael; O’Gorman Tuura, Ruth; Kucian, Karin

    2017-01-01

    The link between number and space has been discussed in the literature for some time, resulting in the theory that number, space and time might be part of a generalized magnitude system. To date, several behavioral and neuroimaging findings support the notion of a generalized magnitude system, although contradictory results showing a partial overlap or separate magnitude systems are also found. The possible existence of a generalized magnitude processing area leads to the question how individuals with developmental dyscalculia (DD), known for deficits in numerical-arithmetical abilities, process magnitudes. By means of neuropsychological tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we aimed to examine the relationship between number and space in typical and atypical development. Participants were 16 adolescents with DD (14.1 years) and 14 typically developing (TD) peers (13.8 years). In the fMRI paradigm participants had to perform discrete (arrays of dots) and continuous magnitude (angles) comparisons as well as a mental rotation task. In the neuropsychological tests, adolescents with dyscalculia performed significantly worse in numerical and complex visuo-spatial tasks. However, they showed similar results to TD peers when making discrete and continuous magnitude decisions during the neuropsychological tests and the fMRI paradigm. A conjunction analysis of the fMRI data revealed commonly activated higher order visual (inferior and middle occipital gyrus) and parietal (inferior and superior parietal lobe) magnitude areas for the discrete and continuous magnitude tasks. Moreover, no differences were found when contrasting both magnitude processing conditions, favoring the possibility of a generalized magnitude system. Group comparisons further revealed that dyscalculic subjects showed increased activation in domain general regions, whilst TD peers activate domain specific areas to a greater extent. In conclusion, our results point to the existence of a

  12. Evidence-based stillbirth prevention strategies: combining empirical and theoretical paradigms to inform health planning and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Mary Lou; Aden, Amna; Tapa, Stephany; Jumah, Reem; Khan, Salma

    2014-08-01

    A global health project undertaken in Qatar on the Arabian Peninsula immersed undergraduate nursing students in hands-on learning to address the question: What strategies are effective in preventing stillbirth? Worldwide stillbirth estimates of 2.6 million per year and the high rate in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of 27 per 1,000 total live births provided the stimulus for this inquiry. We used a dual empirical and theoretical approach that combined the principles of evidence-based practice and population health planning. Students were assisted to translate pre-appraised literature based on the 6S hierarchical pyramid of evidence. The PRECEDE-PROCEED (P-P) model served as an organizing template to assemble data extracted from the appraisal of 21 systematic literature reviews ± meta-analyses, 2 synopses of synthesized reports, and 9 individual studies summarizing stillbirth prevention strategies in low, middle, and high income countries. Consistent with elements of the P-P model, stillbirth prevention strategies were classified as social, epidemiological, educational, ecological, administrative, or policy. Ten recommendations with clear evidence of effectiveness in preventing stillbirth in low, middle, or high income countries were identified. Several other promising interventions were identified with weak, uncertain, or inconclusive evidence. These require further rigorous testing. Two complementary paradigms--evidence-based practice and an ecological population health program planning model--helped baccalaureate nursing students transfer research evidence into useable knowledge for practice. They learned the importance of comprehensive assessments and evidence-informed interventions. The multidimensional elements of the P-P model sensitized students to the complex interrelated factors influencing stillbirth and its prevention. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  13. New fundamental evidence of non-classical structure in the combination of natural concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, D; Sozzo, S; Veloz, T

    2016-01-13

    We recently performed cognitive experiments on conjunctions and negations of two concepts with the aim of investigating the combination problem of concepts. Our experiments confirmed the deviations (conceptual vagueness, underextension, overextension etc.) from the rules of classical (fuzzy) logic and probability theory observed by several scholars in concept theory, while our data were successfully modelled in a quantum-theoretic framework developed by ourselves. In this paper, we isolate a new, very stable and systematic pattern of violation of classicality that occurs in concept combinations. In addition, the strength and regularity of this non-classical effect leads us to believe that it occurs at a more fundamental level than the deviations observed up to now. It is our opinion that we have identified a deep non-classical mechanism determining not only how concepts are combined but, rather, how they are formed. We show that this effect can be faithfully modelled in a two-sector Fock space structure, and that it can be exactly explained by assuming that human thought is the superposition of two processes, a 'logical reasoning', guided by 'logic', and a 'conceptual reasoning', guided by 'emergence', and that the latter generally prevails over the former. All these findings provide new fundamental support to our quantum-theoretic approach to human cognition.

  14. Combining communication technology utilization and organizational innovation: evidence from Canadian healthcare decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jbilou, Jalila; Landry, Réjean; Amara, Nabil; El Adlouni, Salaheddine

    2009-08-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Organizational Innovation (OI) are seen as the miracle of post-modernity in organizations. In this way, they are supposed to resolve most organizational problems, efficiently and rapidly. OI is highly dependent on the capacity and the investment in knowledge management (internal and external) to support decision making process and to implement significant changes. We know what explains ICT utilization (ICTU) and what determines OI development (OID) in healthcare services. Moreover, the literature tends to link ICTU to OID and vice versa. However, this dependency has never been explored empirically through the lens of roles combination. To identify the existing combined roles profiles of ICTU and OID among healthcare decision makers and determine factors of the shift from a profile to another. We did the following: (1) a structured review of the literature on healthcare management by focusing on ICTU and OID which allowed us to build two indexes and a comprehensive framework; (2) a copula methodology to identify with high precision the thresholds for ICTU and OID; and (3) a cross-sectional study based on a survey done with a sample of 942 decision makers from Canadian healthcare organizations through a multinomial logit model to identify determinants of the shift. ICTU and OID are correlated at 22% (Kendal's Tau). The joint distribution (combination) of ICTU and OID shows that four major profiles exist among decision makers in Canadian healthcare organizations: the traditional decision maker, the innovative decision maker, the technologic decision maker and the contemporary decision maker. We found out that classic factors act as barriers to the shift from one profile to the desired profile (from 1 to 4, from 2 to 4 and from 3 to 4). We have identified that the attitude toward research and relational capital are transversal barriers of shift. We have also found that some factors have a specific impact such as

  15. Weak task-related modulation and stimulus representations during arithmetic problem solving in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Sarit; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Tenison, Caitlin; Menon, Vinod

    2012-02-15

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a disability that impacts math learning and skill acquisition in school-age children. Here we investigate arithmetic problem solving deficits in young children with DD using univariate and multivariate analysis of fMRI data. During fMRI scanning, 17 children with DD (ages 7-9, grades 2 and 3) and 17 IQ- and reading ability-matched typically developing (TD) children performed complex and simple addition problems which differed only in arithmetic complexity. While the TD group showed strong modulation of brain responses with increasing arithmetic complexity, children with DD failed to show such modulation. Children with DD showed significantly reduced activation compared to TD children in the intraparietal sulcus, superior parietal lobule, supramarginal gyrus and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in relation to arithmetic complexity. Critically, multivariate representational similarity revealed that brain response patterns to complex and simple problems were less differentiated in the DD group in bilateral anterior IPS, independent of overall differences in signal level. Taken together, these results show that children with DD not only under-activate key brain regions implicated in mathematical cognition, but they also fail to generate distinct neural responses and representations for different arithmetic problems. Our findings provide novel insights into the neural basis of DD.

  16. Time-Resolved and Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Complex Cognitive Processes and their Role in Disorders like Developmental Dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mórocz, István Akos; Janoos, Firdaus; van Gelderen, Peter; Manor, David; Karni, Avi; Breznitz, Zvia; von Aster, Michael; Kushnir, Tammar; Shalev, Ruth

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this article is to report on the importance and challenges of a time-resolved and spatio-temporal analysis of fMRI data from complex cognitive processes and associated disorders using a study on developmental dyscalculia (DD). Participants underwent fMRI while judging the incorrectness of multiplication results, and the data were analyzed using a sequence of methods, each of which progressively provided more a detailed picture of the spatio-temporal aspect of this disease. Healthy subjects and subjects with DD performed alike behaviorally though they exhibited parietal disparities using traditional voxel-based group analyses. Further and more detailed differences, however, surfaced with a time-resolved examination of the neural responses during the experiment. While performing inter-group comparisons, a third group of subjects with dyslexia (DL) but with no arithmetic difficulties was included to test the specificity of the analysis and strengthen the statistical base with overall fifty-eight subjects. Surprisingly, the analysis showed a functional dissimilarity during an initial reading phase for the group of dyslexic but otherwise normal subjects, with respect to controls, even though only numerical digits and no alphabetic characters were presented. Thus our results suggest that time-resolved multi-variate analysis of complex experimental paradigms has the ability to yield powerful new clinical insights about abnormal brain function. Similarly, a detailed compilation of aberrations in the functional cascade may have much greater potential to delineate the core processing problems in mental disorders.

  17. Future directions in psychological assessment: combining evidence-based medicine innovations with psychology's historical strengths to enhance utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngstrom, Eric A

    2013-01-01

    Assessment has been a historical strength of psychology, with sophisticated traditions of measurement, psychometrics, and theoretical underpinnings. However, training, reimbursement, and utilization of psychological assessment have been eroded in many settings. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) offers a different perspective on evaluation that complements traditional strengths of psychological assessment. EBM ties assessment directly to clinical decision making about the individual, uses simplified Bayesian methods explicitly to integrate assessment data, and solicits patient preferences as part of the decision-making process. Combining the EBM perspective with psychological assessment creates a hybrid approach that is more client centered, and it defines a set of applied research topics that are highly clinically relevant. This article offers a sequence of a dozen facets of the revised assessment process, along with examples of corollary research studies. An eclectic integration of EBM and evidence-based assessment generates a powerful hybrid that is likely to have broad applicability within clinical psychology and enhance the utility of psychological assessments.

  18. Updating beliefs and combining evidence in adaptive forest management under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousefpour, Rasoul; Temperli, Christian; Bugmann, Harald;

    2013-01-01

    We study climate uncertainty and how managers' beliefs about climate change develop and influence their decisions. We develop an approach for updating knowledge and beliefs based on the observation of forest and climate variables and illustrate its application for the adaptive management of an even......-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) forest in the Black Forest, Germany. We simulated forest development under a range of climate change scenarios and forest management alternatives. Our analysis used Bayesian updating and Dempster's rule of combination to simulate how observations of climate and forest...... variables may influence a decision maker's beliefs about climate development and thereby management decisions. While forest managers may be inclined to rely on observed forest variables to infer climate change and impacts, we found that observation of climate state, e.g. temperature or precipitation...

  19. Combination therapy with BRAF and MEK inhibitors for melanoma: latest evidence and place in therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Zeynep; Ribas, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Treatment with BRAF inhibitors such as vemurafenib or dabrafenib in patients with advanced BRAFV600 mutated melanoma has shown objective tumor responses in approximately half of the patients. However, the duration of responses is limited in a majority of these patients, with progression-free survival rates around 6 months due to tumor progression from development of acquired resistance. Preclinical studies have suggested that concurrent inhibition of the BRAF kinases and MEK of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway could decrease MAPK-driven acquired resistance, resulting in longer duration of responses, higher rate of tumor responses, and a decrease in the cutaneous toxicities observed from paradoxical MAPK pathway activation with BRAF inhibitor monotherapy. This review provides an overview of the currently available clinical trial data on BRAF and MEK inhibitors together and in combinations with other therapeutic agents. PMID:26753005

  20. Geometric and featural systems, separable and combined: Evidence from reorientation in people with Williams syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Katrina; Landau, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Spatial reorientation by humans and other animals engages geometric representations of surface layouts as well as featural landmarks; however, the two types of information are thought to be behaviorally and neurally separable. In this paper, we examine the use of these two types of information during reorientation among children and adults with Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic disorder accompanied by abnormalities in brain regions that support use of both geometry and landmarks. Previous studies of reorientation in adolescents and adults with WS have shown deficits in the ability to use geometry for reorientation, but intact ability to use features, suggesting that the two systems can be differentially impaired by genetic disorder. Using a slightly modified layout, we found that many WS participants could use geometry, and most could use features along with geometry. However, the developmental trajectories for the two systems were quite different from one other, and different from those found in typical development. Purely geometric responding was not correlated with age in WS, and search processes appeared similar to those in typically developing (TD) children. In contrast, use of features in combination with geometry was correlated with age in WS, and search processes were distinctly different from TD children. The results support the view that use of geometry and features stem from different underlying mechanisms, that the developmental trajectories and operation of each are altered in WS, and that combination of information from the two systems is atypical. Given brain abnormalities in regions supporting the two kinds of information, our findings suggest that the co-operation of the two systems is functionally altered in this genetic syndrome. PMID:26275835

  1. Inhibition drives configural superiority of illusory Gestalt: Combined behavioral and drift-diffusion model evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qi-Yang; Maurer, Mara; Müller, Hermann J; Conci, Markus

    2016-05-01

    Illusory Kanizsa figures demonstrate that a perceptually completed whole is more than the sum of its composite parts. In the current study, we explored part/whole relationships in object completion using the configural superiority effect (CSE) with illusory figures (Pomerantz & Portillo, 2011). In particular, we investigated to which extent the CSE is modulated by closure in target and distractor configurations. Our results demonstrated a typical CSE, with detection of a configural whole being more efficient than the detection of a corresponding part-level target. Moreover, the CSE was more pronounced when grouped objects were presented in distractors rather than in the target. A follow-up experiment systematically manipulated closure in whole target or, respectively, distractor configurations. The results revealed the effect of closure to be again stronger in distractor, rather than in target configurations, suggesting that closure primarily affects the inhibition of distractors, and to a lesser extent the selection of the target. In addition, a drift-diffusion model analysis of our data revealed that efficient distractor inhibition expedites the rate of evidence accumulation, with closure in distractors particularly speeding the drift toward the decision boundary. In sum, our findings demonstrate that the CSE in Kanizsa figures derives primarily from the inhibition of closed distractor objects, rather than being driven by a conspicuous target configuration. Altogether, these results support a fundamental role of inhibition in driving configural superiority effects in visual search.

  2. EBM vs. EBM: combining evidence-based and experienced-based medicine in resuscitation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Paul E; Aufderheide, Tom P

    2017-06-01

    To discuss the clear rationale for evidence-based medicine (EvBM) in the challenging realms of resuscitation research, yet also provide case examples in which even the well designed, multicentered randomized clinical trial may have had unrecognized limitations, and thus misleading results. This is where experienced-based medicine (ExBM) helps to resolve the issue. Recent publications have brought to task the conclusions drawn from various clinical trials of resuscitative interventions. These articles have indicated that some major clinical trials that later determined the universal guidelines for resuscitative protocols may have been affected by unrecognized confounding variables, effect modifiers and other problems such as delayed timing. Many interventions, deemed to be ineffective because of these study factors, may actually have lifesaving effects that would have been confirmed had the proper circumstances been in place. With the right mindset, the clinician-researcher can often identify and address those situations. When clinical trials indicate ineffectiveness of an intervention that worked very well in other circumstances, both preclinical and clinical, clinician-investigators should continue to re-search the issues and not always take conclusions at face value.

  3. Clinical utility of fixed-dose combinations in hypertension: evidence for the potential of nebivolol/valsartan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varagic J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jasmina Varagic,1–3 Henry Punzi,4,5 Carlos M Ferrario2,3,61Hypertension and Vascular Research Center, 2Division of Surgical Sciences, 3Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC USA; 4Trinity Hypertension and Diagnostic Research Center, Carrollton, TX, USA; 5Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 6Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USAAbstract: Despite significant advances in pharmacologic approaches to treat hypertension during the last decades, hypertension- and hypertension-related organ damage are still a high health and economic burden because a large proportion of patients with hypertension do not achieve optimal blood pressure control. There is now general agreement that combination therapy with two or more antihypertensive drugs is required for targeted blood pressure accomplishment and reduction of global cardiovascular risk. The goals of combination therapies are to reduce long-term cardiovascular events by targeting different mechanism underlying hypertension and target organ disease, to block the counterregulatory pathways activated by monotherapies, to improve tolerability and decrease the adverse effects of up-titrated single agents, and to increase persistence and adherence with antihypertensive therapy. Multiple clinical trials provide evidence that fixed-dose combinations in a single pill offer several advantages when compared with loose-dose combinations. This review discusses the advances in hypertension control and associated cardiovascular disease as they relate to the prospect of combination therapy targeting a third-generation beta (β 1-adrenergic receptor (nebivolol and an angiotensin II receptor blocker (valsartan in fixed-dose single-pill formulations.Keywords: blood pressure control, hypertension, β1-adrenergic receptor, renin angiotensin system

  4. EFFECTS OF BUSINESS COMBINATION ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: EVIDENCE FROM PAKISTAN’S BANKING SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehana Kouser, Ph.D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This contemporary study addresses the mergers and acquisitions (M&A and provides insight to the impacts of M&A. It explores the effects of merger on profitability of the bank by using six different financial ratios. We have selected 10 commercial banks that faced M&A during the period from 1999 to 2010. The lists of banks were selected from the Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE. Quantitative data analysis techniques are used for inference. Data were collected from the annual reports of the sample banks for the period of six years (three years before the combination and three after. Analysis was done by using paired t-test. Study concluded that our all alternate hypothesis are rejected because. The results recommend that operating financial performance of all commercial bank’s M&A included in the sample from banking industry had declined later. The results shows that there is a decline in all 6 ratios: profitability ratios, return on net worth ratios, invested capital, and debt to equity ratios. We can argue that increased performance after M&A is not necessary and it varies with contextual factors.

  5. Cardiovascular disease and combined oral contraceptives: reviewing the evidence and balancing the risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, T M; Meirik, O; Collins, J

    1999-01-01

    Cardiovascular risks have been a concern since combined oral contraceptives (OCs) were first introduced. In the past four years new, mostly reassuring information on the safety of modern, low oestrogen dose OCs has become available. However, in 1995 the new information showed higher venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk for OCs containing desogestrel and gestodene compared with levonorgestrel- or norethindrone-containing OCs. The controversial responses by national authorities, their scientific and public health merits were hotly debated and many considered the differences in risk small and resulted from bias and/or confounding. We discuss these arguments and conclude they lack empirical support or cannot account for the 2-fold increased risk. The risk of ischaemic stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) associated with low oestrogen dose OCs are very small in women without cardiovascular risk factors, while increased risk of haemorrhagic stroke is confined to women >35 years of age. Applying the most recent risks to models of OC-attributable events and deaths, OC-attributable mortality in women mortality (about 90 per million women of reproductive age annually in the UK) such risks appear small. Over the age of 35 years, OC-attributable mortality is a more important concern, particularly among smokers. In the absence of any appreciable OC-attributable mortality in young healthy women, the additional VTE risk for third compared with second generation OCs should be considered when women choose which OC to use.

  6. Combining meteorological and geomorphological expertise to provide better evidences of changes in rainfall precipitation extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazzini, Federico; Segadelli, Stefano; Chelli, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Three extreme intensity precipitation events have been stricken the hilly and mountainous territory of Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy) in the last 4 years. Major effects on the ground were observed: i.e. debris flows, shallow landslides, flash floods and overbank flooding. Some of them (like debris flow) are considered unusual, on such large scale, for this region. Though a detailed meteorological and geomorphological analyses of the last and most devastating event, occurred in Val Trebbia and Nure in September 2015, we show the value of this multidisciplinary analysis conducted in collaboration between the HydroMeteorological service of Emilia-Romagna (ARPAE-SIMC) and the Geological, Sismic and Soil service of the same region (SGSS) and Parma University. A large and stationary mesoscale convective system released more than 300 mm of rain, roughly, in 6 hours. During the first part of the storm, several rain gauges recorded rainfall peaks over 100 mm/hr. The storm caused more than 100 debris flows that were the main cause of damage on man-made structures. A robust quantitative relation between precipitation intensity (estimated trough a combination of radar data and rain gouges) and comprehensive mapping of airborne and satellite imageries acquired by the Emergency Management Service (Copernicus), complemented by fieldwork of geologists, could be built from this event. This accurate analysis, in a particularly rich data area, set an important reference point to search past events of similar amplitude, beyond the short chronological history of observation records of sub-daily precipitation intensity. We will describe in fact how we plan to gain further insights investigating in situ geological records to find analogous high intensity rain effects.

  7. Evidence of a dynamic microbial community structure and predation through combined microbiological and stable isotope characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druhan, J. L.; Bill, M.; Lim, H. C.; Wu, C.; Conrad, M. E.; Williams, K. H.; DePaolo, D. J.; Brodie, E.

    2014-12-01

    The speciation, reactivity and mobility of carbon in the near surface environment is intimately linked to the prevalence, diversity and dynamics of native microbial populations. We utilize this relationship by introducing 13C-labeled acetate to sediments recovered from a shallow aquifer system to track both the cycling of carbon through multiple redox pathways and the associated spatial and temporal evolution of bacterial communities in response to this nutrient source. Results demonstrate a net loss of sediment organic carbon over the course of the amendment experiment. Furthermore, these data demonstrated a source of isotopically labeled inorganic carbon that was not attributable to primary metabolism by acetate-oxidizing microorganisms. Fluid samples analyzed weekly for microbial composition by pyrosequencing of ribosomal RNA genes showed a transient microbial community structure, with distinct occurrences of Azoarcus, Geobacter and multiple sulfate reducing species over the course of the experiment. In combination with DNA sequencing data, the anomalous carbon cycling process is shown to occur exclusively during the period of predominant Geobacter species growth. Pyrosequencing indicated, and targeted cloning and sequencing confirmed the presence of several bacteriovorous protozoa, including species of the Breviata, Planococcus and Euplotes genera. Cloning and qPCR analysis demonstrated that Euplotes species were most abundant and displayed a growth trajectory that closely followed that of the Geobacter population. These results suggest a previously undocumented secondary turnover of biomass carbon related to protozoan grazing that was not sufficiently prevalent to be observed in bulk concentrations of carbon species in the system, but was clearly identifiable in the partitioning of carbon isotopes. The impact of predator-prey relationships on subsurface microbial community dynamics and therefore the flux of carbon through a system via the microbial biomass

  8. Hemodynamic evidence of vascular remodeling in combined post- and precapillary pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Evan L.; Wells, Quinn S.; Farber-Eger, Eric H.; Halliday, Stephen J.; Doss, Laura N.; Xu, Meng; Wang, Li; Harrell, Frank E.; Yu, Chang; Robbins, Ivan M.; Newman, John H.; Hemnes, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although commonly encountered, patients with combined postcapillary and precapillary pulmonary hypertension (Cpc-PH) have poorly understood pulmonary vascular properties. The product of pulmonary vascular resistance and compliance, resistance-compliance (RC) time, is a measure of pulmonary vascular physiology. While RC time is lower in postcapillary PH than in precapillary PH, the RC time in Cpc-PH and the effect of pulmonary wedge pressure (PWP) on RC time are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that Cpc-PH has an RC time that resembles that in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) more than that in isolated postcapillary PH (Ipc-PH). We analyzed the hemodynamics of 282 consecutive patients with PH referred for right heart catheterization (RHC) with a fluid challenge from 2004 to 2013 (cohort A) and 4,382 patients who underwent RHC between 1998 and 2014 for validation (cohort B). Baseline RC time in Cpc-PH was higher than that in Ipc-PH and lower than that in PAH in both cohorts (P < 0.001). In cohort A, RC time decreased after fluid challenge in patients with Ipc-PH but not in those with PAH or Cpc-PH (P < 0.001). In cohort B, the inverse relationship of pulmonary vascular compliance and resistance, as well as that of RC time and PWP, in Cpc-PH was similar to that in PAH and distinct from that in Ipc-PH. Our findings demonstrate that patients with Cpc-PH have pulmonary vascular physiology that resembles that of patients with PAH more than that of Ipc-PH patients. Further study is warranted to identify determinants of vascular remodeling and assess therapeutic response in this subset of PH. PMID:27683608

  9. Phylogeny of the island populations of the Hawaiian Drosophila grimshawi complex: evidence from combined data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, F; Craddock, E M; Kambysellis, M P

    1997-04-01

    The picture-winged species Drosophila grimshawi is unique among Hawaiian Drosophila in its wide geographic range, having populations on several islands of the Hawaiian archipelago. This distribution contrasts with the pattern of single-island endemism observed in most of the picture-winged group; significantly, it does not concur with predictions of the founder theory, where speciation is the typical outcome of founder events involving colonization of a new island. To examine this anomalous situation, we have taken a phylogenetic approach in an attempt to resolve the relationships among taxa and decipher the most probable colonization scenario. We have obtained both morphological and molecular data for all the D. grimshawi populations as well as the closely related species D. pullipes, and two outgroup species, using scanning electron microscopy to score ultrastructural features of the chorion or eggshell, and PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing to acquire sequence data on Yp1, one of the three Yolk protein genes. In addition, we have used available data on Yolk Protein electrophoretic pattern and jousting, oviposition, and mating behavioral characters. Analyses of these data sets, either individually or in combination, indicate that there are two separate and ecologically distinct clades within this species complex. One clade includes the Kauai and Oahu populations of grimshawi, as well as the closely related species D. pullipes from Hawaii, all of which are classified as ecological specialists with respect to their oviposition and breeding substrate. The other clade includes all the ecologically generalist grimshawi populations of the Maui Nui island complex. The phylogenetic results do not concur with the previously proposed hypothesis that D. pullipes originated from a founder derived from the Maui Nui complex and further suggest that these taxa are in need of taxonomic revision.

  10. Genome scan for quantitative trait loci influencing HDL levels: evidence for multilocus inheritance in familial combined hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, France; Jarvik, Gail P; Badzioch, Michael D; Motulsky, Arno G; Brunzell, John D; Wijsman, Ellen M

    2005-09-01

    Several genome scans in search of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been performed. However, to date the actual identification of genes implicated in the regulation of common forms of HDL abnormalities remains unsuccessful. This may be due, in part, to the oligogenic and multivariate nature of HDL regulation, and potentially, pleiotropy affecting HDL and other lipid-related traits. Using a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach, we recently provided evidence of linkage of HDL level variation to the APOA1-C3-A4-A5 gene complex, in familial combined hyperlipidemia pedigrees, with an estimated number of two to three large QTLs remaining to be identified. We also presented results consistent with pleiotropy affecting HDL and triglycerides at the APOA1-C3-A4-A5 gene complex. Here we use the same MCMC analytic strategy, which allows for oligogenic trait models, as well as simultaneous incorporation of covariates, in the context of multipoint analysis. We now present results from a genome scan in search for the additional HDL QTLs in these pedigrees. We provide evidence of linkage for additional HDL QTLs on chromosomes 3p14 and 13q32, with results on chromosome 3 further supported by maximum parametric and variance component LOD scores of 3.0 and 2.6, respectively. Weaker evidence of linkage was also obtained for 7q32, 12q12, 14q31-32 and 16q23-24.

  11. Evaluation of forensic DNA mixture evidence: protocol for evaluation, interpretation, and statistical calculations using the combined probability of inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieber, Frederick R; Buckleton, John S; Budowle, Bruce; Butler, John M; Coble, Michael D

    2016-08-31

    The evaluation and interpretation of forensic DNA mixture evidence faces greater interpretational challenges due to increasingly complex mixture evidence. Such challenges include: casework involving low quantity or degraded evidence leading to allele and locus dropout; allele sharing of contributors leading to allele stacking; and differentiation of PCR stutter artifacts from true alleles. There is variation in statistical approaches used to evaluate the strength of the evidence when inclusion of a specific known individual(s) is determined, and the approaches used must be supportable. There are concerns that methods utilized for interpretation of complex forensic DNA mixtures may not be implemented properly in some casework. Similar questions are being raised in a number of U.S. jurisdictions, leading to some confusion about mixture interpretation for current and previous casework. Key elements necessary for the interpretation and statistical evaluation of forensic DNA mixtures are described. Given the most common method for statistical evaluation of DNA mixtures in many parts of the world, including the USA, is the Combined Probability of Inclusion/Exclusion (CPI/CPE). Exposition and elucidation of this method and a protocol for use is the focus of this article. Formulae and other supporting materials are provided. Guidance and details of a DNA mixture interpretation protocol is provided for application of the CPI/CPE method in the analysis of more complex forensic DNA mixtures. This description, in turn, should help reduce the variability of interpretation with application of this methodology and thereby improve the quality of DNA mixture interpretation throughout the forensic community.

  12. 基于不确定性度量的证据组合方法%Evidence combination approach based on uncertainty measure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏文俊; 朱林户; 陆陶荣

    2009-01-01

    Focusing on the problem that the Dempster's combination rule cannot effectively combine conflict evidences and the high computational complexity of the present solution method based on distance between evidences, a weighted average evidence combination approach was proposed. First, the computational complexity of combination rule proposed by Deng Yong, taken as an instance of combination rules based on distance between evidences, was calculated and analyzed. Then the concept of uncertainty measure of evidence was used to describe the uncertainty of evidence body and as a basis of determining the weight of evidence. The numerical example shows that the evidence combination approach based on uncertainty measure can efficiently combine evidences, whether they conflict with each other or not, with faster convergence speed as well as lower computational complexity compared with those based on the distance between the evidences.%针对Dempster组合规则不能有效组合冲突证据,已有的基于证据间距离的改进组合方法计算复杂度较大的情况,提出了一种证据加权平均组合方法.首先以邓勇等人的组合方法为例计算了基于证据间距离的改进组合方法的计算复杂度,分析了造成计算复杂度较大的原因;然后通过引入证据的不确定性度量概念来描述证据的不确定性并以此为基础定义证据的权重;最后给出算法步骤.理论分析和数值算例表明,该方法能有效融合冲突证据,收敛速度快且降低了计算复杂度.

  13. Brain hyper-connectivity and operation-specific deficits during arithmetic problem solving in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Ashkenazi, Sarit; Chen, Tianwen; Young, Christina B; Geary, David C; Menon, Vinod

    2015-05-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is marked by specific deficits in processing numerical and mathematical information despite normal intelligence (IQ) and reading ability. We examined how brain circuits used by young children with DD to solve simple addition and subtraction problems differ from those used by typically developing (TD) children who were matched on age, IQ, reading ability, and working memory. Children with DD were slower and less accurate during problem solving than TD children, and were especially impaired on their ability to solve subtraction problems. Children with DD showed significantly greater activity in multiple parietal, occipito-temporal and prefrontal cortex regions while solving addition and subtraction problems. Despite poorer performance during subtraction, children with DD showed greater activity in multiple intra-parietal sulcus (IPS) and superior parietal lobule subdivisions in the dorsal posterior parietal cortex as well as fusiform gyrus in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Critically, effective connectivity analyses revealed hyper-connectivity, rather than reduced connectivity, between the IPS and multiple brain systems including the lateral fronto-parietal and default mode networks in children with DD during both addition and subtraction. These findings suggest the IPS and its functional circuits are a major locus of dysfunction during both addition and subtraction problem solving in DD, and that inappropriate task modulation and hyper-connectivity, rather than under-engagement and under-connectivity, are the neural mechanisms underlying problem solving difficulties in children with DD. We discuss our findings in the broader context of multiple levels of analysis and performance issues inherent in neuroimaging studies of typical and atypical development.

  14. An empirical approach to selecting community-based alcohol interventions: combining research evidence, rural community views and professional opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeshaft Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given limited research evidence for community-based alcohol interventions, this study examines the intervention preferences of rural communities and alcohol professionals, and factors that influence their choices. Method Community preferences were identified by a survey of randomly selected individuals across 20 regional Australian communities. The preferences of alcohol professionals were identified by a survey of randomly selected members of the Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and Other Drugs. To identify preferred interventions and the extent of support for them, a budget allocation exercise was embedded in both surveys, asking respondents to allocate a given budget to different interventions. Tobit regression models were estimated to identify the characteristics that explain differences in intervention preferences. Results Community respondents selected school programs most often (88.0% and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by promotion of safer drinking (71.3%, community programs (61.4% and police enforcement of alcohol laws (60.4%. Professionals selected GP training most often (61.0% and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by school programs (36.6%, community programs (33.8% and promotion of safer drinking (31.7%. Community views were susceptible to response bias. There were no significant predictors of professionals' preferences. Conclusions In the absence of sufficient research evidence for effective community-based alcohol interventions, rural communities and professionals both strongly support school programs, promotion of safer drinking and community programs. Rural communities also supported police enforcement of alcohol laws and professionals supported GP training. The impact of a combination of these strategies needs to be rigorously evaluated.

  15. Quantifying evidence for candidate gene polymorphisms: Bayesian analysis combining sequence-specific and quantitative trait loci colocation information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Roderick D

    2007-12-01

    We calculate posterior probabilities for candidate genes as a function of genomic location. Posterior probabilities for quantitative trait loci (QTL) presence in a small interval are calculated using a Bayesian model-selection approach based on the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and used to combine QTL colocation information with sequence-specific evidence, e.g., from differential expression and/or association studies. Our method takes into account uncertainty in estimation of number and locations of QTL and estimated map position. Posterior probabilities for QTL presence were calculated for simulated data with n = 100, 300, and 1200 QTL progeny and compared with interval mapping and composite-interval mapping. Candidate genes that mapped to QTL regions had substantially larger posterior probabilities. Among candidates with a given Bayes factor, those that map near a QTL are more promising for further investigation with association studies and functional testing or for use in marker-aided selection. The BIC is shown to correspond very closely to Bayes factors for linear models with a nearly noninformative Zellner prior for the simulated QTL data with n > or = 100. It is shown how to modify the BIC to use a subjective prior for the QTL effects.

  16. 一种自适应冲突证据检验与合成方法%A self-adaptive conflicting evidence test and combination approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘希亮; 陈桂明

    2014-01-01

    在D-S证据理论中,冲突系数不能很好地描述证据之间的冲突,而且当证据高度冲突时会得到有悖常理的结果。为了解决该问题,提出一种自适应冲突证据检验与合成方法。首先,利用证据向量夹角余弦度量证据之间的相似性程度,并提出冲突证据判据,通过冲突证据检验因子实现证据分类;然后,引入冲突比例因子来决定证据的修正方法,并利用相似度对其进行局部或全局修正;最后,将修正后的证据进行检验与合成。通过应用实例验证了所提出方法的有效性。%In the D-S evidence theory, conflicting coefficient cannot well depict the conflict between evidences, and counterintuitive results may be generated in the combination of highly conflicting evidence. Therefore, a self-adaptive conflicting evidence test and combination approach is proposed. Firstly, cosine between evidence vectors is used to measure the similarity degree, and conflicting evidence criterion is presented. The evidence is classified by conflict evidence detection coefficient. Then, the conflicting proportion coefficient is introduced to decide the modified method for the evidence, and the local modification or full modification is decided according to its similarity. Finally, the modified evidence is tested and combined. Application example illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. 基于证据距离与不确定度的证据组合方法%Weighted evidence combination based on distance of evidence and uncertainty measure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩德强; 邓勇; 韩崇昭; 侯志强

    2011-01-01

    Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is an important tool in the fields of information fusion.However Dempster' s rule of combination cannot efficiently handle highly conflicting evidence combination for it can arouse counter-intuitive behaviors.To deal with such a problem,a novel weighted average evidence combination approach is proposed.Not only the distance of evidence but also the uncertainty measure is utilized to determine the weights of the bodies of evidence.Based on the weighted averaged BOE and Dempster' s rule of combination,the rational combination results can be obtained.The experimental results show that the method proposed can effectively handle conflicting evidence combination with better convergence.%Dempster-Shafer证据理论是信息融合领域中的一种重要的理论与方法.然而在实际应用中,Dempster证据组合规则无法有效处理高冲突证据组合问题,往往引发反直观结果.针对这一问题,提出一种新的加权证据组合方法.该方法同时利用证据距离和证据不确定度来生成权重进而修正待征组合证据,并取得合理的组合结果.实验结果表明所提方法具有更快的收敛速度,能有效应对高冲突证据组合问题.

  18. Evidence Combination Method Based on Included Angle Cosine%基于夹角余弦的证据组合方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡嘉骥; 李新德; 王丰羽

    2015-01-01

    Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence combination is widely used in the field of information fusion. However, it has a counter intuitive problem in highly conflictive evidence combination. Aiming at this problem, the source of evidence is analyzed, and then an evidence combination method based on cosine is proposed. Firstly, Pignistic probability is utilized to analyze the evidence source. Next, conflictive evidence is identified by comparing the included angle cosine with the threshold. Conflictive evidence is revised according to the variable correction factor generated from the relationship among evidences and the probability assignment of non-conflictive evidences. Finally, Dempster-Shafer rule is utilized to combine evidences. Experimental results show that the proposed method is effective in handing highly conflictive evidences and the combination result obtained in the case of multi-conflictive evidences is good. The proposed method can be widely used in the field of multi-source information fusion, pattern recognition and uncertain information decision-making.%Dempster-Shafer证据合成理论广泛应用于信息融合领域,但在证据高度冲突时存在反直观问题。针对此问题,文中从证据源展开分析,提出基于夹角余弦的冲突证据合成方法。该方法首先利用Pignistic概率分析证据源,然后通过夹角余弦与阈值比较识别冲突证据,并利用证据间关系生成可变修正因子和非冲突证据的概率分配,对冲突证据进行修正。最后利用Dempster-Shafer规则完成证据合成。实验表明,该方法可有效处理高冲突证据,尤其在多个冲突证据时也能获得较好的合成效果,可应用于多源信息融合、模式识别、不确定信息决策等领域。

  19. Brain Mechanism of Developmental Dyscalculia (review)%发展性计算障碍的脑机制研究进展(综述)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树东; 董奇

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 发展性计算障碍的界定 自从1968年Cohn提出"发展性计算障碍(developmental dyscalculia)"[1]这一术语后,这一领域引起了研究者的极大关注.随后,Slade和Russell[2]使用了另一个术语:特异性计算技能障碍(Specific disorder of arithmetic skills)来命名计算技能存在着缺陷的现象.因此,发展性计算障碍也称作特异性计算技能障碍.

  20. DNA methylation combinations in adjacent normal colon tissue predict cancer recurrence: evidence from a clinical cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Chun Kuan

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has suggested the requirement for further stratification of patients in the same tumor stage according to molecular factors. We evaluate the combination of cancer stage and DNA methylation status as an indicator of the risk of recurrence and mortality among patients with colorectal cancer (CRC. A cohort study of 215 patients with CRC (mean age 64.32 years; 50.5% of men from Tri-Service General Hospital in Taiwan examined the association between cancer stage and risk of CRC recurrence and mortality. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to analyze patient methylation status and clinical information at study entry, and their associations with CRC recurrence and mortality during follow-up. The advanced stage patients with p16, hMLH1, and MGMT methylation were associated with higher risk of CRC recurrence compared with the local stage patients with unmethylation status in tumor tissues, with adjusted hazard ratios (HRs (95% confidence interval [CI] of 9.64 (2.92-31.81, 8.29 (3.40-20.22, and 11.83 (3.49-40.12, respectively. When analyzing normal tissues, we observed similar risk of CRC recurrence with adjusted HRs (95% CI of 10.85 (4.06-28.96, 9.04 (3.79-21.54, and 12.61 (4.90-32.44, respectively. For combined analyses, the risk of recurrence in the patients in advanced stage with DNA methylation in both normal and tumor tissues, compared with local stage with unmethylation, was increased with adjusted HR (95% CI of 9.37 (3.36-26.09. In the advanced stage patients, methylation status and tissue subtype were associated with increased risk of 5-year cumulative CRC recurrence (p < 0.001. This study demonstrates that clustering DNA methylation status according to cancer stage and tissue subtype is critical for the assessment of risk of recurrence in CRC patients and also indicated an underlying mechanism.

  1. TMS of the right angular gyrus modulates priming of pop-out in visual search: combined TMS-ERP evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Paul C J; Muggleton, Neil G; Kalla, Roger; Walsh, Vincent; Eimer, Martin

    2011-12-01

    During priming of pop-out, performance at discriminating a pop-out feature target in visual search is affected by whether the target on the previous trial was defined by the same feature as on the upcoming trial. Recent studies suggest that priming of pop-out relies on attentional processes. With the use of simultaneous, combined transcranial magnetic stimulation and event-related potential recording (TMS-ERP), we tested for any critical role of the right angular gyrus (rANG) and left and right frontal eye fields (FEFs)-key attentional sites-in modulating both performance and the ERPs evoked by such visual events. Intertrial TMS trains were applied while participants discriminated the orientation of a color pop-out element in a visual search array. rANG TMS disrupted priming of pop-out, reducing reaction time costs on switch trials and speeding responses when the color of the pop-out target switched. rANG TMS caused a negativity in the ERP elicited in response to the visual stimulus array, starting 210 ms after stimulus onset. Both behavioral and ERP effects were apparent only after rANG TMS, on switch trials, and when the target in the visual search array was presented in the left visual field, with no effects after left or right FEF TMS. These results provide evidence for an attentional reorienting mechanism, which originates in the rANG and is modulated by the implicit memory of the previous trial. The rANG plays a causal role on switch trials during priming of pop-out by interacting with visual processing, particularly in the ipsilateral hemisphere representing the contralateral hemifield.

  2. 基于落影相似度的证据合成规则%Drop- falling Similarity for Evidence Combination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛疆; 董福安; 陆陶荣

    2011-01-01

    在多传感器目标决策系统中,由于敌方或者环境的影响,由D-S合成规则,会得出与直觉相悖的结论.提出了一种改进的证据合成规则.首先,利用条件布尔代数距离定义了证据的落影距离,并推出证据的落影相似度;然后,由证据的落影相似度定义证据的可信度,作为证据参与组合时重要程度的权值;最后,按照Murphy的平均加权证据合成规则对证据进行组合.理论分析和数值算例表明:该方法是有效的,且在冲突信息目标决策上优于一些现有方法.%As for the multi - sensor target decision - making system, with the affection of the opponent and the environment, the use of D - S combination rules in dealing with high conflict information will always arrive at a counter - intuitive conclusion.In this paper, an improved evidence combination role is proposed.Firstly, conditional Boolean algebra distance is applied to define drop - falling distance, from which drop - falling similarity is deduced.Then, the credibility of evidence, as the weight of significance in evidence combination, is defined from the drop -falling similarity.Finally, the evidences are combined according to Murphy's combination role.Both theoretic analysis and numerical examples confirm the validity of the proposed approach and the superiority to the existing methods in combining conflicting evidences.

  3. Four weeks of combination exercise training improved executive functions, episodic memory, and processing speed in healthy elderly people: evidence from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouchi, Rui; Taki, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-04-01

    Previous reports have described that long-term combination exercise training improves cognitive functions in healthy elderly people. This study investigates the effects of 4 weeks of short-term combination exercise training on various cognitive functions of elderly people. We conducted a single-blinded randomized controlled trial with two parallel groups. Sixty-four healthy older adults were assigned randomly to a combination exercise training group or a waiting list control group. Participants in the combination exercise training group participated in the combination exercise training (aerobic, strength, and stretching exercise trainings) 3 days per week during 4 weeks (12 workouts total). The waiting list control group did not participate in the combination exercise training. Measures of the cognitive functions (executive functions, episodic memory, working memory, reading ability, attention, and processing speed) were conducted before and after training. Results showed that the combination exercise training improved executive functions, episodic memory, and processing speed compared to those attributes of the waiting list control group. This report was the first of a study demonstrating the beneficial effects of short-term combination exercise training on diverse cognitive functions of elderly people. Our study provides important evidence of the short-term combination exercise's effectiveness.

  4. Conflicting evidence combination by using uncertainty degree%利用不确定度的冲突证据组合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩德强; 邓勇; 韩崇昭; 杨艺; 蒋雯; 侯志强

    2011-01-01

    D-S(Dempster-Shafer)证据理论在信息融合中有着广泛的应用.针对证据理论中高冲突证据组合出现反直观结果问题,提出一种新的证据组合方法.依据证据体不确定度生成权重,并基于所获权重修正待组合证据体冉利用Dempster规则完成证据组合.算例分析表明所提方法是合理有效的.%Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is widely applied to the fields of information fusion. To suppress the counterintuitive results generated in the combination of high conflicting bodies of evidence, a modified evidence combination approach is proposed. Uncertainty degree is used to generate the weights, which are used to modify the bodies of evidence before the combination based on the Dempster's rule. Numerical examples show the efficiency and rationality of the proposed approach.

  5. Optimal Combination of Evidence Based on Pignistic Probability Distance%基于Pignistic概率距离的最优证据合成法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈圣群; 王应明

    2013-01-01

    为了使证据融合更加合理地反映实际情况,提出一种新的最优证据合成法,并给出了相关理论证明.该方法从整体角度构建证据间Pignistic概率距离的最优化模型,通过得出的相对权重来修正证据源,使之符合Dempster组合规则可用范围,然后合成.通过算例对比分析,验证了该方法具有收敛性高、稳定性好、抗干扰能力强的特点.%To reflect practical situations more reasonably by the fusion of evidence, a new method for optimal combination of evidence is proposed. Some related theoretical proofs are presented. An optimization model of Pignistic probability distance is built from the global perspective to provide the relative importance weights for weighing evidence such that the weighted evidence can be reasonably combined with the Dempster rule of combination. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the advantages of the new method such as quick convergence, good stability and strong anti-interference ability.

  6. Dyscalculia ≠ maths difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Maria Christina Secher

    2016-01-01

    Using Bourdieu’s notion of field, the Scandinavian field of maths pedagogy occurs at a time characterised by increasing inclusion efforts in primary school. Various stakeholders in maths pedagogy are arguing about what should be done about pupils who perform poorly in mathematics and what causes...... their difficulties. Four analytical positions are presented here: the diagnostic, the structural, the interventionist and the complementary. The literature examined includes academic articles on math pedagogy and scholarly journals for maths teachers from the period 1995–2014. A total of 103 articles were analysed...

  7. Dyscalculia ≠ maths difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Maria Christina Secher

    2015-01-01

    The presentation is based on a substudy conducted in connection with a Danish PhD study of inclusive teaching of beginner mathematics in the Danish municipal primary school and focuses on the research question: What conflicting positions can be identified in relation to low-performing pupils in t...

  8. Combining Major Life Events and Recurrent Hassles in the Assessment of Stress in Chinese Adolescents: Preliminary Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Li, Kin-Kit

    2010-01-01

    Major life events and hassles have been considered 2 distinct constructs in the measurement of stress. Research also shows that chronic events are more impactful than time-limited ones. This study reports a new approach to measuring stress in which major life events are combined with recurrent hassles to form a single index--the Adolescent Stress…

  9. Efficacy and Tolerability of a Combination Treatment of Memantine and Donepezil for Alzheimer’s Disease: A Literature Review Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riverol, Mario; Slachevsky, Andrea; López, Oscar L.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Two types of drugs have been approved for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD): the cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) and memantine. There is a growing interest to know whether the combination of these drugs is safe and if it adds any clinical benefit to patients. OBJECTIVE To systematically review published medical literature assessing the efficacy and tolerability of a combination treatment of memantine and donepezil in AD patients. METHODS We searched PubMed for English and Spanish-language literature, using the terms “Alzheimer’s disease,” “cholinesterase inhibitors,” “donepezil,” and “memantine.” Our review focused on clinical trials and observational studies. RESULTS Eleven publications representing seven unique studies were selected for this review. Three were randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trials and four were observational studies. CONCLUSIONS Available data revealed that the combination of memantine and donepezil slowed down cognitive decline, prolonged functional independence, and improved behavioral symptoms in patients with moderate to severe AD. The long-term use of the dual therapy decreased the risk of nursing home admission. More longitudinal studies are needed to further examine the role of combined therapy in the management of AD patients. PMID:25302109

  10. MEG evidence for conceptual combination but not numeral quantification in the left anterior temporal lobe during language production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eDel Prato

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The left anterior temporal lobe (LATL has risen as a leading candidate for a brain locus of composition in language; yet the computational details of its function are unknown. Although most literature discusses it as a combinatory region in very general terms, it has also been proposed to reflect the more specific function of conceptual combination, which in the classic use of this term mainly pertains to the combination of open class words with obvious conceptual contributions. We aimed to distinguish between these two possibilities by contrasting plural nouns in contexts where they were either preceded by a color modifier (red cups, eliciting conceptual combination, or by a number word (two cups, eliciting numeral quantification but no conceptual combination. This contrast was chosen because within a production task, it allows the manipulation of composition type while keeping the physical stimulus constant: a display of two red cups can be named as two cups or red cups depending on the task instruction. These utterances were compared to productions of two-word number and color lists, intended as noncombinatory control conditions. MEG activity was recorded during the planning for production, prior to motion artifacts. As expected on the basis of comprehension studies, color modification elicited increased LATL activity as compared to color lists, demonstrating that this basic combinatory effect is strongly crossmodal. However, numeral quantification did not elicit a parallel effect, suggesting that the function of the LATL is (i semantic and not syntactic (given that both color modification and numeral quantification involve syntactic composition and (ii corresponds more closely to the classical psychological notion of conceptual combination as opposed to a more general semantic combinatory function.

  11. Research on improved evidence combination method based on support degree%基于支持度的改进证据合成方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜礼平; 刘杨; 胡伟文; 周尧

    2014-01-01

    To solve the problem of the unrealistic results arising in using Dempster’s method for the combi-nation of highly conflicting evidences,an improved evidence combination method is presented which is based on support degree.First of all,the similarities between evidences are used as an approach to judge whether con-flicts exist.If there are more than 3 evidence combinations with conflicts,the characteristic vector correspon-ding to the maximum characteristic value of the support matrix is used so as to obtain the evidences’support de-gree coefficients.Then,BPA functions are transformed by means of the support degree coefficients.Finally, the Dempster’s method is used for the combination.The stimulation results show that the proposed method can deal with conflicting evidence solve the problem caused by one vote veto effectively,combinations calculate faster than other improved algorithms,reduce uncertainty in recognizing results,and retain the advantages of Dempster’s method.%针对 Dempster 方法在合成高度冲突的证据时结果与直观结论相悖的问题,提出了一种基于支持度的改进证据合成方法。首先根据证据之间的相似性程度判断是否存在证据冲突,对于总数在3条以上且存在冲突的证据组合,应用各证据的支持矩阵,通过其最大特征值对应的特征向量导出各证据的支持度系数,由此对基本概率分配(basic probability assignation,BPA)函数进行转化,再采用 Dempster 方法进行合成。仿真计算结果表明,该方法能有效处理冲突证据组合,克服了一票否决问题,相对于其它几种典型改进算法具有更快的识别速度,能进一步减小识别结果的不确定性,并保留了 Dempster 方法满足交换律、结合律的良好特性。

  12. Combined therapy for multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection--is there evidence outside the laboratory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuon, Felipe F; Rocha, Jaime L; Merlini, Alexandre B

    2015-09-01

    Acinetobacter are among the most common bacteria isolated in hospital infections, especially in developing countries. Multi-drug, extended-drug or pan-drug resistance makes treatment a real medical challenge. In the present review, the authors describe clinical and experimental data in order to present different current and potential future strategies to treat infections caused by multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter. The therapeutic options for carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter are scarce, and the current options have poor pharmacokinetic aspects and several side effects. Combined therapy has been an alternative for multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter. However, this issue is always controversial. In some studies combined therapy has shown superiority for some strains of Acinetobacter in animal models and in vitro studies. However, studies with humans are scarce and too poor quality to suggest the best approach for the treatment of infections caused by multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

  13. Shading Beats Binocular Disparity in Depth from Luminance Gradients: Evidence against a Maximum Likelihood Principle for Cue Combination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chung Chen

    Full Text Available Perceived depth is conveyed by multiple cues, including binocular disparity and luminance shading. Depth perception from luminance shading information depends on the perceptual assumption for the incident light, which has been shown to default to a diffuse illumination assumption. We focus on the case of sinusoidally corrugated surfaces to ask how shading and disparity cues combine defined by the joint luminance gradients and intrinsic disparity modulation that would occur in viewing the physical corrugation of a uniform surface under diffuse illumination. Such surfaces were simulated with a sinusoidal luminance modulation (0.26 or 1.8 cy/deg, contrast 20%-80% modulated either in-phase or in opposite phase with a sinusoidal disparity of the same corrugation frequency, with disparity amplitudes ranging from 0'-20'. The observers' task was to adjust the binocular disparity of a comparison random-dot stereogram surface to match the perceived depth of the joint luminance/disparity-modulated corrugation target. Regardless of target spatial frequency, the perceived target depth increased with the luminance contrast and depended on luminance phase but was largely unaffected by the luminance disparity modulation. These results validate the idea that human observers can use the diffuse illumination assumption to perceive depth from luminance gradients alone without making an assumption of light direction. For depth judgments with combined cues, the observers gave much greater weighting to the luminance shading than to the disparity modulation of the targets. The results were not well-fit by a Bayesian cue-combination model weighted in proportion to the variance of the measurements for each cue in isolation. Instead, they suggest that the visual system uses disjunctive mechanisms to process these two types of information rather than combining them according to their likelihood ratios.

  14. Capecitabine, alone and in combination, in the management of patients with colorectal cancer: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comella, Pasquale; Casaretti, Rossana; Sandomenico, Claudia; Avallone, Antonio; Franco, Luca

    2008-01-01

    Capecitabine, an oral prodrug of fluorouracil (5FU), has shown efficacy in terms of progression-free and overall survival at least equivalent to standard folinic acid (leucovorin)-modulated intravenous 5FU bolus regimens in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Moreover, capecitabine has demonstrated a better tolerability profile, producing a significantly lower occurrence of severe stomatitis than 5FU plus folinic acid regimens, making this drug particularly attractive for treating elderly patients. In addition, capecitabine can be combined with other active drugs such as irinotecan or oxaliplatin. Indeed, the combination of capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (XELOX regimen) now represents a new standard of care for the metastatic disease and is also under evaluation in the adjuvant setting. The combination of new biological drugs, such as bevacizumab, with the XELOX regimen was shown to further prolong the time to progression of metastatic disease, and might reduce the risk of recurrence for those with resected colon cancer with poor risk factors. Cost-effectiveness analyses have demonstrated that, despite higher acquisition costs, capecitabine appears to be more cost effective than standard treatments for the management of colorectal cancer patients.

  15. A unified factor-analytic approach to the detection of item and test bias: Illustration with the effect of providing calculators to students with dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An absence of measurement bias against distinct groups is a prerequisite for the use of a given psychological instrument in scientific research or high-stakes assessment. Factor analysis is the framework explicitly adopted for the identification of such bias when the instrument consists of a multi-test battery, whereas item response theory is employed when the focus narrows to a single test composed of discrete items. Item response theory can be treated as a mild nonlinearization of the standard factor model, and thus the essential unity of bias detection at the two levels merits greater recognition. Here we illustrate the benefits of a unified approach with a real-data example, which comes from a statewide test of mathematics achievement where examinees diagnosed with dyscalculia were accommodated with calculators. We found that items that can be solved by explicit arithmetical computation became easier for the accommodated examinees, but the quantitative magnitude of this differential item functioning (measurement bias was small.

  16. 基于贴近度的D-S证据合成改进方法%D-S Evidence Combination Improved Method Based on Closeness Degree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑涛; 魏永超; 孙华程

    2012-01-01

    One novel conflict evidence combination method was studied. The reliability of the evidence were different, the direct use of conventional synthetic methods may be inconsistent with the actual results. In the new method, the degree of correlation between evidence was determined by the value of closeness degree* which also showed the level of conflict, and the value of closeness degree was further changed into weight which reflects the importance of evidence. According to weight, the basic probabilities were reallocated, and the degree of conflict was decreased, the final combination results can obtain get by improving the synthesis formula. Examples verify that the new method can objectively reflect the importance of evidence and get correct combination result with evidences of normal and conflict situations, and shows good adaptability, reliability and high convergent speed compared to the other methods.%提出了一种新的冲突证据合成方法;信息融合中证据源的可靠性可能不同,直接利用传统的合成方法可能得到与实际相悖的结果;新方法通过贴近度表示证据间相关程度,证据贴近度的值可以判断证据的冲突程度,进一步通过相关算法转化贴近度为反映证据重要程度的证据权值,根据权值对原始的基本概率赋值函数进行重新分配,降低冲突证据的重要性,再通过改进的合成公式,对重新概率分配的证据进行合成,得到合成结果;仿真实验表明,新方法能客观反映证据重要程度,在正常与冲突证据情况下都能很好地得到合成结果,与其它方法相比,具有更好的适用性、可靠性和较快的收敛速度.

  17. Sitagliptin/metformin fixed-dose combination in type 2 diabetes mellitus: an evidence-based review of its place in therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Hayes,1 Rosie Anderson,1 Jeffrey W Stephens1,2 1Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Morriston Hospital, ABM University NHS Trust, 2Diabetes Research Group, Institute of Life Sciences, Swansea University, Swansea, UK Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a progressive disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There is good evidence showing that intensive glycemic control reduces the development and progression of complications. In order to achieve glycemic targets, patients often require a combination of oral therapy and/or insulin in addition to lifestyle modification. Unfortunately, many of the traditional therapies for type 2 diabetes are associated with weight gain and hypoglycemia, resulting in poor compliance and subsequent worsening of glycemic control. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin is a therapy for type 2 diabetes and is available as a fixed-dose combination with metformin. Phase III clinical trials have demonstrated beneficial effects on glycemic control and minimal untoward effects with this combination. In this article, we provide an overview of the pharmacology, efficacy, and safety and examine the role of this combination within current practice. Keywords: sitagliptin, metformin, fixed-dose combination, type 2 diabetes

  18. Combination therapy with lercanidipine and enalapril in the management of the hypertensive patient: an update of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antza C

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Christina Antza,1 Stella Stabouli,2 Vasilios Kotsis1 1Hypertension Center, Third Department of Medicine, Papageorgiou Hospital, 2First Department of Pediatrics, Hippokration Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece Abstract: Hypertension is an important risk factor for premature death as it increases the probability of stroke, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Antihypertensive drugs can decrease cardiovascular (CV morbidity and mortality. The majority of hypertensive patients need more than one antihypertensive agent to attain blood pressure (BP targets. Monotherapy can effectively reduce BP only in 20%–40% of patients. Multiple mechanisms including increased peripheral vascular resistance, increased cardiac work, and hypervolemia are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Targeting multiple pathways may more potently reduce BP. Increasing the dose of a single agent in many cases does not provide the expected BP-lowering effect because the underlying mechanism of the BP increase is either different or already corrected with the lower dose. Moreover, drugs acting on different pathways may have synergistic effects and thus better control hypertension. It is well known that diuretics enhance the actions of renin–angiotensin aldosterone system and activate it as a feedback to the reduced circulated blood volume. The addition of a renin–angiotensin aldosterone system blocker to a diuretic may more effectively reduce BP because the system is upregulated. Reducing the maximal dose of an agent may also reduce possible side effects if they are dose dependent. The increased prevalence of peripheral edema with higher doses of calcium channel blockers (CCBs is reduced when renin–angiotensin aldosterone system blockers are added to CCBs through vein dilation. The effectiveness of the combination of enalapril with lercanidipine in reducing BP, the safety profile, and the use of the combination of angiotensin

  19. Combining Hierarchical and Associative Gene Ontology Relations with Textual Evidence in Estimating Gene and Gene Product Similarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Posse, Christian; Gopalan, Banu; Riensche, Roderick M.; Beagley, Nathaniel; Baddeley, Bob L.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2007-03-01

    Gene and gene product similarity is a fundamental diagnostic measure in analyzing biological data and constructing predictive models for functional genomics. With the rising influence of the Gene Ontology, two complementary approaches have emerged where the similarity between two genes or gene products is obtained by comparing Gene Ontology (GO) annotations associated with the genes or gene products. One approach captures GO-based similarity in terms of hierarchical relations within each gene subontology. The other approach identifies GO-based similarity in terms of associative relations across the three gene subontologies. We propose a novel methodology where the two approaches can be merged with ensuing benefits in coverage and accuracy, and demonstrate that further improvements can be obtained by integrating textual evidence extracted from relevant biomedical literature.

  20. Combined Plate Motion and Density Driven Flow in the Asthenosphere beneath Saudi Arabia: Evidence from Shearwave Splitting and Seismic Anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S; Schwartz, S; Al-Amri, A; Rodgers, A

    2006-09-08

    Mantle anisotropy along the Red Sea and across the Arabian Peninsula was analyzed using shear-wave splitting recorded by stations from three different seismic networks: the largest, most widely distributed array of stations examined across the Arabian Peninsula to date. Stations near the Gulf of Aqaba display fast orientations aligned parallel to the Dead Sea Transform Fault, most likely related to the strike-slip motion between Africa and Arabia However, most of our observations across Arabia are statistically the same (at a 95% confidence level), with north-south oriented fast directions and delay times averaging about 1.4 s. Since end-member models of fossilized anisotropy and present-day asthenospheric flow do not adequately explain these observations, we interpret them as a combination of plate and density driven flow in the asthenosphere. Combining northeast oriented flow associated with absolute plate motion with northwest oriented flow associated with the channelized Afar upwelling along the Red Sea produces a north-south resultant that matches the observations and supports models of active rifting.

  1. Combined isosorbide dinitrate and ibuprofen as a novel therapy for muscular dystrophies: evidence from Phase I studies in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Maria Vittoria; Cattaneo, Dario; Fucile, Serena; Pellegrino, Paolo; Baldelli, Sara; Cozzi, Valeria; Capetti, Amedeo; Clementi, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    We designed two Phase I studies that assessed healthy volunteers in order to evaluate the safety and to optimize the dosing of the combination of the drugs isosorbide dinitrate, a nitric oxide donor, and ibuprofen, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug. We designed these studies with the aim of designing a Phase II trial to evaluate the drugs' efficacy in patients affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy. For the first trial, ISOFEN1, a single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, active control, three-treatment cross-over study, was aimed at comparing the pharmacokinetics of ibuprofen 200 mg and isosorbide dinitrate 20 mg when given alone and concomitantly. The pharmacokinetics of ibuprofen given alone versus ibuprofen given concomitantly with isosorbide dinitrate were similar, as documented by the lack of statistically significant differences in the main drug's pharmacokinetic parameters (time to maximal concentration [Tmax], maximal concentration [Cmax], area under the curve [AUC]0-t, and AUC0-∞). Similarly, we found that the coadministration of ibuprofen did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of isosorbide dinitrate. No issues of safety were detected. The second trial, ISOFEN2, was a single-site, dose titration study that was designed to select the maximum tolerated dose for isosorbide dinitrate when coadministered with ibuprofen. Eighteen out of the 19 enrolled subjects tolerated the treatment well, and they completed the study at the highest dose of isosorbide dinitrate applied (80 mg/day). One subject voluntarily decided to reduce the dose of isosorbide dinitrate from 80 mg to 60 mg. The treatment-related adverse events recorded during the study were, for the large majority, episodes of headache that remitted spontaneously in 0.5-1 hour - a known side effect of isosorbide dinitrate. These studies demonstrate that the combination of isosorbide dinitrate and ibuprofen does not lead to pharmacokinetic interactions between the two drugs; they also

  2. Combined isosorbide dinitrate and ibuprofen as a novel therapy for muscular dystrophies: evidence from Phase I studies in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cossu MV

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maria Vittoria Cossu,1 Dario Cattaneo,1 Serena Fucile,1 Paolo Pellegrino,1 Sara Baldelli,1 Valeria Cozzi,1 Amedeo Capetti,2 Emilio Clementi1,3 1Unit of Clinical Pharmacology, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Institute of Neuroscience, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, University Hospital “Luigi Sacco”, Università di Milano, Milan, Italy; 2Unit of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital “Luigi Sacco”, Milan, Italy; 3Scientific Institute, IRCCS Eugenio Medea, Bosisio Parini, Lecco, Italy Abstract: We designed two Phase I studies that assessed healthy volunteers in order to evaluate the safety and to optimize the dosing of the combination of the drugs isosorbide dinitrate, a nitric oxide donor, and ibuprofen, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug. We designed these studies with the aim of designing a Phase II trial to evaluate the drugs’ efficacy in patients affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy. For the first trial, ISOFEN1, a single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, active control, three-treatment cross-over study, was aimed at comparing the pharmacokinetics of ibuprofen 200 mg and isosorbide dinitrate 20 mg when given alone and concomitantly. The pharmacokinetics of ibuprofen given alone versus ibuprofen given concomitantly with isosorbide dinitrate were similar, as documented by the lack of statistically significant differences in the main drug’s pharmacokinetic parameters (time to maximal concentration [Tmax], maximal concentration [Cmax], area under the curve [AUC]0–t, and AUC0–∞. Similarly, we found that the coadministration of ibuprofen did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of isosorbide dinitrate. No issues of safety were detected. The second trial, ISOFEN2, was a single-site, dose titration study that was designed to select the maximum tolerated dose for isosorbide dinitrate when coadministered with ibuprofen. Eighteen out of the 19 enrolled subjects tolerated the treatment well, and

  3. 一种基于局部冲突分配的证据组合规则%Evidence combination rule based on local conflict distribution strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹洁; 郭雷雷

    2013-01-01

    Dempster-Shafer(D-S)method has been used widely in all kinds of data fusion system,but it has difficulty in dealing with combining evidences with high degree of conflict.In order to solve problem,this paper proposed a new method based on local conflict distribution strategy.According to Jousselme's distance,the credibility of each evidence and the weighted average evidence were obtained.Then every focal elements'absolute distance was got,according to absolute distance the credibility of each focal element were obtained.Finally,the results of numerical examples show that the proposed method improves the reliability and rationality of the evidence combination results.%Dempster-Shafer证据理论广泛应用于信息融合中,但是在证据高冲突情况下基于经典D-S证据组合规则的融合结果存在问题.针对这一问题,提出了一种基于局部冲突分配的证据组合规则.首先基于Jousselme证据距离获得各个证据体的信任度和加权平均证据,然后由定义的焦元距求其每一个焦元的绝对距离,并以此获得焦元信任度.最后实验结果表明,所提算法提高了证据合成结果的可靠性和合理性.

  4. 基于pignistic概率距离的改进证据组合规则%Improved Combination Rule of Evidence Based on Pignistic Probability Distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖建于; 童敏明; 朱昌杰; 范祺

    2012-01-01

    针对使用传统冲突系数识别证据冲突存在的不足,采用pignistic变换后得到的概率赋值函数之间的距离,结合传统冲突量化标准,讨论了Dempster组合规则适用条件,并提出了一种改进的证据组合方法.该方法通过证据之间的pignistic概率距离表示证据之间的冲突程度,将证据间的冲突程度转化成相似程度,然后求出证据之间的支持程度,并确定权重系数,最后采用Demp—ster组合规则合成权重系数调整后的基本概率赋值.数值算例分析结果表明,改进的证据组合方法可以有效地处理证据冲突,且具有较快的收敛速度.%To remedy the shortcomings in the recognition of evidence conflict by using conventional conflict coefficient, this paper discussed the application conditions of Dempster~s combination rule by traditional conflict quantification standard and the distance among probability assignment functions transformed by pignistic. Furthermore, the paper presented an improved method of evidence combination. In this method, the conflict level is represented by the pignistic probability distance of evidence, after that the conflict level is transformed into similarity level and the support degree of evidence is obtained. In addition, the weight coefficients are determined. Finally, the basic probability assignments adjusted by weight coefficient are {used by Dempster's combination rule. The numerical examples prove that the modified method can re- solve the evidence conflict efficiently and has fast convergence speed.

  5. In vitro activities of ceftobiprole combined with amikacin or levofloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa: evidence of a synergistic effect using time-kill methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresken, Michael; Körber-Irrgang, Barbara; Läuffer, Jörg; Decker-Burgard, Sabine; Davies, Todd

    2011-07-01

    Ceftobiprole is an investigational intravenous broad-spectrum cephalosporin with in vitro activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a frequent nosocomial pathogen, increasingly associated with complicated skin and skin-structure infections. Combination antimicrobial therapy is recommended as empirical therapy for serious infections where P. aeruginosa is suspected. Therefore, in this study the interaction of ceftobiprole with two other antipseudomonal agents (amikacin and levofloxacin) was investigated. Time-kill studies were performed for each single agent and for the combination of ceftobiprole 4 mg/L with either amikacin or levofloxacin at 0.5×, 1× and 2× the minimum inhibitory concentration. Five clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa as well as the P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 reference strain were tested at initial inocula of 5×10(5) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL (low inoculum) or 5×10(7) CFU/mL (high inoculum). Synergy was defined as a decrease of ≥2log(10) CFU/mL with the combination compared with the most active single drug at 6 h and 24 h. At low inoculum with ceftobiprole as a single agent, viable counts were decreased by 1.5-2log(10) at 6 h. Addition of either amikacin or levofloxacin resulted in synergistic bactericidal activity at 24 h. At high inoculum the combination of ceftobiprole with amikacin or levofloxacin demonstrated synergism in one of three and three of five strains, respectively. This study demonstrated that the combination of ceftobiprole at a clinically achievable concentration of 4 mg/L with amikacin or levofloxacin exhibited synergistic activity against P. aeruginosa. There was no evidence of antagonism for either combination.

  6. Phylogenetic relationships of Middle American cichlids (Cichlidae, Heroini) based on combined evidence from nuclear genes, mtDNA, and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rícan, Oldrich; Zardoya, Rafael; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2008-12-01

    Heroine cichlids are the second largest and very diverse tribe of Neotropical cichlids, and the only cichlid group that inhabits Mesoamerica. The taxonomy of heroines is complex because monophyly of most genera has never been demonstrated, and many species groups are without applicable generic names after their removal from the catch-all genus Cichlasoma (sensu Regan, 1905). Hence, a robust phylogeny for the group is largely wanting. A rather complete heroine phylogeny based on cytb sequence data is available [Concheiro Pérez, G.A., Rícan O., Ortí G., Bermingham, E., Doadrio, I., Zardoya, R. 2007. Phylogeny and biogeography of 91 species of heroine cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) based on sequences of the cytochrome b gene. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 43, 91-110], and in the present study, we have added and analyzed independent data sets (nuclear and morphological) to further confirm and strengthen the cytb-phylogenetic hypothesis. We have analyzed a combined cytb-nuclear (RAG1 and two S7 introns) data set of 48 species representing main heroine lineages to achieve further resolution of heroine higher taxonomic levels and a combined cytb-morphological data set of 92 species to stabilize generic taxonomy. The recovered phylogenies supported the circumamazonian--CAM--Heroini (sensu Concheiro Peréz et al., 2007) as a monophyletic group, that could be divided into six main clades: (1) australoheroines (the southernmost heroine genus Australoheros), (2) nandopsines (the Antillean genus Nandopsis), (3) caquetaines (including the north western Amazonian genera Caquetaia and Heroina), (4) astatheroines (including Astatheros, Herotilapia and Rocio), (5) amphilophines (including Amphilophus and related genera), and (6) herichthyines (including Herichthyis and related genera). Nuclear and mitochondrial data partitions arrived at highly congruent topologies. Suprageneric relationships were influenced mainly by the nuclear signal, as well as the most basal phylogenetic position

  7. Combined Chemical and Mineralogical Evidence for Heavy Metal Binding in Mining- and Smelting-Affected Alluvial Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. VAN(E)K; V. ETTLER; T. GRYGAR; L. BOR(U)VKA; O. (S)EBEK; O. DR(A)BEK

    2008-01-01

    The binding of metallic contaminants (Pb, Cd, and Zn) and As on soil constituents was studied on four highly con-taminated alluvial soil profiles from the mining/smelting district of Pribram (Czech Republic) using a combination of mineralogical and chemical methods. Sequential extraction analysis (SEA) was supplemented by mineralogical investi-gation of both bulk samples and hcavy mineral fractions using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM/EDS). The mineralogy of Fe and Mn oxides was studied by voltammetry of microparticles (VMP) and diffuse reflectance spectrometry (DRS). Zinc and Pb were predominantly were detected in soils by XRD and SEM/EDS. In contrast, Cd was the most mobile contaminant and was predominantly present in the exchangeable fraction. Arsenic was bound to the residual and reducible fractions (corresponding to Fe oxides or to unidentified Fe-Pb arsenates). SEM/EDS observations indicate the predominant affinity of Pb for Mn oxides,and to a lesser extent, for Fe oxidcs. Thus, a more suitable SEA procedure should be used for these mining-affected soils to distinguish between the contaminant fraction bound to Mn oxides and Fe oxides.

  8. Combining qualitative and quantitative evidence to determine factors leading to late presentation for antiretroviral therapy in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona R Parrott

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treatment seeking delays among people living with HIV have adverse consequences for outcome. Gender differences in treatment outcomes have been observed in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVE: To better understand antiretroviral treatment (ART seeking behaviour in HIV-infected adults in rural Malawi. METHODS: Qualitative interviews with male and female participants in an ART cohort study at a treatment site in rural northern Malawi triangulated with analysis of baseline clinical and demographic data for 365 individuals attending sequentially for ART screening between January 2008 and September 2009. RESULTS: 43% of the cohort presented with late stage HIV disease classified as WHO stage 3/4. Respondents reported that women's frequency of testing, health awareness and commitment to children led to earlier ART uptake and that men's commitment to wider social networks of influence, masculine ideals of strength, and success with sexual and marital partners led them to refuse treatment until they were sick. Quantitative analysis of the screening cohort provided supporting evidence for these expressed views. Overall, male gender (adjusted OR 2.3, 95% CI1.3-3.9 and never being married (adjusted OR 4.1, 95% CI1.5-11.5 were risk factors for late presentation, whereas having ≥3 dependent children was associated with earlier presentation (adjusted OR 0.31, 95% CI0.15-0.63, compared to those with no dependent children. CONCLUSION: Gender-specific barriers and facilitators operate throughout the whole process of seeking care. Further efforts to enrol men into care earlier should focus on the masculine characteristics that they value, and the risks to these of severe health decline. Our results emphasise the value of exploring as well as identifying behavioural correlates of late presentation.

  9. Acoustic processing of temporally modulated sounds in infants: evidence from a combined near-infrared spectroscopy and EEG study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke eTelkemeyer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Speech perception requires rapid extraction of the linguistic content from the acoustic signal. The ability to efficiently process rapid changes in auditory information is important for decoding speech and thereby crucial during language acquisition. Investigating functional networks of speech perception in infancy might elucidate neuronal ensembles supporting perceptual abilities that gate language acquisition. Interhemispheric specializations for language have been demonstrated in infants. How these asymmetries are shaped by basic temporal acoustic properties is under debate. We recently provided evidence that newborns process non-linguistic sounds sharing temporal features with language in a differential and lateralized fashion. The present study used the same material while measuring brain responses of 6 and 3 month old infants using simultaneous recordings of electroencephalography (EEG and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. NIRS reveals that the lateralization observed in newborns remains constant over the first months of life. While fast acoustic modulations elicit bilateral neuronal activations, slow modulations lead to right-lateralized responses. Additionally, auditory evoked potentials and oscillatory EEG responses show differential responses for fast and slow modulations indicating a sensitivity for temporal acoustic variations. Oscillatory responses reveal an effect of development, that is, 6 but not 3 month old infants show stronger theta-band desynchronization for slowly modulated sounds. Whether this developmental effect is due to increasing fine-grained perception for spectrotemporal sounds in general remains speculative. Our findings support the notion that a more general specialization for acoustic properties can be considered the basis for lateralization of speech perception. The results show that concurrent assessment of vascular based imaging and electrophysiological responses have great potential in the research on language

  10. Toxicology and epidemiology: improving the science with a framework for combining toxicological and epidemiological evidence to establish causal inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Hans-Olov; Berry, Sir Colin L; Breckenridge, Charles B; Smith, Lewis L; Swenberg, James A; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Weiss, Noel S; Pastoor, Timothy P

    2011-08-01

    Historically, toxicology has played a significant role in verifying conclusions drawn on the basis of epidemiological findings. Agents that were suggested to have a role in human diseases have been tested in animals to firmly establish a causative link. Bacterial pathogens are perhaps the oldest examples, and tobacco smoke and lung cancer and asbestos and mesothelioma provide two more recent examples. With the advent of toxicity testing guidelines and protocols, toxicology took on a role that was intended to anticipate or predict potential adverse effects in humans, and epidemiology, in many cases, served a role in verifying or negating these toxicological predictions. The coupled role of epidemiology and toxicology in discerning human health effects by environmental agents is obvious, but there is currently no systematic and transparent way to bring the data and analysis of the two disciplines together in a way that provides a unified view on an adverse causal relationship between an agent and a disease. In working to advance the interaction between the fields of toxicology and epidemiology, we propose here a five-step "Epid-Tox" process that would focus on: (1) collection of all relevant studies, (2) assessment of their quality, (3) evaluation of the weight of evidence, (4) assignment of a scalable conclusion, and (5) placement on a causal relationship grid. The causal relationship grid provides a clear view of how epidemiological and toxicological data intersect, permits straightforward conclusions with regard to a causal relationship between agent and effect, and can show how additional data can influence conclusions of causality.

  11. Sequential Modulations in a Combined Horizontal and Vertical Simon Task: Is There ERP Evidence for Feature Integration Effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Hoppe

    2017-06-01

    evidence for feature integration effects contributing to sequential modulations of the Simon effect.

  12. Sequential Modulations in a Combined Horizontal and Vertical Simon Task: Is There ERP Evidence for Feature Integration Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Katharina; Küper, Kristina; Wascher, Edmund

    2017-01-01

    In the Simon task, participants respond faster when the task-irrelevant stimulus position and the response position are corresponding, for example on the same side, compared to when they have a non-corresponding relation. Interestingly, this Simon effect is reduced after non-corresponding trials. Such sequential effects can be explained in terms of a more focused processing of the relevant stimulus dimension due to increased cognitive control, which transfers from the previous non-corresponding trial (conflict adaptation effects). Alternatively, sequential modulations of the Simon effect can also be due to the degree of trial-to-trial repetitions and alternations of task features, which is confounded with the correspondence sequence (feature integration effects). In the present study, we used a spatially two-dimensional Simon task with vertical response keys to examine the contribution of adaptive cognitive control and feature integration processes to the sequential modulation of the Simon effect. The two-dimensional Simon task creates correspondences in the vertical as well as in the horizontal dimension. A trial-by-trial alternation of the spatial dimension, for example from a vertical to a horizontal stimulus presentation, generates a subset containing no complete repetitions of task features, but only complete alternations and partial repetitions, which are equally distributed over all correspondence sequences. In line with the assumed feature integration effects, we found sequential modulations of the Simon effect only when the spatial dimension repeated. At least for the horizontal dimension, this pattern was confirmed by the parietal P3b, an event-related potential that is assumed to reflect stimulus-response link processes. Contrary to conflict adaptation effects, cognitive control, measured by the fronto-central N2 component of the EEG, was not sequentially modulated. Overall, our data provide behavioral as well as electrophysiological evidence for feature

  13. Thrusting between exhumed mantle blocks at the Gorringe Bank (SW Iberian margin): Evidence from combined seismic and gravity modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallarès, V.; Martinez-Loriente, S.; Prada, M.; Gailler, A.; Gutscher, M.-A.; Bartolome, R.; Gracia, E.

    2012-04-01

    The Gorringe Bank is a massive seamount located offshore the SW Iberian margin that displays one of the largest gravity anomalies on Earth's oceans. To determine its deep seismic structure, a wide-angle seismic transect with OBS/H crossing it from the Tagus to Horseshoe Abyssal plains, was acquired in 2008. The corresponding velocity model, obtained by joint refraction and reflection travel-time inversion, displays a variably-thick sedimentary layer on top of a basement showing a strong vertical velocity gradient and no evidence for a crust-mantle boundary, not only in the Gorringe Bank but also in the adjacent segments of the deep oceanic basins. The seismic structure closely resembles that of exhumed mantle sections described along the Western Iberian margin and largely differs from that of either oceanic or extended continental crust. A velocity-derived density model assuming that the basement is made of serpentinized peridotite matches well the observed gravity anomaly, showing a basement with a variable degree of serpentinization, decreasing from ~90 % at the seafloor to ~20 % at 10 km deep. Our preferred interpretation is that the Gorringe Bank was initially the central segment of an exhumed mantle band that included also the present-day Eastern Tagus and Western Horseshoe basins. This band, which constitutes the southernmost and oldest section of the Western Iberia oceanic domain, was probably exhumed in the Earliest Cretaceous, during the onset of the North Atlantic opening. During the WNW-ESE Neogene compression, the westernmost Horseshoe basin was thrust on top of the easternmost Tagus basin, uplifting the Gorringe Bank.

  14. Combining Seismic Arrays to Image Detailed Rupture Properties of Large Earthquakes: Evidence for Frequent Triggering of Multiple Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, M.; Kiser, E.

    2010-12-01

    Imaging detailed rupture characteristics using the back-projection method, which time-reverses waveforms to their source, has become feasible in recent years due to the availability of data from large aperture arrays with dense station coverage. In contrast to conventional techniques, this method can quickly and indiscriminately provide the spatio-temporal details of rupture propagation. Though many studies have utilized the back-projection method with a single regional array, the limited azimuthal coverage often leads to skewed resolution. In this study, we enhance the imaging power by combining data from two arrays, i.e., the Transportable Array (TA) in the United States and the High Sensitivity Seismographic Network (Hi-net) in Japan. This approach suppresses artifacts and achieves good lateral resolution by improving distance and azimuthal coverage while maintaining waveform coherence. We investigate four large events using this method: the August 15, 2007 Pisco, Peru earthquake, the September 12, 2007 Southern Sumatra earthquake, the September 29, 2009 Samoa Islands earthquake, and the February 27, 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake. In every case, except the Samoa Islands event, the distance of one of the arrays from the epicenter requires us to use the direct P wave and core phases in the back-projection. One of the common features of the rupture characteristics obtained from the back-projection analysis is spatio-temporal rupture discontinuities, or discrete subevents. Both the size of the gaps and the timing between subevents suggest that multiple segments are involved during giant earthquakes, and that they trigger slip on other faults. For example, the 2009 Samoa Islands event began with a rupture propagating north for about 15 seconds followed by a much larger rupture that originated 30 km northwest of the terminus of the first event and propagated back toward the southeast. The involvement of multiple rupture segments with different slip characteristics

  15. Do patients adhere to over-the-counter artemisinin combination therapy for malaria? evidence from an intervention study in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Jessica L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing affordability of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT in the African retail sector could be critical to expanding access to effective malaria treatment, but must be balanced by efforts to protect the efficacy of these drugs. Previous research estimates ACT adherence rates among public sector patients, but adherence among retail sector purchasers could differ substantially. This study aimed to estimate adherence rates to subsidized, over-the-counter ACT in rural Uganda. Methods An intervention study was conducted with four licensed drug shops in Eastern Uganda in December 2009. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL was made available for sale at a 95% subsidy over-the counter. Customers completed a brief survey at the time of purchase and then were randomly assigned to one of three study arms: no follow-up, follow-up after two days or follow-up after three days. Surveyors recorded the number of pills remaining through blister pack observation or through self-report if the pack was unavailable. The purpose of the three-day follow-up arm was to capture non-adherence in the sense of an incomplete treatment course ("under-dosing". The purpose of the two-day follow-up arm was to capture whether participants completed the full course too soon ("over-dosing". Results Of the 106 patients in the two-day follow-up sample, 14 (13.2% had finished the entire treatment course by the second day. Of the 152 patients in the three-day follow-up sample, 49 (32.2% were definitely non-adherent, three (2% were probably non-adherent and 100 (65.8% were probably adherent. Among the 52 who were non-adherent, 31 (59.6% had more than a full day of treatment remaining. Conclusions Overall, adherence to subsidized ACT purchased over-the-counter was found to be moderate. Further, a non-trivial fraction of those who complete treatment are taking the full course too quickly. Strategies to increase adherence in the retail sector are needed in the context of

  16. Characterization of chlorinated solvent contamination in limestone using innovative FLUTe® technologies in combination with other methods in a line of evidence approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broholm, Mette M.; Janniche, Gry S.; Mosthaf, Klaus; Fjordbøge, Annika S.; Binning, Philip J.; Christensen, Anders G.; Grosen, Bernt; Jørgensen, Torben H.; Keller, Carl; Wealthall, Gary; Kerrn-Jespersen, Henriette

    2016-06-01

    Characterization of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones in limestone aquifers/bedrock is essential to develop accurate site-specific conceptual models and perform risk assessment. Here innovative field methods were combined to improve determination of source zone architecture, hydrogeology and contaminant distribution. The FACT™ is a new technology and it was applied and tested at a contaminated site with a limestone aquifer, together with a number of existing methods including wire-line coring with core subsampling, FLUTe® transmissivity profiling and multilevel water sampling. Laboratory sorption studies were combined with a model of contaminant uptake on the FACT™ for data interpretation. Limestone aquifers were found particularly difficult to sample with existing methods because of core loss, particularly from soft zones in contact with chert beds. Water FLUTe™ multilevel groundwater sampling (under two flow conditions) and FACT™ sampling and analysis combined with FLUTe® transmissivity profiling and modeling were used to provide a line of evidence for the presence of DNAPL, dissolved and sorbed phase contamination in the limestone fractures and matrix. The combined methods were able to provide detailed vertical profiles of DNAPL and contaminant distributions, water flows and fracture zones in the aquifer and are therefore a powerful tool for site investigation. For the limestone aquifer the results indicate horizontal spreading in the upper crushed zone, vertical migration through fractures in the bryozoan limestone down to about 16-18 m depth with some horizontal migrations along horizontal fractures within the limestone. Documentation of the DNAPL source in the limestone aquifer was significantly improved by the use of FACT™ and Water FLUTe™ data.

  17. Combination method of conflict information from multi-sensor based on evidence conflict degree%基于证据冲突度的多传感器冲突信息组合方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史超; 程咏梅

    2011-01-01

    Considering Dempster combination rule's disadvantage in efficiently combining the conflict evidence, this paper presented the improved definition of evidence conflict and computation equation of evidence conflict degree based on conflict coefficient and Jousselme distance and established a new evidence combination method based on evidence conflict degree.This method firstly constructed an evidence support degree matrix.Then computed the evidence weight vector.Finally, used Dempster combination rule to combine the evidence modified by weight vector.A numerical example illustrates the efficiency of the proposed method in combining the conflict evidence.Compared with Dempster combination rule and several typical weighting methods, the proposed method is more efficient.%针对Dempster组合规则在多传感器冲突信息融合方面的不足,提出了改进的证据冲突的定义及基于冲突系数和Jousselme距离的证据冲突度的计算式,给出了一种新的基于证据冲突度的证据加权融合方法.该方法首先利用证据冲突度构造证据相互支持度矩阵,进而计算证据的权重,最后利用Dempster规则对加权修正后的证据进行融合.数值实例表明:该方法可以有效融合高冲突信息,与Dempster组合规则和几种典型的加权证据融合方法相比,具有更快的收敛速度,而且收敛效果更好.

  18. The role of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in the pathogenesis of mood disorders and addiction:Combining preclinical evidence with human Positron Emission Tomography (PET studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia eTerbeck

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, we deliver an overview of the involvement of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5 activity and density in pathological anxiety, mood disorders and addiction. Specifically, we will describe mGluR5 studies in humans that employed Positron Emission Tomography (PET and combined the findings with preclinical animal research. This combined view of different methodological approaches — from basic neurobiological approaches to human studies — might give a more comprehensive and clinically relevant view of mGluR5 function in mental health than the view on preclinical data alone. We will also review the current research data on mGluR5 along the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC. Firstly, we found evidence of abnormal glutamate activity related to the positive and negative valence systems, which would suggest that antagonistic mGluR5 intervention has prominent anti-addictive, anti-depressive and anxiolytic effects. Secondly, there is evidence that mGluR5 plays in important role in systems for social functioning and the response to social stress. Finally, mGluR5’s important role in sleep homeostasis suggests that this glutamate receptor may play an important role in RDoC’s arousal and modulatory systems domain. Glutamate was previously mostly investigate in non-human studies, however initial human clinical PET research now also supports the hypothesis that, by mediating brain excitability, neuroplasticity and social cognition, abnormal metabotropic glutamate activity might predispose individuals to a broad range of psychiatric problems.

  19. Updating beliefs and combining evidence in adaptive forest management under climate change: a case study of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) in the Black Forest, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefpour, Rasoul; Temperli, Christian; Bugmann, Harald; Elkin, Che; Hanewinkel, Marc; Meilby, Henrik; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2013-06-15

    We study climate uncertainty and how managers' beliefs about climate change develop and influence their decisions. We develop an approach for updating knowledge and beliefs based on the observation of forest and climate variables and illustrate its application for the adaptive management of an even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) forest in the Black Forest, Germany. We simulated forest development under a range of climate change scenarios and forest management alternatives. Our analysis used Bayesian updating and Dempster's rule of combination to simulate how observations of climate and forest variables may influence a decision maker's beliefs about climate development and thereby management decisions. While forest managers may be inclined to rely on observed forest variables to infer climate change and impacts, we found that observation of climate state, e.g. temperature or precipitation is superior for updating beliefs and supporting decision-making. However, with little conflict among information sources, the strongest evidence would be offered by a combination of at least two informative variables, e.g., temperature and precipitation. The success of adaptive forest management depends on when managers switch to forward-looking management schemes. Thus, robust climate adaptation policies may depend crucially on a better understanding of what factors influence managers' belief in climate change.

  20. Combination therapy with indacaterol and glycopyrronium bromide in the management of COPD: an update on the evidence for efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolo, Erminia; Montagni, Marcello; Riario-Sforza, Gian Galeazzo; Baroni, Marco; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2015-04-01

    The international guidelines on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) recommend inhaled bronchodilators for maintenance treatment of the disease. These drugs include β2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists, which are both available as short-acting agents (to be used as needed for dyspnea) and long-acting agents. To the latter belong salmeterol and formoterol (long-acting β2-agonists) and indacaterol, vilanterol and olodaterol (very long-acting β2-agonist) as β2-agonists, and tiotropium, aclidinium and glycopyrronium bromide as long-acting muscarinic antagonists. The efficacy and safety of indacaterol and glycopyrronium as monotherapies has been demonstrated in several controlled trials. However, in some patients with moderate-to-severe COPD, symptoms are poorly controlled by bronchodilator monotherapy; in these cases the addition of a second bronchodilator from a different pharmacological class may be beneficial. Here we review the evidence from published randomized trials concerning the efficacy and safety of the once-daily fixed-dose dual bronchodilator combining indacaterol and glycopyrronium. © The Author(s), 2015.

  1. Evidence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation in a contaminated aquifer by combined application of in situ and laboratory microcosms using (13)C-labelled target compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Arne; Fischer, Anko; Vogt, Carsten; Bombach, Petra

    2015-02-01

    The number of approaches to evaluate the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) within contaminated aquifers is limited. Here, we demonstrate the applicability of a novel method based on the combination of in situ and laboratory microcosms using (13)C-labelled PAHs as tracer compounds. The biodegradation of four PAHs (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and acenaphthene) was investigated in an oxic aquifer at the site of a former gas plant. In situ biodegradation of naphthalene and fluorene was demonstrated using in situ microcosms (BACTRAP(®)s). BACTRAP(®)s amended with either [(13)C6]-naphthalene or [(13)C5/(13)C6]-fluorene (50:50) were incubated for a period of over two months in two groundwater wells located at the contaminant source and plume fringe, respectively. Amino acids extracted from BACTRAP(®)-grown cells showed significant (13)C-enrichments with (13)C-fractions of up to 30.4% for naphthalene and 3.8% for fluorene, thus providing evidence for the in situ biodegradation and assimilation of those PAHs at the field site. To quantify the mineralisation of PAHs, laboratory microcosms were set up with BACTRAP(®)-grown cells and groundwater. Naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, or acenaphthene were added as (13)C-labelled substrates. (13)C-enrichment of the produced CO2 revealed mineralisation of between 5.9% and 19.7% for fluorene, between 11.1% and 35.1% for acenaphthene, between 14.2% and 33.1% for phenanthrene, and up to 37.0% for naphthalene over a period of 62 days. Observed PAH mineralisation rates ranged between 17 μg L(-1) d(-1) and 1639 μg L(-1) d(-1). The novel approach combining in situ and laboratory microcosms allowed a comprehensive evaluation of PAH biodegradation at the investigated field site, revealing the method's potential for the assessment of PAH degradation within contaminated aquifers.

  2. Evidence for Intramolecular Antiparallel Beta-Sheet Structure in Alpha-Synuclein Fibrils from a Combination of Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeters, Steven J.; Iyer, Aditya; Pletikapić, Galja; Kogan, Vladimir; Subramaniam, Vinod; Woutersen, Sander

    2017-01-01

    The aggregation of the intrinsically disordered protein alpha-synuclein (αS) into amyloid fibrils is thought to play a central role in the pathology of Parkinson’s disease. Using a combination of techniques (AFM, UV-CD, XRD, and amide-I 1D- and 2D-IR spectroscopy) we show that the structure of αS fibrils varies as a function of ionic strength: fibrils aggregated in low ionic-strength buffers ([NaCl] ≤ 25 mM) have a significantly different structure than fibrils grown in higher ionic-strength buffers. The observations for fibrils aggregated in low-salt buffers are consistent with an extended conformation of αS molecules, forming hydrogen-bonded intermolecular β-sheets that are loosely packed in a parallel fashion. For fibrils aggregated in high-salt buffers (including those prepared in buffers with a physiological salt concentration) the measurements are consistent with αS molecules in a more tightly-packed, antiparallel intramolecular conformation, and suggest a structure characterized by two twisting stacks of approximately five hydrogen-bonded intermolecular β-sheets each. We find evidence that the high-frequency peak in the amide-I spectrum of αS fibrils involves a normal mode that differs fundamentally from the canonical high-frequency antiparallel β-sheet mode. The high sensitivity of the fibril structure to the ionic strength might form the basis of differences in αS-related pathologies.

  3. BA3b and BA1 activate in a serial fashion after median nerve stimulation: direct evidence from combining source analysis of evoked fields and cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadelis, Christos; Eickhoff, Simon B; Zilles, Karl; Ioannides, Andreas A

    2011-01-01

    This study combines source analysis imaging data for early somatosensory processing and the probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps (PCMs). Human somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs) were recorded by stimulating left and right median nerves. Filtering the recorded responses in different frequency ranges identified the most responsive frequency band. The short-latency averaged SEFs were analyzed using a single equivalent current dipole (ECD) model and magnetic field tomography (MFT). The identified foci of activity were superimposed with PCMs. Two major components of opposite polarity were prominent around 21 and 31 ms. A weak component around 25 ms was also identified. For the most responsive frequency band (50-150 Hz) ECD and MFT revealed one focal source at the contralateral Brodmann area 3b (BA3b) at the peak of N20. The component ~25 ms was localised in Brodmann area 1 (BA1) in 50-150 Hz. By using ECD, focal generators around 28-30 ms located initially in BA3b and 2 ms later to BA1. MFT also revealed two focal sources - one in BA3b and one in BA1 for these latencies. Our results provide direct evidence that the earliest cortical response after median nerve stimulation is generated within the contralateral BA3b. BA1 activation few milliseconds later indicates a serial mode of somatosensory processing within cytoarchitectonic SI subdivisions. Analysis of non-invasive magnetoencephalography (MEG) data and the use of PCMs allow unambiguous and quantitative (probabilistic) interpretation of cytoarchitectonic identity of activated areas following median nerve stimulation, even with the simple ECD model, but only when the model fits the data extremely well.

  4. Efficient combination of conflict evidence for D-S theory%一种有效解决D-S理论冲突证据合成的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹洁; 孟兴

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the problems to conflict evidence combination in standard D-S theory, this paper proposed a novel approach based on evidence weighted. Firstly, it mapped basic probability assignment BPA) to a point in the multidimensional space. Then,it computed the Euclidean distance for two arbitrary points and obtained the weight of every evidence. After weighted averaging the evidence by constructing the Huffman tree, it used the D-S combination rule to achieve information fusion. The validity of the approach was demonstrated by simulation example. The proposed approach can solve the problem to conflict evidence combination.%针对标准D-S证据理论中存在的冲突证据合成问题,提出了一种冲突证据加权的方法.该方法将各个传感器的基本概率赋值映射到多维空间中的某个点,计算任意两点的欧氏距离,利用平均距离确定证据的权重,采用哈夫曼树对证据加权平均后再利用D-S合成规则实现信息的融合.实例论证了该方法的有效性,它能有效解决冲突证据合成的问题.

  5. Episodic fluid movements in superimposed basin:Combined evidence from outcrop and fluid inclusions of the Majiang ancient oil reservoir,Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Combined evidence from the outcrop and the fluid inclusion assemblage (FIA) analysis indicates that there exist two episodes of fluid flow controlled by the tectonic activity. The first episode was recorded mainly in the reservoir rock of the Honghuayuan Formation,representing the fluid flow of hydrocarbon charging. The second episode occurred mainly along the fault systems,representing the fluid move-ment when the ancient oil reservoir was destroyed. The host mineral morphology,homogeneous tem-perature,and salinity of the FIAs record an episodic fluid movement. Characters of high homogenous temperature,low salinity and a quick temperature variation of the first episode fluid flow may indicate an early-stage fluid eruption,and correspondingly,fine-grained calcite was formed. Temperature of the erupted fluid tended to decrease during its mixing with the upper formation fluid and finally had the same temperature as the upper formation. From then on,the temperature was rather steady and fa-vored the growth of the coarse calcite. Due to this character of the temperature variation of the episodic fluid flow,we can use the homogenous temperature of the FIA of the coarse calcite to date the forma-tion and the destruction time of the Majiang ancient oil reservoir. Episodic fluid flow was known for its inhomogeneous trapping,which resulted in the failure of dating according to the burial history. But taking a close look at its temperature variation,we think that the latest stage of fluid flow,characterized by steady state temperature and grow of the coarser crystals,can be used for dating. It will be of great value if this method is proved to be effective. The formation and the destruction time of the Majiang ancient oil reservoir were dated to be in the Indosinian Period and the late Yanshan-early Hymalayan Period respectively. This conclusion is in great discrepancy with the common accepted idea that the Majiang ancient oil reservoir was formed and destroyed during the

  6. Correlational Research on Counseling Needs, Coping Style and Parental Rearing Style of Dyscalculia Children in Wuhan%武汉市数学学习困难儿童辅导需要、应对方式与父母教养方式的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶; 丁慧思; 韩娟; 余晓敏

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore counseling needs of dyscalculia children and its relationship between coping style and parental rearing style.Methods:A total of 786 children of 4~6 grades in two primary schools were selected with cluster sampling method.According to the diag-nostic criteria of dyscalculia, children with and without dyscalculia were selected and compared, and their counseling needs, coping style and pa-rental rearing style were evaluated.Results:The learning and personal counseling needs of dyscalculia children were significantly higher than nor-mal children(P<0.01).Negative cope score in dyscalculia children was significantly higher than normal children, and positive cope score was significantly lower than normal children(P<0.01).Correlation analysis showed that parental punishment rejection and over -govem had negative correlation with dyscalculia child coping style and counseling needs, but emotional warmth had positive correlation with it.Conclusion: Parental emotional warmth plays an important role in lightening dyscalculia children's counseling needs.%目的:探讨数学学习困难儿童辅导需要、应对方式与父母教养方式之间的关系,为开展心理健康教育提供理论依据.方法:采用整群抽样的方法,抽取武汉市2所小学786名4-6年级学生,根据数学学习困难诊断标准,筛查出数困儿童,和正常儿童做病例对照研究,对其辅导需求、应对方式及父母教养方式进行评定.结果:数困儿童学习辅导、个人认识和情绪调节需求高于对照组儿童(P<0.01).数困儿童消极应对得分高于对照组儿童,积极应对得分低于对照组儿童(P<0.01).数困组儿童父母教养方式中惩罚、严厉和拒绝、否认得分高于对照组儿童父母,情感温暖和理解得分低于对照组父母(P<0.01).相关分析结果表明,数困儿童父母惩罚、严厉和拒绝、否认的教养方式与儿童消极应对方式、辅导需求增加呈正相关,父母情感温

  7. 一种基于证据间距离和信息熵的证据组合方法∗%Combination Method of Eidence Based on Distance of Evidence and Information Entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金晓斌; 许大琴; 谈亮

    2016-01-01

    In order to combine highly conflict evidence more efficiently, an improved method based on the distance of the bodies of evidence was proposed.Firstly,it computed the distance between the bodies of evidence and obtained the support degree and the credibility of each evidence.Then,information entropy was introduced,the correction factor was computed and the credibility of the evidence which had better support degree was corrected. Finally, the credibility was taken as weights and weighted averaging all the evidence, and the Dempster combination rule was used to realize information fusion.The valid⁃ity of the approach was demonstrated by simulation example.%针对改进的基于证据间距离的组合方法,首先计算证据间距离并求出各个证据的支持度和可信度,选取支持度高的作为较可信证据,其次引入证据信息熵,计算修正系数,对这些证据的可信度进行修正,将可信度作为权重,进行证据的加权平均,再利用Dempster组合规则对所有证据进行融合。算例表明,该方法比现有的方法更加有效。

  8. Combination of Conflicting Evidence by Using the Total Uncertainty Degree of Information%基于信息总不确定度的冲突证据组合修正方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘哲席; 阳建宏; 杨德斌; 黎敏

    2014-01-01

    现有的冲突证据组合修正方法仅从证据距离、模糊度等描述信息不确定性的一个或几个方面对证据体的基本概率分配函数进行修正,对证据的关联性考虑不够充分。该文提出基于信息总不确定度的冲突证据组合修正新方法。该文在笛卡尔乘积的基础上定义提出组合总不确定度的概念,并给出根据融合前各证据体总不确定度预测融合后证据体组合总不确定度值域的方法。对冲突证据,利用各证据体总不确定度与组合总不确定度的比值,求出对证据基本概率分配函数的修正权重,再根据Dempster规则进行加权平均组合。信息融合的算例分析结果表明,与现有方法相比,该方法融合结果的总不确定度更小,更有利于融合结果的后续决策分析与数据应用。%The common way of conflicting evidence combination is to modify the basic probability mass assignment of evidence bodies by a certain indicator which can reflect or describe the information uncertainty of the conflicting evidence. In existing conflicting evidence combination methods, indicators such as the distance of evidence and ambiguity are used. However, these indicators reflect only one or several aspects of the characteristics of the conflicting information uncertainty. A novel method of conflicting evidence combination is proposed based on the total uncertainty degree of information. The concept of combined total uncertainty of information is defined based on Cartesian product. An approach of predicting the range of fused information’s combined total uncertainty degree by the total uncertainty degree of each body of evidence before information fusion is also presented. Weights for each evidence body are obtained according to the total uncertainty degree of each evidence body and the combined total uncertainty on their Cartesian product. Then, the bodies of conflicting evidence are combined by the weighted

  9. Dyscalculia and Attention Deficit Subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The association of specific academic deficits with attention deficit disorder (ADD) subtypes was determined in 20 students (ages 8-12) with ADD with hyperactivity (ADD/H) compared to 20 with ADD without hyperactivity (ADD/noH), at the Department of Educational Psychology, University of Texas at Austin, TX.

  10. Mathematics Difficulties: Does One Approach Fit All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Sue; Rockliffe, Freda

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the nature of learning difficulties in mathematics and, in particular, the nature and prevalence of dyscalculia, a condition that affects the acquisition of arithmetical skills. The evidence reviewed suggests that younger children (under the age of 10) often display a combination of problems, including minor physical…

  11. Conflict evidence DS combination method research based on Minkowski distance%基于明考夫斯基距离的冲突证据合成方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大敏; 魏永超

    2012-01-01

    One novel conflict evidence combination method based on evidence pretreatment was studied. The importance degree of the evidence were different, the directly combination conclusion of them may be opposed to the real. According to the different coefficients of Minkowski distance, absolute distance, Euclidean distance and Chebyshev distance were obtained, which have certain differences. The evidence distance was obtained through integration of the three distances, and represents a more accurate evidence relationship. Evidence distance was further changed into the weight which reflects the importance of evidence. According to weight, the basic probabilities were reallocated, and then were used to get the final combination result by the improved combination method. The superiority of the new method is shown by the different algorithms comparison example.%提出了一种新的证据预处理的冲突证据合成方法.融合系统中各证据的重要程度可能不同,直接利用公式合成可能得到与实际相悖的结论.利用明考夫斯基距离,根据系数的不同分别得到绝对距离、欧式距离和切比雪夫距离,三个距离表示有一定差异,通过融合三个距离得到证据距离,从而可以较准确表示证据的关系.利用证据距离进一步转化为表示证据权重的权值,利用权值对证据进行预处理,从而可以把冲突证据的合成问题进行转化,再通过改进的合成公式,对预处理后的证据进行合成,得到合成结果.最后通过同其它算法的算例比较,说明新方法的在合成冲突证据的方面的优越性.

  12. In vitro activities of ceftobiprole combined with amikacin or levofloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa: evidence of a synergistic effect using time?kill methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Kresken, Michael; Körber-Irrgang, Barbara; Läuffer, Jörg; Decker-Burgard, Sabine; Davies, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Ceftobiprole is an investigational intravenous broad-spectrum cephalosporin with in vitro activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a frequent nosocomial pathogen, increasingly associated with complicated skin and skin-structure infections. Combination antimicrobial therapy is recommended as empirical therapy for serious infections where P. ae...

  13. Evidence for Intramolecular Antiparallel Beta-Sheet Structure in Alpha-Synuclein Fibrils from a Combination of Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, Steven J.; Iyer, Aditya; Pletikapic, Galja; Kogan, Vladimir; Subramaniam, Vinod; Woutersen, Sander

    2017-01-01

    The aggregation of the intrinsically disordered protein alpha-synuclein (αS) into amyloid fibrils is thought to play a central role in the pathology of Parkinson’s disease. Using a combination of techniques (AFM, UV-CD, XRD, and amide-I 1D- and 2D-IR spectroscopy) we show that the structure of αS fi

  14. Exisulind in combination with celecoxib modulates epidermal growth factor receptor, cyclooxygenase-2, and cyclin D1 against prostate carcinogenesis: in vivo evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Bhagavathi A; Reddy, Bandaru S; Bosland, Maarten C; Nargi, Dominick; Horton, Lori; Randolph, Carla; Narayanan, Narayanan K

    2007-10-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs mediate anticancer effects by modulating cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-dependent and/or COX-2-independent mechanism(s); however, the toxicity issue is a concern with single agents at higher doses. In this study, we determined the combined effect of celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, along with exisulind (sulindac sulfone/Aptosyn) at low doses in prostate cancer. We used a sequential regimen of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea + testosterone to induce prostate cancer in Wistar-Unilever rats. Following carcinogen treatment, celecoxib and exisulind individually and their combination at low doses were given in NIH-07 diet for 52 weeks. We determined the incidence of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, adenocarcinomas, rate of tumor cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis were done to determine COX-2, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), Akt, androgen receptor, and cyclin D1 expression. Serum prostaglandin E2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were determined using enzyme immunoassay/ELISA assays. The rats that received celecoxib in combination with exisulind at low doses showed a significant decrease in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and adenocarcinomas as well as an enhanced rate of apoptosis. An overall decrease in COX-2, EGFR, Akt, androgen receptor, and cyclin D1 expression was found associated with tumor growth inhibition. Reduced serum levels of COX-2 protein, prostaglandin E2, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha indicated anti-inflammatory effects. A strong inhibition of total and phosphorylated form of EGFR (Tyr(992) and Tyr(845)) and Akt (Ser(473)) was significant in rats given with these agents in combination. In this study, we show for the first time that the combination of celecoxib with exisulind at low doses could prevent prostate carcinogenesis by altering key molecular events.

  15. Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors combination therapy in type 2 diabetes: A systematic review of current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awadhesh Kumar Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a chronic and progressive disease with multiple pathophysiologic defects, no single anti-diabetic agent can tackle all these multi-factorial pathways. Consequently, multiple agents working through the different mechanisms will be required for the optimal glycemic control. Moreover, the combination therapies of different anti-diabetic agents may complement their actions and possibly act synergistic. Furthermore, these combinations could possess the additional properties to counter their undesired physiological compensatory response. Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2I are newly emerging class of drugs, with a great potential to reduce glucose effectively with an additional quality of lowering cardiovascular events as demonstrated very recently by one of the agents of this class. However, increase in endogenous glucose production (EGP from the liver, either due to the increase in glucagon or compensatory response to glucosuria can offset the glucose-lowering potential of SGLT-2I. Interestingly, another class of drugs such as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4I effectively decrease glucagon and reduce EGP. In light of these findings, combination therapies with SGLT-2I and DPP-4I are particularly appealing and are expected to produce a synergistic effect. Preclinical studies of combination therapies with DPP-4I and SGLT-2I have already demonstrated a significant lowering of hemoglobin A1c potential and human studies also find no drug-drug interaction between these agents. This article aims to systematically review the efficacy and safety of combination therapy of SGLT-2I and DPP-4I in T2DM.

  16. Characterization of chlorinated solvent contamination in limestone using innovative FLUTe® technologies in combination with other methods in a line of evidence approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette Martina; Janniche, Gry Sander; Mosthaf, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    . Laboratory sorption studies were combined with a model of contaminant uptake on the FACT™ for data interpretation. Limestone aquifers were found particularly difficult to sample with existing methods because of core loss, particularly from soft zones in contact with chert beds. Water FLUTe™ multilevel...... migration through fractures in the bryozoan limestone down to about 16–18 m depth with some horizontal migrations along horizontal fractures within the limestone. Documentation of the DNAPL source in the limestone aquifer was significantly improved by the use of FACT™ and Water FLUTe™ data.......Characterization of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones in limestone aquifers/bedrock is essential to develop accurate site-specific conceptual models and perform risk assessment. Here innovative field methods were combined to improve determination of source zone architecture...

  17. Combining sedimentological, trace metal (Mn, Mo) and molecular evidence for reconstructing past water-column redox conditions: The example of meromictic Lake Cadagno (Swiss Alps)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirth, S. B.; Gilli, A.; Niemann, H.

    2013-01-01

    was investigated for concentration variations of the trace metals Mn and Mo (XRF core scanning and ICP-MS measurements), and for the presence of anoxygenic phototrophic sulfur bacteria (carotenoid pigment analysis and 16S rDNA real time PCR). Our trace metal analysis documents an oxic-intermediate-sulfidic redox...... in the sediments (up to 490 ppm), accompanied by an abrupt drop in Mn concentrations and the increase of molecular biomarkers that indicate the presence of anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria in the water column. Persistently high Mo concentrations >80 ppm provide evidence that sulfidic conditions prevailed...

  18. Combined 5-FU and ChoKα inhibitors as a new alternative therapy of colorectal cancer: evidence in human tumor-derived cell lines and mouse xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana de la Cueva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third major cause of cancer related deaths in the world. 5-fluorouracil (5-FU is widely used for the treatment of colorectal cancer but as a single-agent renders low response rates. Choline kinase alpha (ChoKα, an enzyme that plays a role in cell proliferation and transformation, has been reported overexpressed in many different tumors, including colorectal tumors. ChoKα inhibitors have recently entered clinical trials as a novel antitumor strategy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ChoKα specific inhibitors, MN58b and TCD-717, have demonstrated a potent antitumoral activity both in vitro and in vivo against several tumor-derived cell line xenografts including CRC-derived cell lines. The effect of ChoKα inhibitors in combination with 5-FU as a new alternative for the treatment of colon tumors has been investigated both in vitro in CRC-tumour derived cell lines, and in vivo in mouse xenografts models. The effects on thymidilate synthase (TS and thymidine kinase (TK1 levels, two enzymes known to play an essential role in the mechanism of action of 5-FU, were analyzed by western blotting and quantitative PCR analysis. The combination of 5-FU with ChoKα inhibitors resulted in a synergistic effect in vitro in three different human colon cancer cell lines, and in vivo against human colon xenografts in nude mice. ChoKα inhibitors modulate the expression levels of TS and TK1 through inhibition of E2F production, providing a rational for its mechanism of action. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that both drugs in combination display a synergistic antitumoral effect due to ChoKα inhibitors-driven modulation of the metabolization of 5-FU. The clinical relevance of these findings is strongly supported since TCD-717 has recently entered Phase I clinical trials against solid tumors.

  19. Combined analysis of 19 common validated type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene variants shows moderate discriminative value and no evidence of gene-gene interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, T; Grarup, N; Andreasen, C;

    2009-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The list of validated type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants has recently been expanded from three to 19. The variants identified are common and have low penetrance in the general population. The aim of the study is to investigate the combined effect of the 19 variants by applyi...... analysis of the 19 validated variants enables detection of subgroups at substantially increased risk of type 2 diabetes; however, the discrimination between glucose-tolerant and type 2 diabetes individuals is still too inaccurate to achieve clinical value....

  20. Cerebral Targeting of Acupuncture at Combined Acupoints in Treating Essential Hypertension: An Rs-fMRI Study and Curative Effect Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjie Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study attempted to explore that the synergistic effect of acupoints combination is not a simple superposition of single acupoint’s effect by comparing and analyzing the changes of blood pressure (BP, SF-36, and brain regions after acupuncture treatment. 47 patients were randomly divided into LR3+KI3 group, LR3 group, and KI3 group. Subjects received Rs-fMRI scan, BP measurement, and SF-36 questionnaires before and after treatment and short-term acupuncture treatment. After treatment, there were no significant differences in BP and SF-36 among 3 groups, compared to the case before treatment, SBP of 3 groups decreased, and DBP significantly decreased while vitality and mental health significantly increased in LR3+KI3 group. Both number and scopes of changes of brain regions in LR3+KI3 group were the largest, which mainly included BAs 3, 4, 8, 19, 21, 24, 32, 44, and 45. In conclusion, acupuncture at LR3+KI3 may auxiliarily reduce BP and improve the vitality and mental health of patients, and the changes of brain regions were related to somatesthesia, movement, vision, audition, emotion and mood, language, memory, etc. BAs 4, 9, 10, 24, 31, 32, and 46 may be the targeting brain areas of acupuncture in assisting hypotension. It is suggested that acupoints combination of LR3+KI3 maybe generates a synergistic effect, and it is not simple sum of single acupoint effect.

  1. Combined plate motion and density driven flow in the asthenosphere beneath Saudi Arabia: Evidence from shear-wave splitting and seismic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S; Schwartz, S

    2006-02-08

    A comprehensive study of mantle anisotropy along the Red Sea and across Saudi Arabia was performed by analyzing shear-wave splitting recorded by stations from three different seismic networks: the largest, most widely distributed array of stations examined across Saudi Arabia to date. Stations near the Gulf of Aqaba display fast orientations that are aligned parallel to the Dead Sea Transform Fault, most likely related to the strike-slip motion between Africa and Arabia. However, most of our observations across Saudi Arabia are statistically the same, showing a consistent pattern of north-south oriented fast directions with delay times averaging about 1.4 s. Fossilized anisotropy related to the Proterozoic assembly of the Arabian Shield may contribute to the pattern but is not sufficient to fully explain the observations. We feel that the uniform anisotropic signature across Saudi Arabia is best explained by a combination of plate and density driven flow in the asthenosphere. By combining the northeast oriented flow associated with absolute plate motion with the northwest oriented flow associated with the channelized Afar plume along the Red Sea, we obtain a north-south oriented resultant that matches our splitting observations and supports models of active rifting processes. This explains why the north-south orientation of the fast polarization direction is so pervasive across the vast Arabian Plate.

  2. Evaluation of total hepatocellular cancer lifespan, including both clinically evident and preclinical development, using combined network phenotyping strategy and fisher information analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pančoška, Petr; Skála, Lubomír; Nešetřil, Jaroslav; Carr, Brian I

    2015-04-01

    We previously showed that for hepatocellular cancer (HCC) prognostication, disease parameters need to be considered within a total personal clinical context. This requires preserving the coherence of data values, observed simultaneously for each patient during baseline diagnostic evaluation. Application of the Network Phenotyping Strategy (NPS) provided quantitative descriptors of these patient coherences. Combination of these descriptors with Fisher information about the patient tumor mass and the histogram of the tumor masses in the whole cohort permitted estimation of the time from disease onset until clinical diagnosis (t(baseline)). We found faster growth of smaller tumors having total masses70. Combining the clinical survival and t(baseline) normalized all HCC patients to a common 1,045 days of mean total disease duration (t(baseline) plus post diagnosis survival). We also found a simple relationship between the baseline clinical status, t(baseline), and survival. Every difference between individual patient baseline clinical profiles and special coherent clinical status (HL1) reduced the above common overall survival (OVS) by 65 days. In summary, we showed that HCC patients with any given tumor can best have their tumor biology understood, when account is taken of the total clinical and liver contexts, and with knowing the point in the tumor history when an HCC diagnosis is made. This ability to compute the t(baseline) from standard clinical data brings us closer to calculating survival from diagnosis of individual HCC patients.

  3. Water quality deterioration at a karst spring (Gallusquelle, Germany) due to combined sewer overflow: evidence of bacterial and micro-pollutant contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, B.; Birk, S.; Liedl, R.; Geyer, T.; Straub, K. L.; Andresen, J.; Bester, K.; Kappler, A.

    2009-04-01

    The concurrent use of karst aquifers as drinking water resources and receptors of combined sewer overflow lacking appropriate pre-treatment may cause conflicts between drinking water supply and storm water management. A storm water tank (SWT) for combined wastewater is identified as the source of sporadic contamination of a karst spring (Gallusquelle, “Schwäbische Alb”, SW Germany) used for public water supply. Spring water quality was examined by routine and event sampling and by evaluating physicochemical and microbiological parameters. The total number of microbial colonies growing at 20°C and the number of Escherichia coli colonies rose to values up to four orders of magnitude higher than background, 2-5 days after overflow of the SWT. High concentrations of chloride, sodium, and total organic carbon (TOC) and high values of turbidity coincide with this increase. However, high bacterial contamination is also observed while turbidity and TOC are low. Several wastewater-related organic micro-pollutants such as chlorinated and non-chlorinated organophosphates were detected in the SWT and, depending on their K ow values and their biodegradability, in lower concentrations at the spring.

  4. A combined robotic and cognitive training for locomotor rehabilitation: Evidences of cerebral functional reorganization in two chronic traumatic brain injured patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiuscia eSacco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that automated locomotor training can improve walking capabilities in spinal cord-injured subjects but its effectiveness on brain damaged patients has not been well established. A possible explanation of the discordant results on the efficacy of robotic training in patients with cerebral lesions could be that these patients, besides stimulation of physiological motor patterns through passive leg movements, also need to train the cognitive aspects of motor control. Indeed, another way to stimulate cerebral motor areas in paretic patients is to use the cognitive function of motor imagery. A promising possibility is thus to combine sensorimotor training with the use of motor imagery. The aim of this paper is to assess changes in brain activations after a combined sensorimotor and cognitive training for gait rehabilitation. The protocol consisted of the integrated use of a robotic gait orthosis prototype with locomotor imagery tasks. Assessment was conducted on two patients with chronic traumatic brain injury and major gait impairments, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Physiatric functional scales were used to assess clinical outcomes. Results showed greater activation post-training in the sensorimotor and supplementary motor cortices, as well as enhanced functional connectivity within the motor network. Improvements in balance and, to a lesser extent, in gait outcomes were also found.

  5. Factors contributing to risk for cancer among HIV-infected individuals, and evidence that earlier combination antiretroviral therapy will alter this risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Alvaro Humberto Diniz; Dubrow, Robert; Silverberg, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To critically appraise recent published literature about factors associated with cancer risk likely to be influenced by combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected individuals, and the potential of earlier cART initiation to reduce this risk. RECENT FINDINGS...... and epidemiological data have been reported as to whether (and how) cART affects NADM risk. Furthermore, secondary analyses of randomized controlled trials comparing early versus delayed cART initiation were inconclusive. SUMMARY: Continuous epidemiological surveillance is warranted to monitor trends in cancer...... incidence among HIV-infected individuals and to better understand the impact of earlier cART on NADM risk. The role of adjuvant anti-inflammatory or antithrombotic therapies to reduce cancer risk deserves further investigation....

  6. Long-term exposure to combination antiretroviral therapy and risk of death from specific causes: no evidence for any previously unidentified increased risk due to antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalska, Justyna D; Reekie, Joanne; Mocroft, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Despite the known substantial benefits of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), cumulative adverse effects could still limit the overall long-term treatment benefit. Therefore we investigated changes in the rate of death with increasing exposure to cART. METHODS:: 12069 patients...... were followed from baseline, which was defined as the time of starting cART or enrolment into EuroSIDA whichever occurred later, until death or six months after last follow-up visit. Incidence rates (IR) of death were calculated per 1000 person-years of follow-up (PYFU) and stratified by time...... of exposure to cART (=3 antiretrovirals): 8 years. Duration of cART exposure was the cumulative time actually receiving cART. Poisson regression models were fitted for each cause of death separately. RESULTS:: 1297 patients died during 70613 PYFU (IR 18.3 per 1000 PYFU, 95%CI: 17.4-19.4), 413 due to AIDS (5...

  7. Combined high-pressure and high-temperature vibrational studies of dolomite: phase diagram and evidence of a new distorted modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimiopoulos, I.; Jahn, S.; Kuras, A.; Schade, U.; Koch-Müller, M.

    2017-02-01

    A combined high-pressure mid-infrared absorption and Raman spectroscopy study on a natural CaMg0.98Fe0.02(CO3)2 dolomite sample was performed both at ambient and high temperatures. A pressure-temperature phase diagram was constructed for all the reported dolomite ambient- and high-pressure polymorphs. In addition, a local distortion of the ambient-pressure dolomite structure was identified close to 11 GPa, just before the transition toward the first known high-pressure phase. All the Clausius-Clapeyron slopes are found to be positive with similar magnitudes. Complementary first-principles calculations suggest a metastable nature of the high-pressure dolomite polymorphs. Finally, theoretical spectroscopy is used to interpret and discuss the observed changes in the measured vibrational spectra.

  8. Voxel-based evidence of perfusion normalization in glioblastoma patients included in a phase I-II trial of radiotherapy/tipifarnib combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken, Soléakhéna; Deviers, Alexandra; Filleron, Thomas; Catalaa, Isabelle; Lotterie, Jean-Albert; Khalifa, Jonathan; Lubrano, Vincent; Berry, Isabelle; Péran, Patrice; Celsis, Pierre; Moyal, Elizabeth Cohen-Jonathan; Laprie, Anne

    2015-09-01

    We previously showed that the farnesyl transferase inihibitor, Tipifarnib induced vascularization normalization, oxygenation and radiosensitization in a pre-clinical glioblastoma (GBM) model. The aim of this study was to assess by dynamic-susceptibility-contrast MRI (DSC-MRI) the effect of radiotherapy (RT) and Tipifarnib combination on tumor perfusion in GBM patients. Eighteen patients with newly diagnosed GBM, enrolled in a phase I-II clinical trial associating RT with Tipifarnib, underwent anatomical MR imaging and DSC-MRI before (M0) and two months after treatment (M2). Anatomic volumes of interest (VOIs) were delineated according to contrast-enhanced and hyper-intense signal areas on T1-Gd and T2 images, respectively. Perfusion variations between M0 and M2 were assessed with median relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) inside these VOIs. Another voxel by voxel analysis of CBV values classified 405,117 tumor voxels into High_, Normal_ and Low_CBVTUMOR according to the distribution of CBV in the contralateral normal tissue. These three categories of CBVTUMOR voxels were color-coded over anatomical MRI. Variations of median rCBV were significantly different for two groups of patients (P  1) and rCBV increased when initial rCBV was color-coded voxels provided additional spatial and quantitative information about tumor perfusion: Group_rCBV_M0 > 1 presented a significant decrease of High_CBVTUMOR volume (P = 0.015) simultaneously with a significant increase of Normal_CBVTUMOR volume (P = 0.009) after treatment. Group_rCBV_M0 perfusion evolution in GBM patients treated with RT combined to Tipifarnib; showing variations in favour of tumor perfusion normalization in agreement with our pre-clinical results of vascular normalization.

  9. The 3D Distribution of Magma Bodies that Fed the Paraná Silicic Volcanics, Brazil: A Combination of Field Evidence, Textural Analysis, and Geothermobarometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, L.; Gualda, G. A. R.; Gravley, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Paraná Silicic Volcanics include some of the largest eruptive deposits known in the geological record. However, we know very little about the magma bodies that fed these eruptions. Combining physical volcanology, geochemistry, and geothermobarometry techniques, we aim to find the sources of extinct magma bodies to build a 3D view of the magma structure at the time by discovering storage conditions, eruption styles, and post-eruption alteration. The approach elucidates temporal and spatial eruption styles and sequences of the silicic units that make up the Palmas unit of the Serra Geral formation, Brazil. We use field investigations to determine the history of volcanic deposits, domes, and changes in eruptive style; we map and characterize volcanic deposits based on thickness (thicker is proximal to source) and distribution of effusive (proximal to source) and explosive deposits. We focus on several exposed canyons that exhibit either exclusively explosive or effusive, or a clear progression from explosive to effusive deposits. The progression from explosive to effusive indicates a system change from explosively energetic to effusively waning. Additionally, observation of pervasive flow banding in both effusive and explosive deposits indicates rheomorphic flow through many portions of the field area, an indicator of hot emplacement. Geochemical work focuses on the pre-eruptive magma conditions to determine the depth of magma bodies. We utilize glass bearing samples of both the explosively deposited juvenile blob-like structures and obsidian samples to determine crystallization depth. The glass is variably altered, via silicification and devitrification processes, with the blobs more greatly silicified than the obsidian. We use rhyolite-MELTS geothermobarometry when pristine glass can be found. Initial results indicate shallow ( 80 MPa) storage conditions for the explosively erupted blobs. The combination of techniques builds a 3D understanding of extinct super

  10. Identification of human DNA in forensic evidence by loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a colorimetric gold nanoparticle hybridization probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watthanapanpituck, Khanistha; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika; Chu, Eric; Panvisavas, Nathinee

    2014-11-01

    A DNA test based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and colorimetric gold nanoparticle (AuNP) hybridization probe to detect the presence of human DNA in forensic evidence was developed. The LAMP primer set targeted eight regions of the human cytochrome b, and its specificity was verified against the DNA of 11 animal species, which included animals closely related to humans, such as chimpanzee and orangutan. By using the AuNP probe, sequence-specific LAMP product could be detected and the test result could be visualized through the change in color. The limit of detection was demonstrated with reproducibility to be as low as 718 fg of genomic DNA, which is equivalent to approximately 100 plasmid DNA copies containing the cytochrome b DNA target region. A simple DNA extraction method for the commonly found forensic biological samples was also devised to streamline the test process. This LAMP-AuNP human DNA test showed to be a robust, specific, and cost-effective tool for the forensic identification of human specimens without requiring sophisticated laboratory instruments.

  11. Decimal fraction representations are not distinct from natural number representations - evidence from a combined eye-tracking and computational modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Stefan; Klein, Elise; Willmes, Klaus; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Moeller, Korbinian

    2014-01-01

    Decimal fractions comply with the base-10 notational system of natural Arabic numbers. Nevertheless, recent research suggested that decimal fractions may be represented differently than natural numbers because two number processing effects (i.e., semantic interference and compatibility effects) differed in their size between decimal fractions and natural numbers. In the present study, we examined whether these differences indeed indicate that decimal fractions are represented differently from natural numbers. Therefore, we provided an alternative explanation for the semantic congruity effect, namely a string length congruity effect. Moreover, we suggest that the smaller compatibility effect for decimal fractions compared to natural numbers was driven by differences in processing strategy (sequential vs. parallel). To evaluate this claim, we manipulated the tenth and hundredth digits in a magnitude comparison task with participants' eye movements recorded, while the unit digits remained identical. In addition, we evaluated whether our empirical findings could be simulated by an extended version of our computational model originally developed to simulate magnitude comparisons of two-digit natural numbers. In the eye-tracking study, we found evidence that participants processed decimal fractions more sequentially than natural numbers because of the identical leading digit. Importantly, our model was able to account for the smaller compatibility effect found for decimal fractions. Moreover, string length congruity was an alternative account for the prolonged reaction times for incongruent decimal pairs. Consequently, we suggest that representations of natural numbers and decimal fractions do not differ.

  12. Dialectical behavior therapy with American Indian/Alaska Native adolescents diagnosed with substance use disorders: combining an evidence based treatment with cultural, traditional, and spiritual beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckstead, D Joel; Lambert, Michael J; DuBose, Anthony P; Linehan, Marsha

    2015-12-01

    This pilot study examined pre to post-change of patients in a substance use residential treatment center that incorporated Dialectical Behavior Therapy with specific cultural, traditional and spiritual practices for American Indian/Alaska Native adolescents. Specifically, the incorporation of cultural, spiritual and traditional practices was done while still maintaining fidelity to the evidence based treatment (DBT). 229 adolescents participated in the study and were given the Youth Outcome Questionnaire-Self-Report version at pre-treatment and post-treatment and the total scores were compared. The results of the research study showed that 96% of adolescents were either "recovered" or "improved" using clinical significant change criteria. Additionally, differences between the group's pre-test scores and post-test scores were statistically significant using a matched standard T-test comparison. Finally, the effect size that was calculated using Cohen's criteria was found to be large. The results are discussed in terms of the implication for integrating western and traditional based methods of care in addressing substance use disorders and other mental health disorders with American Indian/Alaska Native adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Decimal representations are not distinct from natural number representations – Evidence from a combined eye-tracking and computational modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eHuber

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Decimal fractions comply with the base-10 notational system of natural Arabic numbers. Nevertheless, recent research suggested that decimal fractions may be represented differently than natural numbers because two number processing effects (i.e., semantic interference and compatibility effects differed in their size between decimal fractions and natural numbers. In the present study, we examined whether these differences indeed indicate that decimal fractions are represented differently from natural numbers. Therefore, we provided an alternative explanation for the semantic congruity effect, namely a string length congruity effect. Moreover, we suggest that the smaller compatibility effect for decimal fractions compared to natural numbers was driven by differences in processing strategy (sequential vs. parallel.To evaluate this claim, we manipulated the tenth and hundredth digits in a magnitude comparison task with participants' eye movements recorded, while the unit digits remained identical. In addition, we evaluated whether our empirical findings could be simulated by an extended version of our computational model originally developed to simulate magnitude comparisons of two-digit natural numbers. In the eye-tracking study, we found evidence that participants processed decimal fractions more sequentially than natural numbers because of the identical leading digit. Importantly, our model was able to account for the smaller compatibility effect found for decimal fractions. Moreover, string length congruity was an alternative account for the prolonged reaction times for incongruent decimal pairs. Consequently, we suggest that representations of natural numbers and decimal fractions do not differ.

  14. High-heat geodynamic setting during the Palaeozoic evolution of the Mount Painter Province, SA, Australia: evidence from combined field structural geology and potential-field inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armit, R. J.; Ailleres, L.; Betts, P. G.; Schaefer, B. F.; Blaikie, T. N.

    2014-10-01

    A method for subsurface recognition of blind geological bodies is presented using combined surface constraints and 3-D structural modelling that incorporates constraints from detailed mapping, and potential-field inversion modelling. This method is applied to the Mount Painter Province and demonstrates that addition of low density material is required to reconcile the gravity signature of the region. This method may be an effective way to construct 3-D models in regions of excellent structural control, and can be used to assess the validity of surface structures with 3-D architecture. Combined geological and potential-field constrained inversion modelling of the Mount Painter Province was conducted to assess the validity of the geological models of the region. Magnetic susceptibility constrained stochastic property inversions indicates that the northeast to southwest structural trend of the relatively magnetic meta-sedimentary rocks of the Radium Creek Group in the Mount Painter Inlier is reconcilable with the similar, northeast to southwest trending positive magnetic anomalies in the region. Radium Creek Group packages are the major contributor of the total magnetic response of the region. However field mapping and the results of initial density constrained stochastic property inversion modelling do not correlate with a large residual negative gravity anomaly central to the region. Further density constrained inversion modelling indicates that an additional large body of relatively low density material is needed within the model space to account for this negative density anomaly. Through sensitivity analysis of multiple geometrical and varied potential-field property inversions, the best-fitting model records a reduction in gravity rms misfit from 21.9 to 1.69 mGal, representing a reduction from 56 to 4.5 per cent in respect to the total dynamic range of 37.5 mGal of the residual anomaly. This best-fitting model incorporates a volumetrically significant source

  15. Is Huachansu Beneficial in Treating Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer? Evidence from a Meta-Analysis of Its Efficacy Combined with Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingduo Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Huachansu, the sterilized water extract of Bufo bufo gargarizans toad skin, is used in China to alleviate the side-effects and enhance the therapeutic effect of chemotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess Huachansu’s efficacy. Methods. We extensively searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, CBM, Cochrane Library, CNKI, CEBM, WFDP, CSCD, CSTD, and IPA for randomized controlled trials containing Huachansu plus chemotherapy as the test group and chemotherapy as the control group. Seventeen trials were selected based on the selection criteria. The pooled relative ratio (RR of indicators with 95% confidence interval (95% CI was calculated for efficacy evaluation. Results. The meta-analysis demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in objective tumor response, one-year survival, Karnofsky performance status, pain relief, and alleviation of severe side-effects (nausea and vomiting, leukocytopenia in the test group as compared to the control group, but no significant difference in thrombocytopenia. Conclusions. This study demonstrated the efficacy of Huachansu combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced NSCLC. However, limitations exist and high-quality trials are needed for further verification.

  16. Combined theoretical and time-resolved photoluminescence investigations of [Mo₆Brⁱ₈Br(a)₆]²⁻ metal cluster units: evidence of dual emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costuas, K; Garreau, A; Bulou, A; Fontaine, B; Cuny, J; Gautier, R; Mortier, M; Molard, Y; Duvail, J-L; Faulques, E; Cordier, S

    2015-11-21

    The combined time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) and theoretical study performed on luminescent [Mo6Br(i)8Br(a)6](2-)-based systems unambiguously shows that their NIR-luminescence is due to at least two emissive states. By quantum chemical studies, we show for the first time that important geometrical relaxations occur at the triplet states either by the outstretching of an apex away from the square plane of the Mo6 octahedron or by the elongation of one Mo-Mo bond. Experimental PL measurements demonstrate that the external environment (counter-ions, crystal packing) of the cluster has a noticeable impact on its relaxation processes. Temperature and excitation wavelength dependence of the two components of the luminescence spectra is representative of multiple competitive de-excitation processes in contradiction with Kasha's rule. Our results also demonstrate that the relaxation processes before and after emission can be tracked via fast time-resolved spectroscopy. They also show that the surroundings of the luminescent cluster unit and the excitation wavelength could be modulated for target applications.

  17. Implementing a Combined Cognitive-Behavioral + Exercise Therapy Protocol for Use by Older Adults with Chronic Back Pain: Evidence for a Possible Race/Ethnicity Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beissner, Katherine; Parker, Samantha; Henderson, Charles R.; Pal, Anusmiriti; Papaleontiou, Maria; Reid, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine the feasibility and potential efficacy of a self-management program that combines cognitive-behavioral strategies with exercise for use by seniors with chronic back pain, and to assess for possible race/ethnicity differences in program impact. Design/Methods Sixty-nine participants attending senior centers in New York City enrolled in the 8-week group-based program, with approximately equal numbers of African Americans (n=24), Hispanics (n=25), and non-Hispanic whites (n=20) enrolling. Participants provided weekly input on their perceived understanding and usefulness of program components. Efficacy outcomes included pain-related disability, as measured by the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), pain intensity, pain self-efficacy, depressive symptom score, social activity, and functional status. Results Eighty percent of enrollees completed the program, and 84% of program participants indicated they did the weekly practice/homework exercises. Program content was rated as understandable and highly useful to participants. Significant decreases in RMDQ scores were found for non-Hispanic white (adjusted change score −3.53), African American (−3.89), and Hispanic (−8.45), participants. Significant improvements in all other efficacy outcomes (pain intensity, social activity, activities of daily living, depressive symptoms) were observed, but only for Hispanic participants. Conclusions These results confirm that implementation of the protocol in urban senior centers is feasible, and the program shows potential efficacy in affecting pain-related disability among a diverse population of older adults. The race/ethnicity differences observed in the current study merit further investigation. PMID:22015623

  18. Combined effect of blood pressure and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks of subtypes of cardiovascular death: Evidence for Cardiovascular Prevention from Observational Cohorts in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Michihiro; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Asayama, Kei; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Iso, Hiroyasu; Okayama, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Imai, Yutaka; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2015-03-01

    No large-scale, longitudinal studies have examined the combined effects of blood pressure (BP) and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks for subtypes of cardiovascular death in an Asian population. To investigate these relationships, a meta-analysis of individual participant data, which included 73 916 Japanese subjects (age, 57.7 years; men, 41.1%) from 11 cohorts, was conducted. During a mean follow-up of 15.0 years, deaths from coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, and intraparenchymal hemorrhage occurred in 770, 724, and 345 cases, respectively. Cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used. After stratifying the participants by 4 systolic BP ×4 total cholesterol categories, the group with systolic BP ≥160 mm Hg with total cholesterol ≥5.7 mmol/L had the greatest risk for coronary heart disease death (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.39; P<0.0001 versus group with systolic BP <120 mm Hg and total cholesterol <4.7 mmol/L). The adjusted hazard ratios of systolic BP (per 20 mm Hg) increased with increases in total cholesterol categories (hazard ratio, 1.52; P<0.0001 in group with total cholesterol ≥5.7 mmol/L). Similarly, the adjusted hazard ratios of total cholesterol increased with increases in systolic BP categories (P for interaction ≤0.04). Systolic BP was positively associated with ischemic stroke and intraparenchymal hemorrhage death, and total cholesterol was inversely associated with intraparenchymal hemorrhage, but no significant interactions between BP and total cholesterol were observed for stroke. High BP and high total cholesterol can synergistically increase the risk for coronary heart disease death but not for stroke in the Asian population.

  19. Is there an improvement of antibiotic use in China? Evidence from the usage analysis of combination antibiotic therapy for type I incisions in 244 hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Juan; Luo, Zhen-Ni; Tang, Chang-Min; Zou, Xiao-Xu; Zhao, Lu; Fang, Peng-Qian

    2016-10-01

    The improvement of antibiotic rational use in China was studied by usage analysis of combination antibiotic therapy for type I incisions in 244 hospitals. Five kinds of hospitals, including general hospital, maternity hospital, children's hospital, stomatological hospital and cancer hospital, from 30 provinces were surveyed. A systematic random sampling strategy was employed to select outpatient prescriptions and inpatient cases in 2011 and 2012. A total of 29 280 outpatient prescriptions and 73 200 inpatient cases from 244 hospitals in each year were analyzed. Data were collected with regards to the implementation of the national antibiotic stewardship program (NASP), the overall usage and the prophylactic use of antibiotic for type I incisions. Univariate analysis was used for microbiological diagnosis rate before antimicrobial therapy, prophylactic use of antibiotics for type I incision operation, and so on. For multivariate analysis, the use of antibiotics was dichotomized according to the guidelines, and entered as binary values into logistic regression analysis. The results were compared with the corresponding criteria given by the guidelines of this campaign. The antibiotic stewardship in China was effective in that more than 80% of each kind of hospitals achieved the criteria of recommended antibiotics varieties. Hospital type appeared to be a factor statistically associated with stewardship outcome. The prophylactic use of antibiotics on type I incision operations decreased by 16.22% (Pantibiotic therapy for type I incisions was also decreased. Region and bed size were the main determinants on surgical prophylaxis for type I incision. This national analysis of hospitals on antibiotic use and stewardship allows relevant comparisons for bench marking. More efforts addressing the root cause of antibiotics abuse would continue to improve the rational use of antibiotics in China.

  20. Distribution of Gifsy-3 and of variants of ST64B and Gifsy-1 prophages amongst Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium isolates: evidence that combinations of prophages promote clonality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lester Hiley

    Full Text Available Salmonella isolates harbour a range of resident prophages which can influence their virulence and ability to compete and survive in their environment. Phage gene profiling of a range of phage types of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium indicates a significant level of correlation of phage gene profile with phage type as well as correlation with genotypes determined by a combination of multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR typing and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR typing. Variation in phage gene profiles appears to be partly linked to differences in composition of variants of known prophages. We therefore conducted a study of the distribution of variants of ST64B and Gifsy-1 prophages and coincidently the presence of Gifsy-3 prophage in a range of S. Typhimurium phage types and genotypes. We have discovered two variants of the DT104 variant of ST64B and at least two new variants of Gifsy-1 as well as variants of related phage genes. While there is definite correlation between phage type and the prophage profile based on ST64B and Gifsy-1 variants we find stronger correlation between the VNTR/CRISPR genotype and prophage profile. Further differentiation of some genotypes is obtained by addition of the distribution of Gifsy-3 and a sequence variant of the substituted SB26 gene from the DT104 variant of ST64B. To explain the correlation between genotype and prophage profile we propose that suites of resident prophages promote clonality possibly through superinfection exclusion systems.

  1. Geochemical and Sr Nd Pb isotopic evidence for a combined assimilation and fractional crystallisation process for volcanic rocks from the Huichapan caldera, Hidalgo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Surendra P.

    2001-03-01

    This study reports new geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data for Miocene to Quaternary basaltic to andesitic, dacitic, and rhyolitic volcanic rocks from the Huichapan caldera, located in the central part of the Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB). The initial Sr and Nd isotopic ratios, except for one rhyolite, range as follows: 87Sr/ 86Sr 0.70357-0.70498 and 143Nd/ 144Nd 0.51265-0.51282. The Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic ratios are generally similar to those for volcanic rocks from other areas of the central and eastern parts of the MVB. The isotopic ratios of one older pre-caldera rhyolite (HP30) from the Huichapan area, particularly its high 87Sr/ 86Sr, are significantly different from rhyolitic rocks from this and other areas of the MVB, but are isotopically similar to some felsic rocks from the neighbouring geological province of Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO), implying an origin as a partial melt of the underlying crust. The evolved andesitic to rhyolitic magmas could have originated from a basaltic magma through a combined assimilation and fractional crystallisation (AFC) process. Different compositions, representing lower crust (LC) and upper crust (UC) as well as a hypothetical crust similar to the source of high 87Sr/ 86Sr rhyolite HP30, were tested as plausible assimilants for the AFC process. The results show that the UC represented by granitic rocks from a nearby Los Humeros area or by Cretaceous limestone (L) rocks outcropping in the northern part of the study area, and the LC represented by granulitic xenoliths from a nearby San Luis Potosı´ (SLP) area are not possible assimilants for Huichapan magmas, whereas a hypothetical crust (HA) similar in isotopic compositions to rhyolite HP30 could be considered a possible assimilant for the AFC process. Chemical composition of assimilant HA, although not well constrained at present, was inferred under the assumption that HP30 type partial melts could be generated from its partial melting. These data were then used to evaluate

  2. Application of a Modified Evidence Combination Rule in Reliability Assessment%一种改进的证据组合规则在可靠性评估中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周旷; 师义民

    2012-01-01

    对许多长寿产品进行可靠性评估时,客观实验数据往往难以获取.在试验数据短缺的情况下,就要正确处理专家经验和对相似产品的可靠性认识等不确定信息.为了有效合理地利用这些不确定信息,提出了一种基于Dempster-Shafer证据理论(DST)的可靠性评估方法,针对传统证据理论在处理冲突证据时的不足,用加权证据方法对其组合规则进行了修正.算例实验表明了该方法在有“干扰证据”存在的情况下评估结果的有效性和合理性.%For many high-reliability products, it is difficult to obtain their objective experimental data, but expert experience and the knowledge of the similar products' reliability show their advantage in this case. In order to express and apply the uncertain information better,this paper presents a new reliability assessment method based on Dempster-Shafer evidence theory (DST). DST involves counter-intuitive behaviors when evidence highly con?icts. A new approach of combination of weighted evidence is proposed ?to solve the problem. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach when there is "noisy evidence".

  3. Combination Forecast of Gas Emission in Coal Mine Based on Evidence Theory%基于证据理论的煤矿瓦斯涌出组合预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程加堂; 张辉; 徐绍坤

    2012-01-01

    为提高煤矿瓦斯涌出量预测的准确度,引入证据理论组合预测方法.根据瓦斯涌出量及其主要影响因素间的实验数据,采用3个不同的粒子群神经网络模型对涌出量进行初步预测.并由BP、RBF网络对预测误差及预测点的影响因素进行分析建模,以获取每个模型的可信度.再利用证据理论对其进行合成,确定组合模型的权值,最终实现对瓦斯涌出量的组合预测.实例结果表明,该组合预测方法的平均绝对误差、均方误差分别为18.5%、5.8%,均小于神经网络组合法及等权平均法的相应预测误差,适用于煤矿瓦斯涌出量预测.%In order to improve the prediction accuracy of coal mine gas emission, an evidence theory combination forecasting method is applied. According to the experimental data between gas emission and its main influence factors, three different particle swarm optimization-neural network models are used for the initial prediction. BP(Back Propagation) and RBF( Radical Basis Function) networks are selected to establish models for the forecasting errors and the factors, so as to get the credibility of each model. Then the evidence theory is employed to fuse them to obtain the weights of the combination model, thus, the gas emission combination forecasting is fulfilled. Examples results show that the average absolute error and the mean square error of the combination forecasting method are 0. 185 and 5.8%, respectively, less than the corresponding prediction error of the neural network and the equal weight method. The method is suitable for gas emission prediction of coal mine.

  4. 基于证据组合的绿色施工灰色评价模型研究%Grey Evaluation Model of Green Construction Based on Evidence Combination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵军义; 曹雪梅; 宋岩磊

    2015-01-01

    针对我国绿色施工评价问题,参考我国相关行业规范标准及文献资料,进一步完善了绿色施工评价指标体系,建立了基于证据组合的绿色施工灰色评价模型.利用序关系分析法确定指标主观权重,采用基于三角白化权函数的灰色评价模型,确定评价对象的灰色评估系数及所属灰类,并采用基于多准则排序融合的证据组合方法综合多位专家的灰色评价结果,得到最终评价结果,降低了评价结果的主观性.实证结果表明,该模型能够对建筑工程项目绿色施工水平作出有效评价.%To evaluate construction greenness in China and improve the evaluation index system of green construction,a grey evaluation model is established referring to industry standards of China and the relevant literature based on evidence combination. Firstly,the order relation analysis method is employed to determine the subjective weight of the index. Then,the grey evaluation model based on triangular whitening weight function is used to determine the grey evaluation coefficient of evaluation objects and which grey type they belongs to. Finally,the evidence combination method based on multi-criteria ranking and fusion is used to combine the evaluation results from a number of experts and get the final results of the evaluation,which reduce the subjectivity of the results. The empirical results show that the model can evaluate the construction greenness of building engineering projects.

  5. The Clinical and Cost Effectiveness of Aflibercept in Combination with Irinotecan and Fluorouracil-Based Therapy (FOLFIRI) for the Treatment of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Which has Progressed Following Prior Oxaliplatin-Based Chemotherapy: a Critique of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Ros; Duarte, Ana; Simmonds, Mark; Rodriguez-Lopez, Rocio; Duffy, Steven; Woolacott, Nerys; Spackman, Eldon

    2015-05-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of aflibercept (Sanofi) to submit clinical and cost-effectiveness evidence for aflibercept in combination with irinotecan and fluorouracil-based therapy [irinotecan/5-fluorouracil/folinic acid (FOLFIRI)] for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer which has progressed following prior oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy, as part of the Institute's Single Technology Appraisal process. The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and Centre for Health Economics at the University of York were commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG). This article provides a description of the company submission, the ERG review and the resulting NICE guidance TA307 issued in March 2014. The ERG critically reviewed the evidence presented in the manufacturer's submission and identified areas requiring clarification, for which the manufacturer provided additional evidence. The clinical effectiveness data were derived from one good-quality double-blind randomised controlled trial (RCT), the VELOUR trial, which compared aflibercept plus FOLFIRI with placebo plus FOLFIRI. This RCT found a small but statistically significant increase in overall survival (OS); the difference in median OS was 1.44 months (13.5 months in the aflibercept group and 12.06 months in the placebo group). There was also a statistically significant increase in progression-free survival (PFS) with aflibercept; the difference in median PFS was 2.23 months (6.9 months in the aflibercept group and 4.67 months in the placebo group). However, grade 3-4 adverse events were more frequent in the aflibercept group than the placebo group: 83.5% compared with 62.5%. Treatment-emergent adverse events led to permanent discontinuation of treatment in 26.8% of patients in the aflibercept group and 12.1% of patients in the placebo group. The manufacturer's submission included an estimation of mean OS benefit based on extrapolation

  6. Application of case-based learning combined with evidence-based medicine in the intern teaching of periodontology%循证医学联合CBL教学法在牙周病实习教学的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁红; 田宇; 王勤涛

    2012-01-01

    A new teaching method of case-based learning combined with evidence-based medicine was intro-duced to the intern teaching of periodontology. This study proved that satisfactory teaching results have been gained, with the facts that the students' study interest and passion were evoked and their abilities of self-study and problem-solving were improved. The results render it necessary to further apply this new teaching method in future teaching works.%将循证医学与CBL教学法有机地结合后应用于口腔牙周病临床实习教学,实践证明应用循证医学联合CBL教学法有助于激发学生的学习兴趣和自主学习积极性,可培养学生不断更新知识信息的终身学习能力,加强学生发现问题和分析解决问题的能力,也有助于加强学生临床思维能力的培养,研究证实取得了良好的教学效果,值得在牙周病实习教学实践中进一步推广应用.

  7. Application of evidence-based medicine combined with case based learning in pediatric residency training%CBL结合循证医学理念在儿科住院医师培训中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟松会; 康琳敏; 钟琳; 陶于洪; 王峥

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨以病例为基础的学习(case-based learning,CBL)结合循证医学方法在儿科住院医师培训中的实施效果.方法 将52名住院医师随机分为实验组(CBL结合循证医学理念教学组26人)和对照组(灌输式教学组26人),教学均围绕病房患儿病例展开.实验组住院医师以2人为小组,由带组教师提出问题,住院医师下班后查阅文献;在每周固定的全科教学查房时间结合该病例进行循证医学证据总结汇报;全科室人员参与病例讨论和学习,带组教师进行总结.对照组采用传统的灌输式教学,以带教教师的临床经验指导住院医师作病例分析;住院医师有问题提出时,带教教师直接给予回答.轮转时间为4个月.教学效果评价分为问卷调查、理论试卷考试、临床技能考核三部分.用SPSS 16.0软件对考核成绩进行统计学分析,试卷考试和技能考核成绩用均数±标准差(x±s)表示,行t检验,以P<0.05为差异具有统计学意义.结果 实验组住院医师认为,自身所接受的培养方式在提高自学能力、文献检索查阅能力、医师间团队合作精神、临床思维、幻灯片制作技术和语言表达能力方面更有优势.理论考试成绩显示,实验组平均成绩(75.460 ±6.646)分高于对照组(71.380 ±4.758)分,差异有统计学意义(P=0.014);尤其表现在主观题部分.临床技能考核显示,实验组病例书写及临床思维成绩优于对照组.结论 CBL结合循证医学教学在提高自学能力、培养临床思维能力及文献检索和语言表达等方面明显优于传统的灌输式教学,适用于儿科住院医师培训.%Objective To explore the effect of evidence-based medicine combined withcase based learning(CBL) in pediatric residency training.Methods Totally 52 residents were equally divided into two groups:experiment group and control group.Method of CBL combined with the evidencebased medicine (Taking two residents as

  8. Microbiological surveillance and antimicrobial stewardship minimise the need for ultrabroad-spectrum combination therapy for treatment of nosocomial infections in a trauma intensive care unit: an audit of an evidence-based empiric antimicrobial policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsamy, Yogandree; Muckart, David James Jackson; Han, Khine Swe Swe

    2013-03-15

    % comprised Enterobacteriaceae. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production was found in 6/31 (19%) Escherichia coli coli and 6/24 (25%) Klebsiella isolates. Staphyloccocal species accounted for 60% of the Gram-positive isolates, of which 18 were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). All Candida isolates were sensitive to fluconazole. One hundred and one empiric and 14 directed prescriptions were issued. Despite positive cultures, antimicrobials were not prescribed for 21 patients who had no evidence of sepsis. Excluding multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter isolates, there were 87 (93.5%) appropriate and 6 (6.5%) incorrect prescriptions. Ultrabroad-spectrum combination therapy (U-bSCT) was employed for 11 patients but was necessary in only 2. When combined with regular bacterial surveillance, antimicrobial stewardship allows accurate empiric antimicrobial prescription with minimal need for ultrabroad-spectrum combination therapy. This policy can potentially reduce the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens, precluding the need for broad-spectrum antimicrobials and the attendant problems of overuse.

  9. Combination treatment for hypertension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On average, one in four adults has hypertension.1 This figure is higher in certain regions of the world, .... doses favours the development of diabetes and should be ... New and old evidence strongly supports combination treatment .... cardiovascular death, stroke and myocardial infarction, cognitive function and dementia.

  10. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  11. Target recognition based on modified combination rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Tianlu; Que Peiwen

    2006-01-01

    Evidence theory is widely used in the field of target recognition. The invalidation problem of this theory when dealing with highly conflict evidences is a research hotspot. Several alternatives of the combination rule are analyzed and compared. A new combination approach is proposed. Calculate the reliabilities of evidence sources using existing evidences. Construct reliabilities judge matrixes and get the weights of each evidence source. Weight average all inputted evidences. Combine processed evidences with D-S combination rule repeatedly to identify a target. The application in multi-sensor target recognition as well as the comparison with typical alternatives all validated that this approach can dispose highly conflict evidences efficiently and get reasonable recognition results rapidly.

  12. Combination analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarida, Ronald J

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes quantitative methodology that is directed toward assessing interactions between a combination of agonist drugs that individually produce overtly similar effects. Drugs administered in combination may show exaggerated, reduced or predictable effects that are dependent on the specific drug pair and the doses of t h e constituents. The basisfor quantitating these unusual interactions is the concept of dose equivalence which, in turn, is determined from the individual drug dose-effect relations. A common analytical procedure that follows from dose equivalence uses a graph termed an isobologram. We present here an overview of the isobologram, its use and certain related methods that apply to classifying various drug interactions.

  13. Evidence-based clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine combines the patient's preferences with clinical experience and the best research evidence. Randomized clinical trials are considered the most valid research design for evaluating health-care interventions. However, empirical research shows that intervention effects may be...

  14. Combination rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holicky, M.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2002-01-01

    Load combinations specified in EN 1990 for verification of ultimate limit and serviceability limit states in conjunction with the partial factor method are discussed and illustrated by practical examples of typical civil structures. Alternative procedures to identify critical load cases are reviewed

  15. A weight-of-evidence approach to assessing the ecological impact of organotin pollution in Dutch marine brackish waters; combining risk prognosis and field monitoring using common periwinkles (Littorina littorea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, R.; Smit, M.G.D.; Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Vethaak, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study an integrated ecological risk assessment based on multiple lines of evidence (LOEs) was evaluated in order to better assess the risk from TBT in Dutch harbours and open coastal waters. On the basis of spatial distributions of measured tributyltin (TBT) concentrations in sediment

  16. Evidence and evidence gaps – an introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Gabriele; Löhler, Jan

    2016-01-01

    , databases, information portals with processed evidence as well as specific journals and finally teaching are appropriate vehicles. One problem is the multitude of information so that knowledge gaps may affect the clinical routine despite actually existing evidence. Generally, it still takes several years until new knowledge is implemented in daily routine. Tasks: The German Society of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Hals-, Nasen- und Ohren-Heilkunde, Kopf- und Hals-Chirurgie e.V., DGHNOKHC) and the Professional Association of Otolaryngologists (Deutscher Berufsverband der HNO-Ärzte e.V., BVHNO) have fundamental interest in supporting their members in generating, processing, and providing evidence as well as accompanying knowledge transfer. It encompasses the fields of diagnostics, therapy, and prognosis in the same way as prevention and applies to medicinal products as well as to medical devices or surgical procedures. The base for this is the regular assessment of evidence gaps, also in the area of established procedures, that has to be followed by a prioritization of research questions and the subsequent initiation of clinical research. In addition, large trials verifying therapies and diagnostics, for example in the context of daily conditions after approval, can only be conducted combining all resources in the ENT community. Method, results, and outlook: Together, the executive committees of the DGHNOKHC and the BVHNO founded the German Study Center of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (Deutsches Studienzentrum für Hals-, Nasen- und Ohren-Heilkunde, Kopf- und Hals-Chirurgie, DSZ-HNO). First projects have been initiated, among those a clinical trial on the therapy of sudden hearing loss supported by the BMBF and a survey on evidence gaps in oto-rhino-laryngology. It seems to be both reasonable and feasible to make available methodological expertise via such an infrastructure of a study center for physicians in

  17. Antifungal combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Roxana G; Afeltra, Javier; Dannaoui, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The increase in fungal infections and the change in fungal epidemiology is caused by the extensive use of antifungal agents to treat fungal infections that are being diagnosed in severly immunocompromised hosts. In addition, opportunistic fungal infections resistant to antifungal drugs have become increasingly common, and the armamentarium for treatment remains limited. A possible approach to overcoming these problems is to combine antifungal drugs, especially if the mechanisms of action are different. The in vitro test is the first step to evaluate possible antifungal combinations. In this chapter, the three most frequently used metholodologies are described: checkerboard, E-test, and time-kill curves. The description of each technique and intrepretaion of the results are addressed in detail.

  18. Combining haplotypers

    CERN Document Server

    Kääriäinen, Matti; Lappalainen, Sampsa; Mielikäinen, Taneli

    2007-01-01

    Statistically resolving the underlying haplotype pair for a genotype measurement is an important intermediate step in gene mapping studies, and has received much attention recently. Consequently, a variety of methods for this problem have been developed. Different methods employ different statistical models, and thus implicitly encode different assumptions about the nature of the underlying haplotype structure. Depending on the population sample in question, their relative performance can vary greatly, and it is unclear which method to choose for a particular sample. Instead of choosing a single method, we explore combining predictions returned by different methods in a principled way, and thereby circumvent the problem of method selection. We propose several techniques for combining haplotype reconstructions and analyze their computational properties. In an experimental study on real-world haplotype data we show that such techniques can provide more accurate and robust reconstructions, and are useful for out...

  19. Combination Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The Rayovac TANDEM is an advanced technology combination work light and general purpose flashlight that incorporates several NASA technologies. The TANDEM functions as two lights in one. It features a long range spotlight and wide angle floodlight; simple one-hand electrical switching changes the beam from spot to flood. TANDEM developers made particular use of NASA's extensive research in ergonomics in the TANDEM's angled handle, convenient shape and different orientations. The shatterproof, water resistant plastic casing also draws on NASA technology, as does the shape and beam distance of the square diffused flood. TANDEM's heavy duty magnet that permits the light to be affixed to any metal object borrows from NASA research on rare earth magnets that combine strong magnetic capability with low cost. Developers used a NASA-developed ultrasonic welding technique in the light's interior.

  20. Search Combinators

    CERN Document Server

    Schrijvers, Tom; Wuille, Pieter; Samulowitz, Horst; Stuckey, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    The ability to model search in a constraint solver can be an essential asset for solving combinatorial problems. However, existing infrastructure for defining search heuristics is often inadequate. Either modeling capabilities are extremely limited or users are faced with a general-purpose programming language whose features are not tailored towards writing search heuristics. As a result, major improvements in performance may remain unexplored. This article introduces search combinators, a lightweight and solver-independent method that bridges the gap between a conceptually simple modeling language for search (high-level, functional and naturally compositional) and an efficient implementation (low-level, imperative and highly non-modular). By allowing the user to define application-tailored search strategies from a small set of primitives, search combinators effectively provide a rich domain-specific language (DSL) for modeling search to the user. Remarkably, this DSL comes at a low implementation cost to the...

  1. Evidence informed decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Tarang; Choudhury, Moni; Kaur, Bindweep

    2015-01-01

    from the literature and a combined best practice checklist has been proposed. CONCLUSIONS: As decisions often need to be made in areas where there is a lack of published scientific evidence, CE is employed. Therefore to ensure its appropriateness the development of a validated CE data quality check......-list to assist decision makers is essential and further research in this area is a priority....

  2. Interpreting Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsart, Craig A.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity that allows students to experience the type of discovery process that paleontologists necessarily followed during the early dinosaur explorations. Students are read parts of a story taken from the "American Journal of Science" and interpret the evidence leading to the discovery of Triceratops and Stegosaurus. (PR)

  3. Analgesic combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, Robert B.; Pergolizzi, Joseph V.; Tallarida, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    When the pathophysiology of a medical condition is multi-modal, i.e., related to multiple physiological causes or mediated by multiple pathways, the optimal strategy can be to use a drug or a combination of drugs that contribute multiple mechanisms to the therapeutic endpoint. In such situations, a rational multi-modal approach can also result in the fewest adverse effects. We discuss the quantitative analysis of multi-modal action using the treatment of pain as a practical example and give examples of its application to some widely used analgesic drugs. PMID:20338825

  4. The evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabat, P.; Bates, B.

    2003-01-01

    The hydrological cycle continuously replenishes the world¿s water resources and is the foundation of life on earth. Now we find that a combination of natural and human activities is having a disturbing influence on the cycle. Dramatically changing weather patterns mean that the replenishing water ar

  5. A weight-of-evidence approach to assessing the ecological impact of organotin pollution in Dutch marine and brackish waters; combining risk prognosis and field monitoring using common periwinkles (Littorina littorea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Cor A; Smit, Mathijs G D; Kaag, Nicholas H B M; Dick Vethaak, A

    2008-08-01

    In the present study an integrated ecological risk assessment based on multiple lines of evidence (LOEs) was evaluated in order to better assess the risk from TBT in Dutch harbours and open coastal waters. On the basis of spatial distributions of measured tributyltin (TBT) concentrations in sediments and suspended matter, predictions of the intersex index (ISI) in Littorina littorea and the ecological risk expressed as the Potentially Affected Fraction (PAF) of species were made. The results were compared to actual ISI measurements and presence of L. littorea in the field. The PAF calculated on the basis of TBT levels for open coastal waters ranged from 4.2% to 15.3%; for harbours it ranged from 3.5% to 26.9%. Significant intersex levels were observed only in waters where the risk was calculated above 10% PAF. This study suggests that the absence of L. littorea from some harbours with high ecological risk values can be explained by high TBT concentrations. A call is made for the use of integrated approaches like weight-of-evidence (WOE) to help practitioners improve ecological risk assessment.

  6. Protocol for the CUPIDO trials; multicenter randomized controlled trials to assess the value of combining prolapse surgery and incontinence surgery in patients with genital prolapse and evident stress incontinence (CUPIDO I and in patients with genital prolapse and occult stress incontinence (CUPIDO II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Vaart Huub

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About 40% of all patients with genital prolapse report stress-incontinence. In about half of the 60% patients that do not report stress-incontinence, occult urinary stress-incontinence can be detected. In these patients stress-incontinence is masked due to kinking or compression of the urethra by the prolapse. In case surgical correction is indicated there are two strategies to manage patients with combined prolapse and (occult stress incontinence. This strategy is either (i a combination of prolapse surgery and stress-incontinence surgery or (ii to correct the prolapse first and evaluate afterwards whether additional stress-incontinence surgery is indicated. The advantage of combining prolapse and stress-incontinence surgery is that only few patients report stress-incontinence following such combination. However, this combination has been associated with an increased risk on complications, of which the development of obstructive micturition symptoms, overactive bladder symptoms and bladder retention are the most important ones. Furthermore, combining two procedures may be unnecessary as performing only prolapse surgery may cure stress-incontinence In the randomized CUPIDO trials both strategies are compared in patients with prolapse and evident stress incontinence (CUPIDO I trial and in patients with prolapse and occult stress incontinence (CUPIDO II trial. Methods/Design The CUPIDO trials are two multicenter randomized controlled trials in which women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI or occult stress urinary incontinence (OSUI are randomized to prolapse surgery combined with anti incontinence surgery (concomitant surgery or to prolapse surgery only. Patients with at least stage 2 POP are eligible, women with evident SUI are randomized in CUPIDO I. Patients without SUI are eligible for CUPIDO II and will have urodynamic evaluation or a standardized redression test. Women with OSUI are randomized, women without OSUI are

  7. The benefit of multi-disciplines combination in evidence-based medicine teaching practice%多学科联合开展临床循证医学教学的优势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方向华; 王淳秀

    2016-01-01

    In this article,we gave a detail description on the experience of teaching evidence-based medicine (EBM) in undergraduate students and graduate students as well as for continue medical education.The staff of Department of EBM was from variety of sub-discipline,including epidemiologists,physicians,surgeons and librarian.To make the course smoothly,the member of the department discussed the plan together frequently,and had conduct test lecture,which make the course to become perfect.The key for the development in our department is powerful organization and leadership,pursuing perfect,keeping with the progress of the EBM and team-working.%本文介绍了在医学本科生、研究生和医学继续教育中开展临床循证医学教学的实践经历和体会.教研室由多学科人员组成,包括流行病学、内(外)科医生、图书馆专家等构成,通过多次的集体备课,教案讨论、试讲,使循证医学的教学日趋成熟.强有力的组织领导、对于教学理念的求新求精、努力学习与知识更新、团结协作是立足的根本.

  8. Molecular evidence of increased resistance to anti-folate drugs in Plasmodium falciparum in North-East India: a signal for potential failure of artemisinin plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Pradyumna Kishore; Sarma, Devojit Kumar; Prakash, Anil; Bora, Khukumoni; Ahmed, Md Atique; Sarma, Bibhas; Goswami, Basanta Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Dibya Ranjan; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2014-01-01

    North-east India, being a corridor to South-east Asia, is believed to play an important role in transmitting drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria to India and South Asia. North-east India was the first place in India to record the emergence of drug resistance to chloroquine as well as sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine. Presently chloroquine resistance is widespread all over the North-east India and resistance to other anti-malarials is increasing. In this study both in vivo therapeutic efficacy and molecular assays were used to screen the spectrum of drug resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine in the circulating P. falciparum strains. A total of 220 P. falciparum positives subjects were enrolled in the study for therapeutic assessment of chloroquine and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine and assessment of point mutations conferring resistances to these drugs were carried out by genotyping the isolates following standard methods. Overall clinical failures in sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine and chloroquine were found 12.6 and 69.5% respectively, while overall treatment failures recorded were 13.7 and 81.5% in the two arms. Nearly all (99.0%) the isolates had mutant pfcrt genotype (76 T), while 68% had mutant pfmdr-1 genotype (86 Y). Mutation in dhps 437 codon was the most prevalent one while dhfr codon 108 showed 100% mutation. A total of 23 unique haplotypes at the dhps locus and 7 at dhfr locus were found while dhps-dhfr combined loci revealed 49 unique haplotypes. Prevalence of double, triple and quadruple mutations were common while 1 haplotype was found with all five mutated codons (F/AGEGS/T) at dhps locus. Detection of quadruple mutants (51 I/59 R/108 N/164 L) in the present study, earlier recorded from Car Nicobar Island, India only, indicates the presence of high levels of resistance to sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine in north-east India. Associations between resistant haplotypes and the clinical outcomes and emerging resistance in sulphadoxine

  9. Evidence of clinical competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejonqvist, Gun-Britt; Eriksson, Katie; Meretoja, Riitta

    2012-06-01

    This cross-sectional research used a qualitative questionnaire to explore clinical competence in nursing. The aim was to look for evidence of how clinical competence showed itself in practice. In the research, the views from both education and working life are combined to broadly explore and describe clinical competence from the perspective of students, clinical preceptors and teachers. The questions were formulated on how clinical competence is characterised and experienced, what contributes to it and how it is maintained, and on the relation between clinical competence and evidence-based care. The answers were analysed by inductive content analysis. The results showed that clinical competence in practice is encountering, knowing, performing, maturing and improving. Clinical competence is an ongoing process, rather than a state and manifests itself in an ontological and a contextual dimension.

  10. Property Attribution in Combined Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, Thomas L.; Gagné, Christina L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research shows that the judged likelihood of properties of modified nouns ("baby ducks have webbed feet") is reduced relative to judgments for unmodified nouns ("ducks have webbed feet"). This modification effect has been taken as evidence both for and against the idea that combined concepts automatically inherit…

  11. Property Attribution in Combined Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, Thomas L.; Gagné, Christina L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research shows that the judged likelihood of properties of modified nouns ("baby ducks have webbed feet") is reduced relative to judgments for unmodified nouns ("ducks have webbed feet"). This modification effect has been taken as evidence both for and against the idea that combined concepts automatically inherit…

  12. A refined atomic scale model of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae K+-translocation protein Trk1p combined with experimental evidence confirms the role of selectivity filter glycines and other key residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayats, Vasilina; Stockner, Thomas; Pandey, Saurabh Kumar; Wörz, Katharina; Ettrich, Rüdiger; Ludwig, Jost

    2015-05-01

    Potassium ion (K+) uptake in yeast is mediated mainly by the Trk1/2 proteins that enable cells to survive on external K+ concentration as low as a few μM. Fungal Trks are related to prokaryotic TRK and Ktr and plant HKT K+ transport systems. Overall sequence similarity is very low, thus requiring experimental verification of homology models. Here a refined structural model of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Trk1 is presented that was obtained by combining homology modeling, molecular dynamics simulation and experimental verification through functional analysis of mutants. Structural models and experimental results showed that glycines within the selectivity filter, conserved among the K-channel/transporter family, are not only important for protein function, but are also required for correct folding/membrane targeting. A conserved aspartic acid in the PA helix (D79) and a lysine in the M2D helix (K1147) were proposed earlier to interact. Our results suggested individual roles of these residues in folding, structural integrity and function. While mutations of D79 completely abolished protein folding, mutations at position 1147 were tolerated to some extent. Intriguingly, a secondary interaction of D79 with R76 could enhance folding/stability of Trk1 and enable a fraction of Trk1[K1147A] to fold. The part of the ion permeation path containing the selectivity filter is shaped similar to that of ion channels. However below the selectivity filter it is obstructed or regulated by a proline containing loop. The presented model could provide the structural basis for addressing the long standing question if Trk1 is a passive or active ion-translocation system.

  13. ATRX mRNA expression combined with IDH1/2 mutational status and Ki-67 expression refines the molecular classification of astrocytic tumors: evidence from the whole transcriptome sequencing of 169 samples samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jinquan; Yang, Pei; Zhang, Chuanbao; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Yanwei; Bao, Zhaoshi; Liu, Xing; Du, Wenzhong; Wang, Hongjun; Jiang, Tao; Jiang, Chuanlu

    2014-05-15

    Astrocytic tumors are the most common primary brain tumors in adults. ATRX mutations have been identified in gliomas and are correlated with its loss of expression, which causes alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) leading to genomic instability. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of ATRX mRNA expression alteration in the progression and subclassification of astrocytic tumors and examine its impact on clinical outcome. We investigated ATRX mRNA expression and its association with IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in 169 adult astrocytic tumors using whole transcriptome sequencing. In our cohort, low ATRX mRNA expression was detected in 68% of astrocytomas, 50% of anaplastic astrocytomas and 41.6% of glioblastomas. Low ATRX expression closely overlapped with mutations in IDH1/2 (PATRX expression and longer overall survival was identified in our cohort (PATRX combined with IDH1/2 and Ki-67 was used to re-classify patients with astrocytic tumors: group A1 containing IDH1/2 mutations and low ATRX expression predicted a better prognostic outcome, whereas group A3 carrying wild-type IDH1/2 and high Ki-67 expression had the shortest overall survival; IDH-mutant tumors with low ATRX expression and IDH-wild-type tumors with high Ki-67 expression were grouped into group A2. In summary, our results showed that ATRX in cooperation with IDH1/2 and Ki-67 defines three subgroups of astrocytic tumors regardless of the conventional WHO grades consensus. The molecular stratification in astrocytic tumors may aid in treatment strategy selection, therapeutic trial design, and clinical prognosis evaluation.

  14. PBL结合EBM理念在儿科临床实习中的应用%Application of PBL Combined with Evidence-based Medicine Theory in Clinical Practice of Pediatric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐曼; 刘小红; 史瑞明; 吴红艳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨以问题为基础的学习(Problem‐based Learning ,PBL )结合循证医学(Evidence‐based M edicine ,EBM )在儿科临床实习中的实施效果。方法将56名实习医师随机分为实验组(PBL 结合EB M教学组28人)和对照组(灌输式教学组28人),教学均围绕病房患儿病例展开。实验组由带组教师提出问题,实习医师查阅文献;在每周固定的全科教学查房时间结合该病例进行循证医学证据总结汇报,参与病例讨论和学习,带组教师进行总结。对照组采用传统的灌输式教学,以带教教师的临床经验指导实习医师作病例分析;实习医师有问题提出时,带教教师直接给予回答。教学效果评价分为问卷调查、理论试卷考试、临床技能考核三部分。结果实验组实习医师认为,自身所接受的培养方式在提高自学能力、文献检索查阅能力、医师团队合作精神、临床思维、幻灯片制作技术和语言表达能力方面更有优势。理论考试成绩显示,实验组平均成绩为(87.45±3.67)分,高于对照组的(73.28±4.35)分,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。临床技能考核显示,实验组病例书写及临床思维成绩优于对照组。结论 PBL结合EB M 教学在提高实习医师的自学能力、培养临床思维能力及文献检索和语言表达等方面明显优于传统的灌输式教学,适用于儿科临床实习。%Objective Explore the implementation effect of method in pediatric clinical studying which is combined the problem‐based learning with the evidence‐based medicine .Methods Random allocation was taken to averagely divide 56 interns into two groups:the experiment group (28 students) and the control group (28 students) .The cases which should be used by teaching were in pediatric depart‐ment .The modality of experiment group like this in the teaching round weekly ,teacher asked ques

  15. 生物类似药证据链完备性的合成P值法评估%Evaluation of the totality-of-the-evidence for biosimilar studies by combining P-values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-ying Pan; Nan Zhang; Yao Yu; Eric Chi; Shein-chung Chow

    2015-01-01

    最近几年,许多生物制药/生物技术公司对研发生物类似药物的兴趣越来越强.根据生物类似药物的研发需求,美国药监局(FDA)在2012年颁布了3个相关指导原则草案.FDA在这3个指导原则中表示,对于生物类似药物的注册申请的全部提交资料采用“证据链完备性(totality-of-the-evidence)”的方法来审查,并鼓励研发企业使用“逐步递进法sterwise”来找出与原研产品相比,仿制生物制品在每一工艺步骤中的残余不确定度,进而在后续的研发步骤中设法解决这些残余不确定度.尽管要获得“具有较小不确定度的充足证据链完备性”这样的概念可以理解,但是,如何根据提交的所有注册申请信息客观地评价“证据链完备性”,以及如何基于已有信息确定下一步研发步骤的程度和范围仍然是需解决的具体操作问题.本研究探索了费舍尔合成P值的概念(Fis her,1932)在等效性检验设置中的应用,更具体地说,在一个生物类似药物的临床研究中,根据“逐步递进法”和“临床证据完备性”的概念,用它来设计和分析2个生物类似药物的临床相似性.

  16. Targeting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway for the Treatment of Mesenchymal Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Evidence From a Phase 1 Trial of mTOR Inhibition in Combination With Liposomal Doxorubicin and Bevacizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basho, Reva K; Gilcrease, Michael; Murthy, Rashmi K; Helgason, Thorunn; Karp, Daniel D; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Hess, Kenneth R; Herbrich, Shelley M; Valero, Vicente; Albarracin, Constance; Litton, Jennifer K; Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana; Ibrahim, Nuhad K; Murray, James L; Koenig, Kimberly B; Hong, David; Subbiah, Vivek; Kurzrock, Razelle; Janku, Filip; Moulder, Stacy L

    2017-04-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) classified by transcriptional profiling as the mesenchymal subtype frequently harbors aberrations in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, raising the possibility of targeting this pathway to enhance chemotherapy response. Up to 30% of mesenchymal TNBC can be classified histologically as metaplastic breast cancer, a chemorefractory group of tumors with a mixture of epithelial and mesenchymal components identifiable by light microscopy. While assays to identify mesenchymal TNBC are under development, metaplastic breast cancer serves as a clinically identifiable surrogate to evaluate potential regimens for mesenchymal TNBC. To assess safety and efficacy of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition in combination with liposomal doxorubicin and bevacizumab in patients with advanced metaplastic TNBC. Phase 1 study with dose escalation and dose expansion at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center of patients with advanced metaplastic TNBC. Patients were enrolled from April 16, 2009, to November 4, 2014, and followed for outcomes with a cutoff date of November 1, 2015, for data analysis. Liposomal doxorubicin, bevacizumab, and the mTOR inhibitors temsirolimus or everolimus using 21-day cycles. Safety and response. When available, archived tissue was evaluated for aberrations in the PI3K pathway. Fifty-two women with metaplastic TNBC (median age, 58 years; range, 37-79 years) were treated with liposomal doxorubicin, bevacizumab, and temsirolimus (DAT) (N = 39) or liposomal doxorubicin, bevacizumab, and everolimus (DAE) (N = 13). The objective response rate was 21% (complete response = 4 [8%]; partial response = 7 [13%]) and 10 (19%) patients had stable disease for at least 6 months, for a clinical benefit rate of 40%. Tissue was available for testing in 43 patients, and 32 (74%) had a PI3K pathway aberration. Presence of PI3K pathway aberration was associated with a significant improvement in

  17. Neural stem cells may be uniquely suited for combined gene therapy and cell replacement: Evidence from engraftment of Neurotrophin-3-expressing stem cells in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kook In; Himes, B Timothy; Stieg, Philip E; Tessler, Alan; Fischer, Itzhak; Snyder, Evan Y

    2006-05-01

    -derived glia were rare, and astroglial scarring was blunted. NT-3 likely functioned not only on donor cells in an autocrine/paracrine fashion but also on host cells to enhance neuronal differentiation of both. Taken together, these observations suggest (1) the feasibility of taking a fundamental biological response to injury and augmenting it for repair purposes and (2) the potential use of migratory NSCs in some degenerative conditions for simultaneous combined gene therapy and cell replacement during the same procedure in the same recipient using the same cell (a unique property of cells with stem-like attributes).

  18. Efficient combination rule of Dezert-Smarandache theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Dezert-Smarandache theory (DSmT) is a useful method for dealing with uncertainty problems. It is more efficient in combining conflicting evidence. Therefore, it has been successfully applied in data fusion and object recognition. However, there exist shortcomings in its combination rule. An efficient combination rule is presented, that is, the evidence's conflicting probability is distributed to every proposition based on remaining the focal elements of conflict. Experiments show that the new combination rule improves the reliability and rationality of the combination results. Although evidences conflict another one highly, good combination results are also obtained.

  19. The Result Detection of Laparoscope Gallbladder Appendix Combined Re-section in the Perioperative Period by Evidence-based Nursing%循证护理在腹腔镜胆囊阑尾联合切除围术期效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆仕萍; 岳枫

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨循证护理在腹腔镜胆囊阑尾联合切除围术期效果情况。方法方便选取并分析河源市龙川县人民医院普外科2014年1月-2015年2月诊治的400例腹腔镜胆囊阑尾联合切除术患者临床资料,依据是否实施循证护理进行分组,对照组(实施常规护理措施组)200例和循证护理组(实施循证护理措施组)200例。观察两组腹腔镜胆囊阑尾联合切除术患者术后疼痛持续时间情况、术后出血、胆汁漏、肩背部酸痛、残端瘘发生率情况。结果循证护理组腹腔镜胆囊阑尾联合切除术患者术后疼痛持续时间24 h评分均低于对照组,循证护理组术后出血、胆汁漏、肩背部酸痛、残端瘘发生率均低于对照组,P24 h score of evidence-based nursing group la-paroscope gallbladder appendix combined resection patients were lower than control group,the bleeding after operation、bile leakage、humeral back ache、stump fistula rate of evidence-based nursing group laparoscope gallbladder appendix combined resection patients were lower than control group,P<0.05,the difference were statistical significance. Conclusion The appli-cation of laparoscope gallbladder appendix combined resection in the perioperative period by evidence-based nursing,which could decrease pain duration time after operation and complication,it is worth to be used.

  20. Optimal Antihypertensive Combination Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Volpe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades it has been consistently shown that optimal blood pressure (BP control significantly reduced cardiovascular (CV morbidity and mortality [1]. Despite solid evidence in favour of benefits derived from BP reductions, however, hypertension control in treated hypertensive patients remains suboptimal worldwide [2, 3]. In addition, proportions of diagnosed and treated hypertensive patients remain largely unchanged over the last two decades[4]. Multiple factors may be advocated to explain this observation, including variation in healthcare access and availability [5, 6], attitudes amongst clinicians towards hypertension [7, 8], inaccuracy in BP measurements [9] and underuse or under dosage of antihypertensive drugs in both monotherapy and in combination therapy [10, 11].On the basis of these considerations, it is beyond the aim of this article to discuss the socioeconomic impact on healthcare and BP measurement techniques. Instead it will seek to explain the importance of attaining early optimal BP control and the use of combination therapy as a new paradigm for the modern clinical management of hypertension.

  1. PBL结合循证护理教学法在消化内科护生带教中的应用%The application of PBL combined with evidence-based nursing teaching method in clinical teaching of digestive internal medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective] To explore the application effect of PBL combined with evidence-based nursing teaching method in clinical teaching of digestive internal medicine .[Method] There were 32 case grade 2011 nursing students in control group who were accepted traditional teaching method ,while there were 37 cases grade 2012 nursing students in observation group who were accepted PBL combined with evidence-based nursing teaching method .The effect of two teaching methods was evaluated from the aspects of test scores ,evidence-based nursing ability ,consulting literature materials and the teaching effect .[Result] The theory test and operation test scores in observation group were significantly higher than that in control group . The evidence-based nursing ability of four aspects in observation group after teaching were significantly higher than before teaching and in con-trol group .The consulting literature materials ability in observation group was better than that of control group and teaching ef-fect in observation group was better than that of control group .The difference were all statistically significant (all P<0.05 ) . [Conclusion] Compared with traditional teaching methods ,PBL combined with evidence-based nursing teaching method in clinical teaching of digestive internal medicine is better which has positive clinical significance .%目的:探讨PBL结合循证护理教学法在消化内科护生带教中的应用效果分析。方法:对照组为32名采用传统教学法的2011级护理专科生,观察组为37名采用PBL结合循证护理教学法的2012级护理专科生。从出科考试成绩、循证护理能力、文献查阅能力和教学效果4个方面评价2组教学方法的效果。结果:观察组护生出科理论考试和操作考试成绩均显著高于对照组,观察组护生循证护理能力的4个方面得分教学后均显著高于教学前和对照组教学后,观察组护生文献查阅能力及教学效果优于对照组,

  2. Large scale mining and evidence combination to support medical diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrada, G.

    2015-01-01

    "Errare humanum est". Clinicians, however smart, caring and meticulous they may be, are only human, all too human. So they are bound to occasionally make mistakes, diagnosis errors (i.e delayed/missed or wrong diagnosis) in particular. With a prevalence of misdiagnosis of 15% in most areas of medici

  3. Combining evidence for cross-lingual information retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamps, J.; Monz, C.; de Rijke, M.; Peters, C.; Braschler, M.; Gonzalo, J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the official runs of our team for CLEF 2002. Wetook part in the monolingual tasks for each of the seven non-English languages for which CLEF provides document collections (Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Italian, Spanish, and Swedish). We also conducted our first experiments for

  4. Large scale mining and evidence combination to support medical diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrada, Ghita

    2015-01-01

    "Errare humanum est". Clinicians, however smart, caring and meticulous they may be, are only human, all too human. So they are bound to occasionally make mistakes, diagnosis errors (i.e delayed/missed or wrong diagnosis) in particular. With a prevalence of misdiagnosis of 15% in most areas of medici

  5. Regeneración de los defectos periodontales intraóseos: combinación de membranas barrera y material de relleno: evidencia preclínica y clínica Regenerative procedure for intra-bony periodontal defects: Combination of barrier membrane and filling material, clinical and preclinical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Discepoli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La terapia periodontal regenerativa tiene como objetivo lo de restaurar los tejidos de soporte periodontal y debería resultar en la formación de nueva inserción conectiva y (nuevo cemento con nuevas fibras del ligamento periodontal insertada y nuevo hueso. Evidencia histológica en modelos preclínicos ha demostrado regeneración después de tratamiento con membranas barreras, distintos tipos de material de relleno y una combinación de los dos. De todas formas, todavía no queda claro en qué extensión la combinación de membranas barreras y material de relleno puede promover de manera adicional el proceso de regeneración en comparación con tratamientos únicos.Regenerative periodontal therapy aims to predictably restore the tooth's supporting periodontal tissues and should result in formation of a new connective tissue attachment (i.e. new cementum with inserting periodontal ligament fibres and new alveolar bone. Histologic evidence from preclinical models has demonstrated periodontal regeneration following treatment with barrier membranes, various types of grafting materials or a combination thereof. However, it is still not clear to what extenta combination of barrier membranes and grafting materials may additionally enhance the regeneration process compared with barrier membranes alone, grafting materials alone or open flap debridement.

  6. Effect Analysis of Evidence-based Nursing in the Application of Elderly Pa-tients with Hepatitic Cirrhosis Combined with Type 2 Diabetes%循证护理应用于老年乙肝肝硬化合并2型糖尿病患者中的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周微; 王桂玲; 付贤云

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the effect of evidence-based nursing in the application of elderly patients with hepatitic cirrhosis combined with type 2 diabetes. Methods 84 cases of patients with hepatitic cirrhosis combined with type 2 dia-betes admitted and treated in our hospital from January 2015 to December 2015 were selected and divided into two groups according to the different nursing plans, the control group received conventional nursing, the research group received evi-dence-based nursing on the basis of the control group, and the hepatitic function child-pugh classification and fasting plas-ma glucose level after nursing were compared between the two groups. Results The hepatitic function child-pugh classifica-tion and fasting plasma glucose level in the research group were obviously better than those in the control group and the differences were obvious by comparison with statistical significance(P<0.05). Conclusion The effect of evidence-based nurs-ing in the application of elderly patients with hepatitic cirrhosis combined with type 2 diabetes is obvious, which is worth promotion.%目的:分析循证护理应用于老年乙肝肝硬化合并2型糖尿病患者中的效果。方法顾性分析2015年1-12月该院收治的84例老年乙肝肝硬化合并2型糖尿病患者的临床资料,按护理方案不同分为对照组(30例)和研究组(54例),对照组行常规护理,研究组在其基础上行循证护理,对比两组护理后肝功能Child-pugh分级及空腹血糖水平。结果研究组肝功能Child-pugh分级及空腹血糖水平均显著优于对照组,比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论证护理应用于老年乙肝肝硬化合并2型糖尿病患者中的效果显著,值得推广。

  7. Combined sensor noise-immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir A. Shchurov; Alexander V. Shchurov

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents statistical analysis of combined sensor noise-immunity while recording fluctuating tone against underwater dynamic noise background. The experimental data used for the analysis have been collected by a pair of four-component combined sensors centered at two depths, 150 and 300 m in deep water. Expressions for combined sensor signalto-noise ratio (SNR) for cross-spectral levels of signal and noise for both wide and narrow frequency bands have been derived. A combined sensor gain has been introduced in terms of ordinary single-point coherence function between acoustic pressure and particle velocity in acoustic wave. The estimates obtained experimentally evidence that SNR for a combined sensor with multiplicative data processing may exceed SNR for a hydrophone-based sensor by 15 to 16 dB at most for the horizontal channel of the combined sensor, and by 30 dB at most for the vertical channel (when opposite energy flows of signal and noise compensate one another).

  8. 穴位按压及经络拍打结合循证护理缓解奥沙利铂神经毒性的疗效观察%Effect of Acupressure and Meridian Tapping Combined with Evidence-based Care on Relief of Oxaliplatin Neurotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英; 郑广

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of acupressure and meridian tapping combined with evidence - based care on relief of oxaliplatin neurotoxicity. Methods Eighty - five patients undergoing nursing observation in our hospital between January 2009 and May 2012 were randomly divided into the control group ( n =40 ) and the observation group ( n =45 ). Patients in the control group only received regular nursing care, while those in the observation group received evidence - based nursing care combined with acupressure and meridian tapping. Peripheral sensory neurotoxicity grading, limb pain, peripheral sensory neurotoxicity, and phlebitis were observed on patients in these two groups. Results Significant differences were observed between the two groups in peripheral sensory neurotoxicity and limb pain ( P < 0. 05 ). The two groups also significantly differed in incidence of numbness ( 40.0% vs. 17.8% ), formication ( 35.0% vs. 15.6% ), limb movement disorder ( 17.5% vs. 2.2% ), loss of sensation (10.0% vs. 0), and phlebitis (25.0% vs. 4.4% ) (P<0. 05) .Conclusion Acupressure and meridian tapping combined with evidence - based nursing care can effectively alleviate the oxaliplatin - induced toxicity of peripheral sensory nerve.%目的 了解穴位按压及经络拍打结合循证护理在缓解奥沙利铂外周感觉神经毒性方面的应用效果.方法 选择我院2009年1月-2012年5月85例消化系统肿瘤患者进行护理观察,分层随机化方法分为对照组(n=40)及观察组(n=45).对照组仅采用一般护理方法;观察组采用循证护理方法,同时结合穴位按压、经络拍打护理.观察两组患者的外周感觉神经毒性分级情况、肢体疼痛、外周感觉神经毒性情况以及静脉炎发生情况.结果 两组患者的外周感觉神经毒性、肢体疼痛方面差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).肢体麻木(40.0%比17.8%)、蚁行感(35.0%比15.6%)、肢体活动障碍(17.5%比2.2%)、感觉丧失(10.0%比0)

  9. Hydrocodone Combination Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codiclear DH® (as a combination product containing Guaifenesin, Hydrocodone) ... EndaCof XP® (as a combination product containing Guaifenesin, Hydrocodone) ... Entuss® (as a combination product containing Guaifenesin, Hydrocodone)

  10. 循证护理融合知信行模式在城乡结合部产妇健康教育中的应用%Application of evidence-based nursing combined with KAP model in health education to the parturients from suburbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李美平; 徐玉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of evidence-based nursing combined with KAP model on health education to the parturients from suburbs.Methods According to problems in 200 pregnant women from suburban areas, health education was performed to them using evidence-based nursing and KAP model. The rate of access to knowledge, confidence about laboring, spontaneous participation in action to promote delivery, natural birth rate, episiotomy rate, breastfeeding rate and rate for satisfaction with midwives were compared between pre-and post-health education.Results After intervention, their access to knowledge, confidence about laboring, spontaneous participation in action to promote delivery were obviously improved than those before intervention(P<0.05). The rate of natural birth, cesarean delivery, forceps delivery and satisfaction with midwives were 66.0 %, 30.0 %, 1.0% and 94.4 %, respectively.Conclusion Evidence-based nursing and KAP model is effective in the health education to pregnant women from suburbs.%探讨循证护理融合知信行模式在城乡结合部产妇健康教育中的应用效果。方法对本院住院分娩200例城乡结合部产妇实施循证护理融合知信行模式的健康教育。比较干预前后产妇对知识掌握、对分娩的信心、自觉参与行动促进分娩情况,以及自然分娩率、会阴侧切率、母乳喂养率、对助产士服务满意率情况。结果干预后产妇在知识掌握、对分娩的信心及自觉参与行动促进分娩方面明显优于干预前,前后比较,差异具有统计学意义(均 P<0.05)。产妇自然分娩率为66.0%、剖宫产33.0%,钳产1.0%,对助产士服务满意率为94.4%。结论循证护理融合知信行模式在城乡结合部产妇健康教育中的应用,能有效提高产科质量。

  11. Persuasive Evidence: Improving Customer Service through Evidence Based Librarianship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy A. Abbott

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective - To demonstrate how evidence based practice has contributed to informaing decisions and resolving issues if concern in service delivery at Bond University Librray. Methods - This paper critically analyses three evidence based research projects conducted at Bond University Library. Each project combined a range of research methods including surveys, literature reviews and the analysis of internal performance data to find solutions to problems in library service delivery. The first research project investigated library opening hours and the feasability of twenty-four hour opening. Another project reseached questions about the management of a collection of feature films on DVD and video. The thrd project investigated issues surrounding the teaching of EndNote to undergarduate students. Results - Despite some deficiencies in the methodologies used, each evidence based research project had positive outcomes. One of the highlights asn an essential feature of the process at Bond University Library was the involvement of stakeholders. The ability to build consensus and agree action plans with stakeholders was an important outcome of that process. Conclusion - Drawing on the experience of these research projects, the paper illustrates the benefits of evidence based information practice to stimulate innovation and improve library services. Librarians, like most professionals, need to continue to develop the skills and a culture to effectively carry out evidence based practice.

  12. Systemic combination treatment for psoriasis: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Skov, Lone; Zachariae, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, which affects approximately 2.6% of the population in Northern Europe and Scandinavia. In order to achieve disease control, combinations of systemic treatments are sometimes needed for variable time periods. However, no evidence-based guidelines...... exist for the use of systemic combination therapy. Therefore, our aim was to review the current literature on systemic anti-psoriatic combination regimens. We searched PubMed and identified 98 papers describing 116 studies (23 randomized) reporting on the effect of various systemic combination...

  13. 以问题为基础学习教学方法结合循证医学在神经疾病临床康复治疗学教学中的应用%Application of problem-based learning combined with evidence-based medicine in teaching of the clinical rehabilitation therapeutics of nerve disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛亚利; 于涛; 万春晓; 王婧; 王家仲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of problem-based learning combined with evidence-based medicine (PBL + EBM) and conventional model on clinical teaching of the clinical rehabilitation therapeutics of nerve disease.Methods Students were selected by sampling in conventional model group(n =20)and PBL+EBM group (n =20),and the two groups received clinical teaching of the clinical rehabilitation therapeutics of nerve disease by conventional model and PBL + EBM model respectively.At the end of the study,each student received objective and subjective evaluation.Results There was significant difference in results.The score of medical cases analyzing ability and operating skill,clinical knowledge,exercise therapy,occupational therapy,speech therapy and physical therapy in the PBL +EBM group was significantly higher than that in conventional model group(P<0.05).The questionnaire showed that more students in PBL + EBM group felt satisfied with this teaching model (P < 0.05).Conclusions The model of problem-based learning combined with evidence-based medicine is feasible and effective in clinical teaching of the clinical rehabilitation therapeutics of nerve disease.The applying of this method can change the traditional teaching thought of the teachers and improve the students' mastery of knowledge level,clinical skills,problem solving ability,and information acquisition ability,etc.%目的 比较以问题为基础学习教学方法(problem-based learning,PBL)结合循证医学(evidence-based medicine,EBM)方法(PBL+EBM)与传统教学方法在神经疾病临床康复治疗学教学中的效果.方法 选择天津医科大学2009级和2010级四年制运动康复专业40名学生为研究对象.采用分层随机分组的方法,将这些学生分为实验组和对照组,每组各20名学生.两组学生在神经疾病临床康复治疗学教学期间分别接受PBL+EBM教学方法与传统教学方法,教学结束后对两种教学方法的教学效果分

  14. Antiplatelet and antithrombotic effect of Phyllostachys pubescens leaves and Mume Fructus combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Yi Jin

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest that combination preparations of PL and MF, especially their 2:1 combination, can increase antiplatelet and antithromboticeffects more than PL and MF alone, offering evidence for a potential novel combination antithrombotic therapy.

  15. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features on ... both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you from ...

  16. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) SCID is a group of rare disorders ... life-saving treatments. Why Is the Study of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) a Priority for NIAID? SCID is a ...

  17. COMBINE 2 seminar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt; Jacobsen, Kim

    1995-01-01

    A seminar about the COMBINE project was described. Further, the project was described in generel, i.e. the COMBINE´s data model (IDM), the data exchange system (DES) and the different I/O-systems included in COMBINE 2......A seminar about the COMBINE project was described. Further, the project was described in generel, i.e. the COMBINE´s data model (IDM), the data exchange system (DES) and the different I/O-systems included in COMBINE 2...

  18. Balancing innovation and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Jobeth W

    2015-01-01

    Nurse educators are encouraged to use evidence to guide their teaching strategies. However, evidence is not always available. How can educators make decisions regarding strategies when data are limited or absent? Where do innovation and creativity fit? How can innovation be balanced with evidence? This article provides a discussion regarding other sources of evidence, such as extrapolations, theories and principles, and collective expertise. Readers are encouraged to review the options and then analyze how they might be applied to innovation in education.

  19. Evidence Standards and Litigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco

    aspect of the legal system: the evidence standard. We recast the conventional rent-seeking model to consider how alternative evidence standards affect litigation choices. We analyze the interrelation between different evidence standards, the effectiveness of the parties’ efforts, and the merits...

  20. Number Line Estimation in Children with Developmental Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Martina, Brazzolotto; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    In the number to position task, several studies have shown that typically developing children shift from a biased (logarithmic) to an accurate (linear) mapping of symbolic digits onto a spatial position on a line. The initial pattern of overestimation of small numbers and the underestimation of larger numbers is compensated by means of age and…

  1. Cognitive Inhibition in Students with and without Dyslexia and Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Chih; Tasi, Hung-Ju; Yang, Hsien-Ming

    2012-01-01

    The present study presents a comparison of the cognitive inhibition abilities of dyslexic, dyscalculic, and control students. The participants were 45 dyslexic students, 45 dyscalculic students, and 45 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched control students. The major evaluation tools included six cognitive inhibition tasks which were restructured during…

  2. Core Information Processing Deficits in Developmental Dyscalculia and Low Numeracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuculano, Teresa; Tang, Joey; Hall, Charles W. B.; Butterworth, Brian

    2008-01-01

    There are two different conceptions of the innate basis for numerical abilities. On the one hand, it is claimed that infants possess a "number module" that enables them to construct concepts of the exact numerosities of sets upon which arithmetic develops (e.g. Butterworth, 1999 ; Gelman & Gallistel, 1978). On the other hand, it has been proposed…

  3. A new fusion approach based on distance of evidences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang-zhou; SHI Wen-kang; DENG Yong; ZHU Zhen-fu

    2005-01-01

    Based on the framework of evidence theory, data fusion aims at obtaining a single Basic Probability Assignment (BPA) function by combining several belief functions from distinct information sources. Dempster's rule of combination is the most popular rule of combinations, but it is a poor solution for the management of the conflict between various information sources at the normalization step. Even when it faces high conflict information, the classical Dempster-Shafer's (D-S) evidence theory can involve counter-intuitive results. This paper presents a modified averaging method to combine conflicting evidence based on the distance of evidences; and also gives the weighted average of the evidence in the system. Numerical examples showed that the proposed method can realize the modification ideas and also will provide reasonable results with good convergence efficiency.

  4. Evidence-informed evidence-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkidou, Kalipso; Walley, Tom; Culyer, Anthony; Littlejohns, Peter; Hoy, Andrew

    2008-07-01

    The extent to which clinical and public health guidance developed by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) can effectively serve the public by improving quality and efficiency across the National Health Service (NHS) and the broader public sector depends largely on the quality and relevance of the available evidence which informs its decisions. There are well-established organizational and procedural links between NICE and academic and professional organizations that undertake evidence synthesis. However, there are fewer means for evidence gaps identified during the development of NICE guidance to lead to the commissioning of new prospective studies. In this paper, we discuss the importance of a publicly funded clinical and public health research agenda that includes new prospective studies aimed at addressing knowledge gaps identified by NICE. We describe the early experience of NICE and the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) working together to articulate and commission research to inform best practice recommendations. We propose ways in which NICE can collaborate more effectively with research funders to improve the evidence base upon which it bases its recommendations.

  5. Synthesizing Evidence: Synthesis Methods for Evidence Clearinghouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Jeff; Lau, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Following the theme of the first two presentations, this presentation will focus on the choices available for research synthesis when summarizing research evidence. The presenters will describe the current research synthesis practice of the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) as well as several alternative models, including inverse-variance weighted…

  6. Income Aspirations and Cooperation : Experimental Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, P.S.

    2010-01-01

    This article is the first attempt to study the empirical link between income aspirations and cooperation in a one shot public good game. By combining experimental with survey data, we find evidence that the more frustrated people are with their income, the lower is their propensity to cooperate with

  7. Embodied Conceptual Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermot eLynott

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual combination research investigates the processes involved in creating new meaning from old referents. It is therefore essential that embodied theories of cognition are able to explain this constructive ability and predict the resultant behaviour. However, by failing to take an embodied or grounded view of the conceptual system, existing theories of conceptual combination cannot account for the role of perceptual, motor and affective information in conceptual combination. In the present paper, we propose the Embodied Conceptual Combination (ECCo model to address this oversight. In ECCo, conceptual combination is the result of the interaction of the linguistic and simulation systems, such that linguistic distributional information guides or facilitates the combination process, but the new concept is fundamentally a situated, simulated entity. So, for example, a cactus beetle is represented as a multimodal simulation that includes visual (e.g., the shiny appearance of a beetle and haptic (e.g., the prickliness of the cactus information, all situated in the broader location of a desert environment under a hot sun, and with (at least for some people an element of creepy-crawly revulsion. The ECCo theory differentiates interpretations according to whether the constituent concepts are destructively, or nondestructively, combined in the situated simulation. We compare ECCo to other theories of conceptual combination, and discuss how it accounts for classic effects in the literature.

  8. Modification of evidence theory based on feature extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Feng; SHI Wen-kang; DENG Yong

    2005-01-01

    Although evidence theory has been widely used in information fusion due to its effectiveness of uncertainty reasoning, the classical DS evidence theory involves counter-intuitive behaviors when high conflict information exists. Many modification methods have been developed which can be classified into the following two kinds of ideas, either modifying the combination rules or modifying the evidence sources. In order to make the modification more reasonable and more effective, this paper gives a thorough analysis of some typical existing modification methods firstly, and then extracts the intrinsic feature of the evidence sources by using evidence distance theory. Based on the extracted features, two modified plans of evidence theory according to the corresponding modification ideas have been proposed. The results of numerical examples prove the good performance of the plans when combining evidence sources with high conflict information.

  9. What is Evidence? (editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lately, I have been pondering what we really mean when we say “evidence based practice”? In LIS, we all know the definitions that have been proposed (Booth 2000, Eldredge 2000, Crumley and Koufogiannakis 2002, and which have not ever really been challenged. But have we ever said explicitly what qualifies as evidence in this model? The underlying assumption seems to be that evidence is research, hence, we are really talking about research-based practice, but we don’t actually use that term.Higgs and Jones (2000 note that evidence is “knowledge derived from a variety of sources that has been subjected to testing and has found to be credible.” The Oxford English Dictionary states that evidence is “something serving as a proof” (OED, 2011. Neither of these definitions of evidence notes that evidence equals research; research is only one form of evidence. It certainly isn’t the only form of evidence – so what, then, constitutes evidence?Rycroff-Malone et al. (2004 state that that in order for evidence based practice to create a broader evidence base in nursing, “the external, scientific and the internal, intuitive” need to be brought together. The external, scientific is what evidence based practice has been focused on, in the form of scientific research, but Rycroff-Malone et al. note that other elements such as clinical experience, patient experience, and information from the local context also need to be considered.In library and information practice, what are the other forms of evidence we need to consider? I propose that while research evidence is of high importance to our profession and knowledge, LIS practitioners need to first of all consider local evidence. Local evidence is found in our working environment and specific to the context in which we carry out our work. It includes such things as our experiences with patrons in particular contexts, and what we observe to work in such situations, assessment of programs

  10. Teaching with Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocco, Margaret; Halvorsen, Anne-Lise; Jacobsen, Rebecca; Segall, Avner

    2017-01-01

    In this age of real and fake news, students need to be able to assess the trustworthiness of evidence. The authors' current research examines students' use of evidence in secondary social studies classrooms as students deliberate contemporary public policy issues. The authors found that students shifted their evaluations of the trustworthiness of…

  11. Evidence and clinical judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnaughton, R J

    1998-05-01

    Widespread acceptance of the neologism 'evidence-based medicine' (EBM) has had the consequences of obscuring what evidence really is, and of eroding the importance of judgement in clinical situations. In this essay I seek to correct this lack of balance in the view of clinical encounters as portrayed by EBM. A better understanding of what evidence is can be obtained by looking beyond medicine to the way in which scientists and detectives view evidence. In both spheres, the importance of judgement is emphasized, even if it is a technical type of judgement. Clinicians also employ a technical kind of judgement, similar to that in science and detective work, when assessing the evidence relating to the truth of a diagnosis for an individual patient; but judgements relating to the ongoing care and treatment of that patient are based on what Aristotle calls phronesis or 'practical wisdom'.

  12. 20 CFR 219.8 - Preferred evidence and other evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preferred evidence and other evidence. 219.8 Section 219.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT General Evidence Requirements § 219.8 Preferred evidence and other evidence...

  13. Safety considerations with fenofibrate/simvastatin combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippatos, Theodosios D; Elisaf, Moses S

    2015-01-01

    Fenofibrate/simvastatin combination is useful for patients with mixed dyslipidemia. Aim of this review is to critically present the safety aspects of the fenofibrate/simvastatin combination. Current evidence regarding the adverse effects of fenofibrate/simvastatin combination is critically presented based on the results of large randomized controlled trials and other relevant studies. Additionally, clinical pharmacology, drug interactions and the effects of fenofibrate and simvastatin on metabolic variables and cardiovascular risk are briefly described. Large randomized clinical trials show that the combined administration of fenofibrate with simvastatin is not associated with significantly increased incidence of serious adverse events compared with simvastatin monotherapy. The incidence of rhabdomyolysis is slightly increased with fibrate/statin combination compared with monotherapy but the actual risk is very low. Although fenofibrate increases creatinine and homocysteine serum levels, the incidence of diabetic nephropathy and thrombotic events was not significantly increased with fenofibrate/simvastatin combination compared with simvastatin monotherapy in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) Lipid trial. Furthermore, a decrease in albuminuria was observed with fenofibrate in the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) and ACCORD Lipid trials. Overall, the combined administration of fenofibrate with simvastatin appears to be safe, unless clinicians give fenofibrate/simvastatin combination to patients with predisposing risk factors for the occurrence of adverse events.

  14. Chinese Consensus on Combination Therapy of Chronic Hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In May 2011,editorial boards of Chinese Journal of Experimental and Clinical Infectious Diseases (Electronic Edition),Chinese Journal of Liver Diseases (Electronic Edition) and Infection International (Electronic Edition) organized an expert committee to form an expert consensus on antiviral combination therapy of chronic hepatitis B (CHB).The consensus publication promoted and standardized the combination therapy concept of chronic hepatitis B.Clinical evidence of combination therapy for CHB is incomplete.The concept of combination therapy is gradually extended,from combination of antiviral drugs plus antiviral drugs,to antiviral drugs plus hepatoprotective drugs,and antiviral drugs plus immunomodulatory drugs.Therefore,editorial boards once again asked experts to analyze the new clinical evidence,and form the expert consensus on combination therapy of chronic hepatitis B.The formulation of this consensus is according to the principles of evidence-based medicine.Large number of clinical studies of combination therapy is still in progress.This consensus can not fully answer all the problems encountered in the combination therapy of CHB.With the progress of clinical practice of antiviral therapy,and the accumulation of evidence in combination therapy,the expert committee will update the consensus timely.

  15. Resonant High Power Combiners

    CERN Document Server

    Langlois, Michel; Peillex-Delphe, Guy

    2005-01-01

    Particle accelerators need radio frequency sources. Above 300 MHz, the amplifiers mostly used high power klystrons developed for this sole purpose. As for military equipment, users are drawn to buy "off the shelf" components rather than dedicated devices. IOTs have replaced most klystrons in TV transmitters and find their way in particle accelerators. They are less bulky, easier to replace, more efficient at reduced power. They are also far less powerful. What is the benefit of very compact sources if huge 3 dB couplers are needed to combine the power? To alleviate this drawback, we investigated a resonant combiner, operating in TM010 mode, able to combine 3 to 5 IOTs. Our IOTs being able to deliver 80 kW C.W. apiece, combined power would reach 400 kW minus the minor insertion loss. Values for matching and insertion loss are given. The behavior of the system in case of IOT failure is analyzed.

  16. Gait as evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Larsen, Peter Kastmand

    2014-01-01

    This study examines what in Denmark may constitute evidence based on forensic anthropological gait analyses, in the sense of pointing to a match (or not) between a perpetrator and a suspect, based on video and photographic imagery. Gait and anthropometric measures can be used when direct facial...... comparison is not possible because of perpetrators masking their faces. The nature of judicial and natural scientific forms of evidence is discussed, and rulings dealing with the admissibility of video footage and forensic evidence in general are given. Technical issues of video materials are discussed...

  17. [Evidence-based physiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Tamás

    2013-12-01

    This article on physiotherapy presents some current evidence stating the strengths and weaknesses of the physiotherapeutic procedures. In the area of physiotherapy empirical data obtained during decades were overtaken by evidence from current studies. The author points out the great problem of physiotherapy, namely the heterogeneity of the applied parameters. Knowledge of current evidence may be very important and helpful for the physicians, but the author proposes, from the practical point of view, that physiotherapeutical procedures based on exprience and used for many years should not be entirely neglected. Nowadays physiotherapy plays an important role in the treament of locomotor diseases but its use is increasing in other fields of medicine, as well.

  18. PANSAID - PAracetamol and NSAID in combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Kasper Højgaard; Hägi-Pedersen, Daniel; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effective postoperative pain management is essential for the rehabilitation of the surgical patient. No 'gold standard' exists after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and combinations of different nonopioid medications are used with virtually no evidence for additional analgesic efficacy...... compared to monotherapy. The objective of this trial is to investigate the analgesic effects and safety of paracetamol and ibuprofen alone and in combination in different dosages after THA. METHODS: PANSAID is a placebo-controlled, parallel four-group, multicentre trial with centralised computer...

  19. Weight of Evidence Allocates Mineral Depositional Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A. Bokhari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Yunnan province in general and Pulang area in particular is geological rich area which prevents field study in multi locations due to high risk outcrop. Approach: New technology such as Geographic Information System (GIS and an ArcView extension module Arcweight of evidence (WofE became very handy to provide safety for researchers and allow organization to control their budget. Results: In order to guide mineral exploration, to achieve the purpose of rapid evaluation of mineral resources a serial of modeled prediction methods were established. Weight of evidence model is to predict the existent thing by combining the known evidence of the study area, the importance of evidence is determined based on statistical method. Contrary to the fuzzy logic method, it avoids the subjective selection of evidence and the subjective evaluation of evidence. The weight of evidence can determine the weight in the same standard conditions (using known mine sites as guidance data, so that the variables can be compared in the united scale, a higher reliability. Conclusion/Recommendations: Comparing predicted and known distribution patterns of porphyry, most mine sites are located in the areas with high posterior probability, forecast area accounts for 11.5% of the entire study area. Predicted results show clearly that the boundary of potential areas and the non-potential areas is clear. Therefore, fuzzy logic and other methods should be applied to predict the results for further comparison. More accurate prediction would draw a big smile on faces of share holders.

  20. Gait as evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Larsen, Peter Kastmand

    2014-01-01

    This study examines what in Denmark may constitute evidence based on forensic anthropological gait analyses, in the sense of pointing to a match (or not) between a perpetrator and a suspect, based on video and photographic imagery. Gait and anthropometric measures can be used when direct facial...... comparison is not possible because of perpetrators masking their faces. The nature of judicial and natural scientific forms of evidence is discussed, and rulings dealing with the admissibility of video footage and forensic evidence in general are given. Technical issues of video materials are discussed......, and the study also discusses how such evidence may be presented, both in written statements and in court. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2014....

  1. 20 CFR 404.709 - Preferred evidence and other evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preferred evidence and other evidence. 404.709 Section 404.709 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence General § 404.709 Preferred evidence and other evidence. If you give...

  2. Evidence for collisionless magnetic reconnection at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, J. P.; Brain, D. A.; Halekas, J. S.; Drake, J. F.; Phan, T. D.; Øieroset, M.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Acuña, M.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) in combination with Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations of reconnection, we present the first direct evidence of collisionless magnetic reconnection at Mars. The evidence indicates that the spacecraft passed through the diffusion region where reconnection is initiated and observed the magnetic field signatures of differential electron and ion motion - the Hall magnetic field - that uniquely indicate the reconnection process. These are the first such in-situ reconnection observations at an astronomical body other than the Earth. Reconnection may be the source of Mars' recently discovered auroral activity and the changing boundaries of the closed regions of crustal magnetic field.

  3. Constructing a new theory from old ideas and new evidence

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A central tenet of constructivist models of conceptual development is that children’s initial conceptual level constrains how they make sense of new evidence and thus whether exposure to evidence will prompt conceptual change. Yet, little experimental evidence directly examines this claim for the case of sustained, fundamental conceptual achievements. The present study combined scaling and experimental microgenetic methods to examine the processes underlying conceptual change in the context o...

  4. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Ivan K; Shearer, William T

    2015-11-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency disorders represent pediatric emergencies due to absence of adaptive immune responses to infections. The conditions result from either intrinsic defects in T-cell development (ie, severe combined immunodeficiency disease [SCID]) or congenital athymia (eg, complete DiGeorge anomaly). Hematopoietic stem cell transplant provides the only clinically approved cure for SCID, although gene therapy research trials are showing significant promise. For greatest survival, patients should undergo transplant before 3.5 months of age and before the onset of infections. Newborn screening programs have yielded successful early identification and treatment of infants with SCID and congenital athymia in the United States.

  5. Combinators for Paraconsistent Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    In order to analyse the semantics of natural language sentences a translation into a partial type logic using lexical and logical combinators is presented. The sentences cover a fragment of English with propositional attitudes like knowledge, belief and assertion. A combinator is a closed term...... used for embedded sentences expressing propositional attitudes, thereby allowing for inconsistency without explosion (also called paraconsistency), and is based on a few key equalities for the connectives giving four truth values (truth, falsehood, and undefinedness with negative and positive polarity...

  6. LTDNA Evidence on Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. The section titled Expert Evidence as Forensic Epistemic Warrant addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materiality; and (5) legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law's fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. The section titled LTDNA Evidence in UK Criminal Trials then examines English and Northern Irish courts' attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially

  7. Evidence-based dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    Both panegyric and criticism of evidence-based dentistry tend to be clumsy because the concept is poorly defined. This analysis identifies several contributions to the profession that have been made under the EBD banner. Although the concept of clinicians integrating clinical epidemiology, the wisdom of their practices, and patients' values is powerful, its implementation has been distorted by a too heavy emphasis of computerized searches for research findings that meet the standards of academics. Although EBD advocates enjoy sharing anecdotal accounts of mistakes others have made, faulting others is not proof that one's own position is correct. There is no systematic, high-quality evidence that EBD is effective. The metaphor of a three-legged stool (evidence, experience, values, and integration) is used as an organizing principle. "Best evidence" has become a preoccupation among EBD enthusiasts. That overlong but thinly developed leg of the stool is critiqued from the perspectives of the criteria for evidence, the difference between internal and external validity, the relationship between evidence and decision making, the ambiguous meaning of "best," and the role of reasonable doubt. The strongest leg of the stool is clinical experience. Although bias exists in all observations (including searches for evidence), there are simple procedures that can be employed in practice to increase useful and objective evidence there, and there are dangers in delegating policy regarding allowable treatments to external groups. Patient and practitioner values are the shortest leg of the stool. As they are so little recognized, their integration in EBD is problematic and ethical tensions exist where paternalism privileges science over patient's self-determined best interests. Four potential approaches to integration are suggested, recognizing that there is virtually no literature on how the "seat" of the three-legged stool works or should work. It is likely that most dentists

  8. Lefunomide in combination therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalden, J.R.; Smolen, J.S.; Emery, P.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Dougados, M.; Strand, C.V.; Breedveld, F.C.

    2004-01-01

    In most studies of disease modifying antirheumatic drug therapy, in combination with either leflunomide or biological agents, patients are given an additional agent after they have failed treatment with methotrexate (MTX). This review of clinical studies shows that leflunomide is clinically efficaci

  9. Coherently combining antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybdal, Robert B. (Inventor); Curry, Samuel J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus includes antenna elements configured to receive a signal including pseudo-random code, and electronics configured to use the pseudo-random code to determine time delays of signals incident upon the antenna elements and to compensate the signals to coherently combine the antenna elements.

  10. Why combine logics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blackburn, P.; Rijke, M. de

    1995-01-01

    Combining logics has become a rapidly expanding enterprise that is inspired mainly by concerns about modularity and the wish to join together tailored made logical tools into more powerful but still manageable ones. A natural question is whether it offers anything new over and above existing standar

  11. Multi-agent Justification Logic : communication and evidence elimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renne, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a logic combining , a framework for reasoning about multi-agent communication, with a new multi-agent version of , a framework for reasoning about evidence and justification. This novel combination incorporates a new kind of that cleanly meshes with the multi-agent communications

  12. Forecast Combination under Heavy-Tailed Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Forecast combination has been proven to be a very important technique to obtain accurate predictions for various applications in economics, finance, marketing and many other areas. In many applications, forecast errors exhibit heavy-tailed behaviors for various reasons. Unfortunately, to our knowledge, little has been done to obtain reliable forecast combinations for such situations. The familiar forecast combination methods, such as simple average, least squares regression or those based on the variance-covariance of the forecasts, may perform very poorly due to the fact that outliers tend to occur, and they make these methods have unstable weights, leading to un-robust forecasts. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose two nonparametric forecast combination methods. One is specially proposed for the situations in which the forecast errors are strongly believed to have heavy tails that can be modeled by a scaled Student’s t-distribution; the other is designed for relatively more general situations when there is a lack of strong or consistent evidence on the tail behaviors of the forecast errors due to a shortage of data and/or an evolving data-generating process. Adaptive risk bounds of both methods are developed. They show that the resulting combined forecasts yield near optimal mean forecast errors relative to the candidate forecasts. Simulations and a real example demonstrate their superior performance in that they indeed tend to have significantly smaller prediction errors than the previous combination methods in the presence of forecast outliers.

  13. Evidence-Based Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Systems development is replete with projects that represent substantial resource investments but result in systems that fail to meet users’ needs. Evidence-based development is an emerging idea intended to provide means for managing customer-vendor relationships and working systematically toward...... meeting customer needs. We are suggesting that the effects of the use of a system should play a prominent role in the contractual definition of IT projects and that contract fulfilment should be determined on the basis of evidence of these effects. Based on two ongoing studies of home-care management...

  14. 证据权法成矿预测模型结合分形模型在成矿预测中的应用研究%Application of the Combination of Weights - of - evidence Model and Fractal Model in Metallogenic Prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严冰; 阳正熙; 周莉; 任科法; 曾令刚

    2012-01-01

    成矿活动是多方面地质要素的耦合产物,而矿床(或地质体)具有明显的群聚性分布特征,准确确定矿床分布与相关地质体空间关系成为研究矿床成因与成矿预测的重要环节。证据权法成矿预测模型通过引入成矿有利度(C),对这种空间关系进行了量化描述,并以单元格成矿概率值为基础进行区域成矿预测。在分形模型中,则采用分维数对矿床的分布群聚性进行了数值化定义。通过结合证据权法成矿预测模型与分形模型,一种新的确定成矿概率临界值的方法被提出并应用在宁南地区铅锌成矿预测中。通过对证据权法模型中成矿概率值进行分形分析,目标区单元格分维数值D=0.0010、0.0033,表现出目标区域成矿条件具有强烈群聚性分布特征;确定的成矿概率临界值(r=0.1184、0.0073)满足D.E.Boleneus等所提出的临界值确定原则;经与专家经验模式所确定的成矿概率临界值对比分析,表明该方法拟合的临界值结果在排除人为干扰因素的同时,具备更高的预测精度,在成矿预测中是可信的。%Metallogenic activity is the coupling result of many geological elements, while the deposit (or geological bodies) has obvious characteristics of clustering distribution, so the accurate determination of the spatial relationship between the distribution of ore deposits and the related geological bodies is a critical aspect of studying the ore genesis and metallogenic prediction. The metallogenic prediction model using weight - of - evidence method (WofE) gives a quantitative description of such spatial rela- tionship by introducing the concept of metallogenic favorability, and this model can also make regional metallogenic prediction on the basis of metallogenic probability of unit grids. In the fractal models, the clustering degree of ore deposits is given a value - oriented definition by

  15. Food combinations for cholesterol lowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, Janice I

    2012-12-01

    Reducing elevated LDL-cholesterol is a key public health challenge. There is substantial evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) that a number of foods and food components can significantly reduce LDL-cholesterol. Data from RCT have been reviewed to determine whether effects are additive when two or more of these components are consumed together. Typically components, such as plant stanols and sterols, soya protein, β-glucans and tree nuts, when consumed individually at their target rate, reduce LDL-cholesterol by 3-9 %. Improved dietary fat quality, achieved by replacing SFA with unsaturated fat, reduces LDL-cholesterol and can increase HDL-cholesterol, further improving blood lipid profile. It appears that the effect of combining these interventions is largely additive; however, compliance with multiple changes may reduce over time. Food combinations used in ten 'portfolio diet' studies have been reviewed. In clinical efficacy studies of about 1 month where all foods were provided, LDL-cholesterol is reduced by 22-30 %, whereas in community-based studies of >6 months' duration, where dietary advice is the basis of the intervention, reduction in LDL-cholesterol is about 15 %. Inclusion of MUFA into 'portfolio diets' increases HDL-cholesterol, in addition to LDL-cholesterol effects. Compliance with some of these dietary changes can be achieved more easily compared with others. By careful food component selection, appropriate to the individual, the effect of including only two components in the diet with good compliance could be a sustainable 10 % reduction in LDL-cholesterol; this is sufficient to make a substantial impact on cholesterol management and reduce the need for pharmaceutical intervention.

  16. Combination Chemotherapy for Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Webster

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in April 2009 and the continuous evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses underscore the urgency of novel approaches to chemotherapy for human influenza infection. Anti-influenza drugs are currently limited to the neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir and to M2 ion channel blockers (amantadine and rimantadine, although resistance to the latter class develops rapidly. Potential targets for the development of new anti-influenza agents include the viral polymerase (and endonuclease, the hemagglutinin, and the non-structural protein NS1. The limitations of monotherapy and the emergence of drug-resistant variants make combination chemotherapy the logical therapeutic option. Here we review the experimental data on combination chemotherapy with currently available agents and the development of new agents and therapy targets.

  17. What Counts as Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  18. A generalized evidence distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongming Mo; Xi Lu; Yong Deng

    2016-01-01

    How to efficiently measure the distance between two basic probability assignments (BPAs) is an open issue. In this paper, a new method to measure the distance between two BPAs is proposed, based on two existing measures of evidence distance. The new proposed method is comprehen-sive and generalized. Numerical examples are used to ilus-trate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. A Corpus for Evidence Based Medicine Summarisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Mollá Aliod

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Automated text summarisers that find the best clinical evidence reported in collections of medical literature are of potential benefit for the practice of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM. Research and development of text summarisers for EBM, however, is impeded by the lack of corpora to train and test such systems. Aims To produce a corpus for research in EBM summarisation. Method We sourced the “Clinical Inquiries” section of the Journal of Family Practice (JFP and obtained a sizeable sample of questions and evidence based summaries. We further processed the summaries by combining automated techniques, human annotations, and crowdsourcing techniques to identify the PubMed IDs of the references. Results The corpus has 456 questions, 1,396 answer components, 3,036 answer justifications, and 2,908 references. Conclusion The corpus is now available for the research community at http://sourceforge.net/projects/ebmsumcorpus.

  20. Combined XRD and XAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlich, S.N.; Hanson, J.C.; Lopez Camara, A.; Barrio, L.; Estrella, M.; Zhou, G.; Si, R.; Khalid, S. & Wang, Q.

    2010-11-24

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) are complementary techniques for investigating the structure of materials. XRD probes long range order and XAFS probes short range order. We have combined the two techniques at one synchrotron beamline, X18A at the NSLS, allowing samples to be studied in a single experiment. This beamline will allow for coordinated measurements of local and long range structural changes in chemical transformations and phase transitions using both techniques.

  1. Combined XRD and XAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlich, S.N., E-mail: ehrlich@bnl.gov [NSLS, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Hanson, J.C.; Lopez Camara, A.; Barrio, L.; Estrella, M.; Zhou, G.; Si, R. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Khalid, S. [NSLS, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Wang, Q. [Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) are complementary techniques for investigating the structure of materials. XRD probes long range order and XAFS probes short range order. We have combined the two techniques at one synchrotron beamline, X18A at the NSLS, allowing samples to be studied in a single experiment. This beamline will allow for coordinated measurements of local and long range structural changes in chemical transformations and phase transitions using both techniques.

  2. Transfer function combinations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Liang

    2012-10-01

    Direct volume rendering has been an active area of research for over two decades. Transfer function design remains a difficult task since current methods, such as traditional 1D and 2D transfer functions, are not always effective for all data sets. Various 1D or 2D transfer function spaces have been proposed to improve classification exploiting different aspects, such as using the gradient magnitude for boundary location and statistical, occlusion, or size metrics. In this paper, we present a novel transfer function method which can provide more specificity for data classification by combining different transfer function spaces. In this work, a 2D transfer function can be combined with 1D transfer functions which improve the classification. Specifically, we use the traditional 2D scalar/gradient magnitude, 2D statistical, and 2D occlusion spectrum transfer functions and combine these with occlusion and/or size-based transfer functions to provide better specificity. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new method by comparing to the following previous techniques: 2D gradient magnitude, 2D occlusion spectrum, 2D statistical transfer functions and 2D size based transfer functions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. LTDNA Evidence on Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Roberts

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. Section 1 addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1 expert competence; (2 disciplinary domain; (3 methodological validity; (4 materiality; and (5 legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law’s fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. Section 2 then examines English and Northern Irish courts’ attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially concern the manner in which LTDNA profiling results are presented and explained to

  4. Multiple Lines of Evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Venzin, Alexander M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bramer, Lisa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-03

    This paper discusses the process of identifying factors that influence the contamination level of a given decision area and then determining the likelihood that the area remains unacceptable. This process is referred to as lines of evidence. These lines of evidence then serve as inputs for the stratified compliance sampling (SCS) method, which requires a decision area to be divided into strata based upon contamination expectations. This is done in order to focus sampling efforts more within stratum where contamination is more likely and to use the domain knowledge about these likelihoods of the stratum remaining unacceptable to buy down the number of samples necessary, if possible. Two different building scenarios were considered as an example (see Table 3.1). SME expertise was elicited concerning four lines of evidence factors (see Table 3.2): 1) amount of contamination that was seen before decontamination, 2) post-decontamination air sampling information, 3) the applied decontaminant information, and 4) the surface material. Statistical experimental design and logistic regression modelling were used to help determine the likelihood that example stratum remained unacceptable for a given example scenario. The number of samples necessary for clearance was calculated by applying the SCS method to the example scenario, using the estimated likelihood of each stratum remaining unacceptable as was determined using the lines of evidence approach. The commonly used simple random sampling (SRS) method was also used to calculate the number of samples necessary for clearance for comparison purposes. The lines of evidence with SCS approach resulted in a 19% to 43% reduction in total number of samples necessary for clearance (see Table 3.6). The reduction depended upon the building scenario, as well as the level of percent clean criteria. A sensitivity analysis was also performed showing how changing the estimated likelihoods of stratum remaining unacceptable affect the number

  5. Wind-hydro combinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stregger, D.L.; Fisher, W.H.

    1980-06-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the technical and economic viability of a generalized system composed of a wind-electric and hydroelectric system interacting together to provide firm power to a grid, and to determine limits in the extent to which such a combination can be effected. Several scenarios were considered, including: a farm of horizontal axis wind turbines with various generator ratings, generating into a grid; the same wind turbine generator used to pump water into a hydroelectric plant reservoir; and a cursory examination of mechanical pumping with wind energy to increase the water supply of a hydroelectric project. The review of the state-of-the-art indicated that the scenarios investigated represent the most practical utility applications of wind-hydro combinations. The present state-of-the-art is more advanced for multi-megawatt horizontal axis tubines than for vertical axis wind turbines. The utilization factor, on a monthly determination, of the firm wind energy varies with the shape of the hydrograph, load and the wind regimes. Across Canada it was found to vary from a low of 79% to a maximum of 100%. The most important parameter in the economic evaluation of the break-even costs of wind-hydro generation is the cost of alternative supplies of energy. The regions of Canada where wind-hydro combinations appear to be within economic limits at present cost levels are Newfoundland, assuming a oil-fired thermal alternative, and isolated areas such as the Northwest Territories, assuming a diesel alternative. 67 refs., 12 figs., 13 tabs.

  6. Coherent laser beam combining

    CERN Document Server

    Brignon, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the improvement of diode pumping in solid state lasers and the development of double clad fiber lasers have allowed to maintain excellent laser beam quality with single mode fibers. However, the fiber output power if often limited below a power damage threshold. Coherent laser beam combining (CLBC) brings a solution to these limitations by identifying the most efficient architectures and allowing for excellent spectral and spatial quality. This knowledge will become critical for the design of the next generation high-power lasers and is of major interest to many industrial, environme

  7. Combine Harvester Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmann, Ole; Sørlie, James Arnold

    1999-01-01

    A simulator for training pilots in the operation of a modern high-tech combine harvester is presented. The new simulator application is based on DMI´s well-known DMS maritime simulator architecture. Two major challenges have been encountered in the development of the simulator: 1) interfacing...... the simulator software and the harvester hardware, and 2) the visual image generation system. Aims of the project have been to promote technology transfer from DMI´s maritime simulator to new application areas, to develop a state-of-the-art pilot training environment, and to utilise the state......-of-the-art in objec-oriented graphics programming technologies....

  8. Evidence or Advocacy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2015-01-01

    in the reform (Ministry of Education, 2013, 2014). My aim is to discuss the impact of the educational discourse of evidence in which all school subjects are defined in the new reform. The discourse of evidence focuses on competences aimed at utility and future employment prospects. The new learning objectives......Introduction This paper presents and discusses the current role of Danish visual arts education in the compulsory school system. Denmark recently implemented a major school reform “How to make a good school better” (Ministry of Education, 2014), that focuses on core competences in the subjects...... Reading and Math. The reform emphasizes an open approach to various constellations of teaching and learning and includes a national tool for increasing the assessment of core competences. I examined visual arts education in the new educational landscape based on the agreement between the government...

  9. Inflation, evidence and falsifiability

    CERN Document Server

    Gubitosi, Giulia; Magueijo, Joao; Allison, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the issue of paradigm evaluation by applying Bayes' theorem along the following nested chain of progressively more complex structures: i) parameter estimation (within a model), ii) model selection and comparison (within a paradigm), iii) paradigm evaluation. In such a chain the Bayesian evidence works both as the posterior's normalization at a given level and as the likelihood function at the next level up. Whilst raising no objections to the standard application of the procedure at the two lowest levels, we argue that it should receive an essential modification when evaluating paradigms, in view of the issue of falsifiability. By considering toy models we illustrate how unfalsifiable models and paradigms are always favoured by the Bayes factor. We argue that the evidence for a paradigm should not only be high for a given dataset, but exceptional with respect to what it would have been, had the data been different. We propose a measure of falsifiability (which we term predictivity), ...

  10. Evidence on acne therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Sousa Costa

    Full Text Available Among the current treatments available for acne vulgaris, many widely practiced options lack support from studies at the best level of scientific evidence. The aim of this narrative review was to present the very latest information on topical and systemic treatments for acne vulgaris. Information from systematic reviews and well-designed clinical trials, obtained through a systematic search of the major medical databases, is emphasized. There are important issues regarding the clinical management of acne that still lack consistent grounding in scientific evidence. Among these are the optimum dose and duration of treatment with oral antibiotics that can be given without inducing bacterial resistance, and the safety of oral isotretinoin.

  11. Evidence for extra radiation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, J.

    2012-01-01

    during the marginalisation process, and we demonstrate that the effect is related to the fact that cosmic microwave background (CMB) data constrain N_eff only indirectly via the redshift of matter-radiation equality. Once present CMB data are combined with external information about, e.g., the Hubble...

  12. [Evidence for exercise prescription].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritani, Toshio

    2009-02-01

    This brief review includes recent evidences regarding the etiology of obesity and metabolic syndrome with a special reference to autonomic nervous system activity. The role of exercise in prevention and treatment of obesity in adults and children is described in conjunction with MONA LISA Hypothesis put forth by Bray (1991). Finally, recent topics of myokines, i.e., muscle activity-derived cytokines are briefly discussed.

  13. Evidence-based management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Sutton, Robert I

    2006-01-01

    For the most part, managers looking to cure their organizational ills rely on obsolete knowledge they picked up in school, long-standing but never proven traditions, patterns gleaned from experience, methods they happen to be skilled in applying, and information from vendors. They could learn a thing or two from practitioners of evidence-based medicine, a movement that has taken the medical establishment by storm over the past decade. A growing number of physicians are eschewing the usual, flawed resources and are instead identifying, disseminating, and applying research that is soundly conducted and clinically relevant. It's time for managers to do the same. The challenge is, quite simply, to ground decisions in the latest and best knowledge of what actually works. In some ways, that's more difficult to do in business than in medicine. The evidence is weaker in business; almost anyone can (and many people do) claim to be a management expert; and a motley crew of sources--Shakespeare, Billy Graham,Jack Welch, Attila the Hunare used to generate management advice. Still, it makes sense that when managers act on better logic and strong evidence, their companies will beat the competition. Like medicine, management is learned through practice and experience. Yet managers (like doctors) can practice their craft more effectively if they relentlessly seek new knowledge and insight, from both inside and outside their companies, so they can keep updating their assumptions, skills, and knowledge.

  14. Combined solar collector

    OpenAIRE

    Voznyak, O.; Shapoval, S.; Pona, O.; Vengryn, I.

    2014-01-01

    In this article was analyzing the efficiency of the combined solar collector for heating buildings. This enhances the efficiency of solar system by increasing the area of the absorption of solar energy. There are describes the results of the research on solar radiation input on a combined solar collector. Проаналізовано ефективність використання комбінованого сонячного колектора для теплопостачання будівель. Він забезпечує підвищення ефективності геліосистеми за рахунок збільшення площі погли...

  15. Exploration and research of PICOS mode of evidence based medicine (EBM) combined PBL teaching method in clinical teaching of respiratory medicine%循证医学PICOS模式结合PBL教学法在呼吸内科临床教学中的探索研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建华; 张力燕; 孙士波

    2013-01-01

    Objective To try to use evidence-based medicine PICOS model with PBL teaching method and traditional teaching methods to control study. Methods 66 cases into the respiratory medicine interns were randomly divided into experimental group (PICOS mode of evidence-based medicine (ebm)+PBL method) and the control group (traditional teaching method). After teaching two groups of students at the same time to test. Comparison of the two groups of students took respiratory medicine examination result and the result of questionnaire analysis. Results There was no significant difference theory of two groups of students examination results (P>0.05). But the literature, clinical thinking ability, experimental group was higher than the control group (P0.05)。但查阅文献、临床思维能力实验组高于对照组(P<0.05)。讨论临床思维及查阅文献能力循证医学PICOS模式结合PBL教学法明显优于传统教学法。

  16. Exploring the Best Classification from Average Feature Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature combination is a powerful approach to improve object classification performance. While various combination algorithms have been proposed, average combination is almost always selected as the baseline algorithm to be compared with. In previous work we have found that it is better to use only a sample of the most powerful features in average combination than using all. In this paper, we continue this work and further show that the behaviors of features in average combination can be integrated into the k-Nearest-Neighbor (kNN framework. Based on the kNN framework, we then propose to use a selection based average combination algorithm to obtain the best classification performance from average combination. Our experiments on four diverse datasets indicate that this selection based average combination performs evidently better than the ordinary average combination, and thus serves as a better baseline. Comparing with this new and better baseline makes the claimed superiority of newly proposed combination algorithms more convincing. Furthermore, the kNN framework is helpful in understanding the underlying mechanism of feature combination and motivating novel feature combination algorithms.

  17. Evidence-based librarianship: searching for the needed EBL evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, J D

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges of finding evidence needed to implement Evidence-Based Librarianship (EBL). Focusing first on database coverage for three health sciences librarianship journals, the article examines the information contents of different databases. Strategies are needed to search for relevant evidence in the library literature via these databases, and the problems associated with searching the grey literature of librarianship. Database coverage, plausible search strategies, and the grey literature of library science all pose challenges to finding the needed research evidence for practicing EBL. Health sciences librarians need to ensure that systems are designed that can track and provide access to needed research evidence to support Evidence-Based Librarianship (EBL).

  18. Combining classical metrology models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Roldán

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The results obtained in the graphic analysis of the modulation of the Cuarto Real de Santo Domingo building in Granada, Spain, (ROLDÁN, 2011 have provided new insights to further approach the research on possible use the double-scale in historical monumental architecture. We propose the characterization of the singularities of the system, from the implications and graphic representation required by the metrological scheme identified, as well as the variety of typologies that are presented in their modular frames, and the iterative combination of two-scale modules which allow operational approximations to fractions and ratios not explicitly present in the system.

  19. Combined Heat and Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    At their 2007 Summit in Heiligendamm, G8 leaders called on countries to 'adopt instruments and measures to significantly increase the share of combined heat and power (CHP) in the generation of electricity.' As a result, energy, economic, environmental and utility regulators are looking for tools and information to understand the potential of CHP and to identify appropriate policies for their national circumstances. This report forms the first part of the response. It includes answers to policy makers' questions about the potential economic, energy and environmental benefits of an increased policy commitment to CHP. It also includes for the first time integrated IEA data on global CHP installations, and analyses the benefits of increased CHP investment in the G8+5 countries. A companion report will be produced later in 2008 to document best practice policy approaches that have been used to expand the use of CHP in a variety of countries.

  20. Combined PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, D. L.; Pichler, B. J.; Gückel, B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarises key themes and discussions from the 4th international workshop dedicated to the advancement of the technical, scientific and clinical applications of combined positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems that was held in Tübingen, Germany, from...... February 23 to 27, 2015. Specifically, we summarise the three days of invited presentations from active researchers in this and associated fields augmented by round table discussions and dialogue boards with specific topics. These include the use of PET/MRI in cardiovascular disease, paediatrics, oncology......, neurology and multi-parametric imaging, the latter of which was suggested as a key promoting factor for the wider adoption of integrated PET/MRI. Discussions throughout the workshop and a poll taken on the final day demonstrated that attendees felt more strongly that PET/MRI has further advanced in both...

  1. Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Duggan, Mark; Garthwaite, Craig; Goyal, Aparajita

    2016-01-01

    In 2005, as the result of a World Trade Organization mandate, India began to implement product patents for pharmaceuticals that were compliant with the 1995 Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). We combine pharmaceutical product sales data for India with a newly gathered dataset of molecule-linked patents issued by the Indian patent office. Exploiting variation in the timing of patent decisions, we estimate that a molecule receiving a patent experienced an average pri...

  2. Evidence in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Susan Mace

    2014-12-01

    Health practitioners wishing to positively improve health outcomes for their clients have access to a unique set of collated tools to guide their practice. Systematic reviews provide guidance in the form of synthesized evidence that can form the basis of decision making as they provide care for their clients. This article describes systematic reviews as a basis for informed decision making by mental health practitioners. The process of systematic review is discussed, examples of existing systematic review topics relevant to mental health are presented, a sample systematic review is described, and gaps and emerging topics for mental health systematic reviews are addressed.

  3. Emdogain: evidence of efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, G

    2000-04-01

    This article addresses the use of enamel matrix proteins (Emdogain) to enhance regeneration of the periodontium. Information regarding the role of Emdogain to induce cementogenesis and histologic evidence in animals and humans that it can initiate regeneration of diseased sites are discussed. Several clinical trials have indicated that Emdogain plus modified Widman flap surgery provide a better result than the surgery alone. Several other investigations have indicated that flap surgery plus Emdogain or a bioabsorbable membrane achieve similar results. However, this latter finding needs further validation. Clinical examples of successful therapy with Emdogain are presented.

  4. Realism And Empirical Evidence

    CERN Document Server

    Schmelzer, I

    1997-01-01

    We define realism using a slightly modified version of the EPR criterion of reality. This version is strong enough to show that relativity is incomplete. We show that this definition of realism is nonetheless compatible with the general principles of causality and canonical quantum theory as well as with experimental evidence in the (special and general) relativistic domain. We show that the realistic theories we present here, compared with the standard relativistic theories, have higher empirical content in the strong sense defined by Popper's methodology.

  5. Combination HIV prevention: significance, challenges, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Ann E; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M; Vermund, Sten H; Wasserheit, Judith N

    2011-03-01

    No single HIV prevention strategy will be sufficient to control the HIV pandemic. However, a growing number of interventions have shown promise in partially protecting against HIV transmission and acquisition, including knowledge of HIV serostatus, behavioral risk reduction, condoms, male circumcision, needle exchange, treatment of curable sexually transmitted infections, and use of systemic and topical antiretroviral medications by both HIV-infected and uninfected persons. Designing the optimal package of interventions that matches the epidemiologic profile of a target population, delivering that package at the population level, and evaluating safety, acceptability, coverage, and effectiveness, all involve methodological challenges. Nonetheless, there is an unprecedented opportunity to develop "prevention packages" that combine various arrays of evidence-based strategies, tailored to the needs of diverse subgroups and targeted to achieve high coverage for a measurable reduction in population-level HIV transmission. HIV prevention strategies that combine partially effective interventions should be scaled up and evaluated.

  6. Evidence for homosexuality gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, R.

    1993-07-16

    A genetic analysis of 40 pairs of homosexual brothers has uncovered a region on the X chromosome that appears to contain a gene or genes for homosexuality. When analyzing the pedigrees of homosexual males, the researcheres found evidence that the trait has a higher likelihood of being passed through maternal genes. This led them to search the X chromosome for genes predisposing to homosexuality. The researchers examined the X chromosomes of pairs of homosexual brothers for regions of DNA that most or all had in common. Of the 40 sets of brothers, 33 shared a set of five markers in the q28 region of the long arm of the X chromosome. The linkage has a LOD score of 4.0, which translates into a 99.5% certainty that there is a gene or genes in this area that predispose males to homosexuality. The chief researcher warns, however, that this one site cannot explain all instances of homosexuality, since there were some cases where the trait seemed to be passed paternally. And even among those brothers where there was no evidence that the trait was passed paternally, seven sets of brothers did not share the Xq28 markers. It seems likely that homosexuality arises from a variety of causes.

  7. Fighting liver cancer with combination immunotherapies | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new clinical trial testing the effectiveness of immunotherapy treatment combinations against liver cancer is enrolling patients at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland. Individually, immunotherapy drugs harness the power of the human immune system to better identify and kill cancer cells. Now, researchers at the NIH’s Center for Cancer Research have begun to find evidence that the drugs may work far more effectively when taken in combination with other therapies and with each other than when taken alone.

  8. Current concepts in combination antibiotic therapy for critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    Armin Ahmed; Afzal Azim; Mohan Gurjar; Arvind Kumar Baronia

    2014-01-01

    Widespread emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens is a problem of global dimension. MDR infections are difficult to treat and frequently associated with high mortality. More than one antibiotic is commonly used to treat such infections, but scientific evidence does not favor use of combination therapy in most cases. However, there are certain subgroups where combination therapy may be beneficial, e.g. sepsis due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), bacteremic ...

  9. Combination of external loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, S.; Tarp Johansen, N.J.; Joergensen, H. [Forskningscenter Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Gravesen, H.; Soerensen, S.L. [Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark); Pedersen, J. [Elsam Engineering, Fredericia (Denmark); Zorn, R.; Hvidberg Knudsen, M. [DHI Water and Environment, Hoersholm (Denmark); Voelund, P. [Energi E2, Koebenhavn (Denmark)

    2003-09-01

    The project onbectives have been: To improve and consequently opimise the basis for design of offshore wind turbines. This is done through 1) mapping the wind, wave ice and current as well as correlations of these, and 2) by clarifyring how these external conditions transform into loads. A comprehensive effort has been made to get a thorough understanding of the uncertainties that govern the reliability of wind turbines with respect to wind and wave loading. One of the conclusions is that the reliability of wind turbines is generally lower, than the average reliability of building structures that are subject not only to environmental loads, which are very uncertain, but also imposed loads and self weight, which are less uncertain than the environmental loads. The implication is that, at the moment lower load partial safety factors for onshore wind turbines cannot be recommended. For the combination of wind and wave design loads the problem is twofold: 1). A very conservative design will be generated by simply adding the individual wind and wave design loads disregarding the independence of the short-term fluctuations of wind and wave loads. 2). Characteristic values and partial safety factors for wind and wave loads are not defined similarly. This implies that the reliability levels of turbine support structures subject to purely aerodynamic loads and subject to purely hydrodynamic loads are not identical. For the problem of combining aerodynamic design loads and hydrodynamic design loads two results have been obtained in the project: 1). By simple means a site specific wave load safety factor rendering the same safety level for hydrodynamic loads as for aerodynamic loads is derived, and next, by direct square summation of extreme fluctuations, the wind and wave load safety factors are weighted. 2). Under the assumptions that a deep water site is considered and that the wave loading is a fifty-fifty mix of drag and inertia the same wind and wave load safety factor

  10. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  11. Synergistic drug combinations improve therapeutic selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehàr, Joseph; Krueger, Andrew S.; Avery, William; Heilbut, Adrian M.; Johansen, Lisa M.; Price, E. Roydon; Rickles, Richard J.; Short, Glenn F.; Staunton, Jane E.; Jin, Xiaowei; Lee, Margaret S.; Zimmermann, Grant R.; Borisy, Alexis A.

    2009-01-01

    Prevailing drug discovery approaches focus on compounds with molecular selectivity, inhibiting disease-relevant targets over others in vitro. However in vivo, many such agents are not therapeutically selective, either because of undesirable activity at effective doses or because the biological system responds to compensate. In theory, drug combinations should permit increased control of such complex biology, but there is a common concern that therapeutic synergy will generally be mirrored by synergistic side-effects. Here we provide evidence, from 94,110 multi-dose combination experiments representing diverse disease areas and large scale flux balance simulations of inhibited bacterial metabolism, that multi-target synergies are more specific than single agent activities to particular cellular contexts. Using an anti-inflammatory combination, we show how multi-target synergy can achieve therapeutic selectivity in animals through differential target expression. Synergistic combinations can increase the number of selective therapies using the current pharmacopeia, and offer opportunities for more precise control of biological systems. PMID:19581876

  12. The importance of iteration in creative conceptual combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Joel; Schunn, Christian D

    2015-12-01

    Theories of creative conceptual combination hypothesize that, to generate highly creative concepts, one should attempt to combine source concepts that are very different from each other. While lab studies show a robust link between far combinations and increased novelty of concepts, empirical evidence that far combinations lead to more creative concepts (i.e., both more novel and of higher quality) is mixed. Drawing on models of the creative process, we frame conceptual combination as a divergent process, and hypothesize that iteration is necessary to convert far combinations into creative concepts. We trace conceptual genealogies of many hundreds of concepts proposed for a dozen different problems on a large-scale Web-based innovation platform, and model the effects of combination distance on creative outcomes of concepts. The results are consistent with our predictions: (1) direct effects of far combinations have a mean zero effect, and (2) indirect effects of far combinations (i.e., building on concepts that themselves build on far combinations) have more consistently positive effects. This pattern of effects is robust across problems on the platform. These findings lend clarity to theories of creative conceptual combination, and highlight the importance of iteration for generating creative concepts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 循证护理结合PBL教学法在五官科护理教学中对护生核心能力的影响%Effect of problem-based learning combined with evidence-based nursing on nursing students,core competencies in the ;teaching of nursing for ENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄瑾; 高雯; 熊晖雯; 姚丽文

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of problem‐based learning combined with evidence‐based nursing on nursing students ,core competencies in the teaching of nursing for ENT .Methods There are 40 cases of TCM nursing students(grade 2013)were selected and divided into the experimental group and 40 cases of TCM nursing students(grade 2012)were selected and divided into the control group .The control group applicate the traditional way of teaching and the experimental group applicate the teaching of problem‐based learning combined with evidence‐based nursing .Results The total score of theory examination in the experimental group were higher than those in the control group(P<0 .05) .There were significant differences in the self‐rating and teacher‐rating results between the two groups(P<0 .05 or P<0 .02 or P<0 .005 or P<0 .001) .Conclusion The teaching method of problem‐based learning combined with evidence‐based nursing can ensure the quality of teaching .It is better than traditional teaching in leadership ,team communication skills ,self‐study ability and thought ability .The teaching method of problem‐based learning combined with evidence‐based nursing can improve nursing students ,core competencies ,can help nursing students ,future career development .%目的:探讨在五官科护理教学中应用循证护理结合 PBL教学法对护生核心能力的影响。方法选取2013年上海中医药大学3年级护生40例实验组,以2012年40例为对照组。对照组采用传统授课法,试验组采用循证护理结合PBL教学法。结果实验组护生理论成绩高于对照组(P<0.05)。且两组核心能力自评及教师他评结果差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或 P<0.02或 P<0.005或 P<0.001)。结论循证护理结合PBL教学法能保证教学质量,较传统教学法在提高学生领导能力、团队沟通力、专业自学能力、批判性思维能力等方面有优势,有助于提高护生

  14. Metabolic oxidative stress elicited by the copper(II) complex [Cu(isaepy)2] triggers apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells through the induction of the AMP-activated protein kinase/p38MAPK/p53 signalling axis: evidence for a combined use with 3-bromopyruvate in neuroblastoma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filomeni, Giuseppe; Cardaci, Simone; Da Costa Ferreira, Ana Maria; Rotilio, Giuseppe; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa

    2011-08-01

    We have demonstrated previously that the complex bis[(2-oxindol-3-ylimino)-2-(2-aminoethyl)pyridine-N,N']copper(II), named [Cu(isaepy)(2)], induces AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase)-dependent/p53-mediated apoptosis in tumour cells by targeting mitochondria. In the present study, we found that p38(MAPK) (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase) is the molecular link in the phosphorylation cascade connecting AMPK to p53. Transfection of SH-SY5Y cells with a dominant-negative mutant of AMPK resulted in a decrease in apoptosis and a significant reduction in phospho-active p38(MAPK) and p53. Similarly, reverse genetics of p38(MAPK) yielded a reduction in p53 and a decrease in the extent of apoptosis, confirming an exclusive hierarchy of activation that proceeds via AMPK/p38(MAPK)/p53. Fuel supplies counteracted [Cu(isaepy)(2)]-induced apoptosis and AMPK/p38(MAPK)/p53 activation, with glucose being the most effective, suggesting a role for energetic imbalance in [Cu(isaepy)(2)] toxicity. Co-administration of 3BrPA (3-bromopyruvate), a well-known inhibitor of glycolysis, and succinate dehydrogenase, enhanced apoptosis and AMPK/p38(MAPK)/p53 signalling pathway activation. Under these conditions, no toxic effect was observed in SOD (superoxide dismutase)-overexpressing SH-SY5Y cells or in PCNs (primary cortical neurons), which are, conversely, sensitized to the combined treatment with [Cu(isaepy)(2)] and 3BrPA only if grown in low-glucose medium or incubated with the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor dehydroepiandrosterone. Overall, the results suggest that NADPH deriving from the pentose phosphate pathway contributes to PCN resistance to [Cu(isaepy)(2)] toxicity and propose its employment in combination with 3BrPA as possible tool for cancer treatment.

  15. Critical assessment of the evidence for striped nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Stirling, Julian; Sweetman, Adam; Djuranovic, Predrag; Guo, Quanmin; Granwehr, Josef; Lévy, Raphaël; Moriarty, Philip

    2013-01-01

    There is now a significant body of literature in which it is claimed that stripes form in the ligand shell of suitably functionalised Au nanoparticles. This stripe morphology has been proposed to strongly affect the physicochemical and biochemical properties of the particles. We critique the published evidence for striped nanoparticles in detail, with a particular focus on the interpretation of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) data (as this is the only technique which ostensibly provides direct evidence for the presence of stripes). Through a combination of an exhaustive re-analysis of the original data with new experimental measurements of a simple control sample comprising entirely unfunctionalised particles, we conclusively show that all of the STM evidence for striped nanoparticles published to date can instead be explained by a combination of well-known instrumental artefacts, strong observer bias, and/or improper data acquisition/analysis protocols. We also critically re-examine the evidence for the...

  16. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724

  17. Evidence on Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Larsen, Michael Søgaard

    The purpose of this publication is to examine existing research on inclusion to identify strategies of inclusion that have generated positive effects. To do so it is necessary to understand the effect of the applied strategies. One approach, which is being discussed, is to use evidence to determine...... which methods have proven more effective than others. The desire to gain insight into research on inclusion forms the basis of the current systematic review. The task was to determine which strategies primary research has found to be most effective for inclusion purposes. We have solved this task...... by addressing the existing research with the following question: What is the effect of including children with special needs in mainstream teaching in basic school, and which of the applied educational methods have proved to have a positive effect?...

  18. Evidence Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    34idt l o aggravation. ,t MY ew it pt (A , ,,,, 0 *" ,f ’-’, . ’ p, ug. 1 *Wi toflly viI , )r Ibth; 4) irV ~llmYM ’a ,’ 2 ., 1i ,,ft’.1-, *q 4.,*. ~f...8217 ’,’.’ ’. . . .. ,. - . . . . . . . . "- Irv 77 i 1W W WW 1 WRr %’ J1 -- M, W - a. Search of the person. Mil.R.Evid. 314(g)(1). A.% 11 % % (1) A full search of the person...persorunel accused of offenses cognizable by court- martial may be granted immunity by the appropriate GCM convening authority. United States v. Kirsch , 15

  19. Propagating Class and Method Combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a mixin based class and method combination mechanism with block structure propagation. Traditionally, mixins can be composed to form new classes, possibly merging the implementations of methods (as in CLOS). In our approach, a class or method combination operation may cause any...... number of implicit combinations. For example, it is possible to specify separate aspects of a family of classes, and then combine several aspects into a full-fledged class family. The combination expressions would explicitly combine whole-family aspects, and by propagation implicitly combine the aspects...... for each member of the class family, and again by propagation implicitly compose each method from its aspects. As opposed to CLOS, this is type-checked statically; and as opposed to other systems for advanced class combination/ merging/weaving, it is integrated directly in the language, ensuring a clear...

  20. LIDAR COMBINED SCANNING UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Elizarov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The results of lidar combined scanning unit development for locating leaks of hydrocarbons are presented The unit enables to perform high-speed scanning of the investigated space in wide and narrow angle fields. Method. Scanning in a wide angular field is produced by one-line scanning path by means of the movable aluminum mirror with a frequency of 20Hz and amplitude of 20 degrees of swing. Narrowband scanning is performed along a spiral path by the deflector. The deflection of the beam is done by rotation of the optical wedges forming part of the deflector at an angle of ±50. The control function of the scanning node is performed by a specialized software product written in C# programming language. Main Results. This scanning unit allows scanning the investigated area at a distance of 50-100 m with spatial resolution at the level of 3 cm. The positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space is 15'. The developed scanning unit gives the possibility to browse the entire investigated area for the time not more than 1 ms at a rotation frequency of each wedge from 50 to 200 Hz. The problem of unambiguous definition of the beam geographical coordinates in space is solved at the software level according to the rotation angles of the mirrors and optical wedges. Lidar system coordinates are determined by means of GPS. Practical Relevance. Development results open the possibility for increasing the spatial resolution of scanning systems of a wide range of lidars and can provide high positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space.

  1. Evidence Locator: sources of evidence-based dentistry information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantsve-Hawley, Julie

    2008-09-01

    Multiple resources are available to help practitioners access the latest scientific evidence. Evidence-based dentistry (EBD) is an approach to clinical decision making that incorporates the most current and comprehensive scientific evidence with the practitioner's judgment and the patient's needs and preferences. One challenge in implementing this approach is access to evidence, and there are multiple online resources that can be used in this endeavor. This article presents the Evidence Locator, a list of Web sites that provide access to "secondary sources" of evidence. Such "secondary sources" are typically summaries of systematic reviews and evidence-based clinical recommendations or guidelines. Also presented is a list of other Web sites that may be useful to the practitioner in implementing EBD.

  2. Evidence-Based Laboratory Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher P Price

    2004-01-01

    @@ Whilst there have been several definitions of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), the one given by David Sackett is probably the most accurate and well accepted; he stated that "evidence-based medicine is the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients"[1].

  3. Evidence-based policymaking is not like evidence-based medicine, so how far should you go to bridge the divide between evidence and policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, Paul; Oliver, Kathryn

    2017-04-26

    There is extensive health and public health literature on the 'evidence-policy gap', exploring the frustrating experiences of scientists trying to secure a response to the problems and solutions they raise and identifying the need for better evidence to reduce policymaker uncertainty. We offer a new perspective by using policy theory to propose research with greater impact, identifying the need to use persuasion to reduce ambiguity, and to adapt to multi-level policymaking systems.We identify insights from secondary data, namely systematic reviews, critical analysis and policy theories relevant to evidence-based policymaking. The studies are drawn primarily from countries such as the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. We combine empirical and normative elements to identify the ways in which scientists can, do and could influence policy.We identify two important dilemmas, for scientists and researchers, that arise from our initial advice. First, effective actors combine evidence with manipulative emotional appeals to influence the policy agenda - should scientists do the same, or would the reputational costs outweigh the policy benefits? Second, when adapting to multi-level policymaking, should scientists prioritise 'evidence-based' policymaking above other factors? The latter includes governance principles such the 'co-production' of policy between local public bodies, interest groups and service users. This process may be based primarily on values and involve actors with no commitment to a hierarchy of evidence.We conclude that successful engagement in 'evidence-based policymaking' requires pragmatism, combining scientific evidence with governance principles, and persuasion to translate complex evidence into simple stories. To maximise the use of scientific evidence in health and public health policy, researchers should recognise the tendency of policymakers to base judgements on their beliefs, and shortcuts based on their emotions

  4. Bronchiolitis: the recent evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ghulam

    2014-01-01

    Bronchiolitis is an active area of research across the spectrum from genetic mechanisms to population-based research. Surveillance studies are identifying new causes of bronchiolitis and exploring the role of viral co-infections. The studies have revealed that comorbidities are an important determinant to predict the course of the illness. Also the specific physical findings and diagnostic tests used to predict the outcomes in bronchiolitis do not have high predictive value. The pulse oximetry, probably, is a double edge sword. It has contributed to better childcare but is also likely contributing to longer hospitalizations and greater use of health care resources. The available data is yet largely against the routine use of bronchodilators or corticosteroids, though a combination of these two looks promising future trend. The role of nebulized hypertonic saline in bronchiolitis is getting a wider acceptance and is likely to get established a part of routine care.

  5. Combination strategies for pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, Robert B; Clark-Vetri, Rachel; Tallarida, Ronald J; Wertheimer, Albert I

    2003-10-01

    At least two factors relating to pain management using oral analgesics suggest that combination strategies merit consideration: many pains arise from more than one physiological cause and current analgesics have adverse effect profiles that might be reduced by combination with another agent in smaller doses or with less frequent dosing. In addition to increased convenience, combinations sometimes also result in the unexpected benefit of synergy. But not all pains, clinical settings or combinations merit the extra expense or other potential negative features of fixed-ratio products. This review examines the multiple basic science, clinical and pharmacoeconomic issues relating to analgesic combinations and the methodologies available for assessing these issues.

  6. [Evidence-based Treatment for Vasculitic Neuropathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Michiaki

    2016-03-01

    Vasculitic neuropathies are caused by ischemic damage due to vessel wall inflammation. This damage may cause axonal degeneration leading to permanent neurological disabilities. Therefore, early initiation of effective treatment is crucial. For primary systemic vasculitis, a combined treatment of corticosteroid and immunosuppressive agents is recommended in the evidence-based guidelines as initial standard therapy for induction of remission. However, limited data are available regarding therapies for vasculitic neuropathies and it remains unclear whether combined treatment should be employed as an initial therapy for all patients with vasculitic neuropathies. In approximately half the patients with vasculitic neuropathies, monotherapy with corticosteroids is insufficient in preventing long-lasting neurological disabilities. Addition of intravenous immunoglobulin at an early stage of the disease may be a promising treatment option obviating the need for potent but potentially harmful immunosuppressive agents in some mild or localized cases.

  7. [Inpatient treatment of depression. Should one combine psychotherapy and drugs?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, T J

    2005-03-01

    Antidepressants as well as different psychotherapeutic strategies have been proven efficacious in the treatment of unipolar depression. In the clinical setting both are often combined using psychotherapeutic methods varying from psychoeducation to formal psychotherapy. The present article provides a critical overview of the evidence base for this combination in the inpatient treatment of depression. The current literature is contradictory and difficult to compare. However, combination therapy appears advantageous in therapy-resistant, chronic and severe forms of depressive disorders. Much further research is needed to facilitate well-founded guidelines.

  8. Current concepts in combination antibiotic therapy for critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Widespread emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR bacterial pathogens is a problem of global dimension. MDR infections are difficult to treat and frequently associated with high mortality. More than one antibiotic is commonly used to treat such infections, but scientific evidence does not favor use of combination therapy in most cases. However, there are certain subgroups where combination therapy may be beneficial, e.g. sepsis due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE, bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia, and patients with multiple organ failure. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to clearly define the role of combination therapy in these subgroups.

  9. Prescription of fixed dose combination drugs for diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Amit

    2007-01-01

    Fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of an antiprotozoal and an antibacterial, for treatment of diarrhoea, have been available in the Indian pharmaceutical market for about a decade. There is little evidence to substantiate this combination therapy. We evaluated 2,163 physician prescriptions for diarrhoea and found that 59 per cent of prescriptions were for FDCs. This is unethical because prescribing such combinations exposes a patient to higher risks of adverse drug reactions and also increases the chances of drug resistance. Physicians' prescribing practices in India are influenced by socioeconomic factors and the pharmaceutical industry's marketing techniques that include giving incentives to physicians to prescribe certain drugs.

  10. Skilled and Ready: What Combined Authorities Want from Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of combined authorities, driven by government, is economic growth and public sector reform. Economic growth requires improved productivity. The main obstacle, it is claimed, is a "skills deficit," which schools need to address. In this article the evidence for this claim is examined. The real problem, it is argued, is a…

  11. Relating Admissibility Standards for Digital Evidence to Attack Scenario Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwei Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Attackers tend to use complex techniques such as combining multi-step, multi-stage attack with anti-forensic tools to make it difficult to find incriminating evidence and reconstruct attack scenarios that can stand up to the expected level of evidence admissibility in a court of law. As a solution, we propose to integrate the legal aspects of evidence correlation into a Prolog based reasoner to address the admissibility requirements by creating most probable attack scenarios that satisfy admissibility standards for substantiating evidence. Using a prototype implementation, we show how evidence extracted by using forensic tools can be integrated with legal reasoning to reconstruct network attack scenarios. Our experiment shows this implemented reasoner can provide pre-estimate of admissibility on a digital crime towards an attacked network.

  12. Meta-regression analyses, meta-analyses, and trial sequential analyses of the effects of supplementation with beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E singly or in different combinations on all-cause mortality: do we have evidence for lack of harm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Bjelakovic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Evidence shows that antioxidant supplements may increase mortality. Our aims were to assess whether different doses of beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E affect mortality in primary and secondary prevention randomized clinical trials with low risk of bias. METHODS: The present study is based on our 2012 Cochrane systematic review analyzing beneficial and harmful effects of antioxidant supplements in adults. Using random-effects meta-analyses, meta-regression analyses, and trial sequential analyses, we examined the association between beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E, and mortality according to their daily doses and doses below and above the recommended daily allowances (RDA. RESULTS: We included 53 randomized trials with low risk of bias (241,883 participants, aged 18 to 103 years, 44.6% women assessing beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E. Meta-regression analysis showed that the dose of vitamin A was significantly positively associated with all-cause mortality. Beta-carotene in a dose above 9.6 mg significantly increased mortality (relative risk (RR 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.02 to 1.09, I(2 = 13%. Vitamin A in a dose above the RDA (> 800 µg did not significantly influence mortality (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.19, I(2 = 53%. Vitamin E in a dose above the RDA (> 15 mg significantly increased mortality (RR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.05, I(2 = 0%. Doses below the RDAs did not affect mortality, but data were sparse. CONCLUSIONS: Beta-carotene and vitamin E in doses higher than the RDA seem to significantly increase mortality, whereas we lack information on vitamin A. Dose of vitamin A was significantly associated with increased mortality in meta-regression. We lack information on doses below the RDA. BACKGROUND: All essential compounds to stay healthy cannot be synthesized in our body. Therefore, these compounds must be taken through our diet or obtained in other ways [1]. Oxidative stress has been

  13. Combining opioid and adrenergic mechanisms for chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Howard S; Raffa, Robert B; Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Taylor, Robert; Tallarida, Ronald J

    2014-07-01

    Chronic pain is a highly prevalent medical problem in the United States. Although opioids and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) have demonstrated efficacy for relief of chronic pain, each has risks of adverse events in patients. Because of the risk of opioid abuse and addiction, combinations reducing opioid requirements are particularly valuable. Opioid and SNRI agents relieve pain by different pathways; concurrent use of each agent separately offers many potential benefits: complementary and possibly synergistic analgesic efficacy, separate titrations of opioid and SNRI effects, and the reduction of opioid requirements. However, few clinical studies have investigated the ideal ratios for combinations of opioids and SNRIs. A number of factors affect whether specific combinations have additive, synergistic, less than additive efficacy, or increase adverse events in patients, including general pharmacokinetic considerations, the potential for pharmacodynamic drug interactions, dose, and timing. Because there is little clinical evidence guiding combination therapy with separate opioid and SNRI agents, using single-molecule agents provides safe and effective therapy and should be the first option presented to patients. The use of empiric combinations of separate opioid and SNRI combinations needs to be considered in light of clinical cautions, including the lack of published evidence to guide dose conversion from any opioid to tramadol or to tapentadol, and vice versa; the need to avoid combinations with known drug interactions; and the need to titrate the dose when adding an SNRI to an opioid, and vice versa.

  14. Combination therapy for carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Mical; Carmeli, Yehuda; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Mouton, Johan W; Tacconelli, Evelina; Theuretzbacher, Ursula; Mussini, Cristina; Leibovici, Leonard

    2014-09-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CR-GNB) represent an increasing hazard in healthcare settings. A central question concerning the treatment of invasive infections caused by CR-GNB involves the use of combination therapy. Potential advantages of combination therapy include improved efficacy due to synergy, while the disadvantages include adverse events and increased antibiotic use with a potential drive towards resistance. Several observational studies have examined whether combination therapy offers an advantage over colistin/polymyxin monotherapy. We highlight the inherent limitations of these studies related to their observational design and sample size to show why they do not at present provide an answer to the question of combination versus monotherapy. This distinction is important to guide clinical practice until solid evidence has been obtained and to enable the recruitment of patients into randomized controlled trials. A few randomized controlled trials examining specific combinations have recently been completed or are ongoing. Currently, however, there is no evidence-based support for most combination therapies against CR-GNB, including colistin/carbapenem combination therapy.

  15. Evidence-based dentistry as it relates to dental materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Stephen C; Fitzgerald, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based dentistry (EBD) is reviewed in depth to underscore the limitations for evidence-based dental materials information that exist at this time. Anecdotal estimates of evidence for dental practice are in the range of 8 percent to 10 percent. While the process of evaluating the literature base for dental evidence began 20 years ago, it was not practical to implement it until high-speed wireless connections, open access to journals, and omnipresent connections via smart phones became a reality. EBD includes five stages of information collection and analysis, starting with a careful definition of a clinical question using the PICO(T) approach. Clinical evidence in randomized control trials is considered the best. Clinical trial perspectives (prospective, cross-sectional, retrospective) and outcome designs (RCTs, SCTs, CCTs, cohort studies, case-control studies) are quite varied. Aggregation techniques (including meta-analyses) allow meaningful combinations of clinical data from trials with similar designs but with fewer rigors. Appraisals attempt to assess the entire evidence base without bias and answer clinical questions. Varying intensities to these approaches, Cochrane Collaboration, ADA-EBD Library, UTHSCSA CATs Library, are used to answer questions. Dental materials evidence from clinical trials is infrequent, short-term, and often not compliant with current guidelines (registration, CONSORT, PRISMA). Reports in current evidence libraries indicate less than 5 percent of evidence is related to restorative dental materials.

  16. Effect of crosstalk on combined beam characteristics in spectral beam combining systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Wu, Zhen; Zhong, Zheqiang; Zhang, Bin

    2017-02-01

    In a spectral beam combining (SBC) system, crosstalk always happens because stray lights are inevitable due to fabrication errors of optical components and 'smile' effect of laser arrays. Two kinds of crosstalk, including the crosstalk generated between two adjacent emitters of the laser array (ad-crosstalk) and that generated between two non-adjacent emitters (non-ad-crosstalk), have been analyzed. The equivalent light of the crosstalk model has been proposed, and the propagation model of the SBC system with the crosstalk has been built up. On this basis, influences of above two kinds of the crosstalk on the combined beam have been numerically simulated and discussed in detail. The results show that the wavelength composition of the combined beam varies evidently owing to the existence of the crosstalk. With the increasing of the crosstalk intensity, the beam quality of the combined beam degrades, and the side lobes of intensity distribution of the combined beam become more and more obvious. Furthermore, the influence of the non-ad-crosstalk on the beam quality is more serious than that of the ad-crosstalk.

  17. Evidence Use in Mental Health Policy Making for Children in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Justeen K; Mackie, Thomas I; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Niemi, Emily; Leslie, Laurel K

    2016-01-01

    Considerable attention is being given to the use of research evidence to inform public policy making. Building upon Weiss's model of research utilization, we examined the types and uses of evidence that child welfare administrators used in response to federal policy reforms requiring psychotropic medications oversight for children in foster care. Participants relied on a range of "global" and "local" evidence types throughout the policy development phase. Global research evidence was used to raise awareness about problems associated with psychotropic medication use. Local evidence helped to contextualize concerns and had problem-solving and political uses. In most states, policy actions were informed by a combination of evidence types.

  18. Synthesizing Quantitative Evidence for Evidence-based Nursing: Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Geum Oh, PhD, RN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As evidence-based practice has become an important issue in healthcare settings, the educational needs for knowledge and skills for the generation and utilization of healthcare evidence are increasing. Systematic review (SR, a way of evidence generation, is a synthesis of primary scientific evidence, which summarizes the best evidence on a specific clinical question using a transparent, a priori protocol driven approach. SR methodology requires a critical appraisal of primary studies, data extraction in a reliable and repeatable way, and examination for validity of the results. SRs are considered hierarchically as the highest form of evidence as they are a systematic search, identification, and summarization of the available evidence to answer a focused clinical question with particular attention to the methodological quality of studies or the credibility of opinion and text. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an overview of the fundamental knowledge, principals and processes in SR. The focus of this paper is on SR especially for the synthesis of quantitative data from primary research studies that examines the effectiveness of healthcare interventions. To activate evidence-based nursing care in various healthcare settings, the best and available scientific evidence are essential components. This paper will include some examples to promote understandings.

  19. Evidence for Categorical Crowding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Reuther

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An object easily recognised in isolation is hampered when other objects are situated close to it. This phenomenon is called crowding. It is generally thought that crowding affects object recognition only at the level of feature combination. However, recent studies have shown that if flankers and targets belong to different categories crowding is weaker, calling into question the above assertion. Nevertheless, these results can be explained in terms of featural-differences between categories. The current study tests if category-level (i.e., high-level interference in crowding occurs when featural-differences are controlled for. The first experiment used letters and numbers as targets and flankers in a two-by-two study design. We found lower critical spacing when targets and flankers belonged to different categories, replicating previous results. In a second experiment, using a font that ensured that both categories had the same feature-set, we observed the same, albeit weaker, category-dependent effect. This suggests that although featural differences can account partly for the reduction, category-level effects persist even when featural differences are fully controlled for. We conclude that crowding results from not only the well-documented feature-level interactions but also additional interactions at a level where objects are grouped by meaning.

  20. Integrated coal gasification combined cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, P. C.; Wijffels, J.-B.; Zuideveld, P. L.

    Features of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants are described against the backdrop of the development and first commercial application of the shell coal gasification process. Focus is on the efficiency and excellent environmental performance of the integrated coal gasification combined power plants. Current IGCC projects are given together with an outline of some of the options for integrating coal gasification with combined cycles and also other applications of synthesis gas.

  1. Limits of Evidence within EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pocora

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of admissibility of evidence has been regulated only very scarcely in the EU. Judicial cooperation in criminal matters has been embracing the increasing number of instruments, covering plethora of aspects, however, the field of admissibility of evidence remains almost untouched. Can the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice be called the Common Evidence Area? From the national perspective, the issue of admissibility of evidence is still subject to divergent solutions in the Member States, concerning the common law and continental law systems, i.e. the right of access to a lawyer. Thus, the paper aims to take into account the tendencies of legal rule in matter of admissibility of evidence, the dynamic of evidence movement within EU area.

  2. Design and teaching evaluation of“Advanced evidence-based nursing”through online study combined with flipped classroom%线上教学与翻转课堂相结合的《高级循证护理》设计与教学评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周英凤; 胡雁; 贾守梅; 邢唯杰; 顾莺; 李小妹; 李晓玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish a blended approach of digital learning and teaching for integration and sharing of educational resources .Method To combine with 8 universities supported CMB to establish a new doctoral educa‐tion model and to adopt micro‐lecture video ,PPT ,notes ,discussion ,reading materials and group assignments as online study with elearning system of Fudan University as network platform and flipped classroom to establish the course of advance evidence‐based nursing .Result Twenty four doctoral students were involved in the course of ad‐vanced evidence‐based nursing .The knowledge related to evidence‐based nursing was dramatically increased after14‐week online study and one week flipped classroom .The students maintained constructive attitudes and reached their high expectations after the course .Conclusion The blended approach of digital teaching and learning with joint of u‐niversities promoted the education resource integration and sharing ,improved the teaching quality and promoted the diversification of academic culture .Strategies should be taken to cope with the challenges of its sustainable develop‐ment .%目的:构建线上教学与翻转课堂相结合的混合模式教学,以促进教育资源的整合和共享。方法采取CMB八校合作方式构建护理博士核心课程之一《高级循证护理》,以微课视频、教学课件、教学内容笔记、主题讨论、阅读材料及小组作业作为教学和考核方式,以复旦大学elearning系统作为网络平台,联合专题研讨为主的翻转课堂,构建全新的护理博士联合培养模式,并评价其教学效果。结果24位博士参与《高级循证护理》混合模式的教学,课程团队构建了完善的教学资源,在14周的线上教学和1周翻转课堂中,学生参与学习的积极性非常高,在课程前后,对循证护理的知识掌握急剧增加,态度积极,并达成了对学习循证护理的期望。

  3. Combined Environment Acoustic Chamber (CEAC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The CEAC imposes combined acoustic, thermal and mechanical loads on aerospace structures. The CEAC is employed to measure structural response and determine...

  4. Evidence and Ethics (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Brettle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to the December issue of EBLIP, the final issue of my first year as Editor-in-Chief. A year which I have thoroughly enjoyed and one where the fears over what to write in my editorials haven’t materialised. This quarter, ethics has featured quite heavily in my working life so I decided to make this the topic of the editorial, sharing some of my thoughts regarding evidence, ethics and how ethical principles are implemented within the EBLIP journal.Ethics are “principles of conduct or standards of behaviour governing an individual or profession” (Library and Information Science Editorial Committee, 2010, and as individuals or professionals we may be governed by various ethical codes. As I'm sure you know, EBLIP originated in the health domain, where ethical values and ethical research feature strongly. Indeed, by its formal definition, research cannot take place unless “ethical approval” from an appropriate committee has been granted. The practicalities of taking research through the ethical approval process can often be time consuming, and those involved in research need to bear this in mind when planning a project. Each committee will have a slightly different form and process (which can add to the frustration of the researcher, but basically will make their decision to approve on the basis that the research includes obtaining informed consent from participants (i.e., participants know what the research is about and what their involvement will mean; that the research will not cause harm to participants; that confidentiality will be maintained; and that the research undertaken is methodologically rigorous and worthwhile. Preparing a proposal for ethical approval, whilst time consuming, makes the researcher think about all aspects of the research and how it is going to be operationalized, which can save lots of time and effort in the long run and may well also improve the research design. These principles are the same whatever

  5. Under- and overnutrition and evidence of metabolic disease risk in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under- and overnutrition and evidence of metabolic disease risk in rural black South ... Combined overweight and obesity prevalence was higher in the girls ... in the boys than in the girls in mid to late childhood in a rural setting in South Africa, ...

  6. Evidence based psychosocial interventions in substance use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Jhanjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been significant progress and expansion in the development of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for substance abuse and dependence. A literature review was undertaken using the several electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Database of systemic reviews and specific journals, which pertain to psychosocial issues in addictive disorders and guidelines on this topic. Overall psychosocial interventions have been found to be effective. Some interventions, such as cognitive behavior therapy, motivational interviewing and relapse prevention, appear to be effective across many drugs of abuse. Psychological treatment is more effective when prescribed with substitute prescribing than when medication or psychological treatment is used alone, particularly for opiate users. The evidence base for psychological treatment needs to be expanded and should also include research on optimal combinations of psychological therapies and any particular matching effects, if any. Psychological interventions are an essential part of the treatment regimen and efforts should be made to integrate evidence-based interventions in all substance use disorder treatment programs.

  7. Psiquiatria baseada em evidências Evidence-based psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício S de Lima

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Em psiquiatria, observa-se grande variabilidade de práticas clínicas, muitas vezes desnecessária. Essas variações podem estar relacionadas à ausência de evidência científica confiável ou ao desconhecimento das evidências de boa qualidade disponíveis. A medicina baseada em evidências (MBE é uma combinação de estratégias que busca assegurar que o cuidado individual do paciente seja baseado na melhor informação disponível, a qual deve ser incorporada à prática clínica. Neste artigo, conceitos de MBE são discutidos com relação a aspectos e desafios no tratamento de pacientes com distimia, bulimia nervosa e esquizofrenia. A partir de resultados de três revisões sistemáticas recentemente publicadas, conclui-se que a prática de psiquiatria baseada em evidências acrescenta qualidade à prática psiquiátrica tradicional.The unnecessary variability often seen in the clinical practice can be related to both the absence of reliable evidence and unawareness of the existence of good quality evidence. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM is a set of linked strategies designed to assist clinicians in keeping themselves up-to-date with the best available evidence. Such evidence must be incorporated into the clinical practice. EBM concepts are discussed here through common aspects and challenges doctors face when treating patients with dysthymia, bulimia nervosa, and schizophrenia. In the light of some results from three systematic reviews it is concluded that Evidence-Based Psychiatry strategies, rather than replacing the traditional ones, may be a valuable tool to improving quality in a good clinical practice.

  8. [Antilipemic agents in combined therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márk, László; Császár, Albert

    2002-08-25

    In the prevention of coronary heart disease the aim to achieve the target cholesterol and triglyceride levels and the maximal risk reduction leads to the combination of lipid lowering agents. The importance of the combination is supported by the fact that in monotherapy use of the high dose of the drugs, the lipid lowering effect is modest and the side effects are more frequent. The combined therapy is expected to be used more frequently despite the fact, that the improperly applied combination could have serious unfavourable effects. The authors review the advantages and drawbacks of the fibrate-statin combination, which could be used in the most frequent lipid abnormality, the high cholesterol and high triglyceride level, when the combination of micronized fenofibrate and fluvastatin is recommended. Beside the co-administration of other lipid lowering drugs (nicotine acid and resins), it is discussed the combination of statins and fibrates with a new, cholesterol absorption inhibitor, ezetimibe, a well tolerated drug with advantageous safety profile. Considering further metabolic risks the combination of lipid lowering drugs with glitazones, hormone replacement therapy, homocysteine reducing agents is as well highlighted.

  9. Revised Accounting for Business Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Arlette C.; Key, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has recently issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 141 (Revised 2007) Business Combinations. The object of this Statement is to improve the relevance, representational faithfulness, and comparability of reported information about a business combination and its effects. This Statement…

  10. Combination moisture and hydrogen getter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrah, L.A.; Mead, K.E.; Smith, H.M.

    1983-09-20

    A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (1) a solid acetylenic compound and (2) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the resultant hydrogen.

  11. Probability Estimation in the Framework of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Evidence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafei Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intuitionistic fuzzy (IF evidence theory, as an extension of Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence to the intuitionistic fuzzy environment, is exploited to process imprecise and vague information. Since its inception, much interest has been concentrated on IF evidence theory. Many works on the belief functions in IF information systems have appeared. Although belief functions on the IF sets can deal with uncertainty and vagueness well, it is not convenient for decision making. This paper addresses the issue of probability estimation in the framework of IF evidence theory with the hope of making rational decision. Background knowledge about evidence theory, fuzzy set, and IF set is firstly reviewed, followed by introduction of IF evidence theory. Axiomatic properties of probability distribution are then proposed to assist our interpretation. Finally, probability estimations based on fuzzy and IF belief functions together with their proofs are presented. It is verified that the probability estimation method based on IF belief functions is also potentially applicable to classical evidence theory and fuzzy evidence theory. Moreover, IF belief functions can be combined in a convenient way once they are transformed to interval-valued possibilities.

  12. Oxycodone combinations for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, R B; Pergolizzi, J V; Segarnick, D J; Tallarida, R J

    2010-06-01

    No single analgesic drug provides the perfect therapeutic/adverse effect profile for every pain condition. In addition to convenience and possibly improved compliance, a combination of analgesic drugs offers the potential, requiring verification, of providing greater pain relief and/or reduced adverse effects than the constituent drugs when used individually. We review here analgesic combinations containing oxycodone. We found surprisingly little preclinical information about the analgesic or adverse effect profiles of the combinations (with acetaminophen, paracetamol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, morphine, gabapentin or pregabalin). Clinical experience and studies suggest that the combinations are safe and effective and may offer certain advantages. As with all combinations, the profile of adverse effects must also be determined in order to provide the clinician with the overall benefit/risk assessment.

  13. Multidimensional Datawarehouse with Combination Formula

    CERN Document Server

    Warnars, Spits

    2010-01-01

    Multidimensional in data warehouse is a compulsion and become the most important for information delivery, without multidimensional Multidimensional in data warehouse is a compulsion and become the most important for information delivery, without multidimensional datawarehouse is incomplete. Multidimensional give ability to analyze business measurement in many different ways. Multidimensional is also synonymous with online analytical processing (OLAP). By using some concepts in datawarehouse like slice-dice,drill down and roll up will increase the ability of multidimensional datawarehouse. The research question and the discussing for this paper are how much deepest the multidimensional ability from each fact table in datawarehouse. By using the statistic combination formula we try to explore the combination that can be yielded from each dimension in hypercubes, the entire of dimensi combination, minimum combination and maximum combination.

  14. Modeling Sensor Reliability in Fault Diagnosis Based on Evidence Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kaijuan; Xiao, Fuyuan; Fei, Liguo; Kang, Bingyi; Deng, Yong

    2016-01-18

    Sensor data fusion plays an important role in fault diagnosis. Dempster-Shafer (D-R) evidence theory is widely used in fault diagnosis, since it is efficient to combine evidence from different sensors. However, under the situation where the evidence highly conflicts, it may obtain a counterintuitive result. To address the issue, a new method is proposed in this paper. Not only the statistic sensor reliability, but also the dynamic sensor reliability are taken into consideration. The evidence distance function and the belief entropy are combined to obtain the dynamic reliability of each sensor report. A weighted averaging method is adopted to modify the conflict evidence by assigning different weights to evidence according to sensor reliability. The proposed method has better performance in conflict management and fault diagnosis due to the fact that the information volume of each sensor report is taken into consideration. An application in fault diagnosis based on sensor fusion is illustrated to show the efficiency of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method improves the accuracy of fault diagnosis from 81.19% to 89.48% compared to the existing methods.

  15. Music therapy with disorders of consciousness: current evidence and emergent evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Wendy L; O'Kelly, Julian

    2015-03-01

    Patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (PDOC) stemming from acquired brain injury present one of the most challenging clinical populations in neurological rehabilitation. Because of the complex clinical presentation of PDOC patients, treatment teams are confronted with many medicolegal, ethical, philosophical, moral, and religious issues in day-to-day care. Accurate diagnosis is of central concern, relying on creative approaches from skilled clinical professionals using combined behavioral and neurophysiological measures. This paper presents the latest evidence for using music as a diagnostic tool with PDOC, including recent developments in music therapy interventions and measurement. We outline standardized clinical protocols and behavioral measures to produce diagnostic outcomes and examine recent research illustrating a range of benefits of music-based methods at behavioral, cardiorespiratory, and cortical levels using video, electrocardiography, and electroencephalography methods. These latest developments are discussed in the context of evidence-based practice in rehabilitation with clinical populations. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Combining norms to prove termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genaim, S.; Codish, M.; Gallagher, John Patrick;

    2002-01-01

    of deriving automatically a candidate norm with which to prove termination. Instead of deriving a single, complex norm function, it is sufficient to determine a collection of simpler norms, some combination of which, leads to a proof of termination. We propose that a collection of simple norms, one for each...... of the recursive data-types in the program, is often a suitable choice. We first demonstrate the power of combining norm functions and then the adequacy of combining norms based on regular types....

  17. Ginseng and Anticancer Drug Combination to Improve Cancer Chemotherapy: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng, a well-known herb, is often used in combination with anticancer drugs to enhance chemotherapy. Its wide usage as well as many documentations are often cited to support its clinical benefit of such combination therapy. However the literature based on objective evidence to make such recommendation is still lacking. The present review critically evaluated relevant studies reported in English and Chinese literature on such combination. Based on our review, we found good evidence from in vitro and in vivo animal studies showing enhanced antitumor effect when ginseng is used in combination with some anticancer drugs. However, there is insufficient clinical evidence of such benefit as very few clinical studies are available. Future research should focus on clinically relevant studies of such combination to validate the utility of ginseng in cancer.

  18. CDMBE: A Case Description Model Based on Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianlin Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By combining the advantages of argument map and Bayesian network, a case description model based on evidence (CDMBE, which is suitable to continental law system, is proposed to describe the criminal cases. The logic of the model adopts the credibility logical reason and gets evidence-based reasoning quantitatively based on evidences. In order to consist with practical inference rules, five types of relationship and a set of rules are defined to calculate the credibility of assumptions based on the credibility and supportability of the related evidences. Experiments show that the model can get users’ ideas into a figure and the results calculated from CDMBE are in line with those from Bayesian model.

  19. From Evidence Based Medicine to Medicine Based Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Ralph I; Hayes-Conroy, Allison; Caricchio, Roberto; Singer, Burton H

    2017-07-12

    Evidence based medicine, using randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses as the major tools and sources of evidence about average results for heterogeneous groups of patients, developed as a reaction against poorly designed observational treatment research and physician reliance on personal experience with other patients as a guide to decision-making about a patient at hand. However, these tools do not answer the clinician's question: "Will a given therapeutic regimen help my patient at a given point in her/his clinical course?" We introduce fine-grained profiling of the patient at hand, accompanied by comparative evidence of responses from approximate matches to this patient on whom a contemplated treatment has/has not been administered. This represents medicine based evidence that is tuned to decision-making for the particular patient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Standardized description of scientific evidence using the Evidence Ontology (ECO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibucos, Marcus C; Mungall, Christopher J; Balakrishnan, Rama; Christie, Karen R; Huntley, Rachael P; White, Owen; Blake, Judith A; Lewis, Suzanna E; Giglio, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The Evidence Ontology (ECO) is a structured, controlled vocabulary for capturing evidence in biological research. ECO includes diverse terms for categorizing evidence that supports annotation assertions including experimental types, computational methods, author statements and curator inferences. Using ECO, annotation assertions can be distinguished according to the evidence they are based on such as those made by curators versus those automatically computed or those made via high-throughput data review versus single test experiments. Originally created for capturing evidence associated with Gene Ontology annotations, ECO is now used in other capacities by many additional annotation resources including UniProt, Mouse Genome Informatics, Saccharomyces Genome Database, PomBase, the Protein Information Resource and others. Information on the development and use of ECO can be found at http://evidenceontology.org. The ontology is freely available under Creative Commons license (CC BY-SA 3.0), and can be downloaded in both Open Biological Ontologies and Web Ontology Language formats at http://code.google.com/p/evidenceontology. Also at this site is a tracker for user submission of term requests and questions. ECO remains under active development in response to user-requested terms and in collaborations with other ontologies and database resources. Database URL: Evidence Ontology Web site: http://evidenceontology.org.

  1. DNA Profiling of Convicted Offender Samples for the Combined DNA Index System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Julie T

    2011-01-01

    The cornerstone of forensic chemistry is that a perpetrator inevitably leaves trace evidence at a crime scene. One important type of evidence is DNA, which has been instrumental in both the implication and exoneration of thousands of suspects in a wide range of crimes. The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), a network of DNA databases, provides…

  2. DNA Profiling of Convicted Offender Samples for the Combined DNA Index System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Julie T

    2011-01-01

    The cornerstone of forensic chemistry is that a perpetrator inevitably leaves trace evidence at a crime scene. One important type of evidence is DNA, which has been instrumental in both the implication and exoneration of thousands of suspects in a wide range of crimes. The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), a network of DNA databases, provides…

  3. Investigating combination HIV prevention: isolated interventions or complex system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Brown

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Treatment as prevention has mobilized new opportunities in preventing HIV transmission and has led to bold new UNAIDS targets in testing, treatment coverage and transmission reduction. These will require not only an increase in investment but also a deeper understanding of the dynamics of combining behavioural, biomedical and structural HIV prevention interventions. High-income countries are making substantial investments in combination HIV prevention, but is this investment leading to a deeper understanding of how to combine interventions? The combining of interventions involves complexity, with many strategies interacting with non-linear and multiplying rather than additive effects. Discussion: Drawing on a recent scoping study of the published research evidence in HIV prevention in high-income countries, this paper argues that there is a gap between the evidence currently available and the evidence needed to guide the achieving of these bold targets. The emphasis of HIV prevention intervention research continues to look at one intervention at a time in isolation from its interactions with other interventions, the community and the socio-political context of their implementation. To understand and evaluate the role of a combination of interventions, we need to understand not only what works, but in what circumstances, what role the parts need to play in their relationship with each other, when the combination needs to adapt and identify emergent effects of any resulting synergies. There is little development of evidence-based indicators on how interventions in combination should achieve that strategic advantage and synergy. This commentary discusses the implications of this ongoing situation for future research and the required investment in partnership. We suggest that systems science approaches, which are being increasingly applied in other areas of public health, could provide an expanded vocabulary and analytic tools for

  4. New combinations in African Sapindaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Vollesen, Kaj; Verdcourt, Bernard

    1996-01-01

    Three new combinations are formally made: Allophylus rubifolius (A. Rich.) Engl. var. alnifolius (Baker) Friis & Vollesen, Allophylus rubifolius (A. Rich.) Engl. var. rhusiphyllus (Balf.f.) Froos & Vollesen and Haplocoelum folosum (Hiern) Bullock subsp. mombasense (Bullock) Verdc....

  5. The efficiency of combined machinings

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the efficiency of the finish process applied in machining of hard surfaces, completed by grinding, hard turning and also by the combination of these two procedures, on the basis of time consumption.

  6. Autonomous grain combine control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Lucas, James R.; Prickel, Marvin A.

    2013-06-25

    A system for controlling a grain combine having a rotor/cylinder, a sieve, a fan, a concave, a feeder, a header, an engine, and a control system. The feeder of the grain combine is engaged and the header is lowered. A separator loss target, engine load target, and a sieve loss target are selected. Grain is harvested with the lowered header passing the grain through the engaged feeder. Separator loss, sieve loss, engine load and ground speed of the grain combine are continuously monitored during the harvesting. If the monitored separator loss exceeds the selected separator loss target, the speed of the rotor/cylinder, the concave setting, the engine load target, or a combination thereof is adjusted. If the monitored sieve loss exceeds the selected sieve loss target, the speed of the fan, the size of the sieve openings, or the engine load target is adjusted.

  7. Quick evidence reviews using Epistemonikos: a thorough, friendly and current approach to evidence in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rada

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Those who make decisions on healthcare should do so informed by the best scientific evidence at one’s disposal. During the last few years, it has become undeniable that identifying and synthesizing all scientific studies that respond a question constitutes an unapproachable challenge for a clinician. The quantity of information has increased excessively, some facts are not available, investigations are of either bad quality or even fraudulent, and the methods for achieving a combination and synthesis of all studies are each time more sophisticated. Moreover, if this inaccurate process is carried out, there exists a high risk of arriving at a biased conclusion.

  8. Combined radar and telemetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.; Young, Derek; Chou, Tina; Hsieh, Lung-Hwa; Conover, Kurt; Heintzleman, Richard

    2017-08-01

    A combined radar and telemetry system is described. The combined radar and telemetry system includes a processing unit that executes instructions, where the instructions define a radar waveform and a telemetry waveform. The processor outputs a digital baseband signal based upon the instructions, where the digital baseband signal is based upon the radar waveform and the telemetry waveform. A radar and telemetry circuit transmits, simultaneously, a radar signal and telemetry signal based upon the digital baseband signal.

  9. Combined cataract and strabismus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, J L; Ledford, J K

    1993-08-01

    A patient with cataracts and congenital exotropia underwent combined cataract and strabismus surgery OU. A lateral rectus recession plus an extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation was done OD first; three months later, this procedure was repeated OS. The patient's postoperative course was benign in both cases, and her strabismus resolved after the second operation. A combined surgical approach to cataracts and strabismus (where only a single muscle is involved) was safe and useful in restoring this patient's vision, binocularity, and appearance.

  10. COMBINED HEART-KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Poptsov

    2016-01-01

    Combined heart-kidney transplantation may be performed in carefully selected patients with end-stage heart disease and renal failure. There are two types of combined transplantation of heart and kidney: 1) simultaneous heart-kidney transplantation (SHKT) from the same donor; 2) staged transplantation of heart and kidneys from two genetically different donors. The ISHLT registry in 2014 reported an increase in the number of SHKT over the years: from 22 in 1994 to 97 in 2012. World experience d...

  11. Intelligence Fusion for Combined Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-03

    doctrine on intelligence in combined operations, the lessons learned from the most recent combined operations, the current state of intelligence fision ...control of nuclear weapons and arms proliferation in the former Soviet Union.’ In Asia, the United States maintains a military presence in support of...emanating from other than nuclear or radioactive sources. Individual Reports Database - The portion of the LOCE database consisting of entity data records

  12. Critical assessment of the evidence for striped nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Stirling

    Full Text Available There is now a significant body of literature which reports that stripes form in the ligand shell of suitably functionalised Au nanoparticles. This stripe morphology has been proposed to strongly affect the physicochemical and biochemical properties of the particles. We critique the published evidence for striped nanoparticles in detail, with a particular focus on the interpretation of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM data (as this is the only technique which ostensibly provides direct evidence for the presence of stripes. Through a combination of an exhaustive re-analysis of the original data, in addition to new experimental measurements of a simple control sample comprising entirely unfunctionalised particles, we show that all of the STM evidence for striped nanoparticles published to date can instead be explained by a combination of well-known instrumental artefacts, or by issues with data acquisition/analysis protocols. We also critically re-examine the evidence for the presence of ligand stripes which has been claimed to have been found from transmission electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, small angle neutron scattering experiments, and computer simulations. Although these data can indeed be interpreted in terms of stripe formation, we show that the reported results can alternatively be explained as arising from a combination of instrumental artefacts and inadequate data analysis techniques.

  13. NASA 2010 Pharmacology Evidence Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Institute of Medicine reviewed NASA's Human Research Program Evidence in assessing the Pharmacology risk identified in NASA's Human Research Program Requirements Document (PRD). Since this review there was a major reorganization of the Pharmacology discipline within the HRP, as well as a re-evaluation of the Pharmacology evidence. This panel is being asked to review the latest version of the Pharmacology Evidence Report. Specifically, this panel will: (1) Appraise the descriptions of the human health-related risk in the HRP PRD. (2) Assess the relevance and comprehensiveness of the evidence in identifying potential threats to long-term space missions. (3) Assess the associated gaps in knowledge and identify additional areas for research as necessary.

  14. Forensic Botany: Evidence and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, H M

    2009-01-01

    Forensic botany is the use of plant evidence in matters of law. While plant fragments are often collected as trace evidence, they are only occasionally identified using microscopy and are still more rarely assessed using molecular biology techniques for individualization and sourcing of a sample. There are many different methods useful for DNA typing of plants; this review focuses on those techniques (DNA sequencing, STR, AFLP, RAPD) most relevant to the forensic science community and on those methods currently in practice. Plant evidence is commonly associated with homicides, with clandestine graves, as trace pollen on clothing, vehicles, or packaging, or in the transport of illicit drugs. DNA can be especially useful for the identification of minute quantity of samples, for differentiation of plants that lack distinguishing morphological features, and for generating a unique identifier for associative forensic evidence.

  15. Gravitational Waves: The Evidence Mounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Gerald L.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews the work of Weber and his colleagues in their attempts at detecting extraterrestial gravitational waves. Coincidence events recorded by special detectors provide the evidence for the existence of gravitational waves. Bibliography. (LC)

  16. Binocular combination in abnormal binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Klein, Stanley A; Levi, Dennis M

    2013-02-08

    We investigated suprathreshold binocular combination in humans with abnormal binocular visual experience early in life. In the first experiment we presented the two eyes with equal but opposite phase shifted sine waves and measured the perceived phase of the cyclopean sine wave. Normal observers have balanced vision between the two eyes when the two eyes' images have equal contrast (i.e., both eyes contribute equally to the perceived image and perceived phase = 0°). However, in observers with strabismus and/or amblyopia, balanced vision requires a higher contrast image in the nondominant eye (NDE) than the dominant eye (DE). This asymmetry between the two eyes is larger than predicted from the contrast sensitivities or monocular perceived contrast of the two eyes and is dependent on contrast and spatial frequency: more asymmetric with higher contrast and/or spatial frequency. Our results also revealed a surprising NDE-to-DE enhancement in some of our abnormal observers. This enhancement is not evident in normal vision because it is normally masked by interocular suppression. However, in these abnormal observers the NDE-to-DE suppression was weak or absent. In the second experiment, we used the identical stimuli to measure the perceived contrast of a cyclopean grating by matching the binocular combined contrast to a standard contrast presented to the DE. These measures provide strong constraints for model fitting. We found asymmetric interocular interactions in binocular contrast perception, which was dependent on both contrast and spatial frequency in the same way as in phase perception. By introducing asymmetric parameters to the modified Ding-Sperling model including interocular contrast gain enhancement, we succeeded in accounting for both binocular combined phase and contrast simultaneously. Adding binocular contrast gain control to the modified Ding-Sperling model enabled us to predict the results of dichoptic and binocular contrast discrimination experiments

  17. IDENTIFYING CONSUMER VALUATION PATTERNS OF ALTERNATIVE NUTRITION AND HEALTH LABELS COMBINATIONS: EVIDENCE FROM SPAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Barreiro-Hurlé, Jesús; Gracia, Azucena; de Magistris, Tiziana

    2009-01-01

    The provision of nutrition and health information on food labels is increasing as an industry and regulation answer to the growing consumer concern with diet-health relationships. Prior research has shown that the presence of this information on food labels is valued by consumers; however there is still no clear pattern on which labelling options are more valued and how different consumers value the different options. This paper analyses the results of a choice experiment conducted to identif...

  18. Evidence for non-random distribution of Fc gamma receptor genotype combinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, WL; Jansen, MD; Sluiter, WJ; van de Sluis, B; Leppers-van de Straat, FGJ; Kobayashi, T; Westendorp, RGJ; Huizinga, TWJ; van de Winkel, JGJ

    2003-01-01

    Human IgG receptors (FcgammaR) display considerable heterogeneity, and are crucial immune response modulating molecules. FcgammaRIIA, FcgammaRIIIA, and FcgammaRIIIB display functional biallelic polymorphisms. FcgammaR polymorphisms have been found associated with susceptibility to infectious and aut

  19. Impaired auditory sampling in dyslexia: Further evidence from combined fMRI and EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia eLehongre

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore auditory cortical oscillation properties in developmental dyslexia. We recorded cortical activity in 17 dyslexic participants and 15 matched controls using simultaneous EEG and fMRI during passive viewing of an audiovisual movie. We compared the distribution of brain oscillations in the delta, theta and gamma ranges over left and right auditory cortices. In controls, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that there is a dominance of gamma oscillations in the left hemisphere and a dominance of delta-theta oscillations in the right hemisphere. In dyslexics, we did not find such an interaction, but similar oscillations in both hemispheres. Thus, our results confirm that the primary cortical disruption in dyslexia lies in a lack of hemispheric specialization for gamma oscillations, which might disrupt the representation of or the access to phonemic units.

  20. Incremental data uncertainty handling using evidence combination: a case study on maritime data reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, M. B.; Wanders, B.; Flokstra, J.; Keulen, M. van

    2015-01-01

    Semantic incompatibility is a conflict that occurs in the meanings of data. In this paper, we propose an approach for data cleaning by resolving semantic incompatibility. Our approach applies a dynamic and incremental enhancement of data quality. It checks the coherency/conflict of the newly

  1. Incremental data uncertainty handling using evidence combination: a case study on maritime data reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, Mena Badieh; Wanders, B.; Flokstra, Jan; van Keulen, Maurice

    Semantic incompatibility is a conflict that occurs in the meanings of data. In this paper, we propose an approach for data cleaning by resolving semantic incompatibility. Our approach applies a dynamic and incremental enhancement of data quality. It checks the coherency/conflict of the newly

  2. Neuroanatomical correlates of haptic object processing: combined evidence from tractography and functional neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Masson, Haemy; Kang, Hyeok-Mook; Petit, Laurent; Wallraven, Christian

    2017-09-13

    Touch delivers a wealth of information already from birth, helping infants to acquire knowledge about a variety of important object properties using their hands. Despite the fact that we are touch experts as much as we are visual experts, surprisingly, little is known how our perceptual ability in touch is linked to either functional or structural aspects of the brain. The present study, therefore, investigates and identifies neuroanatomical correlates of haptic perceptual performance using a novel, multi-modal approach. For this, participants' performance in a difficult shape categorization task was first measured in the haptic domain. Using a multi-modal functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging analysis pipeline, functionally defined and anatomically constrained white-matter pathways were extracted and their microstructural characteristics correlated with individual variability in haptic categorization performance. Controlling for the effects of age, total intracranial volume and head movements in the regression model, haptic performance was found to correlate significantly with higher axial diffusivity in functionally defined superior longitudinal fasciculus (fSLF) linking frontal and parietal areas. These results were further localized in specific sub-parts of fSLF. Using additional data from a second group of participants, who first learned the categories in the visual domain and then transferred to the haptic domain, haptic performance correlates were obtained in the functionally defined inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Our results implicate SLF linking frontal and parietal areas as an important white-matter track in processing touch-specific information during object processing, whereas ILF relays visually learned information during haptic processing. Taken together, the present results chart for the first time potential neuroanatomical correlates and interactions of touch-related object processing.

  3. Phylogenetics of the Subtribe Pleurothallidinae (Epidendreae: Orchidaceae) based on combined evidence from DNA sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Pridgeon, Alec M.; Chase, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Subtribe Pleurothallidinae (Epidendreae: Orchida- ceae) comprises an estimated 4000 Neotropical species in about 30 genera (Luer 1986), accounting for 15-20% of the species in the entire family.  Subtribe Pleurothallidinae (Epidendreae: Orchida- ceae) comprises an estimated 4000 Neotropical species in about 30 genera (Luer 1986), accounting for 15-20% of the species in the entire family. 

  4. Evidence-Based Cancer Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasani, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    With the advances in the field of oncology, imaging is increasingly used in the follow-up of cancer patients, leading to concerns about over-utilization. Therefore, it has become imperative to make imaging more evidence-based, efficient, cost-effective and equitable. This review explores the strategies and tools to make diagnostic imaging more evidence-based, mainly in the context of follow-up of cancer patients.

  5. Evidence in the learning organization

    OpenAIRE

    Umscheid Craig A; Richardson W Scott; Akl Elie A; McNamara Megan C; Crites Gerald E; Nishikawa James

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Organizational leaders in business and medicine have been experiencing a similar dilemma: how to ensure that their organizational members are adopting work innovations in a timely fashion. Organizational leaders in healthcare have attempted to resolve this dilemma by offering specific solutions, such as evidence-based medicine (EBM), but organizations are still not systematically adopting evidence-based practice innovations as rapidly as expected by policy-makers (the know...

  6. Numerical Evidence for Thermally Induced Monopoles

    CERN Document Server

    Wirnsberger, Peter; Lightwood, Roger Adam; Šarić, Anđela; Dellago, Christoph; Frenkel, Daan

    2016-01-01

    Electrical charges are conserved. The same would be expected to hold for magnetic charges, yet magnetic monopoles have never been observed. It is therefore surprising that the laws of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, combined with Maxwell's equations, suggest that colloidal particles heated or cooled in certain polar or paramagnetic solvents may behave as if they carry an electrical/magnetic charge [J. Phys. Chem. B $\\textbf{120}$, 5987 (2016)]. Here we present numerical simulations that show that the field distribution around a pair of such heated/cooled colloidal particles agrees quantitatively with the theoretical predictions for a pair of oppositely charged electrical or magnetic monopoles. However, in other respects, the non-equilibrium colloids do not behave as monopoles: they cannot be moved by a homogeneous applied field. The numerical evidence for the monopole-like fields around heated/cooled colloids is crucial because the experimental and numerical determination of forces between such colloids would...

  7. Experimental evidence for circular inference in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardri, Renaud; Duverne, Sandrine; Litvinova, Alexandra S.; Denève, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a complex mental disorder that may result in some combination of hallucinations, delusions and disorganized thinking. Here SCZ patients and healthy controls (CTLs) report their level of confidence on a forced-choice task that manipulated the strength of sensory evidence and prior information. Neither group's responses can be explained by simple Bayesian inference. Rather, individual responses are best captured by a model with different degrees of circular inference. Circular inference refers to a corruption of sensory data by prior information and vice versa, leading us to `see what we expect' (through descending loops), to `expect what we see' (through ascending loops) or both. Ascending loops are stronger for SCZ than CTLs and correlate with the severity of positive symptoms. Descending loops correlate with the severity of negative symptoms. Both loops correlate with disorganized symptoms. The findings suggest that circular inference might mediate the clinical manifestations of SCZ.

  8. СHOICE OF ZOFENOPRIL AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE COMBINATION IN THE TREATMENT OF ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Dzhaiani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems of antihypertensive therapy are discussed in the light of the present epidemiological situation with arterial hypertension. ACE inhibitors have a special place among the antihypertensive drugs. Advantages and evidence base of ACE inhibitors representative — zofеnopril highlighted. Special attention is given to combined antihypertensive therapy , particularly combination of zofenopril and hydrochlorothiazide.

  9. Combination treatment of neuropathic pain: Danish expert recommendations based on a Delphi process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Jakob Vormstrup; Jung, A.; Jonsson, T.

    2017-01-01

    , but combination therapy had not been included in guidelines until recently. Based on clinical empiricism and scientific evidence, a Delphi consensus process provided a consolidated guidance on pharmacological combination treatment of NeP. METHODS: A two-round virtual internet-based Delphi process with 6 Danish...

  10. COMBINE Archive Specification Version 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Frank T; Rodriguez, Nicolas; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2015-09-04

    Several standard formats have been proposed that can be used to describe models, simulations, data or other essential information in a consistent fashion. These constitute various separate components required to reproduce a given published scientific result. The Open Modeling EXchange format (OMEX) supports the exchange of all the information necessary for a modeling and simulation experiment in biology. An OMEX file is a ZIP container that includes a manifest file, an optional metadata file, and the files describing the model. The manifest is an XML file listing all files included in the archive and their type. The metadata file provides additional information about the archive and its content. Although any format can be used, we recommend an XML serialization of the Resource Description Framework. Together with the other standard formats from the Computational Modeling in Biology Network (COMBINE), OMEX is the basis of the COMBINE Archive. The content of a COMBINE Archive consists of files encoded in COMBINE standards whenever possible, but may include additional files defined by an Internet Media Type. The COMBINE Archive facilitates the reproduction of modeling and simulation experiments in biology by embedding all the relevant information in one file. Having all the information stored and exchanged at once also helps in building activity logs and audit trails.

  11. CONVENTIONAL THERAPY OF PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS: EVIDENCE-BASED REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Soriano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Psoriatic arthritis is a heterogeneous condition, the pattern of which is determined by any combination of pathology affecting peripheral joints, the enthesis and the spine. There is a paucity of evidence for most of the conventional agents used to treat psoriatic arthritis, with many of them being used on the basis of experience in rheumatoid arthritis. Herein, we summarise the evidence compiled relating to effectiveness of treatment for various manifestation of PsA. For those patients with progressive forms of arthritis who may benefit from intervention of newer biological therapies, the continued use of conventional therapy needs ever increasing scrutiny. Key words: Psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis, therapy

  12. Combination of Resveratrol and Zinc for Prostate Cancer Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    age, progression to prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) by 18 weeks of age, and after 28 weeks of age, display lymphatic metastases (4, 5...practice since the 1960s, with evidence of enhanced survival in childhood leukemias and Hodgkin’s disease fol- lowing combination chemotherapy (compared...maintaining steady and effective in vivo resveratrol concentrations following chronic ingestion. How- ever, researchers have begun to focus on different

  13. Evidence Corner: Evidence-based Care for Malignant Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Laura

    2016-06-01

    Malignant fungating wounds occur in 5% to 10% of individuals with cancer.1 They arise "when malignant tumour cells infiltrate and erode through the skin."2 Guidelines for treating these malignant wounds (MW) often lack randomized, clinical trial (RCT) evidence supporting local wound care interventions that meet patients' physical or psychosocial needs or facilitate healing.3 The rarity of RCTs exploring healing of MWs likely results from their very low expectation of complete closure.1 Affected patients and their professional and family caregivers rate pain, infection, and odor management among the most important challenges in minimizing distress.4-6 Though a recently updated Cochrane review3 reminds us that evidence remains insufficient for firm conclusions supporting management of MW, it does cite 2 recent RCTs described herein7,8 that can serve as "current best evidence"9 to inform clinical decisions for alleviating some aspects of these patients' distress.

  14. The Solar Photosphere: Evidence for Condensed Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P. M.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The stellar equations of state treat the Sun much like an ideal gas, wherein the photosphere is viewed as a sparse gaseous plasma. The temperatures inferred in the solar interior give some credence to these models, especially since it is counterintuitive that an object with internal temperatures in excess of 1 MK could be existing in the liquid state. Nonetheless, extreme temperatures, by themselves, are insufficient evidence for the states of matter. The presence of magnetic fields and gravity also impact the expected phase. In the end, it is the physical expression of a state that is required in establishing the proper phase of an object. The photosphere does not lend itself easily to treatment as a gaseous plasma. The physical evidence can be more simply reconciled with a solar body and a photosphere in the condensed state. A discussion of each physical feature follows: (1 the thermal spectrum, (2 limb darkening, (3 solar collapse, (4 the solar density, (5 seismic activity, (6 mass displacement, (7 the chromosphere and critical opalescence, (8 shape, (9 surface activity, (10 photospheric/coronal flows, (11 photospheric imaging, (12 the solar dynamo, and (13 the presence of Sun spots. The explanation of these findings by the gaseous models often requires an improbable combination of events, such as found in the stellar opacity problem. In sharp contrast, each can be explained with simplicity by the condensed state. This work is an invitation to reconsider the phase of the Sun.

  15. [Evidence that suggest the reality of reincarnation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, children can be found who reported that they have memories of a previous life. More than 2,500 cases have been studied and their specifications have been published and preserved in the archives of the Division of Perceptual Studies at the University of Virginia (United States). Many of those children come from countries where the majority of the inhabitants believe in reincarnation, but others come from countries with different cultures and religions that reject it. In many cases, the revelations of the children have been verified and have corresponded to a particular individual, already dead. A good number of these children have marks and birth defects corresponding to wounds on the body of his previous personality. Many have behaviors related to their claims to their former life: phobias, philias, and attachments. Others seem to recognize people and places of his supposed previous life, and some of their assertions have been made under controlled conditions. The hypothesis of reincarnation is controversial. We can never say that it does not occur, or will obtain conclusive evidence that it happens. The cases that have been described so far, isolated or combined, do not provide irrefutable proof of reincarnation, but they supply evidence that suggest its reality.

  16. Obesity and prostate cancer: weighing the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allott, Emma H; Masko, Elizabeth M; Freedland, Stephen J

    2013-05-01

    Obesity and prostate cancer (PCa) affect substantial proportions of Western society. Mounting evidence, both epidemiologic and mechanistic, for an association between the two is of public health interest. An improved understanding of the role of this modifiable risk factor in PCa etiology is imperative to optimize screening, treatment, and prevention. To consolidate and evaluate the evidence for an epidemiologic link between obesity and PCa, in addition to examining the proposed underlying molecular mechanisms. A PubMed search for relevant articles published between 1991 and July 2012 was performed by combining the following terms: obesity, BMI, body mass index and prostate cancer risk, prostate cancer incidence, prostate cancer mortality, radical prostatectomy, androgen-deprivation therapy, external-beam radiation, brachytherapy, prostate cancer and quality of life, prostate cancer and active surveillance, in addition to obesity, BMI, body mass index and prostate cancer and insulin, insulin-like growth factor, androgen, estradiol, leptin, adiponectin, and IL-6. Articles were selected based on content, date of publication, and relevancy, and their references were also searched for relevant articles. Increasing evidence suggests obesity is associated with elevated incidence of aggressive PCa, increased risk of biochemical failure following radical prostatectomy and external-beam radiotherapy, higher frequency of complications following androgen-deprivation therapy, and increased PCa-specific mortality, although perhaps a lower overall PCa incidence. These results may in part relate to difficulties in detecting and treating obese men. However, multiple molecular mechanisms could explain these associations as well. Weight loss slows PCa in animal models but has yet to be fully tested in human trials. Obesity appears to be linked with aggressive PCa. We suggest clinical tips to better diagnose and treat obese men with PCa. Whether reversing obesity slows PCa growth is

  17. From evidence-based to evidence-reflected practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    “Knowledge” is of the utmost significance for professional practice and learning. Today, though, the established knowledge base is changing in all areas of the labour market (Alvesson, 2004). Work and society are dominated by commitment to demands for high levels of demonstrable accountability......, cost-efficiency and measurable quality. Thus, today, evidence-based practice has become an expectation and fashion, often used to emphasize the grounding of practice in research based knowledge that provides measurable evidence for best practice. But at the same time, there is a growing distrust...

  18. Current clinical trials testing combinations of immunotherapy and radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Marka; Kohrt, Holbrook; Levy, Ronald; Jones, Jennifer; Camphausen, Kevin; Dicker, Adam; Demaria, Sandra; Formenti, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical evidence of successful combinations of ionizing radiation with immunotherapy has inspired testing the translation of these results to the clinic. Interestingly, the preclinical work has consistently predicted the responses encountered in clinical trials. The first example came from a proof-of-principle trial started in 2001 that tested the concept that growth factors acting on antigen-presenting cells improve presentation of tumor antigens released by radiation and induce an abscopal effect. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor was administered during radiotherapy to a metastatic site in patients with metastatic solid tumors to translate evidence obtained in a murine model of syngeneic mammary carcinoma treated with cytokine FLT-3L and radiation. Subsequent clinical availability of vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors has triggered a wave of enthusiasm for testing them in combination with radiotherapy. Examples of ongoing clinical trials are described in this report. Importantly, most of these trials include careful immune monitoring of the patients enrolled and will generate important data about the proimmunogenic effects of radiation in combination with a variety of immune modulators, in different disease settings. Results of these studies are building a platform of evidence for radiotherapy as an adjuvant to immunotherapy and encourage the growth of this novel field of radiation oncology.

  19. Combination trading with limit orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Schellhorn

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We model the exchange of commodities that are contingent upon each other, when traders place mostly limit orders. Examples include: 1 a market of financial futures where future spreads are also traded, 2 a market of mutual funds and stocks, 3 a market of options and stocks, under the viewpoint that they are both combinations of Arrow-Debreu securities. We prove that consistent prices are optimal. We develop a fixed-point algorithm to compute an optimal price and allocation. The algorithm combines ideas from contraction mapping theory and from homotopy theory. It is much faster than a traditional linear programming approach.

  20. SIMULATION OF THE COMBINED METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Levin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available DDoS attacks have become one of the most dangerous issues in the Internet today. Because of theseattacks, legitimate users can not access the resources they need. In [1] authors proposeda combined method for tracing and blocking the sources of DDoS-attacks. The essence of the method isthat each router marks the network packet that passes through it using a random hash function from theset. At the receiving side this information is stored and used to filter unwanted traffic and traceback thesource of distributed attack. This article describes the simulation and its results of the combined method.

  1. Determining Covers in Combinational Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomir Cvetkovic

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a procedure for determining 0- or 1-cover of an arbitrary line in a combinational circuit. When determining a cover we do not need Boolean expression for the line; only the circuit structure is used. Within the proposed procedure we use the tools of the cube theory, in particular, some operations defined on cubes. The procedure can be applied for determining 0- and 1- covers of output lines in programmable logic devices. Basically, this procedure is a method for the analysis of a combinational circuit.

  2. Combining disparate data for decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettings, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    Combining information of disparate types from multiple data or model sources is a fundamental task in decision making theory. Procedures for combining and utilizing quantitative data with uncertainties are well-developed in several approaches, but methods for including qualitative and semi-quantitative data are much less so. Possibility theory offers an approach to treating all three data types in an objective and repeatable way. In decision making, biases are frequently present in several forms, including those arising from data quality, data spatial and temporal distribution, and the analyst's knowledge and beliefs as to which data or models are most important. The latter bias is particularly evident in the case of qualitative data and there are numerous examples of analysts feeling that a qualitative dataset is more relevant than a quantified one. Possibility theory and fuzzy logic now provide fairly general rules for quantifying qualitative and semi-quantitative data in ways that are repeatable and minimally biased. Once a set of quantified data and/or model layers is obtained, there are several methods of combining them to obtain insight useful in decision making. These include: various combinations of layers using formal fuzzy logic (for example, layer A and (layer B or layer C) but not layer D); connecting the layers with varying influence links in a Fuzzy Cognitive Map; and using the set of layers for the universe of discourse for agent based model simulations. One example of logical combinations that have proven useful is the definition of possible habitat for valley fever fungus (Coccidioides sp.) using variables such as soil type, altitude, aspect, moisture and temperature. A second example is the delineation of the lithology and possible mineralization of several areas beneath basin fill in southern Arizona. A Fuzzy Cognitive Map example is the impacts of development and operation of a hypothetical mine in an area adjacent to a city. In this model

  3. Coarticulatory evidence in stuttered disfluencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbisi-Kelm, Timothy

    2005-09-01

    While the disfluencies produced in stuttered speech surface at a significantly higher rate than those found in normal speech, it is less clear from the previous stuttering literature how exactly these disfluency patterns might differ in kind [Wingate (1988)]. One tendency found in normal speech is for disfluencies to remove acoustic evidence of coarticulation patterns [Shriberg (1999)]. This appears attributable to lexical search errors which prevent a speaker from accessing a word's phonological form; that is, coarticulation between words will fail to occur when segmental material from the following word is not retrieved. Since stuttering is a disorder which displays evidence of phonological but not lexical impairment, it was predicted that stuttered disfluencies would differ from normal errors in that the former would reveal acoustic evidence of word transitions. Eight speakers four stutterers and four control subjects participated in a narrative-production task, spontaneously describing a picture book. Preliminary results suggest that while both stutterers and controls did produce similar rates of disfluencies occurring without coarticulatory evidence, only the stutterers regularly produced disfluencies reflecting this transitional evidence. These results support the argument that disfluencies proper to stuttering result from a phonological deficit, while normal disfluencies are generally lexically based.

  4. The two faces of medical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Rolf H; von Uexküll, Thure; Herrmann, Jörg M

    2002-07-27

    The dictionary definition of "evidence" is given. The meaning of evidence in the history of science is described. Clinical examples are presented to illustrate different aspects of evidence, i.e. the mechanistic versus the semiotic points of view. Evidence is explained in the light of constructivism, and suggestions are presented as to how evidence can be applied in a biopsychosocial model of medicine.

  5. Southwestern Power Administration Combined Financial Statements, 2006-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-09-01

    We have audited the accompanying combined balance sheets of the Southwestern Federal Power System (SWFPS), as of September 30, 2009, 2008, 2007, and 2006, and the related combined statements of revenues and expenses, changes in capitalization, and cash flows for the years then ended. As described in note 1(a), the combined financial statement presentation includes the hydroelectric generation functions of another Federal agency (hereinafter referred to as the generating agency), for which Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) markets and transmits power. These combined financial statements are the responsibility of the management of Southwestern and the generating agency. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these combined financial statements based on our audits. We conducted our audits in accordance with auditing standards generally accepted in the United States of America. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the combined financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes consideration of internal control over financial reporting as a basis for designing audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of Southwestern and the generating agency’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion. An audit also includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the combined financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall combined financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion. In our opinion, the combined financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the respective financial position of the Southwestern Federal Power

  6. [Expert Evidence in Whiplash Injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, Florin M; Schwarze, Martin; Schiltenwolf, Marcus

    2017-01-12

    The assessment of cervical spine injuries is not a problem - provided full evidence of primary physical damage can be ensured. MRI examinations of the cervical spine carried out soon after the accident provide the best evidence. The assessment is more difficult if only clinical abnormalities are documented by the doctors after the accident in the diagnosis of cervical spine distortion, as functional results of this type are not specific and are also common in the general population. The legal rules of evidence must be taken into account in the summary assessment of the consequences of cervical spine injuries. Testing schemes are available which allow structured assessment of cervical spine injuries and help to avoid incorrect assessments.

  7. Epidemiological evidence in forensic pharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Nav; Healy, David

    2012-01-01

    Until recently epidemiological evidence was not regarded as helpful in determining cause and effect. It generated associations that then had to be explained in terms of bio-mechanisms and applied to individual patients. A series of legal cases surrounding possible birth defects triggered by doxylamine (Bendectin) and connective tissue disorders linked to breast implants made it clear that in some instances epidemiological evidence might have a more important role, but the pendulum swung too far so that epidemiological evidence has in recent decades been given an unwarranted primacy, partly perhaps because it suits the interests of certain stakeholders. Older and more recent epidemiological studies on doxylamine and other antihistamines are reviewed to bring out the ambiguities and pitfalls of an undue reliance on epidemiological studies.

  8. H gas turbine combined cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corman, J. [General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A major step has been taken in the development of the Next Power Generation System - {open_quotes}H{close_quotes} Technology Combined Cycle. This new gas turbine combined-cycle system increases thermal performance to the 60% level by increasing gas turbine operating temperature to 1430 C (2600 F) at a pressure ratio of 23 to 1. Although this represents a significant increase in operating temperature for the gas turbine, the potential for single digit NOx levels (based upon 15% O{sub 2}, in the exhaust) has been retained. The combined effect of performance increase and environmental control is achieved by an innovative closed loop steam cooling system which tightly integrates the gas turbine and steam turbine cycles. The {open_quotes}H{close_quotes} Gas Turbine Combined Cycle System meets the goals and objectives of the DOE Advanced Turbine System Program. The development and demonstration of this new system is being carried out as part of the Industrial/Government cooperative agreement under the ATS Program. This program will achieve first commercial operation of this new system before the end of the century.

  9. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time – providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. Our data...

  10. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time—providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. The data show...

  11. A Radix-10 Combinational Multiplier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Tomas; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    reduces the number of partial product precomputations and uses counters to eliminate the need of the decimal equivalent of a 4:2 adder. The results of the implementation show that the combinational decimal multiplier offers a good compromise between latency and area when compared to other decimal multiply...

  12. Combined scleral buckling and phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2009-01-01

    Conclusion: Combined scleral buckling and phacoemulsification is a safe and effective procedure that spares the patient the burden of repeated surgeries. It may be considered as a treatment option in selected cases of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with significant cataract with/without early PVR.

  13. Combination throttle and shutoff valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriker, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Combination of translating sleeve throttle valve and conventional poppet valve provides capability of shutting off flow completely by poppet and sleeve control of the rate of flow. Integration of the two concepts can be accomplished without difficulty and in a manner that requires a minimum of development.

  14. Diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Gennery, A; Cant, A

    2001-01-01

    Early diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is important to enable prompt referral to a supraregional centre for bone marrow transplantation before the occurrence of end organ damage secondary to infective complications. This review outlines clinical, microbiological, and immunopathological clues that aid the diagnosis of SCID and emphasises the multidisciplinary approach needed to diagnose and treat these infants.

  15. Evidence in the learning organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umscheid Craig A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizational leaders in business and medicine have been experiencing a similar dilemma: how to ensure that their organizational members are adopting work innovations in a timely fashion. Organizational leaders in healthcare have attempted to resolve this dilemma by offering specific solutions, such as evidence-based medicine (EBM, but organizations are still not systematically adopting evidence-based practice innovations as rapidly as expected by policy-makers (the knowing-doing gap problem. Some business leaders have adopted a systems-based perspective, called the learning organization (LO, to address a similar dilemma. Three years ago, the Society of General Internal Medicine's Evidence-based Medicine Task Force began an inquiry to integrate the EBM and LO concepts into one model to address the knowing-doing gap problem. Methods During the model development process, the authors searched several databases for relevant LO frameworks and their related concepts by using a broad search strategy. To identify the key LO frameworks and consolidate them into one model, the authors used consensus-based decision-making and a narrative thematic synthesis guided by several qualitative criteria. The authors subjected the model to external, independent review and improved upon its design with this feedback. Results The authors found seven LO frameworks particularly relevant to evidence-based practice innovations in organizations. The authors describe their interpretations of these frameworks for healthcare organizations, the process they used to integrate the LO frameworks with EBM principles, and the resulting Evidence in the Learning Organization (ELO model. They also provide a health organization scenario to illustrate ELO concepts in application. Conclusion The authors intend, by sharing the LO frameworks and the ELO model, to help organizations identify their capacities to learn and share knowledge about evidence-based practice

  16. Evidence for homeopathy in childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Valerie

    2013-09-01

    Homeopathy has been described as 'a fascinating field of study and a natural complement to the science and art of midwifery' (Brennan 1999: 298). Supported by the Royal College of Midwives' (RCM) campaign for normal birth and resulting from a growing desire by women to avoid conventional medicine, the use of homeopathic remedies in childbirth is gaining momentum. Midwives are ideally positioned to discuss homeopathy with women. To enable informed discussions, however, midwives must have evidence on homeopathy use. This article explores the evidence on homeopathy use in childbirth.

  17. Current evidence for osteoarthritis treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandacoomarasamy, Ananthila; March, Lyn

    2010-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and the leading cause of chronic disability among older people. The burden of the disease is expected to rise with an aging population and the increasing prevalence of obesity. Despite this, there is as yet no cure for OA. However, in recent years, a number of potential therapeutic advances have been made, in part due to improved understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. This review provides the current evidence for symptomatic management of OA including nonpharmacological, pharmacological and surgical approaches. The current state of evidence for disease-modifying therapy in OA is also reviewed.

  18. Scientific Evidence for Hydrostatic Shock

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the scientific support for a ballistic pressure wave radiating outward from a penetrating projectile and causing injury and incapacitation. This phenomenon is known colloquially as "hydrostatic shock." The idea apparently originates with Col. Frank Chamberlin, a World War II trauma surgeon and wound ballistics researcher. The paper reviews claims that hydrostatic shock is a myth and considers supporting evidence through parallels with blast, describing the physics of the pressure wave, evidence for remote cerebral effects, and remote effects in the spine and other internal organs. Finally, the review considers the levels of energy transfer required for the phenomenon to be readily observed.

  19. [Acupuncture combined with traction therapy for lumbar disc herniation: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-zhen; Chen, Hai-yong; Zheng, Xiao; Liu, Nong-yu

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture combined with traction therapy for lumbar disc herniation, providing the basis for future research strategies. Randomized control trials. (RCT) of acupuncture combined with traction therapy for lumber disc herniation at home and abroad from 2000 to 2013 were searched, analysis and evaluation of literature and strength of evidence were based on the principles and methods of Evidence-based Medicine. The total effective rate and curative rate were considered as primary outcome measures; pain improvement, quality of life, relapse rate and adverse effects were considered as secondary outcome measures. Seventeen RCTs were identified, Meta-analysis showed that (1) total effective rate and curative rate: acupuncture combined with traction therapy was better than single therapy (acupuncture or traction); (2) pain improvement: acupuncture combined with traction therapy was better than traction therapy; (3) relapse rate: current evidence could not support the conclusion that acupuncture combined with traction therapy was better than traction therapy. Acupuncture combined with traction therapy for lumbar disc herniation was effective. However, the included studies were with high risk of bias, important outcome measures such as quality of life, relapse rate and adverse effects were not found in most of the studies. Current evidence has not yet been able to fully reflect acupuncture combined with traction therapy for lumbar disc herniation is better than single therapy, so more RCTs of higher quality are needed to further confirm its efficacy and safety.

  20. Development of a combined database for meta-epidemiological research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savović, Jelena; Harris, Ross J; Wood, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    Collections of meta-analyses assembled in meta-epidemiological studies are used to study associations of trial characteristics with intervention effect estimates. However, methods and findings are not consistent across studies. To combine data from 10 meta-epidemiological studies into a single da...... database will be used to examine the combined evidence on sources of bias in randomized controlled trials. The strategy used to remove overlap between meta-analyses may be of use for future empirical research. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.......Collections of meta-analyses assembled in meta-epidemiological studies are used to study associations of trial characteristics with intervention effect estimates. However, methods and findings are not consistent across studies. To combine data from 10 meta-epidemiological studies into a single...