WorldWideScience

Sample records for dynamite

  1. DynAMITe: a wafer scale sensor for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, M; Wells, K; Anaxagoras, T; Fant, A; Allinson, N M; Konstantinidis, A; Speller, R D; Osmond, J P F; Evans, P M

    2011-01-01

    In many biomedical imaging applications Flat Panel Imagers (FPIs) are currently the most common option. However, FPIs possess several key drawbacks such as large pixels, high noise, low frame rates, and excessive image artefacts. Recently Active Pixel Sensors (APS) have gained popularity overcoming such issues and are now scalable up to wafer size by appropriate reticule stitching. Detectors for biomedical imaging applications require high spatial resolution, low noise and high dynamic range. These figures of merit are related to pixel size and as the pixel size is fixed at the time of the design, spatial resolution, noise and dynamic range cannot be further optimized. The authors report on a new rad-hard monolithic APS, named DynAMITe (Dynamic range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology), developed by the UK MI-3 Plus consortium. This large area detector (12.8 cm × 12.8 cm) is based on the use of two different diode geometries within the same pixel array with different size pixels (50 μm and 100 μm). Hence the resulting device can possess two inherently different resolutions each with different noise and saturation performance. The small and the large pixel cameras can be reset at different voltages, resulting in different depletion widths. The larger depletion width for the small pixels allows the initial generated photo-charge to be promptly collected, which ensures an intrinsically lower noise and higher spatial resolution. After these pixels reach near saturation, the larger pixels start collecting so offering a higher dynamic range whereas the higher noise floor is not important as at higher signal levels performance is governed by the Poisson noise of the incident radiation beam. The overall architecture and detailed characterization of DynAMITe will be presented in this paper.

  2. Study of the suitability of DUO plastic bags for the storage of dynamites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz, Jorge; Ferrando, José-Luis; Atoche, Juan-Carlos; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-10-10

    A comparative study on the retentiveness of two plastic bags (DUO and Royal Pack) has been carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Two types of dynamites were packed in both plastic bags. The bags were placed into glass jars and headspace analyses were performed over 11 weeks to detect whether the volatile constituents of the dynamites were released from the bags. DUO plastic bags showed much better retentiveness than Royal Pack plastic bags. Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) was quickly detected in the headspace of the glass jars containing Royal Pack plastic bags after 1 week of storage. On the contrary, only a weak signal of EGDN, which was not detectable in the total ion chromatogram, was detected after 11 weeks of storage. Moreover, DUO plastic bags have shown less background signals than the Royal Pack bags, being the former bags much more suitable for the storage of dynamites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inside the mind, a soul of dynamite? Fantasy, vision machines, and homeless souls in Weimar cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, T.; Kardish, L.

    2010-01-01

    From the beginnings the German film contained dynamite.... Chaos spread in Germany from 1918 to about 1923, and as its consequence the panic-stricken German mind was released from all the conventions that usually limit life. Under such conditions, the unhappy, homeless soul not only drove

  4. Fabryka zbrojeniowa Dynamit Aktien Gesellschaft w Krzystkowicach (Christianstadt. Historia do napisania od nowa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Eckert

    2018-04-01

    Wokół takiego programu można skupić, zarówno krajowe jak i europejskie, jednostki naukowe, pracownie architektoniczno-urbanistyczne, uczelnie, jednostki samorządowe i wiele innych. Fabryka zbrojeniowa Dynamit Aktien Gesellschaft w Krzystkowicach (Christianstadt czeka na ponowne, tym razem pokojowe wykorzystanie.

  5. Dynamic Multi-Coil Technique (DYNAMITE) Shimming of the Rat Brain at 11.7 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juchem, Christoph; Herman, Peter; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Brown, Peter B.; McIntyre, Scott; Nixon, Terence W.; Green, Dan; Hyder, Fahmeed; de Graaf, Robin A.

    2014-01-01

    The in vivo rat model is a workhorse in neuroscience research, preclinical studies and drug development. A repertoire of MR tools has been developed for its investigation, however, high levels of B0 magnetic field homogeneity are required for meaningful results. The homogenization of magnetic fields in the rat brain, i.e. shimming, is a difficult task due to a multitude of complex, susceptibility-induced field distortions. Conventional shimming with spherical harmonic (SH) functions is capable of compensating shallow field distortions in limited areas, e.g. in the cortex, but performs poorly in difficult-to-shim subcortical structures or for the entire brain. Based on the recently introduced multi-coil approach for magnetic field modeling, the DYNAmic Multi-coIl TEchnique (DYNAMITE) is introduced for magnetic field shimming of the in vivo rat brain and its benefits for gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (EPI) are demonstrated. An integrated multi-coil/radio-frequency (MC/RF) system comprising 48 individual localized DC coils for B0 shimming and a surface transceive RF coil has been developed that allows MR investigations of the anesthetized rat brain in vivo. DYNAMITE shimming with this MC/RF setup is shown to reduce the B0 standard deviation to a third of that achieved with current shim technology employing static first through third order SH shapes. The EPI signal over the rat brain increased by 31% and a 24% gain in usable EPI voxels could be realized. DYNAMITE shimming is expected to critically benefit a wide range of preclinical and neuroscientific MR research. Improved magnetic field homogeneity, along with the achievable large brain coverage of this method will be crucial when signal pathways, cortical circuitry or the brain’s default network are studied. Along with the efficiency gains of MC-based shimming compared to SH approaches demonstrated recently, DYNAMITE shimming has the potential to replace conventional SH shim systems in small bore animal

  6. Dynamic multi-coil technique (DYNAMITE) shimming for echo-planar imaging of the human brain at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juchem, Christoph; Umesh Rudrapatna, S; Nixon, Terence W; de Graaf, Robin A

    2015-01-15

    Gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (EPI) is the primary method of choice in functional MRI and other methods relying on fast MRI to image brain activation and connectivity. However, the high susceptibility of EPI towards B0 magnetic field inhomogeneity poses serious challenges. Conventional magnetic field shimming with low-order spherical harmonic (SH) functions is capable of compensating shallow field distortions, but performs poorly for global brain shimming or on specific areas with strong susceptibility-induced B0 distortions such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Excellent B0 homogeneity has been demonstrated recently in the human brain at 7 Tesla with the DYNAmic Multi-coIl TEchnique (DYNAMITE) for magnetic field shimming (J Magn Reson (2011) 212:280-288). Here, we report the benefits of DYNAMITE shimming for multi-slice EPI and T2* mapping. A standard deviation of 13Hz was achieved for the residual B0 distribution in the human brain at 7 Tesla with DYNAMITE shimming and was 60% lower compared to conventional shimming that employs static zero through third order SH shapes. The residual field inhomogeneity with SH shimming led to an average 8mm shift at acquisition parameters commonly used for fMRI and was reduced to 1.5-3mm with DYNAMITE shimming. T2* values obtained from the prefrontal and temporal cortices with DYNAMITE shimming were 10-50% longer than those measured with SH shimming. The reduction of the confounding macroscopic B0 field gradients with DYNAMITE shimming thereby promises improved access to the relevant microscopic T2* effects. The combination of high spatial resolution and DYNAMITE shimming allows largely artifact-free EPI and T2* mapping throughout the brain, including prefrontal and temporal lobe areas. DYNAMITE shimming is expected to critically benefit a wide range of MRI applications that rely on excellent B0 magnetic field conditions including EPI-based fMRI to study various cognitive processes and assessing large-scale brain connectivity

  7. Dynamic Multi-Coil Technique (DYNAMITE) Shimming for Echo-Planar Imaging of the Human Brain at 7 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juchem, Christoph; Rudrapatna, S. Umesh; Nixon, Terence W.; de Graaf, Robin A.

    2014-01-01

    Gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (EPI) is the primary method of choice in functional MRI and other methods relying on fast MRI to image brain activation and connectivity. However, the high susceptibility of EPI towards B0 magnetic field inhomogeneity poses serious challenges. Conventional magnetic field shimming with low-order spherical harmonic (SH) functions is capable of compensating shallow field distortions, but performs poorly for global brain shimming or on specific areas with strong susceptibility-induced B0 distortions such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Excellent B0 homogeneity has been demonstrated recently in the human brain at 7 Tesla with the DYNAmic Multi-coIl TEchnique (DYNAMITE) for magnetic field shimming (Juchem et al., J Magn Reson (2011) 212:280-288). Here, we report the benefits of DYNAMITE shimming for multi-slice EPI and T2* mapping. A standard deviation of 13 Hz was achieved for the residual B0 distribution in the human brain at 7 Tesla with DYNAMITE shimming and was 60% lower compared to conventional shimming that employs static zero through third order SH shapes. The residual field inhomogeneity with SH shimming led to an average 8 mm shift at acquisition parameters commonly used for fMRI and was reduced to 1.5-3 mm with DYNAMITE shimming. T2* values obtained from the prefrontal and temporal cortices with DYNAMITE shimming were 10-50% longer than those measured with SH shimming. The reduction of the confounding macroscopic B0 field gradients with DYNAMITE shimming thereby promises improved access to the relevant microscopic T2* effects. The combination of high spatial resolution and DYNAMITE shimming allows largely artifact-free EPI and T2* mapping throughout the brain, including prefrontal and temporal lobe areas. DYNAMITE shimming is expected to critically benefit a wide range of MRI applications that rely on excellent B0 magnetic field conditions including EPI-based fMRI to study various cognitive processes and assessing large

  8. Quantum chromo dynamite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rujula, A. de

    1979-01-01

    The explosion of interest in QCD makes a review both timely and impossible. In this talk I discuss aspects of QCD that were not covered by other speakers at the same Conference (EPS 79). These include topics in 'non-perturbative' QCD (i.e. the 1/N expansion), in perturbative QCD (is it really being tested, are form factors calculable), and in the land of in-between (higher twists, duality, preconfinement...). (orig.)

  9. Dynamite fishing in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Lorna M; Kalangahe, Baraka

    2015-12-30

    Fishing using explosives is common in Tanzanian waters; it is considered to be more widely practised now than at any other point in history. Mwambao Coastal Community Network, a Tanzanian NGO carried out a multi-stakeholder consultation in April 2014 initiated through the concern of private investors and tourism operators. Consultations were held with villagers, fisheries officers, government officers, hoteliers, dive operators, fish processors, NGOs and other key individuals, and shed some light on key factors enabling this practice to flourish. Key areas identified for attention include engendering political will at all levels, upholding of the law through a non-corrupt enforcement and judicial system, and defining clear roles and responsibilities for monitoring and surveillance. The work identified other successful initiatives which have tackled this pervasive practice including projects that build local capacity for marine governance, villages that have declared themselves intolerant of blast-fishing, and private-public partnerships for patrol and protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimization of dynamic source depth for seismic surveys. Part 7; Dynamite shingen no hasshin shindo no saitekika ni tsuite (hyoso kozo no suitei (kusssetsuho jishin tansa oyobi denki denjiho tansa)). 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H; Murayama, R; Mitsuhata, Y; Ishikawa, H [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1996-05-01

    For the improvement of quality of data collected by reflection aided seismic exploration using dynamite as the seismic source, information has to be collected about the surface layer structure before the charge depth is determined. For this purpose, refraction, electric, and electromagnetic exploration methods were tried. In the refraction method, an impactor was used as the seismic source. In the records, the surface wave prevails because vibration was generated on the surface. Analysis was made by the use of the initial travel time tomography. In the electric exploration, a double pole array was used to measure resistivity. The measured data was subjected to a fully automatic inversion for analysis. As the result, it was disclosed that it was useful to know the deep-level structure directly by use of tomographic methods in refraction seismic exploration so as to find the optimum charge level. Furthermore, about the electric and electromagnetic exploration techniques, it was found that these methods can be applied making use of resistivity to the evaluation of groundwater saturation. 7 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Experiment for deep seismic reflections in Hidaka, Hokkaido. Comparison between Vibroseis and explosive data; Hidaka chiiki ni okeru shinbu hanno data no shutoku jikken. Vibroseis to dynamite no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, N; Ikawa, T [Japex Jeoscience Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Ito, T; Tsumura, N; Shinohara, M; Ikawa, T. Ikawa, H.; Asano, Y; Tanaka, Y; Miyazono, N [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Arita, K; Moriya, T; Otsuka, K; Omura, T [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kimura, M [Osaka Prefectural University, Osaka (Japan); Hirata, N [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Okuike, S

    1997-05-27

    This is a prompt report. These days the importance of acquiring knowledge about the structure from the lower crust down to the upper mantle is often discussed with reference taken to Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake. The Hidaka collision belt where the lower crust is exposed on the surface is a rare phenomenon in the world and has been the subject of seismic survey. As a part of the survey, experiments are conducted by the use of vibrations produced by Vibroseis and dynamite sources. Every one of the shot records (20-second record) from the two types of vibration sources contains a clear echo in the vicinity of 16 seconds supposedly from a level deeper than 40 kilometers, not to mention reflections from shallow levels. Although some studies have to be conducted before the reflecting geological boundary (possibly the upper mantle) of the echo near the 16-second point can be identified, yet this is probably the reflection from the deepest level ever obtained in the seismic reflection survey conducted in Japan`s land area. It is proved by this experiment that vibration from a vibrator can reach as far as that from explosion if the vibrator specifications are rightly chosen. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  12. The regional response team (RRT): Dynamite or Dinosaur?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.C.; Schultz, H.E.; Athayde, W.P.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Government has in place a national oil and hazardous substance spill response system as required under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA) of 1972, as amended, and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980. The National Contingency Plan (NCP) establishes the National Response Team (NRT), Regional Response Teams (RRTS) and the National Response Center (NRC). This system has been in place since 1971, with NRT and RRT membership including 15 federal agencies having environmental responsibilities, and associated states in thirteen specific regional areas. Initially, when CERCLA-funded support positions were staffed in 1987, the RRT membership interaction proved to be dynamic and highly productive. However, as the organizations matured work emphasis shifted from new initiatives to refinement of existing policies documented. Examination of some of the existing organizational interactions demonstrates shortfalls that must be overcome before any RRT can be rejuvenated. These barriers in high productivity include skewed distribution of CERCLA-funded positions, accountability of CERCLA positions, parochial interests versus cooperation, adequacy of working level resources, duplication of efforts, lack of state funding support, and lack of continuity due to the constant personnel turnover and shortages. Also, in light of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90) mandates, in order to better determine if increased RRT productivity is possible, two major questions must be examined: what exactly is the nature of the NRT/RRT relationship and appropriate interaction; and, how should area committees (ACs) and the RRTs interact?

  13. Alfred Nobel and His Prizes: From Dynamite to DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtman, Marshall A

    2017-07-01

    Alfred Nobel was one of the most successful chemists, inventors, entrepreneurs, and businessmen of the late nineteenth century. In a decision later in life, he rewrote his will to leave virtually all his fortune to establish prizes for persons of any nationality who made the most compelling achievement for the benefit of mankind in the fields of chemistry, physics, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace among nations. The prizes were first awarded in 1901, five years after his death. In considering his choice of prizes, it may be pertinent that he used the principles of chemistry and physics in his inventions and he had a lifelong devotion to science, he suffered and died from severe coronary and cerebral atherosclerosis, and he was a bibliophile, an author, and mingled with the literati of Paris. His interest in harmony among nations may have derived from the effects of the applications of his inventions in warfare ("merchant of death") and his friendship with a leader in the movement to bring peace to nations of Europe. After some controversy, including Nobel's citizenship, the mechanisms to choose the laureates and make four of the awards were developed by a foundation established in Stockholm; the choice of the laureate for promoting harmony among nations was assigned to the Norwegian Storting, another controversy. The Nobel Prizes after 115 years remain the most prestigious of awards. This review describes the man, his foundation, and the prizes with a special commentary on the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

  14. By Dynamite, Sabotage, Revolution, and the Pen: Violence in Caribbean Anarchist Fiction, 1890s-1920s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirwin R. Shaffer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available From the 1890s to the 1920s, anarchist groups and movements emerged in Puerto Rico and Cuba. They promoted the traditional anarchist agenda against governments, militarism, capitalism, and organized religion. While research on anarchists has often focused on their activities in strikes, uprisings, educational experiments, and other counter-cultural activities, this article illustrates how Caribbean-based anarchists used their fiction to promote the anarchist agenda. A central theme in much of the fiction (plays, poetry, novels, and short stories revolved around violence leveled against society especially by governments. Just as interesting is how this fiction described—even praised—anarchist violence against authority. Thus, even while Caribbean anarchists only rarely resorted to physical violence, anarchist fiction often condemned authoritarian violence while celebrating the violence of revolution, the strike, bombings, and assassination to promote the anarchist cause of universal freedom.

  15. Process for the preparation of a dynamite compositon of the gelatin type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1972-10-25

    A method is described for preparation of a high explosive composition. The composition is a mixture of a liquid gelatin nitric ester explosive with nitrocellulose and at least 1% by wt of a lower aliphatic glycol together with a salt furnishing dissolved oxygen. The thickener for the mixture is one of the polysaccharides (glucose, mannose, galactose) and/or mixtures of them. (2 claims)

  16. “Cunt”: on the perception and handling of verbal dynamite by L1 and LX users of English

    OpenAIRE

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    “Cunt” is currently one of the most offensive words in the English language and is usually censored in the English press and media. The present study looks firstly at differences between 1159 first (L1) and 1165 foreign (LX) users of English in their understanding of the word, its perceived offensiveness and their self-reported frequency of use. Secondly, it considers the relationships between the three dependent variables and a number of psychological, sociobiographical and linguistic profil...

  17. "Cunt": On the Perception and Handling of Verbal Dynamite by L1 and Lx Users of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2018-01-01

    "Cunt" is currently one of the most offensive words in the English language and is usually censored in the English press and media. The present study looks firstly at differences between 1159 first (L1) and 1165 foreign (LX) users of English in their perceived understanding of the word, its perceived offensiveness and their self-reported…

  18. DynaMIT2.0: architecture design and preliminary results on real-time data fusion for traffic prediction and crisis management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yang; Pereira, Francisco Camara; Seshadri, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    The ability to monitor and predict in real-time the state of the transportation network is a valuable tool for both transportation administrators and travellers. While many solutions exist for this task, they are generally much more successful in recurrent scenarios than in non-recurrent ones...

  19. Plaadid / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Saint Etienne "Tales From Turnpike House", "Team Sleep", Jamiroquai "Dynamite", Life Of Agony "Broken Valley", The Wallflowers "Rebel, Sweetheart", morcheeba "The Antidote", Amerie "Touch"

  20. Pop / Erik Morna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Morna, Erik, 1969-

    2003-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Marvin Gaye"What's Going On", Dynamite Vikings featuring Pierre Dorge "Vikingology", Pet Shop Boys "Disco 3", erinevad esitajad "We're a Happy Family: A Tribute to the Ramones", Ozzy Osbourne "Essential"

  1. Plaadid / Immo Mihkelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihkelson, Immo, 1959-

    2003-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Maraca " Tremende Rumba", Dynamite Vikings "Vikingology", Tom Jones "Greatest Hits", Melanie C "Reason", Dallas "Delay Lama", Daredevil "The Album", The Stone Roses "The Very Best Of The...", "Providence"

  2. Pop / Lauri Tikerpe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tikerpe, Lauri

    2005-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Little Brother "The Minstrel Show", Jackson and his Computer Band "Smash", Matthew Herbert "Plat du Jour", Porn Sword Tobacco "Explains Freedom", Jamiroquai "Dynamite", Ryan Adams and the Cardinals "Jacksonville City Nights", The Dandy Warhols "Odditorium", Neil Young "Prairie Wind"

  3. Popmuusika / Immo Mihkelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihkelson, Immo, 1959-

    2005-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest "Hendrik Sal-Saler & Estonian Dream Big Band", Bedouin Soundclash "Sounding A Mosaic", Waltari "Blood Sample", Ms Dynamite "Judgement Days", Fear Factory "Transgression", The Herbalizer "Take London", Bill Frisell "East West"

  4. Popmuusika / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest The Vines "Vision Valley", Layo & Bushwacka "Feels Closer", Secret Machines "Ten Silver Drops", Novikov-Unt-Melvin "Painting", Sugababes "Taller In More Ways", The Ipanemas "Samba Is Our Gift", Dynamite Vikings "Seach For Happiness"

  5. Pop / Marek Kallin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kallin, Marek

    2005-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Cardigans "Super Extra Gravity", Earth, Wind & Fire "Illumination", Stevie Wonder "A Time To Love", Shout Out Louds "Howl Howl Gaff Gaff", Goldie Lookin Chain "Safe As Fuck", Ms. Dynamite "Judgement Days", Echosilence "Distorted Horizon", Bob Dylan "No Direction Home"

  6. Evaluation of hand-held ion-mobility explosives vapor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, T.A.; Thoma, P.J.

    1979-12-01

    Two types of ion-mobility detectors were evaluated in both laboratory and field tests. Laboratory test results show that these detectors are highly sensitive to dynamite and pistol powder and have good false-alarm agent rejection. Field tests of these two detectors revealed that they would detect dynamite and Ball-C-Propellent in free air. However, neither of the ion-mobility detectors would detect these explosives if the explosives were concealed

  7. Burnout experiments with 6 x 6, 8 x 8 and 7 x 7 rod bundle test sections using freon as model fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulfs, H.; Katsaounis, A.; Minden, C.v.

    1976-01-01

    This paper reports on burnout experiments at staedy state condition using Freon12 as model fluid. The experiments were carried out with three test sections with 6 x 6, 8 x 8 and 7 x 7 rod bundles. The axial flux distribution of the rods is either constant or reactor like. The transformed measured points using STEVENS and BOURE scaling factors to equivalent water conditions respectively, were compared to the burnout correlation W3 using the reactor layout program DYNAMIT. The DYNAMIT code is a thermohydraulic lay-out reactor program without consideration of mixing flow between the subchannels. (orig.) [de

  8. Contextual Override of Pragmatic Anomalies: Evidence from Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filik, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Readers typically experience processing difficulty when they encounter a word that is anomalous within the local context, such as "The mouse picked up the "dynamite...". The research reported here demonstrates that by placing a sentence in a fictional scenario that is already well known to the reader (e.g., a "Tom and Jerry" cartoon, as a context…

  9. School and the Limits of Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Philosophy and schools, children and dynamite, elephants and postage stamps: each has a place, but not necessarily in any natural combination with the other. Whether schools and philosophy belong together depends largely on what we mean by both. To the extent that schools are instruments of government regulation and a mechanism for production of…

  10. Physiological and behavioural stress responses in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to noise associated with construction work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlund, K; Fernström, A-L; Wergård, E-M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the behavioural and physiological responses to environmental disturbances (live and recorded dynamite explosions) in laboratory non-human primates in preparation for a future tunnel construction underneath our animal facility. In a pilot study (A) on 2...

  11. Double-Forked Artifice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    2012-01-01

    to ignite established ideas, and blow them to pieces with his own dynamite. Quite literally, can an elastic set things on fire, survive the fire? Can a truth be final even when it is elastic? What does it mean to write, for Nietzsche, when writing presents itself as a sin against silence, as a fire...

  12. Muusika / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2005-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Jamiroquai "Dynamite", Wallflowers "Rebel, Sweetheart", Corgan, Billy "The Future Embrace", Mariza "Transparente", Turin Brakes "JackinABox", Hellacopters "Rock& Roll is Dead", Belle & Sebastian "Push bar To Open Old", Farmer, Mylene "Avant Guel'ombre", Kreck "If You Live", Dream Theater "Octavarium"

  13. The Hydrogen Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Handling dangerous substances has come to define a society. People drive around with the explosive equivalent of twenty sticks of dynamite in their gasoline tanks without batting an eye. They use open flames to cook their food and heat their homes. Propane barbecue tanks are sold everywhere in the country, and left outside their homes for several…

  14. Facing the Racial Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Alex

    1993-01-01

    Whatever its causes, racial isolation is social dynamite. Problems and destiny of America and American education cannot be separated from fate of American cities, which daily grow poorer, more violent, less socially cohesive, and more isolated. Problems cannot be addressed without taking racism into account. Schools can help students understand…

  15. AN INVESTIGATION OF POISONOUS AND VENOMOUS FISHES AT PALMYRA ISLAND, LINE ISLANDS, DURING 13 APRIL TO 2 MAY 1953

    Science.gov (United States)

    puffers were edible . Collections were made in April during the reproduction period when toxicity was at a maximum. Hook and line, spear, dynamite, and...flavimarginatus; the sea bass Variola louti; the pomacentrids Abudefduf spp. and lethrinids. Underwater movies were taken for food chain studies. A shipment of reef fishes of Fanning Island was also procured.

  16. Educational Technology along with the Uncritical Mass versus Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayadmansour, Alireza; Nassaji, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the ethics of educational technology in terms of whether or not selected media and methods are beneficial to the teacher and student, or whether other motives and criteria determine the selection. Communications media have proven themselves to be powerful and efficient tools, used like "dynamite" for getting the most…

  17. Pop / Bertil Tüvi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tüvi, Bertil

    2008-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Earth "The Bees Made Honey In The Lions Skull", The Dynamite Vikings "Meaning of the Party", Guru "The Best Of Guru's Jazzmatazz", The Darkness "The Platinum Collection", The Tremolo Beer Gut "Nous Sommes The Tremolo Beer Gut - Qui Le Fuck Etes-Vous?"

  18. Devils in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellez C, Mauricio

    1995-01-01

    The history of a day of work is described to extinguish the fire in the wells of the Putumayo. Carta Petrolera accompanied to a group of firemen to the oil wells dynamited in the Putumayo that reduced in five thousand barrels the production of raw, they caused millionaire economic losses and they affected the environment of a corner of the Amazonia

  19. Comparative effect of carotenoid complex from golden neo-life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: The immunomodulatory effect of Carotenoid complex from Golden Neo-Life Dynamite (GNLD) and carrot extracted Carotenoid was assessed using 24 albino Wistar rats. The rats were assigned to 4 groups of 6 rats each consisting of group 1(control group treated with distilled water), group 2 (treated with olive oil) ...

  20. Controlled blasting experiments in a small drift at the CANMET experimental mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizotte, Y.C.

    1994-03-01

    Experiments on controlled blasting conducted at the CANMET Experimental Mine to develop suitable controlled blasting techniques for small development headings are described. The methods selected for study must maintain the drill-blast-muck cycle achieved each work shift. The experiments also examine blast damage mechanisms to formulate criteria for dilution minimization with blast designs in stopes. The drift faces are 2.4 m square, with 34 to 43 holes drilled 2.4 m deep. Cartridged water gels, emulsions, and semi-gelatin dynamite were used in the cuts and as primers, ANFO as the main explosive, and semi- gelatin dynamite in 19 mm diameter cartridges was used in perimeter holes. The results of the first set of experiments show the efficiency of controlled blasting techniques to reduce blast damage. 60 refs., 71 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Plaadid / Brigitta Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidjants, Brigitta, 1983-

    2005-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest The Bad Plus "Suspicious Activity", Andy Bell "Electric Blue", Robbie Williams "Intensive Care", Paul Anka "Rock Swings", Sao Paris "Movimento", Tracy Chapman "Where You Live", t.A.T.u. "Dangerous and Moving", "Raw Fusion Bass-Ment Classics", Critical "Charper One ehk Teine Maitse", Alicia Keys "Unplugged", Steive Wonder "A Time To Love", DJ Cam "My Playlist", Ms. Dynamite "Judgement Days", daddy Yankee "Los Homerun-es"

  2. Stutter seismic source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumma, W. H.; Hughes, D. R.; Zimmerman, N. S.

    1980-08-12

    An improved seismic prospecting system comprising the use of a closely spaced sequence of source initiations at essentially the same location to provide shorter objective-level wavelets than are obtainable with a single pulse. In a preferred form, three dynamite charges are detonated in the same or three closely spaced shot holes to generate a downward traveling wavelet having increased high frequency content and reduced content at a peak frequency determined by initial testing.

  3. New seismic source `BLASTER` for seismic survey; Hasaiyaku wo shingen to shite mochiita danseiha tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, G; Yoshikuni, Y [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Built-up weight and vacuole have been conceived as seismic sources without using explosive. There have been problems that they have smaller energy to generate elastic wave than explosive, and that they have inferior working performance. Concrete crushing explosive is tried to use as a new seismic source. It is considered to possess rather large seismic generating energy, and it is easy to handle from the viewpoint of safety. Performance as seismic source and applicability to exploration works of this crushing explosive were compared with four kinds of seismic sources using dynamite, dropping weight, shot-pipe utilizing shot vacuole, and impact by wooden maul. When considered by the velocity amplitude, the seismic generating energy of the crushing explosive of 120 g is about one-fifth of dynamite of 100 g. Elastic wave generated includes less high frequency component than that by dynamite, and similar to that using seismic source without explosive, such as the weight dropping. The maximum seismic receiving distance obtained by the seismic generation was about 100 m. This was effective for the slope survey with the exploration depth between 20 m and 30 m. 1 ref., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Uniquely Acquired Vintage Seismic Reflection Data Reveal the Stratigraphic and Tectonic History of the Montana Disturbed Belt, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speece, M. A.; Link, C. A.; Stickney, M.

    2011-12-01

    In 1983 and 1984 Techco of Denver, Colorado, acquired approximately 302 linear kilometers of two-dimensional (2D) seismic reflection data in Flathead and Lake Counties, Montana, USA, as part of an initiative to identify potential drilling targets beneath the Swan and Whitefish Mountain Ranges and adjacent basins of northwestern Montana. These seismic lines were collected in the Montana Disturbed Belt (MDB) or Montana thrust belt along the western edge of Glacier National Park in mountainous terrain with complicated subsurface structures including thrust faults and folds. These structures formed during the Laramide Orogeny as sedimentary rocks of the Precambrian Belt Supergroup were thrust eastward. Later, during the Cenozoic, high-angle normal faults produced prominent west-facing mountain scarps of the Mission, Swan and Whitefish mountains. The 1983 data set consisted of two profiles of 24-fold (96-channels) Vibroseis data and four profiles of 24-fold (96-channels) helicopter-assisted dynamite data. The dynamite data were collected using the Poulter Method in which explosives were placed on poles and air shots were recorded. The 1983 dynamite profiles extend from southwest to northeast across the Whitefish Mountain Range to the edge of Glacier National Park and the Vibroseis data were collected along nearby roadways. The 1984 data set consists of four profiles of 30-fold (120-channels) helicopter-assisted dynamite data that were also collected using the Poulter Method. The 1984 profiles cross the Swan Mountain Range between Flathead Lake and Glacier National Park. All of these data sets were recently donated to Montana Tech and subsequently recovered from nine-track tape. Conventionally processed seismic stacked sections from the 1980s of these data show evidence of a basement decollement that separates relatively undeformed basement from overlying structures of the MDB. Unfortunately, these data sets have not been processed using modern seismic processing

  5. Den dynamiske lærebog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Kjertmann, K.

    of the competencies that children used when reading, writing and gathering information on the Internet, and the influence of group dynamics on the children?s use of the Internet has been examined and discussed. Project period September 2003 ? May 2004 For further information about the project go to http://www.dynamitbogen.dk/dynamit/overblik/forskning.......dynamitbogen.dk. The pupils produced textbooks on four different subjects: pixies, the rainforest, mathematics and leisure time, and friendship. Pupils in the higher grades worked together closely and started out by researching and gathering information about the subjects they had chosen. Afterwards they produced texts...

  6. Blast from the past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    1996-02-01

    Forget dynamite or hydraulic and mechanical drills. Industrial and federal researchers have started boring holes with rocket fuel. In a cooperative arrangement between Sandia National Laboratory, Global Environmental Solutions, and Universal Tech Corp., scientists and engineers extracted fuel from 200 rocket motors and used it as a mining explosive. In a demonstration completed last fall, researchers used 4950 kg of solid rocket propellant to move more than 22,500 metric tons of rock from the Lone Star Quarry in Prairie, Oklahoma. They found that the fuel improved blast energy and detonation velocity over traditional explosives, and it required fewer drill holes.

  7. Water in the blast hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilshaw, S.R. [Pilshaw Associates, KS (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Water in the blast area is a considerable problem in US opencast coal mining. While gelatin dynamite was reasonably water resistant, Anfo is not. All potential solutions to this problem: the use of Anfo and emulsion (Heavy Anfo), pumping, draining, and the use of water bags, involve considerable extra cost. With small amounts of water an alternative solution has been formulated: the use of a self inflating gas bag to exclude water, and loading the Anfo from the water line up to the stemming level of the blasthole. Quite substantial water columns may be sealed off in this manner, with little or no deleterious effect on blast effects.

  8. Scientific fundamentals of the exploration and computability of the repository. Partial project 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinzen, K.G.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental techniques and evaluation techniques were developed (DYNAMIT, DYNAPLOT) in order to determine dynamic characteristics of the rock in the environment of underground cavities. This includes the determination of possible loosening zones. The results inform on the vibration behavior of the rock under short-term alternating load. Three main aims were pursued in the reporting period: 1. Planning and establishment of the BGR dynamic test gallery in the Asse mine; 2. further development of the rock and salt dynamic recording set-up and of the evaluation programs for the measured data of the dynamic experiments; 3. beginning of the performance of dynamic experiments. (orig./DG) [de

  9. Crustal structure in the Kiruna area, northern Sweden, based on seismic reflection profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhojuntti, Niklas; Bergman, Stefan; Olsson, Sverker

    2013-04-01

    Northernmost Sweden is currently one of the most active mining areas in Europe. In order to better understand the regional three-dimensional crustal structure and to support deep ore exploration, we have acquired a 74 km long seismic reflection profile in the Kiruna area. The upper crust in this area is largely composed of various supracrustal units, which are dominated by metabasalts, acidic metavolcanics and clastic metasedimentary rocks, resting on an Archaean metagranitoid complex. All of these units have been intruded by plutonic rocks, and to variable degrees folded, sheared and metamorphosed, during the Svecokarelian orogeny. The profile crosses several steep ductile shear zones, some of which extend for hundreds of kilometres along strike. Many of the lithological contacts and deformation zones are expected to be seismically reflective. The profile is located only a few kilometres from the world's largest underground iron-ore mine in Kiruna, and closer to the profile there are several known ore bodies, some of which are active exploration targets. For the seismic recording we used approximately 350 geophones in split-spread configuration, at a separation of 25 m. The main seismic source was the Vibsist system (an impact source), which normally was employed at every geophone station. We also fired explosive charges (8-16 kg) at a few locations distributed along the profile to image deeper structures, although at very low resolution. Wireless seismometers were placed along and to the side of the profile, mainly in order to achieve better velocity control and to study out-of-the-plane reflections. Some mining blasts in Kiruna were also recorded. The upper crust in the area is quite reflective, most clearly demonstrated by the dynamite shot records. Some of the reflections appear to originate from steeply dipping structures. The dynamite shot records show a set of reflections at 3-4 s twt, corresponding to a depth of roughly 10 km, the explanation for which is

  10. Influence of external-detonation-generated plasmas on the performance of semi-confined explosive charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udy, L.L.

    1979-02-01

    External-detonation-generated plasmas, highly ionized zones of reacting material ejected from the surface of detonating explosive charges, are shown to be the cause of channel desensitization, i.e., the self-quenching of a detonating explosive column loaded in a borehole with an air annulus between the explosive and the borehole wall. The effects of this phenomenon on several explosive compositions and types are demonstrated and discussed. The explosives tested include aluminum-sensitized and explosive-sensitized slurries, ANFO, liquid explosives and dynamites. Various techniques are described that can be used to reduce or eliminate the plasma effect.

  11. Application of silver sulfadiazine cream with early surgical intervention in patients suffering from combined burn-blast injury facial tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein

    2012-01-01

    Severe combined burn-blast injury is a great challenge to surgical teams due to its high mortality. It also results in unsightly traumatic tattoos. The aims of these case reports were to clarify the clinical characteristic of the dynamite explosion burn-blast facial injuries and discuss appropriate management of these patients. We report two patients suffering from facial burn-blast injury following dynamite explosion in which after primary stabilization, silver sulfadiazine cream was applied to the wounds and 12 hours later the wounds were cleaned under general anesthesia with vigorous saline solution irrigation and brushing. The foreign particles were meticulously removed from wounds and simultaneous repairing of defects was done with nylon 6-0 sutures. We conclude application of silver sulfadiazine cream on facial burn-blast injury tattoos several hours before surgical removal of particles is highly efficacious in facilitating particle removal and attaining a good result following surgical intervention, and primary repair. Treatment of combined burn-blast tattoos is different from other types of tattoos not associated with burns. Debridement and removal of foreign particles under general anesthesia from skin immediately and primary reconstruction of wounds is essential. We recommend application of the topical agent silver sulfadiazine to wounds about 12 hours before surgical intervention.

  12. 50 μm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C; Konstantinidis, A C; Zheng, Y; Anaxagoras, T; Speller, R D; Kanicki, J

    2015-12-07

    Wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensors (APSs) have been developed recently for x-ray imaging applications. The small pixel pitch and low noise are very promising properties for medical imaging applications such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this work, we evaluated experimentally and through modeling the imaging properties of a 50 μm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). A modified cascaded system model was developed for CMOS APS x-ray detectors by taking into account the device nonlinear signal and noise properties. The imaging properties such as modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were extracted from both measurements and the nonlinear cascaded system analysis. The results show that the DynAMITe x-ray detector achieves a high spatial resolution of 10 mm(-1) and a DQE of around 0.5 at spatial frequencies  CMOS APS x-ray detector, image aquisition geometry and image reconstruction techniques should be considered.

  13. Rockets, radiosensitizers, and RRx-001: an origin story part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oronsky, Bryan; Scicinski, Jan; Ning, Shoucheng; Peehl, Donna; Oronsky, Arnold; Cabrales, Pedro; Bednarski, Mark; Knox, Susan

    2016-03-01

    From Adam and Eve, to Darwinism, origin stories attempt to fill in the blanks, connect the dots, and define the turning points that are fundamental to subsequent developments. The purpose of this review is to present the origin story of a one-of-a-kind anticancer agent, RRx-001, which emerged from the aerospace industry as a putative radiosensitizer; not since the dynamite-to-dilator transformation of nitroglycerin in 1878 or the post-World War II explosive-to-elixir conversion of hydralazine, an ingredient in rocket fuel, to an antihypertensive, an antidepressant and an antituberculant, has energetic chemistry been harnessed for therapeutic purposes. This is Part 1 of the radiosensitization story; Parts 2 and 3, which detail the crossover activity of RRx-001 as a chemosensitizer in multiple tumor types and disease states including malaria, hemorrhagic shock and sickle cell anemia, are the subject of future reviews.

  14. An Android malware detection system based on machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Long; Yu, Haiyang

    2017-08-01

    The Android smartphone, with its open source character and excellent performance, has attracted many users. However, the convenience of the Android platform also has motivated the development of malware. The traditional method which detects the malware based on the signature is unable to detect unknown applications. The article proposes a machine learning-based lightweight system that is capable of identifying malware on Android devices. In this system we extract features based on the static analysis and the dynamitic analysis, then a new feature selection approach based on principle component analysis (PCA) and relief are presented in the article to decrease the dimensions of the features. After that, a model will be constructed with support vector machine (SVM) for classification. Experimental results show that our system provides an effective method in Android malware detection.

  15. Automatic traveltime picking using instantaneous traveltime

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos

    2013-02-08

    Event picking is used in many steps of seismic processing. We present an automatic event picking method that is based on a new attribute of seismic signals, instantaneous traveltime. The calculation of the instantaneous traveltime consists of two separate but interrelated stages. First, a trace is mapped onto the time-frequency domain. Then the time-frequency representation is mapped back onto the time domain by an appropriate operation. The computed instantaneous traveltime equals the recording time at those instances at which there is a seismic event, a feature that is used to pick the events. We analyzed the concept of the instantaneous traveltime and demonstrated the application of our automatic picking method on dynamite and Vibroseis field data.

  16. Experimental and integrated studies of the effect of the properties of explosives and the mechanical characteristics of soils and rocks on crater size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, Jean

    1971-01-01

    Relations have been established between the dimensions of craters produced by explosions in soils and the properties of the soils and explosives. The properties of chemical explosives, shock wave transmission in soils and the properties of the soils themselves (mainly those properties associated with high strain rates) were investigated. The results of a series of experiments with gelatin dynamite charges in a sand whose properties had been carefully measured, are reported. Results obtained from the literature concerning various sized charges (a few grams up to several tons of TNT) are grouped using dimensional analysis. Correlations established using these experimental results are presented in the form of nomograms; these allow the crater dimensions to be calculated when the medium and the explosive are known. Several applications to specific cases are presented. (author) [fr

  17. Ammonium nitrate explosion hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negovanović Milanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate (AN primarily is used as a fertilizer but it is also very important compound in the production of industrial explosives. The application of ammonium nitrate in the production of industrial explosives was related with the early era of Nobel dynamite and widely increased with the appearance of blasting agents such as ANFO and Slurry, in the middle of the last Century. Throughout the world millions of tons of ammonium nitrate are produced annually and handled without incident. Although ammonium nitrate generally is used safely, accidental explosions involving AN have high impact resulting in loss of lives and destruction of property. The paper presents the basic properties of ammonium nitrate as well as hazards in handling of ammonium nitrate in order to prevent accidents. Several accidents with explosions of ammonium nitrate resulted in catastrophic consequences are listed in the paper as examples of non-compliance with prescribed procedures.

  18. New protection initiatives announced for coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Off the coasts of some of the South Pacific's most idyllic-sounding atolls, Austin Bowden-Kerby has seen first-hand the heavy damage to coral reefs from dynamite and cyanide fishing. For instance, while snorkeling near Chuuk, an island in Micronesia, he has observed craters and rubble beds of coral, which locals have told him date to World War II ordnance.A marine biologist and project scientist for the Coral Gardens Initiative of the Foundation for the Peoples of the South Pacific, Bowden-Kerby has also identified what he says are some public health effects related to destroyed coral reefs and their dying fisheries. These problems include protein and vitamin A deficiency and blindness, all of which may—in some instances—be linked to poor nutrition resulting from lower reef fish consumption by islanders, according to Bowden-Kerby.

  19. Automatic traveltime picking using instantaneous traveltime

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Fomel, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    Event picking is used in many steps of seismic processing. We present an automatic event picking method that is based on a new attribute of seismic signals, instantaneous traveltime. The calculation of the instantaneous traveltime consists of two separate but interrelated stages. First, a trace is mapped onto the time-frequency domain. Then the time-frequency representation is mapped back onto the time domain by an appropriate operation. The computed instantaneous traveltime equals the recording time at those instances at which there is a seismic event, a feature that is used to pick the events. We analyzed the concept of the instantaneous traveltime and demonstrated the application of our automatic picking method on dynamite and Vibroseis field data.

  20. Is quality affordable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lindfield

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The question “Is quality affordable?” is loaded with dynamite!Can a person who lives on less than US $1 per day afford a high-quality cataract operation? If the answer is ‘No’, then do we offer that person poor or low-quality services? Do people living in poverty have a ‘right’ to high-quality eye or health care? If the answer is ‘Yes’, then at what price and who should pay? Should we ignore quality and focus on affordability? Or should we provide high-quality services in the hope that someone else will pay?These are difficult questions, which policy makers, managers, and clinicians must face and try to answer.

  1. Kawasaki steam power plant of Tokyo Electric Power Co. and an example of geothermal power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-01-01

    The first part of this discussion is devoted to a description of the Kawasaki steam power plant, installed by Tokyo Electric Co. to supply electricity to the Keihin industrial area. The output is 700 MW and it possesses a thermal efficiency of 36.9%. The plant is operated automatically by remote control. The latter section describes the status of a geothermal power station in Hakone. It outlines the steam distribution piping, the steam itself, the turbine and vapor/water separation equipment. With regard to technical problems, it is suggested that old wells having weak pressure can be restored by self-cleaning and that further improvement can be brought about by dynamiting the base of the borehole.

  2. An Economic Viewpoint on Capitalism Bashing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnete Sorin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I discuss two long disputed notions: that capitalism without crises is a fallacy respectively that capitalism bashing, however severe, will not endanger the system itself. Yet proving both is not an easy task since the capitalism issue has always been a cupellation of theory, ideology and political precepts, which are controversial and hard to disentangle. That capitalism detractors are numberless is a truism. Yet criticism against capitalism, however fierce, has always been clearly delineated. Not any more: globalization has rendered the picture dangerously fuzzy. It is now hard to ascertain whether someone who will harangue about the ostensible evils of globalization is also a declared anti-capitalist. The blend of capitalism and globalization seems to be pure dynamite.

  3. Risk intelligence: How lessons from folktales/fables contribute to the implementation of risk management in banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivave Mashingaidze

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to outline credit risk in banks and how fables/folktales can provide with life lessons to implement risk management systems that should act as a stop-gate measure. Banking institutions need to show how proactively managing risk becomes a cornerstone to explore opportunities, rather than simply avoiding dynamites. Risk Intelligence gives companies the confidence to harness risk to explore new opportunities. Lessons were provided from folktales/fables from the animal kingdom. The article adopted a literature review methodology and the results were that, for a business to be successful the medicine does not lie in the policies but the therapy lies in the spirit of oneness in the banks from top management down to the shop floor employee in the branch. By working together the banks can afford to curb credit risks.

  4. The concept of explosives malfunctioning in rock blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Q.

    1993-11-01

    The purpose is to identify the critical conditions that cause malfunctioning for some commonly used explosives. Experiments are described that measure sympathetic detonation, desensitization, and cut-offs for two variables: spacing and delay. Explosive malfunctioning is depicted on a delay spacing chart that has different regions. On the chart, the shape and size of each region can vary from one explosive to another. Results are presented from over 70 blasts, that were conducted in the underground drift at the CANMET Experimental Mine, to identify the malfunctioning characteristics of specific emulsion, water gel, and dynamite explosives. For each experiment, two parallel blastholes (with diameter of 32 mm and depth of 1.7 m) were drilled downwards, and full coupling was achieved. The results are presented for the three types of explosives tested. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Compound Tension Control of an Optical-Fiber Coil System: A Cyber-Physical System View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Peng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The full-automatic optical-fiber coil winding equipment is a complex electromechanical system which contains signal acquisition, data processing, communications, and motor control. In the complex electromechanical system, the subsystems rely on wired or wireless network technology to complete the real-time perception, coordinate, accurate, and dynamitic control, and information exchange services. The paper points to the full-automatic optical-fiber coil winding equipment with the characteristics of cyber-physical system to research its numerical design. We present a novel compound tension control system based on the experimental platform dSPACE to achieve semiphysical simulation of compound tension control system and examine the functions of control system.

  6. Application of fractal theory to top-coal caving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, H.; Zhou, H.W.

    2008-01-01

    The experiences of underground coal mining in China show that coal in a thick hard coal seam with a hard roof, the so-called 'double hard coal seam', is difficult to be excavated by top-coal caving technique. In order to solve the problem, a top-coal weakening technique is proposed in this paper. In the present study, fractal geometry provides a new description of the fracture mechanism for blasting. By means of theoretical analysis of the relationship between the fractal dimension of blasting fragments and the dynamite specific energy, a mechanical model for describing the size distribution of top-coal and the dissipation of blasting energy is proposed. The theoretical results are in agreement with laboratory and in situ test results. Moreover, it is shown that the fractal dimension of coal fragments can be used as an index for optimizing the blasting parameters for a top-coal weakening technique

  7. Notes for a Theory of the Infant Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Luis Herrera Rojas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The essential features of infant poetry, under an integrating and interdisciplinary vision, taking into account Language and Literature contemporary sciences are presented in this work. Language turns on itself in a phonic-rhythmic materializing of stimulating meanings of ludic actions; interculturality with oral traditional flow; the isotopic density favoring text coherence; speech dynamiting narration; the prevailing of imaginary remarkable sense over abstract; the visual constitution of lyric infantile speakers are, among other, factors tending to a singular relation with tradition and moving among exceptionally solved tensions in the work of many highly creative poets. Such aspects are exemplified by means of some texts, by relevant Spanish and Latin American authors.

  8. 50 μm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, C; Kanicki, J; Konstantinidis, A C; Zheng, Y; Speller, R D; Anaxagoras, T

    2015-01-01

    Wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensors (APSs) have been developed recently for x-ray imaging applications. The small pixel pitch and low noise are very promising properties for medical imaging applications such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this work, we evaluated experimentally and through modeling the imaging properties of a 50 μm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). A modified cascaded system model was developed for CMOS APS x-ray detectors by taking into account the device nonlinear signal and noise properties. The imaging properties such as modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were extracted from both measurements and the nonlinear cascaded system analysis. The results show that the DynAMITe x-ray detector achieves a high spatial resolution of 10 mm −1 and a DQE of around 0.5 at spatial frequencies  <1 mm −1 . In addition, the modeling results were used to calculate the image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR i ) of microcalcifications at various mean glandular dose (MGD). For an average breast (5 cm thickness, 50% glandular fraction), 165 μm microcalcifications can be distinguished at a MGD of 27% lower than the clinical value (∼1.3 mGy). To detect 100 μm microcalcifications, further optimizations of the CMOS APS x-ray detector, image aquisition geometry and image reconstruction techniques should be considered. (paper)

  9. Model remediation of contaminated sites as illustrated by the example of the TNT-remediation project Stadtallendorf, Hessen, Germany. Part 1: Final report; Part 2: Documentation and balancing of the measures; Part 3: Documentation of citizens' participation and public relations activities in Stadtallendorf; Modellhafte Sanierung von Altlasten am Beispiel des TNT-Sanierungsprojektes Stadtallendorf/Hessen. T. 1: Abschlussbericht. T. 2: Dokumentation und Bilanzierung von Auswirkungen der Sanierung. T. 3: Dokumentation der Buergerbeteiligung und Oeffentlichkeitsarbeit in Stadtallendorf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The project comprised the following stages: 1. Development of a technology for purification of soils contaminated with explosives. The process comprised soil washing, hot steam treatment, and thermal treatment of residues; 2. Projecting, construction and two years of operation of a soil purification plant with a rated throughput of 20 t/h and a total throughput of 130,000 t; 3. Remediation of two representative sites on DAG terrain (TNT production chain and filling stations); 4. Verification of the findings in an accompanying scientific programme. The site under investigation was formerly occupied by the Dynamit AG (DAG) Stadtallendorf, where TNT, contaminated waste water and acids were produced, and contamination levels were high in several areas. Today, the area is a residential area. In addition to the investigations described here, the waste water discharge system of the DAG was modernized. [German] Das FuE-Vorhaben Stadtallendorf wurde mit folgender Zielsetzung begonnen: (1) Entwicklung einer geeigneten und moeglichst umweltvertraeglichen Technik zur Reinigung von Boeden mit sprengstoffspezifischen Kontaminationen; hierzu wurde in Anlehnung an die Ausschreibung des Bundes ein kombiniertes Bodenbehandlungsverfahren vorgesehen, das aus folgenden Komponenten bestand: - Bodenwaesche, - Heissdampfbehandlung, - Thermische Reststoffbehandlung. (2) Planung, Bau und zweijaehriger Betrieb einer entsprechenden grosstechnischen Bodenreinigungsanlage (Nenndurchsatz von 20 t/Stunde; Gesamtdurchsatz 130.000 t). (3) Bodensanierung von zwei repraesentativen Arealen im DAG-Gelaende (TNT-Produktionskette und Fuellstellenbetrieb). (4) Absicherung der Ergebnisse in einem wissenschaftlichen Begleitprogramm. Gegenstand der Phase 2 des Vorhabens war der vollstaendige Prozess der Planung und Umsetzung der Sanierung eines (Teils eines) Planungsraumes des Ruestungsaltstandortes Dynamit AG (DAG) Stadtallendorf. Es handelte sich dabei um einen Bereich, der als Standort fuer TNT

  10. Vertical seismic profiling and integration with reflection seismic studies at Laxemar, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhlin, C.; Bergman, B. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden); Cosma, C.; Keskinen, J.; Enescu, N. [Vibrometric Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2002-02-01

    Vertical seismic profile (VSP) data were acquired in October 2000 in the 1700 m deep KLX02 borehole, near Laxemar in southeastern Sweden. The objectives of the VSP were to image reflectors in the borehole for correlation with surface seismic and borehole data, study the signal penetration of explosive versus mechanical sources and determine the seismic velocity as a function of depth. Five principal source points were used, one located close to the KLX02 wellhead and 4 others that were offset by about 200 m to 400 m. An explosive source was only used at the wellhead and consisted of 15 grams of dynamite in 90 cm deep shot holes in bedrock. A swept impact seismic source (SIST) was also used at the wellhead, as well as at the other four offset source points. The primary SIST source consisted of a computer controlled mechanical hammer mounted on a tractor. By activating the hammer over a 15 second sweep length, the total energy transferred to the ground is on the same order as that produced by the dynamite. The recorded data are then processed to generate seismic records that are equivalent to a single impact source. A smaller hand held SIST source was also tested at the wellhead. Tests of both the tractor mounted source and dynamite were made at a location offset somewhat from the wellhead at a site containing loose sediments at the surface. Full waveform sonic, resistivity and gamma logs were also acquired in conjunction the VSP survey. A comparison between the explosive and large SIST source shows that comparable energy levels are produced by the two methods. The SIST source appears to be more stable in terms of the energy level, although the frequency content of data are somewhat lower. However, its most significant advantage is the low cost of preparation of the source points and the speed of the acquisition. Numerous reflections are observed on the VSP, as is the case on the surface seismic, implying a complex structure in the vicinity of the KLX02 borehole

  11. Vertical seismic profiling and integration with reflection seismic studies at Laxemar, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhlin, C.; Bergman, B.; Cosma, C.; Keskinen, J.; Enescu, N.

    2002-02-01

    Vertical seismic profile (VSP) data were acquired in October 2000 in the 1700 m deep KLX02 borehole, near Laxemar in southeastern Sweden. The objectives of the VSP were to image reflectors in the borehole for correlation with surface seismic and borehole data, study the signal penetration of explosive versus mechanical sources and determine the seismic velocity as a function of depth. Five principal source points were used, one located close to the KLX02 wellhead and 4 others that were offset by about 200 m to 400 m. An explosive source was only used at the wellhead and consisted of 15 grams of dynamite in 90 cm deep shot holes in bedrock. A swept impact seismic source (SIST) was also used at the wellhead, as well as at the other four offset source points. The primary SIST source consisted of a computer controlled mechanical hammer mounted on a tractor. By activating the hammer over a 15 second sweep length, the total energy transferred to the ground is on the same order as that produced by the dynamite. The recorded data are then processed to generate seismic records that are equivalent to a single impact source. A smaller hand held SIST source was also tested at the wellhead. Tests of both the tractor mounted source and dynamite were made at a location offset somewhat from the wellhead at a site containing loose sediments at the surface. Full waveform sonic, resistivity and gamma logs were also acquired in conjunction the VSP survey. A comparison between the explosive and large SIST source shows that comparable energy levels are produced by the two methods. The SIST source appears to be more stable in terms of the energy level, although the frequency content of data are somewhat lower. However, its most significant advantage is the low cost of preparation of the source points and the speed of the acquisition. Numerous reflections are observed on the VSP, as is the case on the surface seismic, implying a complex structure in the vicinity of the KLX02 borehole

  12. Faults survey by 3D reflection seismics; Sanjigen hanshaho jishin tansa ni yoru danso chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, T; Ejiri, T; Yamada, N; Narita, N; Aso, H; Takano, H; Matsumura, M [Dia Consultants Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes fault survey by 3D seismic reflection exploration. Survey has been conducted mainly at flat land area without pavement not in urban area in Japan. Subsurface structure is complicated with intersecting multiple faults. In this area, a lot of geological investigations have been done prior to the seismic reflection exploration. Fairly certain images of faults have been obtained. However, there were still unknown structures. Survey was conducted at an area of 170m{times}280m in the CDP range. Measurements were carried out by using 100 g of dynamite per seismic generation point combined with 40 Hz velocity geophones. Fixed distribution consisting of lattice points of 12{times}12 was adopted as an observation method. In and around the lattice, a great number of explosions were carried out. The CDP stacking method and the method of migration after stacking were used for the data processing. The 3D structures of six horizons and five faults could be interpreted. Interpreted horizons were well agreed with the logging results. 3 figs.

  13. Evaluation of permeability of Nojima fault by hydrophone VSP; Hydrophone VSP ni yoru Nojima danso no tosuisei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiguchi, T; Ito, H; Kuwahara, Y; Miyazaki, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    The multi-offset hydrophone VSP experiments were carried out using a 750m deep borehole as the oscillation receiver, which penetrates the Nojima fault, to detect water-permeable cracks and evaluate their characteristics. Soil around the borehole is of granodiorite, and fault clay is found at a depth in a range from 623 to 624m. A total of 4 dynamite tunnels were provided around the borehole as the focus. The VSP results show that the tube waves are generated at 22 depths, including the depth at which fault clay is found. However, these waves are generated at only 6 depths in an approximately 150m long fracture zone, suggesting that the cracks in the zone are not necessarily permeable. It is also found that crack angle determined by the analysis of tube waves almost coincides with that of fault clay determined by the core, BHTV and FMI, and that permeability is of the order of 100md at a depth of fault clay or shallower. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Proceedings of the 94th SEGJ (The Society of Exploration Geophysicists of Japan) Conference; Butsuri tansa gakkai dai 94 kai (1996 nendo shunki) gakujutsu koenkai koen ronbunshu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The fiscal 1996 SEGJ Conference was held in Tokyo during May 15-17, and 101 papers were reported. As for disaster prevention, the following were reported: Questionnaire investigation for the earthquake, Localization of b-values and maximum earthquakes, Cooperative measurements of microtremors in the north-eastern region of Nishinomiya City, Hyogo Pref., etc. As to elastic wave data recording and modeling data processing, Optimization of dynamite source depth for seismic surveys, Simulation of breakage of heterogeneous materials caused by detonative loading, etc. With relation to archeology, radar, and refraction method, Reexamining results of Iwatoyama tumulus by means of directive antenna, Application of geophysical method to investigation of old castle, etc. Concerning microtremors and surface waves, Estimation of shallow ground structure using short-period microtremors array observation, etc. Besides, papers were reported on electromagnetism, tomography, gravity/magnetism/numerical calculation, measurement while drilling, etc. Moreover, a symposium on underground structures in the Hanshin/Awaji area as viewed from geophysical exploration was held presenting nine papers.

  15. Development and field example of multi channel surface wave data acquisition and processing system (SWS-1); Multi channel hyomenha data shutoku shori system (SWS-1) no kaihatsu to jikkenrei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y [Huashui Institute of Geophysical Exploration, (China); Wang, Z [Bureauof Engineering MGMR, (China); Zhang, Z [STG Corp., (China); Tanaka, Y

    1996-05-01

    A report is given here about the use of a newly-developed multi-channel surface wave data acquisition and processing system different from the conventional surface wave exploration device. This system enables the on-site pickup of a dispersion curve out of the multi-component surface wave data and, in the analysis of underground structure, performs the forward modeling and inversion. The system, furthermore, acquires and analyzes the data obtained from reflection earthquake exploration and constant microtremor observation. During a survey conducted along the highway from Port Ren-un to Xuzhou, China, estimation of the basement boundary was made by use of dynamite, and what was obtained agreed with the result of boring though with an error of 3m. In addition, this system could probe levels deeper than 100m using the instantaneous Rayleigh wave exploration method. This system and the conventional surface exploration device were compared in a soft ground in Fukui Prefecture, the former using a 10kg hammer and the latter using a 350kg exciter, when it was verified that the results produced by both techniques excellently agree with the geologic columnar section and changes in the N-value. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  16. The ascent of magma as determined by seismic tomography. The visualization of velocity structure and magma distribution from upper mantle to upper crust in Hakone volcano, northern Izu peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Shintaro; Aoyagi, Yasuhira; Toshida, Kiyoshi; Oda, Yoshiya

    2003-01-01

    Three-dimensional seismic reflection and refraction survey was carried out in Hakone volcanic area, northern part of Izu peninsula. The region is one of the most famous hot spring areas in Japan. Hakone volcano morphologically resembles one big caldera. However, the depression of the volcano consists of several small calderas which has been formed by multiple eruptions. Although sprouts of fumarolic gas and steam are identified in a few areas of the volcano, there is no historical record of volcanic eruption. Main purpose of our study is to determine the 3-dimensional deep velocity structure around the volcano using the seismic tomography processing. We deployed 44 sets of temporal offline seismic stations and a line of multi-channels seismic reflection survey cable. The seismic waves generated by some natural earthquakes and 14 dynamite explosions were observed, and their data were processed for tomography. The observation coverage was 20 km in diameter. Our result demonstrates the usefulness of high dense seismic observation in identifying and locating low velocity zones beneath the particular area. According to our tomography, low velocity zone was identified only in surface layer of the old caldera part of the volcano. We could not identify any remarkable reflector in deeper crust, as the result of wide-angle reflection survey using explosive shots. Moreover, we could not identify any other low velocity zone as far as 32 km depth by incorporating the results of other study. In other words, we think that magma is no longer supplied to Hakone volcanic area. (author)

  17. Lessons Learned from Process Safety Management: A Practical Guide to Defence in Depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langerman, N., E-mail: neal@chemical-safety.com [Advanced Chemical Safety, Inc., San Diego (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Full text: Beginning with the experiences of Alfred Nobel, the chemical enterprise has learned from failures and implemented layers of protection to prevent unwanted incidents. Nobel developed dynamite as a more stable alternative to nitroglycerin, a process we would today call “inherently safer technology”. In recent years, the USA has issued regulations requiring formal “risk management plans” to identify and mitigate production risks. The USA set up the “Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board” as an independent investigator of serious chemical enterprise incidents with a mission to issue recommendations aimed at preventing repeated incidents based on lessons learned. Following a particularly violent explosion in Texas in 1989, the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration issued the “Process Safety Management” (PSM) rule. PSM is a singular guide to defence in depth for preventing large-scale production incidents. The formalism is equally applicable to the chemical enterprise and the nuclear installation enterprise. This presentation will discuss the key elements of PSM and offer suggestions on using PSM as a guide to developing multiple layers of protection. The methods of PSM are applicable to Nuclear Generating Stations, research reactors, fuel reprocessing plants and fissile material storage and handling. Examples from both the chemical and nuclear enterprises will be used to illustrate key points. (author)

  18. EVALUATION OF STABILITY OF MASONRY MINARET IN HIGH SEISMICITY REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Čaušević, Nerman Rustempašić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a result of authors' involvement in the Project ofRehabilitation of the Ferhad-Pasha’s Mosque.The aim of the project was to construct an authentic buildingusing authentic materials, while respecting the principlesof aesthetics and the approaches of ancient builders. Thebuilding will be reconstructed to the same condition as it wasbefore destruction using similar construction methods. It isforeseen that it will be difficult to comply with this principle,due to significant developments in architecture since the initialconstruction. Monuments are precious things that must berespected, and altered as little as possible. These observationscould lead to contradictory decisions, at times accepting ahigher degree of risk in order to avoid or limit changes to theoriginal concept. The Ferhad-Pasha’s Mosque is the work of ahighly-qualified mimar (builder and muhendis (engineer, aproduct of Sinan's school.On 7 May 1993 the mosque was dynamited and razed to theground, and the material removed to the city landfill site inRamiće. The computer program SAP 2000 was used to analyzethe minarets with shell elements. Assuming no tension, it wasfound that the stress was exceeded to a greater extent underthe earthquake load. Deformations caused by shear forceshave an insignificant influence upon the rigidity of tall slenderstructures, thus they can be neglected in practical calculations.To reduce the tensile stress, which appears due to seismicmovements, we recommended two solutions.

  19. Dragon slayers: Canadian wild well tamers among the best in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polczer, S.

    1999-08-01

    Fighting oil fires is an extremely dangerous operation. Its roots trace back to the beginnings of the global petroleum industry. There are only four major well control companies around the world today, three of them in Houston, Texas and the fourth one -- Safety Boss -- in Drayton Valley, Alberta. This paper provides an historical account of how well fire fighting has developed since the early 1920s, when the technique of using dynamite to kill wild wells was pioneered by Myron Kinley of Texas. The paper also chronicles the development of `Safety Boss` formed in 1956 following the discovery of the Pembina Oilfield in the same year to meet the demands of a growing local industry. The two events which were primarily responsible for the worldwide reputation of the company -- the Lodgepole fire in 1982 and the Kuwaiti oil well fires following the Gulf War in 1991 -- are described in an effort to provide a context for the devastation of oil well blowouts and the constant danger, despite many improvements in techniques, in fighting them and bringing them under control.

  20. Investigation and analysis of hazardous waste in the Three Gorges Area of Chongqing region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li; LIU Xi-rong; WANG Li-ao; ZHOU Zai-jiang

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the investigation of hazardous waste (HW) in the Three Gorges Area of Chongqing region, which indicates that by May 2002, the dumped HW therein amounted to 14 600 t and was mainly distributed in five districts and counties with 11 000 t in Fuling, 1 650 t in Fengdu, 950 t in Wanzhou; 630 t in Wushan and 430 t in Yunyang. The total amount was composed of 9 670 t chromic residue, 2 310 t waste oil and residue, 410 t waste (false) fertilizer, 28 t waste chemical medicine, 26 t waste materials and 2 200 t other things including acid residue, waste asbestos, fluorine silicate,pigment, additive, waste acid, alkali, nitric acid, vitriol, lead mud, storage battery, calcium carbide, potassium cyanide, polluted soil, discard dynamite, waste packing barrel of cyanides, etc. In all of the HW, 578 t can be treated by chemical neutralization and stabilization technology such as redox, chemical precipitation, acid and alkali neutralization, etc., and the rest is temporarily untreatble and should be removed and piled at a temporary storage site above the 177 m water level of the dam with an aim to be transported to a future disposal site for innocuous treatment.

  1. Monitoring crop leaf area index time variation from higher resolution remotely sensed data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Sihong

    2014-01-01

    The leaf area index (LAI) is significant for research on global climate change and ecological environment. China HJ-1 satellite has a revisit cycle of four days, providing CCD data (HJ-1 CCD) with a resolution of 30 m. However, the HJ-1 CCD is incapable of obtaining observations at multiple angles. This is problematic because single angle observations provide insufficient data for determining the LAI. This article proposes a new method for determining LAI using HJ-1 CCD data. The proposed method uses background knowledge of dynamic land surface processes that are extracted from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LAI 1-km resolution data. To process the uncertainties that arise from using two data sources with different spatial resolutions, the proposed method is implemented in a dynamitic Bayesian network scheme by integrating a LAI dynamic process model and a canopy reflectance model with remotely sensed data. Validation results showed that the determination coefficient between estimated and measured LAI was 0.791, and the RMSE was 0.61. This method can enhance the accuracy of the retrieval results while retaining the time series variation characteristics of the vegetation LAI. The results suggest that this algorithm can be widely applied to determining high-resolution leaf area indices using data from China HJ-1 satellite even if information from single angle observations are insufficient for quantitative application

  2. An innovative approach to dealing with water in the blasthole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilshaw, S.R. [Pilshaw Associates, Inc., Kansas City, KS (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Anfo is much cheaper than the dynamite it has replaced for explosive fracturing, however it will only work in dry conditions. Where water conditions are present in the blasthole some alternative product or method will need to be found. One solution is to use Heavy Anfo, a blend of Anfo and emulsion. However much emulsion is added, the cost will still be much higher than pure Anfo, and the blast effects may well be damped down by the water. Wet bag cartridges may be dropped into the hole to displace the water, adding Anfo to the top of the column. This is cheaper than using Heavy Anfo, but still much more expensive than dry blasting. Pumping the water and using plastic liners is perceived as being labour-intensive, but may easily involve no more work than placing wet bags in the hole, thus making the overall cost much lower. Small amounts of water can be negated by using a self-inflating gas bag, sealing the hole at water level. The explosive column then remains dry. Upon explosion the water is driven into the rock, amplifying the effect of the blast rather than damping them. This may cost less than an all Anfo shot. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Toru to Nukui dam construction carried out by Chugoku district construction department of Ministry of construction. Kensetsusho chugoku chiho kensetsukyoku Nukui dam koji kengakuki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, E. (Chugoku Kayaku Co. Ltd. Hiroshima (Japan))

    1993-08-31

    This paper reports the summary of a tour to the Nukui dam being constructed on the Ota river system in Hiroshima Prefecture, as a study activity of the blasting expert working group. The Nukui dam has the second highest embankment in Japan (155 m). It adjusts flood at 1800 m[sup 3]/s from the planned high water discharge of 2900 m[sup 3]/s supplies water of 200,000 m[sup 3] daily at maximum, and generates electric power of 2300 kW as the maximum output. The blasting adopted a presplit system not to damage base rock beds, and was used with a bench height of 5 m, a hole diameter of 75 mm, a minimum shaft line of 2.5 m, and a hole distance of 2.8m. The main explosive used was the ANFO, No. 3 Kiri, Akatsuki dynamite. Slurry explosives were used for the presplit. Drilling machines with three-dimensional computers were used. The 'Nukui Dam Work Station' is the country's first site office/lodgings integrated facility offering as comfortable working environment as a city hotel. The facility is expected to wipe out the dirty, dangerous and hard image of construction work. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  4. Safety engineering experiments of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Noboru

    1987-07-24

    The outline of large scale experiments carried out every year since 1969 to obtain fundamental data and then establish the safety engineering standards concerning the manufacturing, storage and transportation, etc. of all explosives was described. Because it becomes recently difficult to ensure the safety distance in powder magazines and powder plants, the sandwich structure with sand is thought to be suitable as the neighboring barrier walls. The special vertical structure for embankments to provide against a emergency explosion is effective to absorb the blast. Explosion behaviors such as initiating sensitivity, detonation, sympathetic detonation, and shock occurence of the ANFO explosives in place of dynamite and the slurry explosives were studied. The safety engineering standards for the manufacturing and application of explosives were studied to establish because accidents by tabacco fire are not still distinguished. Much data concerning early stage fire fighting, a large quantity of flooding and shock occurence from a assumption of ignition during machining in the propellants manufacturing plant, could be obtained. Basic studies were made to prevent pollution in blasting sites. Collected data are utilized for the safety administration after sufficient discussion. (4 figs, 2 tabs, 3 photos, 17 refs)

  5. Interferometric seismic imaging around the active Lalor mine in the Flin Flon greenstone belt, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roots, Eric; Calvert, Andrew J.; Craven, Jim

    2017-10-01

    Seismic interferometry, which recovers the impulse response of the Earth by cross-correlation of ambient noise recorded at sets of two receivers, has found several applications, including the generation of virtual shot gathers for use in seismic reflection processing. To evaluate the effectiveness of this passive recording technique in mineral exploration in a hard-rock environment, 336 receivers recorded 300 h of ambient noise over the volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit of the recently discovered Lalor mine in the Canadian Flin Flon greenstone belt. A novel time-domain beamforming algorithm was developed to search for individual source locations, demonstrating that the vast majority of noise originated from the mine and ventilation shafts of the Lalor mine. The results of the beamforming were utilized in conjunction with frequency-wavenumber filtering to remove undesirable, mostly monochromatic surface wave noise originating from nearby sources. Virtual shot gathers were generated along three receiver lines, each of which was processed as a separate 2-D reflection line. Two of the resulting unmigrated reflection profiles are compared against coincident dipmoveout-stacked data from a larger, coincident 3-D dynamite seismic survey that was also acquired over the Lalor mine in 2013. Using knowledge of the local geology derived from numerous boreholes, coherent events recovered in the passive reflection profiles are inferred to be either spurious arrivals or real reflections, some of which can be interpreted in terms of geological contacts, indicating the future potential of passive recording surveys in hard rock settings.

  6. A seismic refraction experiment in 2000 on the Mizuho Plateau, East Antarctica (JARE-41 -Outline of observations-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Miyamachi

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A seismic refraction experiment was successfully conducted along the S17-Z20 profile on the Mizuho route, in East Antarctica, in the austral summer season of 1999-2000 (JARE-41. One hundred sixty seismic stations were temporarily installed along the profile about 180km long and five large shots with dynamite of about 600kg were fired. In addition, two shots with charge sizes of 250kg and 25kg were arranged along the profile. The obtained seismic records show the clear onsets of the first arrivals in a distance range of less than 100km from each large shot. In particular, seismic waves traveling through the ice sheet and the dispersed surface waves are distinctly observed. Some later phases are also detected. The first travel time data obtained show that a P-wave velocity in the ice sheet is 3.6-3.8km/s and an apparent velocity in the rock basement just beneath the ice sheet is almost 6.2km/s. This report describes the basic outline of the experiment and the seismic data obtained.

  7. A seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection exploration in 2002 on the Mizuho Plateau, East Antarctica-Outline of observations (JARE-43-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Miyamachi

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection exploration was successfully conducted along a profile crossing the JARE-41 seismic profile on the Mizuho Plateau, in East Antarctica, in the austral summer season of 2001-2002 (JARE-43. One hundred sixty-one seismic stations were temporarily installed along a profile about 151 km long and seven large shots with about 700 kg of dynamite were fired. In addition, one shot with charge size of 20 kg was also arranged along the profile. The obtained seismic records show the clear onsets of the first arrivals at distances of less than 100 km from each large shot. In particular, seismic waves traveling through the ice sheet and dispersed surface waves were clearly observed. Some later reflection phases were also detected. The obtained first travel time data show that the ice sheet is a two-layered structure consisting of an upper layer with a P wave velocity of 2.7-2.9 km/s and a lower layer of 3.7-3.9 km/s. The thickness of the upper layer is estimated to be about 36-45 m. The apparent velocity in the basement rock just beneath the ice sheet is 6.1-6.2 km/s in the central and southern parts of the profile and almost 5.9 km/s in the northern part. This report describes basic outlines of the exploration and the obtained seismic data.

  8. HeteroGenius: A Framework for Hybrid Analysis of Heterogeneous Software Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Giménez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, software artifacts are ubiquitous in our lives being an essential part of home appliances, cars, cell phones, and even in more critical activities like aeronautics and health sciences. In this context software failures may produce enormous losses, either economical or, in the worst case, in human lives. Software analysis is an area in software engineering concerned with the application of diverse techniques in order to prove the absence of errors in software pieces. In many cases different analysis techniques are applied by following specific methodological combinations that ensure better results. These interactions between tools are usually carried out at the user level and it is not supported by the tools. In this work we present HeteroGenius, a framework conceived to develop tools that allow users to perform hybrid analysis of heterogeneous software specifications. HeteroGenius was designed prioritising the possibility of adding new specification languages and analysis tools and enabling a synergic relation of the techniques under a graphical interface satisfying several well-known usability enhancement criteria. As a case-study we implemented the functionality of Dynamite on top of HeteroGenius.

  9. Strategic positioning of retail entrepreneurship in marketing channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Miloš

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the actual market flows and dynamiting of power ratios bring about the revolutionary changes within the marketing strategies and basic management approaches, while completely deranging the traditional value system (i.e. system established through marketing channel members' interaction. What is being altered are the market performance patterns, channel communication standards, and forms of institutional pressure manifestation toward the remainder of members which is being performed by the institution with highest economic and negotiating power. Retail company becomes the leader in development of break-the-rule strategies as well as the mutual revolutionary and innovational processes in marketing channel functioning. The final objectives of initiation of co-revolutionary retail strategy with the remainder of marketing channel members are identification and removal of all non-efficient points in the process of development and the process of adding value at all levels of distribution. In addition, these goals are the advanced management of supply chain and integration of consumers with appropriate marketing channel on a long-term basis.

  10. Observation of the dynamic movement of fragmentations by high-speed camera and high-speed video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Chul-Gi; Ogata, Yuji; Wada, Yuji; Katsuyama, Kunihisa

    1995-05-01

    The experiments of blastings using mortal concrete blocks and model concrete columns were carried out in order to obtain technical information on fragmentation caused by the blasting demolition. The dimensions of mortal concrete blocks were 1,000 X 1,000 X 1,000 mm. Six kinds of experimental blastings were carried out using mortal concrete blocks. In these experiments precision detonators and No. 6 electric detonators with 10 cm detonating fuse were used and discussed the control of fragmentation. As the results of experiment it was clear that the flying distance of fragmentation can be controlled using a precise blasting system. The reinforced concrete model columns for typical apartment houses in Japan were applied to the experiments. The dimension of concrete test column was 800 X 800 X 2400 mm and buried 400 mm in the ground. The specified design strength of the concrete was 210 kgf/cm2. These columns were exploded by the blasting with internal loading of dynamite. The fragmentation were observed by two kinds of high speed camera with 500 and 2000 FPS and a high speed video with 400 FPS. As one of the results in the experiments, the velocity of fragmentation, blasted 330 g of explosive with the minimum resisting length of 0.32 m, was measured as much as about 40 m/s.

  11. The second generation of electronic blasting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammelmann, F.; Petzold, J. [Dynamit Nobel GmbH (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    8 years after the market introduction of the first commercial electronic detonator - DYNATRONIC - the paper describes a new area of electronic blasting systems Made in Germany: i-kon. The results of a joint development between Dynamit Nobel and Orica is a unique universal electronic detonator, which is as simple to use as a standard non-electric detonator. The delay time or delay interval is not factory preprogrammed and the system is not based on a numbered system like conventional detonators. The miner or Blaster decides on site which delay timing he likes to use and is programming the whole blast on site. The new i-kon system allows delay times between 0 and 8000 ms by increments of 1 ms. With the control equipment it is possible to blast up to 1600 detonators in a single blast. The paper describes the construction and functionality of this new electronic blasting system - manufactured and developed by Precision Blasting Systems, a joint venture between Orica and Dynamic Nobel. (orig.)

  12. The Alfred Nobel rocket camera. An early aerial photography attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingemar Skoog, A.

    2010-02-01

    Alfred Nobel (1833-1896), mainly known for his invention of dynamite and the creation of the Nobel Prices, was an engineer and inventor active in many fields of science and engineering, e.g. chemistry, medicine, mechanics, metallurgy, optics, armoury and rocketry. Amongst his inventions in rocketry was the smokeless solid propellant ballistite (i.e. cordite) patented for the first time in 1887. As a very wealthy person he actively supported many Swedish inventors in their work. One of them was W.T. Unge, who was devoted to the development of rockets and their applications. Nobel and Unge had several rocket patents together and also jointly worked on various rocket applications. In mid-1896 Nobel applied for patents in England and France for "An Improved Mode of Obtaining Photographic Maps and Earth or Ground Measurements" using a photographic camera carried by a "…balloon, rocket or missile…". During the remaining of 1896 the mechanical design of the camera mechanism was pursued and cameras manufactured. In April 1897 (after the death of Alfred Nobel) the first aerial photos were taken by these cameras. These photos might be the first documented aerial photos taken by a rocket borne camera. Cameras and photos from 1897 have been preserved. Nobel did not only develop the rocket borne camera but also proposed methods on how to use the photographs taken for ground measurements and preparing maps.

  13. Seismic reflection data imaging and interpretation from Braniewo2014 experiment using additional wide-angle refraction and reflection and well-logs data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciak, Maciej; Majdański, Mariusz; Białas, Sebastian; Gaczyński, Edward; Maksym, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    Braniewo2014 reflection and refraction experiment was realized in cooperation between Polish Oil and Gas Company (PGNiG) and the Institute of Geophysics (IGF), Polish Academy of Sciences, near the locality of Braniewo in northern Poland. PGNiG realized a 20-km-long reflection profile, using vibroseis and dynamite shooting; the aim of the reflection survey was to characterise Silurian shale gas reservoir. IGF deployed 59 seismic stations along this profile and registered additional full-spread wide-angle refraction and reflection data, with offsets up to 12 km; maximum offsets from the seismic reflection survey was 3 km. To improve the velocity information two velocity logs from near deep boreholes were used. The main goal of the joint reflection-refraction interpretation was to find relations between velocity field from reflection velocity analysis and refraction tomography, and to build a velocity model which would be consistent for both, reflection and refraction, datasets. In this paper we present imaging results and velocity models from Braniewo2014 experiment and the methodology we used.

  14. Seismic experiments on Showa-Shinzan lava dome using firework shots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamachi, Hiroki; Watanabe, Hidefumi; Moriya, Takeo; Okada, Hiromu

    1987-11-01

    Seismic experiments were conducted on Showa-Shinzan, a parasitic lava dome of volcano Usu, Hokkaido, which was formed during 1943 1945 activity. Since we found that firework shots fired on the ground can effectively produce seismic waves, we placed many seismometers on and around the dome during the summer festivals in 1984 and 1985. The internal structure had been previously studied using a prospecting technique employing dynamite blasts in 1954. The measured interval velocity across the dome in 1984 ranges 1.8 2.2 km/s drastically low compared to the results (3.0 4.0 km/s) in 1954; in addition, the velocity is 0.3 0.5 km/s higher than that in the surrounding area. The variation of the observed first arrival amplitudes can be explained by geometrical spreading in the high velocity lava dome. These observations show a marked change in the internal physical state of the dome corresponding to a drop in the measured highest temperature at fumaroles on the dome from 800°C in 1947 to 310°C in 1986.

  15. Identification of hand-made and industrial explosives by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Yukio; Oikawa, Tomomasa; Tokunaga, Osamu; Nakamura, Jun; Kumooka, Yoshio

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary study was made to evaluate the use of neutron activation analysis for the characterization of hand-made and industrial explosives for forensic purpose. A total of 26 samples of Chinese firecracker, toy fireworks, sulfur and industrial explosives was analysed non-destructively. Chinese firecracker and toy fireworks showed high degree of homogenity within an individual sample and/or within the samples of the same lot. Antimony was found to be a key element in distinguishing between Chinese firecracker samples. The significant differences in ten element contents (K, Ba, Sr, Na, Br, As, Sb, Sc, La, Sm) were found among toy fireworks samples. The sulfur samples of natural origin and of by-product in refining process of oil were analysed, and the elements such as Se, As and Sb were found to be characteristic of the samples of natural origin. In analysis of industrial explosives, K, Ba and Na were detected as a characteristic element in black powder, smokeless powder of single base and Shiraume dynamite samples, respectively. (author)

  16. Investigation of lithium-thionyl chloride battery safety hazards. Final report 28 Sep 81-31 Dec 82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, A.I.; Gabriel, K.A.; Burns, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    In the ten years since the feasibility of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell was first recognized (1) remarkable progress has been made in hardware development. Cells as large as 16,000 Ah (2) and batteries of 10.8 MWh (3) have been demonstrated. In a low rate configuration, energy densities of 500 to 600 Wh/kg are easily achieved. Even in the absence of reported explosions, safety would be a concern for such a dense energetic package; the energy density of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell is approaching that of dynamite (924 Wh/kg). In fact explosions have occurred. In general the hazards associated with lithium-thionyl chloride batteries may be divided into four categories: Explosions as a result of an error in battery design. Very large cells were in prototype development prior to a full appreciation of the hazards of the system. It is possible that some of the remaining safety issues are related to cell design; Explosions as a result of external physical abuse such as cell incineration and puncture; Explosions due to short circuiting which could lead to thermal runaway reactions. These problems appear to have been solved by changes in the battery design (4); and Expolsions due to abnormal electrical operation (i.e., charging (5) and overdischarging (6) and in partially or fully discharged cells on storage (7 and 8).

  17. Investigation of lithium-thionyl chloride battery safety hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, A. I.; Gabriel, K. A.; Burns, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    In the ten years since the feasibility of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell was first recognized (1) remarkable progress has been made in hardware development. Cells as large as 16,000 Ah (2) and batteries of 10.8 MWh (3) have been demonstrated. In a low rate configuration, energy densities of 500 to 600 Wh/kg are easily achieved. Even in the absence of reported explosions, safety would be a concern for such a dense energetic package; the energy density of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell is approaching that of dynamite (924 Wh/kg). In fact explosions have occurred. In general the hazards associated with lithium-thionyl chloride batteries may be divided into four categories: Explosions as a result of an error in battery design. Very large cells were in prototype development prior to a full appreciation of the hazards of the system. It is possible that some of the remaining safety issues are related to cell design; Explosions as a result of external physical abuse such as cell incineration and puncture; Explosions due to short circuiting which could lead to thermal runaway reactions. These problems appear to have been solved by changes in the battery design (4); and Explosions due to abnormal electrical operation (i.e., charging (5) and overdischarging (6) and in partially or fully discharged cells on storage (7 and 8).

  18. Experience from the ECORS program in regions of complex geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damotte, B.

    1993-04-01

    The French ECORS program was launched in 1983 by a cooperation agreement between universities and petroleum companies. Crustal surveys have tried to find explanations for the formation of geological features, such as rifts, mountains ranges or subsidence in sedimentary basins. Several seismic surveys were carried out, some across areas with complex geological structures. The seismic techniques and equipment used were those developed by petroleum geophysicists, adapted to the depth aimed at (30-50 km) and to various physical constraints encountered in the field. In France, ECORS has recorded 850 km of deep seismic lines onshore across plains and mountains, on various kinds of geological formations. Different variations of the seismic method (reflection, refraction, long-offset seismic) were used, often simultaneously. Multiple coverage profiling constitutes the essential part of this data acquisition. Vibrators and dynamite shots were employed with a spread generally 15 km long, but sometimes 100 km long. Some typical seismic examples show that obtaining crustal reflections essentialy depends on two factors: (1) the type and structure of shallow formations, and (2) the sources used. Thus, when seismic energy is strongly absorbed across the first kilometers in shallow formations, or when these formations are highly structured, standard multiple-coverage profiling is not able to provide results beyond a few seconds. In this case, it is recommended to simultaneously carry out long-offset seismic in low multiple coverage. Other more methodological examples show: how the impact on the crust of a surface fault may be evaluated according to the seismic method implemented ( VIBROSEIS 96-fold coverage or single dynamite shot); that vibrators make it possible to implement wide-angle seismic surveying with an offset 80 km long; how to implement the seismic reflection method on complex formations in high mountains. All data were processed using industrial seismic software

  19. Actively Negotiating the Mind-Body Divide: How Clozapine-Treated Schizophrenia Patients Make Health for Themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julia E H; Dennis, Simone

    2017-09-01

    It is well recognised that antipsychotic treatments impact the whole body, not just the target area of the brain. For people with refractory schizophrenia on clozapine, the gold standard antipsychotic treatment in England and Australia, the separation of mental and physical regimes of health is particularly pronounced, resulting in multiple, compartmentalised treatment registers. Clinicians often focus on the mental health aspects of clozapine use, using physical indicators to determine whether treatment can continue. Our observations of 59 participants in England and Australia over 18 months revealed that patients did not observe this hierarchisation of mental treatments and physical outcomes. Patients often actively engaged in the management of their bodily symptoms, leading us to advance the figure of the active, rather than passive, patient. In our paper, we do not take the position that the facility for active management is a special one utilised only by these patients. We seek instead to draw attention to what is currently overlooked as an ordinary capacity to enact some sort of control over life, even under ostensibly confined and confining circumstances. We argue that clozapine-treated schizophrenia patients utilise the clinical dichotomy between mental and physical domains of health to rework what health means to them. This permits patients to actively manage their own phenomenological 'life projects' (Rapport, I am Dynamite: an Alternative Anthropology of Power, Routledge, London 2003), and forces us to reconsider the notion of clinical giveness of what health means. This making of one's own meanings of health may be critical to the maintenance of a sense of self.

  20. The Correlation between Radon Emission Concentration and Subsurface Geological Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntoro, Yudi; Setiawan, Herru L.; Wijayanti, Teni; Haerudin, Nandi

    2018-03-01

    Exploration activities with standard methods have already encountered many obstacles in the field. Geological survey is often difficult to find outcrop because they are covered by vegetation, alluvial layer or as a result of urban development and housing. Seismic method requires a large expense and licensing in the use of dynamite is complicated. Method of gravity requires the operator to go back (looping) to the starting point. Given some of these constraints, therefore it needs a solution in the form of new method that can work more efficiently with less cost. Several studies in various countries have shown a correlation between the presence of hydrocarbons and Radon gas concentration in the earth surface. By utilizing the properties of Radon that can migrate to the surface, the value of Radon concentration in the surface is suggested to provide information about the subsurface structure condition. Radon is the only radioactive substance that gas-phased at atmospheric temperature. It is very abundant in the earth mantle. The vast differences of temperatures and pressures between the mantle and the earth crust cause the convection flow toward earth surface. Radon in gas phase will be carried by convection flow to the surface. The quantity of convection currents depend on the porosity and permeability of rocks where Radon travels within, so that Radon concentration in the earth surface delineates the porosity and permeability of subsurface rock layers. Some measurements were carried out at several locations with various subsurface geological conditions, including proven oil fields, proven geothermal field, and frontier area as a comparison. These measurements show that the average and the background concentration threshold in the proven oil field (11,200 Bq/m3) and proven geothermal field (7,820 Bq/m3) is much higher than the quantity in frontier area (329 and 1,620 Bq/m3). Radon concentration in the earth surface is correlated with the presence of geological

  1. Reflection seismic studies in the Forsmark area - stage 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhlin, Christopher; Bergman Bjoern; Palm, Hans [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2002-10-01

    Reflection seismic data were acquired in the Spring of 2002 in the Forsmark area, located about 70 km northeast of Uppsala, Sweden. The Forsmark area has been targeted by SKB as a possible storage site for high level radioactive waste. About 16 km of high resolution seismic data were acquired along five separate profiles varying in length from 2 to 5 km. Non-final source and receiver spacing was 10 m with 100 active channels when recording data from a dynamite source (15-75 g). The profiles were located within a relatively undeformed lens of bedrock that trends in the NW-SE direction. The lens is surrounded by highly deformed rock on all sides. In conjunction with the reflection component of the study, all shots were also recorded on up to eleven 3-component fixed Orion seismographs. These recordings provided long offset data from which a velocity model of the uppermost 400 m of bedrock could be derived. Results from the study show that the bedrock has been well imaged down to depths of at least 3 km. The upper 1000 m of bedrock is much more reflective in the southeastern portion of the lens compared to the northwestern part close to the Forsmark reactors. This is interpreted as the bedrock being more homogeneous in the northwest. However, a major reflective zone (the A1 reflector) is interpreted to dip to the S-SE below this homogeneous bedrock. In the southeastern portion of the lens the orientation of the reflectors is well determined where the profiles cross one another. The general strike of the major reflectors is NE-SW with dips of 20-35 degrees to the southeast.

  2. Collapsing (New Buildings: Town Planning, History and Music in Hubertus Siegert's Berlin Babylon (2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hurley

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hubertus Siegert’s impressionistic documentary, Berlin Babylon, illuminates the demolition and urban renewal of Berlin during the mid-late 1990s. This was a critical phase in the city’s history, as it prepared, amidst a flurry of excitement and anticipation, to become the united Germany's seat of power. Siegert's film seeks to give pause for thought, but deliberately eschews a “voice of god” voiceover, opting instead for a poetic audiovisual montage. This includes shots of the cityscape (and its lacunae, archival footage documenting the wartime devastation and subsequent dynamiting of buildings, observational cinema of the city’s busy building sites, and of verbal snippets from various architects, developers and politicians––following the film title’s cue, the agents in a rerun of the construction of the Tower of Babel––as well as epigraphs from the Bible and Walter Benjamin, and a prominent soundscape and musical score. As this article will demonstrate, the film’s (mostly sombre soundtrack plays a critical role here, commenting on the footage, and beyond that on the whole project of the new ‘Berlin Republic’ and its attitude to architectural heritage and twentieth century history. Re-figuring the theme of this volume, Berlin Babylon’s music is a form of writing about (collapsing, old architecture and history. And yet, the soundtrack is not as unambiguous as a voiceover might have been, and thereby allows creative space for the audience’s interpretation, a matter that was very important to the film’s director. This article will focus, in particular, on three elements: the use (and treatment of historical recordings in the film; the use of silence; and finally the way in which tracks from the Berlin band Einstürzende Neubauten use music, noise and text to comment on the project of the new Berlin.

  3. Synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, David E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate esters have been known as useful energetic materials since the discovery of nitroglycerin by Ascanio Sobrero in 1846. The development of methods to increase the safety and utility of nitroglycerin by Alfred Nobel led to the revolutionary improvement in the utility of nitroglycerin in explosive applications in the form of dynamite. Since then, many nitrate esters have been prepared and incorporated into military applications such as double-based propellants, detonators and as energetic plasticizers. Nitrate esters have also been shown to have vasodilatory effects in humans and thus have been studied and used for treatments of ailments such as angina. The mechanism of the biological response towards nitrate esters has been elucidated recently. Interestingly, many of the nitrate esters used for military purposes are liquids (ethylene glycol dinitrate, propylene glycol dinitrate, etc). Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) is one of the only solid nitrate esters, besides nitrocellulose, that is used in any application. Unfortunately, PETN melting point is above 100 {sup o}C, and thus must be pressed as a solid for detonator applications. A more practical material would be a melt-castable explosive, for potential simplification of manufacturing processes. Herein we describe the synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester (1) that is a solid at ambient temperatures, has a melting point of 85-86 {sup o}C and has the highest density of any known nitrate ester composed only of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. We also describe the chemical, thermal and sensitivity properties of 1 as well as some preliminary explosive performance data.

  4. Perspectives of Single-Wall Carbon Nano-tube Production in the Arc Discharge Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krestinin, A.V.; Kiselev, N.A.; Raevskii, A.V; Ryabenko, A.G.; Zakharov, D.N.; Zvereva, G.I.

    2003-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nano tubes (SWNTs) promise wide applications in many technical fields. As a result purified SWNT material is sold now on the West market at more than 1000 dollars per 1 gram. Thus developing an effective technology for SWNTs production rises to a very important sintofene problem. The perspectives of three existing methods providing raw material in the technology of SWNT production have been analyzed. They are i) pulsed laser evaporation of graphite/metal composites, ii) evaporation of graphite electrodes with metal content in the are discharge process, and iii) catalytic decomposition of the mixture of CO and metal carbonyl catalyst precursor. The observed dynamites of SWNT market points to replacing the laser method of SWNTs production by the are process. The conclusion has been made that the technology based on the are process will be the major one for the fabrication of purified SWNTs at least for the next five years. A reliable estimation of a low price limit of SWNTs was derived from a comparison of two technologies based on the are discharge process: the first one is the production of SWNTs and the second one is the production of a fullerene mixture C 6 0 + C 7 0. The main conclusion was made that the price of purified SWNTs should always be more by 2-3 times the price of fullerene mixture. The parameters of a lab-scale technology for the production of purified SWNTs are listed. A large-scale application of the developed technology is expected to reduce the price of purified SWNTs by approximately ten times. The methods now employed for the characterization of products containing SWNTs are briefly observed. It is concluded that electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, absorption and Raman spectroscopy, measurement of the specific surface aria, optical microscopy - each in separation is not enough for extensive characterization of a sample containing SWNTs, and all these methods should be used together. (author)

  5. Three-dimensional cascaded system analysis of a 50 µm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C; Vassiljev, N; Konstantinidis, A C; Speller, R D; Kanicki, J

    2017-03-07

    High-resolution, low-noise x-ray detectors based on the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology have been developed and proposed for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this study, we evaluated the three-dimensional (3D) imaging performance of a 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). The two-dimensional (2D) angle-dependent modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were experimentally characterized and modeled using the cascaded system analysis at oblique incident angles up to 30°. The cascaded system model was extended to the 3D spatial frequency space in combination with the filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction method to calculate the 3D and in-plane MTF, NNPS and DQE parameters. The results demonstrate that the beam obliquity blurs the 2D MTF and DQE in the high spatial frequency range. However, this effect can be eliminated after FBP image reconstruction. In addition, impacts of the image acquisition geometry and detector parameters were evaluated using the 3D cascaded system analysis for DBT. The result shows that a wider projection angle range (e.g.  ±30°) improves the low spatial frequency (below 5 mm -1 ) performance of the CMOS APS detector. In addition, to maintain a high spatial resolution for DBT, a focal spot size of smaller than 0.3 mm should be used. Theoretical analysis suggests that a pixelated scintillator in combination with the 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS detector could further improve the 3D image resolution. Finally, the 3D imaging performance of the CMOS APS and an indirect amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film transistor (TFT) passive pixel sensor (PPS) detector was simulated and compared.

  6. Gas pollutants from detonation and combustion of industrial explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, J.; Pines, A.; Gois, J.C.; Portugal, A. (University of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal). Mechanical Engineering Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    The potential hazards of fumes, from blasting operations in underground mines, have long been recognised. Beyond this normal use of explosives, there are also large amounts of energy substances which cannot be used because their life time is outdated or they are not within the minimal quality requirements. There is a lack of information concerning tests, procedures and theoretical predictions of pollutant concentrations in fumes from detonation and combustion operations with industrial explosives. The most common industrial explosives in Portugal are ammonium nitrate-fuel oil compositions (anfo), and dynamite. Recently, ammonium nitrate based emulsion explosives are more and more used in industrial applications. This paper presents the structure and fundamental thermodynamic equations of THOR computer code to calculate the combustion and detonation products (CO[sub 2], CO, H[sub 2]O, N[sub 2], O[sub 2], H[sub 2], OH, NO, H, N, O, HCN, NH[sub 3], NO[sub 2], N[sub 2]O, CH[sub 4] gases and two kinds of solid carbon - graphite and diamond) for the minimum value of Gibbs free energy, using three well known equations of state - BKW, H9 and H12. Detonation experiments are described and gas analysis discussed. Measured pollutants concentrations (CO, CO[sub 2], NO and NO[sub 2]), as a function of volume of explosion chamber, prove the dependence of expansion mechanisms on CO and NO formation and recombination and validate theoretical predictions. Incineration of explosives in a fluidised bed is described. Products composition from isobare adiabatic combustion of selected explosives has been calculated and correlated with previous calculations for a detonation regime. The obtained results demonstrate the possibility of predicting gas composition of detonation and combustion products of industrial explosives. 22 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Structural and Tectonic Map Along the Pacific-North America Plate Boundary in Northern Gulf of California, Sonora Desert and Valle de Mexicali, Mexico, from Seismic Reflection Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Escobar, M.; Suarez-Vidal, F.; Mendoza-Borunda, R.; Martin Barajas, A.; Pacheco-Romero, M.; Arregui-Estrada, S.; Gallardo-Mata, C.; Sanchez-Garcia, C.; Chanes-Martinez, J.

    2012-12-01

    Between 1978 and 1983, Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) carried on an intense exploration program in the northern Gulf of California, the Sonora Desert and the southern part of the Mexicali Valley. This program was supported by a seismic reflection field operation. The collected seismic data was 2D, with travel time of 6 s recording, in 48 channels, and the source energy was: dynamite, vibroseis and air guns. Since 2007 to present time, the existing seismic data has been re-processing and ire-interpreting as part of a collaboration project between the PEMEX's Subdirección de Exploración (PEMEX) and CICESE. The study area is located along a large portion of the Pacific-North America plate boundary in the northern Gulf of California and the Southern part of the Salton Trough tectonic province (Mexicali Valley). We present the result of the processes reflection seismic lines. Many of the previous reported known faults were identify along with the first time described located within the study region. We identified regions with different degree of tectonic activity. In structural map it can see the location of many of these known active faults and their associated seismic activity, as well as other structures with no associated seismicity. Where some faults are mist placed they were deleted or relocated based on new information. We included historical seismicity for the region. We present six reflection lines that cross the aftershocks zone of the El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake of April 4, 2010 (Mw7.2). The epicenter of this earthquake and most of the aftershocks are located in a region where pervious to this earthquake no major earthquakes are been reported. A major result of this study is to demonstrate that there are many buried faults that increase the seismic hazard.

  8. Marine fisheries in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiddawi, Narriman S; Ohman, Marcus C

    2002-12-01

    Fishery resources are a vital source of food and make valuable economic contributions to the local communities involved in fishery activities along the 850 km stretch of the Tanzania coastline and numerous islands. Small-scale artisanal fishery accounts for the majority of fish catch produced by more than 43 000 fishermen in the country, mainly operating in shallow waters within the continental shelf, using traditional fishing vessels including small boats, dhows, canoes, outrigger canoes and dinghys. Various fishing techniques are applied using uncomplicated passive fishing gears such as basket traps, fence traps, nets as well as different hook and line techniques. Species composition and size of the fish varies with gear type and location. More than 500 species of fish are utilized for food with reef fishes being the most important category including emperors, snappers, sweetlips, parrotfish, surgeonfish, rabbitfish, groupers and goatfish. Most of the fish products are used for subsistence purposes. However, some are exported. Destructive fishing methods such as drag nets and dynamite fishing pose a serious problem as they destroy important habitats for fish and other organisms, and there is a long-term trend of overharvested fishery resources. However, fishing pressure varies within the country as fishery resources are utilized in a sustainable manner in some areas. For this report more than 340 references about Tanzanian fishery and fish ecology were covered. There are many gaps in terms of information needed for successful fishery management regarding both basic and applied research. Most research results have been presented as grey literature (57%) with limited distribution; only one-fifth were scientific publications in international journals.

  9. Performance of a novel wafer scale CMOS active pixel sensor for bio-medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, M; Evans, P M; Wells, K; Anaxagoras, T; Konstantinidis, A C; Zheng, Y; Speller, R D; Allinson, N M

    2014-01-01

    detector compared to FPIs. Optical characterization, x-ray contrast measurements and theoretical DQE evaluation suggest that a trade off can be found between the need of a large imaging area and the requirement of a uniform imaging performance, making the DynAMITe large area CMOS APS suitable for a range of bio-medical applications. (paper)

  10. Do air-gaps behind soft body armour affect protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilsley, Lee; Carr, D J; Lankester, C; Malbon, C

    2018-02-01

    Body armour typically comprises a fabric garment covering the torso combined with hard armour (ceramic/composite). Some users wear only soft armour which provides protection from sharp weapons and pistol ammunition. It is usually recommended that body armour is worn against the body with no air-gaps being present between the wearer and the armour. However, air-gaps can occur in certain situations such as females around the breasts, in badly fitting armour and where manufacturers have incorporated an air-gap claiming improvements in thermophysiological burden. The effect of an air-gap on the ballistic protection and the back face signature (BFS) as a result of a non-perforating ballistic impact was determined. Armour panels representative of typical police armour (400x400 mm) were mounted on calibrated Roma Plastilina No 1 and impacted with 9 mm Luger FMJ (9×19 mm; full metal jacket; Dynamit Nobel DM11A1B2) ammunition at 365±10 m/s with a range of air-gaps (0-15 mm). Whether or not the ammunition perforated the armour was noted, the BFS was measured and the incidence of pencilling (a severe, deep and narrow BFS) was identified. For 0° impacts, a critical air-gap size of 10 mm is detrimental to armour performance for the armour/ammunition combination assessed in this work. Specifically, the incidences of pencilling were more common with a 10 mm air-gap and resulted in BFS depth:volume ratios ≥1.0. For impacts at 30° the armour was susceptible to perforation irrespective of air-gap. This work suggested that an air-gap behind police body armour might result in an increased likelihood of injury. It is recommended that body armour is worn with no air-gap underneath. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Performance of a novel wafer scale CMOS active pixel sensor for bio-medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, M; Anaxagoras, T; Konstantinidis, A C; Zheng, Y; Speller, R D; Evans, P M; Allinson, N M; Wells, K

    2014-07-07

    detector compared to FPIs. Optical characterization, x-ray contrast measurements and theoretical DQE evaluation suggest that a trade off can be found between the need of a large imaging area and the requirement of a uniform imaging performance, making the DynAMITe large area CMOS APS suitable for a range of bio-medical applications.

  12. Mortality among sulfide ore miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlman, K.; Koskela, R.S.; Kuikka, P.; Koponen, M.; Annanmaeki, M.

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer mortality was studied during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township in North Karelia, where an old copper mine was located. Age-specific lung cancer death rates (1968-1985) were higher among the male population of Outokumpu than among the North Karelian male population of the same age excluding the Outokumpu district (p less than .01). Of all 106 persons who died from lung cancer during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township, 47 were miners of the old mine, 39 of whom had worked there for at least three years and been heavily exposed to radon daughters and silica dust. The study cohort consisted of 597 miners first employed between 1954 and 1973 by a new copper mine and a zinc mine, and employed there for at least 3 years. The period of follow-up was 1954-1986. The number of person-years was 14,782. The total number of deaths was 102; the expected number was 72.8 based on the general male population and 97.8 based on the mortality of the male population of North Karelia. The excess mortality among miners was due mainly to ischemic heart disease (IHD); 44 were observed, the expected number was 22.1, based on the general male population, and the North Karelian expected number was 31.2 (p less than .05). Of the 44 miners who died from IHD, 20 were drillers or chargers exposed to nitroglycerin in dynamite charges, but also to several simultaneous stress factors including PAHs, noise, vibration, heavy work, accident risk, and working alone. Altogether 16 tumors were observed in the cohort. Ten of these were lung cancers, the expected number being 4.3. Miners who had died from lung cancer were 35-64 years old, and had entered mining work between 1954 and 1960. Five of the ten lung cancer cases came from the zinc mine (1.7 expected). Three of them were conductors of diesel-powered ore trains

  13. The Marine Food Chain in Relation to Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R.G. Price

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity provides “raw materials” for the food chain and seafood production, and also influences the capacity of ecosystems to perform these and other services. Harvested marine seafood species now exceed 100 million t y -1 and provide about 6% of all protein and 17% of animal protein consumed by humans. These resources include representatives from about nine biologically diverse groups of plants and animals. Fish account for most of the world’s marine catches, of which only 40 species are taken in abundance. Highest primary productivity and the richest fisheries are found within Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ. This narrow strip (200 nautical mile/370 km wide is not only the site of coastal “food factories” but also the area associated with heaviest perturbation to the marine environment. Structural redundancy is evident in marine ecosystems, in that many species are interchangeable in the way they characterise assemblage composition. While there is probably functional redundancy within groups, the effects of species loss on ecosystem performance cannot be easily predicted. In particular, the degree to which biodiversity per se is needed for ecosystem services, including seafood/fishery production, is poorly understood. Many human activities, including unsustainable fishing and mariculture, lead to erosion of marine biodiversity. This can undermine the biophysical cornerstones of fisheries and have other undesirable environmental side effects. Of direct concern are “species effects”, in particular the removal of target and non-target fishery species, as well as conservationally important fauna. Equally disrupting but less immediate are “ecosystem effects”, such as fishing down the food web, following a shift from harvested species of high to low trophic level. Physical and biological disturbances from trawl nets and dynamite fishing on coral reefs can also severely impact ecosystem structure and function.

  14. Development and test of a high-resolution detector for synchrotron radiation imaging; Entwicklung und Test eines hochaufloesenden Detektors zur Bildgebung mit Synchrotronstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruebsamen, Oliver

    2011-07-01

    over many readout strips. This problem is reduced by a small gap (< 1mm) between the cathode and the anode strips, so that the solid angle for detected fluorescence photons gets very small. The small gap in combination with the high pressure reduces also the diffusion process, since the mean free path of drifting electrons is proportional to the inverse of the pressure and the spread due to diffusion is proportional to the square root of the gap. The time resolution is limited by the ion drift velocity, typically of the order of cm/{mu}sec and the readout electronics. With a gap of 0.5 mm, timing resolutions of 100 {mu}sec are possible. In combination with already tested Jamex readout electronics, which provide a readout cycle of 128 {mu}sec, dynamit heat measurements even for small animals are possible. The aim of this thesis is to discover the physical limits of the described ionization chamber by developed simulation software. This simulation considers the physical processes inside the gas volume after exposure to a monochromatic x-ray beam, as well as the detector geometry to calculate the spread of the charge cloud. A prototype detector is build to demonstrate the technical realizations of such a detector design and to show the physical limits of the simulation via a simple experiment. Furthermore, a prediction of spatial resolutions of this detector type according to the developed software is shown. (orig.)

  15. Real-time co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system based on FPGA and DSP architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqasemi, Umar; Li, Hai; Aguirre, Andres; Zhu, Quing

    2011-03-01

    performs image processing including demodulation, beam envelope detection and scan conversion. Additionally, the PC code pre-calculates the delay coefficients used for transmission focusing and receiving dynamic focusing for different types of transducers to speed up the imaging process. To further speed up the imaging process, a multi-threads technique is implemented in order to allow formation of previous image frame data and acquisition of the next one simultaneously. The system is also capable of doing semi-real-time automated SO2 imaging at 10 seconds per frame by changing the wavelength knob of the laser automatically using a stepper motor controlled by the system. Initial in vivo experiments were performed on animal tumors to map out its vasculature and hypoxia level, which were superimposed on co-registered US images. The real-time system allows capturing co-registered US/PA images free of motion artifacts and also provides dynamitic information when contrast agents are used.

  16. Surface 3-D reflection seismics - implementation at the Olkiluoto site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saksa, P.; Lehtimaeki, T.; Heikkinen, E. [Poeyry Environment Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2007-03-15

    as weak scatterers. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering Ab (SKB) has conducted 2-D seismic surveys at Oskarshamn and Forsmark investigation areas in Sweden and a 3-D seismic test on Aevroe island at Oskarshamn. Both dynamite and mechanical VIBSIST has been used as wave sources. Report describes measurement procedures and some results gained. Promising results correlated to borehole logging were also obtained in Aevroe 3-D test although the fold was low (about 12). A moving source-receiver, Pulled Array Seismic (PAS), system tested at Oskarshamn did not prove useful. Report contains also results from two ore body targeted 3D surveys. For Olkiluoto the study evaluates a few subareas for 3-D seismic test survey. The objective is to map continuity of gently dipping reflectors, variations in their locations and possible dislocations. One surveying configuration with adequate coverage, accuracy and detectability over more than 500 x 500 m area is discussed. Surveys over discrete subareas should be tied together if carried out separately. Imaging of steeply dipping reflectors require long source-receiver offsets or detection of time delays. (orig.)

  17. Model of the seismic velocity distribution in the upper lithosphere of the Vrancea seismogenic zone and within the adjacent areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raileanu, Victor; Bala, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    The task of this project is to perform a detailed seismic velocity model of the P waves in the crust and upper mantle crossed by the VRANCEA 2001 seismic line and to interpret it in structural terms. The velocity model aims to contribute to a new geodynamical model of the Eastern Carpathians evolution and to a better understanding of the causes of the Vrancea earthquakes. It is performed in cooperation with the University of Karlsruhe, Germany, and University of Bucharest. The Project will be completed in 5 working stages. Vrancea 2001 is the name of the seismic line recorded with about 780 seismic instruments deployed over more then 600 km length from eastern part of Romania (east Tulcea) through Vrancea area to Aiud and south Oradea. 10 big shots with charges from 300 kg to 1500 kg dynamite were detonated along seismic line. Field data quality is from good to very good and it provides information down to the upper mantle levels. Processing of data has been performed in the first stage of present project and it consisted in merging of all individual field records in seismograms for each shotpoint. Almost 800 individual records for each out of the 10 shots were merged in 10 seismograms with about 800 channels. A seismogram of shot point S (25 km NE of Ramnicu Sarat) is given. It is visible a high energy generated by shotpoint S. Pn wave can be traced until the western end of seismic line, about 25 km from source. In the second stage of project an interpretation of seismic data is achieved for the first 5 seismograms from the eastern half of seismic line, from Tulcea to Ramnicu Sarat. It is used a forward modeling procedure. 5 unidimensional (1D) velocity-depth function models are obtained. P wave velocity-depth function models for shotpoints from O to T are presented. Velocity-depth information is extended down to 40 km for shot R and 80 km for shot S. It should noticed the unusually high velocities at the shallow levels for Dobrogea area (O and P shots) and the

  18. Surface 3-D reflection seismics - implementation at the Olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, P.; Lehtimaeki, T.; Heikkinen, E.

    2007-03-01

    as weak scatterers. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering Ab (SKB) has conducted 2-D seismic surveys at Oskarshamn and Forsmark investigation areas in Sweden and a 3-D seismic test on Aevroe island at Oskarshamn. Both dynamite and mechanical VIBSIST has been used as wave sources. Report describes measurement procedures and some results gained. Promising results correlated to borehole logging were also obtained in Aevroe 3-D test although the fold was low (about 12). A moving source-receiver, Pulled Array Seismic (PAS), system tested at Oskarshamn did not prove useful. Report contains also results from two ore body targeted 3D surveys. For Olkiluoto the study evaluates a few subareas for 3-D seismic test survey. The objective is to map continuity of gently dipping reflectors, variations in their locations and possible dislocations. One surveying configuration with adequate coverage, accuracy and detectability over more than 500 x 500 m area is discussed. Surveys over discrete subareas should be tied together if carried out separately. Imaging of steeply dipping reflectors require long source-receiver offsets or detection of time delays. (orig.)

  19. Facing the great disaster : How the men and women of the U.S. Geological Survey responded to the 1906 "San Francisco Earthquake"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvard, Elizabeth M.; Rogers, James

    2006-01-01

    octogenarian, in a 2005 interview. Recalling the stories she heard of these events while growing up, Anna added, “Fortunately [the hotel] hadn’t fallen down.”George Davis, a tall man with a quiet demeanor and a dry wit, was accompanied to San Francisco by fellow USGS topographer Clarence L. Nelson. Both were 29 years old and in excellent physical condition after a year spent mapping the Mount Whitney quadrangle, which includes some of the most rugged terrain in the conterminous United States.On their arrival in San Francisco, the pair was fortunate to find the elder Davis unharmed at the hotel where he had been living. Nelson—handsome, athletic, and artistic—had brought his camera in order to get photographs while things were still “hot” and began taking what were to become a memorable set of images. The three men wandered through San Francisco all night and through the following morning, moving from one dramatic scene to the next. Nelson captured the horse-mounted “dynamite squad,” soldiers marching on Van Ness Avenue, and a rare scene of two horsedrawn fire engines with one engine drawing water from a cistern on Union Street. One ironic photograph shows refugees making their way through rubble-filled streets in the direction of a wrecked City Hall. Flames from the burning heart of the city shone brightly against the darkness, and Nelson captured the surreal glow in several of his photographs, including one of Union Square with the Breuners building burning in the background.

  20. 中国电力系统低碳转型的路径探析——基于社会技术转型思路%Exploring Transition Pathways for a Decarbonized Electricity System in China——Based on the Socio-technical Transition Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卓淳; 姚遂

    2012-01-01

    The Multi-lever Perspective (MLP) of socio-technical transition is the new development of transition theory. It claims that transition is a non-linear and evolutional process through three interlocking levers (technological niches in micro-lever, socio-technical regime in meso-lever, landscape in macro-lever) , and seeks to understand the long time changes of the socio-technical regime by analyzing the interaction between technological and social factors. Drawing upon MLP approach and its typology of transition pathways, this paper first describes and analyses the dynamitic changes that have taken place in the electricity system in China . Then it proposes a conceptual framework of the transition pathways for a decarbonized electricity system, in short-term, mid-term and long-term dimensions. Along the short-term transformation path, the electricity system continues and extends existing institutional structures and governance models. It will achieve the government' s 2020 emission reduction targets and renewable energy targets, through the regime actors' conscious adjustment of their innovation and development directions, which will mitigate the internal conflicts and pressures in the regime. Along the mid-term reconfiguration path, electricity system will experience substantive changes in electricity resource structure. Thermal power gradually decreases. Its dominance will be challenged by the renewable energy generation. The power system will turn out to be diversified mode. With the final breakthroughs of innovation of new low-carbon energy technologies, high-carbon coal power system will eventually be replaced by low-carbon system along the long-term re-alignment path. Theoretically and methodologically, this analysis will enrich the debates on low-carbon transition in China. It will also be useful informing policy-makers and other stakeholders.%社会技术转型的多层视角(MLP)是转型理论的最新进展,它认为转型是由三个层面——微观

  1. A practical field survey on equipments for physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, T.; Kubortera, H.; Kurihara, H.; Yagi, T.; Shibata, T.; Murajiri, M.

    2001-01-01

    test, was generated after the improvement of the test chamber. (3) Performance Test of Entry-Control Equipment - Hand-Geometry Identifier (3-dimension type) was selected and subjected for the performance test. Over 30 men and women among the employees of our facility were randomly selected for the test. Each of them posed their hand for 120∼280 times during the test. Both of Type I Error (rejection of authorized person) and Type II Error (acceptance of un-authorized person) were estimated. In standard setting, (Type 1 Error) (Type 2 Error) it was proven to be possible to realize the inverse situation if necessary, by shifting these settings. (4) Breaching-Test of indoor-barrier - Reinforced-Concrete wall, general-purpose door and reinforced door were selected and exposed for breaching by hands using portable power-tools. Breaching of the reinforced-concrete wall was completed (cut aperture with enough size for passing human) in 88 minutes using electric-hammer, 48 minutes using engine-hammer. 264 secs. needed for melting down the latch of general-purpose door, and 1,323 secs. for burning off the aperture in reinforced door. (5) Blow-up Test of barrier - Reinforced-concrete wall (300 mm thickness), quasi-reinforced door 1 (50 mm thickness door composed of steel-plate with 2.3 mm thickness) and quasi-reinforced door 11 (50 mm thickness door composed of stainless- steel-plate with 2 mm thickness) were submitted for blow-up test using dynamite and shaped-charge block. 4-6 minutes were needed for intrusion from reinforced-Concrete wall, and 217 secs. /238 secs. for both type of quasi-reinforced door. (6) Alarm-Assessment system Test - In this test, we have measured the time needed to assess and evaluate the alarm by surveillance using CCTV. The outdoor-tests were carried out under various situation such as daytime/night, covert/overt intrusion, fair weather/rainy day, and also under combined conditions stated above. The assessments were completed in all the cases. The

  2. Solar flare leaves sun quaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Dr. Alexander G. Kosovichev, a senior research scientist from Stanford University, and Dr. Valentina V. Zharkova from Glasgow (United Kingdom) University found the tell-tale seismic signature in data on the Sun's surface collected by the Michelson Doppler Imager onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft immediately following a moderate-sized flare on July 9, 1996. "Although the flare was a moderate one, it still released an immense amount of energy," said Dr. Craig Deforest, a researcher with the SOHO project. "The energy released is equal to completely covering the Earth's continents with a yard of dynamite and detonating it all at once." SOHO is a joint project of the European Space Agency and NASA. The finding is reported in the May 28 issue of the journal Nature, and is the subject of a press conference at the spring meeting of the American Geophysical Union in Boston, Mass., May 27. The solar quake that the science team recorded looks much like ripples spreading from a rock dropped into a pool of water. But over the course of an hour, the solar waves traveled for a distance equal to 10 Earth diameters before fading into the fiery background of the Sun's photosphere. Unlike water ripples that travel outward at a constant velocity, the solar waves accelerated from an initial speed of 22,000 miles per hour to a maximum of 250,000 miles per hour before disappearing. "People have looked for evidence of seismic waves from flares before, but they didn't have a theory so they didn't know where to look," says Kosovichev. Several years ago Kosovichev and Zharkova developed a theory that can explain how a flare, which explodes in space above the Sun's surface, can generate a major seismic wave in the Sun's interior. According to the currently accepted model of solar flares, the primary explosion creates high-energy electrons (electrically charged subatomic particles). These are funneled down into a magnetic flux tube, an invisible tube of magnetic