WorldWideScience

Sample records for dynamite

  1. Fare well, Nobel The end of dynamite. Adieu, Nobel La fin de la dynamite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducas, M.-C.

    1992-05-01

    A new technique for rock blasting has been devised which does not use dynamite. An electrode is placed into a drill hole which is filled with water. When a strong electric charge is sent to the electrode, the water is converted to a highly ionized gas which bursts the rock. The technique is inexpensive, requires less preparation than dynamite blasting and less working 'down time'. More research is required to make the technique useful in large scale situations.

  2. Napoleon Dynamite: Asperger's Disorder or Geek NOS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Hope W.; Schlozman, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Napoleon Dynamite, the quirky hit film from 2004, is a fascinating portrayal of a teenager with social difficulties. The character Napoleon provokes intriguing diagnostic questions in distinguishing between mental illness and the spectrum of normal behavior. He demonstrates several symptoms of Asperger's disorder, yet he also challenges the notion…

  3. The implementation of dynamite: an environment for migrating PVM tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Iskra; F. van der Linden; Z.W. Hendrikse; B.J. Overeinder; G.D. van Albada; P.M.A. Sloot

    2000-01-01

    Parallel programming on clusters of workstations is increasingly attractive, but dynamic load balancing is needed to make efficient use of the available resources. Dynamite provides dynamic load balancing for PVM applications running under Linux and Solaris. It supports migration of individual tasks

  4. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) D Appendix D to Part 173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE...—Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) 1. Test method D-1—Leakage Test A wooden...

  5. Study of the suitability of DUO plastic bags for the storage of dynamites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz, Jorge; Ferrando, José-Luis; Atoche, Juan-Carlos; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-10-10

    A comparative study on the retentiveness of two plastic bags (DUO and Royal Pack) has been carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Two types of dynamites were packed in both plastic bags. The bags were placed into glass jars and headspace analyses were performed over 11 weeks to detect whether the volatile constituents of the dynamites were released from the bags. DUO plastic bags showed much better retentiveness than Royal Pack plastic bags. Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) was quickly detected in the headspace of the glass jars containing Royal Pack plastic bags after 1 week of storage. On the contrary, only a weak signal of EGDN, which was not detectable in the total ion chromatogram, was detected after 11 weeks of storage. Moreover, DUO plastic bags have shown less background signals than the Royal Pack bags, being the former bags much more suitable for the storage of dynamites.

  6. Dynamite fishing in northern Tanzania--pervasive, problematic and yet preventable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Dynamite fishing, although illegal, has resurfaced in recent years as a major threat to the reefs of northern Tanzania. This is despite the fact that institutional arrangements for co-management of the inshore fisheries by local communities and the district governments have been put in place and, through a 12-year donor-funded programme, numerous activities undertaken to build capacity for effective fisheries management. The use of dynamite is having widespread negative impacts, including damage to the reefs and their long-term productivity, deterrence of tourism investors, and potential threat to the large population of coelacanths in the area. The dynamite fishers are able to continue, even though enforcement efforts have been stepped up, because they are members of influential families or otherwise well-connected. Previous similar cases in Tanzania, and examples from elsewhere in the world, suggest that a major initiative is now needed to develop a zero-tolerance approach on the part of fishers and local and national leaders, that will shame the dynamiters through peer pressure, promote full implementation of sanctions and penalties by the judiciary, and lead to public recognition of and support for the work of the enforcement agencies.

  7. Inside the mind, a soul of dynamite? Fantasy, vision machines, and homeless souls in Weimar cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, T.; Kardish, L.

    2010-01-01

    From the beginnings the German film contained dynamite.... Chaos spread in Germany from 1918 to about 1923, and as its consequence the panic-stricken German mind was released from all the conventions that usually limit life. Under such conditions, the unhappy, homeless soul not only drove straightwa

  8. DynaMiTES - A dynamic cell culture platform for in vitro drug testing PART 2 - Ocular DynaMiTES for drug absorption studies of the anterior eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiβner, Nicole; Mattern, Kai; Dietzel, Andreas; Reichl, Stephan

    2017-04-02

    In the present study, a formerly designed Dynamic Micro Tissue Engineering System (DynaMiTES) was applied with our prevalidated human hemicornea (HC) construct to obtain a test platform for improved absorption studies of the anterior eye (Ocular DynaMiTES). First, the cultivation procedure of the classic HC was slightly adapted to the novel DynaMiTES design. The obtained inverted HC was then compared to classic HC regarding cell morphology using light and scanning electron microscopy, cell viability using MTT dye reaction and epithelial barrier properties observing transepithelial electrical resistance and apparent permeation coefficient of sodium fluorescein. These tested cell criteria were similar. In addition, the effects of four different flow rates on the same cell characteristics were investigated using the DynaMiTES. Because no harmful potential of flow was found, dynamic absorption studies of sodium fluorescein with and without 0.005%, 0.01% and 0.02% benzalkonium chloride were performed compared to the common static test procedure. In this proof-of-concept study, the dynamic test conditions showed different results than the static test conditions with a better prediction of in vivo data. Thus, we propose that our DynaMiTES platform provides great opportunities for the improvement of common in vitro drug testing procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamic Multi-Coil Technique (DYNAMITE) Shimming for Echo-Planar Imaging of the Human Brain at 7 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juchem, Christoph; Rudrapatna, S. Umesh; Nixon, Terence W.; de Graaf, Robin A.

    2014-01-01

    Gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (EPI) is the primary method of choice in functional MRI and other methods relying on fast MRI to image brain activation and connectivity. However, the high susceptibility of EPI towards B0 magnetic field inhomogeneity poses serious challenges. Conventional magnetic field shimming with low-order spherical harmonic (SH) functions is capable of compensating shallow field distortions, but performs poorly for global brain shimming or on specific areas with strong susceptibility-induced B0 distortions such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Excellent B0 homogeneity has been demonstrated recently in the human brain at 7 Tesla with the DYNAmic Multi-coIl TEchnique (DYNAMITE) for magnetic field shimming (Juchem et al., J Magn Reson (2011) 212:280-288). Here, we report the benefits of DYNAMITE shimming for multi-slice EPI and T2* mapping. A standard deviation of 13 Hz was achieved for the residual B0 distribution in the human brain at 7 Tesla with DYNAMITE shimming and was 60% lower compared to conventional shimming that employs static zero through third order SH shapes. The residual field inhomogeneity with SH shimming led to an average 8 mm shift at acquisition parameters commonly used for fMRI and was reduced to 1.5-3 mm with DYNAMITE shimming. T2* values obtained from the prefrontal and temporal cortices with DYNAMITE shimming were 10-50% longer than those measured with SH shimming. The reduction of the confounding macroscopic B0 field gradients with DYNAMITE shimming thereby promises improved access to the relevant microscopic T2* effects. The combination of high spatial resolution and DYNAMITE shimming allows largely artifact-free EPI and T2* mapping throughout the brain, including prefrontal and temporal lobe areas. DYNAMITE shimming is expected to critically benefit a wide range of MRI applications that rely on excellent B0 magnetic field conditions including EPI-based fMRI to study various cognitive processes and assessing large

  10. DynaMIT2.0: architecture design and preliminary results on real-time data fusion for traffic prediction and crisis management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yang; Pereira, Francisco Camara; Seshadri, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    . Paradoxically, it is in the latter case that such tools can make the difference. Therefore, the dynamic traffic assignment and simulation based prediction system such as DynaMIT (1) demonstrates high effectiveness in the context of sudden network disturbance or demand pattern changes. This paper presents...

  11. DynaMiTES - A dynamic cell culture platform for in vitro drug testing PART 1 - Engineering of microfluidic system and technical simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Kai; Beißner, Nicole; Reichl, Stephan; Dietzel, Andreas

    2017-04-22

    Conventional safety and efficacy test models, such as animal experiments or static in vitro cell culture models, can often not reliably predict the most promising drug candidates. Therefore, a novel microfluidic cell culture platform, called Dynamic Micro Tissue Engineering System (DynaMiTES), was designed to allow online analysis of drugs permeating through barrier forming tissues under dynamic conditions combined with monitoring of the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) by electrodes optimized for homogeneous current distribution. A variety of pre-cultivated cell culture inserts can be integrated and exposed to well controlled dynamic micro flow conditions, resulting in a tightly regulated exposure of the cells to tested drugs, drug formulations and shear forces. With these qualities, the new system can provide more relevant information compared to static measurements. As a first in vitro model, a three-dimensional hemicornea construct consisting of human keratocytes (HCK-Ca) and epithelial cells (HCE-T) was successfully tested in the DynaMiTES. Thereby, we were able to demonstrate the functionality and cell compatibility of this new organ on chip test platform. The modular design of the DynaMiTES allows fast adaptation suitable for the investigation of drug permeation through other important cellular barriers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Moho fabrics of North Qinling Belt, Weihe Graben and Ordos Block in China constrained from large dynamite shots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqiang; Gao, Rui; Xiong, Xiaosong; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Wenhui

    2017-05-01

    The Qinling Orogen Belt (QOB), Weihe Graben (WG) and the southern margin of the Ordos Block (SOB), lying on the central portion of China, had been involved into the amalgamation of China (Asian continent) through subduction, collision to exhumation processes. The Moho fabrics beneath this region, recorded part of the evolution. Therefore, its thickness and internal structure may provide significant knowledge and contribute to the understanding the intracontinental deformation of central China. In this paper, in order to place constrain on the nature beneath the study area, nine large dynamite shots (the charge ≥500 kg) used to infer the internal structure and characteristics of the crustal boundary. We analyse the specific characteristics of the Moho reflection, the amplitude decay curves in near vertical zone and generate a single-fold profile; in addition, it also address the internal structure and discuss its implication. The Moho is approximately at the depth of 39 km beneath the North Qinling Orogen (NQB) and the WG, and at the depth of 42 km beneath the SOB. The Moho shows a subtle uplift and the crust is thin under the NQB. The north-dipping reflectors between the lower crust and the uppermost mantle extend to the middle of the WG, and the south-dipping reflectors in the lower crust of the NQB are truncated by the Moho, therefore both of features and structures exhibit a `Crocodile' like structure and are most probably the remnants of the amalgamation of the NQB and the NCB. The transparent reflection Moho beneath the southern part of the WG may indicate the existence of a magma channel. The Weihe Fault is interpreted as a shallow, near-surface feature resulted from the upwelling magma; SOB represents a relatively weak region and could accommodate the crustal shortening during the formation of the China continent in Triassic.

  13. Nietzsche's Educational Dynamite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenow, Eliyahu

    1989-01-01

    Contemporary educational philosophy's efforts to assimilate Nietzche's thought and adapt it to educational theory and practice often overlook or underestimate the sinister and repugnant aspects of his philosophy. In this regard, a key concept of Nietzsche's, self-surpassing, is examined and discussed in relation to his philosophy and contemporary…

  14. Dynamite fishing in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Lorna M; Kalangahe, Baraka

    2015-12-30

    Fishing using explosives is common in Tanzanian waters; it is considered to be more widely practised now than at any other point in history. Mwambao Coastal Community Network, a Tanzanian NGO carried out a multi-stakeholder consultation in April 2014 initiated through the concern of private investors and tourism operators. Consultations were held with villagers, fisheries officers, government officers, hoteliers, dive operators, fish processors, NGOs and other key individuals, and shed some light on key factors enabling this practice to flourish. Key areas identified for attention include engendering political will at all levels, upholding of the law through a non-corrupt enforcement and judicial system, and defining clear roles and responsibilities for monitoring and surveillance. The work identified other successful initiatives which have tackled this pervasive practice including projects that build local capacity for marine governance, villages that have declared themselves intolerant of blast-fishing, and private-public partnerships for patrol and protection.

  15. Optimization of dynamic source depth for seismic surveys. Part 7; Dynamite shingen no hasshin shindo no saitekika ni tsuite (hyoso kozo no suitei (kusssetsuho jishin tansa oyobi denki denjiho tansa)). 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H.; Murayama, R.; Mitsuhata, Y.; Ishikawa, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1996-05-01

    For the improvement of quality of data collected by reflection aided seismic exploration using dynamite as the seismic source, information has to be collected about the surface layer structure before the charge depth is determined. For this purpose, refraction, electric, and electromagnetic exploration methods were tried. In the refraction method, an impactor was used as the seismic source. In the records, the surface wave prevails because vibration was generated on the surface. Analysis was made by the use of the initial travel time tomography. In the electric exploration, a double pole array was used to measure resistivity. The measured data was subjected to a fully automatic inversion for analysis. As the result, it was disclosed that it was useful to know the deep-level structure directly by use of tomographic methods in refraction seismic exploration so as to find the optimum charge level. Furthermore, about the electric and electromagnetic exploration techniques, it was found that these methods can be applied making use of resistivity to the evaluation of groundwater saturation. 7 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Experiment for deep seismic reflections in Hidaka, Hokkaido. Comparison between Vibroseis and explosive data; Hidaka chiiki ni okeru shinbu hanno data no shutoku jikken. Vibroseis to dynamite no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, N.; Ikawa, T. [Japex Jeoscience Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Ito, T.; Tsumura, N.; Shinohara, M.; Ikawa, T. Ikawa, H.; Asano, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Miyazono, N. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Arita, K.; Moriya, T.; Otsuka, K.; Omura, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kimura, M. [Osaka Prefectural University, Osaka (Japan); Hirata, N. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Okuike, S.

    1997-05-27

    This is a prompt report. These days the importance of acquiring knowledge about the structure from the lower crust down to the upper mantle is often discussed with reference taken to Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake. The Hidaka collision belt where the lower crust is exposed on the surface is a rare phenomenon in the world and has been the subject of seismic survey. As a part of the survey, experiments are conducted by the use of vibrations produced by Vibroseis and dynamite sources. Every one of the shot records (20-second record) from the two types of vibration sources contains a clear echo in the vicinity of 16 seconds supposedly from a level deeper than 40 kilometers, not to mention reflections from shallow levels. Although some studies have to be conducted before the reflecting geological boundary (possibly the upper mantle) of the echo near the 16-second point can be identified, yet this is probably the reflection from the deepest level ever obtained in the seismic reflection survey conducted in Japan`s land area. It is proved by this experiment that vibration from a vibrator can reach as far as that from explosion if the vibrator specifications are rightly chosen. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Dynamite packaging and portable capillary electrophoresis in forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Saiz Galindo, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    El almacenamiento de muestras con compuestos volátiles es crítico, ya que esos componentes tienden a volatilizarse, a abandonar las muestras y a escapar del contenedor. Existen muchos tipos de contenedores para muestras con compuestos volátiles y todos ellos tienen ventajas y desventajas. Durante el desarrollo de esta tesis, primero, se desarrolló un método para la extracción de nitroglicol de dinamitas. A continuación, se optimizó un método de cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia para la s...

  18. By Dynamite, Sabotage, Revolution, and the Pen: Violence in Caribbean Anarchist Fiction, 1890s-1920s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirwin R. Shaffer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available From the 1890s to the 1920s, anarchist groups and movements emerged in Puerto Rico and Cuba. They promoted the traditional anarchist agenda against governments, militarism, capitalism, and organized religion. While research on anarchists has often focused on their activities in strikes, uprisings, educational experiments, and other counter-cultural activities, this article illustrates how Caribbean-based anarchists used their fiction to promote the anarchist agenda. A central theme in much of the fiction (plays, poetry, novels, and short stories revolved around violence leveled against society especially by governments. Just as interesting is how this fiction described—even praised—anarchist violence against authority. Thus, even while Caribbean anarchists only rarely resorted to physical violence, anarchist fiction often condemned authoritarian violence while celebrating the violence of revolution, the strike, bombings, and assassination to promote the anarchist cause of universal freedom.

  19. Landscape dynamitic change in Mu Us Desert derived from landsat TM data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Landscape ecology emphasizes large areas and ecological effects of the spatial patterning of ecosystem.Recent developments inlandscape ecology have emphasized the important relationship between spatial patterns and many ecological processes.Quantitative methods inlandscape ecology link spatial patterns and ecological processes at broad spatial and temporal scales.In turn the increased attention on temporalchange of ecosystem has highlighted the need for quantitative methods that can analyze patterns.This research applies quantitative methods-change detection to assess the ecosystem temporal change in the arid and semiarid area.Remote sensing offers the temporal change of ecosystemon landscape characteristics.

  20. 炮弹注药生产线集散控制系统%Distributed Control of the Production Line for Typecasting Dynamite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋清昆; 武俊峰; 吕宁

    2005-01-01

    针对炮弹注药生产线中安全防爆要求严格,工艺流程复杂等特点,采用ABB公司的Freelance 2000集散控制系统设计了其新的控制系统.文中给出了DCS控制系统的结构组成、组态方法、软件设计基本思想和控制方案.

  1. 激光爆破脂质体微泡对视网膜母细胞瘤细胞增殖影响%Influence to retinoblastoma cell proliferation of using laser to dynamite liposome microbubble contrast medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宇; 周希瑗

    2009-01-01

    目的:首次探讨激光爆破脂质体微泡造影剂的可行性,并研究其对视网膜母细胞瘤细胞增殖的影响.方法:利用激光在液体中的光声效应,采用Nd-YAG激光.将激光聚焦于脂质体微泡,按照不同的能量参数分组照射,通过DFY-Ⅱ型超声定量分析诊断仪检测微泡爆破率;台盼蓝染色及MTT法研究其对视网膜母细胞瘤细胞增殖影响.结果:激光可成功爆破微泡,不同单脉冲能量(5mJ、10mJ、15mJ)、照射总能量(125mJ、250mJ、500rnJ、750mJ)之间相比有统计学意义(P<0.05);不同激光微泡参数对视网膜母细胞瘤细胞增殖影响亦具统计学意义(P<0.05);结论:Nd:YAG激光能够成功爆破脂质体微泡,在合适的参数下,对视网膜母细胞瘤细胞增殖无明显影响.

  2. Into the Curriculum. Art: Color and Paul Klee [and] Reading/Language Arts: Dynamite Dinosaurs [and] Science: Wildflowers [and] Science: Amphibians [and] Social Studies: Atlas Magic [and] Social Studies: Water Transportation in the Early 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jennifer; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents six curriculum guides for art, reading/language arts, science, and social studies. Each guide identifies library media skills objectives, curriculum objectives, grade levels, print and nonprint resources, instructional roles, activities and procedures for completion, evaluation, and follow-up. (AEF)

  3. Plaadid / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Saint Etienne "Tales From Turnpike House", "Team Sleep", Jamiroquai "Dynamite", Life Of Agony "Broken Valley", The Wallflowers "Rebel, Sweetheart", morcheeba "The Antidote", Amerie "Touch"

  4. Plaadid / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Saint Etienne "Tales From Turnpike House", "Team Sleep", Jamiroquai "Dynamite", Life Of Agony "Broken Valley", The Wallflowers "Rebel, Sweetheart", morcheeba "The Antidote", Amerie "Touch"

  5. Pop / Erik Morna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Morna, Erik, 1969-

    2003-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Marvin Gaye"What's Going On", Dynamite Vikings featuring Pierre Dorge "Vikingology", Pet Shop Boys "Disco 3", erinevad esitajad "We're a Happy Family: A Tribute to the Ramones", Ozzy Osbourne "Essential"

  6. Pop / Marek Kallin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kallin, Marek

    2005-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Cardigans "Super Extra Gravity", Earth, Wind & Fire "Illumination", Stevie Wonder "A Time To Love", Shout Out Louds "Howl Howl Gaff Gaff", Goldie Lookin Chain "Safe As Fuck", Ms. Dynamite "Judgement Days", Echosilence "Distorted Horizon", Bob Dylan "No Direction Home"

  7. Pop / Lauri Tikerpe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tikerpe, Lauri

    2005-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Little Brother "The Minstrel Show", Jackson and his Computer Band "Smash", Matthew Herbert "Plat du Jour", Porn Sword Tobacco "Explains Freedom", Jamiroquai "Dynamite", Ryan Adams and the Cardinals "Jacksonville City Nights", The Dandy Warhols "Odditorium", Neil Young "Prairie Wind"

  8. Pop / Lauri Tikerpe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tikerpe, Lauri

    2005-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Little Brother "The Minstrel Show", Jackson and his Computer Band "Smash", Matthew Herbert "Plat du Jour", Porn Sword Tobacco "Explains Freedom", Jamiroquai "Dynamite", Ryan Adams and the Cardinals "Jacksonville City Nights", The Dandy Warhols "Odditorium", Neil Young "Prairie Wind"

  9. Popmuusika / Immo Mihkelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihkelson, Immo, 1959-

    2005-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest "Hendrik Sal-Saler & Estonian Dream Big Band", Bedouin Soundclash "Sounding A Mosaic", Waltari "Blood Sample", Ms Dynamite "Judgement Days", Fear Factory "Transgression", The Herbalizer "Take London", Bill Frisell "East West"

  10. Popmuusika / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest The Vines "Vision Valley", Layo & Bushwacka "Feels Closer", Secret Machines "Ten Silver Drops", Novikov-Unt-Melvin "Painting", Sugababes "Taller In More Ways", The Ipanemas "Samba Is Our Gift", Dynamite Vikings "Seach For Happiness"

  11. Pop / Marek Kallin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kallin, Marek

    2005-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Cardigans "Super Extra Gravity", Earth, Wind & Fire "Illumination", Stevie Wonder "A Time To Love", Shout Out Louds "Howl Howl Gaff Gaff", Goldie Lookin Chain "Safe As Fuck", Ms. Dynamite "Judgement Days", Echosilence "Distorted Horizon", Bob Dylan "No Direction Home"

  12. Plaadid / Immo Mihkelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihkelson, Immo, 1959-

    2003-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Maraca " Tremende Rumba", Dynamite Vikings "Vikingology", Tom Jones "Greatest Hits", Melanie C "Reason", Dallas "Delay Lama", Daredevil "The Album", The Stone Roses "The Very Best Of The...", "Providence"

  13. Multi-Slice Magnetic Resonance Imaging with the Dynamic Multi-Coil Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juchem, Christoph; Nahhass, Omar M.; Nixon, Terence W.; de Graaf, Robin A.

    2015-01-01

    To date, spatial encoding for MRI is based on linear X, Y and Z field gradients generated by dedicated X, Y and Z wire patterns. We recently introduced the Dynamic Multi-Coil Technique (DYNAMITE) for the generation of magnetic field shapes for biomedical MR applications from a set of individually driven localized coils. The benefits for B0 magnetic field homogenization have been shown as well as proof-of-principle of radial and algebraic MRI. In this study the potential of DYNAMITE MRI is explored further and the first multi-slice MRI implementation is presented in which all gradient fields are purely DYNAMITE-based. The obtained image fidelity is shown to be virtually identical to a conventional MRI system with dedicated X, Y and Z gradient coils. Comparable image quality is a milestone towards the establishment of fully functional DYNAMITE MRI (and shim) systems. PMID:26419649

  14. Popmuusika / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest The Vines "Vision Valley", Layo & Bushwacka "Feels Closer", Secret Machines "Ten Silver Drops", Novikov-Unt-Melvin "Painting", Sugababes "Taller In More Ways", The Ipanemas "Samba Is Our Gift", Dynamite Vikings "Seach For Happiness"

  15. Pop / Erik Morna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Morna, Erik, 1969-

    2003-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Marvin Gaye"What's Going On", Dynamite Vikings featuring Pierre Dorge "Vikingology", Pet Shop Boys "Disco 3", erinevad esitajad "We're a Happy Family: A Tribute to the Ramones", Ozzy Osbourne "Essential"

  16. Plaadid / Immo Mihkelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihkelson, Immo, 1959-

    2003-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Maraca " Tremende Rumba", Dynamite Vikings "Vikingology", Tom Jones "Greatest Hits", Melanie C "Reason", Dallas "Delay Lama", Daredevil "The Album", The Stone Roses "The Very Best Of The...", "Providence"

  17. Popmuusika / Immo Mihkelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihkelson, Immo, 1959-

    2005-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest "Hendrik Sal-Saler & Estonian Dream Big Band", Bedouin Soundclash "Sounding A Mosaic", Waltari "Blood Sample", Ms Dynamite "Judgement Days", Fear Factory "Transgression", The Herbalizer "Take London", Bill Frisell "East West"

  18. Multi-slice MRI with the dynamic multi-coil technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juchem, Christoph; Nahhass, Omar M; Nixon, Terence W; de Graaf, Robin A

    2015-11-01

    To date, spatial encoding for MRI is based on linear X, Y and Z field gradients generated by dedicated X, Y and Z wire patterns. We recently introduced the dynamic multi-coil technique (DYNAMITE) for the generation of magnetic field shapes for biomedical MR applications from a set of individually driven localized coils. The benefits for B0 magnetic field homogenization have been shown, as well as proof of principle of radial and algebraic MRI. In this study the potential of DYNAMITE MRI is explored further and the first multi-slice MRI implementation in which all gradient fields are purely DYNAMITE based is presented. The obtained image fidelity is shown to be virtually identical to that of a conventional MRI system with dedicated X, Y and Z gradient coils. Comparable image quality is a milestone towards the establishment of fully functional DYNAMITE MRI (and shim) systems.

  19. Theoretical analysis on the casualty of explosion and blower of waste heap with the mutation of intrinsic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, H.; Yu, M.; Pan, R.; Yu, S. [Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo (China). College of Safety Science and Engineering

    2008-11-15

    In order to analyse the effects of explosion and disturbance in the waste heap of No. 4 coal mine of Pingdingshan Coal Co. Ltd., the equation of state and specific internal energy equation from the theory of explosion dynamics were applied to find a kinetic model. The evolution process of the explosion and disturbance of the waste heap has the same effect as dynamite being hurled into the explosion centre and the equivalent weight of the dynamite changes with the extent of reaction of the coal, air and water. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Pop / Bertil Tüvi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tüvi, Bertil

    2008-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Earth "The Bees Made Honey In The Lions Skull", The Dynamite Vikings "Meaning of the Party", Guru "The Best Of Guru's Jazzmatazz", The Darkness "The Platinum Collection", The Tremolo Beer Gut "Nous Sommes The Tremolo Beer Gut - Qui Le Fuck Etes-Vous?"

  1. Muusika / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2005-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Jamiroquai "Dynamite", Wallflowers "Rebel, Sweetheart", Corgan, Billy "The Future Embrace", Mariza "Transparente", Turin Brakes "JackinABox", Hellacopters "Rock& Roll is Dead", Belle & Sebastian "Push bar To Open Old", Farmer, Mylene "Avant Guel'ombre", Kreck "If You Live", Dream Theater "Octavarium"

  2. Muusika / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2005-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Jamiroquai "Dynamite", Wallflowers "Rebel, Sweetheart", Corgan, Billy "The Future Embrace", Mariza "Transparente", Turin Brakes "JackinABox", Hellacopters "Rock& Roll is Dead", Belle & Sebastian "Push bar To Open Old", Farmer, Mylene "Avant Guel'ombre", Kreck "If You Live", Dream Theater "Octavarium"

  3. The Hydrogen Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Handling dangerous substances has come to define a society. People drive around with the explosive equivalent of twenty sticks of dynamite in their gasoline tanks without batting an eye. They use open flames to cook their food and heat their homes. Propane barbecue tanks are sold everywhere in the country, and left outside their homes for several…

  4. Una salacuna para los peces arrecifales del Archipiélago de San Bernardo, Caribe colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Báez, D.; Márquez, J.C.; López-Victoria, M.

    2002-01-01

    During six months visual censuses were carried out in two mangrove lagoons in the island of Tintipán, Colombian Caribbean. Twenty-six species of juvenile reef fishes were observed, some of them with economical importance in the region. The importance of the lagoons as nurseries for fishes is presented and one dynamite illegal fishing event is reported.

  5. Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Prizes. Fact Sheets on Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedish Inst., Stockholm.

    The life and personality of Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Prizes established by his will are discussed. Nobel was a 19th century Swedish industrialist who was fluent in six languages. He invented dynamite. At his death in 1896, his estate amounted to $9,200,000. His will stipulated that the income from his estate should be divided annually into five…

  6. Educational Technology along with the Uncritical Mass versus Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayadmansour, Alireza; Nassaji, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the ethics of educational technology in terms of whether or not selected media and methods are beneficial to the teacher and student, or whether other motives and criteria determine the selection. Communications media have proven themselves to be powerful and efficient tools, used like "dynamite" for getting the most…

  7. The Sociogram: The Analysis of Interpersonal Relationships in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrandiz-Vindel, Isabel-Maria; Jimenez, Berta Castejon

    2011-01-01

    The environmental and professional conditions are doing at university's education an "imposition" of a teaching-learning process and its assessment. Nowadays, a new function is demanded to the university's teacher, not just as a facilitator of his/her students' learning but also as a group dynamiter, team-works. At High Education, more and more…

  8. M577 Fuze Product Improvement Program: Alternate Materials for Ogive Window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    Dow K-Resin Butadine Styrene Phillips Chemical CR-39 Allyl Diglycol Carbonate PPG Trogamid T Polyamide Dynamite Noble Kel-F Teflon 3M Ultem Nylon Dupont...polysulfone and Ultem nylon. Both of these materials have a slight amber tint, the nylon being somewhat darker than the polysulfone. Because of this

  9. Production of Polyclonal Antibodies in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Gattefosse (Westwood, NJ) I Lot No. 3502. 5. Triglyceride Dynasan , a microcrystalline triglyceride was procured from Dynamit Nobel Chemicals (Rockleigh, NJ...accomplished by placing microspheres into a maurumerizer. The sealant (Suppocire-D or Dynasan ) is dissolved in ethylacetate. As the maurumerizer turns, the

  10. The Hydrogen Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Handling dangerous substances has come to define a society. People drive around with the explosive equivalent of twenty sticks of dynamite in their gasoline tanks without batting an eye. They use open flames to cook their food and heat their homes. Propane barbecue tanks are sold everywhere in the country, and left outside their homes for several…

  11. Contextual Override of Pragmatic Anomalies: Evidence from Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filik, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Readers typically experience processing difficulty when they encounter a word that is anomalous within the local context, such as "The mouse picked up the "dynamite...". The research reported here demonstrates that by placing a sentence in a fictional scenario that is already well known to the reader (e.g., a "Tom and Jerry" cartoon, as a context…

  12. Pop / Bertil Tüvi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tüvi, Bertil

    2008-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Earth "The Bees Made Honey In The Lions Skull", The Dynamite Vikings "Meaning of the Party", Guru "The Best Of Guru's Jazzmatazz", The Darkness "The Platinum Collection", The Tremolo Beer Gut "Nous Sommes The Tremolo Beer Gut - Qui Le Fuck Etes-Vous?"

  13. School and the Limits of Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Philosophy and schools, children and dynamite, elephants and postage stamps: each has a place, but not necessarily in any natural combination with the other. Whether schools and philosophy belong together depends largely on what we mean by both. To the extent that schools are instruments of government regulation and a mechanism for production of…

  14. Stutter seismic source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumma, W. H.; Hughes, D. R.; Zimmerman, N. S.

    1980-08-12

    An improved seismic prospecting system comprising the use of a closely spaced sequence of source initiations at essentially the same location to provide shorter objective-level wavelets than are obtainable with a single pulse. In a preferred form, three dynamite charges are detonated in the same or three closely spaced shot holes to generate a downward traveling wavelet having increased high frequency content and reduced content at a peak frequency determined by initial testing.

  15. How Do Leaders Enable Performance in Adverse Conditions Leadership in Defense of the Alcazar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    of rifles ammunition, but only a few machine guns (10-12) and a handful of sub-machine guns , which were kept at the Academy as instructional samples...ammunition or small arms either. They also had machine guns , flamethrowers, tanks, armored cars, heavy artillery and bombing planes and dynamite. The... religion of the regiment,”63 but more specifically when used here, it refers to the maintenance of general military discipline, law and order and

  16. Plaadid / Brigitta Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidjants, Brigitta, 1983-

    2005-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest The Bad Plus "Suspicious Activity", Andy Bell "Electric Blue", Robbie Williams "Intensive Care", Paul Anka "Rock Swings", Sao Paris "Movimento", Tracy Chapman "Where You Live", t.A.T.u. "Dangerous and Moving", "Raw Fusion Bass-Ment Classics", Critical "Charper One ehk Teine Maitse", Alicia Keys "Unplugged", Steive Wonder "A Time To Love", DJ Cam "My Playlist", Ms. Dynamite "Judgement Days", daddy Yankee "Los Homerun-es"

  17. Attacking the United States with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Borne Radiological Weapons in 2035: Feasibility and Deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    facility/ city would be almost impossible without advanced warning. In 2035, the groups that view the US as an adversary and have the capacity to attack...placed a package containing cesium-137 and dynamite in a Moscow city park in 1995 as a demonstration to the government. 4 Jackson, Frelinger, Lostumbo...Threat Revisted. Occasional Paper No. 54. Maxwell AFB, AL: Center for Strategy and Technology, Air University, February 2006. Chennai Hindu website

  18. Plaadid / Brigitta Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidjants, Brigitta, 1983-

    2005-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest The Bad Plus "Suspicious Activity", Andy Bell "Electric Blue", Robbie Williams "Intensive Care", Paul Anka "Rock Swings", Sao Paris "Movimento", Tracy Chapman "Where You Live", t.A.T.u. "Dangerous and Moving", "Raw Fusion Bass-Ment Classics", Critical "Charper One ehk Teine Maitse", Alicia Keys "Unplugged", Steive Wonder "A Time To Love", DJ Cam "My Playlist", Ms. Dynamite "Judgement Days", daddy Yankee "Los Homerun-es"

  19. Installation Restoration Program. Phase 2. Confirmation/Quantification. Stage 1. Air Force Plant 6, Cobb County, Georgia. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-09

    03 4 0 1 s 20 30 AO 60 so 100 -Z - BMA.CKAN ’,;HT VERY SLT .4.10531.8 O7B ’-44’ -~F-1 19.0 - - - -e N 101.5DE~s AN V Y DESE ROWN PIK,% %- TEST BORING...before the water quality change graphic analysis of fatty acids from landfill sites ., was noticed. Dynamiting during the prospetn Inter. J . Environ

  20. Interservice Procedures for Instructional Systems Development. Phase 4 and 5. Implement and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    destruction by re, water , explosive, mechanical, or other mans, of areas, struc- tures, facilities, or materials to accomplish the military objective...PETN 3. Detonating Cord, M118-Bl.asting Caps D. Straight Dynamite (Commercial) 4. Quarry and Rock Cuts E. Amonium Nitrate-Notramon F. Tetrytol • I...That is, have one group (the treatment group) take the pretest, undergo instruction, and take the posttest. The control group only takes the pre and

  1. New seismic source `BLASTER` for seismic survey; Hasaiyaku wo shingen to shite mochiita danseiha tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, G.; Yoshikuni, Y. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Built-up weight and vacuole have been conceived as seismic sources without using explosive. There have been problems that they have smaller energy to generate elastic wave than explosive, and that they have inferior working performance. Concrete crushing explosive is tried to use as a new seismic source. It is considered to possess rather large seismic generating energy, and it is easy to handle from the viewpoint of safety. Performance as seismic source and applicability to exploration works of this crushing explosive were compared with four kinds of seismic sources using dynamite, dropping weight, shot-pipe utilizing shot vacuole, and impact by wooden maul. When considered by the velocity amplitude, the seismic generating energy of the crushing explosive of 120 g is about one-fifth of dynamite of 100 g. Elastic wave generated includes less high frequency component than that by dynamite, and similar to that using seismic source without explosive, such as the weight dropping. The maximum seismic receiving distance obtained by the seismic generation was about 100 m. This was effective for the slope survey with the exploration depth between 20 m and 30 m. 1 ref., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. What Happens after Conservation and Management Donors Leave? A Before and After Study of Coral Reef Ecology and Stakeholder Perceptions of Management Benefits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R McClanahan

    Full Text Available The coral reefs of Tanga, Tanzania were recognized as a national conservation priority in the early 1970s, but the lack of a management response led to damage by dynamite, beach seines, and high numbers of fishers until the mid 1990s. Subsequently, an Irish Aid funded IUCN Eastern Africa program operated from 1994 to mid 2007 to implement increased management aimed at reducing these impacts. The main effects of this management were to establish collaborative management areas, reduce dynamite and seine net fishing, and establish small community fisheries closures beginning in 1996. The ecology of the coral reefs was studied just prior to the initiation of this management in 1996, during, 2004, and a few years after the project ended in 2010. The perceptions of resource users towards management options were evaluated in 2010. The ecological studies indicated that the biomass of fish rose continuously during this period from 260 to 770 kg/ha but the small closures were no different from the non-closure areas. The benthic community studies indicate stability in the coral cover and community composition and an increase in coralline algae and topographic complexity over time. The lack of change in the coral community suggests resilience to various disturbances including fisheries management and the warm temperature anomaly of 1998. These results indicate that some aspects of the management program had been ecologically successful even after the donor program ended. Moreover, the increased compliance with seine net use and dynamite restrictions were the most likely factors causing this increase in fish biomass and not the closures. Resource users interviewed in 2010 were supportive of gear restrictions but there was considerable between-community disagreement over the value of specific restrictions. The social-ecological results suggest that increased compliance with gear restrictions is largely responsible for the improvements in reef ecology and is a

  3. What Happens after Conservation and Management Donors Leave? A Before and After Study of Coral Reef Ecology and Stakeholder Perceptions of Management Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, Timothy R; Muthiga, Nyawira A; Abunge, Caroline; Kamukuru, Albogast T; Mwakalapa, Eliezer; Kalombo, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The coral reefs of Tanga, Tanzania were recognized as a national conservation priority in the early 1970s, but the lack of a management response led to damage by dynamite, beach seines, and high numbers of fishers until the mid 1990s. Subsequently, an Irish Aid funded IUCN Eastern Africa program operated from 1994 to mid 2007 to implement increased management aimed at reducing these impacts. The main effects of this management were to establish collaborative management areas, reduce dynamite and seine net fishing, and establish small community fisheries closures beginning in 1996. The ecology of the coral reefs was studied just prior to the initiation of this management in 1996, during, 2004, and a few years after the project ended in 2010. The perceptions of resource users towards management options were evaluated in 2010. The ecological studies indicated that the biomass of fish rose continuously during this period from 260 to 770 kg/ha but the small closures were no different from the non-closure areas. The benthic community studies indicate stability in the coral cover and community composition and an increase in coralline algae and topographic complexity over time. The lack of change in the coral community suggests resilience to various disturbances including fisheries management and the warm temperature anomaly of 1998. These results indicate that some aspects of the management program had been ecologically successful even after the donor program ended. Moreover, the increased compliance with seine net use and dynamite restrictions were the most likely factors causing this increase in fish biomass and not the closures. Resource users interviewed in 2010 were supportive of gear restrictions but there was considerable between-community disagreement over the value of specific restrictions. The social-ecological results suggest that increased compliance with gear restrictions is largely responsible for the improvements in reef ecology and is a high priority for

  4. Uniquely Acquired Vintage Seismic Reflection Data Reveal the Stratigraphic and Tectonic History of the Montana Disturbed Belt, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speece, M. A.; Link, C. A.; Stickney, M.

    2011-12-01

    In 1983 and 1984 Techco of Denver, Colorado, acquired approximately 302 linear kilometers of two-dimensional (2D) seismic reflection data in Flathead and Lake Counties, Montana, USA, as part of an initiative to identify potential drilling targets beneath the Swan and Whitefish Mountain Ranges and adjacent basins of northwestern Montana. These seismic lines were collected in the Montana Disturbed Belt (MDB) or Montana thrust belt along the western edge of Glacier National Park in mountainous terrain with complicated subsurface structures including thrust faults and folds. These structures formed during the Laramide Orogeny as sedimentary rocks of the Precambrian Belt Supergroup were thrust eastward. Later, during the Cenozoic, high-angle normal faults produced prominent west-facing mountain scarps of the Mission, Swan and Whitefish mountains. The 1983 data set consisted of two profiles of 24-fold (96-channels) Vibroseis data and four profiles of 24-fold (96-channels) helicopter-assisted dynamite data. The dynamite data were collected using the Poulter Method in which explosives were placed on poles and air shots were recorded. The 1983 dynamite profiles extend from southwest to northeast across the Whitefish Mountain Range to the edge of Glacier National Park and the Vibroseis data were collected along nearby roadways. The 1984 data set consists of four profiles of 30-fold (120-channels) helicopter-assisted dynamite data that were also collected using the Poulter Method. The 1984 profiles cross the Swan Mountain Range between Flathead Lake and Glacier National Park. All of these data sets were recently donated to Montana Tech and subsequently recovered from nine-track tape. Conventionally processed seismic stacked sections from the 1980s of these data show evidence of a basement decollement that separates relatively undeformed basement from overlying structures of the MDB. Unfortunately, these data sets have not been processed using modern seismic processing

  5. 50 μm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C; Konstantinidis, A C; Zheng, Y; Anaxagoras, T; Speller, R D; Kanicki, J

    2015-12-07

    Wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensors (APSs) have been developed recently for x-ray imaging applications. The small pixel pitch and low noise are very promising properties for medical imaging applications such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this work, we evaluated experimentally and through modeling the imaging properties of a 50 μm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). A modified cascaded system model was developed for CMOS APS x-ray detectors by taking into account the device nonlinear signal and noise properties. The imaging properties such as modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were extracted from both measurements and the nonlinear cascaded system analysis. The results show that the DynAMITe x-ray detector achieves a high spatial resolution of 10 mm(-1) and a DQE of around 0.5 at spatial frequencies  CMOS APS x-ray detector, image aquisition geometry and image reconstruction techniques should be considered.

  6. Application of silver sulfadiazine cream with early surgical intervention in patients suffering from combined burn-blast injury facial tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein

    2012-01-01

    Severe combined burn-blast injury is a great challenge to surgical teams due to its high mortality. It also results in unsightly traumatic tattoos. The aims of these case reports were to clarify the clinical characteristic of the dynamite explosion burn-blast facial injuries and discuss appropriate management of these patients. We report two patients suffering from facial burn-blast injury following dynamite explosion in which after primary stabilization, silver sulfadiazine cream was applied to the wounds and 12 hours later the wounds were cleaned under general anesthesia with vigorous saline solution irrigation and brushing. The foreign particles were meticulously removed from wounds and simultaneous repairing of defects was done with nylon 6-0 sutures. We conclude application of silver sulfadiazine cream on facial burn-blast injury tattoos several hours before surgical removal of particles is highly efficacious in facilitating particle removal and attaining a good result following surgical intervention, and primary repair. Treatment of combined burn-blast tattoos is different from other types of tattoos not associated with burns. Debridement and removal of foreign particles under general anesthesia from skin immediately and primary reconstruction of wounds is essential. We recommend application of the topical agent silver sulfadiazine to wounds about 12 hours before surgical intervention.

  7. Detection of residues from explosive manipulation by near infrared hyperspectral imaging: a promising forensic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de la Ossa, Ma Ángeles; Amigo, José Manuel; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2014-09-01

    In this study near infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) is used to provide a fast, non-contact, non-invasive and non-destructive method for the analysis of explosive residues on human handprints. Volunteers manipulated individually each of these explosives and after deposited their handprints on plastic sheets. For this purpose, classical explosives, potentially used as part of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) as ammonium nitrate, blackpowder, single- and double-base smokeless gunpowders and dynamite were studied. A partial-least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model was built to detect and classify the presence of explosive residues in handprints. High levels of sensitivity and specificity for the PLS-DA classification model created to identify ammonium nitrate, blackpowder, single- and double-base smokeless gunpowders and dynamite residues were obtained, allowing the development of a preliminary library and facilitating the direct and in situ detection of explosives by NIR-HSI. Consequently, this technique is showed as a promising forensic tool for the detection of explosive residues and other related samples.

  8. Quantified Risk Assessment for Plants Producing and Storing Explosives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ioannis A. Papazoglou; Panagiotis Saravanos; Ieronymos Giakoumatos; Olga N. Aneziris

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for risk assessment of plants producing and storing explosives. The major procedural steps for quantified risk assessment (QRA) in explosive plants are the following: hazard identification, accident sequence modeling, data acquisition, accident sequence quantification, consequence assessment and integration of results.This methodology is demonstrated and applied in an explosive plant consisting of four separate units, which produce detonating cord, nitroglycol, dynamites and ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO). A GIS platform is used for depicting individual risk from explosions in this plant. Total individual risk is equal to 1.0 × 10-4/y in a distance of 340m from the center of the plant, and 1.0 × 10-6/y in a distance of 390m from the center of the plant.

  9. Rockets, radiosensitizers, and RRx-001: an origin story part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oronsky, Bryan; Scicinski, Jan; Ning, Shoucheng; Peehl, Donna; Oronsky, Arnold; Cabrales, Pedro; Bednarski, Mark; Knox, Susan

    2016-03-01

    From Adam and Eve, to Darwinism, origin stories attempt to fill in the blanks, connect the dots, and define the turning points that are fundamental to subsequent developments. The purpose of this review is to present the origin story of a one-of-a-kind anticancer agent, RRx-001, which emerged from the aerospace industry as a putative radiosensitizer; not since the dynamite-to-dilator transformation of nitroglycerin in 1878 or the post-World War II explosive-to-elixir conversion of hydralazine, an ingredient in rocket fuel, to an antihypertensive, an antidepressant and an antituberculant, has energetic chemistry been harnessed for therapeutic purposes. This is Part 1 of the radiosensitization story; Parts 2 and 3, which detail the crossover activity of RRx-001 as a chemosensitizer in multiple tumor types and disease states including malaria, hemorrhagic shock and sickle cell anemia, are the subject of future reviews.

  10. Image-based reconstruction of the Great Buddha of Bamiyan, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Armin; Remondino, Fabio; Zhang, Li

    2003-01-01

    In the great valley of Bamiyan, north-west of Kabul, Afghanistan, two big standing Buddha statues were carved out of the sedimentary rock of the region around the second to fourth centuries AD. The larger statue was 53 meters high while the smaller Buddha measured 35 m. The two colossal statues were demolished on March 2001 by the Taleban, using mortars, dynamite, anti-aircraft weapons and rockets. After the destruction, a consortium was founded to rebuild the Great Buddha at original shape, size and place. Our group performed the required computer reconstruction, which serves as a basis for the physical reconstruction. The work has been done using three different types of imagery in parallel and in this paper we present our results of the 3D computer reconstruction of the statue.

  11. Double-Forked Artifice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    2012-01-01

    such bottom-lines can be stretched. Readers of Nietzsche appreciate the philosopher's capacity to encapsulate complex ideas in a simple form, which is yet quite complex in itself. This being the case, I want to look precisely at Nietzsche's elasticity when it comes to articulating his well-known desire...... to ignite established ideas, and blow them to pieces with his own dynamite. Quite literally, can an elastic set things on fire, survive the fire? Can a truth be final even when it is elastic? What does it mean to write, for Nietzsche, when writing presents itself as a sin against silence, as a fire...... that burns the very abstract that is supposed to transcend even the very production of meaning? Thematically, I'm interested in looking at how Nietzsche formulates epistemologies of creative writing against the background of such stylistic devices which have the genre of the aphorism and the fragment...

  12. Von Nobel bis Viagra: Die Geschichte eines kleinen Moleküls mit großer Wirkung: Stickstoffmonoxyd (NO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Es wird kurzgefasst die Geschichte des Nitroglyzerins und von Alfred Nobel dargestellt. Nitroglyzerin war als explosiver Bestandteil von Dynamit der gewaltigste Sprengstoff seiner Zeit und wurde von Alfred Nobel weiterentwickelt und kommerzialisiert, der später den Nobelpreis stiftete. Gleichermaßen ist Nitroglyzerin in öliger Dispersion und in geringsten Mengen seit 100 Jahren als „Koronardilatator“ eingeführt und weiterhin nahezu unersetzlich. Der Mechanismus, mit dem Nitroglyzerin Gefäße erweitert, wurde erst vor 25 Jahren von Furchgott, Ignarro und Murad vollständig aufgeklärt, indem sie die große Bedeutung des Endothels und des gefäßerweiternden Stickstoffmonoxyds beschrieben. Die 3 Forscher erhielten 1998 den Nobelpreis für Medizin zu gleichen Teilen "für die Entdeckung des NOs als Signalmolekül für das kardiovaskuläre System".

  13. Contextual override of pragmatic anomalies: evidence from eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filik, Ruth

    2008-02-01

    Readers typically experience processing difficulty when they encounter a word that is anomalous within the local context, such as 'The mouse picked up the dynamite...'. The research reported here demonstrates that by placing a sentence in a fictional scenario that is already well known to the reader (e.g., a Tom and Jerry cartoon, as a context for the example sentence above), the difficulty usually associated with these pragmatic anomalies can be immediately eliminated, as reflected in participants' eye movement behaviour. This finding suggests that readers can rapidly integrate information from their common ground, specifically, their cultural knowledge, whilst interpreting incoming text, and provides further evidence that incoming words are immediately integrated within the global discourse.

  14. Automatic traveltime picking using instantaneous traveltime

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos

    2013-02-08

    Event picking is used in many steps of seismic processing. We present an automatic event picking method that is based on a new attribute of seismic signals, instantaneous traveltime. The calculation of the instantaneous traveltime consists of two separate but interrelated stages. First, a trace is mapped onto the time-frequency domain. Then the time-frequency representation is mapped back onto the time domain by an appropriate operation. The computed instantaneous traveltime equals the recording time at those instances at which there is a seismic event, a feature that is used to pick the events. We analyzed the concept of the instantaneous traveltime and demonstrated the application of our automatic picking method on dynamite and Vibroseis field data.

  15. Determination of Nanogram Microparticles from Explosives after Real Open-Air Explosions by Confocal Raman Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Félix; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-07-05

    Explosives are increasingly being used for terrorist attacks to cause devastating explosions. The detection of their postblast residues after an explosion is a high challenge, which has been barely investigated, particularly using spectroscopic techniques. In this research, a novel methodology using confocal Raman microscopy has been developed for the analysis of postblast residues from 10 open-air explosions caused by 10 different explosives (TNT, RDX, PETN, TATP, HMTD, dynamite, black powder, ANFO, chloratite, and ammonal) commonly used in improvised explosive devices. The methodology for the determination of postblast particles from explosives consisted of examining the samples surfaces with both the naked eye, first, and microscopically (10× and 50×), immediately afterward; and finally, analyzing the selected residues by confocal Raman spectroscopy in order to identify the postblast particles from explosives. Interestingly, confocal Raman microscopy has demonstrated to be highly suitable to rapidly, selectively, and noninvasively analyze postblast microscopic particles from explosives up to the nanogram range.

  16. Ammonium nitrate explosion hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negovanović Milanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate (AN primarily is used as a fertilizer but it is also very important compound in the production of industrial explosives. The application of ammonium nitrate in the production of industrial explosives was related with the early era of Nobel dynamite and widely increased with the appearance of blasting agents such as ANFO and Slurry, in the middle of the last Century. Throughout the world millions of tons of ammonium nitrate are produced annually and handled without incident. Although ammonium nitrate generally is used safely, accidental explosions involving AN have high impact resulting in loss of lives and destruction of property. The paper presents the basic properties of ammonium nitrate as well as hazards in handling of ammonium nitrate in order to prevent accidents. Several accidents with explosions of ammonium nitrate resulted in catastrophic consequences are listed in the paper as examples of non-compliance with prescribed procedures.

  17. Non-terrorist suicidal death by oral explosion: A rare case from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Jamebaseer Masiuddin; Farooqui, Anjum Ara Jamebaseer; Mukherjee, Bimbisar Bikas; Manjhi, Shiv Narayan

    2016-07-01

    Suicidal deaths involving explosives are rare. Their occurrence depends on both the availability of materials and the victim's expertise in handling explosive material. We report here a rare case from India of non-terrorist suicidal death involving explosives. The victim was around 25 years old, a blaster by occupation. He committed suicide by detonating dynamite in his mouth. The materials he used to operate this explosion were found near his body at the crime scene. There was characteristic bilateral symmetrical laceration around the oral cavity. Considering all the facts of the case in relation to history, location, nature, distribution and extent of injuries and recovered material at crime scene enables the cause and manner of death to be ascertained.

  18. Physiological and behavioural stress responses in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to noise associated with construction work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlund, K; Fernström, A-L; Wergård, E-M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the behavioural and physiological responses to environmental disturbances (live and recorded dynamite explosions) in laboratory non-human primates in preparation for a future tunnel construction underneath our animal facility. In a pilot study (A) on 20...... detonations on the behaviour and CICM in 16 M. fascicularis. In the latter study we introduced a predictive signal, serving as a conditional stimulus, to half of the animals. We found no significant effects of the noise in the Signal group; while the Control groups' CICM values were affected. The behaviour...... was largely unaffected in the two groups. It was decided not to introduce a research moratorium on biomedical research planned to be conducted during the future tunnel construction, and that a conditional stimulus ('warning signal') will be used....

  19. Syndrome of Fetus-fetal transfusion with a single ectopic kidney in a twin donor. Case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Rogelio Robaina Castellanos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Syndrome of Fetus-fetal transfusion presents more frequently in dynamitic monochromic twins. In advanced stages and without prenatal intervention, is associated to high rates of peri natal mortality and neurological sequel in the survivors. It is presented a case of a pair of twins with severe depression at birth in which it was diagnosed a Syndrome of Fetus-fetal, later confirmed with the presence of anemia in the donor twin and polycythemia in the receptor twin. Both twins had an unfavourable evolution with an early neonatal death. Necropsy findings were comparable with secondary damage to the syndrome, with the particularity that both had evidences of pulmonary infection and a renal malformation in the donor twin which is not included in the proper malformations of this syndrome. The objective of this work is to point out the essential elements for the diagnosis and antenatal treatment for this disease through the peculiarities of the presented case.

  20. Double-Forked Artifice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    2012-01-01

    One of the chief characteristics of the aphoristic style is the reduction of a set of ideas to an essential minimum. When the practitioner of the aphorism, a fragment, or a maxim, is successful, it takes, however, not only skills to produce elegant bottom-lines, but also a sense of how far...... to ignite established ideas, and blow them to pieces with his own dynamite. Quite literally, can an elastic set things on fire, survive the fire? Can a truth be final even when it is elastic? What does it mean to write, for Nietzsche, when writing presents itself as a sin against silence, as a fire...... that burns the very abstract that is supposed to transcend even the very production of meaning? Thematically, I'm interested in looking at how Nietzsche formulates epistemologies of creative writing against the background of such stylistic devices which have the genre of the aphorism and the fragment...

  1. Den dynamiske lærebog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Kjertmann, K.

    the development of the pupils? reading and writing strategies and how this development was affected by the group dynamics. The researchers examined the pupils? computer literacy skills (research, reading and writing) by means of web-based assignments, which all pupils had to solve on a group basis prior......Project description The Dynamic Textbook is an ITMF-project in which pupils write hypertextual textbooks aimed at fellow pupils. In November and December 2003 ten classes of 2nd-8th graders from seven schools in Funen participated in writing the textbooks on the web site www...... of the competencies that children used when reading, writing and gathering information on the Internet, and the influence of group dynamics on the children?s use of the Internet has been examined and discussed. Project period September 2003 ? May 2004 For further information about the project go to http://www.dynamitbogen.dk/dynamit/overblik/forskning...

  2. Compound Tension Control of an Optical-Fiber Coil System: A Cyber-Physical System View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Peng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The full-automatic optical-fiber coil winding equipment is a complex electromechanical system which contains signal acquisition, data processing, communications, and motor control. In the complex electromechanical system, the subsystems rely on wired or wireless network technology to complete the real-time perception, coordinate, accurate, and dynamitic control, and information exchange services. The paper points to the full-automatic optical-fiber coil winding equipment with the characteristics of cyber-physical system to research its numerical design. We present a novel compound tension control system based on the experimental platform dSPACE to achieve semiphysical simulation of compound tension control system and examine the functions of control system.

  3. New protection initiatives announced for coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Off the coasts of some of the South Pacific's most idyllic-sounding atolls, Austin Bowden-Kerby has seen first-hand the heavy damage to coral reefs from dynamite and cyanide fishing. For instance, while snorkeling near Chuuk, an island in Micronesia, he has observed craters and rubble beds of coral, which locals have told him date to World War II ordnance.A marine biologist and project scientist for the Coral Gardens Initiative of the Foundation for the Peoples of the South Pacific, Bowden-Kerby has also identified what he says are some public health effects related to destroyed coral reefs and their dying fisheries. These problems include protein and vitamin A deficiency and blindness, all of which may—in some instances—be linked to poor nutrition resulting from lower reef fish consumption by islanders, according to Bowden-Kerby.

  4. An Android malware detection system based on machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Long; Yu, Haiyang

    2017-08-01

    The Android smartphone, with its open source character and excellent performance, has attracted many users. However, the convenience of the Android platform also has motivated the development of malware. The traditional method which detects the malware based on the signature is unable to detect unknown applications. The article proposes a machine learning-based lightweight system that is capable of identifying malware on Android devices. In this system we extract features based on the static analysis and the dynamitic analysis, then a new feature selection approach based on principle component analysis (PCA) and relief are presented in the article to decrease the dimensions of the features. After that, a model will be constructed with support vector machine (SVM) for classification. Experimental results show that our system provides an effective method in Android malware detection.

  5. An Economic Viewpoint on Capitalism Bashing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnete Sorin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I discuss two long disputed notions: that capitalism without crises is a fallacy respectively that capitalism bashing, however severe, will not endanger the system itself. Yet proving both is not an easy task since the capitalism issue has always been a cupellation of theory, ideology and political precepts, which are controversial and hard to disentangle. That capitalism detractors are numberless is a truism. Yet criticism against capitalism, however fierce, has always been clearly delineated. Not any more: globalization has rendered the picture dangerously fuzzy. It is now hard to ascertain whether someone who will harangue about the ostensible evils of globalization is also a declared anti-capitalist. The blend of capitalism and globalization seems to be pure dynamite.

  6. Uganda's eco-rebirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, D

    1991-01-01

    In 1986, the Government of Uganda established the Ministry of Environmental Protection to meet the country's socioeconomic development needs without destroying the environment. A Ministry-supported village pilot project in the Gombe region promotes self-sufficiency in potable water, food, and energy and tests means to achieve ecologically sound management of sustainable food/energy/fodder production. The Ministry also serves to sensitize the public to environmental issues by encouraging Ugandan newspapers to report more environment-related stories. A newspaper story informed the government about fishermen along a 20 km stretch of the Nile River and in Lake Victoria who used dynamite to kill fish, including juvenile and noncommercial fish. Thus, the government quickly put a halt to dynamiting. The ministry also produces films on Uganda's environmental problems. Some of these problems include the indiscriminate destruction of forests (e.g., Mabira, Mt. Elgon, Kibale, Budongo, Bwindi, and Maramagambo) and farmlands along Lake Victoria. Further, Uganda is witnessing either killing or smuggling of its elephants, rhinos, insects, birds, reptiles, and primates. In 1988, the World Bank committed about US$33.5 million to activities to protect Uganda's forests. They include planting of exotic softwoods, timber harvesting from remaining forests, and reestablishment of self-sufficiency in fuelwoods. The government hopes that forest rehabilitation will bring back tourism which before the civil war was the country's second highest foreign exchange earner. In fact, the remaining forests house the world's greatest population densities of primates (e.g., mountain gorillas in the southwest) and many rate birds. The UN Environmental Program will write Uganda's environmental protection law and helps the Ministry to promote environmental and public awareness.

  7. Model remediation of contaminated sites as illustrated by the example of the TNT-remediation project Stadtallendorf, Hessen, Germany. Part 1: Final report; Part 2: Documentation and balancing of the measures; Part 3: Documentation of citizens' participation and public relations activities in Stadtallendorf; Modellhafte Sanierung von Altlasten am Beispiel des TNT-Sanierungsprojektes Stadtallendorf/Hessen. T. 1: Abschlussbericht. T. 2: Dokumentation und Bilanzierung von Auswirkungen der Sanierung. T. 3: Dokumentation der Buergerbeteiligung und Oeffentlichkeitsarbeit in Stadtallendorf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The project comprised the following stages: 1. Development of a technology for purification of soils contaminated with explosives. The process comprised soil washing, hot steam treatment, and thermal treatment of residues; 2. Projecting, construction and two years of operation of a soil purification plant with a rated throughput of 20 t/h and a total throughput of 130,000 t; 3. Remediation of two representative sites on DAG terrain (TNT production chain and filling stations); 4. Verification of the findings in an accompanying scientific programme. The site under investigation was formerly occupied by the Dynamit AG (DAG) Stadtallendorf, where TNT, contaminated waste water and acids were produced, and contamination levels were high in several areas. Today, the area is a residential area. In addition to the investigations described here, the waste water discharge system of the DAG was modernized. [German] Das FuE-Vorhaben Stadtallendorf wurde mit folgender Zielsetzung begonnen: (1) Entwicklung einer geeigneten und moeglichst umweltvertraeglichen Technik zur Reinigung von Boeden mit sprengstoffspezifischen Kontaminationen; hierzu wurde in Anlehnung an die Ausschreibung des Bundes ein kombiniertes Bodenbehandlungsverfahren vorgesehen, das aus folgenden Komponenten bestand: - Bodenwaesche, - Heissdampfbehandlung, - Thermische Reststoffbehandlung. (2) Planung, Bau und zweijaehriger Betrieb einer entsprechenden grosstechnischen Bodenreinigungsanlage (Nenndurchsatz von 20 t/Stunde; Gesamtdurchsatz 130.000 t). (3) Bodensanierung von zwei repraesentativen Arealen im DAG-Gelaende (TNT-Produktionskette und Fuellstellenbetrieb). (4) Absicherung der Ergebnisse in einem wissenschaftlichen Begleitprogramm. Gegenstand der Phase 2 des Vorhabens war der vollstaendige Prozess der Planung und Umsetzung der Sanierung eines (Teils eines) Planungsraumes des Ruestungsaltstandortes Dynamit AG (DAG) Stadtallendorf. Es handelte sich dabei um einen Bereich, der als Standort fuer TNT

  8. High-resolution reflection seismic investigations of quick-clay and associated formations at a landslide scar in southwest Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malehmir, Alireza; Saleem, Muhammad Umar; Bastani, Mehrdad

    2013-05-01

    We present high-resolution reflection seismic data from four lines (total 1.9 km) that cross a quick-clay landslide scar located close to the shore of the Göta River in southwest Sweden, and compare the results with geotechnical data from boreholes. The seismic data allow the imaging of bedrock topography and normally to weakly consolidated sediments to a subsurface depth of about 100 m. Different types of seismic sources, including sledgehammer, accelerated weight-drop and dynamite were utilized and compared with each other. Analysis of their power spectra suggests that weight-drop and dynamite have higher frequency content and energy than the sledgehammer, which makes these two sources suitable also for waveform tomography and surface-wave data analysis. The shallowest non-bedrock reflector is observed at about 10-20 m below the surface, it overlays the bedrock, and is interpreted to originate from the contact between clay formations above and a coarse-grained layer below. The coarse-grained layer appears to be spatially linked to the presence of quick-clays. It is a regional scale formation, laterally heterogeneous, which deepens to the west of the study area and correlates well with the available geotechnical data. Continuity of the coarse-grained layer becomes obscured by the landslide scar. There may be a link between the coarse-grained layer and landslides in the study area, although this possibility requires further hydrogeological and geotechnical investigations. Reflectors from the top of the bedrock suggest a depression zone with its deepest point below the landslide scar and a bowl-shaped structure in the northern portion of one of the seismic lines.

  9. Vertical seismic profiling and integration with reflection seismic studies at Laxemar, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhlin, C.; Bergman, B. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden); Cosma, C.; Keskinen, J.; Enescu, N. [Vibrometric Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2002-02-01

    Vertical seismic profile (VSP) data were acquired in October 2000 in the 1700 m deep KLX02 borehole, near Laxemar in southeastern Sweden. The objectives of the VSP were to image reflectors in the borehole for correlation with surface seismic and borehole data, study the signal penetration of explosive versus mechanical sources and determine the seismic velocity as a function of depth. Five principal source points were used, one located close to the KLX02 wellhead and 4 others that were offset by about 200 m to 400 m. An explosive source was only used at the wellhead and consisted of 15 grams of dynamite in 90 cm deep shot holes in bedrock. A swept impact seismic source (SIST) was also used at the wellhead, as well as at the other four offset source points. The primary SIST source consisted of a computer controlled mechanical hammer mounted on a tractor. By activating the hammer over a 15 second sweep length, the total energy transferred to the ground is on the same order as that produced by the dynamite. The recorded data are then processed to generate seismic records that are equivalent to a single impact source. A smaller hand held SIST source was also tested at the wellhead. Tests of both the tractor mounted source and dynamite were made at a location offset somewhat from the wellhead at a site containing loose sediments at the surface. Full waveform sonic, resistivity and gamma logs were also acquired in conjunction the VSP survey. A comparison between the explosive and large SIST source shows that comparable energy levels are produced by the two methods. The SIST source appears to be more stable in terms of the energy level, although the frequency content of data are somewhat lower. However, its most significant advantage is the low cost of preparation of the source points and the speed of the acquisition. Numerous reflections are observed on the VSP, as is the case on the surface seismic, implying a complex structure in the vicinity of the KLX02 borehole

  10. Dynamic Response and Damage Process Analysis of Urban Bridge Subjected to Blast Load%爆炸荷载作用下城市桥梁动态响应及其损伤过程分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱劲松; 邢扬

    2015-01-01

    In order to obtain reasonable anti-blast design and risk assessment of urban municipal bridges in a densely populated city,dynamic response and damage process analysis method for urban bridges subjected to blast load is proposed in this paper. By analyzing the explosion risk sources of urban bridges,the explosion source types and blast load conditions likely to be encountered by urban bridges are determined. Then,the finite element models of bridge,dynamite and air are established in ANSYS/LS-DYNA software. The dynamite model and the air model are defined by the JWL (Jones-Wilkins-Lee) state equation and linear polynomial state equation,respectively. The ALE (arbitrary Lagrange-Euler) algorithm is used to simulate the propagation of shock wave actuated by explosion. The effects of position and quantity of dynamite on the response of displacement and the Von-Mises stress distribution in the key parts of the bridge are investigated,and then the damage process and failure modes of the bridge are ana-lyzed. Based on the Tuler-Butcher cumulative damage rule,the damage accumulation curves under different explo-sion distances and TNT equivalence blast loadings of specified elements are obtained. In the end,taking a large-span steel truss arch bridge as an illustrative example,the calculation process of the proposed method in this paper is de-scribed. The results of this paper can be used as the foundation for anti-blast design and risk assessment of bridge.%为了对人流、车流密集的城市市政桥梁进行合理的抗爆设计和爆炸风险评估,提出了爆炸荷载作用下城市桥梁动态响应与损伤过程分析的数值方法。首先,通过对城市桥梁爆炸风险源的分析,确定城市桥梁可能遭遇的爆炸源类型及爆炸荷载工况。然后,基于大型通用有限元软件 ANSYS/LS-DYNA 建立桥梁、炸药和空气三者的有限元模型,分别选择 JWL(Jones-Wilkins-Lee)状态方程与线性多项式状态方程对炸

  11. 也门71区山地激发技术%THE SEISMIC EXCITATION TECHNIQUE FOR THE MOUNTAINOUS AREA IN BLOCK 71, YEMEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴全理

    2012-01-01

    Geological conditions of the mountainous area in Block 71 of Yemen are very complex. The surface of the mountain is covered with thin weathering layer in some places, and the excitation condition is bad. Therefore, the key point of improving the seismic data quality is to optimize the data quality of the mountainous area. The direction and method of optimizing the vitalizing technology was determined through analyzing the former seismic data, and the parameters for dynamite and Vibroseis were decided respectively through comprehensive parameter lest. Vibroseis was adopted in the open and wide area and dynamite source was used as supplement where the vacant source points were excessive. Single-line design was performed after scouting the line by means of performing crooked line and changing geometry so as to design as many source points for vibroseis as possible during the real operation. With the new exciting technique, the data quality has been improved greatly.%也门71区山地地质条件复杂,基岩裸露,激发条件差.提高山地资料品质,是改善地震资料品质的关键.分析旧地震资料,确定了山地激发技术的优化方向,进行了全面的激发参数试验,分别优选出可控震源和炸药震源激发因素,在开阔处采用可控震源激发,空炮段较大时用炸药震源补充.施工时首先详细踏勘,进行精细单线设计,采用弯线施工和变观等方法,多设可控震源激发点.采用优化的激发技术,地震资料品质得到明显提高.

  12. Detection of silent myocardial ischemia in asymptomatic patients with diabetes: results of a randomized trial and meta-analysis assessing the effectiveness of systematic screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penfornis Alfred

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most guidelines recommend a systematic screening of asymptomatic high risk patients with diabetes for silent ischemia, but the clinical benefit of this strategy has not been demonstrated compared with the simple control of cardiovascular risk factors. We sought to determine whether referring asymptomatic diabetic patients for screening of silent ischemia decreases the risk of cardiovascular events compared with usual care. Methods DYNAMIT was a prospective, randomized, open, blinded end-point multicenter trial run between 2000 and 2005, with a 3.5 year mean follow-up in ambulatory care in 45 French hospitals. The study included 631 male and female with diabetes aged 63.9 ± 5.1 years, with no evidence of coronary artery disease and at least 2 additional cardiovascular risk factors, receiving appropriate medical treatment. The patients were randomized centrally to either screening for silent ischemia using a bicycle exercise test or Dipyridamole Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (N = 316, or follow-up without screening (N = 315. The main study end point was time to death from all causes, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, or heart failure requiring hospitalization or emergency service intervention. The results of a meta-analysis of DYNAMIT and DIAD, a similar study, are also presented. Results The study was discontinued prematurely because of difficulties in recruitment and a lower-than expected event rate. Follow-up was complete for 98.9% patients regarding mortality and for 97.5% regarding the main study end point. Silent ischemia detection procedure was positive or uncertain in 68 (21.5% patients of the screening group. There was no significant difference between the screening and the usual care group for the main outcome (hazard ratio = 1.00 95%CI 0.59 to 1.71. The meta-analysis of these and DIAD results gave similar results, with narrower confidence intervals for each endpoint. Conclusions These

  13. A novel wafer-scale CMOS APS X-ray detector for breast cancer diagnosis using X-ray diffraction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, A.; Zheng, Y.; Philip, D.; Vinnicombe, S.; Speller, R.

    2012-12-01

    The current study uses a novel large area (12.8 cm × 13.1 cm) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) X-ray detector, named Dynamic range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology (DynAMITe), for breast cancer diagnosis. The detector consists of two geometrically superimposed grids: a) 2560 × 2624 fine-pitch grid of pixels (50 μm pitch), named Sub-Pixels (SP camera), for low intrinsic noise and high spatial resolution and b) 1280 × 1312 large-pitch grid of pixels (100 μm pitch), named Pixels (P camera), for high dynamic range. X-ray performance characterization measurements show that the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the SP camera is in the range 0.7-0.75 at low spatial frequencies using a tungsten (W) anode X-ray source at 28 kV. Hence, the detector is suitable for mammography. Furthermore, we used the SP camera to combine mammograms with angle dispersive X-ray diffraction (ADXRD) measurements in order to apply the X-ray biopsy concept in one examination. The results show that ADXRD technique indicates the presence of cancer in suspicious areas on the mammogram. Hence, it could be used to determine the region affected by cancer and assist in planning surgery. This study is the proof of concept that mammography and ADXRD can be combined in one examination.

  14. 载重汽车双前桥转向机构优化设计%Optimization Design of Double - front - axle Steering Mechanism of Heavy Truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾; 董恩国; 梁立学

    2012-01-01

    Based on multi-body dynamitic theory and the software of ADAMS, it builds a simulation model on a double-front-axle steering mechanism, establishes a mathematic model on a steering mechanism and rocker mechanism. The simulation analysis is performance according to the minimum steering error of the double-front-axle steering mechanism. Based on the simulation, it obtains the optimization results and researches the steering performance evaluation conclusions.%以多体系统动力学理论为基础,应用多体动力学软件ADAMS建立了载重汽车双前桥转向机构动力学仿真模型,以及转向梯形机构及中间摇臂机构的数学模型.基于各机构转角误差最小对设计参数进行了仿真优化分析.通过仿真分析,得到了双前桥转向机构的优化结果以及转向性能的评价结论.

  15. Cerro Negro field, Venezuela: geological images from a high resolution 3-D survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woller, Kevin L. [Mobil Technology Co. (WEC)

    1999-07-01

    Following a pilot 3-D survey, Petrolera Cerro Negro acquired and processed a 3-D dynamite survey over the Cerro Negro Field in Venezuela. We designed the survey to achieve high frequency imaging at the relatively shallow (< 1000 m) objectives in the Morichal formation. The data exhibits usable frequencies in the 10-120 Hz range after migration. The results of the survey have satisfied the original objective of imaging the faults and basement structure in the field. Use of continuity measurements on the data has resulted in a photographic quality image of the faults at the basement level. The pattern of the faults indicates an unexpected degree of complexity, indicating a richer structural history than originally thought. The continuity data also shows depositional details in the Morichal, which in accordance with geological history of the area. The operatorship is currently in the process of drilling many horizontal development wells. The patterns of the wells bores and variations in the rock types present a challenge to the usage of the 3-D seismic. The operatorship is working to raise the understanding and utility of the seismic data to another plateau. (author)

  16. HeteroGenius: A Framework for Hybrid Analysis of Heterogeneous Software Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Giménez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, software artifacts are ubiquitous in our lives being an essential part of home appliances, cars, cell phones, and even in more critical activities like aeronautics and health sciences. In this context software failures may produce enormous losses, either economical or, in the worst case, in human lives. Software analysis is an area in software engineering concerned with the application of diverse techniques in order to prove the absence of errors in software pieces. In many cases different analysis techniques are applied by following specific methodological combinations that ensure better results. These interactions between tools are usually carried out at the user level and it is not supported by the tools. In this work we present HeteroGenius, a framework conceived to develop tools that allow users to perform hybrid analysis of heterogeneous software specifications. HeteroGenius was designed prioritising the possibility of adding new specification languages and analysis tools and enabling a synergic relation of the techniques under a graphical interface satisfying several well-known usability enhancement criteria. As a case-study we implemented the functionality of Dynamite on top of HeteroGenius.

  17. A new way to generate seismic waves for continental crustal exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong; ZHANG XianKang; QIU XueLin; GE HongKui; LIU BaoJin; WANG BaoShan

    2007-01-01

    An airgun experiment was conducted in a reservoir, with the total volume of the airgun array being 6000 cubic inch.The energy released by one excitation was estimated to be 6.68×106 J, which corresponded to a 3.4 kg TNT explosion.A 180 km long profile composed of 100 portable short period seismometers was deployed as a receiver system of the airgun signals.Two remarkable results can be drawn from the experiment: (1) the airgun explosion is harmless to the dam and the fish, and this kind of airguns can be regarded as a green and environmental protection seismic source on land; (2) seismic wave generated by this airgun source can be recorded by permanent stations with offset larger than 200 km.And the wave amplitudes recorded by nearby and remote stations are equivalent to the wave generated by 800 kg dynamite explosion.The airguns can be used as a light to illuminate the continental crustal structure of an area of about 100000 km2.

  18. Public Health Informatization and System Theory%公共卫生信息化与系统论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁宏斌; 郭岩; 张烨; 肖革新

    2012-01-01

    针对当前公共卫生信息化存在信息孤岛、条块分割、缺乏顶层设计等问题,提出应采用系统论的思维方式,从系统的整体性、动态平衡性、关联性、层次性、目的性和最优化6个方面对公共卫生信息化建设进行剖析,进而使公共卫生信息化建设更加完善。%Regarding the existing problems in public health informatization, namely, information island, blocks segment and lack of top design, the paper proposes that system theory should be used. It analyzes public health informatization construction from 6 aspects using system theory, including system integration, dynamitic balance, correlation, multiple level design, purpose and optimization, so as to further promote public health informatization construction.

  19. Investigation and analysis of hazardous waste in the Three Gorges Area of Chongqing region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li; LIU Xi-rong; WANG Li-ao; ZHOU Zai-jiang

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the investigation of hazardous waste (HW) in the Three Gorges Area of Chongqing region, which indicates that by May 2002, the dumped HW therein amounted to 14 600 t and was mainly distributed in five districts and counties with 11 000 t in Fuling, 1 650 t in Fengdu, 950 t in Wanzhou; 630 t in Wushan and 430 t in Yunyang. The total amount was composed of 9 670 t chromic residue, 2 310 t waste oil and residue, 410 t waste (false) fertilizer, 28 t waste chemical medicine, 26 t waste materials and 2 200 t other things including acid residue, waste asbestos, fluorine silicate,pigment, additive, waste acid, alkali, nitric acid, vitriol, lead mud, storage battery, calcium carbide, potassium cyanide, polluted soil, discard dynamite, waste packing barrel of cyanides, etc. In all of the HW, 578 t can be treated by chemical neutralization and stabilization technology such as redox, chemical precipitation, acid and alkali neutralization, etc., and the rest is temporarily untreatble and should be removed and piled at a temporary storage site above the 177 m water level of the dam with an aim to be transported to a future disposal site for innocuous treatment.

  20. Coral reefs in crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, D

    1997-01-01

    This article reports on the crisis facing reefs throughout the world and the struggle to save them. Coral reefs, one of the biological wonders of the world, are among the largest and oldest living communities of plants and animals on earth, having been evolved between 200 and 450 million years ago. Located mostly in the Pacific region, most established coral reefs are now dead and only the upper layer is covered by a thin changeable skin of living coral. Reefs, over the years, have been the main source of animal protein for over 1 billion people in Asia. Countries near the coastlines, which relied on the seas, have resorted to dynamite fishing, poisoning and other illegal and dangerous techniques. Overpopulation and pollution has caused the deteriorating conditions of the 600,000 sq. km of coral reefs worldwide. Despite these conditions, the government has ignored this problem as they struggle to develop their economies at the expense of common resources. In addition, this article narrates the efforts that are exerted by governments in promoting coral reef protection and management of these coastal resources, setting the Apo Island in the Philippines as an example of good management and sustainability.

  1. Faults survey by 3D reflection seismics; Sanjigen hanshaho jishin tansa ni yoru danso chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, T.; Ejiri, T.; Yamada, N.; Narita, N.; Aso, H.; Takano, H.; Matsumura, M. [Dia Consultants Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes fault survey by 3D seismic reflection exploration. Survey has been conducted mainly at flat land area without pavement not in urban area in Japan. Subsurface structure is complicated with intersecting multiple faults. In this area, a lot of geological investigations have been done prior to the seismic reflection exploration. Fairly certain images of faults have been obtained. However, there were still unknown structures. Survey was conducted at an area of 170m{times}280m in the CDP range. Measurements were carried out by using 100 g of dynamite per seismic generation point combined with 40 Hz velocity geophones. Fixed distribution consisting of lattice points of 12{times}12 was adopted as an observation method. In and around the lattice, a great number of explosions were carried out. The CDP stacking method and the method of migration after stacking were used for the data processing. The 3D structures of six horizons and five faults could be interpreted. Interpreted horizons were well agreed with the logging results. 3 figs.

  2. Investigation of lithium-thionyl chloride battery safety hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, A. I.; Gabriel, K. A.; Burns, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    In the ten years since the feasibility of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell was first recognized (1) remarkable progress has been made in hardware development. Cells as large as 16,000 Ah (2) and batteries of 10.8 MWh (3) have been demonstrated. In a low rate configuration, energy densities of 500 to 600 Wh/kg are easily achieved. Even in the absence of reported explosions, safety would be a concern for such a dense energetic package; the energy density of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell is approaching that of dynamite (924 Wh/kg). In fact explosions have occurred. In general the hazards associated with lithium-thionyl chloride batteries may be divided into four categories: Explosions as a result of an error in battery design. Very large cells were in prototype development prior to a full appreciation of the hazards of the system. It is possible that some of the remaining safety issues are related to cell design; Explosions as a result of external physical abuse such as cell incineration and puncture; Explosions due to short circuiting which could lead to thermal runaway reactions. These problems appear to have been solved by changes in the battery design (4); and Explosions due to abnormal electrical operation (i.e., charging (5) and overdischarging (6) and in partially or fully discharged cells on storage (7 and 8).

  3. Investigation of lithium-thionyl chloride battery safety hazards. Final report 28 Sep 81-31 Dec 82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, A.I.; Gabriel, K.A.; Burns, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    In the ten years since the feasibility of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell was first recognized (1) remarkable progress has been made in hardware development. Cells as large as 16,000 Ah (2) and batteries of 10.8 MWh (3) have been demonstrated. In a low rate configuration, energy densities of 500 to 600 Wh/kg are easily achieved. Even in the absence of reported explosions, safety would be a concern for such a dense energetic package; the energy density of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell is approaching that of dynamite (924 Wh/kg). In fact explosions have occurred. In general the hazards associated with lithium-thionyl chloride batteries may be divided into four categories: Explosions as a result of an error in battery design. Very large cells were in prototype development prior to a full appreciation of the hazards of the system. It is possible that some of the remaining safety issues are related to cell design; Explosions as a result of external physical abuse such as cell incineration and puncture; Explosions due to short circuiting which could lead to thermal runaway reactions. These problems appear to have been solved by changes in the battery design (4); and Expolsions due to abnormal electrical operation (i.e., charging (5) and overdischarging (6) and in partially or fully discharged cells on storage (7 and 8).

  4. EVALUATION OF STABILITY OF MASONRY MINARET IN HIGH SEISMICITY REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Čaušević, Nerman Rustempašić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a result of authors' involvement in the Project ofRehabilitation of the Ferhad-Pasha’s Mosque.The aim of the project was to construct an authentic buildingusing authentic materials, while respecting the principlesof aesthetics and the approaches of ancient builders. Thebuilding will be reconstructed to the same condition as it wasbefore destruction using similar construction methods. It isforeseen that it will be difficult to comply with this principle,due to significant developments in architecture since the initialconstruction. Monuments are precious things that must berespected, and altered as little as possible. These observationscould lead to contradictory decisions, at times accepting ahigher degree of risk in order to avoid or limit changes to theoriginal concept. The Ferhad-Pasha’s Mosque is the work of ahighly-qualified mimar (builder and muhendis (engineer, aproduct of Sinan's school.On 7 May 1993 the mosque was dynamited and razed to theground, and the material removed to the city landfill site inRamiće. The computer program SAP 2000 was used to analyzethe minarets with shell elements. Assuming no tension, it wasfound that the stress was exceeded to a greater extent underthe earthquake load. Deformations caused by shear forceshave an insignificant influence upon the rigidity of tall slenderstructures, thus they can be neglected in practical calculations.To reduce the tensile stress, which appears due to seismicmovements, we recommended two solutions.

  5. Strategic positioning of retail entrepreneurship in marketing channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Miloš

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the actual market flows and dynamiting of power ratios bring about the revolutionary changes within the marketing strategies and basic management approaches, while completely deranging the traditional value system (i.e. system established through marketing channel members' interaction. What is being altered are the market performance patterns, channel communication standards, and forms of institutional pressure manifestation toward the remainder of members which is being performed by the institution with highest economic and negotiating power. Retail company becomes the leader in development of break-the-rule strategies as well as the mutual revolutionary and innovational processes in marketing channel functioning. The final objectives of initiation of co-revolutionary retail strategy with the remainder of marketing channel members are identification and removal of all non-efficient points in the process of development and the process of adding value at all levels of distribution. In addition, these goals are the advanced management of supply chain and integration of consumers with appropriate marketing channel on a long-term basis.

  6. Evaluation of permeability of Nojima fault by hydrophone VSP; Hydrophone VSP ni yoru Nojima danso no tosuisei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiguchi, T.; Ito, H.; Kuwahara, Y.; Miyazaki, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    The multi-offset hydrophone VSP experiments were carried out using a 750m deep borehole as the oscillation receiver, which penetrates the Nojima fault, to detect water-permeable cracks and evaluate their characteristics. Soil around the borehole is of granodiorite, and fault clay is found at a depth in a range from 623 to 624m. A total of 4 dynamite tunnels were provided around the borehole as the focus. The VSP results show that the tube waves are generated at 22 depths, including the depth at which fault clay is found. However, these waves are generated at only 6 depths in an approximately 150m long fracture zone, suggesting that the cracks in the zone are not necessarily permeable. It is also found that crack angle determined by the analysis of tube waves almost coincides with that of fault clay determined by the core, BHTV and FMI, and that permeability is of the order of 100md at a depth of fault clay or shallower. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Proceedings of the 94th SEGJ (The Society of Exploration Geophysicists of Japan) Conference; Butsuri tansa gakkai dai 94 kai (1996 nendo shunki) gakujutsu koenkai koen ronbunshu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The fiscal 1996 SEGJ Conference was held in Tokyo during May 15-17, and 101 papers were reported. As for disaster prevention, the following were reported: Questionnaire investigation for the earthquake, Localization of b-values and maximum earthquakes, Cooperative measurements of microtremors in the north-eastern region of Nishinomiya City, Hyogo Pref., etc. As to elastic wave data recording and modeling data processing, Optimization of dynamite source depth for seismic surveys, Simulation of breakage of heterogeneous materials caused by detonative loading, etc. With relation to archeology, radar, and refraction method, Reexamining results of Iwatoyama tumulus by means of directive antenna, Application of geophysical method to investigation of old castle, etc. Concerning microtremors and surface waves, Estimation of shallow ground structure using short-period microtremors array observation, etc. Besides, papers were reported on electromagnetism, tomography, gravity/magnetism/numerical calculation, measurement while drilling, etc. Moreover, a symposium on underground structures in the Hanshin/Awaji area as viewed from geophysical exploration was held presenting nine papers.

  8. Seismic passive: an experiment for the campus of the National University of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus Reyes, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    The generation of seismic image, in areas where the use of active sources it is restricted (like dynamite) or just the area where the area is an active source, it is possible to do it with passive seismic, using seismic interferometry, retrieving the impulse response (Function Green) from the cross-correlation of the ambient noise. It was cross-correlated ambient seismic noise, of a recording made along a line lying on the university campus in Bogota, on that line were located the virtual-source and the traces. For processing, the surface waves were removed and subsequently, it was applied energy normalization to each of the noise panel and were correlated each noise panels with the trace at the chosen virtual-source position. When it was retrieved common-source gathers it was made a new stacking. And with this stack, seismic image was generated. The image obtained was compared with the geological surveys of the area and found that the reflectors match, showing 2 matching reflections. It was determined from this study of seismic exploration on one line, using retrieved reflection data it posible to obtain a migrated reflection imageof the subsurface.

  9. Enhanced effect in combination of curcumin- and ketoconazole-loaded methoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (ε-caprolactone) micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Fangfang; Deng, Peizong; Song, Zhimei; Zhou, Feilong; Feng, Runliang

    2017-04-01

    In order to enhance water-solubility and realize controlled release while keeping synergistic effects of ketoconazole and curcumin, drug-loaded methoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly (ε-caprolactone) micelles were prepared through thin membrane hydration method. Transmission electric microscopy and dynamitic light scattering characterization revealed the formation of ketoconazole- and curcumin-loaded micelles with an average size of 44.70nm and 39.56nm, respectively. The drug-loaded micelles endowed the two drugs' slow controlled release with water-solubility enhanced to 85 and 82000 folds higher than the corresponding raw drugs, respectively. In vitro antifungal activity test, chequerboard test and inhibition zone test indicated that efficacy of ketoconazole-loaded micelles was improved by introduction of curcumin-loaded micelles with a low fractional inhibitory concentration index (0.073). Biofilm formation inhibition assay also demonstrated that participation of curcumin-loaded micelles obviously strengthened the inhibition of fungal biofilms formation induced by ketoconazole-loaded micelles. The high synergistic activity of combinations is encouraging and the MPEG-PCL micelle is a potential drug delivery system for the combination of ketoconazole and curcumin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Numerical simulation study on thermal response of PBX 9501 to low velocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jianfeng; Zhou, Tingting; Zhang, Yangeng; Zhang, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    Impact sensitivity of solid high explosives, an important index in evaluating the safety and performance of explosives, is an important concern in handling, storage, and shipping procedures. It is a great threat for either bare dynamite or shell charge when subjected to low velocity impact involved in traffic accidents or charge piece drops. The Steven test is an effective tool to study the relative sensitivity of various explosives. In this paper, we built the numerical simulation method involving mechanical, thermo and chemical properties of Steven test based on the thermo-mechanical coupled material model. In the model, the stress-strain relationship is described by dynamic plasticity model, the thermal effect of the explosive induced by impact is depicted by isotropic thermal material model, the chemical reaction of explosives is described by Arrhenius reaction rate law, and the effects of heating and melting on mechanical properties and thermal properties of materials are also taken into account. Specific to the standard Steven test, the thermal and mechanical response rules of PBX 9501 at various impact velocities were numerically analyzed, and the threshold velocity of explosive initiation was obtained, which is in good agreement with experimental results. In addition, the effect of confine condition of test device to the threshold velocity was explored.

  11. THE ACADEMIC LEADERSHIP OF THE UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR IN ACCORDANCE TO THE PRESENT-DAY TRANSFORMATIONS IN THE HIGHER CUBAN EDUCATION / EL LIDERAZGO ACADÉMICO DEL PROFESOR UNIVERSITARIO ANTE LAS ACTUALES TRANSFORMACIONES EN LA EDUCACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Marcia Soto Senra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomena of present-day dynamite the development of societies; which cannot exist at the edge of technical and scientific advances. This revolute the continuous scientific task, in a complex world of social relations, where many people have taken as paradigm, the construction of a better world, more fare and well balanced. The Cuban education is based more than ever in this paradigm. The education, as a fundamental way to socialize the subject, goes through different levels up to a moment of preparation to fulfill from the professional point of view, a social determined commission. One of the indicators of quality for the university measurement is constituted by its professors. Their function in their teaching activity is determined in a great extent by the leadership that plays within the formative process of the learners. Hence, the general objective of this investigation is: to value the role of the university professors in accordance to the present-day transformations in the Cuban higher education.

  12. The Alfred Nobel rocket camera. An early aerial photography attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingemar Skoog, A.

    2010-02-01

    Alfred Nobel (1833-1896), mainly known for his invention of dynamite and the creation of the Nobel Prices, was an engineer and inventor active in many fields of science and engineering, e.g. chemistry, medicine, mechanics, metallurgy, optics, armoury and rocketry. Amongst his inventions in rocketry was the smokeless solid propellant ballistite (i.e. cordite) patented for the first time in 1887. As a very wealthy person he actively supported many Swedish inventors in their work. One of them was W.T. Unge, who was devoted to the development of rockets and their applications. Nobel and Unge had several rocket patents together and also jointly worked on various rocket applications. In mid-1896 Nobel applied for patents in England and France for "An Improved Mode of Obtaining Photographic Maps and Earth or Ground Measurements" using a photographic camera carried by a "…balloon, rocket or missile…". During the remaining of 1896 the mechanical design of the camera mechanism was pursued and cameras manufactured. In April 1897 (after the death of Alfred Nobel) the first aerial photos were taken by these cameras. These photos might be the first documented aerial photos taken by a rocket borne camera. Cameras and photos from 1897 have been preserved. Nobel did not only develop the rocket borne camera but also proposed methods on how to use the photographs taken for ground measurements and preparing maps.

  13. Effect of Shock Wave on Fabricated Anti-Blast Wall and Distribution Law Around the Wall Under Near Surface Explosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jun; LIU Jingbo; YAN Qiushi

    2008-01-01

    The loads of shock wave effect on fabricated anti-blast wall and distribution law around the wall were investigated by using near surface explosion test method and FEM.The pressure-time histories and variety law on the foreside and backside of the anti-blast wall were adopted in the tests of variety of different explosion distances and dynamites,as well as in the comparison between the test and numerical calculation.The test results show that the loads of shock wave effect on the anti-blast wall were essen-tially consistent with calculation results using criterion under surface explosion when explosion distances exceed 2 m,the distribution of overpressure behind wall was gained according to variety law based on small-large-small.It is also demonstrated that the peak overpressure behind wall had commonly appeared in wall height by 1.5--2.5 multiples,and the peak overpressures of protective building behind wall could be reduced effectively by using the fabricated anti-blast wall.

  14. Development and field example of multi channel surface wave data acquisition and processing system (SWS-1); Multi channel hyomenha data shutoku shori system (SWS-1) no kaihatsu to jikkenrei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y. [Huashui Institute of Geophysical Exploration, (China); Wang, Z. [Bureauof Engineering MGMR, (China); Zhang, Z [STG Corp., (China); Tanaka, Y.

    1996-05-01

    A report is given here about the use of a newly-developed multi-channel surface wave data acquisition and processing system different from the conventional surface wave exploration device. This system enables the on-site pickup of a dispersion curve out of the multi-component surface wave data and, in the analysis of underground structure, performs the forward modeling and inversion. The system, furthermore, acquires and analyzes the data obtained from reflection earthquake exploration and constant microtremor observation. During a survey conducted along the highway from Port Ren-un to Xuzhou, China, estimation of the basement boundary was made by use of dynamite, and what was obtained agreed with the result of boring though with an error of 3m. In addition, this system could probe levels deeper than 100m using the instantaneous Rayleigh wave exploration method. This system and the conventional surface exploration device were compared in a soft ground in Fukui Prefecture, the former using a 10kg hammer and the latter using a 350kg exciter, when it was verified that the results produced by both techniques excellently agree with the geologic columnar section and changes in the N-value. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Seismic reflection data imaging and interpretation from Braniewo2014 experiment using additional wide-angle refraction and reflection and well-logs data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciak, Maciej; Majdański, Mariusz; Białas, Sebastian; Gaczyński, Edward; Maksym, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    Braniewo2014 reflection and refraction experiment was realized in cooperation between Polish Oil and Gas Company (PGNiG) and the Institute of Geophysics (IGF), Polish Academy of Sciences, near the locality of Braniewo in northern Poland. PGNiG realized a 20-km-long reflection profile, using vibroseis and dynamite shooting; the aim of the reflection survey was to characterise Silurian shale gas reservoir. IGF deployed 59 seismic stations along this profile and registered additional full-spread wide-angle refraction and reflection data, with offsets up to 12 km; maximum offsets from the seismic reflection survey was 3 km. To improve the velocity information two velocity logs from near deep boreholes were used. The main goal of the joint reflection-refraction interpretation was to find relations between velocity field from reflection velocity analysis and refraction tomography, and to build a velocity model which would be consistent for both, reflection and refraction, datasets. In this paper we present imaging results and velocity models from Braniewo2014 experiment and the methodology we used.

  16. Clinical analysis on 114 cases of explosion eye injury%眼爆炸伤114例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志强; 王春芳; 杨红霞

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨眼爆炸伤的流行病学状况,发生原因及影响视力的危险因素.方法 对山西医科大学第一、二医院眼科2005年1月至2010年1月住院的眼爆炸伤114例(196眼)资料作一回顾性研究.结果 男性眼爆炸伤患者明显多于女性者,31 ~40岁是眼爆炸伤高发年龄段.就诊时以角膜、巩膜穿孔伤、外伤性白内障、眼内异物和视神经损伤为多.治疗后27例(29眼)行眼内容摘除术,占23.6%.双眼盲35.4%(58/164),双眼致残率43.9% (72/164).单眼致盲率46.9%(92/196),单眼致残率41.3% (81/196).结论 眼爆炸伤是一种严重且复杂的眼外伤,致肓及致残率高,雷管及炸药爆炸是导致工人及青壮年眼爆炸伤的主要原因,加强劳动保护是目前防止眼爆炸伤的首要任务.%Objective To investigate the incidence epidemiological characteristics of eye explosion injury,analyze the leading cause of eye explosion and focus on risk cause of visual reduction and the methods of prevention.Methods:All medical records of inpatients in the period from January 2005 to January 2010 in the Shanxi Medical University Affiliated 1st and 2nd Hospital were retrospectively studied.Results:There was a significant difference between the male and female.The majority of all injury were men.Most were comeosclera perforating injury,traumatic cataract,intraocular foreign body and optic nerve injury.After tre-ament,27 patients (29 eyes) underwent eviseration of eyeball.Blind eyes 35.4% (58/164),eyes disability 43.9% (72/164),monocullar blindness rate is 46.9% (92/196),monocular disability rate is 41.3 % (81 /196).Conclusions:Explosion of dynamite was the most common cause ultimately leading to visual injury in working adults and the youth.The most leading cause of eye explosion injury was explode of the detonator and dynamite.The most important should be given to the strengthening of labour protection in developing countries.

  17. Dynamic Responses of Single-Layer Spherical Steel Reticulated Shell Under Internal Explosions%单层球面钢网壳结构在内爆炸作用下的动力响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高轩能; 李超; 江媛

    2015-01-01

    采用LS-DYNA程序建立了单层球面钢网壳的内爆炸数值模拟计算模型。应用所建模型,对单层球面钢网壳在内爆炸作用下的动力响应进行了数值模拟计算,分析讨论了炸药 TNT 量、矢跨比和爆炸点位置等参数变化对结构动力响应的影响。结果表明,在内爆炸作用下,单层球壳结构的最大位移和最大应力响应随 TNT 量的增加而增大,最大应力响应的增幅小于最大位移;最大位移和最大应力响应随矢跨比的增大呈非线性减小,矢跨比大、跨度小的结构防(抗)爆炸波的能力较强。数值结果还揭示,邻近结构支座1/4跨度范围内的偏心爆炸对结构最为不利,进行防爆和抗爆设计时,应按偏心爆炸效应选取设计控制参数。%A numerical calculation model for simulating the internal explosions in the single-layer spherical steel re-ticulated shell was established by using LS-DYNA. Based on the model,the numerical simulation and calculation of dynamic responses of the single-layer spherical steel reticulated shell were carried out under internal explosions,and the influences of the TNT equivalence of dynamite,the rise-to-span ratio and the position of explosions on the dy-namic responses of the spherical steel reticulated shell wereanalyzed and discussed. The results showed that the maximum displacement and stress responses of the single-layer spherical steel reticulated shell under the internal ex-plosions increase with increasing TNT equivalence of dynamite,but the increasing rate of the maximum stress re-sponse is less than that of the maximum displacement response. The maximum displacement and stress responses of the shell decrease nonlinearly with the increase of the rise-to-span ratio,and the bigger the rise-to-span ratio and the smaller the span of the shell,the stronger the capacity of resistance to(anti-)explosive shock waves. The numerical results also revealed that the eccentric

  18. A sandwich-hybridization assay for simultaneous determination of HIV and tuberculosis DNA targets based on signal amplification by quantum dots-PowerVision™ polymer coding nanotracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhongdan; Gan, Ning; Zhang, Huairong; Wang, De; Qiao, Li; Cao, Yuting; Li, Tianhua; Hu, Futao

    2015-09-15

    A novel sandwich-hybridization assay for simultaneous electrochemical detection of multiple DNA targets related to human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) was developed based on the different quantum dots-PowerVision(TM) polymer nanotracers. The polymer nanotracers were respectively fabricated by immobilizing SH-labeled oligonucleotides (s-HIV or s-TB), which can partially hybrid with virus DNA (HIV or TB), on gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and then modified with PowerVision(TM) (PV) polymer-encapsulated quantum dots (CdS or PbS) as signal tags. PV is a dendrimer enzyme linked polymer, which can immobilize abundant QDs to amplify the stripping voltammetry signals from the metal ions (Pb or Cd). The capture probes were prepared through the immobilization of SH-labeled oligonucleotides, which can complementary with HIV and TB DNA, on the magnetic Fe3O4@Au (GMPs) beads. After sandwich-hybridization, the polymer nanotracers together with HIV and TB DNA targets were simultaneously introduced onto the surface of GMPs. Then the two encoding metal ions (Cd(2+) and Pb(2+)) were used to differentiate two viruses DNA due to the different subsequent anodic stripping voltammetric peaks at -0.84 V (Cd) and -0.61 V (Pb). Because of the excellent signal amplification of the polymer nanotracers and the great specificity of DNA targets, this assay could detect targets DNA as low as 0.2 femtomolar and exhibited excellent selectivity with the dynamitic range from 0.5 fM to 500 pM. Those results demonstrated that this electrochemical coding assay has great potential in applications for screening more viruses DNA while changing the probes.

  19. Synthesis of Ammonium Nitrate Molecularly Imprinted Polymer within Hydrogels%硝酸铵水凝胶分子印迹聚合物的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晨; 胡莉莉; 郑三婷

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Currently, security issues had become the world's most important issue, especially for molecular detection of explosives. Ammonium nitrate were the main component of ammonia dynamite which can be detected using molecular imprinting method. Methods: Molecularly imprinted hydrogels were prepared, and their binding rate were measured by static binding assay. Results:Research showed that the polymer had a good properties of recognition and adsorption. Dissociation constants was 4.08g/L, maximum adsorption was 3.51mg/g. Conclusion: water-soluble explosives molecularly imprinted polymer could be by molecularly imprinted hydrogels technology, and had favorable recognition and adsorption.%目的:目前安全问题成为世界各国的首要问题,尤其是对炸药分子的检测.硝酸铵是硝铵炸药的主要成分.研究水凝胶分子印迹法对硝铵炸药分子的检测.方法:水凝胶分子印迹方法制备硝酸铵水凝胶分子印迹聚合物,运用静态结合实验时其结合率进行了测定.结果:聚合物对硝酸铵具有良好的识别和吸附性能.印迹聚合物的解离常数为4.08g/L,最大吸附量为3.51mg/g.结论:水凝胶分子印迹法可合成水溶性炸药分子印迹聚合物,并且识别及吸附性能良好.

  20. Collapsing (New Buildings: Town Planning, History and Music in Hubertus Siegert's Berlin Babylon (2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hurley

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hubertus Siegert’s impressionistic documentary, Berlin Babylon, illuminates the demolition and urban renewal of Berlin during the mid-late 1990s. This was a critical phase in the city’s history, as it prepared, amidst a flurry of excitement and anticipation, to become the united Germany's seat of power. Siegert's film seeks to give pause for thought, but deliberately eschews a “voice of god” voiceover, opting instead for a poetic audiovisual montage. This includes shots of the cityscape (and its lacunae, archival footage documenting the wartime devastation and subsequent dynamiting of buildings, observational cinema of the city’s busy building sites, and of verbal snippets from various architects, developers and politicians––following the film title’s cue, the agents in a rerun of the construction of the Tower of Babel––as well as epigraphs from the Bible and Walter Benjamin, and a prominent soundscape and musical score. As this article will demonstrate, the film’s (mostly sombre soundtrack plays a critical role here, commenting on the footage, and beyond that on the whole project of the new ‘Berlin Republic’ and its attitude to architectural heritage and twentieth century history. Re-figuring the theme of this volume, Berlin Babylon’s music is a form of writing about (collapsing, old architecture and history. And yet, the soundtrack is not as unambiguous as a voiceover might have been, and thereby allows creative space for the audience’s interpretation, a matter that was very important to the film’s director. This article will focus, in particular, on three elements: the use (and treatment of historical recordings in the film; the use of silence; and finally the way in which tracks from the Berlin band Einstürzende Neubauten use music, noise and text to comment on the project of the new Berlin.

  1. Atmospheric Neutrinos in Soudan 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, M.; Soudan 2 Collaboration

    2001-08-01

    Neutrino interactions recorded in a 5.1 fiducial kiloton-year exposure of the Soudan-2 iron tracking calorimeter are analyzed for effects of neutrino oscillations. Using contained single track and single shower events, we update our measurement of the atmospheric / ratio-of-ratios and find . Assuming this anomalously low R-value is the result of flavor disappearance viat o oscillation, we select samples of charged current events which offer good resolution, event-by-event, for Ä reconstruction. Oscillation-weighted Monte Carlo events are fitted to these data events using a ¾ function summed over bins of log´Ä µ. The region allowed in the (× Ò¾ ¾ , ¡Ñ¾) plane at 90% CL is obtained using the Feldman-Cousins procedure: 1 DETECTOR; DATA EXPOSURE The Soudan-2 experiment will soon (July 2001) be completing the taking of data using its fine-grained iron tracking calorimeter of total mass 963 tons. This detector images nonrelativistic as well as relativistic charged particles produced in atmospheric neutrino reactions. It has operated underground at a depth of 2100 meters-water-equivalent on level 27 of the Soudan Mine State Park in northern Minnesota. The calorimeter's modular design enabled data-taking to commence in April 1989 when the detector was one quarter of its full size; assembly of the detector was completed during 1993. Data-taking continued with 85% live time, even though dynamite blasting has been underway nearby for the MINOS cavern excavation since Summer 1999. The total data exposure will be 5.8fiducial kiloton-years (kTy). Results presented here are based upon a 5.1 kTy exposure. The tracking calorimeter operates as a slow-drift (0.6 cm/ s) time projection chamber. Its tracking elements are meterlong plastic drift tubes which are placed into the corruga-

  2. Three-dimensional cascaded system analysis of a 50 µm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C; Vassiljev, N; Konstantinidis, A C; Speller, R D; Kanicki, J

    2017-03-07

    High-resolution, low-noise x-ray detectors based on the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology have been developed and proposed for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this study, we evaluated the three-dimensional (3D) imaging performance of a 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). The two-dimensional (2D) angle-dependent modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were experimentally characterized and modeled using the cascaded system analysis at oblique incident angles up to 30°. The cascaded system model was extended to the 3D spatial frequency space in combination with the filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction method to calculate the 3D and in-plane MTF, NNPS and DQE parameters. The results demonstrate that the beam obliquity blurs the 2D MTF and DQE in the high spatial frequency range. However, this effect can be eliminated after FBP image reconstruction. In addition, impacts of the image acquisition geometry and detector parameters were evaluated using the 3D cascaded system analysis for DBT. The result shows that a wider projection angle range (e.g.  ±30°) improves the low spatial frequency (below 5 mm(-1)) performance of the CMOS APS detector. In addition, to maintain a high spatial resolution for DBT, a focal spot size of smaller than 0.3 mm should be used. Theoretical analysis suggests that a pixelated scintillator in combination with the 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS detector could further improve the 3D image resolution. Finally, the 3D imaging performance of the CMOS APS and an indirect amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film transistor (TFT) passive pixel sensor (PPS) detector was simulated and compared.

  3. Sorptive removal of trinitroglycerin (TNG) from water using nanostructured silica-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Rabih; Thibutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Hawari, Jalal

    2010-01-01

    Trinitroglycerin (TNG), a nitrate ester, is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for the treatment of angina pectoris (chest pain) and by the military for the manufacturing of dynamite and propellants. Currently, TNG is considered as a key environmental contaminant due to the discharge of wastewater tainted with the chemical from various military and pharmaceutical industries. The present study describes the use of a nanostructured silica material (Mobil Composite Material no. 48 [MCM-48]) prepared by mixing tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) to remove TNG from water. The sorption of TNG onto MCM-48 rapidly reached equilibrium within 1 h. Sorption kinetics were best described using a pseudo-second order model, whereas sorption isotherms were best interpreted using the Langmuir model. The latter gave a maximum sorption capacity of 55.2 mg g(-1) at 40 degrees C. The enthalpy and entropy of TNG sorption onto MCM-48 were 1.89 kJ mol(-1) and 79.0 J mol(-1).K(-1), indicating the endothermic nature of the TNG sorption onto MCM-48. When MCM-48 was heated at 540 degrees C for 5 h, the resulting calcined material (absence of the surfactant) did not sorb TNG, suggesting that the surfactant component of the nanomaterial was responsible for TNG sorption. Finally, we found that MCM-48 lost approximately 30% of its original sorption capacity after five sorption-desorption cycles. In conclusion, the nanostructured silica based sorbent, with high sorption capacity and remarkable reusability, should constitute the basis for the development of an effective technology for the removal of TNG from contaminated water.

  4. Reflection seismic studies in the Forsmark area - stage 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhlin, Christopher; Bergman Bjoern; Palm, Hans [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2002-10-01

    Reflection seismic data were acquired in the Spring of 2002 in the Forsmark area, located about 70 km northeast of Uppsala, Sweden. The Forsmark area has been targeted by SKB as a possible storage site for high level radioactive waste. About 16 km of high resolution seismic data were acquired along five separate profiles varying in length from 2 to 5 km. Non-final source and receiver spacing was 10 m with 100 active channels when recording data from a dynamite source (15-75 g). The profiles were located within a relatively undeformed lens of bedrock that trends in the NW-SE direction. The lens is surrounded by highly deformed rock on all sides. In conjunction with the reflection component of the study, all shots were also recorded on up to eleven 3-component fixed Orion seismographs. These recordings provided long offset data from which a velocity model of the uppermost 400 m of bedrock could be derived. Results from the study show that the bedrock has been well imaged down to depths of at least 3 km. The upper 1000 m of bedrock is much more reflective in the southeastern portion of the lens compared to the northwestern part close to the Forsmark reactors. This is interpreted as the bedrock being more homogeneous in the northwest. However, a major reflective zone (the A1 reflector) is interpreted to dip to the S-SE below this homogeneous bedrock. In the southeastern portion of the lens the orientation of the reflectors is well determined where the profiles cross one another. The general strike of the major reflectors is NE-SW with dips of 20-35 degrees to the southeast.

  5. Analysis of Blast Wave Propagation Inside Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jingbo; YAN Qiushi; WU Jun

    2008-01-01

    The explosion inside tunnel would generate blast wave which transmits through the longi tudinal tunnel.Because of the close-in effects of the tunnel and the reflection by the confining tunnel structure,blast wave propagation inside tunnel is distinguished from that in air.When the explosion happens inside tunnel,the overpressure peak is higher than that of explosion happening in air.The continuance time of the biast wave also becomes longer.With the help of the numerical simu lation finite element software LS-DYNA.a three-dimensional nonlinear dynamic simulation analysis for an explosion experiment inside tunnel was carried out.LS-DYNA is a fully integrated analysis program specifically designed for nonlinear dynamics and large strain problems.Compared with the experimental results.the simulation results have made the material parameters of numerical simulation model available.By using the model and the same material parameters,many results were adopted by calculating the model under different TNT explosion dynamites.Then the method of dimensional analysis was Used for the Simulation resufts.AS Overpressures of the explosion biast wave are the governing factor in fhe tunnel responses.a formula for the explosion biast wave overpressure at a certain distance from the detonation center point inside the tunnel was de rived by using the dimensional analysis theory.By cornparing the results computed by the fromula with experimental results which were obtained before.the formula was proved to be very applicable at some instance.The research may be helpful to estimate rapidly the effect of internal explosion of tunnel on the structure.

  6. Three-dimensional cascaded system analysis of a 50 µm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C.; Vassiljev, N.; Konstantinidis, A. C.; Speller, R. D.; Kanicki, J.

    2017-03-01

    High-resolution, low-noise x-ray detectors based on the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology have been developed and proposed for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this study, we evaluated the three-dimensional (3D) imaging performance of a 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). The two-dimensional (2D) angle-dependent modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were experimentally characterized and modeled using the cascaded system analysis at oblique incident angles up to 30°. The cascaded system model was extended to the 3D spatial frequency space in combination with the filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction method to calculate the 3D and in-plane MTF, NNPS and DQE parameters. The results demonstrate that the beam obliquity blurs the 2D MTF and DQE in the high spatial frequency range. However, this effect can be eliminated after FBP image reconstruction. In addition, impacts of the image acquisition geometry and detector parameters were evaluated using the 3D cascaded system analysis for DBT. The result shows that a wider projection angle range (e.g.  ±30°) improves the low spatial frequency (below 5 mm-1) performance of the CMOS APS detector. In addition, to maintain a high spatial resolution for DBT, a focal spot size of smaller than 0.3 mm should be used. Theoretical analysis suggests that a pixelated scintillator in combination with the 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS detector could further improve the 3D image resolution. Finally, the 3D imaging performance of the CMOS APS and an indirect amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film transistor (TFT) passive pixel sensor (PPS) detector was simulated and compared.

  7. Actively Negotiating the Mind-Body Divide: How Clozapine-Treated Schizophrenia Patients Make Health for Themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julia E H; Dennis, Simone

    2017-01-10

    It is well recognised that antipsychotic treatments impact the whole body, not just the target area of the brain. For people with refractory schizophrenia on clozapine, the gold standard antipsychotic treatment in England and Australia, the separation of mental and physical regimes of health is particularly pronounced, resulting in multiple, compartmentalised treatment registers. Clinicians often focus on the mental health aspects of clozapine use, using physical indicators to determine whether treatment can continue. Our observations of 59 participants in England and Australia over 18 months revealed that patients did not observe this hierarchisation of mental treatments and physical outcomes. Patients often actively engaged in the management of their bodily symptoms, leading us to advance the figure of the active, rather than passive, patient. In our paper, we do not take the position that the facility for active management is a special one utilised only by these patients. We seek instead to draw attention to what is currently overlooked as an ordinary capacity to enact some sort of control over life, even under ostensibly confined and confining circumstances. We argue that clozapine-treated schizophrenia patients utilise the clinical dichotomy between mental and physical domains of health to rework what health means to them. This permits patients to actively manage their own phenomenological 'life projects' (Rapport, I am Dynamite: an Alternative Anthropology of Power, Routledge, London 2003), and forces us to reconsider the notion of clinical giveness of what health means. This making of one's own meanings of health may be critical to the maintenance of a sense of self.

  8. Marine fisheries in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiddawi, Narriman S; Ohman, Marcus C

    2002-12-01

    Fishery resources are a vital source of food and make valuable economic contributions to the local communities involved in fishery activities along the 850 km stretch of the Tanzania coastline and numerous islands. Small-scale artisanal fishery accounts for the majority of fish catch produced by more than 43 000 fishermen in the country, mainly operating in shallow waters within the continental shelf, using traditional fishing vessels including small boats, dhows, canoes, outrigger canoes and dinghys. Various fishing techniques are applied using uncomplicated passive fishing gears such as basket traps, fence traps, nets as well as different hook and line techniques. Species composition and size of the fish varies with gear type and location. More than 500 species of fish are utilized for food with reef fishes being the most important category including emperors, snappers, sweetlips, parrotfish, surgeonfish, rabbitfish, groupers and goatfish. Most of the fish products are used for subsistence purposes. However, some are exported. Destructive fishing methods such as drag nets and dynamite fishing pose a serious problem as they destroy important habitats for fish and other organisms, and there is a long-term trend of overharvested fishery resources. However, fishing pressure varies within the country as fishery resources are utilized in a sustainable manner in some areas. For this report more than 340 references about Tanzanian fishery and fish ecology were covered. There are many gaps in terms of information needed for successful fishery management regarding both basic and applied research. Most research results have been presented as grey literature (57%) with limited distribution; only one-fifth were scientific publications in international journals.

  9. Structural and Tectonic Map Along the Pacific-North America Plate Boundary in Northern Gulf of California, Sonora Desert and Valle de Mexicali, Mexico, from Seismic Reflection Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Escobar, M.; Suarez-Vidal, F.; Mendoza-Borunda, R.; Martin Barajas, A.; Pacheco-Romero, M.; Arregui-Estrada, S.; Gallardo-Mata, C.; Sanchez-Garcia, C.; Chanes-Martinez, J.

    2012-12-01

    Between 1978 and 1983, Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) carried on an intense exploration program in the northern Gulf of California, the Sonora Desert and the southern part of the Mexicali Valley. This program was supported by a seismic reflection field operation. The collected seismic data was 2D, with travel time of 6 s recording, in 48 channels, and the source energy was: dynamite, vibroseis and air guns. Since 2007 to present time, the existing seismic data has been re-processing and ire-interpreting as part of a collaboration project between the PEMEX's Subdirección de Exploración (PEMEX) and CICESE. The study area is located along a large portion of the Pacific-North America plate boundary in the northern Gulf of California and the Southern part of the Salton Trough tectonic province (Mexicali Valley). We present the result of the processes reflection seismic lines. Many of the previous reported known faults were identify along with the first time described located within the study region. We identified regions with different degree of tectonic activity. In structural map it can see the location of many of these known active faults and their associated seismic activity, as well as other structures with no associated seismicity. Where some faults are mist placed they were deleted or relocated based on new information. We included historical seismicity for the region. We present six reflection lines that cross the aftershocks zone of the El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake of April 4, 2010 (Mw7.2). The epicenter of this earthquake and most of the aftershocks are located in a region where pervious to this earthquake no major earthquakes are been reported. A major result of this study is to demonstrate that there are many buried faults that increase the seismic hazard.

  10. Synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, David E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate esters have been known as useful energetic materials since the discovery of nitroglycerin by Ascanio Sobrero in 1846. The development of methods to increase the safety and utility of nitroglycerin by Alfred Nobel led to the revolutionary improvement in the utility of nitroglycerin in explosive applications in the form of dynamite. Since then, many nitrate esters have been prepared and incorporated into military applications such as double-based propellants, detonators and as energetic plasticizers. Nitrate esters have also been shown to have vasodilatory effects in humans and thus have been studied and used for treatments of ailments such as angina. The mechanism of the biological response towards nitrate esters has been elucidated recently. Interestingly, many of the nitrate esters used for military purposes are liquids (ethylene glycol dinitrate, propylene glycol dinitrate, etc). Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) is one of the only solid nitrate esters, besides nitrocellulose, that is used in any application. Unfortunately, PETN melting point is above 100 {sup o}C, and thus must be pressed as a solid for detonator applications. A more practical material would be a melt-castable explosive, for potential simplification of manufacturing processes. Herein we describe the synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester (1) that is a solid at ambient temperatures, has a melting point of 85-86 {sup o}C and has the highest density of any known nitrate ester composed only of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. We also describe the chemical, thermal and sensitivity properties of 1 as well as some preliminary explosive performance data.

  11. Baru fishermen band together for a better life. View from the village 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, S

    1992-01-01

    An example of how Baru, Colombia families are struggling to survive in fishing communities on the Caribbean coast is presented. Population pressure, economics fluctuations in the coconut industry, tourism, pollution of the lagoon, inadequate water supply, and mangrove destruction are some of the issues confronting villagers. The copra boom of the 1930 and 1940 and good coconut harvests contributed to good times in the past. Tourism has the advantage of providing jobs close at hand and a market for fishing catches, but the disadvantages are closed access to beaches, cutting of mangroves to make beaches, and pollution of waterways. Land has been appropriated for tourism development and what is left is unsuitable for grazing or growing fruit trees. Families are large. Fishing is no longer close to shore and catches are smaller. Large fishing boats take all the fish in their big nets. There are up to 10 dry months a year; water must be collected from Cartagena, 40 km north of Baru. Efforts have been made to improve conditions. A contraceptive post provides services (pills, injections, and condoms) to the 67% of couples in the 2500 population in Baru. Condoms have become popular since several Baru residents have died of AIDS. Sexual activity may begin as early as 14 years. A few secondary school classes provide health and sex information. A health center is well-equipped with a full-time physician and a dentist. Community projects have engaged people in artisan crafts production and dressmaking. A fishing cooperative of 30-40 has been formed. New methods are being taught. The concentration of fishermen, the decimation of fish from too many years of dynamiting for bait, and the pollution along the coast from industrial waste and city drains mean fewer fish. Fishing and tourism are the main sources of income. Large new luxury hotels are planned for the area but impact assessments have not been made. For instance, electricity has just been brought into the village, and a

  12. Crustal structure across the Filchner Ronne Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter, U.; Jokat, W.

    2012-04-01

    Crustal structure across the Filchner Ronne Shelf, Antarctica U. Herter, W. Jokat One large gap in understanding the tectonic evolution of Antarctica beside the few rock outcrops on the continent is the missing information on crustal thickness along its margins but also in its interior. E.g., the few marine deep seismic lines are located mainly along the Antarctic Peninsula/Pacific margin, but for most of the East Antarctic margins such information is not available. In this contribution we concentrate on one of the most remote areas in Antarctica, the Filchner Ronne Shelf (FRS). The area is underlain by approximately 12 km of sediments, but its crustal fabric is questionable. Thus, some existing deep seismic sounding data were modeled and reinterpreted. Especially, data gathered in 1995 have been analyzed, and a more detailed 2D P-wave velocity model has been calculated. For the profiles in total 12 RefTek stations each with nine geophone chains were placed on the ice shelf and 3175 airgun shots along a 480 km transect were fired by two 32 l BOLT-Airguns each 60 s. Signals were recorded up to distances of 180 km. Due to the ice coverage it was not possible to acquire the data without gaps or along straight lines, which caused some difficulties in the modeling process. Furthermore, in the new model all data from older experiments of the AWI and Soviet Antarctic expeditions acquired with dynamite sources were incorporated. The model shows a sedimentary basin with a thickness up to 12 km and a large velocity inversion in a deeper sediment unit. The crustal thickness varies from 40 km beneath the Antarctic Peninsula, and 14 km of basement in the center part of the profile. Towards Berkner Island the crust thickens again, but the top of the basement is still 11 km deep. The lower crustal velocities range between 6.8 and 7.2 km/s. We interpret the crustal structure as clear evidence for the presence of a failed rift. The initial stretching of the continental crust

  13. Performance of a novel wafer scale CMOS active pixel sensor for bio-medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, M; Anaxagoras, T; Konstantinidis, A C; Zheng, Y; Speller, R D; Evans, P M; Allinson, N M; Wells, K

    2014-07-07

    detector compared to FPIs. Optical characterization, x-ray contrast measurements and theoretical DQE evaluation suggest that a trade off can be found between the need of a large imaging area and the requirement of a uniform imaging performance, making the DynAMITe large area CMOS APS suitable for a range of bio-medical applications.

  14. RLG bias compensation method in complex temperature variation environment%复杂温变环境下的激光陀螺零偏补偿方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘献飞; 杨杰; 吴美平

    2011-01-01

    在高精度捷联惯导系统中,激光陀螺零偏随温度的变化往往不能忽略.基于不同温变环境下的激光陀螺零偏测试实验,分析了激光陀螺的零偏温度漂移特性,研究了陀螺零偏与温度变化、温变速率和温度梯度之间的相关关系,说明了在复杂或快速的温变环境中,激光陀螺零偏除与温度值变化有关外,其受温变速率和温度梯度的影响更为显著.建立了适用于缓变温度环境的静态温度模型和适用于复杂温变环境下的动态温度模型,并在快速温变和随机温变环境下对模型进行了试验验证.结果表明,动态温度模型能很好地实时补偿复杂温变引入的陀螺零偏异常,显著改善陀螺零偏稳定性使其达到或接近常温精度水平.%The bias drift of ring laser gyroscope (RLG) with temperature can't be ignored in high accuracy strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS). Based on the RLG bias test experiments in different temperature environments, the gyroscope bias-temperature drift characteristics are analyzed, and the bias correlations with the temperature, temperature velocity and temperature grads are studied. It is showed that the bias could be significantly influenced by temperature change-rate and gradient besides temperature change in complex or rapid-changed temperature environments. The static bias-temperature model which is adaptive for the slowly changed temperature environments and the dynamic models which are suitable for the complex temperature environments are established. The experiments in the rapid and random temperature environments illustrate that the dynamitic temperature models could properly compensate the gyroscope bias abnormity caused by the complicated temperature change in real time, and significantly improve the RLG's bias stability to make it close to the normal temperature's accuracy level.

  15. Deep crustal structure of the Walvis Ridge at the junction with the Namibian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, Tanja; Jokat, Wilfried; Behrmann, Jan H.; Ryberg, Trond; Weber, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The Walvis Ridge perpendicular to the African coast offshore Namibia is believed to be caused by a long-lived hotspot, which started to erupt with the opening of the South Atlantic in mid Cretaceous. The ridge in combination with the large igneous provinces (Etendeka and Parana) in South America and Namibia is today considered to be a classical model for hotspot driven continental break-up. To unravel details on how the crust and mantle were modified by such a major thermal event, a large-scale geophysical on- and offshore experiment was conducted in 2011. We present p-wave velocity models of two active seismic profiles along and across Walvis Ridge. The profile along the ridge continues onshore, has a total length of ~730 km and consists of 28 ocean bottom stations, 50 land stations and 8 dynamite shots. This section reveals a complex structure with multiple buried seamounts, strong lateral velocity gradients and indication of a high velocity body at the crust-mantle boundary beneath the shelf area. Lower crustal velocities range from 6.5 km/s in the west to 7.0 km/s in the east while the crustal thickness is approximately 28 km at the coast thinning westwards. The second profile perpendicular to the ridge is located about 140 km west of the first profile, has a length of ~480 km and consists of 27 ocean bottom stations. The crustal thickness is well constrained by multiple Moho reflections showing a thickness of 20km under the crest of the ridge and gradually thinning to 8km towards north and south. A seamount marks the northern termination of the ridge leading to an abrupt thickening of the crust to 14km before reaching the Angola Basin. While crustal velocities of 5.5 km/s and 6.5 km/s in the upper and lower crust are similar to the first profile, lower crustal velocities north of the crest are approximately 6% higher.

  16. Crustal structure of the Walvis Ridge at the junction with the Namibian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, Tanja; Jokat, Wilfried; Behrmann, Jan H.; Ryberg, Trond; Weber, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Continental breakup is commonly preceded or accompanied by massive volcanism and deposition of flood basalts. The large volumes of magma are thought to originate from hot upwelling mantle plumes arriving at the lithosphere. The following plume conduit often leaves a trail in form of volcanic islands or aseismic ridges on the newly created oceanic crust. Due to this correlation in space and time between plume-derived structures and continental breakup, plumes are considered to have a triggering effect or even cause continental breakups. The South Atlantic is a classical example for this model including the Parana (South America) and Etendeka (Africa) flood basalts as well as the aseismic ridges Rio Grande Rise and Walvis Ridge on both conjugate margins. The Walvis Ridge connects the Etendeka flood basalts with the active volcanic islands of Tristan da Cunha, the current hotspot position. To investigate the modification of the continent ocean transition (COT) by the arriving plume head, a large geophysical on- and offshore experiment was conducted in 2011 at the intersection of Walvis Ridge with the African continent. We present two P-wave velocity models of the deep crustal structure derived from seismic refraction data. One profile crosses the ridge ~500km away from the coastline, while the other one extends along the ridge and continues onshore. 27 ocean bottom stations (OBS, spacing 13 km) were deployed for the perpendicular profile, 28 OBS, 50 land stations and 8 dynamite shots were used for the longitudinal profile. Crustal velocities beneath Walvis Ridge range between 5.5 km/s and 7.0 km/s, which are typical velocities for oceanic crust. The thickness, however, is approximately three times than normal, 17 km in the western part and increasing to 22 km towards the continent. The COT is characterized by 30 km thick crust with a high velocity lower crustal body (HVLCB) with seismic velocities up to 7.5 km/s. The western boundary of the HVLCB is at a similar

  17. The Marine Food Chain in Relation to Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R.G. Price

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity provides “raw materials” for the food chain and seafood production, and also influences the capacity of ecosystems to perform these and other services. Harvested marine seafood species now exceed 100 million t y -1 and provide about 6% of all protein and 17% of animal protein consumed by humans. These resources include representatives from about nine biologically diverse groups of plants and animals. Fish account for most of the world’s marine catches, of which only 40 species are taken in abundance. Highest primary productivity and the richest fisheries are found within Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ. This narrow strip (200 nautical mile/370 km wide is not only the site of coastal “food factories” but also the area associated with heaviest perturbation to the marine environment. Structural redundancy is evident in marine ecosystems, in that many species are interchangeable in the way they characterise assemblage composition. While there is probably functional redundancy within groups, the effects of species loss on ecosystem performance cannot be easily predicted. In particular, the degree to which biodiversity per se is needed for ecosystem services, including seafood/fishery production, is poorly understood. Many human activities, including unsustainable fishing and mariculture, lead to erosion of marine biodiversity. This can undermine the biophysical cornerstones of fisheries and have other undesirable environmental side effects. Of direct concern are “species effects”, in particular the removal of target and non-target fishery species, as well as conservationally important fauna. Equally disrupting but less immediate are “ecosystem effects”, such as fishing down the food web, following a shift from harvested species of high to low trophic level. Physical and biological disturbances from trawl nets and dynamite fishing on coral reefs can also severely impact ecosystem structure and function.

  18. 基于巨磁阻元件的涡流/磁一体化阵列传感器%Array Eddy Current/Magnetic Integrative Sensor Based on Giant Magneto Resistance Part

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈铁群; 谢宝忠; 刘桂雄

    2007-01-01

    An array eddy current/magnetic integrative sensor based on Giant Magneto Resistance parts was designed according to the character of eddy current testing, and the magnetic flux leak testing and magnetic memory testing contributes to unifying dynamitic and static electromagnetic field measurement for electromagnetic nondestructive testing. The sensor not only can operate in conventional eddy current testing, pulse eddy current testing, arbitrary waveform excitation eddy current testing, magnetic flux leak testing and magnetic memory testing modes according to testing condition, but also has the merit of broad linear measurement range, small volume and high spatial resolution. The arrangement of connecting sensors in groups decreases routing difficulty and achieves high scanning testing speed. Via serial communication, all sensor parameters stored in flash memory are transferred into main machine to complete compensations and settings, so as to improve sensor performance.%根据涡流、漏磁以及磁记忆检测的特点,基于巨磁阻元件开发了涡流/磁一体化阵列传感器,将电磁无损检测中动态、静态电磁场的测量统一起来,按照检测要求进行常规涡流、脉冲涡流、任意波激励涡流、漏磁以及磁记忆等检测方式.通过分组引线降低了传感器的布线难度,具有较高的扫描检测速度;利用串行通信将传感器中存储于Flash芯片内的各项参数传输到主机,进行各种补偿和设置,提高传感器的性能.该传感器具有应用范围宽、测量范围大、体积小、稳定性好以及空间分辨率高等特点.

  19. Six categories of Chinese characters Pictographic configuration method%汉字六书象形构形法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泽渡

    2011-01-01

    IStudy Chinese character configuration theory "six categories of Chinese characters" ancient book and record is overabundant, pictographic characters among them a lot of branches such as studying relatively relatively mature, are sufficient, but educational circles still has province shape , deformation . increasing a shape , highly valuing a shape , attaching a shape says. Various definition or different reality of same reality different, or name is same , every family theory alternating each other makes person mimic theory coming into being to six categories of Chinese characters feeling uncertain. We set off from the principle explaining the pictographic character configuration , pictographic character in htinging forward six categories of Chinese characters systematically has the differ- ence resembling the configuration and the imago configuration. And point out the utensil elephant configuration being able to satisfy " statement " only, imago configuration ability comes true "express". Significance sees our language character from the angle of to analysing a Chinese character with culture , substitutes the province , unexpected turn of events , dynamiting, various different ver- sions , practice value and theory significance affirming Chinese character pictographic characters or pictographs formbuilding on this account attaching with the concept uniting body pictographic characters or pictographs.%研究汉字构形理论“六书”的典籍汗牛充栋,其中象形字的研究相对比较成熟充分,但学界仍有省形、变形、增形、重形、附形等诸多歧说。各种解说或名同实异、或名异实同,互相交叉的各家学说使人对六书学理论产生疑惑。我们从说明象形字的构形原理出发,指出六书系统中的象形字具有具象构形与意象构形的区别。具象构形仅仅能满足“陈述”,意象构形才能实现“表达”。从分析汉字的语言性质和文化意义着眼

  20. 汉字六书象形构形法%Six categories of Chinese characters Pictographic configuration method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泽渡

    2011-01-01

    Study Chinese character configuration theory "six categories of Chinese characters" ancient book and record is overabundant, pictographic characters among them a lot of branches such as studying relatively relatively mature, are sufficient, but educational circles still has province shape , deformation , increasing a shape , highly valuing a shape , attaching a shape says. Various definition or different reality of same reality different, or name is same , every family theory alternating each other makes person mimic theory coming into being to six categories of Chinese characters feeling uncertain. We set off from the principle explaining the pictographic character configuration , pictographic character in bringing forward six categories of Chinese characters systematically has the difference resembling the configuration and the imago configuration. And point out the utensil elephant configuration being able to satisfy " statement " only, imago configuration ability comes true "express". Significance sees our language character from the angle of to analysing a Chinese character with culture , substitutes the province , unexpected turn of events , dynamiting, various different versions , practice value and theory significance affirming Chinese character pictographic characters or pictographs formbuilding on this account attaching with the concept uniting body pictographic characters or pictographs.%研究汉字构形理论“六书”的典籍汗牛充栋,其中象形字的研究相对比较成熟充分,但学界仍有省形、变形、增形、重形、附形等诸多歧说。各种解说或名同实异、或名异实同,互相交叉的各家学说使人对六书学理论产生疑惑。我们从说明象形字的构形原理出发,指出六书系统中的象形字具有具象构形与意象构形的区别。具象构形仅仅能满足“陈述”,意象构形才能实现“表达”。从分析汉字的语言性质和文化意义着眼,以

  1. Crustal shortening followed by extensional collapse of the Cordilleran orogenic belt in northwestern Montana: Evidence from vintage seismic reflection profiles acquired in the Swan Range and Swan Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, B. S.; Speece, M. A.; Stickney, M. C.; Mosolf, J. G.

    2013-12-01

    Reprocessing of one 24-fold (96 channel) and four 30-fold (120 channel) 2D seismic reflection profiles have revealed crustal scale reflections in the Swan Range and adjacent Swan River Valley of northwestern Montana. The five reprocessed profiles constitute 142.6 of the 303.3 linear km acquired in 1983-84 by Techo of Denver, Colorado. The four 30-fold profiles used helicopter-assisted dynamite shooting (Poulter method) and the 24-fold profile used the Vibroseis method. Acquisition parameters were state of the art for the time. The Swan Range lies east of the Rocky Mountain Trench and is part of the Cordilleran foreland thrust belt where the Lewis thrust system emplaced a thick slab of Proterozoic Belt Supergroup strata eastward and over Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks during the Late Cretaceous to early Paleocene Laramide orogeny. Deeply drilled borehole data are absent within the study area; however, we generated a synthetic seismogram from the Arco-Marathon 1 Paul Gibbs well (total depth=5418 m), located approximately 70 km west of the reprocessed profiles, and correlated the well data to surface seismic profiles. Large impedance contrasts in the log data are interpreted to be tholeiitic Moyie sills within the Prichard Formation argillite (Lower Belt), which produce strong reflection events in regional seismic sections and result in highly reflective, east-dipping events in the reprocessed profiles. We estimate a depth of 10 km (3 to 3.5 seconds) to the basal detachment of the Lewis thrust sheet. The décollement lies within Belt Supergroup strata to the west of the Swan River Valley before contacting unreflective, west-dipping crystalline basement beneath the Swan Range--a geometry that results in a wedge of eastward-thinning, autochthonous Belt rocks. Distinct fault-plane signatures from the west-dipping, range-bounding Swan fault--produced by extensional collapse of the over-thickened Cordillera--are not successfully imaged. However, reflections from Cenozoic

  2. The marine food chain in relation to biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A R

    2001-10-19

    Biodiversity provides "raw materials" for the food chain and seafood production, and also influences the capacity of ecosystems to perform these and other services. Harvested marine seafood species now exceed 100 million t y(-1) and provide about 6% of all protein and 17% of animal protein consumed by humans. These resources include representatives from about nine biologically diverse groups of plants and animals. Fish account for most of the world"s marine catches, of which only 40 species are taken in abundance. Highest primary productivity and the richest fisheries are found within Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ). This narrow strip (200 nautical mile/370 km wide) is not only the site of coastal "food factories" but also the area associated with heaviest perturbation to the marine environment. Structural redundancy is evident in marine ecosystems, in that many species are interchangeable in the way they characterise assemblage composition. While there is probably functional redundancy within groups, the effects of species loss on ecosystem performance cannot be easily predicted. In particular, the degree to which biodiversity per se is needed for ecosystem services, including seafood/fishery production, is poorly understood. Many human activities, including unsustainable fishing and mariculture, lead to erosion of marine biodiversity. This can undermine the biophysical cornerstones of fisheries and have other undesirable environmental side effects. Of direct concern are "species effects", in particular the removal of target and non-target fishery species, as well as conservationally important fauna. Equally disrupting but less immediate are "ecosystem effects", such as fishing down the food web, following a shift from harvested species of high to low trophic level. Physical and biological disturbances from trawl nets and dynamite fishing on coral reefs can also severely impact ecosystem structure and function. "Broadscale" biological and social effects brought

  3. 火炮高低齿弧力的动态测试及分析%Analysis and Measurement of Elevating-arc Force in Gun Firing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世全

    2016-01-01

    In order to accurately calculate and judge dynamitic load of the gun elevating mechanism and to reduce the error of engineering practice analogism as well as to avoid the inadequacy in strength design,a test method was introduced with a certain type of gun as an example to provide torque strain curves of elevating mechanism shaft in difference recoil resistances,equilibrator performances and en-gagement positions. The assessment results show that there exists the alternation of wave crest and wave trough in elevating-arc force curve during recoil of gun,and that the maximum value for force of the elevating mechanism appears at the end of recoil,and that there are errors between the traditional cal-culation values and measurement ones. The credible datum were got for determining firing loads and optimizing design of the elevating mechanism by analyzing test datum in recoil process.%为准确计算和判断火炮高低齿弧的动态受力,减小工程类比计算产生的误差,避免出现设计强度不足的问题,以某火炮为对象,介绍了一种通过应变测试得出高低齿弧力的方法,给出了在后坐阻力、平衡性能和排空回方向等不同条件下高低机主轴扭转应变的动态响应测试曲线。测试结果表明:火炮后坐期间高低齿弧力曲线存在波谷与波峰的交替,最大值发生在后坐终止点;与测试算值相比较,传统计算值存在很大的误差;高低齿弧受力的动态测试值,可为确定火炮高低机射击载荷和优化结构设计提供可信数据。

  4. Pathological study on peripheral vessel injury induced by explosion shock wave%爆炸冲击波致肢体周围大血管损伤的病理学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建敏; 袁志; 刘建; 张雪非; 吕荣; 毕龙; 胡蕴玉

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察爆炸冲击波致肢体周围大血管造成损伤的病理特点,为四肢战伤救治、预防并减少并发症提供理论依据. 方法 将18只家兔采用随机数字表法分为三组,每组6只兔,均匀布放于距爆心1,2,3 m处,电启动引爆离地面60 cm高的液体炸药制作冲击伤动物模型.用美国PCB公司生产的压力传感器测定冲击波的物理参数,致伤后对兔股动脉血管进行大体形态、组织学及免疫组织化学观察. 结果 股动脉血管内皮细胞剥脱;血管平滑肌细胞间隙增大呈疏松状;血管的弹力纤维有明显的断裂,屈曲变形;部分血管壁全层断裂或部分断裂,导致出血.Tunel染色、荧光显微镜下观察,在血管内皮层、中间平滑肌层、血管外膜中见大量的凋亡细胞.结论爆炸冲击波瞬时作用对肢体周围大血管损伤严重,在冲击伤救治中应引起足够的重视.%Objective To observe pathological features of peripheral vessel injury caused by ex-plosion shock wave so as to provide theoretical basis for emergency treatment, prevention and complication reduction of war extremity injuries. Methods A total of 18 rabbits were randomly divided into three groups (six rabbits in each group) and placed respectively at 1, 2 and 3 m away from the explosion cen-ter. The animal model with blast injury was made by using fluid dynamite that electrically exploded at 60 cm above the ground. The physical parameters of blast wave were recorded using pressure transducers (PCB, UAS). After explosion, the femoral arteries were examined grossly, histologically and immunohis-tochemically. Results The results showed that vascular endothelial cells were denudated, the spaces of contractile fiber cells increased and appeared puff, the vassular elastic fibers ruptured, flexed and de-formed visibly. Some parts of the vessel wall ruptured completely or partly, leading to bleeding. TUNEL staining and fluorescence microscope found large number of

  5. Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring using a Sparse Seismic Array: Pre-Injection Assessment of Repeatability at the Aquistore CO2 Storage Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, L. A.; White, D.; Roberts, B.

    2013-12-01

    Aquistore is a deep saline geological storage project. An estimated 2000 tonnes/day of CO2 will be captured and injected at approximately 3200m - 3350m into a sandstone reservoir. CO2 injection is expected to create a measurable change in the seismic properties within the reservoir. Our goal is to utilize a sparse seismic array to improve cost effectiveness and time-lapse SNR by improved repeatability. A permanent surface seismic array has been deployed at the Aquistore CO2 storage site comprising 630 vertical-component geophones deployed at a depth of 20m over a 2.5 x 2.5 km grid. Receiver lines are spaced at intervals of 144m, with an in-line geophone spacing of 72m and with geophones along adjacent lines staggered by 32m in the in-line direction. To assess the repeatability of seismic data acquired using this sparse seismic array, two 3D seismic surveys were conducted prior to the start of CO2 injection. The baseline survey was acquired in March, 2012 with a subsequent monitor survey in April, 2013. Sources consisted of 1kg dynamite shots detonated at 15m depth over a 3 x 3 km grid, with 12 shot lines spaced at 288m and 144m in-line spacing. The permanent receiver array provided for 100% collocated receiver positions, while 90% of the shot points of the repeat survey were placed within 2m of the shots of the baseline survey. These elements of the survey design serve to reduce the non-repeatability that may be related to acquisition effects and seasonal variations. Before processing, the datasets were matched so that the number of common shots and receivers was 256 and 599 respectively which results in a nominal fold of 40. Our preliminary approach of 3D time-lapse processing was to process each vintage separately while applying identical flows with the same parameters (e.g. mutes and time gates) to the repeat dataset. The normalized root-mean-square (nRMS) of the difference of the two data sets was used as the metric for repeatability in assessing the similarity

  6. 五号桩地区滩浅海高精度三维地震采集技术%3D high-precision seismic acquisition techniques in Wuhaozhuang beach and shallow sea area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邸志欣; 丁伟; 吕公河; 刘怀山; 段卫星; 刘斌

    2012-01-01

    Wuhaozhuang area is the key and old oil area of Shengli Oilfield for oil-gas exploration in beach and shallow sea. It has great potential on increase in oil reserve and production, but the energy in middle-deep layer of the existing seismic data is weak, and its signal-to-noise ratio is low, so it is hard to meet the requirements for further detailed structure interpretation and reservoir description. Aimed at the characteristics and difficulties of the complex surface and underground conditions, based on complex structure modeling and prestack imaging result analysis, we designed and proved high-precision geometries for seismic acquisition suitable for the beach and shallow sea in Wuhaozhuang area, which ensured seamless data acquisition in the land-beach-shallow-sea area. By studying 'high-efficient dynamite source and using the shooting techniques based on near-surface lithology layering and modeling, the shooting effect of intertidal zone was improved. By studying and testing air gun array parameters, we optimized airgun array mode and shooting depth with good wavelet characteristics and strong energy. The platelike long-tail cone geophone coupler was adopted to improve the seismic wave receiving effect in intertidal zone as well. Besides, the repositioning technology and counter measurements were utilized to improve the positioning accuracy of underwater hydrophone. By jointly using all the techniques and methods, we achieved high-quality seismic data and obvious geological effect in Wuhaozhuang area.%五号桩地区是胜利油田滩浅海油气勘探的重点老区,增储上产的潜力巨大,但以往地震资料中深层能量弱,信噪比较低,无法满足进一步精细构造解释和油藏描述要求.针对该区复杂的地表和地下特点及难点,基于复杂构造模型正演和叠前成像效果分析,设计论证了适合于该区滩浅海高精度地震采集的观测系统形式,确保了全区陆-滩-海资料的无缝连接采集;通过

  7. Seismological structures of the subducted Philippine Sea plate and the overriding SW Japan arc, - Reinterpretation of the wide-angle reflection data in the Kii Peninsula, SW Japan -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Takaya; Kurashimo, Eiji; Abe, Susumu; Yokota, Ken; Iidaka, Takashi; Katao, Hiroshi; Higashinaka, Motonori; Nakanishi, Ayako; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2017-04-01

    Our recent reinterpretation for seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection data in eastern Kii Peninsula, SW Japan, provided new structural information on the uppermost part of the subducted Philippine Sea (PHS) plate and overriding the SW Japan arc, including the landward reflectivity variation in the vicinity of the plate boundary and the large scale structural change within the SW Japan arc. The Kii peninsula is located in the eastern part of the well-known subduction zone along the Nankai trough where offshore M8-class megathrust earthquakes repeatedly occur. The plate boundary beneath this Peninsula is in the stable or conditionally stable regime except for its southernmost tip, which corresponds to the northwestern end of the rupture area at the last event (1944 Tonankai earthquake (M7.9)). The surface geology of the overriding SW Japan arc is divided to two parts by the E-W trending Median Tectonic Line (MTL), the most prominent tectonic boundary in SW Japan. South of the MTL, Cretaceous-Jurassic accretionary complexes are exposed, whose northernmost unit consists of high P-T metamorphic rocks (the Sanbagawa metamorphic belt (SMB)). The region north of the MTL is occupied by older accretionary complexes, partly suffered from the Cretaceous magmatic intrusions. Our seismic data from five dynamite shots were acquired in 2006 along 80-km line almost perpendicular to the Nankai trough. The structure of the SW Japan arc was obtained both from intensive wide-angle reflection analysis and advanced reflection processing by seismic interferometry technique. The former analysis delineated clear structural change in the uppermost crust across the MTL. In the latter processing, we retrieved virtual shot records at 512 receiver points from free-surface backscattered waves by the deconvolution interferometry. The subsequent CRS (Common Reflection Surface)/MDRS (Multi-Dip Reflection Surfaces) methods provided an enhanced image within the island arc, including a northward

  8. Real-time co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system based on FPGA and DSP architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqasemi, Umar; Li, Hai; Aguirre, Andres; Zhu, Quing

    2011-03-01

    performs image processing including demodulation, beam envelope detection and scan conversion. Additionally, the PC code pre-calculates the delay coefficients used for transmission focusing and receiving dynamic focusing for different types of transducers to speed up the imaging process. To further speed up the imaging process, a multi-threads technique is implemented in order to allow formation of previous image frame data and acquisition of the next one simultaneously. The system is also capable of doing semi-real-time automated SO2 imaging at 10 seconds per frame by changing the wavelength knob of the laser automatically using a stepper motor controlled by the system. Initial in vivo experiments were performed on animal tumors to map out its vasculature and hypoxia level, which were superimposed on co-registered US images. The real-time system allows capturing co-registered US/PA images free of motion artifacts and also provides dynamitic information when contrast agents are used.

  9. Solar flare leaves sun quaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Dr. Alexander G. Kosovichev, a senior research scientist from Stanford University, and Dr. Valentina V. Zharkova from Glasgow (United Kingdom) University found the tell-tale seismic signature in data on the Sun's surface collected by the Michelson Doppler Imager onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft immediately following a moderate-sized flare on July 9, 1996. "Although the flare was a moderate one, it still released an immense amount of energy," said Dr. Craig Deforest, a researcher with the SOHO project. "The energy released is equal to completely covering the Earth's continents with a yard of dynamite and detonating it all at once." SOHO is a joint project of the European Space Agency and NASA. The finding is reported in the May 28 issue of the journal Nature, and is the subject of a press conference at the spring meeting of the American Geophysical Union in Boston, Mass., May 27. The solar quake that the science team recorded looks much like ripples spreading from a rock dropped into a pool of water. But over the course of an hour, the solar waves traveled for a distance equal to 10 Earth diameters before fading into the fiery background of the Sun's photosphere. Unlike water ripples that travel outward at a constant velocity, the solar waves accelerated from an initial speed of 22,000 miles per hour to a maximum of 250,000 miles per hour before disappearing. "People have looked for evidence of seismic waves from flares before, but they didn't have a theory so they didn't know where to look," says Kosovichev. Several years ago Kosovichev and Zharkova developed a theory that can explain how a flare, which explodes in space above the Sun's surface, can generate a major seismic wave in the Sun's interior. According to the currently accepted model of solar flares, the primary explosion creates high-energy electrons (electrically charged subatomic particles). These are funneled down into a magnetic flux tube, an invisible tube of magnetic

  10. 百合品种染色体倍性观察%Observation on Ploidy Levels of Lily Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克虎; 周桂雪; 任贵玲; 张线线; 郭方其; 周树军

    2011-01-01

    利用染色体常规制片技术分析了45个从荷兰引进的百合品种的染色体倍性,包括21个亚洲百合、3个麝香百合、7个东方百合、8个LA杂交品种、2个LO杂交品种、4个OT杂交品种.在21个亚洲百合中,12个品种(‘Eleganza'、‘Monte Negro'、‘Renoir'、‘Black Bird'、‘Butter Pixie'、‘Orange Matrix'、‘Petit Brigitte'、‘Pink Pixie'、‘Lollypop'、‘Red Latin'、‘Marrakech'和‘Pollyanna')为二倍体(2n=2x=24),5个品种(‘Navona'、‘Orange Pixie'、‘Elodie'、‘Vermeer'和‘Lyon')为三倍体(2n=3x=36),4个品种(‘Brunello'、‘Tresor'、‘Val di Sole'和‘Detroit')为四倍体(2n=4x=48);3个麝香百合品种(‘White Heaven'、‘Gelria'和‘White Fox')为二倍体(2n=2x=24);7个东方百合品种(‘Siberia'、‘Sorbonne'、‘Maru'、‘Dynamite'、‘Dordogne'、‘Montezuma'和‘Miss Lucy')为二倍体(2n=2x=24):8个LA杂交品种(‘Brindis'、‘Courier'、‘Pavia'、‘Advantage'、‘Mestre'、‘Mombasa'、‘Pirandello'和‘Serrada')为三倍体(2n=3x=36);两个LO杂交品种(‘Triumphator'和‘White Triumph')为三倍体(2n=3x=36);4个OT杂交品种中‘Yelloween'和‘Red Dutch'为二倍体(2n=2x=24),‘Conca D'Or'和‘Golden City'为三倍体(2n=3x=36).该结果表明,组内杂交品种(亚洲百合、东方百合和麝香百合)中,除亚洲百合中有5个三倍体和4个四倍体品种外,其余22个为二倍体品种,因而多数组内杂交品种为二倍体品种;而组间杂交品种(LA、OT和LO),只有OT中2个品种为二倍体,其余12个皆为三倍体.%45 lily cultivars imported firom the Netherlands, including 21 Asiatic lilies, three Longiflorum lilies, seven Oriental lilies, eight LA hybrid cultivars, two LO hybrid cultivars and four OT hybrids cultivars, were analyzed using conventional chromosome preparation in this paper. Among the 21 Asiatic cultivars, 12 of them (‘Eleganza’, ‘Monte Negro’, ‘Renoir’, ‘Black Bird’,