Goodman, Lawrence E
2001-01-01
Beginning text presents complete theoretical treatment of mechanical model systems and deals with technological applications. Topics include introduction to calculus of vectors, particle motion, dynamics of particle systems and plane rigid bodies, technical applications in plane motions, theory of mechanical vibrations, and more. Exercises and answers appear in each chapter.
Dynamic Logics of Dynamical Systems
Platzer, André
2012-01-01
We survey dynamic logics for specifying and verifying properties of dynamical systems, including hybrid systems, distributed hybrid systems, and stochastic hybrid systems. A dynamic logic is a first-order modal logic with a pair of parametrized modal operators for each dynamical system to express necessary or possible properties of their transition behavior. Due to their full basis of first-order modal logic operators, dynamic logics can express a rich variety of system properties, including safety, controllability, reactivity, liveness, and quantified parametrized properties, even about relations between multiple dynamical systems. In this survey, we focus on some of the representatives of the family of differential dynamic logics, which share the ability to express properties of dynamical systems having continuous dynamics described by various forms of differential equations. We explain the dynamical system models, dynamic logics of dynamical systems, their semantics, their axiomatizations, and proof calcul...
Xie, Huimin
The following sections are included: * Definition of Dynamical Languages * Distinct Excluded Blocks * Definition and Properties * L and L″ in Chomsky Hierarchy * A Natural Equivalence Relation * Symbolic Flows * Symbolic Flows and Dynamical Languages * Subshifts of Finite Type * Sofic Systems * Graphs and Dynamical Languages * Graphs and Shannon-Graphs * Transitive Languages * Topological Entropy
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Ladd, A.J.C.
1988-08-01
The basic methodology of equilibrium molecular dynamics is described. Examples from the literature are used to illustrate how molecular dynamics has been used to resolve theoretical controversies, provide data to test theories, and occasionally to discover new phenomena. The emphasis is on the application of molecular dynamics to an understanding of the microscopic physics underlying the transport properties of simple fluids. 98 refs., 4 figs.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Dynamics Lab replicates vibration environments for every Navy platform. Testing performed includes: Flight Clearance, Component Improvement, Qualification, Life...
Sternberg, Shlomo
2010-01-01
Celebrated mathematician Shlomo Sternberg, a pioneer in the field of dynamical systems, created this modern one-semester introduction to the subject for his classes at Harvard University. Its wide-ranging treatment covers one-dimensional dynamics, differential equations, random walks, iterated function systems, symbolic dynamics, and Markov chains. Supplementary materials offer a variety of online components, including PowerPoint lecture slides for professors and MATLAB exercises.""Even though there are many dynamical systems books on the market, this book is bound to become a classic. The the
Bergstra, J.A.; Bethke, I.
2002-01-01
Molecular dynamics is a model for the structure and meaning of object based programming systems. In molecular dynamics the memory state of a system is modeled as a fluid consisting of a collection of molecules. Each molecule is a collection of atoms with bindings between them. A computation is model
Blackburn, P.; Venema, Y.
2008-01-01
This paper examines various propositional logics in which the dynamic implication connective (discussed in Groenendijk and Stokhof's (1992) Dynamic Predicate Logic and Kamp's (1981) Discourse Representation Theory) plays the central role. Our approach is modal: the basic idea is to view as a binary
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Robe, Dominic M.; Boettcher, Stefan; Sibani, Paolo
2016-01-01
When quenched rapidly beyond their glass transition, colloidal suspensions fall out of equilibrium. The pace of their dynamics then slows down with the system age, i.e., with the time elapsed after the quench. This breaking of time translational invariance is associated with dynamical observables...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brorsen, Michael
These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University.......These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....
Weisbuch, Gérard; Deffuant, Guillaume; Amblard, Frédéric
2005-08-01
We here discuss a model of continuous opinion dynamics in which agents adjust continuous opinions as a result of random binary encounters whenever their difference in opinion is below a given threshold. We concentrate on the version of the model in the presence of few extremists which might drive the dynamics to generalized extremism. A network version of the dynamics is presented here, and its results are compared to those previously obtained for the full-mixing case. The same dynamical regimes are observed, but in rather different parameter regions. We here show that the combination of meso-scale features resulting from the first interaction steps determines the asymptotic state of the dynamics.
Laird, Philip
1992-01-01
We distinguish static and dynamic optimization of programs: whereas static optimization modifies a program before runtime and is based only on its syntactical structure, dynamic optimization is based on the statistical properties of the input source and examples of program execution. Explanation-based generalization is a commonly used dynamic optimization method, but its effectiveness as a speedup-learning method is limited, in part because it fails to separate the learning process from the program transformation process. This paper describes a dynamic optimization technique called a learn-optimize cycle that first uses a learning element to uncover predictable patterns in the program execution and then uses an optimization algorithm to map these patterns into beneficial transformations. The technique has been used successfully for dynamic optimization of pure Prolog.
Hill, David P.; Prejean, Stephanie; Schubert, Gerald
2015-01-01
Dynamic stresses propagating as seismic waves from large earthquakes trigger a spectrum of responses at global distances. In addition to locally triggered earthquakes in a variety of tectonic environments, dynamic stresses trigger tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor in the brittle–plastic transition zone along major plate-boundary faults, activity changes in hydrothermal and volcanic systems, and, in hydrologic domains, changes in spring discharge, water well levels, soil liquefaction, and the eruption of mud volcanoes. Surface waves with periods of 15–200 s are the most effective triggering agents; body-wave trigger is less frequent. Triggering dynamic stresses can be < 1 kPa.
Binney, James
2008-01-01
Since it was first published in 1987, Galactic Dynamics has become the most widely used advanced textbook on the structure and dynamics of galaxies and one of the most cited references in astrophysics. Now, in this extensively revised and updated edition, James Binney and Scott Tremaine describe the dramatic recent advances in this subject, making Galactic Dynamics the most authoritative introduction to galactic astrophysics available to advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and researchers. Every part of the book has been thoroughly overhauled, and many section
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Stenger, Marianne
2013-01-01
it was dominated by a lack of systematism, assessment, monitoring, marketing speculations and feasibility calculation. Furthermore, the sphere was dictated by asymmetric supplier-customer relationships and negotiation power leading, among other possible factors, to meager profitability.......The consequences of dynamic capabilities (i.e. innovation performance and profitability) is an under researched area in the growing body of literature on dynamic capabilities and innovation management. This study aims to examine the relationship between dynamic capabilities, innovation performance...... and profitability of small and medium sized manufacturing enterprises operating in volatile environments. A multi-case study design was adopted as research strategy. The findings reveal a positive relationship between dynamic capabilities and innovation performance in the case companies, as we would expect. It was...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sannino, Francesco
2013-01-01
We propose an alternative paradigm to the conjectured Miransky scaling potentially underlying the physics describing the transition from the conformally broken to the conformally restored phase when tuning certain parameters such as the number of flavors in gauge theories. According to the new...... paradigm the physical scale and henceforth also the massive spectrum of the theory jump at the lower boundary of the conformal window. In particular we propose that a theory can suddenly jump from a Quantum Chromodynamics type spectrum, at the lower boundary of the conformal window, to a conformal one...... without particle interpretation. The jumping scenario, therefore, does not support a near-conformal dynamics of walking type. We will also discuss the impact of jumping dynamics on the construction of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking....
1991-01-01
Dynamical Bifurcation Theory is concerned with the phenomena that occur in one parameter families of dynamical systems (usually ordinary differential equations), when the parameter is a slowly varying function of time. During the last decade these phenomena were observed and studied by many mathematicians, both pure and applied, from eastern and western countries, using classical and nonstandard analysis. It is the purpose of this book to give an account of these developments. The first paper, by C. Lobry, is an introduction: the reader will find here an explanation of the problems and some easy examples; this paper also explains the role of each of the other paper within the volume and their relationship to one another. CONTENTS: C. Lobry: Dynamic Bifurcations.- T. Erneux, E.L. Reiss, L.J. Holden, M. Georgiou: Slow Passage through Bifurcation and Limit Points. Asymptotic Theory and Applications.- M. Canalis-Durand: Formal Expansion of van der Pol Equation Canard Solutions are Gevrey.- V. Gautheron, E. Isambe...
Birkhoff, George D
1927-01-01
His research in dynamics constitutes the middle period of Birkhoff's scientific career, that of maturity and greatest power. -Yearbook of the American Philosophical Society The author's great book€¦is well known to all, and the diverse active modern developments in mathematics which have been inspired by this volume bear the most eloquent testimony to its quality and influence. -Zentralblatt MATH In 1927, G. D. Birkhoff wrote a remarkable treatise on the theory of dynamical systems that would inspire many later mathematicians to do great work. To a large extent, Birkhoff was writing about his o
Frelich, Lee
2016-01-01
Forest dynamics encompass changes in stand structure, species composition, and species interactions with disturbance and environment over a range of spatial and temporal scales. For convenience, spatial scale is defined as individual tree, neighborhood, stand, and landscape. Whether a given canopy-leveling disturbance will initiate a sequence of development in structure with little change in composition or initiate an episode of succession depends on a match or mismatch, respectively, with traits of the dominant tree species that allow the species to survive disturbance. When these match, certain species-disturbance type combinations lock in a pattern of stand and landscape dynamics that can persist for several generations of trees; thus, dominant tree species regulate, as well as respond to, disturbance. A complex interaction among tree species, neighborhood effects, disturbance type and severity, landform, and soils determines how stands of differing composition form and the mosaic of stands that compose the landscape. Neighborhood effects (e.g., serotinous seed rain, sprouting, shading, leaf-litter chemistry, and leaf-litter physical properties) operate at small spatial extents of the individual tree and its neighbors but play a central role in forest dynamics by contributing to patch formation at stand scales and dynamics of the entire landscape. Dominance by tree species with neutral to negative neighborhood effects leads to unstable landscape dynamics in disturbance-prone regions, wherein most stands are undergoing succession; stability can only occur under very low-severity disturbance regimes. Dominance by species with positive effects leads to stable landscape dynamics wherein only a small proportion of stands undergo succession at any one time. Positive neighborhood effects are common in temperate and boreal zones, whereas negative effects are more common in tropical climates. Landscapes with positive dynamics have alternate categories of dynamics
Rutten, R.J.
1995-01-01
This review places current research in quiet-Sun chromospheric dynamics in the context of past and future work, concentrating on observational aspects of three-minute oscillations and Ca II K2V grains. The subject is of interest at present because observations and simulations come together to permit
Strømmen, Einar N
2014-01-01
This book introduces to the theory of structural dynamics, with focus on civil engineering structures that may be described by line-like beam or beam-column type of systems, or by a system of rectangular plates. Throughout this book the mathematical presentation contains a classical analytical description as well as a description in a discrete finite element format, covering the mathematical development from basic assumptions to the final equations ready for practical dynamic response predictions. Solutions are presented in time domain as well as in frequency domain. Structural Dynamics starts off at a basic level and step by step brings the reader up to a level where the necessary safety considerations to wind or horizontal ground motion induced dynamic design problems can be performed. The special theory of the tuned mass damper has been given a comprehensive treatment, as this is a theory not fully covered elsewhere. For the same reason a chapter on the problem of moving loads on beams has been included.
Bakker, W.T.
1998-01-01
This book deals on "Coastal Dynamics", which will be defined in a narrow sense as a mathematical theory, which starts from given equations of motion for the sediment, which leads with the continuity equation and given boundary conditions to a calculated (eventually schematized) coastal topography,
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bendix, Pól Martin
2015-01-01
Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications...... for the lateral organization of membranes as wells as for physical properties like bending, permeability and elasticity...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Henrik J.; Sibani, Paolo
2007-01-01
The term glassy dynamics is often used to refer to the extremely slow relaxation observed in several types of many component systems. The time span needed to reach a steady, time independent, state will typically be far beyond experimentally accessible time scales. When melted alloys are cooled d...
Díez, F.J.; Gerven, M.A.J. van
2011-01-01
One of the objectives of artificial intelligence is to build decision-support models for systems that evolve over time and include several types of uncertainty. Dynamic limited-memory influence diagrams (DLIMIDs) are a new type of model proposed recently for this kind of problems. DLIMIDs are simila
Díez, F.J.; Gerven, M.A.J. van
2011-01-01
One of the objectives of artificial intelligence is to build decision-support models for systems that evolve over time and include several types of uncertainty. Dynamic limited-memory influence diagrams (DLIMIDs) are a new type of model proposed recently for this kind of problems. DLIMIDs are simila
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Robe, Dominic M.; Boettcher, Stefan; Sibani, Paolo
2016-01-01
-facto irreversible and become increasingly harder to achieve. Thus, a progression of record-sized dynamical barriers are traversed in the approach to equilibration. Accordingly, the statistics of the events is closely described by a log-Poisson process. Originally developed for relaxation in spin glasses...
Morecroft, John
System dynamics is an approach for thinking about and simulating situations and organisations of all kinds and sizes by visualising how the elements fit together, interact and change over time. This chapter, written by John Morecroft, describes modern system dynamics which retains the fundamentals developed in the 1950s by Jay W. Forrester of the MIT Sloan School of Management. It looks at feedback loops and time delays that affect system behaviour in a non-linear way, and illustrates how dynamic behaviour depends upon feedback loop structures. It also recognises improvements as part of the ongoing process of managing a situation in order to achieve goals. Significantly it recognises the importance of context, and practitioner skills. Feedback systems thinking views problems and solutions as being intertwined. The main concepts and tools: feedback structure and behaviour, causal loop diagrams, dynamics, are practically illustrated in a wide variety of contexts from a hot water shower through to a symphony orchestra and the practical application of the approach is described through several real examples of its use for strategic planning and evaluation.
Greenwood, Donald T
1997-01-01
Graduate-level text for science and technology students provides strong background in the more abstract and intellectually satisfying areas of dynamical theory. Topics include d'Alembert's principle and the idea of virtual work, Hamilton's equations, Hamilton-Jacobi theory, canonical transformations, more. Problems and references at chapter ends.
Rutten, R.J.
2001-01-01
This review places current research in quiet-Sun chromospheric dynamics in the context of past and future work, concentrating on observational aspects of three-minute oscillations and Ca II K2V grains. The subject is of interest at present because observations and simulations come together to permit
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
唐孝威
1996-01-01
A new model for mitotic dynamics of eukaryotic cells is proposed. In the kinetochore mo-tor-midzone motor model two kinds of motors, the kinetochore motors and the midzone motors, play important roles in chromosome movement. Using this model the chromosome congression during prometaphase, the chromosome oscillation during metaphase and the chromatid segregation during anaphase are described in a unified way.
Discrete dynamics versus analytic dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toxværd, Søren
2014-01-01
For discrete classical Molecular dynamics obtained by the “Verlet” algorithm (VA) with the time increment h there exists a shadow Hamiltonian H˜ with energy E˜(h) , for which the discrete particle positions lie on the analytic trajectories for H˜ . Here, we proof that there, independent...
Schiehlen, Werner
2014-01-01
Applied Dynamics is an important branch of engineering mechanics widely applied to mechanical and automotive engineering, aerospace and biomechanics as well as control engineering and mechatronics. The computational methods presented are based on common fundamentals. For this purpose analytical mechanics turns out to be very useful where D’Alembert’s principle in the Lagrangian formulation proves to be most efficient. The method of multibody systems, finite element systems and continuous systems are treated consistently. Thus, students get a much better understanding of dynamical phenomena, and engineers in design and development departments using computer codes may check the results more easily by choosing models of different complexity for vibration and stress analysis.
Bernard, Peter S
2015-01-01
This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Stenger, Marianne
2013-01-01
and profitability of small and medium sized manufacturing enterprises operating in volatile environments. A multi-case study design was adopted as research strategy. The findings reveal a positive relationship between dynamic capabilities and innovation performance in the case companies, as we would expect. It was...... it was dominated by a lack of systematism, assessment, monitoring, marketing speculations and feasibility calculation. Furthermore, the sphere was dictated by asymmetric supplier-customer relationships and negotiation power leading, among other possible factors, to meager profitability....
2014-08-20
envisioned) Science of Cybersecurity: Soul: Security (concepts) Brain: Cybersecurity Dynamics (kind of Complexity Science) Muscle & Blood ...Complexity Science) Muscle & Blood : Probability Theory, Number Theory, Abstract Algebra, etc. Thrust I: Building a systematic theory of...Under-specification, composition and emergent properties. In Proc. NSPW’97, pp. 83–93. [11] A. Kubík. Toward a formalization of emergence. Artif . Life
Vilasi, Gaetano
2001-01-01
This is both a textbook and a monograph. It is partially based on a two-semester course, held by the author for third-year students in physics and mathematics at the University of Salerno, on analytical mechanics, differential geometry, symplectic manifolds and integrable systems. As a textbook, it provides a systematic and self-consistent formulation of Hamiltonian dynamics both in a rigorous coordinate language and in the modern language of differential geometry. It also presents powerful mathematical methods of theoretical physics, especially in gauge theories and general relativity. As a m
PREFACE: Cooperative dynamics Cooperative dynamics
Gov, Nir
2011-09-01
The dynamics within living cells are dominated by non-equilibrium processes that consume chemical energy (usually in the form of ATP, adenosine triphosphate) and convert it into mechanical forces and motion. The mechanisms that allow this conversion process are mostly driven by the components of the cytoskeleton: (i) directed (polar) polymerization of filaments (either actin or microtubules) and (ii) molecular motors. The forces and motions produced by these two components of the cytoskeleton give rise to the formation of cellular shapes, and drive the intracellular transport and organization. It is clear that these systems present a multi-scale challenge, from the physics of the molecular processes to the organization of many interacting units. Understanding the physical nature of these systems will have a large impact on many fundamental problems in biology and break new grounds in the field of non-equilibrium physics. This field of research has seen a rapid development over the last ten years. Activities in this area range from theoretical and experimental work on the underlying fundamental (bio)physics at the single-molecule level, to investigations (in vivo and in vitro) of the dynamics and patterns of macroscopic pieces of 'living matter'. In this special issue we have gathered contributions that span the whole spectrum of length- and complexity-scales in this field. Some of the works demonstrate how active forces self-organize within the polymerizing cytoskeleton, on the level of cooperative cargo transport via motors or due to active fluxes at the cell membrane. On a larger scale, it is shown that polar filaments coupled to molecular motors give rise to a huge variety of surprising dynamics and patterns: spontaneously looping rings of gliding microtubules, and emergent phases of self-organized filaments and motors in different geometries. All of these articles share the common feature of being out-of-equilibrium, driven by metabolism. As demonstrated here
Carleson, Lennart
1993-01-01
Complex dynamics is today very much a focus of interest. Though several fine expository articles were available, by P. Blanchard and by M. Yu. Lyubich in particular, until recently there was no single source where students could find the material with proofs. For anyone in our position, gathering and organizing the material required a great deal of work going through preprints and papers and in some cases even finding a proof. We hope that the results of our efforts will be of help to others who plan to learn about complex dynamics and perhaps even lecture. Meanwhile books in the field a. re beginning to appear. The Stony Brook course notes of J. Milnor were particularly welcome and useful. Still we hope that our special emphasis on the analytic side will satisfy a need. This book is a revised and expanded version of notes based on lectures of the first author at UCLA over several \\Vinter Quarters, particularly 1986 and 1990. We owe Chris Bishop a great deal of gratitude for supervising the production of cour...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cooch, E. G.
2004-06-01
Full Text Available Increases or decreases in the size of populations over space and time are, arguably, the motivation for much of pure and applied ecological research. The fundamental model for the dynamics of any population is straightforward: the net change over time in the abundance of some population is the simple difference between the number of additions (individuals entering the population minus the number of subtractions (individuals leaving the population. Of course, the precise nature of the pattern and process of these additions and subtractions is often complex, and population biology is often replete with fairly dense mathematical representations of both processes. While there is no doubt that analysis of such abstract descriptions of populations has been of considerable value in advancing our, there has often existed a palpable discomfort when the ‘beautiful math’ is faced with the often ‘ugly realities’ of empirical data. In some cases, this attempted merger is abandoned altogether, because of the paucity of ‘good empirical data’ with which the theoretician can modify and evaluate more conceptually–based models. In some cases, the lack of ‘data’ is more accurately represented as a lack of robust estimates of one or more parameters. It is in this arena that methods developed to analyze multiple encounter data from individually marked organisms has seen perhaps the greatest advances. These methods have rapidly evolved to facilitate not only estimation of one or more vital rates, critical to population modeling and analysis, but also to allow for direct estimation of both the dynamics of populations (e.g., Pradel, 1996, and factors influencing those dynamics (e.g., Nichols et al., 2000. The interconnections between the various vital rates, their estimation, and incorporation into models, was the general subject of our plenary presentation by Hal Caswell (Caswell & Fujiwara, 2004. Caswell notes that although interest has traditionally
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Turchetti, G. (Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica)
1989-01-01
Research in nonlinear dynamics is rapidly expanding and its range of applications is extending beyond the traditional areas of science where it was first developed. Indeed while linear analysis and modelling, which has been very successful in mathematical physics and engineering, has become a mature science, many elementary phenomena of intrinsic nonlinear nature were recently experimentally detected and investigated, suggesting new theoretical work. Complex systems, as turbulent fluids, were known to be governed by intrinsically nonlinear laws since a long time ago, but received purely phenomenological descriptions. The pioneering works of Boltzmann and Poincare, probably because of their intrinsic difficulty, did not have a revolutionary impact at their time; it is only very recently that their message is reaching a significant number of mathematicians and physicists. Certainly the development of computers and computer graphics played an important role in developing geometric intuition of complex phenomena through simple numerical experiments, while a new mathematical framework to understand them was being developed.
Gömöry, F
2014-01-01
Superconductors used in magnet technology could carry extreme currents because of their ability to keep the magnetic flux motionless. The dynamics of the magnetic flux interaction with superconductors is controlled by this property. The cases of electrical transport in a round wire and the magnetization of wires of various shapes (circular, elliptical, plate) in an external magnetic field are analysed. Resistance to the magnetic field penetration means that the field produced by the superconducting magnet is no longer proportional to the supplied current. It also leads to a dissipation of electromagnetic energy. In conductors with unequal transverse dimensions, such as flat cables, the orientation with respect to the magnetic field plays an essential role. A reduction of magnetization currents can be achieved by splitting the core of a superconducting wire into fine filaments; however, new kinds of electrical currents that couple the filaments consequently appear. Basic formulas allowing qualitative analyses ...
Ruban, Anatoly I
This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...
Klingshirn, C.
The purpose of this chapter is to present the results of the dynamics of exciton (polariton)s or more generally of electron-hole pairs. For a recent review of this topic concentrating on quantum wells, see Davies and Jagadish (Laser Photon. Rev. 3(1), 1(2008)). We neither consider the dynamics of carriers, for example, their relaxation time entering in Hall mobility or electrical conductivity, nor the dynamics of phonons or spins, respectively. We give here only a very small selection of references to these topics (Baxter and Schmuttenmaer, J. Phys. Chem. B, 110:25229, 2006; Queiroz et al. Superlattice Microstruct. 42:270, 2007; Niehaus and Schwarz, Superlattice Microstruct. 42:299, 2007; Lee et al., J. Appl. Phys. 93:4939, 2003; A. K Azad, J. Han, W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88:021103, 2006; Janssen et al., QELS 2008 IEEE 2; D. Lagarde et al., Phys. Stat. Sol. C 4:472, 2007; S. Gosh et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 86:232507, 2005; W. K. Liu et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 98:186804, 2007). The main characteristic time constants relevant to optical properties close to the fundamental absorption edge are the dephasing time T 2, (i.e. the time after which the polarization amplitude of the optically excited electron-hole pair loses the coherence with the driving light field), the intra band or inter sub band relaxation times T 3 (i.e. the time it takes for the electron-hole pairs to relax from their initial state of excitation to a certain other state e.g. to a thermal distribution with a temperature equal to or possibly still above lattice temperature) and finally the lifetime T 1 (i.e. the time until the electron-hole pairs recombine). The characteristic time constants T 2 and T 1 are also known as transverse and longitudinal relaxation times, respectively. Their inverses are the corresponding rate constants. T 2 is inversely proportional to the homogeneous width Γ, and T 1 includes both the radiative and the generally dominating non-radiative recombination (Hauser et al., Appl
Lukose, Rajan Mathew
The World Wide Web and the Internet are rapidly expanding spaces, of great economic and social significance, which offer an opportunity to study many phenomena, often previously inaccessible, on an unprecedented scale and resolution with relative ease. These phenomena are measurable on the scale of tens of millions of users and hundreds of millions of pages. By virtue of nearly complete electronic mediation, it is possible in principle to observe the time and ``spatial'' evolution of nearly all choices and interactions. This cyber-space therefore provides a view into a number of traditional research questions (from many academic disciplines) and creates its own new phenomena accessible for study. Despite its largely self-organized and dynamic nature, a number of robust quantitative regularities are found in the aggregate statistics of interesting and useful quantities. These regularities can be understood with the help of models that draw on ideas from statistical physics as well as other fields such as economics, psychology and decision theory. This thesis develops models that can account for regularities found in the statistics of Internet congestion and user surfing patterns and discusses some practical consequences. practical consequences.
Padilla, Nelson D.; Paz, Dante; Lares, Marcelo; Ceccarelli, Laura; Lambas, Diego Garcí A.; Cai, Yan-Chuan; Li, Baojiu
2016-10-01
Cosmic voids are becoming key players in testing the physics of our Universe.Here we concentrate on the abundances and the dynamics of voids as these are among the best candidatesto provide information on cosmological parameters. Cai, Padilla & Li (2014)use the abundance of voids to tell apart Hu & Sawicki f(R) models from General Relativity. An interestingresult is that even though, as expected, voids in the dark matter field are emptier in f(R) gravity due to the fifth force expellingaway from the void centres, this result is reversed when haloes are used to find voids. The abundance of voids in this casebecomes even lower in f(R) compared to GR for large voids. Still, the differences are significant and thisprovides a way to tell apart these models. The velocity field differences between f(R) and GR, on the other hand, arethe same for halo voids and for dark matter voids.Paz et al. (2013), concentrate on the velocity profiles around voids. First they show the necessityof four parameters to describe the density profiles around voids given two distinct voidpopulations, voids-in-voids and voids-in-clouds. This profile is used to predict peculiar velocities around voids,and the combination of the latter with void density profiles allows the construction of modelvoid-galaxy cross-correlation functions with redshift space distortions. When these modelsare tuned to fit the measured correlation functions for voids and galaxies in the SloanDigital Sky Survey, small voids are found to be of the void-in-cloud type, whereas largerones are consistent with being void-in-void. This is a novel result that is obtaineddirectly from redshift space data around voids. These profiles can be used toremove systematics on void-galaxy Alcock-Pacinsky tests coming from redshift-space distortions.
Dynamical system synchronization
Luo, Albert C J
2013-01-01
Dynamical System Synchronization (DSS) meticulously presents for the first time the theory of dynamical systems synchronization based on the local singularity theory of discontinuous dynamical systems. The book details the sufficient and necessary conditions for dynamical systems synchronizations, through extensive mathematical expression. Techniques for engineering implementation of DSS are clearly presented compared with the existing techniques. This book also: Presents novel concepts and methods for dynamical system synchronization Extends beyond the Lyapunov theory for dynamical system synchronization Introduces companion and synchronization of discrete dynamical systems Includes local singularity theory for discontinuous dynamical systems Covers the invariant domains of synchronization Features more than 75 illustrations Dynamical System Synchronization is an ideal book for those interested in better understanding new concepts and methodology for dynamical system synchronization, local singularity...
Fundamentals of structural dynamics
Craig, Roy R
2006-01-01
From theory and fundamentals to the latest advances in computational and experimental modal analysis, this is the definitive, updated reference on structural dynamics.This edition updates Professor Craig's classic introduction to structural dynamics, which has been an invaluable resource for practicing engineers and a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in vibrations and/or structural dynamics. Along with comprehensive coverage of structural dynamics fundamentals, finite-element-based computational methods, and dynamic testing methods, this Second Edition includes new and e
Petrescu, Florian Ion Tiberiu; Polytechnic University of Bucharest; Petrescu, Relly Victoria Virgil; Polytechnic University of Bucharest
2016-01-01
Otto engine dynamics are similar in almost all common internal combustion engines. We can speak so about dynamics of engines: Lenoir, Otto, and Diesel. The dynamic presented model is simple and original. The first thing necessary in the calculation of Otto engine dynamics, is to determine the inertial mass reduced at the piston. It uses then the Lagrange equation. The dynamic equation of motion of the piston, obtained by integrating the Lagrange equation, takes a new form. It presents a new r...
Dynamical systems theory for music dynamics
Boon, J P
1994-01-01
Abstract:We show that, when music pieces are cast in the form of time series of pitch variations, the concepts and tools of dynamical systems theory can be applied to the analysis of {\\it temporal dynamics} in music. (i) Phase space portraits are constructed from the time series wherefrom the dimensionality is evaluated as a measure of the {\\pit global} dynamics of each piece. (ii) Spectral analysis of the time series yields power spectra (\\sim f^{-\
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wassim M. Haddad
2001-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we develop a unified dynamical systems framework for a general class of systems possessing left-continuous flows; that is, left-continuous dynamical systems. These systems are shown to generalize virtually all existing notions of dynamical systems and include hybrid, impulsive, and switching dynamical systems as special cases. Furthermore, we generalize dissipativity, passivity, and nonexpansivity theory to left-continuous dynamical systems. Specifically, the classical concepts of system storage functions and supply rates are extended to left-continuous dynamical systems providing a generalized hybrid system energy interpretation in terms of stored energy, dissipated energy over the continuous-time dynamics, and dissipated energy over the resetting events. Finally, the generalized dissipativity notions are used to develop general stability criteria for feedback interconnections of left-continuous dynamical systems. These results generalize the positivity and small gain theorems to the case of left-continuous, hybrid, and impulsive dynamical systems.
Luo, Albert C J
2012-01-01
Presents a systematic view of vibro-impact dynamics based on the nonlinear dynamics analysis Comprehensive understanding of any vibro-impact system is critically impeded by the lack of analytical tools viable for properly characterizing grazing bifurcation. The authors establish vibro-impact dynamics as a subset of the theory of discontinuous systems, thus enabling all vibro-impact systems to be explored and characterized for applications. Vibro-impact Dynamics presents an original theoretical way of analyzing the behavior of vibro-impact dynamics that can be extended to discontinuous dynamic
Dynamic statistical information theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XING; Xiusan
2006-01-01
In recent years we extended Shannon static statistical information theory to dynamic processes and established a Shannon dynamic statistical information theory, whose core is the evolution law of dynamic entropy and dynamic information. We also proposed a corresponding Boltzmman dynamic statistical information theory. Based on the fact that the state variable evolution equation of respective dynamic systems, i.e. Fokker-Planck equation and Liouville diffusion equation can be regarded as their information symbol evolution equation, we derived the nonlinear evolution equations of Shannon dynamic entropy density and dynamic information density and the nonlinear evolution equations of Boltzmann dynamic entropy density and dynamic information density, that describe respectively the evolution law of dynamic entropy and dynamic information. The evolution equations of these two kinds of dynamic entropies and dynamic informations show in unison that the time rate of change of dynamic entropy densities is caused by their drift, diffusion and production in state variable space inside the systems and coordinate space in the transmission processes; and that the time rate of change of dynamic information densities originates from their drift, diffusion and dissipation in state variable space inside the systems and coordinate space in the transmission processes. Entropy and information have been combined with the state and its law of motion of the systems. Furthermore we presented the formulas of two kinds of entropy production rates and information dissipation rates, the expressions of two kinds of drift information flows and diffusion information flows. We proved that two kinds of information dissipation rates (or the decrease rates of the total information) were equal to their corresponding entropy production rates (or the increase rates of the total entropy) in the same dynamic system. We obtained the formulas of two kinds of dynamic mutual informations and dynamic channel
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A searchable database of all Solar Dynamics Observatory data including EUV, magnetograms, visible light and X-ray. SDO: The Solar Dynamics Observatory is the first...
Dynamic Interactive Learning Systems
Sabry, Khaled; Barker, Jeff
2009-01-01
This paper reviews and discusses the notions of interactivity and dynamicity of learning systems in relation to information technologies and design principles that can contribute to interactive and dynamic learning. It explores the concept of dynamic interactive learning systems based on the emerging generation of information as part of a…
Intramolecular and nonlinear dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davis, M.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)
1993-12-01
Research in this program focuses on three interconnected areas. The first involves the study of intramolecular dynamics, particularly of highly excited systems. The second area involves the use of nonlinear dynamics as a tool for the study of molecular dynamics and complex kinetics. The third area is the study of the classical/quantum correspondence for highly excited systems, particularly systems exhibiting classical chaos.
Bergshoeff, Eric; Gomis, Joaquim; Longhi, Giorgio
2014-01-01
We investigate particles whose dynamics are invariant under the Carroll group. Although a single, free such Carroll particle has no non-trivial dynamics (the Carroll particle does not move), we show that non-trivial dynamics exists for a set of interacting Carroll particles. Furthermore, we gauge th
Van Geert, P. L. C.; Steenbeek, H.W.
2005-01-01
In this article we have reinterpreted a relatively standard definition of scaffolding in the context of dynamic systems theory. Our main point is that scaffolding cannot be understood outside the context of a dynamic approach of learning and (formal or informal) teaching. We provide a dynamic system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sylvia Ceyer, Nancy Ryan Gray
2010-05-04
The 2009 Gordon Conference on Dynamics at Surfaces is the 30th anniversary of a meeting held every two years that is attended by leading researchers in the area of experimental and theoretical dynamics at liquid and solid surfaces. The conference focuses on the dynamics of the interaction of molecules with either liquid or solid surfaces, the dynamics of the outermost layer of liquid and solid surfaces and the dynamics at the liquid-solid interface. Specific topics that are featured include state-to-state dynamics, non-adiabatic interactions in molecule-metal systems, photon induced desorption from semiconductor and metal surfaces, ultrafast x-ray and electron diffraction as probes of the dynamics of ablation, ultrafast vibrational spectroscopy of water surface dynamics, dynamics of a single adsorbate, growth at nano-scale mineral surfaces, dynamics of atom recombination on interstellar dust grains and the dynamics of the interaction of water with lipid bilayers. The conference brings together investigators from a variety of scientific disciplines including chemistry, physics, materials science, geology and biophysics.
Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle: Dynamics Analysis
Lee, A. Y.; Le, N. T.; Marriott, A. T.
1997-01-01
The Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle (VDTV) concept has been proposed as a tool to evaluate collision avoidance systems and to perform driving-related human factors research. The goal of this study is to analytically investigate to what extent a VDTV with adjustable front and rear anti-roll bar stiffnesses, programmable damping rates, and four-wheel-steering can emulate the lateral dynamics of a broad range of passenger vehicles.
Complexity and Dynamical Depth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Terrence Deacon
2014-07-01
Full Text Available We argue that a critical difference distinguishing machines from organisms and computers from brains is not complexity in a structural sense, but a difference in dynamical organization that is not well accounted for by current complexity measures. We propose a measure of the complexity of a system that is largely orthogonal to computational, information theoretic, or thermodynamic conceptions of structural complexity. What we call a system’s dynamical depth is a separate dimension of system complexity that measures the degree to which it exhibits discrete levels of nonlinear dynamical organization in which successive levels are distinguished by local entropy reduction and constraint generation. A system with greater dynamical depth than another consists of a greater number of such nested dynamical levels. Thus, a mechanical or linear thermodynamic system has less dynamical depth than an inorganic self-organized system, which has less dynamical depth than a living system. Including an assessment of dynamical depth can provide a more precise and systematic account of the fundamental difference between inorganic systems (low dynamical depth and living systems (high dynamical depth, irrespective of the number of their parts and the causal relations between them.
Synchronization dynamics of two different dynamical systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luo, Albert C.J., E-mail: aluo@siue.edu [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Edwardsville, IL 62026-1805 (United States); Min Fuhong [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Edwardsville, IL 62026-1805 (United States)
2011-06-15
Highlights: > Synchronization dynamics of two distinct dynamical systems. > Synchronization, de-synchronization and instantaneous synchronization. > A controlled pendulum synchronizing with the Duffing oscillator. > Synchronization invariant set. > Synchronization parameter map. - Abstract: In this paper, synchronization dynamics of two different dynamical systems is investigated through the theory of discontinuous dynamical systems. The necessary and sufficient conditions for the synchronization, de-synchronization and instantaneous synchronization (penetration or grazing) are presented. Using such a synchronization theory, the synchronization of a controlled pendulum with the Duffing oscillator is systematically discussed as a sampled problem, and the corresponding analytical conditions for the synchronization are presented. The synchronization parameter study is carried out for a better understanding of synchronization characteristics of the controlled pendulum and the Duffing oscillator. Finally, the partial and full synchronizations of the controlled pendulum with periodic and chaotic motions are presented to illustrate the analytical conditions. The synchronization of the Duffing oscillator and pendulum are investigated in order to show the usefulness and efficiency of the methodology in this paper. The synchronization invariant domain is obtained. The technique presented in this paper should have a wide spectrum of applications in engineering. For example, this technique can be applied to the maneuvering target tracking, and the others.
Multiscale Gentlest Ascent Dynamics
Zhou, Xiang
2016-01-01
The gentlest ascent dynamics (E and Zhou in {\\it Nonlinearity} vol 24, p1831, 2011) locally converges to a nearby saddle point with one dimensional unstable manifold. Here we present a multiscale gentlest ascent dynamics for stochastic slow-fast systems in order to compute saddle point associated with the effective dynamics of the slow variable. Such saddle points, as the candidates of transition states, are important in non-equilibrium transitions for the coarse-grained slow variables; they are also helpful to explore free energy surface. We derive the expressions of the gentlest ascent dynamics for the averaged system, and propose the multiscale numerical methods to efficiently solve the multiscale gentlest ascent dynamics for search of saddle point. The examples of stochastic ordinary and partial differential equations are presented to illustrate the performance of this multiscale gentlest ascent dynamics.
Traag, V A; Hicks, J; van Klinken, G
2014-01-01
Studies of human attention dynamics analyses how attention is focused on specific topics, issues or people. In online social media, there are clear signs of exogenous shocks, bursty dynamics, and an exponential or powerlaw lifetime distribution. We here analyse the attention dynamics of traditional media, focussing on co-occurrence of people in newspaper articles. The results are quite different from online social networks and attention. Different regimes seem to be operating at two different time scales. At short time scales we see evidence of bursty dynamics and fast decaying edge lifetimes and attention. This behaviour disappears for longer time scales, and in that regime we find Poissonian dynamics and slower decaying lifetimes. We propose that a cascading Poisson process may take place, with issues arising at a constant rate over a long time scale, and faster dynamics at a shorter time scale.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Kim
Traditionally, boilers have been designed mainly focussing on the static operation of the plant. The dynamic capability has been given lower priority and the analysis has typically been limited to assuring that the plant was not over-stressed due to large temperature gradients. New possibilities...... for buying and selling energy has increased the focus on the dynamic operation capability, efciency, emissions etc. For optimizing the design of boilers for dynamic operation a quantication of the dynamic capability is needed. A framework for optimizing design of boilers for dynamic operation has been...... developed. Analyzing boilers for dynamic operation gives rise to a number of opposing aims: shrinking and swelling, steam quality, stress levels, control system/philosophy, pressurization etc. Common for these opposing aims is that an optimum can be found for selected operation conditions. The framework has...
Dynamic Capabilities and Performance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wilden, Ralf; Gudergan, Siegfried P.; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard
2013-01-01
Dynamic capabilities are widely considered to incorporate those processes that enable organizations to sustain superior performance over time. In this paper, we argue theoretically and demonstrate empirically that these effects are contingent on organizational structure and the competitive...... are contingent on the competitive intensity faced by firms. Our findings demonstrate the performance effects of internal alignment between organizational structure and dynamic capabilities, as well as the external fit of dynamic capabilities with competitive intensity. We outline the advantages of PLS...
Dynamical Constraints on Exoplanets
Horner, Jonti; Tinney, Chris; Hinse, Tobias C; Marshall, Jonathan P
2013-01-01
Dynamical studies of new exoplanet systems are a critical component of the discovery and characterisation process. Such studies can provide firmer constraints on the parameters of the newly discovered planets, and may even reveal that the proposed planets do not stand up to dynamical scrutiny. Here, we demonstrate how dynamical studies can assist the characterisation of such systems through two examples: QS Virginis and HD 73526.
ON NONDETERMINISTIC DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING
2008-01-01
R. Bellman left a lot of research problems in his work “Dynamic Programming" (1957). Having received ideas from Bellman, S. Iwamoto has extracted, out of his problems, a problem on nondeterministic dynamic programming (NDP). Instead of stochastic dynamic programming which has been well studied, Iwamoto has opened a gate to NDP. This report presents speci_c optimal solutions for NDPs on continuous state and decision spaces.
Gils, S; Hoveijn, I; Takens, F; Nonlinear Dynamical Systems and Chaos
1996-01-01
Symmetries in dynamical systems, "KAM theory and other perturbation theories", "Infinite dimensional systems", "Time series analysis" and "Numerical continuation and bifurcation analysis" were the main topics of the December 1995 Dynamical Systems Conference held in Groningen in honour of Johann Bernoulli. They now form the core of this work which seeks to present the state of the art in various branches of the theory of dynamical systems. A number of articles have a survey character whereas others deal with recent results in current research. It contains interesting material for all members of the dynamical systems community, ranging from geometric and analytic aspects from a mathematical point of view to applications in various sciences.
Dresig, Hans
2010-01-01
Dynamic loads and disturbing oscillations increase with higher speed of the machines and more lightweight constructions. Industrial safety standards require better oscillation reduction and noise control. The book by Dresig/Holzweissig deals with these topics. It presents the classical areas of modeling, dynamics of rigid bodies, balancing, torsional and bending vibrations, problems of vibration isolation and the dynamic behavior of complex vibrating systems. Typical dynamic effects, i.e., the gyroscopic effect, the damping of oscillations, resonances of k-th order, subharmonic and nonlinear f
Structural Dynamics Laboratory (SDL)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Structural dynamic testing is performed to verify the survivability of a component or assembly when exposed to vibration stress screening, or a controlled simulation...
Symplectic algebraic dynamics algorithm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2007-01-01
Based on the algebraic dynamics solution of ordinary differential equations andintegration of ,the symplectic algebraic dynamics algorithm sn is designed,which preserves the local symplectic geometric structure of a Hamiltonian systemand possesses the same precision of the na ve algebraic dynamics algorithm n.Computer experiments for the 4th order algorithms are made for five test modelsand the numerical results are compared with the conventional symplectic geometric algorithm,indicating that sn has higher precision,the algorithm-inducedphase shift of the conventional symplectic geometric algorithm can be reduced,and the dynamical fidelity can be improved by one order of magnitude.
Nonlinear dynamics and complexity
Luo, Albert; Fu, Xilin
2014-01-01
This important collection presents recent advances in nonlinear dynamics including analytical solutions, chaos in Hamiltonian systems, time-delay, uncertainty, and bio-network dynamics. Nonlinear Dynamics and Complexity equips readers to appreciate this increasingly main-stream approach to understanding complex phenomena in nonlinear systems as they are examined in a broad array of disciplines. The book facilitates a better understanding of the mechanisms and phenomena in nonlinear dynamics and develops the corresponding mathematical theory to apply nonlinear design to practical engineering.
Essential dynamics and relativity
O'Donnell, Peter J
2014-01-01
Essential Dynamics & Relativity provides students with an introduction to the core aspects of dynamics and special relativity. The author reiterates important ideas and terms throughout and covers concepts that are often missing from other textbooks at this level. He also places each topic within the wider constructs of the theory, without jumping from topic to topic to illustrate a point.The first section of the book focuses on dynamics, discussing the basic aspects of single particle motion and analyzing the motion of multi-particle systems. The book also explains the dynamical behavior of b
Introduction to dynamic programming
Cooper, Leon; Rodin, E Y
1981-01-01
Introduction to Dynamic Programming provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of dynamic programming. This book considers problems that can be quantitatively formulated and deals with mathematical models of situations or phenomena that exists in the real world.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the fundamental components of any mathematical optimization model. This text then presents the details of the application of dynamic programming to variational problems. Other chapters consider the application of dynamic programming to inventory theory, Mark
Dynamic power flow controllers
Divan, Deepakraj M.; Prasai, Anish
2017-03-07
Dynamic power flow controllers are provided. A dynamic power flow controller may comprise a transformer and a power converter. The power converter is subject to low voltage stresses and not floated at line voltage. In addition, the power converter is rated at a fraction of the total power controlled. A dynamic power flow controller controls both the real and the reactive power flow between two AC sources having the same frequency. A dynamic power flow controller inserts a voltage with controllable magnitude and phase between two AC sources; thereby effecting control of active and reactive power flows between two AC sources.
Partial Dynamical Symmetry and Mixed Dynamics
Leviatan, A
1996-01-01
Partial dynamical symmetry describes a situation in which some eigenstates have a symmetry which the quantum Hamiltonian does not share. This property is shown to have a classical analogue in which some tori in phase space are associated with a symmetry which the classical Hamiltonian does not share. A local analysis in the vicinity of these special tori reveals a neighbourhood of phase space foliated by tori. This clarifies the suppression of classical chaos associated with partial dynamical symmetry. The results are used to divide the states of a mixed system into ``chaotic'' and ``regular'' classes.
Dynamical Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giovanni Ciccotti
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In this review, we discuss the Dynamical approach to Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics (D-NEMD, which extends stationary NEMD to time-dependent situations, be they responses or relaxations. Based on the original Onsager regression hypothesis, implemented in the nineteen-seventies by Ciccotti, Jacucci and MacDonald, the approach permits one to separate the problem of dynamical evolution from the problem of sampling the initial condition. D-NEMD provides the theoretical framework to compute time-dependent macroscopic dynamical behaviors by averaging on a large sample of non-equilibrium trajectories starting from an ensemble of initial conditions generated from a suitable (equilibrium or non-equilibrium distribution at time zero. We also discuss how to generate a large class of initial distributions. The same approach applies also to the calculation of the rate constants of activated processes. The range of problems treatable by this method is illustrated by discussing applications to a few key hydrodynamic processes (the “classical” flow under shear, the formation of convective cells and the relaxation of an interface between two immiscible liquids.
Dynamic normal forms and dynamic characteristic polynomial
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Sankowski, Piotr
2011-01-01
with relative error 2−b in additional O(nlog2nlogb) time. Furthermore, it can be used to dynamically maintain the singular value decomposition (SVD) of a generic matrix. Together with the algorithm, the hardness of the problem is studied. For the symmetric case, we present an Ω(n2) lower bound for rank...
Bisimulation of Dynamical Systems
Schaft, Arjan van der
2004-01-01
A general notion of bisimulation is studied for dynamical systems. An algebraic characterization of bisimulation together with an algorithm for computing the maximal bisimulation relation is derived using geometric control theory. Bisimulation of dynamical systems is shown to be a concept which
Dynamic Calorimetry for Students
Kraftmakher, Yaakov
2007-01-01
A student experiment on dynamic calorimetry is described. Dynamic calorimetry is a powerful technique for calorimetric studies, especially at high temperatures and pressures. A low-power incandescent lamp serves as the sample. The ScienceWorkshop data-acquisition system with DataStudio software from PASCO Scientific displays the results of the…
Dynamic Latent Classification Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhong, Shengtong; Martínez, Ana M.; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre
as possible. Motivated by this problem setting, we propose a generative model for dynamic classification in continuous domains. At each time point the model can be seen as combining a naive Bayes model with a mixture of factor analyzers (FA). The latent variables of the FA are used to capture the dynamics...... in the process as well as modeling dependences between attributes....
Gómez, Gerard; Barrabés Vera, Esther
2011-01-01
The term Space Manifold Dynamics (SMD) has been proposed for encompassing the various applications of Dynamical Systems methods to spacecraft mission analysis and design, ranging from the exploitation of libration orbits around the collinear Lagrangian points to the design of optimal station-keeping and eclipse avoidance manoeuvres or the determination of low energy lunar and interplanetary transfers
Gorman, Jamie C; Amazeen, Polemnia G; Cooke, Nancy J
2010-07-01
Team coordination consists of both the dynamics of team member interaction and the environmental dynamics to which a team is subjected. Focusing on dynamics, an approach is developed that contrasts with traditional aggregate-static concepts of team coordination as characterized by the shared mental model approach. A team coordination order parameter was developed to capture momentary fluctuations in coordination. Team coordination was observed in three-person uninhabited air vehicle teams across two experimental sessions. The dynamics of the order parameter were observed under changes of a team familiarity control parameter. Team members returned for the second session to either the same (Intact) or different (Mixed) team. 'Roadblock' perturbations, or novel changes in the task environment, were introduced in order to probe the stability of team coordination. Nonlinear dynamic methods revealed differences that a traditional approach did not: Intact and Mixed team coordination dynamics looked very different; Mixed teams were more stable than Intact teams and explored the space of solutions without the need for correction. Stability was positively correlated with the number of roadblock perturbations that were overcome successfully. The novel and non-intuitive contribution of a dynamical analysis was that Mixed teams, who did not have a long history working together, were more adaptive. Team coordination dynamics carries new implications for traditional problems such as training adaptive teams.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.
2013-02-01
On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.
Gladwell, Graham ML
2011-01-01
The papers in this volume present an overview of the general aspects and practical applications of dynamic inverse methods, through the interaction of several topics, ranging from classical and advanced inverse problems in vibration, isospectral systems, dynamic methods for structural identification, active vibration control and damage detection, imaging shear stiffness in biological tissues, wave propagation, to computational and experimental aspects relevant for engineering problems.
Transformations, Dynamics and Complexity
Glazunov, Nikolaj
2011-01-01
We review and investigate some new problems and results in the field of dynamical systems generated by iteration of maps, {\\beta}-transformations, partitions, group actions, bundle dynamical systems, Hasse-Kloosterman maps, and some aspects of complexity of the systems.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Citi, Manuele
2013-01-01
and change in the EU in light of the two models of policy dynamics currently existing in the literature: the incrementalist model and the punctuated equilibrium model. The analysis of long series of original data extracted from the EU budget shows that EU policies do not evolve following an incrementalist...... pattern, but by a punctuated equilibrium dynamic....
Dynamic public service mediation
Hofman, W.; Staalduinen, M. van
2010-01-01
This paper presents an approach to dynamic public service mediation. It is based on a conceptual model and the use of search and ranking algorithms. The conceptual model is based on Abstract State Machine theory. Requirements for dynamic service mediation were derived from a real-world case. The con
Probabilistic Dynamic Epistemic Logic
Kooi, B.P.
2003-01-01
In this paper I combine the dynamic epistemic logic of Gerbrandy (1999) with the probabilistic logic of Fagin and Halpern (1999). The result is a new probabilistic dynamic epistemic logic, a logic for reasoning about probability, information, and information change that takes higher order informatio
Visualizing Dynamic Memory Allocations
Moreta, Sergio; Telea, Alexandru
2007-01-01
We present a visualization tool for dynamic memory allocation information obtained from instrumenting the runtime allocator used by C programs. The goal of the presented visualization techniques is to convey insight in the dynamic behavior of the allocator. The purpose is to help the allocator desig
Minkenberg, C.B.
2012-01-01
In this thesis the development of surfactant aggregates with fast exchange dynamics between the aggregated and non-aggregated state is described. Dynamic surfactant exchange plays an important role in natural systems, for instance in cell signaling, cell division, and uptake and release of cargo. Re
Applications of fluid dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Round, G.R.; Garg, V.K.
1986-01-01
This book describes flexible and practical approach to learning the basics of fluid dynamics. Each chapter is a self-contained work session and includes a fluid dynamics concept, an explanation of the principles involved, an illustration of their application and references on where more detailed discussions can be found.
Dynamic Calorimetry for Students
Kraftmakher, Yaakov
2007-01-01
A student experiment on dynamic calorimetry is described. Dynamic calorimetry is a powerful technique for calorimetric studies, especially at high temperatures and pressures. A low-power incandescent lamp serves as the sample. The ScienceWorkshop data-acquisition system with DataStudio software from PASCO Scientific displays the results of the…
Dynamic reservoir well interaction
Sturm, W.L.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Wolfswinkel, O. van; Peters, M.C.A.M.; Verhelst, F.J.P.C.M.
2004-01-01
In order to develop smart well control systems for unstable oil wells, realistic modeling of the dynamics of the well is essential. Most dynamic well models use a semi-steady state inflow model to describe the inflow of oil and gas from the reservoir. On the other hand, reservoir models use steady s
Rajamani, Rajesh
2012-01-01
Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system applications covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire-road friction coefficient estimation, rollover prevention, and hybrid electric vehicle. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics. A special effort has been made to explain the several different tire models commonly used in literature and to interpret them physically. In the second edition of the book, chapters on roll dynamics, rollover prevention and hybrid electric vehicles have been added, and the chapter on electronic stability co...
Nonlinear dynamics of structures
Oller, Sergio
2014-01-01
This book lays the foundation of knowledge that will allow a better understanding of nonlinear phenomena that occur in structural dynamics. This work is intended for graduate engineering students who want to expand their knowledge on the dynamic behavior of structures, specifically in the nonlinear field, by presenting the basis of dynamic balance in non‐linear behavior structures due to the material and kinematics mechanical effects. Particularly, this publication shows the solution of the equation of dynamic equilibrium for structure with nonlinear time‐independent materials (plasticity, damage and frequencies evolution), as well as those time dependent non‐linear behavior materials (viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity). The convergence conditions for the non‐linear dynamic structure solution are studied, and the theoretical concepts and its programming algorithms are presented.
Michael, Fredrick; Johnson, M. D.
2003-03-01
A necessary precondition for modeling financial markets is a complete understanding of their statistics, including dynamics. Distributions derived from nonextensive Tsallis statistics are closely connected with dynamics described by a nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation. The combination shows promise in describing stochastic processes with power-law distributions and superdiffusive dynamics. We investigate intra-day price changes in the S& P500 stock index within this framework. We find that the power-law tails of the distributions, and the index's anomalously diffusing dynamics, are very accurately described by this approach. Our results show good agreement between market data and Fokker-Planck dynamics. This approach may be applicable in any anomalously diffusing system in which the correlations in time can be accounted for by an Ito-Langevin process with a simple time-dependent diffusion coefficient.
Kobayashi, A. S.; Ramulu, M.
1985-01-01
Dynamic fracture and crack propagation concepts for ductile materials are reviewed. The equations for calculating dynamic stress integrity and the dynamic energy release rate in order to study dynamic crack propagation are provided. The stress intensity factor versus crack velocity relation is investigated. The uses of optical experimental techniques and finite element methods for fracture analyses are described. The fracture criteria for a rapidly propagating crack under mixed mode conditions are discussed; crack extension and fracture criteria under combined tension and shear loading are based on maximum circumferential stress or energy criteria such as strain energy density. The development and use of a Dugdale model and finite element models to represent crack and fracture dynamics are examined.
Dynamics of aesthetic appreciation
Carbon, Claus-Christian
2012-03-01
Aesthetic appreciation is a complex cognitive processing with inherent aspects of cold as well as hot cognition. Research from the last decades of empirical has shown that evaluations of aesthetic appreciation are highly reliable. Most frequently, facial attractiveness was used as the corner case for investigating aesthetic appreciation. Evaluating facial attractiveness shows indeed high internal consistencies and impressively high inter-rater reliabilities, even across cultures. Although this indicates general and stable mechanisms underlying aesthetic appreciation, it is also obvious that our taste for specific objects changes dynamically. Aesthetic appreciation on artificial object categories, such as fashion, design or art is inherently very dynamic. Gaining insights into the cognitive mechanisms that trigger and enable corresponding changes of aesthetic appreciation is of particular interest for research as this will provide possibilities to modeling aesthetic appreciation for longer durations and from a dynamic perspective. The present paper refers to a recent two-step model ("the dynamical two-step-model of aesthetic appreciation"), dynamically adapting itself, which accounts for typical dynamics of aesthetic appreciation found in different research areas such as art history, philosophy and psychology. The first step assumes singular creative sources creating and establishing innovative material towards which, in a second step, people adapt by integrating it into their visual habits. This inherently leads to dynamic changes of the beholders' aesthetic appreciation.
From Molecular Dynamics to Brownian Dynamics
Erban, Radek
2014-01-01
Three coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) models are investigated with the aim of developing and analyzing multiscale methods which use MD simulations in parts of the computational domain and (less detailed) Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations in the remainder of the domain. The first MD model is formulated in one spatial dimension. It is based on elastic collisions of heavy molecules (e.g. proteins) with light point particles (e.g. water molecules). Two three-dimensional MD models are then investigated. The obtained results are applied to a simplified model of protein binding to receptors on the cellular membrane. It is shown that modern BD simulators of intracellular processes can be used in the bulk and accurately coupled with a (more detailed) MD model of protein binding which is used close to the membrane.
Dynamic Recrystallization: The Dynamic Deformation Regime
Murr, L. E.; Pizaña, C.
2007-11-01
Severe plastic deformation (PD), especially involving high strain rates (>103 s 1), occurs through solid-state flow, which is accommodated by dynamic recrystallization (DRX), either in a continuous or discontinuous mode. This flow can be localized in shear instability zones (or adiabatic shear bands (ASBs)) with dimensions smaller than 5 μ, or can include large volumes with flow zone dimensions exceeding centimeters. This article illustrates these microstructural features using optical and electron metallography to examine a host of dynamic deformation examples: shaped charge jet formation, high-velocity and hypervelocity impact crater formation, rod penetration into thick targets (which includes rod and target DRX flow and mixing), large projectile-induced target plug formation and failure, explosive welding, and friction-stir welding and processing. The DRX is shown to be a universal mechanism that accommodates solid-state flow in extreme (or severe) PD regimes.
Babu, V
2014-01-01
Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition isa comprehensively updated new edition and now includes a chapter on the gas dynamics of steam. It covers the fundamental concepts and governing equations of different flows, and includes end of chapter exercises based on the practical applications. A number of useful tables on the thermodynamic properties of steam are also included.Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition begins with an introduction to compressible and incompressible flows before covering the fundamentals of one dimensional flows and normal shock wav
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. J. A. Vos
2002-08-01
Full Text Available The dynamics of leadership This article reflects on the need for dynamic leadership. An organisation'sfunctionality is dependent on the intellectual, emotional andphysical energy which the people involved in the organisation arewilling to contribute. The process of energy release is determined mainlyby two concepts: vision and mission. A vision is inextricably linked to astrategy. Leadership plays an essential part in the realisation of anorganisation's vision and mission. In this article different leadershipmodels are discussed. Autocratic leadership is critically analysed.Dynamic leadership, which encompasses inspirational and imaginativeleadership is discussed. The community of faith and society both have alife-long need for inspirational leadership.
Shadowing in dynamical systems
Pilyugin, Sergei Yu
1999-01-01
This book is an introduction to the theory of shadowing of approximate trajectories in dynamical systems by exact ones. This is the first book completely devoted to the theory of shadowing. It shows the importance of shadowing theory for both the qualitative theory of dynamical systems and the theory of numerical methods. Shadowing Methods allow us to estimate differences between exact and approximate solutions on infinite time intervals and to understand the influence of error terms. The book is intended for specialists in dynamical systems, for researchers and graduate students in the theory of numerical methods.
Stability of dynamical systems
Liao, Xiaoxin; Yu, P 0
2007-01-01
The main purpose of developing stability theory is to examine dynamic responses of a system to disturbances as the time approaches infinity. It has been and still is the object of intense investigations due to its intrinsic interest and its relevance to all practical systems in engineering, finance, natural science and social science. This monograph provides some state-of-the-art expositions of major advances in fundamental stability theories and methods for dynamic systems of ODE and DDE types and in limit cycle, normal form and Hopf bifurcation control of nonlinear dynamic systems.ʺ Presents
Elements of analytical dynamics
Kurth, Rudolph; Stark, M
1976-01-01
Elements of Analytical Dynamics deals with dynamics, which studies the relationship between motion of material bodies and the forces acting on them. This book is a compilation of lectures given by the author at the Georgia and Institute of Technology and formed a part of a course in Topological Dynamics. The book begins by discussing the notions of space and time and their basic properties. It then discusses the Hamilton-Jacobi theory and Hamilton's principle and first integrals. The text concludes with a discussion on Jacobi's geometric interpretation of conservative systems. This book will
Real estate investment dynamics
Gruber, Johannes
2010-01-01
This thesis is motivated by the steadily increasing interest in the dynamic relationship between the macro-economy and the real estate sector. One of the main issues in this respect is to study the investment dynamics. Since the bursting of the U.S. housing bubble in 2006 is identified as the point of origin of the so called subprime crises, which led to the collapse of the U.S. financial system, the dynamics of real estate investments is of particular interest. In the first part of my the...
Rathakrishnan, Ethirajan
2014-01-01
This is an introductory level textbook which explains the elements of high temperature and high-speed gas dynamics. written in a clear and easy to follow style, the author covers all the latest developments in the field including basic thermodynamic principles, compressible flow regimes and waves propagation in one volume covers theoretical modeling of High Enthalpy Flows, with particular focus on problems in internal and external gas-dynamic flows, of interest in the fields of rockets propulsion and hypersonic aerodynamics High enthalpy gas dynamics is a compulsory course for aerospace engine
Anderson, James C
2012-01-01
A concise introduction to structural dynamics and earthquake engineering Basic Structural Dynamics serves as a fundamental introduction to the topic of structural dynamics. Covering single and multiple-degree-of-freedom systems while providing an introduction to earthquake engineering, the book keeps the coverage succinct and on topic at a level that is appropriate for undergraduate and graduate students. Through dozens of worked examples based on actual structures, it also introduces readers to MATLAB, a powerful software for solving both simple and complex structural d
Recovery of dynamic interference
Baghery, Mehrdad; Rost, Jan M
2016-01-01
We develop general quantitative criteria for dynamic interference, a manifestation of double-slit interference in time which should be realizable with brilliant state-of-the-art high-frequency laser sources. Our analysis reveals that the observation of dynamic interference hinges upon maximizing the difference between the dynamic polarization of the initial bound and the final continuum state of the electron during the light pulse, while keeping depletion of the initial state small. Confirmed by numerical results, we predict that this is impossible for the hydrogen ground-state but feasible with excited states explicitly exemplified with the hydrogen 2p-state.
Shivamoggi, Bhimsen K
1998-01-01
"Although there are many texts and monographs on fluid dynamics, I do not know of any which is as comprehensive as the present book. It surveys nearly the entire field of classical fluid dynamics in an advanced, compact, and clear manner, and discusses the various conceptual and analytical models of fluid flow." - Foundations of Physics on the first edition. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics functions equally well as a graduate-level text and a professional reference. Steering a middle course between the empiricism of engineering and the abstractions of pure mathematics, the author focuses
Wuensche, Andrew
DDLab is interactive graphics software for creating, visualizing, and analyzing many aspects of Cellular Automata, Random Boolean Networks, and Discrete Dynamical Networks in general and studying their behavior, both from the time-series perspective — space-time patterns, and from the state-space perspective — attractor basins. DDLab is relevant to research, applications, and education in the fields of complexity, self-organization, emergent phenomena, chaos, collision-based computing, neural networks, content addressable memory, genetic regulatory networks, dynamical encryption, generative art and music, and the study of the abstract mathematical/physical/dynamical phenomena in their own right.
Thermofield dynamics and Gravity
Nair, V P
2015-01-01
Thermofield dynamics is presented in terms of a path-integral using coherent states, equivalently, using a coadjoint orbit action. A field theoretic formulation in terms of fields on a manifold ${\\mathcal M} \\times {\\tilde{\\mathcal M}}$ where the two components have opposite orientation is also presented. We propose formulating gravitational dynamics for noncommutative geometry using thermofield dynamics, doubling the Hilbert space modeling the noncommutative space. We consider 2+1 dimensions in some detail and since ${\\mathcal M}$ and ${\\tilde{\\mathcal M}}$ have opposite orientation, the commutative limit leads to the Einstein-Hilbert action as the difference of two Chern-Simons actions.
Pechersky, E; Sadowski, G; Yambartsev, A
2014-01-01
We suggest a model that describes a mutual dynamic of tectonic plates. The dynamic is a sort of stick-slip one which is modeled by a Markov random process. The process defines a microlevel of the dynamic. A macrolevel is obtained by a scaling limit which leads to a system of integro-differential equations which determines a kind of mean field systems. Conditions when Gutenberg-Richter empirical law are presented on the mean field level. These conditions are rather universal and do not depend on features of resistant forces.
2014-01-01
We suggest a model that describes a mutual dynamic of tectonic plates. The dynamic is a sort of stick-slip one which is modeled by a Markov random process. The process defines a microlevel of the dynamic. A macrolevel is obtained by a scaling limit which leads to a system of integro-differential equations which determines a kind of mean field systems. Conditions when Gutenberg-Richter empirical law are presented on the mean field level. These conditions are rather universal and do not depend ...
Fiszdon, W
1965-01-01
Fluid Dynamics Transactions, Volume 2 compiles 46 papers on fluid dynamics, a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow. The topics discussed in this book include developments in interference theory for aeronautical applications; diffusion from sources in a turbulent boundary layer; unsteady motion of a finite wing span in a compressible medium; and wall pressure covariance and comparison with experiment. The certain classes of non-stationary axially symmetric flows in magneto-gas-dynamics; description of the phenomenon of secondary flows in curved channels by means of co
Process Fairness and Dynamic Consistency
S.T. Trautmann (Stefan); P.P. Wakker (Peter)
2010-01-01
textabstractAbstract: When process fairness deviates from outcome fairness, dynamic inconsistencies can arise as in nonexpected utility. Resolute choice (Machina) can restore dynamic consistency under nonexpected utility without using Strotz's precommitment. It can similarly justify dynamically
Chiral Gauge Dynamics and Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poppitz, Erich; /Toronto U.; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U.
2009-05-07
We study the dynamics of a chiral SU(2) gauge theory with a Weyl fermion in the I = 3/2 representation and of its supersymmetric generalization. In the former, we find a new and exotic mechanism of confinement, induced by topological excitations that we refer to as magnetic quintets. The supersymmetric version was examined earlier in the context of dynamical supersymmetry breaking by Intriligator, Seiberg, and Shenker, who showed that if this gauge theory confines at the origin of moduli space, one may break supersymmetry by adding a tree level superpotential. We examine the dynamics by deforming the theory on S{sup 1} x R{sup 3}, and show that the infrared behavior of this theory is an interacting CFT at small S{sup 1}. We argue that this continues to hold at large S{sup 1}, and if so, that supersymmetry must remain unbroken. Our methods also provide the microscopic origin of various superpotentials in SQCD on S{sup 1} x R{sup 3}--which were previously obtained by using symmetry and holomorphy--and resolve a long standing interpretational puzzle concerning a flux operator discovered by Affleck, Harvey, and Witten. It is generated by a topological excitation, a 'magnetic bion', whose stability is due to fermion pair exchange between its constituents. We also briefly comment on composite monopole operators as leading effects in two dimensional antiferromagnets.
Assimilation Dynamic Network (ADN) Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Assimilation Dynamic Network (ADN) is a dynamic inter-processor communication network that spans heterogeneous processor architectures, unifying components,...
Bossé, Michael J.; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla; Lynch-Davis, Kathleen
2016-01-01
Dynamic mathematical environments allow users to reify mathematical concepts through multiple representations, transform mathematical relations and organically explore mathematical properties, investigate integrated mathematics, and develop conceptual understanding. Herein, we integrate Boolean algebra, the functionalities of a dynamic…
Dynamic plasmonic colour display
Duan, Xiaoyang; Kamin, Simon; Liu, Na
2017-02-01
Plasmonic colour printing based on engineered metasurfaces has revolutionized colour display science due to its unprecedented subwavelength resolution and high-density optical data storage. However, advanced plasmonic displays with novel functionalities including dynamic multicolour printing, animations, and highly secure encryption have remained in their infancy. Here we demonstrate a dynamic plasmonic colour display technique that enables all the aforementioned functionalities using catalytic magnesium metasurfaces. Controlled hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of the constituent magnesium nanoparticles, which serve as dynamic pixels, allow for plasmonic colour printing, tuning, erasing and restoration of colour. Different dynamic pixels feature distinct colour transformation kinetics, enabling plasmonic animations. Through smart material processing, information encoded on selected pixels, which are indiscernible to both optical and scanning electron microscopies, can only be read out using hydrogen as a decoding key, suggesting a new generation of information encryption and anti-counterfeiting applications.
Ansatz for dynamical hierarchies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, S.; Baas, N.A.; Mayer, B.
2001-01-01
Complex, robust functionalities can be generated naturally in at least two ways: by the assembly of structures and by the evolution of structures. This work is concerned with spontaneous formation of structures. We define the notion of dynamical hierarchies in natural systems and show...... the importance of this particular kind of organization for living systems. We then define a framework that enables us to formulate, investigate, and manipulate such dynamical hierarchies. This framework allows us to simultaneously investigate different levels of description together with them interrelationship...... three. Formulating this system as a simple two-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) lattice gas allows us within one dynamical system to demonstrate the successive emergence of two higher levels (three levels all together) of robust structures with associated properties. Second, we demonstrate how...
The Dynamics of Standardization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brunsson, Nils; Rasche, Andreas; Seidl, David
2012-01-01
This paper suggests that when the phenomenon of standards and standardization is examined from the perspective of organization studies, three aspects stand out: the standardization of organizations, standardization by organizations and standardization as (a form of) organization. Following......, and show that, while standards and standardization are typically associated with stability and sameness, they are essentially a dynamic phenomenon. The paper highlights the contributions of this special issue to the topic of standards as a dynamic phenomenon in organization studies and makes suggestions...... a comprehensive overview of existing research in these three areas, we argue that the dynamic aspects of standardization are under-represented in the scholarly discourse. Furthermore, we identify the main types of tension associated with standardization and the dynamics they generate in each of those three areas...
Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) is a continuous flow wind-tunnel facility capable of speeds up to Mach 1.2 at stagnation pressures up to one atmosphere. The TDT...
Market Squid Population Dynamics
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains population dynamics data on paralarvae, juvenile and adult market squid collected off California and the US Pacific Northwest. These data were...
Veenstra, René; Dijkstra, Jan; Steglich, Christian; Van Zalk, Maarten H. W.
2013-01-01
Researchers have become increasingly interested in disentangling selection and influence processes. This literature review provides context for the special issue on network-behavior dynamics. It brings together important conceptual, methodological, and empirical contributions focusing on longitudina
Edelman, Mark
2014-01-01
In this paper the author presents the results of the preliminary investigation of fractional dynamical systems based on the results of numerical simulations of fractional maps. Fractional maps are equivalent to fractional differential equations describing systems experiencing periodic kicks. Their properties depend on the value of two parameters: the non-linearity parameter, which arises from the corresponding regular dynamical systems; and the memory parameter which is the order of the fractional derivative in the corresponding non-linear fractional differential equations. The examples of the fractional Standard and Logistic maps demonstrate that phase space of non-linear fractional dynamical systems may contain periodic sinks, attracting slow diverging trajectories, attracting accelerator mode trajectories, chaotic attractors, and cascade of bifurcations type trajectories whose properties are different from properties of attractors in regular dynamical systems. The author argues that discovered properties s...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Gun Dynamics Laboratory is a research multi-task facility, which includes two firing bays, a high bay area and a second floor laboratory space. The high bay area...
Salinelli, Ernesto
2014-01-01
This book provides an introduction to the analysis of discrete dynamical systems. The content is presented by an unitary approach that blends the perspective of mathematical modeling together with the ones of several discipline as Mathematical Analysis, Linear Algebra, Numerical Analysis, Systems Theory and Probability. After a preliminary discussion of several models, the main tools for the study of linear and non-linear scalar dynamical systems are presented, paying particular attention to the stability analysis. Linear difference equations are studied in detail and an elementary introduction of Z and Discrete Fourier Transform is presented. A whole chapter is devoted to the study of bifurcations and chaotic dynamics. One-step vector-valued dynamical systems are the subject of three chapters, where the reader can find the applications to positive systems, Markov chains, networks and search engines. The book is addressed mainly to students in Mathematics, Engineering, Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Economic...
Invitation to dynamical systems
Scheinerman, Edward R
2012-01-01
This text is designed for those who wish to study mathematics beyond linear algebra but are unready for abstract material. Rather than a theorem-proof-corollary exposition, it stresses geometry, intuition, and dynamical systems. 1996 edition.
Bird, R. Byron
1980-01-01
Problems in polymer fluid dynamics are described, including development of constitutive equations, rheometry, kinetic theory, flow visualization, heat transfer studies, flows with phase change, two-phase flow, polymer unit operations, and drag reduction. (JN)
Arrighi, Pablo
2012-01-01
We generalize the theory of Cellular Automata to arbitrary, time-varying graphs. In other words we formalize, and prove theorems about, the intuitive idea of a labelled graph which evolves in time - but under the natural constraint that information can only ever be transmitted at a bounded speed, with respect to the distance given by the graph. The notion of translation-invariance is also generalized. The definition we provide for these `causal graph dynamics' is simple and axiomatic. The theorems we provide also show that it is robust. For instance, causal graph dynamics are stable under composition and under restriction to radius one. In the finite case some fundamental facts of Cellular Automata theory carry through: causal graph dynamics admit a characterization as continuous functions and they are stable under inversion. The provided examples suggest a wide range of applications of this mathematical object, from complex systems science to theoretical physics. Keywords: Dynamical networks, Boolean network...
Discrete Wigner function dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klimov, A B; Munoz, C [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, 44410, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)
2005-12-01
We study the evolution of the discrete Wigner function for prime and the power of prime dimensions using the discrete version of the star-product operation. Exact and semiclassical dynamics in the limit of large dimensions are considered.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Advances in Soil Dynamics, Volume 3, represents the culmination of the work undertaken by the Advances in Soil Dynamics Monograph Committee, PM-45-01, about 15 years ago to summarize important developments in this field over the last 35 years. When this project was initiated, the main goal...... was to abridge major strides made in the general area of soil dynamics during the sixties, seventies, and eighties. However, by about the mid-nineties soil dynamics research in the US and much of the developed world had come to a virtual standstill. Although significant progress was made prior to the mid......-nineties, we still do not have a sound fundamental knowledge of soil-machine and soil-plant interactions. It is the hope of the editors that these three volumes will provide a ready reference for much needed future research in this area....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Advances in Soil Dynamics, Volume 3, represents the culmination of the work undertaken by the Advances in Soil Dynamics Monograph Committee, PM-45-01, about 15 years ago to summarize important developments in this field over the last 35 years. When this project was initiated, the main goal...... was to abridge major strides made in the general area of soil dynamics during the sixties, seventies, and eighties. However, by about the mid-nineties soil dynamics research in the US and much of the developed world had come to a virtual standstill. Although significant progress was made prior to the mid......-nineties, we still do not have a sound fundamental knowledge of soil-machine and soil-plant interactions. It is the hope of the editors that these three volumes will provide a ready reference for much needed future research in this area....
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LU WENLIAN; CHEN TIANPING
2004-01-01
The authors investigate the existence and the global stability of periodic solution for dynamical systems with periodic interconnections, inputs and self-inhibitions. The model is very general, the conditions are quite weak and the results obtained are universal.
Stochastic dynamics and irreversibility
Tomé, Tânia
2015-01-01
This textbook presents an exposition of stochastic dynamics and irreversibility. It comprises the principles of probability theory and the stochastic dynamics in continuous spaces, described by Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations, and in discrete spaces, described by Markov chains and master equations. Special concern is given to the study of irreversibility, both in systems that evolve to equilibrium and in nonequilibrium stationary states. Attention is also given to the study of models displaying phase transitions and critical phenomema both in thermodynamic equilibrium and out of equilibrium. These models include the linear Glauber model, the Glauber-Ising model, lattice models with absorbing states such as the contact process and those used in population dynamic and spreading of epidemic, probabilistic cellular automata, reaction-diffusion processes, random sequential adsorption and dynamic percolation. A stochastic approach to chemical reaction is also presented.The textbook is intended for students of ...
Supervision and group dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Søren; Jensen, Lars Peter
2004-01-01
as well as at Aalborg University. The first visible result has been participating supervisors telling us that the course has inspired them to try supervising group dynamics in the future. This paper will explore some aspects of supervising group dynamics as well as, how to develop the Aalborg model...... An important aspect of the problem based and project organized study at Aalborg University is the supervision of the project groups. At the basic education (first year) it is stated in the curriculum that part of the supervisors' job is to deal with group dynamics. This is due to the experience...... that many students are having difficulties with practical issues such as collaboration, communication, and project management. Most supervisors either ignore this demand, because they do not find it important or they find it frustrating, because they do not know, how to supervise group dynamics...
Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoover, W.G. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA). Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))
1990-11-01
The development of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics is described, with emphasis on massively-parallel simulations involving the motion of millions, soon to be billions, of atoms. Corresponding continuum simulations are also discussed. 14 refs., 8 figs.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Florian von Hofen[GER
2013-01-01
Concepts and methods for dynamic stage designs were introduced ranging from different ifelds of TV live shows, exhibitions and theatre performances, and a special emphasis was put on solution to the theatre stage design.
Dynamic performance management system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
An integrated, efficient and effective performance management system, "dynamic performance management system", is presented, which covers the entire performance management process including measures design, analysis, and dynamic update. The analysis of performance measures using causal loop diagrams, qualitative inference and analytic network process is mainly discussed. A real world case study is carried out throughout the paper to explain how the framework works. A software tool for DPMS, Performance Analyzer, is also introduced.
Photochemical reaction dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moore, B.C. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)
1993-12-01
The purpose of the program is to develop a fundamental understanding of unimolecular and bimolecular reaction dynamics with application in combustion and energy systems. The energy dependence in ketene isomerization, ketene dissociation dynamics, and carbonyl substitution on organometallic rhodium complexes in liquid xenon have been studied. Future studies concerning unimolecular processes in ketene as well as energy transfer and kinetic studies of methylene radicals are discussed.
Dynamics in artifact ecologies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bødker, Susanne; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted
2012-01-01
We increasingly interact with multiple interactive artifacts with overlapping capabilities during our daily activities. It has previously been shown that the use of an interactive artifact cannot be understood in isolation, but artifacts must be understood as part of an artifact ecology, where ar...... in artifact ecologies cannot be understood as static, instead they evolve dynamically over time. We provide activity theory-based concepts to explain these dynamics....
Pelce, Pierre
1989-01-01
In recent years, much progress has been made in the understanding of interface dynamics of various systems: hydrodynamics, crystal growth, chemical reactions, and combustion. Dynamics of Curved Fronts is an important contribution to this field and will be an indispensable reference work for researchers and graduate students in physics, applied mathematics, and chemical engineering. The book consist of a 100 page introduction by the editor and 33 seminal articles from various disciplines.
García Sakai, Victoria; Chen, Sow-Hsin
2012-01-01
Dynamics of Soft Matter: Neutron Applications provides an overview of neutron scattering techniques that measure temporal and spatial correlations simultaneously, at the microscopic and/or mesoscopic scale. These techniques offer answers to new questions arising at the interface of physics, chemistry, and biology. Knowledge of the dynamics at these levels is crucial to understanding the soft matter field, which includes colloids, polymers, membranes, biological macromolecules, foams, emulsions towards biological & biomimetic systems, and phenomena involving wetting, friction, adhesion, or micr
Dynamically Generated $\\Xi (1690)$
Sekihara, Takayasu
2016-01-01
We show that the $\\Xi (1690)$ resonance can be dynamically generated in the $s$-wave $\\bar{K} \\Sigma$-$\\bar{K} \\Lambda$-$\\pi \\Xi$-$\\eta \\Xi$ coupled-channels chiral unitary approach. In our model, the $\\Xi (1690)$ resonance appears near the $\\bar{K} \\Sigma$ threshold as a $\\bar{K} \\Sigma$ molecular state and the experimental data are reproduced well. We discuss properties of the dynamically generated $\\Xi (1690)$.
Nonuniversality in level dynamics
Kunstman, P; Zakrzewski, J A; Kunstman, Pawe{\\l}; Zyczkowski, Karol \\.; Zakrzewski, Jakub
1997-01-01
Statistical properties of parametric motion in ensembles of Hermitian banded random matrices are studied. We analyze the distribution of level velocities and level curvatures as well as their correlation functions in the crossover regime between three universality classes. It is shown that the statistical properties of level dynamics are in general non-universal and strongly depend on the way in which the parametric dynamics is introduced.
Nonuniversality in level dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kunstman, P.; Zyczkowski, K.; Zakrzewski, J. [Instytut Fizyki Mariana Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ulica Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)
1997-03-01
Statistical properties of parametric motion in ensembles of Hermitian banded random matrices are studied. We analyze the distribution of level velocities and level curvatures as well as their correlation functions in the crossover regime between three universality classes. It is shown that the statistical properties of level dynamics are in general {ital nonuniversal} and strongly depend on the way in which the parametric dynamics is introduced. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
2012-09-30
1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Ocean Dynamics: Dynamo Robert Pinkel Marine Physical...execution of the Dynamo Leg IV Experiment in December 2011. Our objective was to document the development of the diurnal surface layer and its...2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ocean Dynamics: Dynamo 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM
2013-01-01
We present an introduction to the study of chaos in discrete and continuous dynamical systems using the CAS Maxima. These notes are intended to cover the standard topics and techniques: discrete and continuous logistic equation to model growth population, staircase plots, bifurcation diagrams and chaos transition, nonlinear continuous dynamics (Lorentz system and Duffing oscillator), Lyapunov exponents, Poincar\\'e sections, fractal dimension and strange attractors. The distinctive feature her...
2014-09-30
Dynamics: Vietnam DRI Robert Pinkel Marine Physical Laboratory Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla California 92093-0213 Phone: (858) 534...DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ocean Dynamics: Vietnam DRI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...cycle.. The Thorpe-scale estimates are local to Site III. South China Sea Process Cruise 2014 Under Vietnam DRI funding, Researcher Drew Lucas
Dynamical quantum teleportation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muschik, Christine [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques (Spain); Polzik, Eugene [Niels Bohr Institute (Denmark); Cirac, Ignacio [Max-Planck-Institute (Germany)
2013-07-01
We introduce two protocols for inducing non-local dynamics between two separate parties. The first scheme allows for the engineering of an interaction between the two remote systems, while the second protocol induces a dynamics in one of the parties, which is controlled by the other one. Both schemes apply to continuous variable systems, run continuously in time and are based on instantaneous feedback.
Assimilating seizure dynamics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ghanim Ullah
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Observability of a dynamical system requires an understanding of its state-the collective values of its variables. However, existing techniques are too limited to measure all but a small fraction of the physical variables and parameters of neuronal networks. We constructed models of the biophysical properties of neuronal membrane, synaptic, and microenvironment dynamics, and incorporated them into a model-based predictor-controller framework from modern control theory. We demonstrate that it is now possible to meaningfully estimate the dynamics of small neuronal networks using as few as a single measured variable. Specifically, we assimilate noisy membrane potential measurements from individual hippocampal neurons to reconstruct the dynamics of networks of these cells, their extracellular microenvironment, and the activities of different neuronal types during seizures. We use reconstruction to account for unmeasured parts of the neuronal system, relating micro-domain metabolic processes to cellular excitability, and validate the reconstruction of cellular dynamical interactions against actual measurements. Data assimilation, the fusing of measurement with computational models, has significant potential to improve the way we observe and understand brain dynamics.
Liang, Xuecheng
Dynamic hardness (Pd) of 22 different pure metals and alloys having a wide range of elastic modulus, static hardness, and crystal structure were measured in a gas pulse system. The indentation contact diameter with an indenting sphere and the radius (r2) of curvature of the indentation were determined by the curve fitting of the indentation profile data. r 2 measured by the profilometer was compared with that calculated from Hertz equation in both dynamic and static conditions. The results indicated that the curvature change due to elastic recovery after unloading is approximately proportional to the parameters predicted by Hertz equation. However, r 2 is less than the radius of indenting sphere in many cases which is contradictory to Hertz analysis. This discrepancy is believed due to the difference between Hertzian and actual stress distributions underneath the indentation. Factors which influence indentation elastic recovery were also discussed. It was found that Tabor dynamic hardness formula always gives a lower value than that directly from dynamic hardness definition DeltaE/V because of errors mainly from Tabor's rebound equation and the assumption that dynamic hardness at the beginning of rebound process (Pr) is equal to kinetic energy change of an impact sphere over the formed crater volume (Pd) in the derivation process for Tabor's dynamic hardness formula. Experimental results also suggested that dynamic to static hardness ratio of a material is primarily determined by its crystal structure and static hardness. The effects of strain rate and temperature rise on this ratio were discussed. A vacuum rotating arm apparatus was built to measure Pd at 70, 127, and 381 mum sphere sizes, these results exhibited that Pd is highly depended on the sphere size due to the strain rate effects. P d was also used to substitute for static hardness to correlate with abrasion and erosion resistance of metals and alloys. The particle size effects observed in erosion were
A HYBRID DYNAMIC PROGRAM SLICING
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yi Tong; Wu Fangjun
2005-01-01
This letter proposes a hybrid method for computing dynamic program slicing. The key element is to construct a Coverage-Testing-based Dynamic Dependence Graph (CTDDG),which makes use of both dynamic and static information to get execution status. The approach overcomes the limitations of previous dynamic slicing methods, which have to redo slicing if slice criterion changes.
Dynamics in Epistasis Analysis.
Awdeh, Aseel; Phenix, Hilary; Kaern, Mads; Perkins, Theodore
2017-01-16
Finding regulatory relationships between genes, including the direction and nature of influence between them, is a fundamental challenge in the field of molecular genetics. One classical approach to this problem is epistasis analysis. Broadly speaking, epistasis analysis infers the regulatory relationships between a pair of genes in a genetic pathway by considering the patterns of change in an observable trait resulting from single and double deletion of genes. While classical epistasis analysis has yielded deep insights on numerous genetic pathways, it is not without limitations. Here, we explore the possibility of dynamic epistasis analysis, in which, in addition to performing genetic perturbations of a pathway, we drive the pathway by a time-varying upstream signal. We explore the theoretical power of dynamical epistasis analysis by conducting an identifiability analysis of Boolean models of genetic pathways, comparing static and dynamic approaches. We find that even relatively simple input dynamics greatly increases the power of epistasis analysis to discriminate alternative network structures. Further, we explore the question of experiment design, and show that a subset of short time-varying signals, which we call dynamic primitives, allow maximum discriminative power with a reduced number of experiments.
Ogilvie, Gordon I.
2016-06-01
> These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is `frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, including shocks and other discontinuities, are discussed. The spherical blast wave resulting from a supernova, and involving a strong shock, is a classic problem that can be solved analytically. Steady solutions with spherical or axial symmetry reveal the physics of winds and jets from stars and discs. The linearized equations determine the oscillation modes of astrophysical bodies, as well as their stability and their response to tidal forcing.
Semipredictable dynamical systems
García-Morales, Vladimir
2016-10-01
A new class of deterministic dynamical systems, termed semipredictable dynamical systems, is presented. The spatiotemporal evolution of these systems have both predictable and unpredictable traits, as found in natural complex systems. We prove a general result: The dynamics of any deterministic nonlinear cellular automaton (CA) with p possible dynamical states can be decomposed at each instant of time in a superposition of N layers involving p0, p1, …, pN - 1 dynamical states each, where the pk ∈ N , k ∈ [ 0 , N - 1 ] are divisors of p. If the divisors coincide with the prime factors of p this decomposition is unique. Conversely, we also prove that N CA working on symbols p0, p1, …, pN - 1 can be composed to create a graded CA rule with N different layers. We then show that, even when the full spatiotemporal evolution can be unpredictable, certain traits (layers) can exactly be predicted. We present explicit examples of such systems involving compositions of Wolfram's 256 elementary CA and a more complex CA rule acting on a neighborhood of two sites and 12 symbols and whose rule table corresponds to the smallest Moufang loop M12(S3, 2).
Ghanem, Bernard
2013-01-01
This paper proposes the problem of modeling video sequences of dynamic swarms (DSs). We define a DS as a large layout of stochastically repetitive spatial configurations of dynamic objects (swarm elements) whose motions exhibit local spatiotemporal interdependency and stationarity, i.e., the motions are similar in any small spatiotemporal neighborhood. Examples of DS abound in nature, e.g., herds of animals and flocks of birds. To capture the local spatiotemporal properties of the DS, we present a probabilistic model that learns both the spatial layout of swarm elements (based on low-level image segmentation) and their joint dynamics that are modeled as linear transformations. To this end, a spatiotemporal neighborhood is associated with each swarm element, in which local stationarity is enforced both spatially and temporally. We assume that the prior on the swarm dynamics is distributed according to an MRF in both space and time. Embedding this model in a MAP framework, we iterate between learning the spatial layout of the swarm and its dynamics. We learn the swarm transformations using ICM, which iterates between estimating these transformations and updating their distribution in the spatiotemporal neighborhoods. We demonstrate the validity of our method by conducting experiments on real and synthetic video sequences. Real sequences of birds, geese, robot swarms, and pedestrians evaluate the applicability of our model to real world data. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dynamic stiffness of suction caissons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten; Andersen, Lars
The purpose of this report is to evaluate the dynamic soil-structure interaction of suction caissons for offshore wind turbines. The investigation is limited to a determination of the vertical dynamic stiffness of suction caissons. The soil surrounding the foundation is homogenous with linear...... of the skirt length, Poisson's ratio and the ratio between soil stiffness and skirt stiffness. Finally the dynamic behaviour at high frequencies is investigated....... viscoelastic properties. The dynamic stiffness of the suction caisson is expressed by dimensionless frequency-dependent dynamic stiffness coefficients corresponding to the vertical degree of freedom. The dynamic stiffness coefficients for the foundations are evaluated by means of a dynamic three...
System dynamics with interaction discontinuity
Luo, Albert C J
2015-01-01
This book describes system dynamics with discontinuity caused by system interactions and presents the theory of flow singularity and switchability at the boundary in discontinuous dynamical systems. Based on such a theory, the authors address dynamics and motion mechanism of engineering discontinuous systems due to interaction. Stability and bifurcations of fixed points in nonlinear discrete dynamical systems are presented, and mapping dynamics are developed for analytical predictions of periodic motions in engineering discontinuous dynamical systems. Ultimately, the book provides an alternative way to discuss the periodic and chaotic behaviors in discontinuous dynamical systems.
Vehicle dynamics theory and application
Jazar, Reza N
2017-01-01
This intermediate textbook is appropriate for students in vehicle dynamics courses, in their last year of undergraduate study or their first year of graduate study. It is also appropriate for mechanical engineers, automotive engineers, and researchers in the area of vehicle dynamics for continuing education or as a reference. It addresses fundamental and advanced topics, and a basic knowledge of kinematics and dynamics, as well as numerical methods, is expected. The contents are kept at a theoretical-practical level, with a strong emphasis on application. This third edition has been reduced by 25%, to allow for coverage over one semester, as opposed to the previous edition that needed two semesters for coverage. The textbook is composed of four parts: Vehicle Motion: covers tire dynamics, forward vehicle dynamics, and driveline dynamics Vehicle Kinematics: covers applied kinematics, applied mechanisms, steering dynamics, and suspension mechanisms Vehicle Dynamics: covers applied dynamics, vehicle planar dynam...
Conference on Multibody Dynamics
Multibody Dynamics : Computational Methods and Applications
2014-01-01
By having its origin in analytical and continuum mechanics, as well as in computer science and applied mathematics, multibody dynamics provides a basis for analysis and virtual prototyping of innovative applications in many fields of contemporary engineering. With the utilization of computational models and algorithms that classically belonged to different fields of applied science, multibody dynamics delivers reliable simulation platforms for diverse highly-developed industrial products such as vehicle and railway systems, aeronautical and space vehicles, robotic manipulators, smart structures, biomechanical applications and nano-technologies. The chapters of this volume are based on the revised and extended versions of the selected scientific papers from amongst 255 original contributions that have been accepted to be presented within the program of the distinguished international ECCOMAS conference. It reflects state-of-the-art in the advances of multibody dynamics, providing excellent insight in the recen...
Fractional Dynamics and Control
Machado, José; Luo, Albert
2012-01-01
Fractional Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive overview of recent advances in the areas of nonlinear dynamics, vibration and control with analytical, numerical, and experimental results. This book provides an overview of recent discoveries in fractional control, delves into fractional variational principles and differential equations, and applies advanced techniques in fractional calculus to solving complicated mathematical and physical problems.Finally, this book also discusses the role that fractional order modeling can play in complex systems for engineering and science. Discusses how fractional dynamics and control can be used to solve nonlinear science and complexity issues Shows how fractional differential equations and models can be used to solve turbulence and wave equations in mechanics and gravity theories and Schrodinger’s equation Presents factional relaxation modeling of dielectric materials and wave equations for dielectrics Develops new methods for control and synchronization of...
Complex dynamics in nanosystems.
Ni, Xuan; Ying, Lei; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Do, Younghae; Grebogi, Celso
2013-05-01
Complex dynamics associated with multistability have been studied extensively in the past but mostly for low-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems. A question of fundamental interest is whether multistability can arise in high-dimensional physical systems. Motivated by the ever increasing widespread use of nanoscale systems, we investigate a prototypical class of nanoelectromechanical systems: electrostatically driven Si nanowires, mathematically described by a set of driven, nonlinear partial differential equations. We develop a computationally efficient algorithm to solve the equations. Our finding is that multistability and complicated structures of basins of attraction are common types of dynamics, and the latter can be attributed to extensive transient chaos. Implications of these phenomena to device operations are discussed.
Dynamical laser spike processing
Shastri, Bhavin J; Tait, Alexander N; Rodriguez, Alejandro W; Wu, Ben; Prucnal, Paul R
2015-01-01
Novel materials and devices in photonics have the potential to revolutionize optical information processing, beyond conventional binary-logic approaches. Laser systems offer a rich repertoire of useful dynamical behaviors, including the excitable dynamics also found in the time-resolved "spiking" of neurons. Spiking reconciles the expressiveness and efficiency of analog processing with the robustness and scalability of digital processing. We demonstrate that graphene-coupled laser systems offer a unified low-level spike optical processing paradigm that goes well beyond previously studied laser dynamics. We show that this platform can simultaneously exhibit logic-level restoration, cascadability and input-output isolation---fundamental challenges in optical information processing. We also implement low-level spike-processing tasks that are critical for higher level processing: temporal pattern detection and stable recurrent memory. We study these properties in the context of a fiber laser system, but the addit...
Dynamics of Paroxysmal Tachycardia
Glass, Leon
2004-03-01
Parosxysmal tachycardia refers to abnormally fast cardiac arrhythmias that suddenly start and stop. Paroxysmal tachycardias can occur in many regions of the heart and may be associated with many different mechanisms. In order to study paroxysmal tachycardias, we have analyzed tissue cultures of cells from embryonic chick heart that are imaged using calcium and voltage sensitive dyes. This model system displays a number of different types of dynamics including dynamics originating from pacemakers, triggered dynamics in which an excitation leads to the initiation of a sequence of waves originating from a single source, and spontaneously iniitiating and terminating rotating spiral waves. Theoretical models that include heterogeneity, spontaneous pacemaker activity, and fatigue or reduced excitability arising as a consequence of rapid excitation can be used to account for these behaviors.
Dynamics of aerospace vehicles
Schmidt, David K.
1991-01-01
The focus of this research was to address the modeling, including model reduction, of flexible aerospace vehicles, with special emphasis on models used in dynamic analysis and/or guidance and control system design. In the modeling, it is critical that the key aspects of the system being modeled be captured in the model. In this work, therefore, aspects of the vehicle dynamics critical to control design were important. In this regard, fundamental contributions were made in the areas of stability robustness analysis techniques, model reduction techniques, and literal approximations for key dynamic characteristics of flexible vehicles. All these areas are related. In the development of a model, approximations are always involved, so control systems designed using these models must be robust against uncertainties in these models.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tsakalidis, Konstantinos
We study dynamic data structures for diﬀerent variants of orthogonal range reporting query problems. In particular, we consider (1) the planar orthogonal 3-sided range reporting problem: given a set of points in the plane, report the points that lie within a given 3-sided rectangle with one....... Dynamic problems like the above arise in various applications of network optimization, VLSI layout design, computer graphics and distributed computing. For the ﬁrst problem, we present dynamic data structures for internal and external memory that support planar orthogonal 3-sided range reporting queries......, and insertions and deletions of points eﬃciently over an average case sequence of update operations. The external memory data structures ﬁnd applications in constraint and temporal databases. In particular, we assume that the coordinates of the points are drawn from diﬀerent probabilistic distributions...
Safe Dynamic Multiple Inheritance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ernst, Erik
2002-01-01
Multiple inheritance and similar mechanisms are usually only supported at compile time in statically typed languages. Nevertheless, dynamic multiple inheritance would be very useful in the development of complex systems, because it allows the creation of many related classes without an explosion...... in the size and level of redundancy in the source code. In fact, dynamic multiple inheritance is already available. The language gbeta is statically typed and has supported run-time combination of classes and methods since 1997, by means of the combination operator '&'. However, with certain combinations...... of operands the '&' operator fails; as a result, dynamic creation of new classes and methods was considered a dangerous operation in all cases. This paper presents a large and useful category of combinations, and proves that combinations in this category will always succeed....
Pfeiffer, Friedrich
2015-01-01
This concise textbook for students preferably of a postgraduate level, but also for engineers in practice, contains the basic kinematical and kinetic structures of dynamics together with carefully selected applications. The book is a condensed introduction to the fundamental laws of kinematics and kinetics, on the most important principles of mechanics and presents the equations of motion in the form of Lagrange and Newton-Euler. Selected problems of linear and nonlinear dynamics are treated, as well as problems of vibration formation. The presented selection of topics gives a useful basis for stepping into more advanced problems of dynamics. The contents of this book represent the result of a regularly revised course, which has been and still is given for masters students at the Technische Universität München. .
Flight Dynamics Laboratory overview
Sandford, Thaddeus
1986-01-01
The Flight Dynamics Laboratory (FDL) is one of four Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories (AFWAL) and part of the Aeronautical Systems Division located at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. The FDL is responsible for the planning and execution of research and development programs in the areas of structures and dynamics, flight controls, vehicle equipment/subsystems, and aeromechanics. Some of the areas being researched in the four FDL divisions are as follows: large space structures (LSS) materials and controls; advanced cockpit designs; bird-strike-tolerant windshields; and hypersonic interceptor system studies. Two of the FDL divisions are actively involved in programs that deal directly with LSS control/structures interaction: the Flight Controls Division and the Structures and Dynamics Division.
Dynamics of Immobilized Flagella
Fry, D; Ludu, A
2003-01-01
Although the auger-like 'swimming' motility of the African trypanosome was described upon its discovery over one hundred years ago, the precise biomechanical and biophysical properties of trypanosome flagellar motion has not been elucidated. In this study, we describe five different modes of flagellar beat/wave patterns in African trypanosomes by microscopically examining the flagellar movements of chemically tethered cells. The dynamic nature of the different beat/wave patterns suggests that flagellar motion in Trypanosoma brucei is a complex mixture of oscillating waves, rigid bends, helical twists and non-linear waves. Interestingly, we have observed soliton-like depression waves along the flagellar membrane, suggesting a nonlinear mechanism for the dynamics of this system. The physical model is inspired by the 2-dimensional elastic dynamics of a beam, and by taking into account uniform distribution of molecular motors torque and nonlinear terms in the curvature.
Dynamics in geometrical confinement
Kremer, Friedrich
2014-01-01
This book describes the dynamics of low molecular weight and polymeric molecules when they are constrained under conditions of geometrical confinement. It covers geometrical confinement in different dimensionalities: (i) in nanometer thin layers or self supporting films (1-dimensional confinement) (ii) in pores or tubes with nanometric diameters (2-dimensional confinement) (iii) as micelles embedded in matrices (3-dimensional) or as nanodroplets.The dynamics under such conditions have been a much discussed and central topic in the focus of intense worldwide research activities within the last two decades. The present book discusses how the resulting molecular mobility is influenced by the subtle counterbalance between surface effects (typically slowing down molecular dynamics through attractive guest/host interactions) and confinement effects (typically increasing the mobility). It also explains how these influences can be modified and tuned, e.g. through appropriate surface coatings, film thicknesses or pore...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tsakalidis, Konstantinos
We study dynamic data structures for diﬀerent variants of orthogonal range reporting query problems. In particular, we consider (1) the planar orthogonal 3-sided range reporting problem: given a set of points in the plane, report the points that lie within a given 3-sided rectangle with one....... Dynamic problems like the above arise in various applications of network optimization, VLSI layout design, computer graphics and distributed computing. For the ﬁrst problem, we present dynamic data structures for internal and external memory that support planar orthogonal 3-sided range reporting queries...... unbounded side, (2) the planar orthogonal range maxima reporting problem: given a set of points in the plane, report the points that lie within a given orthogonal range and are not dominated by any other point in the range, and (3) the problem of designing fully persistent B-trees for external memory...
Fundamental composite electroweak dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arbey, Alexandre; Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Cai, Haiying
2017-01-01
Using the recent joint results from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations on the Higgs boson, we determine the current status of composite electroweak dynamics models based on the expected scalar sector. Our analysis can be used as a minimal template for a wider class of models between the two limiting...... cases of composite Goldstone Higgs and Technicolor-like ones. This is possible due to the existence of a unified description, both at the effective and fundamental Lagrangian levels, of models of composite Higgs dynamics where the Higgs boson itself can emerge, depending on the way the electroweak...... space at the effective Lagrangian level. We show that a wide class of models of fundamental composite electroweak dynamics are still compatible with the present constraints. The results are relevant for the ongoing and future searches at the Large Hadron Collider....
Skadsem, Julie A.
1997-01-01
Examines the effects of conductor verbalization, dynamic markings, conductor gesture, and choir dynamic level on individual singers' dynamic responses. Indicates that verbal instructions from the conductor elicited significantly stronger dynamic performance responses than did the other instructional conditions. Suggests that additional research…
Hill, Rodney
2013-01-01
Principles of Dynamics presents classical dynamics primarily as an exemplar of scientific theory and method. This book is divided into three major parts concerned with gravitational theory of planetary systems; general principles of the foundations of mechanics; and general motion of a rigid body. Some of the specific topics covered are Keplerian Laws of Planetary Motion; gravitational potential and potential energy; and fields of axisymmetric bodies. The principles of work and energy, fictitious body-forces, and inertial mass are also looked into. Other specific topics examined are kinematics
Paultre, Patrick
2013-01-01
This book covers structural dynamics from a theoretical and algorithmic approach. It covers systems with both single and multiple degrees-of-freedom. Numerous case studies are given to provide the reader with a deeper insight into the practicalities of the area, and the solutions to these case studies are given in terms of real-time and frequency in both geometric and modal spaces. Emphasis is also given to the subject of seismic loading. The text is based on many lectures on the subject of structural dynamics given at numerous institutions and thus will be an accessible and practical aid to
Blazek, Jiri
2015-01-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics: Principles and Applications, Third Edition presents students, engineers, and scientists with all they need to gain a solid understanding of the numerical methods and principles underlying modern computation techniques in fluid dynamics. By providing complete coverage of the essential knowledge required in order to write codes or understand commercial codes, the book gives the reader an overview of fundamentals and solution strategies in the early chapters before moving on to cover the details of different solution techniques. This updated edition includes new
Leviatan, A
2010-01-01
This overview focuses on the notion of partial dynamical symmetry (PDS), for which a prescribed symmetry is obeyed by a subset of solvable eigenstates, but is not shared by the Hamiltonian. General algorithms are presented to identify interactions, of a given order, with such intermediate-symmetry structure. Explicit bosonic and fermionic Hamiltonians with PDS are constructed in the framework of models based on spectrum generating algebras. PDSs of various types are shown to be relevant to nuclear spectroscopy, quantum phase transitions and systems with mixed chaotic and regular dynamics.
Statistics of football dynamics
Mendes, R S; Anteneodo, C
2007-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of football matches. Our goal is to characterize statistically the temporal sequence of ball movements in this collective sport game, searching for traits of complex behavior. Data were collected over a variety of matches in South American, European and World championships throughout 2005 and 2006. We show that the statistics of ball touches presents power-law tails and can be described by $q$-gamma distributions. To explain such behavior we propose a model that provides information on the characteristics of football dynamics. Furthermore, we discuss the statistics of duration of out-of-play intervals, not directly related to the previous scenario.
Gas Dynamics Equations: Computation
Chen, Gui-Qiang G
2012-01-01
Shock waves, vorticity waves, and entropy waves are fundamental discontinuity waves in nature and arise in supersonic or transonic gas flow, or from a very sudden release (explosion) of chemical, nuclear, electrical, radiation, or mechanical energy in a limited space. Tracking these discontinuities and their interactions, especially when and where new waves arise and interact in the motion of gases, is one of the main motivations for numerical computation for the gas dynamics equations. In this paper, we discuss some historic and recent developments, as well as mathematical challenges, in designing and formulating efficient numerical methods and algorithms to compute weak entropy solutions for the Euler equations for gas dynamics.
Substructured multibody molecular dynamics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grest, Gary Stephen; Stevens, Mark Jackson; Plimpton, Steven James; Woolf, Thomas B. (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD); Lehoucq, Richard B.; Crozier, Paul Stewart; Ismail, Ahmed E.; Mukherjee, Rudranarayan M. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY); Draganescu, Andrei I.
2006-11-01
We have enhanced our parallel molecular dynamics (MD) simulation software LAMMPS (Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator, lammps.sandia.gov) to include many new features for accelerated simulation including articulated rigid body dynamics via coupling to the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute code POEMS (Parallelizable Open-source Efficient Multibody Software). We use new features of the LAMMPS software package to investigate rhodopsin photoisomerization, and water model surface tension and capillary waves at the vapor-liquid interface. Finally, we motivate the recipes of MD for practitioners and researchers in numerical analysis and computational mechanics.
Dynamical Structure of Baryons
Aleksejevs, A
2013-01-01
Compton scattering offers a unique opportunity to study the dynamical structure of hadrons over a wide kinematic range, with polarizabilities characterizing the hadron active internal degrees of freedom. We present calculations and detailed analysis of electric and magnetic and the spin-dependent dynamical polarizabilities for the lowest in mass SU(3) octet of baryons. These extensive calculations are made possible by the recent implementation of semi-automatized calculations in chiral perturbation theory which allows evaluating polarizabilities from Compton scattering up to next-to-the-leading order. The dependencies for the range of photon energies covering the majority of the meson photoproduction channels are analyzed.
Dynamically assisted Schwinger mechanism.
Schützhold, Ralf; Gies, Holger; Dunne, Gerald
2008-09-26
We study electron-positron pair creation from the Dirac vacuum induced by a strong and slowly varying electric field (Schwinger effect) which is superimposed by a weak and rapidly changing electromagnetic field (dynamical pair creation). In the subcritical regime where both mechanisms separately are strongly suppressed, their combined impact yields a pair creation rate which is dramatically enhanced. Intuitively speaking, the strong electric field lowers the threshold for dynamical particle creation--or, alternatively, the fast electromagnetic field generates additional seeds for the Schwinger mechanism. These findings could be relevant for planned ultrahigh intensity lasers.
Maeda, Kei-ichi; Uzawa, Kunihito
2016-12-01
We discuss the dynamical D p -brane solutions describing any number of D p branes whose relative orientations are given by certain SU(2) rotations. These are the generalization of the static angled D p -brane solutions. We study the collision of the dynamical D3 brane with angles in type-II string theory, and show that the particular orientation of the smeared D3-brane configuration can provide an example of colliding branes if they have the same charges. Otherwise a singularity appears before D3 branes collide.
Introduction to cluster dynamics
Reinhard, Paul-Gerhard
2008-01-01
Clusters as mesoscopic particles represent an intermediate state of matter between single atoms and solid material. The tendency to miniaturise technical objects requires knowledge about systems which contain a ""small"" number of atoms or molecules only. This is all the more true for dynamical aspects, particularly in relation to the qick development of laser technology and femtosecond spectroscopy. Here, for the first time is a highly qualitative introduction to cluster physics. With its emphasis on cluster dynamics, this will be vital to everyone involved in this interdisciplinary subje
Dynamic Global Currency Hedging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Bent Jesper; Varneskov, Rasmus T.
2016-01-01
This paper proposes a model for discrete-time hedging based on continuous-time movements in portfolio and foreign currency exchange rate returns. In particular, the vector of optimal currency exposures is shown to be given by the negative realized regression coefficients from a one......-period conditional expectation of the intra-period quadratic covariation matrix for portfolio and foreign exchange rate returns. These are labelled the realized currency betas. The model, hence, facilitates dynamic hedging strategies that depend exclusively on the dynamic evolution of the ex-post quadratic...
Dynamics of Catalyst Nanoparticles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Thomas Willum; Cavalca, Filippo; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal
under gas exposure, dynamic phenomena such as sintering and growth can be observed with sub-Ångstrøm resolution. Metal nanoparticles contain the active sites in heterogeneous catalysts, which are important for many industrial applications including the production of clean fuels, chemicals...... and pharmaceuticals, and the cleanup of exhaust from automobiles and stationary power plants. Sintering, or thermal deactivation, is an important mechanism for the loss of catalyst activity. In order to initiate a systematic study of the dynamics and sintering of nanoparticles, various catalytic systems have been...
Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery.
Luan, Shuang; Swanson, Nathan; Chen, Zhe; Ma, Lijun
2009-03-21
Gamma knife has been the treatment of choice for various brain tumors and functional disorders. Current gamma knife radiosurgery is planned in a 'ball-packing' approach and delivered in a 'step-and-shoot' manner, i.e. it aims to 'pack' the different sized spherical high-dose volumes (called 'shots') into a tumor volume. We have developed a dynamic scheme for gamma knife radiosurgery based on the concept of 'dose-painting' to take advantage of the new robotic patient positioning system on the latest Gamma Knife C and Perfexion units. In our scheme, the spherical high dose volume created by the gamma knife unit will be viewed as a 3D spherical 'paintbrush', and treatment planning reduces to finding the best route of this 'paintbrush' to 'paint' a 3D tumor volume. Under our dose-painting concept, gamma knife radiosurgery becomes dynamic, where the patient moves continuously under the robotic positioning system. We have implemented a fully automatic dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery treatment planning system, where the inverse planning problem is solved as a traveling salesman problem combined with constrained least-square optimizations. We have also carried out experimental studies of dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery and showed the following. (1) Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery is ideally suited for fully automatic inverse planning, where high quality radiosurgery plans can be obtained in minutes of computation. (2) Dynamic radiosurgery plans are more conformal than step-and-shoot plans and can maintain a steep dose gradient (around 13% per mm) between the target tumor volume and the surrounding critical structures. (3) It is possible to prescribe multiple isodose lines with dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, so that the treatment can cover the periphery of the target volume while escalating the dose for high tumor burden regions. (4) With dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, one can obtain a family of plans representing a tradeoff between the delivery time and the dose
Housner, J. M.; Anderson, M.; Belvin, W.; Horner, G.
1985-01-01
Dynamic analysis of large space antenna systems must treat the deployment as well as vibration and control of the deployed antenna. Candidate computer programs for deployment dynamics, and issues and needs for future program developments are reviewed. Some results for mast and hoop deployment are also presented. Modeling of complex antenna geometry with conventional finite element methods and with repetitive exact elements is considered. Analytical comparisons with experimental results for a 15 meter hoop/column antenna revealed the importance of accurate structural properties including nonlinear joints. Slackening of cables in this antenna is also a consideration. The technology of designing actively damped structures through analytical optimization is discussed and results are presented.
Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery
Luan, Shuang; Swanson, Nathan; Chen, Zhe; Ma, Lijun
2009-03-01
Gamma knife has been the treatment of choice for various brain tumors and functional disorders. Current gamma knife radiosurgery is planned in a 'ball-packing' approach and delivered in a 'step-and-shoot' manner, i.e. it aims to 'pack' the different sized spherical high-dose volumes (called 'shots') into a tumor volume. We have developed a dynamic scheme for gamma knife radiosurgery based on the concept of 'dose-painting' to take advantage of the new robotic patient positioning system on the latest Gamma Knife C™ and Perfexion™ units. In our scheme, the spherical high dose volume created by the gamma knife unit will be viewed as a 3D spherical 'paintbrush', and treatment planning reduces to finding the best route of this 'paintbrush' to 'paint' a 3D tumor volume. Under our dose-painting concept, gamma knife radiosurgery becomes dynamic, where the patient moves continuously under the robotic positioning system. We have implemented a fully automatic dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery treatment planning system, where the inverse planning problem is solved as a traveling salesman problem combined with constrained least-square optimizations. We have also carried out experimental studies of dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery and showed the following. (1) Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery is ideally suited for fully automatic inverse planning, where high quality radiosurgery plans can be obtained in minutes of computation. (2) Dynamic radiosurgery plans are more conformal than step-and-shoot plans and can maintain a steep dose gradient (around 13% per mm) between the target tumor volume and the surrounding critical structures. (3) It is possible to prescribe multiple isodose lines with dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, so that the treatment can cover the periphery of the target volume while escalating the dose for high tumor burden regions. (4) With dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, one can obtain a family of plans representing a tradeoff between the delivery time and the
Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luan Shuang; Swanson, Nathan; Chen Zhe [Department of Computer Science, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Ma Lijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States)], E-mail: sluan@cs.unm.edu, E-mail: nate@cs.unm.edu, E-mail: zchen@cs.unm.edu, E-mail: lijunma@radonc.ucsf.edu
2009-03-21
Gamma knife has been the treatment of choice for various brain tumors and functional disorders. Current gamma knife radiosurgery is planned in a 'ball-packing' approach and delivered in a 'step-and-shoot' manner, i.e. it aims to 'pack' the different sized spherical high-dose volumes (called 'shots') into a tumor volume. We have developed a dynamic scheme for gamma knife radiosurgery based on the concept of 'dose-painting' to take advantage of the new robotic patient positioning system on the latest Gamma Knife C(TM) and Perfexion(TM) units. In our scheme, the spherical high dose volume created by the gamma knife unit will be viewed as a 3D spherical 'paintbrush', and treatment planning reduces to finding the best route of this 'paintbrush' to 'paint' a 3D tumor volume. Under our dose-painting concept, gamma knife radiosurgery becomes dynamic, where the patient moves continuously under the robotic positioning system. We have implemented a fully automatic dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery treatment planning system, where the inverse planning problem is solved as a traveling salesman problem combined with constrained least-square optimizations. We have also carried out experimental studies of dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery and showed the following. (1) Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery is ideally suited for fully automatic inverse planning, where high quality radiosurgery plans can be obtained in minutes of computation. (2) Dynamic radiosurgery plans are more conformal than step-and-shoot plans and can maintain a steep dose gradient (around 13% per mm) between the target tumor volume and the surrounding critical structures. (3) It is possible to prescribe multiple isodose lines with dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, so that the treatment can cover the periphery of the target volume while escalating the dose for high tumor burden regions. (4) With dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, one can
Gravitational Lensing & Stellar Dynamics
Koopmans, L V E
2005-01-01
Strong gravitational lensing and stellar dynamics provide two complementary and orthogonal constraints on the density profiles of galaxies. Based on spherically symmetric, scale-free, mass models, it is shown that the combination of both techniques is powerful in breaking the mass-sheet and mass-anisotropy degeneracies. Second, observational results are presented from the Lenses Structure & Dynamics (LSD) Survey and the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey collaborations to illustrate this new methodology in constraining the dark and stellar density profiles, and mass structure, of early-type galaxies to redshifts of unity.
Complexified dynamical systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bender, Carl M [Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Holm, Darryl D [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hook, Daniel W [Blackest Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)
2007-08-10
Many dynamical systems, such as the Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model and the Euler equations for the free rotation of a rigid body, are PT symmetric. The standard and well-known real solutions to such dynamical systems constitute an infinitessimal subclass of the full set of complex solutions. This paper examines a subset of the complex solutions that contains the real solutions, namely those having PT symmetry. The condition of PT symmetry selects out complex solutions that are periodic. (fast track communication)
Palamar, Todd
2009-01-01
The only hands-on book devoted to mastering Maya's dynamics tools for water, wind, and fire. In the world of animation, the ability to create realistic water, wind, and fire effects is key. Autodesk Maya software includes powerful dynamics tools that have been used to design breathtaking effects for movies, games, commercials, and short films. This professional guide teaches you the primary techniques you need to make the most of Maya's toolkit, so you'll soon be creating water that ripples, gusting winds and gentle breezes, and flickering fires the way Hollywood pros do. The one-of-a-kind boo
Organisations’ evolutionary dynamics: a group dynamics approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Germán Eduardo Vargas
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Colombian entrepreneurs’ straggling, reactionary and inertial orientation has been inconsistently lustified by the availability of internal and leveraged resources, a concept intensifying deficient technological capacity. Company activity (seen as being a socioeconomic unit has been integrally orientated within an evolutionary framework by company identity and cohesion as well as adaptation and evolutionary mechanisms. The present document uses a group dynamics’ model to illustrate how knowledge-based strategic orientation and integration for innovation have become an imperative for development, from slight leverage, distinguishing between two evolutionary company forms: traditional economic (inertial, as they introduce sporadic incremental improvements and modern companies (dynamic and radical innovators. Revealing conclusions obtained from such model may be used for intervening in and modernising company activity.
Dynamic Analysis of a Pendulum Dynamic Automatic Balancer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jin-Seung Sohn
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The automatic dynamic balancer is a device to reduce the vibration from unbalanced mass of rotors. Instead of considering prevailing ball automatic dynamic balancer, pendulum automatic dynamic balancer is analyzed. For the analysis of dynamic stability and behavior, the nonlinear equations of motion for a system are derived with respect to polar coordinates by the Lagrange's equations. The perturbation method is applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of the system around the equilibrium position. Based on the linearized equations, the dynamic stability of the system around the equilibrium positions is investigated by the eigenvalue analysis.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Per Grove
1996-01-01
A one-dimensional model with axial discretization of engine components has been formulated using tha balance equations for mass energy and momentum and the ideal gas equation of state. ODE's that govern the dynamic behaviour of the regenerator matrix temperatures are included in the model. Known ...
Dynamics of Information Systems
Hirsch, Michael J; Murphey, Robert
2010-01-01
Our understanding of information and information dynamics has outgrown classical information theory. This book presents the research explaining the importance of information in the evolution of a distributed or networked system. It presents techniques for measuring the value or significance of information within the context of a system
Gomes, Henrique
2011-01-01
This thesis consists of two parts, connected by one central theme: the dynamics of the "shape of space". The first part of the thesis concerns the construction of a theory of gravity dynamically equivalent to general relativity (GR) in 3+1 form (ADM). What is special about this theory is that it does not possess foliation invariance, as does ADM. It replaces that "symmetry" by another: local conformal invariance. In so doing it more accurately reflects a theory of the "shape of space", giving us reason to call it \\emph{shape dynamics} (SD). In the first part we will try to present some of the highlights of results so far, and indicate what we can and cannot do with shape dynamics. Because this is a young, rapidly moving field, we have necessarily left out some interesting new results which are not yet in print and were developed alongside the writing of the thesis. The second part of the thesis will develop a gauge theory for "shape of space"--theories. To be more precise, if one admits that the physically re...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Generators f for σ -algebras can be used to view the dynamics of an invertible measurable transformation T in terms of the range values of f ∘ T . Such generators are the norm rather than the exception. Related measurable and quantitative methods of estimating a function from the behavior of ergodic averages are also discussed.
OKeefe, John D.; Stewart, Sarah T.; Ahrens, Thomas J.
2001-01-01
We modeled in detail the ejecta dynamics associated with the Chicxulub impact. We determined: (1) ejecta trajectories, (2) stratigraphic motions, (3) depth of ejecta stages, (4) thermodynamic histories of the ejecta particles, and (5) the final ejecta distribution. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
CERN. Geneva
2007-01-01
efficacy at making predictions in the real world. About the speaker Bernardo Huberman is a Senior HP Fellow and Director of the Information Dynamics Lab at Hewlett Packard Laboratories. He received his Ph.D. in Physics from the University of Pennsylvania, and is currently a Consulting Professor in the Department of Applied Physics at Stanford University...
Screw bondgraph contact dynamics
Visser, Martijn; Stramigioli, Stefano; Heemskerk, Cock
2002-01-01
This paper presents an elegant contact dynamics model in screw bondgraph form. It can model the contact between any two objects of finite curvature. It does so by defining a Gauss frame on the surfaces of both objects in the points that are closest to each other. Then it describes how the Gauss fram
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Per Grove
1996-01-01
A one-dimensional model with axial discretization of engine components has been formulated using tha balance equations for mass energy and momentum and the ideal gas equation of state. ODE's that govern the dynamic behaviour of the regenerator matrix temperatures are included in the model. Known...
Electronic Spectroscopy & Dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mark Maroncelli, Nancy Ryan Gray
2010-06-08
The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Electronic Spectroscopy and Dynamics was held at Colby College, Waterville, NH from 07/19/2009 thru 07/24/2009. The Conference was well-attended with participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. The GRC on Electronic Spectroscopy & Dynamics showcases some of the most recent experimental and theoretical developments in electronic spectroscopy that probes the structure and dynamics of isolated molecules, molecules embedded in clusters and condensed phases, and bulk materials. Electronic spectroscopy is an important tool in many fields of research, and this GRC brings together experts having diverse backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biophysics, and materials science, making the meeting an excellent opportunity for the interdisciplinary exchange of ideas and techniques. Topics covered in this GRC include high-resolution spectroscopy, biological molecules in the gas phase, electronic structure theory for excited states, multi-chromophore and single-molecule spectroscopies, and excited state dynamics in chemical and biological systems.
Dynamic Contingency Analysis Tool
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2016-01-14
The Dynamic Contingency Analysis Tool (DCAT) is an open-platform and publicly available methodology to help develop applications that aim to improve the capabilities of power system planning engineers to assess the impact and likelihood of extreme contingencies and potential cascading events across their systems and interconnections. Outputs from the DCAT will help find mitigation solutions to reduce the risk of cascading outages in technically sound and effective ways. The current prototype DCAT implementation has been developed as a Python code that accesses the simulation functions of the Siemens PSS�E planning tool (PSS/E). It has the following features: It uses a hybrid dynamic and steady-state approach to simulating the cascading outage sequences that includes fast dynamic and slower steady-state events. It integrates dynamic models with protection scheme models for generation, transmission, and load. It models special protection systems (SPSs)/remedial action schemes (RASs) and automatic and manual corrective actions. Overall, the DCAT attempts to bridge multiple gaps in cascading-outage analysis in a single, unique prototype tool capable of automatically simulating and analyzing cascading sequences in real systems using multiprocessor computers.While the DCAT has been implemented using PSS/E in Phase I of the study, other commercial software packages with similar capabilities can be used within the DCAT framework.
Predictability in community dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blonder, Benjamin; Moulton, Derek E; Blois, Jessica
2017-01-01
prominent in disequilibrium ecology, proposing that communities track climate change following a fixed function or with a time delay. However, more complex dynamics are possible and may lead to memory effects and alternate unstable states. We develop graphical and analytic methods for assessing...
Gravitational lensing & stellar dynamics
Koopmans, L. V. E.; Mamon, GA; Combes, F; Deffayet, C; Fort, B
2006-01-01
Strong gravitational lensing and stellar dynamics provide two complementary and orthogonal constraints on the density profiles of galaxies. Based on spherically symmetric, scale-free, mass models, it is shown that the combination of both techniques is powerful in breaking the mass-sheet and mass-ani
Models for Dynamic Applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2011-01-01
be applied to formulate, analyse and solve these dynamic problems and how in the case of the fuel cell problem the model consists of coupledmeso and micro scale models. It is shown how data flows are handled between the models and how the solution is obtained within the modelling environment....
Organizational knowledge dynamics
Simona VASILACHE
2008-01-01
The paper addresses the main issues concerning knowledge conceptualization and knowledge dynamics, in the context of Romanian organizations. The links between organizational knowledge, organizational learning and organizational culture are being investigated, with the aim of conceptual clarification and paradigm unification, in a domain of increasing research interest, where increasing complexity implies the risk of increasing confusion.
Dynamic Contingency Analysis Tool
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2016-01-14
The Dynamic Contingency Analysis Tool (DCAT) is an open-platform and publicly available methodology to help develop applications that aim to improve the capabilities of power system planning engineers to assess the impact and likelihood of extreme contingencies and potential cascading events across their systems and interconnections. Outputs from the DCAT will help find mitigation solutions to reduce the risk of cascading outages in technically sound and effective ways. The current prototype DCAT implementation has been developed as a Python code that accesses the simulation functions of the Siemens PSS/E planning tool (PSS/E). It has the following features: It uses a hybrid dynamic and steady-state approach to simulating the cascading outage sequences that includes fast dynamic and slower steady-state events. It integrates dynamic models with protection scheme models for generation, transmission, and load. It models special protection systems (SPSs)/remedial action schemes (RASs) and automatic and manual corrective actions. Overall, the DCAT attempts to bridge multiple gaps in cascading-outage analysis in a single, unique prototype tool capable of automatically simulating and analyzing cascading sequences in real systems using multiprocessor computers.While the DCAT has been implemented using PSS/E in Phase I of the study, other commercial software packages with similar capabilities can be used within the DCAT framework.
Garcia Melo, Fatima; Smulders, Maarten M.J.
2016-01-01
This Highlight presents an overview of the rapidly growing field of dynamic covalent polymers. This class of polymers combines intrinsic reversibility with the robustness of covalent bonds, thus enabling formation of mechanically stable, polymer-based materials that are responsive to external
Dynamics of homogeneous nucleation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toxværd, Søren
2015-01-01
The classical nucleation theory for homogeneous nucleation is formulated as a theory for a density fluctuation in a supersaturated gas at a given temperature. But molecular dynamics simulations reveal that it is small cold clusters which initiates the nucleation. The temperature in the nucleating...
Dynamic public lighting (DYNO)
Kaptein, N.A.; Hogema, J.H.; Folles, E.
1997-01-01
In The Netherlands the concept of Dynamic Public Lighting (DYNO) has been introduced, which implies that road lighting is continuously adapted to the prevailing conditions, finding a balance between traffic safety and environment. For instance, in case of favourable weather conditions and low
Gravitational lensing & stellar dynamics
Koopmans, L. V. E.; Mamon, GA; Combes, F; Deffayet, C; Fort, B
2006-01-01
Strong gravitational lensing and stellar dynamics provide two complementary and orthogonal constraints on the density profiles of galaxies. Based on spherically symmetric, scale-free, mass models, it is shown that the combination of both techniques is powerful in breaking the mass-sheet and
VYGOTSKIAN DYNAMICS OF DEVELOPMENT
VANGEERT, P
1994-01-01
The main thesis of this article is that Vygotsky's 'zone of proximal development' (ZPD) can be redefined in the form of a nonlinear dynamic model. Following a short introduction to the conceptual components of the model, a mathematical reformulation is presented. The mathematical form is shown to ge
Gravitomagnetic dynamical friction
Cashen, Benjamin; Kesden, Michael
2016-01-01
A supermassive black hole moving through a field of stars will gravitationally scatter the stars, inducing a backreaction force on the black hole known as dynamical friction. In Newtonian gravity, the axisymmetry of the system about the black hole's velocity $\\mathbf{v}$ implies that the dynamical friction must be anti-parallel to $\\mathbf{v}$. However, in general relativity the black hole's spin $\\mathbf{S}$ need not be parallel to $\\mathbf{v}$, breaking the axisymmetry of the system and generating a new component of dynamical friction similar to the Lorentz force $\\mathbf{F} = q\\mathbf{v} \\times \\mathbf{B}$ experienced by a particle with charge $q$ moving in a magnetic field $\\mathbf{B}$. We call this new force gravitomagnetic dynamical friction and calculate its magnitude for a spinning black hole moving through a field of stars with Maxwellian velocity dispersion $\\sigma$, assuming that both $v$ and $\\sigma$ are much less than the speed of light $c$. We use post-Newtonian equations of motion accurate to $...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Linnebjerg, Sofie
and under various weather conditions, creating a multitude of light settings. Humans live in interaction with this dynamic light and consider it as a natural part of our world [Mathiasen, 2015]. Furthermore, it has by the recent discovery of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in 2002...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI; Jin-hai
2012-01-01
<正>The DTL is very important accelerator structure, and it is necessary for the proton linac accelerator. We did the dynamics simulation for the 20 MeV DTL, and obtained the physical and mechanical parameters. The input energy of the DTL is 3 MeV, and the pulsed beam current is 50 mA.
2010-11-01
chimpanzees are dynamic climbers that can reach virtually any part of a tree and even move to neighboring trees, while sloths are quasistatic climbers...climbers that can reach virtually any part of a tree and even move to neighboring trees, while sloths are quasistatic climbers confined only to a few
Eutrophication and Zoobenthos Dynamics
Heip, C.H.R.
1995-01-01
The possible effects of eutrophication on benthic dynamics are discussed based on the Pearson-Rosenberg Model that describes the effects of organic enrichment on qualitative characteristics of benthic communities. Depending on the amount of organic matter reaching the sediments, the model describes
Gravitational lensing & stellar dynamics
Koopmans, L. V. E.; Mamon, GA; Combes, F; Deffayet, C; Fort, B
2006-01-01
Strong gravitational lensing and stellar dynamics provide two complementary and orthogonal constraints on the density profiles of galaxies. Based on spherically symmetric, scale-free, mass models, it is shown that the combination of both techniques is powerful in breaking the mass-sheet and mass-ani
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sorin Dan ŞANDOR
2003-01-01
Full Text Available System Dynamics was introduced by Jay W. Forrester in the 1960s. Since then the methodology was adopted in many areas of natural or social sciences. This article tries to present briefly how this methodology works, both as Systems Thinking and as Modelling with Vensim computer software.
Dynamic public lighting (DYNO)
Kaptein, N.A.; Hogema, J.H.; Folles, E.
1997-01-01
In The Netherlands the concept of Dynamic Public Lighting (DYNO) has been introduced, which implies that road lighting is continuously adapted to the prevailing conditions, finding a balance between traffic safety and environment. For instance, in case of favourable weather conditions and low traffi
Dynamic causal modelling revisited.
Friston, K J; Preller, Katrin H; Mathys, Chris; Cagnan, Hayriye; Heinzle, Jakob; Razi, Adeel; Zeidman, Peter
2017-02-17
This paper revisits the dynamic causal modelling of fMRI timeseries by replacing the usual (Taylor) approximation to neuronal dynamics with a neural mass model of the canonical microcircuit. This provides a generative or dynamic causal model of laminar specific responses that can generate haemodynamic and electrophysiological measurements. In principle, this allows the fusion of haemodynamic and (event related or induced) electrophysiological responses. Furthermore, it enables Bayesian model comparison of competing hypotheses about physiologically plausible synaptic effects; for example, does attentional modulation act on superficial or deep pyramidal cells - or both? In this technical note, we describe the resulting dynamic causal model and provide an illustrative application to the attention to visual motion dataset used in previous papers. Our focus here is on how to answer long-standing questions in fMRI; for example, do haemodynamic responses reflect extrinsic (afferent) input from distant cortical regions, or do they reflect intrinsic (recurrent) neuronal activity? To what extent do inhibitory interneurons contribute to neurovascular coupling? What is the relationship between haemodynamic responses and the frequency of induced neuronal activity? This paper does not pretend to answer these questions; rather it shows how they can be addressed using neural mass models of fMRI timeseries. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dynamic public lighting (DYNO)
Kaptein, N.A.; Hogema, J.H.; Folles, E.
1997-01-01
In The Netherlands the concept of Dynamic Public Lighting (DYNO) has been introduced, which implies that road lighting is continuously adapted to the prevailing conditions, finding a balance between traffic safety and environment. For instance, in case of favourable weather conditions and low traffi
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Martin Møller; Meldrum, Andrew
This paper studies whether dynamic term structure models for US nominal bond yields should enforce the zero lower bound by a quadratic policy rate or a shadow rate specification. We address the question by estimating quadratic term structure models (QTSMs) and shadow rate models with at most four...
Innovations in dynamic architecture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdulmajid Karanouh
2015-11-01
Full Text Available High performance adaptive solutions are capable of responding to the dynamic nature of users and context. These innovative and dynamic systems are steadily gaining ground over ubiquitous ‘best fit’ static models. These architectural elements often exist beyond the scope of mainstream building standards and traditional methods for data representation or communication. This presents major challenges to a highly standardized and compartmentalized industry in which ‘innovation’ is limited to a few signature practices that design iconic yet expensive structures, which often prioritize aesthetics over performance. This paper offers an overview of the benefits that integrated dynamic systems bring to buildings. Through an examination of an applied practice, this paper offers guidelines for communicating complex geometry in a clear design language across interdisciplinary collaborations. The use of diagrammatic grammar to translate underlying algorithmic rules into instructions for design allows complex, innovative solutions to be realized more effectively. The ideas presented here are based on the design principles of the competition-winning scheme of the Al-Bahr Towers. As lead consultant in Innovation Design & Research at AHR (former Aedas-UK, Abdulmajid Karanouh designed and spearheaded this project in close collaboration with Arup. The buildings won the Best Innovation Award 2012 by the Council for Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH. The pair of towers won recognition for its performance-driven form, and dynamic facade that operates following the movement of the sun.
Angotti, Robin
2017-01-01
This article describes Gapminder, a dynamic time-series graph that can be found at http://www.gapminder.org. Gapminder was created by a team of developers (Rosling, Ronnlund, and Rosling 2005) to create beautiful, interactive graphs of otherwise lifeless numbers. Their goal is increased use and understanding of statistics and data that…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mosekilde, Erik
Through a significant number of detailed and realistic examples this book illustrates how the insights gained over the past couple of decades in the fields of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory can be applied in practice. Aomng the topics considered are microbiological reaction systems, ecological...
Moresi, Louis
2015-04-01
Dynamic Topography Revisited Dynamic topography is usually considered to be one of the trinity of contributing causes to the Earth's non-hydrostatic topography along with the long-term elastic strength of the lithosphere and isostatic responses to density anomalies within the lithosphere. Dynamic topography, thought of this way, is what is left over when other sources of support have been eliminated. An alternate and explicit definition of dynamic topography is that deflection of the surface which is attributable to creeping viscous flow. The problem with the first definition of dynamic topography is 1) that the lithosphere is almost certainly a visco-elastic / brittle layer with no absolute boundary between flowing and static regions, and 2) the lithosphere is, a thermal / compositional boundary layer in which some buoyancy is attributable to immutable, intrinsic density variations and some is due to thermal anomalies which are coupled to the flow. In each case, it is difficult to draw a sharp line between each contribution to the overall topography. The second definition of dynamic topography does seem cleaner / more precise but it suffers from the problem that it is not measurable in practice. On the other hand, this approach has resulted in a rich literature concerning the analysis of large scale geoid and topography and the relation to buoyancy and mechanical properties of the Earth [e.g. refs 1,2,3] In convection models with viscous, elastic, brittle rheology and compositional buoyancy, however, it is possible to examine how the surface topography (and geoid) are supported and how different ways of interpreting the "observable" fields introduce different biases. This is what we will do. References (a.k.a. homework) [1] Hager, B. H., R. W. Clayton, M. A. Richards, R. P. Comer, and A. M. Dziewonski (1985), Lower mantle heterogeneity, dynamic topography and the geoid, Nature, 313(6003), 541-545, doi:10.1038/313541a0. [2] Parsons, B., and S. Daly (1983), The
Dynamic nanoparticle assemblies.
Wang, Libing; Xu, Liguang; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai; Kotov, Nicholas A
2012-11-20
Although nanoparticle (NP) assemblies are at the beginning of their development, their unique geometrical shapes and media-responsive optical, electronic, and magnetic properties have attracted significant interest. Nanoscale assembly bridges multiple levels of hierarchy of materials: individual nanoparticles, discrete molecule-like or virus-like nanoscale agglomerates, microscale devices, and macroscale materials. The capacity to self-assemble can greatly facilitate the integration of nanotechnology with other technologies and, in particular, with microscale fabrication. In this Account, we describe developments in the emerging field of dynamic NP assemblies, which are spontaneously form superstructures containing more than two inorganic nanoscale particles that display the ability to change their geometrical, physical, chemical, and other attributes. In many ways, dynamic assemblies can represent a bottleneck in the "bottom-up" fabrication of NP-based devices because they can produce a much greater variety of assemblies, but they also provide a convenient tool for variation of geometries and dimensions of nanoparticle assemblies. Superstructures of NPs (and those held together by similar intrinsic forces)are classified into two groups: Class 1 where media and external fields can alter shape, conformation, and order of stable super structures with a nearly constant number of NPs or Class 2 where the total number of NPs changes, while the organizational motif in the final superstructure remains the same. The future development of successful dynamic assemblies requires understanding the equilibrium in dynamic NP systems. The dynamic nature of Class 1 assemblies is associated with the equilibrium between different conformations of a superstructure and is comparable to the isomerization in classical chemistry. Class 2 assemblies involve the formation or breakage of linkages between the NPs, which is analogous to the classical chemical equilibrium for the formation of
Complexity in Dynamical Systems
Moore, Cristopher David
The study of chaos has shown us that deterministic systems can have a kind of unpredictability, based on a limited knowledge of their initial conditions; after a finite time, the motion appears essentially random. This observation has inspired a general interest in the subject of unpredictability, and more generally, complexity; how can we characterize how "complex" a dynamical system is?. In this thesis, we attempt to answer this question with a paradigm of complexity that comes from computer science, we extract sets of symbol sequences, or languages, from a dynamical system using standard methods of symbolic dynamics; we then ask what kinds of grammars or automata are needed a generate these languages. This places them in the Chomsky heirarchy, which in turn tells us something about how subtle and complex the dynamical system's behavior is. This gives us insight into the question of unpredictability, since these automata can also be thought of as computers attempting to predict the system. In the culmination of the thesis, we find a class of smooth, two-dimensional maps which are equivalent to the highest class in the Chomsky heirarchy, the turning machine; they are capable of universal computation. Therefore, these systems possess a kind of unpredictability qualitatively different from the usual "chaos": even if the initial conditions are known exactly, questions about the system's long-term dynamics are undecidable. No algorithm exists to answer them. Although this kind of unpredictability has been discussed in the context of distributed, many-degree-of -freedom systems (for instance, cellular automata) we believe this is the first example of such phenomena in a smooth, finite-degree-of-freedom system.
Dynamically orthogonal field equations for stochastic flows and particle dynamics
2011-02-01
turbulence. Cambridge University Press, 1959. [10] G.K. Batchelor . An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics . Cambridge University Press, 2000. [11] D. Bau III... Dynamically orthogonal field equations for stochastic fluid flows and particle dynamics by Themistoklis P. Sapsis Dipl., National Technical...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 Dynamically orthogonal field equations for stochastic fluid flows and particle
Growth of nanocomposite films : From dynamic roughening to dynamic smoothening
Pei, Y.T.; Shaha, K.P.; Chen, C.Q.; van der Hulst, Ruben; Turkin, A; Vainshtein, D.I.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De
2009-01-01
This paper reports several new findings on the breakdown of dynamic roughening in thin film growth. With increasing energy flux of concurrent ion impingement during pulsed DC sputtering, a transition from dynamic roughening to dynamic smoothening is observed in the growth behavior of TiC/a-C nanocom
Nonlinear Dynamic Model Explains The Solar Dynamic
Kuman, Maria
Nonlinear mathematical model in torus representation describes the solar dynamic. Its graphic presentation shows that without perturbing force the orbits of the planets would be circles; only perturbing force could elongate the circular orbits into ellipses. Since the Hubble telescope found that the planetary orbits of other stars in the Milky Way are also ellipses, powerful perturbing force must be present in our galaxy. Such perturbing force is the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy with its heavy Black Hole and leftover stars, which we see orbiting around the center of our galaxy. Since observations of NASA's SDO found that magnetic fields rule the solar activity, we can expect when the planets align and their magnetic moments sum up, the already perturbed stars to reverse their magnetic parity (represented graphically as periodic looping through the hole of the torus). We predict that planets aligned on both sides of the Sun, when their magnetic moments sum-up, would induce more flares in the turbulent equatorial zone, which would bulge. When planets align only on one side of the Sun, the strong magnetic gradient of their asymmetric pull would flip the magnetic poles of the Sun. The Sun would elongate pole-to-pole, emit some energy through the poles, and the solar activity would cease. Similar reshaping and emission was observed in stars called magnetars and experimentally observed in super-liquid fast-spinning Helium nanodroplets. We are certain that NASA's SDO will confirm our predictions.
Canard cycles in global dynamics
Vidal, Alexandre
2009-01-01
Fast-slow systems are studied usually by "geometrical dissection". The fast dynamics exhibit attractors which may bifurcate under the influence of the slow dynamics which is seen as a parameter of the fast dynamics. A generic solution comes close to a connected component of the stable invariant sets of the fast dynamics. As the slow dynamics evolves, this attractor may lose its stability and the solution eventually reaches quickly another connected component of attractors of the fast dynamics and the process may repeat. This scenario explains quite well relaxation and bursting oscillations. More recently, in relation both with theory of dynamical systems and with applications to physiology, a new interest has emerged in canard cycles. These orbits share the property that they remain for a while close to an unstable invariant set (either singular set or periodic orbits of the fast dynamics). Although canards were first discovered when the transition points are folds, in this article, we focus on the case where...
Stellar dynamics and black holes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
David Merritt
2011-07-01
Chandrasekhar’s most important contribution to stellar dynamics was the concept of dynamical friction. I brieﬂy review that work, then discuss some implications of Chandrasekhar’s theory of gravitational encounters for motion in galactic nuclei.
Homegarden Dynamics in Kerala, India
Peyre, A.; Guidal, A.; Wiersum, K.F.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.
2006-01-01
The study of structural and functional dynamics of homegardens offers an opportunity to understand the trends in socioeconomic sustainability in relation to their ecological sustainability. These dynamics were studied in a survey of 30 homegardens
Similarity transformed semiclassical dynamics
Van Voorhis, Troy; Heller, Eric J.
2003-12-01
In this article, we employ a recently discovered criterion for selecting important contributions to the semiclassical coherent state propagator [T. Van Voorhis and E. J. Heller, Phys. Rev. A 66, 050501 (2002)] to study the dynamics of many dimensional problems. We show that the dynamics are governed by a similarity transformed version of the standard classical Hamiltonian. In this light, our selection criterion amounts to using trajectories generated with the untransformed Hamiltonian as approximate initial conditions for the transformed boundary value problem. We apply the new selection scheme to some multidimensional Henon-Heiles problems and compare our results to those obtained with the more sophisticated Herman-Kluk approach. We find that the present technique gives near-quantitative agreement with the the standard results, but that the amount of computational effort is less than Herman-Kluk requires even when sophisticated integral smoothing techniques are employed in the latter.
Vulfson, Iosif
2015-01-01
This book focuses on modern methods of oscillation analysis in machines, including cyclic action mechanisms (linkages, cams, steppers, etc.). It presents schematization techniques and mathematical descriptions of oscillating systems, taking into account the variability of the parameters and nonlinearities, engineering evaluations of dynamic errors, and oscillation suppression methods. The majority of the book is devoted to the development of new methods of dynamic analysis and synthesis for cyclic machines that form regular oscillatory systems with multiple duplicate modules. There are also sections examining aspects of general engineering interest (nonlinear dissipative forces, systems with non-stationary constraints, impacts and pseudo-impacts in clearances, etc.) The examples in the book are based on the widely used results of theoretical and experimental studies as well as engineering calculations carried out in relation to machines used in the textile, light, polygraphic and other industries. Particu...
Dynamic coherent backscattering mirror
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zeylikovich, I.; Xu, M., E-mail: mxu@fairfield.edu [Physics Department, Fairfield University, Fairfield, CT 06824 (United States)
2016-02-15
The phase of multiply scattered light has recently attracted considerable interest. Coherent backscattering is a striking phenomenon of multiple scattered light in which the coherence of light survives multiple scattering in a random medium and is observable in the direction space as an enhancement of the intensity of backscattered light within a cone around the retroreflection direction. Reciprocity also leads to enhancement of backscattering light in the spatial space. The random medium behaves as a reciprocity mirror which robustly converts a diverging incident beam into a converging backscattering one focusing at a conjugate spot in space. Here we first analyze theoretically this coherent backscattering mirror (CBM) phenomenon and then demonstrate the capability of CBM compensating and correcting both static and dynamic phase distortions occurring along the optical path. CBM may offer novel approaches for high speed dynamic phase corrections in optical systems and find applications in sensing and navigation.
Malafeyev, O. A.; Nemnyugin, S. A.; Rylow, D.; Kolpak, E. P.; Awasthi, Achal
2017-07-01
The corruption dynamics is analyzed by means of the lattice model which is similar to the three-dimensional Ising model. Agents placed at nodes of the corrupt network periodically choose to perfom or not to perform the act of corruption at gain or loss while making decisions based on the process history. The gain value and its dynamics are defined by means of the Markov stochastic process modelling with parameters established in accordance with the influence of external and individual factors on the agent's gain. The model is formulated algorithmically and is studied by means of the computer simulation. Numerical results are obtained which demonstrate asymptotic behaviour of the corruption network under various conditions.
Lattice Boltzmann Stokesian dynamics.
Ding, E J
2015-11-01
Lattice Boltzmann Stokesian dynamics (LBSD) is presented for simulation of particle suspension in Stokes flows. This method is developed from Stokesian dynamics (SD) with resistance and mobility matrices calculated using the time-independent lattice Boltzmann algorithm (TILBA). TILBA is distinguished from the traditional lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) in that a background matrix is generated prior to the calculation. The background matrix, once generated, can be reused for calculations for different scenarios, thus the computational cost for each such subsequent calculation is significantly reduced. The LBSD inherits the merits of the SD where both near- and far-field interactions are considered. It also inherits the merits of the LBM that the computational cost is almost independent of the particle shape.
Pumpe, Daniel; Müller, Ewald; Enßlin, Torsten A
2016-01-01
Stochastic differential equations describe well many physical, biological and sociological systems, despite the simplification often made in their derivation. Here the usage of simple stochastic differential equations to characterize and classify complex dynamical systems is proposed within a Bayesian framework. To this end, we develop a dynamic system classifier (DSC). The DSC first abstracts training data of a system in terms of time dependent coefficients of the descriptive stochastic differential equation. Thereby the DSC identifies unique correlation structures within the training data. For definiteness we restrict the presentation of DSC to oscillation processes with a time dependent frequency {\\omega}(t) and damping factor {\\gamma}(t). Although real systems might be more complex, this simple oscillator captures many characteristic features. The {\\omega} and {\\gamma} timelines represent the abstract system characterization and permit the construction of efficient signal classifiers. Numerical experiment...
Dynamic nuclear spin polarization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stuhrmann, H.B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)
1996-11-01
Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.
Pumpe, Daniel; Greiner, Maksim; Müller, Ewald; Enßlin, Torsten A.
2016-07-01
Stochastic differential equations describe well many physical, biological, and sociological systems, despite the simplification often made in their derivation. Here the usage of simple stochastic differential equations to characterize and classify complex dynamical systems is proposed within a Bayesian framework. To this end, we develop a dynamic system classifier (DSC). The DSC first abstracts training data of a system in terms of time-dependent coefficients of the descriptive stochastic differential equation. Thereby the DSC identifies unique correlation structures within the training data. For definiteness we restrict the presentation of the DSC to oscillation processes with a time-dependent frequency ω (t ) and damping factor γ (t ) . Although real systems might be more complex, this simple oscillator captures many characteristic features. The ω and γ time lines represent the abstract system characterization and permit the construction of efficient signal classifiers. Numerical experiments show that such classifiers perform well even in the low signal-to-noise regime.
Constraints On Cosmic Dynamics
Mbonye, M R
2003-01-01
Observationally, the universe appears virtually critical. Yet, there is no simple explanation for this state. In this article we advance and explore the premise that the dynamics of the universe always seeks equilibrium conditions. Vacuum-induced cosmic accelerations lead to creation of matter-energy modes at the expense of vacuum energy. Because they gravitate, such modes constitute inertia against cosmic acceleration. On the other extreme, the would-be ultimate phase of local gravitational collapse is checked by a phase transition in the collapsing matter fields leading to a de Sitter-like fluid deep inside the black hole horizon, and at the expense of the collapsing matter fields. As a result, the universe succumbs to neither vacuum-induced run-away accelerations nor to gravitationally induced spacetime curvature singularities. Cosmic dynamics is self-regulating. We discuss the physical basis for these constraints and the implications, pointing out how the framework relates and helps resolve standing puzzl...
Optimization by record dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barettin, Daniele; Sibani, Paolo
2014-01-01
Large dynamical changes in thermalizing glassy systems are triggered by trajectories crossing record sized barriers, a behavior revealing the presence of a hierarchical structure in configuration space. The observation is here turned into a novel local search optimization algorithm dubbed record...... dynamics optimization,or RDO. RDO uses the Metropolis rule to accept or reject candidate solutions depending on the value of a parameter akin to the temperature and minimizes the cost function of the problem at hand through cycles where its ‘temperature’ is raised and subsequently decreased in order...... to expediently generate record high (and low) values of the cost function. Below, RDO is introduced and then tested by searching for the ground state of the Edwards–Anderson spin-glass model, in two and three spatial dimensions. A popularand highly efficient optimization algorithm, parallel tempering (PT...
Dynamics of pyroelectric accelerators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghaderi, R.; Davani, F. Abbasi, E-mail: fabbasi@sbu.ac.ir [Radiation Application Department, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-01-26
Pyroelectric crystals are used to produce high energy electron beams. We have derived a method to model electric potential generation on LiTaO{sub 3} crystal during heating cycle. In this method, effect of heat transfer on the potential generation is investigated by some experiments. In addition, electron emission from the crystal surface is modeled by measurements and analysis. These spectral data are used to present a dynamic equation of electric potential with respect to thickness of the crystal and variation of its temperature. The dynamic equation's results for different thicknesses are compared with measured data. As a result, to attain more energetic electrons, best thickness of the crystals could be extracted from the equation. This allows for better understanding of pyroelectric crystals and help to study about current and energy of accelerated electrons.
de, Rumi; Zemel, Assaf; Safran, Samuel A.
2007-09-01
Many physiological processes depend on the response of biological cells to mechanical forces generated by the contractile activity of the cell or by external stresses. Using a simple theoretical model that includes the forces due to both the mechanosensitivity of cells and the elasticity of the matrix, we predict the dynamics and orientation of cells in both the absence and presence of applied stresses. The model predicts many features observed in measurements of cellular forces and orientation including the increase with time of the cellular forces in the absence of applied stress and the consequent decrease of the force in the presence of quasi-static stresses. We also explain the puzzling observation of parallel alignment of cells for static and quasi-static stresses and of nearly perpendicular alignment for dynamically varying stresses. In addition, we predict the response of the cellular orientation to a sinusoidally varying applied stress as a function of frequency.
Forshaw, Jeffrey
2009-01-01
A new title in the Manchester Physics Series, this introductory text emphasises physical principles behind classical mechanics and relativity. It assumes little in the way of prior knowledge, introducing relevant mathematics and carefully developing it within a physics context. Designed to provide a logical development of the subject, the book is divided into four sections, introductory material on dynamics, and special relativity, which is then followed by more advanced coverage of dynamics and special relativity. Each chapter includes problems ranging in difficulty from simple to challenging with?solutions for solving problems. Includes?solutions for solving problemsNumerous worked examples included throughout the bookMathematics is carefully explained and developed within a physics environmentSensitive to topics that can appear daunting or confusing
Granular Dynamics During Impact
Nordstrom, K. N.; Lim, E.; Harrington, M.; Losert, W.
2014-06-01
We study the impact of a projectile onto a bed of 3 mm grains immersed in an index-matched fluid. We vary the amount of prestrain on the sample, strengthening the force chains within the system. We find this affects only the prefactor of the linear depth-dependent term in the stopping force. We propose a simple model to account for the strain dependence of this term, owing to increased pressure in the pile. Interestingly, we find that the presence of the fluid does not affect the impact dynamics, suggesting that dynamic friction is not a factor. Using a laser sheet scanning technique to visualize internal grain motion, we measure the trajectory of each grain throughout an impact. Microscopically, our results indicate that weaker initial force chains result in more irreversible, plastic rearrangements, suggesting static friction between grains does play a substantial role in the energy dissipation.
Metaheuristics for Dynamic Optimization
Nakib, Amir; Siarry, Patrick
2013-01-01
This book is an updated effort in summarizing the trending topics and new hot research lines in solving dynamic problems using metaheuristics. An analysis of the present state in solving complex problems quickly draws a clear picture: problems that change in time, having noise and uncertainties in their definition are becoming very important. The tools to face these problems are still to be built, since existing techniques are either slow or inefficient in tracking the many global optima that those problems are presenting to the solver technique. Thus, this book is devoted to include several of the most important advances in solving dynamic problems. Metaheuristics are the more popular tools to this end, and then we can find in the book how to best use genetic algorithms, particle swarm, ant colonies, immune systems, variable neighborhood search, and many other bioinspired techniques. Also, neural network solutions are considered in this book. Both, theory and practice have been addressed in the chapters of t...
Hysteresis in structural dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ivanyi, A., E-mail: aivanyi@morpheus.pte.hu [Pollack Mihaly Faculty of Engineering, University of Pecs, Boszorkany u. 2, H-7624 Pecs (Hungary); Ivanyi, P., E-mail: peteri@morpheus.pte.hu [Pollack Mihaly Faculty of Engineering, University of Pecs, Boszorkany u. 2, H-7624 Pecs (Hungary); Ivanyi, M.M., E-mail: ivanyi@uvaterv.hu [Pollack Mihaly Faculty of Engineering, University of Pecs, Boszorkany u. 2, H-7624 Pecs (Hungary); UVATERV Ltd, Budapest, 1117, Dombovari ut 17, Budapest (Hungary); Ivanyi, M., E-mail: drivanyi@pmmk.pte.hu [Pollack Mihaly Faculty of Engineering, University of Pecs, Boszorkany u. 2, H-7624 Pecs (Hungary)
2012-05-01
In this paper the Preisach hysteresis model is applied to determine the dynamic behavior of a steel column with mass on the top and loaded by an impulse force. The column is considered as a rigid element, while the fixed end of the column is modeled with a rotational spring of hysterestic characteristic. In the solution of the non-linear dynamical equation of motion the fix-point technique is inserted to the time marching iteration. In the investigation the non-linearity of the rotation spring is modeled with the Preisach hysteresis model. The variation of amplitude and the action time interval of force are changing. The results are plotted in figures.
Dynamic coherent backscattering mirror
Xu, M.
2016-01-01
The phase of multiply scattered light has recently attracted considerable interest. Coherent backscattering is a striking phenomenon of multiple scattered light in which the coherence of light survives multiple scattering in a random medium and is observable in the direction space as an enhancement of the intensity of backscattered light within a cone around the retroreflection direction. Reciprocity also leads to enhancement of backscattering light in the spatial space. The random medium behaves as a reciprocity mirror which robustly converts a diverging incident beam into a converging backscattering one focusing at a conjugate spot in space. Here we first analyze theoretically this coherent backscattering mirror (CBM) phenomenon and then demonstrate the capability of CBM compensating and correcting both static and dynamic phase distortions occurring along the optical path. CBM may offer novel approaches for high speed dynamic phase corrections in optical systems and find applications in sensing and navigation. PMID:26937296
Le, Khanh Chau
2014-01-01
Energy Methods in Dynamics is a textbook based on the lectures given by the first author at Ruhr University Bochum, Germany. Its aim is to help students acquire both a good grasp of the first principles from which the governing equations can be derived, and the adequate mathematical methods for their solving. Its distinctive features, as seen from the title, lie in the systematic and intensive use of Hamilton's variational principle and its generalizations for deriving the governing equations of conservative and dissipative mechanical systems, and also in providing the direct variational-asymptotic analysis, whenever available, of the energy and dissipation for the solution of these equations. It demonstrates that many well-known methods in dynamics like those of Lindstedt-Poincare, Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky, Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM), Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB), and Whitham are derivable from this variational-asymptotic analysis. This second edition includes the solutions to all exercises as w...
Oreshkov, Ognyan; Calsamiglia, John
2010-07-30
We propose a theory of adiabaticity in quantum markovian dynamics based on a decomposition of the Hilbert space induced by the asymptotic behavior of the Lindblad semigroup. A central idea of our approach is that the natural generalization of the concept of eigenspace of the Hamiltonian in the case of markovian dynamics is a noiseless subsystem with a minimal noisy cofactor. Unlike previous attempts to define adiabaticity for open systems, our approach deals exclusively with physical entities and provides a simple, intuitive picture at the Hilbert-space level, linking the notion of adiabaticity to the theory of noiseless subsystems. As two applications of our theory, we propose a general framework for decoherence-assisted computation in noiseless codes and a dissipation-driven approach to holonomic computation based on adiabatic dragging of subsystems that is generally not achievable by nondissipative means.
Protein Binding Pocket Dynamics.
Stank, Antonia; Kokh, Daria B; Fuller, Jonathan C; Wade, Rebecca C
2016-05-17
The dynamics of protein binding pockets are crucial for their interaction specificity. Structural flexibility allows proteins to adapt to their individual molecular binding partners and facilitates the binding process. This implies the necessity to consider protein internal motion in determining and predicting binding properties and in designing new binders. Although accounting for protein dynamics presents a challenge for computational approaches, it expands the structural and physicochemical space for compound design and thus offers the prospect of improved binding specificity and selectivity. A cavity on the surface or in the interior of a protein that possesses suitable properties for binding a ligand is usually referred to as a binding pocket. The set of amino acid residues around a binding pocket determines its physicochemical characteristics and, together with its shape and location in a protein, defines its functionality. Residues outside the binding site can also have a long-range effect on the properties of the binding pocket. Cavities with similar functionalities are often conserved across protein families. For example, enzyme active sites are usually concave surfaces that present amino acid residues in a suitable configuration for binding low molecular weight compounds. Macromolecular binding pockets, on the other hand, are located on the protein surface and are often shallower. The mobility of proteins allows the opening, closing, and adaptation of binding pockets to regulate binding processes and specific protein functionalities. For example, channels and tunnels can exist permanently or transiently to transport compounds to and from a binding site. The influence of protein flexibility on binding pockets can vary from small changes to an already existent pocket to the formation of a completely new pocket. Here, we review recent developments in computational methods to detect and define binding pockets and to study pocket dynamics. We introduce five
Dynamics of quantum entanglement
Zyczkowski, K; Horodecki, M; Horodecki, R; Zyczkowski, Karol; Horodecki, Pawel; Horodecki, Michal; Horodecki, Ryszard
2002-01-01
A model of discrete dynamics of entanglement of bipartite quantum state is considered. It involves a global unitary dynamics of the system and periodic actions of local bistochastic or decaying channel. For initially pure states the decay of entanglement is accompanied with an increase of von Neumann entropy of the system. We observe and discuss revivals of entanglement due to unitary interaction of both subsystems. For some mixed states having different marginal entropies of both subsystems (one larger than the global entropy and one smaller) we find an asymmetry in speed of entanglement decay. The entanglement of these states decreases faster, if the depolarizing channel acts on the "classical" subsystem, characterized by smaller marginal entropy.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kejlberg-Rasmussen, Casper
to a given key? The updates we can do are: inserting a new key or deleting a given key. Our dictionary has the working set property, which means that the running time of a query depends on the query distribution. Specifically the time to search for a key depends on when we last searched for it. Our data...... statements about our data structure, which are based on the structure of the underlying problem, that we are trying to solve. We can rely on the properties of the invariants when performing queries, and in return we need to ensure that the invariants remain true after we perform updates. When designing data......In this thesis I will address three dynamic data structure problems using the concept of invariants. The first problem is maintaining a dynamically changing set of keys – a dictionary – where the queries we can ask are: does it contain a given key? and what is the preceding (or succeeding) key...
Ledvina, Andrew
2010-01-01
We study continuous time Bertrand oligopolies in which a small number of firms producing similar goods compete with one another by setting prices. We first analyze a static version of this game in order to better understand the strategies played in the dynamic setting. Within the static game, we characterize the Nash equilibrium when there are $N$ players with heterogeneous costs. In the dynamic game with uncertain market demand, firms of different sizes have different lifetime capacities which deplete over time according to the market demand for their good. We setup the nonzero-sum stochastic differential game and its associated system of HJB partial differential equations in the case of linear demand functions. We characterize certain qualitative features of the game using an asymptotic approximation in the limit of small competition. The equilibrium of the game is further studied using numerical solutions. We find that consumers benefit the most when a market is structured with many firms of the same relat...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kejlberg-Rasmussen, Casper
statements about our data structure, which are based on the structure of the underlying problem, that we are trying to solve. We can rely on the properties of the invariants when performing queries, and in return we need to ensure that the invariants remain true after we perform updates. When designing data......In this thesis I will address three dynamic data structure problems using the concept of invariants. The first problem is maintaining a dynamically changing set of keys – a dictionary – where the queries we can ask are: does it contain a given key? and what is the preceding (or succeeding) key...... to a given key? The updates we can do are: inserting a new key or deleting a given key. Our dictionary has the working set property, which means that the running time of a query depends on the query distribution. Specifically the time to search for a key depends on when we last searched for it. Our data...
Heckman, James J; Humphries, John Eric; Veramendi, Gregory
2016-02-01
This paper develops robust models for estimating and interpreting treatment effects arising from both ordered and unordered multistage decision problems. Identification is secured through instrumental variables and/or conditional independence (matching) assumptions. We decompose treatment effects into direct effects and continuation values associated with moving to the next stage of a decision problem. Using our framework, we decompose the IV estimator, showing that IV generally does not estimate economically interpretable or policy relevant parameters in prototypical dynamic discrete choice models, unless policy variables are instruments. Continuation values are an empirically important component of estimated total treatment effects of education. We use our analysis to estimate the components of what LATE estimates in a dynamic discrete choice model.
Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking
Shadmi, Y; Shadmi, Yael; Shirman, Yuri
2000-01-01
Supersymmetry is one of the most plausible and theoretically motivated frameworks for extending the Standard Model. However, any supersymmetry in Nature must be a broken symmetry. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking (DSB) is an attractive idea for incorporating supersymmetry into a successful description of Nature. The study of DSB has recently enjoyed dramatic progress, fueled by advances in our understanding of the dynamics of supersymmetric field theories. These advances have allowed for direct analysis of DSB in strongly coupled theories, and for the discovery of new DSB theories, some of which contradict early criteria for DSB. We review these criteria, emphasizing recently discovered exceptions. We also describe, through many examples, various techniques for directly establishing DSB by studying the infrared theory, including both older techniques in regions of weak coupling, and new techniques in regions of strong coupling. Finally, we present a list of representative DSB models, their main properties, an...
Kowalski, A. M.
2016-09-01
A physical system in game-theoretic terms is represented in this work. We first consider an abstract game between a classical and a quantum player, whose results represent the two different kinds of non-linear dynamics that the system exhibits. The existence of winning strategies shows that the dynamics can be fully determined through a game theory analysis. Moreover by considering a second game, we show that different games can be defined to focus on different aspects of the physics of a system. Different winning strategies and Nash equilibrium points, emerge in each game. These games theory tools are related to physical properties, so distinct physical information is obtained for each game. In this work, special emphasis is made on Nash points, which add a new conceptual perspective, to analyze a physical system.
Near periodicity in dynamical systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈文成
1995-01-01
The notion of near periodicity is shown to be equivalent to that of weak near periodicity in dynamical systems. A sufficient condition for the positive near periodicity of a point in dynamical systems is given. The structure of nearly periodic dynamical systems is discussed, and a condition is proved to be necessary and sufficient for a dynamical system on a local compact space to be positively nearly periodic.
2015-01-01
In this paper we develop a formal dynamic version of Chain Event Graphs (CEGs), a particularly expressive family of discrete graphical models. We demonstrate how this class links to semi-Markov models and provides a convenient generalization of the Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN). In particular we develop a repeating time-slice Dynamic CEG providing a useful and simpler model in this family. We demonstrate how the Dynamic CEG’s graphical formulation exhibits asymmetric conditional independence...
Discourse Preferences in Dynamic Logic
Jaspars, J; Jaspars, Jan; Kameyama, Megumi
1997-01-01
In order to enrich dynamic semantic theories with a `pragmatic' capacity, we combine dynamic and nonmonotonic (preferential) logics in a modal logic setting. We extend a fragment of Van Benthem and De Rijke's dynamic modal logic with additional preferential operators in the underlying static logic, which enables us to define defeasible (pragmatic) entailments over a given piece of discourse. We will show how this setting can be used for a dynamic logical analysis of preferential resolutions of ambiguous pronouns in discourse.
Nonlinear dynamics in atom optics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen Wenyu; Dyrting, S.; Milburn, G.J. [Queensland Univ., St. Lucia, QLD (Australia). Dept. of Physics
1996-12-31
In this paper theoretical work on classical and quantum nonlinear dynamics of cold atoms is reported. The basic concepts in nonlinear dynamics are reviewed and then applied to the motion of atoms in time-dependent standing waves and to the atomic bouncer. The quantum dynamics for the cases of regular and chaotic classical dynamics is described. The effect of spontaneous emission and external noise is also discussed. 104 refs., 1 tab., 21 figs.
Interactive Dynamic-System Simulation
Korn, Granino A
2010-01-01
Showing you how to use personal computers for modeling and simulation, Interactive Dynamic-System Simulation, Second Edition provides a practical tutorial on interactive dynamic-system modeling and simulation. It discusses how to effectively simulate dynamical systems, such as aerospace vehicles, power plants, chemical processes, control systems, and physiological systems. Written by a pioneer in simulation, the book introduces dynamic-system models and explains how software for solving differential equations works. After demonstrating real simulation programs with simple examples, the author
Dynamic Logic with Trace Semantics
Beckert, Bernhard; Bruns, Daniel
2013-01-01
Dynamic logic is an established instrument for program verification and for reasoning about the semantics of programs and programming languages. In this paper, we define an extension of dynamic logic, called Dynamic Trace Logic (DTL), which combines the expressiveness of program logics such as dynamic logic with that of temporal logic. And we present a sound and relatively complete sequent calculus for proving validity of DTL formulae. Due to its expressiveness, DTL can serve as a basis for p...
Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu; Relly Victoria Virgil Petrescu
2016-01-01
Otto engine dynamics are similar in almost all common internal combustion engines. We can speak so about dynamics of engines: Lenoir, Otto, and Diesel. The dynamic presented model is simple and original. The first thing necessary in the calculation of Otto engine dynamics, is to determine the inertial mass reduced at the piston. One uses then the Lagrange equation. Kinetic energy conservation shows angular speed variation (from the shaft) with inertial masses. One uses and elastic constant of...
McCauley, Joseph L.
2009-09-01
Preface; 1. Econophysics: why and what; 2. Neo-classical economic theory; 3. Probability and stochastic processes; 4. Introduction to financial economics; 5. Introduction to portfolio selection theory; 6. Scaling, pair correlations, and conditional densities; 7. Statistical ensembles: deducing dynamics from time series; 8. Martingale option pricing; 9. FX market globalization: evolution of the dollar to worldwide reserve currency; 10. Macroeconomics and econometrics: regression models vs. empirically based modeling; 11. Complexity; Index.
Complex and Fractional Dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. A. Tenreiro Machado
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Complex systems (CS are pervasive in many areas, namely financial markets; highway transportation; telecommunication networks; world and country economies; social networks; immunological systems; living organisms; computational systems; and electrical and mechanical structures. CS are often composed of a large number of interconnected and interacting entities exhibiting much richer global scale dynamics than could be inferred from the properties and behavior of individual elements. [...
Multiscale Reactive Molecular Dynamics
2012-08-15
as a linear combination of several possible bond- ing topologies ( diabatic states) that are coupled to one an- other through the off-diagonal elements...adapts and dynamically identifies bonding topolo- gies to include as the simulation progresses. These bonding topologies form a basis of diabatic ...the original geometric factor. The diabatic correction term, VCORR , used here was labeled in previous MS-EVB models as a repulsive interaction, VREP
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buchenau, U. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik
1996-11-01
Neutron scattering from amorphous polymers allows to switch from incoherent to coherent scattering in the same substance. The power of the tool for the study of the picosecond dynamics of disordered matter is illustrated for polybutadiene, polycarbonate and polystyrene. The results suggest a mixture of sound waves and localized modes, strongly interacting with each other, in the picosecond range. (author) 8 figs., tabs., 39 refs.
Dynamic Network Change Detection
2008-12-01
detection methods is presented; the cumulative sum ( CUSUM ), the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA), and a scan statistic (SS). Statistical...minimizing the risk of false alarms. Three common SPC methods that we consider here are the CUSUM (Page, 1961), EWMA (Roberts, 1959), and the SS...successive dynamic network measures are then used to calculate the statistics for the CUSUM , the EWMA, and the SS. These are then compared to decision
Furstenberg, Hillel
2009-01-01
Following works of Furstenberg and Nevo and Zimmer we present an outline of a theory of stationary (or m-stationary) dynamical systems for a general acting group G equipped with a probability measure m. Our purpose is two-fold: First to suggest a more abstract line of development, including a simple structure theory. Second, to point out some interesting applications; one of these is a Szemeredi type theorem for SL(2,R).
Ultrafast magnetization dynamics
Woodford, S.
2008-01-01
This thesis addresses ultrafast magnetization dynamics from a theoretical perspective. The manipulation of magnetization using the inverse Faraday effect has been studied, as well as magnetic relaxation processes in quantum dots. The inverse Faraday effect – the generation of a magnetic field by nonresonant, circularly polarized light – offers the possibility to control and reverse magnetization on a timescale of a few hundred femtoseconds. This is important both for the technological advant...
Dynamic electromagnetic metamaterials
Fan, Kebin; Padilla, Willie J.
2015-01-01
Electromagnetic metamaterials are designer materials made from ‘artificial atoms’ which provide unprecedented control over light matter interactions. Metamaterials are fashioned to yield a specific response to the electric and magnetic components of light and have realized a multitude of exotic properties difficult to achieve with natural materials. Having matured over the last decade and a half, researchers now look toward realizing applications of metamaterials. The ability to dynamically c...
Molecular dynamics simulations
Tarmyshov, Konstantin B.
2007-01-01
Molecular simulations can provide a detailed picture of a desired chemical, physical, or biological process. It has been developed over last 50 years and is being used now to solve a large variety of problems in many different fields. In particular, quantum calculations are very helpful to study small systems at a high resolution where electronic structure of compounds is accounted for. Molecular dynamics simulations, in turn, are employed to study development of a certain molecular ensemble ...
Dynamic Weighted Data Structures.
1982-06-01
and Bonnie Hampton, who taught me much more than how to play the cello . Finally, for hours of artistic satisfaction, I thank Johannes Brahms, Ludwig...van "j Beethoven, Igor Stravinsky, Glan-Carlo Menotti, and Johann Sebastian Bach . Dynamic Weighted Data Structures Samuel W. Bent This thesis discusses...34I find It a matter of some difficulty to arrange these cards In a manner suited to my needs.’ I glanced at the cards and noticed each was labelled
McCauley, Joseph L.
2004-06-01
Standard texts and research in economics and finance ignore the absence of evidence from the analysis of real, unmassaged market data to support the notion of Adam Smith's stabilizing Invisible Hand. In stark contrast, this text introduces a new empirically-based model of financial market dynamics that explains the volatility of prices options correctly and clarifies the instability of financial markets. The emphasis is on understanding how real markets behave, not how they hypothetically 'should' behave.
Dynamically generated resonances
Oset, E; Sarkar, S; Sun, Bao Xi; Vacas, M J Vicente; González, P; Vijande, J; Jido, D; Sekihara, T; Torres, A Martinez; Khemchandani, K
2009-01-01
In this talk I report on recent work related to the dynamical generation of baryonic resonances, some made up from pseudoscalar meson-baryon, others from vector meson-baryon and a third type from two meson-one baryon systems. We can establish a correspondence with known baryonic resonances, reinforcing conclusions previously drawn and bringing new light on the nature of some baryonic resonances of higher mass.
Armbruster, Benjamin
2011-01-01
We analyze random networks that change over time. First we analyze a dynamic Erdos-Renyi model, whose edges change over time. We describe its stationary distribution, its convergence thereto, and the SI contact process on the network, which has relevance for connectivity and the spread of infections. Second, we analyze the effect of node turnover, when nodes enter and leave the network, which has relevance for network models incorporating births, deaths, aging, and other demographic factors.
Modal aerosol dynamics modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Whitby, E.R.; McMurry, P.H.; Shankar, U.; Binkowski, F.S.
1991-02-01
The report presents the governing equations for representing aerosol dynamics, based on several different representations of the aerosol size distribution. Analytical and numerical solution techniques for these governing equations are also reviewed. Described in detail is a computationally efficient numerical technique for simulating aerosol behavior in systems undergoing simultaneous heat transfer, fluid flow, and mass transfer in and between the gas and condensed phases. The technique belongs to a general class of models known as modal aerosol dynamics (MAD) models. These models solve for the temporal and spatial evolution of the particle size distribution function. Computational efficiency is achieved by representing the complete aerosol population as a sum of additive overlapping populations (modes), and solving for the time rate of change of integral moments of each mode. Applications of MAD models for simulating aerosol dynamics in continuous stirred tank aerosol reactors and flow aerosol reactors are provided. For the application to flow aerosol reactors, the discussion is developed in terms of considerations for merging a MAD model with the SIMPLER routine described by Patankar (1980). Considerations for incorporating a MAD model into the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Regional Particulate Model are also described. Numerical and analytical techniques for evaluating the size-space integrals of the modal dynamics equations (MDEs) are described. For multimodal logonormal distributions, an analytical expression for the coagulation integrals of the MDEs, applicable for all size regimes, is derived, and is within 20% of accurate numerical evaluation of the same moment coagulation integrals. A computationally efficient integration technique, based on Gauss-Hermite numerical integration, is also derived.
Single cell dynamic phenotyping
Katherin Patsch; Chi-Li Chiu; Mark Engeln; Agus, David B.; Parag Mallick; Shannon M. Mumenthaler; Daniel Ruderman
2016-01-01
Live cell imaging has improved our ability to measure phenotypic heterogeneity. However, bottlenecks in imaging and image processing often make it difficult to differentiate interesting biological behavior from technical artifact. Thus there is a need for new methods that improve data quality without sacrificing throughput. Here we present a 3-step workflow to improve dynamic phenotype measurements of heterogeneous cell populations. We provide guidelines for image acquisition, phenotype track...
Ekdahl, Carl
2015-01-01
Beam dynamics issues are assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator being designed for flash radiography of large explosively driven hydrodynamic experiments. Special attention is paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. It is concluded that a radiographic quality beam will be produced possible if engineering standards and construction details are equivalent to those on the present radiography accelerators at Los Alamos.
1999-09-30
Journal of Marine Systems , 20, 129-156, 1999. [9] Rothschild...Robinson, A.R., J.J. McCarthy, and B.J. Rothschild. Interdisciplinary Ocean Science is Evolving and a Systems Approach is Essential. Journal of Marine Systems , 1999...Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics, 1999. [17] Lermusiaux, P.F.J. Evolving the sub-space of the three-dimensional ocean variability, Journal of Marine Systems ,
Linch, William D
2016-01-01
We generalize the current algebra of constraints of U-duality-covariant critical superstrings to include the generator responsible for the dynamics of the fundamental brane. This allows us to define $\\kappa$ symmetry and to write a worldvolume action in Hamiltonian form that is manifestly supersymmetric in the target space. The Lagrangian form of this action is generally covariant, but the worldvolume metric has fewer components than expected.
Ultrafast Magnetization Dynamics
Woodford, S.
2008-01-01
This thesis addresses ultrafast magnetization dynamics from a theoretical perspective. The manipulation of magnetization using the inverse Faraday effect has been studied, as well as magnetic relaxation processes in quantum dots. The inverse Faraday effect – the generation of a magnetic field by nonresonant, circularly polarized light – offers the possibility to control and reverse magnetization on a timescale of a few hundred femtoseconds. This is important both for the technological advant...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ekdahl, Carl August Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2014-10-14
Beam dynamics issues are assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator being designed for flash radiography of large explosively driven hydrodynamic experiments. Special attention is paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. It is concluded that a radiographic quality beam will be produced possible if engineering standards and construction details are equivalent to those on the present radiography accelerators at Los Alamos.
DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF DYNAMIC SYMBOLS IN DYNAMIC GIS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Many Internet-GIS have been implemented on the web and they are increasingly bec oming an important part of multimedia cartography that has much more users as co mpared to traditional GIS production media.Internet GIS technology has provided the GIS dynamic information acquisition w ith technical support.Also,the visualization technology of electronic map ha s provided tools for GIS symbols with dynamic characteristics.On the basis of GI S dynamic information acquisition,the design idea and implementation methods of dynamic symbols in dynamic GIS are presented in this article.
Dynamics in Atmospheric Physics
Lindzen, Richard A.
2005-08-01
Motion is manifest in the atmosphere in an almost infinite variety of ways. In Dynamics in Atmospheric Physics, Dr. Richard Lindzen describes the nature of motion in the atmosphere, develops fluid dynamics relevant to the atmosphere, and explores the role of motion in determining the climate and atmospheric composition. The author presents the material in a lecture note style, and the emphasis throughout is on describing phenomena that are at the frontiers of current research, but due attention is given to the methodology of research and to the historical background of these topics. The author's treatment and choice of topics is didactic. Problems at the end of each chapter will help students assimilate the material. In general the discussions emphasize physical concepts, and throughout Dr. Lindzen makes a concerted effort to avoid the notion that dynamic meteorology is simply the derivation of equations and their subsequent solution. His desire is that interested students will delve further into solution details. The book is intended as a text for first year graduate students in the atmospheric sciences. Although the material in the book is self contained, a familiarity with differential equations is assumed; some background in fluid mechanics is helpful.
Gulf stream separation dynamics
Schoonover, Joseph
Climate models currently struggle with the more traditional, coarse ( O(100 km) ) representation of the ocean. In these coarse ocean simulations, western boundary currents are notoriously difficult to model accurately. The modeled Gulf Stream is typically seen exhibiting a mean pathway that is north of observations, and is linked to a warm sea-surface temperature bias in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Although increased resolution ( O(10 km) ) improves the modeled Gulf Stream position, there is no clean recipe for obtaining the proper pathway. The 70 year history of literature on the Gulf Stream separation suggests that we have not reached a resolution on the dynamics that control the current's pathway just south of the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Without a concrete knowledge on the separation dynamics, we cannot provide a clean recipe for accurately modeling the Gulf Stream at increased resolutions. Further, any reliable parameterization that yields a realistic Gulf Stream path must express the proper physics of separation. The goal of this dissertation is to determine what controls the Gulf Stream separation. To do so, we examine the results of a model intercomparison study and a set of numerical regional terraforming experiments. It is argued that the separation is governed by local dynamics that are most sensitive to the steepening of the continental shelf, consistent with the topographic wave arrest hypothesis of Stern (1998). A linear extension of Stern's theory is provided, which illustrates that wave arrest is possible for a continuously stratified fluid.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Markussen, Thomas; Bang, Anne Louise; Knutz, Eva
2012-01-01
In this paper we offer a new explanatory tool, called ‘dynamic research sketching’ useful for mapping and understanding how research through design can be a vehicle for theory construction. ‘Research through design’ is often used as an all-inclusive umbrella term for research practices that recog......In this paper we offer a new explanatory tool, called ‘dynamic research sketching’ useful for mapping and understanding how research through design can be a vehicle for theory construction. ‘Research through design’ is often used as an all-inclusive umbrella term for research practices...... that recognize the process of designing and making an artifact as a legitimate method of inquiry. However, even though this type of research is thus grounded in design practice there are many different ways in which the process of designing and making an artifact can be used as a method of inquiry in order...... a first step toward such a methodology. Initially, we set the scene by providing a critical examination of existing literature on the subject. Then, we demonstrate the explanatory strength of dynamic research sketching by applying it to three case examples. In so doing, we uncover three different methods...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Koustubh Ajit Kabe
2012-09-01
In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of thermodynamics. Nine fundamental black hole dynamical relations have been developed akin to the four fundamental thermodynamic relations of Maxwell. The specific heats , and , have been defined. For a black hole, these quantities are negative. The d equation has been obtained as an application of these fundamental relations. Time reversible processes observing constancy of surface gravity are considered and an equation connecting the internal energy of the black hole , the additional available energy defined as the first free energy function , and the surface gravity , has been obtained. Finally as a further application of the fundamental relations, it has been proved for a homogeneous gravitational field in black hole space times or a de Sitter black hole that $C_{\\Omega,\\Phi}-C_{J,Q}=\\kappa \\left[\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial J}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial \\Omega}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}+\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial Q}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial\\Phi}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}\\right]$. This is dubbed as the homogeneous fluid approximation in context of the black holes.
Space Constrained Dynamic Covering
Antonellis, Ioannis; Dughmi, Shaddin
2009-01-01
In this paper, we identify a fundamental algorithmic problem that we term space-constrained dynamic covering (SCDC), arising in many modern-day web applications, including ad-serving and online recommendation systems in eBay and Netflix. Roughly speaking, SCDC applies two restrictions to the well-studied Max-Coverage problem: Given an integer k, X={1,2,...,n} and I={S_1, ..., S_m}, S_i a subset of X, find a subset J of I, such that |J| <= k and the union of S in J is as large as possible. The two restrictions applied by SCDC are: (1) Dynamic: At query-time, we are given a query Q, a subset of X, and our goal is to find J such that the intersection of Q with the union of S in J is as large as possible; (2) Space-constrained: We don't have enough space to store (and process) the entire input; specifically, we have o(mn), sometimes even as little as O((m+n)polylog(mn)) space. The goal of SCDC is to maintain a small data structure so as to answer most dynamic queries with high accuracy. We present algorithms a...
Murawski, Jens; Kleine, Eckhard
2017-04-01
Sea ice remains one of the frontiers of ocean modelling and is of vital importance for the correct forecasts of the northern oceans. At large scale, it is commonly considered a continuous medium whose dynamics is modelled in terms of continuum mechanics. Its specifics are a matter of constitutive behaviour which may be characterised as rigid-plastic. The new developed sea ice dynamic module bases on general principles and follows a systematic approach to the problem. Both drift field and stress field are modelled by a variational property. Rigidity is treated by Lagrangian relaxation. Thus one is led to a sensible numerical method. Modelling fast ice remains to be a challenge. It is understood that ridging and the formation of grounded ice keels plays a role in the process. The ice dynamic model includes a parameterisation of the stress associated with grounded ice keels. Shear against the grounded bottom contact might lead to plastic deformation and the loss of integrity. The numerical scheme involves a potentially large system of linear equations which is solved by pre-conditioned iteration. The entire algorithm consists of several components which result from decomposing the problem. The algorithm has been implemented and tested in practice.
Pedlosky, Joseph
1979-01-01
The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys ical fluid dynamics which I and my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same ti...
Impact dynamics instrumentation
Mccormck, R. F.
1986-01-01
One of the tasks specified in the NASA Langley controlled impact demonstration (CID) work package was to furnish dynamic instrumentation sensors. The types of instrumentation sensors required were accelerometers for aircraft structural loads measurements, seat belt load cells to measure anthropomorphic dummy responses to the aircraft impact, and strain gage bending bridges to measure the aircraft fuselage and wing bending during impact. The objective in the selection of dynamic instrumentation for the CID was to provide 352 of the highest quality transducers and remain within budget allocation. The transducers that were selected for the CID evaluation process were each subjected to rigorous laboratory acceptance tests and to aircraft fuselage section drop tests at the LaRC Impact Dynamics Research Facility. Data compiled from this series of tests showed the selected transducers to be best suited for the CID mission requirement. The transducers installation technique on the airframe proved successful. The transducer quality assurance was guaranteed through rigorous acceptance testing. Data acquired was 97.0%.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas O Richardson
Full Text Available The success of social animals (including ourselves can be attributed to efficiencies that arise from a division of labour. Many animal societies have a communal nest which certain individuals must leave to perform external tasks, for example foraging or patrolling. Staying at home to care for young or leaving to find food is one of the most fundamental divisions of labour. It is also often a choice between safety and danger. Here we explore the regulation of departures from ant nests. We consider the extreme situation in which no one returns and show experimentally that exiting decisions seem to be governed by fluctuating record signals and ant-ant interactions. A record signal is a new 'high water mark' in the history of a system. An ant exiting the nest only when the record signal reaches a level it has never perceived before could be a very effective mechanism to postpone, until the last possible moment, a potentially fatal decision. We also show that record dynamics may be involved in first exits by individually tagged ants even when their nest mates are allowed to re-enter the nest. So record dynamics may play a role in allocating individuals to tasks, both in emergencies and in everyday life. The dynamics of several complex but purely physical systems are also based on record signals but this is the first time they have been experimentally shown in a biological system.
Pedlosky, Joseph
1982-01-01
The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys ical fluid dynamics which land my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same tim...
Population dynamics of reindeer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. M. Baskin
1990-09-01
Full Text Available Five types of reindeer populations are distinguished in terms of population dynamics, population density, social structure and migration distance. Differences in the biological rhythms of the populations result in calving occuring 20 days before snow melting in all populations as well as maximal utilization by the deer of young green vegetation in summer. The growth of antlers may serve as a regulatior of biological rhytms. Populations differ in the level of social motivation. Formation of groups of not less than 30-35 animals ensures cooperative protection from insects and management of the group by man. The fidelity to the calving sites, summer ranges and constant migration routes is based on the common orientation reactions of the animals and social attraction. The direction and migration routes are detemined by obligate learning. The dynamics of populations depends on the fertility of 2 and 3 year old females which is determined by feeding conditions in summer and the activity of males during the rut. Migration plays an important role in the population dynamics.
Dynamical Symmetries in Classical Mechanics
Boozer, A. D.
2012-01-01
We show how symmetries of a classical dynamical system can be described in terms of operators that act on the state space for the system. We illustrate our results by considering a number of possible symmetries that a classical dynamical system might have, and for each symmetry we give examples of dynamical systems that do and do not possess that…
NVU dynamics. II. Comparing to four other dynamics.
Ingebrigtsen, Trond S; Toxvaerd, Søren; Schrøder, Thomas B; Dyre, Jeppe C
2011-09-14
In the companion paper [T. S. Ingebrigtsen, S. Toxvaerd, O. J. Heilmann, T. B. Schrøder, and J. C. Dyre, "NVU dynamics. I. Geodesic motion on the constant-potential-energy hypersurface," J. Chem. Phys. (in press)] an algorithm was developed for tracing out a geodesic curve on the constant-potential-energy hypersurface. Here, simulations of NVU dynamics are compared to results for four other dynamics, both deterministic and stochastic. First, NVU dynamics is compared to the standard energy-conserving Newtonian NVE dynamics by simulations of the Kob-Andersen binary Lennard-Jones liquid, its WCA version (i.e., with cut-off's at the pair potential minima), and the Lennard-Jones Gaussian liquid. We find identical results for all quantities probed: radial distribution functions, incoherent intermediate scattering functions, and mean-square displacement as function of time. Arguments are presented for the equivalence of NVU and NVE dynamics in the thermodynamic limit; in particular, to leading order in 1∕N these two dynamics give identical time-autocorrelation functions. In the final part of the paper, NVU dynamics is compared to Monte Carlo dynamics, to a diffusive dynamics of small-step random walks on the constant-potential-energy hypersurface, and to Nosé-Hoover NVT dynamics. If time is scaled for the two stochastic dynamics to make single-particle diffusion constants identical to that of NVE dynamics, the simulations show that all five dynamics are equivalent at low temperatures except at short times.
Structural dynamic modifications via models
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
T K Kundra
2000-06-01
Structural dynamic modification techniques attempt to reduce dynamic design time and can be implemented beginning with spatial models of structures, dynamic test data or updated models. The models assumed in this discussion are mathematical models, namely mass, stiffness, and damping matrices of the equations of motion of a structure. These models are identified/extracted from dynamic test data viz. frequency response functions (FRFs). Alternatively these models could have been obtained by adjusting or updating the finite element model of the structure in the light of the test data. The methods of structural modification for getting desired dynamic characteristics by using modifiers namely mass, beams and tuned absorbers are discussed.
Dynamic secrets in communication security
Xiao, Sheng; Towsley, Donald
2013-01-01
Dynamic secrets are constantly generated and updated from messages exchanged between two communication users. When dynamic secrets are used as a complement to existing secure communication systems, a stolen key or password can be quickly and automatically reverted to its secret status without disrupting communication. 'Dynamic Secrets in Communication Security' presents unique security properties and application studies for this technology. Password theft and key theft no longer pose serious security threats when parties frequently use dynamic secrets. This book also illustrates that a dynamic
Microsoft Dynamics GP 2013 implementation
Yudin, Victoria
2013-01-01
A step-by-step guide for planning and carrying out your Microsoft Dynamics GP 2013 implementation. Detailed descriptions and illustrations of setup screens and practical examples and advice are included for the Dynamics GP system and core modules.If you are a new or existing Microsoft Dynamics GP consultant or an end user who wants to implement, install, and set up core modules of Dynamics GP 2013, then this book is for you. A basic understanding of business management systems and either Dynamics GP or a similar application is recommended.
Hamiltonian Dynamics of Preferential Attachment
Zuev, Konstantin; Krioukov, Dmitri
2015-01-01
Prediction and control of network dynamics are grand-challenge problems in network science. The lack of understanding of fundamental laws driving the dynamics of networks is among the reasons why many practical problems of great significance remain unsolved for decades. Here we study the dynamics of networks evolving according to preferential attachment, known to approximate well the large-scale growth dynamics of a variety of real networks. We show that this dynamics is Hamiltonian, thus casting the study of complex networks dynamics to the powerful canonical formalism, in which the time evolution of a dynamical system is described by Hamilton's equations. We derive the explicit form of the Hamiltonian that governs network growth in preferential attachment. This Hamiltonian turns out to be nearly identical to graph energy in the configuration model, which shows that the ensemble of random graphs generated by preferential attachment is nearly identical to the ensemble of random graphs with scale-free degree d...
Collective dynamics of multicellular systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R Maithreye; C Suguna; Somdatta Sinha
2011-11-01
We have studied the collective behaviour of a one-dimensional ring of cells for conditions when the individual uncoupled cells show stable, bistable and oscillatory dynamics. We show that the global dynamics of this model multicellular system depends on the system size, coupling strength and the intrinsic dynamics of the cells. The intrinsic variability in dynamics of the constituent cells are suppressed to stable dynamics, or modiﬁed to intermittency under different conditions. This simple model study reveals that cell–cell communication, system size and intrinsic cellular dynamics can lead to evolution of collective dynamics in structured multicellular biological systems that is signiﬁcantly different from its constituent single-cell behaviour.
Dynamic heterogeneity in life histories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Steiner, Uli; Orzack, Steven Hecht
2009-01-01
generate dynamic heterogeneity: life-history differences produced by stochastic stratum dynamics. We characterize dynamic heterogeneity in a range of species across taxa by properties of the Markov chain: the entropy, which describes the extent of heterogeneity, and the subdominant eigenvalue, which...... distributions of lifetime reproductive success. Dynamic heterogeneity contrasts with fixed heterogeneity: unobserved differences that generate variation between life histories. We show by an example that observed distributions of lifetime reproductive success are often consistent with the claim that little...... or no fixed heterogeneity influences this trait. We propose that dynamic heterogeneity provides a 'neutral' model for assessing the possible role of unobserved 'quality' differences between individuals. We discuss fitness for dynamic life histories, and the implications of dynamic heterogeneity...
SDI: Statistical dynamic interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blann, M.; Mustafa, M.G. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Peilert, G.; Stoecker, H.; Greiner, W. (Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik)
1991-04-01
We focus on the combined statistical and dynamical aspects of heavy ion induced reactions. The overall picture is illustrated by considering the reaction {sup 36}Ar + {sup 238}U at a projectile energy of 35 MeV/nucleon. We illustrate the time dependent bound excitation energy due to the fusion/relaxation dynamics as calculated with the Boltzmann master equation. An estimate of the mass, charge and excitation of an equilibrated nucleus surviving the fast (dynamic) fusion-relaxation process is used as input into an evaporation calculation which includes 20 heavy fragment exit channels. The distribution of excitations between residue and clusters is explicitly calculated, as is the further deexcitation of clusters to bound nuclei. These results are compared with the exclusive cluster multiplicity measurements of Kim et al., and are found to give excellent agreement. We consider also an equilibrated residue system at 25% lower initial excitation, which gives an unsatisfactory exclusive multiplicity distribution. This illustrates that exclusive fragment multiplicity may provide a thermometer for system excitation. This analysis of data involves successive binary decay with no compressional effects nor phase transitions. Several examples of primary versus final (stable) cluster decay probabilities for an A = 100 nucleus at excitations of 100 to 800 MeV are presented. From these results a large change in multifragmentation patterns may be understood as a simple phase space consequence, invoking neither phase transitions, nor equation of state information. These results are used to illustrate physical quantities which are ambiguous to deduce from experimental fragment measurements. 14 refs., 4 figs.
Dynamic Torque Calibration Unit
Agronin, Michael L.; Marchetto, Carl A.
1989-01-01
Proposed dynamic torque calibration unit (DTCU) measures torque in rotary actuator components such as motors, bearings, gear trains, and flex couplings. Unique because designed specifically for testing components under low rates. Measures torque in device under test during controlled steady rotation or oscillation. Rotor oriented vertically, supported by upper angular-contact bearing and lower radial-contact bearing that floats axially to prevent thermal expansion from loading bearings. High-load capacity air bearing available to replace ball bearings when higher load capacity or reduction in rate noise required.
Gultekin, Kemal
2015-01-01
In this study, we give a thorough analysis of a general affine gravity with torsion. After a brief exposition of the affine gravities considered by Eddington and Schroedinger, we construct and analyze different affine gravities based on determinants of the Ricci tensor, torsion tensor, Riemann tensor and their combinations. In each case we reduce equations of motion to their simplest forms and give a detailed analysis of their solutions. Our analyses lead to construction of the affine connection in terms of curvature and torsion tensors. Our solutions of the dynamical equations show that curvature tensors at different points are correlated via non-local, exponential rescaling factors determined by the torsion tensor.
Coherent dynamics in semiconductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hvam, Jørn Märcher
1998-01-01
Ultrafast nonlinear optical spectroscopy is used to study the coherent dynamics of optically excited electron-hole pairs in semiconductors. Coulomb interaction implies that the optical inter-band transitions are dominated, at least at low temperatures, by excitonic effects. They are further...... and molecular systems are found and studied in the exciton-biexciton system of semiconductors. At densities where strong exciton interactions, or many-body effects, become dominant, the semiconductor Bloch equations present a more rigorous treatment of the phenomena Ultrafast degenerate four-wave mixing is used...
Liepmann, H W
2001-01-01
The increasing importance of concepts from compressible fluid flow theory for aeronautical applications makes the republication of this first-rate text particularly timely. Intended mainly for aeronautics students, the text will also be helpful to practicing engineers and scientists who work on problems involving the aerodynamics of compressible fluids. Covering the general principles of gas dynamics to provide a working understanding of the essentials of gas flow, the contents of this book form the foundation for a study of the specialized literature and should give the necessary background
Rho, Mannque
2008-01-01
This is the sequel to the first volume to treat in one effective field theory framework the physics of strongly interacting matter under extreme conditions. This is vital for understanding the high temperature phenomena taking place in relativistic heavy ion collisions and in the early Universe, as well as the high-density matter predicted to be present in compact stars. The underlying thesis is that what governs hadronic properties in a heat bath and/or a dense medium is hidden local symmetry which emerges from chiral dynamics of light quark systems and from the duality between QCD in 4D and
Magoules, Frederic
2011-01-01
Exploring new variations of classical methods as well as recent approaches appearing in the field, Computational Fluid Dynamics demonstrates the extensive use of numerical techniques and mathematical models in fluid mechanics. It presents various numerical methods, including finite volume, finite difference, finite element, spectral, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), mixed-element-volume, and free surface flow.Taking a unified point of view, the book first introduces the basis of finite volume, weighted residual, and spectral approaches. The contributors present the SPH method, a novel ap
Essential Computational Fluid Dynamics
Zikanov, Oleg
2011-01-01
This book serves as a complete and self-contained introduction to the principles of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis. It is deliberately short (at approximately 300 pages) and can be used as a text for the first part of the course of applied CFD followed by a software tutorial. The main objectives of this non-traditional format are: 1) To introduce and explain, using simple examples where possible, the principles and methods of CFD analysis and to demystify the `black box’ of a CFD software tool, and 2) To provide a basic understanding of how CFD problems are set and
Cotton, William R
1992-01-01
This book focuses on the dynamics of clouds and of precipitating mesoscale meteorological systems. Clouds and precipitating mesoscale systems represent some of the most important and scientifically exciting weather systems in the world. These are the systems that produce torrential rains, severe winds including downburst and tornadoes, hail, thunder and lightning, and major snow storms. Forecasting such storms represents a major challenge since they are too small to be adequately resolved by conventional observing networks and numerical prediction models.Key Features* Key Highlight
Dynamic electromagnetic metamaterials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kebin Fan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Electromagnetic metamaterials are designer materials made from ‘artificial atoms’ which provide unprecedented control over light matter interactions. Metamaterials are fashioned to yield a specific response to the electric and magnetic components of light and have realized a multitude of exotic properties difficult to achieve with natural materials. Having matured over the last decade and a half, researchers now look toward realizing applications of metamaterials. The ability to dynamically control novel responses exhibited by electromagnetic metamaterials would bolster this quest thus ushering in the next revolution in materials.
Multistability in dynamical systems
Mendes, R V
1999-01-01
In neuroscience, optics and condensed matter there is ample physical evidence for multistable dynamical systems, that is, systems with a large number of attractors. The known mathematical mechanisms that lead to multiple attractors are homoclinic tangencies and stabilization, by small perturbations or by coupling, of systems possessing a large number of unstable invariant sets. A short review of the existent results is presented, as well as two new results concerning the existence of a large number of stable periodic orbits in a perturbed marginally stable dissipative map and an infinite number of such orbits in two coupled quadratic maps working on the Feigenbaum accumulation point.
Chretien, Jean-Loup (Inventor); Lu, Edward T. (Inventor)
2005-01-01
A dynamic optical filtration system and method effectively blocks bright light sources without impairing view of the remainder of the scene. A sensor measures light intensity and position so that selected cells of a shading matrix may interrupt the view of the bright light source by a receptor. A beamsplitter may be used so that the sensor may be located away from the receptor. The shading matrix may also be replaced by a digital micromirror device, which selectively sends image data to the receptor.
Nonlinear dynamics in psychology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephen J. Guastello
2001-01-01
Full Text Available This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychological theory. A budding literature on the implications of NDS principles in professional practice is reported also.
Confinement Vessel Dynamic Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
R. Robert Stevens; Stephen P. Rojas
1999-08-01
A series of hydrodynamic and structural analyses of a spherical confinement vessel has been performed. The analyses used a hydrodynamic code to estimate the dynamic blast pressures at the vessel's internal surfaces caused by the detonation of a mass of high explosive, then used those blast pressures as applied loads in an explicit finite element model to simulate the vessel's structural response. Numerous load cases were considered. Particular attention was paid to the bolted port connections and the O-ring pressure seals. The analysis methods and results are discussed, and comparisons to experimental results are made.
Khanin, YI
1995-01-01
This monograph summarizes major achievements in laser dynamics over the past three decades. The book begins with two introductory Chapters. Chapter 1 offers general considerations on quantum oscillators, formulates the requirements for the laser key elements and shows how these requirements are met in different laser systems. The second Chapter proposes the mathematical models used in semiclassical laser theory, discusses the approximations and simplifications in particular cases, and specifies the range of applicability of these models. In Chapters 3-5 attention is given primarily to the stea
Motion dynamics of submersibles
Kalske, Seppo
1991-04-01
A literature survey of motion dynamics of subsea vehicles of a general shape was performed. Hydrodynamic tests were carried out with an existing tethered remotely operated vehicle and with its full scale model. The experiments give data of maneuvering capabilities, and of hydrodynamic characteristics of small subsea vehicles. A simulation method was developed on this basis to compute the vehicle trajectory in the time domain as a function of different control commands. The method can be applied to any subsea vehicle controlled by thruster units.
Dynamic wake meandering modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Larsen, Gunner C.; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Bingoel, F. (and others)
2007-06-15
We present a consistent, physically based theory for the wake meandering phenomenon, which we consider of crucial importance for the overall description of wind turbine loadings in wind farms. In its present version the model is confined to single wake situations. The model philosophy does, however, have the potential to include also mutual wake interaction phenomenons. The basic conjecture behind the dynamic wake meandering model is that wake transportation in the atmospheric boundary layer is driven by the large scale lateral- and vertical turbulence components. Based on this conjecture a stochastic model of the downstream wake meandering is formulated. In addition to the kinematic formulation of the dynamics of the 'meandering frame of reference', models characterizing the mean wake deficit as well as the added wake turbulence, described in the meandering frame of reference, are an integrated part the model complex. For design applications, the computational efficiency of wake deficit prediction is a key issue. Two computationally low cost models are developed for this purpose. The character of the added wake turbulence, generated by the up-stream turbine in the form of shed and trailed vorticity, has been approached by analytical as well as by numerical studies. The dynamic wake meandering philosophy has been verified by comparing model predictions with extensive full-scale measurements. These comparisons have demonstrated good agreement, both qualitatively and quantitatively, concerning both flow characteristics and turbine load characteristics. Contrary to previous attempts to model wake loading, the dynamic wake meandering approach opens for a unifying description in the sense that turbine power and load aspects can be treated simultaneously. This capability is a direct and attractive consequence of the model being based on the underlying physical process, and it potentially opens for optimization of wind farm topology, of wind farm operation as
Dynamic modelling of windmills
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Akhmatov, Vladislav; Knudsen, Hans
1999-01-01
An empirical dynamic model of windmills is set up based on analysis of measured Fourier spectra of the active electric power from a wind farm. The model is based on the assumption that eigenswings of the mechanical construction of the windmills excited by the phenomenon of vortex tower interaction...... will be transferred through the shaft to the electrical generator and result in disturbances of the active electric power supplied by the windmills. The results of the model are found to be in agreement with measurements in the frequency range of the model that is from 0.1 to 10 Hz....
Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lisbjerg, Micke
This thesis is divided into seven chapters, which can all be read individually. The first chapter, however, contains a general introduction to the chemistry used in the remaining six chapters, and it is therefore recommended to read chapter one before reading the other chapters. Chapter 1...... is a general introductory chapter for the whole thesis. The history and concepts of dynamic combinatorial chemistry are described, as are some of the new and intriguing results recently obtained. Finally, the properties of a broad range of hexameric macrocycles are described in detail. Chapter 2 gives...
Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lisbjerg, Micke
This thesis is divided into seven chapters, which can all be read individually. The first chapter, however, contains a general introduction to the chemistry used in the remaining six chapters, and it is therefore recommended to read chapter one before reading the other chapters. Chapter 1...... is a general introductory chapter for the whole thesis. The history and concepts of dynamic combinatorial chemistry are described, as are some of the new and intriguing results recently obtained. Finally, the properties of a broad range of hexameric macrocycles are described in detail. Chapter 2 gives...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Reyes-Reyes
2000-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an adaptive technique is suggested to provide the passivity property for a class of partially known SISO nonlinear systems. A simple Dynamic Neural Network (DNN, containing only two neurons and without any hidden-layers, is used to identify the unknown nonlinear system. By means of a Lyapunov-like analysis the new learning law for this DNN, guarantying both successful identification and passivation effects, is derived. Based on this adaptive DNN model, an adaptive feedback controller, serving for wide class of nonlinear systems with an a priori incomplete model description, is designed. Two typical examples illustrate the effectiveness of the suggested approach.
Dynamical Simulation of Probabilities
Zak, Michail
1996-01-01
It has been demonstrated that classical probabilities, and in particular, probabilistic Turing machine, can be simulated by combining chaos and non-Lipschitz dynamics, without utilization of any man-made devices(such as random number generators). Self-orgainizing properties of systems coupling simulated and calculated probabilities and their link to quantum computations are discussed. Special attention was focused upon coupled stochastic processes, defined in terms of conditional probabilities, for which joint probability does not exist. Simulations of quantum probabilities are also discussed.
Introduction to plasma dynamics
Morozov, A I
2013-01-01
As the twenty-first century progresses, plasma technology will play an increasing role in our lives, providing new sources of energy, ion-plasma processing of materials, wave electromagnetic radiation sources, space plasma thrusters, and more. Studies of the plasma state of matter not only accelerate technological developments but also improve the understanding of natural phenomena. Beginning with an introduction to the characteristics and types of plasmas, Introduction to Plasma Dynamics covers the basic models of classical diffuse plasmas used to describe such phenomena as linear and shock w
Polymer friction Molecular Dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.
We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and b) polymer sliding on polymer. In the first setup the shear stresses are relatively...... independent of molecular length. For polymer sliding on polymer the friction is significantly larger, and dependent on the molecular chain length. In both cases, the shear stresses are proportional to the squeezing pressure and finite at zero load, indicating an adhesional contribution to the friction force....
Consideration of Dynamical Balances
Errico, Ronald M.
2015-01-01
The quasi-balance of extra-tropical tropospheric dynamics is a fundamental aspect of nature. If an atmospheric analysis does not reflect such balance sufficiently well, the subsequent forecast will exhibit unrealistic behavior associated with spurious fast-propagating gravity waves. Even if these eventually damp, they can create poor background fields for a subsequent analysis or interact with moist physics to create spurious precipitation. The nature of this problem will be described along with the reasons for atmospheric balance and techniques for mitigating imbalances. Attention will be focused on fundamental issues rather than on recipes for various techniques.
Dynamic information theory and information description of dynamic systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
In this paper, we develop dynamic statistical information theory established by the author. Starting from the ideas that the state variable evolution equations of stochastic dynamic systems, classical and quantum nonequilibrium statistical physical systems and special electromagnetic field systems can be regarded as their information symbol evolution equations and the definitions of dynamic information and dynamic entropy, we derive the evolution equations of dynamic information and dynamic entropy that describe the evolution laws of dynamic information. These four kinds of evolution equations are of the same mathematical type. They show in unison when information transmits in coordinate space outside the systems that the time rate of change of dynamic information densities originates from their drift, diffusion and dissipation in state variable space inside the systems and coordinate space in the transmission processes, and that the time rate of change of dynamic entropy densities is caused by their drift, diffusion and production in state variable space inside the systems and coordinate space in the transmission processes. When space noise can be neglected, an information wave will appear. If we only consider the information change inside the systems, dynamic information evolution equations reduce to information equations corresponding to the dynamic equations which describe evolution laws of the above dynamic systems. This reveals that the evolution laws of respective dynamic systems can be described by information equations in a unified fashion. Hence, the evolution processes of these dynamic systems can be abstracted as the evolution processes of information. Furthermore, we present the formulas for information flow, information dissipation rate, and entropy production rate. We prove that the information production probably emerges in a dynamic system with internal attractive interaction between the elements, and derive a formula for this information
Bootstrap Dynamical Symmetry Breaking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei-Shu Hou
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Despite the emergence of a 125 GeV Higgs-like particle at the LHC, we explore the possibility of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by strong Yukawa coupling of very heavy new chiral quarks Q . Taking the 125 GeV object to be a dilaton with suppressed couplings, we note that the Goldstone bosons G exist as longitudinal modes V L of the weak bosons and would couple to Q with Yukawa coupling λ Q . With m Q ≳ 700 GeV from LHC, the strong λ Q ≳ 4 could lead to deeply bound Q Q ¯ states. We postulate that the leading “collapsed state,” the color-singlet (heavy isotriplet, pseudoscalar Q Q ¯ meson π 1 , is G itself, and a gap equation without Higgs is constructed. Dynamical symmetry breaking is affected via strong λ Q , generating m Q while self-consistently justifying treating G as massless in the loop, hence, “bootstrap,” Solving such a gap equation, we find that m Q should be several TeV, or λ Q ≳ 4 π , and would become much heavier if there is a light Higgs boson. For such heavy chiral quarks, we find analogy with the π − N system, by which we conjecture the possible annihilation phenomena of Q Q ¯ → n V L with high multiplicity, the search of which might be aided by Yukawa-bound Q Q ¯ resonances.
Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail
Slavin, James A.
2010-01-01
The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.
Jupiter's Dynamic Magnetosphere
Vogt, M. F.; Bunce, E. J.; Kronberg, E. A.; Jackman, C. M.
2014-12-01
Jupiter's magnetosphere is a highly dynamic environment. Hundreds of reconnection events have been identified in Jupiter's magnetotail through analysis of magnetic field and particle measurements collected by the Galileo spacecraft. Quasi-periodic behavior, suggestive of reconnection, has been intermittently observed on a ~2-3 day time scale in several data sets, including magnetic field dipolarizations, flow bursts, auroral polar dawn spots, and the hectometric radio emission. In this paper we review the present state of knowledge of Jovian magnetospheric dynamics. Throughout the discussion, we highlight similarities and differences to Saturn's magnetosphere. For example, recent analysis of plasmoid signatures at both Jupiter and Saturn has established the role of tail reconnection in the overall mass and flux transport in the outer planet magnetospheres. The results for both Jupiter and Saturn suggest that the observed mass loss rate due to tail reconnection and plasmoid release is insufficient to account for the mass input rate from the moons Io and Enceladus, respectively. We also present new analysis in which we use the Michigan mSWiM propagated solar wind MHD model to estimate the solar wind conditions upstream of Jupiter. This information allows us to determine whether reconnection events occur preferentially during certain solar wind conditions, or whether there is evidence that the solar wind modulates the quasi-periodicity seen in the field dipolarizations and flow bursts.
Dynamic Communication Resource Negotiations
Chow, Edward; Vatan, Farrokh; Paloulian, George; Frisbie, Steve; Srostlik, Zuzana; Kalomiris, Vasilios; Apgar, Daniel
2012-01-01
Today's advanced network management systems can automate many aspects of the tactical networking operations within a military domain. However, automation of joint and coalition tactical networking across multiple domains remains challenging. Due to potentially conflicting goals and priorities, human agreement is often required before implementation into the network operations. This is further complicated by incompatible network management systems and security policies, rendering it difficult to implement automatic network management, thus requiring manual human intervention to the communication protocols used at various network routers and endpoints. This process of manual human intervention is tedious, error-prone, and slow. In order to facilitate a better solution, we are pursuing a technology which makes network management automated, reliable, and fast. Automating the negotiation of the common network communication parameters between different parties is the subject of this paper. We present the technology that enables inter-force dynamic communication resource negotiations to enable ad-hoc inter-operation in the field between force domains, without pre-planning. It also will enable a dynamic response to changing conditions within the area of operations. Our solution enables the rapid blending of intra-domain policies so that the forces involved are able to inter-operate effectively without overwhelming each other's networks with in-appropriate or un-warranted traffic. It will evaluate the policy rules and configuration data for each of the domains, then generate a compatible inter-domain policy and configuration that will update the gateway systems between the two domains.
Coarse Grained Quantum Dynamics
Agon, Cesar; Kasko, Skyler; Lawrence, Albion
2014-01-01
We consider coarse graining a quantum system divided between short distance and long distance degrees of freedom, which are coupled by the Hamiltonian. Observations using purely long distance observables can be described by the reduced density matrix that arises from tracing out the short-distance observables. The dynamics of this density matrix is that of an open quantum system, and is nonlocal in time, on the order of some short time scale. We describe these dynamics in a model system with a simple hierarchy of energy gaps $\\Delta E_{UV} > \\Delta E_{IR}$, in which the coupling between high-and low-energy degrees of freedom is treated to second order in perturbation theory. We then describe the equations of motion under suitable time averaging, reflecting the limited time resolution of actual experiments, and find an expansion of the master equation in powers of $\\Delta E_{IR}/\\Delta E_{UV}$, in which the failure of the system to be Hamiltonian or even Markovian appears at higher orders in this ratio. We com...
Optimization by record dynamics
Barettin, Daniele; Sibani, Paolo
2014-03-01
Large dynamical changes in thermalizing glassy systems are triggered by trajectories crossing record sized barriers, a behavior revealing the presence of a hierarchical structure in configuration space. The observation is here turned into a novel local search optimization algorithm dubbed record dynamics optimization, or RDO. RDO uses the Metropolis rule to accept or reject candidate solutions depending on the value of a parameter akin to the temperature and minimizes the cost function of the problem at hand through cycles where its ‘temperature’ is raised and subsequently decreased in order to expediently generate record high (and low) values of the cost function. Below, RDO is introduced and then tested by searching for the ground state of the Edwards-Anderson spin-glass model, in two and three spatial dimensions. A popular and highly efficient optimization algorithm, parallel tempering (PT), is applied to the same problem as a benchmark. RDO and PT turn out to produce solutions of similar quality for similar numerical effort, but RDO is simpler to program and additionally yields geometrical information on the system’s configuration space which is of interest in many applications. In particular, the effectiveness of RDO strongly indicates the presence of the above mentioned hierarchically organized configuration space, with metastable regions indexed by the cost (or energy) of the transition states connecting them.
Cosmological dynamical systems
Leon, Genly
2014-01-01
In this book are studied, from the perspective of the dynamical systems, several Universe models. In chapter 1 we give a bird's eye view on cosmology and cosmological problems. Chapter 2 is devoted to a brief review on some results and useful tools from the qualitative theory of dynamical systems. They provide the theoretical basis for the qualitative study of concrete cosmological models. Chapters 1 and 2 are a review of well-known results. Chapters 3, 4, 5 and 6 are devoted to our main results. In these chapters are extended and settled in a substantially different, more strict mathematical language, several results obtained by one of us in arXiv:0812.1013 [gr-qc]; arXiv:1009.0689 [gr-qc]; arXiv:0904.1577[gr-qc]; and arXiv:0909.3571 [hep-th]. In chapter 6, we provide a different approach to the subject discussed in astro-ph/0503478. Additionally, we perform a Poincar\\'e compactification process allowing to construct a global phase space containing all the cosmological information in both finite and infinite...
Kasliwal, Mansi M.; SPIRITS (Spitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey) Team
2017-01-01
The dynamic infrared sky is hitherto largely unexplored. I will present the SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) --- a systematic search of 194 nearby galaxies within 30 Mpc, on timescales ranging between a week to a year, to a depth of 20 mag with Spitzer's IRAC camera. SPIRITS has already uncovered over 95 explosive transients and over 1200 strong variables. Of these, 37 infrared transients are especially interesting as they have no optical counterparts whatsoever even with deep limits from Keck and HST. Interpretation of these new discoveries may include (i) the birth of massive binaries that drive shocks in their molecular cloud, (ii) stellar mergers with dusty winds, (iii) 8--10 solar mass stars experiencing e-capture induced collapse in their cores, (iv) enshrouded supernovae, or (v) formation of stellar mass black holes. SPIRITS reveals that the infrared sky is not just as dynamic as the optical sky; it also provides access to unique, elusive signatures in stellar astrophysics.
Arrighi, Pablo
2016-01-01
Consider a graph having quantum systems lying at each node. Suppose that the whole thing evolves in discrete time steps, according to a global, unitary causal operator. By causal we mean that information can only propagate at a bounded speed, with respect to the distance given by the graph. Suppose, moreover, that the graph itself is subject to the evolution, and may be driven to be in a quantum superposition of graphs---in accordance to the superposition principle. We show that these unitary causal operators must decompose as a finite-depth circuit of local unitary gates. This unifies a result on Quantum Cellular Automata with another on Reversible Causal Graph Dynamics. Along the way we formalize a notion of causality which is valid in the context of quantum superpositions of time-varying graphs, and has a number of good properties. Keywords: Quantum Lattice Gas Automata, Block-representation, Curtis-Hedlund-Lyndon, No-signalling, Localizability, Quantum Gravity, Quantum Graphity, Causal Dynamical Triangula...
Hanley, Daniel; Šulc, Michal; Brennan, Patricia L R; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš; Honza, Marcel
2016-06-01
Evolutionary hypotheses regarding the function of eggshell phenotypes, from solar protection through mimicry, have implicitly assumed that eggshell appearance remains static throughout the laying and incubation periods. However, recent research demonstrates that egg coloration changes over relatively short, biologically relevant timescales. Here, we provide the first evidence that such changes impact brood parasite-host eggshell color mimicry during the incubation stage. First, we use long-term data to establish how rapidly the Acrocephalus arundinaceus Linnaeus (great reed warbler) responded to natural parasitic eggs laid by the Cuculus canorus Linnaeus (common cuckoo). Most hosts rejected parasitic eggs just prior to clutch completion, but the host response period extended well into incubation (~10 days after clutch completion). Using reflectance spectrometry and visual modeling, we demonstrate that eggshell coloration in the great reed warbler and its brood parasite, the common cuckoo, changes rapidly, and the extent of eggshell color mimicry shifts dynamically over the host response period. Specifically, 4 days after being laid, the host should notice achromatic color changes to both cuckoo and warbler eggs, while chromatic color changes would be noticeable after 8 days. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the perceived match between host and cuckoo eggshell color worsened over the incubation period. These findings have important implications for parasite-host coevolution dynamics, because host egg discrimination may be aided by disparate temporal color changes in host and parasite eggs.
Sequential memory: Binding dynamics
Afraimovich, Valentin; Gong, Xue; Rabinovich, Mikhail
2015-10-01
Temporal order memories are critical for everyday animal and human functioning. Experiments and our own experience show that the binding or association of various features of an event together and the maintaining of multimodality events in sequential order are the key components of any sequential memories—episodic, semantic, working, etc. We study a robustness of binding sequential dynamics based on our previously introduced model in the form of generalized Lotka-Volterra equations. In the phase space of the model, there exists a multi-dimensional binding heteroclinic network consisting of saddle equilibrium points and heteroclinic trajectories joining them. We prove here the robustness of the binding sequential dynamics, i.e., the feasibility phenomenon for coupled heteroclinic networks: for each collection of successive heteroclinic trajectories inside the unified networks, there is an open set of initial points such that the trajectory going through each of them follows the prescribed collection staying in a small neighborhood of it. We show also that the symbolic complexity function of the system restricted to this neighborhood is a polynomial of degree L - 1, where L is the number of modalities.
Gerber, Georg K
2014-11-17
While our genomes are essentially static, our microbiomes are inherently dynamic. The microbial communities we harbor in our bodies change throughout our lives due to many factors, including maturation during childhood, alterations in our diets, travel, illnesses, and medical treatments. Moreover, there is mounting evidence that our microbiomes change us, by promoting health through their beneficial actions or by increasing our susceptibility to diseases through a process termed dysbiosis. Recent technological advances are enabling unprecedentedly detailed studies of the dynamics of the microbiota in animal models and human populations. This review will highlight key areas of investigation in the field, including establishment of the microbiota during early childhood, temporal variability of the microbiome in healthy adults, responses of the microbiota to intentional perturbations such as antibiotics and dietary changes, and prospective analyses linking changes in the microbiota to host disease status. Given the importance of computational methods in the field, this review will also discuss issues and pitfalls in the analysis of microbiome time-series data, and explore several promising new directions for mathematical model and algorithm development.
Evaluating gambles using dynamics
Peters, O.; Gell-Mann, M.
2016-02-01
Gambles are random variables that model possible changes in wealth. Classic decision theory transforms money into utility through a utility function and defines the value of a gamble as the expectation value of utility changes. Utility functions aim to capture individual psychological characteristics, but their generality limits predictive power. Expectation value maximizers are defined as rational in economics, but expectation values are only meaningful in the presence of ensembles or in systems with ergodic properties, whereas decision-makers have no access to ensembles, and the variables representing wealth in the usual growth models do not have the relevant ergodic properties. Simultaneously addressing the shortcomings of utility and those of expectations, we propose to evaluate gambles by averaging wealth growth over time. No utility function is needed, but a dynamic must be specified to compute time averages. Linear and logarithmic "utility functions" appear as transformations that generate ergodic observables for purely additive and purely multiplicative dynamics, respectively. We highlight inconsistencies throughout the development of decision theory, whose correction clarifies that our perspective is legitimate. These invalidate a commonly cited argument for bounded utility functions.
Horton, W.; Miura, H.; Onishchenko, O.; Couedel, L.; Arnas, C.; Escarguel, A.; Benkadda, S.; Fedun, V.
2016-06-01
A self-consistent hydrodynamic model for the solar heating-driven onset of a dust devil vortex is derived and analyzed. The toroidal flows and vertical velocity fields are driven by an instability that arises from the inversion of the mass density stratification produced by solar heating of the sandy surface soil. The nonlinear dynamics in the primary temperature gradient-driven vertical airflows drives a secondary toroidal vortex flow through a parametric interaction in the nonlinear structures. While an external tangential shear flow may initiate energy transfer to the toroidal vortex flow, the nonlinear interactions dominate the transfer of vertical-radial flows into a fast toroidal flow. This secondary flow has a vertical vorticity, while the primary thermal gradient-driven flow produces the toroidal vorticity. Simulations for the complex nonlinear structure are carried out with the passive convection of sand as test particles. Triboelectric charging modeling of the dust is used to estimate the charging of the sand particles. Parameters for a Dust Devil laboratory experiment are proposed considering various working gases and dust particle parameters. The nonlinear dynamics of the toroidal flow driven by the temperature gradient is of generic interest for both neutral gases and plasmas.
Dynamic Communication Resource Negotiations
Chow, Edward; Vatan, Farrokh; Paloulian, George; Frisbie, Steve; Srostlik, Zuzana; Kalomiris, Vasilios; Apgar, Daniel
2012-01-01
Today's advanced network management systems can automate many aspects of the tactical networking operations within a military domain. However, automation of joint and coalition tactical networking across multiple domains remains challenging. Due to potentially conflicting goals and priorities, human agreement is often required before implementation into the network operations. This is further complicated by incompatible network management systems and security policies, rendering it difficult to implement automatic network management, thus requiring manual human intervention to the communication protocols used at various network routers and endpoints. This process of manual human intervention is tedious, error-prone, and slow. In order to facilitate a better solution, we are pursuing a technology which makes network management automated, reliable, and fast. Automating the negotiation of the common network communication parameters between different parties is the subject of this paper. We present the technology that enables inter-force dynamic communication resource negotiations to enable ad-hoc inter-operation in the field between force domains, without pre-planning. It also will enable a dynamic response to changing conditions within the area of operations. Our solution enables the rapid blending of intra-domain policies so that the forces involved are able to inter-operate effectively without overwhelming each other's networks with in-appropriate or un-warranted traffic. It will evaluate the policy rules and configuration data for each of the domains, then generate a compatible inter-domain policy and configuration that will update the gateway systems between the two domains.
Nelson, Andrew F.; Ruffert, Maximilian
2013-02-01
We perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of gas flowing around a planetary core of mass Mpl = 10M⊕ embedded in a near Keplerian background flow, using a modified shearing box approximation. We assume an ideal gas behaviour following an equation of state with a fixed ratio of the specific heats, γ = 1.42, consistent with the conditions of a moderate-temperature background disc with solar composition. No radiative heating or cooling is included in the models. We employ a nested grid hydrodynamic code implementing the `Piecewise Parabolic Method' with as many as six fixed nested grids, providing spatial resolution on the finest grid comparable to the present-day diameters of Neptune and Uranus. We find that a strongly dynamically active flow develops such that no static envelope can form. The activity is not sensitive to plausible variations in the rotation curve of the underlying disc. It is sensitive to the thermodynamic treatment of the gas, as modelled by prescribed equations of state (either `locally isothermal' or `locally isentropic') and the temperature of the background disc material. The activity is also sensitive to the shape and depth of the core's gravitational potential, through its mass and gravitational softening coefficient. Each of these factors influences the magnitude and character of hydrodynamic feedback of the small-scale flow on the background, and we conclude that accurate modelling of such feedback is critical to a complete understanding of the core accretion process. The varying flow pattern gives rise to large, irregular eruptions of matter from the region around the core which return matter to the background flow: mass in the envelope at one time may not be found in the envelope at any later time. No net mass accretion into the envelope is observed over the course of the simulation and none is expected, due to our neglect of cooling. Except in cases of very rapid cooling however, as defined by locally isothermal or
Molecular Dynamics Calculations
1996-01-01
The development of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics is very important in the history of physics, and it underlines the difficulty in dealing with systems involving many bodies, even if those bodies are identical. Macroscopic systems of atoms typically contain so many particles that it would be virtually impossible to follow the behavior of all of the particles involved. Therefore, the behavior of a complete system can only be described or predicted in statistical ways. Under a grant to the NASA Lewis Research Center, scientists at the Case Western Reserve University have been examining the use of modern computing techniques that may be able to investigate and find the behavior of complete systems that have a large number of particles by tracking each particle individually. This is the study of molecular dynamics. In contrast to Monte Carlo techniques, which incorporate uncertainty from the outset, molecular dynamics calculations are fully deterministic. Although it is still impossible to track, even on high-speed computers, each particle in a system of a trillion trillion particles, it has been found that such systems can be well simulated by calculating the trajectories of a few thousand particles. Modern computers and efficient computing strategies have been used to calculate the behavior of a few physical systems and are now being employed to study important problems such as supersonic flows in the laboratory and in space. In particular, an animated video (available in mpeg format--4.4 MB) was produced by Dr. M.J. Woo, now a National Research Council fellow at Lewis, and the G-VIS laboratory at Lewis. This video shows the behavior of supersonic shocks produced by pistons in enclosed cylinders by following exactly the behavior of thousands of particles. The major assumptions made were that the particles involved were hard spheres and that all collisions with the walls and with other particles were fully elastic. The animated video was voted one of two
Dynamic queuing transmission model for dynamic network loading
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raovic, Nevena; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo
2017-01-01
This paper presents a new macroscopic multi-class dynamic network loading model called Dynamic Queuing Transmission Model (DQTM). The model utilizes ‘good’ properties of the Dynamic Queuing Model (DQM) and the Link Transmission Model (LTM) by offering a DQM consistent with the kinematic wave theory...... and allowing for the representation of multiple vehicle classes, queue spillbacks and shock waves. The model assumes that a link is split into a moving part plus a queuing part, and p that traffic dynamics are given by a triangular fundamental diagram. A case-study is investigated and the DQTM is compared...
Global Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics
Luo, Albert
2012-01-01
Global Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics collects chapters on recent developments in global analysis of non-linear dynamical systems with a particular emphasis on cell mapping methods developed by Professor C.S. Hsu of the University of California, Berkeley. This collection of contributions prepared by a diverse group of internationally recognized researchers is intended to stimulate interests in global analysis of complex and high-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems, whose global properties are largely unexplored at this time. This book also: Presents recent developments in global analysis of non-linear dynamical systems Provides in-depth considerations and extensions of cell mapping methods Adopts an inclusive style accessible to non-specialists and graduate students Global Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics is an ideal reference for the community of nonlinear dynamics in different disciplines including engineering, applied mathematics, meteorology, life science, computational science, and medicine.
Kuramoto dynamics in Hamiltonian systems.
Witthaut, Dirk; Timme, Marc
2014-09-01
The Kuramoto model constitutes a paradigmatic model for the dissipative collective dynamics of coupled oscillators, characterizing in particular the emergence of synchrony (phase locking). Here we present a classical Hamiltonian (and thus conservative) system with 2N state variables that in its action-angle representation exactly yields Kuramoto dynamics on N-dimensional invariant manifolds. We show that locking of the phase of one oscillator on a Kuramoto manifold to the average phase emerges where the transverse Hamiltonian action dynamics of that specific oscillator becomes unstable. Moreover, the inverse participation ratio of the Hamiltonian dynamics perturbed off the manifold indicates the global synchronization transition point for finite N more precisely than the standard Kuramoto order parameter. The uncovered Kuramoto dynamics in Hamiltonian systems thus distinctly links dissipative to conservative dynamics.
Tischler, M. B.; Ringland, R. F.; Jex, H. R.
1983-01-01
The basic aerodynamic and dynamic properties of an example heavy-lift airship (HLA) configuration are analyzed using a nonlinear, multibody, 6-degrees-of-freedom digital simulation. The slung-payload model is described, and a preliminary analysis of the coupled vehicle-payload dynamics is presented. Trim calculations show the importance of control mixing selection and suggest performance deficiencies in crosswind stationkeeping for the unloaded example HLA. Numerically linearized dynamics of the unloaded vehicle exhibit a divergent yaw mode and an oscillatory pitch mode whose stability characteristic is sensitive to flight speed. An analysis of the vehicle-payload dynamics shows significant coupling of the payload dynamics with those of the basic HLA. It is shown that significant improvement in the vehicle's dynamic behavior can be achieved with the incorporation of a simple flight controller having proportional, rate, and integral-error feedbacks.
From Continuous Dynamics to Symbols
Jaeger, Herbert
This article deals with mathematical models of discrete, identifiable, `symbolic' events in neural and cognitive dynamics. These dynamical symbols are the supposed correlates of identifiable motor action patterns, from phoneme utterances to restaurant visits. In the first main part of the article, models of dynamical symbols offered by dynamical systems theory are reviewed: attractors, bifurcations, spatial segregation and boundary formation, and several others. In the second main part, the concept of transient attractor (TA) is offered as yet another mathematical model of dynamical symbols. TAs share with ordinary attractors a basic property, namely, local phase space contraction. However, a TA can disappear almost as soon as it is created, which could (not very rigorously) be interpreted as a bifurcation induced by quickly changing control parameters. Such `fast bifurcation sequences' standardly occur in neural and cognitive dynamics.
Symbolic dynamics and hyperbolic groups
Coornaert, Michel
1993-01-01
Gromov's theory of hyperbolic groups have had a big impact in combinatorial group theory and has deep connections with many branches of mathematics suchdifferential geometry, representation theory, ergodic theory and dynamical systems. This book is an elaboration on some ideas of Gromov on hyperbolic spaces and hyperbolic groups in relation with symbolic dynamics. Particular attention is paid to the dynamical system defined by the action of a hyperbolic group on its boundary. The boundary is most oftenchaotic both as a topological space and as a dynamical system, and a description of this boundary and the action is given in terms of subshifts of finite type. The book is self-contained and includes two introductory chapters, one on Gromov's hyperbolic geometry and the other one on symbolic dynamics. It is intended for students and researchers in geometry and in dynamical systems, and can be used asthe basis for a graduate course on these subjects.
Ahmed, Mohammad W.; Gao, Haiyan; Weller, Henry R.; Holstein, Barry
2007-10-01
pt. A. Plenary session. Opening remarks: experimental tests of chiral symmetry breaking / A. M. Bernstein. [Double pie symbols] scattering / H. Leutwyler. Chiral effective field theory in a [Triangle]-resonance region / V. Pascalutsa. Some recent developments in chiral perturbation theory / Ulf-G. Mei ner. Chiral extrapolation and nucleon structure from the lattice / R.D. Young. Recent results from HAPPEX / R. Michaels. Chiral symmetries and low energy searches for new physics / M.J. Ramsey-Musolf. Kaon physics: recent experimental progress / M. Moulson. Status of the Cabibbo angle / V. Cirigliano. Lattice QCD and nucleon spin structure / J.W. Negele. Spin sum rules and polarizabilities: results from Jefferson lab / J-P Chen. Compton scattering and nucleon polarisabilities / Judith A. McGovern. Virtual compton scattering at MIT-bates / R. Miskimen. Physics results from the BLAST detector at the BATES accelerator / R.P. Redwine. The [Pie sympbol]NN system, recent progress / C. Hanhart. Application of chiral nuclear forces to light nuclei / A. Nogga. New results on few-body experiments at low energy / Y. Nagai. Few-body lattice calculations / M.J. Savage. Research opportunities at the upgraded HI?S facility / H.R. Weller -- pt. B. Goldstone boson dynamics. Working group summary: Goldstone Boson dynamics / G. Colangelo and S. Giovannella. Recent results on radiative Kaon decays from NA48 and NA48/2 / S.G. López. Cusps in K-->3 [Pie symbol] decays / B. Kubis. Recent KTeV results on radiative Kaon decays / M.C. Ronquest. The [Double pie symbols] scattering amplitude / J.R. Peláez. Determination of the Regge parameters in the [Double pie symbols] scattering amplitude / I. Caprini. e+e- Hadronic cross section measurement at DA[symbol]NE with the KLOE detector / P. Beltrame. Measurement of the form factors of e+e- -->2([Pie symbol]+[Pie symbol]-), pp and the resonant parameters of the heavy charmonia at BES / H. Hu. Measurement of e+e- multihadronic cross section below 4
Microbial dynamics in natural aquifers
Bajracharya, Bijendra Man
2016-01-01
Microorganisms in groundwater form ecosystems that can transform chemical compounds. Quantitatively understanding microbial dynamics in soils and groundwater is thus essential for pollutant dynamics and biogeochemistry in the subsurface. This dissertation addresses three factors influencing microbial dynamics in aquifers and soils, namely: (1) the influence of grazing on bacteria in eutrophic aquifers, posing the question whether the carrying capacity of bacteria, which has been observed i...
Nonlinear magnetization dynamics in nanosystems
Mayergoyz, Isaak D; Serpico, Claudio
2014-01-01
As data transfer rates increase within the magnetic recording industry, improvements in device performance and reliability crucially depend on the thorough understanding of nonlinear magnetization dynamics at a sub-nanoscale level. This book offers a modern, stimulating approach to the subject of nonlinear magnetization dynamics by discussing important aspects such as the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation, analytical solutions, and the connection between the general topological and structural aspects of dynamics. An advanced reference for the study and understanding of non
Structural Dynamics of Maneuvering Aircraft.
1987-09-01
AD-RI92 376 STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF MANEUVERING RIRCRAFT(U) CONRAD I TECHNOLOGIES INC KING OF PRUSSIA PR M M REDDI SEP 97 CTI-8601 NRDC-88014-69...REPORT NO. NADC-8014-60 STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF MANEUVERING AIRCRAFT M. Mahadeva Reddi .4 Conrad Technologies, Inc. 650 S. Henderson Rd. D T IQ King of...NO A0 CCESSION NO. R02303001 107601 11. TITLE (Include Security Classfication) (u) STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF MANEUVERING AIRCRAFT 12. PERSONAL AUTHORS) M
Dynamic Diversification in Corporate Credit
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Jin, Xisong;
We characterize diversification in corporate credit using a new class of dynamic copula models which can capture dynamic dependence and asymmetry in large samples of firms. We also document important differences between credit spread and equity return dependence dynamics. Modeling a decade...... the crisis and remain high as well. The most important shocks to credit dependence occur in August of 2007 and in August of 2011, but interestingly these dates are not associated with significant changes to median credit spreads....
Balancer effects in opinion dynamics
Cheon, Taksu
2016-01-01
We introduce a novel type of contrarian agent, the balancer, to Galam model of opinion dynamics, in order to account for the skepticism over one-sidedness and for the sense of fairness. We find that the inclusion of balancers along with floaters and inflexibles brings about a critical point on parametric plane of the dynamical system, which results in the new kind of stable final states of the opinion dynamics, that seem to capture several intriguing features found often in mature democracies.
Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics
Herndon, J. Marvin
2005-01-01
The principles of Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics are disclosed leading to a new way to interpret whole-Earth dynamics. Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics incorporates elements of and unifies the two seemingly divergent dominant theories of continential displacement, plate tectonics theory and Earth expansion theory. Whole-Earth decompression is the consequence of Earth formation from within a Jupiter-like protoplanet with subsequent loss of gases and ices and concomitant rebounding. The i...
Dynamical (Super)Symmetry Breaking
Murayama, H
2001-01-01
Dynamical Symmetry Breaking (DSB) is a concept theorists rely on very often in the discussions of strong dynamics, model building, and hierarchy problems. In this talk, I will discuss why this is such a permeating concept among theorists and how they are used in understanding physics. I also briefly review recent progress in using dynamical symmetry breaking to construct models of supersymmetry breaking and fermion masses.
Chaos for Discrete Dynamical System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lidong Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We prove that a dynamical system is chaotic in the sense of Martelli and Wiggins, when it is a transitive distributively chaotic in a sequence. Then, we give a sufficient condition for the dynamical system to be chaotic in the strong sense of Li-Yorke. We also prove that a dynamical system is distributively chaotic in a sequence, when it is chaotic in the strong sense of Li-Yorke.
Secure High Dynamic Range Images
Med Amine Touil; Noureddine Ellouze
2016-01-01
In this paper, a tone mapping algorithm is proposed to produce LDR (Limited Dynamic Range) images from HDR (High Dynamic Range) images. In the approach, non-linear functions are applied to compress the dynamic range of HDR images. Security tools will be then applied to the resulting LDR images and their effectiveness will be tested on the reconstructed HDR images. Three specific examples of security tools are described in more details: integrity verification using hash function to compute loc...
Stereoscopic High Dynamic Range Video
Rüfenacht, Dominic
2011-01-01
Stereoscopic video content is usually being created by using two or more cameras which are recording the same scene. Traditionally, those cameras have the exact same intrinsic camera parameters. In this project, the exposure times of the cameras differ, allowing to record different parts of the dynamic range of the scene. Image processing techniques are then used to enhance the dynamic range of the captured data. A pipeline for the recording, processing, and displaying of high dynamic range (...
Dynamized Preparations in Cell Culture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ellanzhiyil Surendran Sunila
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Although reports on the efficacy of homeopathic medicines in animal models are limited, there are even fewer reports on the in vitro action of these dynamized preparations. We have evaluated the cytotoxic activity of 30C and 200C potencies of ten dynamized medicines against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites, Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma, lung fibroblast (L929 and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cell lines and compared activity with their mother tinctures during short-term and long-term cell culture. The effect of dynamized medicines to induce apoptosis was also evaluated and we studied how dynamized medicines affected genes expressed during apoptosis. Mother tinctures as well as some dynamized medicines showed significant cytotoxicity to cells during short and long-term incubation. Potentiated alcohol control did not produce any cytotoxicity at concentrations studied. The dynamized medicines were found to inhibit CHO cell colony formation and thymidine uptake in L929 cells and those of Thuja, Hydrastis and Carcinosinum were found to induce apoptosis in DLA cells. Moreover, dynamized Carcinosinum was found to induce the expression of p53 while dynamized Thuja produced characteristic laddering pattern in agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA. These results indicate that dynamized medicines possess cytotoxic as well as apoptosis-inducing properties.
Dynamic HTML: the definitive reference
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Goodman, Danny
2007-01-01
... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii Part I. Dynamic HTML Reference 1. HTML and XHTML Reference Attribute Value Types Shared HTML Element Attributes Shared Event Handler Attributes Alphabetical...
Microbial Cell Dynamics Lab (MCDL)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Microbial Cell Dynamics Laboratory at PNNL enables scientists to study the molecular details of microbes under relevant environmental conditions. The MCDL seeks...
Landscape Construction in Dynamical Systems
Tang, Ying; Yuan, Ruoshi; Wang, Gaowei; Ao, Ping
The idea of landscape has been recently applied to study various of biological problems. We demonstrate that a dynamical structure built into nonlinear dynamical systems allows us to construct such a global optimization landscape, which serves as the Lyapunov function for the ordinary differential equation. We find exact constructions on the landscape for a class of dynamical systems, including a van der Pol type oscillator, competitive Lotka-Volterra systems, and a chaotic system. The landscape constructed provides a new angle for understanding and modelling biological network dynamics.
Dynamic IP Reputation from DNS
2016-06-21
management systems for Internet principals and services – E.g., IP addresses, DNS domains/servers, BGP/AS, etc. – Avoid connections to/from malicious...Operational; data sources for dynamic trust management – Dynamic IP reputation using DNS data 11/4/2009 1 Overview and Motivation • Dynamic Domain...it hosts a few number of bad domains • Ultimate goal: – An on-line dynamic trust/reputation service for IP/Domain 11/4/2009 19 Credits and
Lectures on chaotic dynamical systems
Afraimovich, Valentin
2002-01-01
This book is devoted to chaotic nonlinear dynamics. It presents a consistent, up-to-date introduction to the field of strange attractors, hyperbolic repellers, and nonlocal bifurcations. The authors keep the highest possible level of "physical" intuition while staying mathematically rigorous. In addition, they explain a variety of important nonstandard algorithms and problems involving the computation of chaotic dynamics. The book will help readers who are not familiar with nonlinear dynamics to understand and appreciate sophisticated modern dynamical systems and chaos. Intended for courses in either mathematics, physics, or engineering, prerequisites are calculus, differential equations, and functional analysis.
Molecular Dynamics and Protein Function
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
M. Karplus; J. Kuriyan; Bruce J. Berne
2005-01-01
.... Molecular dynamics simulations provide powerful tools for the exploration of the conformational energy landscape accessible to these molecules, and the rapid increase in computational power coupled...
Kamleh, W; Williams, A G; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.; 10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2003.12.058
2004-01-01
The use of APE smearing or other blocking techniques in fermion actions can provide many advantages. There are many variants of these fat link actions in lattice QCD currently, such as FLIC fermions. Frequently, fat link actions make use of the APE blocking technique in combination with a projection of the blocked links back into the special unitary group. This reunitarisation is often performed using an iterative maximisation of a gauge invariant measure. This technique is not differentiable with respect to the gauge field and thus prevents the use of standard Hybrid Monte Carlo simulation algorithms. The use of an alternative projection technique circumvents this difficulty and allows the simulation of dynamical fat link fermions with standard HMC and its variants.
Nonlinear Dynamic Force Spectroscopy
Björnham, Oscar
2016-01-01
Dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) is an experimental technique that is commonly used to assess information of the strength, energy landscape, and lifetime of noncovalent bio-molecular interactions. DFS traditionally requires an applied force that increases linearly with time so that the bio-complex under investigation is exposed to a constant loading rate. However, tethers or polymers can modulate the applied force in a nonlinear regime. For example, bacterial adhesion pili and polymers with worm-like chain properties are examples of structures that show nonlinear force responses. In these situations, the theory for traditional DFS cannot be readily applied. In this work we expand the theory for DFS to also include nonlinear external forces while still maintaining compatibility with the linear DFS theory. To validate the theory we modeled a bio-complex expressed on a stiff, an elastic and a worm-like chain polymer, using Monte Carlo methods, and assessed the corresponding rupture force spectra. It was found th...
Structural dynamic modification
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A Sestieri
2000-06-01
Vibration and acoustic requirements are becoming increasingly important in the design of mechanical structures, but they are not usually of primary concern in the design process. So the need to vary the structural behaviour to solve noise and vibration problems often occurs at the prototype stage, giving rise to the so-called structural modification problem. In this paper, the direct problem of determing the new response of a system, after some modifications are introduced into the sestem, is analysed using two different databases: the modal database and the frequency response function database. The limitaions of the modal database are discussed. Structural modifications that can be accounted for are lumped masses, springs, dampers and dynamic absorbers.
Dynamics of homogeneous nucleation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toxværd, Søren
2015-01-01
The classical nucleation theory for homogeneous nucleation is formulated as a theory for a density fluctuation in a supersaturated gas at a given temperature. But molecular dynamics simulations reveal that it is small cold clusters which initiates the nucleation. The temperature in the nucleating...... clusters fluctuates, but the mean temperature remains below the temperature in the supersaturated gas until they reach the critical nucleation size. The critical nuclei have, however, a temperature equal to the supersaturated gas. The kinetics of homogeneous nucleation is not only caused by a grow...... or shrink by accretion or evaporation of monomers only but also by an exponentially declining change in cluster size per time step equal to the cluster distribution in the supersaturated gas....
'Shape Dynamics': Foundations Reassessed
Anderson, Edward
2015-01-01
`Shape dynamics' is meant here in the sense of a type of conformogeometrical reformulation of GR, some of which have of late been considered as generalizations of or alternatives to GR. This note concerns in particular cases based on the notion of volume-preserving conformal transformations (VPCTs), in the sense of preserving a solitary global volume of the universe degree of freedom. The extent to which various ways of modelling VPCTs make use of group theory at all, in a congruous manner, and with minimal departure from standard Lie group theory, is considered. This points to changing conception of VPCTs from the current finite integral implementation to an infinitesimal differential implementation (or to avoiding using them at all). Some useful observations from flat-space conformal groups (well-known from CFT) concerning the existence or otherwise of VPCT groups are also provided.
Dynamics of beneficial epidemics
Berdahl, Andrew; De Bacco, Caterina; Dumas, Marion; Ferdinand, Vanessa; Grochow, Joshua A; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Kallus, Yoav; Kempes, Christopher P; Kolchinsky, Artemy; Larremore, Daniel B; Libby, Eric; Power, Eleanor A; Stern, Caitlin A; Tracey, Brendan
2016-01-01
Pathogens can spread epidemically through populations. Beneficial contagions, such as viruses that enhance host survival or technological innovations that improve quality of life, also have the potential to spread epidemically. How do the dynamics of beneficial biological and social epidemics differ from those of detrimental epidemics? We investigate this question using three theoretical approaches as well as an empirical analysis of concept propagation. First, in evolutionary models, we show that a beneficial horizontally-transmissible element, such as viral DNA, spreads super-exponentially through a population, substantially more quickly than a beneficial mutation. Second, in an epidemiological social network approach, we show that infections that cause increased connectivity lead to faster-than-exponential fixation in the population. Third, in a sociological model with strategic rewiring, we find that preferences for increased global infection accelerate spread and produce super-exponential fixation rates,...
Umar, A S; Simenel, C
2015-01-01
For light and medium mass systems the capture cross-section may be considered to be the same as that for complete fusion, whereas for heavy systems leading to superheavy formations the evaporation residue cross-section is dramatically reduced due to the quasifission (QF) and fusion-fission processes thus making the capture cross-section to be essentially the sum of these two cross-sections, with QF occurring at a much shorter time-scale. Consequently, quasifission is the primary reaction mechanism that limits the formation of superheavy nuclei. Within the last few years the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) approach has been utilized for studying the dynamics of quasifission. The study of quasifission is showing a great promise to provide insight based on very favorable comparisons with experimental data. In this article we will focus on the TDHF calculations of quasifission observables for the $^{48}$Ca+$^{249}$Bk system.
Noisy homoclinic pulse dynamics
Eaves, T. S.; Balmforth, Neil J.
2016-04-01
The effect of stochastic perturbations on nearly homoclinic pulse trains is considered for three model systems: a Duffing oscillator, the Lorenz-like Shimizu-Morioka model, and a co-dimension-three normal form. Using the Duffing model as an example, it is demonstrated that the main effect of noise does not originate from the neighbourhood of the fixed point, as is commonly assumed, but due to the perturbation of the trajectory outside that region. Singular perturbation theory is used to quantify this noise effect and is applied to construct maps of pulse spacing for the Shimizu-Morioka and normal form models. The dynamics of these stochastic maps is then explored to examine how noise influences the sequence of bifurcations that take place adjacent to homoclinic connections in Lorenz-like and Shilnikov-type flows.
Butschli Dynamic Droplet System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Armstrong, R.; Hanczyc, M.
2013-01-01
of a technology with living properties. Otto Butschli first described the system in 1898, when he used alkaline water droplets in olive oil to initiate a saponification reaction. This simple recipe produced structures that moved and exhibited characteristics that resembled, at least superficially, the amoeba. We......Dynamical oil-water systems such as droplets display lifelike properties and may lend themselves to chemical programming to perform useful work, specifically with respect to the built environment. We present Butschli water-in-oil droplets as a model for further investigation into the development...... to the oil phase), qualify this system as an example of living technology. The analysis of the Butschli droplets suggests that a set of conditions may precede the emergence of lifelike characteristics and exemplifies the richness of this rudimentary chemical system, not only for artificial life...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steven L. Liebling
2012-05-01
Full Text Available The idea of stable, localized bundles of energy has strong appeal as a model for particles. In the 1950s, John Wheeler envisioned such bundles as smooth configurations of electromagnetic energy that he called geons, but none were found. Instead, particle-like solutions were found in the late 1960s with the addition of a scalar field, and these were given the name boson stars. Since then, boson stars find use in a wide variety of models as sources of dark matter, as black hole mimickers, in simple models of binary systems, and as a tool in finding black holes in higher dimensions with only a single Killing vector. We discuss important varieties of boson stars, their dynamic properties, and some of their uses, concentrating on recent efforts.
Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Roslyng Olesen, Thomas
with companies in the maritime sector. This report “Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics – Business strategies in the offshore supply industry” is the second report in mapping project D. It examines the markets and business strategies of various suppliers and furthermore presents an analysis of the challenges...... at Copenhagen Business School with a focus on value creation in the maritime industries. The project embraces various maritime segments from shipping and offshore to ports and suppliers. The research questions for the individual projects have been formulated by researchers at CBS Maritime in cooperation...... and opportunities for the companies engaged in the different parts of the sector. The report is developed from interviews with top management of key players in the Danish supply industry combined with studies on management literature. The macro- and meso levels of the offshore sector are examined in the CBS...
Mercati, Flavio
2014-01-01
Shape Dynamics (SD) is a new theory of gravity that is based on fewer and more fundamental first principles than General Relativity (GR). The most important feature of SD is the replacement of GR's relativity of simultaneity with a more tractable gauge symmetry, namely invariance under spatial conformal transformations. This Tutorial contains both a quick introduction for readers curious about SD and a detailed walk-through of the historical and conceptual motivations for the theory, its logical development from first principles and an in-depth description of its present status. The Tutorial is sufficiently self-contained for an undergrad student with some basic background in General Relativity and Lagrangian/Hamiltonian mechanics. It is intended both as a reference text for students approaching the subject, and as a review article for researchers interested in the theory. This is a first version of the Tutorial, which will be periodically expanded and updated with the latest results.
Chen, Xiaodong
2012-01-01
In this fluid dynamics video, Ray-tracing data visualization technique was used to obtain realistic and detailed flow motions during impinging of two liquid jets. Different patterns of sheet and rim configurations were presented to shed light into the underlying physics, including liquid chain, closed rim, open rim, unstable rim and flapping sheet. In addition, stationary asymmetrical waves were observed and compared with existing theories. The generation of stationary capillary wave in respect to the liquid rim were explained by the classic shallow water wave theory. The atomization process caused by development of the impact waves were observed in detail, including fragmentation of liquid sheet, formation of liquid ligaments, and breakup of ligament into droplet. The locking-on feature of the wavelength of impact wave were also found to be similar to that of perturbed free shear layers.
Le, Khanh Chau
2012-01-01
The above examples should make clear the necessity of understanding the mechanism of vibrations and waves in order to control them in an optimal way. However vibrations and waves are governed by differential equations which require, as a rule, rather complicated mathematical methods for their analysis. The aim of this textbook is to help students acquire both a good grasp of the first principles from which the governing equations can be derived, and the adequate mathematical methods for their solving. Its distinctive features, as seen from the title, lie in the systematic and intensive use of Hamilton's variational principle and its generalizations for deriving the governing equations of conservative and dissipative mechanical systems, and also in providing the direct variational-asymptotic analysis, whenever available, of the energy and dissipation for the solution of these equations. It will be demonstrated that many well-known methods in dynamics like those of Lindstedt-Poincare, Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky, Ko...
Dynamics of interacting diseases
Sanz, Joaquín; Meloni, Sandro; Moreno, Yamir
2014-01-01
Current modeling of infectious diseases allows for the study of complex and realistic scenarios that go from the population to the individual level of description. Most epidemic models however assume that the spreading process takes place on a single level (be it a single population, a meta-population system or a network of contacts). The latter is in part a consequence of our still limited knowledge about the interdependency of the many mechanisms and factors involved in disease spreading. In particular, interdependent contagion phenomena can only be addressed if we go beyond the scheme one pathogen-one network. In this paper, we study a model that allows describing the spreading dynamics of two concurrent diseases and apply it to a paradigmatic case of disease-disease interaction: the interaction between AIDS and Tuberculosis. Specifically, we characterize analytically the epidemic thresholds of the two diseases for different scenarios and also compute the temporal evolution characterizing the unfolding dyn...
Inflationary Dynamics in Guatemala
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas M. FULLERTON
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract. Short-run price dynamics for Guatemala are analyzedusing a linear transfer function methodology. This approach has previously been employed for other national economies such as the United States, Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, and Nigeria. The data for this study range from 1960 to 2010. Inflation is measured using the consumer price index. Explanatory variables include the monetary base, real output, interest rates, and the exchange rate. Allof the estimated coefficients exhibit the arithmetic signs hypothesized by the theoretical model. Almostall of the parameter estimates satisfy the 5-percent significance criterion and all exhibit economically plausible magnitudes. Estimation results indicate that although monetary policy effects begin to materialize within twelve months of implementation, the bulk of the impacts associated with the money supply do not occur until the second year after any monetary policy action is taken.Keywords. Inflation, Guatemala, Monetary Economics, Applied Econometrics.JEL. C22, E31, O54.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacob, Riko
We determine the computational complexity of the dynamic convex hull problem in the planar case. We present a data structure that maintains a finite set of n points in the plane under insertion and deletion of points in amortized O(log n) time per operation. The space usage of the data structure...... is O(n). The data structure supports extreme point queries in a given direction, tangent queries through a given point, and queries for the neighboring points on the convex hull in O(log n) time. The extreme point queries can be used to decide whether or not a given line intersects the convex hull......, and the tangent queries to determine whether a given point is inside the convex hull. The space usage of the data structure is O(n). We give a lower bound on the amortized asymptotic time complexity that matches the performance of this data structure....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølfting; Jacob, Rico
2002-01-01
In this paper we determine the computational complexity of the dynamic convex hull problem in the planar case. We present a data structure that maintains a finite set of n points in the plane under insertion and deletion of points in amortized O(log n) time per operation. The space usage...... of the data structure is O(n). The data structure supports extreme point queries in a given direction, tangent queries through a given point, and queries for the neighboring points on the convex hull in O(log n) time. The extreme point queries can be used to decide whether or not a given line intersects...... the convex hull, and the tangent queries to determine whether a given point is inside the convex hull. We give a lower bound on the amortized asymptotic time complexity that matches the performance of this data structure....
Machine Learning Exciton Dynamics
Häse, Florian; Pyzer-Knapp, Edward; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2015-01-01
Obtaining the exciton dynamics of large photosynthetic complexes by using mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) is computationally demanding. We propose a machine learning technique, multi-layer perceptrons, as a tool to reduce the time required to compute excited state energies. With this approach we predict time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) excited state energies of bacteriochlorophylls in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex. Additionally we compute spectral densities and exciton populations from the predictions. Different methods to determine multi-layer perceptron training sets are introduced, leading to several initial data selections. In addition, we compute spectral densities and exciton populations. Once multi-layer perceptrons are trained, predicting excited state energies was found to be significantly faster than the corresponding QM/MM calculations. We showed that multi-layer perceptrons can successfully reproduce the energies of QM/MM calculations to a high degree o...
Dynamic wake meandering modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Madsen Aagaard, Helge; Bingöl, Ferhat;
, are an integrated part the model complex. For design applications, the computational efficiency of wake deficit prediction is a key issue. Two computationally low cost models are developed for this purpose. The character of the added wake turbulence, generated by the up-stream turbine in the form of shed......We present a consistent, physically based theory for the wake meandering phenomenon, which we consider of crucial importance for the overall description of wind turbine loadings in wind farms. In its present version the model is confined to single wake situations. The model philosophy does, however......, have the potential to include also mutual wake interaction phenomenons. The basic conjecture behind the dynamic wake meandering model is that wake transportation in the atmospheric boundary layer is driven by the large scale lateral- and vertical turbulence components. Based on this conjecture...
Clerc, Marcel
2016-01-01
This book presents recent advances, new ideas and novel techniques related to the field of nonlinear dynamics, including localized pattern formation, self-organization and chaos. Various natural systems ranging from nonlinear optics to mechanics, fluids and magnetic are considered. The aim of this book is to gather specialists from these various fields of research to promote cross-fertilization and transfer of knowledge between these active research areas. In particular, nonlinear optics and laser physics constitute an important part in this issue due to the potential applications for all-optical control of light, optical storage, and information processing. Other possible applications include the generation of ultra-short pulses using all-fiber cavities.
Knothe, Klaus
2017-01-01
This book on the dynamics of rail vehicles is developed from the manuscripts for a class with the same name at TU Berlin. It is directed mainly to master students with pre-knowledge in mathematics and mechanics and engineers that want to learn more. The important phenomena of the running behaviour of rail vehicles are derived and explained. Also recent research results and experience from the operation of rail vehicles are included. One focus is the description of the complex wheel-rail contact phenomena that are essential to understand the concept of running stability and curving. A reader should in the end be able to understand the background of simulation tools that are used by the railway industry and universities today.
Lovelady, Benjamin C
2015-01-01
According to the Coleman-Mandula theorem, any gauge theory of gravity combined with an internal symmetry based on a Lie group must take the form of a direct product in order to be consistent with basic assumptions of quantum field theory. However, we show that an alternative gauging of a simple group can lead dynamically to a spacetime with compact internal symmetry. The biconformal gauging of the conformal symmetry of n-dim Euclidean space doubles the dimension to give a symplectic manifold. Examining one of the Lagrangian submanifolds in the flat case, we find that in addition to the expected SO(n) connection and curvature, the solder form necessarily becomes Lorentzian. General coordinate invariance gives rise to an SO(n-1,1) connection on the spacetime. The principal fiber bundle character of the original SO(n) guarantees that the two symmetries enter as a direct product, in agreement with the Coleman-Mandula theorem.
Zuk, J.
1976-01-01
The fundamental principles governing dynamic sealing operation are discussed. Different seals are described in terms of these principles. Despite the large variety of detailed construction, there appear to be some basic principles, or combinations of basic principles, by which all seals function, these are presented and discussed. Theoretical and practical considerations in the application of these principles are discussed. Advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and application examples of various conventional and special seals are presented. Fundamental equations governing liquid and gas flows in thin film seals, which enable leakage calculations to be made, are also presented. Concept of flow functions, application of Reynolds lubrication equation, and nonlubrication equation flow, friction and wear; and seal lubrication regimes are explained.
Interactive molecular dynamics
Schroeder, Daniel V
2015-01-01
Physics students now have access to interactive molecular dynamics simulations that can model and animate the motions of hundreds of particles, such as noble gas atoms, that attract each other weakly at short distances but repel strongly when pressed together. Using these simulations, students can develop an understanding of forces and motions at the molecular scale, nonideal fluids, phases of matter, thermal equilibrium, nonequilibrium states, the Boltzmann distribution, the arrow of time, and much more. This article summarizes the basic features and capabilities of such a simulation, presents a variety of student exercises using it at the introductory and intermediate levels, and describes some enhancements that can further extend its uses. A working simulation code, in HTML5 and JavaScript for running within any modern Web browser, is provided as an online supplement.
Bountis, Tassos
2012-01-01
This book introduces and explores modern developments in the well established field of Hamiltonian dynamical systems. It focuses on high degree-of-freedom systems and the transitional regimes between regular and chaotic motion. The role of nonlinear normal modes is highlighted and the importance of low-dimensional tori in the resolution of the famous FPU paradox is emphasized. Novel powerful numerical methods are used to study localization phenomena and distinguish order from strongly and weakly chaotic regimes. The emerging hierarchy of complex structures in such regimes gives rise to particularly long-lived patterns and phenomena called quasi-stationary states, which are explored in particular in the concrete setting of one-dimensional Hamiltonian lattices and physical applications in condensed matter systems. The self-contained and pedagogical approach is blended with a unique balance between mathematical rigor, physics insights and concrete applications. End of chapter exercises and (more demanding) res...
Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Roslyng Olesen, Thomas
at Copenhagen Business School with a focus on value creation in the maritime industries. The project embraces various maritime segments from shipping and offshore to ports and suppliers. The research questions for the individual projects have been formulated by researchers at CBS Maritime in cooperation...... with companies in the maritime sector. This report “Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics – Business strategies in the offshore supply industry” is the second report in mapping project D. It examines the markets and business strategies of various suppliers and furthermore presents an analysis of the challenges...... and opportunities for the companies engaged in the different parts of the sector. The report is developed from interviews with top management of key players in the Danish supply industry combined with studies on management literature. The macro- and meso levels of the offshore sector are examined in the CBS...
Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders
2015-01-01
This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues. Examples for calculations are provided. The aim is to significantly improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels. Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modeling, and scaling techniques all equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels. This book should be purchased by any engineer or public official with responsibility for tunnels. It would also be of interest to many fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.
Charpentier, Arthur; Durand, Marilou
2015-07-01
In this paper, we investigate questions arising in Parsons and Geist (Bull Seismol Soc Am 102:1-11, 2012). Pseudo causal models connecting magnitudes and waiting times are considered, through generalized regression. We do use conditional model (magnitude given previous waiting time, and conversely) as an extension to joint distribution model described in Nikoloulopoulos and Karlis (Environmetrics 19: 251-269, 2008). On the one hand, we fit a Pareto distribution for earthquake magnitudes, where the tail index is a function of waiting time following previous earthquake; on the other hand, waiting times are modeled using a Gamma or a Weibull distribution, where parameters are functions of the magnitude of the previous earthquake. We use those two models, alternatively, to generate the dynamics of earthquake occurrence, and to estimate the probability of occurrence of several earthquakes within a year or a decade.
Interactive molecular dynamics
Schroeder, Daniel V.
2015-03-01
Physics students now have access to interactive molecular dynamics simulations that can model and animate the motions of hundreds of particles, such as noble gas atoms, that attract each other weakly at short distances but repel strongly when pressed together. Using these simulations, students can develop an understanding of forces and motions at the molecular scale, nonideal fluids, phases of matter, thermal equilibrium, nonequilibrium states, the Boltzmann distribution, the arrow of time, and much more. This article summarizes the basic features and capabilities of such a simulation, presents a variety of student exercises using it at the introductory and intermediate levels, and describes some enhancements that can further extend its uses. A working simulation code, in html5 and javascript for running within any modern Web browser, is provided as an online supplement.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dorn, Jochen
profit on well-developed markets. Dynamic participation features on cross asset portfolios are at rst sight a remedy to that dilemma. Based on volatility thresholds and portfolio re-balancing, the fund engineers try to create a "volatility guaranteed" investment opportunity by surfing on the unusual high...... concepts, next to nothing is known about position reverting strategies and how, and -even more important- in which context they are applied in practice. In the recent market downturn only one sector generated signicant profits for the leading investment banks: Volatility trading activities, namely on Forex......, interest rates and commodities. If an investor positions himself on the (volatility) market within a long/short trading framework, he typically bets on a traditional mispricing arbitrage. However as this corresponds to a call spread with equal exercise prices, this strategy alone would not generate enough...
Nazaroff, William W
2016-02-01
Inhaling indoor air is the primary means by which humans are exposed to bioaerosols. Considering bacteria, fungi, and viruses, this study reviews the dynamic processes that govern indoor concentrations and fates of biological particulate material. Bioaerosol behavior is strongly coupled to particle size; this study emphasizes the range 0.1-10 μm in aerodynamic diameter. The principle of material balance allows concentrations to be determined from knowledge of important source and removal processes. Sources reviewed here include outdoor air introduced by air exchange plus indoor emission from occupants, occupant activities, and moldy materials. Important mechanisms that remove bioaerosols from indoor air include air exchange, deposition onto indoor surfaces, and active filtration. The review summarizes knowledge about size-dependent particle deposition in different regions of the respiratory tract, techniques for measuring indoor bioaerosols, and evidence for diseases caused by airborne exposure to bioaerosols. Future research challenges and opportunities are highlighted.
Dynamic Transportation Navigation
Meng, Xiaofeng; Chen, Jidong
Miniaturization of computing devices, and advances in wireless communication and sensor technology are some of the forces that are propagating computing from the stationary desktop to the mobile outdoors. Some important classes of new applications that will be enabled by this revolutionary development include intelligent traffic management, location-based services, tourist services, mobile electronic commerce, and digital battlefield. Some existing application classes that will benefit from the development include transportation and air traffic control, weather forecasting, emergency response, mobile resource management, and mobile workforce. Location management, i.e., the management of transient location information, is an enabling technology for all these applications. In this chapter, we present the applications of moving objects management and their functionalities, in particular, the application of dynamic traffic navigation, which is a challenge due to the highly variable traffic state and the requirement of fast, on-line computations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gueltekin, Kemal [Izmir Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Izmir (Turkey)
2016-03-15
In this study, we give a thorough analysis of a general affine gravity with torsion. After a brief exposition of the affine gravities considered by Eddington and Schroedinger, we construct and analyze different affine gravities based on the determinants of the Ricci tensor, the torsion tensor, the Riemann tensor, and their combinations. In each case we reduce equations of motion to their simplest forms and give a detailed analysis of their solutions. Our analyses lead to the construction of the affine connection in terms of the curvature and torsion tensors. Our solutions of the dynamical equations show that the curvature tensors at different points are correlated via non-local, exponential rescaling factors determined by the torsion tensor. (orig.)
Dynamics of Microtubule Instabilities
Antal, T; Redner, S
2007-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of an idealized model of microtubule growth that evolves by: (i) attachment of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) at rate lambda, (ii) conversion of GTP to guanosine diphosphate (GDP) at rate 1, and (iii) detachment of GDP at rate mu. As a function of these rates, a microtubule can grow steadily or its length can fluctuate wildly. For mu=0, we find the exact tubule and GTP cap length distributions, and power-law length distributions of GTP and GDP islands. For mu=infinity, we argue that the time between catastrophes, where the microtubule shrinks to zero length, scales as exp(lambda). We also find the phase boundary between a growing and shrinking microtubule.
Dynamics of stochastic systems
Klyatskin, Valery I
2005-01-01
Fluctuating parameters appear in a variety of physical systems and phenomena. They typically come either as random forces/sources, or advecting velocities, or media (material) parameters, like refraction index, conductivity, diffusivity, etc. The well known example of Brownian particle suspended in fluid and subjected to random molecular bombardment laid the foundation for modern stochastic calculus and statistical physics. Other important examples include turbulent transport and diffusion of particle-tracers (pollutants), or continuous densities (''''oil slicks''''), wave propagation and scattering in randomly inhomogeneous media, for instance light or sound propagating in the turbulent atmosphere.Such models naturally render to statistical description, where the input parameters and solutions are expressed by random processes and fields.The fundamental problem of stochastic dynamics is to identify the essential characteristics of system (its state and evolution), and relate those to the input parameters of ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frohn, A.; Roth, N. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik der Luft- und Raumfahrt
2000-07-01
Intended to privide an up-to-date overview of the field, this book is also likely to become a standard work of reference on the science of droplets. Beginning with the theoretical background important for droplet dynamics, it continues with a presentation of the various methods for generating single droplets and regular droplet systems. Also included is a detailed description of the experimental methods employed in droplet research. A special chapter is devoted to the various types of droplet interactions without phase transition. A separate chapter then treats many examples of the possible phase transition processes. The final part of the book gives a summary of important applications. With its comprehensive content, this book will be of interest to all scientists and lecturers concerned with two-phase flow, spray technology, heterogeneous combustion, and aerosol science. (orig.)
Stochastic Physicochemical Dynamics
Tsekov, R.
2001-02-01
Thermodynamic Relaxation in Quantum Systems: A new approach to quantum Markov processes is developed and the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation is derived. The latter is examined to reproduce known results from classical and quantum physics. It was also applied to the phase-space description of a mechanical system thus leading to a new treatment of this problem different from the Wigner presentation. The equilibrium probability density obtained in the mixed coordinate-momentum space is a reasonable extension of the Gibbs canonical distribution. The validity of the Einstein fluctuation-dissipation relation is discussed in respect to the type of relaxation in an isothermal system. The first model, presuming isothermic fluctuations, leads to the Einstein formula. The second model supposes adiabatic fluctuations and yields another relation between the diffusion coefficient and mobility of a Brownian particle. A new approach to relaxations in quantum systems is also proposed that demonstrates applicability only of the adiabatic model for description of the quantum Brownian dynamics. Stochastic Dynamics of Gas Molecules: A stochastic Langevin equation is derived, describing the thermal motion of a molecule immersed in a rested fluid of identical molecules. The fluctuation-dissipation theorem is proved and a number of correlation characteristics of the molecular Brownian motion are obtained. A short review of the classical theory of Brownian motion is presented. A new method is proposed for derivation of the Fokker-Planck equations, describing the probability density evolution, from stochastic differential equations. It is also proven via the central limit theorem that the white noise is only Gaussian. The applicability of stochastic differential equations to thermodynamics is considered and a new form, different from the classical Ito and Stratonovich forms, is introduced. It is shown that the new presentation is more appropriate for the description of thermodynamic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Umar A.S.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available For light and medium mass systems the capture cross-section may be considered to be the same as that for complete fusion, whereas for heavy systems leading to superheavy formations the evaporation residue cross-section is dramatically reduced due to the quasifission (QF and fusion-fission processes thus making the capture cross-section to be essentially the sum of these two cross-sections, with QF occurring at a much shorter time-scale. Consequently, quasifission is the primary reaction mechanism that limits the formation of superheavy nuclei. Within the last few years the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF approach has been utilized for studying the dynamics of quasifission. The study of quasifission is showing a great promise to provide insight based on very favorable comparisons with experimental data. In this article we will focus on the TDHF calculations of quasifission observables for the 48Ca+249Bk system.
Lovelady, Benjamin C.; Wheeler, James T.
2016-04-01
According to the Coleman-Mandula theorem, any gauge theory of gravity combined with an internal symmetry based on a Lie group must take the form of a direct product in order to be consistent with basic assumptions of quantum field theory. However, we show that an alternative gauging of a simple group can lead dynamically to a spacetime with compact internal symmetry. The biconformal gauging of the conformal symmetry of n-dimensional Euclidean space doubles the dimension to give a symplectic manifold. Examining one of the Lagrangian submanifolds in the flat case, we find that in addition to the expected S O (n ) connection and curvature, the solder form necessarily becomes Lorentzian. General coordinate invariance gives rise to an S O (n -1 ,1 ) connection on the spacetime. The principal fiber bundle character of the original S O (n ) guarantees that the two symmetries enter as a direct product, in agreement with the Coleman-Mandula theorem.
Dynamics of biomolecular processes
Behringer, Hans; Eichhorn, Ralf; Wallin, Stefan
2013-05-01
The last few years have seen enormous progress in the availability of computational resources, so that the size and complexity of physical systems that can be investigated numerically has increased substantially. The physical mechanisms behind the processes creating life, such as those in a living cell, are of foremost interest in biophysical research. A main challenge here is that complexity not only emerges from interactions of many macro-molecular compounds, but is already evident at the level of a single molecule. An exciting recent development in this context is, therefore, that detailed atomistic level characterization of large-scale dynamics of individual bio-macromolecules, such as proteins and DNA, is starting to become feasible in some cases. This has contributed to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of, e.g. protein folding and aggregation, as well as DNA dynamics. Nevertheless, simulations of the dynamical behaviour of complex multicomponent cellular processes at an all-atom level will remain beyond reach for the foreseeable future, and may not even be desirable. Ultimate understanding of many biological processes will require the development of methods targeting different time and length scales and, importantly, ways to bridge these in multiscale approaches. At the scientific programme Dynamics of biomolecular processes: from atomistic representations to coarse-grained models held between 27 February and 23 March 2012, and hosted by the Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics, new modelling approaches and results for particular biological systems were presented and discussed. The programme was attended by around 30 scientists from the Nordic countries and elsewhere. It also included a PhD and postdoc 'winter school', where basic theoretical concepts and techniques of biomolecular modelling and simulations were presented. One to two decades ago, the biomolecular modelling field was dominated by two widely different and largely
Algebraic dynamics solution and algebraic dynamics algorithm of Burgers equations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Algebraic dynamics solution and algebraic dynamics algorithm of nonlinear partial differential evolution equations in the functional space are applied to Burgers equation. The results indicate that the approach is effective for analytical solutions to Burgers equation, and the algorithm for numerical solutions of Burgers equation is more stable, with higher precision than other existing finite difference algo-rithms.
On dynamic decoupling and dynamic path controllability in economic systems
Nijmeijer, Henk
1989-01-01
In this paper the dynamic decouplability and dynamic path controllability of nonlinear discrete-time economic systems in state space form are discussed. Based on the observation that both properties are equivalent, a (theoretical) efficient way of target path controllability is proposed. This is ill
Dynamic rotation and stretch tensors from a dynamic polar decomposition
Haller, George
2016-01-01
The local rigid-body component of continuum deformation is typically characterized by the rotation tensor, obtained from the polar decomposition of the deformation gradient. Beyond its well-known merits, the polar rotation tensor also has a lesser known dynamical inconsistency: it does not satisfy the fundamental superposition principle of rigid-body rotations over adjacent time intervals. As a consequence, the polar rotation diverts from the observed mean material rotation of fibers in fluids, and introduces a purely kinematic memory effect into computed material rotation. Here we derive a generalized polar decomposition for linear processes that yields a unique, dynamically consistent rotation component, the dynamic rotation tensor, for the deformation gradient. The left dynamic stretch tensor is objective, and shares the principal strain values and axes with its classic polar counterpart. Unlike its classic polar counterpart, however, the dynamic stretch tensor evolves in time without spin. The dynamic rotation tensor further decomposes into a spatially constant mean rotation tensor and a dynamically consistent relative rotation tensor that is objective for planar deformations. We also obtain simple expressions for dynamic analogues of Cauchy's mean rotation angle that characterize a deforming body objectively.
Sampling dynamics: an alternative to payoff-monotone selection dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berkemer, Rainer
options this result is rather counter intuitive and indeed there is experimental evidence which indicates that deviation will be likely even though the Nash equilibrium is strict. One can use the fact that strict Nash equilbria must be also sampling equilibria to test for the ``plausibility......Osborne and Rubinstein introduced sampling equilibria which are based on the concept of ``procedural rationality''. Sethi extended their idea to a dynamic framework which leads to the so called sampling dynamics. Unlike e.g the replicator dynamics this selection dynamics turns out to be neither......'' of the standard game theory result. Both, analytical tools and agent based simulation are used to investigate the dynamic stability of sampling equilibria in a generalized travelers dilemma. Two parameters are of interest: the number of strategy options (m) available to each traveler and an experience parameter...
Dynamic equivalences in the hard-sphere dynamic universality class.
López-Flores, Leticia; Ruíz-Estrada, Honorina; Chávez-Páez, Martín; Medina-Noyola, Magdaleno
2013-10-01
We perform systematic simulation experiments on model systems with soft-sphere repulsive interactions to test the predicted dynamic equivalence between soft-sphere liquids with similar static structure. For this we compare the simulated dynamics (mean squared displacement, intermediate scattering function, α-relaxation time, etc.) of different soft-sphere systems, between them and with the hard-sphere liquid. We then show that the referred dynamic equivalence does not depend on the (Newtonian or Brownian) nature of the microscopic laws of motion of the constituent particles, and hence, applies independently to colloidal and to atomic simple liquids. Finally, we verify another more recently proposed dynamic equivalence, this time between the long-time dynamics of an atomic liquid and its corresponding Brownian fluid (i.e., the Brownian system with the same interaction potential).
Molecular Dynamics of Lipid Bilayers
1989-08-09
The aim of this work is to study, by molecular dynamics simulations, the properties of lipid bilayers. We have applied the vectorizable, order-N...fast angle-dependent force/potential algorithms to treat angle bending and torsion. Keywords: Molecular dynamics , Lipid bilayers.
Emotional effects of dynamic textures
Toet, A.; Henselmans, M.; Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.
2011-01-01
This study explores the effects of various spatiotemporal dynamic texture characteristics on human emotions. The emotional experience of auditory (eg, music) and haptic repetitive patterns has been studied extensively. In contrast, the emotional experience of visual dynamic textures is still largely
Duality in Dynamic Fuzzy Systems
Yoshida, Yuji
1995-01-01
This paper shows the resolvent equation, the maximum principle and the co-balayage theorem for a dynamic fuzzy system. We define a dual system for the dynamic fuzzy system, and gives a duality for Snell's optimal stopping problem by the dual system.
Koza, J.; Rutten, R.J.; Vourlidas, A.
2009-01-01
Context. The solar chromosphere and transition region are highly structured and complex regimes. A recent breakthrough has been the identification of dynamic fibrils observed in Hα as caused by field-aligned magnetoacoustic shocks. Aims. We seek to find whether such dynamic fibrils are also observed
Chaotic Dynamics in Hybrid Systems
P.J. Collins (Pieter)
2008-01-01
htmlabstractIn this paper we give an overview of some aspects of chaotic dynamics in hybrid systems, which comprise different types of behaviour. Hybrid systems may exhibit discontinuous dependence on initial conditions leading to new dynamical phenomena. We indicate how methods from topological
Chaotic dynamics in hybrid systems
P.J. Collins (Pieter)
2008-01-01
htmlabstractIn this paper we give an overview of some aspects of chaotic dynamics in hybrid systems, which comprise different types of behaviour. Hybrid systems may exhibit discontinuous dependence on initial conditions leading to new dynamical phenomena. We indicate how methods from topological
Probing Chemical Dynamics at Surfaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
KLEYN, A.W.; KLEYN, A.W
2001-01-01
An account is given of recent progress concerning chemical reaction dynamics at surfaces. The goal is to elucidate the reaction dynamics at the molecular level, both as time and distance is concerned. The methods of study include molecular beam scattering, scanning tunnelling microscopy, and (femtosecond) laser spectroscopy. Systems studied include elementary interactions of NO, CO, and O2 at single crystal metal surfaces.
Transparent Dynamic reconfiguration for CORBA
Almeida, João Paulo A.; Wegdam, Maarten; Sinderen, van Marten; Nieuwenhuis, Lambert; Blair, G.; Schmidt, D.; Tari, Z.
2001-01-01
Distributed systems with high availability requirements have to support some form of dynamic reconfiguration. This means that they must provide the ability to be maintained or upgraded without being taken off-line. Building a distributed system that allows dynamic reconfiguration is very intrusive t
Spin dynamics in general relativity
Saravanan, S.
2016-01-01
Since all astrophysical objects spin, it is important to study the dynamics of spinning objects in curved space-time. The dynamics of spinning particles are described with a covariant Hamiltonian formalism. In this formalism, the closed set of equations of motion are obtained from Poisson-Dirac
Manual for Dynamic Triaxial Cell
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Thomas Schmidt; Ibsen, Lars Bo
This report is a test report that describes the test setup for a dynamic triaxial cell at the Laboratory for Geotechnique at Aalborg University.......This report is a test report that describes the test setup for a dynamic triaxial cell at the Laboratory for Geotechnique at Aalborg University....
Explicit models for dynamic software
Bosloper, Ivor; Siljee, Johanneke; Nijhuis, Jos; Nord, R; Medvidovic, N; Krikhaar, R; Khrhaar, R; Stafford, J; Bosch, J
2006-01-01
A key aspect in creating autonomous dynamic software systems is the possibility of reasoning about properties of runtime variability and dynamic behavior, e.g. when and how to reconfigure the system. Currently these properties are often not made explicit in the software architecture. We argue that
Improved Dynamic Planar Point Location
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Arge, Lars; Georgiadis, Loukas
2006-01-01
We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time.......We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time....
Introduction to causal dynamical triangulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Görlich, Andrzej
2013-01-01
The method of causal dynamical triangulations is a non-perturbative and background-independent approach to quantum theory of gravity. In this review we present recent results obtained within the four dimensional model of causal dynamical triangulations. We describe the phase structure of the mode...
Molecular dynamics of silicon indentation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kallman, J.S.; Hoover, W.G.; Hoover, C.G.; De Groot, A.J.; Lee, S.M.; Wooten, F. (Department of Applied Science Davis-Livermore, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States))
1993-04-01
We use nonequilibrium molecular dynamics to simulate the elastic-plastic deformation of silicon under tetrahedral nanometer-sized indentors. The results are described in terms of a rate-dependent and temperature-dependent phenomenological yield strength. We follow the structural change during indentation with a computer technique that allows us to model the dynamic simulation of diffraction patterns.
Dynamics of generalized coherent states
De Martino, S; Illuminati, F; De Martino, S; De Siena, S; Illuminati, F
1995-01-01
We show that generalized coherent states follow Schr\\"{o}dinger dynamics in time-dependent potentials. The normalized wave-packets follow a classical evolution without spreading; in turn, the Schr\\"{o}dinger potential depends on the state through the classical trajectory. This feedback mechanism with continuous dynamical re-adjustement allows the packets to remain coherent indefinetely.
Fission dynamics of hot nuclei
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Santanu Pal; Jhilam Sadhukhan
2014-04-01
Experimental evidence accumulated during the last two decades indicates that the fission of excited heavy nuclei involves a dissipative dynamical process. We shall briefly review the relevant dynamical model, namely the Langevin equations for fission. Statistical model predictions using the Kramers’ fission width will also be discussed.
A new hyperchaotic dynamical system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Chong-Xin
2007-01-01
In this paper a new hyperchaotic system is reported. Some basic dynamical properties, such as continuous specare studied. Dynamical behaviours of the new hyperchaotic system are proved by not only numerical simulation and brief theoretical analysis but also an electronic circuit experiment.
Chunking Dynamics: Heteroclinics in Mind
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mikhail I Rabinovich
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Recent results of imaging technologies and nonlinear dynamics make possible to relate the structure and dynamics of functional brain networks to different mental tasks and to build theoretical models for the description and prediction of cognitive activity. Such models are nonlinear dynamical descriptions of the interaction of the core components –brain modes– participating in a specific mental function. The dynamical images of different mental processes depend on their temporal features. The dynamics of many cognitive functions are transient. They are often observed as a chain of sequentially changing metastable states. A stable heteroclinic channel consisting of chain of saddles -metastable states- connected by unstable separatrices is a mathematical image for robust transients. In this paper we focus on hierarchical chunking dynamics that can represent several forms of transient cognitive activity. Chunking is a dynamical phenomenon that nature uses to perform information processing of long sequences by dividing them in shorter information items. Chunking, for example, makes more efficient the use of short-term memory by breaking up long strings of information (like in language where one can see the separation of a novel on chapters, paragraphs, sentences and finally words. Chunking is important in many processes of perception, learning and cognition in humans and animals. Based on anatomical information about the hierarchical organization of functional brain networks, we proposed here a cognitive network architecture that hierarchically chunks and super-chunks switching sequences of metastable states produced by winnerless competitive heteroclinic dynamics.
Dynamic smoothing of nanocomposite films
Pei, Y.T.; Turkin, A; Chen, C.Q.; Shaha, K.P.; Vainshtein, D.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De
2010-01-01
In contrast to the commonly observed dynamic roughening in film growth we have observed dynamic smoothing in the growth of diamondlike-carbon nanocomposite (TiC/a-C) films up to 1.5 mu m thickness. Analytical and numerical simulations, based on the Edwards-Wilkinson model and the Mullins model, visu
Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model
1963-01-01
Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model. The effect of vibration on launch vehicle dynamics was studied. Conditions included three modes of instability. The film includes close up views of the simulator fuel tank with and without stability control. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030984. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov
Elizarova, Tatiana G
2009-01-01
This book presents two interconnected mathematical models generalizing the Navier-Stokes system. The models, called the quasi-gas-dynamic and quasi-hydrodynamic equations, are then used as the basis of numerical methods solving gas- and fluid-dynamic problems.
Campagnoli, Patrizia; Petris, Giovanni
2009-01-01
State space models have gained tremendous popularity in as disparate fields as engineering, economics, genetics and ecology. Introducing general state space models, this book focuses on dynamic linear models, emphasizing their Bayesian analysis. It illustrates the fundamental steps needed to use dynamic linear models in practice, using R package.
Dynamical Systems for Creative Technology
van Amerongen, J.
2010-01-01
Dynamical Systems for Creative Technology gives a concise description of the physical properties of electrical, mechanical and hydraulic systems. Emphasis is placed on modelling the dynamical properties of these systems. By using a system’s approach it is shown that a limited number of mathematical
Modelling dynamic roughness during floods
Paarlberg, Andries; Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Termes, A.P.P.
2007-01-01
In this paper, we present a dynamic roughness model to predict water levels during floods. Hysteresis effects of dune development are explicitly included. It is shown that differences between the new dynamic roughness model, and models where the roughness coefficient is calibrated, are most
Explicit models for dynamic software
Bosloper, Ivor; Siljee, Johanneke; Nijhuis, Jos; Nord, R; Medvidovic, N; Krikhaar, R; Khrhaar, R; Stafford, J; Bosch, J
2006-01-01
A key aspect in creating autonomous dynamic software systems is the possibility of reasoning about properties of runtime variability and dynamic behavior, e.g. when and how to reconfigure the system. Currently these properties are often not made explicit in the software architecture. We argue that h
Dynamic Behaviour of Suction Caissons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liingaard, Morten
to account for the possibilities of dynamic effects of the soil-structure interaction. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the dynamic soil-structure interaction of foundations for offshore wind turbines, with the intention that the dynamic properties of the foundation can be properly included...... and dynamic behaviour of the foundation are predicted accurately with the applied model. The analysis has been carried out for different combinations of the skirt length, soil stiffness and the Poisson's ratio of the subsoil. Subsequently, the high-frequency impedance has been determined for the use in lumped...... the last 25 years. In order to reduce the costs, the overall weight of the wind turbine components is minimized, which means that the wind turbine structures become more flexible and thus more sensitive to dynamic excitation. Since the first resonance frequency of the modern offshore wind turbines is close...
Nonstatistical dynamics on the caldera
Collins, Peter; Carpenter, Barry K; Ezra, Gregory S; Wiggins, Stephen
2014-01-01
We explore both classical and quantum dynamics of a model potential exhibiting a caldera: that is, a shallow potential well with two pairs of symmetry related index one saddles associated with entrance/exit channels. Classical trajectory simulations at several different energies confirm the existence of the `dynamical matching' phenomenon originally proposed by Carpenter, where the momentum direction associated with an incoming trajectory initiated at a high energy saddle point determines to a considerable extent the outcome of the reaction (passage through the diametrically opposing exit channel). By studying a `stretched' version of the caldera model, we have uncovered a generalized dynamical matching: bundles of trajectories can reflect off a hard potential wall so as to end up exiting predominantly through the transition state opposite the reflection point. We also investigate the effects of dissipation on the classical dynamics. In addition to classical trajectory studies, we examine the dynamics of quan...
Ergodic theory and dynamical systems
Coudène, Yves
2016-01-01
This textbook is a self-contained and easy-to-read introduction to ergodic theory and the theory of dynamical systems, with a particular emphasis on chaotic dynamics. This book contains a broad selection of topics and explores the fundamental ideas of the subject. Starting with basic notions such as ergodicity, mixing, and isomorphisms of dynamical systems, the book then focuses on several chaotic transformations with hyperbolic dynamics, before moving on to topics such as entropy, information theory, ergodic decomposition and measurable partitions. Detailed explanations are accompanied by numerous examples, including interval maps, Bernoulli shifts, toral endomorphisms, geodesic flow on negatively curved manifolds, Morse-Smale systems, rational maps on the Riemann sphere and strange attractors. Ergodic Theory and Dynamical Systems will appeal to graduate students as well as researchers looking for an introduction to the subject. While gentle on the beginning student, the book also contains a number of commen...
Mitochondrial Dynamics in Mitochondrial Diseases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan M. Suárez-Rivero
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Mitochondria are very versatile organelles in continuous fusion and fission processes in response to various cellular signals. Mitochondrial dynamics, including mitochondrial fission/fusion, movements and turnover, are essential for the mitochondrial network quality control. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics can cause neuropathies such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease in which mitochondrial fusion and transport are impaired, or dominant optic atrophy which is caused by a reduced mitochondrial fusion. On the other hand, mitochondrial dysfunction in primary mitochondrial diseases promotes reactive oxygen species production that impairs its own function and dynamics, causing a continuous vicious cycle that aggravates the pathological phenotype. Mitochondrial dynamics provides a new way to understand the pathophysiology of mitochondrial disorders and other diseases related to mitochondria dysfunction such as diabetes, heart failure, or Hungtinton’s disease. The knowledge about mitochondrial dynamics also offers new therapeutics targets in mitochondrial diseases.
Classical dynamics a modern perspective
Sudarshan, Ennackal Chandy George
2016-01-01
Classical dynamics is traditionally treated as an early stage in the development of physics, a stage that has long been superseded by more ambitious theories. Here, in this book, classical dynamics is treated as a subject on its own as well as a research frontier. Incorporating insights gained over the past several decades, the essential principles of classical dynamics are presented, while demonstrating that a number of key results originally considered only in the context of quantum theory and particle physics, have their foundations in classical dynamics.Graduate students in physics and practicing physicists will welcome the present approach to classical dynamics that encompasses systems of particles, free and interacting fields, and coupled systems. Lie groups and Lie algebras are incorporated at a basic level and are used in describing space-time symmetry groups. There is an extensive discussion on constrained systems, Dirac brackets and their geometrical interpretation. The Lie-algebraic description of ...
Linear and Nonlinear Dynamical Chaos
Chirikov, B V
1997-01-01
Interrelations between dynamical and statistical laws in physics, on the one hand, and between the classical and quantum mechanics, on the other hand, are discussed with emphasis on the new phenomenon of dynamical chaos. The principal results of the studies into chaos in classical mechanics are presented in some detail, including the strong local instability and robustness of the motion, continuity of both the phase space as well as the motion spectrum, and time reversibility but nonrecurrency of statistical evolution, within the general picture of chaos as a specific case of dynamical behavior. Analysis of the apparently very deep and challenging contradictions of this picture with the quantum principles is given. The quantum view of dynamical chaos, as an attempt to resolve these contradictions guided by the correspondence principle and based upon the characteristic time scales of quantum evolution, is explained. The picture of the quantum chaos as a new generic dynamical phenomenon is outlined together wit...
Nonlinear dynamics in biological systems
Carballido-Landeira, Jorge
2016-01-01
This book presents recent research results relating to applications of nonlinear dynamics, focusing specifically on four topics of wide interest: heart dynamics, DNA/RNA, cell mobility, and proteins. The book derives from the First BCAM Workshop on Nonlinear Dynamics in Biological Systems, held in June 2014 at the Basque Center of Applied Mathematics (BCAM). At this international meeting, researchers from different but complementary backgrounds, including molecular dynamics, physical chemistry, bio-informatics and biophysics, presented their most recent results and discussed the future direction of their studies using theoretical, mathematical modeling and experimental approaches. Such was the level of interest stimulated that the decision was taken to produce this publication, with the organizers of the event acting as editors. All of the contributing authors are researchers working on diverse biological problems that can be approached using nonlinear dynamics. The book will appeal especially to applied math...
Financial fragility and global dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dieci, Roberto [Dipartimento di Matematica per le Scienze Economiche e Sociali, University of Bologna, Viale Filopanti 5, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Sordi, Serena [Dipartimento di Economia Politica, University of Siena, Piazza San Francesco 7, I-53100 Siena (Italy)]. E-mail: sordi@unisi.it; Vercelli, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Economia Politica, University of Siena, Piazza San Francesco 7, I-53100 Siena (Italy)
2006-08-15
This paper deals with a simple model of financial fluctuations, where a crucial role is played by the dynamic interaction between aggregate current and intertemporal financial ratios. The model results in a 4D discrete-time dynamical system-capable of generating complex dynamics-which is analyzed by means of both analytical tools, such as local stability analysis and bifurcation theory, and numerical simulations. The behavior of the model is studied for different parameter regimes. We show that its dynamic behavior is very sensitive to the parameters that represent (1) the speed of adjustment of the desired current financial ratio towards a safe level of the intertemporal one and (2) the intensity with which aggregate current financial decisions affect future financial constraints. In particular, different parameter regimes are identified, giving rise to two different 'routes' to complexity, one leading to chaotic dynamics, the other to a coexistence of attractors and path-dependence.
Dynamic optimization and differential games
Friesz, Terry L
2010-01-01
Dynamic Optimization and Differential Games has been written to address the increasing number of Operations Research and Management Science problems that involve the explicit consideration of time and of gaming among multiple agents. With end-of-chapter exercises throughout, it is a book that can be used both as a reference and as a textbook. It will be useful as a guide to engineers, operations researchers, applied mathematicians and social scientists whose work involves both the theoretical and computational aspects of dynamic optimization and differential games. Included throughout the text are detailed explanations of several original dynamic and game-theoretic mathematical models which are of particular relevance in today's technologically-driven-global economy: revenue management, oligopoly pricing, production planning, supply chain management, dynamic traffic assignment and dynamic congestion pricing. The book emphasizes deterministic theory, computational tools and applications associated with the stu...
Comparing different dynamic stall models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holierhoek, J.G. [Unit Wind Energy, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, ZG, Petten (Netherlands); De Vaal, J.B.; Van Zuijlen, A.H.; Bijl, H. [Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)
2012-07-16
The dynamic stall phenomenon and its importance for load calculations and aeroelastic simulations is well known. Different models exist to model the effect of dynamic stall; however, a systematic comparison is still lacking. To investigate if one is performing better than another, three models are used to simulate the Ohio State University measurements and a set of data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ames experimental study of dynamic stall and compare results. These measurements were at conditions and for aerofoils that are typical for wind turbines, and the results are publicly available. The three selected dynamic stall models are the ONERA model, the Beddoes-Leishman model and the Snel model. The simulations show that there are still significant differences between measurements and models and that none of the models is significantly better in all cases than the other models. Especially in the deep stall regime, the accuracy of each of the dynamic stall models is limited.
Lecture notes: Astrophysical fluid dynamics
Ogilvie, Gordon I
2016-01-01
These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes, and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is 'frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, includin...
High dynamic range subjective testing
Allan, Brahim; Nilsson, Mike
2016-09-01
This paper describes of a set of subjective tests that the authors have carried out to assess the end user perception of video encoded with High Dynamic Range technology when viewed in a typical home environment. Viewers scored individual single clips of content, presented in High Definition (HD) and Ultra High Definition (UHD), in Standard Dynamic Range (SDR), and in High Dynamic Range (HDR) using both the Perceptual Quantizer (PQ) and Hybrid Log Gamma (HLG) transfer characteristics, and presented in SDR as the backwards compatible rendering of the HLG representation. The quality of SDR HD was improved by approximately equal amounts by either increasing the dynamic range or increasing the resolution to UHD. A further smaller increase in quality was observed in the Mean Opinion Scores of the viewers by increasing both the dynamic range and the resolution, but this was not quite statistically significant.
Critical Behaviors in Contagion Dynamics
Böttcher, L.; Nagler, J.; Herrmann, H. J.
2017-02-01
We study the critical behavior of a general contagion model where nodes are either active (e.g., with opinion A , or functioning) or inactive (e.g., with opinion B , or damaged). The transitions between these two states are determined by (i) spontaneous transitions independent of the neighborhood, (ii) transitions induced by neighboring nodes, and (iii) spontaneous reverse transitions. The resulting dynamics is extremely rich including limit cycles and random phase switching. We derive a unifying mean-field theory. Specifically, we analytically show that the critical behavior of systems whose dynamics is governed by processes (i)-(iii) can only exhibit three distinct regimes: (a) uncorrelated spontaneous transition dynamics, (b) contact process dynamics, and (c) cusp catastrophes. This ends a long-standing debate on the universality classes of complex contagion dynamics in mean field and substantially deepens its mathematical understanding.
Permutation Complexity in Dynamical Systems
Amigo, Jose
2010-01-01
The study of permutation complexity can be envisioned as a new kind of symbolic dynamics whose basic blocks are ordinal patterns, that is, permutations defined by the order relations among points in the orbits of dynamical systems. Since its inception in 2002 the concept of permutation entropy has sparked a new branch of research in particular regarding the time series analysis of dynamical systems that capitalizes on the order structure of the state space. Indeed, on one hand ordinal patterns and periodic points are closely related, yet ordinal patterns are amenable to numerical methods, while periodicity is not. Another interesting feature is that since it can be shown that random (unconstrained) dynamics has no forbidden patterns with probability one, their existence can be used as a fingerprint to identify any deterministic origin of orbit generation. This book is primarily addressed to researchers working in the field of nonlinear dynamics and complex systems, yet will also be suitable for graduate stude...
Dynamical systems in population biology
Zhao, Xiao-Qiang
2017-01-01
This research monograph provides an introduction to the theory of nonautonomous semiflows with applications to population dynamics. It develops dynamical system approaches to various evolutionary equations such as difference, ordinary, functional, and partial differential equations, and pays more attention to periodic and almost periodic phenomena. The presentation includes persistence theory, monotone dynamics, periodic and almost periodic semiflows, basic reproduction ratios, traveling waves, and global analysis of prototypical population models in ecology and epidemiology. Research mathematicians working with nonlinear dynamics, particularly those interested in applications to biology, will find this book useful. It may also be used as a textbook or as supplementary reading for a graduate special topics course on the theory and applications of dynamical systems. Dr. Xiao-Qiang Zhao is a University Research Professor at Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada. His main research interests involve applied...
Belowich, Matthew E; Stoddart, J Fraser
2012-03-21
Formation of an imine--from an amine and an aldehyde--is a reversible reaction which operates under thermodynamic control such that the formation of kinetically competitive intermediates are, in the fullness of time, replaced by the thermodynamically most stable product(s). For this fundamental reason, the imine bond has emerged as an extraordinarily diverse and useful one in the hands of synthetic chemists. Imine bond formation is one of a handful of reactions which define a discipline known as dynamic covalent chemistry (DCC), which is now employed widely in the construction of exotic molecules and extended structures on account of the inherent 'proof-reading' and 'error-checking' associated with these reversible reactions. While both supramolecular chemistry and DCC operate under the regime of reversibility, DCC has the added advantage of constructing robust molecules on account of the formation of covalent bonds rather than fragile supermolecules resulting from noncovalent bonding interactions. On the other hand, these products tend to require more time to form--sometimes days or even months--but their formation can often be catalysed. In this manner, highly symmetrical molecules and extended structures can be prepared from relatively simple precursors. When DCC is utilised in conjunction with template-directed protocols--which rely on the use of noncovalent bonding interactions between molecular building blocks in order to preorganise them into certain relative geometries as a prelude to the formation of covalent bonds under equilibrium control--an additional level of control of structure and topology arises which offers a disarmingly simple way of constructing mechanically-interlocked molecules, such as rotaxanes, catenanes, Borromean rings, and Solomon knots. This tutorial review focuses on the use of dynamic imine bonds in the construction of compounds and products formed with and without the aid of additional templates. While synthesis under thermodynamic
Kushnir, Doron; Kollmeier, Juna A; Waldman, Roni
2016-01-01
Zahn (1975) first put forward and calculated in detail the torque experienced by stars in close binary systems due to dynamical tides. His widely used formula for stars with radiative envelopes and convective cores is expressed in terms of the stellar radius, even though the torque is actually being applied to the convective core at the core radius. This results in a large prefactor, which is very sensitive to the global properties of the star, that multiplies the torque. This large factor is compensated by a very small multiplicative factor, $E_{2}$. Although this is mathematically accurate, depending on the application this can lead to significant errors. The problem is even more severe, since the calculation of $E_{2}$ itself is non-trivial, and different authors have obtained inconsistent values of $E_{2}$. Moreover, many codes (e.g. BSE, StarTrack, MESA) interpolate (and sometimes extrapolate) a fit of $E_{2}$ values to the stellar mass, often in regimes where this is not sound practice. We review previo...
Albert, Carlo
2011-01-01
In applied sciences, we often deal with deterministic simulation models that are too slow for simulation-intensive tasks such as calibration or real-time control. In this paper, an emulator for a generic dynamic model, given by a system of ordinary non-linear differential equations, is developed. The non-linear differential equations are linearized and Gaussian white noise is added to account for the non-linearities. The resulting linear stochastic system is conditioned on a set of solutions of the non-linear equations that have been calculated prior to the emulation. A path-integral approach is used to derive the Gaussian distribution of the emulated solution. The solution reveals that most of the computational burden can be shifted to the conditioning phase of the emulator and the complexity of the actual emulation step only scales like $\\mathcal O(Nnm^2)$, where $N$ is the number of time-points at which the solution is to be emulated, $n$ the number of solutions the emulator is conditioned on and $m$ the n...
Truscott, Tadd T; Techet, Alexandra H
2008-01-01
The hydrodynamics associated with water-entry of spheres can be highly variable with respect to the material and kinematic properties of the sphere. This series of five fluid dynamics videos illustrates several subtle but interesting variations that can be seen. The first series of videos contrasts the nature of impact ($Fr = U_o/\\sqrt{gd} = 5.15$) between a hydrophilic (wetting angle of $\\alpha$ = 60$^\\circ$) and hydrophobic sphere ($\\alpha$ = 120$^\\circ$), and illustrates how surface coating can affect whether or not an air cavity is formed; the views from the side and from above are synchronized in time. The second video series illustrates how spin and surface treatments can alter the splash and cavity formation following water entry. The spinning sphere ($S = \\omega r / U_o = 1.7$; $Fr = 5.15$) causes a wedge of fluid to be drawn into the cavity due to the no-slip condition and follows a curved trajectory. The non-spinning sphere ($Fr = 5.15$) has two distinct surface treatments on the left and right hemi...
Barkin, Yu. V.; Ferrandiz, J. M.
Present significance of the study of rotation of Mercury considered as a core-mantle system arises from planned Mercury missions. New high accurate data on Mercury's structure and its physical fields are expected from BepiColombo mission (Anselmi et al., 2001). Investigation of resonant rotation of Mercury, begun by Colombo G. (1966), will play here main part. New approaches to the study of Mercury dynamics and the construction of analytical theory of its resonant rotation are suggested. Within these approaches Mercury is considered as a system of two non-spherical interacting bodies: a core and a mantle. The mantle of Mercury is considered as non-spherical, rigid (or elastic) layer. Inner shell is a liquid core, which occupies a large ellipsoidal cavity of Mercury. This Mercury system moves in the gravitational field of the Sun in resonant traslatory-rotary regime of the resonance 3:2. We take into account only the second harmonic of the force function of the Sun and Mercury. For the study of Mercury rotation we have been used specially designed canonical equations of motion in Andoyer and Poincare variables (Barkin, Ferrandiz, 2001), more convenient for the application of mentioned methods. Approximate observational and some theoretical evaluations of the two main coefficients of Mercury gravitational field J_2 and C22 are known. From observational data of Mariner-10 mission were obtained some first evaluations of these coefficients: J_2 =(8± 6)\\cdot 10-5(Esposito et al., 1977); J_2 =(6± 2)\\cdot 10-5and C22 =(1.0± 0.5)\\cdot 10-5(Anderson et al., 1987). Some theoretical evaluation of ratio of these coefficients has been obtained on the base of study of periodic motions of the system of two non-spherical gravitating bodies (Barkin, 1976). Corresponding values of coefficients consist: J_2 =8\\cdot 10-5and C22 =0.33\\cdot 10-5. We have no data about non-sphericity of inner core of Mercury. Planned missions to Mercury (BepiColombo and Messenger) promise to
Electromagnetics and Fluid Dynamics
Gaitonde, Datta
1998-01-01
Previous efforts focused on developing tools for design of low observables were sustained. The final product was the maturation of a high-order accurate finite-volume based code to solve Maxwell's equations. One of the primary achievements was the development and implementation of efficient filtering techniques which enhance the robustness of high-order and optimized schemes without significant adverse impact on accuracy. This has eliminated the stability barrier which restrains the common use of high-order schemes for conservative wave propagation phenomena on curvilinear meshes. A study was performed of crossing shock interactions under conditions of increasing interaction strength and asymmetry. In the first category, the observed computed topological bifurcations were correlated with the formation of various lines of coalescence and divergence evident in experimental and computed surf-ace oil maps. ne flow structure arising from asymmetric interactions was investigated with particular emphasis on: 1) vorticity dynamics, 2) shock-structure and 3) sidewall vortex loading. Several efforts of the prior year were successfully published in archival journals. The high-order algorithms developed for CEM have been implemented into the FDL3DI CFD code are presently undergoing extensive testing. Preliminary results are highly encouraging.
Friston, K J; Harrison, L; Penny, W
2003-08-01
In this paper we present an approach to the identification of nonlinear input-state-output systems. By using a bilinear approximation to the dynamics of interactions among states, the parameters of the implicit causal model reduce to three sets. These comprise (1) parameters that mediate the influence of extrinsic inputs on the states, (2) parameters that mediate intrinsic coupling among the states, and (3) [bilinear] parameters that allow the inputs to modulate that coupling. Identification proceeds in a Bayesian framework given known, deterministic inputs and the observed responses of the system. We developed this approach for the analysis of effective connectivity using experimentally designed inputs and fMRI responses. In this context, the coupling parameters correspond to effective connectivity and the bilinear parameters reflect the changes in connectivity induced by inputs. The ensuing framework allows one to characterise fMRI experiments, conceptually, as an experimental manipulation of integration among brain regions (by contextual or trial-free inputs, like time or attentional set) that is revealed using evoked responses (to perturbations or trial-bound inputs, like stimuli). As with previous analyses of effective connectivity, the focus is on experimentally induced changes in coupling (cf., psychophysiologic interactions). However, unlike previous approaches in neuroimaging, the causal model ascribes responses to designed deterministic inputs, as opposed to treating inputs as unknown and stochastic.
Computational fluid dynamic applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, S.-L.; Lottes, S. A.; Zhou, C. Q.
2000-04-03
The rapid advancement of computational capability including speed and memory size has prompted the wide use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes to simulate complex flow systems. CFD simulations are used to study the operating problems encountered in system, to evaluate the impacts of operation/design parameters on the performance of a system, and to investigate novel design concepts. CFD codes are generally developed based on the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy that govern the characteristics of a flow. The governing equations are simplified and discretized for a selected computational grid system. Numerical methods are selected to simplify and calculate approximate flow properties. For turbulent, reacting, and multiphase flow systems the complex processes relating to these aspects of the flow, i.e., turbulent diffusion, combustion kinetics, interfacial drag and heat and mass transfer, etc., are described in mathematical models, based on a combination of fundamental physics and empirical data, that are incorporated into the code. CFD simulation has been applied to a large variety of practical and industrial scale flow systems.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Frandsen, Peter Frands
2009-01-01
We consider maintaining information about the rank of a matrix under changes of the entries. For n×n matrices, we show an upper bound of O(n1.575) arithmetic operations and a lower bound of Ω(n) arithmetic operations per element change. The upper bound is valid when changing up to O(n0.575) entri...... closed fields. The upper bound for element updates uses fast rectangular matrix multiplication, and the lower bound involves further development of an earlier technique for proving lower bounds for dynamic computation of rational functions.......We consider maintaining information about the rank of a matrix under changes of the entries. For n×n matrices, we show an upper bound of O(n1.575) arithmetic operations and a lower bound of Ω(n) arithmetic operations per element change. The upper bound is valid when changing up to O(n0.575) entries...... in a single column of the matrix. We also give an algorithm that maintains the rank using O(n2) arithmetic operations per rank one update. These bounds appear to be the first nontrivial bounds for the problem. The upper bounds are valid for arbitrary fields, whereas the lower bound is valid for algebraically...
Dynamics of Massive Atmospheres
Chemke, Rei; Kaspi, Yohai
2017-08-01
The many recently discovered terrestrial exoplanets are expected to hold a wide range of atmospheric masses. Here the dynamic-thermodynamic effects of atmospheric mass on atmospheric circulation are studied using an idealized global circulation model by systematically varying the atmospheric surface pressure. On an Earth analog planet, an increase in atmospheric mass weakens the Hadley circulation and decreases its latitudinal extent. These changes are found to be related to the reduction of the convective fluxes and net radiative cooling (due to the higher atmospheric heat capacity), which, respectively, cool the upper troposphere at mid-low latitudes and warm the troposphere at high latitudes. These together decrease the meridional temperature gradient, tropopause height and static stability. The reduction of these parameters, which play a key role in affecting the flow properties of the tropical circulation, weakens and contracts the Hadley circulation. The reduction of the meridional temperature gradient also decreases the extraction of mean potential energy to the eddy fields and the mean kinetic energy, which weakens the extratropical circulation. The decrease of the eddy kinetic energy decreases the Rhines wavelength, which is found to follow the meridional jet scale. The contraction of the jet scale in the extratropics results in multiple jets and meridional circulation cells as the atmospheric mass increases.
Dynamic Batch Bayesian Optimization
Azimi, Javad; Fern, Xiaoli
2011-01-01
Bayesian optimization (BO) algorithms try to optimize an unknown function that is expensive to evaluate using minimum number of evaluations/experiments. Most of the proposed algorithms in BO are sequential, where only one experiment is selected at each iteration. This method can be time inefficient when each experiment takes a long time and more than one experiment can be ran concurrently. On the other hand, requesting a fix-sized batch of experiments at each iteration causes performance inefficiency in BO compared to the sequential policies. In this paper, we present an algorithm that asks a batch of experiments at each time step t where the batch size p_t is dynamically determined in each step. Our algorithm is based on the observation that the sequence of experiments selected by the sequential policy can sometimes be almost independent from each other. Our algorithm identifies such scenarios and request those experiments at the same time without degrading the performance. We evaluate our proposed method us...
Zamir, Mair
2016-01-01
Praise for Hemo-Dynamics: “This book provides an elegant and intuitive derivation of the fundamental mathematics underlying fluid flow, and then applies these in a straightforward way to pulsatile blood flow in all its complexity. One of the triumphs of the book is that Zamir succeeds in making essential concepts such as the Navier-Stokes equations completely accessible to any reader with a knowledge of basic calculus. The author succeeds in conveying both the beauty of his subject matter, and his passion for the elegance and intricacies of fluid flow more generally.” Lindi Wahl, PhD, Professor of Applied Mathematics, The University of Western Ontario “Incredible, the figures alone are to die for… At first glance “Hemo-Dynamics” seems like a deep engineering and modeling dive into the mechanical properties of the cardiovascular system, blood, and how they interact to generate flow and pressure. However, the text is laid out in a stepwise manner and I was especially impressed in the way that ...
MDplot: Visualise Molecular Dynamics.
Margreitter, Christian; Oostenbrink, Chris
2017-05-10
The MDplot package provides plotting functions to allow for automated visualisation of molecular dynamics simulation output. It is especially useful in cases where the plot generation is rather tedious due to complex file formats or when a large number of plots are generated. The graphs that are supported range from those which are standard, such as RMsD/RMsF (root-mean-square deviation and root-mean-square fluctuation, respectively) to less standard, such as thermodynamic integration analysis and hydrogen bond monitoring over time. All told, they address many commonly used analyses. In this article, we set out the MDplot package's functions, give examples of the function calls, and show the associated plots. Plotting and data parsing is separated in all cases, i.e. the respective functions can be used independently. Thus, data manipulation and the integration of additional file formats is fairly easy. Currently, the loading functions support GROMOS, GROMACS, and AMBER file formats. Moreover, we also provide a Bash interface that allows simple embedding of MDplot into Bash scripts as the final analysis step. The package can be obtained in the latest major version from CRAN (https://cran.r-project.org/package=MDplot) or in the most recent version from the project's GitHub page at https://github.com/MDplot/MDplot, where feedback is also most welcome. MDplot is published under the GPL-3 license.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ben-Zvi I.; Kuczewski A.; Altinbas, Z.; Beavis, D.; Belomestnykh,; Dai, J. et al
2012-07-01
The Collider-Accelerator Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory is building a high-brightness 500 mA capable Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) as one of its main R&D thrusts towards eRHIC, the polarized electron - hadron collider as an upgrade of the operating RHIC facility. The ERL is in final assembly stages, with injection commisioning starting in October 2012. The objective of this ERL is to serve as a platform for R&D into high current ERL, in particular issues of halo generation and control, Higher-Order Mode (HOM) issues, coherent emissions for the beam and high-brightness, high-power beam generation and preservation. The R&D ERL features a superconducting laser-photocathode RF gun with a high quantum efficiency photoccathode served with a load-lock cathode delivery system, a highly damped 5-cell accelerating cavity, a highly flexible single-pass loop and a comprehensive system of beam instrumentation. In this ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter article we will describe the ERL in a degree of detail that is not usually found in regular publications. We will discuss the various systems of the ERL, following the electrons from the photocathode to the beam dump, cover the control system, machine protection etc and summarize with the status of the ERL systems.
Dynamics of immigration control.
Djajic, S
1999-01-01
This paper examines the dynamic implications of US border control policies and internal enforcement measures for the pattern of illegal immigration and the sectoral allocation of clandestine foreign workers. Efforts to counteract illegal immigration into the US have been increasing steadily following the passage of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. The purpose of the Act is to reduce illegal immigration with the aid of three instruments: 1) employer sanctions; 2) increased controls along the border; and 3) a legalization program designed to meet the existing demand for agricultural labor in geographic locations that are in proximity of Mexico, the principal source of clandestine foreign labor. The effect of tougher border control measures increases the cost of illegal entry, discouraging clandestine inflows. On the other hand, these measures induce migrants to increase their own anti-detection efforts, reducing the probability of detection and the deportation rate. If the latter effect should dominate, the steady-state stock of clandestine foreign labor will actually increase in response to more vigorous border control measures. Explicit consideration of the role of networks in the clandestine labor market suggests the need for a drastic policy change. This policy change should target illegal migration in areas with high concentrations of clandestine foreign workers. Complementary measures should accompany this policy change to prevent unbalanced enforcement measures.
Davidhizar, R; Bowen, M
1992-04-01
The benefits of humor have been accepted throughout human history. Humor is widely accepted for its positive physiological and psychological effects in a variety of situations. The psychiatric literature purports humor as an effective tool in psychiatric illness and psychotherapy. The benefits of humor in business, management, and education are also being described because the right perspective facilitates problem solving both interpersonally and in a group setting, and humor puts people at ease, promoting expression and the exchange of ideas. In the nursing literature, humor and laughter are increasingly presented as an approach that can assist the nurse in meeting health-related goals and objectives. Not only can humor benefit the patient, but the use of humor can facilitate effective management of staff and others encountered in the health care setting. Humor also has negative functions. Although the nursing literature on humor identifies that there are some situations in which humor is contraindicated, little attention is given to the problem created for the nurse when others, i.e., patients or family members, fellow staff members, or physicians, laugh inappropriately. This article discusses the assessment of laughter. Benefits of laughter and humor are described. The causes of inappropriate laughter are outlined, and the dynamics of inappropriate laughter are considered. Finally, implications for nursing practice are discussed.
Data Systems Dynamic Simulator
Rouff, Christopher; Clark, Melana; Davenport, Bill; Message, Philip
1993-01-01
The Data System Dynamic Simulator (DSDS) is a discrete event simulation tool. It was developed for NASA for the specific purpose of evaluating candidate architectures for data systems of the Space Station era. DSDS provides three methods for meeting this requirement. First, the user has access to a library of standard pre-programmed elements. These elements represent tailorable components of NASA data systems and can be connected in any logical manner. Secondly, DSDS supports the development of additional elements. This allows the more sophisticated DSDS user the option of extending the standard element set. Thirdly, DSDS supports the use of data streams simulation. Data streams is the name given to a technique that ignores packet boundaries, but is sensitive to rate changes. Because rate changes are rare compared to packet arrivals in a typical NASA data system, data stream simulations require a fraction of the CPU run time. Additionally, the data stream technique is considerably more accurate than another commonly-used optimization technique.
Dynamic multimedia annotation tool
Pfund, Thomas; Marchand-Maillet, Stephane
2001-12-01
Annotating image collections is crucial for different multimedia applications. Not only this provides an alternative access to visual information but it is a critical step to perform the evaluation of content-based image retrieval systems. Annotation is a tedious task so that there is a real need for developing tools that lighten the work of annotators. The tool should be flexible and offer customization so as to make the annotator the most comfortable. It should also automate the most tasks as possible. In this paper, we present a still image annotation tool that has been developed with the aim of being flexible and adaptive. The principle is to create a set of dynamic web pages that are an interface to a SQL database. The keyword set is fixed and every image receives from concurrent annotators a set of keywords along with time stamps and annotator Ids. Each annotator has the possibility of going back and forth within the collection and its previous annotations. He is helped by a number of search services and customization options. An administrative section allows the supervisor to control the parameter of the annotation, including the keyword set, given via an XML structure. The architecture of the tool is made flexible so as to accommodate further options through its development.
Dynamics of continental accretion.
Moresi, L; Betts, P G; Miller, M S; Cayley, R A
2014-04-10
Subduction zones become congested when they try to consume buoyant, exotic crust. The accretionary mountain belts (orogens) that form at these convergent plate margins have been the principal sites of lateral continental growth through Earth's history. Modern examples of accretionary margins are the North American Cordilleras and southwest Pacific subduction zones. The geologic record contains abundant accretionary orogens, such as the Tasmanides, along the eastern margin of the supercontinent Gondwana, and the Altaïdes, which formed on the southern margin of Laurasia. In modern and ancient examples of long-lived accretionary orogens, the overriding plate is subjected to episodes of crustal extension and back-arc basin development, often related to subduction rollback and transient episodes of orogenesis and crustal shortening, coincident with accretion of exotic crust. Here we present three-dimensional dynamic models that show how accretionary margins evolve from the initial collision, through a period of plate margin instability, to re-establishment of a stable convergent margin. The models illustrate how significant curvature of the orogenic system develops, as well as the mechanism for tectonic escape of the back-arc region. The complexity of the morphology and the evolution of the system are caused by lateral rollback of a tightly arcuate trench migrating parallel to the plate boundary and orthogonally to the convergence direction. We find geological and geophysical evidence for this process in the Tasmanides of eastern Australia, and infer that this is a recurrent and global phenomenon.
Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Schwabe, Lars
2017-06-19
Stressful events have a major impact on memory. They modulate memory formation in a time-dependent manner, closely linked to the temporal profile of action of major stress mediators, in particular catecholamines and glucocorticoids. Shortly after stressor onset, rapidly acting catecholamines and fast, non-genomic glucocorticoid actions direct cognitive resources to the processing and consolidation of the ongoing threat. In parallel, control of memory is biased towards rather rigid systems, promoting habitual forms of memory allowing efficient processing under stress, at the expense of "cognitive" systems supporting memory flexibility and specificity. In this review, we discuss the implications of this shift in the balance of multiple memory systems for the dynamics of the memory trace. Specifically, stress appears to hinder the incorporation of contextual details into the memory trace, to impede the integration of new information into existing knowledge structures, to impair the flexible generalisation across past experiences, and to hamper the modification of memories in light of new information. Delayed, genomic glucocorticoid actions might reverse the control of memory, thus restoring homeostasis and "cognitive" control of memory again.
Neirotti, Juan
2016-07-01
We consider the process of opinion formation in a society of interacting agents, where there is a set B of socially accepted rules. In this scenario, we observed that agents, represented by simple feed-forward, adaptive neural networks, may have a conservative attitude (mostly in agreement with B ) or liberal attitude (mostly in agreement with neighboring agents) depending on how much their opinions are influenced by their peers. The topology of the network representing the interaction of the society's members is determined by a graph, where the agents' properties are defined over the vertexes and the interagent interactions are defined over the bonds. The adaptability of the agents allows us to model the formation of opinions as an online learning process, where agents learn continuously as new information becomes available to the whole society (online learning). Through the application of statistical mechanics techniques we deduced a set of differential equations describing the dynamics of the system. We observed that by slowly varying the average peer influence in such a way that the agents attitude changes from conservative to liberal and back, the average social opinion develops a hysteresis cycle. Such hysteretic behavior disappears when the variance of the social influence distribution is large enough. In all the cases studied, the change from conservative to liberal behavior is characterized by the emergence of conservative clusters, i.e., a closed knitted set of society members that follow a leader who agrees with the social status quo when the rule B is challenged.
Relativistic impulse dynamics.
Swanson, Stanley M
2011-08-01
Classical electrodynamics has some annoying rough edges. The self-energy of charges is infinite without a cutoff. The calculation of relativistic trajectories is difficult because of retardation and an average radiation reaction term. By reconceptuallizing electrodynamics in terms of exchanges of impulses rather than describing it by forces and potentials, we eliminate these problems. A fully relativistic theory using photonlike null impulses is developed. Numerical calculations for a two-body, one-impulse-in-transit model are discussed. A simple relationship between center-of-mass scattering angle and angular momentum was found. It reproduces the Rutherford cross section at low velocities and agrees with the leading term of relativistic distinguishable-particle quantum cross sections (Møller, Mott) when the distance of closest approach is larger than the Compton wavelength of the particle. Magnetism emerges as a consequence of viewing retarded and advanced interactions from the vantage point of an instantaneous radius vector. Radiation reaction becomes the local conservation of energy-momentum between the radiating particle and the emitted impulse. A net action is defined that could be used in developing quantum dynamics without potentials. A reinterpretation of Newton's laws extends them to relativistic motion.
Goldstein, Sheldon; Struyve, Ward
2015-01-01
Non-relativistic de Broglie-Bohm theory describes particles moving under the guidance of the wave function. In de Broglie's original formulation, the particle dynamics is given by a first-order differential equation. In Bohm's reformulation, it is given by Newton's law of motion with an extra potential that depends on the wave function—the quantum potential—together with a constraint on the possible velocities. It was recently argued, mainly by numerical simulations, that relaxing this velocity constraint leads to a physically untenable theory. We provide further evidence for this by showing that for various wave functions the particles tend to escape the wave packet. In particular, we show that for a central classical potential and bound energy eigenstates the particle motion is often unbounded. This work seems particularly relevant for ways of simulating wave function evolution based on Bohm's formulation of the de Broglie-Bohm theory. Namely, the simulations may become unstable due to deviations from the velocity constraint.
Dynamic Development of Hydrofracture
Ghani, Irfan; Koehn, Daniel; Toussaint, Renaud; Passchier, Cees Willem
2013-11-01
Many natural examples of complex joint and vein networks in layered sedimentary rocks are hydrofractures that form by a combination of pore fluid overpressure and tectonic stresses. In this paper, a two-dimensional hybrid hydro-mechanical formulation is proposed to model the dynamic development of natural hydrofractures. The numerical scheme combines a discrete element model (DEM) framework that represents a porous solid medium with a supplementary Darcy based pore-pressure diffusion as continuum description for the fluid. This combination yields a porosity controlled coupling between an evolving fracture network and the associated hydraulic field. The model is tested on some basic cases of hydro-driven fracturing commonly found in nature, e.g., fracturing due to local fluid overpressure in rocks subjected to hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic tectonic loadings. In our models we find that seepage forces created by hydraulic pressure gradients together with poroelastic feedback upon discrete fracturing play a significant role in subsurface rock deformation. These forces manipulate the growth and geometry of hydrofractures in addition to tectonic stresses and the mechanical properties of the porous rocks. Our results show characteristic failure patterns that reflect different tectonic and lithological conditions and are qualitatively consistent with existing analogue and numerical studies as well as field observations. The applied scheme is numerically efficient, can be applied at various scales and is computational cost effective with the least involvement of sophisticated mathematical computation of hydrodynamic flow between the solid grains.
Dynamics of neural cryptography.
Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Kanter, Ido
2007-05-01
Synchronization of neural networks has been used for public channel protocols in cryptography. In the case of tree parity machines the dynamics of both bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning is driven by attractive and repulsive stochastic forces. Thus it can be described well by a random walk model for the overlap between participating neural networks. For that purpose transition probabilities and scaling laws for the step sizes are derived analytically. Both these calculations as well as numerical simulations show that bidirectional interaction leads to full synchronization on average. In contrast, successful learning is only possible by means of fluctuations. Consequently, synchronization is much faster than learning, which is essential for the security of the neural key-exchange protocol. However, this qualitative difference between bidirectional and unidirectional interaction vanishes if tree parity machines with more than three hidden units are used, so that those neural networks are not suitable for neural cryptography. In addition, the effective number of keys which can be generated by the neural key-exchange protocol is calculated using the entropy of the weight distribution. As this quantity increases exponentially with the system size, brute-force attacks on neural cryptography can easily be made unfeasible.
Dynamical generation of flavour
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Charanjit Kaur Khosa
2016-02-01
We propose the generation of Standard Model fermion hierarchy by the extension of renormalizable SO(10) GUT with O(Ng) family gauge symmetry. In this scenario, Higgs representations of SO(10) also carry family indices and are called Yukawons. Vacuum expectation values of these Yukawon fields break GUT and family symmetry and generate MSSM Yukawa couplings dynamically. We have demonstrated this idea using $10 \\oplus 210 \\oplus 126 \\oplus \\overline{126}$ Higgs irrep, ignoring the contribution of 120-plet which is, however, required for complete fitting of fermion mass-mixing data. The effective MSSM matter fermion couplings to the light Higgs pair are determined by the null eigenvectors of the MSSM-type Higgs doublet superfield mass matrix $\\mathcal{H}$. A consistency condition on the doublet ([1, 2,±1]) mass matrix (Det($\\mathcal{H}$) = 0) is required to keep one pair of Higgs doublets light in the effective MSSM. We show that the Yukawa structure generated by null eigenvectors of $\\mathcal{H}$ are of generic kind required by the MSSM. A hidden sector with a pair of (Sab; ab) fields breaks supersymmetry and facilitates DO(Ng) = 0. SUSY breaking is communicated via supergravity. In this scenario, matter fermion Yukawa couplings are reduced from 15 to just 3 parameters in MSGUT with three generations.
Baryon resonances as dynamically generated states in chiral dynamics
Jido, Dasiuke
2012-01-01
We discuss baryon resonances which are dynamically generated in hadron dynamics based on chiral coupled channels approach. With the dynamical description of the baryon resonance, we discuss the origin of the resonance pole, finding that for the description of N(1535) some other components than meson and baryon are necessary. Since the chiral unitary model provides a microscopic description in terms of constituent hadrons, it is straightforward to calculate transition amplitudes and form factors of resonances without introducing further parameters. Finally we briefly discuss few-body nuclear kaonic systems as hadronic molecular states.
Maurits, N.M; Fraaije, J.G E M
1997-01-01
In this paper we apply nonlocal kinetic coupling to the dynamic mean-field density functional method, which is derived from generalized time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau theory. The method is applied to the mesoscopic dynamics of copolymer melts, which was previously simulated using a local coupling ap
Maurits, NM; Fraaije, JGEM
1997-01-01
In this paper we apply nonlocal kinetic coupling to the dynamic mean-field density functional method, which is derived from generalized time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau theory. The method is applied to the mesoscopic dynamics of copolymer melts, which was previously simulated using a local coupling ap
2011-06-15
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