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Sample records for dynamics internal rotation

  1. Rotational characterization of methyl methacrylate: Internal dynamics and structure determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbers, Sven; Wachsmuth, Dennis; Obenchain, Daniel A.; Grabow, Jens-Uwe

    2018-01-01

    Rotational constants, Watson's S centrifugal distortion coefficients, and internal rotation parameters of the two most stable conformers of methyl methacrylate were retrieved from the microwave spectrum. Splittings of rotational energy levels were caused by two non equivalent methyl tops. Constraining the centrifugal distortion coefficients and internal rotation parameters to the values of the main isotopologues, the rotational constants of all single substituted 13C and 18O isotopologues were determined. From these rotational constants the substitution structures and semi-empirical zero point structures of both conformers were precisely determined.

  2. Ultrafast internal rotational dynamics of the azido group in (4S)-azidoproline: Chemical exchange 2DIR spectroscopic investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung-Koo; Park, Kwang-Hee; Joo, Cheonik; Kwon, Hyeok-Jun; Han, Hogyu [Department of Chemistry, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Jeong-Hyon [Multidimensional Spectroscopy Laboratory, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sungnam, E-mail: spark8@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Multidimensional Spectroscopy Laboratory, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Minhaeng, E-mail: mcho@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Multidimensional Spectroscopy Laboratory, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-02

    Graphical abstract: Internal rotational dynamics of the azido group in SA (Ac-(4S)-Azp-NHMe) was studied in real time by using ultrafast 2DIR spectroscopic method. The time constant of the internal rotation around the C{sup {gamma}}-N{sup {delta}} bond in SA was determined to be {tau}{sub ir} = 5.1 ps, which is found to be much faster than that around the C-C bond in ethane. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Femtosecond two-dimensional IR spectroscopy of internal rotational dynamics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stereo-electronic effects of azido group in azido-derivatized proline peptide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The timescale of the azido group internal rotation is about 5.1 ps. - Abstract: The azido group in 4-azidoproline (Azp) derivative, SA (Ac-(4S)-Azp-NHMe), can form an intramolecular electrostatic interaction with the backbone peptide in the s-trans and C{sup {gamma}}-endo conformations of SA. As a result, the azido group exists as two forms, bound and free, which are defined by the presence and absence of such interaction, respectively. The bound and free azido forms are spectrally resolved in the azido IR spectrum of SA in CHCl{sub 3}. Using the two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) and polarization-controlled IR pump-probe methods, we investigated the internal rotational and orientational relaxation dynamics of the azido group and determined the internal rotational time constant of the azido group to be 5.1 ps. The internal rotational motion is found to be responsible for the early part of the orientational relaxation of the azido group in SA. Thus, the femtosecond 2DIR spectroscopy is shown to be an ideal tool for studying ultrafast conformational dynamics of SA.

  3. Kinematics and Dynamics Analysis of a 3-DOF Upper-Limb Exoskeleton with an Internally Rotated Elbow Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The contradiction between self-weight and load capacity of a power-assisted upper-limb exoskeleton for material hanging is unresolved. In this paper, a non-anthropomorphic 3-degree of freedom (DOF upper-limb exoskeleton with an internally rotated elbow joint is proposed based on an anthropomorphic 5-DOF upper-limb exoskeleton for power-assisted activity. The proposed 3-DOF upper-limb exoskeleton contains a 2-DOF shoulder joint and a 1-DOF internally rotated elbow joint. The structural parameters of the 3-DOF upper-limb exoskeleton were determined, and the differences and singularities of the two exoskeletons were analyzed. The workspace, the joint torques and the power consumption of two exoskeletons were analyzed by kinematics and dynamics, and an exoskeleton prototype experiment was performed. The results showed that, compared with a typical anthropomorphic upper-limb exoskeleton, the non-anthropomorphic 3-DOF upper-limb exoskeleton had the same actual workspace; eliminated singularities within the workspace; improved the elbow joint force situation; and the maximum elbow joint torque, elbow external-flexion/internal-extension and shoulder flexion/extension power consumption were significantly reduced. The proposed non-anthropomorphic 3-DOF upper-limb exoskeleton can be applied to a power-assisted upper-limb exoskeleton in industrial settings.

  4. Poloidal rotation dynamics, radial electric field, and neoclassical theory in the jet internal-transport-barrier region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombé, K; Andrew, Y; Brix, M; Giroud, C; Hacquin, S; Hawkes, N C; Murari, A; Nave, M F F; Ongena, J; Parail, V; Van Oost, G; Voitsekhovitch, I; Zastrow, K-D

    2005-10-07

    Results from the first measurements of a core plasma poloidal rotation velocity (upsilontheta) across internal transport barriers (ITB) on JET are presented. The spatial and temporal evolution of the ITB can be followed along with the upsilontheta radial profiles, providing a very clear link between the location of the steepest region of the ion temperature gradient and localized spin-up of upsilontheta. The upsilontheta measurements are an order of magnitude higher than the neoclassical predictions for thermal particles in the ITB region, contrary to the close agreement found between the determined and predicted particle and heat transport coefficients [K.-D. Zastrow, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 46, B255 (2004)]. These results have significant implications for the understanding of transport barrier dynamics due to their large impact on the measured radial electric field profile.

  5. Kinematics and Dynamics Analysis of a 3-DOF Upper-Limb Exoskeleton with an Internally Rotated Elbow Joint

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Wang; Qiuzhi Song; Xiaoguang Wang; Pengzhan Liu

    2018-01-01

    The contradiction between self-weight and load capacity of a power-assisted upper-limb exoskeleton for material hanging is unresolved. In this paper, a non-anthropomorphic 3-degree of freedom (DOF) upper-limb exoskeleton with an internally rotated elbow joint is proposed based on an anthropomorphic 5-DOF upper-limb exoskeleton for power-assisted activity. The proposed 3-DOF upper-limb exoskeleton contains a 2-DOF shoulder joint and a 1-DOF internally rotated elbow joint. The structural parame...

  6. Rotational dynamics with Tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eadkhong, T; Danworaphong, S; Rajsadorn, R; Jannual, P

    2012-01-01

    We propose the use of Tracker, freeware for video analysis, to analyse the moment of inertia (I) of a cylindrical plate. Three experiments are performed to validate the proposed method. The first experiment is dedicated to find the linear coefficient of rotational friction (b) for our system. By omitting the effect of such friction, we derive I for a cylindrical plate rotated around its central axis from the other two experiments based on the relation between torque and angular acceleration of rotational motion and conservation of energy. Movies of the rotating plate and hung masses are recorded. As a result, we have the deviation of I from its theoretical value of 0.4% and 3.3%, respectively. Our setup is completely constructed from locally available inexpensive materials and the experimental results indicate that the system is highly reliable. This work should pave the way for those who prefer to build a similar setup from scratch at relatively low cost compared to commercial units. (paper)

  7. Structure of molecules and internal rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Mizushima, San-Ichiro

    1954-01-01

    Structure of Molecules and Internal Rotation reviews early studies on dihalogenoethanes. This book is organized into two parts encompassing 8 chapters that evaluate the Raman effect in ethane derivatives, the energy difference between rotational isomers, and the infrared absorption of ethane derivatives. Some of the topics covered in the book are the potential barrier to internal rotation; nature of the hindering potential; entropy difference between the rotational isomers; internal rotation in butane, pentane, and hexane; and internal rotation in long chain n-paraffins. Other chapters deal wi

  8. Internal rotation of the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvall, T.L. Jr.; Goode, P.R.; Gouch, D.O.

    1984-01-01

    The frequency difference between prograde and retrograde sectoral solar oscillations is analysed to determine the rotation rate of the solar interior, assuming no latitudinal dependence. Much of the solar interior rotates slightly less rapidly than the surface, while the innermost part apparently rotates more rapidly. The resulting solar gravitational quadrupole moment is J 2 = (1.7 +- 0.4) x 10 -7 and provides a negligible contribution to current planetary tests of Einstein's theory of general relativity. (author)

  9. Statics and rotational dynamics of composite beams

    CERN Document Server

    Ghorashi, Mehrdaad

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive study of the nonlinear statics and dynamics of composite beams and consists of solutions with and without active elements embedded in the beams. The static solution provides the initial conditions for the dynamic analysis. The dynamic problems considered include the analyses of clamped (hingeless) and articulated (hinged) accelerating rotating beams. Two independent numerical solutions for the steady state and the transient responses are presented. The author illustrates that the transient solution of the nonlinear formulation of accelerating rotating beam converges to the steady state solution obtained by the shooting method. Other key areas considered include calculation of the effect of perturbing the steady state solution, coupled nonlinear flap-lag dynamics of a rotating articulated beam with hinge offset and aerodynamic damping, and static and dynamic responses of nonlinear composite beams with embedded anisotropic piezo-composite actuators. The book is intended as a t...

  10. Dynamics of Tidally Locked, Ultrafast Rotating Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xianyu; Showman, Adam P.

    2017-10-01

    Tidally locked gas giants, which exhibit a novel regime of day-night thermal forcing and extreme stellar irradiation, are typically in several-day orbits, implying slow rotation and a modest role for rotation in the atmospheric circulation. Nevertheless, there exist a class of gas-giant, highly irradiated objects - brown dwarfs orbiting white dwarfs in extremely tight orbits - whose orbital and hence rotation periods are as short as 1-2 hours. Spitzer phase curves and other observations have already been obtained for this fascinating class of objects, which raise fundamental questions about the role of rotation in controlling the circulation. So far, most modeling studies have investigated rotation periods exceeding a day, as appropriate for typical hot Jupiters. In this work we investigate the dynamics of tidally locked atmospheres in shorter rotation periods down to about two hours. With increasing rotation rate (decreasing rotation period), we show that the width of the equatorial eastward jet decreases, consistent with the narrowing of wave-mean-flow interacting region due to decrease of the equatorial deformation radius. The eastward-shifted equatorial hot spot offset decreases accordingly, and the westward-shifted hot regions poleward of the equatorial jet associated with Rossby gyres become increasingly distinctive. At high latitudes, winds becomes weaker and more geostrophic. The day-night temperature contrast becomes larger due to the stronger influence of rotation. Our simulated atmospheres exhibit small-scale variability, presumably caused by shear instability. Unlike typical hot Jupiters, phase curves of fast-rotating models show an alignment of peak flux to secondary eclipse. Our results have important implications for phase curve observations of brown dwarfs orbiting white dwarfs in ultra tight orbits.

  11. History of rotating machinery dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, JS

    2011-01-01

    This book starts with the invention of the wheel nearly 5000 years ago, and via Archimedes, Aristotle and Hero describes the first practical applications such as water wheels and grinding wheels, pushing on to more rigorous scientific research by inquiring minds such as Leonardo da Vinci and Copernicus in later ages. Newton and Leibniz followed, and beam structures received maximum attention three centuries ago. As focus shifts and related disciplines such as mathematics and physics also develop, slowly turbomachines and rotor and blade dynamics as we know the subject now take shape. While the

  12. VMAT optimization with dynamic collimator rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Qihui; O'Connor, Daniel; Ruan, Dan; Yu, Victoria; Nguyen, Dan; Sheng, Ke

    2018-04-16

    Although collimator rotation is an optimization variable that can be exploited for dosimetric advantages, existing Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) optimization uses a fixed collimator angle in each arc and only rotates the collimator between arcs. In this study, we develop a novel integrated optimization method for VMAT, accounting for dynamic collimator angles during the arc motion. Direct Aperture Optimization (DAO) for Dynamic Collimator in VMAT (DC-VMAT) was achieved by adding to the existing dose fidelity objective an anisotropic total variation term for regulating the fluence smoothness, a binary variable for forming simple apertures, and a group sparsity term for controlling collimator rotation. The optimal collimator angle for each beam angle was selected using the Dijkstra's algorithm, where the node costs depend on the estimated fluence map at the current iteration and the edge costs account for the mechanical constraints of multi-leaf collimator (MLC). An alternating optimization strategy was implemented to solve the DAO and collimator angle selection (CAS). Feasibility of DC-VMAT using one full-arc with dynamic collimator rotation was tested on a phantom with two small spherical targets, a brain, a lung and a prostate cancer patient. The plan was compared against a static collimator VMAT (SC-VMAT) plan using three full arcs with 60 degrees of collimator angle separation in patient studies. With the same target coverage, DC-VMAT achieved 20.3% reduction of R50 in the phantom study, and reduced the average max and mean OAR dose by 4.49% and 2.53% of the prescription dose in patient studies, as compared with SC-VMAT. The collimator rotation co-ordinated with the gantry rotation in DC-VMAT plans for deliverability. There were 13 beam angles in the single-arc DC-VMAT plan in patient studies that requires slower gantry rotation to accommodate multiple collimator angles. The novel DC-VMAT approach utilizes the dynamic collimator rotation during arc

  13. Earth Rotation Dynamics: Review and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    2004-01-01

    Modem space geodetic measurement of Earth rotation variations, particularly by means of the VLBI technique, has over the years allowed studies of Earth rotation dynamics to advance in ever-increasing precision, accuracy, and temporal resolution. A review will be presented on our understanding of the geophysical and climatic causes, or "excitations", for length-of-day change, polar motion, and nutations. These excitations sources come from mass transports that constantly take place in the Earth system comprised of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, mantle, and the cores. In this sense, together with other space geodetic measurements of time-variable gravity and geocenter motion, Earth rotation variations become a remote-sensing tool for the integral of all mass transports, providing valuable information about the latter on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Future prospects with respect to geophysical studies with even higher accuracy and resolution will be discussed.

  14. The viscous dynamics of a rotating plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, B.W.; Simpson, S.W.

    1978-01-01

    The rotational velocity of a high-density, partially-ionized neon plasma has been calculated as a function of time using a dynamical model in which J x B and viscous forces act on the plasma. The calculation of appropriate transport coefficients is discussed in detail. The model is used to predict measured voltages in a plasma centrifuge experiment. Observations of neon isotope separation in this experiment have been reported in a previous paper (James and Simpson 1976). (author)

  15. Creating the perfect intern anaesthesia rotation: a survey using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This feedback will be used to improve the current intern training programme for anaesthesia and to structure the rotation according to their needs. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to Pietermaritzburg (PMB) interns who completed their anaesthesia intern rotation between 2008 and 2010. Two data sets were collected: ...

  16. Nonlinear quantum dynamics in diatomic molecules: Vibration, rotation and spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ciann-Dong; Weng, Hung-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This paper reveals the internal nonlinear dynamics embedded in a molecular quantum state. ► Analyze quantum molecular dynamics in a deterministic way, while preserving the consistency with probability interpretation. ► Molecular vibration–rotation interaction and spin–orbital coupling are considered simultaneously. ► Spin is just the remnant angular motion when orbital angular momentum is zero. ► Spin is the “zero dynamics” of nonlinear quantum dynamics. - Abstract: For a given molecular wavefunction Ψ, the probability density function Ψ ∗ Ψ is not the only information that can be extracted from Ψ. We point out in this paper that nonlinear quantum dynamics of a diatomic molecule, completely consistent with the probability prediction of quantum mechanics, does exist and can be derived from the quantum Hamilton equations of motion determined by Ψ. It can be said that the probability density function Ψ ∗ Ψ is an external representation of the quantum state Ψ, while the related Hamilton dynamics is an internal representation of Ψ, which reveals the internal mechanism underlying the externally observed random events. The proposed internal representation of Ψ establishes a bridge between nonlinear dynamics and quantum mechanics, which allows the methods and tools already developed by the former to be applied to the latter. Based on the quantum Hamilton equations of motion derived from Ψ, vibration, rotation and spin motions of a diatomic molecule and the interactions between them can be analyzed simultaneously. The resulting dynamic analysis of molecular motion is compared with the conventional probability analysis and the consistency between them is demonstrated.

  17. Rotational Spectrum of 1,1-Difluoroethane: Internal Rotation Analysis and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamanan, R. M.; Chen, W. D.; Wlodarczak, G.; Demaison, J.; Lesarri, A. G.; Lopez, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

    1995-05-01

    The rotational spectrum of CH3CHF2 in its ground state was measured up to 653 GHz. Accurate rotational and centrifugal distortion constants were determined. The internal rotation splittings were analyzed using the internal axis method. An ab initio structure has been calculated and a near-equilibrium structure has been estimated using offsets derived empirically. This structure was compared to an experimental r0 structure. The four lowest excited states (including the methyl torsion) have also been assigned.

  18. Dynamic international oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van der Linde, C.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic International Oil Market Developments and Structure 1860-1990 discusses the logic of changing market structures of the international oil industry. The market structures have, in the course of time, oscillated between competition and oligopoly, as the oil market expanded, matured, stagnated, and expanded again. This book provides a dynamic interpretation of the intensifying struggle among producer, and consumer governments, and oil companies, over the distribution of economic rents and profits. In particular, it shows the shifting fortunes of the governments and companies as they try to control the recurring capacity constraints between the upstream and downstream sectors, generated by the instability of the oil market. The first part of the book examines market conditions and developments between 1860 and 1990; the second part analyzes market structures after 1945

  19. Dynamics of gas in a rotating galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis contains a series of papers that deal with some aspects of the gas-dynamics in a disk galaxy. The dissertation is divided in three parts. In the first part, the three dimensional response to the rotating barred potential is studied. Here, the strongest simplication is made: the pressure is neglected. This turns the problem from a global into a local one and leaves the equations of motion for a star or test particle. What if the pressure term is included. It turned out that no efficient numerical methods for computing steady gas flows with strong shocks were available. The key assumption of the second part of this thesis is the existence of a stationary solution. In that case, significant short-cuts over time-dependent integration schemes must be attainable. The various steps that lead to an efficient numerical method are described. In the third part of this dissertation, a two-dimensional code was developed. Technical aspects of the computer program are described as well as the properties of the computed quasi-steady solution. An initial global gas dynamical model for our Galaxy is constructed from one of the solutions. Here the main problem is the determination of the position of the sun in the model. (Auth.)

  20. INTERNAL-CYCLE VARIATION OF SOLAR DIFFERENTIAL ROTATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, K. J.; Xie, J. L.; Shi, X. J.

    2013-01-01

    The latitudinal distributions of the yearly mean rotation rates measured by Suzuki in 1998 and 2012 and Pulkkinen and Tuominen in 1998 are utilized to investigate internal-cycle variation of solar differential rotation. The rotation rate at the solar equator seems to have decreased since cycle 10 onward. The coefficient B of solar differential rotation, which represents the latitudinal gradient of rotation, is found to be smaller in the several years after the minimum of a solar cycle than in the several years after the maximum time of the cycle, and it peaks several years after the maximum time of the solar cycle. The internal-cycle variation of the solar rotation rates looks similar in profile to that of the coefficient B. A new explanation is proposed to address such a solar-cycle-related variation of the solar rotation rates. Weak magnetic fields may more effectively reflect differentiation at low latitudes with high rotation rates than at high latitudes with low rotation rates, and strong magnetic fields may more effectively repress differentiation at relatively low latitudes than at high latitudes. The internal-cycle variation is inferred as the result of both the latitudinal migration of the surface torsional pattern and the repression of strong magnetic activity in differentiation.

  1. Geometrical changes during the internal rotation in ethane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monkhorst, H. J.

    Theoretical and experimental indications are presented that the predominant geometrical change during the internal rotation in ethane is a stretching of the CC bond by about 1%. going from the staggered to the eclipsed conformation. This suggests that the rotation barrier is primarily caused by the

  2. Partitioning of methyl internal rotational barrier energy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The nature of methyl internal rotational barrier in thioacetaldehyde has been investigated by relaxation effect, natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis and Pauling exchange interactions. The true experimental barrier can be obtained by considering fully relaxed rotation. Nuclear-electron attraction term is a barrier forming term in ...

  3. Solar Internal Rotation and Dynamo Waves: A Two Dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Solar Internal Rotation and Dynamo Waves: A Two Dimensional. Asymptotic Solution in the Convection Zone ... We calculate here a spatial 2 D structure of the mean magnetic field, adopting real profiles of the solar internal ... of the asymptotic solution in low (middle) and high (right panel) latitudes. field is shifted towards the ...

  4. The low internal rotation barriers of halogenated toluenes: Rotational spectrum of 2,4-difluorotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, K. P. Rajappan; Herbers, Sven; Obenchain, Daniel A.; Grabow, Jens-Uwe; Lesarri, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    The rotational spectrum of 2,4-difluorotoluene in the region 5-25 GHz has been studied by pulsed supersonic jet using Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. The tunneling splitting due to the methyl internal rotation in the ground torsional state could be unambiguously identified and the threefold (V3) potential barrier hindering the internal rotation of the methyl top was determined as 2.80144 (82) kJ/mol. The ground-state rotational parameters for the parent and seven 13C isotopic species in natural abundance were determined with high accuracy, including all quartic centrifugal distortion constants. The electric dipole moment μ = 1.805(42) D was obtained from Stark effect measurements. The molecular structure was derived using the substitution (rs) method. Supporting ab initio (MP2) calculations provided comparative values for the potential barrier and molecular parameters.

  5. Methyl internal rotation in the microwave spectrum of vinyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha Vinh Lam; Jabri, Atef; Van, Vinh; Stahl, Wolfgang

    2014-12-26

    The rotational spectrum of vinyl acetate, CH3(CO)OCH═CH2, was measured using two molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectrometers operating in the frequency range from 2 to 40 GHz. Large splittings up to 2 GHz occurred due to the internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group CH3CO with a V3 potential of 151.492(34) cm(-1), much larger than the barrier of approximately 100 cm(-1) often found in acetates. The torsional transitions were fitted using three different programs XIAM, ERHAM, and BELGI-Cs, whereby the rotational constants, centrifugal distortion constants, and the internal rotation parameters could be determined with very high accuracy. The experimental results were supported by quantum chemical calculations. For a conformational analysis, potential energy surfaces were calculated.

  6. Simple Models for the Dynamic Modeling of Rotating Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Delamotte

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Large Finite Element (FE models of tires are currently used to predict low frequency behavior and to obtain dynamic model coefficients used in multi-body models for riding and comfort. However, to predict higher frequency behavior, which may explain irregular wear, critical rotating speeds and noise radiation, FE models are not practical. Detailed FE models are not adequate for optimization and uncertainty predictions either, as in such applications the dynamic solution must be computed a number of times. Therefore, there is a need for simpler models that can capture the physics of the tire and be used to compute the dynamic response with a low computational cost. In this paper, the spectral (or continuous element approach is used to derive such a model. A circular beam spectral element that takes into account the string effect is derived, and a method to simulate the response to a rotating force is implemented in the frequency domain. The behavior of a circular ring under different internal pressures is investigated using modal and frequency/wavenumber representations. Experimental results obtained with a real untreaded truck tire are presented and qualitatively compared with the simple model predictions with good agreement. No attempt is made to obtain equivalent parameters for the simple model from the real tire results. On the other hand, the simple model fails to represent the correct variation of the quotient of the natural frequency by the number of circumferential wavelengths with the mode count. Nevertheless, some important features of the real tire dynamic behavior, such as the generation of standing waves and part of the frequency/wavenumber behavior, can be investigated using the proposed simplified model.

  7. 9th IFToMM International Conference on Rotor Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the 9th IFToMM International Conference on Rotor Dynamics. This conference is a premier global event that brings together specialists from the university and industry sectors worldwide in order to promote the exchange of knowledge, ideas, and information on the latest developments and applied technologies in the dynamics of rotating machinery. The coverage is wide ranging, including, for example, new ideas and trends in various aspects of bearing technologies, issues in the analysis of blade dynamic behavior,  condition monitoring of different rotating machines, vibration control, electromechanical and fluid-structure interactions in rotating machinery, rotor dynamics of micro, nano, and cryogenic machines, and applications of rotor dynamics in transportation engineering. Since its inception 32 years ago, the IFToMM International Conference on Rotor Dynamics has become an irreplaceable point of reference for those working in the field, and this book reflects the high qua...

  8. Coherent spin-rotational dynamics of oxygen superrotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Alexander A.; Korobenko, Aleksey; Milner, Valery

    2014-09-01

    We use state- and time-resolved coherent Raman spectroscopy to study the rotational dynamics of oxygen molecules in ultra-high rotational states. While it is possible to reach rotational quantum numbers up to N≈ 50 by increasing the gas temperature to 1500 K, low population levels and gas densities result in correspondingly weak optical response. By spinning {{O}2} molecules with an optical centrifuge, we efficiently excite extreme rotational states with N≤slant 109 in high-density room temperature ensembles. Fast molecular rotation results in the enhanced robustness of the created rotational wave packets against collisions, enabling us to observe the effects of weak spin-rotation coupling in the coherent rotational dynamics of oxygen. The decay rate of spin-rotational coherence due to collisions is measured as a function of the molecular angular momentum and its dependence on the collisional adiabaticity parameter is discussed. We find that at high values of N, the rotational decoherence of oxygen is much faster than that of the previously studied non-magnetic nitrogen molecules, pointing at the effects of spin relaxation in paramagnetic gases.

  9. Controlling the quantum rotational dynamics of a driven planar rotor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Archana Shukla

    †Dedicated to the memory of late Professor Charusita Chakravarty. To a large extent the ..... study the long time quantum dynamics using only the one cycle propagator. .... distributions, including the short time rotational rain- bow features and ...

  10. Rotational Spectrum and Internal Rotation Barrier of 1-Chloro-1,1-difluoroethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, José L.; López, Juan C.; Blanco, Susana; Guarnieri, Antonio

    1997-03-01

    The rotational spectra of 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC-142b) has been investigated in the frequency region 8-115 GHz with Stark, waveguide Fourier transform (FTMW), and millimeter-wave spectrometers. Assignments in large frequency regions with the corresponding frequency measurements have been made for the ground andv18= 1 (CH3torsion) vibrational states of the35Cl isotopomer and for the ground state of the37Cl species. Accurate rotational, quartic centrifugal distortion, and quadrupole coupling constants have been determined from global fits considering all these states. SmallA-Einternal rotation splittings have been observed for thev18= 1 vibrational state using FTMW spectroscopy. The barrier height for the internal rotation of the methyl group has been determined to be 3751 (4) cal mol-1, in disagreement with the previous microwave value of 4400 (100) cal mol-1reported by G. Graner and C. Thomas [J. Chem. Phys.49,4160-4167 (1968)].

  11. Dynamical pairing correlations in rotating nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    When the atomic nucleus rotates fast enough the static pair correlations may be destroyed. In this situation the pair-vibrations become an important manifestation of the short-range attractive pairing force. The influence of this effect on nuclear properties at high spin is discussed. (orig.)

  12. Unbalance influence on the rotating assembly dynamics of a hydro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcu, M.; Pădureanu, I.; Campian, C. V.; Haţiegan, C.

    2018-01-01

    The dynamics of the rotating parts of a hydro is characterized by the dynamic interaction between the rotor, the stator and the working fluid in order to operate the hydro. The main factors influencing the dynamics of the rotating parts of a hydro are: rotor unbalance, unbalanced magnetic pull, shaft misalignment and hydraulic flow regime. Rotor unbalanced is one of the most common factors influencing the dynamic stability of the rotating parts of a hydro. The unbalanced is determined by: uneven distribution of rotating masses, displacement of parts in the rotor during rotation, inhomogeneity of rotor component materials, expansion of the rotor due to heating, and rising speed during the transient discharge of the load. The mechanical imbalance of a rotor can lead to important forces, responsible for the vibration of the machine, which ultimately leads to a shorter operating time. Even a low unbalance can lead, in the case of high speed machines, to major unbalance forces that cause significant damage to the equipment. The unbalance forces cause additional vibrations in the bearings as well as in the foundation plate. To avoid these vibrations, it is necessary in the first stage to balance the static rotor in the construction plant and then to a dynamic rotation balancing.

  13. Core rotational dynamics and geological events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greff-Lefftz; Legros

    1999-11-26

    A study of Earth's fluid core oscillations induced by lunar-solar tidal forces, together with tidal secular deceleration of Earth's axial rotation, shows that the rotational eigenfrequency of the fluid core and some solar tidal waves were in resonance around 3.0 x 10(9), 1.8 x 10(9), and 3 x 10(8) years ago. The associated viscomagnetic frictional power at the core boundaries may be converted into heat and would destabilize the D" thermal layer, leading to the generation of deep-mantle plumes, and would also increase the temperature at the fluid core boundaries, perturbing the core dynamo process. Such phenomena could account for large-scale episodes of continental crust formation, the generation of flood basalts, and abrupt changes in geomagnetic reversal frequency.

  14. Rotational dynamics of propylene inside Na-Y zeolite cages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report here the quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) studies on the dynamics of propylene inside Na-Y zeolite using triple axis spectrometer (TAS) at Dhruva reactor, Trombay. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations performed on the system had shown that the rotational motion involves energy larger than that involved ...

  15. A new picture for the internal rotation of the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis describes a helioseismic quest to determine the angular velocity inside the Sun as a function of depth and latitude. The author analyzes rotational frequency splittings extracted from 15 days of full-disk observations of the solar acoustic oscillations (1 = 15-99) obtained with the Fourier Tachometer (a Doppler analyzing instrument design by Tim Brown). She has compared the observed frequency splittings to those generated by several different physically-motivated models for the solar internal angular velocity. She also introduces convenient preliminary analysis techniques, which require no formal computations and which guide the choices of rotation models. He analysis suggests that the differential rotation in latitude observed at the solar surface pervades the convection zone and perhaps even deeper layers. Thus, the convection zone appears to contain little or no radial gradient of angular velocity. The analysis further indicates that the angular velocity of the outer portion of the radiative interior is constant, or nearly so, at a value that is intermediate between the relatively fast equatorial rate and the slower polar rate of the surface profile. This new picture of the Sun's internal rotation implies that a significant radial gradient exists only in a transitional layer between the convection zone and the radiative interior. This model has intriguing implications for the solar dynamo, for the current distribution and transport of angular momentum, and for the current distribution and transport of angular momentum, and for the rotational and evolutionary history of the Sun

  16. Coarsening dynamics of binary liquids with active rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabrina, Syeda; Spellings, Matthew; Glotzer, Sharon C; Bishop, Kyle J M

    2015-11-21

    Active matter comprised of many self-driven units can exhibit emergent collective behaviors such as pattern formation and phase separation in both biological (e.g., mussel beds) and synthetic (e.g., colloidal swimmers) systems. While these behaviors are increasingly well understood for ensembles of linearly self-propelled "particles", less is known about the collective behaviors of active rotating particles where energy input at the particle level gives rise to rotational particle motion. A recent simulation study revealed that active rotation can induce phase separation in mixtures of counter-rotating particles in 2D. In contrast to that of linearly self-propelled particles, the phase separation of counter-rotating fluids is accompanied by steady convective flows that originate at the fluid-fluid interface. Here, we investigate the influence of these flows on the coarsening dynamics of actively rotating binary liquids using a phenomenological, hydrodynamic model that combines a Cahn-Hilliard equation for the fluid composition with a Navier-Stokes equation for the fluid velocity. The effect of active rotation is introduced though an additional force within the Navier-Stokes equations that arises due to gradients in the concentrations of clockwise and counter-clockwise rotating particles. Depending on the strength of active rotation and that of frictional interactions with the stationary surroundings, we observe and explain new dynamical behaviors such as "active coarsening" via self-generated flows as well as the emergence of self-propelled "vortex doublets". We confirm that many of the qualitative behaviors identified by the continuum model can also be found in discrete, particle-based simulations of actively rotating liquids. Our results highlight further opportunities for achieving complex dissipative structures in active materials subject to distributed actuation.

  17. Studying rotational dynamics with a smartphone—accelerometer versus gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braskén, Mats; Pörn, Ray

    2017-07-01

    The wide-spread availability of smartphones makes them a valuable addition to the measurement equipment of both the physics classroom and the instructional physics laboratory, encouraging an active interaction between measurements and modeling activities. Two useful sensors, available in most modern smartphones and tablets, are the 3-axis acceleration sensor and the 3-axis gyroscope. We explore the strengths and weaknesses of each type of sensor and use them to study the rotational dynamics of objects rotating about a fixed axis. Care has to be taken when interpreting acceleration sensor data, and in some cases the gyroscope will allow for rotational measurements not easily replicated using the acceleration sensor.

  18. On the dynamics of slowly rotating stellar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoust, E.

    1989-01-01

    Kinematical observations are now available for stellar systems which might rotate slowly. The study of periodic orbits in model stellar systems shows that a mean motion in epicyclic or circular orbits contributes to balance the centrifugal force, in addition to the velocity dispersions. Two dynamical models, the generalized Toomre and Plummer models, are adapted to the case of slow rotation. They are applied to two globular clusters, M 3 and 47 Tucanae, and 12 clusters of galaxies. 47 Tucanae is found to rotate, but none of the clusters of galaxies has any significant mean motion, except SC 316-44. 34 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs. (author)

  19. Effects of hand grip exercise on shoulder joint internal rotation and external rotation peak torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Rour; Jong-Soon Kim, Laurentius

    2016-08-10

    The goal of this study is to analyze the effects of hand grip training on shoulder joint internal rotation (IR)/external rotation (ER) peak torque for healthy people. The research was conducted on 23 healthy adults in their 20 s-30 s who volunteered to participate in the experiment. Hand grip power test was performed on both hands of the research subjects before/after the test to study changes in hand grip power. Isokinetic machine was used to measure the concentric IRPT (internal rotation peak torque) and concentric ERPT (external rotation peak torque) at the velocity of 60°/sec, 90°/sec, and 180°/sec before/after the test. Hand grip training was performed daily on the subject's right hand only for four weeks according to exercise program. Finally, hand grip power of both hands and the maximum torque values of shoulder joint IR/ER were measured before/after the test and analyzed. There was a statistically significant difference in the hand grip power of the right hand, which was subject to hand grip training, after the experiment. Also, statistically significant difference for shoulder ERPT was found at 60°/sec. Hand grip training has a positive effect on shoulder joint IRPT/ERPT and therefore can help strengthen muscles around the shoulder without using weight on the shoulder. Consequently, hand grip training would help maintain strengthen the muscles around the shoulder in the early phase of rehabilitation process after shoulder surgery.

  20. for the internal rotation evolution of low-mass stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinçon Charly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the space-borne missions CoRoT and Kepler, noteworthy breakthroughs have been made in our understanding of stellar evolution, and in particular about the angular momentum redistribution in stellar interiors. Indeed, the high-precision seismic data provide with the measurement of the mean core rotation rate for thousands of low-mass stars from the subgiant branch to the red giant branch. All these observations exhibit much lower core rotation rates than expected by current stellar evolution codes and they emphasize the need for an additional transport process. In this framework, internal gravity waves (herefater, IGW could play a signifivative role since they are known to be able to transport angular momentum. In this work, we estimate the effciency of the transport by the IGW that are generated by penetrative convection at the interface between the convective and the radiative regions. As a first step, this study is based on the comparison between the timescale for the waves to modify a given rotation profile and the contraction/expansion timescale throughout the radiative zone of 1.3M⊙ stellar models. We show that IGW, on their own, are ineffcient to slow down the core rotation of stars on the red giant branch, where the radiative damping becomes strong enough and prevent the IGW from reaching the innermost layers. However, we find that IGW generated by penetrative convection could effciently modify the core rotation of subgiant stars as soon as the amplitude of the radial differential rotation between the core and the base of the convective zone is high enough, with typical values close to the observed rotation rates in these stars. This result argues for the necessity to account for IGW generated by penetrative convection in stellar modeling and in the angular momentum redistribution issue.

  1. A Simple and Efficient Numerical Method for Computing the Dynamics of Rotating Bose--Einstein Condensates via Rotating Lagrangian Coordinates

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Weizhu; Marahrens, Daniel; Tang, Qinglin; Zhang, Yanzhi

    2013-01-01

    We propose a simple, efficient, and accurate numerical method for simulating the dynamics of rotating Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in a rotational frame with or without longrange dipole-dipole interaction (DDI). We begin with the three

  2. Rotationally resolved flurorescence as a probe of molecular photoionization dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poliakoff, E.D.; Kakar, S.; Choi, H.C.

    1993-01-01

    We present rotationally resolved data for N 2 (2σ u -1 ) photoionization in the excitation energy range 19 ≤ hν ≤ 35 eV. These are the first rotationally resolved measurements on the photoion over an extended spectral range above the ionization threshold. The requisite resolution is obtained by measuring rotationally resolved fluorescence from electronically excited photoions created by synchrotron radiation. This technique is useful for studying dynamical features embedded deep in the ionization continua and should supplement laser-based methods that are limited to probing near-threshold phenomena. The present study shows that the outgoing photoelectron can alter the rotational motion of the more massive photoion by exchanging angular momentum and this partitioning of angular momentum depends on the ionization dynamics. Thus, our data directly probe electron-molecule interactions and are sensitive probes of scattering dynamics. We are currently investigating dynamical features such as shape resonances and Cooper minima with rotational resolution for deciphering microscopic aspects of molecular scattering and these efforts will be discussed

  3. Immobilization in External Rotation Versus Internal Rotation After Primary Anterior Shoulder Dislocation: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Daniel B; Kletke, Stephanie N; Schemitsch, Geoffrey; Chahal, Jaskarndip

    2016-02-01

    The recurrence rate after primary anterior shoulder dislocation is high, especially in young, active individuals. Recent studies have suggested external rotation immobilization as a method to reduce the rate of recurrent shoulder dislocation in comparison to traditional sling immobilization. To assess and summarize evidence from randomized controlled trials on the effect of internal rotation versus external rotation immobilization on the rate of recurrence after primary anterior shoulder dislocation. Meta-analysis. PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and abstracts from recent proceedings were searched for eligible studies. Two reviewers selected studies for inclusion, assessed methodological quality, and extracted data. Six randomized controlled trials (632 patients) were included in this review. Demographic and prognostic variables measured at baseline were similar in the pooled groups. The average age was 30.1 years in the pooled external rotation group and 30.3 years in the pooled internal rotation group. Two studies found that external rotation immobilization reduced the rate of recurrence after initial anterior shoulder dislocation compared with conventional internal rotation immobilization, whereas 4 studies failed to find a significant difference between the 2 groups. This meta-analysis suggested no overall significant difference in the rate of recurrence among patients treated with internal rotation versus external rotation immobilization (risk ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.42-1.14; P = .15). There was no significant difference in the rate of compliance between internal and external rotation immobilization (P = .43). The Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index scores were pooled across 3 studies, and there was no significant difference between the 2 groups (P = .54). Immobilization in external rotation is not significantly more effective in reducing the recurrence rate after primary anterior shoulder dislocation than

  4. Estimation of the Rotational Terms of the Dynamic Response Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Montalvão

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic response of a structure can be described by both its translational and rotational receptances. The latter ones are frequently not considered because of the difficulties in applying a pure moment excitation or in measuring rotations. However, in general, this implies a reduction up to 75% of the complete model. On the other hand, if a modification includes a rotational inertia, the rotational receptances of the unmodified system are needed. In one method, more commonly found in the literature, a so called T-block is attached to the structure. Then, a force, applied to an arm of the T-block, generates a moment together with a force at the connection point. The T-block also allows for angular displacement measurements. Nevertheless, the results are often not quite satisfactory. In this work, an alternative method based upon coupling techniques is developed, in which rotational receptances are estimated without the need of applying a moment excitation. This is accomplished by introducing a rotational inertia modification when rotating the T-block. The force is then applied in its centroid. Several numerical and experimental examples are discussed so that the methodology can be clearly described. The advantages and limitations are identified within the practical application of the method.

  5. Nonlinear dynamics and anisotropic structure of rotating sheared turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhi, A; Jacobitz, F G; Schneider, K; Cambon, C

    2014-01-01

    Homogeneous turbulence in rotating shear flows is studied by means of pseudospectral direct numerical simulation and analytical spectral linear theory (SLT). The ratio of the Coriolis parameter to shear rate is varied over a wide range by changing the rotation strength, while a constant moderate shear rate is used to enable significant contributions to the nonlinear interscale energy transfer and to the nonlinear intercomponental redistribution terms. In the destabilized and neutral cases, in the sense of kinetic energy evolution, nonlinearity cannot saturate the growth of the largest scales. It permits the smallest scale to stabilize by a scale-by-scale quasibalance between the nonlinear energy transfer and the dissipation spectrum. In the stabilized cases, the role of rotation is mainly nonlinear, and interacting inertial waves can affect almost all scales as in purely rotating flows. In order to isolate the nonlinear effect of rotation, the two-dimensional manifold with vanishing spanwise wave number is revisited and both two-component spectra and single-point two-dimensional energy components exhibit an important effect of rotation, whereas the SLT as well as the purely two-dimensional nonlinear analysis are unaffected by rotation as stated by the Proudman theorem. The other two-dimensional manifold with vanishing streamwise wave number is analyzed with similar tools because it is essential for any shear flow. Finally, the spectral approach is used to disentangle, in an analytical way, the linear and nonlinear terms in the dynamical equations.

  6. 1st International Conference on Fiber-Optic Rotation Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Arditty, Hervé

    1982-01-01

    Currently there is considerable interest in the application of optical meth­ ods for the measurement of absolute rotation. Active approaches, so-called ring laser gyros, have been under serious development for at least 15 years. More recently, passive approaches using ring resonators or multi turn fiber interferometers have also demonstrated much pro~ise. The only previous conference devoted exclusively to optical rotation sensors, held in 1978 in San Diego, California, was organized by the Society of Photo-optical Instru­ mentation Engineers(S.P.I.E.J. Although the main emphasis at that conference was on ring laser gyros, a number of papers were also included that described the early development of fiber gyroscopes. Since then the field of fiber optic rotation sensors has grown so rapidly that a conference devoted primarily to this subject was needed. The First International Conference on Fiber-Optic Rotation Sensors was held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Nove~­ b...

  7. Anatomical glenohumeral internal rotation deficit and symmetric rotational strength in male and female young beach volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccol, Michele Forgiarini; Almeida, Gabriel Peixoto Leão; de Souza, Vivian Lima

    2016-08-01

    Beach volleyball is a sport with a high demand of shoulder structures that may lead to adaptations in range of motion (ROM) and strength like in other overhead sports. Despite of these possible alterations, no study evaluated the shoulder adaptations in young beach volleyball athletes. The aim of this study was to compare the bilateral ROM and rotation strength in the shoulders of young beach volleyball players. Goniometric passive shoulder ROM of motion and isometric rotational strength were evaluated in 19 male and 14 female asymptomatic athletes. External and internal ROM, total rotation motion, glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD), external rotation and internal rotation strength, bilateral deficits and external rotation to internal rotation ratio were measured. The statistical analysis included paired Student's t-test and analysis of variance with repeated measures. Significantly lower dominant GIRD was found in both groups (pvolleyball athletes present symmetric rotational strength and shoulder ROM rotational adaptations that can be considered as anatomical. These results indicate that young practitioners of beach volleyball are subject to moderate adaptations compared to those reported for other overhead sports. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. DYNAMICAL TIDES IN ROTATING PLANETS AND STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, J.; Lackner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Tidal dissipation may be important for the internal evolution as well as the orbits of short-period massive planets-hot Jupiters. We revisit a mechanism proposed by Ogilvie and Lin for tidal forcing of inertial waves, which are short-wavelength, low-frequency disturbances restored primarily by Coriolis rather than buoyancy forces. This mechanism is of particular interest for hot Jupiters, because it relies upon a rocky core, and because these bodies are otherwise largely convective. Compared to waves excited at the base of the stratified, externally heated atmosphere, waves excited at the core are more likely to deposit heat in the convective region and thereby affect the planetary radius. However, Ogilvie and Lin's results were numerical, and the manner of the wave excitation was not clear. Using WKB methods, we demonstrate the production of short waves by scattering of the equilibrium tide off the core at critical latitudes. The tidal dissipation rate associated with these waves scales as the fifth power of the core radius, and the implied tidal Q is of order ten million for nominal values of the planet's mass, radius, orbital period, and core size. We comment upon an alternative proposal by Wu for exciting inertial waves in an unstratified fluid body by means of compressibility rather than a core. We also find that even a core of rock is unlikely to be rigid. But Ogilvie and Lin's mechanism should still operate if the core is substantially denser than its immediate surroundings.

  9. Translational and rotational dynamic analysis of a superconducting levitation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansiz, A [Electric-Electronic Engineering Department, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Hull, J R [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Gundogdu, Oe [Mechanical Engineering Department, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2005-07-01

    The rotational dynamics of a disc-shaped permanent magnet rotor levitated over a high temperature superconductor was studied experimentally and theoretically. The interaction between the rotor magnet and the superconductor was modelled by assuming the magnet to be a magnetic dipole and the superconductor a diamagnet. In the magnetomechanical analysis of the superconductor part, the frozen image concept was combined with the diamagnetic image, and the damping in the system was neglected. The interaction potential of the system is the combination of magnetic and gravitational potentials. From the dynamical analysis the equations of motion of the permanent magnet were stated as a function of lateral, vertical, tilt, precision and rotating angles. The vibration behaviour and correlation of the vibration of one direction with that of another were determined with a numerical calculation based on the Runge-Kutta method. The various vibrational frequencies identified were vertical, radial, tilt, precession and rotation. The tests performed for experimental verifications were translational and rotational. The permanent magnet was 'spun up' under vacuum conditions to analyse the dynamics of the free 'spin down' behaviour of the permanent magnet.

  10. Translational and rotational dynamic analysis of a superconducting levitation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cansiz, A; Hull, J R; Gundogdu, Oe

    2005-01-01

    The rotational dynamics of a disc-shaped permanent magnet rotor levitated over a high temperature superconductor was studied experimentally and theoretically. The interaction between the rotor magnet and the superconductor was modelled by assuming the magnet to be a magnetic dipole and the superconductor a diamagnet. In the magnetomechanical analysis of the superconductor part, the frozen image concept was combined with the diamagnetic image, and the damping in the system was neglected. The interaction potential of the system is the combination of magnetic and gravitational potentials. From the dynamical analysis the equations of motion of the permanent magnet were stated as a function of lateral, vertical, tilt, precision and rotating angles. The vibration behaviour and correlation of the vibration of one direction with that of another were determined with a numerical calculation based on the Runge-Kutta method. The various vibrational frequencies identified were vertical, radial, tilt, precession and rotation. The tests performed for experimental verifications were translational and rotational. The permanent magnet was 'spun up' under vacuum conditions to analyse the dynamics of the free 'spin down' behaviour of the permanent magnet

  11. Nonlinearity in the rotational dynamics of Haidinger's brushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmayer, Mark; Dultz, Wolfgang; Frins, Erna; Zhan, Qiwen; Tierney, Dennis; Schmitzer, Heidrun

    2007-10-01

    Haidinger's brushes are an entoptic effect of the human visual system that enables us to detect polarized light. However, individual perceptions of Haidinger's brushes can vary significantly. We find that the birefringence of the cornea influences the rotational motion and the contrast of Haidinger's brushes and may offer an explanation for individual differences. We have devised an experimental setup to simulate various phase shifts of the cornea and found a switching effect in the rotational dynamics of Haidinger's brushes. In addition, age related macular degeneration reduces the polarization effect of the macula and thus also leads to changes in the brush pattern.

  12. Nonlinear dynamics of rotating shallow water methods and advances

    CERN Document Server

    Zeitlin, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    The rotating shallow water (RSW) model is of wide use as a conceptual tool in geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD), because, in spite of its simplicity, it contains all essential ingredients of atmosphere and ocean dynamics at the synoptic scale, especially in its two- (or multi-) layer version. The book describes recent advances in understanding (in the framework of RSW and related models) of some fundamental GFD problems, such as existence of the slow manifold, dynamical splitting of fast (inertia-gravity waves) and slow (vortices, Rossby waves) motions, nonlinear geostrophic adjustment and wa

  13. On connection of rotation and internal motion in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutov, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    In the semiphenomenological nuclear madel (SPNM) the problem of ''overestimate of Coriolis interaction'' is shown to be easily solved. The rotation and internal motion coupling operator H(rot/in) is used. Overdetermination of the operator H(rot/in) has been generalized and extended into schemes of strong and weak coupling. In this case both schemes of coupling are transformed from approximate into precise ones and become applicable for any nuclear deformation. As examples of application of the theory considered are the matrix elements of the E2-transitions and inertia parameters of a 235 U nucleus

  14. Dynamic ocean-tide effects on Earth's rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, S. R.

    1993-01-01

    This article develops 'broad-band' Liouville equations which are capable of determining the effects on the rotation of the Earth of a periodic excitation even at frequencies as high as semi-diurnal; these equations are then used to predict the rotational effects of altimetric, numerical and 32-constituent spherical harmonic ocean-tide models. The rotational model includes a frequency-dependent decoupled core, the effects of which are especially marked near retrograde diurnal frequencies; and a fully dynamic oceanic response, whose effects appear to be minor despite significant frequency dependence. The model also includes solid-earth effects which are frequency dependent as the result of both anelasticity at long periods and the fluid-core resonance at nearly diurnal periods. The effects of both tidal inertia and relative angular momentum on Earth rotation (polar motion, length of day, 'nutation' and Universal Time) are presented for 32 long- and short-period ocean tides determined as solutions to the author's spherical harmonic tide theory. The lengthening of the Chandler wobble period by the pole tide is also re-computed using the author's full theory. Additionally, using the spherical harmonic theory, tidal currents and their effects on rotation are determined for available numerical and altimetric tide height models. For all models, we find that the effects of tidal currents are at least as important as those of tide height for diurnal and semi-diurnal constituents.

  15. Blade dynamic stress analysis of rotating bladed disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellner J.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with mathematical modelling of steady forced bladed disk vibrations and with dynamic stress calculation of the blades. The blades are considered as 1D kontinuum elastic coupled with three-dimensional elastic disk centrally clamped into rotor rotating with constant angular speed. The steady forced vibrations are generated by the aerodynamic forces acting along the blade length. By using modal synthesis method the mathematical model of the rotating bladed disk is condensed to calculate steady vibrations. Dynamic stress analysis of the blades is based on calculation of the time dependent reduced stress in blade cross-sections by using Hubert-Misses-Hencky stress hypothesis. The presented method is applied to real turbomachinery rotor with blades connected on the top with shroud.

  16. Intrinsic Rotation and Momentum Transport in Reversed Shear Plasmas with Internal Transport Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhang, Hogun; Kim, S. S.; Diamond, P. H.

    2010-11-01

    The intrinsic rotation in fusion plasmas is believed to be generated via the residual stress without external momentum input. The physical mechanism responsible for the generation and transport of intrinsic rotation in L- and H-mode tokamak plasmas has been studied extensively. However, it is noted that the physics of intrinsic rotation generation and its relationship to the formation of internal transport barriers (ITBs) in reversed shear (RS) tokamak plasmas have not been explored in detail, which is the main subject in the present work. A global gyrofluid code TRB is used for this study. It is found that the large intrinsic rotation (˜10-30% of the ion sound speed depending on ITB characteristics) is generated near the ITB region and propagates into the core. The intrinsic rotation increases linearly as the temperature gradient at ITB position increases, albeit not indefinitely. Key parameters related to the symmetry breaking, such as turbulent intensity and its gradient, the flux surface averaged parallel wavenumber are evaluated dynamically during the ITB formation. The role of reversed shear and the q-profile curvature is presented in relation to the symmetry breaking mechanism in RS plasmas.

  17. Gyrofluid Simulations of Intrinsic Rotation Generation in Reversed Shear Plasmas with Internal Transport Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhang, Hogun; Kim, S. S.; Kwon, J. M.; Terzolo, L.; Kim, J. Y.; Diamond, P. H.

    2010-11-01

    It is accepted that the intrinsic rotation is generated via the residual stress, which is non-diffusive components of the turbulent Reynolds stress, without external momentum input. The physics leading to the onset of intrinsic rotation in L- and H- mode plasmas have been elucidated elsewhere. However, the physics responsible for the generation and transport of the intrinsic rotation and its relationship to the formation of internal transport barriers (ITBs) in reversed shear (RS) plasmas have not been explored in detail, which is the main subject in the present work. The revised version of the global gyrofluid code TRB is used for this study. It is found that the large intrinsic rotation (˜10-30% of the ion sound speed depending on ITB characteristics) is generated near the ITB region and propagates into the core. The intrinsic rotation increases linearly as the temperature gradient at ITB position increases, albeit not indefinitely. Key parameters related to the symmetry breaking, such as turbulent intensity and its gradient, the flux surface averaged parallel wavenumber are evaluated dynamically during the ITB formation. In particular, the role of reversed shear and the q-profile curvature is presented in relation to the symmetry breaking in RS plasmas.

  18. Rotational coherence spectroscopy at FLASH. Toward dynamic studies in nanosuperfluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kickermann, Andreas

    2013-07-15

    The field of molecular physics, which is focusing on molecular motion in the transition states of physical, chemical, and biological changes, is a wide-spread research area. It strives to reveal the structural and functional properties of molecules, the chemical bonds between atoms and the time evolution. Many processes occurring in nature upon electronic excitation proceed on the ultrafast femtosecond timescale and can be triggered by modern ultrashort femtosecond-laser sources under laboratory conditions. In the present thesis pump-probe studies were performed to follow molecular motion using ultrashort light pulses in the nanometer wavelength range provided by an XUV freeelectron laser (FEL). In detail, alignment of molecular species in space under field-free conditions was investigated. In the specific case of rotational wave packets in molecules the rotational dynamics shows characteristic temporal features, which contain a wealth of information on molecular structure and give insight into molecular coupling mechanisms, i.e. rotational constants and transition frequencies. Within this thesis, Rotational Coherence Spectroscopy (RCS) reveals wave-packet motion observed by subsequent Coulomb explosion of Raman excited carbon monoxide, which results in a time-dependent asymmetry of spatial fragmentation patterns. With the method presented here, the time resolution to elucidate the fast dynamics of strong couplings can be pushed toward a single rotational period even for the fastest rotors. This is due to large pump-probe delays with small subpicosecond step size. This kind of spectroscopy can also be expanded to molecular species, which are not accessible by other powerful spectroscopic methods, such as Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy (FTMW). Furthermore, it allows to measure weak molecular couplings on a long timescale (large pump-probe delays), e.g. couplings of molecules in a solution or molecules dissolved in quantum fluids. This is valuable to

  19. Rotational coherence spectroscopy at FLASH. Toward dynamic studies in nanosuperfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kickermann, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    The field of molecular physics, which is focusing on molecular motion in the transition states of physical, chemical, and biological changes, is a wide-spread research area. It strives to reveal the structural and functional properties of molecules, the chemical bonds between atoms and the time evolution. Many processes occurring in nature upon electronic excitation proceed on the ultrafast femtosecond timescale and can be triggered by modern ultrashort femtosecond-laser sources under laboratory conditions. In the present thesis pump-probe studies were performed to follow molecular motion using ultrashort light pulses in the nanometer wavelength range provided by an XUV freeelectron laser (FEL). In detail, alignment of molecular species in space under field-free conditions was investigated. In the specific case of rotational wave packets in molecules the rotational dynamics shows characteristic temporal features, which contain a wealth of information on molecular structure and give insight into molecular coupling mechanisms, i.e. rotational constants and transition frequencies. Within this thesis, Rotational Coherence Spectroscopy (RCS) reveals wave-packet motion observed by subsequent Coulomb explosion of Raman excited carbon monoxide, which results in a time-dependent asymmetry of spatial fragmentation patterns. With the method presented here, the time resolution to elucidate the fast dynamics of strong couplings can be pushed toward a single rotational period even for the fastest rotors. This is due to large pump-probe delays with small subpicosecond step size. This kind of spectroscopy can also be expanded to molecular species, which are not accessible by other powerful spectroscopic methods, such as Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy (FTMW). Furthermore, it allows to measure weak molecular couplings on a long timescale (large pump-probe delays), e.g. couplings of molecules in a solution or molecules dissolved in quantum fluids. This is valuable to

  20. A Simple and Efficient Numerical Method for Computing the Dynamics of Rotating Bose--Einstein Condensates via Rotating Lagrangian Coordinates

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Weizhu

    2013-01-01

    We propose a simple, efficient, and accurate numerical method for simulating the dynamics of rotating Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in a rotational frame with or without longrange dipole-dipole interaction (DDI). We begin with the three-dimensional (3D) Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) with an angular momentum rotation term and/or long-range DDI, state the twodimensional (2D) GPE obtained from the 3D GPE via dimension reduction under anisotropic external potential, and review some dynamical laws related to the 2D and 3D GPEs. By introducing a rotating Lagrangian coordinate system, the original GPEs are reformulated to GPEs without the angular momentum rotation, which is replaced by a time-dependent potential in the new coordinate system. We then cast the conserved quantities and dynamical laws in the new rotating Lagrangian coordinates. Based on the new formulation of the GPE for rotating BECs in the rotating Lagrangian coordinates, a time-splitting spectral method is presented for computing the dynamics of rotating BECs. The new numerical method is explicit, simple to implement, unconditionally stable, and very efficient in computation. It is spectral-order accurate in space and second-order accurate in time and conserves the mass on the discrete level. We compare our method with some representative methods in the literature to demonstrate its efficiency and accuracy. In addition, the numerical method is applied to test the dynamical laws of rotating BECs such as the dynamics of condensate width, angular momentum expectation, and center of mass, and to investigate numerically the dynamics and interaction of quantized vortex lattices in rotating BECs without or with the long-range DDI.Copyright © by SIAM.

  1. INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF ASTEROIDS HAVING SURFACE SHEDDING DUE TO ROTATIONAL INSTABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirabayashi, Masatoshi [Research Associate, Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research, Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder (United States); Sánchez, Diego Paul [Senior Research Associate, Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research, Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder (United States); Scheeres, Daniel J., E-mail: masatoshi.hirabayashi@colorado.edu [Richard Seebass Chair, Professor, Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research, Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder (United States)

    2015-07-20

    Surface shedding of an asteroid is a failure mode where surface materials fly off due to strong centrifugal forces beyond the critical spin period, while the internal structure does not deform significantly. This paper proposes a possible structure of an asteroid interior that leads to surface shedding due to rapid rotation rates. A rubble pile asteroid is modeled as a spheroid composed of a surface shell and a concentric internal core, the entire assembly called the test body. The test body is assumed to be uniformly rotating around a constant rotation axis. We also assume that while the bulk density and the friction angle are constant, the cohesion of the surface shell is different from that of the internal core. First, developing an analytical model based on limit analysis, we provide the upper and lower bounds for the actual surface shedding condition. Second, we use a Soft-sphere Discrete Element Method (SSDEM) to study dynamical deformation of the test body due to a quasi-static spin-up. In this paper we show the consistency of both approaches. Additionally, the SSDEM simulations show that the initial failure always occurs locally and not globally. In addition, as the core becomes larger, the size of lofted components becomes smaller. These results imply that if there is a strong core in a progenitor body, surface shedding is the most likely failure mode.

  2. INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF ASTEROIDS HAVING SURFACE SHEDDING DUE TO ROTATIONAL INSTABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Sánchez, Diego Paul; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Surface shedding of an asteroid is a failure mode where surface materials fly off due to strong centrifugal forces beyond the critical spin period, while the internal structure does not deform significantly. This paper proposes a possible structure of an asteroid interior that leads to surface shedding due to rapid rotation rates. A rubble pile asteroid is modeled as a spheroid composed of a surface shell and a concentric internal core, the entire assembly called the test body. The test body is assumed to be uniformly rotating around a constant rotation axis. We also assume that while the bulk density and the friction angle are constant, the cohesion of the surface shell is different from that of the internal core. First, developing an analytical model based on limit analysis, we provide the upper and lower bounds for the actual surface shedding condition. Second, we use a Soft-sphere Discrete Element Method (SSDEM) to study dynamical deformation of the test body due to a quasi-static spin-up. In this paper we show the consistency of both approaches. Additionally, the SSDEM simulations show that the initial failure always occurs locally and not globally. In addition, as the core becomes larger, the size of lofted components becomes smaller. These results imply that if there is a strong core in a progenitor body, surface shedding is the most likely failure mode

  3. Magneto-elastic dynamics and bifurcation of rotating annular plate*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yu-Da; Piao Jiang-Min; Li Wen-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, magneto-elastic dynamic behavior, bifurcation, and chaos of a rotating annular thin plate with various boundary conditions are investigated. Based on the thin plate theory and the Maxwell equations, the magneto-elastic dynamic equations of rotating annular plate are derived by means of Hamilton’s principle. Bessel function as a mode shape function and the Galerkin method are used to achieve the transverse vibration differential equation of the rotating annular plate with different boundary conditions. By numerical analysis, the bifurcation diagrams with magnetic induction, amplitude and frequency of transverse excitation force as the control parameters are respectively plotted under different boundary conditions such as clamped supported sides, simply supported sides, and clamped-one-side combined with simply-anotherside. Poincaré maps, time history charts, power spectrum charts, and phase diagrams are obtained under certain conditions, and the influence of the bifurcation parameters on the bifurcation and chaos of the system is discussed. The results show that the motion of the system is a complicated and repeated process from multi-periodic motion to quasi-period motion to chaotic motion, which is accompanied by intermittent chaos, when the bifurcation parameters change. If the amplitude of transverse excitation force is bigger or magnetic induction intensity is smaller or boundary constraints level is lower, the system can be more prone to chaos. (paper)

  4. New picture for the internal rotation of the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    For the last decade, solar-acoustic oscillations have been used to probe the physical properties of the solar interior. The endeavor is called helioseismology and is based on the fact that shifts in the frequency of an oscillation mode, as observed at the surface, contain information about the physical environment in those regions of the interior where the oscillation has energy. The thesis describes a helioseismic quest to determine the angular velocity inside the Sun as a function of depth and latitude. The author has analyzed rotational frequency splittings extracted from 15 days of full-disk observations of the solar-acoustic oscillations (l=15-99) obtained with the Fourier Tachometer (a Doppler analyzing instrument designed by Tim Brown). The observed frequency splittings are compared to those generated by several different physically-motivated models for the solar internal angular velocity

  5. Coupled jump rotational dynamics in aqueous nitrate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Puja; Yashonath, Subramanian; Bagchi, Biman

    2016-12-21

    A nitrate ion (NO 3 - ) with its trigonal planar geometry and charges distributed among nitrogen and oxygen atoms can couple to the extensive hydrogen bond network of water to give rise to unique dynamical characteristics. We carry out detailed atomistic simulations and theoretical analyses to investigate these aspects and report certain interesting findings. We find that the nitrate ions in aqueous potassium nitrate solution exhibit large amplitude rotational jump motions that are coupled to the hydrogen bond rearrangement dynamics of the surrounding water molecules. The jump motion of nitrate ions bears certain similarities to the Laage-Hynes mechanism of rotational jump motions of tagged water molecules in neat liquid water. We perform a detailed atomic-level investigation of hydrogen bond rearrangement dynamics of water in aqueous KNO 3 solution to unearth two distinct mechanisms of hydrogen bond exchange that are instrumental to promote these jump motions of nitrate ions. As observed in an earlier study by Xie et al., in the first mechanism, after breaking a hydrogen bond with nitrate ion, water forms a new hydrogen bond with a water molecule, whereas the second mechanism involves just a switching of hydrogen bond between the two oxygen atoms of the same nitrate ion (W. J. Xie et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 224504 (2015)). The magnitude as well as nature of the reorientational jump of nitrate ion for the two mechanisms is different. In the first mechanism, nitrate ion predominantly undergoes out-of-plane rotation, while in the second mechanism, in-plane reorientation of NO 3 - is favourable. These have been deduced by computing the torque on the nitrate ion during the hydrogen bond switching event. We have defined and computed the time correlation function for coupled reorientational jump of nitrate and water and obtained the associated relaxation time which is also different for the two mechanisms. These results provide insight into the relation between the

  6. Rotational and frictional dynamics of the slamming of a door

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Pascal; Müller, Andreas; Gröber, Sebastian; Molz, Alexander; Kuhn, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation of the rotational dynamics, including friction, of a slamming door is presented. Based on existing work regarding different damping models for rotational and oscillatory motions, we examine different forms for the (angular) velocity dependence (ωn, n = 0, 1, 2) of the frictional force. An analytic solution is given when all three friction terms are present and several solutions for specific cases known from the literature are reproduced. The motion of a door is investigated experimentally using a smartphone, and the data are compared with the theoretical results. A laboratory experiment under more controlled conditions is conducted to gain a deeper understanding of the movement of a slammed door. Our findings provide quantitative evidence that damping models involving quadratic air drag are most appropriate for the slamming of a door. Examining this everyday example of a physical phenomenon increases student motivation, because they can relate it to their own personal experience.

  7. Coupled rotational dynamics of Jupiter's thermosphere and magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. A. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an axisymmetric model of the coupled rotational dynamics of the thermosphere and magnetosphere of Jupiter that incorporates self-consistent physical descriptions of angular momentum transfer in both systems. The thermospheric component of the model is a numerical general circulation model. The middle magnetosphere is described by a simple physical model of angular momentum transfer that incorporates self-consistently the effects of variations in the ionospheric conductivity. The outer magnetosphere is described by a model that assumes the existence of a Dungey cycle type interaction with the solar wind, producing at the planet a largely stagnant plasma flow poleward of the main auroral oval. We neglect any decoupling between the plasma flows in the magnetosphere and ionosphere due to the formation of parallel electric fields in the magnetosphere. The model shows that the principle mechanism by which angular momentum is supplied to the polar thermosphere is meridional advection and that mean-field Joule heating and ion drag at high latitudes are not responsible for the high thermospheric temperatures at low latitudes on Jupiter. The rotational dynamics of the magnetosphere at radial distances beyond ~30 RJ in the equatorial plane are qualitatively unaffected by including the detailed dynamics of the thermosphere, but within this radial distance the rotation of the magnetosphere is very sensitive to the rotation velocity of the thermosphere and the value of the Pedersen conductivity. In particular, the thermosphere connected to the inner magnetosphere is found to super-corotate, such that true Pedersen conductivities smaller than previously predicted are required to enforce the observed rotation of the magnetosphere within ~30 RJ. We find that increasing the Joule heating at high latitudes by adding a component due to rapidly fluctuating electric fields is unable to explain the high equatorial temperatures. Adding a component of Joule

  8. Dynamical role of Ekman pumping in rapidly rotating convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellmach, Stephan; Julien, Keith; Cheng, Jonathan; Aurnou, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    The exact nature of the mechanical boundary conditions (i.e. no-slip versus stress-free) is usually considered to be of secondary importance in the rapidly rotating parameter regime characterizing planetary cores. While they have considerable influence for the Ekman numbers achievable in today's global simulations, for planetary values both the viscous Ekman layers and the associated secondary flows are generally expected to become negligibly small. In fact, usually the main purpose of using stress-free boundary conditions in numerical dynamo simulations is to suppress unrealistically large friction and pumping effects. In this study, we investigate the influence of the mechanical boundary conditions on core convection systematically. By restricting ourselves to the idealized case of rapidly rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection, we are able to combine results from direct numerical simulations (DNS), laboratory experiments and asymptotic theory into a coherent picture. Contrary to the general expectation, we show that the dynamical effects of Ekman pumping increase with decreasing Ekman number over the investigated parameter range. While stress-free DNS results converge to the asymptotic predictions, both no-slip simulations and laboratory experiments consistently reveal increasingly large deviations from the existing asymptotic theory based on dynamically passive Ekman layers. The implications of these results for core dynamics are discussed briefly.

  9. Simulation of non-resonant internal kink mode with toroidal rotation in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng; Liu, J. Y. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Fu, G. Y.; Breslau, J. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Tritz, Kevin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Plasmas in spherical and conventional tokamaks, with weakly reversed shear q profile and minimum q above but close to unity, are susceptible to an non-resonant (m,n) = (1,1) internal kink mode. This mode can saturate and persist and can induce a (2,1) seed island for Neoclassical Tearing Mode. [Breslau et al. Nucl. Fusion 51, 063027 (2011)]. The mode can also lead to large energetic particle transport and significant broadening of beam-driven current. Motivated by these important effects, we have carried out extensive nonlinear simulations of the mode with finite toroidal rotation using parameters and profiles of an NTSX plasma with a weakly reversed shear profile. The numerical results show that, at the experimental level, plasma rotation has little effect on either equilibrium or linear stability. However, rotation can significantly influence the nonlinear dynamics of the (1,1) mode and the induced (2,1) magnetic island. The simulation results show that a rotating helical equilibrium is formed and maintained in the nonlinear phase at finite plasma rotation. In contrast, for non-rotating cases, the nonlinear evolution exhibits dynamic oscillations between a quasi-2D state and a helical state. Furthermore, the effects of rotation are found to greatly suppress the (2,1) magnetic island even at a low level.

  10. MRI of the rotator cuff and internal derangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opsha, Oleg [Department of Radiology, Maimonides Medical Center, 4802 10th Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11219 (United States)], E-mail: oopsha@hotmail.com; Malik, Archana [Department of Radiology, Maimonides Medical Center, 4802 10th Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11219 (United States)], E-mail: dr.armal@gmail.com; Baltazar, Romulo [Department of Radiology, Maimonides Medical Center, 4802 10th Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11219 (United States)], E-mail: rbaltazar@gmail.com; Primakov, Denis [Department of Radiology, North Shore University Hospital, 300 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY 11030 (United States)], E-mail: dgprim@yahoo.com; Beltran, Salvador [Dr. Ramon Marti, 2 Albons, Ginrona 17136 (Spain); Miller, Theodore T. [Department of Radiology and Imaging, Hospital for Special Surgery, 535 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States)], E-mail: MillerTT@hss.edu; Beltran, Javier [Department of Radiology, Maimonides Medical Center, 4802 10th Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11219 (United States)], E-mail: jbeltran46@msn.com

    2008-10-15

    Disease to the rotator cuff is the most common cause of shoulder pain and dysfunction in adults. This group of muscles performs multiple functions and is often stressed during various activities. The anatomy and physiology of the rotator cuff is complex and interconnected to other muscle groups in the shoulder. One must take the anatomic status of the rotator cuff tendons into account when planning the treatment of the rotator cuff injury. Diagnostic imaging of the rotator cuff, performed by MRI, provides valuable information about the nature of the injury. In this article, we will review the various types and causes of rotator cuff injuries, normal MR anatomy, function, patho-anatomy, and the biomechanics of the rotator cuff. We will also review shoulder impingement syndromes.

  11. MRI of the rotator cuff and internal derangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opsha, Oleg; Malik, Archana; Baltazar, Romulo; Primakov, Denis; Beltran, Salvador; Miller, Theodore T.; Beltran, Javier

    2008-01-01

    Disease to the rotator cuff is the most common cause of shoulder pain and dysfunction in adults. This group of muscles performs multiple functions and is often stressed during various activities. The anatomy and physiology of the rotator cuff is complex and interconnected to other muscle groups in the shoulder. One must take the anatomic status of the rotator cuff tendons into account when planning the treatment of the rotator cuff injury. Diagnostic imaging of the rotator cuff, performed by MRI, provides valuable information about the nature of the injury. In this article, we will review the various types and causes of rotator cuff injuries, normal MR anatomy, function, patho-anatomy, and the biomechanics of the rotator cuff. We will also review shoulder impingement syndromes

  12. 4th International Conference on Structural Nonlinear Dynamics and Diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This book presents contributions on the most active lines of recent advanced research in the field of nonlinear mechanics and physics selected from the 4th International Conference on Structural Nonlinear Dynamics and Diagnosis. It includes fifteen chapters by outstanding scientists, covering various aspects of applications, including road tanker dynamics and stability, simulation of abrasive wear, energy harvesting, modeling and analysis of flexoelectric nanoactuator, periodic Fermi–Pasta–Ulam problems, nonlinear stability in Hamiltonian systems, nonlinear dynamics of rotating composites, nonlinear vibrations of a shallow arch, extreme pulse dynamics in mode-locked lasers, localized structures in a photonic crystal fiber resonator, nonlinear stochastic dynamics, linearization of nonlinear resonances, treatment of a linear delay differential equation, and fractional nonlinear damping. It appeals to a wide range of experts in the field of structural nonlinear dynamics and offers researchers and engineers a...

  13. Correlation of glenohumeral internal rotation deficit and total rotational motion to shoulder injuries in professional baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Kevin E; Macrina, Leonard C; Fleisig, Glenn S; Porterfield, Ronald; Simpson, Charles D; Harker, Paul; Paparesta, Nick; Andrews, James R

    2011-02-01

    Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) indicates a 20° or greater loss of internal rotation of the throwing shoulder compared with the nondominant shoulder. To determine whether GIRD and a deficit in total rotational motion (external rotation + internal rotation) compared with the nonthrowing shoulder correlate with shoulder injuries in professional baseball pitchers. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Over 3 competitive seasons (2005 to 2007), passive range of motion measurements were evaluated on the dominant and nondominant shoulders for 170 pitcher-seasons. This included 122 professional pitchers during the 3 seasons of data collection, in which some pitchers were measured during multiple seasons. Ranges of motion were measured with a bubble goniometer during the preseason, by the same examiner each year. External and internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint was assessed with the participant supine and the arm abducted 90° in the plane of the scapula, with the scapula stabilized anteriorly at the coracoid process. The reproducibility of the test methods had an intraclass correlation coefficient of .81. Days in which the player was unable to participate because of injury or surgery were recorded during the season by the medical staff of the team and defined as an injury. Pitchers with GIRD (n = 40) were nearly twice as likely to be injured as those without but without statistical significance (P = .17). Pitchers with total rotational motion deficit greater than 5° had a higher rate of injury. Minor league pitchers were more likely than major league pitchers to be injured. However, when players were injured, major league pitchers missed a significantly greater number of games than minor league pitchers. Compared with pitchers without GIRD, pitchers with GIRD appear to be at a higher risk for injury and shoulder surgery.

  14. Dynamic Models of Instruments Using Rotating Unbalanced Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, John Y.; Gallaspy, Jason M.; Bishop, Carlee A.

    1998-01-01

    The motion of telescopes, satellites, and other flight bodies have been controlled by various means in the past. For example, gimbal mounted devices can use electric motors to produce pointing and scanning motions. Reaction wheels, control moment gyros, and propellant-charged reaction jets are other technologies that have also been used. Each of these methods has its advantages, but all actuator systems used in a flight environment face the challenges of minimizing weight, reducing energy consumption, and maximizing reliability. Recently, Polites invented and patented the Rotating Unbalanced Mass (RUM) device as a means for generation scanning motion on flight experiments. RUM devices together with traditional servomechanisms have been successfully used to generate various scanning motions: linear, raster, and circular. The basic principle can be described: A RUM rotating at constant angular velocity exerts a cyclic centrifugal force on the instrument or main body, thus producing a periodic scanning motion. A system of RUM devices exerts no reaction forces on the main body, requires very little energy to rotate the RUMS, and is simple to construct. These are significant advantages over electric motors, reaction wheels, and control moment gyroscopes. Although the RUM device very easily produces scanning motion, an auxiliary control system has been required to maintain the proper orientation, or pointing of the main body. It has been suggested that RUM devices can be used to control pointing dynamics, as well as generate the desired periodic scanning motion. The idea is that the RUM velocity will not be kept constant, but will vary over the period of one RUM rotation. The thought is that the changing angular velocity produces a centrifugal force having time-varying magnitude and direction. The scope of this ongoing research project is to study the pointing control concept, and recommend a direction of study for advanced pointing control using only RUM devices. This

  15. Late-time dynamics of rapidly rotating black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glampedakis, K.; Andersson, N.

    2001-01-01

    We study the late-time behaviour of a dynamically perturbed rapidly rotating black hole. Considering an extreme Kerr black hole, we show that the large number of virtually undamped quasinormal modes (that exist for nonzero values of the azimuthal eigenvalue m) combine in such a way that the field (as observed at infinity) oscillates with an amplitude that decays as 1/t at late times. For a near extreme black hole, these modes, collectively, give rise to an exponentially decaying field which, however, is considerably 'long-lived'. Our analytic results are verified using numerical time-evolutions of the Teukolsky equation. Moreover, we argue that the physical mechanism behind the observed behaviour is the presence of a 'superradiance resonance cavity' immediately outside the black hole. We present this new feature in detail, and discuss whether it may be relevant for astrophysical black holes. (author)

  16. Characterization of dynamic loads on the LMFBR rotating shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, E.

    1979-01-01

    The rotating shields structure is a potential weak point of some current designs of primary containment against postulated whole core explosions. The calculation of the effect of transient loads on this structure, resulting from such an explosion, is therefore important in developing a safety case. The transient loads are usually calculated by computer codes such as ASTARTE, SEURBNUK, REXCO or ICECO and the effect of these loads on the structure by a suitable finite element code. Such procedure can be lengthly and costly. The present paper proposed a procedure which allows the consequences of changes in the transient loads, resulting from design changes for example, to be quickly and simply gauged. The load-impulse method of characterizing dynamic response of a structural system is well established. Provided loads with a similar temporal variation are compared, it can be shown that the dynamic response depends on only two features of the load, an average load and a time intregrated load or impulse. The scope of this approach has been extended by Youngdahl who has shown, for structures which deform in a rigid-plastic manner, that complex laoding histories can be equated to a rectangular form of loading, in a precise manner for simple structures and in an approximate manner for more complicated structures. This paper proposes that the failure characteristics of the rotating shields for which extensive plastic deformation is involved, be calculated for rectangular type loadings. The complex transient loadings calculated for various explosions and various changes in the primary vessel design can then be reduced to an equivalent rectangular form and the consequencial response of the shields structure deduced. (orig.)

  17. Dynamics of a vortex ring moving perpendicularly to the axis of a rotating fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenga, A.H.M.; Verzicco, R.; Heijst, van G.J.F.

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of a vortex ring moving orthogonally to the rotation vector of a uniformly rotating fluid is analysed by laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. In the rotating system the vortex ring describes a curved trajectory, turning in the opposite sense to the system's anti-clockwise

  18. Weed populations and crop rotations: exploring dynamics of a structured periodic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, S.K.; Bosch, F. van den; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2002-01-01

    The periodic growing of a certain set of crops in a prescribed order, called a crop rotation, is considered to be an important tool for managing weed populations. Nevertheless, the effects of crop rotations on weed population dynamics are not well understood. Explanations for rotation effects on

  19. Dynamical heterogeneities of rotational motion in room temperature ionic liquids evidenced by molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Kota; Hunger, Johannes; Bonn, Mischa; Sulpizi, Marialore

    2018-05-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have been shown to exhibit spatial heterogeneity or structural heterogeneity in the sense that they form hydrophobic and ionic domains. Yet studies of the relationship between this structural heterogeneity and the ˜picosecond motion of the molecular constituents remain limited. In order to obtain insight into the time scales relevant to this structural heterogeneity, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of a series of RTILs. To investigate the relationship between the structures, i.e., the presence of hydrophobic and ionic domains, and the dynamics, we gradually increase the size of the hydrophobic part of the cation from ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), via propylammonium nitrate (PAN), to butylammonium nitrate (BAN). The two ends of the organic cation, namely, the charged Nhead-H group and the hydrophobic Ctail-H group, exhibit rotational dynamics on different time scales, evidencing dynamical heterogeneity. The dynamics of the Nhead-H group is slower because of the strong coulombic interaction with the nitrate counter-ionic anions, while the dynamics of the Ctail-H group is faster because of the weaker van der Waals interaction with the surrounding atoms. In particular, the rotation of the Nhead-H group slows down with increasing cationic chain length, while the rotation of the Ctail-H group shows little dependence on the cationic chain length, manifesting that the dynamical heterogeneity is enhanced with a longer cationic chain. The slowdown of the Nhead-H group with increasing cationic chain length is associated with a lower number of nitrate anions near the Nhead-H group, which presumably results in the increase of the energy barrier for the rotation. The sensitivity of the Nhead-H rotation to the number of surrounding nitrate anions, in conjunction with the varying number of nitrate anions, gives rise to a broad distribution of Nhead-H reorientation times. Our results suggest that the asymmetry of the cations and the

  20. Guidelines for dynamic international programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Matters of global concern-deforestation, global warming, biodiversity loss, sustainable development, fuelwood crises, watershed destruction, and large-scale flooding-frequently involve forests and natural resources. In the future, university students will enter a global setting that more than ever depends on a strong knowledge of international issues. USA land-grant universities are attempting to prepare students for this challenge by improving their international programs including forestry. To improve university programs, several factors will need to be addressed and are discussed, with examples, in this article: commitment of the faculty; program specialization; geographic specialization; reward systems for international contributions; international collaboration; recycled dollars within the university; active teaching programs; research; extention and outreach; language training; international faculty; travel grants; twinning relationships with sister institutions; selective in pursuit of international development assistance; and study centers. 6 refs

  1. Isokinetic strength of shoulder internal and external rotators in cricket bowlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.M. Mabasa

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The strength of the shoulder internal and external rotators incricket bowlers, may not be sufficient to cope with the demands of bowling.As very little research has been done on cricketers, this study was done to establish the isokinetic strength profile of the shoulder internal andexternal rotators in cricket bowlers.Isokinetic, shoulder rotational strength was evaluated in thirty malecricket volunteers with a mean age of 23.9 years and mean body weight of 70.3 kgs. The Cybex 340 dynamometer multi joint system was used to collect data on shoulder rotation strength in a standing neutral position. Data were collected at four different speeds (60,90,180 and 300deg/sec and were computed for peak torque values for internal and external ratios for both dominant and non dominant shoulders.The results showed no statistically significant difference in the mean shoulder rotational torque between the bowlingand non-bowling shoulders for external rotation (p>0.05, and indicated statistically significant differences in themean shoulder rotational torque between the bowling and non-bowling shoulders for internal rotation (p<0.05. Therewas a significant decrease in isokinetic peak torque production for the external/internal rotator muscles as the speedof contraction increased (p<0.05. The peak torque ratio for the external/internal rotator muscles of the bowling armwere significantly less than of the non-bowling arm (p<0.05. These findings suggest that the strength ratios of thebowling arm need to be considered when managing young cricketers and their injuries.

  2. Dynamics of International Business Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunz, Werner; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the evolution of the field of international business (IB) research based on a relational cluster analysis of co-citations in the Journal of International Business Studies (JIBS) from 1982 to 2011. Particularly, we examine the changing role of theory in relation to empirical IB...... research. Based on a factor and network analysis, we identify distinct clusters of IB research and their relations over time. We show that the initial focus of IB research on issues of international expansion has shifted towards issues of governance and implementation. In this process, debates on foreign...... entry mode and culture have served as important integrating themes. At the same time, theory debates in IB have expanded from a narrow focus on explaining international expansion, to a rather heterogeneous conglomerate of approaches which have assisted increasingly differentiated empirical research. Our...

  3. Stochastic Rotation Dynamics simulations of wetting multi-phase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Thomas; Sanchez de La Lama, Marta; Brinkmann, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Multi-color Stochastic Rotation Dynamics (SRDmc) has been introduced by Inoue et al. [1,2] as a particle based simulation method to study the flow of emulsion droplets in non-wetting microchannels. In this work, we extend the multi-color method to also account for different wetting conditions. This is achieved by assigning the color information not only to fluid particles but also to virtual wall particles that are required to enforce proper no-slip boundary conditions. To extend the scope of the original SRDmc algorithm to e.g. immiscible two-phase flow with viscosity contrast we implement an angular momentum conserving scheme (SRD+mc). We perform extensive benchmark simulations to show that a mono-phase SRDmc fluid exhibits bulk properties identical to a standard SRD fluid and that SRDmc fluids are applicable to a wide range of immiscible two-phase flows. To quantify the adhesion of a SRD+mc fluid in contact to the walls we measure the apparent contact angle from sessile droplets in mechanical equilibrium. For a further verification of our wettability implementation we compare the dewetting of a liquid film from a wetting stripe to experimental and numerical studies of interfacial morphologies on chemically structured surfaces.

  4. Global health training and international clinical rotations during residency: current status, needs, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drain, Paul K; Holmes, King K; Skeff, Kelley M; Hall, Thomas L; Gardner, Pierce

    2009-03-01

    Increasing international travel and migration have contributed to globalization of diseases. Physicians today must understand the global burden and epidemiology of diseases, the disparities and inequities in global health systems, and the importance of cross-cultural sensitivity. To meet these needs, resident physicians across all specialties have expressed growing interest in global health training and international clinical rotations. More residents are acquiring international experience, despite inadequate guidance and support from most accreditation organizations and residency programs. Surveys of global health training, including international clinical rotations, highlight the benefits of global health training as well as the need for a more coordinated approach. In particular, international rotations broaden a resident's medical knowledge, reinforce physical examination skills, and encourage practicing medicine among underserved and multicultural populations. As residents recognize these personal and professional benefits, a strong majority of them seek to gain international clinical experience. In conclusion, with feasible and appropriate administrative steps, all residents can receive global health training and be afforded the accreditation and programmatic support to participate in safe international rotations. The next steps should address accreditation for international rotations and allowance for training away from continuity clinics by residency accreditation bodies, and stipend and travel support for six or more weeks of call-free elective time from residency programs.

  5. A new asteroseismic diagnostic for internal rotation in γ Doradus stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouazzani, Rhita-Maria; Salmon, S. J. A. J.; Antoci, V.

    2017-01-01

    to rotation. In this paper, we define a new seismic diagnostic for rotation in γ Doradus stars which are too rapidly rotating to present rotational splittings. Based on the non-uniformity of their period spacings, we define the observable Σ as the slope of the period spacing when plotted as a function......With four years of nearly continuous photometry from Kepler, we are finally in a good position to apply asteroseismology to γ Doradus stars. In particular, several analyses have demonstrated the possibility to detect non-uniform period spacings, which have been predicted to be directly related...... of period. We provide a one-to-one relation between this observable Σ and the internal rotation, which applies widely in the instability strip of γ Doradus stars. We apply the diagnostic to a handful of stars observed by Kepler. Thanks to g modes in γ Doradus stars, we are now able to determine the internal...

  6. Design of rotating mirror for ultra-high speed camera based on dynamic characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunbo; Chai Jinlong; Liang Yexing; Liu Chunping; Wang Hongzhi; Yu Chunhui; Li Jingzhen; Huang Hongbin

    2011-01-01

    A systematic design method has been proposed for studying the dynamic design of rotating mirror for ultra-high speed camera. With the finite element software, the numerical analyses of static, modal, harmonic responses and natural frequency sensitivity for the preliminary-designed rotating mirror were done based on the static and dynamic theories. Some experiments were done to verify the results. The physical dimensions of the rotating mirror were modified repeatedly according to the results for designing a new rotating mirror. Then simulation and experiments of fatigue life for the new rotating mirror under alternating force were done. The results show that the maximum static stress is less than the yield stress of the rotating mirror material, which proves the new rotating mirror will not be subjected to static strength failure. However, the results of modal and harmonic response analyses indicate that the dynamic characteristic of the new rotating mirror can not meet the design requirement for the first critical speed is less than the service speed. In all the physical dimensions of the rotating mirror, the circum radius of mirror body and natural frequency are negatively correlated and the degree of correlation is maximal. The first-order natural frequency in- creases from 459.4 Hz to 713.6 Hz, the rate of change is 55.3%, the first critical speed is up to 42 816 r/min, avoiding resonance successfully, and the fatigue strength of the new rotating mirror can meet the design requirement. (authors)

  7. Dynamic-angle spinning and double rotation of quadrupolar nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.T.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA

    1991-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei is complicated by the coupling of the electric quadrupole moment of the nucleus to local variations in the electric field. The quadrupolar interaction is a useful source of information about local molecular structure in solids, but it tends to broaden resonance lines causing crowding and overlap in NMR spectra. Magic- angle spinning, which is routinely used to produce high resolution spectra of spin-1/2 nuclei like carbon-13 and silicon-29, is incapable of fully narrowing resonances from quadrupolar nuclei when anisotropic second-order quadrupolar interactions are present. Two new sample-spinning techniques are introduced here that completely average the second-order quadrupolar coupling. Narrow resonance lines are obtained and individual resonances from distinct nuclear sites are identified. In dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) a rotor containing a powdered sample is reoriented between discrete angles with respect to high magnetic field. Evolution under anisotropic interactions at the different angles cancels, leaving only the isotropic evolution of the spin system. In the second technique, double rotation (DOR), a small rotor spins within a larger rotor so that the sample traces out a complicated trajectory in space. The relative orientation of the rotors and the orientation of the larger rotor within the magnetic field are selected to average both first- and second-order anisotropic broadening. The theory of quadrupolar interactions, coherent averaging theory, and motional narrowing by sample reorientation are reviewed with emphasis on the chemical shift anisotropy and second-order quadrupolar interactions experienced by half-odd integer spin quadrupolar nuclei. The DAS and DOR techniques are introduced and illustrated with application to common quadrupolar systems such as sodium-23 and oxygen-17 nuclei in solids

  8. Dynamic-angle spinning and double rotation of quadrupolar nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, K.T. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei is complicated by the coupling of the electric quadrupole moment of the nucleus to local variations in the electric field. The quadrupolar interaction is a useful source of information about local molecular structure in solids, but it tends to broaden resonance lines causing crowding and overlap in NMR spectra. Magic- angle spinning, which is routinely used to produce high resolution spectra of spin-{1/2} nuclei like carbon-13 and silicon-29, is incapable of fully narrowing resonances from quadrupolar nuclei when anisotropic second-order quadrupolar interactions are present. Two new sample-spinning techniques are introduced here that completely average the second-order quadrupolar coupling. Narrow resonance lines are obtained and individual resonances from distinct nuclear sites are identified. In dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) a rotor containing a powdered sample is reoriented between discrete angles with respect to high magnetic field. Evolution under anisotropic interactions at the different angles cancels, leaving only the isotropic evolution of the spin system. In the second technique, double rotation (DOR), a small rotor spins within a larger rotor so that the sample traces out a complicated trajectory in space. The relative orientation of the rotors and the orientation of the larger rotor within the magnetic field are selected to average both first- and second-order anisotropic broadening. The theory of quadrupolar interactions, coherent averaging theory, and motional narrowing by sample reorientation are reviewed with emphasis on the chemical shift anisotropy and second-order quadrupolar interactions experienced by half-odd integer spin quadrupolar nuclei. The DAS and DOR techniques are introduced and illustrated with application to common quadrupolar systems such as sodium-23 and oxygen-17 nuclei in solids.

  9. Tibial internal rotation negatively affects clinical outcomes in total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panni, Alfredo Schiavone; Ascione, Francesco; Rossini, Marco; Braile, Adriano; Corona, Katia; Vasso, Michele; Hirschmann, Michael T

    2017-12-15

    The aim of this systematic review is to analyze the effect of tibial rotational alignment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) on clinical outcomes and assess the eventual cut-off values for tibial TKA rotation leading to poor outcomes. A detailed and systematic search from 1997 to 2017 of the Pubmed, Medline, Cochrane Reviews, and the Google Scholar databases was performed using the keyword terms "total knee arthroplasty", "total knee replacement", "tibial alignment", "tibial malalignement", "tibial rotation", "rotational error", "axis", "angle", "tibial malrotation", "clinical outcome", in several combinations. The modified Coleman scoring methodology (mCMS) was used. All the primary TKAs studies analyzing correlation between clinical results and tibial rotation were included. Five articles met the inclusion criteria. A total of 333 arthroplasties were included in this review; 139 had tibial component malalignment, while 194 were in control groups. The mean age of patients was 67.3 (SD 0.57) years. The mean average postoperative follow-up delay was 34.7 months (range 21-70). The mean mCMS score was 59.2 points indicating good methodological quality in the included studies. Functional outcomes were assessed through KSS, OKS, KOOS and VAS, negatively related to tibial internal rotation. Our review confirmed that excessive internal rotation of the tibial TKA component represents a significant risk factor for pain and inferior functional outcomes after TKA (> 10° of internal rotation demonstrated the common value), since external rotation does not affect the results. However, a universal precise cut-off value has not been found in the available literature and there remains a debate about CT rotation assessment and surgical intra-operative landmarks. III.

  10. The residual zonal dynamics in a toroidally rotating tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Deng

    2015-01-01

    Zonal flows, initially driven by ion-temperature-gradient turbulence, may evolve due to the neoclassic polarization in a collisionless tokamak plasma. In this presentation, the form of the residual zonal flow is presented for tokamak plasmas rotating toroidally at arbitrary velocity. The gyro-kinetic equation is analytically solved to give the expression of residual zonal flows with arbitrary rotating velocity. The zonal flow level decreases as the rotating velocity increases. The numerical evaluation is in good agreement with the previous simulation result for high aspect ratio tokamaks. (author)

  11. Internal wave patterns in enclosed density-stratified and rotating fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, A.M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Stratified fluids support internal waves, which propagate obliquely through the fluid. The angle with respectto the stratification direction is contrained: it is purely determined by the wave frequency and the strength of the density stratification (internal gravity waves) or the rotation rate

  12. Stability Analysis for Rotating Stall Dynamics in Axial Flow Compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    modes determines collectively local stability of the compressor model. Explicit conditions are obtained for local stability of rotating stall which...critical modes determines the stability for rotating stall collectively . We point out that although in a special case our stability condition for...strict crossing assumption implies that the zero solution changes its stability as ~, crosses ~’c. For instance, odk (yc ) > 0 implies that the zero

  13. Rotation in the Dynamic Factor Modeling of Multivariate Stationary Time Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Nesselroade, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes a special rotation procedure for the exploratory dynamic factor model for stationary multivariate time series. The rotation procedure applies separately to each univariate component series of a q-variate latent factor series and transforms such a component, initially represented as white noise, into a univariate moving-average.…

  14. Rotation in the dynamic factor modeling of multivariate stationary time series.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, P.C.M.; Nesselroade, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    A special rotation procedure is proposed for the exploratory dynamic factor model for stationary multivariate time series. The rotation procedure applies separately to each univariate component series of a q-variate latent factor series and transforms such a component, initially represented as white

  15. Is rotating between static and dynamic work beneficial for our fatigue state?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luger, T.; Bosch, T.; Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Veeger,D.H.E.J.; Looze, M.P. de

    2016-01-01

    Shoulder disorders comprise a large part of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Risk factors, such as repetitiveness and monotony, may cause muscle fatigue and be attenuated by task rotation. We investigated rotation between a dynamic box-lifting task and a relatively static pick-and-place task

  16. Internal rotation in trifluoromethylsulfur pentafluoride: CF3SF5 by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Eizi; Kawasima, Yoshiyuki; Ajiki, Ken

    2017-12-01

    Trifluoromethylsulfur pentafluoride CF3SF5, which has been attracting much attention because of its unusually large global warming potential, was investigated by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in order to determine the twelve-fold potential barrier to internal rotation in this molecule. We have found the V12 value to be close to zero. Relaxation among internal-rotation and overall-rotation levels was found inhomogeneous, resulting in distributions quite different from thermal in low-temperature molecular beam, which might affect significantly thermodynamic properties of the molecule. Rotational spectra of the 13C species and the 34S species were also observed in natural abundance, leading to the rs Csbnd S bond length of 1.8808 (7) Å.

  17. Job rotation and internal marketing for increased job satisfaction and organisational commitment in hospital nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Yueh; Wu, Wen-Chuan; Chang, Ching-Sheng; Lin, Chia-Tzu

    2015-04-01

    To develop or enhance the job satisfaction and organisational commitment of nurses by implementing job rotation and internal marketing practices. No studies in the nursing management literature have addressed the integrated relationships among job rotation, internal marketing, job satisfaction and organisational commitment. This cross-sectional study included 266 registered nurses (response rate 81.8%) in two southern Taiwan hospitals. Software used for data analysis were SPSS 14.0 and AMOS 14.0 (structural equation modelling). Job rotation and internal marketing positively affect the job satisfaction and organisational commitment of nurses, and their job satisfaction positively affects their organisational commitment. Job rotation and internal marketing are effective strategies for improving nursing workforce utilisation in health-care organisations because they help to achieve the ultimate goals of increasing the job satisfaction of nurses and encouraging them to continue working in the field. This in turn limits the vicious cycle of high turnover and low morale in organisations, which wastes valuable human resources. Job rotation and internal marketing help nursing personnel acquire knowledge, skills and insights while simultaneously improving their job satisfaction and organisational commitment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Distribution of electron density and internal rotation in phospha-alkenes according to data from quantum-chemical calculations by the MNDO method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldeskul, I.E.; Pen'kovskii, V.V.; Povolotskii, M.I.

    1988-01-01

    A quantum-chemical investigation of the characteristics of the phosphorus-carbon bond and the internal rotation around it in phospha-alkenes has been carried out in the MNDO approximation. The results of the calculation have been compared with experimental dynamic 1 H NMR data

  19. Creating the perfect intern anaesthesia rotation: a survey using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    used to improve the current intern training programme for anaesthesia and to structure the ... The following feedback was common: more autonomy, longer duration of the anaesthesia ... Community service had a greater impact on career choice than internship. ... Community service doctors often work unsupervised and with.

  20. Dynamic Characteristics of Rotating Stall in Mixed Flow Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating stall, a phenomenon that causes flow instabilities and pressure hysteresis by propagating at some fraction of the impeller rotational speed, can occur in centrifugal impellers, mixed impellers, radial diffusers, or axial diffusers. Despite considerable efforts devoted to the study of rotating stall in pumps, the mechanics of this phenomenon are not sufficiently understood. The propagation mechanism and onset of rotating stall are not only affected by inlet flow but also by outlet flow as well as the pressure gradient in the flow passage. As such, the complexity of these concepts is not covered by the classical explanation. To bridge this research gap, the current study investigated prerotation generated at the upstream of the impeller, leakage flow at the tip clearance between the casing and the impeller, and strong reserve flow at the inlet of the diffuser. Understanding these areas will clarify the origin of the positive slope of the head-flow performance curve for a mixed flow pump. Nonuniform pressure distribution and adverse pressure gradient were also introduced to evaluate the onset and development of rotating stall within the diffuser.

  1. SU-F-E-12: Elective International Rotations in Medical Physics Residency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D; Mundt, A; Einck, J; Pawlicki, T [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this educational program is to motivate talented, intelligent individuals to become stakeholders in the global effort to improve access to radiotherapy. Methods: The need to improve global access to radiotherapy has been clearly established and several organizations are making substantial progress in securing funding and developing plans to achieve this worthwhile goal. The incorporation of elective international rotations in residency programs may provide one possible mechanism to promote and support this future investment. We recently incorporated an elective 1-month international rotation into our CAMPEP accredited Medical Physics residency program, with our first rotation taking place in Vietnam. A unique aspect of this rotation was that it was scheduled collaboratively with our Radiation Oncology residency program such that Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics residents traveled to the same clinic at the same time. Results: We believe the international rotation substantially enhances the educational experience, providing additional benefits to residents by increasing cross-disciplinary learning and offering a shared learning experience. The combined international rotation may also increase benefit to the host institution by modeling positive multidisciplinary working relationships between Radiation Oncologists and Medical Physicists. Our first resident returned with several ideas designed to improve radiotherapy in resource-limited settings – one of which is currently being pursued in collaboration with a vendor. Conclusion: The elective international rotation provides a unique learning experience that has the potential to motivate residents to become stakeholders in the global effort to improve access to radiotherapy. What better way to prepare the next generation of Medical Physicists to meet the challenges of improving global access to radiotherapy than to provide them with training experiences that motivate them to be socially

  2. SU-F-E-12: Elective International Rotations in Medical Physics Residency Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D; Mundt, A; Einck, J; Pawlicki, T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this educational program is to motivate talented, intelligent individuals to become stakeholders in the global effort to improve access to radiotherapy. Methods: The need to improve global access to radiotherapy has been clearly established and several organizations are making substantial progress in securing funding and developing plans to achieve this worthwhile goal. The incorporation of elective international rotations in residency programs may provide one possible mechanism to promote and support this future investment. We recently incorporated an elective 1-month international rotation into our CAMPEP accredited Medical Physics residency program, with our first rotation taking place in Vietnam. A unique aspect of this rotation was that it was scheduled collaboratively with our Radiation Oncology residency program such that Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics residents traveled to the same clinic at the same time. Results: We believe the international rotation substantially enhances the educational experience, providing additional benefits to residents by increasing cross-disciplinary learning and offering a shared learning experience. The combined international rotation may also increase benefit to the host institution by modeling positive multidisciplinary working relationships between Radiation Oncologists and Medical Physicists. Our first resident returned with several ideas designed to improve radiotherapy in resource-limited settings – one of which is currently being pursued in collaboration with a vendor. Conclusion: The elective international rotation provides a unique learning experience that has the potential to motivate residents to become stakeholders in the global effort to improve access to radiotherapy. What better way to prepare the next generation of Medical Physicists to meet the challenges of improving global access to radiotherapy than to provide them with training experiences that motivate them to be socially

  3. The Wibbly-Wobbly Moon: Rotational Dynamics of the Moon After Large Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, J. T.; Johnson, B. C.; Matsuyama, I.; Siegler, M.

    2017-12-01

    The spins of planets are not constant with time; they continuously evolve in response to both external and internal forces. One of the most dramatic ways a planet's spin can change is via impacts. Impacts change the planet's angular momentum, energy, and moments of inertia. These changes can have important consequences for the geology of the planet. For the well-studied case of the Moon, these repercussions include everything from changing the orientation of the magnetic field, controlling the geometry of fault networks, and altering the stability of volatiles (e.g. water ice) in permanently shadowed regions. While previous studies have investigated the dynamical effects of impacts on the Moon, most use simplistic models for the impact basin formation process—often only considering the impulsive change in the Moon's angular momentum, and occasionally the change in the Moon's moments of inertia from a simplified basin geometry (e.g. a cylindrical hole surrounded by a cylindrical ejecta blanket). These simplifications obscure some of the subtler and more complicated dynamics that occur in the aftermath of an impact. In this work, we present new model results for the rotational dynamics of the Moon after large, basin-forming impacts. We couple iSALE hydrocode simulations with the analytical and numerical formalisms of rotational dynamics. These simulations allow us to quantitatively track how different impact processes alter the Moon's moments of inertia, including basin formation, mantle uplift, impact heating, and ejecta-blanket emplacement. This unique combination of techniques enables us to more accurately track the spin of the Moon in the aftermath of these impacts, including periods of non-synchronous and non-principal-axis rotation, libration, and long-term reorientation (true polar wander). We find that the perturbation of the Moon's moments of inertia immediately after impact is several times larger than what is expected based on the present-day gravity

  4. Mass Distribution in Rotating Thin-Disk Galaxies According to Newtonian Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Q. Feng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An accurate computational method is presented for determining the mass distribution in a mature spiral galaxy from a given rotation curve by applying Newtonian dynamics for an axisymmetrically rotating thin disk of finite size with or without a central spherical bulge. The governing integral equation for mass distribution is transformed via a boundary-element method into a linear algebra matrix equation that can be solved numerically for rotation curves with a wide range of shapes. To illustrate the effectiveness of this computational method, mass distributions in several mature spiral galaxies are determined from their measured rotation curves. All the surface mass density profiles predicted by our model exhibit approximately a common exponential law of decay, quantitatively consistent with the observed surface brightness distributions. When a central spherical bulge is present, the mass distribution in the galaxy is altered in such a way that the periphery mass density is reduced, while more mass appears toward the galactic center. By extending the computational domain beyond the galactic edge, we can determine the rotation velocity outside the cut-off radius, which appears to continuously decrease and to gradually approach the Keplerian rotation velocity out over twice the cut-off radius. An examination of circular orbit stability suggests that galaxies with flat or rising rotation velocities are more stable than those with declining rotation velocities especially in the region near the galactic edge. Our results demonstrate the fact that Newtonian dynamics can be adequate for describing the observed rotation behavior of mature spiral galaxies.

  5. Exploring the Internal Dynamics of Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Laura L.; van der Marel, Roeland; Bellini, Andrea; Luetzgendorf, Nora; HSTPROMO Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Exploring the Internal Dynamics of Globular ClustersThe formation histories and structural properties of globular clusters are imprinted on their internal dynamics. Energy equipartition results in velocity differences for stars of different mass, and leads to mass segregation, which results in different spatial distributions for stars of different mass. Intermediate-mass black holes significantly increase the velocity dispersions at the centres of clusters. By combining accurate measurements of their internal kinematics with state-of-the-art dynamical models, we can characterise both the velocity dispersion and mass profiles of clusters, tease apart the different effects, and understand how clusters may have formed and evolved.Using proper motions from the Hubble Space Telescope Proper Motion (HSTPROMO) Collaboration for a set of 22 Milky Way globular clusters, and our discrete dynamical modelling techniques designed to work with large, high-quality datasets, we are studying a variety of internal cluster properties. We will present the results of theoretical work on simulated clusters that demonstrates the efficacy of our approach, and preliminary results from application to real clusters.

  6. Coriolis Effects in the Dynamics of a Rotating Elastic Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten; Hjorth, Poul G.; Kliem, Wolfhard

    1996-01-01

    Small oscillations of a rotating elasticum with a mass at the free end are investigated with Poincare-Lindstedt series. It is shown that the mass moves on a figure-eight shaped curve in a direction determined by the sign of the angular velocity and hence that the Coriolis force influences...

  7. Mapping Rotational Wavepacket Dynamics with Chirped Probe Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Dmitri; Odhner, Johanan; Levis, Robert

    2014-05-01

    We develop an analytical model description of the strong-field pump-probe polarization spectroscopy of rotational transients in molecular gases in a situation when the probe pulse is considerably chirped: the frequency modulation over the pulse duration is comparable with the carrier frequency. In this scenario, a femtosecond pump laser pulse prepares a rotational wavepacket in a gas-phase sample at room temperature. The rotational revivals of the wavepacket are then mapped onto a chirped broadband probe pulse derived from a laser filament. The slow-varying envelope approximation being inapplicable, an alternative approach is proposed which is capable of incorporating the substantial chirp and the related temporal dispersion of refractive indices. Analytical expressions are obtained for the probe signal modulation over the interaction region and for the resulting heterodyned transient birefringence spectra. Dependencies of the outputs on the probe pulse parameters reveal the trade-offs and the ways to optimize the temporal-spectral imaging. The results are in good agreement with the experiments on snapshot imaging of rotational revival patterns in nitrogen gas. We gratefully acknowledge financial support through AFOSR MURI Grant No. FA9550-10-1-0561.

  8. Dynamics of vortex structures in a stratified rotating fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolovskiy, Mikhail A

    2013-01-01

    This book presents an extensive analysis of the dynamics of discrete and distributed baroclinic vortices in a multi-layer fluid that characterizes the main features of the large and mesoscales dynamics of the atmosphere and the ocean.

  9. Study of internal rotation in molecules using molecular orbital method in the CNDO/BW approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrosa, M.S.

    1987-10-01

    It is presented a LCAO-MO-SCF study of Internal Rotation for the molecules C 2 H 6 , CH 3 NH 2 , H 2 O 2 , and N 2 H 4 by ysing the CNDO/BW approximation and an M-center energy partition. Our results are compared with those obtained with the CNDO/2 approximation. It is shown that there are differences in the analysis of the process involved in the internal rotation barriers mechanism. Thus the interpretation of the results is strongly dependent on the parametrization used. (author) [pt

  10. International Conference on Mathematical Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Yukihito

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents original papers ranging from an experimental study on cavitation jets to an up-to-date mathematical analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations for free boundary problems, reflecting topics featured at the International Conference on Mathematical Fluid Dynamics, Present and Future, held 11–14 November 2014 at Waseda University in Tokyo. The contributions address subjects in one- and two-phase fluid flows, including cavitation, liquid crystal flows, plasma flows, and blood flows. Written by internationally respected experts, these papers highlight the connections between mathematical, experimental, and computational fluid dynamics. The book is aimed at a wide readership in mathematics and engineering, including researchers and graduate students interested in mathematical fluid dynamics.

  11. Flexibility of internal and external glenohumeral rotation of junior female tennis players and its correlation with performance ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Ching-Cheng; Hsu, Chih-Chia; Chiang, Jinn-Yen; Chang, Weng-Cheng; Tsai, Jong-Chang

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the internal and external rotation of the dominant and nondominant shoulders of adolescent female tennis players. The correlation between the shoulder rotation range of motion and the player's ranking was also analyzed. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one female junior tennis players who were 13 to 18 years old participated in this study. A standard goniometer was used to measure the internal and external rotation of both glenohumeral joints. The difference in internal and external rotation was calculated as the glenohumeral rotation deficit. The year-end ranking of each player was obtained from the Chinese Taipei Tennis Association. [Results] The internal rotation of the dominant shoulder was significantly smaller than that of the nondominant shoulder. Moreover, player ranking was significantly and negatively correlated with the internal rotation range of motion of both shoulders. On the other hand, the correlations of the internal and external rotation ranges of motion with the age, height, and weight were not significant. [Conclusion] The flexibility of the glenohumeral internal rotation is smaller in the dominant shoulder than of the nondominant shoulder in these junior female tennis players. Flexibility of the glenohumeral internal rotation may be a factor affecting performance in junior female tennis players.

  12. Running and rotating: modelling the dynamics of migrating cell clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copenhagen, Katherine; Gov, Nir; Gopinathan, Ajay

    Collective motion of cells is a common occurrence in many biological systems, including tissue development and repair, and tumor formation. Recent experiments have shown cells form clusters in a chemical gradient, which display three different phases of motion: translational, rotational, and random. We present a model for cell clusters based loosely on other models seen in the literature that involves a Vicsek-like alignment as well as physical collisions and adhesions between cells. With this model we show that a mechanism for driving rotational motion in this kind of system is an increased motility of rim cells. Further, we examine the details of the relationship between rim and core cells, and find that the phases of the cluster as a whole are correlated with the creation and annihilation of topological defects in the tangential component of the velocity field.

  13. Spinning Up Interest: Classroom Demonstrations of Rotating Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurnou, J.

    2005-12-01

    The complex relationship between rotation and its effect on fluid motions presents some of the most difficult and vexing concepts for both undergraduate and graduate level students to learn. We have found that student comprehension is greatly increased by the presentation of in-class fluid mechanics experiments. A relatively inexpensive experimental set-up consists of the following components: a record player, a wireless camera placed in the rotating frame, a tank of fluid, and food coloring. At my poster, I will use this set-up to carry out demonstrations that illustrate the Taylor-Proudman theorem, flow within the Ekman layer, columnar convection, and flow around high and low pressure centers. By sending the output of the wireless camera through an LCD projection system, such demonstrations can be carried out even for classes in large lecture halls.

  14. The influence of applied internal and external rotation on the pivot shift phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, Sebastian; Musahl, Volker; Perka, Carsten; Kauert, Ralf; Hoburg, Arnd; Becker, Roland

    2017-04-01

    The pivot shift test is performed in different techniques and the rotation of the tibia seems to have a significant impact on the amount of the pivot shift phenomenon. It has been hypothesised that external rotation will increase the phenomenon due to less tension at the iliotibial band in knee extension. Twenty-four patients with unilateral anterior cruciate ligament insufficiency were included prospectively. The pivot shift test was performed bilaterally in internal and external tibial rotation under general anaesthesia. Knee motion was captured using a femoral and a tibial inertial sensor. The difference between positive and negative peak values in Euclidean norm of acceleration was calculated to evaluate the amount of the pivot shift phenomenon. The pivot shift phenomenon was significantly increased in patients with ACL insufficiency when the test was performed in external [mean 5.2 ms - 2 (95% CI 4.3-6.0)] compared to internal tibial rotation [mean 4.4 ms - 2 (95% CI 3.5-5.4)] (p = 0.002). In healthy, contralateral knees did not show any difference between external [mean 4.0 ms - 2 (95% CI 3.3-4.7)] and internal tibial rotation [mean 4.0 ms - 2 (95% CI 3.4-4.6)] (ns). The pivot shift phenomenon was increased with external rotation in ACL-insufficient knees, and therefore, one should perform the pivot shift test, rather, in external rotation to easily evoke the, sometimes difficult to detect, pivot shift phenomenon. I (diagnostic study).

  15. Parallel processing for nonlinear dynamics simulations of structures including rotating bladed-disk assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Shang-Hsien

    1993-01-01

    The principal objective of this research is to develop, test, and implement coarse-grained, parallel-processing strategies for nonlinear dynamic simulations of practical structural problems. There are contributions to four main areas: finite element modeling and analysis of rotational dynamics, numerical algorithms for parallel nonlinear solutions, automatic partitioning techniques to effect load-balancing among processors, and an integrated parallel analysis system.

  16. Internal Flow of Contra-Rotating Small Hydroturbine at Off- Design Flow Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHIGEMITSU, Toru; TAKESHIMA, Yasutoshi; OGAWA, Yuya; FUKUTOMI, Junichiro

    2016-11-01

    Small hydropower generation is one of important alternative energy, and enormous potential lie in the small hydropower. However, efficiency of small hydroturbines is lower than that of large one. Then, there are demands for small hydroturbines to keep high performance in wide flow rate range. Therefore, we adopted contra-rotating rotors, which can be expected to achieve high performance. In this research, performance of the contra-rotating small hydroturbine with 60mm casing diameter was investigated by an experiment and numerical analysis. Efficiency of the contra-rotating small hydroturbine was high in pico-hydroturbine and high efficiency could be kept in wide flow rate range, however the performance of a rear rotor decreased significantly in partial flow rates. Then, internal flow condition, which was difficult to measure experimentally, was investigated by the numerical flow analysis. Then, a relation between the performance and internal flow condition was considered by the numerical analysis result.

  17. Ageing dynamics of translational and rotational diffusion in a colloidal glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabbari-Farouji, Sara; Eiser, Erika; Wegdam, Gerard H; Bonn, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    We study the dynamics of translational and rotational diffusion during the ageing of a colloidal glass of Laponite using polarized and depolarized dynamic light scattering. The dynamics are qualitatively similar between the two degrees of freedom. The short-time diffusion is independent of the time elapsed since the sample preparation. The intermediate- and long-time diffusion, on the other hand, slows down by several orders of magnitude during the ageing. The slowing down of the rotational diffusion is found to be much faster than that of the translational diffusion. (letter to the editor)

  18. Molecular rotation and dynamics in superfluid helium-4 nanodroplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegari, Carlo

    2000-11-01

    Cavity-enhanced laser radiation, coupled to molecular- beam bolometric detection has been used to study the spectroscopy of acetylenic molecules embedded in helium nanodroplets. The 2ν1 transition (CH stretch overtone) of HCN, DCCH, NCCCH, CH3CCH, CF3CCH, (CH 3)3CCCH, (CH3)3SiCCH, has been investigated in the 1.5 μm spectral region by means of a color center laser coupled to a resonant build-up cavity, which enhances the laser power experienced by the molecules in the beam by up to a factor of 400, thus overcoming the weakness of the (dipole forbidden) transitions. All molecules are observed to rotate freely in the liquid cluster environment, with strongly enhanced moments of inertia, but with negligible matrix induced shifts (less than 1 cm-1). We show that this enhancement is largely accounted for by hydrodynamic effects, which we have modeled and numerically calculated. While in the gas phase the rotational lines have instrument-limited widths (a few MHZ), in the droplets we have observed linewidths ranging from 600 MHz for (CH3)3SiCCH to 2.8GHz for (CH3) 3CCCH. To investigate the nature of the broadening (which was widely believed to be homogeneous), we have performed a series of infrared (IR) saturation experiments on the 2ν1 transition. We have also thoroughly investigated NCCCH by means of microwave (MW) single-resonance experiments (on rotational transitions) and double-resonance (MW-MW and MW-IR) experiments. The results demonstrate that the spectral features of molecules in He droplets are inhomogeneously broadened, and allow an estimate of the importance of the different broadening contributions. In particular, MW-IR measurements show that the size of the cluster greatly affects the way rotational energy is relaxed. Large clusters seem to follow a ``strong collision model'' where memory of the initial rotational state is completely lost after each ``relaxation'' event, while for smaller clusters relaxation rates are probably affected by the lower

  19. Molecular rotation and dynamics in superfluid ^4He nanodroplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegari, Carlo

    2001-05-01

    Cavity-enhanced laser radiation, coupled to molecular-beam bolometric detection has been used to study the spectroscopy of acetylenic molecules embedded in helium nanodroplets. The 2ν1 transition (CH stretch overtone) of HCN, DCCH, NCCCH, CH_3CCH, CF_3CCH, (CH_3)_3CCCH, (CH_3)_3SiCCH, has been investigated in the 1.5 μm spectral region by means of a color center laser coupled to a resonant buildup cavity, which enhances the laser power experienced by the molecules in the beam by up to a factor of 400, thus overcoming the weakness of the (harmonically forbidden) transitions. All molecules are observed to rotate freely in the liquid cluster environment, with strongly enhanced moments of inertia, but with negligible matrix induced shifts (less than 1 cm-1). We show that this enhancement is largely accounted for by hydrodynamic effects, which we have modeled and numerically calculated. While in the gas phase the rotational lines have instrument-limited widths (a few MHz), in the droplets we have observed linewidths ranging from 600 MHz for (CH_3)_3SiCCH to 2.8 GHz for (CH_3)_3CCCH. To investigate the nature of the broadening (which was widely believed to be homogeneous), we have performed a series of infrared (IR) saturation experiments on the 2ν1 transition. We have also thoroughly investigated NCCCH by means of microwave (MW) single-resonance experiments (on rotational transitions) and double-resonance (MW-MW and MW-IR) experiments. The results demonstrate that the spectral features of molecules in He droplets are inhomogeneously broadened, and allow an estimate of the importance of the different broadening contributions. In particular, MW-IR measurements show that the size of the cluster greatly affects the way rotational energy is relaxed. Large clusters seem to follow a ``strong collision model'' where memory of the initial rotational state is completely lost after each ``relaxation'' event, while for smaller clusters relaxation rates are probably affected by

  20. Stability analysis of internally damped rotating composite shafts using a finite element formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Arab, Safa; Rodrigues, José Dias; Bouaziz, Slim; Haddar, Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    This paper deals with the stability analysis of internally damped rotating composite shafts. An Euler-Bernoulli shaft finite element formulation based on Equivalent Single Layer Theory (ESLT), including the hysteretic internal damping of composite material and transverse shear effects, is introduced and then used to evaluate the influence of various parameters: stacking sequences, fiber orientations and bearing properties on natural frequencies, critical speeds, and instability thresholds. The obtained results are compared with those available in the literature using different theories. The agreement in the obtained results show that the developed Euler-Bernoulli finite element based on ESLT including hysteretic internal damping and shear transverse effects can be effectively used for the stability analysis of internally damped rotating composite shafts. Furthermore, the results revealed that rotor stability is sensitive to the laminate parameters and to the properties of the bearings.

  1. Investigation Stability of Upper Limb Function in Handballers with Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorollah Javdaneh

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, functional stability of the unstable shoulder of Hanballers with Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit is lower than the functional stability of the healthy subjects; therefore, we suggest that the upper extremity stabilization exercises, specially the closed kinetic chain exercises be added to the shoulder rehabilitation programs.

  2. Large eddy simulation of spanwise rotating turbulent channel flow with dynamic variants of eddy viscosity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhou; Xia, Zhenhua; Shi, Yipeng; Chen, Shiyi

    2018-04-01

    A fully developed spanwise rotating turbulent channel flow has been numerically investigated utilizing large-eddy simulation. Our focus is to assess the performances of the dynamic variants of eddy viscosity models, including dynamic Vreman's model (DVM), dynamic wall adapting local eddy viscosity (DWALE) model, dynamic σ (Dσ ) model, and the dynamic volumetric strain-stretching (DVSS) model, in this canonical flow. The results with dynamic Smagorinsky model (DSM) and direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used as references. Our results show that the DVM has a wrong asymptotic behavior in the near wall region, while the other three models can correctly predict it. In the high rotation case, the DWALE can get reliable mean velocity profile, but the turbulence intensities in the wall-normal and spanwise directions show clear deviations from DNS data. DVSS exhibits poor predictions on both the mean velocity profile and turbulence intensities. In all three cases, Dσ performs the best.

  3. Measurement of rotational dynamics by the simultaneous nonlinear analysis of optical and EPR data.

    OpenAIRE

    Hustedt, E J; Cobb, C E; Beth, A H; Beechem, J M

    1993-01-01

    In the preceding companion article in this issue, an optical dye and a nitroxide radical were combined in a new dual function probe, 5-SLE. In this report, it is demonstrated that time-resolved optical anisotropy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data can be combined in a single analysis to measure rotational dynamics. Rigid-limit and rotational diffusion models for simulating nitroxide EPR data have been incorporated into a general non-linear least-squares procedure based on the Marq...

  4. International Conference on Dynamic Crack Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    1973-01-01

    The planning meeting for a conference on Dynamic Crack Propagation was held at M.LT. in February 1971 and attended by research workers from several industrial, governmental and academic organizations. It was felt that a more specialized meeting would provide a better opportunity for both U.S. and foreign researchers to exchange their ideas and views on dynamic fracture, a subject which is seldom emphasized in national or international fracture conferences. Dynamic crack propagation has been a concern to specialists in many fields: continuum mechanics, metallurgy, geology, polymer chemistry, orthopedics, applied mathematics, as well as structural design and testing. It impinges on a wide variety of problems such as rock breaking and earthquakes, pressure vessels and line pipes, comminution and the per­ formance of armament and ordnance, etc. Advances have been numerous, covering theories and experiments from both the microscopic and macro­ scopic points of view. Hence, the need for comparing the theoretical ...

  5. International Conference on Applications in Nonlinear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Longhini, Patrick; Palacios, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This book presents collaborative research works carried out by experimentalists and theorists around the world in the field of nonlinear dynamical systems. It provides a forum for applications of nonlinear systems while solving practical problems in science and engineering. Topics include: Applied Nonlinear Optics, Sensor, Radar & Communication Signal Processing, Nano Devices, Nonlinear Biomedical Applications, Circuits & Systems, Coupled Nonlinear Oscillator, Precision Timing Devices, Networks, and other contemporary topics in the general field of Nonlinear Science. This book provides a comprehensive report of the various research projects presented at the International Conference on Applications in Nonlinear Dynamics (ICAND 2016) held in Denver, Colorado, 2016. It can be a valuable tool for scientists and engineering interested in connecting ideas and methods in nonlinear dynamics with actual design, fabrication and implementation of engineering applications or devices.

  6. Dynamics of a discrete geotropic sensor subject to rotation-induced gravity compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, I.L.

    1976-01-01

    A clinostat achieves gravity compensation by providing circular rotation with uniform speed, about a horizontal axis. The dynamics of an assumed, discrete and free-moving subcellular gravity receptor, subject to clinostat rotation, is analyzed. The results imply that there is an optimum rotation rate; higher speeds result in circular motions with diameters more comparable to thermal noise fluctuations, but with greater linear velocities due to increasing centrifugal forces. An optimizing function is proposed. The nucleolus and mitochondrion is chosen as a gravity receptor for illustrating the use of this theory. The characteristics of their clinostat-induced motions are incorporated with experimental results on Avena plant shoots in an illustrative example.

  7. Shoulder MR arthrography of the posterior labrocapsular complex in overhead throwers with pathologic internal impingement and internal rotation deficit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuite, Michael J; Petersen, Brian D; Wise, Steven M [University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Fine, Jason P [University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Department of Biostatistics, Madison, WI (United States); Kaplan, Lee D; Orwin, John F [University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Madison, WI (United States)

    2007-06-15

    To determine if overhead-throwing athletes with internal impingement pain and internal rotation deficit have thickening of the posterior inferior labrocapsular complex on MR arthrogram images. This study was approved and a waiver of consent granted by our institutional review board. Twenty-six overhead-throwing athletes with internal impingement pain and internal rotation deficit, and 26 controls who had undergone MR arthrograms, were retrospectively examined. The MR studies were combined and read in a blind fashion. On an axial image through the posteroinferior glenoid rim, the readers measured the labral length, capsule-labrum length, and the posterior recess angle. A t-test was used to determine statistical significance. The mean labral length was 4.9 mm [standard deviation (SD) 1.4 mm] for the controls, and 6.4 mm (SD 1.6 mm) for the athletes (P = 0.001). The mean capsule-labrum length was 5.4 mm (SD 2.1 mm) for the controls, and 8.8 mm (SD 2.9 mm) for the athletes (P < 0.001). The mean posterior recess angle measured 65 (SD 27 ) for the controls and 94 (SD 38 ) for the athletes (P = 0.002). Overhead-throwing athletes with internal impingement pain and internal rotation deficit tend to have a thicker labrum and a shallower capsular recess in the posterior inferior shoulder joint than do non-overhead-throwing athletes. In many, the posteroinferior capsule is also thickened. These MR findings should alert the radiologist to closely inspect the posterior cuff and posterosuperior labrum for the tears associated with internal impingement. (orig.)

  8. Shoulder MR arthrography of the posterior labrocapsular complex in overhead throwers with pathologic internal impingement and internal rotation deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuite, Michael J.; Petersen, Brian D.; Wise, Steven M.; Fine, Jason P.; Kaplan, Lee D.; Orwin, John F.

    2007-01-01

    To determine if overhead-throwing athletes with internal impingement pain and internal rotation deficit have thickening of the posterior inferior labrocapsular complex on MR arthrogram images. This study was approved and a waiver of consent granted by our institutional review board. Twenty-six overhead-throwing athletes with internal impingement pain and internal rotation deficit, and 26 controls who had undergone MR arthrograms, were retrospectively examined. The MR studies were combined and read in a blind fashion. On an axial image through the posteroinferior glenoid rim, the readers measured the labral length, capsule-labrum length, and the posterior recess angle. A t-test was used to determine statistical significance. The mean labral length was 4.9 mm [standard deviation (SD) 1.4 mm] for the controls, and 6.4 mm (SD 1.6 mm) for the athletes (P = 0.001). The mean capsule-labrum length was 5.4 mm (SD 2.1 mm) for the controls, and 8.8 mm (SD 2.9 mm) for the athletes (P < 0.001). The mean posterior recess angle measured 65 (SD 27 ) for the controls and 94 (SD 38 ) for the athletes (P = 0.002). Overhead-throwing athletes with internal impingement pain and internal rotation deficit tend to have a thicker labrum and a shallower capsular recess in the posterior inferior shoulder joint than do non-overhead-throwing athletes. In many, the posteroinferior capsule is also thickened. These MR findings should alert the radiologist to closely inspect the posterior cuff and posterosuperior labrum for the tears associated with internal impingement. (orig.)

  9. Modeling dynamic stall on wind turbine blades under rotationally augmented flow fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Sørensen, Niels N.; Schreck, Scott

    2016-01-01

    a reduced order dynamic stall model that uses rotationally augmented steady-state polars obtained from steady Phase VI experimental sequences, instead of the traditional two-dimensional, non-rotating data. The aim of this work is twofold. First, the blade loads estimated by the DDES simulations are compared...... Experiment Phase VI experimental data, including constant as well as continuously pitching blade conditions during axial operation; (2) data from unsteady delayed detached eddy simulations (DDES) carried out using the Technical University of Denmark’s in-house flow solver Ellipsys3D; and (3) data from...... with those from the dynamic stall model. This allowed the differences between the stall phenomenon on the inboard parts of harmonically pitching blades on a rotating wind turbine and the classic dynamic stall representation in two-dimensional flow to be investigated. Results indicated a good qualitative...

  10. Nonlinear dynamics near the stability margin in rotating pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Leibovich, S.

    1991-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of marginally unstable wave packets in rotating pipe flow is studied. These flows depend on two control parameters, which may be taken to be the axial Reynolds number R and a Rossby number, q. Marginal stability is realized on a curve in the (R, q)-plane, and the entire marginal stability boundary is explored. As the flow passes through any point on the marginal stability curve, it undergoes a supercritical Hopf bifurcation and the steady base flow is replaced by a traveling wave. The envelope of the wave system is governed by a complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. The Ginzburg-Landau equation admits Stokes waves, which correspond to standing modulations of the linear traveling wavetrain, as well as traveling wave modulations of the linear wavetrain. Bands of wavenumbers are identified in which the nonlinear modulated waves are subject to a sideband instability.

  11. Supracondylar corrective osteotomy for cubitus varus--the internal rotation component and its importance. An unique bone experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimulia T

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available In 20 patients with cubitus varus, a clinical test suggested by Yamamoto et al (1985 was carried out to measure the internal rotation. Average internal rotation was found to be 37.5 +/- 9.390. A correction for internal rotation was carried out for all the patients having angle more than 20 degrees. Following osteotomy, post-operative Yamamoto′s angle was measured and was found to be 8.85 +/- 6.5. An experiment was carried out on postmortem human humerus with cubitus varus. The internal rotation was measured with Kirschner wires and was found to be 30 degrees. Osteotomy was carried out to eliminate varus and correct internal rotation. Radiographs taken before and after the osteotomy confirmed the correction. We conclude that this derotation has to be corrected and Yamamoto′s test should be used to assess the correction.

  12. Elastic dynamic research of high speed multi-link precision press considering structural stiffness of rotation joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Feng Feng; Sun, Yu; Peng, Bin Bin [School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China)

    2016-10-15

    An elastic dynamic model of high-speed multi-link precision press considering structural stiffness of rotation joints was established by the finite element method. In the finite element model, rotation joint was established by four bar elements with equivalent stiffness, and connected link was established by beam element. Then, the elastic dynamics equation of the system was established, and modal superposition method was used to solve the dynamic response. Compared with the traditional elastic dynamic model with perfect constraint of the rotation joints, the elastic dynamic response value of the improved model is larger. To validate the presented new method of elastic dynamics analysis with stiffness of rotation joints, a related test of slider Bottom dead center (BDC) position in different speed was designed. The test shows that the model with stiffness of rotation joints is more reasonable. So it provides a reasonable theory and method for dynamic characteristics research of such a multi-link machine.

  13. Multi-scale phenomena of rotation-modified mode-2 internal waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepwell, David; Stastna, Marek; Coutino, Aaron

    2018-03-01

    We present high-resolution, three-dimensional simulations of rotation-modified mode-2 internal solitary waves at various rotation rates and Schmidt numbers. Rotation is seen to change the internal solitary-like waves observed in the absence of rotation into a leading Kelvin wave followed by Poincaré waves. Mass and energy is found to be advected towards the right-most side wall (for a Northern Hemisphere rotation), leading to increased amplitude of the leading Kelvin wave and the formation of Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instabilities on the upper and lower edges of the deformed pycnocline. These fundamentally three-dimensional instabilities are localized within a region near the side wall and intensify in vigour with increasing rotation rate. Secondary Kelvin waves form further behind the wave from either resonance with radiating Poincaré waves or the remnants of the K-H instability. The first of these mechanisms is in accord with published work on mode-1 Kelvin waves; the second is, to the best of our knowledge, novel to the present study. Both types of secondary Kelvin waves form on the same side of the channel as the leading Kelvin wave. Comparisons of equivalent cases with different Schmidt numbers indicate that while adopting a numerically advantageous low Schmidt number results in the correct general characteristics of the Kelvin waves, excessive diffusion of the pycnocline and various density features precludes accurate representation of both the trailing Poincaré wave field and the intensity and duration of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities.

  14. Stellar dynamism. Activity and rotation of solar stars observed from the Kepler satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceillier, Tugdual

    2015-01-01

    This thesis concerns the study of seismic solar-like stars' rotation and magnetic activity. We use data from the Kepler satellite to study the rotational history of these stars throughout their evolution. This allows to have a more complete picture of stellar rotation and magnetism. In the first part, we present the context of this PhD: astro-seismology, the seismic study of stars. We continue by describing the tool we developed to measure surface rotation of stars using photometric data from Kepler. We compare it to other methodologies used by the community and show that its efficiency is very high. In the second part, we apply this tool to around 500 main-sequence and sub-giant solar-like stars. We measure surface rotation periods and activity levels for 300 of them. We show that the measured periods and the ages from astro-seismology do not agree well with the standard period-age relationships and propose to modify these relationships for stars older than the Sun. We also use the surface rotation as a constraint to estimate the internal rotation of a small number of seismic targets. We demonstrate that these stars have, like the Sun, a very low differential rotation ratio. In the third part, we apply our surface rotation-measuring tool to the most extensive sample of red giants observed by Kepler, comprising more than 17,000 stars. We identify more than 360 fast rotating red giants and compare our detection rates with the ones predicted by theory to better understand the reasons for this rapid rotation. We also use stellar modelling to reproduce the internal rotation profile of a particular red giant. This allows us to emphasize how important implementing new angular momentum transport mechanisms in stellar evolution codes is. This work offers new results that are useful to a very wide community of stellar physicists. It also puts strong constraints on the evolution of solar-like stars' rotation and magnetic activity. (author) [fr

  15. Internal rotation of 13 low-mass low-luminosity red giants in the Kepler field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana, S. A.; Corsaro, E.; De Ridder, J.; Bonanno, A.; Pérez Hernández, F.; García, R. A.

    2017-06-01

    Context. The Kepler space telescope has provided time series of red giants of such unprecedented quality that a detailed asteroseismic analysis becomes possible. For a limited set of about a dozen red giants, the observed oscillation frequencies obtained by peak-bagging together with the most recent pulsation codes allowed us to reliably determine the core/envelope rotation ratio. The results so far show that the current models are unable to reproduce the rotation ratios, predicting higher values than what is observed and thus indicating that an efficient angular momentum transport mechanism should be at work. Here we provide an asteroseismic analysis of a sample of 13 low-luminosity low-mass red giant stars observed by Kepler during its first nominal mission. These targets form a subsample of the 19 red giants studied previously, which not only have a large number of extracted oscillation frequencies, but also unambiguous mode identifications. Aims: We aim to extend the sample of red giants for which internal rotation ratios obtained by theoretical modeling of peak-bagged frequencies are available. We also derive the rotation ratios using different methods, and compare the results of these methods with each other. Methods: We built seismic models using a grid search combined with a Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm and obtained rotation averages employing Bayesian inference and inversion methods. We compared these averages with those obtained using a previously developed model-independent method. Results: We find that the cores of the red giants in this sample are rotating 5 to 10 times faster than their envelopes, which is consistent with earlier results. The rotation rates computed from the different methods show good agreement for some targets, while some discrepancies exist for others.

  16. The internal vertebral venous plexus prevents compression of the dural sac during atlanto-axial rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reesink, E.M.; Lataster, L.M.A.; Mameren, H. van [Dept. of Anatomy/Embryology, Maastricht Univ. (Netherlands); Wilmink, J.T. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital Maastricht (Netherlands); Kingma, H. [Dept. of ENT, University Hospital Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2001-10-01

    Deformation of the extradural space and the possibility of impression upon the dural sac during atlanto-axial rotation are investigated. Atlanto-axial rotation leads to a reduction in the cross-sectional area of the bony spinal canal of approximately 40 %. Atlanto-axial rotation was recorded by endocanalar views from a video camera fixed inside the skull of six unembalmed cadavers. Axial thin-section T1-weighted MRI slice sets were acquired from three volunteers (mid-position and maximal left and right rotation of the head and cervical spine). The axial cross-sectional areas of the bony spinal canal, dural sac and spinal cord were measured. In two other persons post-gadolinium contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI volume scans with fat-suppression prepulse were acquired (mid-position and rotation) to determine venous contents of the extradural space. The 50:50 ratio between left and right extradural halves in mid-position changed to an ipsilateral:contralateral ratio of 20:80 in maximum rotation at the level just above the lateral C1-C2 joints. Directly below these joints the opposite occurred. The post-contrast studies showed an enhancing internal vertebral venous plexus (IVVP), which almost completely occupied the extradural space at the atlanto-axial level. This could not be shown in the cadaver experiments, because of absence of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure. During atlanto-axial rotation blood displacement in the IVVP allows major deformations of the extradural space. This prevents dural sac impression. (orig.)

  17. Development and application of a dynamic stall model for rotating wind turbine blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, B F; Yuan, Y; Wang, T G

    2014-01-01

    In unsteady conditions of wind turbines, both the dynamic stall phenomenon and the three-dimensional (3D) rotational effect affect the rotor aerodynamics. The dynamic stall mechanism for rotating wind turbine blades is first investigated. Through the comparison of the aerodynamic data between the rotating blade and the two-dimensional (2D) airfoil, the normal force slope in the attached flow and the separation point expression in the separated flow are modified in the Beddoes-Leishman (B-L) dynamic stall model for rotating NREL wind turbine blades. The modified model is validated by the comparison between the calculation results and the experimental results of the lift and drag coefficients at different radial positions. Both the hysteresis loop shapes and the calculation values are closer to the experiment than the 2D dynamic stall model. The present dynamic stall model is then coupled to a free vortex wake model. The coupled model is used to calculate the unsteady blade aerodynamic loads and the low speed shaft torque of the NREL wind turbine in a yawed condition. The accuracy is greatly improved by the corrections presented in the paper

  18. Plasma internal inductance dynamics in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    A lumped parameter model for tokamak plasma current and inductance time evolution as a function of plasma resistance, non-inductive current drive sources and boundary voltage or poloidal field coil current drive is presented. The model includes a novel formulation leading to exact equations for internal inductance and plasma current dynamics. Having in mind its application in a tokamak inductive control system, the model is expressed in state space form, the preferred choice for the design of control systems using modern control systems theory. The choice of system states allows many interesting physical quantities such as plasma current, inductance, magnetic energy, and resistive and inductive fluxes be made available as output equations. The model is derived from energy conservation theorem, and flux balance theorems, together with a first order approximation for flux diffusion dynamics. The validity of this approximation has been checked using experimental data from JET showing an excellent agreement.

  19. Spectroscopic investigation of the vibrational quasi-continuum arising from internal rotation of a methyl group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hougen, J.T. [NIST, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this project is to use spectroscopic techniques to investigate in detail phenomena involving the vibrational quasi-continuum in a simple physical system. Acetaldehyde was chosen for the study because: (i) methyl groups have been suggested to be important promotors of intramolecular vibrational relaxation, (ii) the internal rotation of a methyl group is an easily describle large-amplitude motion, which should retain its simple character even at high levels of excitation, and (iii) the aldehyde carbonyl group offers the possibility of both vibrational and electronic probing. The present investigation of the ground electronic state has three parts: (1) understanding the {open_quotes}isolated{close_quotes} internal-rotation motion below, at, and above the top of the torsional barrier, (2) understanding in detail traditional (bond stretching and bending) vibrational fundamental and overtone states, and (3) understanding interactions involving states with multiquantum excitations of at least one of these two kinds of motion.

  20. Rattleback dynamics and its reversal time of rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yoichiro; Nakanishi, Hiizu

    2017-06-01

    A rattleback is a rigid, semielliptic toy which exhibits unintuitive behavior; when it is spun in one direction, it soon begins pitching and stops spinning, then it starts to spin in the opposite direction, but in the other direction, it seems to spin just steadily. This puzzling behavior results from the slight misalignment between the principal axes for the inertia and those for the curvature; the misalignment couples the spinning with the pitching and the rolling oscillations. It has been shown that under the no-slip condition and without dissipation the spin can reverse in both directions, and Garcia and Hubbard obtained the formula for the time required for the spin reversal tr [Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 418, 165 (1988), 10.1098/rspa.1988.0078]. In this work, we reformulate the rattleback dynamics in a physically transparent way and reduce it to a three-variable dynamics for spinning, pitching, and rolling. We obtain an expression of the Garcia-Hubbard formula for tr by a simple product of four factors: (1) the misalignment angle, (2) the difference in the inverses of inertia moment for the two oscillations, (3) that in the radii for the two principal curvatures, and (4) the squared frequency of the oscillation. We perform extensive numerical simulations to examine validity and limitation of the formula, and find that (1) the Garcia-Hubbard formula is good for both spinning directions in the small spin and small oscillation regime, but (2) in the fast spin regime especially for the steady direction, the rattleback may not reverse and shows a rich variety of dynamics including steady spinning, spin wobbling, and chaotic behavior reminiscent of chaos in a dissipative system.

  1. Tokamak turbulence in self-regulated differentially rotating flow and L-H transition dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, P.W.; Carreras, B.A.; Sidikman, K.

    1992-01-01

    An analytical study of turbulence in the presence of turbulently generated differentially rotating flow is presented as a paradigm for fluctuation dynamics in L- and H-mode plasmas. Using a drift wave model, the role of both flow shear and flow curvature (second radial derivative of the poloidal ExB flow) is detailed in linear and saturated turbulence phases. In the strong turbulence saturated state, finite amplitude-induced modification of the fluctuation structure near low order rational surfaces strongly inhibits flow shear suppression. Suppression by curvature is not diminished, but it occurs through a frequency shift. A description of L-H mode transition dynamics based on the self-consistent linking of turbulence suppression by differentially rotating flow and generation of flow by turbulent momentum transport is presented. In this model, rising edge temperature triggers a transition characterized by spontaneous generation of differentially rotating flow and decreasing turbulence intensity

  2. A method, device and application for the dynamic balancing of a rotating component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinis, P.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamic balancing method is based on the detection of the vibrations generated by an unbalance; two satellites are then displaced in order to create a counter-unbalance and their position is measured. Their position is then adjusted so as the unbalance and counter-unbalance phases and intensities differences are inferior to predetermined reference values in order to balance dynamically the rotating component. Application to superpower turbogenerator shafting systems. 4 fig

  3. Crop rotations and poultry litter impact dynamic soil chemical properties and soil biota long-term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynamic soil physiochemical interactions with conservation agricultural practices and soil biota are largely unknown. Therefore, this study aims to quantify long-term (12-yr) impacts of cover crops, poultry litter, crop rotations, and conservation tillage and their interactions on soil physiochemica...

  4. INTERNAL ROTATION OF THE RED-GIANT STAR KIC 4448777 BY MEANS OF ASTEROSEISMIC INVERSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Mauro, M. P.; Cardini, D. [INAF, IAPS Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Roma (Italy); Ventura, R.; Paternò, L. [INAF, Astrophysical Observatory of Catania, Catania (Italy); Stello, D. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney (Australia); Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Hekker, S. [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Dziembowski, W. A. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw (Poland); Beck, P. G.; De Smedt, K.; Tkachenko, A. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium); Bloemen, S. [Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, NL-6500 GL, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Davies, G. R.; Garcia, R. A. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Univ. Paris Diderot, IRFU/Sap, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Elsworth, Y. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Mosser, B. [LESIA, PSL Research University, CNRS, Universitè Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Denis Diderot, Observatoire de Paris, Meudon Cedex (France)

    2016-01-20

    We study the dynamics of the stellar interior of the early red-giant star KIC 4448777 by asteroseismic inversion of 14 splittings of the dipole mixed modes obtained from Kepler observations. In order to overcome the complexity of the oscillation pattern typical of red-giant stars, we present a procedure to extract the rotational splittings from the power spectrum. We find not only that the core rotates from a minimum of 8 to a maximum of 17 times faster than the surface, confirming previous inversion results generated for other red giants (Deheuvels et al.), but we also estimate the variation of the angular velocity within the helium core with a spatial resolution of 0.001R and verify the hypothesis of a sharp discontinuity in the inner stellar rotation. The results show that the entire core rotates rigidly and provide evidence for an angular velocity gradient around the base of the hydrogen-burning shell; however, we do not succeed in characterizing the rotational slope, due to the intrinsic limits of the applied techniques. The angular velocity, from the edge of the core, appears to decrease with increasing distance from the center, reaching an average value in the convective envelope of 68 ± 22 nHz. We conclude that a set of data that includes only dipolar modes is sufficient to infer quite accurately the rotation of a red giant not only in the dense core but also, with a lower level of confidence, in part of the radiative region and in the convective envelope.

  5. Stable and Unstable Rotational Dynamics of a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Matthew; Gibbons, Chad; Belaiter, Sami; Clarage, James B.

    2017-10-01

    One of the canonical, and memorable, classroom demonstrations from an upper-division mechanics course is to toss a rigid body with three distinct principal moments of inertia into the air, giving it a spin along one of its three principal axes. A student's mechanics textbook itself works great for the body, secured rigidly shut with a rubber band. The book will spin stably about its longest and shortest dimensions, just like a top or gyroscope. What is surprising is that any attempt to spin the book about its intermediate axis (the axis parallel to the book's lines of text) will result in a wildly unstable and chaotic tumbling, which most students find curious enough to warrant staying awake for a subsequent derivation of Euler's equations. However, now that most students read their text "books" off of a tablet or phone, this demonstration may seem outdated. Or is it? Like a textbook, a phone or tablet also has three distinct principal moments. Better still, not only do these solid state devices require no rubber band, but these bodies can collect detailed data on their dynamical state, turning a demonstration into an actual experiment. This article reports the results of this modern version of the classical "book toss" demonstration, fittingly carried out by a team composed of both an old physics professor and a youthful group of three undergraduate students studying physics and engineering.

  6. Statistical and dynamical properties of a dissipative kicked rotator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Diego F. M.; Leonel, Edson D.

    2014-11-01

    Some dynamical and statistical properties for a conservative as well as the dissipative problem of relativistic particles in a waveguide are considered. For the first time, two different types of dissipation namely: (i) due to viscosity and; (ii) due to inelastic collision (upon the kick) are considered individually and acting together. For the first case, and contrary to what is expected for the original Zaslavsky’s relativistic model, we show there is a critical parameter where a transition from local to global chaos occurs. On the other hand, after considering the introduction of dissipation also on the kick, the structure of the phase space changes in the sense that chaotic and periodic attractors appear. We study also the chaotic sea by using scaling arguments and we proposed an analytical argument to reinforce the validity of the scaling exponents obtained numerically. In principle such an approach can be extended to any two-dimensional map. Finally, based on the Lyapunov exponent, we show that the parameter space exhibits infinite families of self-similar shrimp-shape structures, corresponding to periodic attractors, embedded in a large region corresponding to chaotic attractors.

  7. Role of Reynolds stress and toroidal momentum transport in the dynamics of internal transport barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. S.; Jhang, Hogun; Diamond, P. H.

    2012-01-01

    We study the interplay between intrinsic rotation and internal transport barrier (ITB) dynamics through the dynamic change of the parallel Reynolds stress. Global flux-driven gyrofluid simulations are used for this study. In particular, we investigate the role of parallel velocity gradient instability (PVGI) in the ITB formation and the back transition. It is found that the excitation of PVGI is followed by a change in the Reynolds stress which drives a momentum redistribution. This significantly influences E×B shear evolution and subsequent ITB dynamics. Nonlocal interactions among fluctuations are also observed during the PVGI excitation, resulting in turbulence suppression at the ITB.

  8. Rotating bed reactor for CLC: Bed characteristics dependencies on internal gas mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Håkonsen, Silje Fosse; Grande, Carlos A.; Blom, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A mathematical model for the rotating CLC reactor has been developed. • The model reflects the gas distribution in the reactor during CLC operation. • Radial dispersion in the rotating bed is the main cause for internal gas mixing. • The model can be used to optimize the reactor design and particle characteristics. - Abstract: A newly designed continuous lab-scale rotating bed reactor for chemical looping combustion using CuO/Al 2 O 3 oxygen carrier spheres and methane as fuel gives around 90% CH 4 conversion and >90% CO 2 capture efficiency based on converted methane at 800 °C. However, from a series of experiments using a broad range of operating conditions potential CO 2 purities only in the range 20–65% were yielded, mostly due to nitrogen slip from the air side of the reactor into the effluent CO 2 stream. A mathematical model was developed intending to understand the air-mixing phenomena. The model clearly reflects the gas slippage tendencies observed when varying the process conditions such as rotation frequency, gas flow and the flow if inert gas in the two sectors dividing the air and fuel side of the reactor. Based on the results, it is believed that significant improvements can be made to reduce gas mixing in future modified and scaled-up reactor versions

  9. Arc dynamics of a pulsed DC nitrogen rotating gliding arc discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengsen; Zhang, Hao; Li, Xiaodong; Wu, Angjian; Yan, Jianhua; Ni, Mingjiang; Tu, Xin

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a novel pulsed direct current (DC) rotating gliding arc (RGA) plasma reactor co-driven by an external magnetic field and a tangential gas flow has been developed. The dynamic characteristics of the rotating gliding arc have been investigated by means of numerical simulation and experiment. The simulation results show that a highly turbulent vortex flow can be generated at the bottom of the RGA reactor to accelerate the arc rotation after arc ignition, whereas the magnitude of gas velocity declined significantly along the axial direction of the RGA reactor. The calculated arc rotation frequency (14.4 Hz) is reasonably close to the experimental result (18.5 Hz) at a gas flow rate of 10 l min-1. In the presence of an external magnet, the arc rotation frequency is around five times higher than that of the RGA reactor without using a magnet, which suggests that the external magnetic field plays a dominant role in the maintenance of the arc rotation in the upper zone of the RGA reactor. In addition, when the magnet is placed outside the reactor reversely to form a reverse external magnetic field, the arc can be stabilized at a fixed position in the inner wall of the outer electrode at a critical gas flow rate of 16 l min-1.

  10. Determination of a sagittal plane axis of rotation for a dynamic office chair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, C M; Rast, F M; Böck, C; Kuster, R P; Baumgartner, D

    2018-10-01

    This study investigated the location of the axis of rotation in sagittal plane movement of the spine in a free sitting condition to adjust the kinematics of a mobile seat for a dynamic chair. Dynamic office chairs are designed to avoid continuous isometric muscle activity, and to facilitate increased mobility of the back during sitting. However, these chairs incorporate increased upper body movement which could distract office workers from the performance of their tasks. A chair with an axis of rotation above the seat would facilitate a stable upper back during movements of the lower back. The selection of a natural kinematic pattern is of high importance in order to match the properties of the spine. Twenty-one participants performed four cycles of flexion and extension of the spine during an upper arm hang on parallel bars. The location of the axis of rotation relative to the seat was estimated using infrared cameras and reflective skin markers. The median axis of rotation across all participants was located 36 cm above the seat for the complete movement and 39 cm for both the flexion and extension phases, each with an interquartile range of 20 cm. There was no significant effect of the movement direction on the location of the axis of rotation and only a weak, non-significant correlation between body height and the location of the axis of rotation. Individual movement patterns explained the majority of the variance. The axis of rotation for a spinal flexion/extension movement is located above the seat. The recommended radius for a guide rail of a mobile seat is between 36 cm and 39 cm. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamic Three-Dimensional Shoulder Mri during Active Motion for Investigation of Rotator Cuff Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Tempelaere

    Full Text Available MRI is the standard methodology in diagnosis of rotator cuff diseases. However, many patients continue to have pain despite treatment, and MRI of a static unloaded shoulder seems insufficient for best diagnosis and treatment. This study evaluated if Dynamic MRI provides novel kinematic data that can be used to improve the understanding, diagnosis and best treatment of rotator cuff diseases.Dynamic MRI provided real-time 3D image series and was used to measure changes in the width of subacromial space, superior-inferior translation and anterior-posterior translation of the humeral head relative to the glenoid during active abduction. These measures were investigated for consistency with the rotator cuff diseases classifications from standard MRI.The study included: 4 shoulders with massive rotator cuff tears, 5 shoulders with an isolated full-thickness supraspinatus tear, 5 shoulders with tendinopathy and 6 normal shoulders. A change in the width of subacromial space greater than 4mm differentiated between rotator cuff diseases with tendon tears (massive cuff tears and supraspinatus tear and without tears (tendinopathy (p = 0.012. The range of the superior-inferior translation was higher in the massive cuff tears group (6.4mm than in normals (3.4mm (p = 0.02. The range of the anterior-posterior translation was higher in the massive cuff tears (9.2 mm and supraspinatus tear (9.3 mm shoulders compared to normals (3.5mm and tendinopathy (4.8mm shoulders (p = 0.05.The Dynamic MRI enabled a novel measure; 'Looseness', i.e. the translation of the humeral head on the glenoid during an abduction cycle. Looseness was better able at differentiating different forms of rotator cuff disease than a simple static measure of relative glenohumeral position.

  12. Rotational dynamics in supercooled water from nuclear spin relaxation and molecular simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvist, Johan; Mattea, Carlos; Sunde, Erik P; Halle, Bertil

    2012-05-28

    Structural dynamics in liquid water slow down dramatically in the supercooled regime. To shed further light on the origin of this super-Arrhenius temperature dependence, we report high-precision (17)O and (2)H NMR relaxation data for H(2)O and D(2)O, respectively, down to 37 K below the equilibrium freezing point. With the aid of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we provide a detailed analysis of the rotational motions probed by the NMR experiments. The NMR-derived rotational correlation time τ(R) is the integral of a time correlation function (TCF) that, after a subpicosecond librational decay, can be described as a sum of two exponentials. Using a coarse-graining algorithm to map the MD trajectory on a continuous-time random walk (CTRW) in angular space, we show that the slowest TCF component can be attributed to large-angle molecular jumps. The mean jump angle is ∼48° at all temperatures and the waiting time distribution is non-exponential, implying dynamical heterogeneity. We have previously used an analogous CTRW model to analyze quasielastic neutron scattering data from supercooled water. Although the translational and rotational waiting times are of similar magnitude, most translational jumps are not synchronized with a rotational jump of the same molecule. The rotational waiting time has a stronger temperature dependence than the translation one, consistent with the strong increase of the experimentally derived product τ(R) D(T) at low temperatures. The present CTRW jump model is related to, but differs in essential ways from the extended jump model proposed by Laage and co-workers. Our analysis traces the super-Arrhenius temperature dependence of τ(R) to the rotational waiting time. We present arguments against interpreting this temperature dependence in terms of mode-coupling theory or in terms of mixture models of water structure.

  13. Effect of rotational speed modulation on heat transport in a fluid layer with temperature dependent viscosity and internal heat source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Bhadauria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a theoretical investigation has been carried out to study the combined effect of rotation speed modulation and internal heating on thermal instability in a temperature dependent viscous horizontal fluid layer. Rayleigh–Bénard momentum equation with Coriolis term has been considered to describe the convective flow. The system is rotating about it is own axis with non-uniform rotational speed. In particular, a time-periodic and sinusoidally varying rotational speed has been considered. A weak nonlinear stability analysis is performed to find the effect of modulation on heat transport. Nusselt number is obtained in terms of amplitude of convection and internal Rayleigh number, and depicted graphically for showing the effects of various parameters of the system. The effect of modulated rotation speed is found to have a stabilizing effect for different values of modulation frequency. Further, internal heating and thermo-rheological parameters are found to destabilize the system.

  14. TE-TM dynamics in a semiconductor laser subject to polarization-rotated optical feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heil, T.; Uchida, A.; Davis, P.; Aida, T.

    2003-01-01

    We present a comprehensive experimental characterization of the dynamics of semiconductor lasers subject to polarization-rotated optical feedback. We find oscillatory instabilities appearing for large feedback levels and disappearing at large injection currents, which we classify in contrast to the well-known conventional optical-feedback-induced dynamics. In addition, we compare our experiments to theoretical results of a single-mode model assuming incoherence of the optical feedback, and we identify differences concerning the average power of the laser. Hence, we develop an alternative model accounting for both polarizations, where the emission of the dominant TE mode is injected with delay into the TM mode of the laser. Numerical simulations using this model show good qualitative agreement with our experimental results, correctly reproducing the parameter dependences of the dynamics. Finally, we discuss the application of polarization-rotated-feedback induced instabilities in chaotic carrier communication systems

  15. Shoulder Dynamic Control Ratio and Rotation Range of Motion in Female Junior Elite Handball Players and Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Cingel, Robert; Habets, Bas; Willemsen, Linn; Staal, Bart

    2018-03-01

    To compare glenohumeral range of motion and shoulder rotator muscle strength in healthy female junior elite handball players and controls. Cross-sectional case-control study. Sports medical center. Forty elite female handball players and 30 controls active in nonoverhead sports participated in this study. Passive external rotator (ER), internal rotator (IR), and total range of motion (TROM) of the dominant and nondominant arm were examined with a goniometer. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to evaluate concentric and eccentric rotator muscle strength at 60 and 120 degrees/s with dynamic control ratio (DCR = ERecc:IRcon) as the main outcome parameter. Except for the ER range of motion in the nondominant arm, no significant differences were found between groups for IR, ER of the dominant arm, and the TROM. Within the handball group, the side-to-side difference for IR of the dominant arm was -1.4 degrees. The ER and the TROM of the dominant arm were significantly larger, 6.3 and 4.9 degrees, respectively. For both groups, the DCR values were above 1 and no significant differences were found between the dominant and nondominant arm. The DCR values in the handball group were significantly lower than in the control group. Based on the adopted definitions for muscle imbalance, glenohumeral internal range of motion deficit and TROM deficit our elite female handball players seem not at risk for shoulder injuries. Prospective studies are needed to support the belief that a DCR below 1 places the shoulder at risk for injury.

  16. Development and applications of single particle orientation and rotational tracking in dynamic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kuangcai [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-02-19

    The goal of this study is to help with future data analysis and experiment designs in rotational dynamics research using DIC-based SPORT technique. Most of the current studies using DIC-based SPORT techniques are technical demonstrations. Understanding the mechanisms behind the observed rotational behaviors of the imaging probes should be the focus of the future SPORT studies. More efforts are still needed in the development of new imaging probes, particle tracking methods, instrumentations, and advanced data analysis methods to further extend the potential of DIC-based SPORT technique.

  17. Time-dependent dynamical behavior of surface tension on rotating fluids under microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Tsao, Y. D.; Hong, B. B.; Leslie, F. W.

    1988-01-01

    Time dependent evolutions of the profile of free surface (bubble shapes) for a cylindrical container partially filled with a Newtonian fluid of constant density, rotating about its axis of symmetry, have been studied. Numerical computations of the dynamics of bubble shapes have been carried out with the following situations: (1) linear functions of spin-up and spin-down in low and microgravity environments, (2) step functions of spin-up and spin-down in a low gravity environment, and (3) sinusoidal function oscillation of gravity environment in high and low rotating cylinder speeds.

  18. Probing the Electronic Environment of Methylindoles using Internal Rotation and (14)N Nuclear Quadrupole Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusinghe, Ranil M; Tubergen, Michael J

    2016-05-26

    High-resolution rotational spectra were recorded in the 10.5-21.0 GHz frequency range for seven singly methylated indoles. (14)N nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure and spectral splittings arising from tunneling along the internal rotation of the methyl group were resolved for all indole species. The nuclear quadrupole coupling constants were used to characterize the electronic environment of the nitrogen atom, and the program XIAM was used to fit the barrier to internal rotation to the measured transition frequencies. The best fit barriers were found to be 277.1(2), 374.32(4), 414.(5), 331.6(2), 126.8675(15), 121.413(4), and 426(3) cm(-1) for 1-methylindole through 7-methylindole, respectively. The fitted barriers were found to be in good agreement with barriers calculated at the ωB97XD/6-311++G(d,p) level. The complete set of experimental barriers is compared to theoretical investigations of the origins of methyl torsional barriers and confirms that the magnitude of these barriers is an overall effect of individual hyperconjugative and structural interactions of many bonding/antibonding orbitals.

  19. Modeling dynamic stall on wind turbine blades under rotationally augmented flow fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guntur, S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schreck, S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sorensen, N. N. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Bergami, L. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-04-22

    It is well known that airfoils under unsteady flow conditions with a periodically varying angle of attack exhibit aerodynamic characteristics different from those under steady flow conditions, a phenomenon commonly known as dynamic stall. It is also well known that the steady aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils in the inboard region of a rotating blade differ from those under steady two-dimensional (2D) flow conditions, a phenomenon commonly known as rotational augmentation. This paper presents an investigation of these two phenomena together in the inboard parts of wind turbine blades. This analysis is carried out using data from three sources: (1) the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Phase VI experimental data, including constant as well as continuously pitching blade conditions during axial operation, (2) data from unsteady Delayed Detached Eddy Simulations (DDES) carried out using the Technical University of Denmark’s in-house flow solver Ellipsys3D, and (3) data from a simplified model based on the blade element momentum method with a dynamic stall subroutine that uses rotationally augmented steady-state polars obtained from steady Phase VI experimental sequences, instead of the traditional 2D nonrotating data. The aim of this work is twofold. First, the blade loads estimated by the DDES simulations are compared to three select cases of the N sequence experimental data, which serves as a validation of the DDES method. Results show reasonable agreement between the two data in two out of three cases studied. Second, the dynamic time series of the lift and the moment polars obtained from the experiments are compared to those from the dynamic stall subroutine that uses the rotationally augmented steady polars. This allowed the differences between the stall phenomenon on the inboard parts of harmonically pitching blades on a rotating wind turbine and the classic dynamic stall representation in 2D flow to be

  20. Early experience in establishing and evaluating an ACGME-approved international general surgery rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpley, Margaret; Hansen, Erik; Tarpley, John L

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Surgery Residency Review Committee first provided guidelines for elective international general surgery rotations. The Vanderbilt general surgery residency program received Surgery Residency Review Committee approval for a fourth-year elective in Kenya beginning in the 2011-2012 academic year. Because this rotation would break ground culturally and geographically, and as an educational partnership, a briefing and debriefing process was developed for this ground-breaking year. Our objectives were to prepare residents to maximize the experience without competing for cases with local trainees or overburdening the host institution and to perform continuous quality assessment and improvement as each resident returned back. Briefing included health protection strategies, a procedures manual containing step-by-step preparation activities, and cultural-sensitivity training. Institutional Review Board exemption approval was obtained to administer a questionnaire created for returning residents concerning educational value, relations with local trainees, physical environment, and personal perceptions that would provide the scaffold for the debriefing conference. The questionnaire coupled with the debriefing discussion for the first 9 participants revealed overall satisfaction with the rotation and the briefing process, good health, and no duty hours or days-off issues. Other findings include the following: (1) emotional effect of observing African families weigh cost in medical decision making; (2) satisfactory access to educational resources; (3) significant exposure to specialties such as urology and radiology; and (4) toleration of 4 weeks as a single and expressed need for leisure activity materials such as books, DVDs, or games. The responses triggered adjustments in the briefing sessions and travel preparation. The host institution invited the residents to return for the 2012-2013 year as well as 2013

  1. Dynamical behavior of surface tension on rotating fluids in low and microgravity environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Tsao, Y. D.; Hong, B. B.; Leslie, F. W.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to the time-dependent evolutions of the free surface profile (bubble shapes) of a cylindrical container, partially filled with a Newtonian fluid of constant density, rotating about its axis of symmetry in low and microgravity environments. The dynamics of the bubble shapes are calculated for four cases: linear time-dependent functions of spin-up and spin-down in low and microgravity, linear time-dependent functions of increasing and decreasing gravity at high and low rotating cylinder speeds, time-dependent step functions of spin-up and spin-down in low gravity, and sinusoidal function oscillation of the gravity environment in high and low rotating cylinder speeds. It is shown that the computer algorithms developed by Hung et al. (1988) may be used to simulate the profile of time-dependent bubble shapes under variations of centrifugal, capillary, and gravity forces.

  2. Weight-bearing computed tomography findings in varus ankle osteoarthritis: abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the axial plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Beom; Yi, Young; Kim, Jae-Young; Cho, Jae-Ho; Kwon, Min-Soo; Choi, Seung-Hyuk; Lee, Woo-Chun

    2017-08-01

    To assess the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the axial plane in patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis, and to determine whether this incidence differs from the severity of varus ankle osteoarthritis (moderate versus severe). We retrospectively evaluated weight-bearing computed tomography (CT) and plain radiographs of 52 ankles with no abnormalities (control group) and 96 ankles with varus osteoarthritis (varus-OA group), which were further stratified into a moderate-OA subgroup (50 ankles) and a severe-OA subgroup (46 ankles). A new radiographic parameter on weight-bearing CT, the talus rotation ratio, was used to assess the rotation of the talus in the axial plane. The normal range of the talus rotation ratio was defined as the 95% prediction interval for talus rotation ratio values in the control group. Abnormal internal rotation of the talus was defined for talus rotation ratio values above the normal range. We determined the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the varus-OA group, moderate-OA subgroup, and severe-OA subgroup. In the varus-OA group, the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus was 45% (43 ankles), which corresponded to an incidence of 32% (16 ankles) in the moderate-OA subgroup and 59% (27 ankles) in the severe-OA subgroup (p = 0.013). Our study demonstrates that abnormal internal rotation of the talus occurs in patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis, and is more frequently noted in severe than in moderate varus ankle osteoarthritis.

  3. Weight-bearing computed tomography findings in varus ankle osteoarthritis: abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the axial plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji-Beom; Yi, Young; Lee, Woo-Chun [Seoul Foot and Ankle Center, Dubalo Orthopaedic Clinic, Seochogu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Young; Kwon, Min-Soo; Choi, Seung-Hyuk [Inje University Seoul Paik Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Jung-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae-Ho [Hallym University, ChunCheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chuncheon, GangWon-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    To assess the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the axial plane in patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis, and to determine whether this incidence differs from the severity of varus ankle osteoarthritis (moderate versus severe). We retrospectively evaluated weight-bearing computed tomography (CT) and plain radiographs of 52 ankles with no abnormalities (control group) and 96 ankles with varus osteoarthritis (varus-OA group), which were further stratified into a moderate-OA subgroup (50 ankles) and a severe-OA subgroup (46 ankles). A new radiographic parameter on weight-bearing CT, the talus rotation ratio, was used to assess the rotation of the talus in the axial plane. The normal range of the talus rotation ratio was defined as the 95% prediction interval for talus rotation ratio values in the control group. Abnormal internal rotation of the talus was defined for talus rotation ratio values above the normal range. We determined the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the varus-OA group, moderate-OA subgroup, and severe-OA subgroup. In the varus-OA group, the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus was 45% (43 ankles), which corresponded to an incidence of 32% (16 ankles) in the moderate-OA subgroup and 59% (27 ankles) in the severe-OA subgroup (p = 0.013). Our study demonstrates that abnormal internal rotation of the talus occurs in patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis, and is more frequently noted in severe than in moderate varus ankle osteoarthritis. (orig.)

  4. Weight-bearing computed tomography findings in varus ankle osteoarthritis: abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the axial plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji-Beom; Yi, Young; Lee, Woo-Chun; Kim, Jae-Young; Kwon, Min-Soo; Choi, Seung-Hyuk; Cho, Jae-Ho

    2017-01-01

    To assess the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the axial plane in patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis, and to determine whether this incidence differs from the severity of varus ankle osteoarthritis (moderate versus severe). We retrospectively evaluated weight-bearing computed tomography (CT) and plain radiographs of 52 ankles with no abnormalities (control group) and 96 ankles with varus osteoarthritis (varus-OA group), which were further stratified into a moderate-OA subgroup (50 ankles) and a severe-OA subgroup (46 ankles). A new radiographic parameter on weight-bearing CT, the talus rotation ratio, was used to assess the rotation of the talus in the axial plane. The normal range of the talus rotation ratio was defined as the 95% prediction interval for talus rotation ratio values in the control group. Abnormal internal rotation of the talus was defined for talus rotation ratio values above the normal range. We determined the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the varus-OA group, moderate-OA subgroup, and severe-OA subgroup. In the varus-OA group, the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus was 45% (43 ankles), which corresponded to an incidence of 32% (16 ankles) in the moderate-OA subgroup and 59% (27 ankles) in the severe-OA subgroup (p = 0.013). Our study demonstrates that abnormal internal rotation of the talus occurs in patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis, and is more frequently noted in severe than in moderate varus ankle osteoarthritis. (orig.)

  5. Effect of Target Location on Dynamic Visual Acuity During Passive Horizontal Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Meghan; DeDios, Yiri; Kulecz, Walter; Peters, Brian; Wood, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) generates eye rotation to compensate for potential retinal slip in the specific plane of head movement. Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) has been utilized as a functional measure of the VOR. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in accuracy and reaction time when performing a DVA task with targets offset from the plane of rotation, e.g. offset vertically during horizontal rotation. Visual acuity was measured in 12 healthy subjects as they moved a hand-held joystick to indicate the orientation of a computer-generated Landolt C "as quickly and accurately as possible." Acuity thresholds were established with optotypes presented centrally on a wall-mounted LCD screen at 1.3 m distance, first without motion (static condition) and then while oscillating at 0.8 Hz (DVA, peak velocity 60 deg/s). The effect of target location was then measured during horizontal rotation with the optotypes randomly presented in one of nine different locations on the screen (offset up to 10 deg). The optotype size (logMar 0, 0.2 or 0.4, corresponding to Snellen range 20/20 to 20/50) and presentation duration (150, 300 and 450 ms) were counter-balanced across five trials, each utilizing horizontal rotation at 0.8 Hz. Dynamic acuity was reduced relative to static acuity in 7 of 12 subjects by one step size. During the random target trials, both accuracy and reaction time improved proportional to optotype size. Accuracy and reaction time also improved between 150 ms and 300 ms presentation durations. The main finding was that both accuracy and reaction time varied as a function of target location, with greater performance decrements when acquiring vertical targets. We conclude that dynamic visual acuity varies with target location, with acuity optimized for targets in the plane of motion. Both reaction time and accuracy are functionally relevant DVA parameters of VOR function.

  6. Polarity and Nonpolarity of Ionic Liquids Viewed from the Rotational Dynamics of Carbon Monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasaka, Y; Kimura, Y

    2015-12-17

    The rotational dynamics of carbon monoxide (CO) in a molten salt, ionic liquids (ILs), and alkanes were investigated by (17)O NMR T1 measurements using labeled C(17)O. The molten salt and the studied ILs have the bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide anion ([NTf2](-)) in common. In hexane near room temperature, the rotational relaxation times are close to the values predicted from the slip boundary condition in the Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) theory. However, in contradiction to the theoretical prediction, the rotational relaxation times decrease as the value of η/T increases, where η and T are the viscosity and absolute temperature, respectively. In other alkanes and ILs used in this study, the rotational relaxation times are much faster than those predicted by SED, and show a unique dependence on the number of alkyl carbons. For the same value of η/T, the CO rotational relaxation times in ILs composed of short-alkyl-chain-length imidazolium cations (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) are close to those for a molten salt (Cs[NTf2]). On the other hand, the rotational relaxation times in ILs composed of long-chain-length imidazolium (1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium) and phosphonium (tributylmethylphosphonium and tetraoctylphosphonium) cations are much shorter than the SED predictions. This deviation from theory increases as the alkyl chain length increases. We also found that the rotational relaxation times in dodecane and squalane are similar to those in ILs with a similar number of alkyl carbons. These results are discussed in terms of heterogeneous solvation and in comparison with the translational diffusion of CO in ILs.

  7. Multibody dynamic analysis using a rotation-free shell element with corotational frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiabei; Liu, Zhuyong; Hong, Jiazhen

    2018-03-01

    Rotation-free shell formulation is a simple and effective method to model a shell with large deformation. Moreover, it can be compatible with the existing theories of finite element method. However, a rotation-free shell is seldom employed in multibody systems. Using a derivative of rigid body motion, an efficient nonlinear shell model is proposed based on the rotation-free shell element and corotational frame. The bending and membrane strains of the shell have been simplified by isolating deformational displacements from the detailed description of rigid body motion. The consistent stiffness matrix can be obtained easily in this form of shell model. To model the multibody system consisting of the presented shells, joint kinematic constraints including translational and rotational constraints are deduced in the context of geometric nonlinear rotation-free element. A simple node-to-surface contact discretization and penalty method are adopted for contacts between shells. A series of analyses for multibody system dynamics are presented to validate the proposed formulation. Furthermore, the deployment of a large scaled solar array is presented to verify the comprehensive performance of the nonlinear shell model.

  8. Mathematical problems of the dynamics of incompressible fluid on a rotating sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Skiba, Yuri N

    2017-01-01

    This book presents selected mathematical problems involving the dynamics of a two-dimensional viscous and ideal incompressible fluid on a rotating sphere. In this case, the fluid motion is completely governed by the barotropic vorticity equation (BVE), and the viscosity term in the vorticity equation is taken in its general form, which contains the derivative of real degree of the spherical Laplace operator. This work builds a bridge between basic concepts and concrete outcomes by pursuing a rich combination of theoretical, analytical and numerical approaches, and is recommended for specialists developing mathematical methods for application to problems in physics, hydrodynamics, meteorology and geophysics, as well for upper undergraduate or graduate students in the areas of dynamics of incompressible fluid on a rotating sphere, theory of functions on a sphere, and flow stability.

  9. Dynamics of molecular rotors confined in two dimensions: transition from a 2D rotational glass to a 2D rotational fluid in a periodic mesoporous organosilica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsberg, Cortnie S; Bracco, Silvia; Beretta, Mario; Comotti, Angiolina; Sozzani, Piero; Garcia-Garibay, Miguel A

    2012-02-09

    The motional behavior of p-phenylene-d(4) rotators confined within the 2D layers of a hierarchically ordered periodic mesoporous p-divinylbenzenesilica has been elucidated to evaluate the effects of reduced dimensionality on the engineered dynamics of artificial molecular machines. The hybrid mesoporous material, characterized by a honeycomb lattice structure, has arrays of alternating p-divinylbenzene rotors and siloxane layers forming the molecularly ordered walls of the mesoscopic channels. The p-divinylbenzene rotors are strongly anchored between two adjacent siloxane sheets, so that the p-phenylene rotators are unable to experience translational diffusion and are allowed to rotate about only one fixed axis. Variable-temperature (2)H NMR experiments revealed that the p-phenylene rotators undergo an exchange process between sites related by 180° and a non-Arrhenius temperature dependence of the dynamics, with reorientational rates ranging from 10(3) to 10(8) Hz between 215 to 305 K. The regime of motion changes rapidly at about 280 K indicating the occurrence of a dynamical transition. The transition was also recognized by a steep change in the heat capacity at constant pressure. As a result of the robust lamellar architecture comprising the pore walls, the orientational dynamic disorder related to the phase transition is only realized in two dimensions within the layers, that is in the plane perpendicular to the channel axis. Thus, the aligned rotors that form the organic layers exhibit unique anisotropic dynamical properties as a result of the architecture's reduced dimensionality. The dynamical disorder restricted to two dimensions constitutes a highly mobile fluidlike rotational phase at room temperature, which upon cooling undergoes a transition to a more rigid glasslike phase. Activation energies of 5.9 and 9.5 kcal/mol respectively have been measured for the two dynamical regimes of rotation. Collectively, our investigation has led to the discovery of an

  10. Earth Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  11. Demonstration of a dynamic clearance seal in a rotating test facility.

    OpenAIRE

    Messenger, Andrew; Williams, Richard; Ingram, Grant; Hogg, Simon; Tibos, Stacie; Seaton, Jon; Charnley, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    The successful demonstration of the “Aerostatic Seal” in a half scale rotating facility is described in this paper. The Aerostatic seal is a novel dynamic clearance seal specifically designed for steam turbine secondary gas path applications. The seal responds to radial rotor excursions, so a reduced clearance can be maintained compared to conventional labyrinth seal without damage to the seal. This enables increased turbine performance through reduced leakage and increased tolerance of turbi...

  12. Numerical simulation of 3D unsteady flow in a rotating pump by dynamic mesh technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, S; Guo, J; Yang, F X

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the numerical simulation of unsteady flow for three kinds of typical rotating pumps, roots blower, roto-jet pump and centrifugal pump, were performed using the three-dimensional Dynamic Mesh technique. In the unsteady simulation, all the computational domains, as stationary, were set in one inertial reference frame. The motions of the solid boundaries were defined by the Profile file in FLUENT commercial code, in which the rotational orientation and speed of the rotors were specified. Three methods (Spring-based Smoothing, Dynamic Layering and Local Re-meshing) were used to achieve mesh deformation and re-meshing. The unsteady solutions of flow field and pressure distribution were solved. After a start-up stage, the flow parameters exhibit time-periodic behaviour corresponding to blade passing frequency of rotor. This work shows that Dynamic Mesh technique could achieve numerical simulation of three-dimensional unsteady flow field in various kinds of rotating pumps and have a strong versatility and broad application prospects

  13. The effect of internal mould water spray cooling on rotationally moulded polyethylene parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCourt, Mark P.; Kearns, Mark P.; Martin, Peter J.

    2018-05-01

    The conventional method of cooling during the rotational moulding process is through the use of forced air. During the cooling phase of a typical rotomoulding cycle, large volumes of high velocity room temperature air are forced across the outside of the rotating rotomoulding tool to encourage cooling of the metal mould and molten polymer. Since no cooling is applied to the inside of the mould, the inner surface of the polymer (polyethylene) cools more slowly and will have a tendency to be more crystalline and the polyethylene will have a higher density in this region. The side that cools more quickly (in contact with the inside mould wall) will be less crystalline, and will therefore have a lower density. The major consequence of this difference in crystallinity will be a buildup of internal stresses producing warpage and excessive shrinkage of the part with subsequent increased levels of scrap. Therefore excessive cooling on the outside of the mould should be avoided. One consequence of this effect is that the cooling time for a standard rotationally moulded part can be quite long and this has an effect on the overall economics of the process in terms of part manufacture. A number of devices are currently on the market to enhance the cooling of rotational moulding by introducing a water spray to the inside of the rotomoulding during cooling. This paper reports on one such device 'Rotocooler' which during a series of initial industrial trials has been shown to reduce the cycletime by approximately 12 to 16%, with minimal effect on the mechanical properties, leading to a part which has less warpage and shrinkage than a conventionally cooled part.

  14. Research on Dynamic Torque Measurement of High Speed Rotating Axis Based on Whole Optical Fiber Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, H P; Jin, Y Q; Ha, Y W; Liu, L H [Department of Automatic Measurement and Control, Harbin Institute of Technology, PO Box 305, Harbin, 150001 (China)

    2006-10-15

    Non-contact torque measurement system of fiber grating is proposed in this paper. It is used for the dynamic torque measurement of the rotating axis in the spaceflight servo system. Optical fiber is used as sensing probe with high sensitivity, anti-electromagnetic interference, resistance to high temperature and corrosion. It is suitable to apply in a bad environment. Signals are processed by digital circuit and Single Chip Microcomputer. This project can realize super speed dynamic measurement and it is the first time to apply the project in the spaceflight system.

  15. Research on Dynamic Torque Measurement of High Speed Rotating Axis Based on Whole Optical Fiber Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H. P.; Jin, Y. Q.; Ha, Y. W.; Liu, L. H.

    2006-10-01

    Non-contact torque measurement system of fiber grating is proposed in this paper. It is used for the dynamic torque measurement of the rotating axis in the spaceflight servo system. Optical fiber is used as sensing probe with high sensitivity, anti-electromagnetic interference, resistance to high temperature and corrosion. It is suitable to apply in a bad environment. Signals are processed by digital circuit and Single Chip Microcomputer. This project can realize super speed dynamic measurement and it is the first time to apply the project in the spaceflight system.

  16. Research on Dynamic Torque Measurement of High Speed Rotating Axis Based on Whole Optical Fiber Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, H P; Jin, Y Q; Ha, Y W; Liu, L H

    2006-01-01

    Non-contact torque measurement system of fiber grating is proposed in this paper. It is used for the dynamic torque measurement of the rotating axis in the spaceflight servo system. Optical fiber is used as sensing probe with high sensitivity, anti-electromagnetic interference, resistance to high temperature and corrosion. It is suitable to apply in a bad environment. Signals are processed by digital circuit and Single Chip Microcomputer. This project can realize super speed dynamic measurement and it is the first time to apply the project in the spaceflight system

  17. Exercise therapy for treatment of supraspinatus tears does not alter glenohumeral kinematics during internal/external rotation with the arm at the side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Gerald A; Miller, R Matthew; Zlotnicki, Jason P; Tashman, Scott; Irrgang, James J; Musahl, Volker; Debski, Richard E

    2018-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears are a significant clinical problem, with exercise therapy being a common treatment option for patients. Failure rates of exercise therapy may be due to the failure to improve glenohumeral kinematics. Tears involving the supraspinatus may result in altered glenohumeral kinematics and joint instability for internal/external rotation with the arm at the side because not all muscles used to stabilize the glenohumeral joint are functioning normally. The objective of the study is to assess in vivo glenohumeral kinematic changes for internal/external rotation motions with the arm at the side of patients with a symptomatic full-thickness supraspinatus tear before and after a 12-week exercise therapy programme. Five patients underwent dynamic stereoradiography analysis before and after a 12-week exercise therapy protocol to measure changes in glenohumeral kinematics during transverse plane internal/external rotation with the arm at the side. Patient-reported outcomes and shoulder strength were also evaluated. No patient sought surgery immediately following exercise therapy. Significant improvements in isometric shoulder strength and patient-reported outcomes were observed (p internal/external rotation with the arm at the side. Despite satisfactory clinical outcomes following exercise therapy, glenohumeral kinematics did not change. The lack of changes may be due to the motion studied or the focus of current exercise therapy protocols being increasing shoulder strength and restoring range of motion. Current exercise therapy protocols should be adapted to also focus on restoring glenohumeral kinematics to improve joint stability since exercise therapy may have different effects depending on the motions of daily living. Prognostic study, Level II.

  18. Dynamical Properties of Internal Shocks Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pe’er, Asaf; Long, Killian [Physics Department, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Casella, Piergiorgio [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Monteporzio Catone (Italy)

    2017-09-01

    Internal shocks between propagating plasma shells, originally ejected at different times with different velocities, are believed to play a major role in dissipating the kinetic energy, thereby explaining the observed light curves and spectra in a large range of transient objects. Even if initially the colliding plasmas are cold, following the first collision, the plasma shells are substantially heated, implying that in a scenario of multiple collisions, most collisions take place between plasmas of non-zero temperatures. Here, we calculate the dynamical properties of plasmas resulting from a collision between arbitrarily hot plasma shells, moving at arbitrary speeds. We provide simple analytical expressions valid for both ultrarelativistic and Newtonian velocities for both hot and cold plasmas. We derive the minimum criteria required for the formation of the two-shock wave system, and show that in the relativistic limit, the minimum Lorentz factor is proportional to the square root of the ratio of the initial plasmas enthalpies. We provide basic scaling laws of synchrotron emission from both the forward and reverse-shock waves, and show how these can be used to deduce the properties of the colliding shells. Finally, we discuss the implications of these results in the study of several astronomical transients, such as X-ray binaries, radio-loud quasars, and gamma-ray bursts.

  19. 8th International Workshop on Chiral Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The International Workshop on Chiral Dynamics 2015, the eighth in a series which started in 1994 at MIT, and was later held in Mainz (1997), Jefferson Lab (2000 and 2012), Bonn (2003), Duke (2006) and Bern (2009), will take place in Pisa, from June 29 to July 3 2015, and will be jointly hosted by the Department of Physics of the University of Pisa and the Pisa branch of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. The purpose of this workshop series is to bring physicists together who are active in this field, as well as those who are interested, to discuss and debate the most recent achievements and future developments. The workshop will have a near equal contribution from theorists and experimentalists and, as in the latest editions, a strong synergy with the lattice community will be present. Topics: Hadron structure Isospin breaking in hadronic systems Meson-meson and meson-baryon interaction Effective field theory and chiral perturbation theory Few-body physics Compton scattering and the polarizabilities o...

  20. Internal rotation for predicting conformational population of 1,2-difluorethane and 1,2-dichloroethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venâncio, Mateus F. [Laboratório de Química Computacional e Modelagem Molecular, Departamento de Química, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Campus Universitário, 31.270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Dos Santos, Hélio F. [Núcleo de Estudos em Química Computacional (NEQC), Departamento de Química, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Campus Universitário, Martelos, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-330 (Brazil); De Almeida, Wagner B., E-mail: wbdealmeida@gmail.com [Laboratório de Química Computacional (LQC), Departamento de Química Inorgânica, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Campus do Valonguinho, Centro, Niterói, RJ CEP: 24020-141 (Brazil)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Contribution of internal rotation to Gibbs free energy estimated using the quantum pendulum model. • Theoretical prediction of conformational population of 1,2-difluorethane and 1,2-dichloroethane. • The predicted populations are in excellent agreement with experimental gas phase data available. • QPM model account for low vibrational frequency modes effect on thermodynamic calculation. • Caution is needed when the RR–HO approach has to be used in conformational analysis studies. - Abstract: The contribution of internal rotation to the thermal correction of Gibbs free energy (ΔG) is estimated using the quantum pendulum model (QPM) to solve the characteristic Schrödinger equation. The procedure is applied to theoretical prediction of conformational population of 1,2-difluorethane (1,2-DFE) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) molecules. The predicted population for the anti form was 37% and 75%, for 1,2-DFE and 1,2-DCE respectively, in excellent agreement with experimental gas phase data available, 37 ± 5% and 78 ± 5%. These results provide great support to the use of the QPM model to account for the low vibrational frequency modes effect on the calculation of thermodynamic properties.

  1. Simulations of ferrofluid dynamics: Rigid dipoles model versus particles with internal degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkov, D.V.; Gorn, N.L.; Stock, D.

    2007-01-01

    For numerical studies of a ferrofluid dynamics we have developed a model which includes internal magnetic degrees of freedom of ferrofluid particles. Contrary to standard models, we take into account that the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of a ferrofluid particle material is finite, so that the particle moment is allowed to rotate with respect to the particle itself. Simulating magnetization relaxation of a ferrofluid after switching off the external field and comparing results with those obtained for rigid dipoles model, we demonstrate that for anisotropy typical for commonly used ferrofluid materials inclusion of 'magnetic' degrees of freedom is essential for a correct description of ferrofluid dynamics

  2. Computational fluid dynamics for turbomachinery internal air systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, John W; Hills, Nicholas J

    2007-10-15

    Considerable progress in development and application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for aeroengine internal flow systems has been made in recent years. CFD is regularly used in industry for assessment of air systems, and the performance of CFD for basic axisymmetric rotor/rotor and stator/rotor disc cavities with radial throughflow is largely understood and documented. Incorporation of three-dimensional geometrical features and calculation of unsteady flows are becoming commonplace. Automation of CFD, coupling with thermal models of the solid components, and extension of CFD models to include both air system and main gas path flows are current areas of development. CFD is also being used as a research tool to investigate a number of flow phenomena that are not yet fully understood. These include buoyancy-affected flows in rotating cavities, rim seal flows and mixed air/oil flows. Large eddy simulation has shown considerable promise for the buoyancy-driven flows and its use for air system flows is expected to expand in the future.

  3. Reflective practice and social responsibility in family medicine: Effect of performing an international rotation in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loignon, Christine; Gottin, Thomas; Valois, Carol; Couturier, François; Williams, Robert; Roy, Pierre-Michel

    2016-11-01

    To explore the perceived effect of an elective international health rotation on family medicine resident learning. Qualitative, collaborative study based on semistructured interviews. Quebec. A sample of 12 family medicine residents and 9 rotation supervisors (N = 21). Semistructured interviews of residents and rotation supervisors. Residents and supervisors alike reported that their technical skills and relationship skills had benefited. All increased their knowledge of tropical pathologies and learned to expand their clinical examinations. They benefited from having very rich interactions in other care settings, working with vulnerable populations. The rotations had their greatest effect on relationship skills (communication, empathy, etc) and the ability to work with vulnerable patients. All of the participants were exposed to local therapies and local interpretations of disease symptoms and pathogenesis. The findings of this study will have a considerable effect on pedagogy. The residents' experiences of their international health rotations and what they learned in terms of medical skills and pedagogic approaches in working with patients are described. Using a collaborative approach with the rotation supervisors, the data were triangulated and the benefits of an international rotation on academic training were more accurately defined. The findings can now be used to enrich academic programs in social and preventive medicine and more adequately prepare future family physicians for work in various social and cultural settings. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  4. Machine-specific quality assurance procedure for stereotactic treatments with dynamic couch rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Byron; Gete, Ermias

    2017-12-01

    We present a method in which the treatment couch's accuracy is measured using the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) and a phantom of our own construction. Using this phantom, we were able to quantify the treatment couch walkout, and the rotation angle accuracy for both static and dynamic couch treatments. These measurements were used to provide an accurate measure of the treatment couch isocenter as well as to verify the couch rotation angle recorded in the trajectory log. The phantom was constructed using a polystyrene slab in which five ball bearings of 4 mm diameter are placed on the same plane at varying radii (0, 2.8, 4.4, 5.6, and 6.7 cm). The couch was rotated through its full extent (-90, 90 degrees) while MV images were acquired continuously. The couch rotational accuracy was calculated using a least squares minimization which fit the locations of the BBs to their expected locations relative to reference setup conditions. Using this approach, rotation angle and isocenter walkout was calculated in three dimensions. These measurements were used to quantify the accuracy of the couch as well as to validate the Varian TrueBeam trajectory logs. Additionally, a method for an EPID-based couch star-shot measurement was developed and compared with the traditional film-based method. The measured couch center of rotation consisted of a cloud of points clustered around the room isocenter within 0.7 mm distance. The trajectory log couch angle values agreed with those recorded in the DICOM header of the EPID images to the third significant digit and the couch rotation angles recorded in the trajectory log and DICOM header agreed with the calculated values to 0.08 degrees. Comparison of couch star-shot measurement developed in this study with film-based star-shot measurements gave an agreement to within 0.2 mm. We have developed a quality assurance method for the treatment couch which is simple, accurate, and enables the user to access a multitude of consistent data

  5. Quantum algebra Uqp(u2) and application to the rotational collective dynamics of the nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, R.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis concerns some aspects of new symmetries in Nuclear Physics. It comprises three parts. The first one is devoted to the study of the quantum algebra U qp (u 2 ). More precisely, we develop its Hopf algebraic structure and we study its co-product structure. The bases of the representation theory of U qp (u 2 ) are introduced. On one hand, we construct the finite-dimensional irreducible representations of U qp (u 2 ). On the other hand, we calculate the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients with the projection operator method. To complete our study, we construct some deformed boson mappings of the quantum algebras U qp (u 2 ), U q 2 (su 2 ) and U qp (u 1,1 ). The second part deals with the construction of a new phenomenological model of the non rigid rotator. This model is based on the quantum algebra U qp (u 2 ). The rotational energy and the E2 reduced transition probabilities are obtained. They depend on the two deformation parameters q and p of the quantum algebra. We show how the use of the two-parameter deformation of the algebra U qp (u 2 ) leads to a generalization of the U q (su 2 )-rotator model. We also introduce a new model of the anharmonic oscillator on the basis of the quantum algebra U qp (u 2 ). We show that the system of the U q (su 2 )-rotator and of the anharmonic oscillator can be coupled with the use of the deformation parameters of U qp (u 2 ). A ro-vibration energy formula and expansion 'a la' Dunham are obtained. The aim of the lest part is to apply our non rigid rotator model to the rotational collective dynamics of the superdeformed nuclei of the A∼130 - 150 and A∼190 mass regions and deformed nuclei of the actinide and rare earth series. We adjust the free parameters of our model and compare our results with those arising from four other models of the non rigid rotator. A comparative analysis is given in terms of transition energies. We calculate the dynamical moments of inertia with the fitted parameters. A comparison between the

  6. GOE-TYPE ENERGY-LEVEL STATISTICS AND REGULAR CLASSICAL DYNAMICS FOR ROTATIONAL NUCLEI IN THE INTERACTING BOSON MODEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PAAR, [No Value; VORKAPIC, D; DIERPERINK, AEL

    1992-01-01

    We study the fluctuation properties of 0+ levels in rotational nuclei using the framework of SU(3) dynamical symmetry of the interacting boson model. Computations of Poincare sections for SU(3) dynamical symmetry and its breaking confirm the expected relation between dynamical symmetry and classical

  7. High-Frequency Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in the Nuclear Rotating Frame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrar, C. T.; Hall, D. A.; Gerfen, G. J.

    2000-01-01

    A proton dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR signal enhancement (ϵ) close to thermal equilibrium, ϵ = 0.89, has been obtained at high field (B0 = 5 T, νepr = 139.5 GHz) using 15 mM trityl radical in a 40:60 water/glycerol frozen solution at 11 K. The electron-nuclear polarization transfer...... is performed in the nuclear rotating frame with microwave irradiation during a nuclear spin-lock pulse. The growth of the signal enhancement is governed by the rotating frame nuclear spin–lattice relaxation time (T1ρ), which is four orders of magnitude shorter than the nuclear spin–lattice relaxation time (T1n......). Due to the rapid polarization transfer in the nuclear rotating frame the experiment can be recycled at a rate of 1/T1ρ and is not limited by the much slower lab frame nuclear spin–lattice relaxation rate (1/T1n). The increased repetition rate allowed in the nuclear rotating frame provides an effective...

  8. Dynamic characteristics of rotating pretwisted clamped-clamped beam under thermal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Yueming; Lu, Wei Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Effects of thermal stress on the vibration characteristics, buckling limit and critical speed of a rotating pretwisted beam clamped to rigid hub at a stagger angle were investigated. By considering the work done by thermal stress, the thermal influence on stiffness matrix was introduced in the dynamic model. The motion equations were derived based on Lagrange equation by employing three pure Cartesian deformation variables combined with nonlinear von Karman strain formula. Numerical investigations studied the modal characteristics of the beam. Numerical results calculated from a commercial finite element code and obtained with the present modeling method were in good agreement with the previous results reported in the literature. The combined softening effects due to the thermal stress and the rotation motion were observed. Furthermore, it is shown that the inclusion of thermal stress is necessary for blades operating under a high temperature field. Buckling thermal loads and the critical rotating speed were calculated through solving the corresponding nonlinear equations numerically, and some pertinent conclusions are outlined. It is also found that the peak value position of the first mode shape approaches to the tip of blade with the increment of rotating speed and hub radius. However, the variation in the environment temperature causes only a slight alteration in the mode shape

  9. Translational and rotational diffusion of dilute solid amorphous spherical nanocolloids by molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, D. M.; Nuevo, M. J.; Morales, J. J.

    Following on from our previous study (Heyes, D. M., Nuevo, M. J, and Morales, J. J., 1996, Molec. Phys., 88, 1503), molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out of translational and rotational diffusion of atomistically rough near-spherical solid Lennard-Jones (LJ) clusters immersed in a Weeks-Chandler-Andersen liquid solvent. A single cluster consisting of up to about 100LJ particles as part of an 8000 atom fluid system was considered in each case. The translational and rotational diffusion coefficients decrease with increasing cluster size and solvent density (roughly in proportion to the molar volume of the solvent). The simulations reveal that for clusters in excess of about 30LJ atoms there is a clear separation of timescales between angular velocity and orientation relaxation which adhere well to the small-step diffusion model encapsulated in Hubbard's relationship. For 100 atom clusters both the StokesEinstein (translation) and Stokes-Einstein-Debye (rotation) equations apply approximately. The small departures from these reference solutions indicate that the translational relaxation experiences a local viscosity in excess of the bulk value (typically by ~ 30%), whereas rotational relaxation experiences a smaller viscosity than the bulk (typically by ~ 30%) reasonably in accord with the Gierer-Wirtz model. Both of these observations are consistent with an observed layering of the liquid molecules next to the cluster observed in our previous study.

  10. SLOWLY ROTATING GAS-RICH GALAXIES IN MODIFIED NEWTONIAN DYNAMICS (MOND)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Salcedo, F. J.; Martínez-García, E. E.; Hidalgo-Gámez, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    We have carried out a search for gas-rich dwarf galaxies that have lower rotation velocities in their outskirts than MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) predicts, so that the amplitude of their rotation curves cannot be fitted by arbitrarily increasing the mass-to-light ratio of the stellar component or by assuming additional undetected matter. With presently available data, the gas-rich galaxies UGC 4173, Holmberg II, ESO 245-G05, NGC 4861, and ESO 364-G029 deviate most from MOND predictions and, thereby, provide a sample of promising targets in testing the MOND framework. In the case of Holmberg II and NGC 4861, we find that their rotation curves are probably inconsistent with MOND, unless their inclinations and distances differ significantly from the nominal ones. The galaxy ESO 364-G029 is a promising target because its baryonic mass and rotation curve are similar to Holmberg II but presents a higher inclination. Deeper photometric and H I observations of ESO 364-G029, together with further decreasing systematic uncertainties, may provide a strong test to MOND.

  11. Dynamic characteristics of rotating pretwisted clamped-clamped beam under thermal stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Yueming [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Environment and Control for Flight Vehicle, School of Aerospace, Xi' an Jiaotong UniversityXi' an (China); Lu, Wei Zhen [Dept. of Civil and Architectural Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2016-09-15

    Effects of thermal stress on the vibration characteristics, buckling limit and critical speed of a rotating pretwisted beam clamped to rigid hub at a stagger angle were investigated. By considering the work done by thermal stress, the thermal influence on stiffness matrix was introduced in the dynamic model. The motion equations were derived based on Lagrange equation by employing three pure Cartesian deformation variables combined with nonlinear von Karman strain formula. Numerical investigations studied the modal characteristics of the beam. Numerical results calculated from a commercial finite element code and obtained with the present modeling method were in good agreement with the previous results reported in the literature. The combined softening effects due to the thermal stress and the rotation motion were observed. Furthermore, it is shown that the inclusion of thermal stress is necessary for blades operating under a high temperature field. Buckling thermal loads and the critical rotating speed were calculated through solving the corresponding nonlinear equations numerically, and some pertinent conclusions are outlined. It is also found that the peak value position of the first mode shape approaches to the tip of blade with the increment of rotating speed and hub radius. However, the variation in the environment temperature causes only a slight alteration in the mode shape.

  12. Dynamic balancing of super-critical rotating structures using slow-speed data via parametric excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresser, Shachar; Dolev, Amit; Bucher, Izhak

    2018-02-01

    High-speed machinery is often designed to pass several "critical speeds", where vibration levels can be very high. To reduce vibrations, rotors usually undergo a mass balancing process, where the machine is rotated at its full speed range, during which the dynamic response near critical speeds can be measured. High sensitivity, which is required for a successful balancing process, is achieved near the critical speeds, where a single deflection mode shape becomes dominant, and is excited by the projection of the imbalance on it. The requirement to rotate the machine at high speeds is an obstacle in many cases, where it is impossible to perform measurements at high speeds, due to harsh conditions such as high temperatures and inaccessibility (e.g., jet engines). This paper proposes a novel balancing method of flexible rotors, which does not require the machine to be rotated at high speeds. With this method, the rotor is spun at low speeds, while subjecting it to a set of externally controlled forces. The external forces comprise a set of tuned, response dependent, parametric excitations, and nonlinear stiffness terms. The parametric excitation can isolate any desired mode, while keeping the response directly linked to the imbalance. A software controlled nonlinear stiffness term limits the response, hence preventing the rotor to become unstable. These forces warrant sufficient sensitivity required to detect the projection of the imbalance on any desired mode without rotating the machine at high speeds. Analytical, numerical and experimental results are shown to validate and demonstrate the method.

  13. Muscle recruitment patterns of the subscapularis, serratus anterior and other shoulder girdle muscles during isokinetic internal and external rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Sylvain; Tremblay, Jonathan; Begon, Mickael

    2018-05-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the differences in peak muscle activity and recruitment patterns during high- and low-velocity, concentric and eccentric, internal and external isokinetic shoulder rotations. Electromyographic activity of the rotator cuff and eight superficial muscles of the shoulder girdle was recorded on 25 healthy adults during isokinetic internal and external shoulder rotation at 60°/s and 240°/s. Peak muscle activity, electromyographic envelopes and peak isokinetic moments were analyzed using three-factor ANOVA and statistical parametric mapping. The subscapularis and serratus anterior showed moderate to high peak activity levels during each conditions, while the middle and posterior deltoids, upper, middle and lower trapezius, infraspinatus and supraspinatus showed higher peak activity levels during external rotations (+36.5% of maximum voluntary activation (MVA)). The pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi were more active during internal rotations (+40% of MVA). Only middle trapezius and pectoralis major electromyographic activity decreased with increasing velocity. Peak muscle activity was similar or lower during eccentric contractions, although the peak isokinetic moment increased by 35% on average. The subscapularis and serratus anterior appear to be important stabilizers of the glenohumeral joint and scapula. Isokinetic eccentric training at high velocities may allow for faster recruitment of the shoulder girdle muscles, which could improve joint stability during shoulder internal and external rotations.

  14. Use of the concept mapping in teaching during a medical rotation of interns: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwas, Hamida; Ghédira, Habib

    2017-12-01

    Concept mapping is an excellent learning toolallowing to stimulate active learning.For this reason, the concept mapping is currently used increasingly in the medical and paramedical field. The aim of our study is to determine the contribution of teaching of medical interns by the concept mapping. Fourteen students enrolled at the same time in a medical rotation in Pulmonology were recruited for this exploratory study. Interns are divided into two groups (A and B).Both groups are taught by the clinical case method, illustrated by a concept mapping for group A interns. The evolution of the knowledge accuracy at post-testing has been greater in the group taught by the method of concept mapping: the number of correct responses increased in all participants of group A versus only 4 of group B. All students taught by concept mapping had at the post-test a note higher than or equal to 10/20 versus only three of the group taught by the method without concept map. The average score was 13 (11-15) in group A versus 10.28 (6-14) in group B. We emphasize the use of concept mapping in teaching especially in the faculty of medicine and we encourage clinicians to use this method in teaching interns in the hospital.

  15. A dynamic balanced scorecard for identification internal process factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad sofiyabadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a dynamic balanced score card (BSC to investigate the strategic internal process management factors. The proposed dynamic BSC emphasizes on internal processes aspect, and using VIKOR and Shannon Entropy, determinants the internal processes, process management and improvement and all important factors are ranked. The current study first introduces dynamic BSC and examines effective factors on the process. The proposed model focuses on internal processes perspective of BSC and determines importance degree of each factor is used using VIKOR decision-making techniques.

  16. CALCULATING ROTATING HYDRODYNAMIC AND MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES TO UNDERSTAND MAGNETIC EFFECTS ON DYNAMICAL TIDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xing, E-mail: xing.wei@sjtu.edu.cn [Institute of Natural Sciences and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China); Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    To understand magnetic effects on dynamical tides, we study the rotating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow driven by harmonic forcing. The linear responses are analytically derived in a periodic box under the local WKB approximation. Both the kinetic and Ohmic dissipations at the resonant frequencies are calculated, and the various parameters are investigated. Although magnetic pressure may be negligible compared to thermal pressure, the magnetic field can be important for the first-order perturbation, e.g., dynamical tides. It is found that the magnetic field splits the resonant frequency, namely the rotating hydrodynamic flow has only one resonant frequency, but the rotating MHD flow has two, one positive and the other negative. In the weak field regime the dissipations are asymmetric around the two resonant frequencies and this asymmetry is more striking with a weaker magnetic field. It is also found that both the kinetic and Ohmic dissipations at the resonant frequencies are inversely proportional to the Ekman number and the square of the wavenumber. The dissipation at the resonant frequency on small scales is almost equal to the dissipation at the non-resonant frequencies, namely the resonance takes its effect on the dissipation at intermediate length scales. Moreover, the waves with phase propagation that is perpendicular to the magnetic field are much more damped. It is also interesting to find that the frequency-averaged dissipation is constant. This result suggests that in compact objects, magnetic effects on tidal dissipation should be considered.

  17. Transient Dynamic Response of Delaminated Composite Rotating Shallow Shells Subjected to Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Karmakar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a transient dynamic finite element analysis is presented to study the response of delaminated composite pretwisted rotating shallow shells subjected to low velocity normal impact. Lagrange's equation of motion is used to derive the dynamic equilibrium equation and moderate rotational speeds are considered wherein the Coriolis effect is negligible. An eight noded isoparametric plate bending element is employed in the finite element formulation incorporating rotary inertia and effects of transverse shear deformation based on Mindlin's theory. To satisfy the compatibility of deformation and equilibrium of resultant forces and moments at the delamination crack front a multipoint constraint algorithm is incorporated which leads to unsymmetric stiffness matrices. The modified Hertzian contact law which accounts for permanent indentation is utilized to compute the contact force, and the time dependent equations are solved by Newmark's time integration algorithm. Parametric studies are performed in respect of location of delamination, angle of twist and rotational speed for centrally impacted graphite-epoxy composite cylindrical shells.

  18. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation and Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The 13th International Conference on Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation and Resonance (μSR2014) organized by the Laboratory for Muon Spin Spectroscopy, Paul Scherrer Institute in collaboration with the University of Zurich and the University of Fribourg, was held in Grindelwald, Switzerland from 1st to 6th June 2014. The conference provided a forum for researchers from around the world with interests in the applications of μSR to study a wide range of topics including condensed matter physics, materials and molecular sciences, chemistry and biology. Polarized muons provide a unique and versatile probe of matter, enabling studies at the atomic level of electronic structure and dynamics in a wide range of systems. The conference was the thirteenth in a series, which began in Rorschach in 1978 and it took place for the third time in Switzerland. The previous conferences were held in Cancun, Mexico (2011), Tsukuba, Japan (2008), Oxford, UK (2005), Williamsburg, USA (2002), Les Diablerets, Switzerland (1999), Nikko, Japan (1996), Maui, USA (1993), Oxford, UK (1990), Uppsala, Sweden (1986), Shimoda, Japan (1983), Vancouver, Canada (1980), and Rorschach, Switzerland (1978). These conference proceedings contain 67 refereed publications from presentations covering magnetism, superconductivity, chemistry, semiconductors, biophysics and techniques. The conference logo, displayed in the front pages of these proceedings, represents both the location of μSR2014 in the Alps and the muon-spin rotation technique. The silhouette represents the famous local mountains Eiger, Mönch and Jungfrau as drawn by the Swiss painter Ferdinand Hodler and the apple with arrow is at the same time a citation of the Wilhelm Tell legend and a remembrance of the key role played by the muon spin and the asymmetric muon decay (which for the highest positron energy has an apple like shape). More than 160 participants (including 32 registered as students and 13 as accompanying persons) from 19 countries

  19. A direct comparison of spine rotational stiffness and dynamic spine stability during repetitive lifting tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ryan B; Brown, Stephen H M

    2012-06-01

    Stability of the spinal column is critical to bear loads, allow movement, and at the same time avoid injury and pain. However, there has been a debate in recent years as to how best to define and quantify spine stability, with the outcome being that different methods are used without a clear understanding of how they relate to one another. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to directly compare lumbar spine rotational stiffness, calculated with an EMG-driven biomechanical model, to local dynamic spine stability calculated using Lyapunov analyses of kinematic data, during a series of continuous dynamic lifting challenges. Twelve healthy male subjects performed 30 repetitive lifts under three varying load and three varying rate conditions. With an increase in the load lifted (constant rate) there was a significant increase in mean, maximum, and minimum spine rotational stiffness (pstiffness (pstiffness and a non-significant decrease in local dynamic stability (p>0.05). Weak linear relationships were found for the varying rate conditions (r=-0.02 to -0.27). The results suggest that spine rotational stiffness and local dynamic stability are closely related to one another, as they provided similar information when movement rate was controlled. However, based on the results from the changing lifting rate conditions, it is evident that both models provide unique information and that future research is required to completely understand the relationship between the two models. Using both techniques concurrently may provide the best information regarding the true effects of (in) stability under different loading and movement scenarios, and in comparing healthy and clinical populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A dynamic lattice searching method with rotation operation for optimization of large clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xia; Cai Wensheng; Shao Xueguang

    2009-01-01

    Global optimization of large clusters has been a difficult task, though much effort has been paid and many efficient methods have been proposed. During our works, a rotation operation (RO) is designed to realize the structural transformation from decahedra to icosahedra for the optimization of large clusters, by rotating the atoms below the center atom with a definite degree around the fivefold axis. Based on the RO, a development of the previous dynamic lattice searching with constructed core (DLSc), named as DLSc-RO, is presented. With an investigation of the method for the optimization of Lennard-Jones (LJ) clusters, i.e., LJ 500 , LJ 561 , LJ 600 , LJ 665-667 , LJ 670 , LJ 685 , and LJ 923 , Morse clusters, silver clusters by Gupta potential, and aluminum clusters by NP-B potential, it was found that both the global minima with icosahedral and decahedral motifs can be obtained, and the method is proved to be efficient and universal.

  1. Energy harvester for rotating environments using offset pendulum and nonlinear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roundy, Shad; Tola, Jeffry

    2014-01-01

    We present an energy harvester for environments that rotate through the Earth’s gravitational field. Example applications include shafts connected to motors, axles, propellers, fans, and wheels or tires. Our approach uses the unique dynamics of an offset pendulum along with a nonlinear bistable restoring spring to improve the operational bandwidth of the system. Depending on the speed of the rotating environment, the system can act as a bistable oscillator, monostable stiffening oscillator, or linear oscillator. We apply our approach to a tire pressure monitoring system mounted on a car rim. Simulation and experimental test results show that the prototype generator is capable of directly powering an RF transmission every 60 s or less over a speed range of 10 to 155 kph. (paper)

  2. Energy harvester for rotating environments using offset pendulum and nonlinear dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roundy, Shad; Tola, Jeffry

    2014-10-01

    We present an energy harvester for environments that rotate through the Earth’s gravitational field. Example applications include shafts connected to motors, axles, propellers, fans, and wheels or tires. Our approach uses the unique dynamics of an offset pendulum along with a nonlinear bistable restoring spring to improve the operational bandwidth of the system. Depending on the speed of the rotating environment, the system can act as a bistable oscillator, monostable stiffening oscillator, or linear oscillator. We apply our approach to a tire pressure monitoring system mounted on a car rim. Simulation and experimental test results show that the prototype generator is capable of directly powering an RF transmission every 60 s or less over a speed range of 10 to 155 kph.

  3. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of momentum transport in rotating wall perfused bioreactor for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinbiz, Mahmut N; Tığli, R Seda; Beşkardeş, Işil Gerçek; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe; Colak, Uner

    2010-11-01

    In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a rotating-wall perfused-vessel (RWPV) bioreactor is performed to characterize the complex hydrodynamic environment for the simulation of cartilage development in RWPV bioreactor in the presence of tissue-engineered cartilage constructs, i.e., cell-chitosan scaffolds. Shear stress exerted on chitosan scaffolds in bioreactor was calculated for different rotational velocities in the range of 33-38 rpm. According to the calculations, the lateral and lower surfaces were exposed to 0.07926-0.11069 dyne/cm(2) and 0.05974-0.08345 dyne/cm(2), respectively, while upper surfaces of constructs were exposed to 0.09196-0.12847 dyne/cm(2). Results validate adequate hydrodynamic environment for scaffolds in RWPV bioreactor for cartilage tissue development which concludes the suitability of operational conditions of RWPV bioreactor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dynamic Chiral Magnetic Effect and Faraday Rotation in Macroscopically Disordered Helical Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J; Pesin, D A

    2017-03-10

    We develop an effective medium theory for electromagnetic wave propagation through gapless nonuniform systems with a dynamic chiral magnetic effect. The theory allows us to calculate macroscopic-disorder-induced corrections to the values of optical, as well as chiral magnetic conductivities. In particular, we show that spatial fluctuations of the optical conductivity induce corrections to the effective value of the chiral magnetic conductivity. The absolute value of the effect varies strongly depending on the system parameters, but yields the leading frequency dependence of the polarization rotation and circular dichroism signals. Experimentally, these corrections can be observed as features in the Faraday rotation angle near frequencies that correspond to the bulk plasmon resonances of a material. Such features are not expected to be present in single-crystal samples.

  5. On the Dynamical Structure of the Jet System in the Disk with the Keplerian Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Sook Jeong

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available The classical sloar wind theory proposed by Parker(1963 explains well the dynamics of the wind pheonomena such as stellar wind accretion disk. While the stellar wind system like the solar wind has the spherically symmetric wind structure, there are various jet phenomena which collimate the system into the narrow space. We can find these dynamical structures in SS433, in the optical jet of M87, and around the active galactic nulei. We present the dynamical structure of the jet system in disks, which conserves the angular momentum, with the Keplerian rotation and the strong relation between the geometrical cross section and the physical change of the jet stream on the basis of the hydrodynamic equations.

  6. From strings to coils: Rotational dynamics of DNA-linked colloidal chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuei, Steve; Garza, Burke; Biswal, Sibani Lisa

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the dynamical behavior of deformable filaments experimentally using a tunable model system consisting of linked paramagnetic colloidal particles, where the persistence length lp, the contour length lc, and the strength and frequency of the external driving force are controlled. We find that upon forcing by an external magnetic field, a variety of structural and conformational regimes exist. Depending on the competition of forces and torques on the chain, we see classic rigid rotator behavior, as well as dynamically rich wagging, coiling, and folding behavior. Through a combination of experiments, computational models, and theoretical calculations, we are able to observe, classify, and predict these dynamics as a function of the dimensionless Mason and magnetoelastic numbers.

  7. Exploring the dynamics about the glass transition by muon spin relaxation and muon spin rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermejo, F J; Bustinduy, I; Cox, S F J; Lord, J S; Cabrillo, C; Gonzalez, M A

    2006-01-01

    The capability of muon spin rotation and muon spin relaxation to explore dynamics in the vicinity of the glass transition is illustrated by results pertaining to three materials exhibiting two different glass-forming abilities. Measurements under transverse magnetic fields enable us to monitor the dynamics of muonium-labelled closed-shell molecules within the microsecond range. The results display the onset of stochastic molecular motions taking place upon crossing from below the glass-transition temperature. In turn, the molecular dynamics of radicals formed by addition of atomic muonium to unsaturated organic molecules can also be explored up to far shorter times by means of relaxation measurements under longitudinal fields. The technique is then shown to be capable of singling out stochastic reorientational motions from others, which usually are strongly coupled to them and usually dominate the material response when measured using higher-frequency probes such as neutron and light scattering

  8. Geophysical fluid dynamics understanding (almost) everything with rotating shallow water models

    CERN Document Server

    Zeitlin, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    The book explains the key notions and fundamental processes in the dynamics of the fluid envelopes of the Earth (transposable to other planets), and methods of their analysis, from the unifying viewpoint of rotating shallow-water model (RSW). The model, in its one- or two-layer versions, plays a distinguished role in geophysical fluid dynamics, having been used for around a century for conceptual understanding of various phenomena, for elaboration of approaches and methods, to be applied later in more complete models, for development and testing of numerical codes and schemes of data assimilations, and many other purposes. Principles of modelling of large-scale atmospheric and oceanic flows, and corresponding approximations, are explained and it is shown how single- and multi-layer versions of RSW arise from the primitive equations by vertical averaging, and how further time-averaging produces celebrated quasi-geostrophic reductions of the model. Key concepts of geophysical fluid dynamics are exposed and inte...

  9. Role of rotational energy component in the dynamics of 16O+198Pt reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Manoj K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of rotational energy is investigated in reference to the dynamics of 16O+198Pt →214Rn∗ reaction using the sticking (IS and the non-sticking (INS limits of moment of inertia within the framework of dynamical cluster decay model. The decay barrier height and barrier position get significantly modified for the use of sticking or non-sticking choice, which in turn reproduce the evaporation residue and the fusion-fission cross-sections nicely by the IS approach, while the INS approach provides feasible addressal of data only for evaporation residue channel. Moreover, the fragmentation path of decaying fragments of 214Rn∗ compound nucleus gets influenced for different choices of moment of inertia. Beside this, the role of nuclear deformations i.e. static, dynamic quadurpole (β2 and higher order static deformation up to β4 are duly investigated for both choices of the moment of inertia.

  10. Revolving scheme for solving a cascade of Abel equations in dynamics of planar satellite rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Ershkov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective for this research was the analytical exploration of the dynamics of planar satellite rotation during the motion of an elliptical orbit around a planet. First, we revisit the results of J. Wisdom et al. (1984, in which, by the elegant change of variables (considering the true anomaly f as the independent variable, the governing equation of satellite rotation takes the form of an Abel ordinary differential equation (ODE of the second kind, a sort of generalization of the Riccati ODE. We note that due to the special character of solutions of a Riccati-type ODE, there exists the possibility of sudden jumping in the magnitude of the solution at some moment of time. In the physical sense, this jumping of the Riccati-type solutions of the governing ODE could be associated with the effect of sudden acceleration/deceleration in the satellite rotation around the chosen principle axis at a definite moment of parametric time. This means that there exists not only a chaotic satellite rotation regime (as per the results of J. Wisdom et al. (1984, but a kind of gradient catastrophe (Arnold, 1992 could occur during the satellite rotation process. We especially note that if a gradient catastrophe could occur, this does not mean that it must occur: such a possibility depends on the initial conditions. In addition, we obtained asymptotical solutions that manifest a quasi-periodic character even with the strong simplifying assumptions e→0, p=1, which reduce the governing equation of J. Wisdom et al. (1984 to a kind of Beletskii’s equation.

  11. Subscapularis slide correction of the shoulder internal rotation contracture after brachial plexus birth injury: technique and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immerman, Igor; Valencia, Herbert; DiTaranto, Patricia; DelSole, Edward M; Glait, Sergio; Price, Andrew E; Grossman, John A I

    2013-03-01

    Internal rotation contracture is the most common shoulder deformity in patients with brachial plexus birth injury. The purpose of this investigation is to describe the indications, technique, and results of the subscapularis slide procedure. The technique involves the release of the subscapularis muscle origin off the scapula, with preservation of anterior shoulder structures. A standard postoperative protocol is used in all patients and includes a modified shoulder spica with the shoulder held in 60 degrees of external rotation and 30 degrees of abduction, aggressive occupational and physical therapy, and subsequent shoulder manipulation under anesthesia with botulinum toxin injections as needed. Seventy-one patients at 2 institutions treated with subscapularis slide between 1997 and 2010, with minimum follow-up of 39.2 months, were identified. Patients were divided into 5 groups based on the index procedure performed: subscapularis slide alone (group 1); subscapularis slide with a simultaneous microsurgical reconstruction (group 2); primary microsurgical brachial plexus reconstruction followed later by a subscapularis slide (group 3); primary microsurgical brachial plexus reconstruction followed later by a subscapularis slide combined with tendon transfers for shoulder external rotation (group 4); and subscapularis slide with simultaneous tendon transfers, with no prior brachial plexus surgery (group 5). Full passive external rotation equivalent to the contralateral side was achieved in the operating room in all cases. No cases resulted in anterior instability or internal rotation deficit. Internal rotation contracture of the shoulder after brachial plexus birth injury can be effectively managed with the technique of subscapularis slide.

  12. International evaluation of Swedish research projects in the field of short rotation forestry for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, W M [N.I. Horticulture and Plant Breeding Station, Armagh (Ireland); Isebrands, J [USDA Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station, Rhinelander, WI (United States); Namkoong, G [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Forest Sciences; Tahvanainen, J [Univ. of Joensuu (Finland). Dept. of Biology

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this evaluation was to inform NUTEK of the scientific quality of the research projects, as seen in an international context. The projects were therefore the main elements considered in the evaluation. The main basis of the evaluation was the scientific quality of the research and its relevance to NUTEK`s aims in the application of industrial research and development. The present report is based on the information contained in the written reports submitted by the grant holders, site visits and discussions between the grant holders and the Committee. The report first gives an overview and general recommendations concerning the overall programme in the field of Short Rotation Forestry for Energy. Thereafter, the 16 projects are evaluated separately

  13. Counter-rotating effects and entanglement dynamics in strongly coupled quantum-emitter-metallic-nanoparticle structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, Nikos; Thanopulos, Ioannis; Yannopapas, Vassilios; Paspalakis, Emmanuel

    2018-03-01

    We study the spontaneous emission of a two-level quantum emitter next to a plasmonic nanoparticle beyond the Markovian approximation and the rotating-wave approximation (RWA) by combining quantum dynamics and classical electromagnetic calculations. For emitters with decay times in the picosecond to nanosecond time regime, as well as located at distances from the nanoparticle up to its radius, the dynamics with and without the RWA and the transition from the non-Markovian to the Markovian regime are investigated. For emitters with longer decay times, the Markov approximation proves to be adequate for distances larger than half the nanoparticle radius. However, the RWA is correct for all distances of the emitter from the nanoparticle. For short decay time emitters, the Markov approximation and RWA are both inadequate, with only the RWA becoming valid again at a distance larger than half the nanoparticle radius. We also show that the entanglement dynamics of two initially entangled qubits interacting independently with the nanoparticle may have a strong non-Markovian character when counter-rotating effects are included. Interesting effects such as entanglement sudden death, periodic entanglement revival, entanglement oscillations, and entanglement trapping are further observed when different initial two-qubit states and different distances between the qubit and the nanoparticle are considered.

  14. Identification of dominant flow structures in rapidly rotating convection of liquid metals using Dynamic Mode Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, S.; Schmid, P. J.; Aurnou, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth's metal core acts as a dynamo whose efficiency in generating and maintaining the magnetic field is essentially determined by the rotation rate and the convective motions occurring in its outer liquid part. For the description of the primary physics in the outer core the idealized system of rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection is often invoked, with the majority of studies considering only working fluids with Prandtl numbers of Pr ≳ 1. However, liquid metals are characterized by distinctly smaller Prandtl numbers which in turn result in an inherently different type of convection. Here, we will present results from direct numerical simulations of rapidly rotating convection in a fluid with Pr ≈ 0.025 in cylindrical containers and Ekman numbers as low as 5 × 10-6. In this system, the Coriolis force is the source of two types of inertial modes, the so-called wall modes, that also exist at moderate Prandtl numbers, and cylinder-filling oscillatory modes, that are a unique feature of small Prandtl number convection. The obtained flow fields were analyzed using the Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD). This technique allows to extract and identify the structures that govern the dynamics of the system as well as their corresponding frequencies. We have investigated both the regime where the flow is purely oscillatory and the regime where wall modes and oscillatory modes co-exist. In the purely oscillatory regime, high and low frequency oscillatory modes characterize the flow. When both types of modes are present, the DMD reveals that the wall-attached modes dominate the flow dynamics. They precess with a relatively low frequency in retrograde direction. Nonetheless, also in this case, high frequency oscillations have a significant contribution.

  15. Experimental investigation of the dynamics in a strongly interacting Fermi gas : collective modes and rotational properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedl, S.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis explores the dynamics in an ultracold strongly interacting Fermi gas. Therefore we perform measurements on collective excitation modes and rotational properties of the gas. The strongly interacting gas is realized using an optically trapped Fermi gas of 6 Li atoms, where the interactions can be tuned using a broad Feshbach resonance. Our measurements allow to test the equation of state of the gas, study the transition from hydrodynamic to collisionless behavior, reveal almost ideal hydrodynamic behavior in the nonsuperfluid phase, investigate the lifetime of angular momentum, and show superfluidity through the quenching of the moment of inertia. (author)

  16. Muon spin rotation and other microscopic probes of spin-glass dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLaughlin, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    A number of different microscopic probe techniques have been employed to investigate the onset of the spin-glass state in dilute magnetic alloys. Among these are Moessbauer-effect spectroscopy, neutron scattering, ESR of the impurity spins, host NMR and, most recently, muon spin rotation and depolarization. Spin probes yield information on the microscopic static and dynamic behavior of the impurity spins, and give insight into both the spin freezing process and the nature of low-lying excitations in the ordered state. Microscopic probe experiments in spin glasses are surveyed, and the unique advantages of muon studies are emphasized

  17. A rotated Dynamic Nelson-Siegel model with macro-financial applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nyholm, Ken

    2015-01-01

    A factor rotation scheme is applied to the well-known Dynamic Nelson-Siegel model facilitating direct parametrization of the short rate process. The model-implied term structure of term premia is derived in closed-form, and macroeconomic variables are included in a Taylor-rule- type fashion. Four empirical experiments are performed on US data covering the period from 1990 to 2014. It is found that macroeconomic variables impact the evolution of the short rate until 2002, after which their eff...

  18. Effects of Peanut-Tobacco Rotations on Population Dynamics of Meloidogyne arenaria in Mixed Race Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Hirunsalee, Anan; Barker, K. R.; Beute, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    A 3-year microplot study was initiated to characterize the population dynamics, reproduction potential, and survivorship of single or mixed populations of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 (Ma1) and race 2 (Ma2), as affected by crop rotations of peanut 'Florigiant' and M. incognita races 1 and 3-resistant 'McNair 373' and susceptible 'Coker 371-Gold' tobacco. Infection, reproduction, and root damage by Ma2 on peanut and by Ma1 on resistant tobacco were limited in the first year. Infection, reproduc...

  19. Rotating flow

    CERN Document Server

    Childs, Peter R N

    2010-01-01

    Rotating flow is critically important across a wide range of scientific, engineering and product applications, providing design and modeling capability for diverse products such as jet engines, pumps and vacuum cleaners, as well as geophysical flows. Developed over the course of 20 years' research into rotating fluids and associated heat transfer at the University of Sussex Thermo-Fluid Mechanics Research Centre (TFMRC), Rotating Flow is an indispensable reference and resource for all those working within the gas turbine and rotating machinery industries. Traditional fluid and flow dynamics titles offer the essential background but generally include very sparse coverage of rotating flows-which is where this book comes in. Beginning with an accessible introduction to rotating flow, recognized expert Peter Childs takes you through fundamental equations, vorticity and vortices, rotating disc flow, flow around rotating cylinders and flow in rotating cavities, with an introduction to atmospheric and oceanic circul...

  20. Rational design and dynamics of self-propelled colloidal bead chains: from rotators to flagella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutukuri, Hanumantha Rao; Bet, Bram; van Roij, René; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Huck, Wilhelm T S

    2017-12-01

    The quest for designing new self-propelled colloids is fuelled by the demand for simple experimental models to study the collective behaviour of their more complex natural counterparts. Most synthetic self-propelled particles move by converting the input energy into translational motion. In this work we address the question if simple self-propelled spheres can assemble into more complex structures that exhibit rotational motion, possibly coupled with translational motion as in flagella. We exploit a combination of induced dipolar interactions and a bonding step to create permanent linear bead chains, composed of self-propelled Janus spheres, with a well-controlled internal structure. Next, we study how flexibility between individual swimmers in a chain can affect its swimming behaviour. Permanent rigid chains showed only active rotational or spinning motion, whereas longer semi-flexible chains showed both translational and rotational motion resembling flagella like-motion, in the presence of the fuel. Moreover, we are able to reproduce our experimental results using numerical calculations with a minimal model, which includes full hydrodynamic interactions with the fluid. Our method is general and opens a new way to design novel self-propelled colloids with complex swimming behaviours, using different complex starting building blocks in combination with the flexibility between them.

  1. Dynamic visual acuity during transient and sinusoidal yaw rotation in normal and unilaterally vestibulopathic humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, J R; Shubayev, I; Demer, J L

    2001-03-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) stabilizes gaze to permit clear vision during head movements. It has been supposed that VOR function might be inferred from dynamic visual acuity (DVA), the acuity during imposed head motion. We sought to determine effectiveness of DVA for detection and lateralization of unilateral vestibulopathy, using rigorous psychophysical methods. Seventeen normal and 11 unilaterally vestibulopathic subjects underwent measurement of optically best corrected DVA during head motion. A variable size letter "E" 6 m distant was displayed in oblique random orientations to determine binocular DVA by a computer controlled, forced choice method. Three types of whole-body yaw rotation were delivered by a servo-controlled chair synchronized with optotype presentation. Two types of motion were predictable: (1) steady-state 2.0-Hz rotation at 10-130 degrees/s peak velocity with repetitive optotype presentation only during head velocity exceeding 80% of peak; and (2) directionally predictable transients at peak accelerations of 1000, 1600 and 2800 degrees/s2 with optotype presentation for 300 ms. For neither of these predictable motions did DVA in vestibulopathic subjects significantly differ from normal, with suggestions from search coil recordings that this was due to predictive slow and saccadic eye movements. Unilaterally vestibulopathic subjects experienced a significant decrease in DVA from the static condition during ipsilesional rotation for all three peak head accelerations. Only during directionally unpredictable transients with 75 ms or 300 ms optotype presentation was the sensitivity of DVA in unilaterally vestibulopathic subjects significantly abnormal during ipsilesional rotation. The ipsilesional decrease in DVA with head motion was greater for 75 ms than 300 ms optotype presentation. Search coil recordings confirmed hypometric compensatory eye movements during DVA testing with unpredictable, ipsilesional rotation. Receiver

  2. Seismic constraints on the radial dependence of the internal rotation profiles of six Kepler subgiants and young red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deheuvels, S.; Doğan, G.; Goupil, M. J.; Appourchaux, T.; Benomar, O.; Bruntt, H.; Campante, T. L.; Casagrande, L.; Ceillier, T.; Davies, G. R.; De Cat, P.; Fu, J. N.; García, R. A.; Lobel, A.; Mosser, B.; Reese, D. R.; Regulo, C.; Schou, J.; Stahn, T.; Thygesen, A. O.; Yang, X. H.; Chaplin, W. J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Eggenberger, P.; Gizon, L.; Mathis, S.; Molenda-Żakowicz, J.; Pinsonneault, M.

    2014-04-01

    Context. We still do not understand which physical mechanisms are responsible for the transport of angular momentum inside stars. The recent detection of mixed modes that contain the clear signature of rotation in the spectra of Kepler subgiants and red giants gives us the opportunity to make progress on this question. Aims: Our aim is to probe the radial dependence of the rotation profiles for a sample of Kepler targets. For this purpose, subgiants and early red giants are particularly interesting targets because their rotational splittings are more sensitive to the rotation outside the deeper core than is the case for their more evolved counterparts. Methods: We first extracted the rotational splittings and frequencies of the modes for six young Kepler red giants. We then performed a seismic modeling of these stars using the evolutionary codes Cesam2k and astec. By using the observed splittings and the rotational kernels of the optimal models, we inverted the internal rotation profiles of the six stars. Results: We obtain estimates of the core rotation rates for these stars, and upper limits to the rotation in their convective envelope. We show that the rotation contrast between the core and the envelope increases during the subgiant branch. Our results also suggest that the core of subgiants spins up with time, while their envelope spins down. For two of the stars, we show that a discontinuous rotation profile with a deep discontinuity reproduces the observed splittings significantly better than a smooth rotation profile. Interestingly, the depths that are found to be most probable for the discontinuities roughly coincide with the location of the H-burning shell, which separates the layers that contract from those that expand. Conclusions: We characterized the differential rotation pattern of six young giants with a range of metallicities, and with both radiative and convective cores on the main sequence. This will bring observational constraints to the

  3. Feasibility of using PZT actuators to study the dynamic behavior of a rotating disk due to rotor-stator interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presas, Alexandre; Egusquiza, Eduard; Valero, Carme; Valentin, David; Seidel, Ulrich

    2014-07-07

    In this paper, PZT actuators are used to study the dynamic behavior of a rotating disk structure due to rotor-stator interaction excitation. The disk is studied with two different surrounding fluids-air and water. The study has been performed analytically and validated experimentally. For the theoretical analysis, the natural frequencies and the associated mode shapes of the rotating disk in air and water are obtained with the Kirchhoff-Love thin plate theory coupled with the interaction with the surrounding fluid. A model for the Rotor Stator Interaction that occurs in many rotating disk-like parts of turbomachinery such as compressors, hydraulic runners or alternators is presented. The dynamic behavior of the rotating disk due to this excitation is deduced. For the experimental analysis a test rig has been developed. It consists of a stainless steel disk (r = 198 mm and h = 8 mm) connected to a variable speed motor. Excitation and response are measured from the rotating system. For the rotating excitation four piezoelectric patches have been used. Calibrating the piezoelectric patches in amplitude and phase, different rotating excitation patterns are applied on the rotating disk in air and in water. Results show the feasibility of using PZT to control the response of the disk due to a rotor-stator interaction.

  4. Feasibility of Using PZT Actuators to Study the Dynamic Behavior of a Rotating Disk due to Rotor-Stator Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Presas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, PZT actuators are used to study the dynamic behavior of a rotating disk structure due to rotor-stator interaction excitation. The disk is studied with two different surrounding fluids—air and water. The study has been performed analytically and validated experimentally. For the theoretical analysis, the natural frequencies and the associated mode shapes of the rotating disk in air and water are obtained with the Kirchhoff-Love thin plate theory coupled with the interaction with the surrounding fluid. A model for the Rotor Stator Interaction that occurs in many rotating disk-like parts of turbomachinery such as compressors, hydraulic runners or alternators is presented. The dynamic behavior of the rotating disk due to this excitation is deduced. For the experimental analysis a test rig has been developed. It consists of a stainless steel disk (r = 198 mm and h = 8 mm connected to a variable speed motor. Excitation and response are measured from the rotating system. For the rotating excitation four piezoelectric patches have been used. Calibrating the piezoelectric patches in amplitude and phase, different rotating excitation patterns are applied on the rotating disk in air and in water. Results show the feasibility of using PZT to control the response of the disk due to a rotor-stator interaction.

  5. International Conference on Dynamical Systems : Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The book is a collection of contributions devoted to analytical, numerical and experimental techniques of dynamical systems, presented at the international conference "Dynamical Systems: Theory and Applications," held in Lódz, Poland on December 7-10, 2015. The studies give deep insight into new perspectives in analysis, simulation, and optimization of dynamical systems, emphasizing directions for future research. Broadly outlined topics covered include: bifurcation and chaos in dynamical systems, asymptotic methods in nonlinear dynamics, dynamics in life sciences and bioengineering, original numerical methods of vibration analysis, control in dynamical systems, stability of dynamical systems, vibrations of lumped and continuous sytems, non-smooth systems, engineering systems and differential equations, mathematical approaches to dynamical systems, and mechatronics.

  6. International Conference on Dynamical Systems : Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The book is the second volume of a collection of contributions devoted to analytical, numerical and experimental techniques of dynamical systems, presented at the international conference "Dynamical Systems: Theory and Applications," held in Lódz, Poland on December 7-10, 2015. The studies give deep insight into new perspectives in analysis, simulation, and optimization of dynamical systems, emphasizing directions for future research. Broadly outlined topics covered include: bifurcation and chaos in dynamical systems, asymptotic methods in nonlinear dynamics, dynamics in life sciences and bioengineering, original numerical methods of vibration analysis, control in dynamical systems, stability of dynamical systems, vibrations of lumped and continuous sytems, non-smooth systems, engineering systems and differential equations, mathematical approaches to dynamical systems, and mechatronics.

  7. Rotation and impurity studies in the presence of MHD activity and internal transport barriers on TCV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federspiel, L. I.

    2014-07-01

    This thesis focuses on measurements of toroidal rotation and impurity profiles in improved plasma scenarios and in the presence of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) activity. Experiments were performed on TCV, the Tokamak a Configuration Variable in Lausanne. In TCV, plasma rotation is measured by the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostic (CXRS). The CXRS is associated with a low power diagnostic neutral beam injector (DNBI) that provides CX emission from the hot plasma core, without perturbing the plasma with additional torque. The beam is observed transversally by the CXRS diagnostic so that local ion temperature, density and intrinsic velocity measurements are obtained. The three systems composing the present day CXRS2013 diagnostic cover the entire TCV radial midplane with up to 80 measurement locations separated by around 7 mm with a time resolution ranging from 2-30 ms. The main upgrades concerned the installation of new sensitive cameras, the overhaul of the toroidal system, the extended-chord configuration and the automation of the acquisition and analysis processes. These new Cars capabilities permitted the investigation of more complex scenarios featuring low intensity and/or fast events, like the low density electron internal transport barriers (eITBs) and the sawtooth (ST) instability. A comparison between rotation profiles measured over several sawtooth events and across a 'canonical' sawtooth cycle has been undertaken in limited L-mode plasmas. The averaged rotation profiles obtained with the upgraded CXRS diagnostic show that ST restrict the maximum attainable and that the rotation profiles are flattened and almost always display a small co-current contribution. It is this effect that results in the 1/I{sub p} scaling observed in TCV limited L-mode plasmas. The co-current core contribution is related to the ST crash, whilst, during the quiescent ramp of the sawtooth period, a plasma recoil outside the mixing radius is observed. A

  8. Rotation and impurity studies in the presence of MHD activity and internal transport barriers on TCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federspiel, L. I.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on measurements of toroidal rotation and impurity profiles in improved plasma scenarios and in the presence of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) activity. Experiments were performed on TCV, the Tokamak a Configuration Variable in Lausanne. In TCV, plasma rotation is measured by the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostic (CXRS). The CXRS is associated with a low power diagnostic neutral beam injector (DNBI) that provides CX emission from the hot plasma core, without perturbing the plasma with additional torque. The beam is observed transversally by the CXRS diagnostic so that local ion temperature, density and intrinsic velocity measurements are obtained. The three systems composing the present day CXRS2013 diagnostic cover the entire TCV radial midplane with up to 80 measurement locations separated by around 7 mm with a time resolution ranging from 2-30 ms. The main upgrades concerned the installation of new sensitive cameras, the overhaul of the toroidal system, the extended-chord configuration and the automation of the acquisition and analysis processes. These new Cars capabilities permitted the investigation of more complex scenarios featuring low intensity and/or fast events, like the low density electron internal transport barriers (eITBs) and the sawtooth (ST) instability. A comparison between rotation profiles measured over several sawtooth events and across a 'canonical' sawtooth cycle has been undertaken in limited L-mode plasmas. The averaged rotation profiles obtained with the upgraded CXRS diagnostic show that ST restrict the maximum attainable and that the rotation profiles are flattened and almost always display a small co-current contribution. It is this effect that results in the 1/I p scaling observed in TCV limited L-mode plasmas. The co-current core contribution is related to the ST crash, whilst, during the quiescent ramp of the sawtooth period, a plasma recoil outside the mixing radius is observed. A high

  9. Dynamics of Equilibrium Points in a Uniformly Rotating Second-Order and Degree Gravitational Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinglang; Hou, Xiyun

    2017-07-01

    Using tools such as periodic orbits and invariant manifolds, the global dynamics around equilibrium points (EPs) in a rotating second-order and degree gravitational field are studied. For EPs on the long axis, planar and vertical periodic families are computed, and their stability properties are investigated. Invariant manifolds are also computed, and their relation to the first-order resonances is briefly discussed. For EPs on the short axis, planar and vertical periodic families are studied, with special emphasis on the genealogy of the planar periodic families. Our studies show that the global dynamics around EPs are highly similar to those around libration points in the circular restricted three-body problem, such as spatial halo orbits, invariant manifolds, and the genealogy of planar periodic families.

  10. Dynamics of Equilibrium Points in a Uniformly Rotating Second-Order and Degree Gravitational Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jinglang; Hou, Xiyun

    2017-01-01

    Using tools such as periodic orbits and invariant manifolds, the global dynamics around equilibrium points (EPs) in a rotating second-order and degree gravitational field are studied. For EPs on the long axis, planar and vertical periodic families are computed, and their stability properties are investigated. Invariant manifolds are also computed, and their relation to the first-order resonances is briefly discussed. For EPs on the short axis, planar and vertical periodic families are studied, with special emphasis on the genealogy of the planar periodic families. Our studies show that the global dynamics around EPs are highly similar to those around libration points in the circular restricted three-body problem, such as spatial halo orbits, invariant manifolds, and the genealogy of planar periodic families.

  11. Effects of dynamic long-period ocean tides on changes in earth's rotation rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Young; Dickman, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    As a generalization of the zonal response coefficient first introduced by Agnew and Farrell (1978), the zonal response function kappa of the solid earth-ocean system is defined as the ratio, in the frequency domain, of the tidal change in earth's rotation rate to the tide-generating potential. Amplitudes and phases of kappa for the monthly, fortnightly, and nine-day lunar tides are estimated from 2 1/2 years of VLBI UT1 observations, corrected for atmospheric angular momentum effects using NMC wind and pressure series. Using the dynamic ocean tide model of Dickman (1988, 1989), amplitudes and phases of kappa for an elastic earth-ocean system are predicted. The predictions confirm earlier results which found that dynamic effects of the longer-period ocean tides reduce the amplitude of kappa by about 1 percent.

  12. Dynamics of Equilibrium Points in a Uniformly Rotating Second-Order and Degree Gravitational Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jinglang; Hou, Xiyun, E-mail: jinglang@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: silence@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 210093 (China)

    2017-07-01

    Using tools such as periodic orbits and invariant manifolds, the global dynamics around equilibrium points (EPs) in a rotating second-order and degree gravitational field are studied. For EPs on the long axis, planar and vertical periodic families are computed, and their stability properties are investigated. Invariant manifolds are also computed, and their relation to the first-order resonances is briefly discussed. For EPs on the short axis, planar and vertical periodic families are studied, with special emphasis on the genealogy of the planar periodic families. Our studies show that the global dynamics around EPs are highly similar to those around libration points in the circular restricted three-body problem, such as spatial halo orbits, invariant manifolds, and the genealogy of planar periodic families.

  13. Dynamic aspects of design and maintenance of the rotating machinery applied in the mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szolc Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a dynamic behaviour of the selected typical group of rotating machines applied in the mining industry is investigated. These are the beater mills and crushers as well as blowers and compressors, all driven by the asynchronous motors. In particular, there is considered an influence of various types of machine working tool loadings on the system lateral steady-state dynamic responses as well as a mutual torsional electromechanical interaction between the driving motor and the driven machine in transient operational conditions. The theoretical calculations have been performed by means of the advanced structural mechanical models. The conclusions drawn from computational results can be very useful during design phase of these devices as well as helpful for their users during regular maintenance.

  14. A Detailed Study of the Rotational Augmentation and Dynamic Stall Phenomena for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas

    This thesis presents investigations into the aerodynamics of wind turbine rotors, with a focus on the in-board sections of the rotor. Two important aerodynamic phenomena that have challenged scientists over nearly the last half a century are the so-called rotational augmentation and dynamic stall....... This thesis presents an investigation into these two phenomena, using data from the MEXICO and the NREL UAE Phase VI experiments, as well as data obtained from full rotor CFD computations carried out using the in-house flow solver Ellipsys3D. The experimental data, CFD data and that from some of the existing...... on wind turbine blades using the N-sequence data of the NREL UAE Phase VI experiment. The experimental data is compared with the results from unsteady Delayed Detached Eddy Simulations (DDES). The same conditions are also modelled using a Beddoes-Leishman type dynamic stall model by Hansen et al. (2004...

  15. NASA plan for international crustal dynamics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The international activities being planned as part of the NASA geodynamics program are described. Methods of studying the Earth's crustal movements and deformation characteristics are discussed. The significance of the eventual formalations of earthquake predictions methods is also discussed.

  16. Dynamic characterization, monitoring and control of rotating flexible beam-mass structures via piezo-embedded techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Steven H.-Y.

    1992-01-01

    A variational principle and a finite element discretization technique were used to derive the dynamic equations for a high speed rotating flexible beam-mass system embedded with piezo-electric materials. The dynamic equation thus obtained allows the development of finite element models which accommodate both the original structural element and the piezoelectric element. The solutions of finite element models provide system dynamics needed to design a sensing system. The characterization of gyroscopic effect and damping capacity of smart rotating devices are addressed. Several simulation examples are presented to validate the analytical solution.

  17. Internal Mass Motion for Spacecraft Dynamics and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, Christopher D

    2008-01-01

    We present a detailed description of the application of a noncanonical Hamiltonian formulation to the modeling, analysis, and simulation of the dynamics of gyrostat spacecraft with internal mass motion...

  18. Analysis of the Dynamic Behavior of a Rotating Composite Hollow Shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldemir Ap Cavalini Jr

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present paper, a simplified homogenized beam theory is used in the context of a numerical investigation regarding the dynamic behavior of a rotating composite hollow shaft. For this aim, a horizontal flexible composite shaft and a rigid disc form the considered simple supported rotating system. The mathematical model of the rotor is derived from the Lagrange’s equation and the Rayleigh-Ritz method, which is obtained from the strain and kinetic energies of the disc and shaft, and the mass unbalance. In this case, a convergence procedure is carried out in terms of the vibration modes to obtain a representative model for the rotor system. Therefore, the proposed analysis is performed in both frequency and time domains, in which the frequency response functions, the unbalance responses, the Campbell diagram, and the orbits are numerically determined. Additionally, the instability threshold of the rotor system is obtained. This study illustrates the convenience of the composite hollow shafts for rotor dynamics applications.

  19. Rotational dynamics of benzene and water in an ionic liquid explored via molecular dynamics simulations and NMR T1 measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasaka, Yoshiro; Klein, Michael L; Nakahara, Masaru; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2012-02-21

    The rotational dynamics of benzene and water in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride are studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and NMR T(1) measurements. MD trajectories based on an effective potential are used to calculate the (2)H NMR relaxation time, T(1) via Fourier transform of the relevant rotational time correlation function, C(2R)(t). To compensate for the lack of polarization in the standard fixed-charge modeling of the IL, an effective ionic charge, which is smaller than the elementary charge is employed. The simulation results are in closest agreement with NMR experiments with respect to the temperature and Larmor frequency dependencies of T(1) when an effective charge of ±0.5e is used for the anion and the cation, respectively. The computed C(2R)(t) of both solutes shows a bi-modal nature, comprised of an initial non-diffusive ps relaxation plus a long-time ns tail extending to the diffusive regime. Due to the latter component, the solute dynamics is not under the motional narrowing condition with respect to the prevalent Larmor frequency. It is shown that the diffusive tail of the C(2R)(t) is most important to understand frequency and temperature dependencies of T(1) in ILs. On the other hand, the effect of the initial ps relaxation is an increase of T(1) by a constant factor. This is equivalent to an "effective" reduction of the quadrupolar coupling constant (QCC). Thus, in the NMR T(1) analysis, the rotational time correlation function can be modeled analytically in the form of aexp (-t/τ) (Lipari-Szabo model), where the constant a, the Lipari-Szabo factor, contains the integrated contribution of the short-time relaxation and τ represents the relaxation time of the exponential (diffusive) tail. The Debye model is a special case of the Lipari-Szabo model with a = 1, and turns out to be inappropriate to represent benzene and water dynamics in ILs since a is as small as 0.1. The use of the Debye model would result in

  20. XXIII International Conference on Nonlinear Dynamics of Electronic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Stoop, Ruedi; Stramaglia, Sebastiano

    2017-01-01

    This book collects contributions to the XXIII international conference “Nonlinear dynamics of electronic systems”. Topics range from non-linearity in electronic circuits to synchronisation effects in complex networks to biological systems, neural dynamics and the complex organisation of the brain. Resting on a solid mathematical basis, these investigations address highly interdisciplinary problems in physics, engineering, biology and biochemistry.

  1. Dynamics in international market segmentation of new product growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, A.; Croux, C.; Stremersch, S.

    2012-01-01

    Prior international segmentation studies have been static in that they have identified segments that remain stable over time. This paper shows that country segments in new product growth are intrinsically dynamic. We propose a semiparametric hidden Markov model to dynamically segment countries based

  2. Translational and rotational dynamics of water in mesoporous silica materials: MCM-41-S and MCM-48-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraone, Antonio; Liu Li; Mou, C.-Y.; Shih, P.-C.; Copley, John R.D.; Chen, S.-H.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the translational and rotational dynamics of water molecules in mesoporous silica materials MCM-41-S and MCM-48-S using the incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering technique. The range of wave vector transfers Q covered in the measurements was from 0.27 to 1.93 Aa -1 broad enough to detect both the translational and rotational contributions to the scattering. We used the relaxing-cage models for both translational and rotational motions which we developed earlier, to analyze the QENS spectra and investigated water dynamics in a supercooled range from 250 to 280 K. The results show a marked slowing down of both the translational and rotational relaxation times, and an increasing effect of confinement on the translational motion, as the temperature is lowered

  3. The research rotation: competency-based structured and novel approach to research training of internal medicine residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrov Vihren

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, the Accreditation Council of graduate medical education (ACGME requires all accredited Internal medicine residency training programs to facilitate resident scholarly activities. However, clinical experience and medical education still remain the main focus of graduate medical education in many Internal Medicine (IM residency-training programs. Left to design the structure, process and outcome evaluation of the ACGME research requirement, residency-training programs are faced with numerous barriers. Many residency programs report having been cited by the ACGME residency review committee in IM for lack of scholarly activity by residents. Methods We would like to share our experience at Lincoln Hospital, an affiliate of Weill Medical College Cornell University New York, in designing and implementing a successful structured research curriculum based on ACGME competencies taught during a dedicated "research rotation". Results Since the inception of the research rotation in 2004, participation of our residents among scholarly activities has substantially increased. Our residents increasingly believe and appreciate that research is an integral component of residency training and essential for practice of medicine. Conclusion Internal medicine residents' outlook in research can be significantly improved using a research curriculum offered through a structured and dedicated research rotation. This is exemplified by the improvement noted in resident satisfaction, their participation in scholarly activities and resident research outcomes since the inception of the research rotation in our internal medicine training program.

  4. [Internal migration trends and regional dynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, M

    1992-01-01

    This study concerns aspects of regional development in Tunisia. It specifically considers how economic factors affect income differentials among regions, and ways in which these in turn influence trends in internal migration. The effect of these trends on urbanization is also explored.

  5. Gender and Internal Migration dynamics in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 068

    Internal migration is an inherent part of the processes of development and structural ... to rural-urban migrants by Government policies and strategies to enhance the ... Several studies globally indicate that migration is a driver of growth and an .... More recent approaches of networks theories and transnational approaches to ...

  6. Improvement of a new rotation function for molecular replacement by designing new scoring functions and dynamic correlation coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fan; Ding, Wei

    2010-10-01

    A previously published new rotation function has been improved by using a dynamic correlation coefficient as well as two new scoring functions of relative entropy and mean-square-residues to make the rotation function more robust and independent of a specific set of weights for scoring and ranking. The previously described new rotation function calculates the rotation function of molecular replacement by matching the search model directly with the Patterson vector map. The signal-to-noise ratio for the correct match was increased by averaging all the matching peaks. Several matching scores were employed to evaluate the goodness of matching. These matching scores were then combined into a single total score by optimizing a set of weights using the linear regression method. It was found that there exists an optimal set of weights that can be applied to the global rotation search and the correct solution can be ranked in the top 100 or less. However, this set of optimal weights in general is dependent on the search models and the crystal structures with different space groups and cell parameters. In this work, we try to solve this problem by designing a dynamic correlation coefficient. It is shown that the dynamic correlation coefficient works for a variety of space groups and cell parameters in the global search of rotation function. We also introduce two new matching scores: relative entropy and mean-square-residues. Last but not least, we discussed a valid method for the optimization of the adjustable parameters for matching vectors.

  7. Activation of biceps femoris long head reduces tibiofemoral anterior shear force and tibial internal rotation torque in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur Liyana; Ding, Ziyun; Xu, Rui; Bull, Anthony M J

    2018-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) provides resistance to tibial internal rotation torque and anterior shear at the knee. ACL deficiency results in knee instability. Optimisation of muscle contraction through functional electrical stimulation (FES) offers the prospect of mitigating the destabilising effects of ACL deficiency. The hypothesis of this study is that activation of the biceps femoris long head (BFLH) reduces the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee. Gait data of twelve healthy subjects were measured with and without the application of FES and taken as inputs to a computational musculoskeletal model. The model was used to investigate the optimum levels of BFLH activation during FES gait in reducing the anterior shear force to zero. This study found that FES significantly reduced the tibial internal rotation torque at the knee during the stance phase of gait (p = 0.0322) and the computational musculoskeletal modelling revealed that a mean BFLH activation of 20.8% (±8.4%) could reduce the anterior shear force to zero. At the time frame when the anterior shear force was zero, the internal rotation torque was reduced by 0.023 ± 0.0167 Nm/BW, with a mean 188% reduction across subjects (p = 0.0002). In conclusion, activation of the BFLH is able to reduce the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee in healthy control subjects. This should be tested on ACL deficient subject to consider its effect in mitigating instability due to ligament deficiency. In future clinical practice, activating the BFLH may be used to protect ACL reconstructions during post-operative rehabilitation, assist with residual instabilities post reconstruction, and reduce the need for ACL reconstruction surgery in some cases.

  8. Role of internal demagnetizing field for the dynamics of a surface-modulated magnonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, M.; Röder, F.; Gallardo, R. A.; Schneider, T.; Stienen, S.; Gatel, C.; Hübner, R.; Bischoff, L.; Lenz, K.; Lindner, J.; Landeros, P.; Fassbender, J.

    2017-05-01

    This work aims to demonstrate and understand the key role of local demagnetizing fields in hybrid structures consisting of a continuous thin film with a stripe modulation on top. To understand the complex spin dynamics of these structures, the magnonic crystal was reconstructed in two different ways—performing micromagnetic simulations based on the structural shape as well as based on the internal demagnetizing field, which both are mapped on the nanoscale using electron holography. The simulations yield the frequency-field dependence as well as the angular dependence revealing the governing role of the internal field landscape around the backward-volume geometry. Simple rules for the propagation vector and the mode localization are formulated in order to explain the calculated mode profiles. Treating internal demagnetizing fields equivalent to anisotropies, the complex angle-dependent spin-wave behavior is described for an in-plane rotation of the external field.

  9. Fisher information and steric effect: study of the internal rotation barrier of ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Rodolfo O; Liu, Shubin; Angulo, Juan Carlos; Dehesa, Jesús S; Antolín, Juan; Molina-Espíritu, Moyocoyani

    2011-05-05

    On the basis of a density-based quantification of the steric effect [Liu, S. B. J. Chem. Phys.2007, 126, 244103], the origin of the internal rotation barrier between the eclipsed and staggered conformers of ethane is systematically investigated in this work from an information-theoretical point of view by using the Fisher information measure in conjugated spaces. Two kinds of computational approaches are considered in this work: adiabatic (with optimal structure) and vertical (with fixed geometry). The analyses are performed systematically by following, in each case, the conformeric path by changing the dihedral angle from 0 to 180° . This is calculated at the HF, MP2, B3LYP, and CCSD(T) levels of theory and with several basis sets. Selected descriptors of the densities are utilized to support the observations. Our results show that in the adiabatic case the eclipsed conformer possesses a larger steric repulsion than the staggered conformer, but in the vertical cases the staggered conformer retains a larger steric repulsion. Our results verify the plausibility for defining and computing the steric effect in the post-Hartree-Fock level of theory according to the scheme proposed by Liu.

  10. Isokinetic evaluation of internal/external tibial rotation strength after the use of hamstring tendons for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Tanya; Forwell, Lorie; Litchfield, Robert; Kirkley, Alexandra; Amendola, Ned; Fowler, Peter J

    2004-01-01

    Evaluation of the knee after an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with the use of the semitendinosus and gracilis (hamstring) autografts has primarily focused on flexion and extension strength. The semitendinosus and gracilis muscles contribute to internal tibial rotation, and it has been suggested that harvest of these tendons for the purpose of an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction contributes to internal tibial rotation weakness. Internal tibial rotation strength may be affected by the semitendinosus and gracilis harvest after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Prospective evaluation of internal and external tibial rotation strength. Inclusion criteria for subjects (N = 30): unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction at least 2 years previously, a stable anterior cruciate ligament (problems after initial knee reconstruction, a normal contralateral knee, and the ability to comply with the testing protocol. In an attempt to minimize unwanted subtalar joint motion, subjects were immobilized using an ankle brace and tested at angular velocities of 60 degrees /s, 120 degrees /s, and 180 degrees /s at a knee flexion angle of 90 degrees . The mean peak torque measurements for internal rotation strength of the operative limb (60 degrees /s, 17.4 +/- 4.5 ft-lb; 120 degrees /s, 13.9 +/- 3.3 ft-lb; 180 degrees /s, 11.6 +/- 3.0 ft-lb) were statistically different compared to the nonoperated limb (60 degrees /s, 20.5 +/- 4.7 ft-lb; 120 degrees /s, 15.9 +/- 3.8 ft-lb; 180 degrees /s, 13.4 +/- 3.8 ft-lb) at 60 degrees /s (P = .012), 120 degrees /s (P = .036), and 180 degrees /s (P = .045). The nonoperative limb demonstrated greater strength at all speeds. The mean torque measurements for external rotation were statistically similar when compared to the nonoperated limb at all angular velocities. We have shown through our study that patients who undergo surgical intervention to repair a torn anterior cruciate ligament with the use of autogenous

  11. Dynamics of local isolated magnetic flux tubes in a fast-rotating stellar atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, W.; Tajima, C.T.; Shibata, K.

    1998-01-01

    Dynamics of magnetic flux tubes in the fast rotating stellar atmosphere is studied. We focus on the effects and signatures of the instability of the flux tube emergence influenced by the Coriolis force. We present the result from a linear stability analysis and discuss its possible signatures in the course of the evolution of G-type and M-type stars. We present a three dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulation of local isolated magnetic flux tubes under a magnetic buoyancy instability in co-rotating Cartesian coordinates. We find that the combination of the buoyancy instability and the Coriolis effect gives rise to a mechanism, to twist the emerging magnetic flux tube into a helical structure. The tilt angle, east-west asymmetry and magnetic helicity of the Twisted flux tubes in the simulations are studied in detail. The linear and nonlinear analyses provide hints as to what kind of pattern of large spots in young M-type main-sequence stars might be observed. We find that young and old G-type stars may have different distributions of spots while M-type stars may always have low latitudes spots. The size of stellar spots may decrease when a star becomes older, due to the decreasing of magnetic field. A qualitative comparison with solar observations is also presented

  12. Effect of Cation Rotation on Charge Dynamics in Hybrid Lead Halide Perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gélvez-Rueda, María C.; Cao, Duyen H.; Patwardhan, Sameer; Renaud, Nicolas; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Schatz, George C.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.; Savenije, Tom J.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Grozema, Ferdinand C.

    2016-08-04

    Organic-inorganic hybrid halide perovskites are a promising class of materials for photovoltaic application with reported power efficiencies over similar to 22%. However, not much is known about the influence of the organic dipole rotation and phase transitions on charge carrier dynamics. Here, we report substantial changes in mobility and lifetime of charge carriers in CH3NH3PbI3 after the low-temperature tetragonal (beta) to orthorhombic (gamma) phase transition. By using microwave conductivity measurements, we observed that the mobility and lifetime of ionized charge carriers increase as the temperature decreases and a sudden increment is seen after the beta-gamma phase transition. For CH3NH3PbI3, the mobility and the half-lifetime increase by a factor of 36 compared with the values before the beta-gamma phase transition. We attribute the considerable change in the dynamics at low temperature to the decrease of the inherent dynamic disorder of the organic cation (CH3NH3+) inside the perovskite crystal structure.

  13. Are professional handball players at risk for developing a glenohumeral internal rotation deficit in their dominant arm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Pedro; Van Eck, Carola F; Sá, Márcia; Torres, João

    2017-05-01

    Overhead athletes, such as baseball players, have been shown to have adaptive changes in the shoulder range of motion (ROM) of their dominant arm. Professional handball players are a unique subtype of overhead athletes with very different demands from baseball players. The aim of this study was to determine if professional handball players demonstrate differences in shoulder ROM between their dominant and non-dominant arm and try to relate them with new variables. Fifty professional male handball players were included and completed a questionnaire regarding age at which they started to play, number of hours they practice a week, field position and arm dominance. ROM measurements were performed including forward flexion (FF), external rotation with the shoulder in abduction (ABER) and with adducted arm (ADER) and internal rotation with shoulder in abduction (IR). Statistical analysis was performed to determine differences in ROM between the dominant and non-dominant shoulder and if there is a relationship between these differences and shoulder load or field position. The dominant arm showed decreased internal rotation (47 vs. 56 degrees, p handball players with a first line position have a significant risk for developing a glenohumeral internal rotation deficit, similar to the phenomenon seen in baseball pitchers.

  14. Forefoot-rearfoot coupling patterns and tibial internal rotation during stance phase of barefoot versus shod running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Mansour; Begon, Mickaël; Farahpour, Nader; Allard, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Based on twisted plate and mitered hinge models of the foot and ankle, forefoot-rearfoot coupling motion patterns can contribute to the amount of tibial rotation. The present study determined the differences of forefoot-rearfoot coupling patterns as well as excessive excursion of tibial internal rotation in shod versus barefoot conditions during running. Sixteen male subjects ran 10 times at 170 steps per minute under the barefoot and shod conditions. Forefoot-rearfoot coupling motions were assessed by measuring mean relative phase angle during five intervals of stance phase for the main effect of five time intervals and two conditions (ANOVA, PForefoot adduction/abduction and rearfoot eversion/inversion coupling motion patterns were significantly different between the conditions and among the intervals (Pstrike of running with shoe wears. No significant differences were noted in the tibial internal rotation excursion between shod and barefoot conditions. Significant variations in the forefoot adduction/abduction and rearfoot eversion/inversion coupling patterns could have little effect on the amount of tibial internal rotation excursion. Yet it remains to be determined whether changes in the frontal plane forefoot-rearfoot coupling patterns influence the tibia kinematics for different shoe wears or foot orthotic interventions. The findings question the rational for the prophylactic use of forefoot posting in foot orthoses.

  15. Analysis of Students’ Difficulties about Rotational Dynamic Topic Based on Resource Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Rahmawati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Students’ difficulties commonly are analyzed based on misconception theory. This paper aimed to analyze students’ difficulties on the rotational dynamic based on resource theory. The subject of research consisted of 108 first-year undergraduate students of Physics Education, State University of Malang. Firstly, the students were asked to solve 15 multiple-choice questions and gave open explanation. We then implemened a constant comparative method to identify and categorize some resources that students employed in solving several problems that most the students failed to respond correctly. The results indicated that the students had difficulties in solving problems related to the torque and the equilibrium of rigid body. The students’ difficulties were not merely caused by the lack of correct knowledge. Instead, they have the correct knowledge or resources but they activated them on inappropriate context. The students will be successfully used the resources to solve problems if they activated them in the right context.

  16. Dynamics of simple magnetorheological suspensions under rotating magnetic fields with modulated Mason number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, Oscar G; Melle, Sonia

    2002-01-01

    We study theoretically the dynamics of a system of two magnetizable particles suspended in a non-magnetic fluid subject to a rotating magnetic field when a modulation on the Mason number (ratio of viscous to magnetic forces) is applied. We find, using a periodic modulation, that a resonant-like phenomenon between the periodic modulation of the Mason number and the intrinsic radial oscillation of the system without modulation occurs. For a random perturbation of the Mason number, we obtain an optimum noise strength at which the average interparticle distance reaches the lowest value. When a weak periodic modulation and a noise source are included in the Mason number, stochastic resonance (SR) is found for different frequencies and amplitudes of the modulation. An interpretation of this SR phenomenon is made by means of a threshold crossing mechanism

  17. Molecular rotation-vibration dynamics of low-symmetric hydrate crystal in the terahertz region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaojian; Wu, Hongya; Xi, Xiaoqing; Zhou, Ji

    2014-01-16

    The rotational and vibrational dynamics of molecules in copper sulfate pentahydrate crystal are investigated with terahertz dielectric spectra. It is shown that the relaxation-like dielectric dispersion in the low frequency region is related to the reorientation of water molecules under the driving of terahertz electric field, whereas the resonant dispersion can be ascribed to lattice vibration. It is also found that, due to the hydrogen-bond effect, the vibrational mode at about 1.83 THz along [-111] direction softens with decreasing temperature, that is, the crystal expands in this direction when cooled. On the contrary, the mode hardens in the direction perpendicular to [-111] during the cooling process. This contributes to the further understanding of the molecular structure and bonding features of hydrate crystals.

  18. Collective circular motion in synchronized and balanced formations with second-order rotational dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anoop; Ghose, Debasish

    2018-01-01

    This paper considers collective circular motion of multi-agent systems in which all the agents are required to traverse different circles or a common circle at a prescribed angular velocity. It is required to achieve these collective motions with the heading angles of the agents synchronized or balanced. In synchronization, the agents and their centroid have a common velocity direction, while in balancing, the movement of agents causes the location of the centroid to become stationary. The agents are initially considered to move at unit speed around individual circles at different angular velocities. It is assumed that the agents are subjected to limited communication constraints, and exchange relative information according to a time-invariant undirected graph. We present suitable feedback control laws for each of these motion coordination tasks by considering a second-order rotational dynamics of the agent. Simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical findings.

  19. Protein rotational dynamics investigated with a dual EPR/optical molecular probe. Spin-labeled eosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, C E; Hustedt, E J; Beechem, J M; Beth, A H

    1993-01-01

    An acyl spin-label derivative of 5-aminoeosin (5-SLE) was chemically synthesized and employed in studies of rotational dynamics of the free probe and of the probe when bound noncovalently to bovine serum albumin using the spectroscopic techniques of fluorescence anisotropy decay and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and their long-lifetime counterparts phosphorescence anisotropy decay and saturation transfer EPR. Previous work (Beth, A. H., Cobb, C. E., and J. M. Beechem, 1992. Synthesis and characterization of a combined fluorescence, phosphorescence, and electron paramagnetic resonance probe. Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. Time-Resolved Laser Spectroscopy III. 504-512) has shown that the spin-label moiety only slightly altered the fluorescence and phosphorescence lifetimes and quantum yields of 5-SLE when compared with 5-SLE whose nitroxide had been reduced with ascorbate and with the diamagnetic homolog 5-acetyleosin. In the present work, we have utilized time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay and linear EPR spectroscopies to observe and quantitate the psec motions of 5-SLE in solution and the nsec motions of the 5-SLE-bovine serum albumin complex. Time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy decay and saturation transfer EPR studies have been carried out to observe and quantitate the microseconds motions of the 5-SLE-albumin complex in glycerol/buffer solutions of varying viscosity. These latter studies have enabled a rigorous comparison of rotational correlation times obtained from these complementary techniques to be made with a single probe. The studies described demonstrate that it is possible to employ a single molecular probe to carry out the full range of fluorescence, phosphorescence, EPR, and saturation transfer EPR studies. It is anticipated that "dual" molecular probes of this general type will significantly enhance capabilities for extracting dynamics and structural information from macromolecules and their functional

  20. Effects of Peanut-Tobacco Rotations on Population Dynamics of Meloidogyne arenaria in Mixed Race Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirunsalee, A; Barker, K R; Beute, M K

    1995-06-01

    A 3-year microplot study was initiated to characterize the population dynamics, reproduction potential, and survivorship of single or mixed populations of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 (Ma1) and race 2 (Ma2), as affected by crop rotations of peanut 'Florigiant' and M. incognita races 1 and 3-resistant 'McNair 373' and susceptible 'Coker 371-Gold' tobacco. Infection, reproduction, and root damage by Ma2 on peanut and by Ma1 on resistant tobacco were limited in the first year. Infection, reproduction, and root-damage potentials on susceptible tobacco were similar for Ma1 and Ma2. In the mixed (1:1) population, Ma1 was dominant on peanut and Ma2 was dominant on both tobacco cultivars. Crop rotation affected the population dynamics of different nematode races. For years 2 and 3, the low numbers of Ma1 and Ma2 from a previous-year poor host increased rapidly on suitable hosts. Ma1 had greater reproduction factors ([RF] = population density at harvest/population density at preplandng) than did Ma2 and Ma1 + Ma2 in second-year peanut plots following first-year resistant tobacco, and in third-year peanut plots following second-year tobacco. In mixed infestations, Ma1 predominated over Ma2 in previous-year peanut plots, whereas Ma2 predominated over Ma1 in previous-year tobacco plots. Moderate damage on resistant tobacco was induced by Ma1 in the second year. In the third year, moderate damage on peanut was associated with 'Ma2' from previous-year peanut plots. The resistant tobacco supported sufficient reproduction of Ma1 over 2 years to effect moderate damage and yield suppression to peanut in year 3.

  1. Dynamic Effects of the Earth's Rotation Caused by the Annual and Semi-Annual Cyclic Mass Redistribution of the Planet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Barkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with development of the theory of perturbed rotational motion of a celestial body with variable geometry of the masses. Its main task is to study the impact of annual and semi-annual variations of the Earth's mass geometry (a component of its inertia tensor, as well as a component of its relative angular momentum, on the movement of the Earth's poles and its axial rotation. The body is considered to be a free (isolated, and the problem formulation corresponds to the classical Liouville problem on rotation of a variable body. Euler conical movement of the axially symmetric body with an arbitrary constant half-angle  is assumed as the unperturbed motion. In the classical theory of the Earth's rotation this angle is usually assumed to be zero.In the last 20 years, accuracy to determine the Earth rotation parameters owing to using methods of space geodesy and method of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI has increased by about three orders of magnitude and has made about  i.e., in angle measure it is about 10 - 20 arc-microseconds. According to experts, the theory of the Earth's rotation with such precision is not created yet. The paper is focused just on the new dynamic studies of the Earth rotation at a higher level of accuracy than has been done in previous studies, using a new approach to the problem, based on the new forms of the equations of motion (in the Andoyer variables and the analytical methods of perturbation theory (small parameter method.The problem of perturbed rotational motion with variable geometry and variable mass relative angular momentum in the first approximation is solved in Andoyer variables and projections of the angular velocity of the planet rotation. The analytical solution allows us to run applications to study dynamic effects from above factors for various bodies in the solar system, including the Earth. The solution allowed us to obtain the following parameters of the fundamental effects in the

  2. Neutron Imaging Reveals Internal Plant Hydraulic Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Horita, Jusuke [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Many terrestrial ecosystem processes are constrained by water availability and transport within the soil. Knowledge of plant water fluxes is thus critical for assessing mechanistic processes linked to biogeochemical cycles, yet resolution of root structure and xylem water transport dynamics has been a particularly daunting task for the ecologist. Through neutron imaging, we demonstrate the ability to non-invasively monitor individual root functionality and water fluxes within Zea mays L. (maize) and Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) seedlings growing in a sandy medium. Root structure and growth were readily imaged by neutron radiography and neutron computed tomography. Seedlings were irrigated with water or deuterium oxide and imaged through time as a growth lamp was cycled on to alter leaf demand for water. Sub-millimeter scale resolution reveals timing and magnitudes of root water uptake, redistribution within the roots, and root-shoot hydraulic linkages, relationships not well characterized by other techniques.

  3. A review of what numerical simulations tell us about the internal rotation of the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatzmaier, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The simulated solar differential rotation from two independent numerical modeling efforts agree with each other and with present solar observations. The models solve the nonlinear, three-dimensional, time-dependent, anelastic equations of motion for thermal convection in a stratified, rotating, spherical shell. The simulated angular velocity in the convection zone is constant on cylinders coaxial with the rotation axis, maximum at the equator and decreasing with depth. The latitudinal variation of this angular velocity at the surface is in agreement with Doppler measurements of the solar surface rotation rate. The radial variation through the convection zone is consistent with the analysis of the rotational frequency splitting of solar oscillations. 15 refs., 5 figs

  4. Two-dimensional character of internal rotation of furfural and other five-member heterocyclic aromatic aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataev, Vadim A.; Pupyshev, Vladimir I.; Godunov, Igor A.

    2016-05-01

    The features of nuclear motion corresponding to the rotation of the formyl group (CHO) are studied for the molecules of furfural and some other five-member heterocyclic aromatic aldehydes by the use of MP2/6-311G** quantum chemical approximation. It is demonstrated that the traditional one-dimensional models of internal rotation for the molecules studied have only limited applicability. The reason is the strong kinematic interaction of the rotation of the CHO group and out-of-plane CHO deformation that is realized for the molecules under consideration. The computational procedure based on the two-dimensional approximation is considered for low lying vibrational states as more adequate to the problem.

  5. Two-dimensional character of internal rotation of furfural and other five-member heterocyclic aromatic aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataev, Vadim A; Pupyshev, Vladimir I; Godunov, Igor A

    2016-05-15

    The features of nuclear motion corresponding to the rotation of the formyl group (CHO) are studied for the molecules of furfural and some other five-member heterocyclic aromatic aldehydes by the use of MP2/6-311G** quantum chemical approximation. It is demonstrated that the traditional one-dimensional models of internal rotation for the molecules studied have only limited applicability. The reason is the strong kinematic interaction of the rotation of the CHO group and out-of-plane CHO deformation that is realized for the molecules under consideration. The computational procedure based on the two-dimensional approximation is considered for low lying vibrational states as more adequate to the problem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Analytical and Computational Modeling of Mechanical Waves in Microscale Granular Crystals: Nonlinearity and Rotational Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Samuel P.

    Granular media are one of the most common, yet least understood forms of matter on earth. The difficulties in understanding the physics of granular media stem from the fact that they are typically heterogeneous and highly disordered, and the grains interact via nonlinear contact forces. Historically, one approach to reducing these complexities and gaining new insight has been the study of granular crystals, which are ordered arrays of similarly-shaped particles (typically spheres) in Hertzian contact. Using this setting, past works explored the rich nonlinear dynamics stemming from contact forces, and proposed avenues where such granular crystals could form designer, dynamically responsive materials, which yield beneficial functionality in dynamic regimes. In recent years, the combination of self-assembly fabrication methods and laser ultrasonic experimental characterization have enabled the study of granular crystals at microscale. While our intuition may suggest that these microscale granular crystals are simply scaled-down versions of their macroscale counterparts, in fact, the relevant physics change drastically; for example, short-range adhesive forces between particles, which are negligible at macroscale, are several orders of magnitude stronger than gravity at microscale. In this thesis, we present recent advances in analytical and computational modeling of microscale granular crystals, in particular concerning the interplay of nonlinearity, shear interactions, and particle rotations, which have previously been either absent, or included separately at macroscale. Drawing inspiration from past works on phononic crystals and nonlinear lattices, we explore problems involving locally-resonant metamaterials, nonlinear localized modes, amplitude-dependent energy partition, and other rich dynamical phenomena. This work enhances our understanding of microscale granular media, which may find applicability in fields such as ultrasonic wave tailoring, signal processing

  7. Dynamic strain and rotation ground motions of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake from dense high-rate GPS observations in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, B. S.; Rau, R. J.; Lin, C. J.; Kuo, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic waves generated by the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquake were well recorded by continuous GPS in Taiwan. Those GPS were operated in one hertz sampling rate and densely distributed in Taiwan Island. Those continuous GPS observations and the precise point positioning technique provide an opportunity to estimate spatial derivatives from absolute ground motions of this giant teleseismic event. In this study, we process and investigate more than one and half hundred high-rate GPS displacements and its spatial derivatives, thus strain and rotations, to compare to broadband seismic and rotational sensor observations. It is shown that continuous GPS observations are highly consistent with broadband seismic observations during its surface waves across Taiwan Island. Several standard Geodesy and seismic array analysis techniques for spatial gradients have been applied to those continuous GPS time series to determine its dynamic strain and rotation time histories. Results show that those derivate GPS vertical axis ground rotations are consistent to seismic array determined rotations. However, vertical rotation-rate observations from the R1 rotational sensors have low resolutions and could not compared with GPS observations for this special event. For its dese spatial distribution of GPS stations in Taiwan Island, not only wavefield gradient time histories at individual site was obtained but also 2-D spatial ground motion fields were determined in this study also. In this study, we will report the analyzed results of those spatial gradient wavefields of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake across Taiwan Island and discuss its geological implications.

  8. Reliability, precision, and gender differences in knee internal/external rotation proprioception measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Takashi; Sell, Timothy C; Abt, John P; Lephart, Scott M

    2012-11-01

    To develop and assess the reliability and precision of knee internal/external rotation (IR/ER) threshold to detect passive motion (TTDPM) and determine if gender differences exist. Test-retest for the reliability/precision and cross-sectional for gender comparisons. University neuromuscular and human performance research laboratory. Ten subjects for the reliability and precision aim. Twenty subjects (10 males and 10 females) for gender comparisons. All TTDPM tests were performed using a multi-mode dynamometer. Subjects performed TTDPM at two knee positions (near IR or ER end-range). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC (3,k)) and standard error of measurement (SEM) were used to evaluate the reliability and precision. Independent t-tests were used to compare genders. TTDPM toward IR and ER at two knee positions. Intrasession and intersession reliability and precision were good (ICC=0.68-0.86; SEM=0.22°-0.37°). Females had significantly diminished TTDPM toward IR at IR-test position (males: 0.77°±0.14°, females: 1.18°±0.46°, p=0.021) and TTDPM toward IR at the ER-test position (males: 0.87°±0.13°, females: 1.36°±0.58°, p=0.026). No other significant gender differences were found (p>0.05). The current IR/ER TTDPM methods are reliable and accurate for the test-retest or cross-section research design. Gender differences were found toward IR where the ACL acts as the secondary restraint. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 4D rotational x-ray imaging of wrist joint dynamic motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelsen, Bart; Bakker, Niels H.; Strackee, Simon D.; Boon, Sjirk N.; Maas, Mario; Sabczynski, Joerg; Grimbergen, Cornelis A.; Streekstra, Geert J.

    2005-01-01

    Current methods for imaging joint motion are limited to either two-dimensional (2D) video fluoroscopy, or to animated motions from a series of static three-dimensional (3D) images. 3D movement patterns can be detected from biplane fluoroscopy images matched with computed tomography images. This involves several x-ray modalities and sophisticated 2D to 3D matching for the complex wrist joint. We present a method for the acquisition of dynamic 3D images of a moving joint. In our method a 3D-rotational x-ray (3D-RX) system is used to image a cyclically moving joint. The cyclic motion is synchronized to the x-ray acquisition to yield multiple sets of projection images, which are reconstructed to a series of time resolved 3D images, i.e., four-dimensional rotational x ray (4D-RX). To investigate the obtained image quality parameters the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the point spread function (PSF) via the edge spread function and the contrast to noise ratio between air and phantom were determined on reconstructions of a bullet and rod phantom, using 4D-RX as well as stationary 3D-RX images. The CNR in volume reconstructions based on 251 projection images in the static situation and on 41 and 34 projection images of a moving phantom were 6.9, 3.0, and 2.9, respectively. The average FWHM of the PSF of these same images was, respectively, 1.1, 1.7, and 2.2 mm orthogonal to the motion and parallel to direction of motion 0.6, 0.7, and 1.0 mm. The main deterioration of 4D-RX images compared to 3D-RX images is due to the low number of projection images used and not to the motion of the object. Using 41 projection images seems the best setting for the current system. Experiments on a postmortem wrist show the feasibility of the method for imaging 3D dynamic joint motion. We expect that 4D-RX will pave the way to improved assessment of joint disorders by detection of 3D dynamic motion patterns in joints

  10. Internal Kink Mode Dynamics in High-β NSTX Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, J.E.; Bell, R.E.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gates, D.A.; Kaye, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Medley, S.S.; Park, W.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Sontag, A.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.; Zhu, W.

    2004-01-01

    Saturated internal kink modes have been observed in many of the highest toroidal beta discharges of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). These modes often cause rotation flattening in the plasma core, can degrade energy confinement, and in some cases contribute to the complete loss of plasma angular momentum and stored energy. Characteristics of the modes are measured using soft X-ray, kinetic profile, and magnetic diagnostics. Toroidal flows approaching Alfvenic speeds, island pressure peaking, and enhanced viscous and diamagnetic effects associated with high-beta may contribute to mode nonlinear stabilization. These saturation mechanisms are investigated for NSTX parameters and compared to experimental data

  11. Internal kink mode dynamics in high-β NSTX plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, J.E.; Bell, R.E.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gates, D.A.; Kaye, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Medley, S.S.; Park, W.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Sontag, A.; Zhu, W.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.

    2005-01-01

    Saturated internal kink modes have been observed in many of the highest toroidal beta discharges of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). These modes often cause rotation flattening in the plasma core, can degrade energy confinement, and in some cases contribute to the complete loss of plasma angular momentum and stored energy. Characteristics of the modes are measured using soft X-ray, kinetic profile, and magnetic diagnostics. Toroidal flows approaching Alfvenic speeds, island pressure peaking, and enhanced viscous and diamagnetic effects associated with high-beta may contribute to mode non-linear stabilization. These saturation mechanisms are investigated for NSTX parameters and compared to experiment. (author)

  12. Spectroscopic and electrooptical manifestations of internal rotation of the outer-sphere cation in Li(PO3) molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanets, A.V.; Sukhanov, L.P.

    1997-01-01

    Spectroscopic and electrooptical manifestations of internal molecular rotations in LiPO 3 have been studied on the basis of ab initio calculated surface of potential energy and dipole momentum function using the finite element method. It has been ascertained that tunnel splitting of energy levels with number n, available for vibrational spectroscopy of high resolution, apper in the molecule studied only at n≥13. It is shown that internal rotations in the molecule are able to decrease sharply its polarity on vibration-excited levels, sufficiently far from the vertex of potential barrier of intramolecular regroupings. Difficulties of experimental confirmation of predicted electrooptical effect of structural non-rigidity in the molecule studied are discussed

  13. Anisotropic Rotational Diffusion Studied by Nuclear Spin Relaxation and Molecular Dynamics Simulation: An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuson, Michael M.

    2017-01-01

    Laboratories studying the anisotropic rotational diffusion of bromobenzene using nuclear spin relaxation and molecular dynamics simulations are described. For many undergraduates, visualizing molecular motion is challenging. Undergraduates rarely encounter laboratories that directly assess molecular motion, and so the concept remains an…

  14. Structure of sheared and rotating turbulence: Multiscale statistics of Lagrangian and Eulerian accelerations and passive scalar dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobitz, Frank G; Schneider, Kai; Bos, Wouter J T; Farge, Marie

    2016-01-01

    The acceleration statistics of sheared and rotating homogeneous turbulence are studied using direct numerical simulation results. The statistical properties of Lagrangian and Eulerian accelerations are considered together with the influence of the rotation to shear ratio, as well as the scale dependence of their statistics. The probability density functions (pdfs) of both Lagrangian and Eulerian accelerations show a strong and similar dependence on the rotation to shear ratio. The variance and flatness of both accelerations are analyzed and the extreme values of the Eulerian acceleration are observed to be above those of the Lagrangian acceleration. For strong rotation it is observed that flatness yields values close to three, corresponding to Gaussian-like behavior, and for moderate and vanishing rotation the flatness increases. Furthermore, the Lagrangian and Eulerian accelerations are shown to be strongly correlated for strong rotation due to a reduced nonlinear term in this case. A wavelet-based scale-dependent analysis shows that the flatness of both Eulerian and Lagrangian accelerations increases as scale decreases, which provides evidence for intermittent behavior. For strong rotation the Eulerian acceleration is even more intermittent than the Lagrangian acceleration, while the opposite result is obtained for moderate rotation. Moreover, the dynamics of a passive scalar with gradient production in the direction of the mean velocity gradient is analyzed and the influence of the rotation to shear ratio is studied. Concerning the concentration of a passive scalar spread by the flow, the pdf of its Eulerian time rate of change presents higher extreme values than those of its Lagrangian time rate of change. This suggests that the Eulerian time rate of change of scalar concentration is mainly due to advection, while its Lagrangian counterpart is only due to gradient production and viscous dissipation.

  15. Trajectory optimization for dynamic couch rotation during volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Gregory; Bamber, Jeffrey C.; Evans, Philip M.; Bedford, James L.

    2013-11-01

    Non-coplanar radiation beams are often used in three-dimensional conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy to reduce dose to organs at risk (OAR) by geometric avoidance. In volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) non-coplanar geometries are generally achieved by applying patient couch rotations to single or multiple full or partial arcs. This paper presents a trajectory optimization method for a non-coplanar technique, dynamic couch rotation during VMAT (DCR-VMAT), which combines ray tracing with a graph search algorithm. Four clinical test cases (partial breast, brain, prostate only, and prostate and pelvic nodes) were used to evaluate the potential OAR sparing for trajectory-optimized DCR-VMAT plans, compared with standard coplanar VMAT. In each case, ray tracing was performed and a cost map reflecting the number of OAR voxels intersected for each potential source position was generated. The least-cost path through the cost map, corresponding to an optimal DCR-VMAT trajectory, was determined using Dijkstra’s algorithm. Results show that trajectory optimization can reduce dose to specified OARs for plans otherwise comparable to conventional coplanar VMAT techniques. For the partial breast case, the mean heart dose was reduced by 53%. In the brain case, the maximum lens doses were reduced by 61% (left) and 77% (right) and the globes by 37% (left) and 40% (right). Bowel mean dose was reduced by 15% in the prostate only case. For the prostate and pelvic nodes case, the bowel V50 Gy and V60 Gy were reduced by 9% and 45% respectively. Future work will involve further development of the algorithm and assessment of its performance over a larger number of cases in site-specific cohorts.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulation of the rotational order-disorder phase transition in calcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Jun; Miyake, Akira; Shimobayashi, Norimasa; Kitamura, Masao

    2009-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of calcite was carried out with the interatomic potential model based on ab initio calculations to elucidate the phase relations for calcite polymorphs and the mechanism of the rotational order-disorder transition of calcite at high temperature at the atomic scale. From runs of MD calculations with increasing temperature within a pressure range of 1 atm and 2 GPa, the transition of calcite with R3-barc symmetry into a high-temperature phase with R3-barm symmetry was reproduced. In the high-temperature R3-barm phase, CO 3 groups vibrate with large amplitudes either around the original positions in the R3-barc structure or around other positions rotated ± 60 deg., and their positions change continuously with time. Moreover, contrary to the suggestion of previous investigators, the motion of CO 3 groups is not two-dimensional. At 1 atm, the transition between R3-barc and R3-barm is first order in character. Upon increasing temperature at high pressure, however, first a first-order isosymmetric phase transition between the R3-barc phases occurs, which corresponds to the start of ± 120 deg. flipping of CO 3 groups. Then, at higher temperatures, the transition of R3-barc to R3-barm phases happens, which can be considered second order. This set of two types of transitions at elevated pressure can be characterized by the appearance of an 'intermediate' R3-barc phase between the stable region of calcite and the high-temperature R3-barm phase, which may correspond to the CaCO 3 -IV phase.

  17. Internal rotation potential and structure of six fluorine substituted nitrobenzenes studied by microwave spectroscopy supported by quantum chemical calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Wessel; Nielsen, Ole Vesterlund

    2014-01-01

    the potential minima in the non-planar molecules were 125.5, 74.9, 98.4 and 163 cm-1 respectively. Parameters for structural relaxation during the internal rotation were calculated by the B3LYP method using aug-cc-pVDZ basis and by the MP2(full) method using aug-cc-pVTZ basis. Using these relaxation parameters...

  18. Botulinum Toxin Injection for Internal Rotation Contractures in Brachial Plexus Birth Palsy. A Minimum 5-Year Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijnisveld, Bouke J; van Wijlen-Hempel, Marie S; Hogendoorn, Simone; de Boer, Kees S; Malessy, Martijn J A; Keurentjes, J Christiaan; Nagels, Jochem; Nelissen, Rob G H H

    Brachial plexus birth palsy is frequently associated with internal rotation contractures of the shoulder as a result of muscle imbalance. The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injection in the subscapular (SC) muscle on external rotation and the need for tendon transfer for external rotation of the shoulder. A prospective comparative study was performed including 15 consecutive patients treated with BTX-A and a historic control group of 67 patients with mean age 30 months (SD 10). The BTX-A injection (2 IU/kg body weight) was performed immediately following MRI under general anesthesia in the SC muscle. Passive external rotation, the need for tendon transfer surgery, glenohumeral deformity, and muscle degeneration were evaluated. The hazard ratio for no relapse of internal rotation contracture after BTX-A injection compared with no BTX-A injection was calculated. In the BTX-A group, the passive external rotation in adduction increased from -1 degree (95% CI, -10 to 8) to 32 degrees (95% CI, 17-46) at 3 months and 6 patients were indicated for surgery compared with a decline from -2 degrees (95% CI, -7 to 3) to -11 degrees (95% CI, -17 to -6) in the control group with 66 indications for surgery. At 5 years of follow-up, 10 patients in the BTX-A group were indicated for surgery with a hazard ratio of 4.0 (95% CI, 1.9 to 8.4). BTX-A injection in the SC muscle of brachial plexus birth palsy patients can reduce internal rotation contractures and subsequently the need for tendon transfer surgery. At 5 years of follow-up a relapse was seen in 67% of the patients treated with BTX-A. Because at MRI less SC degeneration was found in the good responders on BTX-A treatment, this group seems to be the best target group. Further research is needed on patient selection for BTX-A injection including glenohumeral deformity, SC degeneration, as well as doses of BTX-A to be used. Level II-prospective comparative study.

  19. The method of the gas-dynamic centrifugal compressor stage characteristics recalculation for variable rotor rotational speeds and the rotation angle of inlet guide vanes blades if the kinematic and dynamic similitude conditions are not met

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanyashov, A. D.; Karabanova, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    A mathematical description of the method for obtaining gas-dynamic characteristics of a centrifugal compressor stage is proposed, taking into account the control action by varying the rotor speed and the angle of rotation of the guide vanes relative to the "basic" characteristic, if the kinematic and dynamic similitude conditions are not met. The formulas of the correction terms for the non-dimensional coefficients of specific work, consumption and efficiency are obtained. A comparative analysis of the calculated gas-dynamic characteristics of a high-pressure centrifugal stage with experimental data is performed.

  20. Decreased Shoulder External Rotation and Flexion Are Greater Predictors of Injury Than Internal Rotation Deficits: Analysis of 132 Pitcher-Seasons in Professional Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Christopher L; Zajac, John M; Pearson, David B; Sinatro, Alec M; Spiker, Andrea M; Werner, Brian C; Altchek, David W; Coleman, Struan H; Dines, Joshua S

    2017-09-01

    The primary aims of this work were to (1) describe normal range of motion (ROM) profiles for elite pitchers, (2) describe the characteristics of shoulder and elbow injuries in professional pitchers over a 6-year period in one Major League Baseball organization, and (3) identify ROM measures that were independently associated with a future shoulder or elbow injury. Over 6 seasons (2010-2015), a preseason assessment was performed on all pitchers invited to Major League Baseball Spring Training for a single organization. ROM measures included shoulder flexion, horizontal adduction, external rotation (ER), internal rotation, as well as elbow flexion and extension, were measured for both the dominant and nondominant arm, and total range of motion and deficits were calculated. All noncontact shoulder and elbow injuries were identified. Using multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis to control for age, height, weight, and all other ROM measures, the factors associated with an increased risk of subsequent shoulder or elbow injury were identified. A total of 53 shoulder (n = 25) and elbow (n = 28) injuries occurred during 132 pitcher seasons (n = 81 pitchers). The most significant categorical risk factor associated with increased elbow injury rates was the presence of a shoulder flexion deficit >5° (odds ratio [OR] 2.83; P = .042). For continuous variables, the risk of elbow injury increased by 7% for each degree of increased shoulder ER deficit (OR 1.07; P = .030) and 9% for each degree of decreased shoulder flexion (OR 1.09; P = .017). None of the measures significantly correlated with shoulder injuries. Preseason shoulder ER and flexion deficits are independent risk factors for the development of elbow injuries during the upcoming season. Although prior work has supported the importance of reducing glenohumeral internal rotation deficits in pitchers, this study demonstrates that deficits in shoulder ER and flexion are more significant predictors of

  1. Are international fund flows related to exchange rate dynamics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Suxiao; de Haan, Jakob; Scholtens, Bert

    2018-01-01

    Employing monthly data for 53 countries between 1996 and 2015, we investigate the relationship between international fund flows and exchange rate dynamics. We find strong co-movement between funds flows (as measured with the EPFR Global data base) and bilateral real exchange rates vis-à-vis the USD.

  2. Dynamics of Receptor-Mediated Nanoparticle Internalization into Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Barakat, Abdul I.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles offer a promising medical tool for targeted drug delivery, for example to treat inflamed endothelial cells during the development of atherosclerosis. To inform the design of such therapeutic strategies, we develop a computational model of nanoparticle internalization into endothelial cells, where internalization is driven by receptor-ligand binding and limited by the deformation of the cell membrane and cytoplasm. We specifically consider the case of nanoparticles targeted against ICAM-1 receptors, of relevance for treating atherosclerosis. The model computes the kinetics of the internalization process, the dynamics of binding, and the distribution of stresses exerted between the nanoparticle and the cell membrane. The model predicts the existence of an optimal nanoparticle size for fastest internalization, consistent with experimental observations, as well as the role of bond characteristics, local cell mechanical properties, and external forces in the nanoparticle internalization process. PMID:25901833

  3. Solar neutrinos, helioseismology and the solar internal dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turck-Chieze, Sylvaine [Service d' Astrophysique/IRFU/DSM/CEA, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Couvidat, Sebastien, E-mail: sylvaine.turck-chieze@cea.fr, E-mail: couvidat@stanford.edu [HEPL, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Neutrinos are fundamental particles ubiquitous in the Universe and whose properties remain elusive despite more than 50 years of intense research activity. This review illustrates the importance of solar neutrinos in astrophysics, nuclear physics and particle physics. After a description of the historical context, we remind the reader of the noticeable properties of these particles and of the stakes of the solar neutrino puzzle. The standard solar model triggered persistent efforts in fundamental physics to predict the solar neutrino fluxes, and its constantly evolving predictions have been regularly compared with the detected neutrino signals. Anticipating that this standard model could not reproduce the internal solar dynamics, a seismic solar model was developed which enriched theoretical neutrino flux predictions with in situ observation of acoustic and gravity waves propagating in the Sun. This seismic model contributed to the stabilization of the neutrino flux predictions. This review recalls the main historical steps, from the pioneering Homestake mine experiment and the GALLEX-SAGE experiments capturing the first proton-proton neutrinos. It emphasizes the importance of the SuperKamiokande and SNO detectors. Both experiments demonstrated that the solar-emitted electron neutrinos are partially transformed into other neutrino flavors before reaching the Earth. This sustained experimental effort opens the door to neutrino astronomy, with long-base lines and underground detectors. The success of BOREXINO in detecting the {sup 7}Be neutrino signal alone instills confidence in physicists' ability to detect each neutrino source separately. It justifies the building of a new generation of detectors to measure the entire solar neutrino spectrum in greater detail, as well as supernova neutrinos. A coherent picture has emerged from neutrino physics and helioseismology. Today, new paradigms take shape in these two fields: neutrinos are massive particles, but their

  4. Future Mars geophysical observatories for understanding its internal structure, rotation, and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehant, Veronique; Banerdt, Bruce; Lognonné, Philippe; Grott, Matthias; Asmar, Sami; Biele, Jens; Breuer, Doris; Forget, François; Jaumann, Ralf; Johnson, Catherine; Knapmeyer, Martin; Langlais, Benoit; Le Feuvre, Mathieu; Mimoun, David; Mocquet, Antoine; Read, Peter; Rivoldini, Attilio; Romberg, Oliver; Schubert, Gerald; Smrekar, Sue; Spohn, Tilman; Tortora, Paolo; Ulamec, Stephan; Vennerstrøm, Susanne

    2012-08-01

    Our fundamental understanding of the interior of the Earth comes from seismology, geodesy, geochemistry, geomagnetism, geothermal studies, and petrology. For the Earth, measurements in those disciplines of geophysics have revealed the basic internal layering of the Earth, its dynamical regime, its thermal structure, its gross compositional stratification, as well as significant lateral variations in these quantities. Planetary interiors not only record evidence of conditions of planetary accretion and differentiation, they exert significant control on surface environments. We present recent advances in possible in-situ investigations of the interior of Mars, experiments and strategies that can provide unique and critical information about the fundamental processes of terrestrial planet formation and evolution. Such investigations applied on Mars have been ranked as a high priority in virtually every set of European, US and international high-level planetary science recommendations for the past 30 years. New seismological methods and approaches based on the cross-correlation of seismic noise by two seismic stations/landers on the surface of Mars and on joint seismic/orbiter detection of meteorite impacts, as well as the improvement of the performance of Very Broad-Band (VBB) seismometers have made it possible to secure a rich scientific return with only two simultaneously recording stations. In parallel, use of interferometric methods based on two Earth-Mars radio links simultaneously from landers tracked from Earth has increased the precision of radio science experiments by one order of magnitude. Magnetometer and heat flow measurements will complement seismic and geodetic data in order to obtain the best information on the interior of Mars. In addition to studying the present structure and dynamics of Mars, these measurements will provide important constraints for the astrobiology of Mars by helping to understand why Mars failed to sustain a magnetic field, by

  5. Improvement of a new rotation function for molecular replacement by designing new scoring functions and dynamic correlation coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Jiang; Wei, Ding

    2010-01-01

    A previously published new rotation function has been improved by using a dynamic correlation coefficient as well as two new scoring functions of relative entropy and mean-square-residues to make the rotation function more robust and independent of a specific set of weights for scoring and ranking. The previously described new rotation function calculates the rotation function of molecular replacement by matching the search model directly with the Patterson vector map. The signal-to-noise ratio for the correct match was increased by averaging all the matching peaks. Several matching scores were employed to evaluate the goodness of matching. These matching scores were then combined into a single total score by optimizing a set of weights using the linear regression method. It was found that there exists an optimal set of weights that can be applied to the global rotation search and the correct solution can be ranked in the top 100 or less. However, this set of optimal weights in general is dependent on the search models and the crystal structures with different space groups and cell parameters. In this work, we try to solve this problem by designing a dynamic correlation coefficient. It is shown that the dynamic correlation coefficient works for a variety of space groups and cell parameters in the global search of rotation function. We also introduce two new matching scores: relative entropy and mean-square-residues. Last but not least, we discussed a valid method for the optimization of the adjustable parameters for matching vectors. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  6. Predictive factor analysis for successful performance of iris recognition-assisted dynamic rotational eye tracking during laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Gaurav; Ashok Kumar, Dhivya; Agarwal, Amar; Jacob, Soosan; Sarvanan, Yoga; Agarwal, Athiya

    2010-02-01

    To analyze the predictive factors associated with success of iris recognition and dynamic rotational eye tracking on a laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) platform with active assessment and correction of intraoperative cyclotorsion. Interventional case series. Two hundred seventy-five eyes of 142 consecutive candidates underwent LASIK with attempted iris recognition and dynamic rotational tracking on the Technolas 217z100 platform (Techolas Perfect Vision, St Louis, Missouri, USA) at a tertiary care ophthalmic hospital. The main outcome measures were age, gender, flap creation method (femtosecond, microkeratome, epi-LASIK), success of static rotational tracking, ablation algorithm, pulses, and depth; preablation and intraablation rotational activity were analyzed and evaluated using regression models. Preablation static iris recognition was successful in 247 eyes, without difference in flap creation methods (P = .6). Age (partial correlation, -0.16; P = .014), amount of pulses (partial correlation, 0.39; P = 1.6 x 10(-8)), and gender (P = .02) were significant predictive factors for the amount of intraoperative cyclodeviation. Tracking difficulties leading to linking the ablation with a new intraoperatively acquired iris image were more with femtosecond-assisted flaps (P = 2.8 x 10(-7)) and the amount of intraoperative cyclotorsion (P = .02). However, the number of cases having nonresolvable failure of intraoperative rotational tracking was similar in the 3 flap creation methods (P = .22). Intraoperative cyclotorsional activity depends on the age, gender, and duration of ablation (pulses delivered). Femtosecond flaps do not seem to have a disadvantage over microkeratome flaps as far as iris recognition and success of intraoperative dynamic rotational tracking is concerned. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Symposium of the International Society of Dynamic Games

    CERN Document Server

    Haurie, Alain; Annals of the International Society of Dynamic Games

    1994-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a surge of activity in the field of dynamic both theory and applications. Theoretical as well as practical games, in problems in zero-sum and nonzero-sum games, continuous time differential and discrete time multistage games, and deterministic and stochastic games games are currently being investigated by researchers in diverse disciplines, such as engineering, mathematics, biology, economics, management science, and political science. This surge of interest has led to the formation of the International Society of Dynamic Games (ISDG) in 1990, whose primary goal is to foster the development of advanced research and applications in the field of game theory. One important activity of the Society is to organize biannually an international symposium which aims at bringing together all those who contribute to the development of this active field of applied science. In 1992 the symposium was organized in Grimentz, Switzerland, under the supervision of an international scientific committe...

  8. Dynamic response of a riser under excitation of internal waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Min; Yu, Chenglong; Chen, Peng

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the dynamic response of a marine riser under excitation of internal waves is studied. With the linear approximation, the governing equation of internal waves is given. Based on the rigid-lid boundary condition assumption, the equation is solved by Thompson-Haskell method. Thus the velocity field of internal waves is obtained by the continuity equation. Combined with the modified Morison formula, using finite element method, the motion equation of riser is solved in time domain with Newmark-β method. The computation programs are compiled to solve the differential equations in time domain. Then we get the numerical results, including riser displacement and transfiguration. It is observed that the internal wave will result in circular shear flow, and the first two modes have a dominant effect on dynamic response of the marine riser. In the high mode, the response diminishes rapidly. In different modes of internal waves, the deformation of riser has different shapes, and the location of maximum displacement shifts. Studies on wave parameters indicate that the wave amplitude plays a considerable role in response displacement of riser, while the wave frequency contributes little. Nevertheless, the internal waves of high wave frequency will lead to a high-frequency oscillation of riser; it possibly gives rise to fatigue crack extension and partial fatigue failure.

  9. Vestibuloocular reflex dynamics during high-frequency and high-acceleration rotations of the head on body in rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huterer, Marko; Cullen, Kathleen E

    2002-07-01

    For frequencies >10 Hz, the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) has been primarily investigated during passive rotations of the head on the body in humans. These prior studies suggest that eye movements lag head movements, as predicted by a 7-ms delay in the VOR reflex pathways. However, Minor and colleagues recently applied whole-body rotations of frequencies unity (1.1 at 5 Hz vs. 1.2 at 25 Hz), and phase lag increased only slightly with frequency (from 2 degrees at 5 Hz to 11 degrees at 25 Hz, a marked contrast to the 63 degrees lag at 25 Hz predicted by a 7-ms VOR latency). Furthermore, VOR response dynamics were comparable in darkness and when viewing a target and did not vary with peak velocity. Although monkeys offered less resistance to the initial cycles of applied head motion, the gain and phase of the VOR did not vary for early versus late cycles, suggesting that an efference copy of the motor command to the neck musculature did not alter VOR response dynamics. In addition, VOR dynamics were also probed by applying transient head perturbations with much greater accelerations (peak acceleration >15,000 degrees /s(2)) than have been previously employed. The VOR latency was between 5 and 6 ms, and mean gain was close to unity for two of the three animals tested. A simple linear model well described the VOR responses elicited by sinusoidal and transient head on body rotations. We conclude that the VOR is compensatory over a wide frequency range in monkeys and has similar response dynamics during passive rotation of the head on body as during passive rotation of the whole body in space.

  10. Investigation of Rheological Properties of Blended Cement Pastes Using Rotational Viscometer and Dynamic Shear Rheometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Jae Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To successfully process concrete, it is necessary to predict and control its flow behavior. However, the workability of concrete is not completely measured or specified by current standard tests. Furthermore, it is only with a clear picture of cement hydration and setting that full prediction and control of concrete performance can be generalized. In order to investigate the rheological properties of blended cement pastes, a rotational viscometer (RV was used to determine the flow characteristics of ordinary and blended pastes to provide assurance that it can be pumped and handled. Additionally, a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR was used to characterize both the viscous and elastic components of pastes. Ordinary Portland cement paste and blended pastes (slag, fly ash, and silica fume were investigated in this study. The stress and strain of the blended specimens were measured by the DSR, which characterizes both viscous and elastic behaviors by measuring the complex shear modulus (the ratio of total shear stress to total shear strain and phase angle (an indicator of the relative amounts of recoverable and nonrecoverable deformation of materials. Cement pastes generally exhibit different rheological behaviors with respect to age, mineral admixture type, and cement replacement level.

  11. Hydration water dynamics in biopolymers from NMR relaxation in the rotating frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blicharska, Barbara; Peemoeller, Hartwig; Witek, Magdalena

    2010-12-01

    Assuming dipole-dipole interaction as the dominant relaxation mechanism of protons of water molecules adsorbed onto macromolecule (biopolymer) surfaces we have been able to model the dependences of relaxation rates on temperature and frequency. For adsorbed water molecules the correlation times are of the order of 10(-5)s, for which the dispersion region of spin-lattice relaxation rates in the rotating frame R(1)(ρ)=1/T(1)(ρ) appears over a range of easily accessible B(1) values. Measurements of T(1)(ρ) at constant temperature and different B(1) values then give the "dispersion profiles" for biopolymers. Fitting a theoretical relaxation model to these profiles allows for the estimation of correlation times. This way of obtaining the correlation time is easier and faster than approaches involving measurements of the temperature dependence of R(1)=1/T(1). The T(1)(ρ) dispersion approach, as a tool for molecular dynamics study, has been demonstrated for several hydrated biopolymer systems including crystalline cellulose, starch of different origins (potato, corn, oat, wheat), paper (modern, old) and lyophilized proteins (albumin, lysozyme). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Adiabatic decay of internal solitons due to Earth's rotation within the framework of the Gardner-Ostrovsky equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregon, Maria; Raj, Nawin; Stepanyants, Yury

    2018-03-01

    The adiabatic decay of different types of internal wave solitons caused by the Earth's rotation is studied within the framework of the Gardner-Ostrovsky equation. The governing equation describing such processes includes quadratic and cubic nonlinear terms, as well as the Boussinesq and Coriolis dispersions: (ut + c ux + α u ux + α1 u2 ux + β uxxx)x = γ u. It is shown that at the early stage of evolution solitons gradually decay under the influence of weak Earth's rotation described by the parameter γ. The characteristic decay time is derived for different types of solitons for positive and negative coefficients of cubic nonlinearity α1 (both signs of that parameter may occur in the oceans). The coefficient of quadratic nonlinearity α determines only a polarity of solitary wave when α1 0. It is found that the adiabatic theory describes well the decay of solitons having bell-shaped profiles. In contrast to that, large amplitude table-top solitons, which can exist when α1 is negative, are structurally unstable. Under the influence of Earth's rotation, they transfer first to the bell-shaped solitons, which decay then adiabatically. Estimates of the characteristic decay time of internal solitons are presented for the real oceanographic conditions.

  13. Effect of surface tension on the dynamical behavior of bubble in rotating fluids under low gravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Tsao, Y. D.; Leslie, Fred W.; Hong, B. B.

    1988-01-01

    Time dependent evolutions of the profile of free surface (bubble shapes) for a cylindrical container partially filled with a Newtonian fluid of constant density, rotating about its axis of symmetry, have been studied. Numerical computations of the dynamics of bubble shapes have been carried out with the following situations: (1) linear functions of spin-up and spin-down in low and microgravity environments, (2) linear functions of increasing and decreasing gravity enviroment in high and low rotating cylidner speeds, (3) step functions of spin-up and spin-down in a low gravity environment, and (4) sinusoidal function oscillation of gravity environment in high and low rotating cylinder speeds. The initial condition of bubble profiles was adopted from the steady-state formulations in which the computer algorithms have been developed by Hung and Leslie (1988), and Hung et al. (1988).

  14. The torsional barriers of two equivalent methyl internal rotations in 2,5-dimethylfuran investigated by microwave spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Vinh; Bruckhuisen, Jonas; Stahl, Wolfgang; Ilyushin, Vadim; Nguyen, Ha Vinh Lam

    2018-01-01

    The microwave spectrum of 2,5-dimethylfuran was recorded using two pulsed molecular jet Fourier transform microwave spectrometers which cover the frequency range from 2 to 40 GHz. The internal rotations of two equivalent methyl tops with a barrier height of approximately 439.15 cm-1 introduce torsional splittings of all rotational transitions in the spectrum. For the spectral analysis, two different computer programs were applied and compared, the PAM-C2v-2tops code based on the principal axis method which treats several torsional states simultaneously, and the XIAM code based on the combined axis method, yielding accurate molecular parameters. The experimental work was supplemented by quantum chemical calculations. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces depending on the torsional angles of both methyl groups were calculated and parametrized.

  15. Dust devil dynamics in the internal vortex region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishchenko, O G; Pokhotelov, O A; Horton, W

    2015-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model for dust devil dynamics in the internal vortex region is analyzed. It is shown that the results concerning the growing plumes investigated by Onishchenko et al (2014) for the short time domain can be applied to the study of vortex motion in the internal region for longer times. It is demonstrated that these convective plumes in an atmosphere with weak, large-scale toroidal motion inhomogeneity in the vertical direction can be a subject for further exponential growth over time. (invited comment)

  16. Dynamic Time-Resolved Chirped-Pulse Rotational Spectroscopy of Vinyl Cyanide Photoproducts in a Room Temperature Flow Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Daniel P.; Prozument, Kirill

    2017-06-01

    Chirped-pulsed (CP) Fourier transform rotational spectroscopy invented by Brooks Pate and coworkers a decade ago is an attractive tool for gas phase chemical dynamics and kinetics studies. A good reactor for such a purpose would have well-defined (and variable) temperature and pressure conditions to be amenable to accurate kinetic modeling. Furthermore, in low pressure samples with large enough number of molecular emitters, reaction dynamics can be observable directly, rather than mediated by supersonic expansion. In the present work, we are evaluating feasibility of in situ time-resolved CP spectroscopy in a room temperature flow tube reactor. Vinyl cyanide (CH_2CHCN), neat or mixed with inert gasses, flows through the reactor at pressures 1-50 μbar (0.76-38 mTorr) where it is photodissociated by a 193 nm laser. Millimeter-wave beam of the CP spectrometer co-propagates with the laser beam along the reactor tube and interacts with nascent photoproducts. Rotational transitions of HCN, HNC, and HCCCN are detected, with ≥10 μs time-steps for 500 ms following photolysis of CH_2CHCN. The post-photolysis evolution of the photoproducts' rotational line intensities is investigated for the effects of rotational and vibrational thermalization of energized photoproducts. Possible contributions from bimolecular and wall-mediated chemistry are evaluated as well.

  17. Internal rotation of 1-Aryl-3,3-dialkyltriazenes. Comparison of semiempirical molecular orbital calculations with far-infrared, Raman, and NMR spectroscopic results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitz, J.C.; Lippert, T.; Wokaun, A.

    1994-01-01

    PM3 and AM1 semiempirical molecular orbital techniques are used to establish a model for internal rotation about the N 2 -N 3 axis of 1-aryl-3,3-dialkyltriazines. The PM3 method is satisfactory for obtaining agreement between the experimental and calculated results, but the AM1 method has an artifact in the potential energy curve of internal rotation about the N 2 -N 3 axis. 24 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Translational-rotational interaction in dynamics and thermodynamics of 2D atomic crystal with molecular impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antsygina, T.N.; Poltavskaya, M.I.; Chishko, K.A.

    2003-01-01

    The interaction between the rotational degrees of freedom of a diatomic molecular impurity and the phonon excitations of a two-dimensional atomic matrix commensurate with a substrate is investigated theoretically. It is shown, that the translational-rotational interaction changes the form of the rotational kinetic energy operator as compared to the corresponding expression for a free rotator, and also renormalized the parameters of the crystal field without change in its initial form. The contribution of the impurity rotational degrees of freedom to the low-temperature heat capacity for a dilute solution of diatomic molecules in an atomic two-dimensional matrix is calculated. The possibility of experimental observation of the effects obtained is discussed

  19. Thermal resistance of rotating closed-loop pulsating heat pipes: Effects of working fluids and internal diameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kammuang-Lue Niti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to experimentally investigate the effects of working fluids and internal diameters on the thermal resistance of rotating closed-loop pul¬sating heat pipes (RCLPHP. The RCLPHP were made of a copper tube with internal diameters of 1.50 mm and 1.78 mm, bent into the shape of a flower petal, and arranged into a circle with 11 turns. The evaporator section was located at the outer end of the tube bundle. R123, ethanol, and water were filled as the working fluids. The RCLPHP was rotated at centrifugal accelerations 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 times of the gravitational acceleration considered at the connection between the evaporator and the condenser sections. The heat input was varied from 30 W to 50 W, and then to 100 W, 150 W, and 200 W. It can be concluded that when the latent heat of evaporation increases, the pressure difference between the evaporator and the condenser sections decreases, and the thermal resistance increases. Moreover, when the internal diameter increases, the driving force increases and the frictional force proportionally decreases, or the Karman number increases, and the thermal resistance decreases.

  20. PROGRESS IN THE PEELING-BALLOONING MODEL OF ELMS: TOROIDAL ROTATION AND 3D NONLINEAR DYNAMICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SNYDER, P.B.; WILSON, H.R.; XU, X.Q.; WEBSTER, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the physics of the H-Mode pedestal and edge localized modes (ELMs) is very important to next-step fusion devices for two primary reasons: (1) The pressure at the top of the edge barrier (''pedestal height'') strongly impacts global confinement and fusion performance, and (2) large ELMs lead to localized transient heat loads on material surfaces that may constrain component lifetimes. The development of the peeling-ballooning model has shed light on these issues by positing a mechanism for ELM onset and constraints on the pedestal height. The mechanism involves instability of ideal coupled ''peeling-ballooning'' modes driven by the sharp pressure gradient and consequent large bootstrap current in the H-mode edge. It was first investigated in the local, high-n limit [1], and later quantified for non-local, finite-n modes in general toroidal geometry [2,3]. Important aspects are that a range of wavelengths may potentially be unstable, with intermediate n's (n ∼ 3-30) generally limiting in high performance regimes, and that stability bounds are strongly sensitive to shape [Fig l(a)], and to collisionality (i.e. temperature and density) [4] through the bootstrap current. The development of efficient MHD stability codes such as ELITE [3,2] and MISHKA [5] has allowed detailed quantification of peeling-ballooning stability bounds (e.g. [6]) and extensive and largely successful comparisons with observation (e.g. [2,6-9]). These previous calculations are ideal, static, and linear. Here we extend this work to incorporate the impact of sheared toroidal rotation, and the non-ideal, nonlinear dynamics which must be studied to quantify ELM size and heat deposition on material surfaces

  1. Bifurcation phenomena in internal dynamics of gear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hortel M.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact effects in gear mesh represent specific phenomena in the dynamic investigation of highspeed light transmission systems with kinematic couplings. They are caused of greater dynamic than static elastic deformations in meshing gear profiles. In term of internal dynamics they are influenced among others by time heteronomous stiffness functions in gear mesh and resonance tuning of stiffness level. The damping in gear mesh and in gear system is concerned significantly in the amplitude progress, greatness and phase shift of relative motion towards stiffness function alternatively towards its modify form in gear mesh. In consequence of these and another actions rise above resonance characteristics certain singular locations with jump amplitude course.

  2. 5th International Conference on Dynamics in Logistics

    CERN Document Server

    Kotzab, Herbert; Pannek, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings contain research papers presented at the 5th International Conference on Dynamics in Logistics, held in Bremen, Germany, February 2016. The conference is concerned with dynamic aspects of logistic processes and networks. The spectrum of topics reaches from modeling, planning and control of processes over supply chain management and maritime logistics to innovative technologies and robotic applications for cyber-physical production and logistic systems. The growing dynamic confronts the area of logistics with completely new challenges: it must become possible to describe, identify and analyze the process changes. Moreover, logistic processes and networks must be redevised to be rapidly and flexibly adaptable to continuously changing conditions. The book primarily addresses researchers and practitioners from the field of industrial engineering and logistics, but it may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  3. 4th International Conference on Dynamics in Logistics

    CERN Document Server

    Pannek, Jürgen; Thoben, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume brings together research papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Dynamics in Logistics, held in Bremen, Germany in February 2014. The conference focused on the identification, analysis and description of the dynamics of logistics processes and networks. Topics covered range from the modeling and planning of processes, to innovative methods like autonomous control and knowledge management, to the latest technologies provided by radio frequency identification, mobile communication, and networking. The growing dynamic poses wholly new challenges: logistics processes and networks must be(come) able to rapidly and flexibly adapt to constantly changing conditions. The book primarily addresses the needs of researchers and practitioners from the field of logistics, but will also be beneficial for graduate students.

  4. The potential value of dynamic materials control in international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keepin, G.R.; Lovett, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    The difficulties inherent in conventional materials accountancy based on semi-annual or annual shutdown cleanout physical inventories have been recognized for many years. The increasing importance of international nuclear materials safeguards, coupled with the availability of advanced non-destructive measurement technology which could be installed on or near process lines, has led to the development of the concept of advanced or dynamic materials control. The potential benefits of dynamic materials control in terms of significantly improved detection capabilities (ranging from a few kilograms of plutonium down to perhaps a few hundred grams, even for large-scale bulk processing facilities), and even more dramatically improved detection timeliness (typically a few days, and potentially only a few hours, in advanced facilities), are reviewed. At least twelve major dynamic material control systems already in existence or in the process of being installed are noted, and some of the essential characteristics are discussed. Some currently unresolved questions are explored, and future prospects for the concept of dynamic material control in international safeguards are reviewed. (author)

  5. Effects of internal structure on equilibrium of field-reversed configuration plasma sustained by rotating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Inomoto, Michiaki; Okada, Shigefumi; Kobayashi, Yuka; Asai, Tomohiko

    2008-01-01

    The effects of an internal structure on the equilibrium of a field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma sustained by rotating magnetic field is investigated by using detailed electrostatic probe measurements in the FRC Injection Experiment apparatus [S. Okada, et al., Nucl. Fusion. 45, 1094 (2005)]. An internal structure installed axially on the geometrical axis, which simulates Ohmic transformer or external toroidal field coils on the FRC device, brings about substantial changes in plasma density profile. The internal structure generates steep density-gradients not only on the inner side but on the outer side of the torus. The radial electric field is observed to sustain the ion thermal pressure-gradient in the FRC without the internal structure; however, the radial electric field is not sufficient to sustain the increased ion thermal pressure-gradient in the FRC with the internal structure. Spontaneously driven azimuthal ion flow will be accountable for the imbalance of the radial pressure which is modified by the internal structure.

  6. Dynamical stability of the one-dimensional rigid Brownian rotator: the role of the rotator’s spatial size and shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeknić-Dugić, Jasmina; Petrović, Igor; Arsenijević, Momir; Dugić, Miroljub

    2018-05-01

    We investigate dynamical stability of a single propeller-like shaped molecular cogwheel modelled as the fixed-axis rigid rotator. In the realistic situations, rotation of the finite-size cogwheel is subject to the environmentally-induced Brownian-motion effect that we describe by utilizing the quantum Caldeira-Leggett master equation. Assuming the initially narrow (classical-like) standard deviations for the angle and the angular momentum of the rotator, we investigate the dynamics of the first and second moments depending on the size, i.e. on the number of blades of both the free rotator as well as of the rotator in the external harmonic field. The larger the standard deviations, the less stable (i.e. less predictable) rotation. We detect the absence of the simple and straightforward rules for utilizing the rotator’s stability. Instead, a number of the size-related criteria appear whose combinations may provide the optimal rules for the rotator dynamical stability and possibly control. In the realistic situations, the quantum-mechanical corrections, albeit individually small, may effectively prove non-negligible, and also revealing subtlety of the transition from the quantum to the classical dynamics of the rotator. As to the latter, we detect a strong size-dependence of the transition to the classical dynamics beyond the quantum decoherence process.

  7. Interplay of domain walls and magnetization rotation on dynamic magnetization process in iron/polymer–matrix soft magnetic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobák, Samuel, E-mail: samuel.dobak@student.upjs.sk [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Füzer, Ján; Kollár, Peter [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Fáberová, Mária; Bureš, Radovan [Institute of Materials Research, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 47, 043 53 Košice (Slovakia)

    2017-03-15

    This study sheds light on the dynamic magnetization process in iron/resin soft magnetic composites from the viewpoint of quantitative decomposition of their complex permeability spectra into the viscous domain wall motion and magnetization rotation. We present a comprehensive view on this phenomenon over the broad family of samples with different average particles dimension and dielectric matrix content. The results reveal the pure relaxation nature of magnetization processes without observation of spin resonance. The smaller particles and higher amount of insulating resin result in the prevalence of rotations over domain wall movement. The findings are elucidated in terms of demagnetizing effects rising from the heterogeneity of composite materials. - Highlights: • A first decomposition of complex permeability into domain wall and rotation parts in soft magnetic composites. • A pure relaxation nature of dynamic magnetization processes. • A complete loss separation in soft magnetic composites. • The domain walls activity is considerably suppressed in composites with smaller iron particles and higher matrix content. • The demagnetizing field acts as a significant factor at the dynamic magnetization process.

  8. Dynamic Model of a Rotating Flexible Arm-Flexible Root Mechanism Driven by a Shaft Flexible in Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Z. Ismail

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic model of a rotating flexible beam carrying a payload at its tip. The model accounts for the driving shaft and the arm root flexibilities. The finite element method and the Lagrangian dynamics are used in deriving the equations of motion with the small deformation theory assumptions and the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The obtained model is a nonlinear-coupled system of differential equations. The model is simulated for different combinations of shaft and root flexibilities and arm properties. The simulation results showed that the root flexibility is an important factor that should be considered in association with the arm and shaft flexibilities, as its dynamics influence the motor motion. Moreover, the effect of system non-linearity on the dynamic behavior is investigated by simulating the equivalent linearized system and it was found to be an important factor that should be considered, particularly when designing a control strategy for practical implementation.

  9. A Vision-Based Dynamic Rotational Angle Measurement System for Large Civil Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Jae; Ho, Hoai-Nam; Lee, Jong-Han

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a vision-based rotational angle measurement system for large-scale civil structures. Despite the fact that during the last decade several rotation angle measurement systems were introduced, they however often required complex and expensive equipment. Therefore, alternative effective solutions with high resolution are in great demand. The proposed system consists of commercial PCs, commercial camcorders, low-cost frame grabbers, and a wireless LAN router. The calculation of rotation angle is obtained by using image processing techniques with pre-measured calibration parameters. Several laboratory tests were conducted to verify the performance of the proposed system. Compared with the commercial rotation angle measurement, the results of the system showed very good agreement with an error of less than 1.0% in all test cases. Furthermore, several tests were conducted on the five-story modal testing tower with a hybrid mass damper to experimentally verify the feasibility of the proposed system. PMID:22969348

  10. Dynamic modelling and control of a rotating Euler-Bernoulli beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J. B.; Jiang, L. J.; Chen, D. CH.

    2004-07-01

    Flexible motion of a uniform Euler-Bernoulli beam attached to a rotating rigid hub is investigated. Fully coupled non-linear integro-differential equations, describing axial, transverse and rotational motions of the beam, are derived by using the extended Hamilton's principle. The centrifugal stiffening effect is included in the derivation. A finite-dimensional model, including couplings of axial and transverse vibrations, and of elastic deformations and rigid motions, is obtained by the finite element method. By neglecting the axial motion, a simplified modelling, suitable for studying the transverse vibration and control of a beam with large angle and high-speed rotation, is presented. And suppressions of transverse vibrations of a rotating beam are simulated with the model by combining positive position feedback and momentum exchange feedback control laws. It is indicated that an improved performance for vibration control can be achieved with the method.

  11. The relationship between the TMJ internal derangement state including rotational displacement and perforation and the clinical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hwan Seok; You Dong Soo

    1998-01-01

    This study was designed to reveal the correlationship between the internal derangement state of TMJ and clinical characteristics including pain and mandibular dysfuntion. One hundred and twenty five subjects with TMJ signs and symptoms were chosen for two years. The level of pain and mandibular dysfuntion were evaluated by Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Craniomandibular Index (CMI). The diagnostic categories of TMJ internal derangement were determined by arthrography and they included normal disc position, anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDR), rotational disc displacement with reduction (RDDR), andterior disc displacement without reduction (ADDNR), and rotational disc displacement without reduction (RDDNR). Also disc perforation was used as a criteria to divide the diagnostic subgroups. The obtained results were as follows ; 1. The patient distribution of each group was 5 in normal disc position (4%), 40 in ADDR (32%), 30 in RDDR (24%), 34 in ADDNR (27%), and 16 in RDDNR (13%). 2. Perforation was observed in 8% of ADDR, 10% of RDDR, 32% of ADDNR, and 19% of RDDNR. 3. CMI of perforation group was higher than that of reduction or normal group(p 0.05).

  12. Dynamical and statistical phenomena of circulation and heat transfer in periodically forced rotating turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterl, Sebastian; Li, Hui-Min; Zhong, Jin-Qiang

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we present results from an experimental study into turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection forced externally by periodically modulated unidirectional rotation rates. We find that the azimuthal rotation velocity θ ˙(t ) and thermal amplitude δ (t ) of the large-scale circulation (LSC) are modulated by the forcing, exhibiting a variety of dynamics including increasing phase delays and a resonant peak in the amplitude of θ ˙(t ) . We also focus on the influence of modulated rotation rates on the frequency of occurrence η of stochastic cessation or reorientation events, and on the interplay between such events and the periodically modulated response of θ ˙(t ) . Here we identify a mechanism by which η can be amplified by the modulated response, and these normally stochastic events can occur with high regularity. We provide a modeling framework that explains the observed amplitude and phase responses, and we extend this approach to make predictions for the occurrence of cessation events and the probability distributions of θ ˙(t ) and δ (t ) during different phases of a modulation cycle, based on an adiabatic approach that treats each phase separately. Last, we show that such periodic forcing has consequences beyond influencing LSC dynamics, by investigating how it can modify the heat transport even under conditions where the Ekman pumping effect is predominant and strong enhancement of heat transport occurs. We identify phase and amplitude responses of the heat transport, and we show how increased modulations influence the average Nusselt number.

  13. Fifth International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Walteros, Jose; Pardalos, Panos

    2014-01-01

    The contributions of this volume stem from the “Fifth International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” held in Gainesville, FL in February 2013, and discuss state-of the-art  techniques in handling problems and solutions in the broad field of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Computational and Mathematical Challenges presents diverse aspects of modern information systems with an emphasis on interconnected network systems and related topics, such as signal and message reconstruction, network connectivity, stochastic network analysis, cyber and computer security, community and cohesive structures in complex networks. Information systems are a vital part of modern societies. They are essential to our daily actions, including social networking, business and bank transactions, as well as sensor communications. The rapid increase in these capabilities has enabled us with more powerful systems, readily available to sense, control, disperse, and analyze information.

  14. 2nd International Conference on Dynamics of Disasters

    CERN Document Server

    Nagurney, Anna; Pardalos, Panos

    2016-01-01

    This volume results from the “Second International Conference on Dynamics of Disasters” held in Kalamata, Greece, June 29-July 2, 2015. The conference covered particular topics involved in natural and man-made disasters such as war, chemical spills, and wildfires. Papers in this volume examine the finer points of disasters through: · Critical infrastructure protection · Resiliency · Humanitarian logistic · Relief supply chains · Cooperative game theory · Dynamical systems · Decision making under risk and uncertainty · Spread of diseases · Contagion · Funding for disaster relief · Tools for emergency preparedness · Response, and risk mitigation Multi-disciplinary theories, tools, techniques and methodologies are linked with disasters from mitigation and preparedness to response and recovery. The interdisciplinary approach to problems in economics, optimization, government, management, business, humanities, engineering, medicine, mathematics, computer science, behavioral studies, emergency servi...

  15. When a Slowly Rotating Aquaplanet is Coupled to a Dynamical Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, J.; Marotzke, J.

    2017-12-01

    Planets orbiting in close distance from their stars have a high probability to be detected, and are expected to be slowly rotating due to strong tidal forces. By increasing the rotation period from 1 Earth-day to 365 Earth-days, we previously found that the global-mean surface temperature of an aquaplanet with a static mixed-layer ocean decreases by up to 27 K. The cooling is attributed to an increase of the planetary albedo with the rotation period, which is associated with the different distributions of the sea ice and the deep convective clouds. However, we had there assumed a fixed mixed-layer depth and a zero oceanic heat transport in the aquaplanet configuration. The limitations of these assumptions in such exotic climates are still unclear. We therefore perform coupled atmosphere-ocean aquaplanet simulations with the general circulation model ICON for various rotation periods ranging from 1 Earth-day to 365 Earth-days. We investigate how the underlying oceanic circulation modifies the mean climate of slowly rotating aquaplanets, and whether the day-to-night oceanic heat transport reduces the surface-temperature gradients and the sea-ice extent.

  16. The Role of Plasma Rotation in C-Mod Internal Transport Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, C. L.; Ernst, D. R.; Rice, J. E.; Podpaly, Y.; Reinke, M. L.; Greenwald, M. J.; Hughes, J. W.; Ma, Y.; Bespamyatnov, I. O.; Rowan, W. L.

    2010-11-01

    ITBs in Alcator C-Mod featuring highly peaked density and pressure profiles are induced by injecting ICRF power with the second harmonic of the resonant frequency for minority hydrogen off-axis at the plasma half radius. These ITBs are formed in the absence of particle or momentum injection, and with monotonic q profiles with qmin ITB forms, this rotation decreases in the center of the plasma and forms a well, and often reverses direction in the core. This indicates that there is a strong EXB shearing rate in the region where the foot in the ITB density profile is observed. Preliminary gyrokinetic analyses indicate that this shearing rate is comparable to the ion temperature gradient mode (ITG) growth rate at this location and may be responsible for stabilizing the turbulence. Gyrokinetic analyses of recent experimental data obtained from a complete scan of the ICRF resonance position across the entire C-Mod plasma will be presented.

  17. Effect of nuclear spin on chemical reactions and internal molecular rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterna, L.L.

    1980-12-01

    Part I of this dissertation is a study of the magnetic isotope effect, and results are presented for the separation of 13 C and 12 C isotopes. Two models are included in the theoretical treatment of the effect. In the first model the spin states evolve quantum mechanically, and geminate recombination is calculated by numerically integrating the collision probability times the probability the radical pair is in a singlet state. In the second model the intersystem crossing is treated via first-order rate constants which are average values of the hyperfine couplings. Using these rate constants and hydrodynamic diffusion equations, an analytical solution, which accounts for all collisions, is obtained for the geminate recombination. The two reactions studied are photolysis of benzophenone and toluene and the photolytic decomposition of dibenzylketone (1,3-diphenyl-2-propanone). No magnetic isotope effect was observed in the benzophenone reaction. 13 C enrichment was observed for the dibenzylketone reaction, and this enrichment was substantially enhanced at intermediate viscosities and low temperatures. Part II of this dissertation is a presentation of theory and results for the use of Zeeman spin-lattice relaxation as a probe of methyl group rotation in the solid state. Experimental results are presented for the time and angular dependences of rotational polarization, the methyl group magnetic moment, and methyl-methyl steric interactions. The compounds studied are 2,6-dimethylphenol, methyl iodide, 1,4,5,8-tetramethylanthracene, 1,4,5,8-tetramethylnaphthalene, 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene, and 2,3-dimethylmaleicanhydride

  18. Rotational and translational dynamics and their relation to hydrogen bond lifetimes in an ionic liquid by means of NMR relaxation time experiments and molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strate, Anne; Neumann, Jan; Overbeck, Viviane; Bonsa, Anne-Marie; Michalik, Dirk; Paschek, Dietmar; Ludwig, Ralf

    2018-05-01

    We report a concerted theoretical and experimental effort to determine the reorientational dynamics as well as hydrogen bond lifetimes for the doubly ionic hydrogen bond +OH⋯O- in the ionic liquid (2-hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [Ch][NTf2] by using a combination of NMR relaxation time experiments, density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Due to fast proton exchange, the determination of rotational correlation times is challenging. For molecular liquids, 17O-enhanced proton relaxation time experiments have been used to determine the rotational correlation times for the OH vectors in water or alcohols. As an alternative to those expensive isotopic substitution experiments, we employed a recently introduced approach which is providing access to the rotational dynamics from a single NMR deuteron quadrupolar relaxation time experiment. Here, the deuteron quadrupole coupling constants (DQCCs) are obtained from a relation between the DQCC and the δ1H proton chemical shifts determined from a set of DFT calculated clusters in combination with experimentally determined proton chemical shifts. The NMR-obtained rotational correlation times were compared to those obtained from MD simulations and then related to viscosities for testing the applicability of popular hydrodynamic models. In addition, hydrogen bond lifetimes were derived, using hydrogen bond population correlation functions computed from MD simulations. Here, two different time domains were observed: The short-time contributions to the hydrogen lifetimes and the reorientational correlation times have roughly the same size and are located in the picosecond range, whereas the long-time contributions decay with relaxation times in the nanosecond regime and are related to rather slow diffusion processes. The computed average hydrogen bond lifetime is dominated by the long-time process, highlighting the importance and longevity of

  19. Dynamic behavior of a rotating delaminated composite beam including rotary inertia and shear deformation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan-Ali Jafari-Talookolaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A finite element (FE model is developed to study the free vibration of a rotating laminated composite beam with a single delamination. The rotary inertia and shear deformation effects, as well as the bending–extension, bending–twist and extension–twist coupling terms are taken into account in the FE model. Comparison between the numerical results of the present model and the results published in the literature verifies the validity of the present model. Furthermore, the effects of various parameters, such as delamination size and location, fiber orientation, hub radius, material anisotropy and rotating speed, on the vibration of the beam are studied in detail. These results provide useful information in the study of the free vibration of rotating delaminated composite beams.

  20. Theoretical studies of molecule surface scattering: Rotationally inelastic diffraction and dissociative dynamics of H2 on metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Pol, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    The interaction of H 2 and its isotopes with metal surfaces has been the subject of many investigations. The scattering experiments provide data such as the final rotational state distribution, sticking coefficients, kinetic energy distribution, and diffraction data. In the first study of this thesis the author implemented a model for looking at the rotationally inelastic diffraction probabilities for H 2 , HD, and D 2 , as a function of surface temperature. The surface is treated in a quantum mechanical fashion using a recently developed formalism. The center of mass translational motion is treated semiclassically using Gaussian wave packets, and the rotations are described quantum mechanically. The phonon summed rotation-diffraction probabilities as well as the probability distribution for a scattering molecule exchanging an amount of energy ΔE with the surface were computed. In the second and third study of this thesis the author implemented a mixed quantum-classical model to compute the probability for dissociation and rotational excitation for H 2 , HD, and D 2 scattered from Ni(100) dimensionally in dynamics simulations. Of the six degrees of freedom for the dissociative adsorption of a diatomic molecule on a static surface, the author treats Z,d the center of mass distance above the surface plan, r, the internuclear separation, θ, the polar orientation angle, quantum mechanically. The remaining three degrees of freedom, X and Y, the center of mass position on the surface plane, and oe, the azimuthal orientation angle, are treated classically. Probabilities for dissociation and ro-vibrational excitation are computed as a function of incident translational energy. Two sudden approximations are tested, in which either the center of mass translation parallel to the surface or the azimuthal orientation of the molecule are frozen. Comparisons are made between low and high dimensionality results and with fully classical results

  1. Computer modeling of the dynamics of surface tension on rotating fluids in low and microgravity environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Tsao, Y. D.; Hong, B. B.; Leslie, Fred W.

    1989-01-01

    Time-dependent evolutions of the profile of the free surface (bubble shapes) for a cylindrical container partially filled with a Newtonian fluid of constant density, rotating about its axis of symmetry, have been studied. Numerical computations have been carried out with the following situations: (1) linear functions of spin-up and spin-down in low- and microgravity environments, (2) linear functions of increasing and decreasing gravity environments at high- and low-rotating cylinder speeds, and (3) step functions of spin-up and spin-down in a low-gravity environment.

  2. A fluid dynamical flow model for the central peak in the rotation curve of disk galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, T.; Basu, B.

    1980-01-01

    The rotation curve of the central region in some disk galaxies shows a linear rise, terminating at a peak (primary peak) which is then vollowed by a deep minimum. The curve then again rises to another peak at more or less half-way across the galactic radius. This latter peak is considered as the peak of the rotation curve in all large-scale analysis of galactic structure. The primary peak is usually ignored for the purpose. In this work an attempt has been made to look at the primary peak as the manifestation of the post-explosion flow pattern of gas in the deep central region of galaxies. Solving hydrodynamical equations of motion, a flow model has been derived which imitates very closely the actually observed linear rotational velocity, followed by the falling branch of the curve to minimum. The theoretical flow model has been compared with observed results for nine galaxies. The agreement obtained is extremely encouraging. The distance of the primary peak from the galactic centre has been shown to be correlated with the angular velocity in the linear part of the rotation curve. Here also, agreement is very good between theoretical and observed results. It is concluded that the distance of the primary peak from the centre not only speaks of the time that has elapsed since the explosion occurred in the nucleus, it also speaks of the potential capability of the nucleus of the galaxy for repeating explosions through some efficient process of mass replenishment at the core. (orig.)

  3. Asteroseismic inference on rotation, gyrochronology and planetary system dynamics of 16 Cygni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, G. R.; Chaplin, W. J.; Farr, W. M.

    2014-01-01

    The solar analogs 16 Cyg A and 16 Cyg B are excellent asteroseismic targets in the \\Kepler field of view and together with a red dwarf and a Jovian planet form an interesting system. For these more evolved Sun-like stars we cannot detect surface rotation with the current \\Kepler data but instead...

  4. Dynamics of a microbial biofilm in a rotating biological contactor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater from wine-related industries is characterised by high variability in COD and pH. Disposal of these effluents with little or no treatment could lead to heavy financial penalties or pollution of soil and water resources. A pilot-scale rotating biological contactor (RBC) was evaluated for the treatment of winery effluent, ...

  5. Dynamics of rotating and vibrating thin hemispherical shell with mass and damping imperfections and parametrically driven by discrete electrodes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Shatalov2_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 22572 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Shatalov2_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 DYNAMICS OF ROTATING... AND VIBRATING THIN HEMISPHERICAL SHELL WITH MASS AND DAMPING IMPERFECTIONS AND PARAMETRICALLY DRIVEN BY DISCRETE ELECTRODES Michael Shatalov1,2 and Charlotta Coetzee2 1Sensor Science and Technology (SST) of CSIR Material Science and Manufacturing (MSM...

  6. Experimental and ab initio study on structures and internal barriers to rotation in α-stannyl, germanium, and silicon carbamates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadidi, Khosrow; Khaligh, Nader Ghaffari; Islami, Parisa; Aryan, Reza; Arvin-Nezhad, Hamid

    2009-02-01

    A detailed study of structural parameters and internal rotational barriers in α-stannyl, germanium and silicon carbamates 1 [H 3 CX-CH 2-N(Me)CO 2Me X dbnd C, Si, Ge, Sn] were calculated at HF/6-311G, HF/3-21G and B3LYP/3-21G//HF/3-21G levels and compared with DNMR data of synthesized molecules and a literature X-ray data. Two minimum-energy conformers, namely A and B, with almost similar energies were found for these molecules. Effect of heteroatom on structure and relative energies ( Erel) between the participants in the conformational equilibrium (A ↔ B) of these carbamates has been investigated.

  7. How internal drainage affects evaporation dynamics from soil surfaces ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, D.; Lehmann, P.; Sommer, M.

    2017-12-01

    Following rainfall, infiltrated water may be redistributed internally to larger depths or lost to the atmosphere by evaporation (and by plant uptake from depths at longer time scales). A large fraction of evaporative losses from terrestrial surfaces occurs during stage1 evaporation during which phase change occurs at the wet surface supplied by capillary flow from the soil. Recent studies have shown existence of a soil-dependent characteristic length below which capillary continuity is disrupted and a drastic shift to slower stage 2 evaporation ensues. Internal drainage hastens this transition and affect evaporative losses. To predict the transition to stage 2 and associated evaporative losses, we developed an analytical solution for evaporation dynamics with concurrent internal drainage. Expectedly, evaporative losses are suppressed when drainage is considered to different degrees depending on soil type and wetness. We observe that high initial water content supports rapid drainage and thus promotes the sheltering of soil water below the evaporation depth. The solution and laboratory experiments confirm nonlinear relationship between initial water content and total evaporative losses. The concept contributes to establishing bounds on regional surface evaporation considering rainfall characteristics and soil types.

  8. Internal wave mode resonant triads in an arbitrarly stratified finite-depth ocean with background rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Dheeraj; Mathur, Manikandan

    2017-11-01

    Internal tides generated by barotropic tides on bottom topography or the spatially compact near-inertial mixed layer currents excited by surface winds can be conveniently represented in the linear regime as a superposition of vertical modes at a given frequency in an arbitrarily stratified ocean of finite depth. Considering modes (m , n) at a frequency ω in the primary wave field, we derive the weakly nonlinear solution, which contains a secondary wave at 2 ω that diverges when it forms a resonant triad with the primary waves. In nonuniform stratifications, resonant triads are shown to occur when the horizontal component of the classical RTI criterion k->1 +k->2 +k->3 = 0 is satisfied along with a non-orthogonality criterion. In nonuniform stratifications with a pycnocline, infinitely more pairs of primary wave modes (m , n) result in RTI when compared to a uniform stratification. Further, two nearby high modes at around the near-inertial frequency often form a resonant triad with a low mode at 2 ω , reminiscent of the features of PSI near the critical latitude. The theoretical framework is then adapted to investigate RTI in two different scenarios: low-mode internal tide scattering over topography, and internal wave beams incident on a pycnocline. The authors thank the Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India for financial support under the Monsoon Mission Grant MM/2014/IND-002.

  9. Rotational spectroscopy and dynamics of carbonyl sulphide studied by terahertz free induction decays signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigourd, D.; Mouret, G.; Cuisset, A.; Hindle, F.; Fertein, E.; Bocquet, R.

    2008-06-01

    A terahertz time domain spectroscopy experiment is used to study the coherent re-emission after exciting more than 60 energy rotational states of OCS molecules in gas phase. Due to the regular structure of the absorption spectrum of such linear molecules, a set of subsequent pulses separated by 82.6 ps is re-radiated from the vapour and recorded up to 450 ps. A model based on a linear response of the gas and by use of "Maxwell-Bloch" equations has permitted the re-emitted free induced decay to be investigated. Spectroscopic parameters, such as rotational constant, centrifugal distortion coefficient and relaxation times are responsible for the temporal shape and so can be evaluated. The influence of the optical thickness to access the relaxation times is discussed.

  10. Dynamic characteristics of otolith ocular response during counter rotation about dual yaw axes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, N; Wood, S; Kushiro, K; Yanai, S; Perachio, A; Makishima, T

    2015-01-29

    The central vestibular system plays an important role in higher neural functions such as self-motion perception and spatial orientation. Its ability to store head angular velocity is called velocity storage mechanism (VSM), which has been thoroughly investigated across a wide range of species. However, little is known about the mouse VSM, because the mouse lacks typical ocular responses such as optokinetic after nystagmus or a dominant time constant of vestibulo-ocular reflex for which the VSM is critical. Experiments were conducted to examine the otolith-driven eye movements related to the VSM and verify its characteristics in mice. We used a novel approach to generate a similar rotating vector as a traditional off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR) but with a larger resultant gravito-inertial force (>1g) by using counter rotation centrifugation. Similar to results previously described in other animals during OVAR, two components of eye movements were induced, i.e. a sinusoidal modulatory eye movement (modulation component) on which a unidirectional nystagmus (bias component) was superimposed. Each response is considered to derive from different mechanisms; modulations arise predominantly through linear vestibulo-ocular reflex, whereas for the bias, the VSM is responsible. Data indicate that the mouse also has a well-developed vestibular system through otoliths inputs, showing its highly conserved nature across mammalian species. On the other hand, to reach a plateau state of bias, a higher frequency rotation or a larger gravito-inertial force was considered to be necessary than other larger animals. Compared with modulation, the bias had a more variable profile, suggesting an inherent complexity of higher-order neural processes in the brain. Our data provide the basis for further study of the central vestibular system in mice, however, the underlying individual variability should be taken into consideration. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  11. Rotation of mercury: theoretical analysis of the dynamics of a rigid ellipsoidal planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslett, L J; Sessler, A M

    1966-03-18

    The second-order nonlinear differential equation for the rotation of Mercury implies locked-in motion when the period is within the range where e is the eccentricity and T is the period of Mercury's orbit, the time t is measured from perihelion, and lambda is a measure of the planet's disiortion. For values near 2T/3, the instantaneous period oscillates about 2T/3 with period (21lambdae/2)T.

  12. Rotational motion in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear structure theories are reviewed concerned with nuclei rotational motion. The development of the deformed nucleus model facilitated a discovery of rotational spectra of nuclei. Comprehensive verification of the rotational scheme and a successful classification of corresponding spectra stimulated investigations of the rotational movement dynamics. Values of nuclear moments of inertia proved to fall between two marginal values corresponding to rotation of a solid and hydrodynamic pattern of an unrotating flow, respectively. The discovery of governing role of the deformation and a degree of a symmetry violence for determining rotational degrees of freedon is pointed out to pave the way for generalization of the rotational spectra

  13. Hydrogen bonding in protic ionic liquids: structural correlations, vibrational spectroscopy, and rotational dynamics of liquid ethylammonium nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentel, Tobias; Overbeck, Viviane; Michalik, Dirk; Kühn, Oliver; Ludwig, Ralf

    2018-02-01

    The properties of the hydrogen bonds in ethylammonium nitrate (EAN) are analyzed by using molecular dynamics simulations and infrared as well as nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. EAN features a flexible three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds with moderate strengths, which makes it distinct from related triethylammonium-based ionic liquids. First, the network’s flexibility is manifested in a not very pronounced correlation of the hydrogen bond geometries, which is caused by rapid interchanges of bonding partners. The large flexibility of the network also leads to a substantial broadening of the mid-IR absorption band, with the contributions due to N-H stretching motions ranging from 2800 to 3250 cm-1. Finally, the different dynamics are also seen in the rotational correlation of the N-H bond vector, where a correlation time as short as 16.1 ps is observed.

  14. Eye rotation induced dynamics of a Newtonian fluid within the vitreous cavity: the effect of the chamber shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocchino, Alessandro; Repetto, Rodolfo; Cafferata, Chiara

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of the vitreous body induced by eye rotations is studied experimentally. In particular, we consider the case in which the vitreous cavity is filled by a Newtonian fluid, either because the vitreous is liquefied or because it has been replaced, after vitrectomy, by a viscous fluid. We employ a rigid Perspex container which models, in a magnified scale, the vitreous cavity of the human eye. The shape of the cavity closely resembles that of the real vitreous chamber; in particular, the anterior part of the container is concave in order to model the presence of the eye lens. The container is filled with glycerol and is mounted on the shaft of a computer-controlled motor which rotates according to a periodic time law. PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements are taken on the equatorial plane orthogonal to the axis of rotation. The experimental measurements show that the velocity field is strongly influenced by the deformed geometry of the domain. In particular, the formation of a vortex in the vicinity of the lens, which migrates in time towards the core of the domain, is invariably observed. The vortex path is tracked in time by means of a vortex identification technique and it is found that it is significantly influenced by the Womersley number of the flow. Particle trajectories are computed from the PIV measurements. Particles initially located at different positions on the equatorial horizontal plane (perpendicular to the axis of rotation) tend to concentrate in narrow regions adjacent to the lens, thus suggesting the existence, in such regions, of a vertical fluid ejection. Such a strong flow three-dimensionality, which is essentially induced by the irregular shape of the domain, may play a significant role in the mixing processes taking place inside the eye globe. The tangential stresses acting on the rigid boundary of the domain are also computed from the experimental measurements showing that regions subject to particularly intense stresses

  15. Local measurement of error field using naturally rotating tearing mode dynamics in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, R. M.; Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P.; Fridström, R.; Volpe, F. A.

    2016-12-01

    An error field (EF) detection technique using the amplitude modulation of a naturally rotating tearing mode (TM) is developed and validated in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch. The technique was used to identify intrinsic EFs of m/n  =  1/-12, where m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers. The effect of the EF and of a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) on the TM, in particular on amplitude modulation, is modeled with a first-order solution of the modified Rutherford equation. In the experiment, the TM amplitude is measured as a function of the toroidal angle as the TM rotates rapidly in the presence of an unknown EF and a known, deliberately applied RMP. The RMP amplitude is fixed while the toroidal phase is varied from one discharge to the other, completing a full toroidal scan. Using three such scans with different RMP amplitudes, the EF amplitude and phase are inferred from the phases at which the TM amplitude maximizes. The estimated EF amplitude is consistent with other estimates (e.g. based on the best EF-cancelling RMP, resulting in the fastest TM rotation). A passive variant of this technique is also presented, where no RMPs are applied, and the EF phase is deduced.

  16. The development of fully dynamic rotating machine models for nuclear training simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birsa, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    Prior to beginning the development of an enhanced set of electrical plant models for several nuclear training simulators, an extensive literature search was conducted to evaluate and select rotating machine models for use on these simulators. These models include the main generator, diesel generators, in-plant electric power distribution and off-side power. Form the results of this search, various models were investigated and several were selected for further evaluation. Several computer studies were performed on the selected models in order to determine their suitability for use in a training simulator environment. One surprising result of this study was that a number of established, classical models could not be made to reproduce actual plant steady-state data over the range necessary for a training simulator. This evaluation process and its results are presented in this paper. Various historical, as well as contemporary, electrical models of rotating machines are discussed. Specific criteria for selection of rotating machine models for training simulator use are presented

  17. Acetone n-radical cation internal rotation spectrum: The torsional potential surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, Dana A.; Goodman, Lionel; White, Michael G.

    2000-01-01

    The one color REMPI and two color ZEKE-PFI spectra of acetone-d 3 have been recorded. The 3p x Rydberg state of acetone-d 3 lies at 59 362.3 cm-1 and both of the torsional modes are visible in this spectrum. The antigearing Rydberg (a 2 ) mode, v 12 * , has a frequency of 62.5 cm-1, while the previously unobserved gearing (b 1 ) mode, v 17 * , is found at 119.1 cm-1. An ionization potential of 78 299.6 cm-1 for acetone-d 3 has been measured. In acetone-d 3 n-radical cation ground state, the fundamentals of both of the torsional modes have been observed, v 12 + at 51.0 cm-1 and v 17 + at 110.4 cm-1, while the first overtone of v 12 + has been measured at 122.4 cm-1. Deuterium shifts show that v 12 + behaves like a local C 3v rotor, but that v 17 + is canonical. Combining this data with that for acetone-d 0 and aacetone-d 6 has allowed us to fit the observed frequencies to a torsional potential energy surface based on an ab initio C 2v cation ground state geometry. This potential energy surface allows for prediction of the v 17 vibration in acetone-d 0 and acetone-d 6 . The barrier to synchronous rotation is higher in the cation ground state than in the neutral ground state, but significantly lower than in the 3s Rydberg state. The 3p x Rydberg and cation ground state potential energy surfaces are found to be very similar to each other, strongly supporting the contention that the 3p x Rydberg state has C 2v geometry and is a good model for the ion core. The altered 3s Rydberg state potential surface suggests this state has significant valence character. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  18. [Fluid dynamics of supercritical helium within internally cooled cabled superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sciver, S.W.

    1995-01-01

    The Applied Superconductivity Center of the University of Wisconsin-Madison proposes to conduct research on low temperature helium fluid dynamics as it applies to the cooling of internally cooled cabled superconductors (ICCS). Such conductors are used in fusion reactor designs including most of the coils in ITER. The proposed work is primarily experimental involving measurements of transient and steady state pressure drop in a variety of conductor configurations. Both model and prototype conductors for actual magnet designs will be investigated. The primary goal will be to measure and model the friction factor for these complex geometries. In addition, an effort will be made to study transient processes such as heat transfer and fluid expulsion associated with quench conditions

  19. Observing and modeling nonlinear dynamics in an internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daw, C.S.; Kennel, M.B.; Finney, C.E.; Connolly, F.T.

    1998-01-01

    We propose a low-dimensional, physically motivated, nonlinear map as a model for cyclic combustion variation in spark-ignited internal combustion engines. A key feature is the interaction between stochastic, small-scale fluctuations in engine parameters and nonlinear deterministic coupling between successive engine cycles. Residual cylinder gas from each cycle alters the in-cylinder fuel-air ratio and thus the combustion efficiency in succeeding cycles. The model close-quote s simplicity allows rapid simulation of thousands of engine cycles, permitting statistical studies of cyclic-variation patterns and providing physical insight into this technologically important phenomenon. Using symbol statistics to characterize the noisy dynamics, we find good quantitative matches between our model and experimental time-series measurements. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  20. Role of rotational energy and deformations in the dynamics of {sup 6}Li+{sup 90}Zr reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Gurvinder; Grover, Neha; Sandhu, Kirandeep; Sharma, Manoj K., E-mail: msharma@thapar.edu

    2014-07-15

    In reference to recent experimental data, the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM) has been applied to study the neutron evaporation residue (ER) cross sections of intermediate mass nucleus {sup 96}Tc{sup ⁎} spread over a wide range of incident energy across the Coulomb barrier. In order to analyze the effect of rotational energy in the dynamics of {sup 6}Li+{sup 90}Zr reaction, the cross sections have been calculated using the sticking (I{sub S}) and the non-sticking (I{sub NS}) limits of moment of inertia with inclusion of quadrupole (β{sub 2}) deformation within optimum orientation approach. The effect of either of the two approaches on the angular momentum, and hence the rotational energy associated with it, is assessed through the fragment mass distribution, preformation factor and the barrier penetrability. Also, the role of deformations is studied through a comparative analysis of decay path for spherical and β{sub 2} deformed fragmentation. The calculated evaporation residue cross sections show excellent agreement with the reported data at all incident energies for both spherical and β{sub 2}-deformed approach. Finally, the incomplete fusion (ICF) process observed due to loosely bound projectile {sup 6}Li is addressed within the framework of DCM.

  1. Monitoring of Bridges by a Laser Pointer: Dynamic Measurement of Support Rotations and Elastic Line Displacements: Methodology and First Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artese, Serena; Achilli, Vladimiro; Zinno, Raffaele

    2018-01-25

    Deck inclination and vertical displacements are among the most important technical parameters to evaluate the health status of a bridge and to verify its bearing capacity. Several methods, both conventional and innovative, are used for structural rotations and displacement monitoring; however, none of these allow, at the same time, precision, automation, static and dynamic monitoring without using high cost instrumentation. The proposed system uses a common laser pointer and image processing. The elastic line inclination is measured by analyzing the single frames of an HD video of the laser beam imprint projected on a flat target. For the image processing, a code was developed in Matlab ® that provides instantaneous rotation and displacement of a bridge, charged by a mobile load. An important feature is the synchronization of the load positioning, obtained by a GNSS receiver or by a video. After the calibration procedures, a test was carried out during the movements of a heavy truck maneuvering on a bridge. Data acquisition synchronization allowed us to relate the position of the truck on the deck to inclination and displacements. The inclination of the elastic line at the support was obtained with a precision of 0.01 mrad. The results demonstrate the suitability of the method for dynamic load tests, and the control and monitoring of bridges.

  2. Monitoring of Bridges by a Laser Pointer: Dynamic Measurement of Support Rotations and Elastic Line Displacements: Methodology and First Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Artese

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Deck inclination and vertical displacements are among the most important technical parameters to evaluate the health status of a bridge and to verify its bearing capacity. Several methods, both conventional and innovative, are used for structural rotations and displacement monitoring; however, none of these allow, at the same time, precision, automation, static and dynamic monitoring without using high cost instrumentation. The proposed system uses a common laser pointer and image processing. The elastic line inclination is measured by analyzing the single frames of an HD video of the laser beam imprint projected on a flat target. For the image processing, a code was developed in Matlab® that provides instantaneous rotation and displacement of a bridge, charged by a mobile load. An important feature is the synchronization of the load positioning, obtained by a GNSS receiver or by a video. After the calibration procedures, a test was carried out during the movements of a heavy truck maneuvering on a bridge. Data acquisition synchronization allowed us to relate the position of the truck on the deck to inclination and displacements. The inclination of the elastic line at the support was obtained with a precision of 0.01 mrad. The results demonstrate the suitability of the method for dynamic load tests, and the control and monitoring of bridges.

  3. Validity of the top-down approach of inverse dynamics analysis in fast and large rotational trunk movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, Yoichi; Kojima, Takeji

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the validity of the top-down approach of inverse dynamics analysis in fast and large rotational movements of the trunk about three orthogonal axes of the pelvis for nine male collegiate students. The maximum angles of the upper trunk relative to the pelvis were approximately 47°, 49°, 32°, and 55° for lateral bending, flexion, extension, and axial rotation, respectively, with maximum angular velocities of 209°/s, 201°/s, 145°/s, and 288°/s, respectively. The pelvic moments about the axes during the movements were determined using the top-down and bottom-up approaches of inverse dynamics and compared between the two approaches. Three body segment inertial parameter sets were estimated using anthropometric data sets (Ae et al., Biomechanism 11, 1992; De Leva, J Biomech, 1996; Dumas et al., J Biomech, 2007). The root-mean-square errors of the moments and the absolute errors of the peaks of the moments were generally smaller than 10 N·m. The results suggest that the pelvic moment in motions involving fast and large trunk movements can be determined with a certain level of validity using the top-down approach in which the trunk is modeled as two or three rigid-link segments.

  4. International Symposium on Dynamics of Ordering Processes in Condensed Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Furukawa, H

    1988-01-01

    The International Symposium on Dynamics of Ordering Processes in Condensed Matter was held at the Kansai Seminar House, Kyoto, for four days, from 27 to 30 August 1987, under the auspices of the Physical Soci­ ety of Japan. The symposium was financially supported by the four orga­ nizations and 45 companies listed on other pages in this volume. We are very grateful to all of them and particularly to the greatest sponsor, the Commemorative Association for the Japan World Exposition 1970. A total Df 22 invited lectures and 48 poster presentations were given and 110 participants attended from seven nations. An objective of the Symposium was to review and extend our present understanding of the dynamics of ordering processes in condensed matters, (for example, alloys, polymers and fluids), that are brought to an un­ stable state by sudden change of such external parameters as temperature and pressure. A second objective, no less important, was to identify new fields of science that might be investigated by sim...

  5. Ego, drives, and the dynamics of internal objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eBoag

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the relationship between the ego, id, and internal objects. While ego psychology views the ego as autonomous of the drives, a less well-known alternative position views the ego as constituted by the drives. Based on Freud’s ego-instinct account, this position has developed into a school of thought which postulates that the drives act as knowers. Given that there are multiple drives, this position proposes that personality is constituted by multiple knowers. Following on from Freud, the ego is viewed as a composite sub-set of the instinctual drives (ego-drives, whereas those drives cut off from expression form the id. The nature of the ‘self’ is developed in terms of identification and the possibility of multiple personalities is also established. This account is then extended to object-relations and the explanatory value of the ego-drive account is discussed in terms of the addressing the nature of ego-structures and the dynamic nature of internal objects. Finally, the impact of psychological conflict and the significance of repression for understanding the nature of splits within the psyche are also discussed.

  6. Classical and statistical mechanics of celestial-scale spinning strings: Rotating space elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubović, L.; Knudsen, S.

    2009-05-01

    We introduce novel and unique class of dynamical systems, Rotating Space Elevators (RSE). The RSEs are multiply rotating systems of strings reaching into outer space. Objects sliding along RSE strings do not require internal engines or propulsion to be transported from the Earth's surface into outer space. The RSEs exhibit interesting nonlinear dynamics and statistical physics phenomena.

  7. Rotational spectrum of 1,1-difluoroethane-argon: influence of the interaction with the Ar atom on the V 3 barrier to internal rotation of the methyl group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velino, Biagio; Melandri, Sonia; Favero, Paolo G.; Dell'Erba, Adele; Caminati, Walther

    2000-01-01

    The free-jet millimeter-wave absorption spectrum of 1,1-difluoroethane-Ar is reported. Most of the measured lines are split due to internal rotation of the methyl group and the tunnelling motion of Ar connecting two equivalent potential energy minima. The Ar atom, close to the CHF 2 group, eclipses one of the methylic hydrogens in the symmetryless geometry of the complex, reducing in this way the barrier to the internal rotation of the methyl group with respect to isolated 1,1-difluoroethane. For high J levels the distance of Ar from the molecule increases, however, due to the centrifugal distortion, and the barrier increases towards the value for 1,1-difluoroethane.

  8. On the phenomenon of mixed dynamics in Pikovsky-Topaj system of coupled rotators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonchenko, A. S.; Gonchenko, S. V.; Kazakov, A. O.; Turaev, D. V.

    2017-07-01

    A one-parameter family of time-reversible systems on three-dimensional torus is considered. It is shown that the dynamics is not conservative, namely the attractor and repeller intersect but not coincide. We explain this as the manifestation of the so-called mixed dynamics phenomenon which corresponds to a persistent intersection of the closure of the stable periodic orbits and the closure of the completely unstable periodic orbits. We search for the stable and unstable periodic orbits indirectly, by finding non-conservative saddle periodic orbits and heteroclinic connections between them. In this way, we are able to claim the existence of mixed dynamics for a large range of parameter values. We investigate local and global bifurcations that can be used for the detection of mixed dynamics.

  9. Long-Term Rotational Dynamics of Defunct Earth-Orbiting Satellites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — While extensive research has been conducted to predict the trajectories of defunct high altitude satellites, the attitude dynamics of these objects are not well...

  10. The Effect of Theraband Training on Position Sense of Internal and External Rotator Muscles in Male Athletes with Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Moharrami

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the effect of theraband training on Position sense of internal and external rotator muscles in male athletes with shoulder impingement syndrome. Materials & Methods: In this semi-experimental interventional study 30 cases of men with Shoulder syndrome with age range of 20 to 30 years participated. They were divided in test and control groups, each group including 15 people through non-random and purposeful method Biodex System 3 Made in America was used to measure position sense of internal and external rotator muscles. For data analysis independent 7 paired t-test was used in SPSS software (version 21. Results: The experimental group showed significant improvement after six weeks of theraband training in the internal and external rotator muscles in three 90,45,0 degree angle at a significance level of 0.05 (P=0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that of theraband training resulted in improved position sense of internal and external rotator muscles in male athletes with impingement syndrome thus, the benefits of these exercises can be used widely in team sports and also for easy and quick rehabilitation of patients.

  11. Lithium salt of N,N-dimethylsalicylamide in pyridine and pyridine-water solutions. NMR study on the internal rotation about the C-N bond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryff-Keller, A; Szczecinski, P [Politechnika Warszawska (Poland)

    1981-01-01

    NMR spectra of the title compound in pyridine and pyridine-water mixtures have been measured at various temperatures. The dependence of internal rotation rate and of chemical shift difference between N-CH/sub 3/ signals on the solvent composition has been discussed with reference to structure of the solution investigated.

  12. Synchronisation and general dynamic symmetry of a vibrating system with two exciters rotating in opposite directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun-Yu, Zhao; Yi-Min, Zhang; Bang-Chun, Wen

    2010-01-01

    We derive the non-dimensional coupling equation of two exciters, including inertia coupling, stiffness coupling and load coupling. The concept of general dynamic symmetry is proposed to physically explain the synchronisation of the two exciters, which stems from the load coupling that produces the torque of general dynamic symmetry to force the phase difference between the two exciters close to the angle of general dynamic symmetry. The condition of implementing synchronisation is that the torque of general dynamic symmetry is greater than the asymmetric torque of the two motors. A general Lyapunov function is constructed to derive the stability condition of synchronisation that the non-dimensional inertia coupling matrix is positive definite and all its elements are positive. Numeric results show that the structure of the vibrating system can guarantee the stability of synchronisation of the two exciters, and that the greater the distances between the installation positions of the two exciters and the mass centre of the vibrating system are, the stronger the ability of general dynamic symmetry is

  13. Rotational dynamics of C60 in Na2RbC60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christides, C.; Prassides, K.; Neumann, D.A.; Copley, J.R.D.; Mizuki, J.; Tanigaki, K.; Hirosawa, I.; Ebbesen, T.W.

    1993-01-01

    We have measured the low-energy neutron inelastic-scattering (NIS) spectra of superconducting Na 2 RbC 60 in the temperature range 50-350 K. Well-defined librational peaks are observed at 50 K at 2.83(17) meV (FWHM = 1.7(5) meV). They soften and broaden with increasing temperature. Their behaviour mimics that found in solid C 60 and differs markedly from K 3 C 60 . The rotational barrier for C 60 reorientations in Na 2 RbC 60 is somewhat higher than in pristine C 60 and approximately half as large as in K 3 C 60 . An order-disorder transition is anticipated at a temperature higher than that found in C 60 . (orig.)

  14. Rotation and migration of nanoparticles for heat transfer augmentation in nanofluids by molecular dynamics simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzheng Cui

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanofluids are a new generation of high-efficiency refrigerant with abnormal increased thermal conductivity and convective heat transfer properties. In view of the paucity of research work on the contribution of nanoparticle Brownian motion for the thermal conductivity augmentation, the present paper carries out a series of MD simulations to explorer the order of magnitude of nanoparticle Brownian motion and discusses the effect of nanoparticle Brownian motion for thermal conductivity enhancement of nanofluids. Various influence factors including nanoparticle shapes, sizes, and materials are considered. The Brownian motion of nanoparticles is decomposed into rotation and migration and calculated by MD simulation. By means of Peclet number, the effect of nanoparticle Brownian motion for thermal conductivity enhancement of nanofluids is discussed.

  15. Dynamics of supercooled liquids: excess wings, β peaks, and rotation-translation coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, H Z

    2005-01-01

    Dielectric susceptibility spectra of liquids cooled towards the liquid-glass transition often exhibit secondary structure in the frequency region between the α peak and the susceptibility minimum, in the form of either an 'excess wing' or a secondary peak-the Johari-Goldstein β peak. Recently, Goetze and Sperl (2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 105701) showed that a simple schematic mode coupling theory model, which incorporates rotation-translation (RT) coupling, successfully describes the nearly logarithmic decay observed in optical Kerr effect data. This model also exhibits both excess wing and β peak features, qualitatively resembling experimental dielectric data. It also predicts that the excess wing slope decreases with decreasing temperature and gradually evolves into a β peak with increasing RT coupling. We therefore suggest that these features and their observed evolution with temperature may be consequences of RT coupling

  16. Dynamic NMR studies of restricted arene rotation in the chromiu tricarbonyl thiophene and selenophene complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanger, Michael J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1994-05-27

    This thesis contains the results of organometallic studies of thiophene and selenophene coordination in transition metal complexes. Chromium tricarbonyl complexes of thiophene, selenophene, and their alkyl-substituted derivatives were prepared and variable-temperature 13C NMR spectra of these complexes were recorded in dimethyl ether. Bandshape analyses of these spectra yielded activation parameters for restricted rotation of the thiophene and selenophene ligands in these complexes. Extended Hueckel molecular orbital calculations (EHMO) of the free thiophene and selenophene ligands and selected chromium tricarbonyl thiophene complexes were performed to better explain the activation barriers of these complexes. The structure of Cr(CO)35-2,5-dimethylthiophene) was established by a single crystal X-ray diffraction study.

  17. GEODYNAMICS AS WAVE DYNAMICS OF THE MEDIUM COMPOSED OF ROTATING BLOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Vikulin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The geomedium block concept envisages that stresses in the medium composed of rotating blocks have torque and thus predetermine the medium's energy capacity (in terms of [Ponomarev, 2008]. The present paper describes the wave nature of the global geodynamic process taking place in the medium characterized by the existence of slow and fast rotation strain waves that are classified as a new type of waves. Movements may also occur as rheid, superplastic and/or superfluid motions and facilitate the formation of vortex geological structures in the geomedium.Our analysis of data on almost 800 strong volcanic eruptions shows that the magma chamber’s thickness is generally small, about 0.5 km, and this value is constant, independent of the volcanic process and predetermined by properties of the crust. A new magma chamber model is based on the idea of 'thermal explosion’/‘self-acceleration' manifested by intensive plastic movements along boundaries between the blocks in conditions of the low thermal conductivity of the geomedium. It is shown that if the solid rock in the magma chamber is overheated above its melting point, high stresses may occur in the surrounding area, and their elastic energy may amount to 1015 joules per 1 km3 of the overheated solid rock. In view of such stresses, it is possible to consider the interaction between volcano’s magma chambers as the migration of volcanic activity along the volcanic arc and provide an explanation of the interaction between volcanic activity and seismicity within the adjacent parallel arcs.The thin overheated interlayer/magma chamber concept may be valid for the entire Earth's crust. In our hypothesis, properties of the Moho are determined by the phase transition from the block structure of the crust to the nonblock structure of the upper mantle.

  18. A quantum dynamical study of the rotation of the dihydrogen ligand in the Fe(H)2(H2)(PEtPh2)3 coordination complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Megan E.; Eckert, Juergen; Aquino, Adelia J. A.; Poirier, Bill

    2018-04-01

    Progress in the hydrogen fuel field requires a clear understanding and characterization of how materials of interest interact with hydrogen. Due to the inherently quantum mechanical nature of hydrogen nuclei, any theoretical studies of these systems must be treated quantum dynamically. One class of material that has been examined in this context are dihydrogen complexes. Since their discovery by Kubas in 1984, many such complexes have been studied both experimentally and theoretically. This particular study examines the rotational dynamics of the dihydrogen ligand in the Fe(H)2(H2)(PEtPh2)3 complex, allowing for full motion in both the rotational degrees of freedom and treating the quantum dynamics (QD) explicitly. A "gas-phase" global potential energy surface is first constructed using density functional theory with the Becke, 3-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr functional; this is followed by an exact QD calculation of the corresponding rotation/libration states. The results provide insight into the dynamical correlation of the two rotation angles as well as a comprehensive analysis of both ground- and excited-state librational tunneling splittings. The latter was computed to be 6.914 cm-1—in excellent agreement with the experimental value of 6.4 cm-1. This work represents the first full-dimensional ab initio exact QD calculation ever performed for dihydrogen ligand rotation in a coordination complex.

  19. Total internal reflection and dynamic light scattering microscopy of gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, Brian F.

    Two different techniques which apply optical microscopy in novel ways to the study of biological systems and materials were built and applied to several samples. The first is a system for adapting the well-known technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS) to an optical microscope. This can detect and scatter light from very small volumes, as compared to standard DLS which studies light scattering from volumes 1000x larger. The small scattering volume also allows for the observation of nonergodic dynamics in appropriate samples. Porcine gastric mucin (PGM) forms a gel at low pH which lines the epithelial cell layer and acts as a protective barrier against the acidic stomach environment. The dynamics and microscopic viscosity of PGM at different pH levels is studied using polystyrene microspheres as tracer particles. The microscopic viscosity and microrheological properties of the commercial basement membrane Matrigel are also studied with this instrument. Matrigel is frequently used to culture cells and its properties remain poorly determined. Well-characterized and purely synthetic Matrigel substitutes will need to have the correct rheological and morphological characteristics. The second instrument designed and built is a microscope which uses an interferometry technique to achieve an improvement in resolution 2.5x better in one dimension than the Abbe diffraction limit. The technique is based upon the interference of the evanescent field generated on the surface of a prism by a laser in a total internal reflection geometry. The enhanced resolution is demonstrated with fluorescent samples. Additionally. Raman imaging microscopy is demonstrated using the evanescent field in resonant and non-resonant samples, although attempts at applying the enhanced resolution technique to the Raman images were ultimately unsuccessful. Applications of this instrument include high resolution imaging of cell membranes and macroscopic structures in gels and proteins. Finally, a third

  20. (Pseudo-Goldstone boson interaction in D=2+1 systems with a spontaneously broken internal rotation symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph P. Hofmann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The low-temperature properties of systems characterized by a spontaneously broken internal rotation symmetry, O(N→O(N−1, are governed by Goldstone bosons and can be derived systematically within effective Lagrangian field theory. In the present study we consider systems living in two spatial dimensions, and evaluate their partition function at low temperatures and weak external fields up to three-loop order. Although our results are valid for any such system, here we use magnetic terminology, i.e., we refer to quantum spin systems. We discuss the sign of the (pseudo-Goldstone boson interaction in the pressure, staggered magnetization, and susceptibility as a function of an external staggered field for general N. As it turns out, the d=2+1 quantum XY model (N=2 and the d=2+1 Heisenberg antiferromagnet (N=3, are rather special, as they represent the only cases where the spin-wave interaction in the pressure is repulsive in the whole parameter regime where the effective expansion applies. Remarkably, the d=2+1 XY model is the only system where the interaction contribution in the staggered magnetization (susceptibility tends to positive (negative values at low temperatures and weak external field.

  1. Investigation of the Unsteady Total Pressure Profile Corresponding to Counter-Rotating Vortices in an Internal Flow Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Kathryn; Morris, Scott; Jemcov, Aleksandar; Cameron, Joshua

    2013-11-01

    The interaction of components in a compressible, internal flow often results in unsteady interactions between the wakes and moving blades. A prime example in which this flow feature is of interest is the interaction between the downstream rotor blades in a transonic axial compressor with the wake vortices shed from the upstream inlet guide vane (IGV). Previous work shows that a double row of counter-rotating vortices convects downstream into the rotor passage as a result of the rotor blade bow shock impinging on the IGV. The rotor-relative time-mean total pressure distribution has a region of high total pressure corresponding to the pathline of the vortices. The present work focuses on the relationship between the magnitude of the time-mean rotor-relative total pressure profile and the axial spacing between the IGV and the rotor. A survey of different axial gap sizes is performed in a two-dimensional computational study to obtain the sensitivity of the pressure profile amplitude to IGV-rotor axial spacing.

  2. Internal proton transfer and H2 rotations in the H5(+) cluster: a marked influence on its thermal equilibrium state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tudela, Ricardo Pérez; Barragán, Patricia; Prosmiti, Rita; Villarreal, Pablo; Delgado-Barrio, Gerardo

    2011-03-31

    Classical and path integral Monte Carlo (CMC, PIMC) "on the fly" calculations are carried out to investigate anharmonic quantum effects on the thermal equilibrium structure of the H5(+) cluster. The idea to follow in our computations is based on using a combination of the above-mentioned nuclear classical and quantum statistical methods, and first-principles density functional (DFT) electronic structure calculations. The interaction energies are computed within the DFT framework using the B3(H) hybrid functional, specially designed for hydrogen-only systems. The global minimum of the potential is predicted to be a nonplanar configuration of C(2v) symmetry, while the next three low-lying stationary points on the surface correspond to extremely low-energy barriers for the internal proton transfer and to the rotation of the H2 molecules, around the C2 axis of H5(+), connecting the symmetric C(2v) minima in the planar and nonplanar orientations. On the basis of full-dimensional converged PIMC calculations, results on the quantum vibrational zero-point energy (ZPE) and state of H5(+) are reported at a low temperature of 10 K, and the influence of the above-mentioned topological features of the surface on its probability distributions is clearly demonstrated.

  3. Internal differential rotation of the Sun: the P-modes frequency splitting in the measurements of brightness oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didkovskij, L.V.

    1989-01-01

    a 12-DAY SERIES OF TWO-DIMNIONAL IMAGES OF SOLAR BRIGHTNESS OSCILLATIONS EIGENFREQUENCIES in the range of 6-32 degrees. The rotational frequency splitting of separate modes as a function of inner turn-points radius of acoustic waves is found. The results of the analysis shw fast rotation of the central region of the Sun and non-monotonous trend of angular rotation velocity varitions with radius of the boundary of solar core

  4. Water and nitrogen dynamics in rotational woodlots of five tree species in western Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyadzi, G.I.; Janssen, B.H.; Otsyina, R.M.; Booltink, H.W.G.; Ong, C.K.; Oenema, O.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of woodlots of five tree species, continuous maize (Zea mays L.) and natural fallow on soil water and nitrogen dynamics in western Tanzania. The tree species evaluated were Acacia crassicarpa (A. Cunn. ex Benth.), Acacia julifera ( Berth.),

  5. Rotations with Rodrigues' vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, E

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears to be a fundamental matrix that is used to express the components of the angular velocity, the rotation matrix and the angular momentum vector. The Hamiltonian formalism of rotational dynamics in terms of this vector uses the same matrix. The quantization of the rotational dynamics is performed with simple rules if one uses Rodrigues' vector and similar formal expressions for the quantum operators that mimic the Hamiltonian classical dynamics.

  6. Sheared Rotation Effects on Kinetic Stability in Enhanced Confinement Tokamak Plasmas, and Nonlinear Dynamics of Fluctuations and Flows in Axisymmetric Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, M.A.; Chance, M.S.; Hahm, T.S.; Lin, Z.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    Sheared rotation dynamics are widely believed to have signficant influence on experimentally observed confinement transitions in advanced operating modes in major tokamak experiments, such as the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [D.J. Grove and D.M. Meade, Nuclear Fusion 25, 1167 (1985)], with reversed magnetic shear regions in the plasma interior. The high-n toroidal drift modes destabilized by the combined effects of ion temperature gradients and trapped particles in toroidal geometry can be strongly affected by radially sheared toroidal and poloidal plasma rotation. In previous work with the FULL linear microinstability code, a simplified rotation model including only toroidal rotation was employed, and results were obtained. Here, a more complete rotation model, that includes contributions from toroidal and poloidal rotation and the ion pressure gradient to the total radial electric field, is used for a proper self-consistent treatment of this key problem. Relevant advanced operating mode cases for TFTR are presented. In addition, the complementary problem of the dynamics of fluctuation-driven E x B flow is investigated by an integrated program of gyrokinetic simulation in annulus geometry and gyrofluid simulation in flux tube geometry

  7. Expanding the FCI to Eevaluate Conceptual Mastery of Energy, Momentum, and Rotational Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chediak, Alex; Hay, Katrina

    2010-03-01

    Normalized gain on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has deservedly become a widely accepted assessment tool to evaluate conceptual mastery in a high school, college, or university-level mechanics course. Left out of this assessment, however, are important physics concepts typically presented in the same course. Conservation of energy and momentum as well as rotational motion receive scant (if any) coverage on the FCI (or, for that matter, the Mechanics Baseline Test). Yet these concepts are foundational for popular majors such as mechanical engineering, where high failure rates are often a concern. A revised assessment tool is presented, one that incorporates the strengths of the FCI (and preserves the straightforward multiple choice format), but assesses these other mechanics-related concepts. Ten additional questions are included, inspired in part by material from the Physics Education Group at the University of Washington and in part by the authors' own experiences with common student misperceptions. The questions are given as pre- and post tests at the authors' institutions, California Baptist University and Pacific Lutheran University, in both calculus-based and algebra-based mechanics courses, exploring breadth of applicability for our findings. We present normalized gain data for the traditional thirty FCI questions and for our ten additional questions.

  8. Coupled SU(3) models of rotational states in nuclei and quasi-dynamical symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiamova, G.; Rowe, D. J.

    2007-01-01

    This contribution reports a first step towards the development of a model of low-lying nuclear collective states based on the progression from weak to strong coupling of a combination of systems in multiple SU(3) irreps. The motivation for such a model comes partly from the remarkable persistence of rotational structure observed experimentally and in many model calculations. This work considers the spectra obtainable by coupling just two SU(3) irreps by means of a quadrupole-quadrupole interaction. For a particular value of this interaction, the two irreps combine to form strongly-coupled irreps while for zero interaction the weakly-coupled results are mixtures of many such strongly-coupled irreps. A notable result is the persistence of the rotor character of the low-energy states for a wide range of the interaction strength. Also notable is the fact that, for very weak interaction strengths, the energy levels of the yrast band resemble those of a vibrational sequence while the B(E2) transition strengths remain close to those of an axially symmetric rotor, as observed in many nuclei. (Author)

  9. Measurement Research of Motorized Spindle Dynamic Stiffness under High Speed Rotating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High speed motorized spindle has become a key functional unit of high speed machine tools and effectively promotes the development of machine tool technology. The development of higher speed and more power puts forward the stricter requirement for the performance of motorized spindle, especially the dynamic performance which affects the machining accuracy, reliability, and production efficiency. To overcome the problems of ineffective loading and dynamic performance measurement of motorized spindle, a noncontact electromagnetic loading device is developed. The cutting load can be simulated by using electromagnetic force. A new method of measuring force by force sensors is presented, and the steady and transient loading force could be measured exactly. After the high speed machine spindle is tested, the frequency response curves of the spindle relative to machine table are collected at 0~12000 rpm; then the relationships between stiffness and speeds as well as between damping ratio and speeds are obtained. The result shows that not only the static and dynamic stiffness but also the damping ratio declined with the increase of speed.

  10. Inpatient Hematology-Oncology Rotation Is Associated With a Decreased Interest in Pursuing an Oncology Career Among Internal Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Daniel C; Holland, Jimmie; Holcombe, Randall F

    2015-07-01

    The demand for hematologists and oncologists is not being met. We hypothesized that an inpatient hematology-oncology ward rotation would increase residents' interest. Potential reasons mitigating interest were explored and included differences in physician distress, empathy, resilience, and patient death experiences. Agreement with the statement "I am interested in pursuing a career/fellowship in hematology and oncology" was rated by residents before and after a hematology-oncology rotation, with 0 = not true at all, 1 = rarely true, 2 = sometimes true, 3 = often true, and 4 = true nearly all the time. House staff rotating on a hematology-oncology service from November 2013 to October 2014 also received questionnaires before and after their rotations containing the Connors-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, demographic information, and number of dying patients cared for and if a sense of meaning was derived from that experience. Fifty-six residents completed both before- and after-rotation questionnaires (response rate, 58%). The mean interest score was 1.43 initially and decreased to 1.24 after the rotation (P = .301). Female residents' mean score was 1.13 initially and dropped to 0.81 after the rotation (P = .04). Male residents' mean score was 1.71 initially and 1.81 after the rotation (P = .65). Decreased hematology-oncology interest correlated with decreased empathy; male interest decrease correlated with decreased resilience. An inpatient hematology-oncology ward rotation does not lead to increased interest and, for some residents, may lead to decreased interest in the field. Encouraging outpatient hematology-oncology rotations and the cultivation of resilience, empathy, and meaning regarding death experiences may increase resident interest. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  11. DYNAMIC TENSILE TESTING WITH A LARGE SCALE 33 MJ ROTATING DISK IMPACT MACHINE

    OpenAIRE

    Kussmaul , K.; Zimmermann , C.; Issler , W.

    1985-01-01

    A recently completed testing machine for dynamic tensile tests is described. The machine consists essentially of a pendulum which holds the specimen and a large steel disk with a double striking nose fixed to its circumference. Disk diameter measures 2000 mm, while its mass is 6400 kg. The specimens to be tested are tensile specimens with a diameter of up to 20 mm and 300 mm length or CT 15 specimens at various temperatures. Loading velocity ranges from 1 to 150 m/s. The process of specimen-n...

  12. Noninjured Knees of Patients With Noncontact ACL Injuries Display Higher Average Anterior and Internal Rotational Knee Laxity Compared With Healthy Knees of a Noninjured Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, Caroline; Theisen, Daniel; Meyer, Tim; Agostinis, Hélène; Nührenbörger, Christian; Pape, Dietrich; Seil, Romain

    2015-08-01

    Excessive physiological anterior and rotational knee laxity is thought to be a risk factor for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries and inferior reconstruction outcomes, but no thresholds have been established to identify patients with increased laxity. (1) To determine if the healthy contralateral knees of ACL-injured patients have greater anterior and rotational knee laxity, leading to different laxity profiles (combination of laxities), compared with healthy control knees and (2) to set a threshold to help discriminate anterior and rotational knee laxity between these groups. Case-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 171 healthy contralateral knees of noncontact ACL-injured patients (ACL-H group) and 104 healthy knees of control participants (CTL group) were tested for anterior and rotational laxity. Laxity scores (measurements corrected for sex and body mass) were used to classify knees as hypolax (score 1). Proportions of patients in each group were compared using χ(2) tests. Receiver operating characteristic curves were computed to discriminate laxity between the groups. Odds ratios were calculated to determine the probability of being in the ACL-H group. The ACL-H group displayed greater laxity scores for anterior displacement and internal rotation in their uninjured knee compared with the CTL group (P knees of patients with noncontact ACL injuries display different laxity values both for internal rotation and anterior displacement compared with healthy control knees. The identification of knee laxity profiles may be of relevance for primary and secondary prevention programs of noncontact ACL injuries. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Evaluation of hip internal and external rotation range of motion as an injury risk factor for hip, abdominal and groin injuries in professional baseball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinning Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal hip range of motion (ROM is essential in running and transfer of energy from lower to upper extremities during overhead throwing. Dysfunctional hip ROM may alter lower extremity kinematics and predispose athletes to hip and groin injuries. The purpose of this study is characterize hip internal/external ROM (Arc and its effect on the risk of hip, hamstring, and groin injuries in professional baseball players. Bilateral hip internal and external ROM was measured on all baseball players (N=201 in one professional organization (major and minor league during spring training. Players were organized according to their respective positions. All injuries were documented prospectively for an entire MLB season (2010 to 2011. Data was analyzed according to position and injuries during the season. Total number of players (N=201 with an average age of 24±3.6 (range=17-37. Both pitchers (N=93 and catchers (N=22 had significantly decreased mean hip internal rotation and overall hip arc of motion compared to the positional players (N=86. Players with hip, groin, and hamstring injury also had decreased hip rotation arc when compared to the normal group. Overall, there is a correlation between decreased hip internal rotation and total arc of motion with hip, hamstring, and groin injuries.

  14. A study of internal energy relaxation in shocks using molecular dynamics based models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zheng; Parsons, Neal; Levin, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent potential energy surfaces (PESs) for the N 2 + N and N 2 + N 2 systems are used in molecular dynamics (MD) to simulate rates of vibrational and rotational relaxations for conditions that occur in hypersonic flows. For both chemical systems, it is found that the rotational relaxation number increases with the translational temperature and decreases as the rotational temperature approaches the translational temperature. The vibrational relaxation number is observed to decrease with translational temperature and approaches the rotational relaxation number in the high temperature region. The rotational and vibrational relaxation numbers are generally larger in the N 2 + N 2 system. MD-quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) with the PESs is also used to calculate the V-T transition cross sections, the collision cross section, and the dissociation cross section for each collision pair. Direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) results for hypersonic flow over a blunt body with the total collision cross section from MD/QCT simulations, Larsen-Borgnakke with new relaxation numbers, and the N 2 dissociation rate from MD/QCT show a profile with a decreased translational temperature and a rotational temperature close to vibrational temperature. The results demonstrate that many of the physical models employed in DSMC should be revised as fundamental potential energy surfaces suitable for high temperature conditions become available

  15. Population dynamics of Meloidogyne arenaria and Pasteuria penetrans in a long-term crop rotation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timper, Patricia

    2009-12-01

    The endospore-forming bacterium Pasteuria penetrans is an obligate parasite of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of crop sequence on abundance of P. penetrans. The experiment was conducted from 2000 to 2008 at a field site naturally infested with both the bacterium and its host Meloidogyne arenaria and included the following crop sequences: continuous peanut (Arachis hypogaea) (P-P-P) and peanut rotated with either 2 years of corn (Zea mays) (C-C-P), 1 year each of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and corn (Ct-C-P), or 1 year each of corn and a vegetable (V-C-P). The vegetable was a double crop of sweet corn and eggplant (Solanum melongena). A bioassay with second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. arenaria from a greenhouse (GH) population was used to estimate endospore abundance under the different crop sequences. A greater numerical increase in endospore densities was expected in the P-P-P and V-C-P sequences than in the other sequences because both peanut and eggplant are good hosts for M. arenaria. However, endospore densities, as determined by bioassay, did not substantially increase in any of the sequences during the 9-year experiment. To determine whether the nematode population had developed resistance to the resident P. penetrans, five single egg-mass (SEM) lines from the field population of M. arenaria were tested alongside the GH population for acquisition of endospores from the field soil. Four of the five SEM lines acquired 9 to 14 spores/J2 whereas the GH population and one of the SEM lines acquired 3.5 and 1.8 spores/J2, respectively. Endospore densities estimated with the four receptive SEM lines were highest in the P-P-P plots (14-20 spores/J2), intermediate in the V-C-P plots (6-7 spores/J2), and lowest in the Ct-C-P plots (< 1 spore/J2). These results indicate that the field population of M. arenaria is heterogeneous for attachment of P. penetrans endospores. Moreover, spore densities

  16. Population Dynamics of Meloidogyne arenaria and Pasteuria penetrans in a Long-Term Crop Rotation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The endospore-forming bacterium Pasteuria penetrans is an obligate parasite of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of crop sequence on abundance of P. penetrans. The experiment was conducted from 2000 to 2008 at a field site naturally infested with both the bacterium and its host Meloidogyne arenaria and included the following crop sequences: continuous peanut (Arachis hypogaea) (P-P-P) and peanut rotated with either 2 years of corn (Zea mays) (C-C-P), 1 year each of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and corn (Ct-C-P), or 1 year each of corn and a vegetable (V-C-P). The vegetable was a double crop of sweet corn and eggplant (Solanum melongena). A bioassay with second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. arenaria from a greenhouse (GH) population was used to estimate endospore abundance under the different crop sequences. A greater numerical increase in endospore densities was expected in the P-P-P and V-C-P sequences than in the other sequences because both peanut and eggplant are good hosts for M. arenaria. However, endospore densities, as determined by bioassay, did not substantially increase in any of the sequences during the 9-year experiment. To determine whether the nematode population had developed resistance to the resident P. penetrans, five single egg-mass (SEM) lines from the field population of M. arenaria were tested alongside the GH population for acquisition of endospores from the field soil. Four of the five SEM lines acquired 9 to 14 spores/J2 whereas the GH population and one of the SEM lines acquired 3.5 and 1.8 spores/J2, respectively. Endospore densities estimated with the four receptive SEM lines were highest in the P-P-P plots (14-20 spores/J2), intermediate in the V-C-P plots (6-7 spores/J2), and lowest in the Ct-C-P plots (< 1 spore/J2). These results indicate that the field population of M. arenaria is heterogeneous for attachment of P. penetrans endospores. Moreover, spore densities

  17. Detection of acute traumatic coagulopathy and massive transfusion requirements by means of rotational thromboelastometry: an international prospective validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemo, Jostein S; Christiaans, Sarah C; Stanworth, Simon J; Brohi, Karim; Johansson, Pär I; Goslings, J Carel; Naess, Paal A; Gaarder, Christine

    2015-03-23

    The purpose of this study was to re-evaluate the findings of a smaller cohort study on the functional definition and characteristics of acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC). We also aimed to identify the threshold values for the most accurate identification of ATC and prediction of massive transfusion (MT) using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) assays. In this prospective international multicentre cohort study, adult trauma patients who met the local criteria for full trauma team activation from four major trauma centres were included. Blood was collected on arrival to the emergency department and analyzed with laboratory international normalized ratio (INR), fibrinogen concentration and two ROTEM assays (EXTEM and FIBTEM). ATC was defined as laboratory INR >1.2. Transfusion requirements of ≥10 units of packed red blood cells within 24 hours were defined as MT. Performance of the tests were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curves, and calculation of area under the curve (AUC). Optimal cutoff points were estimated based on Youden index. In total, 808 patients were included in the study. Among the ROTEM parameters, the largest AUCs were found for the clot amplitude (CA) 5 value in both the EXTEM and FIBTEM assays. EXTEM CA5 threshold value of ≤37 mm had a detection rate of 66.3% for ATC. An EXTEM CA5 threshold value of ≤40 mm predicted MT in 72.7%. FIBTEM CA5 threshold value of ≤8 mm detected ATC in 67.5%, and a FIBTEM CA5 threshold value ≤9 mm predicted MT in 77.5%. Fibrinogen concentration ≤1.6 g/L detected ATC in 73.6% and a fibrinogen concentration ≤1.90 g/L predicted MT in 77.8%. Patients with either an EXTEM or FIBTEM CA5 below the optimum detection threshold for ATC received significantly more packed red blood cells and plasma. This study confirms previous findings of ROTEM CA5 as a valid marker for ATC and predictor for MT. With optimum threshold for EXTEM CA5 ≤ 40 mm and FIBTEM CA5 ≤ 9 mm, sensitivity is 72

  18. Linking partial and quasi dynamical symmetries in rotational nuclei and shell evolution in {sup 96}Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, Christoph

    2016-01-27

    The first part of this thesis revolves around symmetries in the sd-IBA-1. A region of approximate O(6) symmetry for the ground-state band, a partial dynamical symmetry (PDS) of type III, in the parameter space of the extended consistent-Q formalism is identified through quantum number fluctuations. The simultaneous occurrence of a SU(3) quasi dynamical symmetry for nuclei in the region of O(6) PDS is explained via the β=1, γ=0 intrinsic state underlying the ground-state band. The previously unrelated concepts of PDS and QDS are connected for the first time and many nuclei in the rare earth region that approximately satisfy both symmetry requirements are identified. Ground-state to ground-state (p, t) transfer reactions are presented as an experimental signature to identify pairs of nuclei that both exhibit O(6) PDS. In the second part of this thesis inelastic electron scattering off {sup 96}Zr is studied. The experiment was performed at the high resolution Lintott spectrometer at the S-DALINAC and covered a momentum-transfer range of 0.28 - 0.59 fm{sup -1}. Through a relative analysis using Plane Wave Born Approximation (PWBA) the B(E2;2{sup +}{sub 2}→0{sup +}{sub 1}) value is extracted without incurring the additional model dependence of a Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA). By combining this result with known multipole mixing ratios and branching ratios all decay strengths of the 2{sup +}{sub 2} state are determined. A mixing calculation establishes very weak mixing (V{sub mix}=76 keV) between states of the ground-state band and those of the band build on top of the 0{sup +}{sub 2} state which includes the 2{sup +}{sub 2} state. The occurrence of these two isolated bands is interpreted within the shell model in terms of type II shell evolution.

  19. Understand rotating isothermal collapses yet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohline, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    A scalar virial equation is used to describe the dynamic properties of equilibrium gas clouds, taking into account the relative effects of surface pressure, rotation, self gravity and internal isothermal pressure. Details concerning the internal structure of the clouds are ignored in order to obtain a globalized analytical expression. The obtained solution to the equation is found to agree with the surface-pressure-dominated model of Stahler (1983), and the rotation-dominated model of Hayashi, Narita, and Miyama (1982). On the basis of the analytical expression of virial equilibrium in the clouds, some of the limiting properties of isothermal clouds are described, and a realistic starting model for cloud collapse is proposed. 18 references

  20. Modeling the dynamics of internal flooding - verification analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipov, K.

    2011-01-01

    The results from conducted software WATERFOW's verification analysis, developed for the purposes of reactor building internal flooding analysis have been presented. For the purpose of benchmarking the integrated code MELCOR is selected. Considering the complex structure of reactor building, the sample tests were used to cover the characteristic points of the internal flooding analysis. The inapplicability of MELCOR to the internal flooding study has been proved

  1. Dynamics of forage accumulation in Elephant grass subjected to rotational grazing intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Maia de Lana Sousa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the accumulation dynamics of forage and its components in Elephant grass cv. Napier (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. that were subjected to three post-grazing height treatments (30, 50, and 70 cm from February through May 2009 (experiment one and December 2009 through May 2010 (experiment two. In experiment one, the grazing events started when the light interception by the canopy reached 95%. The same was adopted for experiment two, except for the first grazing event, which was based on the height of the apical meristems of basal tillers. The experimental design for both experiments was a randomized complete block with three replications. The pastures that were managed at a post-grazing height of 30 cm exhibited lower rates of leaf and stem growth, total growth and forage accumulation than those that were managed at 50 or 70 cm, indicating that post-grazing height affects Elephant grass. The pastures that were managed at 50 cm exhibited relatively stable accumulation rates and less stem accumulation. Pastures managed at 70 cm of pos-grazing height presented more leaf and stem accumulation. Most apical meristems of Elephant grass should be removed in the first grazing when they reach the post-grazing target height of 50 cm. The elevation in the residual post-grazing height, especially in the summer, raises the regrowth vigor in the Elephant grass cv. Napier pasture. The post-grazing height of 30 cm reduces the growth of the Elephant grass cv. Napier.

  2. Dynamic Torsional and Cyclic Fracture Behavior of ProFile Rotary Instruments at Continuous or Reciprocating Rotation as Visualized with High-speed Digital Video Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokita, Daisuke; Ebihara, Arata; Miyara, Kana; Okiji, Takashi

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the dynamic fracture behavior of nickel-titanium rotary instruments in torsional or cyclic loading at continuous or reciprocating rotation by means of high-speed digital video imaging. The ProFile instruments (size 30, 0.06 taper; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) were categorized into 4 groups (n = 7 in each group) as follows: torsional/continuous (TC), torsional/reciprocating (TR), cyclic/continuous (CC), and cyclic/reciprocating (CR). Torsional loading was performed by rotating the instruments by holding the tip with a vise. For cyclic loading, a custom-made device with a 38° curvature was used. Dynamic fracture behavior was observed with a high-speed camera. The time to fracture was recorded, and the fractured surface was examined with scanning electron microscopy. The TC group initially exhibited necking of the file followed by the development of an initial crack line. The TR group demonstrated opening and closing of a crack according to its rotation in the cutting and noncutting directions, respectively. The CC group separated without any detectable signs of deformation. In the CR group, initial crack formation was recognized in 5 of 7 samples. The reciprocating rotation exhibited a longer time to fracture in both torsional and cyclic fatigue testing (P rotary instruments, as visualized with high-speed digital video imaging, varied between the different modes of rotation and different fatigue testing. Reciprocating rotation induced a slower crack propagation and conferred higher fatigue resistance than continuous rotation in both torsional and cyclic loads. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dynamics of International Reserve Accumulation in Turkish Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Ayhan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many of the emerging market economies embody macroeconomic and structural vulnerabilities due to large deficits, high inflation, slowing growth and heavy reliance on short-term capital inflows. Therefore, accumulation of international reserve holdings has been frequently used by authorities to serve as an insurance against the volatility of the capital flows and strengthen the fragile nature of these economies. Turkish economy, classified as one of the most fragile of the emerging economies, has been experiencing a similar process of international reserve accumulation. The chronically high current account deficit and low savings rate boost the importance of international reserves. Thus, the aim of this paper is to investigate the determinants of international reserves in Turkey. The dataset covers the 2000-2013 period. Consequently, we find that the international reserve accumulation is mainly explained by current account balance, per capita income and past crisis experience.

  4. The broadband microwave spectra of the monoterpenoids thymol and carvacrol: Conformational landscape and internal dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, D.; Shubert, V. A. [Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Hamburg (Germany); The Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Giuliano, B. M. [Center for Astrobiology, INTA-CSIC, Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Schnell, M., E-mail: melanie.schnell@mpsd.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Hamburg (Germany); The Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); The Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-07-21

    The rotational spectra of the monoterpenoids thymol and carvacrol are reported in the frequency range 2–8.5 GHz, obtained with broadband Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy. For carvacrol four different conformations were identified in the cold conditions of the molecular jet, whereas only three conformations were observed for thymol. The rotational constants and other molecular parameters are reported and compared with quantum chemical calculations. For both molecules, line splittings due to methyl group internal rotation were observed and the resulting barrier heights could be determined. The experimental barrier heights, 4.0863(25) kJ/mol for trans-carvacrol-A, 4.4024(16) kJ/mol for trans-carvacrol-B, and 0.3699(11) kJ/mol for trans-thymol-A, are compared with similar molecules.

  5. The broadband microwave spectra of the monoterpenoids thymol and carvacrol: Conformational landscape and internal dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, D.; Shubert, V. A.; Giuliano, B. M.; Schnell, M.

    2014-01-01

    The rotational spectra of the monoterpenoids thymol and carvacrol are reported in the frequency range 2–8.5 GHz, obtained with broadband Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy. For carvacrol four different conformations were identified in the cold conditions of the molecular jet, whereas only three conformations were observed for thymol. The rotational constants and other molecular parameters are reported and compared with quantum chemical calculations. For both molecules, line splittings due to methyl group internal rotation were observed and the resulting barrier heights could be determined. The experimental barrier heights, 4.0863(25) kJ/mol for trans-carvacrol-A, 4.4024(16) kJ/mol for trans-carvacrol-B, and 0.3699(11) kJ/mol for trans-thymol-A, are compared with similar molecules

  6. MUSCLE ACTIVITY RESPONSE TO EXTERNAL MOMENT DURING SINGLE-LEG DROP LANDING IN YOUNG BASKETBALL PLAYERS: THE IMPORTANCE OF BICEPS FEMORIS IN REDUCING INTERNAL ROTATION OF KNEE DURING LANDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meguru Fujii

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Internal tibial rotation with the knee close to full extension combined with valgus collapse during drop landing generally results in non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between internal rotation of the knee and muscle activity from internal and external rotator muscles, and between the internal rotation of knee and externally applied loads on the knee during landing in collegiate basketball players. Our hypothesis was that the activity of biceps femoris muscle would be an important factor reducing internal knee rotation during landing. The subjects were 10 collegiate basketball students: 5 females and 5 males. The subjects performed a single-leg drop landing from a 25-cm height. Femoral and tibial kinematics were measured using a 3D optoelectronic tracking system during the drop landings, and then the knee angular motions were determined. Ground reaction forces and muscle activation patterns (lateral hamstring and medial hamstring were simultaneously measured and computed. Results indicated that lower peak internal tibial rotation angle at the time of landing was associated with greater lateral hamstring activity (r = -0.623, p < 0.001. When gender was considered, the statistically significant correlation remained only in females. There was no association between the peak internal tibial rotation angle and the knee internal rotation moment. Control of muscle activity in the lateral to medial hamstring would be an important factor in generating sufficient force to inhibit excessive internal rotation during landing. Strengthening the biceps femoris might mitigate the higher incidence of non-contact ACL injury in female athletes

  7. Reversed sense of the ''outward'' direction for dynamical effects of rotation close to a Schwarzschild black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, M.A.; Prasanna, A.R.

    1988-10-01

    Anderson and Lemos (1988) noticed that the direction in which viscous torque transports angular momentum changes, close to a black hole, from outwards to inwards. We find here that close to a black hole the centrifugal force attracts particles towards the hole. We argue that these are particular examples of a general reversal in sense of the inward and outward directions for all dynamical effects of rotation close to the hole. Using results from the recent paper by Abramowicz, Carter and Lasota (1988) we explain that the reversal is not connected with dragging of inertial frames or with the difference between the angular velocities of the hole and of the surrounding matter but rather, it is an effect of curvature. For a Schwarzschild black hole the reversal takes place at the circular photon orbit (r=3M-tilde) because the geodesic curvature, R-tilde=r(1-3M-tilde/r), of the circles r = const. changes its sign there. (author). 13 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  8. Stabilization of Rigid Body Dynamics by Internal and External Torques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bloch, A. M; Krishnaprasad, P. S; Marsden, J. E; Sanchez de Alvarez, G

    1990-01-01

    ...] with quadratic feedback torques for internal rotors. We show that with such torques, the equations for the rigid body with momentum wheels are Hamiltonian with respect to a Lie-Poisson bracket structure. Further...

  9. Internal and external dynamics of regional cooperation in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzokhid Rakhimov

    2010-07-01

    Challenges of the 21-century require a broader partnership and cooperation. Future prospects of multilateral regional and international cooperation in Central Asia will depend on correlations of national, regional and global interests. It is necessary first of all strong dialogs between Central Asian republics itself. Central Asian geopolitical, economic and security challenges are connected and solution could come jointly. Future regional cooperation, strong international partnership would promote more stability, economic reforms and democratization to region and beyond.

  10. International Conference on Structural Nonlinear Dynamics and Diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    CSNDD 2012; CSNDD 2014

    2015-01-01

    This book, which presents the peer-reviewed post-proceedings of CSNDD 2012 and CSNDD 2014, addresses the important role that relevant concepts and tools from nonlinear and complex dynamics could play in present and future engineering applications. It includes 22 chapters contributed by outstanding researchers and covering various aspects of applications, including: structural health monitoring, diagnosis and damage detection, experimental methodologies, active vibration control and smart structures, passive control of structures using nonlinear energy sinks, vibro-impact dynamic MEMS/NEMS/AFM, energy-harvesting materials and structures, and time-delayed feedback control, as well as aspects of deterministic versus stochastic dynamics and control of nonlinear phenomena in physics.  Researchers and engineers interested in the challenges posed and opportunities offered by nonlinearities in the development of passive and active control strategies, energy harvesting, novel design criteria, modeling and characteriz...

  11. Energy harvesting by dynamic unstability and internal resonance for piezoelectric beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Chunbo; Qin, Weiyang, E-mail: 353481781@qq.com; Deng, Wangzheng [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2015-08-31

    We investigated the energy harvesting of a vertical beam with tip mass under vertical excitations. We applied dynamic unstability and internal resonance to improve the efficiency of harvesting. The experiments of harmonic excitation were carried out. Results show that for the beam there exist internal resonances in the dynamically unstable and the buckling bistable cases. The dynamic unstability is a determinant for strong internal resonance or mode coupling, which can be used to create a large output from piezoelectric patches. Then, the experiments of stochastic excitation were carried out. Results prove that the internal resonance or mode coupling can transfer the excitation energy to the low order modes, mainly the first and the second one. This can bring about a large output voltage. For a stochastic excitation, it is proved that there is an optimal weight of tip mass for realizing internal resonance and producing large outputs.

  12. 13th International Conference on Motion and Vibration Control (MOVIC 2016) and the 12th International Conference on Recent Advances in Structural Dynamics (RASD 2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at the Thirteenth International Conference on Motion and Vibration Control (MoViC), together with the Twelfth International Conference on Recent Advances in Structural Dynamics (RASD). MoViC is an event that started in Yokohama, Japan in 1992 and has been organised every two years alternating between Japan, USA and Europe. The eleven previous RASD conferences have been held every three years or so since 1980 primarily in Southampton, UK. The idea of joining the two conferences came quite naturally because of the common ground of the two conferences and the chances of cross-pollination between two otherwise separate research groups. This joint conference is devoted to theoretical, numerical and experimental developments in motion/vibration/structural dynamics, their control and application to all types of structures and dynamical systems. The conference reflects the state-of-the- art in these topics, and is an excellent opportunity to exchange scientific, technical and experimental ideas. The Conference Proceedings include over 250 papers by authors from over 20 countries, forty technical sessions and five plenary presentations. The five invited speakers are Professor Roger Goodall (Loughborough University, UK) presenting “Motion and vibration control for railway vehicles”, Professor Takeshi Mizuno (Saitama University, Japan) presenting “Recent advances in magnetic suspension technology”, Professor Kevin Murphy (University of Louisville, USA) presenting “Dynamics of Passive Balancing Rings for Rotating Systems”, Professor David Wagg (University of Sheffield, UK) presenting “Reducing vibrations in structures using structural control”, and Professor Kon-Well Wang (University of Michigan, USA) presenting “From Muscles to Plants - Nature-Inspired Adaptive Metastructures for Structural Dynamics Enhancement”. I would like to thank members of the Organising Committee for their help, over the last year or so, in

  13. Handbook of international insurance between global dynamics and local contingencies

    CERN Document Server

    Venard, Bertrand

    2007-01-01

    THE HANDBOOK OF INTERNATIONAL INSURANCE Gordon Stewart, President, Insurance Information Institute, New York, USA "The globalization of insurance markets means that understanding both international developments and local trends around the world is now fundamental for insurance executives coping with today’s complex and competitive environment. By providing such a comprehensive picture of the world’s insurance markets, this unique and necessary book becomes an essential tool for anyone seeking to operate wisely and successfully. Richard D. Phillips, Professor and Chairman, Department of Risk Management and Insurance, Georgia State University, Atlanta, USA "Comprehensive surveys, written by international experts, provide in depth descriptions and discuss recent developments of the world’s major insurance markets. Each chapter contains essential insights for insurance executives and academic researchers interested in risk management and the globalization of insurance markets." Patrick Liedtke, Secretary Ge...

  14. Effects of Rotation at Different Channel Orientations on the Flow Field inside a Trailing Edge Internal Cooling Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Pascotto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow field inside a cooling channel for the trailing edge of gas turbine blades has been numerically investigated with the aim to highlight the effects of channel rotation and orientation. A commercial 3D RANS solver including a SST turbulence model has been used to compute the isothermal steady air flow inside both static and rotating passages. Simulations were performed at a Reynolds number equal to 20000, a rotation number (Ro of 0, 0.23, and 0.46, and channel orientations of γ=0∘, 22.5°, and 45°, extending previous results towards new engine-like working conditions. The numerical results have been carefully validated against experimental data obtained by the same authors for conditions γ=0∘ and Ro = 0, 0.23. Rotation effects are shown to alter significantly the flow field inside both inlet and trailing edge regions. These effects are attenuated by an increase of the channel orientation from γ=0∘ to 45°.

  15. Internal dynamics of intense twin beams and their coherence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peřina Jr., J.; Haderka, Ondřej; Allevi, A.; Bondani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Feb (2016), 1-8, č. článku 22320. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : dynamics of intense * twin beams * pump-depleted parametric * down-conversion * coherence Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  16. Dynamical and statistical phenomena of circulation and heat transfer in periodically forced rotating turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterl, S.H.; Li, H.M.; Zhong, J.Q.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present results from an experimental study into turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection forced externally by periodically modulated unidirectional rotation rates. We find that the azimuthal rotation velocity θ(t) and thermal amplitude δ(t) of the large-scale circulation (LSC) are

  17. An outline of military technological dynamics as restraints for acquisition, international cooperation and domestic technological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édison Renato Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The expectation that technological returns from defense expenditure through acquisition, international cooperation and domestic research would further national development underappreciates the different technological dynamic of the armed services. This paper outlines the technological dynamic the stems from fighting in the air, at sea and on land, exemplifying consequences for the case of acquisition.

  18. A molecular dynamics study of nanoconfined water flow driven by rotating electric fields under realistic experimental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Luca, Sergio; Todd, Billy; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2014-01-01

    by an external spatially uniform rotating electric field and confined between two planar surfaces exposing different degrees of hydrophobicity. The permanent dipole moment of water follows the rotating field, thus inducing the molecules to spin, and the torque exerted by the field is continuously injected...... into the fluid, enabling a steady conversion of spin angular momentum into linear momentum. The translational–rotational coupling is a sensitive function of the rotating electric field parameters. In this work, we have found that there exists a small energy dissipation region attainable when the frequency...... of the rotating electric field matches the inverse of the dielectric relaxation time of water and when its amplitude lies in a range just before dielectric saturation effects take place. In this region, that is, when the frequency lies in a small window of the microwave region around ∼20 GHz and amplitude ∼0.03 V...

  19. International Workshop on Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, Alexander; Krommer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The papers in this volume present and discuss the frontiers in the mechanics of controlled machines and structures. They are based on papers presented at the International Workshop on Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines held in Vienna in September 2015. The workshop continues a series of international workshops held in Linz (2008) and St. Petersburg (2010).

  20. Performance Evaluation of a PID and a Fuzzy PID Controllers Designed for Controlling a Simulated Quadcopter Rotational Dynamics Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith Jasim Saud

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with designing two types of controllers, a PID and a Fuzzy PID, to be used for flying and stabilizing a quadcopter. The designed controllers have been tuned, tested, and compared using two performance indices which are the Integral Square Error (ISE and the Integral Absolute Error (IAE, and also some response characteristics like the rise time, overshoot, settling time, and the steady state error. To try and test the controllers, a quadcopter mathematical model has been developed. The model concentrated on the rotational dynamics of the quadcopter, i.e. the roll, pitch, and yaw variables. The work has been simulated with “MATLAB”. To make testing the simulated model and the controllers more realistic, the testing signals have been applied by a user through a joystick interfaced to the computer. The results obtained indicated a general superiority in performance for the Fuzzy PID controller over the PID controller used in this work. This conclusion is based by the following figures:lesser ISA for the roll, pitch, and yaw consequently, lesser IAE for the roll, pitch, and yaw consequently, lesser rise time and settling time for the roll and pitch consequently, and lesser settling time for the yaw. Moreover, the FPID gave zero overshoot versus and in the PID case for the roll, pitch, and yaw consequently. Both controllers gave zero steady state error with close rise times for the yaw. This superiority of the FPID controller is gained as the fuzzy part of it continuously and online adapts the parameters of the PID part.

  1. 5D quantum dynamics of the H{sub 2}@SWNT system: Quantitative study of the rotational-translational coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondelo-Martell, M.; Huarte-Larrañaga, F., E-mail: fermin.huarte@ub.edu [Departament de Química Física and Institut de Química Teòrica i Computacional (IQTCUB),Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franqués 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-02-28

    The dynamics of the dihydrogen molecule when confined in carbon nanotubes with different chiralities and diameters are studied by using a 5 dimensional model considering the most relevant degrees of freedom of the system. The nuclear eigenstates are calculated for an (8,0) and a (5,0) carbon nanotubes by the State-Average Multiconfigurational Time-dependent Hartree, and then studied using qualitative tools (mapping of the total wave functions onto given subspaces) and more rigorous analysis (different kinds of overlaps with reference functions). The qualitative analysis is seen to fail due to a strong coupling between the internal and translational degrees of freedom. Using more accurate tools allows us to gain a deeper insight into the behaviour of confined species.

  2. Surface ablation with iris recognition and dynamic rotational eye tracking-based tissue saving treatment with the Technolas 217z excimer laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Gaurav; Agarwal, Amar; Kumar, Dhivya Ashok; Jacob, Soosan; Agarwal, Athiya; Maity, Amrita

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the visual and refractive outcomes and expected benefits of Tissue Saving Treatment algorithm-guided surface ablation with iris recognition and dynamic rotational eye tracking. This prospective, interventional case series comprised 122 eyes (70 patients). Pre- and postoperative assessment included uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), refraction, and higher order aberrations. All patients underwent Tissue Saving Treatment algorithm-guided surface ablation with iris recognition and dynamic rotational eye tracking using the Technolas 217z 100-Hz excimer platform (Technolas Perfect Vision GmbH). Follow-up was performed up to 6 months postoperatively. Theoretical benefit analysis was performed to evaluate the algorithm's outcomes compared to others. Preoperative spherocylindrical power was sphere -3.62 ± 1.60 diopters (D) (range: 0 to -6.75 D), cylinder -1.15 ± 1.00 D (range: 0 to -3.50 D), and spherical equivalent -4.19 ± 1.60 D (range: -7.75 to -2.00 D). At 6 months, 91% (111/122) of eyes were within ± 0.50 D of attempted correction. Postoperative UDVA was comparable to preoperative CDVA at 1 month (P=.47) and progressively improved at 6 months (P=.004). Two eyes lost one line of CDVA at 6 months. Theoretical benefit analysis revealed that of 101 eyes with astigmatism, 29 would have had cyclotorsion-induced astigmatism of ≥ 10% if iris recognition and dynamic rotational eye tracking were not used. Furthermore, the mean percentage decrease in maximum depth of ablation by using the Tissue Saving Treatment was 11.8 ± 2.9% over Aspheric, 17.8 ± 6.2% over Personalized, and 18.2 ± 2.8% over Planoscan algorithms. Tissue saving surface ablation with iris recognition and dynamic rotational eye tracking was safe and effective in this series of eyes. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Effects of zonal flows on correlation between energy balance and energy conservation associated with nonlinear nonviscous atmospheric dynamics in a thin rotating spherical shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibragimov, Ranis N.

    2018-03-01

    The nonlinear Euler equations are used to model two-dimensional atmosphere dynamics in a thin rotating spherical shell. The energy balance is deduced on the basis of two classes of functorially independent invariant solutions associated with the model. It it shown that the energy balance is exactly the conservation law for one class of the solutions whereas the second class of invariant solutions provides and asymptotic convergence of the energy balance to the conservation law.

  4. International Workshop on Mathematical Modeling of Tumor-Immune Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Peter; Mallet, Dann

    2014-01-01

    This collection of papers offers a broad synopsis of state-of-the-art mathematical methods used in modeling the interaction between tumors and the immune system. These papers were presented at the four-day workshop on Mathematical Models of Tumor-Immune System Dynamics held in Sydney, Australia from January 7th to January 10th, 2013. The workshop brought together applied mathematicians, biologists, and clinicians actively working in the field of cancer immunology to share their current research and to increase awareness of the innovative mathematical tools that are applicable to the growing field of cancer immunology. Recent progress in cancer immunology and advances in immunotherapy suggest that the immune system plays a fundamental role in host defense against tumors and could be utilized to prevent or cure cancer. Although theoretical and experimental studies of tumor-immune system dynamics have a long history, there are still many unanswered questions about the mechanisms that govern the interaction betwe...

  5. International Trade and Macroeconomic Dynamics with Heteroegenous Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Ghironi, Fabio; Melitz, Marc J

    2004-01-01

    We develop a stochastic, general equilibrium, two-country model of trade and macroeconomic dynamics. Productivity differs across individual, monopolistically competitive firms in each country. Firms face a sunk entry cost in the domestic market and both fixed and per-unit export costs. Only relatively more productive firms export. Exogenous shocks to aggregate productivity and entry or trade costs induce firms to enter and exit both their domestic and export markets, thus altering the composi...

  6. Review of selected dynamic material control functions for international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, L.L.

    1980-09-01

    With the development of Dynamic Special Nuclear Material Accounting and Control systems used in nuclear manufacturing and reprocessing plants, there arises the question as to how these systems affect the IAEA inspection capabilities. The systems in being and under development provide information and control for a variety of purposes important to the plant operator, the safeguards purpose being one of them. This report attempts to judge the usefulness of these dynamic systems to the IAEA and have defined 12 functions that provide essential information to it. If the information acquired by these dynamic systems is to be useful to the IAEA, the inspectors must be able to independently verify it. Some suggestions are made as to how this might be done. But, even if it should not be possible to verify all the data, the availability to the IAEA of detailed, simultaneous, and plant-wide information would tend to inhibit a plant operator from attempting to generate a floating or fictitious inventory. Suggestions are made that might be helpful in the design of future software systems, an area which has proved to be fatally deficient in some systems and difficult in all

  7. Functional shoulder ratios with high velocities of shoulder internal rotation are most sensitive to determine shoulder rotation torque imbalance: a cross-sectional study with elite handball players and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marcelo Peduzzi de; Fonseca, Pedro; Morais, Sara Tribuzi; Borgonovo-Santos, Márcio; Coelho, Eduardo Filipe Cruz; Ribeiro, Daniel Cury; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2017-12-04

    The aim of the present study was to determine which approach to calculating shoulder ratios is the most sensitive for determining shoulder torque imbalance in handball players. Twenty-six participants (handball athletes, n = 13; healthy controls, n = 13) performed isokinetic concentric and eccentric shoulder internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) assessment at 60, 180 and 300°/s. We used eight approaches to calculating shoulder ratios: four concentric (i.e. concentric ER torque divided by concentric IR torque), and four functional (i.e. eccentric ER torque divided by concentric IR torque) at the velocities of 60, 180 and 300°/s for both IR and ER, and combining 60°/s of ER and 300°/s of IR. A three factorial ANOVA (factors: shoulder ratios, upper limb sides, and groups) along with Tukey's post-hoc analysis, and effect sizes were calculated. The findings suggested the functional shoulder ratio combining 60°/s of ER and 300°/s of IR is the most sensitive to detect differences between upper limbs for handball players, and between players and controls for the dominant side. The functional shoulder ratio combining 60°/s of ER with 300°/s of IR seems to present advantages over the other approaches for identifying upper limb asymmetries and differences in shoulder torque balance related to throwing.

  8. Computational Fluid Dynamics Ventilation Study for the Human Powered Centrifuge at the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Chang H.

    2012-01-01

    The Human Powered Centrifuge (HPC) is a facility that is planned to be installed on board the International Space Station (ISS) to enable crew exercises under the artificial gravity conditions. The HPC equipment includes a "bicycle" for long-term exercises of a crewmember that provides power for rotation of HPC at a speed of 30 rpm. The crewmember exercising vigorously on the centrifuge generates the amount of carbon dioxide of about two times higher than a crewmember in ordinary conditions. The goal of the study is to analyze the airflow and carbon dioxide distribution within Pressurized Multipurpose Module (PMM) cabin when HPC is operating. A full unsteady formulation is used for airflow and CO2 transport CFD-based modeling with the so-called sliding mesh concept when the HPC equipment with the adjacent Bay 4 cabin volume is considered in the rotating reference frame while the rest of the cabin volume is considered in the stationary reference frame. The rotating part of the computational domain includes also a human body model. Localized effects of carbon dioxide dispersion are examined. Strong influence of the rotating HPC equipment on the CO2 distribution detected is discussed.

  9. Internal Flow of a High Specific-Speed Diagonal-Flow Fan (Rotor Outlet Flow Fields with Rotating Stall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Shiomi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We carried out investigations for the purpose of clarifying the rotor outlet flow fields with rotating stall cell in a diagonal-flow fan. The test fan was a high–specific-speed (ns=1620 type of diagonal-flow fan that had 6 rotor blades and 11 stator blades. It has been shown that the number of the stall cell is 1, and its propagating speed is approximately 80% of its rotor speed, although little has been known about the behavior of the stall cell because a flow field with a rotating stall cell is essentially unsteady. In order to capture the behavior of the stall cell at the rotor outlet flow fields, hot-wire surveys were performed using a single-slant hotwire probe. The data obtained by these surveys were processed by means of a double phase-locked averaging technique, which enabled us to capture the flow field with the rotating stall cell in the reference coordinate system fixed to the rotor. As a result, time-dependent ensemble averages of the three-dimensional velocity components at the rotor outlet flow fields were obtained. The behavior of the stall cell was shown for each velocity component, and the flow patterns on the meridional planes were illustrated.

  10. Isokinetic dynamometry on the internal rotator and adductor muscles of the swimmers' shoulders: no differences between asymmetrical and symmetrical swimming strokes

    OpenAIRE

    Secchi, Leonardo Luiz Barretti; Brech, Guilherme Carlos; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study, we compare muscular strength of the internal rotators and adductors of the shoulder between asymmetrical (backstroke and freestyle) and symmetrical (breaststroke and butterfly) swimming strokes. METHOD: We evaluated: shoulders of (a) asymmetrical swimmers (aged 21.8 ± 3.8 years), (b) symmetrical swimmers (aged 20.3 ± 4.5 years), (c) recreational swimmers (aged 24.5 ± 4.5 years), and (d) control individuals (aged 25.8 ± 3.5 years). All evaluations were performed on a...

  11. Dynamic managerial capability of technology-based international new ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altshuler, Liliya

    2014-01-01

    case study of a technology-based INV conducted over the period of 3.5 years, starting 8 years into the firm’s history. This unique design has enabled close observation of the specific events and challenges the firm has been facing after its initial success, and of the aspects in the firm’s management...... to resource availability. The study takes the dynamic capability perspective and focuses on INVs’ management, which are seen as founders and builders of the processes, rules and structures that lay the basis for long-term competitive advantage for such firms. Based on the findings, specific aspects...

  12. Dynamic International Competitiveness of Transition Economies: The Case of Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows that the reform on the structures of the Polish economy has had an impressively fast effect on the numbers of different products this country exports to Western countries. The time path may well be described by a logistic curve. The change in the exports of this country may...... therefore be characterised by a widening, instead of a deepening in specialisation. The paper introduces a new empirical methodology to evaluate the dynamic changes in export activities of a country. The result of this new methodology is that quality competition is becoming increasingly important for Poland...

  13. The role of subscapularis muscle denervation in the pathogenesis of shoulder internal rotation contracture after neonatal brachial plexus palsy: a study in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Vasco V; Casaccia, Marcelo; Fernandez-Martin, Alejandra; Marotta, Mario; Fontecha, Cesar G; Haddad, Sleiman; Knörr, Jorge; Soldado, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    We assessed the role of subscapularis muscle denervation in the development of shoulder internal rotation contracture in neonatal brachial plexus injury. Seventeen newborn rats underwent selective denervation of the subscapular muscle. The rats were evaluated at weekly intervals to measure passive shoulder external rotation. After 4 weeks, the animals were euthanized. The subscapularis thickness was measured using 7.2T MRI axial images. The subscapularis muscle was then studied grossly, and its mass was registered. The fiber area and the area of fibrosis were measured using collagen-I inmunostained muscle sections. Significant progressive decrease in passive shoulder external rotation was noted with a mean loss of 58° at four weeks. A significant decrease in thickness and mass of the subscapularis muscles in the involved shoulders was also found with a mean loss of 69%. Subscapularis muscle fiber size decreased significantly, while the area of fibrosis remained unchanged. Our study shows that subscapularis denervation, per se, could explain shoulder contracture after neonatal brachial plexus injury, though its relevance compared to other pathogenic factors needs further investigation. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Internal- and External-Rotation Peak Toque in Little League Baseball Players With Subacromial Impingement Syndrome: Improved by Closed Kinetic Chain Shoulder Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Rour; Kim, Laurentius Jongsoon

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have explored closed kinetic chain (CKC) shoulder exercises (SEs) with a sling because they are safer and more effective than open-chain exercises, especially in early stages of treatment. However, the application of CKC SE in youth baseball players has rarely been attempted, although teenage baseball players also experience shoulder pain. To investigate the effects of CKC SE on the peak torque of shoulder internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) in youth baseball players. Single-group pretest, posttest. Biomechanics laboratory. 23 Little League Baseball players with subacromial impingement syndrome. The CKC SE with a sling was CKC shoulder-flexion exercise, extension exercise, IR exercise, and ER exercise. This exercise regimen was conducted 2 or 3 times/wk for 8 wk. The peak torque of shoulder IR and ER was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Concentric shoulder rotation was performed, with 5 repetitions at an angular velocity of 60°/s and 15 at 180°/s. The IR and ER peak torque significantly increased at each angular velocity after the exercise program. In particular, the increase in IR and ER peak torque values was statistically significant at an angular velocity of 180°/s. CKC SE was effective in increasing shoulder IR and ER strength, demonstrating its potential benefits in the prevention and treatment of shoulder injury. In addition, increased IR peak torque appears to improve throwing velocity in baseball players.

  15. Exoplanet dynamics. Asynchronous rotation of Earth-mass planets in the habitable zone of lower-mass stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leconte, Jérémy; Wu, Hanbo; Menou, Kristen; Murray, Norman

    2015-02-06

    Planets in the habitable zone of lower-mass stars are often assumed to be in a state of tidally synchronized rotation, which would considerably affect their putative habitability. Although thermal tides cause Venus to rotate retrogradely, simple scaling arguments tend to attribute this peculiarity to the massive Venusian atmosphere. Using a global climate model, we show that even a relatively thin atmosphere can drive terrestrial planets' rotation away from synchronicity. We derive a more realistic atmospheric tide model that predicts four asynchronous equilibrium spin states, two being stable, when the amplitude of the thermal tide exceeds a threshold that is met for habitable Earth-like planets with a 1-bar atmosphere around stars more massive than ~0.5 to 0.7 solar mass. Thus, many recently discovered terrestrial planets could exhibit asynchronous spin-orbit rotation, even with a thin atmosphere. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Evolution of energy labelling: analysis of international dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malandrino, Ornella; Roca, Emmanuele

    2005-01-01

    Currently there are large variety of tools that play a very important role in providing benchmarks for sustainability performance of products and guidance for consumers. The present paper analyses the most important programme related to energy labelling, a market based instrument mainly addressed to consumers, certifying that a specific product is energy efficient. Particular attention has been given to International and European Union Labels of the consumption of energy and other resources by household appliances, to the energy efficient labelling programmes for office equipment and the certification schemes of energy performance of buildings

  17. Dependence of the L- to H-mode Power Threshold on Toroidal Rotation and the Link to Edge Turbulence Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, G.; Gohil, P.; Schlossberg, D.; Boedo, J.; Burrell, K.; deGrassie, J.; Groebner, R.; Makowski, M.; Moyer, R.; Petty, C.; Rhodes, T.; Schmitz, L.; Shafer, M.; Solomon, W.; Umansky, M.; Wang, G.; White, A.; Xu, X.

    2008-01-01

    The injected power required to induce a transition from L-mode to H-mode plasmas is found to depend strongly on the injected neutral beam torque and consequent plasma toroidal rotation. Edge turbulence and flows, measured near the outboard midplane of the plasma (0.85 < r/a < 1.0) on DIII-D with the high-sensitivity 2D beam emission spectroscopy (BES) system, likewise vary with rotation and suggest a causative connection. The L-H power threshold in plasmas with the ion (del)B drift away from the X-point decreases from 4-6 MW with co-current beam injection, to 2-3 MW with near zero net injected torque, and to <2 MW with counter injection. Plasmas with the ion (del)B drift towards the X-point exhibit a qualitatively similar though less pronounced power threshold dependence on rotation. 2D edge turbulence measurements with BES show an increasing poloidal flow shear as the L-H transition is approached in all conditions. At low rotation, the poloidal flow of turbulent eddies near the edge reverses prior to the L-H transition, generating a significant poloidal flow shear that exceeds the measured turbulence decorrelation rate. This increased poloidal turbulence velocity shear may facilitate the L-H transition. No such reversal is observed in high rotation plasmas. The poloidal turbulence velocity spectrum exhibits a transition from a Geodesic Acoustic Mode zonal flow to a higher-power, lower frequency, zero-mean-frequency zonal flow as rotation varies from co-current to balanced during a torque scan at constant injected neutral beam power, perhaps also facilitating the L-H transition. This reduced power threshold at lower toroidal rotation may benefit inherently low-rotation plasmas such as ITER

  18. Effects of internal friction on contact formation dynamics of polymer chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Yukun; Li, Peng; Zhao, Nanrong

    2018-04-01

    A theoretical framework is presented to study the contact formation dynamics of polymer chains, in accompany with an electron-transfer quenching. Based on a non-Markovian Smoluchowski equation supplemented with an exponential sink term, we derive the mean time of contact formation under Wilemski-Fixman approximation. Our particular attentions are paid to the effect of internal friction. We find out that internal friction induces a novel fractional viscosity dependence, which will become more remarkable as internal friction increases. Furthermore, we clarify that internal friction inevitably promotes a diffusion-controlled mechanism by slowing the chain relaxation. Finally, we apply our theory to rationalise the experimental investigation for contact formation of a single-stranded DNA. The theoretical results can reproduce the experimental data very well with quite reasonable estimation for the intrinsic parameters. Such good agreements clearly demonstrate the validity of our theory which has appropriately addressed the very role of internal friction to the relevant dynamics.

  19. Dynamic Torque and Vertical Force Analysis during Nickel-titanium Rotary Root Canal Preparation with Different Modes of Reciprocal Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokita, Daisuke; Ebihara, Arata; Nishijo, Miki; Miyara, Kana; Okiji, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare 2 modes of reciprocal movement (torque-sensitive and time-dependent reciprocal rotation) with continuous rotation in terms of torque and apical force generation during nickel-titanium rotary root canal instrumentation. A custom-made automated root canal instrumentation and torque/force analyzing device was used to prepare simulated canals in resin blocks and monitor the torque and apical force generated in the blocks during preparation. Experimental groups (n = 7, each) consisted of (1) torque-sensitive reciprocal rotation with torque-sensitive vertical movement (group TqR), (2) time-dependent reciprocal rotation with time-dependent vertical movement (group TmR), and (3) continuous rotation with time-dependent vertical movement (group CR). The canals were instrumented with TF Adaptive SM1 and SM2 rotary files (SybronEndo, Orange, CA), and the torque and apical force were measured during instrumentation with SM2. The mean and maximum torque and apical force values were statistically analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and the Tukey test (α = 0.05). The recordings showed intermittent increases of upward apical force and clockwise torque, indicating the generation and release of screw-in forces. The maximum upward apical force values in group TmR were significantly smaller than those in group CR (P forces when compared with continuous rotation. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Acceptability and Impact of a Required Palliative Care Rotation with Prerotation and Postrotation Observed Simulated Clinical Experience during Internal Medicine Residency Training on Primary Palliative Communication Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergo, Maxwell T; Sachs, Sharona; MacMartin, Meredith A; Kirkland, Kathryn B; Cullinan, Amelia M; Stephens, Lisa A

    2017-05-01

    Improving communication training for primary palliative care using a required palliative care rotation for internal medicine (IM) residents has not been assessed. To assess skills acquisition and acceptability for IM residents not selecting an elective. A consecutive, single-arm cohort underwent preobjective structured clinical examination (OSCE) with learner-centric feedback, two weeks of clinical experience, and finally a post-OSCE to crystallize learner-centric take home points. IM second year residents from Dartmouth-Hitchcock were exposed to a required experiential palliative care rotation. Pre- and post-OSCE using a standardized score card for behavioral skills, including patient-centered interviewing, discussing goals of care/code status, and responding to emotion, as well as a confidential mixed qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the experience. Twelve residents were included in the educational program (two were excluded because of shortened experiences) and showed statistically significant improvements in overall communication and more specifically in discussing code status and responding to emotions. General patient-centered interviewing skills were not significantly improved, but prerotation scores reflected pre-existing competency in this domain. Residents viewed the observed simulated clinical experience (OSCE) and required rotation as positive experiences, but wished for more opportunities to practice communication skills in real clinical encounters. A required palliative care experiential rotation flanked by OSCEs at our institution improved the acquisition of primary palliative care communication skills similarly to other nonclinical educational platforms, but may better meet the needs of the resident and faculty as well as address all required ACGME milestones.

  1. Occupant-vehicle dynamics and the role of the internal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David J.

    2018-05-01

    With the increasing need to reduce time and cost of vehicle development there is increasing advantage in simulating mathematically the dynamic interaction of a vehicle and its occupant. The larger design space arising from the introduction of automated vehicles further increases the potential advantage. The aim of the paper is to outline the role of the internal model hypothesis in understanding and modelling occupant-vehicle dynamics, specifically the dynamics associated with direction and speed control of the vehicle. The internal model is the driver's or passenger's understanding of the vehicle dynamics and is thought to be employed in the perception, cognition and action processes of the brain. The internal model aids the estimation of the states of the vehicle from noisy sensory measurements. It can also be used to optimise cognitive control action by predicting the consequence of the action; thus model predictive control (MPC) theory provides a foundation for modelling the cognition process. The stretch reflex of the neuromuscular system also makes use of the prediction of the internal model. Extensions to the MPC approach are described which account for: interaction with an automated vehicle; robust control; intermittent control; and cognitive workload. Further work to extend understanding of occupant-vehicle dynamic interaction is outlined. This paper is based on a keynote presentation given by the author to the 13th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control (AVEC) conference held in Munich, September 2016.

  2. Quantum master equation for collisional dynamics of massive particles with internal degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirne, Andrea; Vacchini, Bassano

    2010-01-01

    We address the microscopic derivation of a quantum master equation in Lindblad form for the dynamics of a massive test particle with internal degrees of freedom, interacting through collisions with a background ideal gas. When either internal or center-of-mass degrees of freedom can be treated classically, previously established equations are obtained as special cases. If in an interferometric setup the internal degrees of freedom are not detected at the output, the equation can be recast in the form of a generalized Lindblad structure, which describes non-Markovian effects. The effect of internal degrees of freedom on center-of-mass decoherence is considered in this framework.

  3. Comparison of the Internal Dynamics of Metalloproteases Provides New Insights on Their Function and Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique F Carvalho

    Full Text Available Metalloproteases have evolved in a vast number of biological systems, being one of the most diverse types of proteases and presenting a wide range of folds and catalytic metal ions. Given the increasing understanding of protein internal dynamics and its role in enzyme function, we are interested in assessing how the structural heterogeneity of metalloproteases translates into their dynamics. Therefore, the dynamical profile of the clan MA type protein thermolysin, derived from an Elastic Network Model of protein structure, was evaluated against those obtained from a set of experimental structures and molecular dynamics simulation trajectories. A close correspondence was obtained between modes derived from the coarse-grained model and the subspace of functionally-relevant motions observed experimentally, the later being shown to be encoded in the internal dynamics of the protein. This prompted the use of dynamics-based comparison methods that employ such coarse-grained models in a representative set of clan members, allowing for its quantitative description in terms of structural and dynamical variability. Although members show structural similarity, they nonetheless present distinct dynamical profiles, with no apparent correlation between structural and dynamical relatedness. However, previously unnoticed dynamical similarity was found between the relevant members Carboxypeptidase Pfu, Leishmanolysin, and Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A, despite sharing no structural similarity. Inspection of the respective alignments shows that dynamical similarity has a functional basis, namely the need for maintaining proper intermolecular interactions with the respective substrates. These results suggest that distinct selective pressure mechanisms act on metalloproteases at structural and dynamical levels through the course of their evolution. This work shows how new insights on metalloprotease function and evolution can be assessed with comparison schemes that

  4. International energy market dynamics: a modelling approach. Tome 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachet, S.

    1996-01-01

    This work is an attempt to model international energy market and reproduce the behaviour of both energy demand and supply. Energy demand was represented using sector versus source approach. For developing countries, existing link between economic and energy sectors were analysed. Energy supply is exogenous for energy sources other than oil and natural gas. For hydrocarbons, exploration-production process was modelled and produced figures as production yield, exploration effort index, etc. The model built is econometric and is solved using a software that was constructed for this purpose. We explore the energy market future using three scenarios and obtain projections by 2010 for energy demand per source and oil natural gas supply per region. Economic variables are used to produce different indicators as energy intensity, energy per capita, etc. (author). 378 refs., 26 figs., 35 tabs., 11 appends

  5. International energy market dynamics: a modelling approach. Tome 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachet, S.

    1996-01-01

    This work is an attempt to model international energy market and reproduce the behaviour of both energy demand and supply. Energy demand was represented using sector versus source approach. For developing countries, existing link between economic and energy sectors were analysed. Energy supply is exogenous for energy sources other than oil and natural gas. For hydrocarbons, exploration-production process was modelled and produced figures as production yield, exploration effort index, ect. The model build is econometric and is solved using a software that was constructed for this purpose. We explore the energy market future using three scenarios and obtain projections by 2010 for energy demand per source and oil and natural gas supply per region. Economic variables are used to produce different indicators as energy intensity, energy per capita, etc. (author). 378 refs., 26 figs., 35 tabs., 11 appends

  6. 14th International Conference on Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Saraniti, M; Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors

    2006-01-01

    International experts gather every two years at this established conference to discuss recent developments in theory and experiment in non-equilibrium transport phenomena. These developments have been the driving force behind the spectacular advances in semiconductor physics and devices over the last few decades. Originally known as "Hot Carriers in Semiconductors," the 14th conference in the series covered a wide spectrum of traditional topics dealing with non-equilibrium phenomena, ranging from quantum transport to optical phenomena in mesoscopic and nano-scale structures. Particular attention was given this time to emerging areas of this rapidly evolving field, with many sessions covering terahertz devices, high field transport in nitride semiconductors, spintronics, molecular electronics, and bioelectronics applications.

  7. Justification for parameters of a dynamic stabilizer of the experimental stand mobile unit in studying of active rotational working tools of tiller machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir F. Kupryashkin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The article deals with design options and technological modes of the dynamic stabilizer of the experimental stand mobile unit for studying tillage machine active rotating work tools. Based on theoretical and experimental studies, the possibility the movable module instability was discovered. This negatively affects on implementing the experiment program trough the especific method. The need in engineering solutions for the defect correction is shown. In addition, the authors consider the structural features and characteristics of the used devices for providing the stabilization of the movable module in the study of active rotating work tools of tillage machines. An electromagnetic brake dynamic stabilizer in the structure of the existing rolling module was proposed as an engineering device. Materials and Methods: A theoretical study of rolling module stability, based on synthesis of basic regulations and laws of mechanics related to active rotating work tools was conducted. As a result of the theoretical research, a design scheme of movable module loading was created. This scheme includes the design features and structural power factors. Results: A database representing the settings of power specification in the motion stability determining the mobile unit was created. Further use of the database values allow supporting the most optimal location of the electromagnetic brake with its design options. Discussion and Conclusions: The research of the electromagnetic brake in a mobile unit promoted stabilizing the unit movement, increased the frequency of its use and provided data that are more precise during experiments.

  8. Global-scale equatorial Rossby waves as an essential component of solar internal dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löptien, Björn; Gizon, Laurent; Birch, Aaron C.; Schou, Jesper; Proxauf, Bastian; Duvall, Thomas L.; Bogart, Richard S.; Christensen, Ulrich R.

    2018-05-01

    The Sun’s complex dynamics is controlled by buoyancy and rotation in the convection zone. Large-scale flows are dominated by vortical motions1 and appear to be weaker than expected in the solar interior2. One possibility is that waves of vorticity due to the Coriolis force, known as Rossby waves3 or r modes4, remove energy from convection at the largest scales5. However, the presence of these waves in the Sun is still debated. Here, we unambiguously discover and characterize retrograde-propagating vorticity waves in the shallow subsurface layers of the Sun at azimuthal wavenumbers below 15, with the dispersion relation of textbook sectoral Rossby waves. The waves have lifetimes of several months, well-defined mode frequencies below twice the solar rotational frequency, and eigenfunctions of vorticity that peak at the equator. Rossby waves have nearly as much vorticity as the convection at the same scales, thus they are an essential component of solar dynamics. We observe a transition from turbulence-like to wave-like dynamics around the Rhines scale6 of angular wavenumber of approximately 20. This transition might provide an explanation for the puzzling deficit of kinetic energy at the largest spatial scales.

  9. 12th International Conference of Dynamical Systems-Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Applied Non-Linear Dynamical Systems

    2014-01-01

    The book is a collection of contributions devoted to analytical, numerical and experimental techniques of dynamical systems, presented at the International Conference on Dynamical Systems: Theory and Applications, held in Łódź, Poland on December 2-5, 2013. The studies give deep insight into both the theory and applications of non-linear dynamical systems, emphasizing directions for future research. Topics covered include: constrained motion of mechanical systems and tracking control; diversities in the inverse dynamics; singularly perturbed ODEs with periodic coefficients; asymptotic solutions to the problem of vortex structure around a cylinder; investigation of the regular and chaotic dynamics; rare phenomena and chaos in power converters; non-holonomic constraints in wheeled robots; exotic bifurcations in non-smooth systems; micro-chaos; energy exchange of coupled oscillators; HIV dynamics; homogenous transformations with applications to off-shore slender structures; novel approaches to a qualitative s...

  10. Investigations Into Internal and External Aspects of Dynamic Agent-Environment Couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautenhahn, Kerstin

    This paper originates from my work on `social agents'. An issue which I consider important to this kind of research is the dynamic coupling of an agent with its social and non-social environment. I hypothesize `internal dynamics' inside an agent as a basic step towards understanding. The paper therefore focuses on the internal and external dynamics which couple an agent to its environment. The issue of embodiment in animals and artifacts and its relation to `social dynamics' is discussed first. I argue that embodiment is linked to a concept of a body and is not necessarily given when running a control program on robot hardware. I stress the individual characteristics of an embodied cognitive system, as well as its social embeddedness. I outline the framework of a physical-psychological state space which changes dynamically in a self-modifying way as a holistic approach towards embodied human and artificial cognition. This framework is meant to discuss internal and external dynamics of an embodied, natural or artificial agent. In order to stress the importance of a dynamic memory I introduce the concept of an `autobiographical agent'. The second part of the paper gives an example of the implementation of a physical agent, a robot, which is dynamically coupled to its environment by balancing on a seesaw. For the control of the robot a behavior-oriented approach using the dynamical systems metaphor is used. The problem is studied through building a complete and co-adapted robot-environment system. A seesaw which varies its orientation with one or two degrees of freedom is used as the artificial `habitat'. The problem of stabilizing the body axis by active motion on a seesaw is solved by using two inclination sensors and a parallel, behavior-oriented control architecture. Some experiments are described which demonstrate the exploitation of the dynamics of the robot-environment system.

  11. Nonlinear dynamics; Proceedings of the International Conference, New York, NY, December 17-21, 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helleman, R. H. G.

    1980-01-01

    Papers were presented on turbulence, ergodic and integrable behavior, chaotic maps and flows, chemical and fully developed turbulence, and strange attractors. Specific attention was given to measures describing a turbulent flow, stochastization and collapse of vortex systems, a subharmonic route to turbulent convection, and weakly nonlinear turbulence in a rotating convection layer. The Korteweg-de Vries and Hill equations, plasma transport in three dimensions, a horseshoe in the dynamics of a forced beam, and the explosion of strange attractors exhibited by Duffing's equation were also considered.

  12. Internal variability of a dynamically downscaled climate over North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiali; Bessac, Julie; Kotamarthi, Rao; Constantinescu, Emil; Drewniak, Beth

    2017-09-08

    This study investigates the internal variability (IV) of a regional climate model, and considers the impacts of horizontal resolution and spectral nudging on the IV. A 16-member simulation ensemble was conducted using the Weather Research Forecasting model for three model configurations. Ensemble members included simulations at spatial resolutions of 50 km and 12 km without spectral nudging and simulations at a spatial resolution of 12 km with spectral nudging. All the simulations were generated over the same domain, which covered much of North America. The degree of IV was measured as the spread between the individual members of the ensemble during the integration period. The IV of the 12 km simulation with spectral nudging was also compared with a future climate change simulation projected by the same model configuration. The variables investigated focus on precipitation and near-surface air temperature. While the IVs show a clear annual cycle with larger values in summer and smaller values in winter, the seasonal IV is smaller for a 50-km spatial resolution than for a 12-km resolution when nudging is not applied. Applying a nudging technique to the 12-km simulation reduces the IV by a factor of two, and produces smaller IV than the simulation at 50 km without nudging. Applying a nudging technique also changes the geographic distributions of IV in all examined variables. The IV is much smaller than the inter-annual variability at seasonal scales for regionally averaged temperature and precipitation. The IV is also smaller than the projected changes in air-temperature for the mid- and late 21st century. However, the IV is larger than the projected changes in precipitation for the mid- and late 21st century.

  13. Internal variability of a dynamically downscaled climate over North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiali; Bessac, Julie; Kotamarthi, Rao; Constantinescu, Emil; Drewniak, Beth

    2017-09-08

    This study investigates the internal variability (IV) of a regional climate model, and considers the impacts of horizontal resolution and spectral nudging on the IV. A 16-member simulation ensemble was conducted using the Weather Research Forecasting model for three model configurations. Ensemble members included simulations at spatial resolutions of 50 and 12 km without spectral nudging and simulations at a spatial resolution of 12 km with spectral nudging. All the simulations were generated over the same domain, which covered much of North America. The degree of IV was measured as the spread between the individual members of the ensemble during the integration period. The IV of the 12 km simulation with spectral nudging was also compared with a future climate change simulation projected by the same model configuration. The variables investigated focus on precipitation and near-surface air temperature. While the IVs show a clear annual cycle with larger values in summer and smaller values in winter, the seasonal IV is smaller for a 50-km spatial resolution than for a 12-km resolution when nudging is not applied. Applying a nudging technique to the 12-km simulation reduces the IV by a factor of two, and produces smaller IV than the simulation at 50 km without nudging. Applying a nudging technique also changes the geographic distributions of IV in all examined variables. The IV is much smaller than the inter-annual variability at seasonal scales for regionally averaged temperature and precipitation. The IV is also smaller than the projected changes in air-temperature for the mid- and late twenty-first century. However, the IV is larger than the projected changes in precipitation for the mid- and late twenty-first century.

  14. Internal variability of a dynamically downscaled climate over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiali; Bessac, Julie; Kotamarthi, Rao; Constantinescu, Emil; Drewniak, Beth

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the internal variability (IV) of a regional climate model, and considers the impacts of horizontal resolution and spectral nudging on the IV. A 16-member simulation ensemble was conducted using the Weather Research Forecasting model for three model configurations. Ensemble members included simulations at spatial resolutions of 50 and 12 km without spectral nudging and simulations at a spatial resolution of 12 km with spectral nudging. All the simulations were generated over the same domain, which covered much of North America. The degree of IV was measured as the spread between the individual members of the ensemble during the integration period. The IV of the 12 km simulation with spectral nudging was also compared with a future climate change simulation projected by the same model configuration. The variables investigated focus on precipitation and near-surface air temperature. While the IVs show a clear annual cycle with larger values in summer and smaller values in winter, the seasonal IV is smaller for a 50-km spatial resolution than for a 12-km resolution when nudging is not applied. Applying a nudging technique to the 12-km simulation reduces the IV by a factor of two, and produces smaller IV than the simulation at 50 km without nudging. Applying a nudging technique also changes the geographic distributions of IV in all examined variables. The IV is much smaller than the inter-annual variability at seasonal scales for regionally averaged temperature and precipitation. The IV is also smaller than the projected changes in air-temperature for the mid- and late twenty-first century. However, the IV is larger than the projected changes in precipitation for the mid- and late twenty-first century.

  15. Internal variability of a dynamically downscaled climate over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiali; Bessac, Julie; Kotamarthi, Rao; Constantinescu, Emil; Drewniak, Beth

    2018-06-01

    This study investigates the internal variability (IV) of a regional climate model, and considers the impacts of horizontal resolution and spectral nudging on the IV. A 16-member simulation ensemble was conducted using the Weather Research Forecasting model for three model configurations. Ensemble members included simulations at spatial resolutions of 50 and 12 km without spectral nudging and simulations at a spatial resolution of 12 km with spectral nudging. All the simulations were generated over the same domain, which covered much of North America. The degree of IV was measured as the spread between the individual members of the ensemble during the integration period. The IV of the 12 km simulation with spectral nudging was also compared with a future climate change simulation projected by the same model configuration. The variables investigated focus on precipitation and near-surface air temperature. While the IVs show a clear annual cycle with larger values in summer and smaller values in winter, the seasonal IV is smaller for a 50-km spatial resolution than for a 12-km resolution when nudging is not applied. Applying a nudging technique to the 12-km simulation reduces the IV by a factor of two, and produces smaller IV than the simulation at 50 km without nudging. Applying a nudging technique also changes the geographic distributions of IV in all examined variables. The IV is much smaller than the inter-annual variability at seasonal scales for regionally averaged temperature and precipitation. The IV is also smaller than the projected changes in air-temperature for the mid- and late twenty-first century. However, the IV is larger than the projected changes in precipitation for the mid- and late twenty-first century.

  16. Dynamic and Thermodynamic Examination of a Two-Stroke Internal Combustion Engine

    OpenAIRE

    İPCİ, Duygu; KARABULUT, Halit

    2016-01-01

    In this study the combined dynamic and thermodynamic analysis of a two-stroke internal combustion engine was carried out. The variation of the heat, given to the working fluid during the heating process of the thermodynamic cycle, was modeled with the Gaussian function. The dynamic model of the piston driving mechanism was established by means of nine equations, five of them are motion equations and four of them are kinematic relations. Equations are solved by using a numerical method based o...

  17. Rotational seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William H K.

    2016-01-01

    Rotational seismology is an emerging study of all aspects of rotational motions induced by earthquakes, explosions, and ambient vibrations. It is of interest to several disciplines, including seismology, earthquake engineering, geodesy, and earth-based detection of Einstein’s gravitation waves.Rotational effects of seismic waves, together with rotations caused by soil–structure interaction, have been observed for centuries (e.g., rotated chimneys, monuments, and tombstones). Figure 1a shows the rotated monument to George Inglis observed after the 1897 Great Shillong earthquake. This monument had the form of an obelisk rising over 19 metres high from a 4 metre base. During the earthquake, the top part broke off and the remnant of some 6 metres rotated about 15° relative to the base. The study of rotational seismology began only recently when sensitive rotational sensors became available due to advances in aeronautical and astronomical instrumentations.

  18. Rotating UPS installations and dynamic energy storage. Comparison of static and rotating UPS and comparison of dynamic energy storage using batteries - Final Report; Rotierende USV-Anlagen und dynamische Energiespeicherung. Vergleich der statischen mit rotierenden USV-Anlagen und Vergleich der dynamischen Energiespeicherung mit Batterieanlagen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauchle, P.; Schnyder, G.

    2010-01-15

    As an alternative to the static UPS-Systems (uninterruptible power supply systems), rotating UPS-Systems can be applied. The application and the realisation of rotating UPS-Systems are different to the one of static UPS-Systems. Furthermore at the rotating UPS-Systems is to distinguish, if the UPS-System is realised as a diesel dynamic UPS-System, with an activity up from 400 kVA, or if the dynamic part is limited to the energy storage, with an activity up from 60 kVA. The diesel dynamic UPS-Systems are composed of a synchronous machine, an asynchronous machine with a flywheel, respectively a kinetic module and the diesel engine. The connection to the critical user at the low voltage network occurs using an inductor and the accordant switchgears. The application of a diesel dynamic UPS-System is optimal when it can be connected with an emergency power supply. With the realisation of dynamic energy storages, battery systems can be avoided respectively can be reduced or the lifetime of batteries can be extended. It is only possible to avoid the batteries if the requested autonomous time of the UPS-System is shorter than two minutes. Is an autonomous time longer than 2 minutes necessary, battery systems have to be realised for the energy storage. Thereby dynamic energy storage in parallel to the battery system is useful, because the dynamic energy storage will compensate temporary voltage drops or short power failures. In this way the number of charge and discharge cycles of the battery system will be reduced and therefore the lifetime of the battery will be extended. The use of a dynamic or static UPS system is dependent on the requirements of the powered load. Taking into account various criteria it can be found for each specific application the optimal type of UPS system. (authors)

  19. Is the Potential for International Diversification Disappearing? A Dynamic Copula Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Errunza, Vihang; Jacobs, Kris

    International equity markets are characterized by nonlinear dependence and asymmetries. We propose a new dynamic asymmetric copula model to capture long-run and short-run dependence, multivariate nonnormality, and asymmetries in large cross-sections. We find that copula correlations have increased...... and nonlinear dependence. The bene…fits from international diversi…cation have reduced over time, drastically so for DMs. EMs still offer signi…cant diversi…cation bene…ts, especially during large market downturns....

  20. Gating based on internal/external signals with dynamic correlation updates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Huanmei; Zhao Qingya; Berbeco, Ross I; Nishioka, Seiko; Shirato, Hiroki; Jiang, Steve B

    2008-01-01

    Precise localization of mobile tumor positions in real time is critical to the success of gated radiotherapy. Tumor positions are usually derived from either internal or external surrogates. Fluoroscopic gating based on internal surrogates, such as implanted fiducial markers, is accurate however requiring a large amount of imaging dose. Gating based on external surrogates, such as patient abdominal surface motion, is non-invasive however less accurate due to the uncertainty in the correlation between tumor location and external surrogates. To address these complications, we propose to investigate an approach based on hybrid gating with dynamic internal/external correlation updates. In this approach, the external signal is acquired at high frequency (such as 30 Hz) while the internal signal is sparsely acquired (such as 0.5 Hz or less). The internal signal is used to validate and update the internal/external correlation during treatment. Tumor positions are derived from the external signal based on the newly updated correlation. Two dynamic correlation updating algorithms are introduced. One is based on the motion amplitude and the other is based on the motion phase. Nine patients with synchronized internal/external motion signals are simulated retrospectively to evaluate the effectiveness of hybrid gating. The influences of different clinical conditions on hybrid gating, such as the size of gating windows, the optimal timing for internal signal acquisition and the acquisition frequency are investigated. The results demonstrate that dynamically updating the internal/external correlation in or around the gating window will reduce false positive with relatively diminished treatment efficiency. This improvement will benefit patients with mobile tumors, especially greater for early stage lung cancers, for which the tumors are less attached or freely floating in the lung.

  1. Gating based on internal/external signals with dynamic correlation updates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Huanmei [Purdue School of Engineering and Technology, Indiana University School of Informatics, IUPUI, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Zhao Qingya [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Berbeco, Ross I [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Womens Cancer Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Nishioka, Seiko [NTT East-Japan Sapporo Hospital, Sapporo (Japan); Shirato, Hiroki [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Jiang, Steve B [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States)], E-mail: hw9@iupui.edu, E-mail: sbjiang@ucsd.edu

    2008-12-21

    Precise localization of mobile tumor positions in real time is critical to the success of gated radiotherapy. Tumor positions are usually derived from either internal or external surrogates. Fluoroscopic gating based on internal surrogates, such as implanted fiducial markers, is accurate however requiring a large amount of imaging dose. Gating based on external surrogates, such as patient abdominal surface motion, is non-invasive however less accurate due to the uncertainty in the correlation between tumor location and external surrogates. To address these complications, we propose to investigate an approach based on hybrid gating with dynamic internal/external correlation updates. In this approach, the external signal is acquired at high frequency (such as 30 Hz) while the internal signal is sparsely acquired (such as 0.5 Hz or less). The internal signal is used to validate and update the internal/external correlation during treatment. Tumor positions are derived from the external signal based on the newly updated correlation. Two dynamic correlation updating algorithms are introduced. One is based on the motion amplitude and the other is based on the motion phase. Nine patients with synchronized internal/external motion signals are simulated retrospectively to evaluate the effectiveness of hybrid gating. The influences of different clinical conditions on hybrid gating, such as the size of gating windows, the optimal timing for internal signal acquisition and the acquisition frequency are investigated. The results demonstrate that dynamically updating the internal/external correlation in or around the gating window will reduce false positive with relatively diminished treatment efficiency. This improvement will benefit patients with mobile tumors, especially greater for early stage lung cancers, for which the tumors are less attached or freely floating in the lung.

  2. Effect of glass-forming biopreservatives on head group rotational dynamics in freeze-dried phospholipid bilayers: A 31P NMR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P.; Sen, S.; Risbud, S. H.

    2009-07-01

    P31 NMR spectroscopy has been used to elucidate the role of glass-forming sugars in the preservation of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayers. P31 wideline NMR spectra of freeze-dried pure DPPC, DPPC/trehalose, DPPC/glucose, and DPPC/hydroxyethyl starch (HES) mixtures collected in the temperature range of 25-80 °C have been simulated to obtain quantitative information about rotational dynamics and orientation of the lipid head groups in these media. In the case of pure DPPC, DPPC/glucose, and DPPC/HES, the gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition of DPPC bilayer is characterized by a sudden increase in the rate of rotational diffusion of the PO4 head groups near 40 °C. The corresponding rotational jump frequency increases from a few kilohertz in the gel phase to at least several megahertz in the liquid crystalline phase. On the other hand, in the case of DPPC/trehalose mixture the temperature of this onset of rapid head group dynamics is increased by ˜10 °C. Trehalose reduces the lipid head group motions most effectively in the temperature range of T ≤50 °C relevant for biopreservation. Additionally, and possibly more importantly, trehalose is found to strongly restrict any change in the orientation of the diffusion axis of the PO4 head groups during the phase transformation. This unique ability of trehalose to maintain the dynamical and orientational rigidity of lipid head groups is likely to be responsible for its superior ability in biopreservation.

  3. Simulation of the removal of NET internal components with dynamic modeling software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becquet, M.; Crutzen, Y.R.; Farfaletti-Casali, F.

    1989-01-01

    The replacement of the internal plasma-facing components (first-wall and blanket segments) for maintenance or at the end of their lifetime is an important aspect of the design of the next European torus (NET) and of the remote handling procedures. The first phase of development of the design software tool INVDYN (inverse dynamics) is presented, which will allow optimization of the movements of the internal segments during replacement, taking into account inertial effects and structural deformations. A first analysis of the removal of one NET internal segment provides, for a defined trajectory, the required generalized forces that must be applied on the crane system

  4. Politics and Graduate Medical Education in Internal Medicine: A Dynamic Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, Richard M; Berkowitz, Lee R

    2017-02-01

    The promotion of change and growth within medical education is oftentimes the result of a complex mix of societal, cultural and economic forces. Graduate medical education in internal medicine is not immune to these forces. Several entities and organizations can be identified as having a major influence on internal medicine training and graduate medical education as a whole. We have reviewed how this is effectively accomplished through these entities and organizations. The result is a constantly changing and dynamic landscape for internal medicine training. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Rotational dynamics account for pH-dependent relaxivities of PAMAM dendrimeric, Gd-based potential MRI contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laus, Sabrina; Sour, Angélique; Ruloff, Robert; Tóth, Eva; Merbach, André E

    2005-05-06

    The EPTPA5) chelate, which ensures fast water exchange in GdIII complexes, has been coupled to three different generations (5, 7, and 9) of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers through benzylthiourea linkages (H5EPTPA = ethylenepropylenetriamine-N,N,N',N'',N''-pentaacetic acid). The proton relaxivities measured at pH 7.4 for the dendrimer complexes G5-(GdEPTPA)111, G7-(GdEPTPA)253 and G9-(GdEPTPA)1157 decrease with increasing temperature, indicating that, for the first time for dendrimers, slow water exchange does not limit relaxivity. At a given field and temperature, the relaxivity increases from G5 to G7, and then slightly decreases for G9 (r1 = 20.5, 28.3 and 27.9 mM(-1) s(-1), respectively, at 37 degrees C, 30 MHz). The relaxivities show a strong and reversible pH dependency for all three dendrimer complexes. This originates from the pH-dependent rotational dynamics of the dendrimer skeleton, which was evidenced by a combined variable-temperature and multiple-field 17O NMR and 1H relaxivity study performed at pH 6.0 and 9.9 on G5-(GdEPTPA)111. The longitudinal 17O and 1H relaxation rates of the dendrimeric complex are strongly pH-dependent, whereas they are not for the [Gd(EPTPA)(H2O)]2- monomer chelate. The longitudinal 17O and 1H relaxation rates have been analysed by the Lipari-Szabo spectral density functions and correlation times have been calculated for the global motion of the entire macromolecule (tau(gO)) and the local motion of the GdIII chelates on the surface (tau(lO)), correlated by means of an order parameter S2. The dendrimer complex G5-(GdEPTPA)111 has a considerably higher tau(gO) under acidic than under basic conditions (tau(298)gO = 4040 ps and 2950 ps, respectively), while local motions are less influenced by pH (tau(298)lO = 150 and 125 ps). The order parameter, characterizing the rigidity of the macromolecule, is also higher at pH 6.0 than at pH 9.9 (S2 = 0.43 vs 0.36, respectively). The pH dependence of the global correlation time can be

  6. Electron spin dynamics of Ce.sup.3+./sup. ions in YAG crystals studied by pulse-EPR and pump-probe Faraday rotation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Azamat, Dmitry; Belykh, V.V.; Yakovlev, D.R.; Fobbe, F.; Feng, D.H.; Evers, E.; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Dejneka, Alexandr; Bayer, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 7 (2017), s. 1-10, č. článku 075160. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA ČR GA16-22092S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : electron spin dynamics * Ce 3+ ions * YAG crystals * pulse-EPR * Faraday rotation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  7. Gravity Modes Reveal the Internal Rotation of a Post-mass-transfer Gamma Doradus/Delta Scuti Hybrid Pulsator in Kepler Eclipsing Binary KIC 9592855

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z.; Gies, D. R.; Matson, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    We report the discovery of a post-mass-transfer Gamma Doradus/Delta Scuti hybrid pulsator in the eclipsing binary KIC 9592855. This binary has a circular orbit, an orbital period of 1.2 days, and contains two stars of almost identical masses ({M}1=1.72 {M}⊙ ,{M}2=1.71 {M}⊙ ). However, the cooler secondary star is more evolved ({R}2=1.96 {R}⊙ ), while the hotter primary is still on the zero-age-main-sequence ({R}1=1.53 {R}⊙ ). Coeval models from single-star evolution cannot explain the observed masses and radii, and binary evolution with mass-transfer needs to be invoked. After subtracting the binary light curve, the Fourier spectrum shows low-order pressure-mode pulsations, and more dominantly, a cluster of low-frequency gravity modes at about 2 day-1. These g-modes are nearly equally spaced in period, and the period spacing pattern has a negative slope. We identify these g-modes as prograde dipole modes and find that they stem from the secondary star. The frequency range of unstable p-modes also agrees with that of the secondary. We derive the internal rotation rate of the convective core and the asymptotic period spacing from the observed g-modes. The resulting values suggest that the core and envelope rotate nearly uniformly, i.e., their rotation rates are both similar to the orbital frequency of this synchronized binary.

  8. Internal kinematics and dynamical models of dwarf spheroidal galaxies around the Milky Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battaglia, Giuseppina; Helmi, Amina; Breddels, Maarten

    We review our current understanding of the internal dynamical properties of the dwarf spheroidal galaxies surrounding the Milky Way. These are the most dark matter dominated galaxies, and as such may be considered ideal laboratories to test the current concordance cosmological model, and in

  9. Dynamics of Context-Dependent Recall: An Examination of Internal and External Context Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Spillers, Gregory J.; Brewer, Gene A.

    2012-01-01

    Retrieval dynamics in context-dependent recall were explored via manipulations of external and internal context in two experiments. Participants were tested in either the same or different context as the material was learned in and correct recalls, errors, and recall latency measures were examined. In both experiments changes in context resulted…

  10. Exploring the role of internal friction in the dynamics of unfolded proteins using simple polymer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ryan R.; Hawk, Alexander T.; Makarov, Dmitrii E.

    2013-02-01

    Recent experiments showed that the reconfiguration dynamics of unfolded proteins are often adequately described by simple polymer models. In particular, the Rouse model with internal friction (RIF) captures internal friction effects as observed in single-molecule fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) studies of a number of proteins. Here we use RIF, and its non-free draining analog, Zimm model with internal friction, to explore the effect of internal friction on the rate with which intramolecular contacts can be formed within the unfolded chain. Unlike the reconfiguration times inferred from FCS experiments, which depend linearly on the solvent viscosity, the first passage times to form intramolecular contacts are shown to display a more complex viscosity dependence. We further describe scaling relationships obeyed by contact formation times in the limits of high and low internal friction. Our findings provide experimentally testable predictions that can serve as a framework for the analysis of future studies of contact formation in proteins.

  11. Study on dynamic characteristics of reduced analytical model for PWR reactor internal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Kim, Jong Bum; Koo, Kyeong Hoe

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study is to establish the procedure of the reduced analytical modeling technique for the PWR reactor internal(RI) structures and to carry out the sensitivity study of the dynamic characteristics of the structures by varying the structural parameters such as the stiffness, the mass and the damping. Modeling techniques for the PWR reactor internal structures and computer programs used for the dynamic analysis of the reactor internal structures are briefly investigated. Among the many components of RI structures, the dynamic characteristics for CSB was performed. The sensitivity analysis of the dynamic characteristics for the reduced analytical model considering the variations of the stiffnesses for the lower and upper flanges of the CSB and for the RV Snubber were performed to improve the dynamic characteristics of the RI structures against the external loadings given. In order to enhance the structural design margin of the RI components, the nonlinear time history analyses were attempted for the RI reduced models to compare the structural responses between the reference model and the modified one. (Author)

  12. Skeletal stability in orthognathic surgery: evaluation of methods of rigid internal fixation after counterclockwise rotation in patients with class II deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Vanessa Álvares de Castro; Neto, Antonio Irineu Trindade; Rebello, Iêda Margarida Crusoé Rocha; de Souza, Gustavo Mota Mascarenhas; Esteves, Lucas Senhorinho; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Zanetta-Barbosa, Darceny; do Prado, Célio Jesus

    2015-10-01

    Our aim was to assess the influence of internal fixation in skeletal stability on patients who had had counterclockwise rotation of the maxillomandibular complex and mandibular advancement procedures. We studied 60 records of 20 patients (14 female, 6 male), mean (range) age at operation 29 (16-50) years. The mean (range) postoperative follow-up was 15 (8-24) months. Sixty standard lateral cephalometric radiographs were randomly traced and digitised by one senior radiologist to estimate surgical and postoperative changes. Patients were divided into two groups, the first group (n=10) of which had fixation with only 2.0 system plates (2 plates with monocortical screws alone) and the second (n=10) of which had hybrid fixation (1 plate with monocortical screws and 2 or 3 bicortical bone screws). During operation the change in the mean occlusal plane with counterclockwise rotation was 9.4° (range -17.3 to -2.5mm). The maxilla moved forward and upward. All the anterior mandibular measurements had advanced horizontally, the mean (range) being 17 (6.4 to 9.9) mm for the pogonion, and 17.6 (6.0 to 30.7) mm for the menton. At the longest follow-up period, there were significant long-term changes, but these were clinically acceptable (stability or in the magnitude of the advancement and stability. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Structure and tunneling dynamics in a model system of peptide co-solvents: Rotational spectroscopy of the 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol⋯water complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Javix; Xu, Yunjie, E-mail: yunjie.xu@ualberta.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G2 (Canada)

    2014-06-21

    The hydrogen-bonding topology and tunneling dynamics of the binary adduct, 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE)⋯water, were investigated using chirped pulse and cavity based Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy with the aid of high level ab initio calculations. Rotational spectra of the most stable binary TFE⋯water conformer and five of its deuterium isotopologues were assigned. A strong preference for the insertion binding topology where water is inserted into the existing intramolecular hydrogen-bonded ring of TFE was observed. Tunneling splittings were detected in all of the measured rotational transitions of TFE⋯water. Based on the relative intensity of the two tunneling components and additional isotopic data, the splitting can be unambiguously attributed to the tunneling motion of the water subunit, i.e., the interchange of the bonded and nonbonded hydrogen atoms of water. The absence of any other splitting in the rotational transitions of all isotopologues observed indicates that the tunneling between g+ and g− TFE is quenched in the TFE⋯H{sub 2}O complex.

  14. The dynamic interdependence of international financial markets: An empirical study on twenty-seven stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingwei; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel Dajun

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we aim to investigate the dynamic interdependence of international financial markets. Based on the data regarding daily returns of each market during the period 2006-2015 from Yahoo finance, we mainly focus on examining 27 markets from three continents, including Asia, America and Europe. By checking the dynamic interdependence between those markets, we find that markets from different continents have strong correlation at specific time shift. We also obtain that markets from different continents not only have a strong linkage with others at same day, but at a delay of one day, especially between Asia, Europe and Asia, America. In addition, we further analyze the time-varying influence strength between each two continents and observe that this value has abnormal changes during the financial crisis. These findings can provide us significant insights to understand the underlying dynamic interdependency of international financial markets and further help us make corresponding reasonable decisions.

  15. Modeling Attitude Dynamics in Simulink: A Study of the Rotational and Translational Motion of a Spacecraft Given Torques and Impulses Generated by RMS Hand Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, Rebecca H.

    2010-01-01

    In order to study and control the attitude of a spacecraft, it is necessary to understand the natural motion of a body in orbit. Assuming a spacecraft to be a rigid body, dynamics describes the complete motion of the vehicle by the translational and rotational motion of the body. The Simulink Attitude Analysis Model applies the equations of rigid body motion to the study of a spacecraft?s attitude in orbit. Using a TCP/IP connection, Matlab reads the values of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) hand controllers and passes them to Simulink as specified torque and impulse profiles. Simulink then uses the governing kinematic and dynamic equations of a rigid body in low earth orbit (LE0) to plot the attitude response of a spacecraft for five seconds given known applied torques and impulses, and constant principal moments of inertia.

  16. Effects of Interfaces on Dynamics in Micro-Fluidic Devices: Slip-Boundaries’ Impact on Rotation Characteristics of Polar Liquid Film Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Su-Rong; Liu, Zhong-Qiang; Amos Yinnon, Tamar; Kong, Xiang-Mu

    2017-05-01

    A new approach for exploring effects of interfaces on polar liquids is presented. Their impact on the polar liquid film motor (PLFM) - a novel micro-fluidic device - is studied. We account for the interface’s impact by modeling slip boundary effects on the PLFM’s electro-hydro-dynamical rotations. Our analytical results show as k={l}s/R increases (with {l}s denoting the slip length resulting from the interface’s impact on the film’s properties, k > -1 and R denoting the film’s radius): (a) PLFMs subsequently exhibit rotation characteristics under “negative-”, “no-”, “partial-” and “perfect-” slip boundary conditions; (b) The maximum value of the linear velocity of the steady rotating film increases linearly and its location approaches the film’s border; (c) The decay of the angular velocities’ dependency on the distance from the center of the film slows down, resulting in a macroscopic flow near the boundary. With our calculated rotation speed distributions consistent with the existing experimental ones, research aiming at fitting computed to measured distributions promises identifying the factors affecting {l}s, e.g., solid-fluid potential interactions and surface roughness. The consistency also is advantageous for optimizing PLFM’s applications as micro-washers, centrifuges, mixers in the lab-on-a-chip. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11302118, 11275112, and Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province under Grant No. ZR2013AQ015

  17. Continuous distal migration and internal rotation of the C-stem prosthesis without any adverse clinical effects: an RSA study of 33 primary total hip arthroplasties followed for up to ten years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schewelov, T; Carlsson, A; Sanzén, L; Besjakov, J

    2014-05-01

    In 2005, we demonstrated that the polished triple-tapered C-stem at two years had migrated distally and rotated internally. From that series, 33 patients have now been followed radiologically, clinically and by radiostereometric analysis (RSA) for up to ten years. The distal migration within the cement mantle had continued and reached a mean of 2 mm (0.5 to 4.0) at ten years. Internal rotation, also within the cement mantle, was a mean 3.8° (external 1.6° to internal 6.6°) The cement mantle did not show any sign of migration or loosening in relation to the femoral bone. There were no clinical or radiological signs indicating that the migration or rotation within the cement mantle had had any adverse effects for the patients.

  18. Dynamics of the accumulation process of the Earth group of planets: Formation of the reverse rotation of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslov, N. N.; Eneyev, T. M.

    1979-01-01

    A numerical simulation of the process of formation of the terrestrial planets is carried within the framework of a new theory for the accumulation of planetary and satellite systems. The numerical simulation permitted determining the parameters of the protoplanetary disk from which Mercury, Venus and the Earth were formed as result of the evolution. The acquisition of a slow retrograde rotation for Venus was discovered during the course of the investigation, whereas Mercury and the Earth acquired direct rotation about their axes. Deviations of the semimajor axes of these three planets as well as the masses of the Earth and Venus from the true values are small as a rule (l 10%). It is shown that during the accumulation of the terrestrial planets, there existed a profound relationship between the process of formation of the orbits and masses of the planet and the process of formation of their rotation about their axes. Estimates are presented for the radii of the initial effective bodies and the time of evolution for the terrestrial accumulation zone.

  19. Population dynamics of plant nematodes in cultivated soil: length of rotation in newly cleared and old agricultural land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, J M; Murphy, W S; Brodie, B B

    1973-04-01

    During a 6-year study of 1-, 2-, and 3-year crop rotations, population densities of Pratylenchus brachyurus, Trichodorus christiei, and Meloidogyne incognita were significantly affected by the choice of crops but not by length of crop rotation. The density of P. brachyurus and T. christiei increased rapidly on milo (Sorghum vulgate). In addition, populations of P. brachyurus increased significantly in cropping systems that involved crotalaria (C. rnucronata), millet (Setaria italica), and sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense). Lowest numbers of P. brachyurus occurred where okra (Hibiscus esculentus) was grown or where land was fallow. The largest increase in populations of T. christiei occurred in cropping systems that involved millet, sudangrass, and okra whereas the smallest increase occurred in cropping systems that involved crotalaria or fallow. A winter cover of rye (Secale cereale) had no distinguishable effect on population densities of P. brachyurus or T. christiei. Meloidogyne incognita was detected during the fourth year in both newly cleared and old agricultural land when okra was included in the cropping system. Detectable populations of M. incognita did not develop in any of the other cropping systems. Yields of tomato transplants were higher on the newly cleared land than on the old land. Highest yields were obtained when crotalaria was included in the cropping system. Lowest yields were obtained when milo, or fallow were included in the cropping system. Length of rotation had no distinguishable effect on yields of tomato transplants.

  20. Global rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosquist, K.

    1980-01-01

    Global rotation in cosmological models is defined on an observational basis. A theorem is proved saying that, for rigid motion, the global rotation is equal to the ordinary local vorticity. The global rotation is calculated in the space-time homogeneous class III models, with Godel's model as a special case. It is shown that, with the exception of Godel's model, the rotation in these models becomes infinite for finite affine parameter values. In some directions the rotation changes sign and becomes infinite in a direction opposite to the local vorticity. The points of infinite rotation are identified as conjugate points along the null geodesics. The physical interpretation of the infinite rotation is discussed, and a comparison with the behaviour of the area distance at conjugate points is given. (author)

  1. Dynamic Stress Testing Is Unnecessary for Unimalleolar Supination-External Rotation Ankle Fractures with Minimal Fracture Displacement on Lateral Radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortunen, Simo; Leskelä, Hannu-Ville; Haapasalo, Heidi; Flinkkilä, Tapio; Ohtonen, Pasi; Pakarinen, Harri

    2017-03-15

    This study aimed to identify factors from standard radiographs that contributed to the stability of the ankle mortise in patients with isolated supination-external rotation fractures of the lateral malleolus (OTA/AO 44-B). Non-stress radiographs of the mortise and lateral views, without medial clear space widening or incongruity, were prospectively collected for 286 consecutive patients (mean age, 45 years [range, 16 to 85 years]), including 144 female patients (mean age, 50 years [range, 17 to 85 years]) and 142 male patients (mean age, 40 years [range, 16 to 84 years]) from 2 trauma centers. The radiographs were analyzed for fracture morphology by 2 orthopaedic surgeons, who were blinded to each other's measurements and to the results of external rotation stress radiographs (the reference for stability). Factors significantly associated with ankle mortise stability were tested in multiple logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed for continuous variables to determine optimal thresholds. A sensitivity of >90% was used as the criterion for an optimal threshold. According to external rotation stress radiographs, 217 patients (75.9%) had a stable injury, defined as that with a medial clear space of ankle mortise were female sex (odds ratio [OR], 2.5 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.4 to 4.6]), a posterior diastasis of fracture fragments (OR, 7.3 [95% CI, 2.1 to 26.3]). When the posterior diastasis was fracture fragments were present, the probability of a stable ankle mortise was 0.98 for 48 female patients (16.8%) and 0.94 for 37 male patients (12.9%). Patients with noncomminuted lateral malleolar fractures (85 patients [29.7%]) could be diagnosed with a stable ankle mortise without further stress testing, when the fracture line widths were <2 mm on lateral radiographs. Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  2. Impact of scaffold micro and macro architecture on Schwann cell proliferation under dynamic conditions in a rotating wall vessel bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valmikinathan, Chandra M.; Hoffman, John; Yu, Xiaojun

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade tissue engineering has emerged as a powerful alternative to regenerate lost tissues owing to trauma or tumor. Evidence shows that Schwann cell containing scaffolds have improved performance in vivo as compared to scaffolds that depend on cellularization post implantation. However, owing to limited supply of cells from the patients themselves, several approaches have been taken to enhance cell proliferation rates to produce complete and uniform cellularization of scaffolds. The most common approach is the application of a bioreactor to enhance cell proliferation rate and therefore reduce the time needed to obtain sufficiently significant number of glial cells, prior to implantation. In this study, we show the application of a rotating wall bioreactor system for studying Schwann cell proliferation on nanofibrous spiral shaped scaffolds, prepared by solvent casting and salt leaching techniques. The scaffolds were fabricated from polycaprolactone (PCL), which has ideal mechanical properties and upon degradation does not produce acidic byproducts. The spiral scaffolds were coated with aligned or random nanofibers, produced by electrospinning, to provide a substrate that mimics the native extracellular matrix and the essential contact guidance cues. At the 4 day time point, an enhanced rate of cell proliferation was observed on the open structured nanofibrous spiral scaffolds in a rotating wall bioreactor, as compared to static culture conditions. However, the cell proliferation rate on the other contemporary scaffolds architectures such as the tubular and cylindrical scaffolds show reduced cell proliferation in the bioreactor as compared to static conditions, at the same time point. Moreover, the rotating wall bioreactor does not alter the orientation or the phenotype of the Schwann cells on the aligned nanofiber containing scaffolds, wherein, the cells remain aligned along the length of the scaffolds. Therefore, these open structured spiral

  3. Measurement of lattice rotations and internal stresses in over one hundred individual grains during a stress-induced martensitic transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hachi Younes El

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the properties of polycrystals at a microscopic scale during cyclic mechanical loading we have measured the relationship between grain orientations, their positions inside the sample and their internal stresses. In this work, in-situ 3DXRD technique was performed on over hundred grains during the stress-induced martensitic transformation in a Cu-Al-Be shape memory alloy. Information about the position, orientation, and stress field was obtained for each austenitic grain. These results have been used to develop a procedure that allows automatic processing for a large number of grains, matching them during loading and leads to a quantitative stress field. A strong heterogeneity of stress state between the grains at the surface and in the volume is evident.

  4. CISM Course on Rotating Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    The volume presents a comprehensive overview of rotation effects on fluid behavior, emphasizing non-linear processes. The subject is introduced by giving a range of examples of rotating fluids encountered in geophysics and engineering. This is then followed by a discussion of the relevant scales and parameters of rotating flow, and an introduction to geostrophic balance and vorticity concepts. There are few books on rotating fluids and this volume is, therefore, a welcome addition. It is the first volume which contains a unified view of turbulence in rotating fluids, instability and vortex dynamics. Some aspects of wave motions covered here are not found elsewhere.

  5. Self adaptive internal combustion engine control for hydrogen mixtures based on piezoelectric dynamic cylinder pressure transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courteau, R.; Bose, T. K. [Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Hydrogen Research Institute, Trois-Rivieres, PQ (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    An algorithm for self-adaptive tuning of an internal combustion engine is proposed, based on a Kalman filter operating on a few selected metrics of the dynamic pressure curve. Piezoelectric transducers are devices to monitor dynamic cylinder pressure; spark plugs with embedded piezo elements are now available to provide diagnostic engine functions. Such transducers are also capable of providing signals to the engine controller to perform auto tuning, a function that is considered very useful particularly in vehicles using alternative fuels whose characteristics frequently show variations between fill-ups. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Effect of Internal Heat Source on the Onset of Double-Diffusive Convection in a Rotating Nanofluid Layer with Feedback Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Khalid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A linear stability analysis has been carried out to examine the effect of internal heat source on the onset of Rayleigh–Bénard convection in a rotating nanofluid layer with double diffusive coefficients, namely, Soret and Dufour, in the presence of feedback control. The system is heated from below and the model used for the nanofluid layer incorporates the effects of thermophoresis and Brownian motion. Three types of bounding systems of the model have been considered which are as follows: both the lower and upper bounding surfaces are free, the lower is rigid and the upper is free, and both of them are rigid. The eigenvalue equations of the perturbed state were obtained from a normal mode analysis and solved using the Galerkin method. It is found that the effect of internal heat source and Soret parameter destabilizes the nanofluid layer system while increasing the Coriolis force, feedback control, and Dufour parameter helps to postpone the onset of convection. Elevating the modified density ratio hastens the instability in the system and there is no significant effect of modified particle density in a nanofluid system.

  7. Aggregation dynamics and magnetic properties of magnetic micrometer-sized particles dispersed in a fluid under the action of rotating magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llera, María [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Codnia, Jorge [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Centro de Investigaciones en Láseres y Aplicaciones, CITEDEF-CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Jorge, Guillermo A., E-mail: gjorge@ungs.edu.ar [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-06-15

    We present a dynamic study of soft magnetic, commercial Fe and Ni micrometer-sized particles dispersed in oleic acid and subjected to a variable (rotating) magnetic field in the horizontal plane. A very complex structure is formed after the particles decant towards the bottom liquid–solid interface and the magnetic field is applied for several minutes. The dynamics of structure formation was studied by means of the registration and analysis of microscopic video images, through a Matlab image analysis script. Several parameters, such as the number of clusters, the perimeter-based fractal dimension and circularity, were calculated as a function of time. The time evolution of the number of clusters was found to follow a power-law behavior, with an exponent consistent with that found in other studies for magnetic systems, whereas the typical formation time depends on the particle diameter and field configuration. Complementarily, the magnetic properties of the formed structure were studied, reproducing the experiment with liquid paraffin as the containing fluid, and then letting it solidify. The sample obtained was studied by vibrating sample magnetometry. The magnetization curves show that the material obtained is a planar magnetically anisotropic material, which could eventually be used as an anisotropic magnetic sensor or actuator. - Highlights: • Dynamic study of Fe and Ni particles in oleic acid under rotating fields. • A very complex system of interconnected clusters was observed. • Larger particles had a smaller aggregation time. • A power law behavior of the number of clusters vs. time. • A Fe-paraffin sample with planar anisotropy characterized.

  8. Aggregation dynamics and magnetic properties of magnetic micrometer-sized particles dispersed in a fluid under the action of rotating magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llera, María; Codnia, Jorge; Jorge, Guillermo A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a dynamic study of soft magnetic, commercial Fe and Ni micrometer-sized particles dispersed in oleic acid and subjected to a variable (rotating) magnetic field in the horizontal plane. A very complex structure is formed after the particles decant towards the bottom liquid–solid interface and the magnetic field is applied for several minutes. The dynamics of structure formation was studied by means of the registration and analysis of microscopic video images, through a Matlab image analysis script. Several parameters, such as the number of clusters, the perimeter-based fractal dimension and circularity, were calculated as a function of time. The time evolution of the number of clusters was found to follow a power-law behavior, with an exponent consistent with that found in other studies for magnetic systems, whereas the typical formation time depends on the particle diameter and field configuration. Complementarily, the magnetic properties of the formed structure were studied, reproducing the experiment with liquid paraffin as the containing fluid, and then letting it solidify. The sample obtained was studied by vibrating sample magnetometry. The magnetization curves show that the material obtained is a planar magnetically anisotropic material, which could eventually be used as an anisotropic magnetic sensor or actuator. - Highlights: • Dynamic study of Fe and Ni particles in oleic acid under rotating fields. • A very complex system of interconnected clusters was observed. • Larger particles had a smaller aggregation time. • A power law behavior of the number of clusters vs. time. • A Fe-paraffin sample with planar anisotropy characterized

  9. Novel effect of interplay of internal and external noise on the dynamics of calcium oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongying; Ma Juan

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: When the external noise is small (D ≤ 0.8), R goes through a maximum at an optimal system size V, indicating the occurring of internal-noise stochastic resonance (INSR), and the curves become higher with the increases of D, which shows that INSR can be enhanced by the external noise in a certain range of external noise intensity ((D ≤ 0.8). If D > 0.8, R monotonically increases and the peak disappears. When D increases further, the R curve becomes lower. Research highlights: → External noise coherence resonance (ENCR) can be suppressed by internal noise. → Internal noise stochastic resonance (INSR) can be enhanced by external noise. → When INSR occurs, the optimal system size can be regulated by the external noise. - Abstract: Using a mesoscopic stochastic model, the effect of interplay of external and internal noise on the dynamics of calcium oscillations was studied. When the system was tuned near a Hopf bifurcation point and driven by external noise or internal noise only, the existence of external noise coherence resonance (ENCR) or internal-noise stochastic resonance (INSR) was found, respectively. When both of the noises were considered, it was found that ENCR could be suppressed by internal noise, while INSR could be enhanced by external noise in a certain range of external noise intensity. It was also interesting to note that the optimal system size can be regulated by the external noise when the INSR occurs. The cell system may adapt to adjust the optimal size according to the external noise, indicating some kind of self-tuning mechanism involved in stochastic calcium dynamics.

  10. Nonlinear dynamics of mini-satellite respinup by weak internal controllable torques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somov, Yevgeny, E-mail: e-somov@mail.ru [Samara State Technical University, Department for Guidance, Navigation and Control, 244 Molodogvardeyskaya Str., Samara 443100 (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-10

    Contemporary space engineering advanced new problem before theoretical mechanics and motion control theory: a spacecraft directed respinup by the weak restricted control internal forces. The paper presents some results on this problem, which is very actual for energy supply of information mini-satellites (for communication, geodesy, radio- and opto-electronic observation of the Earth et al.) with electro-reaction plasma thrusters and gyro moment cluster based on the reaction wheels or the control moment gyros. The solution achieved is based on the methods for synthesis of nonlinear robust control and on rigorous analytical proof for the required spacecraft rotation stability by Lyapunov function method. These results were verified by a computer simulation of strongly nonlinear oscillatory processes at respinuping of a flexible spacecraft.

  11. Nonlinear dynamics of mini-satellite respinup by weak internal controllable torques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somov, Yevgeny

    2014-12-01

    Contemporary space engineering advanced new problem before theoretical mechanics and motion control theory: a spacecraft directed respinup by the weak restricted control internal forces. The paper presents some results on this problem, which is very actual for energy supply of information mini-satellites (for communication, geodesy, radio- and opto-electronic observation of the Earth et al.) with electro-reaction plasma thrusters and gyro moment cluster based on the reaction wheels or the control moment gyros. The solution achieved is based on the methods for synthesis of nonlinear robust control and on rigorous analytical proof for the required spacecraft rotation stability by Lyapunov function method. These results were verified by a computer simulation of strongly nonlinear oscillatory processes at respinuping of a flexible spacecraft.

  12. Estimation of kinematic parameters in CALIFA galaxies: no-assumption on internal dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lorenzo, B.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.; CALIFA Team

    2016-06-01

    We propose a simple approach to homogeneously estimate kinematic parameters of a broad variety of galaxies (elliptical, spirals, irregulars or interacting systems). This methodology avoids the use of any kinematical model or any assumption on internal dynamics. This simple but novel approach allows us to determine: the frequency of kinematic distortions, systemic velocity, kinematic center, and kinematic position angles which are directly measured from the two dimensional-distributions of radial velocities. We test our analysis tools using the CALIFA Survey

  13. Self adaptive internal combustion engine control for hydrogen mixtures based on piezoelectric dynamic cylinder pressure transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courteau, R.; Bose, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Piezoelectric transducers offer an effective, non-intrusive way to monitor dynamic cylinder pressure in internal combustion engines. Devices dedicated to this purpose are appearing on the market, often in the form of spark plugs with embedded piezo elements. Dynamic cylinder pressure is typically used to provide diagnostic functions, or to help map an engine after it is designed. With the advent of powerful signal processor chips, it is now possible to embed enough computing power in the engine controller to perform auto tuning based on the signals provided by such transducers. Such functionality is very useful if the fuel characteristics vary between fill ups, as is often the case with alternative fuels. We propose here an algorithm for self-adaptive tuning based on a Kalman filter operating on a few selected metrics of the dynamic pressure curve. (author)

  14. Microbial Internal Storage Alters the Carbon Transformation in Dynamic Anaerobic Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Batstone, Damien; Zhao, Bai-Hang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-08-04

    Microbial internal storage processes have been demonstrated to occur and play an important role in activated sludge systems under both aerobic and anoxic conditions when operating under dynamic conditions. High-rate anaerobic reactors are often operated at a high volumetric organic loading and a relatively dynamic profile, with large amounts of fermentable substrates. These dynamic operating conditions and high catabolic energy availability might also facilitate the formation of internal storage polymers by anaerobic microorganisms. However, so far information about storage under anaerobic conditions (e.g., anaerobic fermentation) as well as its consideration in anaerobic process modeling (e.g., IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1, ADM1) is still sparse. In this work, the accumulation of storage polymers during anaerobic fermentation was evaluated by batch experiments using anaerobic methanogenic sludge and based on mass balance analysis of carbon transformation. A new mathematical model was developed to describe microbial storage in anaerobic systems. The model was calibrated and validated by using independent data sets from two different anaerobic systems, with significant storage observed, and effectively simulated in both systems. The inclusion of the new anaerobic storage processes in the developed model allows for more successful simulation of transients due to lower accumulation of volatile fatty acids (correction for the overestimation of volatile fatty acids), which mitigates pH fluctuations. Current models such as the ADM1 cannot effectively simulate these dynamics due to a lack of anaerobic storage mechanisms.

  15. Dynamic cultivation of human mesenchymal stem cells in a rotating bed bioreactor system based on the Z RP platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Solvig; Röker, Stefanie; Marten, Dana; Peterbauer, Anja; Scheper, Thomas; van Griensven, Martijn; Kasper, Cornelia

    2009-01-01

    Because the regeneration of large bone defects is limited by quantitative restrictions and risks of infections, the development of bioartificial bone substitutes is of great importance. To obtain a three-dimensional functional tissue-like graft, static cultivation is inexpedient due to limitations in cell density, nutrition and oxygen support. Dynamic cultivation in a bioreactor system can overcome these restrictions and furthermore provide the possibility to control the environment with regard to pH, oxygen content, and temperature. In this study, a three-dimensional bone construct was engineered by the use of dynamic bioreactor technology. Human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells were cultivated on a macroporous zirconium dioxide based ceramic disc called Sponceram. Furthermore, hydroxyapatite coated Sponceram was used. The cells were cultivated under dynamic conditions and compared with statically cultivated cells. The differentiation into osteoblasts was initiated by osteogenic supplements. Cellular proliferation during static and dynamic cultivation was compared measuring glucose and lactate concentration. The differentiation process was analysed determining AP-expression and using different specific staining methods. Our results demonstrate much higher proliferation rates during dynamic conditions in the bioreactor system compared to static cultivation measured by glucose consumption and lactate production. Cell densities on the scaffolds indicated higher proliferation on native Sponceram compared to hydroxyapatite coated Sponceram. With this study, we present an excellent method to enhance cellular proliferation and bone lineage specific growth of tissue like structures comprising fibrous (collagen) and globular (mineral) extracellular components. (c) 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2009.

  16. Dissipative particle dynamics simulation of flow generated by two rotating concentric cylinders: II. Lateral dissipative and random forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipovic, N; Haber, S; Kojic, M; Tsuda, A

    2008-01-01

    Traditional DPD methods address dissipative and random forces exerted along the line connecting neighbouring particles. Espanol (1998 Phys. Rev. E 57 2930-48) suggested adding dissipative and random force components in a direction perpendicular to this line. This paper focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of such an addition as compared with the traditional DPD method. Our benchmark system comprises fluid initially at rest occupying the space between two concentric cylinders rotating with various angular velocities. The effect of the lateral force components on the time evolution of the simulated velocity profile was also compared with that of the known analytical solution. The results show that (i) the solution accuracy at steady state has improved and the error has been reduced by at least 30% (in one case by 75%), (ii) the DPD time to reach steady state has been halved, (iii) the CPU time has increased by only 30%, and (iv) no significant differences exist in density and temperature distributions

  17. Asymptotic solutions of steady magneto-fluid-dynamic motion between two rotating disks with a small gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.J.; Woo, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    The steady-state flow of a conducting fluid between two coaxial rotating disks in the presence of an axial magnetic field is considered for the following conditions: (1) the gap d between two disks is very small compared with the radial extension of the disks R; (2) the angular velocity of the disks is not too high, so that the thickness of the Eckman layer δ is still larger than the gap d, (d/δ) 1 /sup // 4 2 /d 2 . Under these conditions asymptotic solutions to the problem are obtained in terms of the small parameter Epsilon = d/R. The results show that to the lowest-order approximation, the electric properties of the disks are not important to the flow field, while the magnitude of the magnetic field plays an important role in the equilibrium flow profile

  18. A Dynamic Approach to the Analysis of Soft Power in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses soft power in international relations and the soft power of China’s foreign policy in recent years. After presenting a critique of the soft power theory developed by Joseph S. Nye, the paper provides an alternative interpretation of soft power. The author proposes a dynamic analysis of soft power in international relations, and argues that whether a power resource is soft or hard depends on the perceptions and feelings of various actors in specific situations. Due to the varying degrees of acceptance, power can be divided into hard power, soft power and bargaining power. An analysis should look at the soft or hard effectiveness of a power resource from three perspectives–horizontally, vertically and relatively. Recently, the soft power of China’s foreign policy and international behavior has mainly been manifested in multilateralism, economic diplomacy and a good-neighborly policy.

  19. Rotating Wavepackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Any free-particle wavepacket solution of Schrodinger's equation can be converted by differentiations to wavepackets rotating about the original direction of motion. The angular momentum component along the motion associated with this rotation is an integral multiple of [h-bar]. It is an "intrinsic" angular momentum: independent of origin and…

  20. Rotating dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noe, C.

    1984-01-01

    Products to dry are introduced inside a rotating tube placed in an oven, the cross section of the tube is an arc of spiral. During clockwise rotation of the tube products are maintained inside and mixed, during anticlockwise products are removed. Application is made to drying of radioactive wastes [fr

  1. Did clockwise rotation of Antarctica cause the break-up of Gondwanaland? An investigation in the 'deep-keeled cratons' frame for global dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmaston, M. F.

    2012-04-01

    Introduction. The 'deep-keeled cratons' frame for global dynamics is the result of seeking Earth-behaviour answers to the following outside-the-box proposition:- "If cratons have tectospheric keels that reach or approach the 660 km discontinuity, AND the 660 level is an effective barrier to mantle circulation, then obviously (i) when two cratons separate, the upper mantle to put under the nascent ocean must arrive by a circuitous route and, conversely, (ii) if they approach one another, the mantle volume that was in between them must get extruded sideways." Surprisingly it has turned out [1 - 4] that Earth dynamical behaviour for at least the past 150 Ma provides persuasive affirmation of both these expectations and that there is a rational petrological explanation for the otherwise-unexpected immobility of subcratonic material to such depths [5 - 7]. Clockwise rotation of Antarctica? This contribution greatly amplifies my original plate dynamical arguments for suggesting [8] that such rotation is ongoing. Convection is unsuited to causing rotation about a pole within the plate so, as noted then, a gearwheel-like linkage to Africa at the SWIR would provide its clearly CCW (Biscay-Caucasus) relationship to the Mediterranean belt for the past 100 Ma, also seen in its separation from South America. Gearwheel-like linkage of motion requires the presence of some kind of E-W restraint further north. In that case it was the N Africa/Arabia involvement in the Alpide belt, but the earlier opening of the central Atlantic by the eastward motion of Africa, suggests its rigid Gondwanan attachment to Antarctica rotation at that time, with little constraint in the north. Further east, the seafloor data show that Australia-Antarctica separation involved no such opposite rotational linkage, so, with no E-W mechanical constraint in the north by Indonesia, they must have rotated together, as is recorded by Australia's eastward motion to generate the Mesozoic seafloor at its western

  2. Theoretical bases of rotation dynamics of raw materials poller with s ratify consideration for saw gin processing of cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidov, Kh.; Babaeva, A.Kh.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper is examined motion of raw materials rollers on the base of a stratify models. Foe every layers of the rollers are determined dynamical influences for saw gin processing of cotton. It is noticed that in the gin processing of cotton the second layer of cotton roller plagues an important role

  3. Model Reduction in Co-Rotated Multi-Body Dynamics Based on the Dual Craig-Bampton Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerathunge Kadawathagedara, S.T.; Rixen, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    A new reduction method for dynamical analsis of multi-body systems is presented in this paper. It fundamentally differs from the ones previously published in the way kinematical constraints are handled. Our approach is based on component mode synthesis, but the specificity of articulated mechanism,

  4. Overcoming potential energy distortions in constrained internal coordinate molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandel, Saugat; Salomon-Ferrer, Romelia; Larsen, Adrien B.; Vaidehi, Nagarajan, E-mail: nvaidehi@coh.org [Division of Immunology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, California 91010 (United States); Jain, Abhinandan, E-mail: Abhi.Jain@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

    2016-01-28

    The Internal Coordinate Molecular Dynamics (ICMD) method is an attractive molecular dynamics (MD) method for studying the dynamics of bonded systems such as proteins and polymers. It offers a simple venue for coarsening the dynamics model of a system at multiple hierarchical levels. For example, large scale protein dynamics can be studied using torsional dynamics, where large domains or helical structures can be treated as rigid bodies and the loops connecting them as flexible torsions. ICMD with such a dynamic model of the protein, combined with enhanced conformational sampling method such as temperature replica exchange, allows the sampling of large scale domain motion involving high energy barrier transitions. Once these large scale conformational transitions are sampled, all-torsion, or even all-atom, MD simulations can be carried out for the low energy conformations sampled via coarse grained ICMD to calculate the energetics of distinct conformations. Such hierarchical MD simulations can be carried out with standard all-atom forcefields without the need for compromising on the accuracy of the forces. Using constraints to treat bond lengths and bond angles as rigid can, however, distort the potential energy landscape of the system and reduce the number of dihedral transitions as well as conformational sampling. We present here a two-part solution to overcome such distortions of the potential energy landscape with ICMD models. To alleviate the intrinsic distortion that stems from the reduced phase space in torsional MD, we use the Fixman compensating potential. To additionally alleviate the extrinsic distortion that arises from the coupling between the dihedral angles and bond angles within a force field, we propose a hybrid ICMD method that allows the selective relaxing of bond angles. This hybrid ICMD method bridges the gap between all-atom MD and torsional MD. We demonstrate with examples that these methods together offer a solution to eliminate the potential

  5. Intensive Care Unit Rotations and Predictors of Career Choice in Pulmonary/Critical Care Medicine: A Survey of Internal Medicine Residency Directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Minter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The United States (US is experiencing a growing shortage of critical care medicine (CCM trained physicians. Little is known about the exposures to CCM experienced by internal medicine (IM residents or factors that may influence their decision to pursue a career in pulmonary/critical care medicine (PCCM. Methods. We conducted a survey of US IM residency program directors (PDs and then used multivariable logistic regression to identify factors that were predictive of residency programs with a higher percentage of graduates pursuing careers in PCCM. Results. Of the 249 PDs contacted, 107 (43% completed our survey. University-sponsored programs more commonly had large ICUs (62.3% versus 42.2%, p=0.05, primary medical ICUs (63.9% versus 41.3%, p=0.03, and closed staffing models (88.5% versus 41.3%, p20 beds, residents serving as code leaders, and greater proportion of graduates pursuing specialization. Conclusions. While numerous differences exist between the ICU rotations at community- and university-sponsored IM residencies, the percentage of graduates specializing in PCCM was similar. Exposure to larger ICUs, serving as code leaders, and higher rates of specialization were predictive of a career choice in PCCM.

  6. Proceedings of the international advisory committee on 'biomolecular dynamics instrument DNA' and the workshop on 'biomolecular dynamics backscattering spectrometers'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Masatoshi; Aizawa, Kazuya; Nakajima, Kenji; Shibata, Kaoru; Takahashi, Nobuaki

    2008-08-01

    A workshop entitled 'Biomolecular Dynamics Backscattering Spectrometers' was held on February 27th - 29th, 2008 at J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency. This workshop was planned to be held for aiming to realize an innovative neutron backscattering instrument, namely DNA, in the MLF and thus four leading scientists in the field of neutron backscattering instruments were invited as the International Advisory Committee (IAC member: Dr. Dan Neumann (Chair); Prof. Ferenc Mezei; Dr. Hannu Mutka; Dr. Philip Tregenna-Piggott) for DNA from institutes in the United States, France and Switzerland, where backscattering instruments are in-service. It was therefore held in the form of lecture anterior and then in the form of the committee posterior. This report includes the executive summary of the IAC and materials of the presentations in the IAC and the workshop. (author)

  7. PREFACE: International Symposium on Dynamic Deformation and Fracture of Advanced Materials (D2FAM 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberschmidt, Vadim V.

    2013-07-01

    Intensification of manufacturing processes and expansion of usability envelopes of modern components and structures in many cases result in dynamic loading regimes that cannot be resented adequately employing quasi-static formulations of respective problems of solid mechanics. Specific features of dynamic deformation, damage and fracture processes are linked to various factors, most important among them being: a transient character of load application; complex scenarios of propagation, attenuation and reflection of stress waves in real materials, components and structures; strain-rate sensitivity of materials properties; various thermo-mechanical regimes. All these factors make both experimental characterisation and theoretical (analytical and numerical) analysis of dynamic deformation and fracture rather challenging; for instance, besides dealing with a spatial realisation of these processes, their evolution with time should be also accounted for. To meet these challenges, an International Symposium on Dynamic Deformation and Fracture of Advanced Materials D2FAM 2013 was held on 9-11 September 2013 in Loughborough, UK. Its aim was to bring together specialists in mechanics of materials, applied mathematics, physics, continuum mechanics, materials science as well as various areas of engineering to discuss advances in experimental and theoretical analysis, and numerical simulations of dynamic mechanical phenomena. Some 50 papers presented at the Symposium by researchers from 12 countries covered various topics including: high-strain-rate loading and deformation; dynamic fracture; impact and blast loading; high-speed penetration; impact fatigue; damping properties of advanced materials; thermomechanics of dynamic loading; stress waves in micro-structured materials; simulation of failure mechanisms and damage accumulation; processes in materials under dynamic loading; a response of components and structures to harsh environment. The materials discussed at D2FAM 2013

  8. Rotating three-dimensional dynamic culture of adult human bone marrow-derived cells for tissue engineering of hyaline cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Shinsuke; Mishima, Hajime; Ishii, Tomoo; Akaogi, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Tomokazu; Ohyabu, Yoshimi; Chang, Fei; Ochiai, Naoyuki; Uemura, Toshimasa

    2009-04-01

    The method of constructing cartilage tissue from bone marrow-derived cells in vitro is considered a valuable technique for hyaline cartilage regenerative medicine. Using a rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor developed in a NASA space experiment, we attempted to efficiently construct hyaline cartilage tissue from human bone marrow-derived cells without using a scaffold. Bone marrow aspirates were obtained from the iliac crest of nine patients during orthopedic operation. After their proliferation in monolayer culture, the adherent cells were cultured in the RWV bioreactor with chondrogenic medium for 2 weeks. Cells from the same source were cultured in pellet culture as controls. Histological and immunohistological evaluations (collagen type I and II) and quantification of glycosaminoglycan were performed on formed tissues and compared. The engineered constructs obtained using the RWV bioreactor showed strong features of hyaline cartilage in terms of their morphology as determined by histological and immunohistological evaluations. The glycosaminoglycan contents per microg DNA of the tissues were 10.01 +/- 3.49 microg/microg DNA in the case of the RWV bioreactor and 6.27 +/- 3.41 microg/microg DNA in the case of the pellet culture, and their difference was significant. The RWV bioreactor could provide an excellent environment for three-dimensional cartilage tissue architecture that can promote the chondrogenic differentiation of adult human bone marrow-derived cells.

  9. Analysis of internal shading degree to a prototype of dynamics photovoltaic greenhouse through simulation software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Marucci

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the use of photovoltaic panels as cover materials for greenhouses developed a great interest due to the state’s incentives obtainable by such applications. Shading caused by these elements inside the structure appears to be often too much for the normal development of agricultural activity. In this study it was analyzed the behaviour of shading caused by the photovoltaic panels inside a prototype of dynamic photovoltaic greenhouse whose particularity lies in the possibility of rotation of the panels along the longitudinal axis. The panels’ rotation allows varying shading degree in function of some parameters such as latitude and the different solar angles. In order to avoid any reflection losses due to imperfect inclination of the photovoltaic panels, 24 highly reflective aluminium mirrors were prepared with the objective of recovering the portion of solar radiation otherwise lost by reflection. For the study it was used the simulation software Autodesk® Ecotect® Analysis which allows to analyse the path of the shadows during the day and throughout the year for any latitude considered. For this study it was analyzed shading with the panels in a horizontal position. It was also analyzed the evolution of the percentage of shading simulating different latitudes. The results obtained show a great variation of the shading degree inside the structure during a single day and during the year. We can conclude that integrating this analysis with the energy balance it is possible to study the behaviour of photovoltaic greenhouses in order to integrate the energy production from renewable energy sources and agricultural production.

  10. Effect of Coriolis and centrifugal forces on flow and heat transfer at high rotation number and high density ratio in non orthogonally internal cooling channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Berrabah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerical predictions of three-dimensional flow and heat transfer are performed for a two-pass square channel with 45° staggered ribs in non-orthogonally mode-rotation using the second moment closure model. At Reynolds number of 25,000, the rotation numbers studied were 0, 0.24, 0.35 and 1.00. The density ratios were 0.13, 0.23 and 0.50. The results show that at high buoyancy parameter and high rotation number with a low density ratio, the flow in the first passage is governed by the secondary flow induced by the rotation whereas the secondary flow induced by the skewed ribs was almost distorted. As a result the heat transfer rate is enhanced on both co-trailing and co-leading sides compared to low and medium rotation number. In contrast, for the second passage, the rotation slightly reduces the heat transfer rate on co-leading side at high rotation number with a low density ratio and degrades it significantly on both co-trailing and co-leading sides at high buoyancy parameter compared to the stationary, low and medium rotation numbers. The numerical results are in fair agreement with available experimental data in the bend region and the second passage, while in the first passage were overestimated at low and medium rotation numbers.

  11. Binaries traveling through a gaseous medium: dynamical drag forces and internal torques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Salcedo, F. J. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Apt. Postal 70 264, C.P. 04510, Mexico City (Mexico); Chametla, Raul O., E-mail: jsanchez@astro.unam.mx [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, UP Adolfo López Mateos, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2014-10-20

    Using time-dependent linear theory, we investigate the morphology of the gravitational wake induced by a binary, whose center of mass moves at velocity V{sub cm} against a uniform background of gas. For simplicity, we assume that the components of the binary are on circular orbits about their common center of mass. The consequences of dynamical friction is twofold. First, gas dynamical friction may drag the center of mass of the binary and cause the binary to migrate. Second, drag forces also induce a braking torque, which causes the orbits of the components of the binary to shrink. We compute the drag forces acting on one component of the binary due to the gravitational interaction with its own wake. We show that the dynamical friction force responsible for decelerating the center of mass of the binary is smaller than it is in the point-mass case because of the loss of gravitational focusing. We show that the braking internal torque depends on the Mach numbers of each binary component about their center of mass, and also on the Mach number of the center of mass of the binary. In general, the internal torque decreases with increasing the velocity of the binary relative to the ambient gas cloud. However, this is not always the case. We also mention the relevance of our results to the period distribution of binaries.

  12. Waiting time distribution revealing the internal spin dynamics in a double quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptaszyński, Krzysztof

    2017-07-01

    Waiting time distribution and the zero-frequency full counting statistics of unidirectional electron transport through a double quantum dot molecule attached to spin-polarized leads are analyzed using the quantum master equation. The waiting time distribution exhibits a nontrivial dependence on the value of the exchange coupling between the dots and the gradient of the applied magnetic field, which reveals the oscillations between the spin states of the molecule. The zero-frequency full counting statistics, on the other hand, is independent of the aforementioned quantities, thus giving no insight into the internal dynamics. The fact that the waiting time distribution and the zero-frequency full counting statistics give a nonequivalent information is associated with two factors. Firstly, it can be explained by the sensitivity to different timescales of the dynamics of the system. Secondly, it is associated with the presence of the correlation between subsequent waiting times, which makes the renewal theory, relating the full counting statistics and the waiting time distribution, no longer applicable. The study highlights the particular usefulness of the waiting time distribution for the analysis of the internal dynamics of mesoscopic systems.

  13. The case for an internal dynamics model versus equilibrium point control in human movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinder, Mark R; Milner, Theodore E

    2003-06-15

    The equilibrium point hypothesis (EPH) was conceived as a means whereby the central nervous system could control limb movements by a relatively simple shift in equilibrium position without the need to explicitly compensate for task dynamics. Many recent studies have questioned this view with results that suggest the formation of an internal dynamics model of the specific task. However, supporters of the EPH have argued that these results are not incompatible with the EPH and that there is no reason to abandon it. In this study, we have tested one of the fundamental predictions of the EPH, namely, equifinality. Subjects learned to perform goal-directed wrist flexion movements while a motor provided assistance in proportion to the instantaneous velocity. It was found that the subjects stopped short of the target on the trials where the magnitude of the assistance was randomly decreased, compared to the preceding control trials (P = 0.003), i.e. equifinality was not achieved. This is contrary to the EPH, which predicts that final position should not be affected by external loads that depend purely on velocity. However, such effects are entirely consistent with predictions based on the formation of an internal dynamics model.

  14. Microwave spectrum, dipole moment, and internal dynamics of the methyl fluoride-carbonyl sulfide weakly bound complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Michal M; Peebles, Sean A

    2008-02-21

    Rotational spectra for the normal and four isotopically substituted species of the 1:1 complex between methyl fluoride (H3CF) and carbonyl sulfide (OCS) have been measured using Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy in the 5-16 GHz frequency region. The observed spectra fit well to a semirigid Watson Hamiltonian, and an analysis of the rotational constants has allowed a structure to be determined for this complex. The dipole moment vectors of the H3CF and OCS monomers are aligned approximately antiparallel with a C...C separation of 3.75(3) A and with an ab plane of symmetry. The values of the Pcc planar moments were found to be considerably different from the expected rigid values for all isotopologues. An estimate of approximately 14.5(50) cm-1 for the internal rotation barrier of the CH3 group with respect to the framework of the complex has been made using the Pcc values for the H3CF-OCS and D3CF-OCS isotopic species. Two structures, very close in energy and approximately related by a 60 degrees rotation about the C3 axis of the methyl fluoride, were identified by ab initio calculations at the MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p) level and provide reasonable agreement with the experimental rotational constants and dipole moment components.

  15. Preface: Special issue featuring papers from the International Conference on Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggiani, L.; Bordone, P.; Brunetti, R.

    2004-02-01

    The International Conference on Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors (HCIS-13) celebrates 30 years since it first took place in Modena. Nonequilibrium dynamics of charge carriers, pioneered by the hot-electron concept, is an important issue for understanding electro-optic transport properties in semiconductor materials and structures. In these 30 years several topics have matured, and new ones have emerged thus fertilizing the field with a variety of physical problems and new ideas. The history of the conference is summarized in the opening paper `30 years of HCIS'. The future of the conference seems secure considering the continued lively interest of the participants. The conference addressed eleven major topics which constitute the backbone of the proceedings and are summarized as follows: carrier transport in low dimensional and nanostructure systems, nonequilibrium carriers in superlattices and devices, small devices and related phenomena, carrier dynamics and fluctuations, carrier quantum dynamics, coherent/incoherent carrier dynamics of optical excitations and ultra-fast optical phenomena, nonlinear optical effects, transport in organic matter, semiconductor-based spintronics, coherent dynamics in solid state systems for quantum processing and communication, novel materials and devices. Nanometric space scale and femtosecond time scale represent the ultimate domains of theoretical, experimental and practical interest. Traditional fields such as bulk properties, quantum transport, fluctuations and chaotic phenomena, etc, have received thorough and continuous attention. Emerging fields from previous conferences, such as quantum processing and communication, have been better assessed. New fields, such as spintronics and electron transport in organic matter, have appeared for the first time. One plenary talk, 11 invited talks, 230 submitted abstracts covering all these topics constituted a single-session conference. Following scientific selection

  16. Analysis and Design of International Emission Trading Markets Applying System Dynamics Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Pickl, Stefan

    2010-11-01

    The design and analysis of international emission trading markets is an important actual challenge. Time-discrete models are needed to understand and optimize these procedures. We give an introduction into this scientific area and present actual modeling approaches. Furthermore, we develop a model which is embedded in a holistic problem solution. Measures for energy efficiency are characterized. The economic time-discrete "cap-and-trade" mechanism is influenced by various underlying anticipatory effects. With a systematic dynamic approach the effects can be examined. First numerical results show that fair international emissions trading can only be conducted with the use of protective export duties. Furthermore a comparatively high price which evokes emission reduction inevitably has an inhibiting effect on economic growth according to our model. As it always has been expected it is not without difficulty to find a balance between economic growth and emission reduction. It can be anticipated using our System Dynamics model simulation that substantial changes must be taken place before international emissions trading markets can contribute to global GHG emissions mitigation.

  17. Output Tracking for Systems with Non-Hyperbolic and Near Non-Hyperbolic Internal Dynamics: Helicopter Hover Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasia, Santosh

    1996-01-01

    A technique to achieve output tracking for nonminimum phase linear systems with non-hyperbolic and near non-hyperbolic internal dynamics is presented. This approach integrates stable inversion techniques, that achieve exact-tracking, with approximation techniques, that modify the internal dynamics to achieve desirable performance. Such modification of the internal dynamics is used (1) to remove non-hyperbolicity which an obstruction to applying stable inversion techniques and (2) to reduce large pre-actuation time needed to apply stable inversion for near non-hyperbolic cases. The method is applied to an example helicopter hover control problem with near non-hyperbolic internal dynamic for illustrating the trade-off between exact tracking and reduction of pre-actuation time.

  18. PREFACE: 19th International Conference on Electron Dynamics in Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures (EDISON'19)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, T.; Martín-Martínez, M. J.; Mateos, J.

    2015-10-01

    The 19th International Conference on Electron Dynamics in Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures (EDISON'19) was held at the Hospedería Fonseca (Universidad de Salamanca, Spain), on 29 June - 2 July, 2015, and was organized by the Electronics Area from the University of Salamanca. The Conference is held biannually and covers the recent progress in the field of electron dynamics in solid-state materials and devices. This was the 19th meeting of the international conference series formerly named Hot Carriers in Semiconductors (HCIS), first held in Modena in 1973. In the edition of 1997 in Berlin the name of the conference changed to International Conference on Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors, keeping the same acronym, HCIS; and finally in the edition of Montpellier in 2009 the name was again changed to the current one, International Conference on Electron Dynamics in Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures (EDISON). The latest editions took place in Santa Barbara, USA, in 2011 and Matsue, Japan, in 2013. Research work on electron dynamics involves quite different disciplines, and requires both fundamental and technological scientific efforts. Attendees to the conference come mostly from academic institutions, belonging to both theoretical and experimental groups working in a variety of fields, such as solid-state physics, electronics, optics, electrical engineering, material science, laser physics, etc. In this framework, events like the EDISON conference become a basic channel for the progress in the field. Here, researchers working in different areas can meet, present their latest advances and exchange their ideas. The program of EDISON'19 included 13 invited papers, 61 oral contributions and 73 posters. These contributions originated from scientists in more than 30 different countries. The Conference gathered 140 participants, coming from 24 different countries, most from Europe, but also with a significant participation

  19. State-to-state dynamics at the gas-liquid metal interface: rotationally and electronically inelastic scattering of NO[2Π(1/2)(0.5)] from molten gallium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemkiewicz, Michael P; Roscioli, Joseph R; Nesbitt, David J

    2011-06-21

    Jet cooled NO molecules are scattered at 45° with respect to the surface normal from a liquid gallium surface at E(inc) from 1.0(3) to 20(6) kcal/mol to probe rotationally and electronically inelastic scattering from a gas-molten metal interface (numbers in parenthesis represent 1σ uncertainty in the corresponding final digits). Scattered populations are detected at 45° by confocal laser induced fluorescence (LIF) on the γ(0-0) and γ(1-1) A(2)Σ ← X(2)Π(Ω) bands, yielding rotational, spin-orbit, and λ-doublet population distributions. Scattering of low speed NO molecules results in Boltzmann distributions with effective temperatures considerably lower than that of the surface, in respectable agreement with the Bowman-Gossage rotational cooling model [J. M. Bowman and J. L. Gossage, Chem. Phys. Lett. 96, 481 (1983)] for desorption from a restricted surface rotor state. Increasing collision energy results in a stronger increase in scattered NO rotational energy than spin-orbit excitation, with an opposite trend noted for changes in surface temperature. The difference between electronic and rotational dynamics is discussed in terms of the possible influence of electron hole pair excitations in the conducting metal. While such electronically non-adiabatic processes can also influence vibrational dynamics, the γ(1-1) band indicates rotational energy transfer is compared from a hard cube model perspective with previous studies of NO scattering from single crystal solid surfaces. Despite a lighter atomic mass (70 amu), the liquid Ga surface is found to promote translational to rotational excitation more efficiently than Ag(111) (108 amu) and nearly as effectively as Au(111) (197 amu). The enhanced propensity for Ga(l) to transform incident translational energy into rotation is discussed in terms of temperature-dependent capillary wave excitation of the gas-liquid metal interface. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  20. Rotation, Stability and Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, J. W.

    2007-07-01

    Tokamak plasmas can frequently exhibit high levels of rotation and rotation shear. This can usually be attributed to various sources: injection of momentum, e.g. through neutral beams, flows driven by plasma gradients or torques resulting from non-ambipolar particle loss; however, the source sometimes remains a mystery, such as the spontaneous rotation observed in Ohmic plasmas. The equilibrium rotation profile is given by the balance of these sources with transport and other losses; the edge boundary conditions can play an important role in determining this profile . Such plasma rotation, particularly sheared rotation, is predicted theoretically to have a significant influence on plasma behaviour. In the first place, sonic flows can significantly affect tokamak equilibria and neoclassical transport losses. However, the influence of rotation