WorldWideScience

Sample records for dynamometers

  1. Wireless Crankarm Dynamometer for Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caetano Decian LAZZARI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a new crankarm dynamometer designed to evaluate the strength produced by cyclists in real conditions. The dynamometer was designed to be fitted on a conventional crankset while data were transmitted via wireless communication channels available on a BluetoothTM module. Some 3D solid models were created in the SolidsWorks2010TM development environment to analyze the static and dynamic characteristics, by using the finite elements technique. Each crankset arm was used as a load cell based on strain gages configured as two Wheatstone bridges. The signals were conditioned on a printed circuit board attached directly to the structure. As a result, the load cell shows a maximum nonlinearity error between 2.1 % and 2.8 %. Some tests were performed on a cycling trainer, allowing to evaluate the system's functionality and to determine the involved forces in the crankset.

  2. AC dynamometer; Koryu dinamo meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-10

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., developed an AC dynamometer for testing automobiles, and the product was delivered to Hokkaido Automotive Engineering College via Safety Automobile Company. The device is used for testing 1,300cc-class automobiles. It is similar to the conventional type in that its force of reaction to an imposed load is measured by load cells. It is a variable speed motor driven by an inverter (FRENIC5000VG5), whose specifications and features are mentioned below. It is a totally-enclosed self-cooled oscillating AC dynamometer that outputs 75kW, revolves at 1500/2868rpm, and operates for 30min. Since it is rated for a short time operation, the external fan is dispensed with, and this reduces noise. A number of parts for the standard type (R90 series) are utilized for reduction in the cost, and the time required for its delivery was short. (NEDO)

  3. Calibration Procedure for 3D Turning Dynamometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos Aurelian; Belluci, Walter

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the static calibration of the dynamometer is to obtain the matrix for evaluating cutting forces through the output voltage of the piezoelectric cells and charge amplifiers. In the same time, it is worth to evaluate the linearity of the dependencies between applied forces and output...... of the piezoelectric cells;5. Mounting of the dynamometer;6. Calibration of the dynamometer;7. Data analysis;8. Uncertainty budget of the calibration....

  4. Calibration Procedure for 3D Turning Dynamometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos Aurelian; Belluci, Walter

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the static calibration of the dynamometer is to obtain the matrix for evaluating cutting forces through the output voltage of the piezoelectric cells and charge amplifiers. In the same time, it is worth to evaluate the linearity of the dependencies between applied forces and output...... of the piezoelectric cells;5. Mounting of the dynamometer;6. Calibration of the dynamometer;7. Data analysis;8. Uncertainty budget of the calibration....

  5. Finite Element Analysis of Inertia Dynamometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Gujar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dynamometer is a LOAD device. It applies a load to an engine so we can test the performance of the engine under a variety of circumstances. System operates where load (dyno torque equals that of the Engine. By varying the engine throttle and load we can test any point under the engines max torque curve. We design and modify engines for improved fuel economy and emissions We need DATA to quantify the improvements in Fuel savings and Emissions reductions. This data will be used to help us “tune in” our design. The Dynamometer is operated at 1000 rpm to generate the necessary inertia. For different kind of conditions, there is need of having variable inertia. So the dynamometer is constructed with removable flywheel.

  6. 40 CFR 86.208-94 - Dynamometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer. 86.208-94 Section 86.208-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New...

  7. Interial sensing in a hand held dynamometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Peter H.; Nieuwland, Daniel M.; Harlaar, Jaap; Baten, Chris T.M.

    1996-01-01

    Two methods for kinematic sensing in a hand-held dynamometer using accelerometers and gyroscopes are presented. The first method integrates the angular velocity signal from the gyroscope, after calibration of gyroscope offset and joint angle from a static period immediately preceding each measuremen

  8. 40 CFR 90.409 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 90.409... Test Procedures § 90.409 Engine dynamometer test run. (a) Engine and dynamometer start-up. (1) Only... practice. (3) For Phase 1 engines, at the manufacturer's option, the engine can be run with the throttle...

  9. 21 CFR 888.1240 - AC-powered dynamometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered dynamometer. 888.1240 Section 888.1240...) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 888.1240 AC-powered dynamometer. (a) Identification. An AC-powered dynamometer is an AC-powered device intended for medical purposes to...

  10. Information Processing of Chassis Dynamometer based on Controller Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shupeng Zhao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of chassis dynamometer of hybrid vehicle based on CAN bus was studied. Chassis dynamometer of hybrid vehicle measurement methods and loading devices are analyzed, and laid the foundation for the resistance simulation of chassis dynamometer. Road resistance simulation on HEV chassis dynamometer is researched, getting electric quantity simulation type of chassis dynamometer driving resistance. The research and development of hybrid vehicle chassis dynamometer based on CAN Bus is conducive to enhance the level of whole hybrid vehicle and car assembly, establish the test procedures, test methods and test standards, provide a research platform and methods for test evaluation of HEV energy utilization. The chassis dynamometer system needs to be calibrated in order to ensure its accuracy .The drum Test bench surface traction can be measured from the motor casing tangential force using force sensor mounted on the motor casing. The design adopts bidirectional calibration arm, it can decrease the effect of extra torque to ensure the test precision of automobile chassis dynamometer surface traction. The method of hybrid vehicles fuel consumption experiment test is analyzed through experiment test on the HEV chassis dynamometer and actual road. We obtain some regularity of hybrid vehicles energy consumption and hybrid vehicles fuel consumption test method through studying lightweight hybrid vehicles fuel economy.

  11. 40 CFR 86.1337-2007 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 86.1337... Procedures § 86.1337-2007 Engine dynamometer test run. (a) The following steps shall be taken for each test...) Immediately after the engine is turned off, turn off the engine cooling fan(s) if used. As soon as...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1337-96 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 86.1337... Procedures § 86.1337-96 Engine dynamometer test run. (a) The following steps shall be taken for each test: (1... system from the CVS). As soon as possible, transfer the “cold start cycle” exhaust and dilution air...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1237-85 - Dynamometer runs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer runs. 86.1237-85 Section... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1237-85 Dynamometer runs. (a) The vehicle shall be either driven... the diurnal loss test and beginning of the hot soak preparation run shall not exceed 3 minutes,...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1237-96 - Dynamometer runs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer runs. 86.1237-96 Section 86.1237-96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1237-96 Dynamometer runs. Section 86.1237-96 includes text...

  15. NASA project 1: Full-body dynamometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li-Dai

    1993-01-01

    In space, where the body does only a fraction of work it does on earth, muscle atrophy is a major concern. The bones and the muscles will begin to deteriorate after a short stay in weightlessness. Bone decalcification appears to be a major problem with extensive living in microgravity. Resistance exercise is not only essential to prevent muscle atrophy in space, it also helps to keep bone decalcification in check. For a space station, where the astronauts are expected to live for months at a time, exercise is especially important. Experts recommend about an hour and a half to two hours of exercise per day to keep the muscles in good condition in microgravity. The exercises will not only keep the astronauts in excellent physical condition, it will also make it easier for them to readjust to earth's gravity on return. The stationary bicycle and the treadmill have been the astronauts' primary sources of exercise since the 1970's. The major problem with both the stationary bicycle and the treadmill is that while they may keep the leg muscles from deteriorating in microgravity, they do little for muscles in the upper body. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently developing a full-body dynamometer (FBD), which will provide the astronauts with a full-body workout. It will also test the astronauts for muscle atrophy and rehabilitate the weakened muscle. The specification and the function structure for the FBD is presented.

  16. Comparison of three hand dynamometers in relation to the accuracy and precision of the measurements

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Given the variety of available hand-held dynamometers and their different handle shapes, reliability studies are needed. Objectives: To compare the accuracy and reliability between three different hand-held dynamometers and analyze the influence of their handles on grip strength. Methods: The tests were performed with the Jamar® dynamometer, the Takei® dynamometer and the EMG System Manual Transducer with modified handle. Eighteen healthy volunteers aged 20.0±1.3 years without his...

  17. Accuracy of exhaust emission factor measurements on chassis dynamometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joumard, R.; Laurikko, J.; Han, T.L.; Geivanidis, S.; Samaras, Z.; Merétei, T.; Devaux, P.; André, J.-M.; Cornelis, E.; Lacour, S.; Prati, M.V.; Vermeulen, R.; Zallinger, M.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of 20 parameters on the measurement of light-vehicle emission factors on chassis dynamometer based on driving patterns, vehicle-related parameters, vehicle sampling, and laboratory-related parameters, was studied. The results were based on literature synthesis, ≈ 2700 specific tests

  18. 40 CFR 86.537-90 - Dynamometer test runs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .../s). (iii) For methanol samples, the flow rates shall be set such that the system meets the design... rates shall be set such that the system meets the design criteria of § 86.509. For impinger samples in.... (11) Operate the vehicle according to the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (§ 86.515). (12) At the...

  19. 40 CFR 86.884-8 - Dynamometer and engine equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... described in § 86.884-7. (b) An engine cooling system having sufficient capacity to maintain the engine at... manufacturer in his sales and service literature, for the engine being tested. ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer and engine equipment....

  20. Comparison of Jamar and Bodygrip Dynamometers for Handgrip Strength Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Rita S; Amaral, Teresa F; Sousa, Ana S; Fonseca, Isabel; Pichel, Fernando; Restivo, Maria T

    2017-07-01

    Guerra, RS, Amaral, TF, Sousa, AS, Fonseca, I, Pichel, F, and Restivo, MT. Comparison of Jamar and Bodygrip dynamometers for handgrip strength measurement. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1931-1940, 2017-Studies that compared the agreement between Jamar and other models of dynamometers for handgrip strength (HGS) measurement have exhibited variability in the provided results. The lack of comparability between dynamometers led to the development of the Bodygrip dynamometer. This study aims to examine the reliability of the Bodygrip for HGS measurement, to compare it with the Jamar, and to explore the HGS differences between instruments considering the ergonomic effect of using the Bodygrip with 2 different handles. A cross-sectional study was conducted in free-living (n = 114, 18-89 years) and inpatient (n = 50, 65-93 years) volunteers. Nondominant HGS was tested randomly with the Jamar and Bodygrip, the latter using 2 different handles-curved and straight types. Handgrip strength was obtained for each participant under the same conditions. Each individual performed 2 HGS measurements with each dynamometer, and the maximum HGS value was considered for dynamometers comparison. Differences in the maximum HGS value between the 2 devices (Jamar-Bodygrip), intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), Bland and Altman plots, and limits of agreement were obtained. Correlation between the highest HGS measurement obtained for the nondominant hand with the Jamar and with the Bodygrip using each handle was excellent (ICCs: 0.93-0.95). Mean differences of -0.5 (limits of agreement: -4.6; 3.5) kgf with the curved handle and of 1.0 (-7.7; 9.7) kgf with the straight handle for the free-living participants were obtained, whereas for inpatients these values were -1.0 (-3.8; 1.9) kgf and 2.1 (-3.3; 7.5) kgf, respectively, for the curved and straight handles. The Bodygrip is comparable to the Jamar in free-living adults and in hospitalized older adults, exhibiting excellent interinstrument

  1. NREL-Prime Next-Generation Drivetrain Dynamometer Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jonathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Erdman, Bill [Cinch, Inc., Moraga, CA (United States); Blodgett, Douglas [DNV KEMA Renewables, Burlington, VT (United States); Halse, Christopher [Romax Technology, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Advances in wind turbine drivetrain technologies are necessary to improve reliability and reduce the cost of energy for land-based and offshore wind turbines. The NREL-Prime Next-Generation Drivetrain team developed a geared, medium-speed drivetrain that is lighter, more reliable and more efficient than existing designs. One of the objectives of Phase II of the project was to complete the detailed design, fabrication, and dynamometer testing of a 750 kilowatt (kW) drivetrain that includes the key gearbox innovations designed by Romax Technology and power converter innovations designed by DNV Kema Renewables. The purpose of this document is to summarize these tests completed in NREL's National Wind Technology Center 2.5 megawatt (MW) dynamometer.

  2. Electric vehicle chassis dynamometer test methods at JPL and their correlation to track tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marte, J.; Bryant, J.

    1983-01-01

    Early in its electric vehicle (EV) test program, JPL recognized that EV test procedures were too vague and too loosely defined to permit much meaningful data to be obtained from the testing. Therefore, JPL adopted more stringent test procedures and chose the chassis dynamometer rather than the track as its principal test technique. Through the years, test procedures continued to evolve towards a methodology based on chassis dynamometers which would exhibit good correlation with track testing. Based on comparative dynamometer and track test results on the ETV-1 vehicle, the test methods discussed in this report demonstrate a means by which excellent track-to-dynamometer correlation can be obtained.

  3. Applicability of hydraulic dynamometer for measuring load mass on forwarders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandur Zdravko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, with the start of wood biomass production from wood residues, the need for determining the quantity of extracted wood residuals on a landing site has appeared. The beginning of intensive usage of wood residues for wood biomass starts in lowland forest where all wood residues are extracted with forwarders. There are several ways to determine load mass on a forwarder, first and probably most accurate is the use of load cells which are installed between forwarder undercarriage and loading space. In Croatia, as far as it is known, there is no forwarder with such equipment, although manufacturers offer the installation of such equipment when buying a new forwarder. The second option is using a portable measuring platform (axle scale which was already used for research of axle loads of trucks and forwarders. The data obtained with the measuring platform are very accurate, while its deficiency is relatively great mass, large dimensions and high price. The third option is determining mass by using hydraulic dynamometer which is installed on crane between the rotator and the telescopic boom. The production and installation of such a system is very simple, and with the price it can easily compete with previously described measuring systems. The main deficiency of this system is its unsatisfying accuracy. The results of assortment mass measuring with hydraulic dynamometer installed on a hydraulic crane and discussion on factors influencing obtained results will be presented in this paper.

  4. 40 CFR 86.340-79 - Gasoline-fueled engine dynamometer test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline-fueled engine dynamometer... Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.340-79 Gasoline-fueled engine dynamometer test run. (a) This section applies to...

  5. 40 CFR 86.237-94 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous... test run, gaseous emissions. (a) The complete dynamometer test consists of a cold start drive of... terminates after the first period (505 seconds) is run. (d) The provisions of § 86.137(b) apply to...

  6. 40 CFR 86.137-96 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions. 86.137-96 Section 86.137-96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-96 Dynamometer test run,...

  7. 40 CFR 86.137-90 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-90 Dynamometer test run, gaseous... first period (505 seconds) is run. (2) Petroleum-fueled and methanol-fueled diesel vehicles. The...

  8. 40 CFR 86.341-79 - Diesel engine dynamometer test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine dynamometer test run. 86.341-79 Section 86.341-79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....341-79 Diesel engine dynamometer test run. (a) This section applies to Diesel engines only....

  9. Further advancement of chassis-dynamometer measurement and control technology; Kodoka suru chassis dinamo keisoku seigyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y. [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    A new chassis-dynamometer was developed and put into the practical use in 1992. Currently this chassis-dynamometer, in which rollers are mounted on the AC-dynamometer shaft end, is being used in the majority of passenger car testing application. This paper present bow the associated measurement and control technology was upgraded and discusses the future trend in this field. (author)

  10. 40 CFR 86.1327-96 - Engine dynamometer test procedures; overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES... dynamometer. Rust inhibitors and lubrication additives may be used, up to the levels recommended by...

  11. MDS-Multifunctional Dynamometer for Application in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamcik, G.; Barta, N.; Talla, R.; Angeli, T.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Grigoriev, A. I.; Tschan, H.; Bachl, N.

    2008-06-01

    The project MDS (Multifunctional Dynamometer for Application in Space) is an international collaboration of the University of Vienna (Faculty of Sport Science, Department of Sport and Exercise Physiology), the Russian Academy of Sciences (Institute of Biomedical Problems) and the Technical University of Vienna (Institute for Engineering Design and Logistics Engineering) with the aim to develop a training and diagnostic device that counteracts the muscle and bone loss during long term space flights. Due to the scientific results of the last years research in space medicine, it is well known, that the muscles and bones of the lower extremities and the trunk are most affected by the atrophy. Based on this knowledge a various number of resistance exercises can be done in order to train the muscles of these parts of the body and to increase the efficiency of the training by intra- and intermuscular coordination. The resisting power for the training is provided by an electric motor, thereby force, position and speed of the training can be well-regulated for different training modes.

  12. A Novel Strategy to Eliminate the Influence of Water Adsorption on Quartz Surfaces on Piezoelectric Dynamometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhenyuan; Jin, Lei; Liu, Wei; Ren, Zongjin

    2016-07-08

    Piezoelectric dynamometers are out of use in high humidity. Experimental results showed that piezoelectric coefficients measured by the force-induced charges method initially fluctuated in a small range and then was unstable, and they could not be measured at high relative humidity (RH). The traditional shielding method-insulation paste was not quiet convenient, and it even added the weight of piezoelectric dynamometers. In this paper, a novel strategy that eliminates the influence of water adsorption with quartz surfaces on piezoelectric dynamometers was proposed. First, a water-quartz model was developed to analyze the origin of the RH effect. In the model, water vapor, which was adsorbed by the quartz sheet side surface, was considered. Second, equivalent sheet resistor of the side surface was researched, while the relationship of the three R's (Roughness, RH, and Resistor) was respectively discussed based on the adsorption mechanism. Finally, fluorination technology was skillfully adapted to each surface of quartz sheets to shield the water vapor. The experiment verified the fluorination strategy and made piezoelectric dynamometers work in high humidity up to 90%RH successfully. The results showed that the presented model above was reasonable. In addition, these observations also drew some useful insights to change the structure of piezoelectric dynamometers and improve the properties.

  13. Design, Construction and Test of a Three-point Hitch Dynamometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Askari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available For measuring the draft forces exerted by implements into tractor, we use the dynamometers that are divided into pull type or three-point hitch type. For measuring the forces between the tractor and the mounted implements, three-point hitch dynamometers are used. In this research, an adjustable three-point hitch dynamometer with a draft capacity of 25 kN was designed and built which is made up from two frames that one of them placed inside the other. The force sensing elements were comprised of a loadcell that was installed between the frames. All mounted tillage implements were able to be tested by this measuring device excluding mounted implements which are powered by PTO and by using this dynamometer, the variations of implements draft force in the different tillage conditions consist of the various work depths and different forward speeds would be studied. After design and construction steps, dynamometer was calibrated, tested and evaluated. Field tests were done by using of four mounted tillage implements and obtained data were compared by obtained data from ASAE D497.5 standard formula. So with these data, the design of tines, their stems, equipment frames and the selection of the optimal size of the tillage equipments in regard of the soil type of the region and the power of the available tractors will be more scientific and reasonable.

  14. The design and simulation investigation of a linear alternator dynamometer coupled to a free-piston Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, L. F.; Lee, K. P.

    1985-12-01

    The design of a linear alternator dynamometer and its control system intended for testing free-piston Stirling engines is described. The characteristics and performance of the dynamometer are demonstrated by a computer simulation in which the dynamometer is coupled to a Sunpower RE1000 free-piston engine. The simulation embodies algorithms which combine the gas dynamics of the engine working spaces with the dynamic behavior of the displacer and the piston/armature assembly. Over a variety of different loading conditions including inertial, gravitational and thermodynamic loads as well as linear, quadratic and Coulombic damping, the dynamometer exhibited a force error of 0.5 percent or 0.006 N at worst. The simulation investigation demonstrates that the dynamometer and its control system possess the necessary characteristics for it to be a practically useful loading device for testing and designing free-piston Stirling engines.

  15. 40 CFR 86.137-94 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... such that the system meets the design criteria of § 86.109 and § 86.110. For samples in which the... necessary. (iv) For formaldehyde samples, the flow rates shall be set such that the system meets the design... according to the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (§ 86.115). Note: During particulate testing, adjust the...

  16. 40 CFR 86.237-08 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... such that the system meets the design criteria of § 86.109 and § 86.110. For samples in which the... necessary. (iv) For formaldehyde samples, the flow rates shall be set such that the system meets the design... the driving schedule. (11) Operate the vehicle according to the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule...

  17. 40 CFR 86.884-7 - Dynamometer operation cycle for smoke emission tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... preselected dynamometer load, shall be used to control the acceleration of the engine so that the speed increases to 85 percent of the rated speed in 5 ±1.5 seconds. This acceleration shall be linear within 100... acceleration shall be three seconds or less measured from the point where the speed first begins to...

  18. Clinical assessment of hip strength using a hand-held dynamometer is reliable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, K; Petersen, J; Magnusson, S P;

    2010-01-01

    rotation (ER), internal rotation (IR), flexion (FLEX) and extension (EXT) using a hand-held dynamometer. Nine subjects (five males, four females), physically active for at least 2.5 h a week, were included. Twelve standardized isometric strength tests were performed twice with a 1-week interval in between...

  19. Sensitivity of dynamic simulations of gait and dynamometer experiments to hill muscle model parameters of knee flexors and extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, F; Van Campen, A; Jonkers, I; De Schutter, J

    2010-07-20

    We assessed and compared sensitivities of dynamic simulations to musculotendon (MT) parameters for gait and dynamometer experiments. Our aim with this comparison was to investigate whether dynamometer experiments could provide information about MT-parameters that are important to reliably study MT-function during gait. This would mean that dynamometer experiments could be used to estimate these parameters. Muscle contribution to the joint torque (MT-torque) rather than relative MT-force primarily affects the resulting gait pattern and torque measured by the dynamometer. In contrast to recent studies, therefore, we assessed the sensitivity of the MT-torque, rather than the sensitivity of the relative MT-force. Based on sensitivity of the MT-torque to a parameter perturbation, MT-parameters of the knee flexors and extensors were classified in three categories: low, medium, and high. For gait, classification was based on the average sensitivity during a gait cycle. For isometric and isokinetic dynamometer experiments, classification was based on the highest sensitivity found in the experiments. The calculated muscle contributions to the knee torque during gait and dynamometer experiments had a high sensitivity to only a limited number of MT-parameters of the knee flexors and extensors, suggesting that not all MT-parameters need to be estimated. In general, the highest sensitivity was found for tendon slack length. However, for some muscles the sensitivity to the optimal fibre length or the maximal isometric muscle force was also high or medium. The classification of the individual MT-parameters for gait and dynamometer experiments was largely similar. We therefore conclude that dynamometer experiments provide information about MT-parameters important to reliably study MT-function during gait, so that subject-specific estimates of MT-parameters could be made based on dynamometer experiments.

  20. Learning effect of isokinetic measurements in healthy subjects, and reliability and comparability of Biodex and Lido dynamometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Hans; Søndergaard, K; Zachariassen, T

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the learning effect during a set of isokinetic measurements, to evaluate the reliability of the Biodex System 3 PRO dynamometer, and to compare the Biodex System 3 PRO and the Lido Active dynamometers on both extension and flexion over the elbow and the knee...... extension (P = 0.18) and elbow extension (P = 0.63). However, elbow flexion showed a 14.8% (95% CI: 11.2-18.4%; P = 0.0001) higher peak torque on Biodex. In conclusion, no learning effect was observed and the Biodex proved to be a highly reliable isokinetic dynamometer. A difference was observed when...

  1. Torsional Vibration in the National Wind Technology Center’s 2.5-Megawatt Dynamometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keller, Jonathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wallen, Robb [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-31

    This report documents the torsional drivetrain dynamics of the NWTC's 2.5-megawatt dynamometer as identified experimentally and as calculated using lumped parameter models using known inertia and stiffness parameters. The report is presented in two parts beginning with the identification of the primary torsional modes followed by the investigation of approaches to damp the torsional vibrations. The key mechanical parameters for the lumped parameter models and justification for the element grouping used in the derivation of the torsional modes are presented. The sensitivities of the torsional modes to different test article properties are discussed. The oscillations observed from the low-speed and generator torque measurements were used to identify the extent of damping inherently achieved through active and passive compensation techniques. A simplified Simulink model of the dynamometer test article integrating the electro-mechanical power conversion and control features was established to emulate the torque behavior that was observed during testing. The torque response in the high-speed, low-speed, and generator shafts were tested and validated against experimental measurements involving step changes in load with the dynamometer operating under speed-regulation mode. The Simulink model serves as a ready reference to identify the torque sensitivities to various system parameters and to explore opportunities to improve torsional damping under different conditions.

  2. Bilateral Strength Deficit Is Not Neural in Origin; Rather Due to Dynamometer Mechanical Configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneau-Buessinger, Emilie; Leteneur, Sébastien; Toumi, Anis; Dessurne, Alexandra; Gabrielli, François; Barbier, Franck; Jakobi, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    During maximal contractions, the sum of forces exerted by homonymous muscles unilaterally is typically higher than the sum of forces exerted by the same muscles bilaterally. However, the underlying mechanism(s) of this phenomenon, which is known as the bilateral strength deficit, remain equivocal. One potential factor that has received minimal attention is the contribution of body adjustments to bilateral and unilateral force production. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the plantar-flexors in an innovative dynamometer that permitted the influence of torque from body adjustments to be adapted. Participants were identically positioned between two setup configurations where torques generated from body adjustments were included within the net ankle torque (locked-unit) or independent of the ankle (open-unit). Twenty healthy adult males performed unilateral and bilateral maximal voluntary isometric plantar-flexion contractions using the dynamometer in the open and locked-unit mechanical configurations. While there was a significant bilateral strength deficit in the locked-unit (p = 0.01), it was not evident in the open-unit (p = 0.07). In the locked-unit, unilateral torque was greater than in the open-unit (p0.05). This study revealed that the mechanical configuration of the dynamometer and then the body adjustments caused the observation of a bilateral strength deficit.

  3. Bilateral Strength Deficit Is Not Neural in Origin; Rather Due to Dynamometer Mechanical Configuration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Simoneau-Buessinger

    Full Text Available During maximal contractions, the sum of forces exerted by homonymous muscles unilaterally is typically higher than the sum of forces exerted by the same muscles bilaterally. However, the underlying mechanism(s of this phenomenon, which is known as the bilateral strength deficit, remain equivocal. One potential factor that has received minimal attention is the contribution of body adjustments to bilateral and unilateral force production. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the plantar-flexors in an innovative dynamometer that permitted the influence of torque from body adjustments to be adapted. Participants were identically positioned between two setup configurations where torques generated from body adjustments were included within the net ankle torque (locked-unit or independent of the ankle (open-unit. Twenty healthy adult males performed unilateral and bilateral maximal voluntary isometric plantar-flexion contractions using the dynamometer in the open and locked-unit mechanical configurations. While there was a significant bilateral strength deficit in the locked-unit (p = 0.01, it was not evident in the open-unit (p = 0.07. In the locked-unit, unilateral torque was greater than in the open-unit (p0.05. This study revealed that the mechanical configuration of the dynamometer and then the body adjustments caused the observation of a bilateral strength deficit.

  4. Measurement of muscle strength with handheld dynamometer in Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi R Samosawala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intensive Care Unit (ICU acquired weakness is a common complication in critically ill patients affecting their prognosis. The handheld dynamometry is an objective method in detecting minimum muscle strength change, which has an impact on the physical function of ICU survivors. The minimal change in the force can be measured in units of weight such as pounds or kilograms. Aim of the Study: To detect the changes in peripheral muscle strength with handheld dynamometer in the early stage of ICU stay and to observe the progression of muscle weakness. Methodology: Three upper and three lower limb muscles force measured with handheld dynamometer during ICU stay. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA to detect changes in force generated by muscle on alternate days of ICU stay. Results: There was a reduction in peripheral muscle strength from day 3 to day 5 as well from day 5 to day 7 of ICU stay (P < 0.01. The average reduction in peripheral muscle strength was 11.8% during ICU stay. Conclusion: This study showed a progressive reduction in peripheral muscle strength as measured by handheld dynamometer during early period of ICU stay.

  5. Comparative assessment of knee extensor and flexor muscle strength measured using a hand-held vs. isokinetic dynamometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muff, Guillaume; Dufour, Stéphane; Meyer, Alain; Severac, François; Favret, Fabrice; Geny, Bernard; Lecocq, Jehan; Isner-Horobeti, Marie-Eve

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] To compare measurements of knee extensor and flexor muscle strength performed using a hand-held dynamometer and an isokinetic dynamometer in apparently healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty adult volunteers underwent knee muscle strength evaluation using an isokinetic or a hand-held dynamometer. [Results] Strong positive correlations were found between the 2 methods, with correlation coefficients r ranging from 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-0.86) to 0.87 (95% CI, 0.75-0.94), depending on the muscle group and the isokinetic evaluation mode. The reproducibility of the hand-held dynamometer findings was good, judged by a coefficient of variation of 3.2-4.2%. However, the correlation between the 2 methods for the assessment of flexor/extensor ratios ranged from -0.04 to 0.46. [Conclusion] Knee extensor and flexor muscle strength recorded with a hand-held dynamometer is reproducible and significantly correlated with the isokinetic values, indicating that this method may in some cases be a useful replacement for isokinetic strength measurement. However, for strength ratio assessment, and when judged against the isokinetic standard, a hand-held dynamometer is not a valid option.

  6. Design, fabrication, and evaluation of a wireless pull-type dynamometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ahmadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Measurement of the draft force exerted from agricultural machineries to the tractor and the calculation of the implement power requirements is important for agriculturalists in terms of machine design and tractor-machine matching . Therefore, studies about this issue have been started from the 1950’s. Zoerbet al.,(1983 claimed that the first dynamometers have been made of spring and in reality, users had difficulties reading these dynamometers gauge due to the quick variations of the gauge pointer. Therefore the second stage was the development of the hydraulic-type dynamometers in which the oil pressure inside the hydraulic cylinder-piston set installed between machine and tractor that can be readable with a bourdontube gauge was considered as its indicator. From the first years of the 1960’s development of the strain-gauge pull-type dynamometers started. In this study, design, fabrication and evaluation of a pull-type tractor dynamometer is considered that can be used to measure and store tractor forward velocity, and horizontal component of draft force exerted from wheel-type towed implements to the tractor. Therefore, drawbar power needed to pull the machine through the soil can be calculated. This dynamometer can also be utilized to measure three-point-hitch implement’s draft force and power requirements in condition that the RNAM (1983 method was used. In addition to measure the tractor velocity with a GPS receiver instead of a fifth wheel, the other particular issue about this dynamometer is that a remote controller is used to order data acquisition commands such as starting, ending, pausing and time zeroing in the process of data gathering. Materials and Methods In this study an S-type strain gauge load cell (model: SS300 and a GPS receiver (model: Micro GPS antenna AGM-10 + NEO-6-M-0-001 ublox AG board were utilized to measure the draft force and forward velocity, respectively. To calibrate the load cell sensor, in an

  7. Reliability and validity of standing balance assessment index using a hand-held dynamometer in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Koji; Yoshio, Masaharu; Takata, Yuichi; Kozuka, Naoki

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the reliability and validity of our standing balance assessment index using a hand-held dynamometer (the hand-held dynamometer assessment index) in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 60 stroke patients with impaired standing balance. Intrarater and interrater reliabilities were evaluated employing the intraclass correlation coefficient. Criterion-related validity was evaluated by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between the HHD assessment index and the functional balance scale. [Results] The intraclass correlation coefficient values obtained ranged from 0.91 to 0.98, and the correlation coefficient with the FBS was 0.83. [Conclusion] Our findings confirmed the reliability and validity of the hand-held dynamometer assessment index in stroke patients.

  8. The Takei Handheld Dynamometer: An Effective Clinical Outcome Measure Tool for Hand and Wrist Function in Boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Ian; Smith-Moore, Sophie; Steggles, Charlie; Loosemore, Mike

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this article was to explore retrospectively the Takei dynamometer as a valid and reliable outcome measure tool for hand and wrist pathology in the Great Britain amateur boxing squad between 2010 and 2014. Longitudinal retrospective injury surveillance of the Great Britain boxing squad was performed from 2010 to 2014. The location, region affected, description, and duration of each injury were recorded by the team doctor and team physiotherapists. For each significant injury, we recorded hand grip scores using the Takei handheld dynamometer and compared the scores with baseline measures. At the hand, fractures and dislocations were highly detected with an average difference of 40.2% ( P 20% should be highly considered for significant pathology. The Takei dynamometer is a valid and reliable outcome measure tool for hand and wrist pathologies in boxing. Our study highlights the importance of appropriate clinical tools to guide injury management in this sport.

  9. Development and testing of an integrated rotating dynamometer on tool holder for milling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal, Muhammad; Ghani, Jaharah A.; Nuawi, Mohd Zaki; Che Haron, Che Hassan

    2015-02-01

    The cutting force provides significant information to help understand the machining process, optimization, tool condition monitoring, tool design and others. Hence, various methods of measuring the cutting force have been proposed by many researchers. In this work, an innovative integrated rotating dynamometer and tool holder is designed, constructed and tested that can fulfil the requirement to measure the cutting force in a wireless environment system. The device consists of a strain gauge based sensor that is mounted on a newly designed force sensing element which is then placed in the rotating tool holder. The force sensing element is designed in the form of a symmetrical cross beam type with four arms, shaped as a rectangular parallelepiped. This device is intended to be used in a rotating spindle such as in milling and drilling processes. A conditioning system and an inductive telemetry transmitter unit are incorporated into a modified tool holder in order to collect and transmit the cutting force signal to the data acquisition system. The rotating dynamometer has been subjected to a series of tests to determine its static and dynamic characteristics. Thus, it is tested experimentally by conducting cutting tests up to cutting speed 550 m/min with a single-tool insert. The results show it is suitable and reliable to measure the cutting force in milling processes.

  10. Universal Linear Motor Driven Leg Press Dynamometer and Concept of Serial Stretch Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Paper deals with backgrounds and principles of universal linear motor driven leg press dynamometer and concept of serial stretch loading. The device is based on two computer controlled linear motors mounted to the horizontal rails. As the motors can keep either constant resistance force in selected position or velocity in both directions, the system allows simulation of any mode of muscle contraction. In addition, it also can generate defined serial stretch stimuli in a form of repeated force peaks. This is achieved by short segments of reversed velocity (in concentric phase) or acceleration (in eccentric phase). Such stimuli, generated at the rate of 10 Hz, have proven to be a more efficient means for the improvement of rate of the force development. This capability not only affects performance in many sports, but also plays a substantial role in prevention of falls and their consequences. Universal linear motor driven and computer controlled dynamometer with its unique feature to generate serial stretch stimuli seems to be an efficient and useful tool for enhancing strength training effects on neuromuscular function not only in athletes, but as well as in senior population and rehabilitation patients. PMID:26913159

  11. Universal linear motor driven Leg Press Dynamometer and concept of Serial Stretch Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Hamar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Paper deals with backgrounds and principles of universal linear motor driven leg press dynamometer and concept of serial stretch loading. The device is based on two computer controlled linear motors mounted to the horizontal rails. As the motors can keep either constant resistance force in selected position or velocity in both directions, the system allows simulation of any mode of muscle contraction. In addition, it also can generate defined serial stretch stimuli in a form of repeated force peaks. This is achieved by short segments of reversed velocity (in concentric phase or acceleration (in eccentric phase. Such stimuli, generated at the rate of 10 Hz, have proven to be a more efficient means for the improvement of rate of the force development. This capability not only affects performance in many sports, but also plays a substantial role in prevention of falls and their consequences. Universal linear motor driven and computer controlled dynamometer with its unique feature to generate serial stretch stimuli seems to be an efficient and useful tool for enhancing strength training effects on neuromuscular function not only in athletes, but as well as in senior population and rehabilitation patients.

  12. Wind-electric icemaking project: Analysis and dynamometer testing. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holz, R; Gervorgian, V; Drouilhet, S; Muljadi, E

    1998-07-01

    The wind/hybrid systems group at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has been researching the most practical and cost-effective methods for producing ice from off-grid wind-electric power systems. The first phase of the project, conducted in 1993--1994, included full-scale dynamometer and field testing of two different electric ice makers directly connected to a permanent magnet alternator. The results of that phase were encouraging and the second phase of the project was launched in which steady-state and dynamic numerical models of these systems were developed and experimentally validated. The third phase of the project was the dynamometer testing of the North Star ice maker, which is powered by a 12-kilowatt Bergey Windpower Company, Inc., alternator. This report describes both the second and third project phases. Also included are detailed economic analyses and a discussion of the future prospects of wind-electric ice-making systems. The main report is contained in Volume 1. Volume 2 consists of the report appendices, which include the actual computer programs used in the analysis and the detailed test results.

  13. Comparing different approaches for determining joint torque parameters from isovelocity dynamometer measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, S E; Yeadon, M R; King, M A; Pain, M T G

    2011-03-15

    Strength, or maximum joint torque, is a fundamental factor governing human movement, and is regularly assessed for clinical and rehabilitative purposes as well as for research into human performance. This study aimed to identify the most appropriate protocol for fitting a maximum voluntary torque function to experimental joint torque data. Three participants performed maximum isometric and concentric-eccentric knee extension trials on an isovelocity dynamometer and a separate experimental protocol was used to estimate maximum knee extension angular velocity. A nine parameter maximum voluntary torque function, which included angle, angular velocity and neural inhibition effects, was fitted to the experimental torque data and three aspects of this fitting protocol were investigated. Using an independent experimental estimate of maximum knee extension angular velocity gave lower variability in the high concentric velocity region of the maximum torque function compared to using dynamometer measurements alone. A weighted root mean square difference (RMSD) score function, that forced the majority (73-92%) of experimental data beneath the maximum torque function, was found to best account for the one-sided noise in experimental torques resulting from sub-maximal effort by the participants. The suggested protocol (an appropriately weighted RMSD score function and an independent estimate of maximum knee extension angular velocity) gave a weighted RMSD of between 11 and 13 Nm (4-5% of maximum isometric torque). It is recommended that this protocol be used in generating maximum voluntary joint torque functions in all torque-based modelling of dynamic human movement.

  14. Reliability of Concentric, Eccentric and Isometric Knee Extension and Flexion when using the REV9000 Isokinetic Dynamometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Carvalho Froufe Andrade, Alberto César Pereira; Caserotti, Paolo; de Carvalho, Carlos Manuel Pereira

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of isokinetic and ISO knee extensor and flexor muscle strength when using the REV9000 (Technogym) isokinetic dynamometer. Moreover, the reliability of several strength imbalance indices and bilateral ratios were also examined. Twenty......). The results of this study showed a high reproducibility in eccentric (0.95-0.97), concentric (0.95-0.96) and isometric (0.93-0.96), isokinetic strength for knee extensor and flexor muscles, thus indicating that the REV9000 isokinetic dynamometer can be used in future sports performance studies. A low...

  15. Long-term outcome of muscle strength in ulnar and median nerve injury: Comparing manual muscle strength testing, grip and pinch strength dynamometers and a new intrinsic muscle strength dynamometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Schreuders (Ton); M.E. Roebroeck (Marij); J.B. Jaquet (Jean); S.E.R. Hovius (Steven); H.J. Stam (Henk)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To compare the outcome of muscle strength with manual muscle strength testing grip and pinch strength measurements and a dynamometer which allows for measurements of the intrinsic muscles of the hand in isolation (the Rotterdam Intrinsic Hand Myometer, RIHM). Methods:

  16. Long-term outcome of muscle strength in ulnar and median nerve injury: Comparing manual muscle strength testing, grip and pinch strength dynamometers and a new intrinsic muscle strength dynamometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Schreuders (Ton); M.E. Roebroeck (Marij); J.B. Jaquet (Jean); S.E.R. Hovius (Steven); H.J. Stam (Henk)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To compare the outcome of muscle strength with manual muscle strength testing grip and pinch strength measurements and a dynamometer which allows for measurements of the intrinsic muscles of the hand in isolation (the Rotterdam Intrinsic Hand Myometer, RIHM). Methods: Thirty-f

  17. Dynamometer Elbow Strength and Endurance Testing After Distal Biceps Reconstruction w/Allograft

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Alan; Strauss, Eric Jason; Jazrawi, Laith M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the current study is to investigate the functional strength outcomes of late distal biceps reconstruction using allograft tissue. Methods: Patients who underwent distal biceps reconstruction with allograft tissue between May 2007 and May 2013 were identified. Charts were retrospectively reviewed for post-operative complications, gross flexion and supination strength, and range of motion (ROM). Isokinetic strength and endurance in elbow flexion and forearm supination were measured in both arms. Tests were conducted using a dynamometer at 60o per second for isokinetic strength and 240o per second for endurance. Isometric strength testing was also measured for elbow flexion and forearm supination. Paired t tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Ten patients with a mean age of 48 years (range 42 - 61 years) were included in the study. Distal biceps reconstruction was performed using an Achilles tendon allograft in 9 patients and a combination of tibialis anterior allograft and gracilis allograft in 1 patient. Of the reconstructions, 50% involved the dominant arm. Full ROM was observed in all patients at the time of their final follow up assessment. The mean follow-up for dynamometer strength testing was 34 months (range 13-81 months). No statistical differences were noted between data obtained from operative and contralateral extremities. The average peak torque of the operative limb (38.5± 5.9 Nm) was 91.7% of that of the contralateral limb (41.8±4.9 Nm) in flexion and 93.4% (operative, 5.7±1.3 Nm; contralateral, 6.1± 1.0 Nm) in supination. No significant differences were found in fatigue index between operative or contralateral limbs for flexion (operative, 34.1±17.1%; contralateral, 30.8±17.1%; p = 0.29) or supination (operative, 38.2±16.5%; contralateral, 42.1±11.9%; p = 0.65). . The only complication observed was a transient PIN palsy in one patient which resolved by 3 months post-operatively. All patients reported

  18. Space-borne gravitational wave detectors as time-delayed differential dynamometers

    CERN Document Server

    Congedo, Giuseppe; Hueller, Mauro; Vitale, Stefano; Weber, William J

    2013-01-01

    The basic constituent of many space-borne gravitational missions, in particular for interferometric gravitational waves detectors, is the so-called link made out of a satellite sending an electromagnetic beam to a second satellite. We illustrate how, by measuring the time derivative of the frequency of the received beam, the link behaves as a differential, time-delayed dynamometer in which the effect of gravity is exactly equivalent to an effective differential force applied to the two satellites. We also show that this differential force gives an integrated measurement of curvature along the beam. Finally, we discuss how this approach can be implemented to benefit the data analysis of gravitational wave detectors.

  19. Eddy current analysis of permanent magnet dynamometers; Eikyu jishakushiki dinamo meter no kadenryu kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-29

    The ultra-low inertia dynamometer equivalent to engines in inertia adopts a rare earth element magnet with large energy product, and simulates engine torque fluctuation by superimposing harmonic current on a stator coil. Since temperature rise is thus predicted by generation of fluctuating magnetic field due to the harmonic current or eddy current due to normal slot harmonics, sufficient study on eddy current loss is necessary for designs to prevent such performance drop. Eddy current analysis is under investigation by 3-D FEM for various size and shape magnets. The analysis example of an eddy current density distribution is illustrated for the one-pole section of the magnet stuck on a rotor surface which is divided into 4 parts along a rotor periphery. More precise analysis of such eddy current loss is scheduled for higher-reliability product design. (translated by NEDO)

  20. Long-term outcome of muscle strength in ulnar and median nerve injury: Comparing manual muscle strength testing, grip and pinch strength dynamometers and a new intrinsic muscle strength dynamometer

    OpenAIRE

    Schreuders, Ton; Roebroeck, Marij; Jaquet, Jean; Hovius, Steven; Stam, Henk

    2004-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To compare the outcome of muscle strength with manual muscle strength testing grip and pinch strength measurements and a dynamometer which allows for measurements of the intrinsic muscles of the hand in isolation (the Rotterdam Intrinsic Hand Myometer, RIHM). Methods: Thirty-four patients more than 2 years after ulnar and/or median nerve injury. Muscle strength was evaluated using manual muscle strength testing (MMST), grip, pinch and intrinsic muscle strength measureme...

  1. Wrist flexion and extension torques measured by highly sensitive dynamometer in healthy subjects from 5 to 80 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decostre, Valérie; Canal, Aurélie; Ollivier, Gwenn; Ledoux, Isabelle; Moraux, Amélie; Doppler, Valérie; Payan, Christine Anne Mary; Hogrel, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-31

    Wrist movements become impaired with disease progression in various neuromuscular disorders. With the development of new therapies, thorough measurement of muscle strength is crucial to document natural disease progression and to assess treatment efficacy. We developed a new dynamometer enabling wrist flexion and extension torque measurement with high sensitivity. The aims of the present study were to collect norms for healthy children and adults, to compute predictive equations, to assess the reliability of the measurements and to test the feasibility of using the device in patients with a neuromuscular disease. The peak isometric torque of wrist flexion and extension was measured with the MyoWrist dynamometer in 345 healthy subjects aged between 5 and 80 years old and in 9 patients with limb girdle muscle dystrophy type 2 C (LGMD2C) aged between 16 and 38 years old. Predictive equations are proposed for the wrist flexion and extension strength in children and adults. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability was good with ICCs higher than 0.9 for both wrist flexion and extension. However, retest values were significantly higher by 4% than test results. The dynamometer was applied with no difficulty to patients with LGMD2C and was sensitive enough to detect strength as weak as 0.82 N.m. From our models, we quantified the mean strength of wrist extension in LGMD2C patients to 39 ± 17% of their predicted values. The MyoWrist dynamometer provides reliable and sensitive measurement of both wrist flexion and extension torques. However, a training session is recommended before starting a study as a small but significant learning effect was observed. Strength deficit can be quantified from predictive equations that were computed from norms of healthy children and adults.

  2. A purpose-built dynamometer to objectively measure static and dynamic knee torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugbolue, U C; Kaliarntas, K T; Wearing, S C; Rowe, P J

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports the development of a purpose-built knee dynamometer (PBKD) to evaluate passive range of motion (ROM) and isometric muscle strength measurements of the knee. The PBKD uses a TorqSense rotary torque transducer and objectively measures isometric knee muscle strength in a valid and reliable manner and passive resistance to motion through range. The device and all associated instrumentation underwent dynamic and static calibration to ensure consistent and accurate measurements were obtained in terms of knee joint angular position, passive torque measures, and isometric torque measures. Eleven healthy male participants performed a knee flexion and extension task designed to evaluate knee function. The validation of the PBKD entailed measuring the consistency of measurement and accuracy of measurement. Accuracy of the PBKD was determined by comparing peak isometric muscle strength measurements against a KIN-COM machine. No significant differences were observed both passively and isometrically between cycles and between trials. This device can have widespread applications within the rehabilitation and clinical environment and could be used as a functional outcome measuring tool to distinguish pathological from non-pathological knees. The presented preliminary results indicate that reliable and accurate measurements of knee ROM and muscle strength can be obtained.

  3. Digital Dynamometer and Goniometer in Analyzing Isometric Capacities and Tennis Serving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chia-Che

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was to investigate relation between tennis serving techniques and shoulder joint muscles in various skilled players in Taiwan. The study used Micro FET3 (Digital Manual Muscle Dynamometer and Goniometer which appraised the isometric capacity of the shoulder joint and perimeter muscle. The research consists of 13 collegiate male tennis players; 6 players were in elite groups and the other 7 players were in general groups. The tennis players performed 30 servers testing the range to appraise serve technique reflect. The application of t-test and Linear Regression analyzed the serve technique reflect interrelated with the shoulder joint muscle. The muscle strength and the serve accuracy predominate interrelated place where middle trapezius, shoulder internal rotator, and shoulder external rotator of favor hands were obvious. The muscle strength and the serve speed predominated interrelated place where shoulder internal rotator and shoulder external rotator of favor hands were obvious. This study also discovered triceps of favor hands, shoulder extensor, shoulder abductor, triceps, and middle trapezius of non- favor hands muscle strength didn't have any outstanding reference with tennis league table. The research confirmed that the shoulder joint muscle discipline increased shoulder internal rotator, shoulder external rotator, and middle trapezius that help the serve technique reflect.

  4. Understanding the effect of speed of exertion on isokinetic strength using a multiaxial dynamometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimbarte, Ashish D; Aghazadeh, Fereydoun; Bogolu, Sai Chaitanya R; Rajulu, Sudhakar L

    2009-01-01

    In this study a multiaxial isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure strength during various upper-body isokinetic exertions. Ten male participants performed 7 different upper-body isokinetic exertions. In addition, to evaluate the effect of speed on strength, each participant performed sitting pull exertions at the speed of 0.026, 0.130, and 0.260 m/s. Average isokinetic strength increased from 236.6 +/- 39.1 to 291.8 +/- 65.8 N with the initial increase in speed from 0.026 to 0.130 m/s. The average isokinetic strength decreased to 276.7 +/- 87.2 N with a further increase in speed to 0.260 m/s. The curve between isokinetic strength and speed followed a bell-shaped curve (fitted with the Gaussian function, R(2) = .9). The results of this study could be useful in deciding on the work pace of various manual material handling tasks requiring maximal and/or near maximal exertions.

  5. A Survey to Determine the Reliability of Dynamometer and Pinch Gauge Dial Readings Among Certified Hand Therapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore I. King II, Ph.D, L.Ac.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Using a cross-sectional descriptive study design, surveys were mailed to 200 randomly selected certified hand therapists of the American Society of Hand Therapists (ASHT to determine how they document analog dynamometer and pinch gauge dial readings. Three different needle settings for the dynamometer and pinch gauge were presented in picture format. For each instrument, one needle setting was just above a gauge marker, one was just below a gauge marker, and one was set exactly between two gauge markers. A total of 126out of 200 surveys were returned for a participation rate of 63%. For the dynamometer readings, therapists estimated the exact strength reading between the two gauge markers 78.3% of the time. For the pinch gauge readings, therapists rounded to the nearest dial marker 76.5% of the time when the needle was just above or just below a dial marker and 61.9% of the time they estimated the reading when the needle was placed exactly between two dial markers.

  6. The use of muscle dynamometer for correction of muscle imbalances in the area of deep stabilising spine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malátová, Renata; Rokytová, Jitka; Stumbauer, Jan

    2013-08-01

    Dorsal pain caused by spine dysfunctions belongs to most frequent chronic illnesses. The muscles of the deep stabilising spine system work as a single functional unit where a dysfunction of only one muscle causes dysfunction of the whole system. Non-invasive, objective and statistically measurable evaluation of the condition of deep stabilising spine system has been made possible by the construction of muscular dynamometer. The aim of our work has been the assessment of deep stabilising spine system by diaphragm test and muscular dynamometer measurements. Based on an initial examination, a 6-week intervention programme was established including instructions on physiological body posture and correct basic body stabilisation for the given exercises and muscle strengthening. Consecutive measurements are then compared with the initial ones. It was presumed that a smaller number of the tested subjects would be able to correctly activate the deep stabilising spine system muscles before the intervention programme when compared to those after the intervention programme. A positive change of 87% has been found. It is clear that if a person actively approaches the programme, then positive adaptation changes on the deep stabilising spine system are seen only after 6 weeks. With the muscular dynamometer, activation of deep stabilising spine system can be objectively measured. Changes between the initial condition of a subject and the difference after some exercise or rehabilitation are especially noticeable. Also, the effect of given therapy or correct performance of the exercise can be followed and observed.

  7. A Modernized UDM-600 Dynamometer-Based Setup for the Cutting Force Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. I. Shuliak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers development of a modernized UDM-600 dynamometer-based setup for measuring the cutting force components. Modernization of existing equipment to improve the method of recording the cutting force components in the automated mode is of relevance. The measuring setup allows recording the cutting force components in turning and milling, as well as the axial force and the torque in the drilling and milling operations.The article presents a block diagram and a schematic diagram of the setup to measure the cutting force components, and describes a basic principle of measuring units within the modernized setup. The developed setup uses a half-bridge strain gauge measuring circuit to record the cutting forces. To enhance the measuring circuit output voltage is used a 16-channel amplifier of LA-UN16 model with a discretely adjustable gain. To record and process electrical signals is used a data acquisition device of NI USB-6009 model, which enables transmitting the received data to a PC via USB-interface. The data acquisition device has a built-in stabilized DC power supply that is used to power the strain gauge bridges. A developed schematic diagram of the measuring setup allows us to realize this measuring device and implement its modernization.Final processing of recorded data is provided through the software developed in visual programming environment LabVIEW 9.0. The program allows us to show the real-time measuring values of the cutting force components graphically and to record the taken data to a text file.The measuring setup modernization enabled increasing measurement accuracy and reducing time for processing and analysis of experimental data obtained when measuring the cutting force components. The MT2 Department of BMSTU uses it in education and research activities and in experimental efforts and laboratory classes.

  8. The Reliability of Strength Tests Performed In Elevated Shoulder Positions Using a Handheld Dynamometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaine, Sally J; Ginn, Karen A; Kitic, Cecilia M; Fell, James W; Bird, Marie-Louise

    2016-06-06

    The reliable measurement of shoulder strength is important when assessing athletes involved in overhead activities. Swimmers' shoulders are subject to repetitive humeral elevation and consequently have a high risk of developing movement-control issues and pain. Shoulder-strength tests performed in positions of elevation assist with the detection of strength deficits that may affect injury and performance. The reliability of isometric strength tests performed in positions of humeral elevation without manual stabilization, which is a typical clinical scenario, has not been established. To establish the relative and absolute intrarater reliability of shoulder-strength tests functional to swimming in 3 body positions commonly used in the clinical setting. Repeated-measures reliability study. Research laboratory. 15 university students and staff (mean ± SD age 24 ± 8.2 y). Isometric shoulder-strength tests were performed in positions of humeral elevation (flexion and extension in 140° abduction in the scapular plane, internal and external rotation in 90° abduction) on subjects without shoulder pain in supine, prone, and sitting. Subjects were tested by 1 examiner with a handheld dynamometer and retested after 48 h. Relative reliability (ICC3,1) values with 95% CI. Absolute reliability was reported by minimal detectable change (MDC). Good to excellent intrarater reliability was found for all shoulder-strength tests (ICC .87-.99). Intrarater reliability was not affected by body position. MDC% was rotation strength tests performed in humeral elevation demonstrated excellent to good intrarater reliability regardless of body position. A strength change of more than 15% in any position can be considered meaningful.

  9. A ground-based comparison of the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) and a commercially available isokinetic dynamometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Kirk L.; Hackney, Kyle J.; De Witt, John K.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.; Goetchius, Elizabeth L.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2013-11-01

    IntroductionInternational Space Station (ISS) crewmembers perform muscle strength and endurance testing pre- and postflight to assess the physiologic adaptations associated with long-duration exposure to microgravity. However, a reliable and standardized method to document strength changes in-flight has not been established. To address this issue, a proprietary dynamometer, the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) has been developed and flown aboard the ISS. The aims of this ground-based investigation were to: (1) evaluate the test-retest reliability of MARES and (2) determine its agreement with a commercially available isokinetic dynamometer previously used for pre- and postflight medical testing. MethodsSix males (179.5±4.7 cm; 82.0±8.7 kg; 31.3±4.0 yr) and four females (163.2±7.3 cm; 63.2±1.9 kg; 32.3±6.8 yr) completed two testing sessions on a HUMAC NORM isokinetic dynamometer (NORM) and two sessions on MARES using a randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over design. Peak torque values at 60° and 180° s-1 were calculated from five maximal repetitions of knee extension (KE) and knee flexion (KF) for each session. Total work at 180° s-1 was determined from the area under the torque versus displacement curve during 20 maximal repetitions of KE and KF. ResultsIntraclass correlation coefficients were relatively high for both devices (0.90-0.99). Only one dependent measure, KE peak torque at 60° s-1 exhibited good concordance between devices (ρ=0.92) and a small average difference (0.9±17.3 N m). ConclusionMARES demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability and thus should serve as a good tool to monitor in-flight strength changes. However, due to poor agreement with NORM, it is not advisable to compare absolute values obtained on these devices.

  10. Test-retest reliability of handgrip strength measurement using a hydraulic hand dynamometer in patients with cervical radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savva, Christos; Giakas, Giannis; Efstathiou, Michalis; Karagiannis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of handgrip strength measurement using a hydraulic hand dynamometer in patients with cervical radiculopathy (CR). A convenience sample of 19 participants (14 men and 5 women; mean ± SD age, 50.5 ± 12 years) with CR was measured using a Jamar hydraulic hand dynamometer by the same rater on 2 different testing sessions with an interval of 7 days between sessions. Data collection procedures followed standardized grip strength testing guidelines established by the American Society of Hand Therapists. During the repeated measures, patients were advised to rest their upper limb in the standardized arm position and encouraged to exert 3 maximum gripping efforts. The mean value of the 3 efforts (measured in kilogram force [Kgf]) was used for data analysis. The intraclass correlation coefficient, SEM, and the Bland-Altman plot were used to estimate test-retest reliability and measurement precision. Grip strength measurement in CR demonstrated an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.976, suggesting excellent test-retest reliability. The small SEM in both testing sessions (SEM1, 2.41 Kgf; SEM2, 2.51 Kgf) as well as the narrow width of the 95% limits of agreements (95% limits of agreement, -4.9 to 4.4 Kgf) in the Bland-Altman plot reflected precise measurements of grip strength in both occasions. Excellent test-retest reliability for grip strength measurement was measured in patients with CR, demonstrating that a hydraulic hand dynamometer could be used as an outcome measure for these patients. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. In-Use and Vehicle Dynamometer Evaluation and Comparison of Class 7 Hybrid Electric and Conventional Diesel Delivery Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, J.; Walkowicz, K.; Sindler, P.; Duran, A.

    2013-10-01

    This study compared fuel economy and emissions between heavy-duty hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and equivalent conventional diesel vehicles. In-use field data were collected from daily fleet operations carried out at a FedEx facility in California on six HEV and six conventional 2010 Freightliner M2-106 straight box trucks. Field data collection primarily focused on route assessment and vehicle fuel consumption over a six-month period. Chassis dynamometer testing was also carried out on one conventional vehicle and one HEV to determine differences in fuel consumption and emissions. Route data from the field study was analyzed to determine the selection of dynamometer test cycles. From this analysis, the New York Composite (NYComp), Hybrid Truck Users Forum Class 6 (HTUF 6), and California Air Resource Board (CARB) Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) drive cycles were chosen. The HEV showed 31% better fuel economy on the NYComp cycle, 25% better on the HTUF 6 cycle and 4% worse on the CARB HHDDT cycle when compared to the conventional vehicle. The in-use field data indicates that the HEVs had around 16% better fuel economy than the conventional vehicles. Dynamometer testing also showed that the HEV generally emitted higher levels of nitric oxides than the conventional vehicle over the drive cycles, up to 77% higher on the NYComp cycle (though this may at least in part be attributed to the different engine certification levels in the vehicles tested). The conventional vehicle was found to accelerate up to freeway speeds over ten seconds faster than the HEV.

  12. Can a wearable strain sensor based on a carbon nanotube network be an alternative to an isokinetic dynamometer for the measurement of knee-extensor muscle strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlikaya, Ruhan; Ege, Yavuz; Pündük, Zekine; Slobodian, Petr; Meriç, Gökhan

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to find out whether a wearable strain sensor including thermoplastic polyurethane composite with a multi-walled carbon nanotube network could be a viable alternative to an isokinetic dynamometer for the measurement of knee-extensor muscle strength. For the first time, the voltage-torque and angle–time relations of the sensor were determined to allow a comparison between the angle-dependent torque changes of the dynamometer and the sensor. This comparison suggested that the torque–angle relations of the dynamometer and the sensor did not have the same characteristics. In this regard, the sensor may be used in the torque measurements due to the moderate correlation between the torque values determined via the isokinetic dynamometer and the sensor and due to the significant difference between low and high torque values of the sensor. By the same token, the torque-angle graph of the sensor may be more informative than that of the dynamometer in evaluation of knee problems.

  13. Inter-machine reliability of the Biodex and Cybex isokinetic dynamometers for knee flexor/extensor isometric, concentric and eccentric tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo Ribeiro Alvares, João Breno; Rodrigues, Rodrigo; de Azevedo Franke, Rodrigo; da Silva, Bruna Gonçalves Cordeiro; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini

    2015-02-01

    To assess the inter-machine reliability of the Biodex System 3 Pro and Cybex Humac Norm Model 770 dynamometers for knee extensor and knee flexor peak torque measurements in isometric, concentric and eccentric tests. Randomized/crossover. Exercise Research Laboratory, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). 25 healthy male subjects. Isometric, concentric and eccentric knee extensor and knee flexor peak torques recorded in the same test procedure performed on both isokinetic dynamometers. One-way ANOVA, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM) and coefficient of variation (CV) were used to verify significant differences, relative and absolute reliability between devices. No significant differences were found between tests performed on Biodex and Cybex (p > 0.05). ICC values indicated a high to very high reproducibility for isometric, concentric and eccentric peak torques (0.88-0.92), and moderate to high reliability for agonist-antagonist strength ratios (0.62-0.73). Peak torque did not show great difference between dynamometers for SEM (3.72-11.27 Nm) and CV (5.27-7.77%). Strength ratios presented CV values of 8.57-10.72%. Maximal knee extensor and knee flexor tests performed in isometric (60° of knee flexion), concentric and eccentric modes at 60°/s in Biodex and Cybex dynamometers present similar values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Test-retest reliabilities of hand-held dynamometer for lower-limb muscle strength in intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Chang, Jyh-Jong; Wang, Min-Hung; Lin, Hsiu-Ching

    2013-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliabilities of hand-held dynamometer (HDD) for measuring lower-limb muscle strength in intellectual disabilities (ID). The other purposes were to: (1) compare the lower-limb muscle strength between children with and without ID; (2) probe the relationship between the muscle forces and agility performance in ID; and (3) explore the factors associated with muscle strength in ID. Sixty-one participants (30 boys and 31 girls; mean age=14.1 ± 3.3 year) were assessed by the HDD using a "make" test. The comparative group consisted of 63 typically developing children (33 boys and 30 girls; mean age=14.9 ± 2.1 year). The ID group demonstrated lower muscle groups than in typically developing group. Except for the ankle plantarflexors (ICC=0.69, SEM=0.72), test-retest analysis showed good intrarater reliability with ICC ranging from 0.81 to 0.96, and intrarater SEM values ranged from 0.40 to 0.57. The HDD has the potential to be a reliable tool for strength measurement in ID. Muscle strength was positively related to agility performance. Regression analysis indicated that height, weight, BMI, and activity level were significant predictors of muscle strength in ID.

  15. Laboratory testing of airborne brake wear particle emissions using a dynamometer system under urban city driving cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagino, Hiroyuki; Oyama, Motoaki; Sasaki, Sousuke

    2016-04-01

    To measure driving-distance-based mass emission factors for airborne brake wear particulate matter (PM; i.e., brake wear particles) related to the non-asbestos organic friction of brake assembly materials (pads and lining), and to characterize the components of brake wear particles, a brake wear dynamometer with a constant-volume sampling system was developed. Only a limited number of studies have investigated brake emissions under urban city driving cycles that correspond to the tailpipe emission test (i.e., JC08 or JE05 mode of Japanese tailpipe emission test cycles). The tests were performed using two passenger cars and one middle-class truck. The observed airborne brake wear particle emissions ranged from 0.04 to 1.4 mg/km/vehicle for PM10 (particles up to 10 μm (in size), and from 0.04 to 1.2 mg/km/vehicle for PM2.5. The proportion of brake wear debris emitted as airborne brake wear particles was 2-21% of the mass of wear. Oxygenated carbonaceous components were included in the airborne PM but not in the original friction material, which indicates that changes in carbon composition occurred during the abrasion process. Furthermore, this study identified the key tracers of brake wear particles (e.g., Fe, Cu, Ba, and Sb) at emission levels comparable to traffic-related atmospheric environments.

  16. Development of an Industry Dynamometer/Spin Test Facility--Equipment Only: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-05-164

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDade, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) owns and operates a megawatt-scale dynamometer used for testing wind turbine drive trains up to 1.5 megawatt (MW) in rated capacity. At this time, this unit is the only unit of its type in the United States, available for use by the American Wind Industry. Currently this dynamometer is heavily backlogged and unavailable to provide testing needed by various wind industry members. DOE/NREL is in possession of two critical pieces of equipment that may be used to develop an alternative Dynamometer facility, but does not have the funds or other resources necessary to develop such a facility. The Participant possesses complimentary facilities and infrastructure that when combined with the NREL equipment can create such a test facility. The Participant is also committed to expending funds to develop and operate such a facility to the subsequent benefit of the Wind Industry and DOE Wind Energy program. In exchange for DOE/NREL providing the critical equipment, the Participant will grant DOE/NREL a minimum of 90 days of testing time per year in the new facility while incurring no facilities fees.

  17. Intra- and inter-rater reliability of isometric shoulder extensor and internal rotator strength measurements performed using a hand-held dynamometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awatani, Takenori; Morikita, Ikuhiro; Shinohara, Junji; Mori, Seigo; Nariai, Miki; Tatsumi, Yasutaka; Nagata, Akinori; Koshiba, Hiroya

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to establish the intra- and inter-rater reliability of measurement of extensor strength in the maximum shoulder abducted position and internal rotator strength in the 90° abducted and the 90° external rotated position using a hand-held dynamometer. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy volunteers (12 male; mean ± SD: age 19.0 ± 1.1 years) participated in the study. The examiners were two students who had nonclinical experience with a hand-held dynamometer measurement. The examiners and participants were blinded to measurement results by the recorder. Participants in the prone position were instructed to hold the contraction against the ground reaction force, and peak isometric force was recorded using the hand-held dynamometer on the floor. Reliability was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients. [Results] The intra- and inter-rater reliability data were found to be "almost perfect". [Conclusion] This study investigated intra- and inter-rater reliability and reveald high reliability. Thus, the measurement method used in the present study can evaluate muscle strength by a simple measurement technique.

  18. A Ground-Based Comparison of the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) and a Standard Isokinetic Dynamometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, K. J.; English, K. L.; Redd, E.; DeWitt, J. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: 1) To compare the test-to-test reliability of Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) with a standard laboratory isokinetic dynamometer (ISOK DYN) and; 2) to determine if measures of peak torque and total work differ between devices. METHODS: Ten subjects (6M, 4F) completed two trials on both MARES and an ISOK DYN in a counterbalanced order. Peak torque values at 60 deg & 180 deg / s were obtained from five maximal repetitions of knee extension (KE) and knee flexion (KF). Total work at 180 deg / s was determined from the area under the torque vs. displacement curve during twenty maximal repetitions of KE and KF. Reliability of measures within devices was interpreted from the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and compared between devices using the ratio of the within-device standard deviations. Indicators of agreement for the two devices were evaluated from: 1) a calculation of concordance (rho) and; 2) the correlation between the mean of measures versus the delta difference between measures (m u vs delta). RESULTS: For all outcome measures ICCs were high for both the ISOK DYN (0.95-0.99) and MARES (0.90-0.99). However, ratios of the within-device standard deviation were 1.3 to 4.3 times higher on MARES. On average, a wide range (3.3 to 1054 Nm) of differences existed between the values obtained. Only KE peak torque measured at 60 deg & 180 deg / s showed similarities between devices (rho = 0.91 & 0.87; Pearson's r for m u vs delta = -0.22 & -0.37, respectively). CONCLUSION: Although MARES was designed for use in microgravity it was quite reliable during ground-based testing. However, MARES was consistently more variable than an ISOK DYN. Future longitudinal studies evaluating a change in isokinetic peak torque or total work should be limited within one device.

  19. Morphological and semi-quantitative characteristics of diesel soot agglomerates emitted from commercial vehicles and a dynamometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Chin-Hsiang; LEE Whei-May; LIAW Jiun-Jian

    2009-01-01

    Diesel soot aggregates emitted from a model dynamometer and 11 on-road vehicles were segregated by a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI). The elemental contents and morphological parameters of the aggregates were then examined by scanning electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), and combined with a fractional Brownian motion (fBm) processor. Two mode-size distributions of aggregates collected from diesel vehicles were confirmed. Mean mass concentration of 339 mg/m3 (dC/dlogdp) existed in the dominant mode (180-320 nm). A relatively high proportion of these aggregates appeared in PM1, accentuating the relevance regarding adverse health effects. Furthermore, the fBm processor directly parameterized the SEM images of fractal like aggregates and successfully quantified surface texture to extract Hurst coefficients (H) of the aggregates. For aggregates from vehicles equipped with a universal cylinder number, the H value was independent of engine operational conditions. A small H value existed in emitted aggregates from vehicles with a large number of cylinders. Generally, this study found that aggregate fractal dimension related to H was in the range of 1.641-1.775, which is in agreement with values reported by previous TEM-based experiments. According to EDS analysis, carbon content ranged in a high level of 30%-50% by weight for diesel soot aggregates. The presence of Na and Mg elements in these sampled aggregates indicated the likelihood that some engine enhancers composed of biofuel or surfactants were commonly used in on-road vehicles in Taiwan. In particular, the morphological H combined with carbon content detection can be useful for characterizing chain-like or cluster diesel soot aggregates in the atmosphere.

  20. Medida da força de preensão manual- validade e confiabilidade do dinamômetro saehan Assessment of hand grip strength- validity and reliability of the saehan dynamometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Moreira Reis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Existe uma grande variedade de instrumentos utilizados para a avaliação da força de preensão manual. Porém, não existem estudos demonstrando a validade e a confiabilidade da maioria destes instrumentos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a validade concorrente e a confiabilidade intraexaminador do dinamômetro Saehan hidráulico comparado-o com o dinamômetro Jamar hidráulico. Cem indivíduos sadios (50 homens e 50 mulheres, entre 20 e 50 anos de idade, sem alterações cognitivas, deficiências físicas, disfunções neuromusculares e ortopédicas e história de lesões nos membros superiores, foram testados com os dinamômetros Jamar e Saehan. A validade concorrente entre o dinamômetro Jamar e o dinamômetro Saehan foi excelente para os testes de força de preensão realizados com as mãos direita (r=0,976 e esquerda (r=0,986. A confiabilidade intra-examinador foi excelente tanto para o dinamômetro Jamar (r=0,985 mãos direita e esquerda quanto para o dinamômetro Saehan (r=0,981 mão direita e r=0,985 mão esquerda. O dinamômetro Saehan é válido, confiável e comparável com o dinamômetro Jamar. Portanto, dados coletados com o dinamômetro Jamar são equivalentes aos dados coletados com o dinamômetro Saehan. Consequentemente, valores de força obtidos por testes com dinamômetro Saehan podem ser comparados com valores de referência de força de preensão que foram obtidos com o dinamômetro Jamar.There is a great variety of instruments available for evaluating hand grip strength. There is, however, a lack of studies showing the validity and reliability of most of these instruments. The purpose of this study was to examine the concurrent validity and test-retest reliability of the hydraulic Saehan dynamometer using the hydraulic Jamar dynamometer. One hundred healthy subjects (50 men and 50 women, between the ages of 20 and 50 years old, without cognitive impairment, physical disability, neuromuscular or orthopedic dysfunction

  1. Determination of nitrous acid emission factors from a gasoline vehicle using a chassis dynamometer combined with incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Yoshihiro; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    2017-01-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is a well-known source of hydroxyl radicals in the troposphere. Vehicle exhaust is considered to be one of the primary emission sources of HONO. In this study, measurements of HONO in gasoline vehicle exhaust were carried out using a chassis dynamometer combined with incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy. When catalysts were warm, concentrations of HONO were higher than those prior to catalysts warming. Other species, such as CO, and total hydrocarbons (THCs), showed the opposite pattern. There were no correlations evident between HONO and other trace species concentrations immediately after emission. The HONO/NOx ratio, a good proxy for the formation of HONO in atmosphere, ranged from 1.1 to 6.8×10(-3), which was consistent with previous studies. HONO emission factors (EFs) were calculated to be 0.01-3.6mgkg(-1) fuel, which was different from the vehicle's specifications and those reported under different driving cycles. Annual HONO emissions in Japan were estimated using the calculated EFs and other statistical data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Reliability of Isometric Knee Extension Muscle Strength Measurements of Healthy Elderly Subjects Made with a Hand-held Dynamometer and a Belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Munenori; Isozaki, Koji

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of three isometric knee extension strength measurements (IKE) made with a hand-held dynamometer (HHD) and a belt of healthy elderly living in the community as subjects. [Subjects] The subject cohort consisted of 186 healthy elderly people, aged 65 to 79 years, living in local communities. [Methods] IKE of the leg subjects used to kick a ball was measured. IKE of each subject was measured three times using an HHD-belt at intervals of 30 seconds. The reliability of the larger of the first two measurements (LV2) as well as the third measurement (3V) was investigated. [Results] The intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC (1, 1)] for LV2 and 3V were 0.955. Bland-Altman analysis showed a fixed bias, and the limits of agreement ranged from -5.6 to 4.6. [Conclusion] The ICC results show that the test-retest reproducibility of IKE measurements of healthy elderly subjects using an HHD-belt is high. However, Bland-Altman analysis showed a fixed bias, suggesting the need for three measurements.

  3. Inter-tester Reliability of the Hand-held dynamometer and the Leg Extensor Power Rig applied on Patients after Total Hip Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer; Mechlenburg, Inger; Petersen, Annemette Krintel

    INTRODUCTION: Rehabilitation has an increasing focus on intensive resistance training early after joint replacement (1,2). This increases the requests for measuring changes in the muscle strength and muscle power over time. Hand-held dynamometer (HHD) is a device used to measure isometric muscle...... strength and Leg Extensor Power Rig (LEPR) is a tool for measuring muscle power. OBJECTIVES: To test the inter-tester reliability of the HHD in hip abduction and the LEPR in Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) patients. METHODS: Two groups each consisting 20 subjects were included. Mean age was 68.4 years. All...... the two testers (p=0.62) and the two tests (0.14); ICC=0.91 (95% CI: 0.79;0.96); LOA=±34Watt. CONCLUSION: The relative reliability was acceptable for both HHD and LEPR. The absolute reliability showed that a change in the muscle strength/power above 18 Newton or 34 Watt can be counted as a real change...

  4. Inter-tester Reliability of the Hand-held dynamometer and the Leg Extensor Power Rig applied on Patients after Total Hip Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer; Petersen, Annemette Krintel; Mikkelsen, Søren Søndergaard

    Background: Rehabilitation has an increasing focus on intensive resistance training early after joint replacement. This increases the requests for measuring changes in the muscle strength and muscle power over time. Hand-held dynamometer (HHD) is a device used to measure isometric muscle strength...... and Leg Extensor Power Rig (LEPR) is a tool for measuring muscle power. Purpose / Aim of Study: To test the inter-tester reliability of the HHD and the LEPR in Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) patients. Materials and Methods: Two groups each consisting 20 subjects were included. Mean age was 68.4 years. All...... between the two testers (p=0.62) and the two tests (0.14); ICC=0.91 (95% CI: 0.79;0.96); LOA=±34Watt. Conclusions: The relative reliability was acceptable for both HHD and LEPR. The absolute reliability showed that a change in the muscle strength/power above 18 Newton or 34 Watt can be counted as a real...

  5. Ship propulsion motor control based on asynchronous electric dynamometer%基于异步电力测功机的船舶推进电机控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭昊昊; 刘彦呈; 任俊杰

    2014-01-01

    对电力推进船舶中异步推进电机的控制问题展开研究,在MATLAB中分别建立异步电机的矢量控制模型、直接转矩控制模型以及异步电机互馈系统模型,并采用异步电力测功机模拟船舶的螺旋桨负载特性给推进电机提供螺旋桨负载。在实验室条件下应用变频器、PLC、上位机WINCC搭建相应的实物系统,仿真与试验研究验证了该方法的有效性。%Aiming at the control problem of asynchronous pro-pulsion motor in electric propulsion ship , the simulation mod-els of asynchronous motor vector control , direct torque con-trol, and reciprocal power-fed motor platform were built with MATLAB.Moreover, the asynchronous electric dynamometer was used to simulate the ship propeller load characteristic , so as to provide the propulsion motor with propeller load .A physical system including frequency converter , PLC, PC WINCC was built under laboratory conditions .Simulation and experiment results verify the effectiveness of this approach .

  6. 有杆抽油系统地面示功图在井下故障诊断中的研究%Surface Dynamometer of Rod Pumping System in Downhole Fault Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐军

    2013-01-01

    目前机械式采油仍是在国内外原油开采中占首要地位,而有杆抽油系统又是机械采油中应用最广的。抽油泵在井下的工况十分复杂,工作环境极其恶劣,不但受“机、杆、泵”抽油设备的影响,而且直接受到“砂、蜡、气、水”的影响,故障发生率很高。我们应用波动方程,建立了以泵示功图为基础的井下故障诊断模型,边界条件选用光杆动载荷及位移得到抽油杆柱任意截面处的载荷和位移计算表达式,进一步利用计算机编程绘出所需的抽油杆各截面及泵的示功图,实现了悬点示功图到井下泵示功图的转换,并通过示功图对泵的漏失、受气体影响、磨损、卡泵等工作状况做出分析,达到对抽油系统的整个工作状况进行评价的目的。%Currently mechanical recovery still occupies a dominant position in domestic and foreign crude oil production; rod pumping system is most widely used in mechanical recovery. The working condition of downhole pump is very complex; it is not only affected by the pumping equipment, such as machine, rod, and pump, but also influenced by sand, wax, gas and water, and results the high incidence of failure. We build the downhole fault diagnosis model based on dynamometer by applying the wave equation, boundary condition of rod dynamic load and displacement is used to get the load and displacement expression of arbitrary rod cross-section, and use computer to program and obtain the dynamometer of required rod cross-section and pump, and realize the conversion of rod dynamometer to downhole pump dynamometer; the loss of pump, gas influence, wear and tear is analyzed through dynamometer to evaluate the working conditions of the pumping system.

  7. PAH, BTEX, carbonyl compound, black-carbon, NO2 and ultrafine particle dynamometer bench emissions for Euro 4 and Euro 5 diesel and gasoline passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Cédric; Liu, Yao; Tassel, Patrick; Perret, Pascal; Chaumond, Agnès; André, Michel

    2016-09-01

    Although implementing Diesel particulate filters (DPF) and other novel aftertreatment technologies makes it possible to achieve significant reductions in particle mass emissions, it may induce the release of ultrafine particles and emissions of many other unregulated compounds. This paper focuses on (i) ultrafine particles, black carbon, BTEX, PAH, carbonyl compounds, and NO2 emissions from Euro 4 and Euro 5 Diesel and gasoline passenger cars, (ii) the influence of driving conditions (e.g., cold start, urban, rural and motorway conditions), and (iii) the impact of additive and catalysed DPF devices on vehicle emissions. Chassis dynamometer tests were conducted on four Euro 5 vehicles and two Euro 4 vehicles: gasoline vehicles with and without direct injection system and Diesel vehicles equipped with additive and catalysed particulate filters. The results showed that compared to hot-start cycles, cold-start urban cycles increased all pollutant emissions by a factor of two. The sole exception was NO2, which was reduced by a factor of 1.3-6. Particulate and black carbon emissions from the gasoline engines were significantly higher than those from the Diesel engines equipped with DPF. Moreover, the catalysed DPF emitted about 3-10 times more carbonyl compounds and particles than additive DPF, respectively, during urban driving cycles, while the additive DPF vehicles emitted 2 and 5 times more BTEX and carbonyl compounds during motorway driving cycles. Regarding particle number distribution, the motorway driving cycle induced the emission of particles smaller in diameter (mode at 15 nm) than the urban cold-start cycle (mode at 80-100 nm). The results showed a clear positive correlation between particle, black carbon, and BTEX emissions, and a negative correlation between particles and NO2.

  8. Desempenho de motor ciclo Diesel em bancada dinamométrica utilizando misturas diesel/biodiesel Performance of cycle Diesel engine in dynamometer using diesel/biodiesel mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Castellanelli

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Diante da previsão de escassez do petróleo, o éster etílico (biodiesel tem-se apresentado como excelente opção de combustível alternativo para motores ciclo Diesel. As características do biodiesel são semelhantes às do diesel em termos de viscosidade e poder calorífico, podendo ser utilizado sem adaptações nos motores. Para a realização deste trabalho, utilizou-se de motor ciclo Diesel, de injeção direta, com quatro cilindros, sem adaptações. O motor foi acoplado a um dinamômetro e sistemas de aquisição de dados auxiliares. Avaliaram-se os desempenhos de torque, de potência e de consumo específico de combustível para as seguintes misturas diesel/éster etílico de soja: B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B75 e B100. O melhor desempenho registrado deu-se com a mistura B20.Given the prediction of the scarcity of oil, the ethyl ester (biodiesel has presented as an excellent alternative fuel option for cycle diesel engine. The characteristics of biodiesel are similar of diesel in terms of viscosity and the calorific power, being able to be used without adaptations in the engines. For the accomplishment of this work it was used a cycle diesel engine, of direct injection with four cylinders, without adaptations. The engine was connected to a dynamometer and acquisition systems of auxiliary data. The performances of torque, power and specific fuel consumption for the following mixtures diesel/soy ethyl ester had been evaluated: B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B75 and B100. The best registered performance was given with the B20 mixture.

  9. Diseño de un dinamómetro con frecuencia natural variable por medio de un programa de elementos finitos. // Design of dynamometer with variable frequency by means of Finite Elements Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jacas Cabrera

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se presenta el diseño, construcción, y validación experimental de un dispositivo dinamométrico de frecuencianatural variable, el cual forma parte de un trabajo mucho más amplio donde se determinará la influencia de los valores defrecuencia natural de un dinamómetro en la magnitud del valor medio de fuerzas de corte medidos en un proceso detorneado. Para ejecutar el diseño del dinamómetro, garantizando tres valores de frecuencia natural en rangos de 2000, 6000y 8000 Hz se utilizó un programa profesional de elementos finitos. Para la verificación de los resultados obtenidosmediante modelación por elementos finitos, se fabricó el dispositivo dinamométrico realizándose experimentalmente lavalidación de los resultados y la confirmación de la precisión de los modelos desarrollados.Palabras claves: Dinamómetro, frecuencia natural, elementos finitos.___________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this paper is presented the design, construction and experimental validation of a dynamometric device of natural variablefrequency where the influence of the natural frequency values in the magnitude of the mean value of cutting forcesmeasured in a lathed process were determined. The dynamometer with three values of natural frequency, in ranges of 2000,6000 and 8000 Hz was designed by means of the finite elements method. A dynamometer device was constructed for theverifications of the natural frecuencies obtained by finite element method. The experimentally results validation confirmedthe developed models.Key words: Dynamometer, natural frequency, finite elements.

  10. Interday Reliability of Peak Muscular Power Outputs on an Isotonic Dynamometer and Assessment of Active Trunk Control Using the Chop and Lift Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Thomas G.; Uhl, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Context: Assessment techniques used to measure functional tasks involving active trunk control are restricted to linear movements that lack the explosive movements and dynamic tasks associated with activities of daily living and sport. Reliable clinical methods used to assess the diagonal and ballistic movements about the trunk are lacking. Objective: To assess the interday reliability of peak muscular power outputs while participants performed diagonal chop and lift tests and maintained a stable trunk. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eighteen healthy individuals (10 men and 8 women; age  =  32 ± 11 years, height  =  168 ± 12 cm, mass  =  80 ± 19 kg) from the general population participated. Intervention(s): Participants performed 2 power tests (chop, lift) using an isotonic dynamometer and 3 endurance tests (Biering-Sørensen, side-plank left, side-plank right) to assess active trunk control. Testing was performed on 3 different days separated by at least 1 week. Reliability was compared between days 1 and 2 and between days 2 and 3. Correlations between the power and endurance tests were evaluated to determine the degree of similarity. Main Outcome Measure(s): Peak muscular power outputs (watts) derived from a 1-repetition maximum protocol for the chop and lift tests were collected for both the right and left sides. Results: Intraclass correlation coefficients for peak muscular power were highly reliable for the chop (range, 0.87–0.98), lift (range, 0.83–0.96), and endurance (range, 0.80–0.98) tests between test sessions. The correlations between the power assessments and the Biering-Sørensen test (r range, −0.008 to 0.017) were low. The side-plank tests were moderately correlated with the chop (r range, 0.528–0.590) and the lift (r range, 0.359–0.467) tests. Conclusions: The diagonal chop and lift power protocol generated reliable data and

  11. Research on the Dynamometer Characteristics and Performance of the Car Shock Absorber%轿车减震器示功特性与减震器性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝凤英; 郑莹娜; 李扬; 贾燕铭; 林茂源; 陈双权

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with the urgent demands for automatic test and performance determination at the end of production line of car shock absorber products, the damping force test system controlled by microprocessor for shock absorber has been researched and developed. Through analyzing and evaluating the fullness level and characteristics curve of dynamometer on line, the pros and cons of the performance of the shock absorber is determined, and the unqualified products can be excluded at the end of the assembly production line. The method of automatic evaluation and determination of the dynamometer curve, and the criterion generation depends on the technological process of production are discussed emphatically, the experimental data from the production site are analyzed and identified, the effectiveness and real time performance of the evaluation and determination algorithm are verified.%针对轿车减震器产品在生产线末端自动测试和性能自动判别方面的迫切需求,研究开发了基于微机控制的减震器衰减力测试系统.系统通过在线分析评价示功特性曲线的饱满程度和特征来判断减震器性能的优劣,从而在生产装配线末端剔除不合格的减震器.重点讨论了减震器示功特性曲线的自动评价判断方法和依赖于生产工艺过程的判据生成方式,并对生产现场试验数据进行分析和识别,验证了评价判断算法的有效性和实时性.

  12. The Reliability Analysis of Isokinetic Measurement of Isomed 2000 Dynamometer%Isomed 2000测试系统的等速向心测试方法的可信度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡水清; 米奕翔; 蒋云飞

    2014-01-01

    分析Isomed 2000测试系统等速向心肌力测试方法的可信度。应用标准重物对比的方法对Isomed 2000等速肌力测试系统进行检验,对19名普通健康年青人(15男,4女,平均年龄=24.1±5.6岁)进行了腰背屈/伸60°/s、髋关节屈/伸60°/s 、180°/s和240°/s、膝关节屈/伸60°/s和240°/s、踝关节跖屈/背屈60°/s 、180°/s和240°/s、肩关节60°/s和180°/s、肘关节屈/伸60°/s 、180°/s和240°/s、腕关节屈/伸60°/s和240°/s的单侧等速向心测试和重复性测试,2次测试间隔4~7天。测试结果:1)标准重物进行的3次测试值与计算值的相关系数 r>0.999;2)腰背屈/伸60°/s、髋关节屈/伸60°/s和180°/s、膝关节屈/伸60°/s和240°/s、踝关节跖屈/背屈60°/s 和180°/s、肩关节60°/s和180°/s、肘关节屈/伸60°/s和180°/s、腕关节屈/伸60°/s和240°/s测试时的力矩、做功和功率参数的组内相关系数(ICC )介于0.71~0.98之间;3)肘关节240°/s测试时力矩的ICC为0.67~0.82、髋关节240°/s测试时屈肌群各参数的ICC为0.64~0.83、踝关节240°/s测试时背屈肌群各参数值的ICC为0.36~0.82。结论:该仪器误差小,准确度、精度良好;肘关节、髋关节和踝关节240°/s测试重复性相对较差,其余各关节肌群的不同速度测试重复性中等或者良好。%The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of Isomed 2000 dynamome-ter .We compared the dynamometer and different weight of barbells on torque .Nineteen normal subjects (15 male ,4 female)ages 24 .1 ± 5 .6 with no history of related injury were tested uni-laterally for concentric extension/flexion ,back at 60°/s ,hip at 60°/s ,180°/s and 240°/s , knee at 60°/s and 240°/s ,ankle at 60°/s ,180°/s and 240°/s ,shoulder at 60°/s and 180°/s , elbow at 60°/s ,180°/s and 240°/s ,w rist at 60°/s and 240°/s ,utilizing standard Isomed 2000

  13. Application of Self-made Dynamometer in Measuring Three-dimensional Cutting Forces or Wood%自制测力仪用于木材三向切削力的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许林云; 刘军; 周克宁; 林石

    2009-01-01

    评定木材切削刀具的切削性能及切削表面的加工质量时,均需测定木材切削时的三向切削力:主切削力、进给力及侧向力,因此设计一台合适的三向测力仪成为关键.本文以单一八角环为基础,引申出单向延伸式八角环、组合式八角环及双向延伸式八角环测力仪,并逐一分析其结构特点及应用于木材三向切削力测定的可行性.最终确定双向延伸式四耳环八角环性能最优,并对其进行设计、制选、标定及切削试验.试验结果表明该型完全符合木材三向切削力测定的要求.%To evaluate the cutting performance of wood cut-tools and the machining quality of cutting surface, the three-di-rection cutting forces including main cutting force, feed force and side-directional force need to be measured. It is the key to de-sign a suitable three-direction dynamometer. Four types of octagonal-ring dynamometers were compared, which were respectively basic octagonal-ring, single-directional extended octagonal-ring, combined octagonal-ring and bidirectional extended octagonal-ring. Their structural characteristics and feasibility to measure wood three-direction cutting forces were analysed and the result showed the bidirectional extended four-earring octagonal-ring had the best performance, which could completely satisfy the require-ment of measuring three-direction cutting forces of wood after re-designed, manufactured calibrated and tested.

  14. Energy consumption of an agricultural an agricultural tractor operating in dynamometer using with diesel and chicken oil biodiesel; Consumo energetico de um trator agricola operando em bancada dinamometrica com oleo diesel e biodiesel de oleo de frango

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorese, Diego Augusto [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], email: dafiorese@yahoo.com.br; Dallmeyer, Arno Udo; Romano, Leonardo Nabaes; Schlosser, Jose Fernando [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The efficiency of energy use in agricultural machinery is dependent on the efficiency of internal combustion diesel cycle, their genuine propellants. However, some biofuels may offer a better yield due to some peculiar characteristics such distinctions in calorific value. Many studies have demonstrated a better utilization of the energy content when operating with biodiesel and with binary mixtures with diesel oil. In this study, tests were conducted on a dynamometer bench to evaluate the energy consumption of a tractor engine with four cylinders and 53 kW (72 hp), operating with biodiesel and chicken oil mixture with diesel oil. In the tests were evaluated six ratios (B5, B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100). The results showed that increasing the proportion of biodiesel was favorable to improve the utilization of the energy content, thus increasing the thermal efficiency of the engine. The best result was obtained with pure biodiesel (B100) with consumption of 395.47 MJ.h{sup -1}and efficiency of 32.35%. On the other hand the witness had the lowest use B5 with 428.20 MJ.h{sup -1} and thermal efficiency of 30.67%. (author)

  15. Real-time analysis of aromatics in combustion engine exhaust by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOF-MS): a robust tool for chassis dynamometer testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, T.W. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Transport and Air Quality Unit, Ispra, VA (Italy); Clairotte, M.; Manfredi, U.; Carriero, M.; Martini, G.; Krasenbrink, A.; Astorga, C. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Transport and Air Quality Unit, Ispra, VA (Italy); European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, Sustainable Transport Unit, Ispra, Varese (Italy); Streibel, T.; Pommeres, A.; Sklorz, M. [University of Rostock, Analytical Chemistry/Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Institute of Chemistry, Rostock (Germany); Elsasser, M.; Zimmermann, R. [Cooperation Group Complex Molecular Systems (CMA)/Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre (JMSC), Neuherberg (Germany); University of Rostock, Analytical Chemistry/Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Institute of Chemistry, Rostock (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOF-MS) is a robust method for real-time analysis of monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in complex emissions. A mobile system has been developed which enables direct analysis on site. In this paper, we utilize a multicomponent calibration scheme based on the analytes' photo-ionisation cross-sections relative to a calibrated species. This allows semi-quantification of a great number of components by only calibrating one compound of choice, here toluene. The cross-sections were determined by injecting nebulised solutions of aromatic compounds into the TOF-MS ion source with the help of a HPLC pump. Then, REMPI-TOF-MS was implemented at various chassis dynamometers and test cells and the exhaust of the following vehicles and engines investigated: a compression ignition light-duty (LD) passenger car, a compression ignition LD van, two spark ignition LD passenger cars, 2 two-stroke mopeds, and a two-stroke engine of a string gas trimmer. The quantitative time profiles of benzene are shown. The results indicate that two-stroke engines are a significant source for toxic and cancerogenic compounds. Air pollution and health effects caused by gardening equipment might still be underestimated. (orig.)

  16. Avaliação da fatigabilidade em pacientes com esclerose múltipla através do dinamômetro manual Fatigability evaluation on multiple sclerosis patients by using a hand held dynamometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Pavan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A fadiga é um dos mais freqüentes sintomas e incapacitantes na esclerose múltipla (EM. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a fatigabilidade em pacientes com EM pela aplicação de exercícios isotônicos e isométricos com dinamômetro manual. Como resultados, a fatigabilidade, a força e o tempo máximo de isometria são semelhantes estatisticamente entre o grupo controle e o grupo de EM. Conclui-se que embora a queixa subjetiva de fadiga seja freqüente na EM, a fatigabilidade e a recuperação após o exercício demonstraram ser normais.Fatigue is one of the most commom disabling symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fatigability on patients with MS by the aplication of hand grip isotonic and isometric exercises with dynamometer. As results the fatigability, the isometric strenght and time were statistically similar in the control group and in MS. We conclude that although fatigue is a frequent subjective complaint on MS, the fatigability and the recover after exercises seems to be normal.

  17. Real-time analysis of aromatics in combustion engine exhaust by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOF-MS): a robust tool for chassis dynamometer testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, T W; Clairotte, M; Streibel, T; Elsasser, M; Pommeres, A; Manfredi, U; Carriero, M; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Krasenbrink, A; Astorga, C; Zimmermann, R

    2012-07-01

    Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOF-MS) is a robust method for real-time analysis of monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in complex emissions. A mobile system has been developed which enables direct analysis on site. In this paper, we utilize a multicomponent calibration scheme based on the analytes' photo-ionisation cross-sections relative to a calibrated species. This allows semi-quantification of a great number of components by only calibrating one compound of choice, here toluene. The cross-sections were determined by injecting nebulised solutions of aromatic compounds into the TOF-MS ion source with the help of a HPLC pump. Then, REMPI-TOF-MS was implemented at various chassis dynamometers and test cells and the exhaust of the following vehicles and engines investigated: a compression ignition light-duty (LD) passenger car, a compression ignition LD van, two spark ignition LD passenger cars, 2 two-stroke mopeds, and a two-stroke engine of a string gas trimmer. The quantitative time profiles of benzene are shown. The results indicate that two-stroke engines are a significant source for toxic and cancerogenic compounds. Air pollution and health effects caused by gardening equipment might still be underestimated.

  18. Study of emissions and performance of a CFR-Octane engine with dynamometer by means of natural gas fuel injection; Estudo de emissoes e desempenho de um motor CFR-octano com dinamometro atraves da injecao de gas natural combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvao, Alexandre Ortiz

    1994-05-01

    The adaptation and study of the behaviour of an ASTM-CFR-octane engine driven by natural gas is discussed. A detailed investigation of the emission of polluting gases, arising from the burning of the natural gas, was realized. To accomplish these aims, some instruments and devices were used: CFR engine with an eddy current dynamometer; orifice plate meter to measure the fuel mass flow; calibrated nozzle to measure the air mass flow; an CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, H C, O{sub 2} emissions meter; thermocouples. The natural gas used during the experimental tests ways injected into the engine's manifold in two different ways: the first one was a simple nozzle injecting natural gas directly into the inlet manifold. The second one used a solenoid valve controlled by an electronic timing device synchronized with the engine's crankcase. The results comparing these two methods of injection indicated a slight fuel reduction can be obtained in the synchronized mode. As concerns the emissions, the results obtained by comparison of the three fuels: gasoline, ethanol and natural gas, showed a significant advantage for natural gas, in the sense that major reductions of the emission index for H C, CO and CO{sub 2} were achieved, with the exception of NO{sub x} , which had its index increased. (author)

  19. Tribological Bench and Engine Dynamometer Tests of a Low Viscosity SAE 0W-16 Engine Oil Using a Combination of Ionic Liquid and ZDDP as Anti-wear Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C Barnhill

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported an oil-miscible phosphonium-organophosphate ionic liquid (IL with effective anti-wear functionality when added to a base oil by itself or combined with a conventional zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP for a synergistic effect. In this research, we investigated whether this synergy manifests in formulated engine oils. An experimental SAE 0W-16 engine oil was generated using a combination of IL and ZDDP with equal phosphorus contribution. The prototype engine oil was first evaluated using tribological bench tests: anti-wear performance in boundary lubrication and friction behavior (Stribeck curves in elastohydrodynamic, mixed, and boundary lubrication. The forthcoming standard Sequence VIE engine dynamometer test was then conducted to demonstrate improved fuel economy. Results were benchmarked against those of another experimental engine oil with almost the same formulation except using ZDDP only without the IL (similar total phosphorus content and a baseline SAE 20W-30 engine oil. The IL-ZDDP formulation consistently outperformed the ZDDP-only formulation and the results from the bench and engine tests are well correlated.

  20. Comparison of three hand dynamometers in relation to the accuracy and precision of the measurements Comparação de três dinamômetros de preensão manual relacionados à exatidão e precisão das medidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josária F. Amaral

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the variety of available hand-held dynamometers and their different handle shapes, reliability studies are needed. Objectives: To compare the accuracy and reliability between three different hand-held dynamometers and analyze the influence of their handles on grip strength. Methods: The tests were performed with the Jamar® dynamometer, the Takei® dynamometer and the EMG System Manual Transducer with modified handle. Eighteen healthy volunteers aged 20.0±1.3 years without history of musculoskeletal disorders or trauma in the evaluated limbs were included. Data normality was tested using the Shapiro-Wilk test. To verify possible differences between the dynamometers, repeated measures ANOVA was administered, followed by Tukey post-hoc tests. Reliability between measurements was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and agreement was tested using Bland and Altman plots. The dynamometers calibration process was evaluated using linear regressions. RESULTS: We observed statistically significant differences on the female group between the Jamar® and the Takei® dynamometers (females pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Dada a variedade de dinamômetros disponíveis para mensurar a força de preensão manual com diferentes formatos de empunhaduras, estudos de confiabilidade fazem-se necessários. Objetivos: Comparar a exatidão e a precisão das medidas de três dinamômetros distintos e analisar a influência do perfil de empunhadura de cada um. MÉTODOS: Os testes foram realizados com os dinamômetros Jamar®, Takei® e o Transdutor Manual EMG System com empunhadura modificada. Foram avaliados 18 voluntários saudáveis, com idade de 20±1,3 anos, sem histórico de doença musculoesquelética ou traumas nos membros avaliados. A normalidade dos dados foi testada por meio do teste Shapiro-Wilk. Para verificar as possíveis diferenças entre as medições dos dinamômetros, aplicou-se uma ANOVA para medidas repetidas seguida do

  1. Modelo de elementos finitos para la determinación de la frecuencia natural de las vibraciones de un dinamómetro. // Determination of the natural frequency of a dynamometer by means of finite elements model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jacas Cabrera

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo determinar la frecuencia natural (fn de un dinamómetro de dos componentes paramedir las fuerzas dinámicas producidas en un proceso de maquinado. La medición de la frecuencia natural se realiza pordos métodos, uno primero por medio de la modelación empleando el método de los elementos finitos (MEF, y un segundopor la vía experimental, con el fin de evaluar dicho modelo, y demostrar las posibilidades de esta herramienta de cálculo.Para la realización del trabajo se usó el programa de elementos finitos ALGOR ( R Superdraw III – Versión 12 . 06 WIN2000.De los resultados de este trabajo se observa la coincidencia de resultados entre los valores obtenidos experimentalmente ypor medio del MEF, encontrándose los mismos dentro del rango del 10% de error.Palabras claves: frecuencia natural, dinamómetro, elementos finitos, fuerzas dinámicas de maquinado.___________________________________________________________________________Abstract.The present work deals with determination of natural frequencies (fn of a two component dynanometer in order to measurethe dynamic forces produced during the mechanising process. The natural frequency is obtained by two methods, by meansof finite element method (MEF, as well as by the experimental way , with the purpose of evaluate the finite elementmodel, and demonstrate the possibility of this calculation tool. To accomplish this task the ALGOR finite element programVersion 12. 06 14 WIN Jan 2000 (R Superdraw III was used. From the results a practical coincidence between theexperimentally values and those obtained by means of the MEF, within the rank of 10% of error are observed.Key words: natural frecuency, dynamometer, finite element, dinamic forces on tool cutting.

  2. Confiabilidade e validade de um dinamômetro isométrico modificado na avaliação do desempenho muscular em indivíduos com reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior Reliability and validity of a modified isometric dynamometer in the assessment of muscular performance in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Antunes de Vasconcelos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a confiabilidade e validade de um dinamômetro isométrico modificado (DIM na avaliação dos déficits no desempenho muscular dos extensores e flexores do joelho em indivíduos normais e com reconstrução do LCA. MÉTODOS: Foram convidados 60 voluntários do sexo masculino a participar do estudo, divididos em três grupos de 20 indivíduos: grupo controle (GC, grupo com reconstrução do LCA com tendão patelar (GTP e grupo com reconstrução do LCA com tendões flexores (GTF. Todos os indivíduos realizaram teste isométrico dos extensores e flexores do joelho no DIM; os déficits de força muscular coletados foram comparados posteriormente com os testes realizados no Biodex System 3 operando no modo isométrico e isocinético nas velocidades de 60º/s e 180º /s. Foram realizados cálculos de correlação intraclasse ICC para avaliar a confiabilidade do DIM, cálculos da especificidade, sensibilidade e coeficiente de concordância Kappa, respectivamente, para avaliar a validade do DIM em detectar déficits musculares e comparações intragrupos e intergrupos na realização dos quatro testes de força utilizando-se do método ANOVA. RESULTADOS: O DIM demonstrou excelente confiabilidade teste-reteste e validade na avaliação do desempenho muscular dos extensores e flexores do joelho. Na comparação intergrupos. o GTP demonstrou déficits significativamente maiores dos extensores comparados com os grupos GC e GTF. CONCLUSÃO: Dinamômetros isométricos conectados em equipamentos de mecanoterapia podem ser uma alternativa para coletar dados referentes a déficits no desempenho muscular dos extensores e flexores do joelho em indivíduos com reconstrução do LCA.OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a modified isometric dynamometer (MID in performance deficits of the knee extensor and flexor muscles in normal individuals and in those with ACL reconstructions. METHODS: Sixty male

  3. Estudo comparativo entre exercícios com dinamômetro isocinético e bola terapêutica na lombalgia crônica de origem mecânica Comparison between isokinetic dynamometer and therapeutic ball exercises in chronic low-back pain of mechanical origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Domingues de Freitas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar os efeitos dos exercícios de fortalecimento de tronco sobre a dor lombar crônica de origem mecânica e comparar o uso do dinamômetro isocinético e da bola terapêutica. Dezenove pacientes com dor lombar crônica foram distribuidos randomicamente em dois grupos, para fortalecimento do tronco: grupo bola (5 homens e 5 mulheres, idade média 31,2±8,2 e grupo dinamômetro (2 homens e 7 mulheres, idade média 37,9±11,2. Os grupos foram tratados em duas sessões semanais, por três meses, e avaliados antes e após o tratamento, quanto à dor (escala visual analógica, incapacidades funcionais (Questionário de Roland-Morris, mobilidade do tronco (teste de Schöber e distância do 3º dedo ao solo e força concêntrica dos flexores e extensores de tronco, no dinamômetro isocinético Cybex 6000. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: pico de torque, ângulo de pico de torque, potência, trabalho, tempo de aceleração e a relação flexores/extensores. Os dados foram tratados estatisticamente, sendo adotado um nível de significância de 5%. Foi observada uma melhora significante (pThis study aimed at assessing the effects of trunk strengthening exercises on chronic, mechanical low-back pain and compare the use of isokinetic dynamometer and therapeutic ball. Nineteen patients with chronic low back pain were randomly divided into two groups of trunk muscle strengthening, namely the ball group (5 men and 5 women, mean age 31,2±8,2 and the dynamometer group (2 men and 7 women, mean age 37.9±11.2. Patients attended two weekly sessions during three months and were evaluated before and after treatment as to pain (visual analog scale, functional disability (Roland Morris questionnaire, mobility (Schöber and fingertip-to-floor tests, and trunk concentric extensor and flexor muscles force (by the isokinetic dynamometer. The parameters selected to evaluate muscular performance were: peak torque, peak torque angle, power, work

  4. 40 CFR 89.407 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... permitted to precondition the engine at rated speed and maximum horsepower until the oil and water... is void and may be aborted. The test mode may be restarted by preconditioning with the previous mode... pretest value, the test segment is void. ...

  5. 40 CFR 91.409 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water temperatures are stabilized. The temperatures are defined as stabilized if they are maintained... another mode, the test is void and must be restarted as described at paragraph (b)(1) of this section. (11... period for each mode. If this requirement is not met, the mode is void and must be restarted. (12) If at...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 86 - Urban Dynamometer Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 24.9 926 25.1 927 25.2 928 25.3 929 25.5 930 25.2 931 25.0 932 25.0 933 25.0 934 24.7 935 24.5 936 24... 1005 25.5 1006 25.6 1007 25.5 1008 25.0 1009 24.1 1010 23.7 1011 23.2 1012 22.9 1013 22.5 1014 22.0....6 923 38.9 924 39.3 925 40.1 926 40.4 927 40.6 928 40.7 929 41.0 930 40.6 931 40.2 932 40.2 933...

  7. Desempenho de um motor de trator agrícola em bancada dinamométrica com biodiesel de óleo de frango e misturas binárias com óleo diesel Performance of an agricultural tractor engine in dynamometer with chicken oil biodiesel and binary mixtures with diesel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Fiorese

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil, terceiro maior produtor de biodiesel do mundo e terceiro maior produtor mundial de frango, pode incrementar, na sua matriz energética, o uso de óleo oriundo de aves como alternativa aos combustíveis fósseis e à redução da dependência do óleo de soja para esse fim. O país dispõe de mais de 350 milhões de litros de óleo de frango por ano. Considerando a aplicação dos combustíveis alternativos para os motores a diesel, em máquinas agrícolas, o trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o desempenho do motor de um trator agrícola de 53kW acoplado pela TDP em bancada dinamométrica, operando com biodiesel metílico de óleo de frango e misturas com óleo diesel, sendo: B5 (testemunha, B20, B40, B60, B80 e B100. Avaliaram-se a potência, o torque, a reserva de torque, o consumo de combustível, o consumo de energia e a eficiência térmica do motor. O ensaio foi instalado com delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC em esquema fatorial com seis tratamentos. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias ajustadas por equações de regressão. Foram observadas perdas na geração de potência e torque, aumento no consumo de combustível, redução do consumo energético e melhoria na eficiência térmica do motor, de acordo com o aumento da proporção de biodiesel na mistura.Brazil, the world third largest producer of biodiesel, and also the third largest producer of chicken, may increase the energy matrix, using oil derived from chicken, as an alternative to fossil fuels and reduce dependence on soybean oil for this purpose. The country can produce over 350 million liters of chicken oil per year. Considering the application of alternative fuels on diesel engines in agricultural machinery. The study aimed to evaluate the performance of a engine agricultural tractor with 53kW coupled by PTO in dynamometer bench operating with methyl biodiesel oil chicken and mix with diesel oil. Fuels B5 (reference, B20, B

  8. Measurement of the flexing force of the fingers by a dynamic splint with a dynamometer Medida da força de flexão dos dedos da mão através de órtese dinâmica com dinamômetro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmara Nicolau Pedro da Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE AND METHODS: In order to determine forces acting upon an articular joint during hand rehabilitation, a dynamic splint was built and connected to a dynamometer (capable of measuring forces in the range 0 - 600 gf. Through trigonometric calculation, the authors measured the flexing force in the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger at 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90° of flexion. Measurements were obtained in a population of 40 voluntary adults, 20 females and 20 males, This flexing force was correlated with age, sex, and anthropometric measures. RESULTS: Force in the flexing tendon is maximal at the start of flexion, and decreases as the angle of joint flexion increases. A relationship was observed between finger length and the magnitude of the force exerted on the tendon: the longer the finger, the greater the force exherted upon the tendon. Force is greater at all the measured angles, (except 30° in males and in individuals of higher stature, and bigger arm span. CONCLUSIONS: The flexing force can be effectively measured at all flexing angles, that it correlates with a number of different anthropometric parameters, and that such data are likely to open the way for future studies.OBJETIVO E MÉTODOS: Em virtude do desconhecimento relativo às forças que atuam em uma articulação durante o processo de reabilitação da mão, foi confeccionada uma órtese dinâmica que, acoplada a um dinamômetro, mediu, através de cálculos trigonométricos, a força (entre 0 a 600gf, flexora na articulação interfalângica proximal do terceiro dedo, a 30º, 45º, 60º e 90º de flexão. Estas medidas foram obtidas, em uma população de 40 adultos voluntários, 20 do sexo feminino e 20 do masculino, e confrontadas com idade, sexo e medidas antropométricas como estatura, envergadura e comprimento do dedo. RESULTADOS: Os resultados do estudo demonstraram que o tendão flexor é submetido à máxima força no início da flexão e que a for

  9. 手持式电子肌力测定仪在痉挛型脑瘫儿童下肢肌力测定中的信度研究%The reliability of hand-held electronic dynamometer tests for lower limb muscle strength measurement in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史惟; 朱默; 骆丹丹; 杨红; 陈冬冬; 黄华玉

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the reliability of hand-held electronic dynamometer (HHD) tests for lower limb muscle strength measurement in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Methods Twenty-eight children ( 15 boys and 13 girls; mean age 5 years 8 months) with different types of CP (2 with spastic quadriplegia,8 spastic diplegia, 6 hemiplegia, 1 triplegia and 1 monoplegia) , and at different functional levels ( 19 graded at gross motor function classification system level Ⅰ, 6 level Ⅱ, 2 level Ⅲ and 1 level Ⅳ ) were recruited from the Rehabilitation Center of the Children's Hospital of Fudan University. Standardized HHD protocols were used to measure the strength of their hip, knee and ankle muscles. The HHD test was performed by the same examiner twice with an interval of 10 min in between. The HDD test was also performed with 15 randomly selected CP children by 2 examiners with an interval of 10 min in between. The test-retest and inter-rater reliabilities of the HDD readings were determined by calculating the intra- and inter-class correlation coefficients. Results The HHD measurements showed fine testretest reliability ( ICC = 0.74-0.97 ) and inter-rater reliability ( ICC = 0.63-0.97 ) in measuring lower-limb muscle strength of children with spastic CP, with the highest test-retest reliability for the hip flexion, foot plantar flexion and knee extension muscle groups. The highest inter-rater reliability was achieved with the hip flexion and foot dorsiflexion muscle groups. Conclusions Standardized HHD testing of lower-limb muscle strength in children with spastic CP shows fine test-retest and inter-rater reliability. The HHD can reliably assess the lower-limb muscle strength of children with spastic CP.%目的 探讨手持式电子肌力测定仪在痉挛型脑瘫儿童下肢肌力测定中的信度.方法 以2009年2月至11月在复旦大学附属儿科医院康复中心接受康复治疗的28例3岁以上的痉挛型脑瘫患儿为研究对象,采

  10. Fatigability evaluation on multiple sclerosis patients by using a hand held dynamometer

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Pavan; Kizi Schmidt; Tatiana de Ambrosio Ariça; Maria Fernanda Mendes; Charles Peter Tilbery; Sergio Lianza

    2006-01-01

    A fadiga é um dos mais freqüentes sintomas e incapacitantes na esclerose múltipla (EM). O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a fatigabilidade em pacientes com EM pela aplicação de exercícios isotônicos e isométricos com dinamômetro manual. Como resultados, a fatigabilidade, a força e o tempo máximo de isometria são semelhantes estatisticamente entre o grupo controle e o grupo de EM. Conclui-se que embora a queixa subjetiva de fadiga seja freqüente na EM, a fatigabilidade e a recuperação ...

  11. The Relationship of Isometric Grip Strength, Optimal Dynamometer Settings, and Certain Anthropometric Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    of the long flexors of the digits ( Kapandji , 1982). This may be the result of losing the fulcrum that is normally provided as the tendons pass over an...univariate and multivariate examination of measurement error in anthropometry. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 40, 197-203. Kapandji , I. A. (1982

  12. 40 CFR 86.312-79 - Dynamometer and engine equipment specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the muffler, the backpressure at the exhaust manifold exit with the single exhaust system must be... catalyst systems the distance from the exhaust manifold flange(s) to the catalyst shall be the same as in the vehicle configuration unless the manufacturer provides temperature data showing equivalent...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1229-85 - Dynamometer load determination and fuel temperature profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... testing to reproduce fuel and vapor temperature behavior over the specified driving schedule. The design... § 86.1207-96(e) and (f), and a driver's aid, which shall be configured to provide the test driver with... surface. The driver's aid shall be started and the vehicle operated over the driving cycle specified...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1308-84 - Dynamometer and engine equipment specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....e., armature current, etc.) may be used for torque measurement provided that it can be shown that... flywheel torque due to the armature inertia during accelerations and decelerations in the test cycle....

  15. Torque Control of a Separate-Winding Excitation DC Motor for a Dynamometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    In this thesis, the theory behind a separate-winding excitation direct current ( DC ) motor and profile of the motor’s torque versus rotor speed is... DC motor is proportional to the armature current. From this theory, a program was written in Simulink with Xilinx embedded software to enable a user...to command the DC motor torque through a Graphical User Interface (GUI). The command is then converted to control armature current through a Field

  16. DINAMÔMETRO PARA IMPLEMENTOS À TRAÇÃO ANIMAL A DYNAMOMETER FOR ANIMAL TRACTION EQUIPMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério de Araújo Almeida; José Geraldo da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Um dinamômetro foi desenvolvido, a partir de um cilindro hidráulico, para coletar dados referentes ao esforço necessário à tração, na avaliação de desempenho de equipamentos à tração animal. O dinamômetro mostrou-se prático e eficiente.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Dinamômetro; esforço de tração; tração animal.

  17. The development of a two-component force dynamometer and tool control system for dynamic machine tool research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, I. A.

    1973-01-01

    The development is presented of a tooling system that makes a controlled sinusoidal oscillation simulating a dynamic chip removal condition. It also measures the machining forces in two mutually perpendicular directions without any cross sensitivity.

  18. Research of Dynamic Calibrating System of Multicomponent Dynamometer%多维力传感器的动态标定研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白文聪; 陈怀海

    2015-01-01

    提出了一套对六维力传感器经行标定的系统,用于动态载荷情况下六维力传感器动态标定。该系统以labVIEW为软件系统,以高精度伺服电机为精确动力源,以高精度砝码作为标准质量,通过伺服电机带动标准质量做匀速圆周运动产生标准动态力。配合有限元分析软件PATRAN对设计工装的强度、刚度及固有频率的分析。实现了在特定频率范围内的传感器的精确动态标定。实验结果表明系统对六维力传感器的标定是合理可靠的。%This paper presents a set of calibration of six axis force sensor with dynamic loads. Based on LabVIEW software system, with a high accuracy servo motor as precise power source and high precision weight as the standard quality, the servo motor is used to drive the uniform circular motion generating standard dynamic force of the quality standard. The finite element analysis software PATRAN is used to analyze the tooling design strength, stiffness and natural frequency. The accurate calibration of the dynamic sen-sor is made within the specified frequency range. The results show that the system calibration of the six axis force sensor is reasona-ble and reliable.

  19. 燃气轮机性能试验用的康氏水力测功器%Kahn Hydraulic Dynamometers for Performance Testing of Gas Turbines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖尔哈特·默克尔; 张国芳

    2005-01-01

    一个多世纪以来,水力测功器一直是测量和诊断发动机性能的重要设备。由于较诸电力与气动机械具有若干固有优点(如单位造价较低,尺寸紧凑,惯性小,快速瞬态响应以及在高转速和大功率工况下的运行能力),水力测功器已经成为航空及工业用和船用燃气轮机发动机进行研制、耐久性、生产性试验和维修后试验用的一致公认的标准手段。电子式快速响应涡轮控制系统的应用更是加快了这一趋势,因为这对动态试验程序提出了更高要求。

  20. Vehicle Component Benchmarking Using a Chassis Dynamometer: Using a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu and a 2013 Mercedes E350 (SAE Paper 2015-01-0589)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and fuel economy (FE) standards for MYs 2012 -2025 are requiring vehicle powertrains to become much more efficient. The EPA is using a full vehicle simulation model, called the Advanced Light-duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA), to ...

  1. Experimental Characterization of a Grid-Loss Event on a 2.5-MW Dynamometer Using Advanced Operational Modal Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helsen, J.; Weijtjens, W.; Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; McNiff, B.; Devriendt, C.; Guillaume, P.

    2015-02-01

    This paper experimentally investigates a worst case grid loss event conducted on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) drivetrain mounted on the 2.5MW NREL dynamic nacelle test-rig. The GRC drivetrain has a directly grid-coupled, fixed speed asynchronous generator. The main goal is the assessment of the dynamic content driving this particular assess the dynamic content of the high-speed stage of the GRC gearbox. In addition to external accelerometers, high frequency sampled measurements of strain gauges were used to assess torque fluctuations and bending moments both at the nacelle main shaft and gearbox high-speed shaft (HSS) through the entire duration of the event. Modal analysis was conducted using a polyreference Least Squares Complex Frequency-domain (pLSCF) modal identification estimator. The event driving the torsional resonance was identified. Moreover, the pLSCF estimator identified main drivetrain resonances based on a combination of acceleration and strain measurements. Without external action during the grid-loss event, a mode shape characterized by counter phase rotation of the rotor and generator rotor determined by the drivetrain flexibility and rotor inertias was the main driver of the event. This behavior resulted in significant torque oscillations with large amplitude negative torque periods. Based on tooth strain measurements of the HSS pinion, this work showed that at each zero-crossing, the teeth lost contact and came into contact with the backside flank. In addition, dynamic nontorque loads between the gearbox and generator at the HSS played an important role, as indicated by strain gauge-measurements.

  2. Sistema de Aquisição de Baixo Custo para um Dinamômetro Biomédico / Acquisition system of a low cost biomedical dynamometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Oliveira Cortez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: criar um Sistema de Aquisição de baixo custo, otimizando um dispositivo de fabricação própria. Método: Para tanto, foi idealizado um sistema dedicado, o qual é alimentado por uma bateria central de 12V. A ponte completa de “Wheatstone” é alimentada pela bateria central, regulada em 9V. Resultados: O sinal dos extensômetros apresenta uma variação de 0 a 30 mV, o qual é amplificado e filtrado por um Condicionador de Sinais de fabricação própria, usando um LM 324. O sinal elétrico então passa a variar de 0 a 5V, que serão tratados em uma entrada analógica de um Microcontrolador PIC. Os testes para registro e interpretação dos dados ocorrem através do software MyOpenLab. Conclusão: O trabalho está em andamento e os primeiros resultados sugerem que o sistema será capaz de mensurar a força muscular de forma precisa e com custo reduzido. Objective: to create a purchasing system for optimizing a low cost device fabrication itself. Method: For this purpose was designed a system which is powered by a 12V battery center. The full bridge of "Wheatstone" is powered by the central battery set to 9V. Results: The sign of the strain has a range of 0 to 30 mV which is amplified filtered by a signal conditioner own manufacturing using an LM 324. The electrical signal then passes to vary from 0 to5V which will be processed in an analog input of PIC microcontroller. Tests for the registration and interpretation of data are through software MyOpenLab. Conclusion: The work is in progress and initial results suggest that the system will be able to measure muscular strength accurately and cost-effective.

  3. Evaluating the reliability of a novel neck-strength assessment protocol for healthy adults using self-generated resistance with a hand-held dynamometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteegh, Theo; Beaudet, Danielle; Greenbaum, Marla; Hellyer, Leah; Tritton, Amanda; Walton, Dave

    2015-01-01

    Objectif : Évaluer la convergence test-retest intra et intersessionnelle d'un nouveau protocole d'évaluation de la force du cou au moyen d'un dynamomètre portatif. Contexte: Une recension des écrits a révélé un manque de protocoles d'évaluation de la force du cou à la fois portables et fiables. La dynamométrie manuelle est une méthode portable et peu coûteuse d'évaluation de la force musculaire, mais elle n'est pas utilisée couramment pour évaluer la force du cou. Méthodes : On a utilisé un dynamomètre portatif pour évaluer la force du cou chez 30 participants en bonne santé. On a mesuré la force maximale en flexion cervicale, extension, flexion latérale, flexion latérale avec rotation et rotation pure en utilisant la main ipsilatérale pour appliquer une résistance isométrique pendant 3 secondes. On a pris trois mesures en 6 à 8 jours. Résultats : Les coefficients de corrélation intraclasse (CCI) de test-retest ont révélé une grande fiabilité variant de 0,94 à 0,97 dans le cas de toutes les directions vérifiées de l'essai 1 à l'essai 2 (fiabilité intrasessionnelle) [CCI (2,1), absolu]. Les valeurs CCI ont démontré une fiabilité intersessionnelle variant de bonne à élevée, variant de 0,87 à 0,95 dans le cas de toutes les directions mises à l'épreuve de l'essai 1 à l'essai 3 [CCI (2,1), absolu]. Conclusion : Les résultats indiquent qu'il est possible d'appliquer le protocole d'évaluation de la force du cou et du quadrant supérieur par les cinq positions d'essai en utilisant la dynamométrie manuelle, et qu'il produit une fiabilité variant de bonne à élevée.

  4. Hip- and knee-strength assessments using a hand-held dynamometer with external belt-fixation are inter-tester reliable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, Thomas; Hölmich, Per

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: In football, ice-hockey, and track and field, injuries have been predicted, and hip- and knee-strength deficits quantified using hand-held dynamometry (HHD). However, systematic bias exists when testers of different sex and strength perform the measurements. Belt-fixation of the dynamome......PURPOSE: In football, ice-hockey, and track and field, injuries have been predicted, and hip- and knee-strength deficits quantified using hand-held dynamometry (HHD). However, systematic bias exists when testers of different sex and strength perform the measurements. Belt...

  5. 等速测力评价柔道运动员伤后力量特征及应用%Application of Isokinetic Dynamometer in Evaluating Strength Characteristics of Judo Athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁鹏; 吴翠娥; 朱晓梅

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 研究目的 柔道属创伤发生率较高的接触性运动项目,本研究从肌力平衡角度探索柔道运动员伤后的力量特征,分析关联运动损伤的敏感评价指标,将有助于降低柔道运动员的损伤发生率,并为开展相应的康复性体能训练提供指导依据.

  6. Medida da força de preensão manual- validade e confiabilidade do dinamômetro saehan Assessment of hand grip strength- validity and reliability of the saehan dynamometer

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício Moreira Reis; Paula Maria Machado Arantes

    2011-01-01

    Existe uma grande variedade de instrumentos utilizados para a avaliação da força de preensão manual. Porém, não existem estudos demonstrando a validade e a confiabilidade da maioria destes instrumentos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a validade concorrente e a confiabilidade intraexaminador do dinamômetro Saehan hidráulico comparado-o com o dinamômetro Jamar hidráulico. Cem indivíduos sadios (50 homens e 50 mulheres), entre 20 e 50 anos de idade, sem alterações cognitivas, deficiências f...

  7. Tribological Bench and Engine Dynamometer Tests of a Low Viscosity SAE 0W-16 Engine Oil Using a Combination of Ionic Liquid and ZDDP as Anti-Wear Additives

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported an oil-miscible phosphonium-organophosphate ionic liquid (IL) with effective anti-wear functionality when added to a base oil by itself or combined with a conventional zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) for a synergistic effect. In this research, we investigated whether this synergy manifests in formulated engine oils. An experimental SAE 0W-16 engine oil was generated using a combination of IL and ZDDP with equal phosphorus contribution. The prototype engine oil w...

  8. Modelo de elementos finitos para la determinación de la frecuencia natural de las vibraciones de un dinamómetro. // Determination of the natural frequency of a dynamometer by means of finite elements model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. Jacas Cabrera; M. Rodríguez; J. Batista de Aguiar

    2002-01-01

    ... el programa de elementos finitos ALGOR ( R ) Superdraw III – Versión 12 . 06 WIN 2000. De los resultados de este trabajo se observa la coincidencia de resultados entre los valores obtenidos experimentalmente y por medio del MEF...

  9. Validité et reproductibilité d’un dynamomètre inertiel basé sur l’accélérométrie

    OpenAIRE

    Jidovtseff, Boris; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Cauchy, Sébastien; Croisier, Jean-Louis

    2008-01-01

    Introduction : the purpose of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of an inertial dynamometer using accelerometry. Methods : fourteen subjects were tested during three successive sessions at four increasing loads (30, 50, 70 and 95% of the 1RM). Maximal force, velocity and power performances were simultaneously assessed by the Myotest (Myotest S.A., Switzerland), an inertial dynamometer using accelerometry, and by another control valid dynamometer witch combine accel...

  10. Design, Manufacture, and Testing of Compliant Coatings for Reduction of Turbulent Drag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    static pressure and the dynamometer internal pressure, flow will be induced. Pressure gradients along the floating section can also cause gap flow . If an...underside of the floating section. Thus gap flow must be held to a minimum by proper design of a flat-plate dynamometer. ELECTRONICS For the flat-plate

  11. Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Utility-Scale Wind Turbine Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schkoda, Ryan [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Fox, Curtiss [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Hadidi, Ramtin [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wallen, Robb [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lambert, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-26

    Historically, wind turbine prototypes were tested in the field, which was--and continues to be--a slow and expensive process. As a result, wind turbine dynamometer facilities were developed to provide a more cost-effective alternative to field testing. New turbine designs were tested and the design models were validated using dynamometers to drive the turbines in a controlled environment. Over the years, both wind turbine dynamometer testing and computer technology have matured and improved, and the two are now being joined to provide hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing. This type of testing uses a computer to simulate the items that are missing from a dynamometer test, such as grid stiffness, voltage, frequency, rotor, and hub. Furthermore, wind input and changing electric grid conditions can now be simulated in real time. This recent advance has greatly increased the utility of dynamometer testing for the development of wind turbine systems.

  12. Optimization of a Small-Scale Engine Using Plasma Enhanced Ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    incapable of motoring the engine, a 24 V DC electric motor was mounted next to the engine. A timing belt pulley (M in Figure 4) with a one way bearing (L...associated hardware; body of the engine and dynamometer are not shown: A) engine shaft, B) engine hub, C) 60 minus 2 tooth spur gear flywheel, D) single...keyed dynamometer collar, J) dynamometer shaft, K) rear side shaft extension, L) one-way bearing, M) starter timing belt pulley , N) encoder timing

  13. Isokinetic and isometric muscle strength combined with transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation in primary fibromyalgia syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Wildschiødtz, Gordon; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1991-01-01

    Twenty women with primary fibromyalgia syndrome and 20 age matched healthy women were investigated. The subjects performed maximum voluntary isokinetic contractions of the right quadriceps in an isokinetic dynamometer. Maximum voluntary isometric contractions of the right quadriceps were performe...

  14. Hand-held Dynamo-metry

    OpenAIRE

    Ploeg, Rutger Jan Otto van der

    1992-01-01

    This study describes the application of a hand-held dynamometer that was designed to measure muscle strength in normal individuals and neurological patients in a simple way, comparable to manual muscle testing. Zie: Summary

  15. knock characteristics analysis of a supercharged spark ignition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1.6 bar, presently [9 – 11] and as the drive to further downsize engines continues ... dynamometer and various test and control equipment. The photographs of the ..... Method using Cylinder pressure, Block Vibration and Sound ressure Signal ...

  16. Effects of Cold Temperature and Ethanol Content on VOC Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supporting information Table S6 provides emission rates in g/km of volatile organic compounds measured from gasoline vehicle exhaust during chassis dynamometer...

  17. Change of amplitude of motion and force of hand for women after a radical mammectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Odinec T.E.

    2009-01-01

    The estimation of dynamometer of brush and amplitude of motion is rotined in a humeral joint for women. The features of remote postprocess period are considered after a radical mammectomy. Close correlation is rotined between amplitude of motion and index of function of the external breathing. The results of goniometer and dynamometer are presented. A hydrokinesitherapy is considered from position of perspective mean of rehabilitation of the functional state of women. The high degree of inter...

  18. Caterpillar C7 and GEP 6.5L (T) Fuel System Durability Using 25% ATJ Fuel Blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    torsional vibration coupling to a Midwest model 1519 ( eddy current ) 500hp wet gap dynamometer. o Engine speed was controlled through dynamometer...comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE...UNCLASSIFIED x ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ATJ – alcohol to jet BSFC – brake specific fuel consumption CAT – Caterpillar CI/LI – corrosion inhibitor

  19. Laboratory Test of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-04

    commercial off the shelf (COTS) or specialized solutions, and pricing . TABLE 1. DYNAMOMETERS: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF AVAILABLE TYPES...commonly used torque transducers for dynamometer applications can be found at the following link: http://www.hbm.com/en/ menu /products/transducers...www.dieselnet.com/tech/engine_crank.php, 2012. f. HBM Inc., Torque Sensors and Torque Transducers, http://www.hbm.com/en/ menu /products/transducers-sensors

  20. Modifications to hydra-gym equipment provide for clinically useful strength measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, M S; Lovely, D F; McInnis, M D; Sexsmith, J R

    1994-04-01

    Modifications were made to the Series III-311 Omnikinetic Hydra-Gym apparatus (Hydra-Fitness Industries Inc., Belton, TX) in an effort to provide relatively inexpensive yet clinically useful isokinetic strength measurements. Signal transmission and processing functions were installed to calculate relevant strength characteristics for knee extension/flexion motions. Results from the modified Hydra-Gym were compared with matched procedures on the Kin-Com (model 500-10, Chattecx Corporation, Chattanooga, TN). Subjects (N = 10) performed three maximal concentric right knee extension/flexion cycles at different resistance settings (2, 4, and 6) on the Hydra-Gym and the corresponding angular velocities on the Kin-Com (190, 125, and 40 degrees/sec, respectively). Each subject completed eight testing sessions, four on each dynamometer. A five-way analysis of variance on the peak torque data revealed no significant difference between dynamometers; however, there was a significant interaction between dynamometer and extension/flexion measurements. The variance in angle of peak torque data was significantly different between dynamometers, with Hydra-Gym showing superior reproducibility (p Gym because the interaction noticed between dynamometer and extension/flexion may exaggerate muscle imbalances. In summary, modifications to the Hydra-Gym appear to provide clinicians with a reliable and clinically useful strength testing alternative.

  1. DOE ETV-1 electric test vehicle. Phase III: performance testing and system evaluation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1981-12-01

    The DOE ETV-1 represents the most advanced electric vehicle in operation today. Engineering tests have been conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in order to characterize its overall system performance and component efficiencies within the system environment. A dynamometer was used in order to minimize the ambient effects and large uncertainties present in track testing. Extensive test requirements have been defined and procedures were carefully controlled in order to maintain a high degree of credibility. Limited track testing was performed in order to corroborate the dynamometer results. Test results include an energy flow analysis through the major subsystems and incorporate and aerodynamic and rolling losses under cyclic and various steady speed conditions. A complete summary of the major output from all relevant dynamometer and track tests is also included as an appendix.

  2. Investigation of Machinability Characteristics of AISI 316Ti Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Kayır

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, many experiments of machinability were carried out on universal turning lathe. The cutting forces that occur during machining of workpieces were measured. A standard dynamometer was used to measure cutting forces. The Dynamometer were assembled on the lathe efficiently. An apart were designed and machined to assembly the dynamometer. Moreover, AISI 316Ti stainless steel parts were turned by carbide cutting tools coated with TiAlN components. Effects of cutting tools with different radius on cutting forces and surface roughness were investigated by using different cutting parameters. Moreover, machined parts' surface roughness was controlled. The experimental results showed that cutting forces increased with the increasing federate, but the surface roughness decreased with increasing the radius of cutting edge.

  3. DOE ETV-1 electric test vehicle. Phase III: performance testing and system evaluation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1981-12-01

    The DOE ETV-1 represents the most advanced electric vehicle in operation today. Engineering tests have been conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in order to characterize its overall system performance and component efficiencies within the system environment. A dynamometer was used in order to minimize the ambient effects and large uncertainties present in track testing. Extensive test requirements have been defined and procedures were carefully controlled in order to maintain a high degree of credibility. Limited track testing was performed in order to corroborate the dynamometer results. Test results include an energy flow analysis through the major subsystems and incorporate and aerodynamic and rolling losses under cyclic and various steady speed conditions. A complete summary of the major output from all relevant dynamometer and track tests is also included as an appendix.

  4. Evaluation isocinétique du genou: quelle est la compatibilité entre différents dynamomètres?

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus, Julien; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Croisier, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the compatibility between dynamometer Biodex System 3 Pro, Con-Trex MJ PM-2 and Cybex Humac CSMI of knee extensors and flexors. Material & method Twenty-one subjects, moderately active, performed three isokinetic evaluation sessions with six to ten days of rest between each. Each of it, performed on a dynamometer in accordance with a different randomized order, included a concentric evaluation (60°.s-1 & 240°.s-1), eccentric (30°.s-1) an...

  5. Exploratory development of a glass ceramic automobile thermal reactor. [anti-pollution devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, R. E.; Petticrew, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    This report summarizes the design, fabrication and test results obtained for glass-ceramic (CER-VIT) automotive thermal reactors. Several reactor designs were evaluated using both engine-dynamometer and vehicle road tests. A maximum reactor life of about 330 hours was achieved in engine-dynamometer tests with peak gas temperatures of about 1065 C (1950 F). Reactor failures were mechanically induced. No evidence of chemical degradation was observed. It was concluded that to be useful for longer times, the CER-VIT parts would require a mounting system that was an improvement over those tested in this program. A reactor employing such a system was designed and fabricated.

  6. Study of nozzle deposit formation mechanism for direct injection gasoline engines; Chokufun gasoline engine yo nozzle no deposit seisei kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, M.; Saito, A. [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Aichi (Japan); Matsushita, S. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Shibata, H. [Nippon Soken, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Niwa, Y. [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Nozzles in fuel injectors for direct injection gasoline engines are exposed to high temperature combustion gases and soot. In such a rigorous environment, it is a fear that fuel flow rate changes in injectors by deposit formation on nozzles. Fundamental factors of nozzle deposit formation were investigated through injector bench tests and engine dynamometer tests. Deposit formation processes were observed by SEM through engine dynamometer tests. The investigation results reveal nozzle deposit formation mechanism and how to suppress the deposit. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Change of amplitude of motion and force of hand for women after a radical mammectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odinec T.E.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of dynamometer of brush and amplitude of motion is rotined in a humeral joint for women. The features of remote postprocess period are considered after a radical mammectomy. Close correlation is rotined between amplitude of motion and index of function of the external breathing. The results of goniometer and dynamometer are presented. A hydrokinesitherapy is considered from position of perspective mean of rehabilitation of the functional state of women. The high degree of intercommunication is rotined between taking and bending in a humeral joint the vital capacity of lights.

  8. Characterization of a Power Electronic Grid Simulator for Wind Turbine Generator Compliance Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasdam, Jakob Bærholm; Gevorgian, V.; Wallen, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the commissioning results and testing capabilities of a multi-megawatt power electronic grid simulator situated in National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL’s) new testing facility. The commissioning is done using a commercial type 4 multi-megawatt sized wind turbine...... generator (WTG) installed in NREL’s new 5 MW dynamometer and a kilowatt sized type 1 WTG connected to the existing 2.5 MW dynamometer at NREL. The paper demonstrates the outstanding testing capability of the grid simulator and its application in the grid code compliance evaluation of WTGs including balanced...

  9. Procedural Options for Measuring Muscle Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindova S.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to provide alternative means of measurement and evaluation of muscle strength in rehabilitation practice and diagnostics. In the last few years many electronic devices for evaluation of muscle strength have developed. Contemporary studies have shown that in addition to the standard manual muscle testing muscle strength can be assessed more objectively and analytically using electronic dynamometers and equipment. The strain gauges are used as a tool of precision in the industry that allows measurement of mechanical loads by dynamometers. By using these tools is possible to obtain continuous digital measurement and recording of muscle strength.

  10. Investigation of Data Fusion Applied to Health Monitoring of Wind Turbine Drive train Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Sheng, Shuangwen

    2011-01-01

    The research described was performed on diagnostic tools used to detect damage to dynamic mechanical components in a wind turbine gearbox. Different monitoring technologies were evaluated by collecting vibration and oil debris data from tests performed on a "healthy" gearbox and a damaged gearbox in a dynamometer test stand located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The damaged gearbox tested was removed from the field after experiencing component damage due to two losses of oil events and was retested under controlled conditions in the dynamometer test stand. Preliminary results indicate oil debris and vibration can be integrated to assess the health of the wind turbine gearbox.

  11. 40 CFR 1065.110 - Work inputs and outputs, accessory work, and operator demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... simulate the specific types of work, as follows: (1) Shaft work. Use an engine dynamometer that is able to... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.110... to simulate all engine work inputs and outputs as they typically would operate in use. Account...

  12. HAND-HELD MYOMETRY - REFERENCE VALUES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERPLOEG, RJO; FIDLER, [No Value; OOSTERHUIS, HJGH

    1991-01-01

    In thirteen major muscle groups of 50 healthy females and 50 males, aged 20-60 years, maximum voluntary contraction was measured with a hand-held dynamometer. The intrasession variation, the left-right variation, and the fifth and fiftieth centile values were calculated. The ratio of two observation

  13. Isokinetic strength of the trunk Xexor muscles after surgical repair for incisional hernia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. den Hartog (Dennis); H.H. Eker (Hasan); W.E. Tuinebreijer (Wim); G.J. Kleinrensink (Gert Jan); H.J. Stam (Henk); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose The repair of incisional hernias can be accomplished by open or laparoscopic techniques. The Biodex® dynamometer measures muscle strength during isokinetic movement. The objectives of this study are to compare the strength of the trunk Xexors between patients who underwent repair

  14. Reliability and agreement between 2 strength devices used in the newly modified and standardized Constant score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Tange; Aagesen, Maria; Hjerrild, Signe;

    2014-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS: The new and standardized test protocol for the Constant score (CS) provides new methodology, but different devices are still used for shoulder strength testing. It was hypothesized that strength measurements using the IsoForceControl (IFC) dynamometer (MDS Medical Device Solutions, Ob...

  15. 40 CFR 86.099-17 - Emission control diagnostic system for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the system or component to meet the electrical circuit continuity checks or the rationality or... the vehicle, and the limits to which the system is compared shall be available through the... regulations shall be evaluated periodically, but no less frequently than once per Urban Dynamometer Driving...

  16. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the vehicle using one full Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. Ensure that the vehicle has stabilized... lowest setting that continues to provide air flow. Recirculation shall be turned off except that if the system defaults to a recirculation mode when set to maximum cooling and maintains recirculation with the...

  17. 40 CFR 79.57 - Emission generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the vehicle/engine exhaust pipe into the dilution system and measuring the amount exiting the system... 130 °F±5 °F. The vapors shall maintain this temperature up to the point in the system where the vapors... subparts D, M and N for heavy-duty vehicles/engines. The Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS...

  18. Measuring Force System Set-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Victoria Anghel

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, are presented the results of cutting force and torque measurements were undertaken by a 4-axis 9272 KISTLER dynamometer. The DynoWare software was used for processing of the measurements. We can conclude that the values of torque, cutting force were higher compared to dry drilling, as we expected.

  19. 40 CFR 610.60 - Non-standard ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-standard ambient conditions. 610... Non-standard ambient conditions. (a) Extreme temperatures. For vehicles required to be tested at... dynamometer, in ambient temperatures outside the 60° to 90° range specified in § 610.64 as determined by...

  20. Properties of Isokinetic Fatigue at Various Movement Speeds in Adult Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David H.; Manning, James M.

    1985-01-01

    Eighteen male subjects, aged 20 to 28 years, engaged in three fatigue bouts using an isokinetic dynamometer to measure knee extension contractions. Peak torque varied inversely with movement speed, and the pattern of decrement was independent of speed. Time to peak torque did not change significantly across trials in isokinetic fatigue. (Author/MT)

  1. Evaluating the Effects of Restraint Systems on 4WD Testing Methodologies: A Collaborative Effort between the NVFEL and ANL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testing vehicles for emissions and fuel economy has traditionally been conducted with a single-axle chassis dynamometer. The 2006 SAE All Wheel Drive Symposium cited four wheel drive (4WD) and all wheel drive (AWD) sales as climbing from 20% toward 30% of a motor vehicle mar...

  2. Comparison of Lower Body Specific Resistance Training on the Hamstring to Quadriceps Strength Ratios in Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgo, Sandor; Edupuganti, Pradeep; Smith, Darla R.; Ortiz, Melchor

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we compared hamstring (H) and quadriceps (Q) strength changes in men and women, as well as changes in conventional and functional H:Q ratios following an identical 12-week resistance training program. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess 14 male and 14 female participants before and after the intervention, and conventional…

  3. Kinesthetic Ability in Children with Spastic Hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysagis, Nikolaos K.; Skordilis, Emmanouil K.; Koutsouki, Dimitra; Evans, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to examine the differences in kinesthetic ability, at the elbow joint, between children with (n = 15) and without (n = 15) spastic hemiplegia. The Kin Com 125 AP isokinetic dynamometer Configuration Chattanooga was used. Results revealed significant (p less than 0.05) interaction between participant groups and side which was a…

  4. Experimental study into plasma-assisted PM removal for diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Creyghton, Y.; Gulijk, C. van; Oonk, H; Maisuls, S.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma-assisted PM removal is examined in a packed-bed plasma system. This study focuses on the effect of plasma power, space velocity and exhaust gas composition on PM filtration. Experiments are done on an engine dynamometer with a VW 1.2l TDI engine. During these experiments, the airflow is throt

  5. 煤气机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Caterpillar G3520C first of new gas gen-set line;Characteristic Analysis of an Efficient Hybrid Air Conditioning System (lst Report, Performance Analysis of Compression and Absorption Hybrid Cycle);Chassis dynamometer emission measurements from refuse trucks using Dual-Fuel Natural gas engine;Combustion Characteristics of a Prechamber Lean-Burn Gas Engine……

  6. Muscle strength in patients with chronic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C.P.; Akkerman, L.; Wieringa, J.; Dijkstra, P.U.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the influence of chronic pain on muscle strength. Design: Muscle strength of patients with unilateral nonspecific chronic pain, in an upper or lower limb, were measured according to a standardized protocol using a hand-held dynamometer. Before and after muscle strength

  7. Cold Temperature and Biodiesel Fuel Effects on Speciated Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Diesel Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three medium heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a chassis dynamometer at two ambient temperatures (-6.7°C and 21.7°C) operating on ...

  8. ACCESS Project: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, Heiko [Robert Bosch, LLC, Farmington Hills, MI (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The ACCESS project addressed the development, testing, and demonstration of the proposed advanced technologies and the associated emission and fuel economy improvement at an engine dynamometer and on a full-scale vehicle. Improve fuel economy by 25% with minimum performance penalties Achieve SULEV level emissions with gasoline Demonstrate multi-mode combustion engine management system

  9. 40 CFR 85.2225 - Steady state test exhaust analysis system-EPA 91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System...; analyzers for HC, CO, and CO2; and digital displays for exhaust concentrations of HC, CO, and CO2; and for... or into an extension boot, if one is used. A digital display for dynamometer speed and load must...

  10. Carbonaceous Aerosols Emitted from Light-Duty Vehicles Operating on Gasoline and Ethanol Fuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examines the chemical properties of carbonaceous aerosols emitted from three light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDVs) operating on gasoline (e0) and ethanol-gasoline fuel blends (e10 and e85). Vehicle road load simulations were performed on a chassis dynamometer using the t...

  11. King County Metro Transit: Allison Hybrid Electric Transit Bus Laboratory Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, R. R.; Williams, A.; Ireland, J.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-09-01

    Paper summarizes chassis dynamometer testing of two 60-foot articulated transit buses, one conventional and one hybrid, at NREL's ReFUEL Laboratory. It includes experimental setup, test procedures, and results from vehicle testing performed at the NREL ReFUEL laboratory.

  12. 40 CFR 86.1332-90 - Engine mapping procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 86.1332-90 Engine mapping procedures. (a) Mount test engine on the engine dynamometer. (b) Determine... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine mapping procedures. 86.1332-90... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED)...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.920 - PEMS Calibrations and verifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by laboratory equipment as follows: (1) Mount an engine on a dynamometer for laboratory testing... POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Field Testing and Portable Emission Measurement Systems § 1065... verification. The verification consists of operating an engine over a duty cycle in the laboratory...

  14. CONVERSION OF DIESEL ENGINE INTO SPARK IGNITION ENGINE TO WORK WITH CNG AND LPG FUELS FOR MEETING NEW EMISSION NORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Kaleemuddin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating fuel prices and associated pollution problems of largely exploited petroleum liquid fuel has stimulated the research on abundantly available gaseous fuels to keep the mobility industry intact. In the present work an air cooled diesel engine was modified suitably into a spark ignition engine incorporating electronic ignition and variable speed dependant spark timing to accommodate both LPG and CNG as fuels. Engine was optimized for stoichiometric operation on engine dynamometer. Materials of a few intricate engine components were replaced to suit LPG and CNG application. Ignition timing was mapped to work with gaseous fuels for different speeds. Compensation was done for recovering volumetric efficiency when operated with CNG by introducing more volume of air through resonator. Ignition timing was observed to be the pertinent parameter in achieving good performance with gaseous fuels under consideration. Performance and emission tests were carried out on engine dynamometer and chassis dynamometer. Under wide open throttle and at rated speed condition, it was observed that the peak pressure with LPG was lying between diesel fuel and CNG fuel operation due to slow burning nature of gaseous fuels. As compression ratio was maintained same for LPG and CNG fuel operation, low CO emissions were observed with LPG where as HC + NOx emissions were lower with CNG fuel operation. Chassis dynamometer based emission tests yielded lower CO2 levels with CNG operation.

  15. 40 CFR 86.232-94 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) or fall below 15 °F (−9 °C) for more than three consecutive minutes. The maximum time for moving a... vehicle shall be moved to the test area and the following operations performed: (1) The fuel tank(s) shall...) diameter single roll dynamometer, the drive wheel tires shall be inflated to the pressure recommended...

  16. Effects of Isometric Hand-Grip Muscle Contraction on Young Adults' Free Recall and Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Albrecht, Chelesa; Pendleton, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if physical arousal produced by isometric hand-dynamometer contraction performed during word-list learning affects young adults' free recall or recognition memory. Method: Twenty-four young adults (12 female; M[subscript age] = 22 years) were presented with 4 20-item word lists. Moderate arousal…

  17. Analýza změn datových matic elektronických regulátorů na výstupní parametry spalovacích motorů

    OpenAIRE

    Richtárik, Luboš

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify real changes the output parameters of the combustion motor software modification data fields in the control unit. Description of individual electronic engine control systems. The analysis of changes is performed mainly by measuring signals OBD-II, as well as power and torque on the chassis dynamometer machine 4VDM E120-D.

  18. Muscle strength in patients with chronic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C.P.; Akkerman, L.; Wieringa, J.; Dijkstra, P.U.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the influence of chronic pain on muscle strength. Design: Muscle strength of patients with unilateral nonspecific chronic pain, in an upper or lower limb, were measured according to a standardized protocol using a hand-held dynamometer. Before and after muscle strength measurem

  19. Testing and Benchmarking a 2014 GM Silverado 6L80 Six Speed Automatic Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describe the method and test results of EPA’s partial transmission benchmarking process which involves installing both the engine and transmission in an engine dynamometer test cell with the engine wire harness tethered to its vehicle parked outside the test cell.

  20. Experimental study into plasma-assisted PM removal for diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Creyghton, Y.; Gulijk, C. van; Oonk, H; Maisuls, S.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma-assisted PM removal is examined in a packed-bed plasma system. This study focuses on the effect of plasma power, space velocity and exhaust gas composition on PM filtration. Experiments are done on an engine dynamometer with a VW 1.2l TDI engine. During these experiments, the airflow is

  1. Testing of the Eagle-Picher nickel-iron, the Globe ISOA lead-acid, and the Westinghouse nickel-iron battery subsystems in an electric-vehicle environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, R.; Bryant, J.

    1982-01-01

    Three full size developmental batteries were tested with electric vehicles; two nickel-iron batteries and a lead-acid battery. Constant speed and driving schedule tests were done on a chassis dynamometer. Several aspects of battery performance were evaluated for capacity, recharge efficiency, voltage response, and self discharge. Each of these three batteries exhibited some strengths and some weaknesses.

  2. 40 CFR 610.64 - Track test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... either a volumetric or gravimetric procedure approved by the Administrator. (5) Vehicle speed and... truck or trailer. (4) Fuel economy will be determined by either a gravimetric or volumetric method. (c... in dynamometer tests (§ 610.43(b)). Fuel economy will be measured by gravimetric or...

  3. Research Experience with a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, T.; Pesaran, A.; Kelly, K.; Thornton, M.; Nortman, P.

    2007-12-01

    This technical document reports on the exploratory research conducted by NREL on PHEV technology using a Toyota Prius that has been converted to a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. The data includes both controlled dynamometer and on-road test results, particularly for hilly driving. The results highlight the petroleum savings and benefits of PHEV technology.

  4. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative High Speed Shaft Tapered Roller Bearing Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.; Guo, Y.; McNiff, B.

    2013-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) is a project investigating gearbox reliability primarily through testing and modeling. Previous dynamometer testing focused upon acquiring measurements in the planetary section of the test gearbox. Prior to these tests, the strain gages installed on the planetary bearings were calibrated in a load frame.

  5. Test experiences with the DaimlerChrysler: Fuel cell electric vehicle NECAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedlmeier Gerardo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The DalmlerChrysler fuel cell electric vehicle NECAR 4, a hydrogen-fueled zero-emission compact car based on the A-Class of Mercedes-Benz, is described. Test results obtained on the road and on the dynamometer are presented. These and other results show the high technological maturity reliability and durability already achieved with fuel cell technology.

  6. Muscle Fatigue during Intermittent Exercise in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Dipla, Konstantina; Salonikidis, Konstantinos; Karra, Chrisanthi; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2010-01-01

    This study examined fatigue profile during intermittent exercise in 10 men with mild to moderate mental retardation (MR) and 10 men without mental retardation (C). They performed 4 x 30 s maximal knee extensions and flexions with 1-min rest on an isokinetic dynamometer. Peak torque of flexors (PTFL) and extensors (PTEX), total work (TW), and…

  7. Carbonaceous PM2.5 emitted from light-duty vehicles operating on low-level ethanol fuel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aims to examine carbonaceous aerosol emissions from three Tier 2-certified 2008 model year LDVs burning e0, e10, and e85 fuel blends at -7°C and 24°C. The LDVs were tested on an electric chasis dynamometer using the LA-92 Urban Driving Cycle (UDC). Exhaust was ...

  8. Establishing Normative Reference Values for Handgrip among Hungarian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Karsai, István; Kaj, Mónika; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine age- and sex-related variation in handgrip strength and to determine reference values for the Hungarian population. Method: A sample of 1,086 Hungary youth (aged 11-18 years old; 654 boys and 432 girls) completed a handgrip strength assessment using a handheld dynamometer. Quantile regression was…

  9. Development of Load Characteristic for The Main Engine and Its PLC Compatible Preparation in Cooperation with The Water Brake as The Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Markert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Water brake can be used in any application where a load brake is required on a rotational load. In the engine industry, dynamometer is used in conjunction with a power source and instrumentation to determine engine HP, Torque, and Efficiency ratings with a high degree of accuracy. Water brake are proven durable designs which use water flowing through the absorber to create a load on the engine. Only the amount of water necessary to provide the load is required.Precise load control of the dynamometer is as simple as increasing or decreasing water volume flowing through the dynamometer absorption body. The controls ensure engine load remains stable throughout the duration of the test cycle. Torque, horsepower, RPM, and water temperature are displayed on highly accurate digital instrumentation.Computers can perform both sequential control and feedback control, and typically a single computer will do both in an industrial application. Programmable logic controllers are a type of special purpose microprocessor that replaced many hardware components such as timers and drum sequencers used in relay logic type systems. They can also analyze data and create real time graphical displays for operators and run reports for operators, engineers and management.Industrial control systems are usually used in all over in control system. A distributed control system refers to a control system in which the controllers are spread throughout the system and connect by networks. Smaller automation applications can be implemented with programmable logic controllers.This thesis basically is about designing a programmable logic controller compatible for dynamometer to control speed, power and torque of main engine. To test engine performance in the laboratory, the engine is coupled to a dynamometer. In this thesis dynamometer are used to measure speed, power and torque. One of the most essential role of the control engineer is tuning of controller. Hence the

  10. Development of a Mechanism for Measuring Forces and Aligning Moment Acting on the Steering Wheels of a Four-Wheel Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hajiahmad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a low-cost dynamometer for rolling, steered wheels is described. The dynamometer was constructed to determine whether such an instrumented mechanism was practical. Four S-beam load cells, an Opto-counter and a potentiometer were used to obtain all moments, and forces using dynamic and kinematic analysis. Minimal simplifying assumptions considered for the required calculations. Overturning, aligning and rolling resistance moments besides vertical force are directly measured by the load cells. The Opto-counter detects wheel angular velocity and the potentiometer was used to measure the steering angle. The results showed that the mechanism was very well calibrated with a coefficient of determination of over 0.99 and can be used to define wheel dynamic behavior.

  11. Development of real-world driving cycles and estimation of emission factors for in-use light-duty gasoline vehicles in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Mei-Yin; Yu, Tai-Yi

    2014-07-01

    This investigation adopts vehicle tracking manner to establish real-world driving patterns and estimates emission factors with dynamometers with 23 traffic-driving variables for 384 in-use light-duty passenger vehicles during non-rush hour. Adequate numbers of driving variables were decided with factor analysis and cluster analysis. The dynamometer tests were performed on FTP75 cycle and five local driving cycles derived from real-world speed profiles. Results presented that local driving cycles and FTP75 cycle were completely different in driving characteristic parameters of typical driving cycles and emission factors. The highest values of emission factor ratios of local driving cycle and FTP75 cycle for CO, NMHC, NO x , CH4, and CO2 were 1.38, 1.65, 1.58, 1.39, and 1.14, respectively.

  12. Evaluation of the micro-carburetor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, M.F.; Hall, R.A.; Mazor, S.D.

    1981-08-01

    A prototype sonic, variable-venturi automotive carburetor, developed by Micro Carburetor Corporation, was evaluated for its effects on vehicle performance, fuel economy, and exhaust emissions. A 350 CID Chevrolet Impala vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over the 1975 Federal Test Procedure, urban driving cycle. The Micro-carburetor was tested and compared with stock and modified-stock engine configurations. Subsequently, the test vehicle's performance characteristics were examined with the stock carburetor and again with the Micro-carburetor in a series of on-road driveability tests. The test engine was then removed from the vehicle and installed on an engine dynamometer. Engine tests were conducted to compare the fuel economy, thermal efficiency, and cylinder-to-cylinder mixture distribution of the Micro-carburetor to that of the stock configuration. Test results show increases in thermal efficiency and improvements in fuel economy at all test conditions.

  13. Engine test system supplied to Thai Petroleum Public Corporation PPT; Taikoku sekiyu kosha PPT muke engine test system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-10

    This paper introduces an engine test system supplied to Thai Petroleum Public Corporation PTT for power measurement device, made by Meidensha, Inc. An engine bench was installed at the Thai Petroleum Public Corporation PTT through a project type technical cooperation scheme of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). This system is intended mainly to perform tests specified in JASO M333-93, the test method for high-temperature oxidation stability of lubrication oils in automotive gasoline engines. Meidensha Inc. has carried out system engineering including the engine, dynamometer, temperature adjusting devices, instrumentation and controls according to the JASO test method. Major specifications cover the following items: a dynamometer of FCDY220/160 kW, an engine of TOYOTA 1G-FE, a throttle actuator, cooling water and lubrication oil temperature adjusting devices (water cooled and air cooled), and MEIDACS-DY3100 system. (NEDO)

  14. Driving and engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Giakoumis, Evangelos G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

  15. Analysis of an Increase in the Efficiency of a Spark Ignition Engine Through the Application of an Automotive Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkisz, Jerzy; Fuc, Pawel; Lijewski, Piotr; Ziolkowski, Andrzej; Galant, Marta; Siedlecki, Maciej

    2016-08-01

    We have analyzed the increase of the overall efficiency of a spark ignition engine through energy recovery following the application of an automotive thermoelectric generator (ATEG) of our own design. The design of the generator was developed following emission investigations during vehicle driving under city traffic conditions. The measurement points were defined by actual operation conditions (engine speed and load), subsequently reproduced on an engine dynamometer. Both the vehicle used in the on-road tests and the engine dynamometer were fit with the same, downsized spark ignition engine (with high effective power-to-displacement ratio). The thermodynamic parameters of the exhaust gases (temperature and exhaust gas mass flow) were measured on the engine testbed, along with the fuel consumption and electric current generated by the thermoelectric modules. On this basis, the power of the ATEG and its impact on overall engine efficiency were determined.

  16. Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-08-01

    This fact sheet describes the Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development aims to improve vehicle efficiency and overcome barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such as biodiesel and synthetic diesel derived from biomass. The ReFUEL Laboratory features a chassis dynamometer for vehicle performance and emissions research, two engine dynamometer test cells for advanced fuels research, and precise emissions analysis equipment. As a complement to these capabilities, detailed studies of fuel properties, with a focus on ignition quality, are performed at NREL's Fuel Chemistry Laboratory.

  17. Determination of torque speed current characteristics of a brushless DC motor by utilizing back-EMF of non-energized phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, G. H.; Yeom, J. H.; Kim, M. G.

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents a method to determine the torque constant and the torque-speed-current characteristics of a brushless DC (BLDC) motor by utilizing back-EMF variation of nonenergized phase. It also develops a BLDC motor controller with a digital signal processor (DSP) to monitor its current, voltage and speed in real time. Torque-speed-current characteristics of a BLDC motor are determined by using the proposed method and the developed controller. They are compared with the torque-speed-current characteristics measured by dynamometer experimentally. This research shows that the proposed method is an effective method to determine the torque constant and the torque-speed-current characteristics of the BLDC motor without using dynamometer.

  18. Determination of torque-speed-current characteristics of a brushless DC motor by utilizing back-EMF of non-energized phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, G.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdangdong, Seongdonggu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: ghjang@hanyang.ac.kr; Yeom, J.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdangdong, Seongdonggu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, M.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdangdong, Seongdonggu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    This paper presents a method to determine the torque constant and the torque-speed-current characteristics of a brushless DC (BLDC) motor by utilizing back-EMF variation of nonenergized phase. It also develops a BLDC motor controller with a digital signal processor (DSP) to monitor its current, voltage and speed in real time. Torque-speed-current characteristics of a BLDC motor are determined by using the proposed method and the developed controller. They are compared with the torque-speed-current characteristics measured by dynamometer experimentally. This research shows that the proposed method is an effective method to determine the torque constant and the torque-speed-current characteristics of the BLDC motor without using dynamometer.

  19. Isometric abdominal wall muscle strength assessment in individuals with incisional hernia: a prospective reliability study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K. K.; Kjær, Michael; Jorgensen, L. N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the reliability of measurements obtained by the Good Strength dynamometer, determining isometric abdominal wall and back muscle strength in patients with ventral incisional hernia (VIH) and healthy volunteers with an intact abdominal wall. Methods Ten patients with VIH and ten...... healthy volunteers with an intact abdominal wall were each examined twice with a 1 week interval. Examination included the assessment of truncal flexion and extension as measured with the Good Strength dynamometer, the completion of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the self......-assessment of truncal strength on a visual analogue scale (SATS). The test–retest reliability of truncal flexion and extension was assessed by interclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland and Altman graphs. Finally, correlations between truncal strength, and IPAQ and SATS were examined. Results Truncal flexion...

  20. Measurement of tool forces in diamond turning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drescher, J.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    A dynamometer has been designed and built to measure forces in diamond turning. The design includes a 3-component, piezoelectric transducer. Initial experiments with this dynamometer system included verification of its predicted dynamic characteristics as well as a detailed study of cutting parameters. Many cutting experiments have been conducted on OFHC Copper and 6061-T6 Aluminum. Tests have involved investigation of velocity effects, and the effects of depth and feedrate on tool forces. Velocity has been determined to have negligible effects between 4 and 21 m/s. Forces generally increase with increasing depth of cut. Increasing feedrate does not necessarily lead to higher forces. Results suggest that a simple model may not be sufficient to describe the forces produced in the diamond turning process.

  1. Development of nondestructive system for detecting the cracks in KTX brake disk using Rayleigh wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Soo; Lee, Ho Yong [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Yun Taek; Park, Jin Hyun; Song, Sung Jing; Kim, Hak Joon [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sung Duck [Dept. of Physics, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Recently, KTX (Korean Train Express) train stoppage accidents were mainly caused by malfunctioning equipment, aging and cracking of railway vehicles, crack breakages of brake disks, and breakages of brake disks. Breakage of brake disk can cause large-scale casualties such as high-speed collision and concern about derailment by hitting lower axle and wheel. Therefore, in this study, a brake disk with solid and ventilation type, which is the brake disk of a KTX train was modeled, and a dynamometer system was constructed to operate the disk. A Rayleigh wave was used to inspect the surface of the brake disk. An ultrasonic inspection module was developed for the brake disk by using a local immersion method due to the difficulty involved in ultrasonic inspection using an existing immersion method. In addition, the surface defects of the brake disk were evaluated using a dynamometer mock-up system and an ultrasonic inspection module of the brake disk.

  2. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Bearing Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, J.

    2011-10-01

    NREL has initiated the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) to investigate the root cause of the low wind turbine gearbox reliability. The GRC follows a multi-pronged approach based on a collaborative of manufacturers, owners, researchers and consultants. The project combines analysis, field testing, dynamometer testing, condition monitoring, and the development and population of a gearbox failure database. At the core of the project are two 750kW gearboxes that have been redesigned and rebuilt so that they are representative of the multi-megawatt gearbox topology currently used in the industry. These gearboxes are heavily instrumented and are tested in the field and on the dynamometer. This report discusses the bearing calibrations of the gearboxes.

  3. Power: its development and dynamics of young students during their studies at university.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zyankin A.M.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the level of force in different amounts of physical education classes in higher educational institutions.The study involved first-year students in 2002, 2004, 2008 - 2010. A comparative analysis of carpal dynamometry today's students and students of 2002 and 2004. Definite difference in terms of carpal dynamometer and the power index. The dependence of the strength indicators of the number of classroom hours physical education. The study usedthe resultsof the questionnairestudentsayear of facultygovernance.

  4. Performance characteristics of 1977 General Motors 350 CID engine. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boziuk, J.

    1980-02-01

    Experimental data were obtained in dynamometer tests of a 1977 GM 350 CID engine to determine fuel consumption and emissions (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen) at steady-state engine operating modes. The objective of the test was to obtain engine performance data for estimating fuel consumption and emissions for varied engine service and duty and to provide basic engine characteristic data required for the TSC Vehicle Simulator (VEHSIM).

  5. Blade Testing Trends (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desmond, M.

    2014-08-01

    As an invited guest speaker, Michael Desmond presented on NREL's NWTC structural testing methods and capabilities at the 2014 Sandia Blade Workshop held on August 26-28, 2014 in Albuquerque, NM. Although dynamometer and field testing capabilities were mentioned, the presentation focused primarily on wind turbine blade testing, including descriptions and capabilities for accredited certification testing, historical methodology and technology deployment, and current research and development activities.

  6. Megawatt Scale Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of a High Speed Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    designed for 1.2 MW continuous and 2.5 MW intermittent power. The generator is a two-stage machine composed of a brushless DC exciter and main...operators with the case interface. A simulation model of the entire PHIL test setup (dynamometer, gearbox, generator , rectifier, VVS, etc.), including...Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of a High Speed Generator ABSTRACT A megawatt scale test bed for power hardware- in-the-loop experimentation with high

  7. Shakedown and Preliminary Calibration Tests for the Fuel Engine Evaluation System Using the KM914A Sachs Rotary Combustion Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    their interrelationships discussed in Taylor [1], Obert [2] and Lichty [3]. From the performance parameters, performance curves can be plotted which...reaction force and r is the radius measured from the dynamometer centre line to the point of force measurement. The brake power (bp) is calculated...transducer centred on the oscilloscope screen for a given engine rotational frequency. This yielded speed control to within 15 RPM and load control

  8. Perceived Submaximal Force Production in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allen W.; Ludtke, Andrew W.; Martin, Scott B.; Koziris, L. (Perry); Dishman, Rod K.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the force production patterns using perceived stimulus cues from 10% to 90% of maximal force. In Experiment 1, 54 men (age: 19-34 years) and 53 women (age: 18-37 years) performed leg extensions on a dynamometer at a speed of 60 degrees/s. Participants produced actual forces perceived to be 10-90% of…

  9. Study of Vehicle Exhaust Variation with Test Modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays harmful gas in vehicle exhaust has pollute d air heavily. To prevent the environment from polluting, the request of emissions control legislation becomes more stringent. New legislation prescribes not only the emissions limitation of vehicles, but also testing instruments and methods. Test car must be operated on the chassis dynamometer and data must be collect ed and analyzed with prescriptive exhaust analysis system as well. The mass of harmful exhaust gas, containing the concentration an...

  10. Klapp method effect on idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents: blind randomized controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Dantas, Diego de Sousa; Assis, Sanderson José Costa de; Baroni, Marina Pegoraro; Lopes, Johnnatas Mikael; Cacho, Enio Walker Azevedo; Cacho,Roberta de Oliveira; Pereira, Silvana Alves

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] To estimate the effect of Klapp method on idiopathic scoliosis in school students. [Subjects and Methods] A single-blind randomized clinical trial with 22 students randomly divided into intervention group (n=12) and inactive control group (n=10). Exercise protocol consisted of Klapp method, 20 sessions, three times a week for intervention group, and inactivity for control group. Dorsal muscle strength was measured by dynamometer; body asymmetries and gibbosity angles were measured b...

  11. Extending and Characterizing Fuel Flexibility in Small-Scale Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    McCoy, Christopher David

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate goal and hope for engines of the near future is the development of wide range fuel-flexibility within internal combustion engines. This research dissertation presents three innovations that have pushed the boundary of science and technology to enable this vision on the mini scale. First, the design and construction of a new small-scale, fuel flexible, engine dynamometer that allowed for precise measurement and control of mini engines operating on non standard fuels. Second, the f...

  12. Mean Value SI Engine Model for Control Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert; Sorenson, Spencer C

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematically simple nonlinear three state (three differential equation) dynamic model of an SI engine which has the same steady state accuracy as a typical dynamometer measurement of the engine over its entire speed/load operating range (± 2.0%). The model's accuracy for l....... The model can easily be run on a Personal Computer (PC) using a ordinary differential equation (ODE) integrating routine or package. This makes the model is useful for control system design and evaluation....

  13. Functional and morphological changes in the quadriceps muscle induced by eccentric training after ACL reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Brasileiro,Jamilson S.; Pinto,Olga M. S. F.; Mariana A. Ávila; Tania F. Salvini

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the contributions of functional and morphological factors in the recovery of the quadriceps muscle after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. METHODS: Nine subjects (31.3±5.8 years) underwent eccentric exercise sessions twice a week for 12 weeks. Quadriceps muscle function was evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer (isometric and eccentric peak torque) and electromyography (RMS). Morphological changes were measured using ...

  14. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Peak Torque Differences between Vegetarian and Omnivore Endurance Athletes: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Heidi M.; Wharton, Christopher M; Johnston, Carol S

    2016-01-01

    In spite of well-documented health benefits of vegetarian diets, less is known regarding the effects of these diets on athletic performance. In this cross-sectional study, we compared elite vegetarian and omnivore adult endurance athletes for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and strength. Twenty-seven vegetarian (VEG) and 43 omnivore (OMN) athletes were evaluated using VO2 max testing on the treadmill, and strength assessment using a dynamometer to determine peak torque for leg extensions. Die...

  15. Development of hybrid electric vehicle powertrain test system based on virtue instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanmin; Guo, Konghui; Chen, Liming

    2017-05-01

    Hybrid powertrain has become the standard configuration of some automobile models. The test system of hybrid vehicle powertrain was developed based on virtual instrument, using electric dynamometer to simulate the work of engines, to test the motor and control unit of the powertrain. The test conditions include starting, acceleration, and deceleration. The results show that the test system can simulate the working conditions of the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain under various conditions.

  16. Isometric exercise in the denervated heart: a Doppler echocardiographic study.

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, S C; Furniss, S.S.; Heads, A; Boys, R J; McGregor, C.; Bexton, R S

    1989-01-01

    The haemodynamic responses to isometric exercise of eight recipients of orthotopic heart transplants and eight healthy controls were studied. Each performed sustained exercise at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction for three minutes on a handgrip dynamometer. Cardiac output was measured by combined Doppler and cross sectional echocardiography before exercise and every 30 seconds during and after exercise. In the controls cardiac output and blood pressure increased significantly owing to an i...

  17. Cryotherapy impairs proprioception function?

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro, Nuno; Henriques, Sara

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cryotherapy application over a joint causes a nerve conduction velocity decrease and proprioceptive changes. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine if cryotherapy impairs proprioception acuity. METHODS: Proprioception was assessed by joint position sense (JPS), measured with an isokinetic dynamometer Biodex System 3, in twenty one females on experimental group, before 15 minutes cryotherapy (T0) and immediately after (T1). A control group (n=20) performed also the JPS...

  18. Comparison of Hip Abductor and Adductor Muscle Strength in Taekwondo and Non-taekwondo Practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Seet Jia Sheng; Fachry Ambia Tandjung; Marietta Shanti Prananta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Taekwondo is an empty hand combat that entails the use of the whole body. Spinning and turning kicks are the proper way of kicking in taekwondo which allow one to maximally perform the hip abductor and adductor muscles simultaneously. To measure the hip abductor and adductor muscles of Taekwondo and Non-taekwondo practitioners, Hand-Held Dynamometer (HHD) is used. This study aimed to compare the hip abductor and adductor muscles strength in Taekwondo and Non-taekwondo practitioner...

  19. 圧電素子を用いた押圧力測定センサの出力特性

    OpenAIRE

    吉岡, 正人; 風間, 篤志; 長田, 佐

    1989-01-01

    In using piezo-electric ceramics for dynamometers or pressure sensors, the output electric voltage must be correctly converted into the external force. Especially, in the case of small loading rate of external force, it should be taken into account that several variables might induce errors into the resulted output such as the kind of imposed material, loading or unloading, the amount of external force and the loading (unloading) rate. In this paper, changing the variables mentioned above, th...

  20. High Performance Controllers Based on Real Parameters to Account for Parameter Variations due to Iron Saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    Shaft Surface PMSM Interior PMSM UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Three phase model 22 August 2013  abM ...transformation matrix: • To transform from 3 phase abc to 3 equivalent axes dq0: • Under balanced condition zero sequence quantities are...d qi i    * *,d qi i regulator PI * *,d qv v Inverse Park’s * abcvabc dq dq abc  DYNAMOMETER OR ENGINE Controller UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED

  1. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Investigation of High-Speed-Shaft Bearing Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jonathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The loads and contact stresses in the bearings of the high speed shaft section of the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative gearbox are examined in this paper. The loads were measured though strain gauges installed on the bearing outer races during dynamometer testing of the gearbox. Loads and stresses were also predicted with a simple analytical model and higher-fidelity commercial models. The experimental data compared favorably to each model, and bearing stresses were below thresholds for contact fatigue and axial cracking.

  2. ENHANCING PROFITABILITY OF A SPINNING

    OpenAIRE

    MARSAL Feliu

    2014-01-01

    Systematic control of the rheological behavior of the ravings in an installation facility dynamometer constant elongation gradient is proposed in this paper. It is an application for all types of spinning both shortfibers as long fibers. Industrial experiments conducted show that this control drawing of the spinning frame is optimized, getting more regular yarns mass with greater industrial profitability. This work is applied to a spinning worsted manufactures fine yarns with high quality ...

  3. Resistance and Stock Propulsion on the High Speed Sealift (HSS) Hybrid Contra-Rotating Shaft-Pod (HCRSP) Concept, Model 5653-3A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    pod transmission dynamometers, of 177 lbf. thrust (T) / 112 in-lbf. torque (Q) capacity, manufactured by Force Technology of Denmark. The two pods were... spurred the exploration of alternative ship designs as well as non-conventional propulsion designs on monohulls. The high speed sealift mission profile...complexity required of the coaxial shaftline drive system, and induced problems with expensive gear sets, bearings and seals. Using a pod to drive the aft

  4. Performance characteristics of automotive engines in the United States: Report No. 9, Chrysler (1975) 225-CID 1-bbl engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, W.F.; Stamper, K.R.

    1977-08-01

    Experimental data were obtained in dynamometer tests of a 1975 Chrysler 225-CID, 1-bbl engine to determine fuel consumption and emissions (hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen) at steady-state engine operating modes. The objective of the program is to obtain engine performance data for estimating emissions and fuel economy for varied engine service and duty. The intent of the work is to provide basic engine characteristic data required as input for engineering calculations involving ground transportation.

  5. Modelingflywheel-Speed Variations Based on Cylinder Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Magnus

    2004-01-01

    Combustion supervision by evaluating flywheel speed variations is a common approach in the automotive industry. This often involves preliminary measurements. An adequate model for simulating flywheel speed can assist to avoid some of these preliminary measurements. A physical nonlinear model for simulating flywheel speed based on cylinder pressure information is investigated in this work. Measurements were conducted at Scania in a test bed and on a chassis dynamometer. The model was implemen...

  6. Fast unilateral isometric knee extension torque development and bilateral jump height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Cornelis J; Van Leeuwen, Daniel; Heijblom, Arjan; Bobbert, Maarten F; de Haan, Arnold

    2006-10-01

    We hypothesized that the initial rate (first 40 ms) of unilateral knee extensor torque development during a maximally fast isometric contraction would depend on the subjects' ability for fast neural activation and that it would predict bilateral jumping performance. Nine males (21.8 +/- 0.9 yr, means +/- SD) performed unilateral fast isometric knee extensions (120 degrees knee angle) without countermovement on a dynamometer and bilateral squat jumps (SJ) and countermovement jumps (CMJ) starting from 90 and 120 degrees knee angles (full extension = 180 degrees ). The dynamometer contractions started either from full relaxation or from an isometric pre-tension (15% maximal isometric torque, Tmax). Torque time integral for the first 40 ms after torque onset (TTI-40, normalized to Tmax) and averaged normalized rectified knee extensor EMG for 40 ms before fast torque onset (EMG-40) were used to quantify initial torque rise and voluntary muscle activation. TTI-40 without pre-tension (range: 0.02-0.19% Tmax per second) was significantly lower than TTI-40 with pre-tension, and both were significantly (r = 0.81 and 0.80) related to EMG-40. During jumping, similar significant positive relations were found between jump height and knee extensor EMG during the first 100 ms of the rise in ground reaction force. There also were significant positive linear relations between dynamometer TTI-40 and jump height (r = 0.75 (SJ 90), 0.84 (SJ 120), 0.76 (CMJ 90), and 0.86 (CMJ 120)) but not between dynamometer Tmax and jump height (-0.16 < r < 0.02). One-legged TTI-40 to a large extent explained the variation in jump height. The ability to produce a high efferent neural drive before muscle contraction seemed to dominate performance in both the simple single-joint isometric task and the complex multijoint dynamic task.

  7. Physical function and muscle strength in sporadic inclusion body myositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders N; Aagaard, Per; Nielsen, Jakob L

    2017-01-01

    chair stand performance were evaluated. In addition, patients were tested for knee extensor muscle strength (isokinetic dynamometer) and leg extension power (Nottingham power rig). RESULTS: TUG performance was the strongest predictor of self-reported physical function (r(2) = 0.56, P ... extension strength and between-limb strength asymmetry were the strongest multi-regression indicators of TUG performance (r(2) = 0.51, P 2) = 0.49, P

  8. Small Internal Combustion Engine Testing for a Hybrid-Electric Remotely-Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    were mounted to the cradle and their engine shafts coupled to the absorber via a belt pulley and gears for testing purposes in this effort. 42...0.02 N·m. Another calibration was done in regard to dynamometer operation. Greiser [11] and Harmon [9] calculated the gear -ratio between the...software based on measured absorber RPM. The number of grooves or gear teeth were counted on the sprockets and compared. The gear -ratio was calculated

  9. Continuous Assessment of Labour Pain using Handgrip Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Wickboldt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Assessment of dynamic changes in painful experiences, such as labour, using conventional rating scales (eg, numerical rating scale [NRS] has limitations. An alternative for continuous pain evaluation could be a signal generated by voluntary action of the parturient. Remifentanil administration for obstetric analgesia could be improved by these dynamic measures of labour pain. In the present study, handgrip force was measured by a dynamometer to signal labour pain.

  10. Application of electrolytic in-process dressing for high-efficiency grinding of ceramic parts. Research activities 1995--96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, B.P. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-02-01

    The application of Electrolytic In-Process Dressing (ELID) for highly efficient and stable grinding of ceramic parts is discussed. This research was performed at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Tokyo, Japan, June 1995 through August 1995. Experiments were conducted using a vertical machining center. The silicon nitride work material, of Japanese manufacture and supplied in the form of a rectangular block, was clamped to a vice which was firmly fixed on the base of a strain gage dynamometer. The dynamometer was clamped on the machining center table. Reciprocating grinding was performed with a flat-faced diamond grinding wheel. The output from the dynamometer was recorded with a data acquisition system and the normal component of the force was monitored. Experiments were carried out under various cutting conditions, different ELID conditions, and various grinding wheel bonds types. Rough grinding wheels of grit sizes {number_sign}170 and {number_sign}140 were used in the experiments. Compared to conventional grinding, there was a significant reduction in grinding force with ELID grinding. Therefore, ELID grinding can be recommended for high material removal rate grinding, low rigidity machines, and low rigidity workpieces. Compared to normal grinding, a reduction in grinding ratio was observed when ELID grinding was performed. A negative aspect of the process, this reduced G-ratio derives from bond erosion and can be improved somewhat by adjustments in the ELID current. The results of this investigation are discussed in detail in this report.

  11. Differences between measured and resultant joint moments during isometric contractions at the ankle joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arampatzis, Adamantios; Morey-Klapsing, Gaspar; Karamanidis, Kiros; DeMonte, Gianpiero; Stafilidis, Savvas; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine two hypotheses: (a) during voluntary and electrically induced isometric contractions the moments measured at the dynamometer are different from the resultant moments in the same plane around the ankle joint and (b) at a given resultant moment during electrically induced isometric contractions the ankle angle while loading is different from the ankle angle while unloading. Twenty-seven long distance runners participated in the study. All subjects performed isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) and contractions induced by electrostimulation at four different ankle-knee angle combinations on a Biodex-dynamometer. The kinematics of the leg were recorded using the vicon 624 system with eight cameras operating at 120 Hz. The main findings were: (a) the resultant moment at the ankle joint and the moment measured by the Biodex-dynamometer during isometric contractions are different, (b) during a plantar flexion effort the ankle angle changes significantly, whereas the knee angle shows only small and in most cases not significant changes, and (c) at identical resultant ankle joint moments the ankle angles are different between the loading and the unloading phases. The observed differences may lead to erroneous conclusions concerning the following: (a) diagnostic of muscle architecture, (b) estimation of the moment-ankle angle relationship and (c) estimation of the strain and hysteresis of tendons and aponeuroses.

  12. Leg strength improvement in elderly fallers and non fallers after eigth week of isokinetic strengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEMALTIANOU ELENI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of an eight week strengthening program in an isokinetic dynamometer, in the knee joint muscles of healthy elderly people, with and with out a history of falls. In the study participated 59 elderly men and women all in good health aged 60 years and over. The elderly were assessed in five concentric, two eccentric speeds (60°, 90°, 120°, 180°, 240° and 60°, 120°/sec respectively and in four angular positions (75°, 60°, 45°, 30° of knee flexion, 0° = full extension in an Cybex Norm® isokinetic dynamometer. The experimental group of the study followed a strengthening program for quadriceps andhamstring muscles in the isokinetic dynamometer for eight weeks, in five concentric speeds. The results of the study indicated statistically significant differences (p _.05 in strength and power between initial and final assessment in the experimental group. The results indicated also statistically significant differences (p<0.05 in strength and power between fallers and non - fallers of the experimental group in the initial assessment. These differences were diminished after the intervention period with fallers achieving statistically significant improvement (p<0.05. The results of the study provide evidence that an eight week isokinetic strengthening program of lower extremities in elderly people is very efficient in fall prevention.

  13. Wind Turbine Gearbox Condition Monitoring Round Robin Study - Vibration Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) tested two identical gearboxes. One was tested on the NWTCs 2.5 MW dynamometer and the other was field tested in a turbine in a nearby wind plant. In the field, the test gearbox experienced two oil loss events that resulted in damage to its internal bearings and gears. Since the damage was not severe, the test gearbox was removed from the field and retested in the NWTCs dynamometer before it was disassembled. During the dynamometer retest, some vibration data along with testing condition information were collected. These data enabled NREL to launch a Wind Turbine Gearbox Condition Monitoring Round Robin project, as described in this report. The main objective of this project was to evaluate different vibration analysis algorithms used in wind turbine condition monitoring (CM) and find out whether the typical practices are effective. With involvement of both academic researchers and industrial partners, the project sets an example on providing cutting edge research results back to industry.

  14. An appraisal of techniques and equipment for cutting force measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AUDY J.

    2006-01-01

    Current research focussed on the assessment of metal machining process parameters and on the development of adaptive control, shows that machine performance, work-piece and tool material selections, tool life, quality of machined surfaces,the geometry of cutting tool edges, and cutting conditions are closely related to the cutting forces. This information is of great interest to cutting tool manufactures and users alike. Over the years there have been significant developments and improvements in the equipment used to monitor such forces. In 1930 mechanical gauges were replaced by resistance strain gauges, and some 30 years later compact air gauge dynamometers were invented. Since this time intensive research has continued being directed towards developing new approaches to cutting force measurement. The Kistler Company, well-known manufacturer of acceleration and piezoelectrical dynamometers, has worked in this field for more than three decades, and developed very sensitive devices.While leading manufacturing research laboratories are often equipped with this technology, classical electrical strain gauges and other dynamometers of individual designs are still commonly used in industry. The present paper presents data obtained using different techniques of force measurement in metal machining processes. In particular, areas of uncertainties, illustrated through results concerning the turning process, are analysed, leading to an appraisal of the current status of these measurements and their significance.

  15. BIOMECHANICAL DIFFERENCES IN BRAZILIAN JIU-JITSU ATHLETES: THE ROLE OF COMBAT STYLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Alane Almeida; Coelho, Anita Camila Sampaio; Lima, Yuri Lopes; Almeida, Gabriel Peixoto Leão; Bezerra, Márcio Almeida; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    Background Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) athletes can be divided into two combat styles: pass fighters (PFs) and guard fighters (GFs). Flexibility of the posterior chain muscles is highly necessary in these athletes, especially in GFs. On the other hand, isometric strength of the trunk extensors is required in PFs. Handgrip strength is important in holding the kimono of the opponent, and symmetrical lower-limb strength is important for the prevention of injuries due to the overload caused by training. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical profiles of BJJ athletes with different combat styles using the following outcome measures: flexibility, trunk extensor isometric endurance, postural balance, handgrip isometric endurance and lower-limb muscle strength. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using 19 GFs and 19 PFs. The sit-and-reach test was used to evaluate the flexibility of the posterior chain muscles. The Biodex Balance System® was used to evaluate balance. A handgrip dynamometer and a dorsal dynamometer were used to evaluate handgrip and trunk extensor endurance, respectively. Quadriceps and hamstring strength were evaluated with an isokinetic dynamometer at 60 °/s. Results No differences were observed between groups in terms of flexibility, balance, handgrip isometric endurance or quadriceps and hamstring strength; however, PFs (81.33) showed more isometric trunk extension endurance than GFs (68.85) (p = 0.02). Both groups had low values for hamstring/quadriceps ratio. Conclusion No significant biomechanical differences were observed between PFs and GFs. Level of Evidence 2b PMID:28217417

  16. 应变测试系统设计及在地铁工程监测中的应用%Strain Testing Systems in Metro Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高琳

    2012-01-01

    锚杆支护在隧道锚固工程中占有着重要的地位,为了解锚杆在施工过程中的受力状态,需对锚杆的应力进行监测.文章详细介绍了应变测力锚杆的结构设计、数字锚杆监测仪设计原理及其应用,并通过该测力系统在深圳地铁2号线侨香站—香蜜湖北站区间隧道应用中所得的测试数据,对锚杆的工作状态以及围岩安全状况进行了分析.该系统为地铁工程实现信息化作业提供了一种可靠的手段,也为锚杆的优化设计和应用提供了科学依据.%Anchor bolts play an important role in tunnel anchoring engineering. The stress of an anchor bolt needs to be monitored in order to ascertain the state of stress. This paper introduces the structural design of the strain dynamometer anchor bolt, as well as the working principles of the digital anchor bolt dynamometer and Us application. The dynamometer system was applied in the Qiaoxiang Station to Xiangmihu North Station tunnel of the Shenzhen Metro Line 2, and the working statement of the anchor bolt and the safety conditions of the surrounding rock are analyzed using the measured data.

  17. Diseño de un dinamómetro con frecuencia natural variable por medio de un programa de elementos finitos. // Design of dinamometer with variable frecuency by means of Finite Elements Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jacas Cabrera

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se presenta el diseño, construcción, y validación experimental de un dispositivo dinamométrico de frecuencianatural variable, el cual forma parte de un trabajo mucho más amplio donde se determinará la influencia de los valores defrecuencia natural de un dinamómetro en la magnitud del valor medio de fuerzas de corte medidos en un proceso detorneado. Para ejecutar el diseño del dinamómetro, garantizando tres valores de frecuencia natural en rangos de 2000, 6000y 8000 Hz se utilizó un programa profesional de elementos finitos. Para la verificación de los resultados obtenidosmediante modelación por elementos finitos, se fabricó el dispositivo dinamométrico realizándose experimentalmente lavalidación de los resultados y la confirmación de la precisión de los modelos desarrollados.Palabras claves: Dinamómetro, frecuencia natural, elementos finitos.____________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this paper is presented the design, construction and experimental validation of a dynamometric device of natural variablefrequency where the influence of the natural frequency values in the magnitude of the mean value of cutting forcesmeasured in a lathed process were determined. The dynamometer with three values of natural frequency, in ranges of 2000,6000 and 8000 Hz was designed by means of the finite elements method. A dynamometer device was constructed for theverifications of the natural frecuencies obtained by finite element method. The experimentally results validation confirmedthe developed modelsKey words: Dynamometer, natural frequency, finite elements.

  18. Validation and reliability of a modified sphygmomanometer for the assessment of handgrip strength in Parkinson´s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia M. Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Handgrip strength is currently considered a predictor of overall muscle strength and functional capacity. Therefore, it is important to find reliable and affordable instruments for this analysis, such as the modified sphygmomanometer test (MST. OBJECTIVES: To assess the concurrent criterion validity of the MST, to compare the MST with the Jamar dynamometer, and to analyze the reproducibility (i.e. reliability and agreement of the MST in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD. METHOD: The authors recruited 50 subjects, 24 with PD (65.5±6.2 years of age and 26 healthy elderly subjects (63.4±7.2 years of age. The handgrip strength was measured using the Jamar dynamometer and modified sphygmomanometer. The concurrent criterion validity was analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient and a simple linear regression test. The reproducibility of the MST was evaluated with the coefficient of intra-class correlation (ICC2,1, the standard error of measurement (SEM, the minimal detectable change (MDC, and the Bland-Altman plot. For all of the analyses, α≤0.05 was considered a risk. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation of moderate magnitude (r≥0.45 between the MST and the Jamar dynamometer. The MST had excellent reliability (ICC2,1≥0.7. The SEM and the MDC were adequate; however, the Bland-Altman plot indicated an unsatisfactory interrater agreement. CONCLUSIONS: The MST exhibited adequate validity and excellent reliability and is, therefore, suitable for monitoring the handgrip strength in PD. However, if the goal is to compare the measurements between examiners, the authors recommend that the data be interpreted with caution.

  19. U.S. Department of Energy -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing and Demonstration Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Francfort; Donald Karner; John G. Smart

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) tests plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in closed track, dynamometer and onroad testing environments. The onroad testing includes the use of dedicated drivers on repeated urban and highway driving cycles that range from 10 to 200 miles, with recharging between each loop. Fleet demonstrations with onboard data collectors are also ongoing with PHEVs operating in several dozen states and Canadian Provinces, during which trips- and miles-per-charge, charging demand and energy profiles, and miles-per-gallon and miles-per-kilowatt-hour fuel use results are all documented, allowing an understanding of fuel use when vehicles are operated in charge depleting, charge sustaining, and mixed charge modes. The intent of the PHEV testing includes documenting the petroleum reduction potential of the PHEV concept, the infrastructure requirements, and operator recharging influences and profiles. As of May 2008, the AVTA has conducted track and dynamometer testing on six PHEV conversion models and fleet testing on 70 PHEVs representing nine PHEV conversion models. A total of 150 PHEVs will be in fleet testing by the end of 2008, all with onboard data loggers. The onroad testing to date has demonstrated 100+ miles per gallon results in mostly urban applications for approximately the first 40 miles of PHEV operations. The primary goal of the AVTA is to provide advanced technology vehicle performance benchmark data for technology modelers, research and development programs, and technology goal setters. The AVTA testing results also assist fleet managers in making informed vehicle purchase, deployment and operating decisions. The AVTA is part of DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory and Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation, with Argonne National Laboratory providing dynamometer testing support. The proposed paper

  20. Accuracy and Precision of an Accelerometer-Based Smartphone App Designed to Monitor and Record Angular Movement over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittel, Adam J; Elazzazi, Ashraf; Bittel, Daniel C

    2016-04-01

    Therapeutic exercise is a central component in the management of many common conditions. It is imperative, therefore, that clinicians monitor and correct patient performance to facilitate the use of proper form both in the clinic and during home exercise programs. Although clinicians are trained to prescribe exercise and analyze form, there are many subtleties that may be missed by relying on visual assessment. This study investigated the accuracy and precision of a novel, exercise-training smartphone application (app), running on an iPhone(®) (Apple, Cupertino, CA) 4 and using its LIS331DLH accelerometer to dynamically measure and record movement during exercise. The iPhone, running the app, was mounted to the movement arm of a Biodex™ isokinetic dynamometer System 4 (Biodex Corp., Shirley, NY). Angle and time measurements taken by the app were compared with the dynamometer (gold standard) while rotating at 30°/s, 60°/s, 90°/s, 120°/s, and 150°/s. Accuracy was assessed using limits of agreement and fast Fourier transform analyses. Precision was assessed using the coefficient of variation. The mean difference between the app and the Biodex recordings was less than 1°/s for all test velocities. The coefficient of variation was less than 3% at velocities from 30°/s to 120°/s and less than 7% at 150°/s. The app was highly accurate and precise. The validation of apps designed for motion tracking is a vital prerequisite to clinical implementation. The app described in this article is clinically identical to the Biodex dynamometer in its ability to accurately and precisely read angular movement over time.

  1. Isometric abdominal wall muscle strength assessment in individuals with incisional hernia: a prospective reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, K K; Kjaer, M; Jorgensen, L N

    2016-12-01

    To determine the reliability of measurements obtained by the Good Strength dynamometer, determining isometric abdominal wall and back muscle strength in patients with ventral incisional hernia (VIH) and healthy volunteers with an intact abdominal wall. Ten patients with VIH and ten healthy volunteers with an intact abdominal wall were each examined twice with a 1 week interval. Examination included the assessment of truncal flexion and extension as measured with the Good Strength dynamometer, the completion of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the self-assessment of truncal strength on a visual analogue scale (SATS). The test-retest reliability of truncal flexion and extension was assessed by interclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland and Altman graphs. Finally, correlations between truncal strength, and IPAQ and SATS were examined. Truncal flexion and extension showed excellent test-retest reliability for both patients with VIH (ICC 0.91 and 0.99) and healthy controls (ICC 0.97 and 0.96). Bland and Altman plots showed that no systematic bias was present for neither truncal flexion nor extension when assessing reliability. For patients with VIH, no significant correlations between objective measures of truncal strength and IPAQ or SATS were found. For healthy controls, both truncal flexion (τ 0.58, p = 0.025) and extension (τ 0.58, p = 0.025) correlated significantly with SATS, while no other significant correlation between truncal strength measures and IPAQ was found. The Good Strength dynamometer provided a reliable, low-cost measure of truncal flexion and extension in patients with VIH.

  2. Simulated Real-World Energy Impacts of a Thermally Sensitive Powertrain Considering Viscous Losses and Enrichment (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Gonder, J.; Lopp, S.; Jehlik, F.

    2014-09-01

    It is widely understood that cold-temperature engine operation negatively impacts vehicle fuel use due to a combination of increased friction (high-viscosity engine oil) and temporary enrichment (accelerated catalyst heating). However, relatively little effort has been dedicated to thoroughly quantifying these impacts across a large number of driving cycles and ambient conditions. This work leverages high-quality dynamometer data collected at various ambient conditions to develop a modeling framework for quantifying engine cold-start fuel penalties over a wide array of real-world usage profiles. Additionally, mitigation strategies including energy retention and exhaust heat recovery are explored with benefits quantified for each approach.

  3. 纵向控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    [ 篇名 ] Evolutionary optimisation of a model reference adaptive control system,[ 篇名 ] Longitudinal Control Design and Experiment for Heavy-Duty Trucks,[ 篇名 ] On-line Approximation Based Aircraft Longitudinal Control, [ 篇名 ]Real-time estimation and compensation of road slip for longitudinal control,[篇名 ] Test bed for vehicle longitudinal control using chassis dynamometer and virtual reality: an application to adaptive cruise control,[ 篇名] The comfort highway copilot - an advanced driving assistance system,[ 篇名 ] Understanding and Modeling the Human Driver,[篇名 ] Vehicle Control Algorithms for Cooperative Driving With Automated Vehicles and Intervehicle Communications。

  4. CARACTERISATION ET ETALONNAGE DES DYNAMOMETRES A SIX COMPOSANTES POUR TORSEUR ASSOCIE A UN SYSTEME DE FORCES

    OpenAIRE

    Couétard, Yves

    2000-01-01

    To deal with force systems, cinematics, kinetics and small displacement, the solid mechanics exploits the "torseur" model. We give a quantification of this notion through the elaboration of a metrology device : • a six components dynamometer. A spatial standardisation follows the study and allows to quantify the uncertainty of measurement of this device; La mécanique du solide exploite largement le modèle "torseur" pour traiter les systèmes de forces, la cinématique, la cinétique et les petit...

  5. Motion analysis report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badler, N. I.

    1985-01-01

    Human motion analysis is the task of converting actual human movements into computer readable data. Such movement information may be obtained though active or passive sensing methods. Active methods include physical measuring devices such as goniometers on joints of the body, force plates, and manually operated sensors such as a Cybex dynamometer. Passive sensing de-couples the position measuring device from actual human contact. Passive sensors include Selspot scanning systems (since there is no mechanical connection between the subject's attached LEDs and the infrared sensing cameras), sonic (spark-based) three-dimensional digitizers, Polhemus six-dimensional tracking systems, and image processing systems based on multiple views and photogrammetric calculations.

  6. The fiber-type specific response of skeletal muscle satellite cells to high-intensity resistance training in dialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Harrison, Adrian Paul;

    2015-01-01

    weekly. SC and myonuclear number were determined by immunohistochemistry of vastus lateralis muscle biopsy cross-sections. Knee extension torque was tested in a dynamometer. Results. During training SCs/type I fibers increased by 15%, whereas SCs/type II fibers remained unchanged. Myonuclear content...... of type II, but not type I, fibers increased with training. Before the control period, the SC content of type II fibers was lower than type I fibers, whereas contents were comparable when normalized to fiber area. Torque increased after training. Discussion. Increased myonuclear content of type II muscle...

  7. Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype Chrysler Volare, 225 CID (3.7-liter) automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The results obtained from fuel economy and emission tests conducted on a prototype Chrysler Volare diesel vehicle are documented. The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. The fuel used, was a DOE/BETC referee fuel. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. The vehicle obtained 32.7 mpg for the FTP urban cycle and 48.8 mpg for the highway cycle. The emissions rates were 0.42/1.58/1.17/0.28 g/mile of HC, CO, NOx and particulates respectively.

  8. Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype fiat 131TC 2.4 liter automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quayle, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    The results obtained from fuel economy and emission tests conducted on a prototype Fiat 131 turbocharged diesel vehicle are presented. The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. Two fuels were used, a United States number 2 diesel and a European diesel fuel. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. It was determined that turbocharging accompanied by complementary modifications results in small but substantial improvements in regulated emissions, fuel economy, and performance. Notably, particulate levels were reduced by 30 percent.

  9. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative: Test and Model Investigation of Sun Orbit and Planet Load Share in a Wind Turbine Gearbox; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaCava, W.; Keller, J.; McNiff, B.

    2012-04-01

    This paper analyzes experimental measurement of the sun gear orbit in dynamometer testing and describes its relation to the other measured responses of the planetary stage. The relation of the sun orbit to component runout, component flexibility, gear coupling alignment, planet load share, and planet position error will be investigated. Equations describing the orbit of the sun gear in the test cases are derived. Rigid and flexible multibody models of the full gearbox are investigated and compared to sun and planet measurements. This paper shows that the sun gear's path may be influenced by gear coupling responses and gearbox structural flexibilities.

  10. The influence of engine operating parameters on aldehyde emissions from an ethanol-fuelled vehicle; Influencia de parametros de operacao do motor nas emissoes de aldeidos por um veiculo a etanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Rinaldo Antunes [FIAT Automoveis S.A., Betim, MG (Brazil). Engenharia de Motores]. E-mail: expmotor@fiat.com.br; Sodre, Jose Ricardo [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: ricardo@pucminas.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents results and analysis of experiments on aldehyde emissions and on the regulated pollutants (CO, HC and NO{sub X}) emissions, with varying engine operational parameters in an ethanol-fuelled vehicle during a standard urban test cycle. The test cycle was carried out with the vehicle in a chassis dynamometer, and simulates an average urban trip of approximately 5,8 km, under steady state conditions. The varied parameters were fuel/air equivalence ratio, dash pot function, cut off function and gear change speed. The results found showed lower aldehyde emissions for gear change at lower speeds and for richer mixtures. (author)

  11. A force torsor analysis for a turning process in the presence of self-excited vibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Ispas, Constantin; Bisu, Claudiu-Florinel; Gérard, Alain

    2009-01-01

    A testing device in turning including, in particular, a six-component dynamometer, is used to measure the complete torque of the cutting actions, in a case of self-excited vibrations. For the tests, the used tool was a noncoated carbide tool (TNMA 160412) without chip breaker. The cutting material is a chrome molybdenum alloy type (ASI 4140). The cylindrical test tubes have a diameter of 120 mm and a length of 30 mm. For the first time, we present an analysis of forces and moments for different depths of cut and different feed rates.

  12. On the road performance tests of electric test vehicle for correlation with road load simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, M. O.; Slavik, R. J.

    1982-08-01

    A dynamometer (road load simulator) is used to test and evaluate electric vehicle propulsion systems. To improve correlation between system tests on the road load simulator and on the road, similar performance tests are conducted using the same vehicle. The results of track tests on the electric propulsion system test vehicle are described. The tests include range at constant speeds and over SAE J227a driving cycles, maximum accelerations, maximum gradability, and tire rolling resistance determination. Road power requirements and energy consumption were also determined from coast down tests.

  13. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Gearbox 3 Planet Bearing Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jonathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-24

    The Gearbox Reliability Collaborative gearbox was redesigned to improve its load-sharing characteristics and predicted fatigue life. The most important aspect of the redesign was to replace the cylindrical roller bearings with preloaded tapered roller bearings in the planetary section. Similar to previous work, the strain gages installed on the planet tapered roller bearings were calibrated in a load frame. This report describes the calibration tests and provides the factors necessary to convert the measured units from dynamometer testing to bearing loads, suitable for comparison to engineering models.

  14. On-Road Validation of a Simplified Model for Estimating Real-World Fuel Economy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric; Gonder, Jeff; Jehlik, Forrest

    2017-01-01

    On-road fuel economy is known to vary significantly between individual trips in real-world driving conditions. This work introduces a methodology for rapidly simulating a specific vehicle's fuel economy over the wide range of real-world conditions experienced across the country. On-road test data collected using a highly instrumented vehicle is used to refine and validate this modeling approach. Model accuracy relative to on-road data collection is relevant to the estimation of 'off-cycle credits' that compensate for real-world fuel economy benefits that are not observed during certification testing on a chassis dynamometer.

  15. Perodua Myvi engine fuel consumption map and fuel economy vehicle simulation on the drive cycles based on Malaysian roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramdan Muhammad Iftishah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the fuel consumption engine map for a 1.3L Perodua Myvi passenger car. The engine dynamometer and the engine throttle are controlled, to create the operating conditions for the engine map. Interpolation work is done in MATLAB, to create a 3D fuel consumption engine map. The engine map is used in a fuel-economy estimation simulation, using the city and the highway drive cycles based on Malaysian roads. The fuel economy values generated from the simulations are similar to experimental fuel consumption results.

  16. An Impact Vibration Experimental Research on the Pretension Rectangular Membrane Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pretension of the membrane is applied with biaxial tension bracket; the digital dynamometer is used for measuring the change of the tension; the concentrated impact load is applied on the surface of rectangular membrane; the displacement change of each feature point on the membrane surface is measured by noncontact laser displacement sensor. Through this experiment, the vibration displacement-time curve of the rectangular membrane under the fixed boundary condition is obtained. Further, the vibration frequency is given, according to the power spectral density function. The results of the experimental research are used to verify and correct theoretical formula and make the foundation for further theoretical research.

  17. Design and development of an automotive propulsion system utilizing a Rankine cycle engine (water based fluid). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demler, R.L.

    1977-09-01

    Under EPA and ERDA sponsorship, SES successfully designed, fabricated and tested the first federally sponsored steam powered automobile. The automobile - referred to as the simulator - is a 1975 Dodge Monaco standard size passenger car with the SES preprototype Rankine cycle automotive propulsion system mounted in the engine compartment. In the latter half of 1975, the simulator successfully underwent test operations at the facilities of SES in Watertown, Massachusetts and demonstrated emission levels below those of the stringent federally established automotive requirements originally set for implementation by 1976. The demonstration was accomplished during testing over the Federal Driving Cycle on a Clayton chassis dynamometer. The design and performance of the vehicle are described.

  18. An anthropometric study of pedophiles and rapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D; Myers, W C; Robbins, L; Barnard, G W

    1993-07-01

    Anthropometric measurements were obtained on pedophiles (n = 23) and rapists (n = 13) who were in a forensic treatment facility. Hand grip strength was measured with a Jamar hand dynamometer. Ten separate body measurements were taken including height and weight. As an indicator of body fat, triceps skinfold thickness was obtained with calipers on the non-dominant arm. The findings provided mild support for the hypothesis that the rapists in the sample would be stronger, more muscular, and have less body fat than the pedophiles.

  19. Evaluation of cutting force uncertainty components in turning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos Aurelian; Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2000-01-01

    A procedure is proposed for the evaluation of those uncertainty components of a single cutting force measurement in turning that are related to the contributions of the dynamometer calibration and the cutting process itself. Based on an empirical model including errors form both sources......, the uncertainty for a single measurement of cutting force is presented, and expressions for the expected uncertainty vs. cutting parameters are proposed. This approach gives the possibility of evaluating cutting force uncertainty components in turning, for a defined range of cutting parameters, based on few...

  20. CAD ACTIVE MODELS: AN INNOVATIVE METHOD IN ASSEMBLY ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADDEO Alessandro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to show the use and the versatility of the active models in different applications. It has been realized an active model of a cylindrical spring and it has been applied in two mechanisms, different for typology and for backlash loads. The first example is a dynamometer in which nthe cylindrical spring is loaded by traction forces, while the second example is made up from a pressure valve in which the cylindrical-conic spring works under compression. The imposition of the loads in both cases, has allowed us to evaluate the model of the mechanism in different working conditions, also in assembly environment.

  1. Medical-pedagogical supervisions for sportsmen short-trek in a period of еducational and trainings employments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaycev V.P.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of inspection of sportsmen are generalized. 8 highly skilled sportsmen were inspected. A method is presented medical-pedagogical supervisions. Age of sportsmen: 16-18 years - 2 sportsmen, 19-20 years - 3 sportsmen, 22-25 years - 3 sportsmen. The results of the use of clinical inspection and visual supervisions are rotined. Frequency of heart-throbs and arteriotony is certain. Information of pulsator is resulted, functional tests and tests, dynamometer. For renewal of organism after educational and training employment employment it is recommended to accept water procedures, vitaminized food, autogenic training, active and passive rest.

  2. VALIDITY OF TWO CLINICAL KNEE STRENGTH ASSESSMENTS COMPARED TO THE REFERENCE STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Weng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Patello femoral Pain (PFP is the most common lower limb condition encountered in clinical practice. It recently emerged as the third highest ranked topic out of 185 in the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy Musculoskeletal Research Priority Project. For a valid assessment of knee strength during rehabilitation, the isometric test using the isokinetic dynamometer (Cybex and the hand-held dynamometer (HHD is not well received with clinical practice. An alternative way is through functional hop tests which clinicians have used to assess their patients' lower extremity muscular strength. This study investigates the validity of knee strength assessments conducted with the HHD and the hoptest compared to the isokinetic dynamometer and also explores differences between genders of the three assessments. Design: Each assessment included one submaximal and three recorded maximal efforts of the dominant leg. Quadriceps muscle strength was displayed in normalized torques. Correlation coefficients and box-and-whisker plots was used to analyze the data. Setting: Movement analysis laboratory Participants: Sixteen males (age 23.5 ± 4.23 years, height 1.79 ± 0.08 m and body mass 76.21 ± 10.58 kg, BMI 23.82 ± 2.38 kg/m² and 16 females (age 25.38 ± 5.49 years, height 1.67 ± 0.08 m and body mass 71.99 ± 16.05 kg, BMI 25.83 ± 4.74 kg/m² between 18 and 40 years old without any musculoskeletal injuries participated. Main outcome measures: Knee moments normalized for bodyweight (Nm/kg for dynamometers and distance jumped for single legged hoptest. Results: The strongest significant correlation was found for the comparison between the HHD and Cybex (r=0.71, r²=0.504, p=0.001. Correlation between the HHD and hoptest (r=0.4, r²=0.19, p=0.013, and Cybex and hoptest (r=0.53, r²=0.295, p=0.001 were poor. Comparing genders, the normalized knee extension moment on the Cybex was 28.8% lower and with the HHD 22.3% lower for females. Conclusions: Single

  3. Experimental study on exhaust gas after treatment using limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhrieh Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study a simple low-cost exhaust gas after-treatment filter using limestone was developed and tested on a four cylinder DI diesel engine coupled with dynamometer under variable engine running conditions. Limestone was placed in cast iron housing through which exhaust gases passes. The concentration of both carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides were measured with and without the filter in place. It was found that both pollutants were decreased significantly when the filter is in place, with no increase in the fuel consumption rate.

  4. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Update: A Brief (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.; Keller, J.; McDade, M.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is an update on the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) for the AWEA Wind Project Operations, Maintenance & Reliability Seminar. GRC accomplishments are: (1) Failure database software deployed - partners see business value for themselves and customers; (2) Designed, built, instrumented, and tested two gearboxes - (a) Generated unprecedented public domain test data from both field testing and dynamometer testing, (b) Different responses from 'identical' gearboxes, (c) Demonstrated importance of non-torque loading and modeling approach; and (3) Active collaborative, with wide industry support, leveraging DOE funding - Modeling round robin and Condition Monitoring round robin.

  5. Investigation of Various Wind Turbine Drivetrain Condition Monitoring Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.; Oyague, F.; Butterfield, S.

    2010-08-01

    The wind industry has experienced premature turbine component failures during the past years. With the increase in turbine size, these failures, especially those found in the major drivetrain components, i.e. main shaft, gearbox, and generator, have become extremely costly. Given that the gearbox is the most costly component in the drivetrain to fix, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) initiated the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) to determine the causes for premature gearbox failures and subsequently, recommend improvements to gearbox design, manufacture, and operational practices. The GRC has two identical test gearboxes, which are planned for a dynamometer and a field test, respectively.

  6. Muscular function and functional mobility of faller and non-faller elderly women with osteoarthritis of the knee

    OpenAIRE

    Alencar,M.A.; Arantes,P.M.M.; Dias,J.M.D.; Kirkwood, R.N.; L.S.M. Pereira; R.C. Dias

    2007-01-01

    Falls are a major concern in the elderly population with chronic joint disease. To compare muscular function and functional mobility among older women with knee osteoarthritis with and without a history of falls, 15 elderly women with a history of falls (74.20 ± 4.46 years) and 15 without a history of falls (71.73 ± 4.73 years) were studied. Muscular function, at the angular speed of 60, 120, and 180º/s, was evaluated using the Biodex Isokinetic Dynamometer. The sit-to-stand task was performe...

  7. Shoulder rotational profiles in young healthy elite female and male badminton players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couppé, C; Thorborg, K; Hansen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    (IROM) were examined on the dominant and nondominant shoulder in 31 adolescent national badminton players (12 females and 19 males) with a standard goniometer. Muscle strength was examined with a hand-held dynamometer in ER and IR. Total range of motion (TROM = EROM+IROM) was lower on the dominant side......The aim of the present study was to profile shoulder passive range of motion (ROM) and isometric strength for external (ER) and internal (IR) rotation as part of a preseason screening in adolescent national badminton players. Passive external range of motion (EROM) and internal range of motion...

  8. Muscle Strength Imbalance in the Hip Joint Caused by Fast Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontaga, I.

    2003-07-01

    Eleven male sportsmen at the age of 24.3 ± 4.5 were examined. Their hip joint flexors and extensors were tested by an "REV-9000" Technogym dynamometer system during isokinetic movements at angular velocities of 100 (low) and 200 (high) °/s. The range of hip joint movements was from 30 (in flexion) to 130° (in extension). Torque values and their ratios for hip flexors and extensors at different angular positions were obtained and compared. It is shown that, at high speeds, the flexion movement significantly raises ( p muscles at fast movements.

  9. Ultra-Clean Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Production and Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Bergin

    2005-10-14

    The Report Abstract provides summaries of the past year's activities relating to each of the main project objectives. Some of the objectives will be expanded on in greater detail further down in the report. The following objectives have their own addition sections in the report: Dynamometer Durability Testing, the Denali Bus Fleet Demonstration, Bus Fleet Demonstrations Emissions Analysis, Impact of SFP Fuel on Engine Performance, Emissions Analysis, Feasibility Study of SFPs for Rural Alaska, and Cold Weather Testing of Ultra Clean Fuel.

  10. Experimental investigation of the influences of shape and surface area on the EGR cooler efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sanghoon; Park, Sangki; Choi, Kapseung; Kim, Hyungman

    2011-06-01

    The cooled EGR system is one of the most effective techniques currently available for reducing NOx emissions. In this study, engine dynamometer experiments were performed to investigate the efficiencies of the shell and tube-type and stack-type EGR coolers. The results show that the heat exchange of the stack-type EGR cooler is much more effective than that of the shell and tube type because of the increased surface area and better mixing of the coolant flow, and also more PM is produced at low exhaust gas temperature than at high temperature.

  11. Early changes in muscle strength after total knee arthroplasty. A 6-month follow-up of 30 knees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, J S; Petersen, M M; Brot, C

    1999-01-01

    to surgery, and after 3 and 6 months, isokinetic and isometric muscle strength in both legs were measured, using a Cybex 6000 dynamometer. Isokinetic tests showed a bilateral, significant, and progressive increase (30-53%) in flexor muscle strength most pronounced in the operated legs. Isokinetic extensor...... to the preoperative level. No significant change in isometric strength was observed in the contralateral legs. The knee pain during the muscle strength measurements decreased significantly from the preoperative level, which may indicate that the substantial pain relief within 3 months after a TKA is an important...... factor for evaluation of muscle strength....

  12. 便携式电子测力计在肌力评定中的应用进展%Application Progress of Hand-held Dynamometry in Muscle Strength Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关润泽; 赵鹏

    2016-01-01

    Objective and accurate evaluation of muscle strength is the core foundation of developing rehabil⁃itation programs, determining the rehabilitation goals, evaluating the treatment effects. Understand the lat⁃est research results of muscle strength testing, comparative study of manual muscle testing and isokinetic testing, hand-held dynamometer testing of a variety of muscle strength method. Results showed that hand-held dynamometer testing compared to traditional manual muscle strength testing more quantitative, and hand-held dynamometer muscle strength measurement value associated with isokinetic testing of strong(r=0.91),and the easy to operate, strong applicability, can effectively discharge effect on muscle strength assess⁃ment of muscular tension. View of hand-held dynamometer with merits of quantitative, accurate and easy to carry, can be widely used in rehabilitation assessment, screening function and monitoring training effect, so as to improve the effectiveness of rehabilitation.%客观准确地肌力评定,是制定康复治疗计划、确定康复目标、评价治疗效果的核心基石。了解现阶段肌力检测的最新研究成果,对比研究徒手肌力检测、等速仪器测试、便携式电子测力计测试等多种肌力检测方法。结果显示,便携式电子测力计相对于传统徒手肌力检测更为量化;同时便携式电子测力计肌力测量值与等速仪器测试相关性较强(r=0.91),且易于操作,应用性较强,能有效排出肌张力对肌力评定的影响。因而鉴于便携式电子测力计有定量、精确和便于携带的优点,能广泛应用于康复评定、功能筛查和训练效果监控过程中。

  13. Increased rate of force development and neuromuscular activity after high-load resistance training in patients undergoing dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Andersen, Jesper L.; Eidemak, Inge

    2013-01-01

    AimThe aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-load resistance training on the rate of force development and neuromuscular function in patients undergoing dialysis. MethodsTwenty-nine patients were tested before and after 16 weeks of resistance training. The rate of force...... development was tested using the Good Strength dynamometer chair. Muscle strength and neuromuscular function in the m. Vastus lateralis was estimated using electromyography in a one repetition maximum test during dynamic knee extension and during a 20s isometric knee extension with 50% of the one repetition...

  14. Sensorless Control of IM for Limp-Home Mode EV Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehghan-Azad, Ehsan; Gadoue, Shady; Atkinson, David

    2017-01-01

    investigated for vehicle starting from standstill, wide speed range including field weakening region, and hill-starting operations. The proposed scheme is computationally easy to implement, robust against sensitivity to parameters variations, inverter nonlinearity and errors due to digitization in the field...... weakening region. This scheme is not only consistent for vehicle starting from standstill, it also provides a reliable vehicle-drive in the field weakening region and during vehicle hill-starting. The dynamometer and vehicle test-drive results show the suitability of the proposed scheme for the purpose...

  15. Effect of physical training on function of chronically painful muscles: A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Christoffer H; Zebis, Mette K

    2008-01-01

    and electromyography (EMG) were recorded during maximal shoulder abductions in an isokinetic dynamometer at -60, 60, 0 and 180 degrees (.)s(-1). Further, a submaximal reference contraction with only the load of the arms was performed. Results: Significant changes were observed only in SST. Pain decreased 42-49% (P....01-0.05). While EMG activity of the unaffected deltoid remained unchanged during the maximal contractions, an increase in EMG amplitude (42-86%, P... during the reference contraction decreased significantly for both the trapezius and deltoid muscles (P

  16. Economic and Performance Analysis of Gear Box Failures. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-236

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jonathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, CO, USA is forming a collaborative within the wind energy industry to address reliability issues on wind turbines. The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), leading the collaborative effort, will allow gearbox manufacturers, bearing manufacturers, wind turbine owner/operators, and wind turbine manufacturers to team up for joint projects that address specific issues regarding design and reliability of wind turbine gearboxes. The primary means of investigation will be through full scale testing and analysis of actual gearboxes, both in the field and in the NREL 2.5 MW dynamometer test facility. These teams would contribute resources into a campaign that is intended to serve the mutual interests of a majority of the wind and gearbox industry stakeholders in addition to the specific project team objectives. that address specific issues regarding design and reliability of wind turbine gearboxes. The primary means of investigation will be through full scale testing and analysis of actual gearboxes, both in the field and in the NREL 2.5 MW dynamometer test facility. These teams would contribute resources into a campaign that is intended to serve the mutual interests of a majority of the wind and gearbox industry stakeholders in addition to the specific project team objectives.

  17. Study and Development of a Screener Test for Fuel Economy Passenger Car Motor Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi Watanabe; Nobuo Ushioda; Yasuhiro Ogasawara

    2012-01-01

    Fuel economy regulations have been issued in many countries to save energy,and it is one of the most essential performance requirements for Passenger Car Motor Oil(PCMO) this decade.The performance is also important to reduce green house gas(GHG) emissions.Automotive,Oil and Additive industries have been developing fuel economy tests in fired engine for PCMO.The ASTM 5 Car test was started in 1982 and ASTM Sequence Ⅵ series test was also developed by the industries as one of fuel economy tests after the 5 Car test.However,the fired engine(combustion) test condition is more complicated and the combustion mode in engine introduce high variability into a fuel economy measurement.Screening by bench testing is complicated by the difficulty to reproduce friction conditions of all of engine parts.Based on the background,a motored engine friction torque test(MEFT) was developed as one of the solutions for fuel economy screening test.Using a newly developed MEFT,key additive chemistries were evaluated and compared in the test,and it distinguished the differences in additive chemistries,in addition to those in viscosity and friction modifiers.The Sequence Ⅵ-D FEI 1(Seq.Ⅵ-D FEI 1) and chassis dynamometer vehicle tests were also conducted in this study,and the test data has shown an excellent correlation among MEFT,Seq.Ⅵ-D FEI 1 and chassis dynamometer vehicle tests.

  18. Particle number concentration near road traffic in Amsterdam (the Netherlands): Comparison of standard and real-world emission factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuken, M. P.; Moerman, M.; Voogt, M.; Zandveld, P.; Verhagen, H.; Stelwagen, U.; Jonge de, D.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, NOx and particle number concentration (PNC) at an urban background and a traffic location were measured in the city of Amsterdam (the Netherlands). Modelled and measured contributions to NOx and PNC at the traffic location were used to derive real-world PN emission factors for average urban road traffic. The results for NOx were applied to validate our approach. The real-world PN emission factors (#.km-1) were 2.9E+14 (urban road) and 3E+14 (motorway). These values were at least a factor eight higher than dynamometer-based PN emission factors from COPERT 4 and HBEFA databases. The real-world PN emission factors were used to model the contribution to PNC near road traffic in 2014. This was two to three times higher than the PNC urban background along urban roads over 20,000 vehicles per day and near motorways. The discrepancy between dynamometer-based and real-world emission factors demonstrates the need for more PNC observations to assess actual PN emissions from road traffic.

  19. Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for Alternative Vehicles Emissions Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Nigel

    2012-01-31

    The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.

  20. A Soft-Switching Inverter for High-Temperature Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Motor Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jason [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Yu, Wensong [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Sun, Pengwei [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Leslie, Scott [Powerex, Inc., Harrison, OH (United States); Prusia, Duane [Powerex, Inc., Harrison, OH (United States); Arnet, Beat [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States); Smith, Chris [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States); Cogan, Art [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States)

    2012-03-31

    The state-of-the-art hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) require the inverter cooling system to have a separate loop to avoid power semiconductor junction over temperatures because the engine coolant temperature of 105°C does not allow for much temperature rise in silicon devices. The proposed work is to develop an advanced soft-switching inverter that will eliminate the device switching loss and cut down the power loss so that the inverter can operate at high-temperature conditions while operating at high switching frequencies with small current ripple in low inductance based permanent magnet motors. The proposed tasks also include high-temperature packaging and thermal modeling and simulation to ensure the packaged module can operate at the desired temperature. The developed module will be integrated with the motor and vehicle controller for dynamometer and in-vehicle testing to prove its superiority. This report will describe the detailed technical design of the soft-switching inverters and their test results. The experiments were conducted both in module level for the module conduction and switching characteristics and in inverter level for its efficiency under inductive and dynamometer load conditions. The performance will be compared with the DOE original specification.

  1. Measurement of Metal Cutting Forces at High Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Princehouse, David W.

    1996-03-01

    Proposed numerically-controlled milling machines will cut aluminum alloys with cutter tip speeds of up to 130 m/s (300 MPH). There are a variety of challenging technical problems to be solved--high power density motors, inverters, cutter/machine dynamics, servo control systems--and compelling reasons to do so. We measured time-varying cutting forces at these tip speeds with a 25.4-cm (10-in) diameter cutter turning at rates up to 167 Hz (10,000 RPM.) We took special care to measure and compensate for the dynamic response of the force transducer (a three-axis quartz-crystal milling dynamometer), extending the useful bandwidth of the measurements well into the mechanical resonances of the dynamometer. We instrumented a production milling machine on the factory floor and processed megabytes of data, obtaining results minutes after a cut was made. This case study shows how a physicist's background in mechanics, instrumentation, signal processing, and computing hardware and software can help advance the state of the art in aerospace manufacturing.

  2. The performance and efficiency of four motor/controller/battery systems for the simpler electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipps, P. R.

    1980-05-01

    A test and analysis program performed on four complete propulsion systems for an urban electric vehicle (EV) is described and results given. A dc series motor and a permanent magnet (PM) motor were tested, each powered by an EV battery pack and controlled by (1) a series/parallel voltage-switching (V-switch) system; and (2) a system using a pulse width modulation, 400 Hz transistorized chopper. Dynamometer tests were first performed, followed by eV performance predictions and data correlating road tests. During dynamometer tests using chopper control; current, voltage, and power were measured on both the battery and motor sides of the chopper, using three types of instrumentation. Conventional dc instruments provided adequate accuracy for eV power and energy measurements, when used on the battery side of the controller. When using the chopper controller, the addition of a small choke inductor improved system efficiency in the lower duty cycle range (some 8% increase at 50% duty cycle) with both types of motors. Overall system efficiency rankings during road tests were: (1) series motor with V-switch; (2) PM motor with V-switch; (3) series motor with chopper; and (4) PM motor with chopper. Chopper control of the eV was smoother and required less driver skill than V-switch control.

  3. Performance test results for the Eaton dc development power train in an electric test bed vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumley, R. L.; Donaldson, M. R.

    1987-09-01

    This report presents the results of the tests performed on a direct current (dc) power train in a test bed vehicle developed by the Eaton Corporation for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The tests were performed by EG and G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the INEL testing was to provide test results from which an evaluation of the performance capabilities of the Eaton dc power train could be made and compared with other vehicle propulsion systems. The planned tests were primarily oriented toward road testing, chassis dynamometer testing, and associated dynamometer coastdown tests for road loss determination. Range tests of the Eaton dc test bed vehicle using an ALCO 2200 lead acid battery pack, produced ranges of 97 km at 56 km/h (60 miles at 35 mph), 79 km at 72 km/h (49 miles at 45 mph), and 47 km at 88 km/h (29 miles at 55 mph). The corresponding net dc energy consumptions are 135 Wh/km (217 Wh/mile), 145 Wh/km (233 Wh/mile), and 178 Wh/km (287 Wh/mile). The energy consumption for the D-cycle test was 241 Wh/km (387 Wh/mile).

  4. Development of Dual Fuel Single Cylinder Natural Gas Engine an Analysis and Experimental Investigation for Performance and Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Kaleemuddin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the experimental investigations carried and upgradation of 395 cc air cooled engine to dual fuel (CNG/Gasoline application. The original 395 cc direct injection naturally aspirated, air cooled diesel engine was first converted to run on Gasoline by addition of electronic ignition system and reduction in compression ratio to suit both gasoline and CNG application. CFX software has been employed to calculate and improve the cooling capacity of engine with the use of CNG. Materials of major engine components were reviewed to suit CNG application. The engine was subsequently tuned with dual multi-mapped ignition timing for bi-fuel stoichiometric operation on engine dynamometer and then fitted on a 3-Wheeler vehicle. The vehicle was optimized on a chassis dynamometer to meet the proposed Bharat Stage-III norms. The engine has passed current BS-II emission norms with 48% margin in CO emission and 76% margin in NMHC (Non-Methane Hydrocarbons and Extensive trials were conducted on engine and vehicle to optimize with CNG kit and minimum loaded three way cat-con to finally to met proposed BS-III norms.

  5. Improving the accuracy of the preoperative diagnosis of long head of the biceps pathology: the biceps resisted flexion test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARRIGONI, PAOLO; RAGONE, VINCENZA; D’AMBROSI, RICCARDO; DENARD, PATRICK; RANDELLI, FILIPPO; BANFI, GIUSEPPE; CABITZA, PAOLO; RANDELLI, PIETRO

    2014-01-01

    Purpose the purpose of this study was to describe a new test for identifying lesions of the long head of the biceps (LHB) and to evaluate its diagnostic performance in comparison with selected traditional clinical tests. Methods one hundred and nine consecutive candidates for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were prospectively recruited. The BRF test, which measures biceps resisted flexion strength, was performed with the patient seated (armat the side and elbow flexed at 90°). The patient was asked to maintain maximal resistance for five seconds while strength was assessed with a digital dynamometer. Since the dynamometer expresses a continuous variable in kilograms, the measure was dichotomized using a threshold value (cut-off) value-able to simultaneously maximize the sensitivity and specificity. This cut-off value was derived from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Speed’s test and the O’Brien test were also performed. During arthroscopy the presence of LHB pathology was assessed. Results biceps resisted flexion strength was significantly higher in patients without associated LHB lesions [median (range): 3 kg (0–9.5 kg) versus 0 kg (0–8.5 kg); plesions. Conclusions the dBRF test showed higher accuracy than traditional clinical tests in diagnosing LHB lesions. This novel test for biceps pathology may be advantageous because it is objective and therefore likely reproducible. Level of Evidence Level II, Development of diagnostic test on basis of consecutive patients (with universally applied reference “gold” standard). PMID:25606543

  6. Visceral States Call for Visceral Measures: Verbal Overshadowing of Hunger Ratings Across Assessment Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Kasey G; Sayette, Michael A; Schooler, Jonathan W; Wright, Aidan G C; Pacilio, Laura E

    2016-04-27

    We introduce a nonverbal "visceral" measure of hunger (i.e., squeezing a handheld dynamometer) and provide the first evidence of verbal overshadowing effects in this visceral domain. We presented 106 participants with popcorn and recorded their hunger levels in one of three conditions: (1) first report hunger using a traditional self-report rating scale (i.e., verbal measure) and then indicate hunger by squeezing a dynamometer (i.e., nonverbal measure), (2) first indicate hunger verbally and then indicate hunger nonverbally, or (3) indicate hunger only nonverbally. As hypothesized, nonverbal measures of hunger predicted subsequent eating behavior when they were uncontaminated by verbal measures-either because they preceded verbal measures of hunger or because they were the sole measure of hunger. Moreover, nonverbal measures of hunger were a better predictor of eating behavior than verbal measures. Implications of the study for communicating embodied experiences in a way that escapes the confines of symbolic representations are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. An indirect method to estimate the force output of triceps surae muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jizhou Li; Yongjin Zhou; Yong-Ping Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of force output generated by human muscle is an essential routine of clinical rehabilitation assessment, and could provide considerable insight into rehabilitation, motor control and robotics. Indirect methods for the estimation of force output could be helpful when a bulky and expensive dynamometer is not on hand. Electromyography has been used in previous studies to quantify it in the literature. However, the force output is a summation of the motor unit action potentials, and thus the contributions and performances of superficial and deep-lying muscles could hardly be separated from each other. In this preliminary study, we applied ultrasonography (US) to explore the feasibility of estimating triceps surae force output during isometric plantar flexion with spatial resolution from superficial to deeper muscles. The local deformations of US images are extracted to represent the morphological changes during force generation. It was found US could be utilized to decently (coefficient of determination at 0.875 ± 0.051 and normalized root mean square error 0.160 ± 0.035) estimate the force output and the measured force by a dynamometer.

  8. Model year 2010 (Gen 3) Toyota Prius level 1 testing report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rask, E.; Duoba, M.; Lohse-Busch, H.; Bocci, D.; Energy Systems

    2010-06-24

    As a part of the US Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), a model year 2010 Toyota Prius (Generation 3) was procured by eTec (Phoenix, AZ) and sent to ANL's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility for the purposes of 'Level 1' testing in support of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). Data was acquired during testing using non-intrusive sensors, vehicle network connection, and facilities equipment (emissions and dynamometer data). Standard drive cycles, performance cycles, steady-state cycles and A/C usage cycles were conducted. Much of this data is openly available for download in ANL's Downloadable Dynamometer Database (D{sup 3}). The major results are shown here in this report. Given the preliminary nature of this assessment, the majority of the testing was done over standard regulatory cycles and seeks to obtain a general overview of how the vehicle performs. These cycles include the US FTP cycle (Urban) and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycle as well as the US06, a more aggressive supplemental regulatory cycle. Data collection for this testing was kept at a fairly high level and includes emissions and fuel measurements from the exhaust emissions bench, high-voltage and accessory current and voltage from a DC power analyzer, and minimal CAN bus data such as engine speed and pedal position. The following sections will seek to explain some of the basic operating characteristics of the MY2010 Prius over standard regulatory cycles.

  9. Model year 2010 Ford Fusion Level-1 testing report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rask, E.; Bocci, D.; Duoba, M.; Lohse-Busch, H.; Energy Systems

    2010-11-23

    As a part of the US Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), a model year 2010 Ford Fusion was procured by eTec (Phoenix, AZ) and sent to ANL's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility for the purposes of vehicle-level testing in support of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. Data was acquired during testing using non-intrusive sensors, vehicle network information, and facilities equipment (emissions and dynamometer). Standard drive cycles, performance cycles, steady-state cycles, and A/C usage cycles were conducted. Much of this data is openly available for download in ANL's Downloadable Dynamometer Database. The major results are shown in this report. Given the benchmark nature of this assessment, the majority of the testing was done over standard regulatory cycles and sought to obtain a general overview of how the vehicle performs. These cycles include the US FTP cycle (Urban) and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycle as well as the US06, a more aggressive supplemental regulatory cycle. Data collection for this testing was kept at a fairly high level and includes emissions and fuel measurements from an exhaust emissions bench, high-voltage and accessory current/voltage from a DC power analyzer, and CAN bus data such as engine speed, engine load, and electric machine operation. The following sections will seek to explain some of the basic operating characteristics of the MY2010 Fusion and provide insight into unique features of its operation and design.

  10. Economic analysis and performance of a low power diesel engine using soybean oil refined; Analise economica e de desempenho de um motor diesel de baixa potencia utilizando oleo de soja refinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Guilherme Ladeira dos; Fernandes, Haroldo Carlos; Alvarenga, Cleyton Batista de; Leite, Daniel Mariano; Siqueira, Wagner da Cunha [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mails: glsantos@yahoo.com.br, haroldo@ufv.br, cleyton.alvarenga@ufv.br, daniel.mariano@ufv.br, wagner.siqueira@ufv.br

    2011-07-01

    Oil is the main source of energy available to power internal combustion engines, enabling its transformation into mechanical energy. To meet the production of vegetable oils, many cultures can be used, according to regional conditions, especially those that are already commercially exploited, such as peanuts, Soybeans, Corn, Palm oil, Sunflower and Canola, and other public regional and castor oil, Andiroba, Pequi, Buriti, Inaja, Carnauba, Jatropha, among others. The objective of this work make an economic analysis of replacing diesel fuel by mixing and compare performance on the engine and using B{sub 2} biodiesel fuel mixture of diesel with 2 % Refined Soybean Oil (SAB). The loads applied by the dynamometer in the engine were 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19 and 21.5 lbs. The engine was coupled to the dynamometer with the aid of pulleys and belts of the type V with gear ratio of 1:1,9. Apparently, the best vegetable oil mixture was 30 %, both in terms of specific consumption and cost from R$ kW{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Providing the same cost of pure diesel. (author)

  11. Effects of trunk stability on isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement while sitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Masahiro; Gomi, Masahiro; Katoh, Munenori

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of trunk stability on isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement while sitting by performing simultaneous measurements with a handheld dynamometer (HHD) and an isokinetic dynamometer (IKD) in the same seated condition. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 30 healthy volunteers. Isometric knee extension muscle strength was simultaneously measured with a HHD and an IKD by using an IKD-specific chair. The measurement was performed twice. Measurement instrument variables and the number of measurements were examined by using the analysis of variance and correlation tests. [Results] The measurement instrument variables and the number of measurements were not significantly different. The correlation coefficients between the HHD and IKD measurements were ≥0.96. [Conclusion] Isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement using the HHD in the sitting position resulted in a lower value than that using the IKD, presumably because of the effect of trunk stability on the measurement. In the same seated posture with trunk stability, no significant difference in measurement values was observed between the HHD and IKD. The present findings suggest that trunk stability while seated during isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement influenced the HHD measurement.

  12. Physical therapy, corticosteroid injection, and extracorporeal shock wave treatment in lateral epicondylitis. Clinical and ultrasonographical comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Rukiye; Malas, Fevziye Ünsal; Borman, Pınar; Kocaoğlu, Seher; Özçakar, Levent

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare--clinically and ultrasonographically--the therapeutic effects of physical therapy modalities (hot pack, ultrasound therapy, and friction massage), local corticosteroid injection, and extracorporeal shock wave treatment (ESWT) in lateral epicondylitis (LE). Fifty-nine elbows of 59 patients with LE were randomized into three treatment groups receiving either physical therapy, a single corticosteroid injection, or ESWT. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to assess pain intensity, Jamar hydraulic dynamometer for grip strength, finger dynamometer for pinch strength (before treatment, on the first, third, and sixth months of treatment). All subjects were also evaluated with ultrasonography before and 6 months after treatment. In all groups, VAS scores of the patients were found to decrease significantly on the first, third, and sixth months of treatment. With respect to grip strength evaluations, the increase after treatment was significant only on the first month in group II; on the first and third months in group I; and on the first, third, and sixth months of treatment in group III. Pinch strength and ultrasonographical findings did not change during follow-up in any group. We imply that physical therapy modalities, corticosteroid injection, and ESWT have favorable effects on pain and grip strength in the early period of LE treatment. The increase in grip strength lasts longer with ESWT. On the other hand, ultrasonographic findings do not change in the first six months of these treatment methods.

  13. Tolerability to prolonged lifting tasks. A validation of the recommended limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodaglio, P; Bazzini, G

    1997-01-01

    Prolonged physical exertion is subjectively regulated by the perception of effort. This preliminary study was conducted to validate the use of subjective perceptions of effort in assessing objectively tolerable workloads for prolonged lifting tasks. Ten healthy male subjects tested their maximal lifting capacity (MLC) on a lift dynamometer (LidoLift, Loredan Biomed., West Sacramento, CA) and underwent incremental and 30-minute endurance lifting tests. Cardiorespiratory parameters were monitored with an oxygen uptake analyzer, mechanical parameters were calculated using a computerized dynamometer. Ratings of perceived exertion were given on Borg's 10-point scale. Physiological responses to repetitive lifting were matched with subjective perceptions. A single-variable statistical regression for power functions was performed to obtain the individual "iso-perception" curves as functions of the mechanical work exerted. We found that the "iso-perception" curve corresponding to a "moderate" perception of effort may represent the individual "tolerance threshold" for prolonged lifting tasks, since physiological responses at this level of intensity did not change significantly and the respiratory exchange ratio was less than one. The individually tolerable weight for lifting tasks lasting 30 min has been expressed as a percentage of the isoinertial MLC value and compared with the currently recommended limits for prolonged lifting tasks (Italian legislation D.L. 626/94). On the basis of our preliminary results a "tolerance threshold" of 20% MLC has been proposed for prolonged lifting tasks.

  14. On-road particle number measurements using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, Jens; Kirchner, Ulf; Vogt, Rainer; Börensen, Christoph; Benter, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    In this study the on-road particle number (PN) performance of a Euro-5 direct-injection (DI) gasoline passenger car was investigated. PN emissions were measured using the prototype of a portable emission measurement system (PEMS). PN PEMS correlations with chassis dynamometer tests show a good agreement with a chassis dynamometer set-up down to emissions in the range of 1·1010 #/km. Parallel on-line soot measurements by a photo acoustic soot sensor (PASS) were applied as independent measurement technique and indicate a good on-road performance for the PN-PEMS. PN-to-soot ratios were 1.3·1012 #/mg, which was comparable for both test cell and on-road measurements. During on-road trips different driving styles as well as different road types were investigated. Comparisons to the world harmonized light-duty test cycle (WLTC) 5.3 and to European field operational test (euroFOT) data indicate the PEMS trips to be representative for normal driving. Driving situations in varying traffic seem to be a major contributor to a high test-to-test variability of PN emissions. However, there is a trend to increasing PN emissions with more severe driving styles. A cold start effect is clearly visible for PN, especially at low ambient temperatures down to 8 °C.

  15. Design and analysis of a hemi-anechoic chamber at Michigan Technological University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Jason; Jangale, Ashish; Rao, Mohan D.

    2005-09-01

    A four-wheel chassis roll dynamometer test facility was installed on the campus of Michigan Technological University (MTU). The chassis dynamometer was enclosed in a soundproof hem-anechoic room in order to conduct noise radiation measurements on test vehicles. All surfaces of the room, except the floor and control room window, were acoustically treated with donated tetrahedral acoustic cones and panels. The acoustic absorption properties of these materials were characterized through reverberation chamber and impedance tube testing, and the effects of air gaps, cone orientation, and cone mounting materials were qualitatively evaluated. The design of the wall, ceiling, and door treatments of the chamber was based on the sound absorption properties of these materials, in addition to spatial constraints and cost considerations. The treated chamber acoustics were predicted based on the amount of acoustic material that could be applied to given chamber dimensions and would still preserve the functionality of the room. These predictions were validated through evaluation of the actual room treatment based on average reverberation time at 100-Hz third-octave band, free sound field characteristic 6-dB reduction in sound pressure level (SPL) per doubling in distance from source, noise reduction at the chamber boundaries, and background SPL Noise Criteria (NC) Rating.

  16. Reliability of lower extremity muscle strength measurements with handheld dynamometry in stroke patients during the acute phase: a pilot reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hsiao-Ching; Luh, Jer-Junn; Teng, Ting; Pan, Guan-Shuo; Chen, Wen-Shiang; Hsun, Chiang-Chang; Jeng, Jiann-Shing

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] No literature has described a suitable method for measuring muscle strength in a supine position during acute phase after stroke. This study investigated the feasibility and reliability of using a commercial handheld dynamometer to measure the muscle strengths of the hip flexor, knee extensor, and dorsiflexor in the supine position with a modified method for patients at a stroke intensive care center within 7 days of stroke onset. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen persons with acute stroke participated in this cross-sectional study. For each patient, the muscle strengths of the hip flexors, knee extensors, and dorsiflexors were measured twice by two testers on the same day. Each patient was re-tested at the same time of day one day later. Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were then determined by the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). [Results] For the three muscle groups, the inter-rater reliability ICCs were all 0.99 and the test-retest reliability ICCs were greater than 0.85. The investigated method thus has good inter-rater reliability and high agreement between the test-retest measurements, with acceptable measurement errors. [Conclusion] The modified method using a handheld dynamometer to test the muscle strength of acute stroke patients is a feasible and reliable method for clinical use.

  17. Evaluation of Exhaust Emissions from Three Diesel-Hybrid Cars and Simulation of After-Treatment Systems for Ultralow Real-World NOx Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Vicente; Zacharopoulou, Theodora; Hammer, Jan; Schmidt, Helge; Mock, Peter; Weiss, Martin; Samaras, Zissis

    2016-12-06

    Hybridization offers great potential for decreasing pollutant and carbon dioxide emissions of diesel cars. However, an assessment of the real-world emissions performance of modern diesel hybrids is missing. Here, we test three diesel-hybrid cars on the road and benchmark our findings with two cars against tests on the chassis dynamometer and model simulations. The pollutant emissions of the two cars tested on the chassis dynamometer were in compliance with the relevant Euro standards over the New European Driving Cycle and Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure. On the road, all three diesel-hybrids exceeded the regulatory NOx limits (average exceedance for all trips: +150% for the Volvo, +510% for the Peugeot, and +550% for the Mercedes-Benz) and also showed elevated on-road CO2 emissions (average exceedance of certification values: +178, +77, and +52%, respectively). These findings point to a wide discrepancy between certified and on-road CO2 and suggest that hybridization alone is insufficient to achieve low-NOx emissions of diesel powertrains. Instead, our simulation suggests that properly calibrated selective catalytic reduction filter and lean-NOx trap after-treatment technologies can reduce the on-road NOx emissions to 0.023 and 0.068 g/km on average, respectively, well below the Euro 6 limit (0.080 g/km).

  18. Emission rates of regulated pollutants from current technology heavy-duty diesel and natural gas goods movement vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc C; Thiruvengadam, Pragalath; Pradhan, Saroj; Carder, Daniel; Kappanna, Hemanth; Gautam, Mridul; Oshinuga, Adewale; Hogo, Henry; Miyasato, Matt

    2015-04-21

    Chassis dynamometer emissions testing of 11 heavy-duty goods movement vehicles, including diesel, natural gas, and dual-fuel technology, compliant with US-EPA 2010 emissions standard were conducted. Results of the study show that three-way catalyst (TWC) equipped stoichiometric natural gas vehicles emit 96% lower NOx emissions as compared to selective catalytic reduction (SCR) equipped diesel vehicles. Characteristics of drayage truck vocation, represented by the near-dock and local drayage driving cycles, were linked to high NOx emissions from diesel vehicles equipped with a SCR. Exhaust gas temperatures below 250 °C, for more than 95% duration of the local and near-dock driving cycles, resulted in minimal SCR activity. The low percentage of activity SCR over the local and near-dock cycles contributed to a brake-specific NOx emissions that were 5-7 times higher than in-use certification limit. The study also illustrated the differences between emissions rate measured from chassis dynamometer testing and prediction from the EMFAC model. The results of the study emphasize the need for model inputs relative to SCR performance as a function of driving cycle and engine operation characteristics.

  19. Effects of Taping on Pain, Grip Strength and Wrist Extension Force in Patients with Tennis Elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsoddini, Alireza; Hollisaz, Mohammad Taghi

    2013-01-01

    Background Tennis elbow (TE) is a common musculotendinous degenerative disorder of the extensor origin at the lateral humeral epicondyle. Different modes of treatment are used for management of tennis elbow. Objectives This study investigated the effect of the taping technique (TT) on pain, grip strength and wrist extension force in treatment of tennis elbow. Patients and Methods Thirty patients (16 men /14 women with a mean age of 32.2 years) with tennis elbow of their dominant arm participated in this study. Outcome measures were assessment of pain at the lateral aspect of the elbow, grip strength and wrist extension force before and five to ten minutes after application of elbow tape on the affected and unaffected arms. A Visual Analog Scale was used to assess pain. A dynamometer and a hand-held dynamometer were used for evaluation of grip strength and wrist extension force, respectively. Results Among the variables, significant differences were found in wrist extension forces between effected and unaffected arms (P = 0.02). Changes in grip strength showed statically significant improvements in the affected arm compared to the unaffected arm (P = 0.03). Also, in assessment of pain at the lateral epicondyle, the mean change between affected and unaffected arms was significant, with P = 0.001. Conclusions The taping technique, as applied in this study demonstrates an impressive effect on wrist extension force and grip strength of patients with TE. Elbow taping also reduces pain at the lateral aspect of the elbow in these patients. PMID:24350156

  20. The determination of isokinetic performance values of knee joint and Hamstring (flexor/Quadriceps (extensor ratios differences in Volleyball players’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Yenigün

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determined the values of isokinetic performance in knee joint and the ratios of hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q between volleyball players and controls. 30 male volleyball players (age: 19,46±2,1 and 30 male controls (age: 19,66±2,0 were participated in this study. This study investigated hamstring and quadriceps muscles strength ratio obtained during concentric muscle contraction. The ratio of H/Q muscle strength which was an indicator of normal balance between the knee flexors and extensor and it is important to estimate of the capacity for stabilization of knee joint and the preventation of disability. Knee flexion and extension measurements were tested on biodex system–3 dynamometer in %60, %180 and %300 deg/sec test protocols. The range of motion of knee Joint was evaluated by biodex system–3 dynamometer. There was no statistical difference in the ROM of the knee joint between volleyball players and controls (p>0,05. The isokinetic values of volleyball players were significantly higher than controls (p<0,05. H/Q values must be determined to prevent disability. For the aim of get ready for the season and supply the continuity of performance level increases, preseason isokinetic testing of athletes may be helpful to test for strength imbalance and to determine the correct exercises which is suitable for remove the H/Q disproportion.

  1. The rate of force development obtained at early contraction phase is not influenced by active static stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais de Oliveira, André L; Greco, Camila Coelho; Molina, Renato; Denadai, Benedito S

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of active static stretching on the maximal isometric muscle strength (maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]) and rate of force development (RFD) determined within time intervals of 30, 50, 100, and 200 milliseconds relative to the onset of muscle contraction. Fifteen men (aged 21.3 ± 2.4 years) were submitted on different days to the following tests: (a) familiarization session to the isokinetic dynamometer; (b) 2 maximal isometric contractions for knee extensors in the isokinetic dynamometer to determine MVC and RFD (control); and (c) 2 active static stretching exercises for the dominant leg extensors (10 × 30 seconds for each exercise with a 20-second rest interval between bouts). After stretching, the isokinetic test was repeated (poststretching). Conditions 2 and 3 were performed in random order. The RFD was considered as the mean slope of the moment-time curve at time intervals of 0-30, 0-50, 0-100; 0-150; and 0200 milliseconds relative to the onset of muscle contraction. The MVC was reduced after stretching (285 ± 59 vs. 271 ± 56 N · m, p 0.05). However, the RFD measured at intervals of 0-150 and 0-200 milliseconds was significantly lower after stretching (p < 0.01). It can be concluded that explosive muscular actions of a very short duration (<100 milliseconds) seem less affected by active static stretching when compared with actions using maximal muscle strength.

  2. The development of an instrumented wheelchair propulsion testing and training device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaesner, Joseph; Morgan, Kerri A; Gray, David B

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have used several types of testing devices and training surfaces to examine wheelchair propulsion. Testing and training wheelchair users on the actual surface of interest, such as tile floors or ramps, is ideal but difficult. Devices such as treadmills, dynamometers, and ergometers allow for researchers and clinicians to observe wheelchair users in a controlled space. However, these devices often do not have the ability to realistically simulate the environment. This methodological article describes the instrumentation, development and function of a wheelchair dynamometer system, the WheelMill System (WMS), a uniquely adjustable roller system for wheelchairs. Three participants wheeled on the WMS, over a tile surface and up two different graded slopes with the SmartWheel to compare speed and forces. The WMS reasonably simulated propulsion over a tile floor, though the participants' speed was slightly faster on tile, and the peak forces for each propulsion stroke varied more on tile than on the WMS. For the slopes, the speed oscillated over a greater range and was slower, and the measured peak forces were higher than the values measured on the WMS. The WMS may have several applications, though additional studies on a greater and more diverse population are needed.

  3. Fate of the psoas muscle after open reduction for developmental dislocation of the hip (DDH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, G S; Engsberg, J R; McAlister, W H; Gordon, J E; Schoenecker, P L

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the anatomic and functional consequences of psoas lengthening during operative intervention for developmental dislocation of the hip (DDH). Possible anatomic changes were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and functional assessment included strength determination by an isokinetic dynamometer and gait analysis. Six girls and one boy, ranging in age from 15 to 20 months, had operative reduction of a unilateral DDH. One closed and six open reductions (three anteromedial and three anterolateral approaches) were performed. Follow-up ranged from 4 years 0 months to 9 years 2 months. The cross-sectional area determined by MRI of the lengthened psoas muscles was markedly reduced for all of the six open-reduction patients (three moderate and three severe). Atrophy of the iliacus muscle also was apparent by MRI in five of the six open-reduction patients. Maximum flexion torque, as determined by the isokinetic dynamometer, was diminished on the DDH side for the three patients whose hips were reduced open through the anteromedial approach. Average hip-flexion torque over the entire range of motion was decreased for both anteromedial and anterolateral groups on the operated-on side. Lengthening of the psoas tendon during open reduction of a DDH is associated with considerable atrophy of the psoas muscle.

  4. Surface myomechanical responses recorded on a scanner galvanometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafolt, D; Gallasch, E

    2002-09-01

    A moving magnet galvanometer equipped with lever and indentor was evaluated for mechanomyography (MMG). First, the precision of the galvanometer was tested on a piezo-electric disc actuator. Using a 50 mm lever, synthesised micromotions with an amplitude of 1 microm could be detected (noise level static indentation forces ranging from 0.1 to 2 N. Then the galvanometer was mounted on an isometric ankle dynamometer to sense calf-muscle responses (N = 6). In the first protocol, twitch contractions were elicited by electrical stimulation while the indentation force was increased. Twitch amplitudes, twitch contraction times and twitch half-relaxation times were analysed from the surface and contraction responses. With indentation force (0.1-0.5 N), the amplitude of the surface responses increased (+61%), contraction and half-relaxation times, however, were not influenced. The mean twitch contraction time from the surface responses (60 +/- 11 ms) was shorter than that from the contraction responses (115 +/- 7 ms), indicating more fast-contracting fibres under the indented area. In the second protocol, voluntary target contractions were produced, and the surface responses were simultaneously recorded on an accelerometer. After double differentiation of the galvanometer signal, both acceleration MMGs showed a high coincidence in the time and frequency domains. With an indentation force of 2 N applied on the accelerometer, the signal amplitude (-10%) and the mean frequency (-19%) decreased. A specific application of this galvanometer-dynamometer test system is the assessment of regeneration processes in paraplegics with long-term denervated muscles.

  5. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Gearbox 1 Failure Analysis Report: December 2010 - January 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errichello, R.; Muller, J.

    2012-02-01

    Unintended gearbox failures have a significant impact on the cost of wind farm operations. In 2007, NREL initiated the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC). The project combines analysis, field testing, dynamometer testing, condition monitoring, and the development and population of a gearbox failure database in a multi-pronged approach to determine why wind turbine gearboxes do not achieve their expected design life. The collaborative of manufacturers, owners, researchers, and consultants focuses on gearbox testing and modeling and the development of a gearbox failure database. Collaborative members also investigate gearbox condition monitoring techniques. Data gained from the GRC will enable designers, developers, and manufacturers to improve gearbox designs and testing standards and create more robust modeling tools. GRC project essentials include the development of two identical, heavily instrumented representative gearbox designs. Knowledge gained from the field and dynamometer tests conducted on these gearboxes builds an understanding of how the selected loads and events translate into bearing and gear response. This report contains the analysis of the first gearbox design.

  6. Thrust stand for low-thrust liquid pulsed rocket engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Qin; Zhang, Jun; Qian, Min; Jia, Zhen-yuan; Sun, Bao-yuan

    2010-09-01

    A thrust stand is developed for measuring the pulsed thrust generated by low-thrust liquid pulsed rocket engines. It mainly consists of a thrust dynamometer, a base frame, a connecting frame, and a data acquisition and processing system. The thrust dynamometer assembled with shear mode piezoelectric quartz sensors is developed as the core component of the thrust stand. It adopts integral shell structure. The sensors are inserted into unique double-elastic-half-ring grooves with an interference fit. The thrust is transferred to the sensors by means of static friction forces of fitting surfaces. The sensors could produce an amount of charges which are proportional to the thrust to be measured. The thrust stand is calibrated both statically and dynamically. The in situ static calibration is performed using a standard force sensor. The dynamic calibration is carried out using pendulum-typed steel ball impact technique. Typical thrust pulse is simulated by a trapezoidal impulse force. The results show that the thrust stand has a sensitivity of 25.832 mV/N, a linearity error of 0.24% FSO, and a repeatability error of 0.23% FSO. The first natural frequency of the thrust stand is 1245 Hz. The thrust stand can accurately measure thrust waveform of each firing, which is used for fine control of on-orbit vehicles in the thrust range of 5-20 N with pulse frequency of 50 Hz.

  7. EFFECT OF PLAYING TENNIS ON SHOULDER INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL ROTATION STRENGTH AND PROPRIOCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of playing tennis on shoulder rotators strenght and proprioception. Ten beginner tennis players and 10 age matched sedentary controls voluntarily participated in this study. Shoulder internal and external rotators strength were evaluated by isokinetic dynamometer at a speed of 60°/sec. Shoulder proprioception was also determined by isokinetic dynamometer and assessed by measuring reproduction of passive positioning at 15º and 30º joint angles in direction of internal and external rotation. Measurements were taken before and immediately after a ten-week tennis program. In the present study, after a 10-week period, neither trained group nor the control group demonstrated significant differences in proprioceptive sense evaluations. Result supported that tennis program which continued for ten weeks has strenghtening effect on internal rotators especially on dominant shoulder. This may lead to a lowering of the strength ratio on dominant shoulder. Asymmetric sports like tennis would result in such adaptations in dominant shoulders. The decrement in strength ratio could be characterized as glenohumeral joint instability. Therefore, there should be emphasis on supplemental external strengthening exercises in the training program such group of beginner tennis players to maintain the glenohumeral stability.

  8. An investigation of the association between grip strength and hip and knee joint moments in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Dinesh; Rowe, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Grip strength is a predictor of health outcomes but with differing rates of age-related decline in muscle strength, it is unclear whether handgrip is a reliable indicator of lower limb moments. This study investigated the relationship between grip strength and lower extremity moments in community-dwelling older adults. Eighty-two healthy volunteers aged 60-82 years (mean age 73.2 years) performed maximal voluntary contractions of knee and hip extensors and flexors at three positions and at neutral position for hip abductors and adductors using a custom-built dynamometer. Grip strength was measured using an electronic Jamar dynamometer. The relative reduction in muscle strength of 80s age category compared to 60-year-olds ranged from 14% for grip strength to 27% for hip abductors. Peak torque of flexors and extensors of the knee and hip joints were significantly correlated with grip strength and Pearson's correlation coefficients ranged from 0.56 to 0.78 with the highest correlations observed between knee moments and grip strength. "Good" correlation was found but only 31-60% of the variation in grip strength could be related to changes in joint torques. Hence the assumption that grip strength is an indicator of strength in the lower limb would seem unjustified in the healthy older adult.

  9. Further validation of artificial neural network-based emissions simulation models for conventional and hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth-Nagy, Csaba; Conley, John J; Jarrett, Ronald P; Clark, Nigel N

    2006-07-01

    With the advent of hybrid electric vehicles, computer-based vehicle simulation becomes more useful to the engineer and designer trying to optimize the complex combination of control strategy, power plant, drive train, vehicle, and driving conditions. With the desire to incorporate emissions as a design criterion, researchers at West Virginia University have developed artificial neural network (ANN) models for predicting emissions from heavy-duty vehicles. The ANN models were trained on engine and exhaust emissions data collected from transient dynamometer tests of heavy-duty diesel engines then used to predict emissions based on engine speed and torque data from simulated operation of a tractor truck and hybrid electric bus. Simulated vehicle operation was performed with the ADVISOR software package. Predicted emissions (carbon dioxide [CO2] and oxides of nitrogen [NO(x)]) were then compared with actual emissions data collected from chassis dynamometer tests of similar vehicles. This paper expands on previous research to include different driving cycles for the hybrid electric bus and varying weights of the conventional truck. Results showed that different hybrid control strategies had a significant effect on engine behavior (and, thus, emissions) and may affect emissions during different driving cycles. The ANN models underpredicted emissions of CO2 and NO(x) in the case of a class-8 truck but were more accurate as the truck weight increased.

  10. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions: November 28, 2006 - March 31, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, J. N.; Khalek, I. A.; Smith, L. R.; Fujita, E.; Zielinska, B.

    2011-10-01

    The Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) project was a pilot investigation of how fuels and crankcase lubricants contribute to the formation of particulate matter (PM) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) in vehicle exhaust. As limited vehicles were tested, results are not representative of the whole on-road fleet. Long-term effects were not investigated. Pairs of vehicles (one normal PM emitting, one high-PM emitting) from four categories were selected: light-duty (LD) gasoline cars, medium-duty (MD) diesel trucks, heavy-duty (HD) natural-gas-fueled buses, and HD diesel buses. HD vehicles procured did not exhibit higher PM emissions, and thus were labeled high mileage (HM). Fuels evaluated were non-ethanol gasoline (E0), 10 percent ethanol (E10), conventional low-sulfur TxLED diesel, 20% biodiesel (B20), and natural gas. Temperature effects (20 degrees F, 72 degrees F) were evaluated on LD and MD vehicles. Lubricating oil vintage effects (fresh and aged) were evaluated on all vehicles. LD and MD vehicles were operated on a dynamometer over the California Unified Driving Cycle, while HD vehicles followed the Heavy Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. Regulated and unregulated emissions were measured. Chemical markers from the unregulated emissions measurements and a tracer were utilized to estimate the lubricant contribution to PM.

  11. FY2011 Progress Report: Agreement 8697 - NOx Sensor Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, L Y; Glass, R S

    2011-11-01

    Objectives are: (1) Develop an inexpensive, rapid-response, high-sensitivity and selective electrochemical sensor for oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) for compression-ignition, direct-injection (CIDI) OBD II systems; (2) Explore and characterize novel, effective sensing methodologies based on impedance measurements and designs and manufacturing methods that are compatible with mass fabrication; and (3) Collaborate with industry in order to (ultimately) transfer the technology to a supplier for commercialization. Approach used is: (1) Use an ionic (O{sup 2-}) conducting ceramic as a solid electrolyte and metal or metal-oxide electrodes; (2) Correlate NO{sub x} concentration with changes in cell impedance; (3) Evaluate sensing mechanisms and aging effects on long-term performance using electrochemical techniques; and (4) Collaborate with Ford Research Center to optimize sensor performance and perform dynamometer and on-vehicle testing. Work in FY2011 focused on using an algorithm developed in FY2010 in a simplified strategy to demonstrate how data from controlled laboratory evaluation could be applied to data from real-world engine testing. The performance of a Au wire prototype sensor was evaluated in the laboratory with controlled gas compositions and in dynamometer testing with diesel exhaust. The laboratory evaluation indicated a nonlinear dependence of the NO{sub x} and O{sub 2} sensitivity with concentration. For both NO{sub x} and O{sub 2}, the prototype sensor had higher sensitivity at concentrations less than {approx}20 ppm and {approx}7%, respectively, compared to lower NO{sub x} and O{sub 2} sensitivity at concentrations greater than {approx}50 ppm and {approx}10.5%, respectively. Results in dynamometer diesel exhaust generally agreed with the laboratory results. Diesel exhaust after-treatment systems will likely require detection levels less than {approx}20 ppm in order to meet emission regulations. The relevant mathematical expressions for sensitivity in

  12. Development and Testing of an UltraBattery-Equipped Honda Civic Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sally (Xiaolei) Sun; Tyler Gray; Pattie Hovorka; Jeffrey Wishart; Donald Karner; James Francfort

    2012-08-01

    The UltraBattery Retrofit Project DP1.8 and Carbon Enriched Project C3, performed by ECOtality North America (ECOtality) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), are established to demonstrate the suitability of advanced lead battery technology in hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs). A profile, termed the “Simulated Honda Civic HEV Profile” (SHCHEVP) has been developed in Project DP1.8 in order to provide reproducible laboratory evaluations of different battery types under real-world HEV conditions. The cycle is based on the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles and simulates operation of a battery pack in a Honda Civic HEV. One pass through the SHCHEVP takes 2,140 seconds and simulates 17.7 miles of driving. A complete nickel metal hydride (NiMH) battery pack was removed from a Honda Civic HEV and operated under SHCHEVP to validate the profile. The voltage behavior and energy balance of the battery during this operation was virtually the same as that displayed by the battery when in the Honda Civic operating on the dynamometer under the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles, thus confirming the efficacy of the simulated profile. An important objective of the project has been to benchmark the performance of the UltraBatteries manufactured by both Furukawa Battery Co., Ltd., Japan (Furakawa) and East Penn Manufacturing Co., Inc. (East Penn). Accordingly, UltraBattery packs from both Furakawa and East Penn have been characterized under a range of conditions. Resistance measurements and capacity tests at various rates show that both battery types are very similar in performance. Both technologies, as well as a standard lead-acid module (included for baseline data), were evaluated under a simple HEV screening test. Both Furakawa and East Penn UltraBattery packs operated for over 32,000 HEV cycles, with minimal loss in performance; whereas the

  13. Impact of a Diesel High Pressure Common Rail Fuel System and Onboard Vehicle Storage on B20 Biodiesel Blend Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Earl; McCormick, Robert L.; Sigelko, Jenny; Johnson, Stuart; Zickmann, Stefan; Lopes, Shailesh; Gault, Roger; Slade, David

    2016-04-01

    Adoption of high-pressure common-rail (HPCR) fuel systems, which subject diesel fuels to higher temperatures and pressures, has brought into question the efficacy of ASTM International specifications for biodiesel and biodiesel blend oxidation stability, as well as the lack of any stability parameter for diesel fuel. A controlled experiment was developed to investigate the impact of a light-duty diesel HPCR fuel system on the stability of 20% biodiesel (B20) blends under conditions of intermittent use and long-term storage in a relatively hot and dry climate. B20 samples with Rancimat induction periods (IPs) near the current 6.0-hour minimum specification (6.5 hr) and roughly double the ASTM specification (13.5 hr) were prepared from a conventional diesel and a highly unsaturated biodiesel. Four 2011 model year Volkswagen Passats equipped with HPCR fuel injection systems were utilized: one on B0, two on B20-6.5 hr, and one on B20-13.5 hr. Each vehicle was operated over a one-hour drive cycle in a hot running loss test cell to initially stress the fuel. The cars were then kept at Volkswagen's Arizona Proving Ground for two (35 degrees C average daily maximum) to six months (26 degrees C average daily maximum). The fuel was then stressed again by running a portion of the one-hour dynamometer drive cycle (limited by the amount of fuel in the tank). Fuel rail and fuel tank samples were analyzed for IP, acid number, peroxide content, polymer content, and ester profile. The HPCR fuel pumps were removed, dismantled, and inspected for deposits or abnormal wear. Analysis of fuels collected during initial dynamometer tests showed no impact of exposure to HPCR conditions. Long-term storage with intermittent use showed that IP remained above 3 hours, acid number below 0.3 mg KOH/g, peroxides low, no change in ester profile, and no production of polymers. Final dynamometer tests produced only small changes in fuel properties. Inspection of the HPCR fuel pumps revealed no

  14. Reliability of the grip strength coefficient of variation for detecting sincerity in normal and blocked median nerve in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, N J; Mentzel, M; Hütz, R; Gülke, J

    2017-04-01

    In the assessment of hand and upper limb function, detecting sincerity of effort (SOE) for grip strength is of major importance to identifying feigned loss of strength. Measuring maximal grip strength with a dynamometer is very common, often combined with calculating the coefficient of variation (CV), a measure of the variation over the three grip strength trials. Little data is available about the relevance of these measurements in patients with median nerve impairment due to the heterogeneity of patient groups. This study examined the reliability of grip strength tests as well as the CV to detect SOE in healthy subjects. The power distribution of the individual fingers and the thenar was taken into account. To assess reliability, the measurements were performed in subjects with a median nerve block to simulate a nerve injury. The ability of 21 healthy volunteers to exert maximal grip force and to deliberately exert half-maximal force to simulate reduced SOE in a power grip was examined using the Jamar(®) dynamometer. The experiment was performed in a combined setting with and without median nerve block of the same subject. The force at the fingertips of digits 2-5 and at the thenar eminence was measured with a sensor glove with integrated pressure receptors. For each measurement, three trials were recorded subsequently and the mean and CV were calculated. When exerting submaximal force, the subjects reached 50-62% of maximal force, regardless of the median nerve block. The sensor glove revealed a significant reduction of force when exerting submaximal force (P1 sensor) with (P<0.032) and without median nerve block (P<0.017). An increase in CV at submaximal force was found, although it was not significant. SOE can be detected with the CV at the little finger at using a 10% cut-off (sensitivity 0.84 and 0.92 without and with median nerve block, respectively). These findings suggest low reliability of the power grip measurement with the Jamar(®) dynamometer, as

  15. Reliability of isokinetic evaluation in passive mode for knee flexors and extensors in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana N. Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The isokinetic dynamometer has been considered the gold-standard measurement of muscle performance. However, the reliability for the passive mode in children has not been reported to date. OBJECTIVES: The purpose was to evaluate the reliability of the isokinetic dynamometer in passive mode in children. METHOD: Twenty-one healthy children (ten girls, eleven boys, aged 5 to 12 years (age: 8.5±2.2 years, were evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer. Each participant was tested twice with a one-week interval and performed five consecutive cycles of knee extension and flexion. The test was performed at 60º/s in the concentric passive mode and the children performed maximal contractions. The measured variables were peak torque, average peak torque, total work, and average power, time to peak torque and angle of peak torque for dominant and non-dominant lower limbs. Reliabilities were determined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC3,1, standard error of measurement (SEM and SEM%, and coefficient of variation (CV. RESULTS: We found good reliability in both lower limbs for peak torque, average peak torque, total work and average power of knee flexors and extensors, with ICC3,1 values greater than 0.80; SEM ranging from 6.7 to 79.2; SEM% ranging from 10.4% to 16.8%; CV lower than 15%. Bland-Altman analysis showed that the bias was low than 10% and limits of agreement (LOAs ranging from 33.9% to 59.2%, and -28.8% and -52.8%, showing that measures tended to disagree. However, time to peak torque (ICC3,1 0.34; SEM%>37.4%; CV>41.7%; bias >24.0%; LOA>101.0% and angle of peak torque (ICC3,19.3; SEM%>27.6%; CV>15.3%; bias>11.0%; LOA>61.0% were not reliable. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that isokinetic evaluation in passive mode for knee extensors and flexors of dominant and non-dominant lower limbs of children without disabilities was reliable for peak torque, average peak torque, work, and power. However, average time to peak

  16. Experimental Study of the Effect of Octane Number on the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed R. Jasem

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiments had been carried out using two stroke, single cylinder type (TD113, with compression ratio of (7.3:1 Coupled to hydraulic dynamometer type (TD115.          The results showed that there is  enhancement   of the engine  performance  with increasing octane number. This appears clearly when comparing the results of performance with fuel of 75 and 95 octane number.The torque increases 10% at speed of 2750 RPM. The break power also increases 18% when the octane number changed from 75 to 95 at 3000 RPM of engine speed. The same change in octane number will increase the thermal efficiency by 9% at 2300 RPM of engine speed. The break specific fuel consumption decreases at the same ratio of thermal efficiency 9% but at 2400 RPM. The less fuel consumption happens at 2400 RPM for octane number 95. 

  17. PERFORMANCE STUDY OF CRYO TREATED HSS DRILLS IN DRILLING CAST IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R. Ramji

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the performance of cryogenically treated HSS drills for drilling gray cast iron. The thrust force and torque were measured using drill tool dynamometer. The surface roughness (Ra, Rz, Rq and Rt of the drilled specimens were measured using talysurf. The experimental lay-out was designedusing Taguchi’s Orthogonal Array technique. Signal-to-Noise Ratio analysis was performed to identify the effect of the parameters on the response variables. The treated drills were found superior to the non-treated in all the test conditions in terms of lesser thrust force, torque and also superior surface roughness of the specimens.The tool wear was studied using SEM. FEM was done to predict tool tip temperature.

  18. Comprehensive design and optimization of an electric vehicle powertrain equipped with a two-speed dual-clutch transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article develops a systematic model to study electric vehicle powertrain system efficiency by combining a detailed model of two-speed dual-clutch transmission system efficiency losses with an electric vehicle powertrain system model. In this model, the design factors including selection of the electric machine, gear ratios’ change, multi-plate wet clutch design, and gear shift schedule design are considered. Meanwhile, the application of detailed model for drag torque losses in the gearbox is discussed. Furthermore, the proposed model, developed with the MATLAB/Simulink platform, is applied to optimize/maximize the efficiency of the electric vehicle powertrain system using genetic algorithms. The optimization results demonstrate that the optimal results are different between simulations via New Europe Drive Cycle and Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, and comprehensive design and optimization of the powertrain system are necessary.

  19. Torque Production Using Hand Cranks in a Simulated Gear-Operated Valve Opening Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Lawrence J H; Stanton, Edward; Patel, Anupam; Cheli, Maurizio

    1997-01-01

    Hand cranks are used in a variety of industries to actuate valves and in other gear-operated applications. In order to evaluate these types of operations and their compatibility with operator strength capabilities, a rotational dynamometer was used to measure torque production capability of operators using a hand crank at different heights and angles (with respect to the coronal plane). The tests were conducted for both clockwise and counterclockwise rotations using the dominant arm of each test participant. A total of 18 tests were completed by each of five male right-handed test participants. A 0° declination angle, counterclockwise operation, and both 40.65 cm and 60.96 cm heights were found to be associated with the greatest torque production capabilities.

  20. Experimental Investigation of Bearing Slip in a Wind Turbine Gearbox During a Transient Grid Loss Event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helsen, Jan; Guo, Yi; Keller, Jonathan; Guillaume, Patrick

    2016-12-01

    This work investigates the behaviour of the high speed stage of a wind turbine gearbox during a transient grid loss event. Dynamometer testing on a full scale wind turbine nacelle is used. A combination of external and internal gearbox measurements is analysed. Particular focus is on the characterization of the high speed shaft tapered roller bearing slip behaviour. This slipping behaviour is linked to dynamic events by many researchers and described as potential bearing failure initiator. However only limited full scale dynamic testing is documented. Strain gauge bridges in grooves along the circumference of the outer ring are used to characterize the bearing behaviour in detail. It is shown that during the transient event the high speed shaft experiences a combined torsional and bending deformation. These unfavourable loading conditions induce roller slip in the bearings during the torque reversals indicating the potential of the applied load case to go beyond the preload of the tapered roller bearing.

  1. Isokinetic concentric quadriceps and hamstring normative data for elite collegiate American football players participating in the NFL Scouting Combine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvijac, John E; Toriscelli, Todd A; Merrick, W Shannon; Papp, Derek F; Kiebzak, Gary M

    2014-04-01

    Isokinetic concentric quadriceps and hamstring strength data using a Cybex dynamometer are collected for elite collegiate American football players invited to the annual National Football League Scouting Combine. We constructed a normative (reference) database of the Cybex strength data for the purpose of allowing comparison of an individual's values to his peers. Data reduction was performed to construct frequency distributions of hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q) ratios and side-to-side strength differences. For the cohort (n = 1,252 players), a statistically significant but very small (1.9%) mean quadriceps strength preference existed for dominant side vs. nondominant side. Peak torque (Newton meters, best repetition) for quadriceps and hamstrings was significantly correlated to player body mass (weight) (the same relationship was found for other variables using peak torque in the calculation). Peak torque varied by player position, being greatest for offensive linemen and lowest for kickers (p 10% are common, not the exception.

  2. Effect of kinesio taping on the isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, SoonKwon; Shim, JeMyung; Kim, SungJoong; Namkoong, Seung; Roh, HyoLyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury with and without kinesio taping. [Subjects] The subjects for this study were 10 football athletes (males) with a knee injury. [Methods] Measurements were performed by using Cybex dynamometer under uniform motion before and after the application of kinesio tape to the quadriceps and hamstring muscle. Maximal concentric knee extension and flexion at three angular velocities (60°/s, 120°/s, and 180°/s) were measured. [Results] A significant difference was found in peak torque and total work of the flexion at 120°/s and 180°/s, as well as in the average power of extension at 180°/s. [Conclusion] Though it is not the main therapy for muscle function in football athletes with injury, kinesio taping was an effective adjunct therapy.

  3. Two experiments for the measurement of the centre of percussion of a physical pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgieri, Massimiliano; Onorato, Pasquale; Mascheretti, Paolo; De Ambrosis, Anna

    2016-09-01

    In this article we describe two experiments, performed with instrumentation commonly available in undergraduate laboratories, to measure the position of the centre of percussion of a physical pendulum. The first one makes use of a constant external force provided by a common spring dynamometer, and allows for a straightforward analysis founded on basic concepts of rigid body dynamics. The second one is, more properly, an experiment based on a percussion, i.e. a collision involving an almost impulsive force, and displays the typical difficulties, but also the physical richness, of this type of phenomena. We provide an historical overview of the problem of the centre of percussion, starting from its first formulation given by Bernardino Baldi at the end of the 16th century, and we show how the mathematical model built for analysing the impact between a physical pendulum and a localised object is helpful in understanding that such a problem, in its original formulation, does not have a unique answer.

  4. Measurement and Treatment of Passive Muscle Stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This PhD thesis is based on research conducted at the University of Copenhagen and Helene Elsass Center from 2012 to 2015. Measurements and treatment of passive muscle stiffness in people with cerebral palsy (CP) comprise the focus of the thesis. The thesis summarizes the results from four studies......, which aimed to investigate: 1) The development of a clinical method to evaluate and distinguish neural (reflex mediated stiffness) and non-neural (passive muscle stiffness) components of muscle stiffness in adults with CP by objective and reliable measurements 2) The association between increased......, and good correlation to measurements from a stationary dynamometer. The second part of the thesis discusses the finding of a significant correlation between gait function, reduced rate of force development (RFD), and increased passive muscle stiffness in adults with CP. Previously, the reflex...

  5. An assessment of consistence of exhaust gas emission test results obtained under controlled NEDC conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balawender, K.; Jaworski, A.; Kuszewski, H.; Lejda, K.; Ustrzycki, A.

    2016-09-01

    Measurements concerning emissions of pollutants contained in automobile combustion engine exhaust gases is of primary importance in view of their harmful impact on the natural environment. This paper presents results of tests aimed at determining exhaust gas pollutant emissions from a passenger car engine obtained under repeatable conditions on a chassis dynamometer. The test set-up was installed in a controlled climate chamber allowing to maintain the temperature conditions within the range from -20°C to +30°C. The analysis covered emissions of such components as CO, CO2, NOx, CH4, THC, and NMHC. The purpose of the study was to assess repeatability of results obtained in a number of tests performed as per NEDC test plan. The study is an introductory stage of a wider research project concerning the effect of climate conditions and fuel type on emission of pollutants contained in exhaust gases generated by automotive vehicles.

  6. Application of a Biodegradable Lubricant in a Diesel Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    The IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement has initiated this project concerning the application of biodegradable lubricants to diesel and gasoline type vehicles. Emission measurements on a chassis dynamometer were carried out. The purpose of these measurements was to compare the emissions of CO, CO2......, NOx, THC, PM, lubricant-SOF and PAH from one diesel and one gasoline type vehicle using biodegradable lubricants and conventional lubricants. This paper describes the results of the experiments with the diesel type vehicle only. Lubricant consumption and fuel consumption are other important parameters...... lubricant, compared to the reference lubricant, was dependent on the driving pattern -the lubricant was the main contributor to the soluble organic fraction of the particulates emitted, only biodiesel gave a contribution from the fuel -a slightly higher fuel consumption and NOx emission was noticed...

  7. 影响轻型汽车排放测试结果因素分析及对策研究%Factors Analysis of Affecting Light Duty Vehicle Emission Test Results and Countermeasures Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋志辉

    2014-01-01

    Analyze the factors which influence the exhaust gas emission measurement results accuracy of light duty vehicle and study the corresponding countermeasures. Analyze mainly these fac-tors in terms of testing environment, light duty vehicle, testing sys-tem airtightness, chassis dynamometer, cooling fan and ultra-low emission testing system and point out solid solution.%对影响轻型汽车排放测试结果的因素进行了分析,并研究了相关应对策略。主要从测试环境,车辆,测试系统密封性,测功机,冷却风机及超低排放测试系统方面进行了研究分析,并给出了具体的解决方法。

  8. On airborne nano/micro-sized wear particles released from low-metallic automotive brakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukutschová, Jana; Moravec, Pavel; Tomášek, Vladimír; Matějka, Vlastimil; Smolík, Jiří; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Seidlerová, Jana; Safářová, Klára; Filip, Peter

    2011-04-01

    The paper addresses the wear particles released from commercially available "low-metallic" automotive brake pads subjected to brake dynamometer tests. Particle size distribution was measured in situ and the generated particles were collected. The collected fractions and the original bulk material were analyzed using several chemical and microscopic techniques. The experiments demonstrated that airborne wear particles with sizes between 10 nm and 20 μm were released into the air. The numbers of nanoparticles (release of nanoparticles was measured when the average temperature of the rotor reached 300°C, the combustion initiation temperature of organics present in brakes. In contrast to particle size distribution data, the microscopic analysis revealed the presence of nanoparticles, mostly in the form of agglomerates, in all captured fractions. The majority of elements present in the bulk material were also detected in the ultra-fine fraction of the wear particles.

  9. Rotor Design for an Efficient Single-Phase Induction Motor for Refrigerator Compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jin Ahn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a rotor making technology for the production of high-efficiency single-phase induction motors (SPIMs to be used in refrigerator compressors. Rotors can have different aluminum fill factors according to the fabrication method. In order to examine the association between the fill factor and the efficiency of the rotor, we analyzed the distribution of magnetic flux density using the finite element method (FEM. Next, we made prototype rotors by conventional casting methods and by the proposed casting method and compared their fill factors. In addition, SPIMs were made using the rotors, and their efficiencies were measured using a dynamometer. Moreover, the SPIMs were put to use in a compressor, for testing, and for each SPIM the refrigerating capacity of the compressor was measured with a calorimeter. Based on the results of the FEM analysis of the magnetic flux density and the experiments, the reliability and validity of the proposed method were proven.

  10. Acute effects of massage or active exercise in relieving muscle soreness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2013-01-01

    healthy female volunteers (mean age 32 years) participated in this examiner-blind randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01478451). The participants performed eccentric contractions for the upper trapezius muscle on a Biodex dynamometer. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) presented 48 hours...... later, at which the participants (a) received 10 minutes of massage of the trapezius muscle or (b) performed 10 minutes of active exercise (shoulder shrugs 10 × 10 reps) with increasing elastic resistance (Thera-Band). First, 1 treatment was randomly applied to 1 shoulder while the contralateral...... shoulder served as a passive control. Two hours later, the contralateral resting shoulder received the other treatment. The participants rated the intensity of soreness (scale 0-10), and a blinded examiner took measures of pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the upper trapezius immediately before treatment...

  11. Metrology Influence on the Cutting Modelisation

    CERN Document Server

    Cahuc, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    High speed machining has been improved thanks to considerable advancement on the tools (optimum geometry, harder materials), on machined materials (increased workability and machining capacity for harder workpieces) and finally on the machines (higher accuracy and power at the high speeds, performances of the numerical control system). However at such loading velocities, the cutting process generates high strain and high-speed strain which cause complex, various and irreversible phenomena in plasticity. These phenomena are comprehended through the complete measurement of the mechanical actions using a six-component dynamometer and flux and temperatures measurements at the tip of the cutting tool. Balanced energy assessments are the starting points of our reflection on the machining modelling. The modelling of these phenomena and the material behaviour under this type of loading requires a suitable theoretical approach. The main points of the strain gradient theory are developed. A theoretical behaviour law ad...

  12. Functional strength training in child with cerebral palsy GMFCS IV: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Adriana Neves; da Costa, Carolina Souza Neves; Golineleo, Maria Terezinha Baldessar; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a functional strength training. A nine-year-old child with Cerebral Palsy (CP) classified as level IV according to Gross Motor Function Classification System participated in the study. Assessments were at baseline, five weeks and 10 weeks post-intervention. Lower-extremity muscles strength was evaluated with an isokinetic dynamometer. Also, Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88) and Timed up & Go (TUG) tests were assessed. A functional strength training protocol, four sessions a week, for 10 weeks was applied. Following functional strength training, it improvements were found in hip, knee and ankle muscles strength, as well as increase in GMFM-88 score and decrease in time for TUG test performance. Positives outcomes from functional strength training were obtained beyond improvements in strength, since improvements in functional motor performance were also achieved. Therefore, individualized, specific and functional strength training seems to be an alternative to rehabilitation of children with CP with high level of functional disability.

  13. Fuel Cell/Battery Powered Bus System. Final Report for period August 1987 - December 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimmer, R.

    1999-01-01

    Today, fuel cell systems are getting much attention from the automotive industry as a future replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE). Every US automobile manufacturer and most foreign firms have major programs underway to develop fuel cell engines for transportation. The objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of using fuel cells as an alternative to the ICE. Three such vehicles (30-foot buses) were introduced beginning in 1994. Extensive development and operational testing of fuel cell systems as a vehicle power source has been accomplished under this program. The development activity investigated total systems configuration and effectiveness for vehicle operations. Operational testing included vehicle performance testing, road operations, and extensive dynamometer emissions testing.

  14. Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype Fiat 131 NA 2.4 liter automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quayle, S. S.; Davis, M. M.; Walter, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. Two fuels were used, a U.S. no. 2 diesel and a European diesel fuel. The vehicle was tested with retarded timing and with and without an oxidation catalyst. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. It was determined that while the catalyst was generally effective in reducing hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide levels, it was also a factor in increasing particulate emissions. Increased particulate emission rates were particularly evident when the vehicle was operated on the European fuel which has a high sulfur content.

  15. Study and evaluation of indicators of relationships motor analyzer sportsmen of armsport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podrigalo L.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article was to study and evaluate the relationship indicators of the functional state of the brush armsport athletes and those working at the amateur level. The results of measuring of tremor and assess the accuracy of the efforts of athletes. The study involved 29 people (20,79 + 0,77 years, divided into experimental and control groups. The fine coordination of hand muscles on the run-time test, the number of touches and squeezing on the wrist dynamometer given effort. Affirmed a lower level of physiological tremor in athletes. The data are interpreted as evidence of the importance of the functional state of the brush for effectiveness in armsport. It is shown that changes in physiological tremor can be used in the assessment of athletes. Application of the correlation matrix established affinity states surveyed.

  16. Reproducibility of range of motion and muscle strength measurements in patients with hip osteoarthritis – an interrater study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Erik; Christensen, Henrik Wulff; Penny, Jeannette Østergaard

    2012-01-01

    .) with a standard two-arm goniometer and muscle strength in Newton (N) using a hand-held dynamometer. Reproducibility is reported as agreement and reliability between paired raters of the same profession. Agreement is reported as limits of agreement (LoA) and reliability is reported with intraclass correlation......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Assessment of range of motion (ROM) and muscle strength is fundamental in the clinical diagnosis of hip osteoarthritis (OA) but reproducibility of these measurements has mostly involved clinicians from secondary care and has rarely reported agreement parameters. Therefore......, the primary objective of the study was to determine the inter-rater reproducibility of ROM and muscle strength measurements. Furthermore, the reliability of the overall assessment of clinical hip OA was evaluated. Reporting is in accordance with proposed guidelines for the reporting of reliability...

  17. Feedstock to Tailpipe Initiative: Kansas Biofuels Production, Testing and Certification Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stagg-Williams, Susan M. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering; Depcik, Chris [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering; Sturm, Belinda [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

    2013-12-31

    The primary task of this grant was to establish an ASTM testing facility for biodiesel and ethanol and to use this facility to develop methods to predict fuel characteristics based on feedstock composition and feedstock cultivation. In addition to characterizing fuel properties, this grant allowed for the purchase and installation of a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) emissions analyzer that will provide an analysis of the emissions leaving the engine in order to meet EPA regulations. This FTIR system is combined with an Alternating Current (AC) dynamometer that allows the engine to follow Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycles. A secondary task was to investigate cultivating algae utilizing wastewater and top-down ecological control and subsequent harvesting using coagulation and dissolved air flotation. Lipid extraction utilizing environmentally-friendly and cost-effective solvents, with and without cell-disruption pretreatment was also explored. Significant work on the hydrothermal liquefaction of wastewater cultivated algae was conducted.

  18. Self-Excited Vibrations in Turning: Efforts Torsor and Average Friction Coefficient Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gérard, Alain; Zapciu, Miron

    2009-01-01

    An experimental device in turning including, in particular, a six-component dynamometer is exploited to measure the complete torque of cutting forces in a case of self-excited vibrations. For the tests, the tool used is type TNMA 16 04 12 carbide not covered (nuance carbide-SUMITIMO ELECTRIC), without chip breeze. The machined material is an alloy of chrome molybdenum type 42 CrMo24. The test-tubes are cylindrical with a diameter of 120 mm and a length of 30 mm. The effort of analysis relates to the moments. In particular, to the tool tip point, when feed rate increases the friction coefficient of swivelling is increasing while that of bearing is decreasing. Innovative remarks on the evolution of the average friction coefficient for various depths of cut and feed rate are presented

  19. Self-excited vibrations in turning : Forces torsor analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bisu, Claudiu-Florinel; K'Nevez, Jean-Yves; Laheurte, Raynald; Cahuc, Olivier; 10.1007/s00170-08-1850-5

    2009-01-01

    The present work deals with determining the necessary parameters considering a three dimensional model to simulate in a realistic way the turning process on machine tool. This paper is dedicated to the study of the self-excited vibrations incidence on various major mechanics characteristics of the system workpiece / tool / material. The efforts (forces and moments) measurement using a six components dynamometer confirms the tool tip moments existence. The fundamental frequency of 190 Hz proves to be common to the tool tip point displacements, the action application point or at the torque exerted to the tool tip point. The confrontation of the results concerning displacements and efforts shows that the applications points of these elements evolve according to similar ellipses located in quasi identical planes. The large and the small axes of these ellipses are increasing with the feed rate motion values accordingly to the mechanical power injected into the system. Conversely, the respective axes ratios of thes...

  20. Planetary Load Sharing in Three-Point Mounted Wind Turbine Gearboxes: A Design and Test Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jonathan; Guo, Yi; Zhang, Zhiwei; Lucas, Doug

    2017-04-06

    This work compares the planetary load-sharing characteristics of wind turbine gearboxes supported by cylindrical roller bearings (CRBs) and preloaded tapered roller bearings (TRBs) when subjected to rotor moments. Planetary bearing loads were measured in field-representative dynamometer tests and compared to loads predicted by finite-element models. Preloaded TRBs significantly improved load sharing. In pure torque conditions, the upwind planet bearing load in the gearbox with preloaded TRBs was only 14% more than the assumed load compared to 47% more for the gearbox with CRBs. Consequently, the predicted fatigue life of the complete set of planetary bearings for the gearbox with preloaded TRBs is 3.5 times greater than that of the gearbox with CRBs.

  1. Analysis Of Drilling Of A Metal Plate With Pilot Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim K.S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper performed a numerical analysis study of the cutting characteristics when drilling a taper hole whose upper and lower diameters are different, that is, a pilot hole. 3-dimensional drilling analysis was performed using a commercial code, and these results were used to determine analytically and compare the cutting temperature, the phenomenon of cutting chip formation, deformation and pressure, etc., for the tools, chips, and specimens during cutting. Also, cutting force and the required energy were calculated and compared. To verify the results of analysis, a cutting dynamometer was used to analyze 3-axis cutting force. Results of analysis showed that the specimen maintained a temperature of approximately 650°, with rapid cooling after chips were formed from the specimen. The tool reached a maximum of 700°, similarly to the chips. It is expected that these results will be utilized to optimize cutting processes and work conditions when drilling holes.

  2. Improvement of Drill Performance in Metal Cutting Using MoST Solid Lubricant Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.R.Thomas; D.G.Teer; S.Yang; S,Hickman

    2004-01-01

    Coated tools are widely used in today's metal cutting industries and have significantly improved machining productivity through reducing operation costs and "time. This paper presents the results of a systematic study of the performance of HSS drills coated with CrTiAlN and drills with a top solid lubricant coating of MoSTTM. The tests were performed on a Haas vertical machining centre under wet and dry cutting conditions to machine through holes in medium carbon steel workpieces. The feed force and torque were recorded throughout some of the tests using a force dynamometer, while the tool wear was monitored and measured. It was found that MoSTTM coatings even under accelerated conditionsimprove the tool life significantly based on their unique properties and very low friction.

  3. Improvement of Drill Performance in Metal Cutting Using MoST Solid Lubricant Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.R. Thomas; D.G. Teer; S. Yang; S. Hickman

    2004-01-01

    Coated tools are widely used in today's metal cutting industries and have significantly improved machining productivity through reducing operation costs and time. This paper presents the results of a systematic study of the performance of HSS drills coated with CrTiAlN and drills with a top solid lubricant coating of MoSTTM. The tests were performed on a Haas vertical machining centre under wet and dry cutting conditions to machine through holes in medium carbon steel workpieces. The feed force and torque were recorded throughout some of the tests using a force dynamometer,while the tool wear was monitored and measured. It was found that MoSTTM coatings even under accelerated conditions improve the tool life significantly based on their unique properties and very low friction.

  4. Violin bridge mobility analysis under in-plane excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-Zhong; Zhang, Guang-Ming; Ye, Bang-Yan; Liang, Li-Dong

    2013-11-08

    The vibration of a violin bridge is a dynamic contact vibration with two interfaces: strings-bridge, and bridge feet-top plate. In this paper, the mobility of an isolated bridge under in-plane excitation is explored using finite element modeling based on the contact vibration model. Numerical results show that the dynamic contact stiffness in the two contact interfaces has a great impact on the bridge mobility. A main resonance peak is observed in the frequency range of 2-3 kHz in the frequency response of the isolated bridge when the contact stiffness is smaller than a critical threshold. The main resonance peak frequency is affected by the contact stiffness as well. In order to verify the numerical findings, a novel experimental system is then designed on the basis of a piezoelectric dynamometer for bridge mobility analysis. Experimental results confirm the impact of the dynamic contact stiffness on the bridge mobility.

  5. Performance of an Otto cycle motor with natural gas direct injection; Desempenho de um motor ciclo Otto com injecao direta de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Cleiton Rubens Formiga

    1997-07-01

    A Otto cycle engine with natural gas direct injection, during the inlet stroke, was submitted to runs with full power in a Foucaut dynamometer. The results obtained show a increase in the volumetric efficiency of the engine with natural gas direct injection when compared with natural gas injection applied in the inlet manifold, upstream of the throttle butterfly. In the conversion to natural gas direct injection, the technical characteristics were not changed. A kit for natural gas direct injection, with electronic management was located on the cylinder head of the test engine. Maintaining the pressure constant in the natural gas fuel line, using a reduction valve, the mass of fuel injected into the cylinder was regulated, varying the opening time of the solenoid valve fuel injector. Engine performance data is compared, emphasizing the factors that contribute to this increase in relative volumetric efficiency. Modifications are made to maximize the power of the engine with natural gas direct injection. (author)

  6. Effects of underwater treadmill walking training on the peak torque of the knee in hemiplegic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Geol; Jeong, Seong-Kwan; Kim, Young-Dong

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of underwater treadmill walking training on the peak torque of the knee in hemiplegic patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two subjects, who were randomly allocated to an experimental group (n=16) and a control group (n=16), performed underwater treadmill walking training and overground treadmill walking training, respectively, for 30 minutes/session, 3 sessions/week, for 6 weeks. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess the peak torque. [Results] The subjects in the experimental group showed an increase in the peak knee extension torque compared to the control group. [Conclusion] The results suggested that underwater treadmill walking training has a greater effect on peak knee extension torque at velocities of 60°/sec and 120°/sec than overground treadmill walking training.

  7. Does anterior knee pain severity and function relate to the frontal plane projection angle and trunk and hip strength in women with patellofemoral pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Gabriel Peixoto Leão; Carvalho E Silva, Ana Paula de Moura Campos; França, Fábio Jorge Renovato; Magalhães, Maurício Oliveira; Burke, Thomaz Nogueira; Marques, Amélia Pasqual

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between knee pain severity and function with the frontal plane projection angle (FPPA) and trunk and hip peak torque (PT) in women with patellofemoral pain (PFPS). Twenty-two women with PFPS were assessed. Knee pain severity (KPS) was assessed with an 11-point visual analog scale and function with an Anterior Knee Pain Scale. The FPPA was recorded with a digital camera. PT of extensors, abductors, and the lateral rotators of hip and lateral core stability were measured with a handheld dynamometer. FPPA was the only predictor for the KPS. Regarding predictors of function, PT of lateral core stability and the extensor and abductor of the hip explained 41.4% of the function. Increase in FPPA was associated with greater KPS, and the lowest PT of lateral core stability, hip abductors, and extensors was associated with lower function in women with PFPS.

  8. Optimizing the physical ergonomics indices for the use of partial pressure suits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Li, Xianxue; Hedge, Alan; Hu, Huimin; Feathers, David; Qin, Zhifeng; Xiao, Huajun; Xue, Lihao; Zhou, Qianxiang

    2015-03-01

    This study developed an ergonomic evaluation system for the design of high-altitude partial pressure suits (PPSs). A total of twenty-one Chinese males participated in the experiment which tested three types of ergonomics indices (manipulative mission, operational reach and operational strength) were studied using a three-dimensional video-based motion capture system, a target-pointing board, a hand dynamometer, and a step-tread apparatus. In total, 36 ergonomics indices were evaluated and optimized using regression and fitting analysis. Some indices that were found to be linearly related and redundant were removed from the study. An optimal ergonomics index system was established that can be used to conveniently and quickly evaluate the performance of different pressurized/non-pressurized suit designs. The resulting ergonomics index system will provide a theoretical basis and practical guidance for mission planners, suit designers and engineers to design equipment for human use, and to aid in assessing partial pressure suits.

  9. A miniature powerplant for very small, very long range autonomous aircraft. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tad McGeer

    1999-09-29

    The authors have developed a new piston engine offering unprecedented efficiency for a new generation of miniature robotic aircraft. Following Phase 1 preliminary design in 1996--97, they have gone forward in Phase 2 to complete detail design, and are nearing completion of a first batch of ten engines. A small-engine dynamometer facility has been built in preparation for the test program. Provisions have been included for supercharging, which will allow operation at ceilings in the 10,000 m range. Component tests and detailed analysis indicate that the engine will achieve brake-specific fuel consumption well below 300 gm/kWh at power levels of several hundred watts. This level of performance opens the door to development of tabletop-sized aircraft having transpacific range and multi-day endurance, which will offer extraordinary new capabilities for meteorology, geomagnetic, and a variety of applications in environmental monitoring and military operations.

  10. Comprehensive physical rehabilitation after injury brush

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko M.I.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of physical rehabilitation for patients after recovery efficiency injured hand. The study enrolled 36 patients after a hand injury, which was carried out surgery. Among patients were dominated women 66% and men 34% aged 25 to 50 years. To evaluate the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs used protractor Richter, centimeter tape, hand dynamometer, MHQ questionnaire and system of integral evaluation function brush. Survey of patients conducted at the clinical stage of rehabilitation for two weeks and before surgery. The efficiency effects of passive therapeutic exercises, massage and lymph drainage design for a hand operated device ARTROMOT-F. It is noted that physical rehabilitation for two weeks has greatly improved hand functions. Established to improve results core group of control by 21.8%, poor performance of the control group higher by 10.1% of the principal of, indicating the efficacy of the program.

  11. Planetary Load Sharing in Three-Point-Mounted Wind Turbine Gearboxes: A Design and Test Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yi; Keller, Jonathan; Zhang, Zhiwei; Lucas, Doug

    2017-03-08

    The planetary load sharing characteristics of wind turbine gearboxes supported by cylindrical roller bearings (CRBs) and preloaded tapered roller bearings (TRBs) when subjected to rotor moments are compared in this work. Planetary bearing loads were measured in field-representative dynamometer tests and compared to loads predicted by finite-element models. Load sharing was significantly improved with preloaded TRBs. In pure torque conditions, the upwind planet bearing loads in the gearbox with preloaded TRBs were a maximum of 1.14 compared to 1.47 in the gearbox with CRBs. Consequently, the predicted fatigue life of the complete set of planetary bearings for the gearbox with preloaded TRBs is 3.5 times greater than that of the gearbox with CRBs.

  12. Comparison of Regenerative Braking Efficiencies of MY2012 and MY2013 Nissan Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Boretti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of kinetic energy recovery systems (KERS is the best solution presently available to dramatically improve the energy economy of passenger cars. The paper presents an experimental analysis of the energy flow to and from the battery of a MY 2012 and a MY 2013 Nissan Leaf covering the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS. The two vehicles differ for the integration of the electric drivetrain component, plus a different use of the electric motor and the regenerative brakes, in addition to a different weight. It is shown that while the efficiency propulsive power to vehicle / power from battery are basically unchanged, at about 87-89 %, the efficiency power to the battery / braking power to vehicle are significantly improved from values of about 70-80 % to values of 72-87 %. The analysis provides a state-of-the-art benchmark of the propulsion and regenerative braking efficiencies of electric vehicles.

  13. Normative values of eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, D; Pedersen, M B; Kastrup, K

    2014-01-01

    .354) Nm/kg. CONCLUSION: Normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners can be calculated by taking into account the differences in strength across genders and the decline in strength that occurs with increasing age. Age and gender were associated with maximal eccentric hip......PURPOSE: Low eccentric strength of the hip abductors, might increase the risk of patellofemoral pain syndrome and iliotibial band syndrome in runners. No normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength have been established. Therefore the purpose of this study was to establish...... normative values of maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners. METHODS: Novice healthy runners (n = 831) were recruited through advertisements at a hospital and a university. Maximal eccentric hip abduction strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer. The demographic variables...

  14. Analyzing Real-World Light Duty Vehicle Efficiency Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, Jeffrey; Wood, Eric; Chaney, Larry; Holden, Jacob; Jeffers, Matthew; Wang, Lijuan

    2016-06-08

    Off-cycle technologies represent an important pathway to achieve real-world fuel savings, through which OEMs can potentially receive credit toward CAFE compliance. DOE national labs such as NREL are well positioned to provide objective input on these technologies using large, national data sets in conjunction with OEM- and technology-specific testing. This project demonstrates an approach that combines vehicle testing (dynamometer and on-road) with powertrain modeling and simulation over large, representative datasets to quantify real-world fuel economy. The approach can be applied to specific off-cycle technologies (engine encapsulation, start/stop, connected vehicle, etc.) in A/B comparisons to support calculation of realistic real-world impacts. Future work will focus on testing-based A/B technology comparisons that demonstrate the significance of this approach.

  15. Simulated Real-World Energy Impacts of a Thermally Sensitive Powertrain Considering Viscous Losses and Enrichment: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Gonder, J.; Lopp, S.; Jehlik, F.

    2015-02-01

    It is widely understood that cold ambient temperatures increase vehicle fuel consumption due to heat transfer losses, increased friction (increased viscosity lubricants), and enrichment strategies (accelerated catalyst heating). However, relatively little effort has been dedicated to thoroughly quantifying these impacts across a large set of real world drive cycle data and ambient conditions. This work leverages experimental dynamometer vehicle data collected under various drive cycles and ambient conditions to develop a simplified modeling framework for quantifying thermal effects on vehicle energy consumption. These models are applied over a wide array of real-world usage profiles and typical meteorological data to develop estimates of in-use fuel economy. The paper concludes with a discussion of how this integrated testing/modeling approach may be applied to quantify real-world, off-cycle fuel economy benefits of various technologies.

  16. Using engine exhaust gas as energy source for an absorption refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzela, Andre Aleixo [PETROBRAS, Exploration and Production, Av. Rui Barbosa, 1940 - 3 andar, 27915-012 - Macae - RJ (Brazil); Hanriot, Sergio Morais; Cabezas-Gomez, Luben; Sodre, Jose Ricardo [Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Av. Dom Jose Gaspar, 500, 30535-610 - Belo Horizonte - MG (Brazil)

    2010-04-15

    This work presents an experimental study of an ammonia-water absorption refrigeration system using the exhaust of an internal combustion engine as energy source. The exhaust gas energy availability and the impact of the absorption refrigeration system on engine performance, exhaust emissions, and power economy are evaluated. A production automotive engine was tested in a bench test dynamometer, with the absorption refrigeration system adapted to the exhaust pipe. The engine was tested for 25%, 50%, 75% and wide-open throttle valve. The refrigerator reached a steady state temperature between 4 and 13 C about 3 h after system start up, depending on engine throttle valve opening. The calculated exhaust gas energy availability suggests the cooling capacity can be highly improved for a dedicated system. Exhaust hydrocarbon emissions were higher when the refrigeration system was installed in the engine exhaust, but carbon monoxide emissions were reduced, while carbon dioxide concentration remained practically unaltered. (author)

  17. The effect of a resistance-training program on muscle strength, physical workload, muscle fatigue and musculoskeletal discomfort: an experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberg-van Reenen, Heleen H; Visser, Bart; van der Beek, Allard J; Blatter, Birgitte M; van Dieën, Jaap H; van Mechelen, Willem

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of a resistance-training program on muscle strength of the back and neck/shoulder muscles, relative physical workload, muscle fatigue and musculoskeletal discomfort during a simulated assembly and lifting task. Twenty-two workers were randomized over an 8-week resistance-training group, and a control group. Isokinetic muscle strength was assessed using the Cybex dynamometer, muscle fatigue was measured using EMG, and perceived discomfort was measured using a 10-point scale. At the follow-up, we found no effect of the resistance-training program on isokinetic muscle strength of the back and shoulder muscles. Furthermore, we did not find any effect on EMG data, nor on musculoskeletal discomfort during the simulated work tasks. However, trained workers performed the lifting tasks for a longer time before reporting considerable discomfort than those in the control group.

  18. Eccentric and Isometric Hip Adduction Strength in Male Soccer Players With and Without Adductor-Related Groin Pain An Assessor-Blinded Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Branci, Sonia; Nielsen, Peter Martin;

    2014-01-01

    investigated. PURPOSE: To investigate whether isometric and eccentric hip strength are decreased in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain compared with asymptomatic soccer controls. The hypothesis was that players with adductor-related groin pain would have lower isometric and eccentric hip adduction.......5 ± 2.5 years, and the mean age of the asymptomatic controls was 22.9 ± 2.4 years. Isometric hip strength (adduction, abduction, and flexion) and eccentric hip strength (adduction) were assessed with a handheld dynamometer using reliable test procedures and a blinded assessor. RESULTS: Eccentric hip...... adduction strength was lower in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain in the dominant leg (n = 21) compared with asymptomatic controls (n = 16), namely 2.47 ± 0.49 versus 3.12 ± 0.43 N·m/kg, respectively (P

  19. Isokinetic eccentric exercise as a model to induce and reproduce pathophysiological alterations related to delayed onset muscle soreness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Vestergaard-Poulsen, P; Kanstrup, I.L.

    1998-01-01

    Physiological alterations following unaccustomed eccentric exercise in an isokinetic dynamometer of the right m. quadriceps until exhaustion were studied, in order to create a model in which the physiological responses to physiotherapy could be measured. In experiment I (exp. I), seven selected...... parameters were measured bilaterally in 7 healthy subjects at day 0 as a control value. Then after a standardized bout of eccentric exercise the same parameters were measured daily for the following 7 d (test values). The measured parameters were: the ratio of phosphocreatine to inorganic phosphate (PCr...... (133Xenon washout technique). This was repeated in experiment II (exp. II) 6-12 months later in order to study reproducibility. In experiment III (exp. III), the normal fluctuations over 8 d of the seven parameters were measured, without intervention with eccentric exercise in 6 other subjects. All...

  20. Normative values of eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Daniel Ramskov; Pedersen, Mette Broen; Kastrup, Kristrian

    2014-01-01

    normative values of maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners. METHODS: Novice healthy runners (n = 831) were recruited through advertisements at a hospital and a university. Maximal eccentric hip abduction strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer. The demographic variables......PURPOSE: Low eccentric strength of the hip abductors, might increase the risk of patellofemoral pain syndrome and iliotibial band syndrome in runners. No normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength have been established. Therefore the purpose of this study was to establish...... associated with maximal eccentric hip abduction strength from a univariate analysis were included in a multivariate linear regression model. Based on the results from the regression model, a regression equation for normative hip abduction strength is presented. RESULTS: A SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE IN MAXIMAL...

  1. Fuel optimal control of parallel hybrid electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhuan PU; Chenliang YIN; Jianwu ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model for fuel optimal control and its corresponding dynamic programming (DP) recurs-ive equation were established for an existing parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). Two augmented cost func-tions for gear shifting and engine stop-starting were designed to limit their frequency. To overcome the prob-lem of numerical DP dimensionality, an algorithm to restrict the exploring region was proposed. The algorithm significantly reduced the computational complexity. The system model was converted into real-time simulation code by using MATLAB/RTW to improve computation efficiency. Comparison between the results of a chassis dynamometer test, simulation, and DP proves that the proposed method can compute the performance limita-tion of the HEV within an acceptable time period and can be used to evaluate and optimize the control strategy.

  2. Biomechanical analysis of the muscular power of martial arts athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, S M; Osório, R A L; Silva, N S; Magini, M

    2010-06-01

    This study analyzes the performance of knee extension and flexion of Taekwondo and Kickboxing athletes. The power values were extracted through electromyography obtained by an isokinetic dynamometer at 60 degrees per second. These values are resulted from the square of the electromyography signal. The analysis of kick power was made using a modified wavelet algorithm considering values with 95% significance. Both groups presented equivalent power and torque capacity with different training times and experience, on the other hand, the wavelet analysis showed better results in muscular recruitment performance in athletes with more experience, in other words, power is not only performance but also power plus recruitment produces better results. This study uniquely showed that muscular enhancement capacity is not only related to the power capacity of contraction but also to motor coordination.

  3. Thermal Optimization of the Heat Exchanger in an Automotive Exhaust-Based Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y. D.; Liu, X.; Chen, S.; Tong, N. Q.

    2013-07-01

    Recent advances in thermoelectric technologies have made exhaust-based thermoelectric generators (TEGs) promising to recover waste heat. The thermal performance of the heat exchanger in exhaust-based TEGs is studied in this work. In terms of interface temperature and thermal uniformity, the thermal characteristics of heat exchangers with different internal structures, lengths, and materials are discussed. Following computational fluid dynamics simulations, infrared experiments are carried out on a high-performance production engine with a dynamometer. Simulation and experimental results show that a plate-shaped heat exchanger made of brass with fishbone-shaped internal structure and length of 600 mm achieves a relatively ideal thermal performance, which is practically helpful to enhance the thermal performance of the TEG.

  4. Modeling of the transient behaviors of a lithium-ion battery during dynamic cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jaeshin; Lee, Jeongbin; Shin, Chee Burm; Han, Taeyoung; Park, Seongyong

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we report a modeling methodology on the transient behaviors of a lithium-ion battery (LIB) during dynamic cycling. To account for the short time effects of current pulses and rest periods, the nonfaradaic component of the current density transferred through the separator between the positive and negative electrodes is included based on the lumped double-layer capacitance. Two-dimensional modeling is performed to predict the transient behaviors of an LIB cell during dynamic cycling. To validate the modeling approach presented in this work, modeling results for the variations in cell voltage and two-dimensional temperature distribution of the LIB cell as a function of time are compared with the experimental data for constant-current discharge and charge cycles and the Heavy Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule cycles. The transient behaviors obtained from the modeling agree well with the experimental measurements.

  5. Studies on orange oil methyl ester in diesel engine with hemispherical and toroidal combustion chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthickeyan Viswanathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation has been made to compare the emission characteristics of 20% orange oil methyl ester and 80% diesel in volumetric basis with Neat diesel in hemispherical combustion chamber and toroidal combustion chamber. Non-edible orange oil is selected and utilized to prepare alternative fuel to be utilized in Diesel engine. The traditional method of transestrification is employed for preparation orange oil methyl ester. The chemical properties of prepared methyl ester were determined using fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy method. Further its fuel properties were found based on American Society for Testing and Materials standards and compared with Neat diesel fuel properties. A compression ignition engine with electrical dynamometer test rig with gas analyzer has been used. It is observed that 1% of NOx and 4% of HC emission reduced in toroidal combustion chamber engine. However, smoke emission is found to be lower in hemispherical combustion chamber engine.

  6. ANALYSIS OF CUTTING FORCE AND CHIP MORPHOLOGY DURING HARD TURNING OF AISI D2 STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. M. ANTHONY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research work AISI D2 tool steel at a hardness of 55 HRC is being used for experimental investigation. Cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut are the cutting parameters considered for the experimentation along with tool geometry namely, nose radius, clearance angle and rake angle. Three different cutting tool materials are used for experimentation namely multicoated carbide, cermet and ceramic inserts. The cutting force generated during the machining process is being measured using Kistler dynamometer and recorded for further evaluation. The chips produced during the machining process for every experimental trail is also collected for understanding the chip morphology. Based on the experimental data collected Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was conducted to understand the influence of all cutting parameters and tool geometry on cutting force.

  7. Experimental and numerical assessment of on-road diesel and biodiesel emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, B.H.; Storey, J.M.; Lewis, S.A.; Devault, G.L.; Green, J.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Sluder, C.S.; Hodgson, J.W.; Moore, B.L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Federal Highway Administration`s TRAF-series of models use modal data to estimate fuel consumption and emissions for different traffic scenarios. A process for producing data-based modal models from road and dynamometer measurements has been developed and applied to a number of light-duty gasoline vehicles for the FHWA. The resulting models, or lookup tables, provide emissions and fuel consumption as functions of vehicle speed and acceleration. Surface plots of the data provide a valuable visual benchmark of the emissions characteristics of the vehicles. Due to the potential fuel savings in the light-duty sector via introduction of diesels, and the concomitant growing interest in diesel engine emissions, the measurement methodology has been extended under DOE sponsorship to include a diesel pickup truck running a variety of fuels, including number 2 diesel fuel, biodiesel, Fischer-Tropsch, and blends.

  8. Comparison of Waste Heat Recovery from the Exhaust of a Spark Ignition and a Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, K. T.; Schmidt, M.; Zybala, R.; Merkisz, J.; Fuć, P.; Lijewski, P.

    2010-09-01

    We present herein a design for and performance measurements of a prototype thermoelectric generator (TEG) mounted on both a spark ignition engine (0.9 dm3) and a self-ignition engine (1.3 dm3). Using the prototype TEG as a tool, benchmark studies were performed in order to compare its parameters in terms of heat recovery from exhaust gases of both engine types. The test bed study was performed with an Automex AMX-210/100 eddy-current brake dynamometer. To provide a comprehensive overview of the TEG operating conditions, characterization of its parameters such as temperature distribution, heat flux density, and efficiency was done at engine speeds and loads similar to those within the range of operation of real road conditions.

  9. Sliding Mode Variable Structure Control and Real-Time Optimization of Dry Dual Clutch Transmission during the Vehicle’s Launch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reflect driving intention adequately and improve the launch performance of vehicle equipped with five-speed dry dual clutch transmission (DCT, the issue of coordinating control between engine and clutch is researched, which is based on the DCT and prototype car developed independently. Four-degree-of-freedom (DOF launch dynamics equations are established. Taking advantage of predictive control and genetic algorithm, target tracing curves of engine speed and vehicle velocity are optimally specified. Sliding mode variable structure (SMVS control strategy is designed to track these curves. The rapid prototyping experiment and test are, respectively, conducted on the DCT test bench and in the chassis dynamometer. Results show that the designed SMVS control strategy not only effectively embodies the driver’s intention but also has strong robustness to the vehicle parameter’s variations.

  10. Pengaruh ekstrak teh hijau (Camellia sinensis terhadap kadar malondialdehid (MDA plasma dan kekuatan genggam tangan lanjut usia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fera Nofiartika

    2016-10-01

    Method: This was a double-blind experimental with pre-post test and control group. Fifty-seven elderly people from Balai Pelayanan Social Tresna Wredha (BPSTW Abiyoso and Budi Luhur who met inclusion and exclusion criteria were divided into 2 groups. During 30 days, the first group was given 2 capsules of GTE a day (±168 mg catechin and 95 mg Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG and the second group was given a placebo. MDA was measured by thiobarbituric acid  (TBAmethod and hand grip strength was measured by handgrip hand grip dynamometer. Results: There was a significant decreasing MDA (p<0,05 in the GTE group, but not in the placebo group. There was also increasing handgrip strength in the GTE group but not in the placebo group. Conclusion: Green tea extract can prevent increasing MDA and declining physical handgrip strength in elderly.

  11. Investigation of the coatings applied onto brake discs on disc-brake pad pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kiliçaslan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available While braking, according to the severity of it, thermal, metallurgical, constructive and tribological occurrences emerge on the brake disc-pad interface. In this study, NiCr was sprayed as bonding layer onto the discs, one ofwhich was coated with Al2O3-TiO2 by plasma spray and the other was coated with NiCr-Cr3C2 by High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF. In addition, the discs were tested with inertia dynamometer according to SAE’s J2522 testing procedure. The measurements showed that although the pads of the coated discs were exposed to higher braking temperatures, friction coefficient of the disc coated with NiCr- Cr3C2 was obtained 6 % higher compared to the original disc.

  12. CRANK-PISTON MODEL OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE USING CAD/CAM/CAE IN THE MSC ADAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał BIAŁY

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the modeling and simulation of the crank-piston model of internal combustion engine. The object of the research was the engine of the vehicle from the B segment. The individual elements of the gasoline engine were digitizing using the process of reverse engineering. After converting the geometry, assembling was imported to MSC Adams software. The crank-piston system was specified by boundary conditions of piston forces applied on the pistons crowns. This force was obtain from the cylinder pressure recorded during the tests, that were carried out on a chassis dynamometer. The simulation studies allowed t determine the load distribution in a dynamic state for the selected kinematic pairs.

  13. Adaptive vibration isolation system for diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Tie-jun; ZHANG Xin-yu; XIAO You-hong; HUANG Jin-e; LIU Zhi-gang

    2004-01-01

    An active two-stage isolation mounting, on which servo-hydraulic system is used as the actuator (secondary vibration source) and a diesel engine is used as primary vibration source, has been built. The upper mass of the mounting is composed of a 495diesel and an electrical eddy current dynamometer. The lower mass is divided into four small masses to which servo-hydraulic actuator and rubber isolators are attached. According to the periodical characteristics of diesel vibration signals, a multi-point adaptive strategy based on adaptive comb filtered algorithm is applied to active multi-direction coupled vibrations control for the engine. The experimental results demonstrate that a good suppression in the effective range of phase compensation in secondary path (within 100Hz) at different operation conditions is achieved, and verify that this strategy is effective. The features of the active system, the development activities carried out on the system and experimental results are discussed in the paper.

  14. Comparison of Final Drive Gear Lubricant Field Results to Laboratory Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To meet the increasing needs to move goods and materials, transportation vehicles are logging an increasing number of kilometers each year. With increasing use of these vehicles comes the need to conserve fuel to save money and to conserve resources. New engines, transmissions and axles are being developed to further conserve fuel and to provide more efficient power sources. Southwest Research Institute, a leader in global automotive research, regularly performs tests to evaluate the power and fuel economy improvement of drive train hardware and lubricants. The Institute has recently provided services to design, develop, and perform test verification of a dynamometer stand that is capable of evaluating the efficiency of axle lubricants in heavy- duty use.

  15. 人体膝关节的力矩参数%Torque parameters of human knee joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宏垚; 徐秀林

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parameters of knee joint are not directly measured due to complex body motion. Therefore, the parameters are obtained by simulation or reverse dynamics.OBJECTIVE: To conclude and compare the method of determining torque parameters, and to find a reasonable, responsible,practical method.METHODS: A computer-based online search of CNKI, Wanfang, and Science Direct databases, articles related to measurements of torque parameters were searched with key words "knee joint, torque, isokinetic dynamometer, lagrangian modeling, neural network modeling" in Chinese and English. Correlated and newly-published articles were included.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION : A total of 123 articles were collected, and 75 were firstly selected following exclusion of repetitive articles. Finally, 35 articles were included according to title and abstract. Results show that isokinetic dynamometer has been extensively used, but reliability is low, and the price of dynamometer is expensive. Lagrangian modeling and neural network modeling can be modified to obtain reliability and practicality.%背景:由于人体运动过程复杂,难以用直接的方法来测量膝关节各项力学参数,所以,通常使用模拟或根据逆向动力学推算的方式来求得所需参数值.目的:总结和比较膝关节力矩参数的测定方法,找出一种合理、可靠性高、实用性广的方法.方法:应用计算机检索CNKI,万方数据库,Elsevier公司的Science Direct电子期刊关于膝关节力矩参数测试方法的文献,以"膝关节,力矩,等速测力法,拉格朗日建模,神经网络建模"及"knee joint,torque,isokinetic dynamometer,lagrangian modeling,neural network modeling"为检索词进行检索.纳入文章内容与人体膝关节力矩参数相关,同一领域文献则选择近期发表或发表在权威杂志文章.结果与结论:检索文献量总计123篇,排除重复性研究,初检得到75篇文献,阅读标题和摘要进行初筛,共保留其中的35篇归纳

  16. Experimental data of lithium-ion battery and ultracapacitor under DST and UDDS profiles at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; Liu, Chang; Pan, Rui; Chen, Zonghai

    2017-06-01

    This article provides the dataset of both the LiFePO4 type lithium-ion battery (LIB) behavior and the Maxwell ultracapacitor behavior. The dynamic stress test (DST) condition and the urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS) condition were carried out to analyze the battery/ultracapacitor features. The datasets were achieved at room temperature, in August, 2016. The shared data contributes to clarify the behavior of the LIBs and ultracapacitors and can be used to predict the state-of-charge (SOC) of the LIBs and ultracapacitors, which is also shown in the article of "Modeling and state-of-charge prediction of lithium-ion battery and ultracapacitor hybrids with a co-estimator" (United States Advanced Battery Consortium, 1996) [1].

  17. Antagonist muscle moment is increased in ACL deficient subjects during maximal dynamic knee extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B; Magnusson, S Peter

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Coactivation of the hamstring muscles during dynamic knee extension may compensate for increased knee joint laxity in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient subjects. This study examined if antagonist muscle coactivation during maximal dynamic knee extension was elevated...... in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency compared to age-matched healthy controls. METHODS: Electromyography (EMG) and net knee joint moments were recorded during maximal concentric quadriceps and eccentric hamstring contractions, performed in an isokinetic dynamometer (ROM: 90......-10°, angular speed: 30°/s). Hamstring antagonist EMG recorded during concentric quadriceps contraction was converted into antagonist moment based on the EMG-moment relationship observed during eccentric agonist contractions. RESULTS: The magnitude of antagonist hamstring EMG was 65.5% higher in ACL deficient...

  18. Effect of kinesio taping on the isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, SoonKwon; Shim, JeMyung; Kim, SungJoong; Namkoong, Seung; Roh, HyoLyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury with and without kinesio taping. [Subjects] The subjects for this study were 10 football athletes (males) with a knee injury. [Methods] Measurements were performed by using Cybex dynamometer under uniform motion before and after the application of kinesio tape to the quadriceps and hamstring muscle. Maximal concentric knee extension and flexion at three angular velocities (60°/s, 120°/s, and 180°/s) were measured. [Results] A significant difference was found in peak torque and total work of the flexion at 120°/s and 180°/s, as well as in the average power of extension at 180°/s. [Conclusion] Though it is not the main therapy for muscle function in football athletes with injury, kinesio taping was an effective adjunct therapy. PMID:26957761

  19. ANALYSIS OF CHIP FORMATION DURING HARD TURNING THROUGH ACOUSTIC EMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Neslušan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysis of chip formation and related aspects of the chip formation during turning hardened steel 100Cr6. The paper draws a comparison of some aspects of the chip formation between turning annealed and hardened roll bearing steel. The results of the analysis show that there is the formation of a segmented chip in the case of hard turning. Frequency of segmentation is very high. A conventional piezoelectric dynamometer limits the frequency response to about 3.5 kHz. On the other hand, the frequency of process fluctuation may by obtained by using accelerometers or acoustic emission. This paper reports about the dynamic character of cutting process when hard turning and correlation among the calculated segmentation frequencies and the experimental analysis.

  20. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  1. Quantification of evaporative running loss emissions from gasoline-powered passenger cars in California. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClement, D.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to collect evaporative running emissions data from a cross section of in-use, light-duty passenger cars. Forty vehicles were procured and tested using the 'LA-4' cycle (the EPA Urban Dynamometer Driving Cycle (UDDS)) and the New York City Cycle (NYCC). The LA-4 cycle was run three times with a two minute idle period between the first two runs. The NYCC was run six times with a two minute idle between the first five runs of the cycle. Tests were performed at 95 and 105 degrees Farenheit, and using 7.5 and 9.0 Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) fuel. The report describes two types of running losses - Type 1 where emissions are emitted at a constant, low level (typical of late model, properly operating vehicles), and Type II emissions, where there is a high rate of emissions (typical in uncontrolled vehicles).

  2. Semi-empirical model to evaluate the performance of natural gas powered diesel engines; Modelo semi-empirico para avaliacao do desempenho de motores diesel consumindo gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Ricardo Hernandez [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: ricardo.pereira@mecanica.ufu.br; Braga, Carlos Valois Maciel; Braga, Sergio Leal [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (DEM/PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mails: valois@puc-rio.br, slbraga@puc-rio.br

    2010-04-15

    The performance of four different engines were measured, all powered by the dual fuels diesel/natural gas and mounted on a dynamometer bench. The tested engines were selected for their construction and operational characteristics, representing diesel engines for different applications (capacity, speed range, with/without turbo charging and combustion air cooling). Experimental points were obtained for wide parameter ranges with influence on engine performance. The replacement rate of diesel with natural gas was varied to identify the mix where the dual fuel operation was possible. Although the study focus was on performance, data on particulate pollutant emissions were also recorded, not only during the original diesel operation but also for the dual fuels. The results indicate that, for most operational fields of the engines tested, only part of the gas actually burns. (author)

  3. Support of the launching of motor car air conditioning systems with the coolant CO{sub 2} (R744). Test bench measurements and practical trials; Unterstuetzung der Markteinfuehrung von Pkw-Klimaanlagen mit dem Kaeltemittel CO{sub 2} (R744). Pruefstandsmessungen und Praxistest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemke, Nicholas; Mildenberger, Julia [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany); Graz, Martin [Obrist Engineering GmbH, Lustenau (Austria)

    2011-10-15

    In the research project two passenger car air-conditioning systems were analyzed with regard to cooling capacity and efficiency. The results were compared with one another. The first system was a standard air-conditioning unit using R134a as a refrigerant. As a second system a CO{sub 2} (R744) prototype HVAC unit was used. Both units were investigated on one hand installed in a car on a dynamometer by Obrist Engineering GmbH and on the other hand installed in a calorimetric test rig by Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Institut fuer Thermodynamik. While the tests in the calorimetric test rig showed comparable efficiencies and cooling capacities for both setups, consumption advantages were determined for the R744- air-conditioning unit installed in the vehicle by the company Obrist. With CO{sub 2} (R744) as a refrigerant for mobile air-conditioning systems an environmental friendly solution is available. (orig.)

  4. Impact of the electric compressor for automotive air conditioning system on fuel consumption and performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, A. A.; Dahlan, A. A.; Zulkifli, A. H.; Nasution, H.; Aziz, A. A.; Perang, M. R. M.; Jamil, H. M.; Misseri, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Air conditioning system is the biggest auxiliary load in a vehicle where the compressor consumed the largest. Problem with conventional compressor is the cooling capacity cannot be control directly to fulfill the demand of thermal load inside vehicle cabin. This study is conducted experimentally to analyze the difference of fuel usage and air conditioning performance between conventional compressor and electric compressor of the air conditioning system in automobile. The electric compressor is powered by the car battery in non-electric vehicle which the alternator will recharge the battery. The car is setup on a roller dynamometer and the vehicle speed is varied at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 110 km/h at cabin temperature of 25°C and internal heat load of 100 and 400 Watt. The results shows electric compressor has better fuel consumption and coefficient of performance compared to the conventional compressor.

  5. Acute changes in hamstrings musculo-articular dissipative properties induced by cyclic and static stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordez, A; McNair, P; Casari, P; Cornu, C

    2008-05-01

    This study was designed to measure changes in musculo-articular dissipative properties related to viscosity that were induced by passive cyclic and static stretching. Musculo-articular dissipative properties were assessed by calculating a dissipation coefficient using potential elastic energies stored and restituted during cyclic stretching. Eight subjects performed five passive knee extensions/flexions cycles on a Biodex dynamometer at 5 degrees . s (-1) to 80 % of their maximal range of motion before and after a static stretching protocol. Electromyographic activity from the hamstring muscles was monitored and remained constant during cyclic stretching and after static stretching (p > 0.05). The dissipation coefficient decreased during cyclic stretching (- 28.8 +/- 6.0 %, p musculo-articular dissipative properties were primarily affected by a single cycle of motion, and were not influenced by static stretching procedures. The decrease in dissipation coefficient following cyclic motion indicates that the musculo-articular system displays thixotropic behavior.

  6. Impact of driving cycle and climate on electrical consumption and range of a fully electric passenger vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, N.; Belzile, M. [Transport Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Christenson, M.; Edgar, J. [Environment Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Transport Canada's ecotechnology for vehicles (eTV) program is a $15 million program, operated over 4 years (2007-2011) that strives to encourage the introduction of advanced clean vehicle technologies in Canada. The objectives of eTV's are to reduce barriers to the introduction of clean technologies into light-duty vehicles sold in Canada. The presentation discussed the mandate of the emissions research and measurement section of Environment Canada. The dynamometer test facility, a state-of-the-art emissions testing laboratory capable of conducting comprehensive emissions measurements from a variety of sources was also discussed. Several electric mobility projects were presented. The testing rationale and testing outline were explained. It was concluded that the repeatability of cold tests appeared to be similar to the repeatability of ambient tests. tabs., figs.

  7. FedEx Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 6-Month Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.

    2010-05-01

    This interim report presents partial (six months) results for a technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric parcel delivery trucks operated by FedEx in and around Los Angeles, CA. A 12 month in-use technology evaluation comparing in-use fuel economy and maintenance costs of GHEVs and comparative diesel parcel delivery trucks was started in April 2009. Comparison data was collected and analyzed for in-use fuel economy and fuel costs, maintenance costs, total operating costs, and vehicle uptime. In addition, this interim report presents results of parcel delivery drive cycle collection and analysis activities as well as emissions and fuel economy results of chassis dynamometer testing of a gHEV and a comparative diesel truck at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) ReFUEL laboratory. A final report will be issued when 12 months of in-use data have been collected and analyzed.

  8. Muscle strength in myasthenia gravis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cejvanovic, S; Vissing, J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is characterized by fatigue and fluctuating muscle weakness as a result of impaired neuromuscular transmission (NMT). Although MG is a prototypic fatiguing disorder, little is known about how the condition affects fixed weakness, and if present, whether weakness...... is related to disease duration or gender. The aim of this study was to quantify the strength of patients with MG and investigate whether it is related to disease duration. METHODS: Eight muscle groups were tested by manual muscle testing and with a hand-held dynamometer in 38 patients with generalized MG...... and 37 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. The disease duration was recorded and compared with strength measures. RESULTS: On average, muscle strength was decreased by 28% compared with controls (Pmuscle...

  9. Tuning Mazda B6 Engine for Sports Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, E.; Polóni, M.

    2011-12-01

    Improving output parameters of the Mazda B6 combustion engine from the vehicle Mazda 323 for amateur "hill climb" and "rally" competitions has been analysed. Tuning of such an engine for sport competitions means the optimisation of its parameters at the lowest possible economic costs, within the revolution range 4000 - 6000 min-1, where the engine during competition works most often. With the help of the program Lotus Engine Simulations, the construction of the exhaust manifold has been optimised, together with valve timing and other adjustments, listed in the work, on output parameters of the engine. The optimum combinations of parameters were experimentally verified on a chassis dynamometer. Final adaptations have led within the previously specified range of revolutions to an improvement between 5 and 22% in power and torque.

  10. FedEx Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 6-Month Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.

    2010-05-01

    This interim report presents partial (six months) results for a technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric parcel delivery trucks operated by FedEx in and around Los Angeles, CA. A 12 month in-use technology evaluation comparing in-use fuel economy and maintenance costs of GHEVs and comparative diesel parcel delivery trucks was started in April 2009. Comparison data was collected and analyzed for in-use fuel economy and fuel costs, maintenance costs, total operating costs, and vehicle uptime. In addition, this interim report presents results of parcel delivery drive cycle collection and analysis activities as well as emissions and fuel economy results of chassis dynamometer testing of a gHEV and a comparative diesel truck at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) ReFUEL laboratory. A final report will be issued when 12 months of in-use data have been collected and analyzed.

  11. Effects of augmented trunk stabilization with external compression support on shoulder and scapular muscle activity and maximum strength during isometric shoulder abduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-jeong; Kim, Suhn-yeop; Oh, Duck-won

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of augmented trunk stabilization with external compression support (ECS) on the electromyography (EMG) activity of shoulder and scapular muscles and shoulder abductor strength during isometric shoulder abduction. Twenty-six women volunteered for the study. Surface EMG was used to monitor the activity of the upper trapezius (UT), lower trapezius (LT), serratus anterior (SA), and middle deltoid (MD), and shoulder abductor strength was measured using a dynamometer during three experimental conditions: (1) no external support (condition-1), (2) pelvic support (condition-2), and (3) pelvic and thoracic supports (condition-3) in an active therapeutic movement device. EMG activities were significantly lower for UT and higher for MD during condition 3 than during condition 1 (p Shoulder abductor strength was significantly higher during condition 3 than during condition 1 (p muscle effort of the UT during isometric shoulder abduction and increasing shoulder abductor strength. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of vibration and pressure pulsation in positive displacement drilling motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlin, D.B.; Dreesen, D.S.

    1998-12-31

    Three, Moineau principle, positive displacement (drilling) motors were tested on a dynamometer using water, air/mist, and foam. In conjunction with a traditional motor performance test, data were collected at 5000 samples per second using an adapted seismic data acquisition system. Shaft speed, torque, pressure, and three-axis vibration data were processed using Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) to obtain energy density spectrums (EDSs). Cascade plots were generated by plotting the EDSs against shaft speed. The cascade plots revealed that pressure pulses and motor vibrations are closely related to the eccentric rotation of the rotor in the power section. Excessive no-load vibrations were not observed in the small motors and test apparatus used; increasing torque usually decreases the amplitude of vibrations observed. Motor vibration amplitudes were as a rule not increased when compressible fluids were substituted for water.

  13. Supraspinatus and infraspinatus weakness in overhead athletes with scapular dyskinesis: strength assessment before and after restoration of scapular musculature balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolla, Giovanni; De Santis, Elisa; Campi, Fabrizio; Paladini, Paolo; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2010-12-01

    A disturbance in scapulohumeral rhythm may cause negative biomechanic effects on rotator cuff (RC). Alteration in scapular motion and shoulder pain can influence RC strength. Purpose of this study was to assess supraspinatus and infraspinatus strength in 29 overhead athletes with scapular dyskinesis, before and after 3 and 6 months of rehabilitation aimed to restore scapular musculature balance. A passive posterior soft tissues stretching was prescribed to balance shoulder mobility. Scapular dyskinesis patterns were evaluated according to Kibler et al. Clinical assessment was performed with the empty can (EC) test and infraspinatus strength test (IST). Strength values were recorded by a dynamometer; scores for pain were assessed with VAS scale. Changes of shoulder IR were measured. The force values increased at 3 months (P muscles. These data should encourage those caring for athletes to consider restoring of scapular musculature balance as essential part of the athletic training.

  14. Experimental knee pain reduces muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Rosager, Sara; Aaboe, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Pain is the principal symptom in knee pathologies and reduced muscle strength is a common observation among knee patients. However, the relationship between knee joint pain and muscle strength remains to be clarified. This study aimed at investigating the changes in knee muscle strength following...... experimental knee pain in healthy volunteers, and if these changes were associated with the pain intensities. In a crossover study, 18 healthy subjects were tested on 2 different days. Using an isokinetic dynamometer, maximal muscle strength in knee extension and flexion was measured at angular velocities 0....... Knee pain reduced the muscle strength by 5 to 15% compared to the control conditions (P muscle strength was positively correlated to the pain intensity. Experimental knee pain significantly reduced knee extension...

  15. Torque and power characteristics of a helium charged Stirling engine with a lever controlled displacer driving mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karabulut, H.; Cinar, C.; Oztuerk, E.; Yuecesu, H.S. [Department of Mechanical Technology, Faculty of Technical Education, Gazi University, 06500 Teknikokullar, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    This study presents test results of a Stirling engine with a lever controlled displacer driving mechanism. Tests were conducted with helium and the working fluid was charged into the engine block. The engine was loaded by means of a prony type micro dynamometer. The heat was supplied by a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) burner. The engine started to run at 118 C hot end temperature and the systematic tests of the engine were conducted at 180 C, 220 C and 260 C hot end external surface temperatures. During the test, cold end temperature was kept at 27 C by means of water circulation. Variation of the shaft torque and power with respect to the charge pressure and hot end temperature were examined. The maximum torque and power were measured as 3.99 Nm and 183 W at 4 bars charge pressure and 260 C hot end temperature. Maximum power corresponded to 600 rpm speed. (author)

  16. Rock mass movements around development workings in various density of standing-and-roof-bolting support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAJCHERCZYK Tadeusz; MALKOWSKLI Piotr; NIEDBALSKI Zbighiew

    2008-01-01

    Presented measurement results of roof rocks and wall rock movements of un-derground development workings after their drifting. The research was carried out in thecoal mine workings with standing-and-roof bolting support. There were various density ofthe support, so the aim of the special monitoring programme was to determine movementintensity of rock mass in the premises of the heading area. There were four types of re-search did by the authors. They measured convergence, roof layers separation using tell-tales and sonic probes and load bearing of the headings' roofs by hydraulic dynamometers.Evaluation of fracture zone around the heading and investigation the load zone caused byfailed roof rocks may become a basement for the determination of support parameters ofthe workings. The combined system of standing support and roof bolting seems to be anessential for underground headings protection.

  17. Measuring test mass acceleration noise in space-based gravitational wave astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Congedo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The basic constituent of interferometric gravitational wave detectors -- the test mass to test mass interferometric link -- behaves as a differential dynamometer measuring effective differential forces, comprising an integrated measure of gravity curvature, inertial effects, as well as non-gravitational spurious forces. This last contribution is going to be characterised by the LISA Pathfinder mission, a technology precursor of future space-borne detectors like eLISA. Changing the perspective from displacement to acceleration can benefit the data analysis of LISA Pathfinder and future detectors. The response in differential acceleration to gravitational waves is derived for a space-based detector's interferometric link. The acceleration formalism can also be integrated into time delay interferometry by building up the unequal-arm Michelson differential acceleration combination. The differential acceleration is nominally insensitive to the system free evolution dominating the slow displacement dynamics of low-...

  18. Association between maximal hamstring strength and hamstring muscle pre-activity during a movement associated with non-contact ACL injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Husted, Rasmus; Bencke, Jesper; Thorborg, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    and maximal isometric hamstring muscle strength. Material and Methods Eighty-five female athletes (17 ± 1 yrs) were screened for neuromuscular pre-activity in medial (ST) and lateral (BF) hamstring muscle during a sidecutting maneuver. Maximal hamstring muscle strength [N/kg BW] (MVC) was measured in a static...... dynamometer. Neuromuscular activity calculated as average EMG amplitude obtained during side-cutting in the 10 ms interval prior to initial contact (IC) was normalized to peak EMG amplitude obtained during MVC. The correlation between % EMG pre-activity (mean of ST and BF) and MVC was evaluated by Spearman...... rank correlation analysis. Results The correlation coefficient (rs) between hamstring pre-landing EMG activity and MVC was 0.109 (P=0.319). Conclusion No direct association was observed between preparatory hamstring muscle activity and MVC. This indicates that high muscle strength may not per se...

  19. Recovery Effect of the Muscle Fatigue by the Magnetic Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Kousuke; Nuruki, Atsuo; Tsujimura, Sei-Ichi; Tamari, Youzou; Yunokuchi, Kazutomo

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of magnetic stimulation for muscle fatigue. The six healthy subjects participated in the experiment with the repetition grasp using a hand dynamometer. The measurement of EMG (electromyography) and MMG (mechanomyography) is performed on the left forearm. All subjects performed MVC (maximum voluntary contraction), and repeated exercise in 80%MVC after the MVC measurement. The repetition task was entered when display muscular strength deteriorated. We used an EMG and MMG for the measurement of the muscle fatigue. Provided EMG and MMG waves were calculated integral calculus value (iEMG, and iMMG). The result of iEMG and iMMG were divided by muscular strength, because we calculate integral calculus value per the unit display muscular strength. The result of our study, we found recovery effect by the magnetic stimulation in voluntarily muscular strength and iEMG. However, we can not found in a figure of iMMG.

  20. A miniature powerplant for very small, very long range autonomous aircraft. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tad McGeer

    1999-09-29

    The authors have developed a new piston engine offering unprecedented efficiency for a new generation of miniature robotic aircraft. Following Phase 1 preliminary design in 1996--97, they have gone forward in Phase 2 to complete detail design, and are nearing completion of a first batch of ten engines. A small-engine dynamometer facility has been built in preparation for the test program. Provisions have been included for supercharging, which will allow operation at ceilings in the 10,000 m range. Component tests and detailed analysis indicate that the engine will achieve brake-specific fuel consumption well below 300 gm/kWh at power levels of several hundred watts. This level of performance opens the door to development of tabletop-sized aircraft having transpacific range and multi-day endurance, which will offer extraordinary new capabilities for meteorology, geomagnetic, and a variety of applications in environmental monitoring and military operations.

  1. SURVEY OF REMOTELY CONTROLLED LABORATORIES FOR RESEARCH AND EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz CHMIELEWSKI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the modeling and simulation of the crank-piston model of internal combustion engine. The object of the research was the engine of the vehicle from the B segment. The individual elements of the gasoline engine were digitizing using the process of reverse engineering. After converting the geometry, assembling was imported to MSC Adams software. The crank-piston system was specified by boundary conditions of piston forces applied on the pistons crowns. This force was obtain from the cylinder pressure recorded during the tests, that were carried out on a chassis dynamometer. The simulation studies allowed t determine the load distribution in a dynamic state for the selected kinematic pairs.

  2. EXAMINATION OF THE CUTTING FORCES OF AISI 304 AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL IN THE TURNING PROCESS WITH TITANIUM CARBIDE COATED CUTTING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür TEKASLAN

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, cutting forces occurring in the machining process of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel specimen using titanium coated cutting tools are investigated experimentally and the results are compared to theoretical calculations. In the experimental study, various cutting speeds, feed rates and cutting depths are considered. Cutting forces are measured by 3-dimensional Kistler dynamometer. In the theoretically study, cutting forces are determined by Kienzle formulation. Consequently, it is found that the calculation of cutting forces in the theoretical method doesn't yield the exact results because of various factors and there is a % 25 average differences in accordance with the experimental results. Hence it is evaluated that the experimental technique in the determination of cutting forces yields more accurate results.

  3. An agricultural tractor test with different proportions of biodiesel; Ensaio de um trator agricola com diferentes proporcoes de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Breno Alves; Castro, Douglas Lourenco de Souza; Volpato, Carlos Eduardo Silva; Barbosa, Jackson Antonio [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The globalization of the economy bring as consequence the entry of new equipment and machinery highly competitive in terms of cost. This is the same reality of the Brazilian agricultural sector which today has new options for machines and implements very interesting from the standpoint of cost of acquisition. However, such equipment, due to its recent inclusion in the market, yet do not have parameters that relate to reliability. This work aimed to demonstrated the dynamometer test of an agricultural tractor, recently introduced in the market, to obtain their torque curves and specific fuel consumption using the fuel B{sub 2}, B{sub 5}, B{sub 2}0 and B{sub 1}00. The results showed that the tractor had satisfactory performance for all motor fuels, presenting the best performance with the use of B{sub 5} fuel. (author)

  4. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  5. The statics of cervical traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio, A; Rendina, M; Benazzo, F; Castelli, C; Paparella, F

    1994-08-01

    The statics of a sliding body was used to study the distribution of forces during the application of cervical traction in supine patients. This theoretical analysis was completed using a dynamometer to determine the static friction between bed surface and patient head. Therefore, we measured the head weight in 12 inpatients and the minimum force that causes impending motion of the head on the bed surface. The static friction coefficient was calculated from the ratio of the two quantities. The forces acting on the cervical spine were determined by inserting the former data into a specifically designed algorithm that forecasted a progressively increasing traction angle. The coefficient of static friction was 0.62, whereas the maximum available force acting on the cervical spine was obtained with a 35 degrees traction inclination. In contrast, the forces dissipated by the plane progressively decreased with larger angles.

  6. Changes in incontinence after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Anne Raabjerg; Jensen, Trine Dalsgaard; Lauszus, Finn Friis

    2017-01-01

    . Sample size calculation indicated that 102 women had to be included. The incontinence status was estimated by a Danish version of the ICIG questionnaire; further, visual analogue scale, dynamometer for hand grip, knee extension strength and balance were applied. Work capacity was measured ergometer cycle...... together with lean body mass by impedance. Quality of life was assessed using the SF-36 questionnaire. Patients were examined preoperatively and twice postoperatively. Results: In total 41 women improved their incontinence after hysterectomy and 10 women reported deterioration. Preoperative stress...... patients undergoing planned hysterectomy were compared pre- and postoperatively. In a sub-study of the prospective follow-up study the changes in incontinence, postoperative fatigue, quality of life, physical function, and body composition were evaluated preoperatively, 13 and 30 days postoperatively...

  7. Performance of a cycle Otto engine using biogas; Desempenho de um motor ciclo Otto utilizando biogas como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Juliano de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], e-mail: jsouza@unioeste.br; Souza, Samuel N. Melegari de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: ssouza@unioeste.br; Machado, Paulo Romeu M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2004-07-01

    The rising of the oil prices is increasing the search for alternative fuels. Brazil has a great availability of biogas from anaerobic digestion in the rural area, urban waste in the landfills and treatment of the municipal sewer. In this work were evaluated in dynamometer a cycle Otto engine using biogas, and were obtained the characteristics curves of torque and power. First was done the evidence test with gasoline, biogas and natural gas, using commercial systems for this fuels, using as comparison for other tests. After has been done tests for some combinations of ignition point, mixer of gas and compression tax. By the analysis of the results has been concluded that the better results for power and torque using biogas as fuel were with a tax compression of 12,5:1, gas mixer long and ignition point advanced in 45 deg. (author)

  8. Isometric and isokinetic muscle strength in patients with fibrositis syndrome. New characteristics for a difficult definable category of patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1987-01-01

    A common complaint among patients with fibrositis syndrome is exhaustion and fatique. It was therefore felt desirable to evaluate the muscle strength of these patients compared with normal subjects. Maximum isometric and isokinetic strength of knee extension was measured in 15 patients and 15...... healthy matched subjects, using an isokinetic dynamometer (Cybex II). Maximum isometric strength at various knee extension angles (90 degrees, 60 degrees and 30 degrees degrees) was significantly (p less than 0.001) lower in the fibrositis group than in controls, a reduction of approximately 58......-66%. Maximum isokinetic strength at various knee extension velocities (30-240 degrees per second) was also significantly (p less than 0.01) lower in the fibrositis group than in controls, the reduction being approximately 41-51%. In conclusion, isometric and isokinetic muscle strength is found to be lower...

  9. The relationship of leg volume and leg mass with anaerobic performance and knee strength in wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Zorba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determination of the relationship between leg volume, leg mass with anaerobic performance and knee strength in wrestlers. 31 wrestlers from a university students participated in this study voluntarily (X age: 21.09 ± 0.99 yrs. Circumferential measurement were used for the determination of leg volume by Frustum Method and after that, a regression formula was used. For this formulas, while the R square (R2 value was .95 and the standart error value was .056. Leg mass was determined by the Hanavan Method. Wingate Anaerobic Power Test (WAnT was used for the determination of anaerobic performance and Isometric Knee Dynamometer was used for the determination of knee strength. Results of Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis, leg volume was significantly correlated with leg mass (r=.993; pnee strength was found to be correlated with anaerobic performance.

  10. Chemistry of green encapsulating molding compounds at interfaces with other materials in electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scandurra, A.; Zafarana, R.; Tenya, Y.; Pignataro, S

    2004-07-31

    The interface chemistry between encapsulating epoxy phenolic molding compound (EMC) containing phosphorous based organic flame retardant (the so called 'green materials') and copper oxide-hydroxide and aluminum oxide-hydroxide surfaces have been studied in comparison with 'conventional' EMC containing bromine and antimony as flame retardant. These green materials are designed to reduce the presence of toxic elements in the electronic packages and, consequently, in the environment. For the study were used a Scanning Acoustic Microscopy for delamination measurements, a dynamometer for the pull strength measurements and an ESCA spectrometer for chemical analysis of the interface. The general behavior of the green compound in terms of delamination, adhesion, and corrosion is found better or at least comparable than that of the conventional EMC.

  11. Using Evolved Fuzzy Neural Networks for Injury Detection from Isokinetic Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couchet, Jorge; Font, José María; Manrique, Daniel

    In this paper we propose an evolutionary fuzzy neural networks system for extracting knowledge from a set of time series containing medical information. The series represent isokinetic curves obtained from a group of patients exercising the knee joint on an isokinetic dynamometer. The system has two parts: i) it analyses the time series input in order generate a simplified model of an isokinetic curve; ii) it applies a grammar-guided genetic program to obtain a knowledge base represented by a fuzzy neural network. Once the knowledge base has been generated, the system is able to perform knee injuries detection. The results suggest that evolved fuzzy neural networks perform better than non-evolutionary approaches and have a high accuracy rate during both the training and testing phases. Additionally, they are robust, as the system is able to self-adapt to changes in the problem without human intervention.

  12. A comparison of muscle stiffness and musculoarticular stiffness of the knee joint in young athletic males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; De Vito, Giuseppe; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Fong, Daniel T P; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the gender-specific differences in peak torque (PT), muscle stiffness (MS) and musculoarticular stiffness (MAS) of the knee joints in a young active population. Twenty-two male and twenty-two female recreational athletes participated. PT of the knee joint extensor musculature was assessed on an isokinetic dynamometer, MS of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle was measured in both relaxed and contracted conditions, and knee joint MAS was quantified using the free oscillation technique. Significant gender differences were observed for all dependent variables. Females demonstrated less normalized PT (mean difference (MD)=0.4Nm/kg, p=0.005, η(2)=0.17), relaxed MS (MD=94.2N/m, pknee joint injury incidence and prevalence in females when compared to males.

  13. The relationship between muscle strength and sprint kinematics in elite sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M J

    1989-09-01

    Twenty-three elite sprinters, 9 females and 14 males, were filmed while performing a maximal sprint. Age, height, weight, and personal best 100 m time were also determined for each sprinter. Several kinematic variables were calculated for each athlete from the filmed sprint, including stride length, stride frequency, horizontal and vertical velocity of the CG, and the angular kinematics of the limbs. A Kin/Com isokinetic dynamometer was used to determine lower limb peak and average torque values. Correlation coefficients were calculated between each of the kinematic variables and each of the strength variables. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was also carried out for each set of kinematic and strength variables, to determine the best predictors of sprinting speed. Significant relationships were noted between sprinting times for the 100 m and peak torque scores (N.m/kg) for males for fast concentric knee extension and slow eccentric dorsiflexion, and for females for concentric dorsiflexion at both speeds, and slow eccentric dorsiflexion.

  14. Protein-containing nutrient supplementation following strength training enhances the effect on muscle mass, strength, and bone formation in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Olesen, J.L.; Matsumoto, K.

    2008-01-01

    following each training session. At inclusion, each woman was randomly and double-blindedly assigned to a nutrient group or a placebo (control) group. Muscle hypertrophy was evaluated from biopsies, MRI, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans, and muscle strength was determined in a dynamometer......We evaluated the response of various muscle and bone adaptation parameters with 24 wk of strength training in healthy, early postmenopausal women when a nutrient supplement (protein, carbohydrate, calcium, and vitamin D) or a placebo supplement (a minimum of energy) was ingested immediately....... Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using DEXA scans, and bone turnover was determined from serum osteocalcin and collagen type I cross-linked carboxyl terminal peptide. The nutrient group improved concentric and isokinetic (60°/s) muscle strength from 6 to 24 wk by 9 ± 3% (P

  15. Protein-containing nutrient supplementation following strength training enhances the effect on muscle mass, strength, and bone formation in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Olesen, Jens L; Matsumoto, Keitaro

    2008-01-01

    following each training session. At inclusion, each woman was randomly and double-blindedly assigned to a nutrient group or a placebo (control) group. Muscle hypertrophy was evaluated from biopsies, MRI, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans, and muscle strength was determined in a dynamometer......We evaluated the response of various muscle and bone adaptation parameters with 24 wk of strength training in healthy, early postmenopausal women when a nutrient supplement (protein, carbohydrate, calcium, and vitamin D) or a placebo supplement (a minimum of energy) was ingested immediately....... Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using DEXA scans, and bone turnover was determined from serum osteocalcin and collagen type I cross-linked carboxyl terminal peptide. The nutrient group improved concentric and isokinetic (60 degrees /s) muscle strength from 6 to 24 wk by 9 +/- 3% (P

  16. The effect of resistance training combined with timed ingestion of protein on muscle fiber size and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Tufekovic, Goran; Zebis, Mette K

    2005-01-01

    of resistance training combined with timed ingestion of isoenergetic protein vs carbohydrate supplementation on muscle fiber hypertrophy and mechanical muscle performance. Supplementation was administered before and immediately after each training bout and, in addition, in the morning on nontraining days......) concentric and eccentric contractions of the knee extensor muscle was measured in an isokinetic dynamometer. After 14 weeks of resistance training, the protein group showed hypertrophy of type I (18% +/- 5%; P muscle fibers, whereas no change above baseline occurred......Acute muscle protein metabolism is modulated not only by resistance exercise but also by amino acids. However, less is known about the long-term hypertrophic effect of protein supplementation in combination with resistance training. The present study was designed to compare the effect of 14 weeks...

  17. First International Workshop on Grid Simulator Testing of Wind Turbine Drivetrains: Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, V.; Link, H.; McDade, M.; Mander, A.; Fox, J. C.; Rigas, N.

    2013-11-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of the First International Workshop on Grid Simulator Testing of Wind Turbine Drivetrains, held from June 13 to 14, 2013, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's National Wind Technology Center, located south of Boulder, Colorado. The workshop was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and cohosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Clemson University under ongoing collaboration via a cooperative research and development agreement. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum to discuss the research, testing needs, and state-of-the-art apparatuses involved in grid compliance testing of utility-scale wind turbine generators. This includes both dynamometer testing of wind turbine drivetrains ('ground testing') and field testing grid-connected wind turbines. Four sessions followed by discussions in which all attendees of the workshop were encouraged to participate comprised the workshop.

  18. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation on a Hybrid Power System for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wen He

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid power systems, formed by combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in appropriate ways, provide high-performance and high-efficiency power systems for electric vehicle applications. This paper first establishes dynamic models for the ultracapacitor, the battery and a passive hybrid power system, and then based on the dynamic models a comparative simulation between a battery only power system and the proposed hybrid power system was done under the UDDS (Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. The simulation results showed that the hybrid power system could greatly optimize and improve the efficiency of the batteries and their dynamic current was also decreased due to the participation of the ultracapacitors, which would have a good influence on batteries’ cycle life. Finally, the parameter matching for the passive hybrid power system was studied by simulation and comparisons.

  19. Effect of the rest interval duration between contractions on muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira Daniel V

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to investigate the effect of rest interval, between successive contractions, on muscular fatigue. Methods Eighteen subjects performed elbow flexion and extension (30 repetitions on an isokinetic dynamometer with 80º of range of motion. The flexion velocity was 120º/s, while for elbow extension we used 5 different velocities (30, 75, 120, 240, 360º/s, producing 5 different rest intervals (2.89, 1.28, 0.85, 0.57 and 0.54 s. Results We observed that when the rest interval was 2.89 s there was a reduction in fatigue. On the other hand, when the rest interval was 0.54 s the fatigue was increased. Conclusions When the resting time was lower (0.54 s the decline of work in the flexor muscle group was higher compared with different rest interval duration.

  20. Dynamic muscular endurance in primary fibromyalgia compared with chronic myofascial pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the study was to quantify the voluntary dynamic muscular endurance (DME) in patients with primary fibromyalgia (PF) since easy fatigability of muscles is one of the major symptoms in this syndrome. Consecutive outpatients referred to a rheumatology clinic specializing in PF were...... investigated. Thirty-six patients with PF were compared with 18 patients with chronic myofascial pain (CMP) syndrome. Subjects were matched according to gender, age, height, weight, peak torque, and contractional work. The DME was defined as the number of repeated knee extensions necessary...... for the contractional work in two successive knee extensions to be equal to or below 70% of the initial value measured with an isokinetic dynamometer. A significantly lower DME was found in the PF group than in the CMP group: 11 (7-13) and 18 (11-25), respectively (median and quartiles), p less than .005. Patients...

  1. Vehicle test report: South Coast technology electric conversion of a Volkswagen Rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T. W.; Shain, T. W.; Bryant, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The South Coast Technology Volkswagen Rabbit, was tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) dynamometer facility and at JPL's Edwards Test Station (ETS). The tests were performed to characterize certain parameters of the South Coast Rabbit and to provide baseline data that will be used for the comparison of near term batteries that are to be incorporated into the vehicle. The vehicle tests were concentrated on the electrical drive system; i.e., the batteries, controller, and motor. The tests included coastdowns to characterize the road load, maximum effort acceleration, and range evaluation for both cyclic and constant speed conditions. A qualitative evaluation of the vehicle was made by comparing its constant speed range performance with those vehicles described in the document 'state of the Art assessment of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles'. The Rabbit performance was near to the best of the 1977 vehicles.

  2. The Analysis of Forming Forces in Single Point Incremental Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Kyung Hee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Incremental forming is a process to produce sheet metal parts in quick. Because there is no need for dedicated dies and molds, this process is less cost and time spent. The purpose of this study is to investigate forming forces in single point incremental forming. Producing a cone frustum of aluminum is tested for forming forces. A dynamometer is used to collect forming forces and analyze them. These forces are compared with cutting forces upon producing same geometrical shapes of experimental parts. The forming forces in Z direction are 40 times larger than the machining forces. A spindle and its axis of a forming machine should be designed enough to withstand the forming forces.

  3. Coefficient of variation in maximal and feigned static and dynamic grip efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvir, Z

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of the coefficient of variation as an identifier of feigned grip effort. Seventeen healthy female aged 20 to 25 yr participated in the study. Maximal and feigned efforts were measured isometrically and isokinetically (concentric and eccentric) using the Jamar and KinCom dynamometers, respectively. Findings indicated that, in all situations, the coefficient of variation derived from the maximal effort was significantly (P < 0.0001) lower than that derived from the feigned effort. However, the extent of overlapping between the two was sufficiently large to render the test sensitivities very low. Consequently, regardless of the measurement method, the coefficient of variation is not a valid tool for identifying feigned grip effort in healthy subjects.

  4. Acoustic Optimization of Automotive Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, C. Q.; Ye, B. Q.; Guo, X.; Hui, P.

    2012-06-01

    The potential for thermoelectric exhaust heat recovery in vehicles has been increasing with recent advances in the efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TEGs). This study analyzes the acoustic attenuation performance of exhaust-based TEGs. The acoustic characteristics of two different thermal designs of exhaust gas heat exchanger in TEGs are discussed in terms of transmission loss and acoustic insertion loss. GT-Power simulations and bench tests on a dynamometer with a high-performance production engine are carried out. Results indicate that the acoustic attenuation of TEGs could be determined and optimized. In addition, the feasibility of integration of exhaust-based TEGs and engine mufflers into the exhaust line is tested, which can help to reduce space and improve vehicle integration.

  5. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direction Injection (GTDI) Engine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Terrance [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2015-12-31

    This program was undertaken in response to US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-FOA-0000079, resulting in a cooperative agreement with Ford and MTU to demonstrate improvement of fuel efficiency in a vehicle equipped with an advanced GTDI engine. Ford Motor Company has invested significantly in GTDI engine technology as a cost effective, high volume, fuel economy solution, marketed globally as EcoBoost technology. Ford envisions additional fuel economy improvement in the medium and long term by further advancing EcoBoost technology. The approach for the project was to engineer a comprehensive suite of gasoline engine systems technologies to achieve the project objectives, and to progressively demonstrate the objectives via concept analysis / computer modeling, single-cylinder and multi-cylinder engine testing on engine dynamometer, and vehicle level testing on chassis rolls.

  6. Maximal strength, muscular endurance and inflammatory biomarkers in young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaara, J P; Vasankari, T; Fogelholm, M; Häkkinen, K; Santtila, M; Kyröläinen, H

    2014-12-01

    The aim was to study associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance with inflammatory biomarkers independent of cardiorespiratory fitness in those with and without abdominal obesity. 686 young healthy men participated (25±5 years). Maximal strength was measured via isometric testing using dynamo-meters to determine maximal strength index. Muscular endurance index consisted of push-ups, sit-ups and repeated squats. An indirect cycle ergometer test until exhaustion was used to estimate maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max). Participants were stratified according to those with (>102 cm) and those without abdominal obesity (obesity (β=-0.08, -0.14, respectively) (pobesity (β=-0.11, -0.26, respectively) (p<0.05). This cross-sectional study demonstrated that muscular fitness is inversely associated with C-reactive protein and IL-6 concentrations in young adult men independent of cardiorespi-ratory fitness.

  7. International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, Beijing, People's Republic of China, Oct. 7-10, 1985, Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C.; Yang, L.

    1985-01-01

    The topics discussed in this volume include strain gage techniques, photoelasticity and photoplasticity, optical methods, dynamic measurements, nondestructive testing, structural analysis and testing, residual stress and X-ray analysis, instrumentation, image processing and data acquisition techniques, and experimental mechanics applied to fracture mechanics and to biomechanics. Papers are presented on high temperature strain gage alloys, application of conjugate images in holographic interferometry, dispersion of stress waves in a laminated composite, fatigue crack closure study by using the acoustic emission technique, and cyclic creep testing of lead alloy beams. Consideration is also given to experimental studies on residual stresses in injection molded plastics by means of photoelasticity and Liesegang's rings, multicomponent dynamometers for control of parasitic components on force standard machines, application of image processing techniques to stress measurement by copper electroplating, and fatigue crack closure in polymers.

  8. Production of gaseous fuel from jatropha oil by cerium oxide based catalytic fuel reactor and its utilisation on diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylswamy Thirunavukkarasu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an attempt is made to produce a hydrocarbon fuel from jatropha vegetable oil for Diesel engine applications. The “catalytic cracking” a process recently introduced by the researchers is chosen as an alternative method to trans-esterification process to match the fuel properties to diesel. Jatropha vegetable oil was cracked into a gas using the cerium oxide catalyst in a fixed bed catalytic reactor. The produced gas is introduced at constant rate into the inlet manifold of the Diesel engine. The experimental work was carried out in single cylinder water cooled direct injection Diesel engine coupled with eddy current dynamometer. The combustion parameters are measured by AVL combustion analyser. From the experimental results, the increase in brake thermal efficiency of the engine for full load was observed to be 10% (relative compared with diesel. Notably, emissions such as HC, CO, and smoke are reduced by 18%, 61%, and 18%, respectively, when compared with diesel.

  9. Role of carbonaceous materials in polymer matrix composites for friction applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapping, Preston

    The purpose of this research was to study the friction performance characteristics of a Copper, Antimony, and sulfide free environmentally automotive friction material using different allotropes of graphite as a replacement. Model brake friction materials were created and tested on a full scale brake dynamometer using the Society of Automotive Engineers J2430 test and Brake Effectiveness Evaluation Procedure. The dynamometer testing revealed the graphite replacement to have higher average effectiveness values when compared to the baseline friction material currently in production. The model samples generally had higher wear rates but some were comparable to the baseline and would be acceptable in real world applications. Some of the model samples displayed stable characteristics under varying load and linear braking velocity conditions, ultimately passing the criteria required. The model samples (RD18670A/B/C/D/E/F/G) displayed average effectiveness values of 0.425, 0.435, 0.4125, 0.425, 0.475, failed test, and 0.35 respectively, which is on average a substantial gain over the baseline effectiveness value average of 0.3125. Sample RD18670F proved to be the most promising replacement for the baseline 1999 Ford Crown Victoria friction lining. This is due to a higher average effectiveness value of 0.5, during both the high speed and low speed testing, than the baseline friction lining material of 0.325. Also, RD18670F displayed comparable wear rates to the baseline test, with 0.384mm lost inboard and 0.650 lost outboard, representing a difference of only 0.074mm and 0.2mm respectively from the baseline.

  10. EVA Metro Sedan electric-propulsion system: test and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimers, E.

    1979-09-01

    The procedure and results of the performance evaluation of the EVA Metro Sedan (car No. 1) variable speed dc chopper motor drive and its three speed automatic transmission are presented. The propulsion system for a battery powered vehicle manufactured by Electric Vehicle Associates, Valley View, Ohio, was removed from the vehicle, mounted on the programmable electric dynamometer test facility and evaluated with the aid of a hp 3052A Data Acquisition System. Performance data for the automatic transmission, the solid state dc motor speed controller, and the dc motor in the continuous and pulsating dc power mode, as derived on the dynamometer test facility, as well as the entire propulsion system are given. This concept and the system's components were evaluated in terms of commercial applicability, maintainability, and energy utility to establish a design base for the further development of this system or similar propulsion drives. The propulsion system of the EVA Metro Sedan is powered by sixteen 6-volt traction batteries, Type EV 106 (Exide Battery Mfg. Co.). A thyristor controlled cable form Pulsomatic Mark 10 controller, actuated by a foot throttle, controls the voltage applied to a dc series field motor, rated at 10 hp at 3800 rpm (Baldor Electric Co.). Gear speed reduction to the wheel is accomplished by the original equipment three speed automatic transmission with torque converter (Renault 12 Sedan). The brake consists of a power-assisted, hydraulic braking system with front wheel disk and rear drum. An ability to recuperate electric energy with subsequent storage in the battery power supply is not provided.

  11. Comparison of flexible fuel vehicle and life-cycle fuel consumption and emissions of selected pollutants and greenhouse gases for ethanol 85 versus gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haibo; Frey, H Christopher; Rouphail, Nagui M; Gonçalves, Gonçalo A; Farias, Tiago L

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate differences in fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions of flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) operated on ethanol 85 (E85) versus gasoline. Theoretical ratios of fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for both fuels are estimated based on the same amount of energy released. Second-by-second fuel consumption and emissions from one FFV Ford Focus fueled with E85 and gasoline were measured under real-world traffic conditions in Lisbon, Portugal, using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). Cycle average dynamometer fuel consumption and emission test results for FFVs are available from the U.S. Department of Energy, and emissions certification test results for ethanol-fueled vehicles are available from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. On the basis of the PEMS data, vehicle-specific power (VSP)-based modal average fuel and emission rates for both fuels are estimated. For E85 versus gasoline, empirical ratios of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions agree within a margin of error to the theoretical expectations. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were found to be typically lower. From the PEMS data, nitric oxide (NO) emissions associated with some higher VSP modes are higher for E85. From the dynamometer and certification data, average hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission differences vary depending on the vehicle. The differences of average E85 versus gasoline emission rates for all vehicle models are -22% for CO, 12% for HC, and -8% for NOx emissions, which imply that replacing gasoline with E85 reduces CO emissions, may moderately decrease NOx tailpipe emissions, and may increase HC tailpipe emissions. On a fuel life cycle basis for corn-based ethanol versus gasoline, CO emissions are estimated to decrease by 18%. Life-cycle total and fossil CO2 emissions are estimated to decrease by 25 and 50%, respectively; however, life-cycle HC and NOx emissions are estimated to increase by 18 and 82

  12. Emissions of non-methane hydrocarbons from cars in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the exhaust emission of non-methane hydrocarbons(NMHCs) from cars in China at the Beijing driving cycle on the chassis dynamometer.The emission factor average of NMHCs was 0.9 g/km,which was over twice that from the Australian car fleet and 2-4 times that of the American car emission in the 1990s-2000s.The emission profile of Beijing cars showed higher fractions of aromatics and C4?C7 HCs,and lower percentages of C2?C3 HCs,compared with those of the US car fleet.The average ratio of benzene/toluene for cars tested was 0.5,the average benzene/toluene/ethyl benzene/xylenes(BTEX) ratios were 1/2.2/0.1/1.8,which were consistent with those of the Tanyugou tunnel located in the suburb of Beijing.α-pinene and β-pinene were detected from the exhaust gas on dynamometer for the first time,and had likely similar exhaust emission characteristics with C2?C3 HCs and styrene,giving an evidence that air pinenes may be related to human activities.Isoprene was also detected directly.These observations suggest that the procedure regarding pinenes and isoprene as coming from biologic sources of VOCs in the atmosphere should be applied with great care,especially in the core of the big city like Beijing.The specific reactivity of NMHCs was higher than that of cars of US,and the specific reactivity of volatile aromatic compounds was higher than that of the US SPECIATE database.

  13. Oxidative potential of semi-volatile and non volatile particulate matter (PM) from heavy-duty vehicles retrofitted with emission control technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Subhasis; Verma, Vishal; Schauer, James J; Cassee, Flemming R; Cho, Arthur K; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2009-05-15

    Advanced exhaust after-treatment devices for diesel vehicles are less effective in controlling semivolatile species than the refractory PM fractions. This study investigated the oxidative potential (OP) of PM from vehicles with six retrofitted technologies (vanadium and zeolite based selective catalytic reduction (V-SCRT, Z-SCRT), Continuously regenerating technology (CRT), catalyzed DPX filter, catalyzed continuously regenerating trap (CCRT), and uncatalyzed Horizon filter) in comparison to a "baseline" vehicle (without any control device). Vehicles were tested on a chassis dynamometer atthree driving conditions, i.e., cruise, transient urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS), and idle. The consumption rate of dithiothreitol (DTT), one of the surrogate measures of OP, was determined for PM samples collected at ambient and elevated temperatures (thermally denuded of semivolatile species). Control devices reduced the OP expressed per vehicle distance traveled by 60-98%. The oxidative potential per unit mass of PM however, was highest for the Horizon followed by CRT, DPX -Idle, SCRTs, and baseline vehicles. Significant reduction in OP (by 50-100%) was observed forthermally denuded PM from vehicles with retrofitted technologies (PM with significant semivolatile fraction), whereas particles emitted bythe baseline vehicle (with insignificant semivolatile fraction) did not demonstrate any measurable changes in oxidative activity. This suggests that the semivolatile fraction of particles are far more oxidative in nature than refractory particles-a conclusion further supported by previous tunnel and ambient studies, demonstrating a decline in PM oxidative activity with increasing atmospheric dilution. Correlation analysis performed between all the species, showed that OP is moderately associated (R = 0.76) with organic carbon (OC) and strongly associated (R = 0.94) with the water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC).

  14. Pelvic-Floor Properties in Women Reporting Urinary Incontinence After Surgery and Radiotherapy for Endometrial Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Stéphanie; Moffet, Hélène; Plante, Marie; Ouellet, Marie-Pier; Leblond, Jean; Dumoulin, Chantale

    2017-04-01

    Endometrial cancer is the fourth most prevalent cancer in Canadian women. Radiotherapy (RT) is frequently recommended as an adjuvant treatment. There is a high prevalence (>80%) of urinary incontinence (UI) after RT. It is plausible that UI is associated, at least in part, with alterations of the pelvic-floor muscles (PFM). The aim of this exploratory study was to compare the PFM functional properties of women reporting UI after hysterectomy and RT for endometrial cancer with those of women with a history of hysterectomy but without UI. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. Eleven women were recruited for the affected group, and 18 were recruited for the comparison group. Urogenital and bowel functions were assessed using International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaires, and PFM properties were evaluated using a Montreal dynamometer. Nonparametric tests were used for comparison of personal characteristics, functional status, and muscle properties. A correspondence analysis detailed the association between UI severity and PFM properties. Maximal opening of dynamometer branches, maximal vaginal length, PFM maximum force and rate of force development in a strength test, and number of rapid contractions during a speed test were reduced in the affected group. No significant difference was found for the endurance test. The severity of UI was found to correspond to the rate of force development and the number of rapid contractions in a speed test, endurance, age, and vaginal length. The results are limited to the population studied. The small sample size limited the strength of the conclusions. Some evidence of alterations in PFM properties were found in women with UI after hysterectomy and RT for endometrial cancer. These alterations appeared to be associated with UI, suggesting a possible role for rehabilitation.

  15. NREL and DONG Energy Collaboration for Grid Simulator Controls and Testing: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-527

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and DONG Energy are interested in collaborating for the development of control algorithms, modeling, and grid simulator testing of wind turbine generator systems involving NWTC's advanced Controllable Grid Interface (CGI). NREL and DONG Energy will work together to develop control algorithms, models, test methods, and protocols involving NREL's CGI, as well as appropriate data acquisition systems for grid simulation testing. The CRADA also includes work on joint publication of results achieved from modeling and testing efforts. Further, DONG Energy will send staff to NREL on a long-term basis for collaborative work including modeling and testing. NREL will send staff to DONG Energy on a short-term basis to visit wind power sites and participate in meetings relevant to this collaborative effort. DOE has provided NREL with over 10 years of support in developing custom facilities and capabilities to enable testing of full-scale integrated wind turbine drivetrain systems in accordance with the needs of the US wind industry. NREL currently operates a 2.5MW dynamometer and is in the processes of commissioning a 5MW dynamometer and a grid simulator (referred to as a 'Controllable Grid Interface' or CGI). DONG Energy is the market leader in offshore wind power development, with currently over 1 GW of on- and offshore wind power in operation, and 1.3 GW under construction. DONG Energy has on-going R&D projects involving high voltage DC (HVDC) transmission.

  16. Stationary engine test of diesel cycle using diesel oil and biodiesel (B100); Ensaio de motores estacionarios do ciclo diesel utilizando oleo diesel e biodiesel (B100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade [Universidade Federal da Bahia (DEQ/DEM/EP/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], Email: ednildo@ufba.br; Santos, Danilo Cardoso [Universidade Federal da Bahia (PPEQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica; Souza, Daniel Vidigal D.; Peixoto, Leonardo Barbosa; Franca, Tiago [Universidade Federal da Bahia (DEM/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2006-07-01

    This work objectified to test an engine stationary of the cycle diesel, having as combustible diesel fossil and bio diesel. The characteristic curves of power, torque and emissions versus rotation of the engine was elaborated. The survey of these curves was carried through in the Laboratorio de Energia e Gas da Escola Politecnica da UFBA, which makes use of two stationary dynamometers and the one of chassis and necessary instrumentation for you analyze of the exhaustion gases. The tested engine was of the mark AGRALE, M-85 model stationary type, mono cylinder, with power NF (NBRISO 1585) Cv/kw/rpm 10/7,4/2500. The assays had been carried through in a hydraulically dynamometer mark Schenck, D-210 model. The fuel consumption was measured in a scale marks Filizola model BP-6, and too much ground handling equipment such as: water reservoir, tubings, valves controllers of volumetric outflow, sensors and measurers of rotation, torque, mass, connected to a system of acquisition of data on line. The emissions of the gases (CO, CO{sub 2}, and NOx), were measured by the analytical Tempest mark, model 100. The engine operated with oil diesel and bio diesel of oils and residual fats (OGR). In the tests, the use of the fuel derived from oil and the gotten ones from OGR was not detected significant differences how much. In this phase already it can show to the immediate possibility of the substitution of the oil diesel for bio diesel as combustible in the stationary engines of low power (author)

  17. Hamstring Architectural and Functional Adaptations Following Long vs. Short Muscle Length Eccentric Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guex, Kenny; Degache, Francis; Morisod, Cynthia; Sailly, Matthieu; Millet, Gregoire P.

    2016-01-01

    Most common preventive eccentric-based exercises, such as Nordic hamstring do not include any hip flexion. So, the elongation stress reached is lower than during the late swing phase of sprinting. The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of hamstring architectural (fascicle length and pennation angle) and functional (concentric and eccentric optimum angles and concentric and eccentric peak torques) parameters following a 3-week eccentric resistance program performed at long (LML) vs. short muscle length (SML). Both groups performed eight sessions of 3–5 × 8 slow maximal eccentric knee extensions on an isokinetic dynamometer: the SML group at 0° and the LML group at 80° of hip flexion. Architectural parameters were measured using ultrasound imaging and functional parameters using the isokinetic dynamometer. The fascicle length increased by 4.9% (p torque did not change in the SML (p = 0.37) and the LML (p = 0.23) groups, whereas eccentric peak torque increased by 12.9% (p < 0.01, small effect size) and 17.9% (p < 0.001, small effect size) in the SML and the LML group, respectively. No group-by-time interaction was found for any parameters. A correlation was found between the training-induced change in fascicle length and the change in concentric optimum angle (r = −0.57, p < 0.01). These results suggest that performing eccentric exercises lead to several architectural and functional adaptations. However, further investigations are required to confirm the hypothesis that performing eccentric exercises at LML may lead to greater adaptations than a similar training performed at SML. PMID:27536252

  18. Assessment of muscular strength with the modified sphygmomanometer test: what is the best method and source of outcome values?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas A. C. Souza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tests that are usually employed for the clinical assessment of muscular strength have notable disadvantages. The Modified Sphygmomanometer Test (MST is a promising method because it is low-cost and provides objective measures. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the most adequate method and sources of outcome values for the assessment of strength with the MST. METHOD: Methodological study with 40 healthy adults (22.98±2.26 years, who did not practice physical activity regularly. The strength of the flexors and extensors of the elbow and knee, the handgrip of the dominant side and anterior trunk flexors were randomly assessed with portable dynamometers and the MST (bag and cuff adaptations, and sphygmomanometer without adaptation by a single examiner. An independent examiner read and recorded the values. The sources of the investigated outcome values were the first trial and the means of two and three trials. One-way ANOVAs and Pearson Correlation Coefficients were used for the analyses (α=0.05. RESULTS: For the MST methods applied to assess all muscular groups, similar values were found for all sources of outcome values (0.01dynamometers (0.51

  19. Assessment of muscular strength with the modified sphygmomanometer test: what is the best method and source of outcome values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lucas A C; Martins, Júlia C; Moura, Juliana B; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F; De Paula, Fátima V R; Faria, Christina D C M

    2014-01-01

    Tests that are usually employed for the clinical assessment of muscular strength have notable disadvantages. The Modified Sphygmomanometer Test (MST) is a promising method because it is low-cost and provides objective measures. To investigate the most adequate method and sources of outcome values for the assessment of strength with the MST. Methodological study with 40 healthy adults (22.98 ± 2.26 years), who did not practice physical activity regularly. The strength of the flexors and extensors of the elbow and knee, the handgrip of the dominant side and anterior trunk flexors were randomly assessed with portable dynamometers and the MST (bag and cuff adaptations, and sphygmomanometer without adaptation) by a single examiner. An independent examiner read and recorded the values. The sources of the investigated outcome values were the first trial and the means of two and three trials. One-way ANOVAs and Pearson Correlation Coefficients were used for the analyses (α=0.05). For the MST methods applied to assess all muscular groups, similar values were found for all sources of outcome values (0.01dynamometers (0.51 ≤ r ≤ 0.94; p ≤ 0.003). All MST methods showed adequate results for the assessment of strength in healthy individuals, and after familiarization, only one trial was sufficient to provide reliable measures. The sphygmomanometer without adaptation is not time consuming, compared to the other adaptations, and showed the capability of measuring higher values of strength. The bag method was easily trained to be used and stabilized.

  20. Effects of Total Knee Arthroplasty on Proprioceptive Function%全膝关节置换术对本体感觉的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮衍玲; 王雪强; 刘慧; 杨震

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨全膝关节置换术后对患侧本体感觉的影响.方法:选取48例全膝关节置换术后3个月的患者(置换组)和50例同龄正常人(健康组),以Biodex 3等速系统测试双膝关节主动复位的误差角度,以作为个体本体感觉能力优劣的评估指标.结果:置换组患者术侧膝关节主动复位误差角度显著大于健康组的左右膝(P<0.05).结论:全膝关节置换术后患者的个体本体感觉明显降低,因此其运动康复计划中应包含本体感觉的训练.%Objective: To observe the influence of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) on proprioceptive function. Method: Forty-eight patients three months after TKA (TKA group) and 50 age-matched healthy people (healthy group) were selected. The proprioceptive function of all subjects was measured by a repositioning test on the Biodex Ⅲ dynamometer. The Bioedx Ⅲ isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess knee proprioceptive function: active position sense. Results: The TKA group had significantly worse active reposition sense than healthy group (P< 0.05). Conclusion: The active position sense in patients with TKA is impaired. It was recommended that rehabilitation program for TKA should include the proprioceptive training, especially in restoring the active reposition sense.

  1. Kinetic measurements of hand motor impairments after mild to moderate stroke using grip control tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yu; Ma, Le; Yan, Tiebin; Liu, Huihua; Wei, Xijun; Song, Rong

    2014-05-11

    The aim of this study is to investigate quantitative outcome measurements of hand motor performance for subjects after mild to moderate stroke using grip control tasks and characterize abnormal flexion synergy of upper extremities after stroke. A customized dynamometer with force sensors was used to measure grip force and calculate rotation torque during the sub-maximal grip control tasks. The paretic and nonpartic sides of eleven subjects after stroke and the dominant sides of ten healthy persons were tested. Their maximal voluntary grip force was measured and used to set sub-maximal grip control tasks at three different target force levels. Force control ability was characterized by the maximal grip force, mean force percentage, coefficient of variation (CV), target deviation ratio (TDR), and rotation torque ratio (RTR). The motor impairments of subjects after stroke were also evaluated using the Fugl-Meyer assessment for upper extremity (FMA-UE) and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). Maximal grip force of the paretic side was significantly reduced as compared to the nonparetic side and the healthy group, while the difference of maximal grip force between the nonparetic side and the healthy group was not significant. TDR and RTR increased for all three groups with increasing target force level. There were significant differences of CV, TDR and RTR between the paretic side and the healthy group at all the force levels. CV, TDR and RTR showed significant negative correlations with FMA-UE and WMFT at 50% of maximum grip force. This study designed a customized dynamometer together with an innovative measurement, RTR, to investigate the hand motor performance of subjects after mild to moderate stroke during force control tasks. And stroke-induced abnormal flexion synergy of wrist and finger muscles could be characterized by RTR. This study also identified a set of kinetic parameters which can be applied to quantitatively assess the hand motor function of subjects after

  2. Investigation of Transmission Warming Technologies at Various Ambient Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jehlik, Forrest; Iliev, Simeon; Wood, Eric; Gonder, Jeff

    2017-03-28

    This work details two approaches for evaluating transmission warming technology: experimental dynamometer testing and development of a simplified transmission efficiency model to quantify effects under varied real world ambient and driving conditions. Two vehicles were used for this investigation: a 2013 Ford Taurus and a 2011 Ford Fusion. The Taurus included a production transmission warming system and was tested over hot and cold ambient temperatures with the transmission warming system enabled and disabled. A robot driver was used to minimize driver variability and increase repeatability. Additionally the Fusion was tested cold and with the transmission pre-heated prior to completing the test cycles. These data were used to develop a simplified thermally responsive transmission model to estimate effects of transmission warming in real world conditions. For the Taurus, the fuel consumption variability within one standard deviation was shown to be under 0.5% for eight repeat Urban Dynamometer Driving Cycles (UDDS). These results were valid with the transmission warming system active or passive. Using the transmission warming system under 22 degrees C ambient temperature, fuel consumption reduction was shown to be 1.4%. For the Fusion, pre-warming the transmission reduced fuel consumption 2.5% for an urban drive cycle at -7 degrees C ambient temperature, with 1.5% of the 2.5% gain associated with the transmission, while consumption for the US06 test was shown to be reduced by 7% with 5.5% of the 7% gain associated with the transmission. It was found that engine warming due to conduction between the pre-heated transmission and the engine resulted in the remainder of the benefit. For +22 degrees C ambient tests, the pre-heated transmission was shown to reduce fuel consumption approximately 1% on an urban cycle, while no benefit was seen for the US06 cycle. The simplified modeling results showed gains in efficiency ranging from 0-1.5% depending on the ambient

  3. Model year 2010 Honda insight level-1 testing report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rask, E.; Bocci, D.; Duoba, M.; Lohse-Busch, H. (Energy Systems)

    2011-03-22

    As a part of the US Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), a model year 2010 Honda Insight was procured by eTec (Phoenix, AZ) and sent to ANL's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility for the purposes of vehicle-level testing in support of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). Data was acquired during testing using non-intrusive sensors, vehicle network information, and facilities equipment (emissions and dynamometer data). Standard drive cycles, performance cycles, steady-state cycles and A/C usage cycles were tested. Much of this data is openly available for download in ANL's Downloadable Dynamometer Database (D3). The major results are shown here in this report. Given the preliminary nature of this assessment, the majority of the testing was done over standard regulatory cycles and seeks to obtain a general overview of how the vehicle performs. These cycles include the US FTP cycle (Urban) and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycle as well as the US06, a more aggressive supplemental regulatory cycle. Data collection for this testing was kept at a fairly high level and includes emissions and fuel measurements from an exhaust emissions bench, high-voltage and accessory current and voltage from a DC power analyzer, and CAN bus data such as engine speed, engine load, and electric machine operation when available. The following sections will seek to explain some of the basic operating characteristics of the MY2010 Insight and provide insight into unique features of its operation and design.

  4. Clinical assessment tools identify functional deficits in fragility fracture patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ames TD

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tyler D Ames,1 Corinne E Wee,1 Khoi M Le,1 Tiffany L Wang,1 Julie Y Bishop,2 Laura S Phieffer,2 Carmen E Quatman2 1The Ohio State University College of Medicine, 2Department of Orthopaedics, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA Purpose: To identify inexpensive, noninvasive, portable, clinical assessment tools that can be used to assess functional performance measures that may put older patients at risk for falls such as balance, handgrip strength, and lumbopelvic control.Patients and methods: Twenty fragility fracture patients and 21 healthy control subjects were evaluated using clinical assessment tools (Nintendo Wii Balance Board [WBB], a handheld dynamometer, and an application for the Apple iPod Touch, the Level Belt that measure functional performance during activity of daily living tasks. The main outcome measurements were balance (WBB, handgrip strength (handheld dynamometer, and lumbopelvic control (iPod Touch Level Belt, which were compared between fragility fracture patients and healthy controls.Results: Fragility fracture patients had lower scores on the vertical component of the WBB Torso Twist task (P=0.042 and greater medial–lateral lumbopelvic sway during a 40 m walk (P=0.026 when compared to healthy controls. Unexpectedly, the fracture patients had significantly higher scores on the left leg (P=0.020 and total components (P=0.010 of the WBB Single Leg Stand task as well as less faults during the left Single Leg Stand task (P=0.003.Conclusion: The clinical assessment tools utilized in this study are relatively inexpensive and portable tools of performance measures capable of detecting differences in postural sway between fragility fracture patients and controls. Keywords: fall risk, geriatric fracture, Nintendo Wii Balance Board, Level Belt, fragility fracture

  5. Effects of photobiomodulation on the fatigue level in elderly women: an isokinetic dynamometry evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassão, P G; Toma, R L; Antunes, H K M; Tucci, H T; Renno, A C M

    2016-02-01

    Aging is responsible by a series of morphological and functional modifications that lead to a decline of muscle function, particularly in females. Muscle tissue in elderly people is more susceptible to fatigue and, consequently, to an increased inability to maintain strength and motor control. In this context, therapeutic approaches able of attenuating muscle fatigue have been investigated. Among these, the photobiomodulation demonstrate positive results to interacts with biological tissues, promoting the increase in cell energy production. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of photobiomodulation (808 nm, 250 J/cm(2), 100 mW, 7 J each point) in the fatigue level and muscle performance in elderly women. Thirty subjects entered a crossover randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. Photobiomodulation was delivered on the rectus femoris muscle of the dominant limb immediately before the fatigue protocol. In both sessions, peripheral muscle fatigue was analyzed by surface electromyography (EMG) and blood lactate analysis. Muscle performance was evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer. The results showed that photobiomodulation was able of reducing muscle fatigue by a significant increase of electromyographic fatigue index (EFI) (p = 0.047) and decreasing significantly lactate concentration 6 min after the performance of the fatigue protocol (p = 0. 0006) compared the placebo laser session. However, the photobiomodulation was not able of increasing muscle performance measured by the isokinetic dynamometer. Thus, it can be conclude that the photobiomodulation was effective in reducing fatigue levels. However, no effects of photobiomodulation on muscle performance was observed.

  6. Effects of Taping on Pain, Grip Strength and Wrist Extension Force in Patients with Tennis Elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shamsoddini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tennis elbow (TE is a common musculotendinous degenerative disorder of the extensor origin at the lateral humeral epicondyle. Different modes of treatment are used for management of tennis elbow.Objectives: This study investigated the effect of the taping technique (TT on pain, grip strength and wrist extension force in treatment of tennis elbow.Patients and Methods: Thirty patients (16 men /14 women with a mean age of 32.2 years with tennis elbow of their dominant arm participated in this study. Outcome measures were assessment of pain at the lateral aspect of the elbow, grip strength and wrist extension force before and five to ten minutes after application of elbow tape on the affected and unaffected arms. A Visual Analog Scale was used to assess pain. A dynamometer and a hand-held dynamometer were used for evaluation of grip strength and wrist extension force, respectively.Results: Among the variables, significant differences were found in wrist extension forces between effected and unaffected arms (P = 0.02. Changes in grip strength showed statically significant improvements in the affected arm compared to the unaffected arm (P = 0.03. Also, in assessment of pain at the lateral epicondyle, the mean change between affected and unaffected arms was significant, with P = 0.001.Conclusions: The taping technique, as applied in this study demonstrates an impressive effect on wrist extension force and grip strength of patients with TE. Elbow taping also reduces pain at the lateral aspect of the elbow in these patients.

  7. Discovery of Novel NOx Catalysts for CIDI Applications by High-throughput Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blint, Richard J. [General Motors Corporation, Warren, MI (United States)

    2007-12-31

    DOE project DE-PS26-00NT40758 has developed very active, lean exhaust, NOx reduction catalysts that have been tested on the discovery system, laboratory reactors and engine dynamometer systems. The goal of this project is the development of effective, affordable NOx reduction catalysts for lean combustion engines in the US light duty vehicle market which can meet Tier II emission standards with hydrocarbons based reductants for reducing NOx. General Motors (prime contractor) along with subcontractors BASF (Engelhard) (a catalytic converter developer) and ACCELRYS (an informatics supplier) carried out this project which began in August of 2002. BASF (Engelhard) has run over 16,000 tests of 6100 possible catalytic materials on a high throughput discovery system suitable for automotive catalytic materials. Accelrys developed a new database informatics system which allowed material tracking and data mining. A program catalyst was identified and evaluated at all levels of the program. Dynamometer evaluations of the program catalyst both with and without additives show 92% NOx conversions on the HWFET, 76% on the US06, 60% on the cold FTP and 65% on the Set 13 heavy duty test using diesel fuel. Conversions of over 92% on the heavy duty FTP using ethanol as a second fluid reductant have been measured. These can be competitive with both of the alternative lean NOx reduction technologies presently in the market. Conversions of about 80% were measured on the EUDC for lean gasoline applications without using active dosing to adjust the C:N ratio for optimum NOx reduction at all points in the certification cycle. A feasibility analysis has been completed and demonstrates the advantages and disadvantages of the technology using these materials compared with other potential technologies. The teaming agreements among the partners contain no obstacles to commercialization of new technologies to any potential catalyst customers.

  8. Kicking Performance and Muscular Strength Parameters with Dominant and Nondominant Lower Limbs in Brazilian Elite Professional Futsal Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Luiz Henrique Palucci; de Souza Serenza, Felipe; de Andrade, Vitor Luiz; de Paula Oliveira, Lucas; Mariano, Fábio Pamplona; Santana, Juliana Exel; Santiago, Paulo Roberto Pereira

    2016-12-01

    The aims of the current study were to analyze a kick from 10 m in a futsal context and the parameters of muscular strength using an isokinetic dynamometer in a laboratory environment, performed with the dominant (DL) and nondominant lower limbs (NDL). Seventeen professional elite players participated. Kicking performance was evaluated from the second penalty mark. Next, athletes completed a strength evaluation with an isokinetic dynamometer at speeds of 60°⋅s(-1), 180°⋅s(-1), and 300°⋅s(-1). Significant differences were observed for hip (15.64 ± 3.44; 13.97 ± 2.62), ankle (63.19 ± 8.90; 52.55 ± 8.72), foot (82.31 ± 7.93; 68.41 ± 7.85), and ball (99.74 ± 8.45; 88.31 ± 7.93) speeds (km⋅h(-1)), and average power at 180°⋅s(-1) (325.59 ± 40.47; 315.79 ± 39.49 W), but not for accuracy (1.33 ± 0.57; 1.66 ± 0.77 m) between the DL and NDL, respectively. Few moderate correlations were observed in the DL (r = .54-.64) or NDL (r = .53-.55) between the kinematic variables of kick and muscular strength parameters (P imbalance in muscular strength is very small. We recommend that specific court tests be conducted to reliably characterize kicking performance in futsal. Success in kicking seems to be too variable and complex to be totally predicted only by joints, foot and ball speed, and lower limb muscular strength parameters.

  9. The effects of compression garments on intermittent exercise performance and recovery on consecutive days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Rob; Edge, Johann; Merrells, Robert; Hawke, Emma; Barnes, Matt; Simcock, David; Gill, Nicholas

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether compression garments improve intermittent-sprint performance and aid performance or self-reported recovery from high-intensity efforts on consecutive days. Following familiarization, 14 male rugby players performed two randomized testing conditions (with or without garments) involving consecutive days of a simulated team sport exercise protocol, separated by 24 h of recovery within each condition and 2 weeks between conditions. Each day involved an 80-min high-intensity exercise circuit, with exercise performance determined by repeated 20-m sprints and peak power on a cart dynamometer (single-man scrum machine). Measures of nude mass, heart rate, skin and tympanic temperature, and blood lactate (La-) were recorded throughout each day; also, creatine kinase (CK) and muscle soreness were recorded each day and 48 h following exercise. No differences (P=.20 to 0.40) were present between conditions on either day of the exercise protocol for repeated 20-m sprint efforts or peak power on a cart dynamometer. Heart rate, tympanic temperature, and body mass did not significantly differ between conditions; however, skin temperature was higher under the compression garments. Although no differences (P=.50) in La- or CK were present, participants felt reduced levels of perceived muscle soreness in the ensuing 48 h postexercise when wearing the garments (2.5+/-1.7 vs 3.5+/-2.1 for garment and control; P=.01). The use of compression garments did not improve or hamper simulated team-sport activity on consecutive days. Despite benefits of reduced self-reported muscle soreness when wearing garments during and following exercise each day, no improvements in performance or recovery were apparent.

  10. Musculoskeletal profile of middle-aged Ving Tsun Chinese martial art practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Shirley S.M.; Chan, Jessie S.M.; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Yam, Timothy T.T.; Chung, Louisa M.Y.; Ma, Ada W.W.; Kuisma, Raija

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional exploratory study aimed to quantify and compare the axial and appendicular bone mineral density (BMD), muscle mass, and muscle strength of middle-aged practitioners of Ving Tsun (VT; a hard-style Chinese martial art) with those of nonpractitioners. Eighteen VT practitioners (mean age ± standard deviation = 51.8 ± 17.7 years; 12 men and six women) and 36 active controls (mean age ± standard deviation = 58.7 ± 11.0 years; 18 men and 18 women) participated in the study. All participants underwent a 1-day battery of musculoskeletal examinations. The BMD of the total radius, total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, as was the lean mass of the arm, leg, and trunk. Muscle strength of the upper and lower limbs was assessed using a Jamar dynamometer and an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/second, respectively. VT-trained participants had a 11.5% higher total radius BMD (P = 0.023), a 17.8% higher leg lean mass (P = 0.014), a 56.4% higher isokinetic body weight-adjusted peak torque of the knee extensors (P  0.05). Middle-aged VT practitioners displayed a higher total radius BMD and leg lean mass and better knee extensor and flexor muscular performances than their healthy active counterparts. Healthcare professionals may consider using this alternative method of training to improve the musculoskeletal health of middle-aged adults. PMID:28121945

  11. Musculoskeletal profile of middle-aged Ving Tsun Chinese martial art practitioners: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Shirley S M; Chan, Jessie S M; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Yam, Timothy T T; Chung, Louisa M Y; Ma, Ada W W; Kuisma, Raija

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional exploratory study aimed to quantify and compare the axial and appendicular bone mineral density (BMD), muscle mass, and muscle strength of middle-aged practitioners of Ving Tsun (VT; a hard-style Chinese martial art) with those of nonpractitioners.Eighteen VT practitioners (mean age ± standard deviation = 51.8 ± 17.7 years; 12 men and six women) and 36 active controls (mean age ± standard deviation = 58.7 ± 11.0 years; 18 men and 18 women) participated in the study. All participants underwent a 1-day battery of musculoskeletal examinations. The BMD of the total radius, total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, as was the lean mass of the arm, leg, and trunk. Muscle strength of the upper and lower limbs was assessed using a Jamar dynamometer and an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/second, respectively.VT-trained participants had a 11.5% higher total radius BMD (P = 0.023), a 17.8% higher leg lean mass (P = 0.014), a 56.4% higher isokinetic body weight-adjusted peak torque of the knee extensors (P  0.05).Middle-aged VT practitioners displayed a higher total radius BMD and leg lean mass and better knee extensor and flexor muscular performances than their healthy active counterparts. Healthcare professionals may consider using this alternative method of training to improve the musculoskeletal health of middle-aged adults.

  12. Effects of a shoulder injury prevention strength training program on eccentric external rotator muscle strength and glenohumeral joint imbalance in female overhead activity athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederbracht, Yvonne; Shim, Andrew L; Sloniger, Mark A; Paternostro-Bayles, Madeline; Short, Thomas H

    2008-01-01

    Imbalance of the eccentrically-activated external rotator cuff muscles versus the concentrically-activated internal rotator cuff muscles is a primary risk factor for glenohumeral joint injuries in overhead activity athletes. Nonisokinetic dynamometer based strength training studies, however, have focused exclusively on resulting concentric instead of applicable eccentric strength gains of the external rotator cuff muscles. Furthermore, previous strength training studies did not result in a reduction in glenoumeral joint muscle imbalance, thereby suggesting that currently used shoulder strength training programs do not effectively reduce the risk of shoulder injury to the overhead activity athlete. Two collegiate women tennis teams, consisting of 12 women, participated in this study throughout their preseason training. One team (n = 6) participated in a 5-week, 4 times a week, external shoulder rotator muscle strength training program next to their preseason tennis training. The other team (n = 6) participated in a comparable preseason tennis training program, but did not conduct any upper body strength training. Effects of this strength training program were evaluated by comparing pre- and posttraining data of 5 maximal eccentric external immediately followed by concentric internal contractions on a Kin-Com isokinetic dynamometer (Chattecx Corp., Hixson, Tennessee). Overall, the shoulder strength training program significantly increased eccentric external total work without significant effects on concentric internal total work, concentric internal mean peak force, or eccentric external mean peak force. In conclusion, by increasing the eccentric external total exercise capacity without a subsequent increase in the concentric internal total exercise capacity, this strength training program potentially decreases shoulder rotator muscle imbalances and the risk for shoulder injuries to overhead activity athletes.

  13. Sarcopenia in lung transplantation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, Dmitry; Wickerson, Lisa; Singer, Lianne G; Mathur, Sunita

    2014-12-01

    Lung transplant candidates and recipients have significant impairments in skeletal muscle mass, strength and function--individual measures of sarcopenia. Skeletal muscle dysfunction has been observed in the pre-transplant and post-transplant period and could have an important effect on transplant outcomes. A systematic review was performed to characterize the techniques used to study sarcopenia and assess the level of impairment throughout the transplant process. Electronic databases were searched (inception to July 2013) for prospective studies measuring at least 1 element of sarcopenia (muscle mass, strength, or function) in lung transplant patients. Eighteen studies were included, and study quality was assessed using the Downs and Black scale. A variety of measurements were used to evaluate sarcopenia in 694 lung transplant patients. Muscle mass in 7 studies was assessed using bioelectrical impedance (n = 4), computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (n = 2), or skin folds (n = 1), and was significantly reduced. Quadriceps strength was examined in 14 studies with computerized dynamometer (n = 10) and hand-held dynamometer (n = 4). Quadriceps strength was reduced in the pre-transplant period (mean range, 49%-86% predicted; n = 455 patients), further reduced immediately after transplant (51%-72%, n = 126), and improved beyond 3 months after transplant (58%-101%, n = 164). Only 2 studies measured lower extremity function (sit-to-stand test). A multitude of measurement techniques have been used to assess individual measures of sarcopenia, with reduced muscle mass and quadriceps strength observed in the pre-transplant and post-transplant period. Further standardization of measurement techniques is needed to assess the clinical effect of sarcopenia in lung transplantation.

  14. An EMG-driven musculoskeletal model to estimate muscle forces and knee joint moments in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, David G; Besier, Thor F

    2003-06-01

    This paper examined if an electromyography (EMG) driven musculoskeletal model of the human knee could be used to predict knee moments, calculated using inverse dynamics, across a varied range of dynamic contractile conditions. Muscle-tendon lengths and moment arms of 13 muscles crossing the knee joint were determined from joint kinematics using a three-dimensional anatomical model of the lower limb. Muscle activation was determined using a second-order discrete non-linear model using rectified and low-pass filtered EMG as input. A modified Hill-type muscle model was used to calculate individual muscle forces using activation and muscle tendon lengths as inputs. The model was calibrated to six individuals by altering a set of physiologically based parameters using mathematical optimisation to match the net flexion/extension (FE) muscle moment with those measured by inverse dynamics. The model was calibrated for each subject using 5 different tasks, including passive and active FE in an isokinetic dynamometer, running, and cutting manoeuvres recorded using three-dimensional motion analysis. Once calibrated, the model was used to predict the FE moments, estimated via inverse dynamics, from over 200 isokinetic dynamometer, running and sidestepping tasks. The inverse dynamics joint moments were predicted with an average R(2) of 0.91 and mean residual error of approximately 12 Nm. A re-calibration of only the EMG-to-activation parameters revealed FE moments prediction across weeks of similar accuracy. Changing the muscle model to one that is more physiologically correct produced better predictions. The modelling method presented represents a good way to estimate in vivo muscle forces during movement tasks.

  15. Effects of an aquatic fitness program on the muscular strength and endurance of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlsen, G M; Grigsby, S A; Winant, D M

    1984-05-01

    This study quantified the effects of an aquatic exercise program on muscular strength, endurance, work, and power of patients with multiple sclerosis. Ten individuals with a mean age of 40 years participated in a 10-week aquatic exercise program. Two types of isokinetic dynamometers were used to assess the muscular variables studied. A Cybex II dynamometer was used to measure peak torque, work, and fatigue in the knee flexor and extensor muscles and a biokinetic swim bench was used to measure muscular force, work, fatigue, and power in the upper extremities. Five velocity settings were selected for each of three testing trials (pretrial, midtrial, and posttrial). For the lower extremities, analysis of variance indicated a significant improvement of peak torque for knee extensor muscles from the pretrial to midtrial (p less than .05). Peak torque values from pretrial to midtrial for knee flexors and from midtrial to posttrial for both the knee extensor and flexor muscles indicated a nonsignificant difference at each velocity studied. Fatigue and work values in the lower extremities improved significantly between the pretrial and posttrial (p less than .05). For the upper extremities, an analysis of variance indicated a significant increase in all force measurements from pretrial to posttrial (p less than .05). Power and total work values also improved significantly (p less than .05). No significant difference in fatigue measurements for the upper extremities was found. The results of this investigation indicated that an aquatic exercise program may induce positive changes in muscular strength, fatigue, work, and power in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  16. Isokinetic knee extension and vertical jumping: are they related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iossifidou, Anna; Baltzopoulos, Vasilios; Giakas, Giannis

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine joint power generation during a concentric knee extension isokinetic test and a squat vertical jump. The isokinetic test joint power was calculated using four different methods. Five participants performed concentric knee extensions at 0.52, 1.57, 3.14 and 5.23 rad x s(-1) on a Lido isokinetic dynamometer. The squat vertical jump was performed on a Kistler force plate. Kinematic data from both tests were collected and analysed using an ELITE optoelectronic system. An inverse dynamics model was applied to measure knee joint moment in the vertical jump. Knee angular position data from the kinematic analysis in the isokinetic test were used to derive the actual knee angular velocity and acceleration, which, in turn, was used to correct the dynamometer moment for inertial effects. Power was measured as the product of angular velocity and moment at the knee joint in both tests. Significant differences (P knee joint power in the two tests (squat vertical jump: 2255 +/- 434 W; isokinetic knee extension: 771 +/- 81 W). Correlation analysis revealed that there is no relationship between the peak knee joint power during the vertical jump and the slow velocity isokinetic tests. Higher isokinetic velocity tests show better relationships with the vertical jump but only if the correct method for joint power calculation is used in the isokinetic test. These findings suggest that there are important differences in muscle activation and knee joint power development that must be taken into consideration when isokinetic tests are used to predict jumping performance.

  17. Contractile and elastic ankle joint muscular properties in young and older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Hasson

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate age-related differences in contractile and elastic properties of both dorsi- (DF and plantarflexor (PF muscles controlling the ankle joint in young and older adults. Experimental data were collected while twelve young and twelve older male and female participants performed maximal effort isometric and isovelocity contractions on a dynamometer. Equations were fit to the data to give torque-angle (Tθ and torque-angular velocity (Tω relations. Muscle series-elasticity was measured during ramped dynamometer contractions using ultrasonography to measure aponeurosis extension as a function of torque; second order polynomials were used to characterize the torque-extension (TΔL relation. The results showed no age differences in DF maximal torque and none for female PF; however, older males had smaller maximal PF torques compared to young males. In both muscle groups and genders, older adults had decreased concentric force capabilities. Both DF and PF TΔL relations were more nonlinear in the older adults. Older PF, but not DF muscles, were stiffer compared to young. A simple antagonism model suggested age-related differences in Tθ and Tω relations would be magnified if antagonistic torque contributions were included. This assessment of static, dynamic, and elastic joint properties affords a comprehensive view of age-related modifications in muscle function. Although many clinical studies use maximal isometric strength as a marker of functional ability, the results demonstrate that there are also significant age-related modifications in ankle muscle dynamic and elastic properties.

  18. Study of Mining Disturbance on the Roadway Suport on Working Faces with Combined Suspension Support%悬移支架工作面采动对巷道支护影响规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏学贵; 李彦斌; 苏世印

    2011-01-01

    In this study the FLAC3D non-linearity large program was used.On the basis of the pressure observation and measurement by YTL-130 Automotive Drive Recoder, HC-45Manometer,JSS30A convegence meter, MCJ-10 dynamometer for bolt and CM-12 dynamometer bolt, the characteristic of the tunnel surrounding rock deformation and the bolt stress distribution were analyzed and the bolting support and the stabilization of tunnel were estimated.The reasonable support parameters and improvement about bolting design were reached.This study provides the scientific basis for safety management of coal mine.%采用FLAC3D三维数值计算分析;应用YTL-130型圆图自记仪、HC-45型压力盒、JSS30A收敛计,对回采工作面实施矿压观测;采用MCJ-10锚杆测力计、CM-12测力锚杆对顺槽巷道锚杆工作状态及力学性能进行测试.通过对观测数据处理分析,研究工作面矿压显现规律及采动对顺槽巷道支护的影响规律.评价整体悬移支架的适用性,分析锚杆支护结构的合理性.从而,评价巷道支护现状与采动影响因素,优化巷道锚杆支护参数,为煤矿安全生产管理提供科学依据.

  19. A double-blind, randomized study to assess the validity of applied kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephan A; Utts, Jessica; Spottiswoode, S James P; Shade, Christopher W; Tully, Lisa; Morris, William F; Nachman, Ginette

    2014-01-01

    Applied Kinesiology (AK) is a diagnostic technique widely used within the Integrative Medical community. In essence, it posits that a question can be mentally held in a person's mind, sometimes while they are holding a substance like a vitamin, or a food sample, and by measuring relative muscular weakness an answer as to whether the substance or the condition represented by the question is good for that person can be obtained. This AK is presumed to have a diagnostic capability. That being presumed, this study asks the following questions: (1) Is there a difference in muscular strength when an individual holds a substance that is inimical to life processes (a poison solution), as compared to a substance that is essential for life (normal saline)? (2) Is this effect a transaction involving input from both the person being measured and the kinesiologist doing the measurement or is it only the person being measured? (3) As an extension of question 2, is the result the same when different kinesiologists take the measurement or when no kinesiologist is involved? (4) Does belief, expectation, gender, or time cognition play a role in determining response? To answer these questions, which would help to define the parameters of the AK process, 51 participants were tested during three trials each, first by one kinesiologist, then by another, and finally, with no kinesiologist present by grip strength indicated using a hand dynamometer. Grip strength being a self-administered AK test of relative muscular strength. For each trial, a pair of randomly numbered sealed vials, each pair in a randomly numbered plastic bag, were used as the objects of the trial. In each bag, one vial contained saline solution while the other was filled with a slightly smaller amount of saline solution to which had been added ionic hydroxylamine hydrochloride (NH3OH)(+), producing a toxic solution of 9mg/ml. Each trial consisted of a separate muscle test for each vial. All present at the trials were

  20. Orthopedics tool measurement apparatus based on three-dimensional space measurement%依据三维空间测量原理设计的关节角度测量器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆明; 邱贵兴; 翁习生

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Cybex NORMTM isokinetic dynamometer exhibits precise measurement,but the operation is too complex and the cost is too high to apply on routine examination.OBJECTIVE:To compare orthopedics tool measurement apparatus(OTMA)and Cybex NORMTM dynamometer in evaluating the range of motion after the treatment of shoulder.hip and knee joint diseases,and to verify tlle practical value of OTMA as a scientitic patent achievement.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:Clinical randomized control trial was carried out in the Rcsearch Center for Orthopaedics and Artificial Joint.Peking Union Medical College Hospital from October 2004 to March 2005.PARTICIPANTS:A total of 121 patients were randomly divided into two groups.OTMA group comprised 22 patients with shoulder periarthritis(22 shoulders).1 5 patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head(21 hips),and 24 patients with knee osteoarthritis(33 knees).Cybex group comprised 21 patients with shoulder periarthritis(21 shoulders),16 patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head(21 hips),and 23 patients with knee osteoarthritis(33 knees).METHODS:Two groups patients were treated with OTMA or Cybex NORMTM dynamometer,respectively,the range of motion was measured before treatment and 3 months,1 year after treatment.The Hospital for Special Surgery(HSS)knee rating scale,Karisson evaluation criterion of shoulder function and Harris hip score were applied to evaluate the patients,Visual analog scale(VAS)pain scale and short-form health survey(SF-36)were also used in this study.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The range of motion in shoulder,hip and knee;Karlsson,Harris and HSS scores;VAS pain score and SF-36 score.RESULTS:OTMA measurement had a coincidence with Cybex NORMTM dynamometer measurement as 98.3%.All patients accepted and completed the measurement.The range of motion Was associated with HSS.Karlsson and Harris scores (P=0.002).CONCLUSION:According to three-dimensional space measurement,the digital OTMA may obtain the outcomes

  1. Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratory and Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Lyons

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this program was to quantify the emissions from heavy-duty vehicles operating on alternative fuels or advanced fuel blends, often with novel engine technology or aftertreatment. In the first year of the program West Virginia University (WVU) researchers determined that a transportable chassis dynamometer emissions measurement approach was required so that fleets of trucks and buses did not need to be ferried across the nation to a fixed facility. A Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory (Translab) was designed, constructed and verified. This laboratory consisted of a chassis dynamometer semi-trailer and an analytic trailer housing a full scale exhaust dilution tunnel and sampling system which mimicked closely the system described in the Code of Federal Regulations for engine certification. The Translab was first used to quantify emissions from natural gas and methanol fueled transit buses, and a second Translab unit was constructed to satisfy research demand. Subsequent emissions measurement was performed on trucks and buses using ethanol, Fischer-Tropsch fuel, and biodiesel. A medium-duty chassis dynamometer was also designed and constructed to facilitate research on delivery vehicles in the 10,000 to 20,000lb range. The Translab participated in major programs to evaluate low-sulfur diesel in conjunction with passively regenerating exhaust particulate filtration technology, and substantial reductions in particulate matter were recorded. The researchers also participated in programs to evaluate emissions from advanced natural gas engines with closed loop feedback control. These natural gas engines showed substantially reduced levels of oxides of nitrogen. For all of the trucks and buses characterized, the levels of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and particulate matter were quantified, and in many cases non-regulated species such as aldehydes were also sampled. Particle size was also

  2. HAMSTRING ARCHITECTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ADAPTATIONS FOLLOWING LONG VS. SHORT MUSCLE LENGTH ECCENTRIC TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Guex

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most common preventive eccentric-based exercises, such as Nordic hamstring do not include any hip flexion. So, the elongation stress reached is lower than during the late swing phase of sprinting. The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of hamstring architectural (fascicle length and pennation angle and functional (concentric and eccentric optimum angles and concentric and eccentric peak torques parameters following a 3-week eccentric resistance program performed at long (LML versus short muscle length (SML. Both groups performed eight sessions of 3-5x8 slow maximal eccentric knee extensions on an isokinetic dynamometer: the SML group at 0° and the LML group at 80° of hip flexion. Architectural parameters were measured using ultrasound imaging and functional parameters using the isokinetic dynamometer. The fascicle length increased by 4.9% (p<0.01, medium effect size in the SML and by 9.3% (p<0.001, large effect size in the LML group. The pennation angle did not change (p=0.83 in the SML and tended to decrease by 0.7° (p=0.09, small effect size in the LML group. The concentric optimum angle tended to decrease by 8.8° (p=0.09, medium effect size in the SML and by 17.3° (p<0.01, large effect size in the LML group. The eccentric optimum angle did not change (p=0.19, small effect size in the SML and tended to decrease by 10.7° (p=0.06, medium effect size in the LML group. The concentric peak torque did not change in the SML (p=0.37 and the LML (p=0.23 groups, whereas eccentric peak torque increased by 12.9% (p<0.01, small effect size and 17.9% (p<0.001, small effect size in the SML and the LML group, respectively. No group-by-time interaction was found for any parameters. A correlation was found between the training-induced change in fascicle length and the change in concentric optimum angle (r=-0.57, p<0.01. These results suggest that performing eccentric exercises lead to several architectural and functional adaptations. However

  3. Impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel on emissions of regulated pollutants and greenhouse gases on a 2000 heavy duty diesel truck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kwangsam; Biswas, Subhasis; Robertson, William; Sahay, Keshav; Okamoto, Robert; Mitchell, Alexander; Lemieux, Sharon

    2015-04-01

    As part of a broad evaluation of the environmental impacts of biodiesel and renewable diesel as alternative motor fuels and fuel blends in California, the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) Heavy-duty Diesel Emission Testing Laboratory conducted chassis dynamometer exhaust emission measurements on in-use heavy-heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDT). The results presented here detail the impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels and fuel blends as compared to CARB ULSD on particulate matter (PM), regulated gases, and two greenhouse gases emissions from a HHDDT with a 2000 C15 Caterpillar engine with no exhaust after treatment devices. This vehicle was tested over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and the cruise portion of the California HHDDT driving schedule. Three neat blend stocks (soy-based and animal-based fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesels, and a renewable diesel) and CARB-certified ultra-low sulfur diesel (CARB ULSD) along with their 20% and 50% blends (blended with CARB ULSD) were tested. The effects of blend level on emission characteristics were discussed on g·km-1 basis. The results showed that PM, total hydrocarbon (THC), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were dependent on driving cycles, showing higher emissions for the UDDS cycles with medium load than the highway cruise cycle with high load on per km basis. When comparing CARB ULSD to biodiesels and renewable diesel blends, it was observed that the PM, THC, and CO emissions decreased with increasing blend levels regardless of the driving cycles. Note that biodiesel blends showed higher degree of emission reductions for PM, THC, and CO than renewable diesel blends. Both biodiesels and renewable diesel blends effectively reduced PM emissions, mainly due to reduction in elemental carbon emissions (EC), however no readily apparent reductions in organic carbon (OC) emissions were observed. When compared to CARB ULSD, soy- and animal-based biodiesel blends showed statistically

  4. Effect of 12-Week Vitamin D Supplementation on 25[OH]D Status and Performance in Athletes with a Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle Leonie Flueck

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: studies with able-bodied athletes showed that performance might possibly be influenced by vitamin D status. Vitamin D seems to have a direct impact on neuromuscular function by docking on vitamin D receptors in the muscle tissue. Additionally, a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was shown not only in infants and in the elderly but also in healthy adults and spinal cord injured individuals. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether a vitamin D dose of 6000 IU daily over 12 weeks would be sufficient to increase vitamin D status in indoor wheelchair athletes to a normal or optimal vitamin D level and whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with an impairment in muscle performance in these individuals; (2 Methods: vitamin D status was assessed in indoor elite wheelchair athletes in order to have a baseline measurement. If vitamin D status was below 75 nmol/L, athletes were supplemented with 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over 12 weeks. A vitamin D status over 75 nmol/L was supplemented with a placebo supplement. Vitamin D status, as well as a Wingate test and an isokinetic dynamometer test, were performed at baseline and after six and 12 weeks; (3 Results: 20 indoor elite wheelchair athletes participated in this double-blind study. All of these athletes showed an insufficient vitamin D status at baseline and were, therefore, supplemented with vitamin D. All athletes increased vitamin D status significantly over 12 weeks and reached an optimal level. Wingate performance was not significantly increased. Isokinetic dynamometer strength was significantly increased but only in the non-dominant arm in isometric and concentric elbow flexion; (4 Conclusion: a dose of 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over a duration of 12 weeks seems to be sufficient to increase vitamin D status to an optimal level in indoor wheelchair athletes. It remains unclear, whether upper body performance or muscle strength and vitamin D status are

  5. Metals emitted from heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with advanced PM and NO X emission controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaohua; Herner, Jorn D.; Shafer, Martin; Robertson, William; Schauer, James J.; Dwyer, Harry; Collins, John; Huai, Tao; Ayala, Alberto

    Emission factors for elemental metals were determined from several heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) of 1998-2007 vintage, operating with advanced PM and/or NO X emissions control retrofits on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer, under steady state cruise, transient, and idle conditions. The emission control retrofits included diesel particulate filters (DPF): catalyzed and uncatalyzed, passive and active prototype vanadium- or zeolite-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems, and a catalyzed DPF fitted on a hybrid diesel electric drive vehicle. The prototype SCR systems in combination with DPF retrofits are of particular interest because they represent the expected emissions controls for compliance with PM and NO X regulations in 2010. PM samples from a full-exhaust dilution tunnel were collected on bulk filters, and on a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS) for total and water-soluble elemental analysis. All the DPFs significantly reduced emissions of total trace elements (>85% and >95% for cruise and for the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS), respectively). However, we observed differences in the post-retrofit metals emissions due to driving cycle effects (i.e., exhaust temperature) and type of retrofit. In general, the metals emissions over cruise conditions (which leads to higher exhaust temperatures) were substantially different from the emissions over a transient cycle or while idling. For instance, during cruise, we observed higher levels of platinum (1.1 ± 0.6-4.2 ± 3.6 ng km -1) for most of the retrofit-equipped vehicle tests compared to the baseline configuration (0.3 ± 0.1 ng km -1). The vanadium-based DPF + SCR vehicle during cruise operation exhibited emissions of vanadium (562 ± 265 ng km -1) and titanium (5841 ± 3050 ng km -1), suggesting the possible release of actual SCR wash-coat (V 2O 5/TiO 2) from the catalyst under the higher temperatures characteristic of cruise operation. The vanadium emissions exhibited a bi

  6. Secondary organic aerosol production from diesel vehicle exhaust: impact of aftertreatment, fuel chemistry and driving cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Robertson, W. H.; Na, K.; Sahay, K. N.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2014-05-01

    Environmental chamber ("smog chamber") experiments were conducted to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production from dilute emissions from two medium-duty diesel vehicles (MDDVs) and three heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) under urban-like conditions. Some of the vehicles were equipped with emission control aftertreatment devices, including diesel particulate filters (DPFs), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs). Experiments were also performed with different fuels (100% biodiesel and low-, medium- or high-aromatic ultralow sulfur diesel) and driving cycles (Unified Cycle,~Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, and creep + idle). During normal operation, vehicles with a catalyzed DPF emitted very little primary particulate matter (PM). Furthermore, photooxidation of dilute emissions from these vehicles produced essentially no SOA (below detection limit). However, significant primary PM emissions and SOA production were measured during active DPF regeneration experiments. Nevertheless, under reasonable assumptions about DPF regeneration frequency, the contribution of regeneration emissions to the total vehicle emissions is negligible, reducing PM trapping efficiency by less than 2%. Therefore, catalyzed DPFs appear to be very effective in reducing both primary PM emissions and SOA production from diesel vehicles. For both MDDVs and HDDVs without aftertreatment substantial SOA formed in the smog chamber - with the emissions from some vehicles generating twice as much SOA as primary organic aerosol after 3 h of oxidation at typical urban VOC / NOx ratios (3 : 1). Comprehensive organic gas speciation was performed on these emissions, but less than half of the measured SOA could be explained by traditional (speciated) SOA precursors. The remainder presumably originates from the large fraction (~30%) of the nonmethane organic gas emissions that could not be speciated using traditional one-dimensional gas chromatography. The

  7. Experimental research on development method of urban driving cycle for passenger vehicle%乘用车城市道路行驶工况制定方法试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小龙; 刘鹏飞; 任平; 陈彬; 宋健

    2016-01-01

    对于汽车燃油经济性的评价,依赖于准确的道路行驶工况。该文以合肥市为例,针对城市复杂分级道路、交通流和驾驶习惯,研究一种道路行驶工况制定方法。基于控制器局域网(CA N)总线,构建了道路工况测试系统。将合肥市道路分为快速路、主干道、次干道、支路4级,综合考虑天气、空调使用、出行时间段、节假日等因素,进行了道路试验。所制定的道路行驶工况包括挡位和坡度信息并经过转毂台架试验验证和优化。结果表明:用该文制定的道路行驶工况进行转毂台架试验油耗与实际道路试验油耗偏差稳定在2%以内。因此,该文提出的方法是有效可行的。%The evaluation to fuel economy, which is an important vehicle performance, depends on driving cycle. A method for road driving cycle was developed considering urban complicated classiifed road, trafifc lfow, driving habit with taking Hefei city as an example. A driving cycle test system was constructed based on the CAN (control er area network) bus. The urban road was classiifed into express road, main road, subsidiary road, by-pass road, etc., and some tests were conducted considering the weather, the using of air-conditioner, the test time phase, holidays or weekend, etc. A driving cycle including the shift and the road slope information was developed, veriifed and optimized by drum dynamometer tests. The results show that the deviation is less than 2%steadily for the fuel consumption between the drum dynamometer tests using the developed driving cycle and the road way tests. Therefore, it proves this cycle develop method is effective and feasible.

  8. Real-time characterization of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient aerosols and from motor-vehicle exhaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Polidori

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A photo-electric aerosol sensor, a diffusion charger, an Aethalometer, and a continuous particle counter were used along with other real-time instruments to characterize the particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (p-PAH content, and the physical/chemical characteristics of aerosols collected a in Wilmington (CA near the Los Angeles port and close to 2 major freeways, and b at a dynamometer testing facility in downtown Los Angeles (CA, where 3 diesel trucks were tested. In Wilmington, the p-PAH, surface area, particle number, and "black" carbon concentrations were 4-8 times higher at 09:00–11:00 a.m. than between 17:00 and 18:00 p.m., suggesting that during rush hour traffic people living in that area are exposed to a higher number of diesel combustion particles enriched in p-PAH coatings. Dynamometer tests revealed that the p-PAH emissions from the "baseline" truck (no catalytic converter were up to 200 times higher than those from the 2 vehicles equipped with advanced emission control technologies, and increased when the truck was accelerating. In Wilmington, integrated filter samples were collected and analyzed to determine the concentrations of the most abundant p-PAHs. A correlation between the total p-PAH concentration (μg/m3 and the measured photo-electric aerosol sensor signal (fA was also established. Estimated ambient p-PAH concentrations (Average=0.64 ng/m3; Standard deviation=0.46 ng/m3 were in good agreement with those reported in previous studies conducted in Los Angeles during a similar time period. Finally, we calculated the approximate theoretical lifetime (70 years per 24-h/day lung-cancer risk in the Wilmington area due to inhalation of multi-component p-PAHs and "black" carbon. Our results indicate that the lung-cancer risk is highest during rush hour traffic and lowest in the afternoon, and that the genotoxic risk of the considered p-PAHs does not seem to contribute to a significant

  9. Real-time characterization of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient aerosols and from motor-vehicle exhaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Polidori

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A photo-electric aerosol sensor, a diffusion charger, an Aethalometer, and a continuous particle counter were used along with other real-time instruments to characterize the particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (p-PAH content, and the physical/chemical characteristics of aerosols collected a in Wilmington (CA near the Los Angeles port and close to 2 major freeways, and b at a dynamometer testing facility in downtown Los Angeles (CA, where 3 diesel trucks were tested. In Wilmington, the p-PAH, surface area, particle number, and "black" carbon concentrations were 4–8 times higher at 09:00–11:00 a.m. than between 17:00 and 18:00 p.m., suggesting that during rush hour traffic people living in that area are exposed to a higher number of diesel combustion particles enriched in p-PAH coatings. Dynamometer tests revealed that the p-PAH emissions from the "baseline" truck (no catalytic converted were up to 200 times higher than those from the 2 vehicles equipped with advanced emission control technologies, and increased when the truck was accelerating. In Wilmington, integrated filter samples were collected and analyzed to determine the concentrations of the most abundant p-PAHs. A correlation between the total p-PAH concentration (μg/m3 and the measured photo-electric aerosol sensor signal (fA was also established. Estimated ambient p-PAH concentrations (Average = 0.64 ng/m3; Standard deviation = 0.46 ng/m3 were in good agreement with those reported in previous studies conducted in Los Angeles during a similar time period. Finally, we calculated the approximate theoretical lifetime (70 years per 24-h/day lung-cancer risk in the Wilmington area due to inhalation of multi-component p-PAHs and "black" carbon. Our results indicate that the lung-cancer risk is highest during rush hour traffic and lowest in the afternoon, and that the genotoxic risk of the considered p-PAHs does not seem to contribute to a

  10. Body Build and the Level of Development of Muscle Strength Among Male Jiu-Jitsu Competitors and Strength-Trained Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietraszewska Jadwiga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the present study was to assess the morpho-functional characteristics of male jiu-jitsu practitioners against a sample of strength-trained university students. Methods. The all-male research sample included 49 jiu-jitsu competitors and 30 university students actively involved in strength training. Measures of body mass and height, lower extremity length, sitting height, arm span, trunk width, skeletal breadths, circumferences and skinfold thicknesses of the trunk and extremities were collected. Body tissue composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Somatotype was classified according to the anthropometric method of Heath and Carter. Participants also performed three motor tests composed of the standing long jump, flexed arm hang, and sit-ups and two dynamometer tests measuring handgrip and back muscle strength. Differences between the measured characteristics in both samples were analyzed using Student’s t test. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to the determine the relationships between the morphological characteristics and the results of the motor tests. Results. The jiu-jitsu sample was slightly smaller than the strength-training students. In contrast, body mass was almost identical in both groups. The remaining length, height, and skinfold characteristics also did not differ significantly between the groups. Only hip breadth was significantly larger in the jiu-jitsu sample. No between-group differences were noted in the levels of endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy. The composite somatotype of the jiu-jitsu athletes (2.1-5.8-2.0 was very similar to that of the strength-trained students (2.1-5.9-2.4. Statistically significant differences were observed in the tests assessing muscle strength. Handgrip and back muscle strength was greater in the strength-training students, whereas the jiu-jitsu athletes performed better in all three motor tests. Conclusions. The minor morphological

  11. Research on surface traction calibration method of drum test-bed system%汽车转鼓试验台表面牵引力标定方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 赵树朋; 牛博英; 刘丹

    2012-01-01

    为了确保转鼓试验台系统的精度,需要对其系统进行标定.标定的主要问题是如何对确定量进行测量,并通过何种调节手段,达到显示值与实际值之间的偏差符合精度要求的目的.汽车转鼓试验台转鼓主轴与转鼓电机主轴是重合的,转鼓通过电机主轴将其表面上牵引力传递给电机转子,依靠转子和定子的相互作用,牵引力将被传至与定子固定连接的电机外壳上.因此在电机外壳上安装测力传感器测量电机外壳切线方向上的力实现对转鼓试验台表面牵引力的测量.设计采用双向标定臂可以减小额外扭矩的影响,确保了汽车转鼓试验台表面牵引力的测试精度要求.%The drum test-bed system needs to be calibrated in order to ensure its accuracy, The main problem of calibration is how to measure the determination of quantity so that deviation between the display and actual values can meet the accuracy requirements by some adjustment means, Drum shaft of automobile chassis dynamometer is coincident with the drum motor shaft, the traction of drum surface is transmitted to the motor rotor through the motor shaft, Eventually the traction is transmitted to the motor casing connected with the stator relying on the rotor and stator interaction. Therefore the drum test bench surface traction can be measured from the motor casing tangential force using force sensor mounted on the motor casing. The design adopts bidirectional calibration arm, it can decrease the effect of extra torque to ensure the test precision of automobile chassis dynamometer surface traction

  12. Effects of short-term Nordic walking training on sarcopenia-related parameters in women with low bone mass: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossowski, Zbigniew Marcin; Skrobot, Wojciech; Aschenbrenner, Piotr; Cesnaitiene, Vida Janina; Smaruj, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies have demonstrated the positive effects of physical activity on skeletal muscle mass and muscle strength in women with osteoporosis. However, the impact of Nordic walking training on sarcopenia-related parameters in women with low bone mass remains unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of 12 weeks of Nordic walking training on skeletal muscle index, muscle strength, functional mobility, and functional performance in women with low bone mass. Materials and methods The participants were 45 women, aged 63–79 years, with osteopenia or osteoporosis. The subjects were randomly assigned either to an experimental group (12 weeks of Nordic walking training, three times a week) or to a control group. Skeletal muscle mass and other body composition factors were measured with octapolar bioimpedance InBody 720 analyser. Knee extensor and flexor isometric muscle strength were measured using Biodex System 4 Pro™ dynamometers. This study also used a SAEHAN Digital Hand Dynamometer to measure handgrip muscle strength. The timed up-and-go test was used to measure functional mobility, and the 6-minute walk test was used to measure functional performance. Results Short-term Nordic walking training induced a significant increase in skeletal muscle mass (P=0.007), skeletal muscle index (P=0.007), strength index of the knee extensor (P=0.016), flexor (P<0.001), functional mobility (P<0.001), and functional performance (P<0.001) and a significant decrease in body mass (P=0<006), body mass index (P<0.001), and percent body fat (P<0.001) in participants. Regarding handgrip muscle strength, no improvement was registered (P=0.315). No significant changes in any of the analyzed parameters were observed in the control group. Conclusion Overall, short-term Nordic walking training induces positive changes in knee muscle strength and functional performance in women with low bone mass. This finding could be applied in clinical

  13. Small wind turbine performance evaluation using field test data and a coupled aero-electro-mechanical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Brian D.

    A series of field tests and theoretical analyses were performed on various wind turbine rotor designs at two Penn State residential-scale wind-electric facilities. This work involved the prediction and experimental measurement of the electrical and aerodynamic performance of three wind turbines; a 3 kW rated Whisper 175, 2.4 kW rated Skystream 3.7, and the Penn State designed Carolus wind turbine. Both the Skystream and Whisper 175 wind turbines are OEM blades which were originally installed at the facilities. The Carolus rotor is a carbon-fiber composite 2-bladed machine, designed and assembled at Penn State, with the intent of replacing the Whisper 175 rotor at the off-grid system. Rotor aerodynamic performance is modeled using WT_Perf, a National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed Blade Element Momentum theory based performance prediction code. Steady-state power curves are predicted by coupling experimentally determined electrical characteristics with the aerodynamic performance of the rotor simulated with WT_Perf. A dynamometer test stand is used to establish the electromechanical efficiencies of the wind-electric system generator. Through the coupling of WT_Perf and dynamometer test results, an aero-electro-mechanical analysis procedure is developed and provides accurate predictions of wind system performance. The analysis of three different wind turbines gives a comprehensive assessment of the capability of the field test facilities and the accuracy of aero-electro-mechanical analysis procedures. Results from this study show that the Carolus and Whisper 175 rotors are running at higher tip-speed ratios than are optimum for power production. The aero-electro-mechanical analysis predicted the high operating tip-speed ratios of the rotors and was accurate at predicting output power for the systems. It is shown that the wind turbines operate at high tip-speeds because of a miss-match between the aerodynamic drive torque and the operating torque of the wind

  14. Effects of simultaneous training for strength and endurance on upper and lower body strength and running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortobágyi, T; Katch, F I; Lachance, P F

    1991-03-01

    This study examined simultaneous training for strength and endurance during a 13-week, 3-day a week program of hydraulic resistive circuit training and running. Eighteen college males (U.S. Army ROTC) were placed into low resistance (LR; n = 10) or high resistance (HR; n = 8) groups, and 10 college males were controls and did not train. There were 20 exercise stations (7 upper and lower body, and 6 supplementary). LR and HR performed 2 circuits with a work/rest ratio of 20 to 40 s during the 40 min workout. LR trained at two low resistances (approximately 100 cm.s-1), while HR trained at a higher resistance (approximately 50 cm.s-1). Following the workout, subjects ran 2 miles. Pre and post tests included strength, physical fitness, and anthropometry. Strength was assessed with (1) hydraulic resistance dynamometry for 4 exercises at 2 speeds using a computerized dynamometer (Hydra-Fitness, Belton, TX); (2) isokinetic and isotonic upright squat and supine bench press using the Ariel Exerciser (Trabuco Canyon, CA); (3) concentric and eccentric arm flexion/extension at 60 and 120 degrees.s-1 on the Biodex dynamometer (Shirley, NY), and (4) 1-RM free weight concentric and eccentric arm flexion and extension. The fitness tests included 2-mile run, sit-ups, and push-ups. Anthropometry included 3 fatfolds, 6 girths, and arm and leg volume. There were no significant changes in body composition or interactions between the fitness test measures and the 2 training groups (p greater than 0.05). Improvements averaged 15% (run time), 30% (push-ups), and 19% (sit-ups; p less than 0.05). Significant improvements also occurred in 3 of 8 measures for hydraulic testing (overall change 8.8%), in 3 of 4 1-RM tests (9.4%), and in 2 of 8 Biodex tests (6%), but no significant changes for isokinetic and isotonic squat and bench press (1.9%). The change in overall strength averaged 6.5% compared to 16% in a prior study that used hydraulic resistive training without concomitant running. We

  15. Application of commercial sensor manufacturing methods for NOx/NH3 mixed potential sensors for emissions control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosha, Eric L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Mark A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sekhar, Praveen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williamson, Todd [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garzon, Fernando H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research effort is to develop a low cost on-board Nitrogen Oxide (NO{sub x})/Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) sensor that can not only be used for emissions control but has the potential to improve efficiency through better monitoring of the combustion process and feedback control in both vehicle and stationary systems. Over the past decade, Los AJamos National Laboratory (LANL) has developed a unique class of electrochemical gas sensors for the detection of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, hydrogen and nitrogen oxides. These sensors are based on the mixed-potential phenomenon and are a modification of the existing automotive lambda (oxygen) sensor and have the potential to meet the stringent sensitivity, selectivity and stability requirements of an on-board emissions/engine control sensor system. The current state of the art LANL technology is based on the stabilization of the electrochemical interfaces and relies on an externally heated, hand-made, tape cast device. We are now poised to apply our patented sensing principles in a mass production sensor platform that is more suitable for real world engine-out testing such as on dynamometers for vehicle applications and for exhaust-out testing in heavy boilers/SCR systems in power plants. In this present work, our goal is to advance towards commercialization of this technology by packaging the unique LANL sensor design in a standard automotive sensor-type platform. This work is being performed with the help of a leading US technical ceramics firm, utilizing commercial manufacturing techniques. Initial tape cast platforms with screen printed metal oxide and Pt sensor electrodes have shown promising results but also clearly show the need for us to optimize the electrode and electrolyte compositions/morphologies and interfaces of these devices in order to demonstrate a sensitive, selective, and stable NO{sub x} sensor. Our previous methods and routes to preparing stable and reproducible mixed potential sensors

  16. Physical therapy in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parezanović-Ilić Katarina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI is an involuntary release of urine through the urethra during the increase of abdominal pressure in the absence of m. detrusor contraction. The exercise of pelvic floor muscles is recommended as the first line of cure. It is the least invasive and the only method without any undesirable side effects, which leads to either improvement or complete cure of SUI in 80-85% of cases. Objective. The aim of this study was to establish whether the strengthening of pelvic floor muscles using proprioceptive neural facilitation (PNF spiral dynamic technique was more efficient in comparison to classical Kegel exercise. Methods. The research was carried out at the Centre for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Clinical Centre Kragujevac. Sixty-six female patients with the symptoms of SUI were monitored in the period of two years. Thirty-four patients did pelvic floor muscle exercises twice a day, in the morning and in the evening, with 15-20 contractions. Thirty-two patients used PNF spiral dynamic technique for strengthening pelvic floor muscles. The patients who used the spiral dynamic technique also did some exercises from the program; they exercised twice a day, in the morning and in the evening, following the prescribed schedule. Treatment outcome was assessed by measuring the pelvic floor muscles by a vaginal dynamometer. Results. The values of the pelvic floor muscle force that were measured using the vaginal dynamometer in both examined groups (PNF spiral dynamic technique or Kegel exercise were statistically significantly higher after the implemented exercise program (t-test; p=0.000. No statistically significant difference in pelvic floor muscle values was found between the patients who applied PNF spiral dynamic technique and those who did Kegel exercise either before or after the exercise (two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measurements, factor of exercise type; p=0.899. Conclusion

  17. Numerical Analysis on In-cylinder Thermodynamic Process of Swash-plate Engine%斜盘发动机缸内热力过程数值分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张方方; 张振山; 梁伟阁; 王郑力

    2013-01-01

    为研究斜盘发动机缸内工质热功转换规律,基于喷管原理推导出工质流入、流出气缸的质量流率,其次基于发动机运动学分析,重点改进工质对外散热模型,使其同时考虑活塞周期性覆盖的影响以及缸套内壁面的轴向温差;对气缸开口系统列能量守恒方程完成缸内工质热力学详尽模型的建立.利用该模型编写计算程序,完成某型斜盘发动机缸内热力过程仿真.仿真所得示功图与参考文献提供的国外软件计算示功图一致性较好,且各仿真曲线反映对应参数在缸内6个热力过程中的变化规律,验证模型建立与仿真的正确性.模型求得的示功图可为斜盘发动机动力学分析提供初始数据.%To study thermal-power conversion law of in-cylinder working substance of swash-plate engine,mass flow rate of working substance is calculated by nozzle principle firstly,and then heat release model of working substance is improved with considering the effect of seasonal reciprocating piston and the axial temperature difference of in-cylinder wall based on kinematics analysis for swash-plate engine,and thermodynamics model of in-cylinder working substance is established by energy conservation equation at last.The in-cylinder working process simulation of a swash-plate engine is realized by use of the calculation program based on the thermodynamics model.The simulation dynamometer card is consistent with that one calculated by Russian software in reference,and the simulation curves consist with the variation law of performance parameters during the six thermodynamic processes well,which is the validation of the model and simulation.The dynamometer card calculated by the established model provides initial parameters for dynamic simulation for swash-plate engine.

  18. Comparison of Knee and Ankle Dynamometry between NASA's X1 Exoskeleton and Biodex System 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, K. L.; Newby, N. J.; Hackney, K. J.; DeWitt, J. K.; Beck, C. E.; Rovekamp, R. N.; Rea, R. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    Pre- and post-flight dynamometry is performed on International Space Station crewmembers to characterize microgravity-induced strength changes. Strength is not assessed in flight due to hardware limitations and there is poor understanding of the time course of in-flight changes. PURPOSE: To assess the reliability of a prototype dynamometer, the X1 Exoskeleton (EXO) and its agreement with a Biodex System 4 (BIO). METHODS: Eight subjects (4 M/4 F) completed 2 counterbalanced testing sessions of knee extension/flexion (KE/KF), 1 with BIO and 1 with EXO, with repeated measures within each session in normal gravity. Test-retest reliability (test 1 and 2) and device agreement (BIO vs. EXO) were evaluated. Later, to assess device agreement for ankle plantarflexion (PF), 10 subjects (4 M/6 F) completed 3 test conditions (BIO, EXO, and BIOEXO); BIOEXO was a hybrid condition comprised of the Biodex dynamometer motor and the X1 footplate and ankle frame. Ankle comparisons were: BIO vs. BIOEXO (footplate differences), BIOEXO vs. EXO (motor differences), and BIO vs. EXO (all differences). Reliability for KE/KF was determined by intraclass correlation (ICC). Device agreement was assessed with: 1) repeated measures ANOVA, 2) a measure of concordance (rho), and 3) average difference. RESULTS: ICCs for KE/KF were 0.99 for BIO and 0.96 to 0.99 for EXO. Agreement was high for KE (concordance: 0.86 to 0.95; average differences: -7 to +9 Nm) and low to moderate for KF (concordance: 0.64 to 0.78; average differences: -4 to -29 Nm, P<0.05). BIO vs. BIOEXO PF concordance ranged from 0.89 to 0.92 and mean differences ranged from -9 to +3 Nm (BIO < BIOEXO). BIOEXO vs. EXO PF concordance ranged from 0.73 to 0.80 while mean differences were -18 to -36 Nm (BIOEXO < EXO, P<0.05). PF concordance for BIO vs. EXO was slightly lower (0.61 to 0.84) and mean differences were greater (-27 to -33 Nm; BIO < EXO, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: BIO and EXO were similarly reliable for KE and KF. KE measures produced

  19. Predicting the Onset of Cavitation in Automotive Torque Converters—Part I: Designs with Geometric Similitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Robinette

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimensional analysis has been applied to automotive torque converters to understand the response of performance to changes in torque, size, working fluid, or operating temperature. The objective of this investigation was to develop a suitable dimensional analysis for estimating the effect of exact geometric scaling of a particular torque converter design on the onset of cavitation. Torque converter operating thresholds for cavitation were determined experimentally with a dynamometer test cell at the stall operating condition using nearfield acoustical measurements. Dimensionless quantities based upon either speed or torque at the onset of cavitation and flow properties (e.g., pressures and temperature dependent fluid properties were developed and compared. The proposed dimensionless stator torque quantity was found to be the most appropriate scaling law for extrapolating cavitation thresholds to multiple diameters. A power product model was fit on dimensionless stator torque data to create a model capable of predicting cavitation thresholds. Comparison of the model to test data taken over a range of operating points showed an error of 3.7%. This is the first paper of a two-part paper. In Part II, application of dimensional analysis will be expanded from torque converters with exact geometric similitude to those of more general design.

  20. Torque loss induced by repetitive maximal eccentric contractions is marginally influenced by work-to-rest ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Chris J; Allman, Brian L; Symons, T Brock; Vandervoort, Anthony A; Rice, Charles L

    2004-05-01

    The influence of different work-to-rest (W:R) ratios during fatigue induced by maximal eccentric contractions is unknown. The present study sought to expand the understanding of the task-dependent nature of eccentric contractions, and the associated fatigue, during exercise and acute as well as extended recovery periods. Using a Biodex multi-joint dynamometer, the ankle dorsiflexors of eight men [26 (4) years] were fatigued with 150 maximal eccentric contractions. Set structure was manipulated such that one leg performed 3 sets of 50 repetitions (short rest protocol, SRP), and the other leg performed 15 sets of 10 repetitions (long rest protocol, LRP). A 1-min rest interval separated each set, which resulted in 2 and 14 min of total rest for the SRP and the LRP, respectively. At fatigue, the SRP demonstrated a marginally greater loss of average peak eccentric torque than the LRP ( Ptorque loss and the degree of low-frequency fatigue (LFF) were not recovered ( Ptorque was persistent and equal for each protocol at 96 h of recovery ( Pratio has a modest influence on the fatigue (torque loss) induced by maximal eccentric contractions, but maximal isometric torque during recovery and LFF are insensitive to changes in total rest time.

  1. Statistical Characterization of School Bus Drive Cycles Collected via Onboard Logging Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, A.; Walkowicz, K.

    2013-10-01

    In an effort to characterize the dynamics typical of school bus operation, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers set out to gather in-use duty cycle data from school bus fleets operating across the country. Employing a combination of Isaac Instruments GPS/CAN data loggers in conjunction with existing onboard telemetric systems resulted in the capture of operating information for more than 200 individual vehicles in three geographically unique domestic locations. In total, over 1,500 individual operational route shifts from Washington, New York, and Colorado were collected. Upon completing the collection of in-use field data using either NREL-installed data acquisition devices or existing onboard telemetry systems, large-scale duty-cycle statistical analyses were performed to examine underlying vehicle dynamics trends within the data and to explore vehicle operation variations between fleet locations. Based on the results of these analyses, high, low, and average vehicle dynamics requirements were determined, resulting in the selection of representative standard chassis dynamometer test cycles for each condition. In this paper, the methodology and accompanying results of the large-scale duty-cycle statistical analysis are presented, including graphical and tabular representations of a number of relationships between key duty-cycle metrics observed within the larger data set. In addition to presenting the results of this analysis, conclusions are drawn and presented regarding potential applications of advanced vehicle technology as it relates specifically to school buses.

  2. Effect of B20 and Low Aromatic Diesel on Transit Bus NOx Emissions Over Driving Cycles with a Range of Kinetic Intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M. P.; McCormick, R. L.; Sindler, P.; Williams, A.

    2012-10-01

    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions for transit buses for up to five different fuels and three standard transit duty cycles were compared to establish whether there is a real-world biodiesel NOx increase for transit bus duty cycles and engine calibrations. Six buses representing the majority of the current national transit fleet and including hybrid and selective catalyst reduction systems were tested on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer with certification diesel, certification B20 blend, low aromatic (California Air Resources Board) diesel, low aromatic B20 blend, and B100 fuels over the Manhattan, Orange County and UDDS test cycles. Engine emissions certification level had the dominant effect on NOx; kinetic intensity was the secondary driving factor. The biodiesel effect on NOx emissions was not statistically significant for most buses and duty cycles for blends with certification diesel, except for a 2008 model year bus. CARB fuel had many more instances of a statistically significant effect of reducing NOx. SCR systems proved effective at reducing NOx to near the detection limit on all duty cycles and fuels, including B100. While offering a fuel economy benefit, a hybrid system significantly increased NOx emissions over a same year bus with a conventional drivetrain and the same engine.

  3. [Is there any correlation between the strength of pronation and supination of the dominant hand and that of the non-dominant one in right-handed healthy adults: preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, P-B; Jardin, E; Uhring, J; Obert, L

    2014-02-01

    We searched the existence of a link between the strength of pronation and supination of the dominant forearm and those of the non-dominant one. Ninety-seven volunteers were tested in pronation and supination with an analog dynamometer. Gender, age, dominance, height and weight were recorded. The measurement position was: 90° of elbow flexion, 0° of shoulder abduction, wrist slightly extended and neutral pronation-supination. We took four measurements per patient: strength in pronation and supination, in both the dominant and non-dominant sides. Fifteen subjects were evaluated twice. The left-handed (4) were removed from the statistical analysis. There were 38 men (37 years, 18-66) and 55 women (45 years, 21-71). Torques were higher (P0.6). Relating to the 15 subjects evaluated twice, the value of the forces varied during the day, but the ratio "non-dominant/dominant" was constant. The left-handed people were excluded, their values may be different from those of right-handers, as has been shown for grip strength. There was a strength variation during the day, but the ratio "non-dominant/dominant" was constant, making it more relevant intra-individual comparison (non-dominant side versus dominant side) rather inter-individual (based on charts of gender, age, weight and height). In the right-handed, the ratio "strength non-dominant side/dominant" is constant, defining easily in consultation the expected value of recovery of an injured forearm.

  4. A low-fat yoghurt supplemented with a rooster comb extract on muscle joint function in adults with mild knee pain: a randomized, double blind, parallel, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solà, Rosa; Valls, Rosa-Maria; Martorell, Isabel; Giralt, Montserrat; Pedret, Anna; Taltavull, Núria; Romeu, Marta; Rodríguez, Àurea; Moriña, David; Lopez de Frutos, Victor; Montero, Manuel; Casajuana, Maria-Carmen; Pérez, Laura; Faba, Jenny; Bernal, Gloria; Astilleros, Anna; González, Roser; Puiggrós, Francesc; Arola, Lluís; Chetrit, Carlos; Martinez-Puig, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Preliminary results suggested that oral-administration of rooster comb extract (RCE) rich in hyaluronic acid (HA) was associated with improved muscle strength. Following these promising results, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of low-fat yoghurt supplemented with RCE rich in HA on muscle function in adults with mild knee pain; a symptom of early osteoarthritis. Participants (n = 40) received low-fat yoghurt (125 mL d(-1)) supplemented with 80 mg d(-1) of RCE and the placebo group (n = 40) consumed the same yoghurt without the RCE, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind, parallel trial over 12 weeks. Using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex System 4), RCE consumption, compared to control, increased the affected knee peak torque, total work and mean power at 180° s(-1), at least 11% in men (p yoghurt supplemented with RCE could be a dietary tool to improve muscle strength in men, associated with possible clinical significance. However, further studies are needed to elucidate reasons for these sex difference responses observed, and may provide further insight into muscle function.

  5. GM's (General Motors Corp. ) outlook on future automotive fuels and lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colucci, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    Significant fuel and lubricant challenges for the petroleum and automotive industries in the 1980's include improvements in light-duty automotive diesel fuel quality to meet the EPA particulates standard of 0.2 g/mi by 1985, to improve low-temperature operability, and to avoid water-related problems (GM's redesigned fuel system for its 5.7 l. diesels can reduce waxing and water-in-diesel fuel problems); improvement in the fuel-saving qualities of lubricants and implementation of a system, notably the ASTM engine-dynamometer test, to measure these improvements; development of an unleaded gasoline fuel waiver-request system based on the composition of the fuel additives; other engine-fuel improvements to mitigate the effects of an increased use of knock sensors on octane quality and to meet the requirements of redesigned gasoline-fueled, spark-ignition engines; and implementation of a system to generate adequate nonpetroleum fuels, particularly from oil shale and coal, for automotive testing, because thes two sources are the most likely supplements to, and replacements for, oil-based fuels in the 1990's and beyond. Work in progress at GM and GM-supported programs on fuel economy improvements and alternative fuels are also discussed.

  6. Vehicle test report: South Coast Technology electric cconversion of a Volkswagen Rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, T.W.; Shain, T.W.; Bryant, J.A.

    1981-02-15

    The South Coast Technology Volkswagen Rabbit, an electric vehicle manufactured by South Coast Technology of Santa Barbara, California was tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) dynamometer facility in Pasadena and at JPL's Edwards Test Station (ETS) located near Lancaster, California. The tests were conducted between April and July, 1979. These tests were performed to characterize certain parameters of the South Coast Rabbit and to provide baseline data that will be used for the comparison of near-term batteries that are to be incorporated into the vehicle. The vehicle tests were concentrated on the electrical drive system; i.e., the batteries, controller, and motor. The tests included coastdowns to characterize the road load, maximum effort acceleration, and range evaluation for both cyclic constant speed conditions. A qualitative evaluation of the vehicle was made by comparing its constant speed range performance with those vehicles described in the document State of the Art assessment of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles. The Rabbit performance was near to the best of the 1977 vehicles.

  7. The physiological effects of IGF-1 (class 1:Ea transgene) over-expression on exercise-induced damage and adaptation in dystrophic muscles of mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, James A; Pinniger, Gavin J; Hamer, Peter W; Grounds, Miranda D

    2009-03-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disorder in which muscle weakness and fragility contribute to ongoing muscle degeneration. Although exercise-induced muscle damage is associated with adaptation that protects normal muscle from further damage, exploiting this process to protect dystrophic muscle has been avoided for fear of inducing excessive muscle degeneration. However, muscle-specific over-expression of the class 1:Ea isoform of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) reduces myofibre necrosis in dystrophic mdx mice (a model for DMD) and, therefore, may enhance the adaptation process in response to eccentric exercise. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of transgenic class 1:Ea IGF-1 over-expression on the susceptibility to muscle damage and subsequent adaptation in 12-week-old dystrophic mdx and non-dystrophic control mice. Experiments were conducted in vivo using a custom-built isokinetic mouse dynamometer to measure the deficit in joint torque (indicating muscle damage) after 20 maximal lengthening (eccentric) contractions. Adaptation to this damaging exercise was evaluated by repeating the protocol 7 days after the initial exercise. The over-expression of IGF-1 significantly increased the normalised joint torque in non-dystrophic mice and appeared to ameliorate the muscle weakness in dystrophic mice. All mice displayed a marked reduction in the susceptibility to muscle damage on day 7; however, this adaptation was unaffected by IGF-1, showing that IGF-1 does not protect the dystrophic muscles of adult mdx mice against damage resulting from maximal lengthening contractions.

  8. Effects of kinesio tape compared with non-elastic tape on hand grip strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Seong Yeol

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] Many assumptions have been made about taping and several studies have considered tape application methods; however, the true effect of taping on muscle strength remains unclear. Most previous studies compared application techniques using Kinesio tape (KT), but studies that compared muscle strength using non-elastic tape (NT) are limited. Moreover, no studies have applied KT and NT in the same way to assess grip strength in normal subjects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of application of two tapes with different elastic properties on maximal grip strength in healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy adults were divided into two groups (KT and NT). Maximal grip strength was measured with a dynamometer. Forearm extensor muscles of the dominant hand were then taped and subjects were immediately asked to perform hand grip movement with maximum strength in the same standardized manner. [Results] In the KT group, maximal grip strength was significantly increased compared to the initial value; however, in the NT group, there was no significant difference in maximal grip strength. [Conclusion] This study suggests that only Kinesio tape can increase maximal grip strength immediately after application on the extensor region of the forearm.

  9. Whey protein isolate attenuates strength decline after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cribb Paul J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the effects of short-term consumption of whey protein isolate on muscle proteins and force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals. Methods Seventeen untrained male participants (23 ± 5 yr, 180 ± 6 cm, 80 ± 11 kg were randomly separated into two supplement groups: i whey protein isolate (WPH; n = 9; or ii carbohydrate (CHO; n = 8. Participants consumed 1.5 g/kg.bw/day supplement (~30 g consumed immediately, and then once with breakfast, lunch, in the afternoon and after the evening meal for a period of 14 days following a unilateral eccentric contraction-based resistance exercise session, consisting of 4 sets of 10 repetitions at 120% of maximum voluntary contraction on the leg press, leg extension and leg flexion exercise machine. Plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels were assessed as blood markers of muscle damage. Muscle strength was examined by voluntary isokinetic knee extension using a Cybex dynamometer. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05. Results Isometric knee extension strength was significantly higher following WPH supplementation 3 (P Conclusions The major finding of this investigation was that whey protein isolate supplementation attenuated the impairment in isometric and isokinetic muscle forces during recovery from exercise-induced muscle injury.

  10. Unilateral eccentric exercise of the knee flexors affects muscle activation during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dover, Geoffrey C; Legge, Laura; St-Onge, Nancy

    2012-05-01

    Uni-lateral muscle soreness is common yet the effects on gait or electromyographic (EMG) activity are unknown. The purpose of our study was to induce delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in the knee flexor group and measure the resultant change in EMG activity and knee motion during gait. Nine healthy subjects participated in the study. Measures of function, evoked tenderness of the biceps femoris, as well as knee angle, and EMG activity during gait were assessed prior and 48 h after an eccentric exercise protocol. DOMS was induced unilaterally in the knee flexors using an isokinetic dynamometer and subjects exercised until they could not generate 50% of their maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). There was a significant decrease in biceps femoris activity after DOMS during the last phase of gait. Moreover, there was a day × phase interaction for gastrocnemius activity with the last two phases displaying an increase in activity. There was no significant change in knee angle during gait. The decrease in biceps femoris activity as well as the increase in gastrocnemius activity could be evidence of a protective mechanism designed to decrease activity of the sore muscle while increasing the activity of a synergistic muscle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of fatigue on knee position sense is not dependent upon the muscle group fatigued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Fernando; Venâncio, João; Quintas, Pedro; Oliveira, José

    2011-08-01

    Muscle fatigue could have a greater impact on position sense when antagonists of the movement are fatigued. Hence, this study aimed to compare the effects of antagonist and agonist exercise-induced muscle fatigue on knee joint position sense. This within-subjects repeated-measures study included 40 subjects. Knee position sense and muscle strength were measured before and after two exercise protocols consisting of 30 consecutive maximal concentric/eccentric contractions of the knee extensors or flexors on the isokinetic dynamometer at an angular velocity of 180°/s (3.14 rad/s). Both exercise protocols increased the absolute angular error (F(1.78) = 39.89, P knee extensors protocol from 2.0 ± 1.3° to 3.5 ± 2.0°, knee flexors protocol from 2.1 ± 1.2° to 3.7 ± 2.2°), and no differences were detected between protocols (F(1.78) = 0.034, P = 0.855). No changes were observed in the relative angular error. Muscle fatigue affects knee position sense, and the deleterious effect is not different depending upon the muscle group fatigued. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Do alcoholic beverages interfere in the force of orthodontic elastics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo PITHON

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of different alcoholic beverages on the decline in force of orthodontic elastics. Material and method: In a laboratory study, 6 groups of alcoholic beverages were tested. Control group (Group 1 was composed of distilled water. Experimental groups were Whisky (Group 2, Brandy (Group 3, Vodka (Group 4, Beer (Group 5, Sugar Cane Spirit/Rum (Group 6, Wine (Group 7. In the experimental groups, templates were used to enable elastics to be submerged in the alcoholic beverages for 30 seconds once a day. Force was measured with a digital dynamometer in six different time intervals: baseline, 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Result: There were no significant differences between the treatments in the time intervals: baseline, 7, 14 and 28 days. There were statistical differences between Group 7 and the others in the first 24 hours, and between Group 1 and the others after 21 days. After 28 days, there were no significant differences in the force pattern among all groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: Alcoholic beverages had no influence on the decline in force of the chain elastics.

  13. Ambient air quality measurements from a continuously moving mobile platform: Estimation of area-wide, fuel-based, mobile source emission factors using absolute principal component scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Timothy; Gould, Timothy; Riley, Erin A.; Austin, Elena; Fintzi, Jonathan; Sheppard, Lianne; Yost, Michael; Simpson, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    We have applied the absolute principal component scores (APCS) receptor model to on-road, background-adjusted measurements of NOx, CO, CO2, black carbon (BC), and particle number (PN) obtained from a continuously moving platform deployed over nine afternoon sampling periods in Seattle, WA. Two Varimax-rotated principal component features described 75% of the overall variance of the observations. A heavy-duty vehicle feature was correlated with black carbon and particle number, whereas a light-duty feature was correlated with CO and CO2. NOx had moderate correlation with both features. The bootstrapped APCS model predictions were used to estimate area-wide, average fuel-based emission factors and their respective 95% confidence limits. The average emission factors for NOx, CO, BC and PN (14.8, 18.9, 0.40 g/kg, and 4.3 × 1015 particles/kg for heavy duty vehicles, and 3.2, 22.4, 0.016 g/kg, and 0.19 × 1015 particles/kg for light-duty vehicles, respectively) are consistent with previous estimates based on remote sensing, vehicle chase studies, and recent dynamometer tests. Information on the spatial distribution of the concentrations contributed by these two vehicle categories relative to background during the sampling period was also obtained.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of trunk muscle strength in wheelchair basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sileno da Silva Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Trunk muscle strength affects trunk controlling playing an important role in performance and to define the classes of wheelchair basketball players. Trunk control capacity differs among players and quantitative assessments of trunk muscle strength have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to identify and correlate quantitative measures of trunk muscle strength with the wheelchair basketball players' classification. Forty-two male wheelchair basketball players with spinal cord injury, amputation, post-poliomyelitis sequelae, and cerebral palsy had their trunk extension and flexion strength evaluated with isokinetic dynamometer. The classes 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 were considered for statistical analysis. Comparison of trunk muscle strength differed significantly between classes: 1.0 and 3.0; 1.0 and 4.0; 2.0 and 3.0; and 2.0 and 4.0. High correlation was found between the trunk muscle strength and players' classes. The findings of the present study showed a strong correlation of trunk muscle strength and wheelchair basketball classes being able to distinguish players in their classes. However, this quantitative method of evaluation of the trunk muscle strength cannot be solely used to make a decision on the full trunk control.

  15. An Experimental Study on Dynamics of a Novel Dual-Belt Continuous Variable Transmission Based on a Newly Developed Test Rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak Kin Wong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel dual-belt Van Doorne’s continuous variable transmission (DBVCVT system, which is applicable to heavy-duty vehicles, has been previously proposed by the authors in order to improve the low torque capacity of traditional single-belt CVT. This DBVCVT is a novel design among continuously variable transmissions and is necessary to be prototyped for experimental study, and the analytical dynamic model for this DBVCVT also needs to be experimentally validated. So, this work originally fabricated a prototype of DBVCVT and integrates this prototype to a light-load hardware-in-the-loop test rig by replacing the engine and load equipment with the AC motor and magnetic powder dynamometer. Moreover, with the use of this newly developed test rig, this work implements the experimental study of this DBVCVT for the first time. The comparison of experimental and simulation results validates the previously proposed analytical model for DBVCVT, and some basic characteristics of the DBVCVT in terms of the reliability, speed ratio, and transmission efficiency are also experimentally studied. In all, this developed test rig with the analytical model lays the foundation for further study on this novel DBVCVT.

  16. 基于PMAC卡和直线电机的减震器测试系统研究%Research on shock absorber test system based on PMAC and linear motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞佳阳; 丁国清

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the characteristics of PMAC and linear motor,introduces the design of linear motor control system of damper dynamometer machine based on PMAC and PC, and besides it studies on using VC+-+-6.0 to make a precise control of the table route and introduces some part of the program. Experiments and simulation results show that the system has very good improvements on the controllability and control accuracy compare to the old one.%针对传统减震器测试系统中旋转伺服机构结构复杂,控制精度欠缺,提出了采用PMAC运动控制卡和直线电机平台的测控系统设计方案和控制实现.概述了多轴运动控制器PMAC卡及直线电机技术,介绍了基于PMAC卡的直线电机减震器测试系统控制平台的设计,以及通过VC++6.O软件实现PMAC卡的伺服平台精确行程轨迹控制.通过现场实验和仿真,结果表明该系统在可控性和控制精度上较之传统测控系统都有很好的提高.

  17. High level swimming performance and its relation to non-specific parameters: a cross-sectional study on maximum handgrip isometric strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Nuno D; Silva, António J; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Barbosa, Tiago M; Costa, Aldo M; Marinho, Daniel A; Marques, Mário C

    2012-06-01

    The relationship between handgrip isometric strength and swimming performance was assessed in the four competitive swimming strokes in swimmers of different age groups and of both sexes. 78 national-level Portuguese swimmers (39 males, 39 females) were selected for this study. Grip strength, previously used as a marker of overall strength to predict future swimming performance, was measured using a hand dynamometer. The best competitive time at 100 and 200 m in all four swimming strokes were converted into 2010 FINA points. Non-parametric tests were used to evaluate differences between groups. Pearson product-moment correlations were computed to verify the association between variables. Handgrip maximum isometric strength was significantly correlated with swimming performance, particularly among female swimmers. Among female age group swimmers, the relationship between handgrip and 100-m freestyle was significant. Handgrip isometric strength seems to be related to swimming performance, especially to 100-m freestyle and in female swimmers. For all other distances and strokes, technique and training probably are more influential than semi-hereditary strength markers such as grip strength.

  18. Knee Muscles Isokinetic Evaluation after a Six-Month Regular Combined Swim and Dry-Land Strength Training Period in Adolescent Competitive Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalamitros Athanasios A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies demonstrated significant increases in the shoulder internal rotators’ peak torque values and unilateral muscular imbalances of the shoulder rotators after a competitive swim period. However, there are no similar data concerning the knee muscles. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of a six-month training period on knee flexor and extensor peak torque values, examine a possible bilateral strength deficit and evaluate the unilateral strength balance in competitive swimmers. Eleven male adolescent swimmers (age: 14.82 ± 0.45 years were tested for concentric knee extension and flexion peak torque (60°/s with an isokinetic dynamometer, before and after a regular combined swim and dry-land strength training period. A trend towards greater improvements in the knee extensor compared to flexor muscles peak torque was observed. Furthermore, the bilateral strength deficit remained almost unchanged, whereas unilateral strength imbalance was increased for both limbs. However, all results were nonsignificant (p > 0.05. According to the data presented, a six-month regular combined swim and dry-land strength training period caused non-significant alterations for all the parameters evaluated during isokinetic testing. This study highlights the fact that competitive adolescent swimmers demonstrated unilateral knee strength imbalances throughout a long period of their yearly training macrocycle.

  19. Carbonyl compound emissions from passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Ge, Yunshan; Hao, Chunxiao; Han, Xiukun; Fu, Mingliang; Yu, Linxiao; Shah, Asad Naeem

    2010-08-01

    Carbonyl compound emissions from two passenger cars fueled with different methanol/gasoline blends (M15 and M100) and operated with three-way catalytic converters (TWC) were investigated. The tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Carbonyls were trapped on dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges. The hydrazones formed on the cartridge were analyzed by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and detected with a variable wavelength detector. The results show that when cars were fueled with methanol/gasoline blends, carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions decreased by 9-21% and 1-55% respectively, while nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions increased by 175-233%. Compared with gasoline vehicles, formaldehyde emissions with M15 and M100 were two and four times higher respectively, and total carbonyls with M15 and M100 increased by 3% and 104% respectively. With the use of the new TWC, both regulated gas pollutants and formaldehyde decreased. The new TWC caused a decrease of 5% and 31% in formaldehyde concentration for M15 and M100, respectively. Specific reactivity (SR) with the new TWC was reduced from 5.92 to 5.72 for M15 and from 7.00 to 6.93 for M100, indicating that M15 and M100 with the new TWC were friendlier to the environment. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. On-board measurement of emissions from liquefied petroleum gas, gasoline and diesel powered passenger cars in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhi, Saâdane; Boughedaoui, Ménouèr; Kerbachi, Rabah; Joumard, Robert

    2014-08-01

    On-board measurements of unit emissions of CO, HC, NOx and CO₂ were conducted on 17 private cars powered by different types of fuels including gasoline, dual gasoline-liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline, and diesel. The tests performed revealed the effect of LPG injection technology on unit emissions and made it possible to compare the measured emissions to the European Artemis emission model. A sequential multipoint injection LPG kit with no catalyst installed was found to be the most efficient pollutant reduction device for all of the pollutants, with the exception of the NOx. Specific test results for a sub-group of LPG vehicles revealed that LPG-fueled engines with no catalyst cannot compete with catalyzed gasoline and diesel engines. Vehicle age does not appear to be a determining parameter with regard to vehicle pollutant emissions. A fuel switch to LPG offers many advantages as far as pollutant emissions are concerned, due to LPG's intrinsic characteristics. However, these advantages are being rapidly offset by the strong development of both gasoline and diesel engine technologies and catalyst converters. The LPG's performance on a chassis dynamometer under real driving conditions was better than expected. The enforcement of pollutant emission standards in developing countries is an important step towards introducing clean technology and reducing vehicle emissions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.