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Sample records for dynamics genetic complexity

  1. Complex and unexpected dynamics in simple genetic regulatory networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Yanika; Ullner, Ekkehard; Alagha, Afnan; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Nesbeth, Darren; Zaikin, Alexey

    2014-03-01

    One aim of synthetic biology is to construct increasingly complex genetic networks from interconnected simpler ones to address challenges in medicine and biotechnology. However, as systems increase in size and complexity, emergent properties lead to unexpected and complex dynamics due to nonlinear and nonequilibrium properties from component interactions. We focus on four different studies of biological systems which exhibit complex and unexpected dynamics. Using simple synthetic genetic networks, small and large populations of phase-coupled quorum sensing repressilators, Goodwin oscillators, and bistable switches, we review how coupled and stochastic components can result in clustering, chaos, noise-induced coherence and speed-dependent decision making. A system of repressilators exhibits oscillations, limit cycles, steady states or chaos depending on the nature and strength of the coupling mechanism. In large repressilator networks, rich dynamics can also be exhibited, such as clustering and chaos. In populations of Goodwin oscillators, noise can induce coherent oscillations. In bistable systems, the speed with which incoming external signals reach steady state can bias the network towards particular attractors. These studies showcase the range of dynamical behavior that simple synthetic genetic networks can exhibit. In addition, they demonstrate the ability of mathematical modeling to analyze nonlinearity and inhomogeneity within these systems.

  2. Dynamic characterization of oil fields, complex stratigraphically using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Santiago; Hidrobo, Eduardo A

    2004-01-01

    A novel methodology is presented in this paper for the characterization of highly heterogeneous oil fields by integration of the oil fields dynamic information to the static updated model. The objective of the oil field's characterization process is to build an oil field model, as realistic as possible, through the incorporation of all the available information. The classical approach consists in producing a model based in the oil field's static information, having as the process final stage the validation model with the dynamic information available. It is important to clarify that the term validation implies a punctual process by nature, generally intended to secure the required coherence between productive zones and petrophysical properties. The objective of the proposed methodology is to enhance the prediction capacity of the oil field's model by previously integrating, parameters inherent to the oil field's fluid dynamics by a process of dynamic data inversion through an optimization procedure based on evolutionary computation. The proposed methodology relies on the construction of the oil field's high-resolution static model, escalated by means of hybrid techniques while aiming to preserve the oil field's heterogeneity. Afterwards, using an analytic simulator as reference, the scaled model is methodically modified by means of an optimization process that uses genetic algorithms and production data as conditional information. The process's final product is a model that observes the static and dynamic conditions of the oil field with the capacity to minimize the economic impact that generates production historical adjustments to the simulation tasks. This final model features some petrophysical properties (porosity, permeability and water saturation), as modified to achieve a better adjustment of the simulated production's history versus the real one history matching. Additionally, the process involves a slight modification of relative permeability, which has

  3. Complex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carleson, Lennart

    1993-01-01

    Complex dynamics is today very much a focus of interest. Though several fine expository articles were available, by P. Blanchard and by M. Yu. Lyubich in particular, until recently there was no single source where students could find the material with proofs. For anyone in our position, gathering and organizing the material required a great deal of work going through preprints and papers and in some cases even finding a proof. We hope that the results of our efforts will be of help to others who plan to learn about complex dynamics and perhaps even lecture. Meanwhile books in the field a. re beginning to appear. The Stony Brook course notes of J. Milnor were particularly welcome and useful. Still we hope that our special emphasis on the analytic side will satisfy a need. This book is a revised and expanded version of notes based on lectures of the first author at UCLA over several \\Vinter Quarters, particularly 1986 and 1990. We owe Chris Bishop a great deal of gratitude for supervising the production of cour...

  4. From observational to dynamic genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. A. Haworth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twin and family studies have shown that most traits are at least moderately heritable. But what are the implications of finding genetic influence for the design of intervention and prevention programs? For complex traits, heritability does not mean immutability, and research has shown that genetic influences can change with age, context and in response to behavioural and drug interventions. The most significant implications for intervention will come when we move from observational genetics to investigating dynamic genetics, including genetically sensitive interventions. Future interventions should be designed to overcome genetic risk and draw upon genetic strengths by changing the environment.

  5. Genetics of complex diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling; Møller, Gert Lykke; Koefoed, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    A complex disease with an inheritable component is polygenic, meaning that several different changes in DNA are the genetic basis for the disease. Such a disease may also be genetically heterogeneous, meaning that independent changes in DNA, i.e. various genotypes, can be the genetic basis...... for the disease. Each of these genotypes may be characterized by specific combinations of key genetic changes. It is suggested that even if all key changes are found in genes related to the biology of a certain disease, the number of combinations may be so large that the number of different genotypes may be close...... to the number of patients suffering from the disease. This hypothesis is based on a study of bipolar disorder....

  6. A weed-crop complex in sorghum: The dynamics of genetic diversity in a traditional farming system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaud, Adeline; Deu, Monique; Garine, Eric; Chantereau, Jacques; Bolteu, Justin; Koïda, Esaei Ouin; McKey, Doyle; Joly, Hélène I

    2009-10-01

    Despite the major ecological and economic impacts of gene flow between domesticated plants and their wild relatives, many aspects of the process, particularly the relative roles of natural and human selection in facilitating or constraining gene flow, are still poorly understood. We developed a multidisciplinary approach, involving both biologists and social scientists, to investigate the dynamics of genetic diversity of a sorghum weed-crop complex in a village of Duupa farmers in northern Cameroon. Farmers distinguish a gradient from weedy morphotypes (naa baa see, haariya, and genkiya) to domesticated morphotypes; haariya and genkiya have intermediate morphological traits. We investigated the pattern of diversity in this complex using both morphological and genetic data. Our biological results are interpreted in the light of data on farmers' taxonomy and practices such as spatial pattern of planting and plant selection. Both morphological and genetic data are congruent with farmers' taxonomy and confirm the introgressed status of intermediate weedy morphotypes. Farmers actively select against weedy morphotypes, but several practices unconsciously favor gene flow. Furthermore, haariya and genkiya may facilitate introgression between naa baa see and domesticated morphotypes by virtue of their intermediate flowering period and their mode of management by farmers.

  7. Complex spatial dynamics maintain northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) genetic diversity in a temporally varying landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Euliss, Ned H.; Chen, Yongjiu; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to most local amphibian populations, northeastern populations of the Northern Leopard Frog (Lithobates pipiens) have displayed uncharacteristically high levels of genetic diversity that have been attributed to large, stable populations. However, this widely distributed species also occurs in areas known for great climatic fluctuations that should be reflected in corresponding fluctuations in population sizes and reduced genetic diversity. To test our hypothesis that Northern Leopard Frog genetic diversity would be reduced in areas subjected to significant climate variability, we examined the genetic diversity of L. pipiens collected from 12 sites within the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota. Despite the region's fluctuating climate that includes periods of recurring drought and deluge, we found unexpectedly high levels of genetic diversity approaching that of northeastern populations. Further, genetic structure at a landscape scale was strikingly homogeneous; genetic differentiation estimates (Dest) averaged 0.10 (SD = 0.036) across the six microsatellite loci we studied, and two Bayesian assignment tests (STRUCTURE and BAPS) failed to reveal the development of significant population structure across the 68 km breadth of our study area. These results suggest that L. pipiens in the Prairie Pothole Region consists of a large, panmictic population capable of maintaining high genetic diversity in the face of marked climate variability.

  8. Dynamics of energy transfer from lycopene to bacteriochlorophyll in genetically-modified LH2 complexes of Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörvin Billsten, H; Herek, J L; Garcia-Asua, G; Hashøj, L; Polívka, T; Hunter, C N; Sundström, V

    2002-03-26

    LH2 complexes from Rb. sphaeroides were modified genetically so that lycopene, with 11 saturated double bonds, replaced the native carotenoids which contain 10 saturated double bonds. Tuning the S1 level of the carotenoid in LH2 in this way affected the dynamics of energy transfer within LH2, which were investigated using both steady-state and time-resolved techniques. The S1 energy of lycopene in n-hexane was determined to be approximately 12 500 +/- 150 cm(-1), by direct measurement of the S1-S2 transient absorption spectrum using a femtosecond IR-probing technique, thus placing an upper limit on the S1 energy of lycopene in the LH2 complex. Fluorescence emission and excitation spectra demonstrated that energy can be transferred from lycopene to the bacteriochlorophyll molecules within this LH2 complex. The energy-transfer dynamics within the mutant complex were compared to wild-type LH2 from Rb. sphaeroides containing the carotenoid spheroidene and from Rs. molischianum, in which lycopene is the native carotenoid. The results show that the overall efficiency for Crt --> B850 energy transfer is approximately 80% in lyco-LH2 and approximately 95% in WT-LH2 of Rb. sphaeroides. The difference in overall Crt --> BChl transfer efficiency of lyco-LH2 and WT-LH2 mainly relates to the low efficiency of the Crt S(1) --> BChl pathway for complexes containing lycopene, which was 20% in lyco-LH2. These results show that in an LH2 complex where the Crt S1 energy is sufficiently high to provide efficient spectral overlap with both B800 and B850 Q(y) states, energy transfer via the Crt S1 state occurs to both pigments. However, the introduction of lycopene into the Rb. sphaeroides LH2 complex lowers the S1 level of the carotenoid sufficiently to prevent efficient transfer of energy to the B800 Q(y) state, leaving only the Crt S1 --> B850 channel, strongly suggesting that Crt S1 --> BChl energy transfer is controlled by the relative Crt S1 and BChl Q(y) energies.

  9. Evolution of complex dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilds, Roy; Kauffman, Stuart A.; Glass, Leon

    2008-09-01

    We study the evolution of complex dynamics in a model of a genetic regulatory network. The fitness is associated with the topological entropy in a class of piecewise linear equations, and the mutations are associated with changes in the logical structure of the network. We compare hill climbing evolution, in which only mutations that increase the fitness are allowed, with neutral evolution, in which mutations that leave the fitness unchanged are allowed. The simple structure of the fitness landscape enables us to estimate analytically the rates of hill climbing and neutral evolution. In this model, allowing neutral mutations accelerates the rate of evolutionary advancement for low mutation frequencies. These results are applicable to evolution in natural and technological systems.

  10. Complexity and Dynamical Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence Deacon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We argue that a critical difference distinguishing machines from organisms and computers from brains is not complexity in a structural sense, but a difference in dynamical organization that is not well accounted for by current complexity measures. We propose a measure of the complexity of a system that is largely orthogonal to computational, information theoretic, or thermodynamic conceptions of structural complexity. What we call a system’s dynamical depth is a separate dimension of system complexity that measures the degree to which it exhibits discrete levels of nonlinear dynamical organization in which successive levels are distinguished by local entropy reduction and constraint generation. A system with greater dynamical depth than another consists of a greater number of such nested dynamical levels. Thus, a mechanical or linear thermodynamic system has less dynamical depth than an inorganic self-organized system, which has less dynamical depth than a living system. Including an assessment of dynamical depth can provide a more precise and systematic account of the fundamental difference between inorganic systems (low dynamical depth and living systems (high dynamical depth, irrespective of the number of their parts and the causal relations between them.

  11. Nonlinear dynamics and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert; Fu, Xilin

    2014-01-01

    This important collection presents recent advances in nonlinear dynamics including analytical solutions, chaos in Hamiltonian systems, time-delay, uncertainty, and bio-network dynamics. Nonlinear Dynamics and Complexity equips readers to appreciate this increasingly main-stream approach to understanding complex phenomena in nonlinear systems as they are examined in a broad array of disciplines. The book facilitates a better understanding of the mechanisms and phenomena in nonlinear dynamics and develops the corresponding mathematical theory to apply nonlinear design to practical engineering.

  12. Dynamics in Complex Coacervates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sarah

    Understanding the dynamics of a material provides detailed information about the self-assembly, structure, and intermolecular interactions present in a material. While rheological methods have long been used for the characterization of complex coacervate-based materials, it remains a challenge to predict the dynamics for a new system of materials. Furthermore, most work reports only qualitative trends exist as to how parameters such as charge stoichiometry, ionic strength, and polymer chain length impact self-assembly and material dynamics, and there is little information on the effects of polymer architecture or the organization of charges within a polymer. We seek to link thermodynamic studies of coacervation phase behavior with material dynamics through a carefully-controlled, systematic study of coacervate linear viscoelasticity for different polymer chemistries. We couple various methods of characterizing the dynamics of polymer-based complex coacervates, including the time-salt superposition methods developed first by Spruijt and coworkers to establish a more mechanistic strategy for comparing the material dynamics and linear viscoelasticity of different systems. Acknowledgment is made to the Donors of the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund for support of this research.

  13. Complexity in Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cristopher David

    The study of chaos has shown us that deterministic systems can have a kind of unpredictability, based on a limited knowledge of their initial conditions; after a finite time, the motion appears essentially random. This observation has inspired a general interest in the subject of unpredictability, and more generally, complexity; how can we characterize how "complex" a dynamical system is?. In this thesis, we attempt to answer this question with a paradigm of complexity that comes from computer science, we extract sets of symbol sequences, or languages, from a dynamical system using standard methods of symbolic dynamics; we then ask what kinds of grammars or automata are needed a generate these languages. This places them in the Chomsky heirarchy, which in turn tells us something about how subtle and complex the dynamical system's behavior is. This gives us insight into the question of unpredictability, since these automata can also be thought of as computers attempting to predict the system. In the culmination of the thesis, we find a class of smooth, two-dimensional maps which are equivalent to the highest class in the Chomsky heirarchy, the turning machine; they are capable of universal computation. Therefore, these systems possess a kind of unpredictability qualitatively different from the usual "chaos": even if the initial conditions are known exactly, questions about the system's long-term dynamics are undecidable. No algorithm exists to answer them. Although this kind of unpredictability has been discussed in the context of distributed, many-degree-of -freedom systems (for instance, cellular automata) we believe this is the first example of such phenomena in a smooth, finite-degree-of-freedom system.

  14. Carney complex review: Genetic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco Schamun, María Belén; Correa, Ricardo; Graffigna, Patricia; de Miguel, Valeria; Fainstein Day, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    Carney complex is a multiple neoplasia syndrome having endocrine and non-endocrine manifestations. Diagnostic criteria include myxoma, lentigines, and primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, amongst other signs/symptoms. In most cases it is an autosomal dominant disease, and diagnosis therefore requires study and follow-up of the family members. Inactivating mutations of the PRKAR1A gene were identified as the main cause of the disease, although since 2015 other disease-related genes, including PRKACA and PRKACB activating mutations, have also been related with Carney complex. This review will address the genetic aspects related to Carney complex. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Complex Hamiltonian Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bountis, Tassos

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces and explores modern developments in the well established field of Hamiltonian dynamical systems. It focuses on high degree-of-freedom systems and the transitional regimes between regular and chaotic motion. The role of nonlinear normal modes is highlighted and the importance of low-dimensional tori in the resolution of the famous FPU paradox is emphasized. Novel powerful numerical methods are used to study localization phenomena and distinguish order from strongly and weakly chaotic regimes. The emerging hierarchy of complex structures in such regimes gives rise to particularly long-lived patterns and phenomena called quasi-stationary states, which are explored in particular in the concrete setting of one-dimensional Hamiltonian lattices and physical applications in condensed matter systems.  The self-contained and pedagogical approach is blended with a unique balance between mathematical rigor, physics insights and concrete applications. End of chapter exercises and (more demanding) res...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: tuberous sclerosis complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 42. Citation on PubMed Northrup H, Koenig MK, Pearson DA, Au KS. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. 1999 Jul ... Tuberous sclerosis complex: advances in diagnosis, genetics, and management. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007 Aug;57(2): ...

  17. Management of complex dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, R. S.

    2018-02-01

    Complex dynamical systems are systems with many interdependent components which evolve in time. One might wish to control their trajectories, but a more practical alternative is to control just their statistical behaviour. In many contexts this would be both sufficient and a more realistic goal, e.g. climate and socio-economic systems. I refer to it as ‘management’ of complex dynamical systems. In this paper, some mathematics for management of complex dynamical systems is developed in the weakly dependent regime, and questions are posed for the strongly dependent regime.

  18. Managing Complex Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, John C.; Webster, Robert L.; Curry, Jeanie A.; Hammond, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    Management commonly engages in a variety of research designed to provide insight into the motivation and relationships of individuals, departments, organizations, etc. This paper demonstrates how the application of concepts associated with the analysis of complex systems applied to such data sets can yield enhanced insights for managerial action.

  19. Genetic basis of a cognitive complexity metric.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narelle K Hansell

    Full Text Available Relational complexity (RC is a metric reflecting capacity limitation in relational processing. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive processes and is an endophenotype for several disorders. However, the genetic underpinnings of complex relational processing have not been investigated. Using the classical twin model, we estimated the heritability of RC and genetic overlap with intelligence (IQ, reasoning, and working memory in a twin and sibling sample aged 15-29 years (N = 787. Further, in an exploratory search for genetic loci contributing to RC, we examined associated genetic markers and genes in our Discovery sample and selected loci for replication in four independent samples (ALSPAC, LBC1936, NTR, NCNG, followed by meta-analysis (N>6500 at the single marker level. Twin modelling showed RC is highly heritable (67%, has considerable genetic overlap with IQ (59%, and is a major component of genetic covariation between reasoning and working memory (72%. At the molecular level, we found preliminary support for four single-marker loci (one in the gene DGKB, and at a gene-based level for the NPS gene, having influence on cognition. These results indicate that genetic sources influencing relational processing are a key component of the genetic architecture of broader cognitive abilities. Further, they suggest a genetic cascade, whereby genetic factors influencing capacity limitation in relational processing have a flow-on effect to more complex cognitive traits, including reasoning and working memory, and ultimately, IQ.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Carney complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cortisol (hypercortisolism) can lead to the development of Cushing syndrome. This syndrome causes weight gain in the face ... Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: Cushing's Syndrome Educational Resources (6 links) Disease InfoSearch: Carney Complex ...

  1. Genetic basis of a cognitive complexity metric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansell, Narelle K; Halford, Graeme S; Andrews, Glenda; Shum, David H K; Harris, Sarah E; Davies, Gail; Franic, Sanja; Christoforou, Andrea; Zietsch, Brendan; Painter, Jodie; Medland, Sarah E; Ehli, Erik A; Davies, Gareth E; Steen, Vidar M; Lundervold, Astri J; Reinvang, Ivar; Montgomery, Grant W; Espeseth, Thomas; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Starr, John M; Martin, Nicholas G; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Boomsma, Dorret I; Deary, Ian J; Wright, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Relational complexity (RC) is a metric reflecting capacity limitation in relational processing. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive processes and is an endophenotype for several disorders. However, the genetic underpinnings of complex relational processing have not been investigated. Using

  2. Genetic Basis of a Cognitive Complexity Metric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansell, N.K.; Halford, G.S.; Andrews, G.; Shum, D.H.K.; Harris, S.E.; Davies, G.; Franic, S.; Christoforou, A.; Zietsch, B.; Painter, J.; Medland, S.E.; Ehli, E.A.; Davies, G.E.; Steen, V.M.; Lundervold, A.J.; Reinvang, I.; Montgomery, G.W.; Espeseth, T.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Starr, J.M.; Martin, N.G.; Le Hellard, S.; Boomsma, D.I.; Deary, I.J.; Wright, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Relational complexity (RC) is a metric reflecting capacity limitation in relational processing. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive processes and is an endophenotype for several disorders. However, the genetic underpinnings of complex relational processing have not been investigated. Using

  3. Complex networks: Dynamics and security

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents a perspective in the study of complex networks by focusing on how dynamics may affect network security under attacks. ... Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287, USA; Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil ...

  4. Advances in the genetically complex autoinflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombrello, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    Monogenic diseases usually demonstrate Mendelian inheritance and are caused by highly penetrant genetic variants of a single gene. In contrast, genetically complex diseases arise from a combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors. The concept of autoinflammation originally emerged from the identification of individual, activating lesions of the innate immune system as the molecular basis of the hereditary periodic fever syndromes. In addition to these rare, monogenic forms of autoinflammation, genetically complex autoinflammatory diseases like the periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome, chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO), Behçet's disease, and systemic arthritis also fulfill the definition of autoinflammatory diseases-namely, the development of apparently unprovoked episodes of inflammation without identifiable exogenous triggers and in the absence of autoimmunity. Interestingly, investigations of these genetically complex autoinflammatory diseases have implicated both innate and adaptive immune abnormalities, blurring the line between autoinflammation and autoimmunity. This reinforces the paradigm of concerted innate and adaptive immune dysfunction leading to genetically complex autoinflammatory phenotypes.

  5. Coarse-graining complex dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibani, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Continuous Time Random Walks (CTRW) are widely used to coarse-grain the evolution of systems jumping from a metastable sub-set of their configuration space, or trap, to another via rare intermittent events. The multi-scaled behavior typical of complex dynamics is provided by a fat...... macroscopic variables all produce identical long time relaxation behaviors. Hence, CTRW shed no light on the link between microscopic and macroscopic dynamics. We then highlight how a more recent approach, Record Dynamics (RD) provides a viable alternative, based on a very different set of physical ideas......: while CTRW make use of a renewal process involving identical traps of infinite size, RD embodies a dynamical entrenchment into a hierarchy of traps which are finite in size and possess different degrees of meta-stability. We show in particular how RD produces the stretched exponential, power...

  6. An improved genetic algorithm with dynamic topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Kai-Quan; Tang Yan-Wu; Zhang Xue-Jun; Guan Xiang-Min

    2016-01-01

    The genetic algorithm (GA) is a nature-inspired evolutionary algorithm to find optima in search space via the interaction of individuals. Recently, researchers demonstrated that the interaction topology plays an important role in information exchange among individuals of evolutionary algorithm. In this paper, we investigate the effect of different network topologies adopted to represent the interaction structures. It is found that GA with a high-density topology ends up more likely with an unsatisfactory solution, contrarily, a low-density topology can impede convergence. Consequently, we propose an improved GA with dynamic topology, named DT-GA, in which the topology structure varies dynamically along with the fitness evolution. Several experiments executed with 15 well-known test functions have illustrated that DT-GA outperforms other test GAs for making a balance of convergence speed and optimum quality. Our work may have implications in the combination of complex networks and computational intelligence. (paper)

  7. Combinations of complex dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pilgrim, Kevin M

    2003-01-01

    This work is a research-level monograph whose goal is to develop a general combination, decomposition, and structure theory for branched coverings of the two-sphere to itself, regarded as the combinatorial and topological objects which arise in the classification of certain holomorphic dynamical systems on the Riemann sphere. It is intended for researchers interested in the classification of those complex one-dimensional dynamical systems which are in some loose sense tame. The program is motivated by the dictionary between the theories of iterated rational maps and Kleinian groups.

  8. Migraine genetics : from monogenic to complex forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanmolkot, Kaate Raymond Josepha

    2008-01-01

    Migraine has a strong genetic component, but the identification of these factors has proven difficult mainly because of the complex interaction of multiple loci and environmental factors. Unraveling its molecular basis and deciphering pathways leading to migraine attacks will help identifying novel

  9. Stochastic dynamics of genetic broadcasting networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoyan, Davit A.; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2017-11-01

    The complex genetic programs of eukaryotic cells are often regulated by key transcription factors occupying or clearing out of a large number of genomic locations. Orchestrating the residence times of these factors is therefore important for the well organized functioning of a large network. The classic models of genetic switches sidestep this timing issue by assuming the binding of transcription factors to be governed entirely by thermodynamic protein-DNA affinities. Here we show that relying on passive thermodynamics and random release times can lead to a "time-scale crisis" for master genes that broadcast their signals to a large number of binding sites. We demonstrate that this time-scale crisis for clearance in a large broadcasting network can be resolved by actively regulating residence times through molecular stripping. We illustrate these ideas by studying a model of the stochastic dynamics of the genetic network of the central eukaryotic master regulator NFκ B which broadcasts its signals to many downstream genes that regulate immune response, apoptosis, etc.

  10. Rapid Mission Design for Dynamically Complex Environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Designing trajectories in dynamically complex environments is very challenging and easily becomes an intractable problem. More complex planning implies potentially...

  11. Dynamic traffic assignment : genetic algorithms approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Real-time route guidance is a promising approach to alleviating congestion on the nations highways. A dynamic traffic assignment model is central to the development of guidance strategies. The artificial intelligence technique of genetic algorithm...

  12. Dynamic and interacting complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickison, Mark E.

    This thesis employs methods of statistical mechanics and numerical simulations to study some aspects of dynamic and interacting complex networks. The mapping of various social and physical phenomena to complex networks has been a rich field in the past few decades. Subjects as broad as petroleum engineering, scientific collaborations, and the structure of the internet have all been analyzed in a network physics context, with useful and universal results. In the first chapter we introduce basic concepts in networks, including the two types of network configurations that are studied and the statistical physics and epidemiological models that form the framework of the network research, as well as covering various previously-derived results in network theory that are used in the work in the following chapters. In the second chapter we introduce a model for dynamic networks, where the links or the strengths of the links change over time. We solve the model by mapping dynamic networks to the problem of directed percolation, where the direction corresponds to the time evolution of the network. We show that the dynamic network undergoes a percolation phase transition at a critical concentration pc, that decreases with the rate r at which the network links are changed. The behavior near criticality is universal and independent of r. We find that for dynamic random networks fundamental laws are changed: i) The size of the giant component at criticality scales with the network size N for all values of r, rather than as N2/3 in static network, ii) In the presence of a broad distribution of disorder, the optimal path length between two nodes in a dynamic network scales as N1/2, compared to N1/3 in a static network. The third chapter consists of a study of the effect of quarantine on the propagation of epidemics on an adaptive network of social contacts. For this purpose, we analyze the susceptible-infected-recovered model in the presence of quarantine, where susceptible

  13. Genome dynamics, genetic complexity and macroevolution Dinámica del genoma, complejidad genética y macroevolución

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILTON GALLARDO

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Genome data analysis indicates that the major evolutionary transitions have been driven by substantial increases in genomic complexity. These increases, accounting for novelty in evolution, have proceeded mainly by gene duplication. This idea, advanced by Ohno (1968, remains current in the study of several organisms whose genomes have been sequenced. Maize, yeast, and humans contain more paralogons than would be expected to occur by chance, and this supports the contention that gene families were not formed de novo, but by large-scale DNA duplications. Lineage hybridization emerges as an efficient and widespread mechanism to create evolutionary novelty by recruiting redundant genes to new roles. Lateral gene transfer indicates a chimeric composition of prokaryote genomes. This peculiar manner of inheritance blurs the edges of phylogenetic lineages and suggests that the anastomosing and dichotomization of branches play key roles in determining the shape of the tree of life. Adaptive mutations have also enlarged the genetic framework of evolutionary thought by incorporating a new mechanism of gene formation. Moreover, developmental biology has provided solid grounds for understanding organisms as consisting of onto- and epigenetically organized modules. Rapid and drastic changes brought about by the study of developmental genes have discredited the notions that adaptation is achieved exclusively by stepwise allele replacement within populations, and that macroevolutionary change is extrapolated microevolution. Apparently, a broadening, if not a remodeling of the genetic framework in which we understand phylogeny and the evolution of morphological complexity, is emerging through the study of comparative genomicsEl análisis genómico comparado indica que las principales transiciones evolutivas se deben a un aumento de la complejidad genómica. Estos incrementos que dan cuenta de las novedades evolutivas se han originado principalmente por

  14. Cognitive dynamics: complexity and creativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arecchi, F Tito [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata, Florence (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    A scientific problem described within a given code is mapped by a corresponding computational problem. We call (algorithmic) complexity the bit length of the shortest instruction which solves the problem. Deterministic chaos in general affects a dynamical system making the corresponding problem experimentally and computationally heavy, since one must reset the initial conditions at a rate higher than that of information loss (Kolmogorov entropy). One can control chaos by adding to the system new degrees of freedom (information swapping: information lost by chaos is replaced by that arising from the new degrees of freedom). This implies a change of code, or a new augmented model. Within a single code, changing hypotheses is equivalent to fixing different sets of control parameters, each with a different a-priori probability, to be then confirmed and transformed to an a-posteriori probability via Bayes theorem. Sequential application of Bayes rule is nothing else than the Darwinian strategy in evolutionary biology. The sequence is a steepest ascent algorithm, which stops once maximum probability has been reached. At this point the hypothesis exploration stops. By changing code (and hence the set of relevant variables) one can start again to formulate new classes of hypotheses. We call creativity the action of code changing, which is guided by hints not formalized within the previous code, whence not accessible to a computer. We call semantic complexity the number of different scientific codes, or models, that describe a situation. It is however a fuzzy concept, in so far as this number changes due to interaction of the operator with the context. These considerations are illustrated with reference to a cognitive task, starting from synchronization of neuron arrays in a perceptual area and tracing the putative path towards a model building. Since this is a report on work in progress, we skip technicalities in order to stress the gist of the question, and provide

  15. Cognitive dynamics: complexity and creativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arecchi, F Tito

    2007-01-01

    A scientific problem described within a given code is mapped by a corresponding computational problem. We call (algorithmic) complexity the bit length of the shortest instruction which solves the problem. Deterministic chaos in general affects a dynamical system making the corresponding problem experimentally and computationally heavy, since one must reset the initial conditions at a rate higher than that of information loss (Kolmogorov entropy). One can control chaos by adding to the system new degrees of freedom (information swapping: information lost by chaos is replaced by that arising from the new degrees of freedom). This implies a change of code, or a new augmented model. Within a single code, changing hypotheses is equivalent to fixing different sets of control parameters, each with a different a-priori probability, to be then confirmed and transformed to an a-posteriori probability via Bayes theorem. Sequential application of Bayes rule is nothing else than the Darwinian strategy in evolutionary biology. The sequence is a steepest ascent algorithm, which stops once maximum probability has been reached. At this point the hypothesis exploration stops. By changing code (and hence the set of relevant variables) one can start again to formulate new classes of hypotheses. We call creativity the action of code changing, which is guided by hints not formalized within the previous code, whence not accessible to a computer. We call semantic complexity the number of different scientific codes, or models, that describe a situation. It is however a fuzzy concept, in so far as this number changes due to interaction of the operator with the context. These considerations are illustrated with reference to a cognitive task, starting from synchronization of neuron arrays in a perceptual area and tracing the putative path towards a model building. Since this is a report on work in progress, we skip technicalities in order to stress the gist of the question, and provide

  16. Symbolic dynamics and description of complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Bailin.

    1992-10-01

    Symbolic dynamics provides a general framework to describe complexity of dynamical behaviour. After a discussion of the state of the filed special emphasis will be made on the role of transfer matrix (the Stefan matrix) both in deriving the grammar from known symbolic dynamics and in extracting the rules from experimental data. The block structure of the Stefan matrix may serve as another indicator of complexity of the associated dynamics. (author). 33 refs, 6 figs

  17. Complex dynamical invariants for two-dimensional complex potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Complex dynamical invariants are searched out for two-dimensional complex poten- tials using rationalization method within the framework of an extended complex phase space characterized by x = x1 + ip3, y = x2 + ip4, px = p1 + ix3, py = p2 + ix4. It is found that the cubic oscillator and shifted harmonic oscillator ...

  18. Nonlinear and Complex Dynamics in Economics

    OpenAIRE

    William Barnett; Apostolos Serletis; Demitre Serletis

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an up-to-date survey of the state-of-the-art in dynamical systems theory relevant to high levels of dynamical complexity, characterizing chaos and near chaos, as commonly found in the physical sciences. The paper also surveys applications in economics and �finance. This survey does not include bifurcation analyses at lower levels of dynamical complexity, such as Hopf and transcritical bifurcations, which arise closer to the stable region of the parameter space. We discuss the...

  19. Controlling complexity: the clinical relevance of mouse complex genetics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Forejt, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 11 (2013), s. 1191-1196 ISSN 1018-4813 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Mouse model * Forward genetics * Rewiev Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 4.225, year: 2013

  20. Team dynamics in complex projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.; Vroome, E.E.M. de; Dhondt, S.; Gaspersz, J.B.R.

    2012-01-01

    Complexity of projects is hotly debated and a factor which affects innovativeness of team performance. Much attention in the past is paid to technical complexity and many issues are related to natural and physical sciences. A growing awareness of the importance of socioorganisational issues is

  1. Symbolic Dynamics and Grammatical Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Bai-Lin; Zheng, Wei-Mou

    The following sections are included: * Formal Languages and Their Complexity * Formal Language * Chomsky Hierarchy of Grammatical Complexity * The L-System * Regular Language and Finite Automaton * Finite Automaton * Regular Language * Stefan Matrix as Transfer Function for Automaton * Beyond Regular Languages * Feigenbaum and Generalized Feigenbaum Limiting Sets * Even and Odd Fibonacci Sequences * Odd Maximal Primitive Prefixes and Kneading Map * Even Maximal Primitive Prefixes and Distinct Excluded Blocks * Summary of Results

  2. Adaptive learning and complex dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Orlando

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the dynamic properties of a group of simple deterministic difference equation systems in which the conventional perfect foresight assumption gives place to a mechanism of adaptive learning. These systems have a common feature: under perfect foresight (or rational expectations) they all possess a unique fixed point steady state. This long-term outcome is obtained also under learning if the quality underlying the learning process is high. Otherwise, when the degree of inefficiency of the learning process is relatively strong, nonlinear dynamics (periodic and a-periodic cycles) arise. The specific properties of each one of the proposed systems is explored both in terms of local and global dynamics. One macroeconomic model is used to illustrate how the formation of expectations through learning may eventually lead to awkward long-term outcomes.

  3. Endocrine autoimmune disease: genetics become complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebolt, Janneke; Koeleman, Bobby P C; van Haeften, Timon W

    2010-12-01

    The endocrine system is a frequent target in pathogenic autoimmune responses. Type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroid disease are the prevailing examples. When several diseases cluster together in one individual, the phenomenon is called autoimmune polyglandular syndrome. Progress has been made in understanding the genetic factors involved in endocrine autoimmune diseases. Studies on monogenic autoimmune diseases such as autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1, immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked and primary immune deficiencies helped uncover the role of key regulators in the preservation of immune tolerance. Alleles of the major histocompatibility complex have been known to contribute to the susceptibility to most forms of autoimmunity for more than 3 decades. Furthermore, sequencing studies revealed three non-major histocompatibility complex loci and some disease specific loci, which control T lymphocyte activation or signalling. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled acceleration in the identification of novel (non-HLA) loci and hence other relevant immune response pathways. Interestingly, several loci are shared between autoimmune diseases, and surprisingly some work in opposite direction. This means that the same allele which predisposes to a certain autoimmune disease can be protective in another. Well powered GWAS in type 1 diabetes has led to the uncovering of a significant number of risk variants with modest effect. These studies showed that the innate immune system may also play a role in addition to the adaptive immune system. It is anticipated that next generation sequencing techniques will uncover other (rare) variants. For other autoimmune disease (such as autoimmune thyroid disease) GWAS are clearly needed. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2010 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  4. Dynamic complexity: plant receptor complexes at the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Rebecca C; Stahl, Yvonne

    2017-12-01

    Plant receptor complexes at the cell surface perceive many different external and internal signalling molecules and relay these signals into the cell to regulate development, growth and immunity. Recent progress in the analyses of receptor complexes using different live cell imaging approaches have shown that receptor complex formation and composition are dynamic and take place at specific microdomains at the plasma membrane. In this review we focus on three prominent examples of Arabidopsis thaliana receptor complexes and how their dynamic spatio-temporal distribution at the PM has been studied recently. We will elaborate on the newly emerging concept of plasma membrane microdomains as potential hubs for specific receptor complex assembly and signalling outputs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Traffic Dynamics on Complex Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyong Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic dynamics on complex networks are intriguing in recent years due to their practical implications in real communication networks. In this survey, we give a brief review of studies on traffic routing dynamics on complex networks. Strategies for improving transport efficiency, including designing efficient routing strategies and making appropriate adjustments to the underlying network structure, are introduced in this survey. Finally, a few open problems are discussed in this survey.

  6. Pinning Synchronization of Switched Complex Dynamical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Network topology and node dynamics play a key role in forming synchronization of complex networks. Unfortunately there is no effective synchronization criterion for pinning synchronization of complex dynamical networks with switching topology. In this paper, pinning synchronization of complex dynamical networks with switching topology is studied. Two basic problems are considered: one is pinning synchronization of switched complex networks under arbitrary switching; the other is pinning synchronization of switched complex networks by design of switching when synchronization cannot achieved by using any individual connection topology alone. For the two problems, common Lyapunov function method and single Lyapunov function method are used respectively, some global synchronization criteria are proposed and the designed switching law is given. Finally, simulation results verify the validity of the results.

  7. Complex dynamic in ecological time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Turchin; Andrew D. Taylor

    1992-01-01

    Although the possibility of complex dynamical behaviors-limit cycles, quasiperiodic oscillations, and aperiodic chaos-has been recognized theoretically, most ecologists are skeptical of their importance in nature. In this paper we develop a methodology for reconstructing endogenous (or deterministic) dynamics from ecological time series. Our method consists of fitting...

  8. The Self as a Complex Dynamic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the potential offered by complexity theories for understanding language learners' sense of self and attempts to show how the self might usefully be conceived of as a complex dynamic system. Rather than presenting empirical findings, the article discusses existent research on the self and aims at outlining a conceptual…

  9. Product development projects dynamics and emergent complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Schlick, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This book primarily explores two topics: the representation of simultaneous, cooperative work processes in product development projects with the help of statistical models, and the assessment of their emergent complexity using a metric from theoretical physics (Effective Measure Complexity, EMC). It is intended to promote more effective management of development projects by shifting the focus from the structural complexity of the product being developed to the dynamic complexity of the development processes involved. The book is divided into four main parts, the first of which provides an introduction to vector autoregression models, periodic vector autoregression models and linear dynamical systems for modeling cooperative work in product development projects. The second part presents theoretical approaches for assessing complexity in the product development environment, while the third highlights and explains closed-form solutions for the complexity metric EMC for vector autoregression models and linear dyn...

  10. Dynamics of complex quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Akulin, Vladimir M

    2014-01-01

    This book gathers together a range of similar problems that can be encountered in different fields of modern quantum physics and that have common features with regard to multilevel quantum systems. The main motivation was to examine from a uniform standpoint various models and approaches that have been developed in atomic, molecular, condensed matter, chemical, laser and nuclear physics in various contexts. The book should help senior-level undergraduate, graduate students and researchers putting particular problems in these fields into a broader scientific context and thereby taking advantage of well-established techniques used in adjacent fields. This second edition has been expanded to include substantial new material (e.g. new sections on Dynamic Localization and on Euclidean Random Matrices and new chapters on Entanglement, Open Quantum Systems, and Coherence Protection). It is based on the author’s lectures at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, at the CNRS Aimé Cotton Laboratory, and on ...

  11. Dynamics in electron transfer protein complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir, Qamar

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have provided experimental evidence for the existence of an encounter complex, a transient intermediate in the formation of protein complexes. We have used paramagnetic relaxation enhancement NMR spectroscopy in combination with Monte Carlo simulations to characterize and visualize the ensemble of encounter orientations in the short-lived electron transfer complex of yeast Cc and CcP. The complete conformational space sampled by the protein molecules during the dynamic part of ...

  12. Competitive Dynamics on Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiuhua; Liu, Qipeng; Wang, Xiaofan

    2014-07-01

    We consider a dynamical network model in which two competitors have fixed and different states, and each normal agent adjusts its state according to a distributed consensus protocol. The state of each normal agent converges to a steady value which is a convex combination of the competitors' states, and is independent of the initial states of agents. This implies that the competition result is fully determined by the network structure and positions of competitors in the network. We compute an Influence Matrix (IM) in which each element characterizing the influence of an agent on another agent in the network. We use the IM to predict the bias of each normal agent and thus predict which competitor will win. Furthermore, we compare the IM criterion with seven node centrality measures to predict the winner. We find that the competitor with higher Katz Centrality in an undirected network or higher PageRank in a directed network is most likely to be the winner. These findings may shed new light on the role of network structure in competition and to what extent could competitors adjust network structure so as to win the competition.

  13. Spreading dynamics in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Sen; Makse, Hernán A.

    2013-12-01

    Searching for influential spreaders in complex networks is an issue of great significance for applications across various domains, ranging from epidemic control, innovation diffusion, viral marketing, and social movement to idea propagation. In this paper, we first display some of the most important theoretical models that describe spreading processes, and then discuss the problem of locating both the individual and multiple influential spreaders respectively. Recent approaches in these two topics are presented. For the identification of privileged single spreaders, we summarize several widely used centralities, such as degree, betweenness centrality, PageRank, k-shell, etc. We investigate the empirical diffusion data in a large scale online social community—LiveJournal. With this extensive dataset, we find that various measures can convey very distinct information of nodes. Of all the users in the LiveJournal social network, only a small fraction of them are involved in spreading. For the spreading processes in LiveJournal, while degree can locate nodes participating in information diffusion with higher probability, k-shell is more effective in finding nodes with a large influence. Our results should provide useful information for designing efficient spreading strategies in reality.

  14. Spreading dynamics in complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Sen; Makse, Hernán A

    2013-01-01

    Searching for influential spreaders in complex networks is an issue of great significance for applications across various domains, ranging from epidemic control, innovation diffusion, viral marketing, and social movement to idea propagation. In this paper, we first display some of the most important theoretical models that describe spreading processes, and then discuss the problem of locating both the individual and multiple influential spreaders respectively. Recent approaches in these two topics are presented. For the identification of privileged single spreaders, we summarize several widely used centralities, such as degree, betweenness centrality, PageRank, k-shell, etc. We investigate the empirical diffusion data in a large scale online social community—LiveJournal. With this extensive dataset, we find that various measures can convey very distinct information of nodes. Of all the users in the LiveJournal social network, only a small fraction of them are involved in spreading. For the spreading processes in LiveJournal, while degree can locate nodes participating in information diffusion with higher probability, k-shell is more effective in finding nodes with a large influence. Our results should provide useful information for designing efficient spreading strategies in reality. (paper)

  15. Lattice dynamics and molecular dynamics simulation of complex materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplot, S.L.

    1997-01-01

    In this article we briefly review the lattice dynamics and molecular dynamics simulation techniques, as used for complex ionic and molecular solids, and demonstrate a number of applications through examples of our work. These computational studies, along with experiments, have provided microscopic insight into the structure and dynamics, phase transitions and thermodynamical properties of a variety of materials including fullerene, high temperature superconducting oxides and geological minerals as a function of pressure and temperature. The computational techniques also allow the study of the structures and dynamics associated with disorder, defects, surfaces, interfaces etc. (author)

  16. Controlling Complex Systems and Developing Dynamic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avizienis, Audrius Victor

    In complex systems, control and understanding become intertwined. Following Ilya Prigogine, we define complex systems as having control parameters which mediate transitions between distinct modes of dynamical behavior. From this perspective, determining the nature of control parameters and demonstrating the associated dynamical phase transitions are practically equivalent and fundamental to engaging with complexity. In the first part of this work, a control parameter is determined for a non-equilibrium electrochemical system by studying a transition in the morphology of structures produced by an electroless deposition reaction. Specifically, changing the size of copper posts used as the substrate for growing metallic silver structures by the reduction of Ag+ from solution under diffusion-limited reaction conditions causes a dynamical phase transition in the crystal growth process. For Cu posts with edge lengths on the order of one micron, local forces promoting anisotropic growth predominate, and the reaction produces interconnected networks of Ag nanowires. As the post size is increased above 10 microns, the local interfacial growth reaction dynamics couple with the macroscopic diffusion field, leading to spatially propagating instabilities in the electrochemical potential which induce periodic branching during crystal growth, producing dendritic deposits. This result is interesting both as an example of control and understanding in a complex system, and as a useful combination of top-down lithography with bottom-up electrochemical self-assembly. The second part of this work focuses on the technological development of devices fabricated using this non-equilibrium electrochemical process, towards a goal of integrating a complex network as a dynamic functional component in a neuromorphic computing device. Self-assembled networks of silver nanowires were reacted with sulfur to produce interfacial "atomic switches": silver-silver sulfide junctions, which exhibit

  17. Analysis and control of complex dynamical systems robust bifurcation, dynamic attractors, and network complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Imura, Jun-ichi; Ueta, Tetsushi

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first to report on theoretical breakthroughs on control of complex dynamical systems developed by collaborative researchers in the two fields of dynamical systems theory and control theory. As well, its basic point of view is of three kinds of complexity: bifurcation phenomena subject to model uncertainty, complex behavior including periodic/quasi-periodic orbits as well as chaotic orbits, and network complexity emerging from dynamical interactions between subsystems. Analysis and Control of Complex Dynamical Systems offers a valuable resource for mathematicians, physicists, and biophysicists, as well as for researchers in nonlinear science and control engineering, allowing them to develop a better fundamental understanding of the analysis and control synthesis of such complex systems.

  18. Inferring network topology from complex dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandilya, Srinivas Gorur; Timme, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Inferring the network topology from dynamical observations is a fundamental problem pervading research on complex systems. Here, we present a simple, direct method for inferring the structural connection topology of a network, given an observation of one collective dynamical trajectory. The general theoretical framework is applicable to arbitrary network dynamical systems described by ordinary differential equations. No interference (external driving) is required and the type of dynamics is hardly restricted in any way. In particular, the observed dynamics may be arbitrarily complex; stationary, invariant or transient; synchronous or asynchronous and chaotic or periodic. Presupposing a knowledge of the functional form of the dynamical units and of the coupling functions between them, we present an analytical solution to the inverse problem of finding the network topology from observing a time series of state variables only. Robust reconstruction is achieved in any sufficiently long generic observation of the system. We extend our method to simultaneously reconstructing both the entire network topology and all parameters appearing linear in the system's equations of motion. Reconstruction of network topology and system parameters is viable even in the presence of external noise that distorts the original dynamics substantially. The method provides a conceptually new step towards reconstructing a variety of real-world networks, including gene and protein interaction networks and neuronal circuits.

  19. The self as a complex dynamic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mercer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the potential offered by complexity theories for understanding language learners’ sense of self and attempts to show how the self might usefully be conceived of as a complex dynamic system. Rather than presenting empirical findings, the article discusses existent research on the self and aims at outlining a conceptual perspective that may inform future studies into the self and possibly other individual learner differences. The article concludes by critically considering the merits of a complexity perspective but also reflecting on the challenges it poses for research.

  20. Genetic complexity underlying hybrid male sterility in Drosophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Sawamura, Kyoichi; Roote, John; Wu, Chung-I; Yamamoto, Masa-Toshi

    2004-01-01

    Recent genetic analyses of closely related species of Drosophila have indicated that hybrid male sterility is the consequence of highly complex synergistic effects among multiple genes, both conspecific and heterospecific. On the contrary, much evidence suggests the presence of major genes causing hybrid female sterility and inviability in the less-related species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Does this contrast reflect the genetic distance between species? Or, generally, is the genetic b...

  1. Transparency in complex dynamic food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.; Wognum, P.M.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Food supply chains are increasingly complex and dynamic due to (i) increasing product proliferation to serve ever diversifying and globalising markets as a form of mass customisation with resulting global flows of raw materials, ingredients and products, and (ii) the need to satisfy changing and

  2. Improving the Complexity of the Lorenz Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pilar Mareca

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new four-dimensional, hyperchaotic dynamic system, based on Lorenz dynamics, is presented. Besides, the most representative dynamics which may be found in this new system are located in the phase space and are analyzed here. The new system is especially designed to improve the complexity of Lorenz dynamics, which, despite being a paradigm to understand the chaotic dissipative flows, is a very simple example and shows great vulnerability when used in secure communications. Here, we demonstrate the vulnerability of the Lorenz system in a general way. The proposed 4D system increases the complexity of the Lorenz dynamics. The trajectories of the novel system include structures going from chaos to hyperchaos and chaotic-transient solutions. The symmetry and the stability of the proposed system are also studied. First return maps, Poincaré sections, and bifurcation diagrams allow characterizing the global system behavior and locating some coexisting structures. Numerical results about the first return maps, Poincaré cross sections, Lyapunov spectrum, and Kaplan-Yorke dimension demonstrate the complexity of the proposed equations.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: mitochondrial complex III deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the energy from food into a form that cells can use. Complex III is one of several complexes that ... in mtDNA. Because egg cells, but not sperm cells, contribute mitochondria to the ... from their mother. These disorders can appear in every generation of ...

  4. Worms under stress: unravelling genetic complex traits through perturbation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Sanchez, M.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic architecture of an organism could be considered ‘the most amazing piece of engineering’ existing in nature. Looking from a certain distance, the genetic complexity of an organism could be described as an immense jigsaw puzzle. As in a real jigsaw, the connection between two pieces

  5. Design tools for complex dynamic security systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Rigdon, James Brian; Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Laguna, Glenn A.; Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Groom, Kenneth Neal; Wilson, David Gerald; Bickerstaff, Robert J.; Harrington, John J.

    2007-01-01

    The development of tools for complex dynamic security systems is not a straight forward engineering task but, rather, a scientific task where discovery of new scientific principles and math is necessary. For years, scientists have observed complex behavior but have had difficulty understanding it. Prominent examples include: insect colony organization, the stock market, molecular interactions, fractals, and emergent behavior. Engineering such systems will be an even greater challenge. This report explores four tools for engineered complex dynamic security systems: Partially Observable Markov Decision Process, Percolation Theory, Graph Theory, and Exergy/Entropy Theory. Additionally, enabling hardware technology for next generation security systems are described: a 100 node wireless sensor network, unmanned ground vehicle and unmanned aerial vehicle.

  6. Complex and adaptive dynamical systems a primer

    CERN Document Server

    Gros, Claudius

    2007-01-01

    We are living in an ever more complex world, an epoch where human actions can accordingly acquire far-reaching potentialities. Complex and adaptive dynamical systems are ubiquitous in the world surrounding us and require us to adapt to new realities and the way of dealing with them. This primer has been developed with the aim of conveying a wide range of "commons-sense" knowledge in the field of quantitative complex system science at an introductory level, providing an entry point to this both fascinating and vitally important subject. The approach is modular and phenomenology driven. Examples of emerging phenomena of generic importance treated in this book are: -- The small world phenomenon in social and scale-free networks. -- Phase transitions and self-organized criticality in adaptive systems. -- Life at the edge of chaos and coevolutionary avalanches resulting from the unfolding of all living. -- The concept of living dynamical systems and emotional diffusive control within cognitive system theory. Techn...

  7. Complex and Adaptive Dynamical Systems A Primer

    CERN Document Server

    Gros, Claudius

    2011-01-01

    We are living in an ever more complex world, an epoch where human actions can accordingly acquire far-reaching potentialities. Complex and adaptive dynamical systems are ubiquitous in the world surrounding us and require us to adapt to new realities and the way of dealing with them. This primer has been developed with the aim of conveying a wide range of "commons-sense" knowledge in the field of quantitative complex system science at an introductory level, providing an entry point to this both fascinating and vitally important subject. The approach is modular and phenomenology driven. Examples of emerging phenomena of generic importance treated in this book are: -- The small world phenomenon in social and scale-free networks. -- Phase transitions and self-organized criticality in adaptive systems. -- Life at the edge of chaos and coevolutionary avalanches resulting from the unfolding of all living. -- The concept of living dynamical systems and emotional diffusive control within cognitive system theory. Techn...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: mitochondrial complex I deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the energy from food into a form that cells can use. Complex I is the first of five mitochondrial ... maternal inheritance. Because egg cells, but not sperm cells, contribute ... only from their mother. These disorders can appear in every generation of ...

  9. Complex Human Dynamics From Mind to Societies

    CERN Document Server

    Winkowska-Nowak, Katarzyna; Brée, David

    2013-01-01

    This book, edited and authored by a closely collaborating network of social scientists and psychologists, recasts typical research topics in these fields into the language of nonlinear, dynamic and complex systems. The aim is to provide scientists with different backgrounds - physics, applied mathematics and computer sciences - with the opportunity to apply the tools of their trade to an altogether new range of possible applications. At the same time, this book will serve as a first reference for a new generation of social scientists and psychologists wishing to familiarize themselves with the new methodology and the "thinking in complexity".

  10. Dynamics of a complex quantum magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landry, James W.; Coppersmith, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    We have computed the low energy quantum states and low frequency dynamical susceptibility of complex quantum spin systems in the limit of strong interactions, obtaining exact results for system sizes enormously larger than accessible previously. The ground state is a complex superposition of a substantial fraction of all the classical ground states, and yet the dynamical susceptibility exhibits sharp resonances reminiscent of the behavior of single spins. These results show that strongly interacting quantum systems can organize to generate coherent excitations and shed light on recent experiments demonstrating that coherent excitations are present in a disordered spin liquid. The dependence of the energy spectra on system size differs qualitatively from that of the energy spectra of random undirected bipartite graphs with similar statistics, implying that strong interactions are giving rise to these unusual spectral properties

  11. How complex a dynamical network can be?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, M.S.; Kakmeni, F. Moukam; Del Magno, Gianluigi; Hussein, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Positive Lyapunov exponents measure the asymptotic exponential divergence of nearby trajectories of a dynamical system. Not only they quantify how chaotic a dynamical system is, but since their sum is an upper bound for the rate of information production, they also provide a convenient way to quantify the complexity of a dynamical network. We conjecture based on numerical evidences that for a large class of dynamical networks composed by equal nodes, the sum of the positive Lyapunov exponents is bounded by the sum of all the positive Lyapunov exponents of both the synchronization manifold and its transversal directions, the last quantity being in principle easier to compute than the latter. As applications of our conjecture we: (i) show that a dynamical network composed of equal nodes and whose nodes are fully linearly connected produces more information than similar networks but whose nodes are connected with any other possible connecting topology; (ii) show how one can calculate upper bounds for the information production of realistic networks whose nodes have parameter mismatches, randomly chosen; (iii) discuss how to predict the behavior of a large dynamical network by knowing the information provided by a system composed of only two coupled nodes.

  12. Genetic algorithms applied to nonlinear and complex domains; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barash, D; Woodin, A E

    1999-01-01

    The dissertation, titled ''Genetic Algorithms Applied to Nonlinear and Complex Domains'', describes and then applies a new class of powerful search algorithms (GAS) to certain domains. GAS are capable of solving complex and nonlinear problems where many parameters interact to produce a ''final'' result such as the optimization of the laser pulse in the interaction of an atom with an intense laser field. GAS can very efficiently locate the global maximum by searching parameter space in problems which are unsuitable for a search using traditional methods. In particular, the dissertation contains new scientific findings in two areas. First, the dissertation examines the interaction of an ultra-intense short laser pulse with atoms. GAS are used to find the optimal frequency for stabilizing atoms in the ionization process. This leads to a new theoretical formulation, to explain what is happening during the ionization process and how the electron is responding to finite (real-life) laser pulse shapes. It is shown that the dynamics of the process can be very sensitive to the ramp of the pulse at high frequencies. The new theory which is formulated, also uses a novel concept (known as the (t,t') method) to numerically solve the time-dependent Schrodinger equation Second, the dissertation also examines the use of GAS in modeling decision making problems. It compares GAS with traditional techniques to solve a class of problems known as Markov Decision Processes. The conclusion of the dissertation should give a clear idea of where GAS are applicable, especially in the physical sciences, in problems which are nonlinear and complex, i.e. difficult to analyze by other means

  13. Genetic algorithms applied to nonlinear and complex domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barash, D; Woodin, A E

    1999-01-01

    The dissertation, titled ''Genetic Algorithms Applied to Nonlinear and Complex Domains'', describes and then applies a new class of powerful search algorithms (GAS) to certain domains. GAS are capable of solving complex and nonlinear problems where many parameters interact to produce a ''final'' result such as the optimization of the laser pulse in the interaction of an atom with an intense laser field. GAS can very efficiently locate the global maximum by searching parameter space in problems which are unsuitable for a search using traditional methods. In particular, the dissertation contains new scientific findings in two areas. First, the dissertation examines the interaction of an ultra-intense short laser pulse with atoms. GAS are used to find the optimal frequency for stabilizing atoms in the ionization process. This leads to a new theoretical formulation, to explain what is happening during the ionization process and how the electron is responding to finite (real-life) laser pulse shapes. It is shown that the dynamics of the process can be very sensitive to the ramp of the pulse at high frequencies. The new theory which is formulated, also uses a novel concept (known as the (t,t') method) to numerically solve the time-dependent Schrodinger equation Second, the dissertation also examines the use of GAS in modeling decision making problems. It compares GAS with traditional techniques to solve a class of problems known as Markov Decision Processes. The conclusion of the dissertation should give a clear idea of where GAS are applicable, especially in the physical sciences, in problems which are nonlinear and complex, i.e. difficult to analyze by other means

  14. Nonlinear dynamics, chaos and complex cardiac arrhythmias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, L.; Courtemanche, M.; Shrier, A.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1987-01-01

    Periodic stimulation of a nonlinear cardiac oscillator in vitro gives rise to complex dynamics that is well described by one-dimensional finite difference equations. As stimulation parameters are varied, a large number of different phase-locked and chaotic rhythms is observed. Similar rhythms can be observed in the intact human heart when there is interaction between two pacemaker sites. Simplified models are analyzed, which show some correspondence to clinical observations.

  15. Dynamic airspace configuration by genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sergeeva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous air traffic growth and limits of resources, there is a need for reducing the congestion of the airspace systems. Nowadays, several projects are launched, aimed at modernizing the global air transportation system and air traffic management. In recent years, special interest has been paid to the solution of the dynamic airspace configuration problem. Airspace sector configurations need to be dynamically adjusted to provide maximum efficiency and flexibility in response to changing weather and traffic conditions. The main objective of this work is to automatically adapt the airspace configurations according to the evolution of traffic. In order to reach this objective, the airspace is considered to be divided into predefined 3D airspace blocks which have to be grouped or ungrouped depending on the traffic situation. The airspace structure is represented as a graph and each airspace configuration is created using a graph partitioning technique. We optimize airspace configurations using a genetic algorithm. The developed algorithm generates a sequence of sector configurations for one day of operation with the minimized controller workload. The overall methodology is implemented and successfully tested with air traffic data taken for one day and for several different airspace control areas of Europe.

  16. Nonlinear Dynamics, Chaotic and Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infeld, E.; Zelazny, R.; Galkowski, A.

    2011-04-01

    Part I. Dynamic Systems Bifurcation Theory and Chaos: 1. Chaos in random dynamical systems V. M. Gunldach; 2. Controlling chaos using embedded unstable periodic orbits: the problem of optimal periodic orbits B. R. Hunt and E. Ott; 3. Chaotic tracer dynamics in open hydrodynamical flows G. Karolyi, A. Pentek, T. Tel and Z. Toroczkai; 4. Homoclinic chaos L. P. Shilnikov; Part II. Spatially Extended Systems: 5. Hydrodynamics of relativistic probability flows I. Bialynicki-Birula; 6. Waves in ionic reaction-diffusion-migration systems P. Hasal, V. Nevoral, I. Schreiber, H. Sevcikova, D. Snita, and M. Marek; 7. Anomalous scaling in turbulence: a field theoretical approach V. Lvov and I. Procaccia; 8. Abelian sandpile cellular automata M. Markosova; 9. Transport in an incompletely chaotic magnetic field F. Spineanu; Part III. Dynamical Chaos Quantum Physics and Foundations Of Statistical Mechanics: 10. Non-equilibrium statistical mechanics and ergodic theory L. A. Bunimovich; 11. Pseudochaos in statistical physics B. Chirikov; 12. Foundations of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics J. P. Dougherty; 13. Thermomechanical particle simulations W. G. Hoover, H. A. Posch, C. H. Dellago, O. Kum, C. G. Hoover, A. J. De Groot and B. L. Holian; 14. Quantum dynamics on a Markov background and irreversibility B. Pavlov; 15. Time chaos and the laws of nature I. Prigogine and D. J. Driebe; 16. Evolutionary Q and cognitive systems: dynamic entropies and predictability of evolutionary processes W. Ebeling; 17. Spatiotemporal chaos information processing in neural networks H. Szu; 18. Phase transitions and learning in neural networks C. Van den Broeck; 19. Synthesis of chaos A. Vanecek and S. Celikovsky; 20. Computational complexity of continuous problems H. Wozniakowski; Part IV. Complex Systems As An Interface Between Natural Sciences and Environmental Social and Economic Sciences: 21. Stochastic differential geometry in finance studies V. G. Makhankov; Part V. Conference Banquet

  17. How Complex, Probable, and Predictable is Genetically Driven Red Queen Chaos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Jorge; Rodrigues, Carla; Januário, Cristina; Martins, Nuno; Sardanyés, Josep

    2015-12-01

    Coevolution between two antagonistic species has been widely studied theoretically for both ecologically- and genetically-driven Red Queen dynamics. A typical outcome of these systems is an oscillatory behavior causing an endless series of one species adaptation and others counter-adaptation. More recently, a mathematical model combining a three-species food chain system with an adaptive dynamics approach revealed genetically driven chaotic Red Queen coevolution. In the present article, we analyze this mathematical model mainly focusing on the impact of species rates of evolution (mutation rates) in the dynamics. Firstly, we analytically proof the boundedness of the trajectories of the chaotic attractor. The complexity of the coupling between the dynamical variables is quantified using observability indices. By using symbolic dynamics theory, we quantify the complexity of genetically driven Red Queen chaos computing the topological entropy of existing one-dimensional iterated maps using Markov partitions. Co-dimensional two bifurcation diagrams are also built from the period ordering of the orbits of the maps. Then, we study the predictability of the Red Queen chaos, found in narrow regions of mutation rates. To extend the previous analyses, we also computed the likeliness of finding chaos in a given region of the parameter space varying other model parameters simultaneously. Such analyses allowed us to compute a mean predictability measure for the system in the explored region of the parameter space. We found that genetically driven Red Queen chaos, although being restricted to small regions of the analyzed parameter space, might be highly unpredictable.

  18. Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources in 33 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefevre, F.; Koskela, J.; Hubert, J.; Kraigher, H.; Longauer, R.; Olrik, D.C.; Vries, de S.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources (FGR) means maintaining the genetic diversity of trees within an evolutionary process and allowing generation turnover in the forest. We assessed the network of forests areas managed for the dynamic conservation of FGR (conservation units) across

  19. Complex and adaptive dynamical systems a primer

    CERN Document Server

    Gros, Claudius

    2013-01-01

    Complex system theory is rapidly developing and gaining importance, providing tools and concepts central to our modern understanding of emergent phenomena. This primer offers an introduction to this area together with detailed coverage of the mathematics involved. All calculations are presented step by step and are straightforward to follow. This new third edition comes with new material, figures and exercises. Network theory, dynamical systems and information theory, the core of modern complex system sciences, are developed in the first three chapters, covering basic concepts and phenomena like small-world networks, bifurcation theory and information entropy. Further chapters use a modular approach to address the most important concepts in complex system sciences, with the emergence and self-organization playing a central role. Prominent examples are self-organized criticality in adaptive systems, life at the edge of chaos, hypercycles and coevolutionary avalanches, synchronization phenomena, absorbing phase...

  20. Metrical and dynamical aspects in complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The central theme of this reference book is the metric geometry of complex analysis in several variables. Bridging a gap in the current literature, the text focuses on the fine behavior of the Kobayashi metric of complex manifolds and its relationships to dynamical systems, hyperbolicity in the sense of Gromov and operator theory, all very active areas of research. The modern points of view expressed in these notes, collected here for the first time, will be of interest to academics working in the fields of several complex variables and metric geometry. The different topics are treated coherently and include expository presentations of the relevant tools, techniques and objects, which will be particularly useful for graduate and PhD students specializing in the area.

  1. Random complex dynamics and devil's coliseums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Hiroki

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the random dynamics of polynomial maps on the Riemann sphere \\hat{\\Bbb{C}} and the dynamics of semigroups of polynomial maps on \\hat{\\Bbb{C}} . In particular, the dynamics of a semigroup G of polynomials whose planar postcritical set is bounded and the associated random dynamics are studied. In general, the Julia set of such a G may be disconnected. We show that if G is such a semigroup, then regarding the associated random dynamics, the chaos of the averaged system disappears in the C0 sense, and the function T∞ of probability of tending to ∞ \\in \\hat{\\Bbb{C}} is Hölder continuous on \\hat{\\Bbb{C}} and varies only on the Julia set of G. Moreover, the function T∞ has a kind of monotonicity. It turns out that T∞ is a complex analogue of the devil's staircase, and we call T∞ a ‘devil’s coliseum'. We investigate the details of T∞ when G is generated by two polynomials. In this case, T∞ varies precisely on the Julia set of G, which is a thin fractal set. Moreover, under this condition, we investigate the pointwise Hölder exponents of T∞.

  2. Modular interdependency in complex dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Richard A; Pollack, Jordan B

    2005-01-01

    Herbert A. Simon's characterization of modularity in dynamical systems describes subsystems as having dynamics that are approximately independent of those of other subsystems (in the short term). This fits with the general intuition that modules must, by definition, be approximately independent. In the evolution of complex systems, such modularity may enable subsystems to be modified and adapted independently of other subsystems, whereas in a nonmodular system, modifications to one part of the system may result in deleterious side effects elsewhere in the system. But this notion of modularity and its effect on evolvability is not well quantified and is rather simplistic. In particular, modularity need not imply that intermodule dependences are weak or unimportant. In dynamical systems this is acknowledged by Simon's suggestion that, in the long term, the dynamical behaviors of subsystems do interact with one another, albeit in an "aggregate" manner--but this kind of intermodule interaction is omitted in models of modularity for evolvability. In this brief discussion we seek to unify notions of modularity in dynamical systems with notions of how modularity affects evolvability. This leads to a quantifiable measure of modularity and a different understanding of its effect on evolvability.

  3. Automated design of complex dynamic systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Hermans

    Full Text Available Several fields of study are concerned with uniting the concept of computation with that of the design of physical systems. For example, a recent trend in robotics is to design robots in such a way that they require a minimal control effort. Another example is found in the domain of photonics, where recent efforts try to benefit directly from the complex nonlinear dynamics to achieve more efficient signal processing. The underlying goal of these and similar research efforts is to internalize a large part of the necessary computations within the physical system itself by exploiting its inherent non-linear dynamics. This, however, often requires the optimization of large numbers of system parameters, related to both the system's structure as well as its material properties. In addition, many of these parameters are subject to fabrication variability or to variations through time. In this paper we apply a machine learning algorithm to optimize physical dynamic systems. We show that such algorithms, which are normally applied on abstract computational entities, can be extended to the field of differential equations and used to optimize an associated set of parameters which determine their behavior. We show that machine learning training methodologies are highly useful in designing robust systems, and we provide a set of both simple and complex examples using models of physical dynamical systems. Interestingly, the derived optimization method is intimately related to direct collocation a method known in the field of optimal control. Our work suggests that the application domains of both machine learning and optimal control have a largely unexplored overlapping area which envelopes a novel design methodology of smart and highly complex physical systems.

  4. Complex networks under dynamic repair model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaoqi, Fu; Ying, Wang; Kun, Zhao; Yangjun, Gao

    2018-01-01

    Invulnerability is not the only factor of importance when considering complex networks' security. It is also critical to have an effective and reasonable repair strategy. Existing research on network repair is confined to the static model. The dynamic model makes better use of the redundant capacity of repaired nodes and repairs the damaged network more efficiently than the static model; however, the dynamic repair model is complex and polytropic. In this paper, we construct a dynamic repair model and systematically describe the energy-transfer relationships between nodes in the repair process of the failure network. Nodes are divided into three types, corresponding to three structures. We find that the strong coupling structure is responsible for secondary failure of the repaired nodes and propose an algorithm that can select the most suitable targets (nodes or links) to repair the failure network with minimal cost. Two types of repair strategies are identified, with different effects under the two energy-transfer rules. The research results enable a more flexible approach to network repair.

  5. Structure and dynamics of weakly bound complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skouteris, D.

    1998-01-01

    The present thesis deals with the spectroscopic and theoretical investigation of weakly bound complexes involving a methane molecule. Studies of these Van der Waals complexes can give valuable information on the relevant intermolecular dynamics and promote the understanding of the interactions between molecules (which can ultimately lead to chemical reactions). Especially interesting are complexes involving molecules of high symmetry (e.g. tetrahedral, such as methane) because of the unusual effects arising from it (selection rules, nuclear Spin statistical weights etc.). The infrared spectrum of the Van der Waals complex between a CH 4 and a N 2 O molecule has been recorded and most of it has been assigned in the region of the N - O stretch (approximately 2225.0 cm -1 ). Despite the fact that this is really a weakly bound complex, it is nevertheless rigid enough so that the standard model for asymmetric top spectra can be applied to it with the usual quantum numbers. From the value of the inertial defect, it turns out that the methane unit is locked in a rigid configuration within the complex rather than freely rotating. The intermolecular distance as well as the tilting angle of the N 2 O linear unit are determined from the rotational constants. The complex itself turns out to have a T - shaped configuration. The infrared spectrum of the Ar - CH 4 complex at the ν 4 (bending) band of methane is also assigned. This is different from the previous one in that the methane unit rotates almost freely Within the complex. As a result, the quantum numbers used to classify rovibrational energy levels include these of the free unit. The concept of 'overall symmetry' is made use of to rationalise selection rules in various sub-bands of the spectrum. Moreover, new terms in the potential anisotropy Hamiltonian are calculated through the use of the overall symmetry concept. These are termed 'mixed anisotropy' terms since they involve both rotational and vibrational degrees of

  6. The geography of malaria genetics in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A complex and fragmented landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Margaret; Patel, Jaymin; Taylor, Steve M.; Janko, Mark; Mwandagalirwa, Melchior Kashamuka; Tshefu, Antoinette K.; Escalante, Ananias A.; McCollum, Andrea; Alam, Md Tauqeer; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Meshnick, Steven; Emch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how malaria parasites move between populations is important, particularly given the potential for malaria to be reintroduced into areas where it was previously eliminated. We examine the distribution of malaria genetics across seven sites within the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and two nearby countries, Ghana and Kenya, in order to understand how the relatedness of malaria parasites varies across space, and whether there are barriers to the flow of malaria parasites within the DRC or across borders. Parasite DNA was retrieved from dried blood spots from 7 Demographic and Health Survey sample clusters in the DRC. Malaria genetic characteristics of parasites from Ghana and Kenya were also obtained. For each of 9 geographic sites (7 DRC, 1 Ghana and 1 Kenya), a pair-wise RST statistic was calculated, indicating the genetic distance between malaria parasites found in those locations. Mapping genetics across the spatial extent of the study area indicates a complex genetic landscape, where relatedness between two proximal sites may be relatively high (RST > 0.64) or low (RST < 0.05), and where distal sites also exhibit both high and low genetic similarity. Mantel’s tests suggest that malaria genetics differ as geographic distances increase. Principal Coordinate Analysis suggests that genetically related samples are not co-located. Barrier analysis reveals no significant barriers to gene flow between locations. Malaria genetics in the DRC have a complex and fragmented landscape. Limited exchange of genes across space is reflected in greater genetic distance between malaria parasites isolated at greater geographic distances. There is, however, evidence for close genetic ties between distally located sample locations, indicating that movement of malaria parasites and flow of genes is being driven by factors other than distance decay. This research demonstrates the contributions that spatial disease ecology and landscape genetics can make to

  7. Markovian dynamics on complex reaction networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goutsias, J., E-mail: goutsias@jhu.edu; Jenkinson, G., E-mail: jenkinson@jhu.edu

    2013-08-10

    Complex networks, comprised of individual elements that interact with each other through reaction channels, are ubiquitous across many scientific and engineering disciplines. Examples include biochemical, pharmacokinetic, epidemiological, ecological, social, neural, and multi-agent networks. A common approach to modeling such networks is by a master equation that governs the dynamic evolution of the joint probability mass function of the underlying population process and naturally leads to Markovian dynamics for such process. Due however to the nonlinear nature of most reactions and the large size of the underlying state-spaces, computation and analysis of the resulting stochastic population dynamics is a difficult task. This review article provides a coherent and comprehensive coverage of recently developed approaches and methods to tackle this problem. After reviewing a general framework for modeling Markovian reaction networks and giving specific examples, the authors present numerical and computational techniques capable of evaluating or approximating the solution of the master equation, discuss a recently developed approach for studying the stationary behavior of Markovian reaction networks using a potential energy landscape perspective, and provide an introduction to the emerging theory of thermodynamic analysis of such networks. Three representative problems of opinion formation, transcription regulation, and neural network dynamics are used as illustrative examples.

  8. Markovian dynamics on complex reaction networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutsias, J.; Jenkinson, G.

    2013-01-01

    Complex networks, comprised of individual elements that interact with each other through reaction channels, are ubiquitous across many scientific and engineering disciplines. Examples include biochemical, pharmacokinetic, epidemiological, ecological, social, neural, and multi-agent networks. A common approach to modeling such networks is by a master equation that governs the dynamic evolution of the joint probability mass function of the underlying population process and naturally leads to Markovian dynamics for such process. Due however to the nonlinear nature of most reactions and the large size of the underlying state-spaces, computation and analysis of the resulting stochastic population dynamics is a difficult task. This review article provides a coherent and comprehensive coverage of recently developed approaches and methods to tackle this problem. After reviewing a general framework for modeling Markovian reaction networks and giving specific examples, the authors present numerical and computational techniques capable of evaluating or approximating the solution of the master equation, discuss a recently developed approach for studying the stationary behavior of Markovian reaction networks using a potential energy landscape perspective, and provide an introduction to the emerging theory of thermodynamic analysis of such networks. Three representative problems of opinion formation, transcription regulation, and neural network dynamics are used as illustrative examples

  9. Teaching Genetic Counseling Skills: Incorporating a Genetic Counseling Adaptation Continuum Model to Address Psychosocial Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugar, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Genetic counselors are trained health care professionals who effectively integrate both psychosocial counseling and information-giving into their practice. Preparing genetic counseling students for clinical practice is a challenging task, particularly when helping them develop effective and active counseling skills. Resistance to incorporating these skills may stem from decreased confidence, fear of causing harm or a lack of clarity of psycho-social goals. The author reflects on the personal challenges experienced in teaching genetic counselling students to work with psychological and social complexity, and proposes a Genetic Counseling Adaptation Continuum model and methodology to guide students in the use of advanced counseling skills.

  10. System crash as dynamics of complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Xiao, Gaoxi; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Yubo; Wang, Zhen; Kurths, Jürgen; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2016-10-18

    Complex systems, from animal herds to human nations, sometimes crash drastically. Although the growth and evolution of systems have been extensively studied, our understanding of how systems crash is still limited. It remains rather puzzling why some systems, appearing to be doomed to fail, manage to survive for a long time whereas some other systems, which seem to be too big or too strong to fail, crash rapidly. In this contribution, we propose a network-based system dynamics model, where individual actions based on the local information accessible in their respective system structures may lead to the "peculiar" dynamics of system crash mentioned above. Extensive simulations are carried out on synthetic and real-life networks, which further reveal the interesting system evolution leading to the final crash. Applications and possible extensions of the proposed model are discussed.

  11. Evolutionary dynamics of complex communications networks

    CERN Document Server

    Karyotis, Vasileios; Papavassiliou, Symeon

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, most network design techniques employed a bottom-up approach with lower protocol layer mechanisms affecting the development of higher ones. This approach, however, has not yielded fascinating results in the case of wireless distributed networks. Addressing the emerging aspects of modern network analysis and design, Evolutionary Dynamics of Complex Communications Networks introduces and develops a top-bottom approach where elements of the higher layer can be exploited in modifying the lowest physical topology-closing the network design loop in an evolutionary fashion similar to

  12. Complex and adaptive dynamical systems a primer

    CERN Document Server

    Gros, Claudius

    2015-01-01

    This primer offers readers an introduction to the central concepts that form our modern understanding of complex and emergent behavior, together with detailed coverage of accompanying mathematical methods. All calculations are presented step by step and are easy to follow. This new fourth edition has been fully reorganized and includes new chapters, figures and exercises. The core aspects of modern complex system sciences are presented in the first chapters, covering network theory, dynamical systems, bifurcation and catastrophe theory, chaos and adaptive processes, together with the principle of self-organization in reaction-diffusion systems and social animals. Modern information theoretical principles are treated in further chapters, together with the concept of self-organized criticality, gene regulation networks, hypercycles and coevolutionary avalanches, synchronization phenomena, absorbing phase transitions and the cognitive system approach to the brain. Technical course prerequisites are the standard ...

  13. The ethics of complexity. Genetics and autism, a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hens, Kristien; Peeters, Hilde; Dierickx, Kris

    2016-04-01

    It is commonly believed that the etiology of autism is at least partly explained through genetics. Given the complexity of autism and the variability of the autistic phenotype, genetic research and counseling in this field are also complex and associated with specific ethical questions. Although the ethics of autism genetics, especially with regard to reproductive choices, has been widely discussed on the public fora, an in depth philosophical or bioethical reflection on all aspects of the theme seems to be missing. With this literature review we wanted to map the basic questions and answers that exist in the bioethical literature on autism genetics, research, counseling and reproduction, and provide suggestions as to how the discussion can proceed. We found 19 papers that fitted the description of "bioethics literature focusing on autism genetics," and analyzed their content to distill arguments and themes. We concluded that because of the complexity of autism, and the uncertainty with regard to its status, more ethical reflection is needed before definite conclusions and recommendations can be drawn. Moreover, there is a dearth of bioethical empirical studies querying the opinions of all parties, including people with autism themselves. Such empirical bioethical studies should be urgently done before bioethical conclusions regarding the aims and desirability of research into autism genes can be done. Also, fundamental philosophical reflection on concepts of disease should accompany research into the etiology of autism. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Enabling complex genetic circuits to respond to extrinsic environmental signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoynes-O'Connor, Allison; Shopera, Tatenda; Hinman, Kristina; Creamer, John Philip; Moon, Tae Seok

    2017-07-01

    Genetic circuits have the potential to improve a broad range of metabolic engineering processes and address a variety of medical and environmental challenges. However, in order to engineer genetic circuits that can meet the needs of these real-world applications, genetic sensors that respond to relevant extrinsic and intrinsic signals must be implemented in complex genetic circuits. In this work, we construct the first AND and NAND gates that respond to temperature and pH, two signals that have relevance in a variety of real-world applications. A previously identified pH-responsive promoter and a temperature-responsive promoter were extracted from the E. coli genome, characterized, and modified to suit the needs of the genetic circuits. These promoters were combined with components of the type III secretion system in Salmonella typhimurium and used to construct a set of AND gates with up to 23-fold change. Next, an antisense RNA was integrated into the circuit architecture to invert the logic of the AND gate and generate a set of NAND gates with up to 1168-fold change. These circuits provide the first demonstration of complex pH- and temperature-responsive genetic circuits, and lay the groundwork for the use of similar circuits in real-world applications. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1626-1631. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Complexity theory and genetics: The computational power of crossing over

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pudlák, Pavel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 171, č. 1 (2001), s. 201-223 ISSN 0890-5401 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905; CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : complexity * genetics * croning over Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.571, year: 2001

  16. Genetic and epidemiological aspect of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, Annetje Monique de

    2010-01-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a painful disorder affecting one or more extremities. CRPS is characterized by various combinations of sensory, autonomic and motor disturbances. Genetic factors are suggested to play a role in CRPS, but this has not been extensively studied. Therefore the

  17. Effects of complex life cycles on genetic diversity: cyclical parthenogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouger, R; Reichel, K; Malrieu, F; Masson, J P; Stoeckel, S

    2016-11-01

    Neutral patterns of population genetic diversity in species with complex life cycles are difficult to anticipate. Cyclical parthenogenesis (CP), in which organisms undergo several rounds of clonal reproduction followed by a sexual event, is one such life cycle. Many species, including crop pests (aphids), human parasites (trematodes) or models used in evolutionary science (Daphnia), are cyclical parthenogens. It is therefore crucial to understand the impact of such a life cycle on neutral genetic diversity. In this paper, we describe distributions of genetic diversity under conditions of CP with various clonal phase lengths. Using a Markov chain model of CP for a single locus and individual-based simulations for two loci, our analysis first demonstrates that strong departures from full sexuality are observed after only a few generations of clonality. The convergence towards predictions made under conditions of full clonality during the clonal phase depends on the balance between mutations and genetic drift. Second, the sexual event of CP usually resets the genetic diversity at a single locus towards predictions made under full sexuality. However, this single recombination event is insufficient to reshuffle gametic phases towards full-sexuality predictions. Finally, for similar levels of clonality, CP and acyclic partial clonality (wherein a fixed proportion of individuals are clonally produced within each generation) differentially affect the distribution of genetic diversity. Overall, this work provides solid predictions of neutral genetic diversity that may serve as a null model in detecting the action of common evolutionary or demographic processes in cyclical parthenogens (for example, selection or bottlenecks).

  18. The heterogeneous dynamics of economic complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristelli, Matthieu; Tacchella, Andrea; Pietronero, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    What will be the growth of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or the competitiveness of China, United States, and Vietnam in the next 3, 5 or 10 years? Despite this kind of questions has a large societal impact and an extreme value for economic policy making, providing a scientific basis for economic predictability is still a very challenging problem. Recent results of a new branch--Economic Complexity--have set the basis for a framework to approach such a challenge and to provide new perspectives to cast economic prediction into the conceptual scheme of forecasting the evolution of a dynamical system as in the case of weather dynamics. We argue that a recently introduced non-monetary metrics for country competitiveness (fitness) allows for quantifying the hidden growth potential of countries by the means of the comparison of this measure for intangible assets with monetary figures, such as GDP per capita. This comparison defines the fitness-income plane where we observe that country dynamics presents strongly heterogeneous patterns of evolution. The flow in some zones is found to be laminar while in others a chaotic behavior is instead observed. These two regimes correspond to very different predictability features for the evolution of countries: in the former regime, we find strong predictable pattern while the latter scenario exhibits a very low predictability. In such a framework, regressions, the usual tool used in economics, are no more the appropriate strategy to deal with such a heterogeneous scenario and new concepts, borrowed from dynamical systems theory, are mandatory. We therefore propose a data-driven method--the selective predictability scheme--in which we adopt a strategy similar to the methods of analogues, firstly introduced by Lorenz, to assess future evolution of countries.

  19. Complex Dynamic Development of Poliovirus Membranous Replication Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vinod; Hansen, Bryan T.; Hoyt, Forrest H.; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Ehrenfeld, Ellie

    2012-01-01

    Replication of all positive-strand RNA viruses is intimately associated with membranes. Here we utilize electron tomography and other methods to investigate the remodeling of membranes in poliovirus-infected cells. We found that the viral replication structures previously described as “vesicles” are in fact convoluted, branching chambers with complex and dynamic morphology. They are likely to originate from cis-Golgi membranes and are represented during the early stages of infection by single-walled connecting and branching tubular compartments. These early viral organelles gradually transform into double-membrane structures by extension of membranous walls and/or collapsing of the luminal cavity of the single-membrane structures. As the double-membrane regions develop, they enclose cytoplasmic material. At this stage, a continuous membranous structure may have double- and single-walled membrane morphology at adjacent cross-sections. In the late stages of the replication cycle, the structures are represented mostly by double-membrane vesicles. Viral replication proteins, double-stranded RNA species, and actively replicating RNA are associated with both double- and single-membrane structures. However, the exponential phase of viral RNA synthesis occurs when single-membrane formations are predominant in the cell. It has been shown previously that replication complexes of some other positive-strand RNA viruses form on membrane invaginations, which result from negative membrane curvature. Our data show that the remodeling of cellular membranes in poliovirus-infected cells produces structures with positive curvature of membranes. Thus, it is likely that there is a fundamental divergence in the requirements for the supporting cellular membrane-shaping machinery among different groups of positive-strand RNA viruses. PMID:22072780

  20. Genetic aspects of pathological gambling: a complex disorder with shared genetic vulnerabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Daniela S S; Kennedy, James L

    2009-09-01

    To summarize and discuss findings from genetic studies conducted on pathological gambling (PG). Searches were conducted on PubMed and PsychInfo databases using the keywords: 'gambling and genes', 'gambling and family' and 'gambling and genetics', yielding 18 original research articles investigating the genetics of PG. Twin studies using the Vietnam Era Twin Registry have found that: (i) the heritability of PG is estimated to be 50-60%; (ii) PG and subclinical PG are a continuum of the same disorder; (iii) PG shares genetic vulnerability factors with antisocial behaviours, alcohol dependence and major depressive disorder; (iv) genetic factors underlie the association between exposure to traumatic life-events and PG. Molecular genetic investigations on PG are at an early stage and published studies have reported associations with genes involved in the brain's reward and impulse control systems. Despite the paucity of studies in this area, published studies have provided considerable evidence of the influence of genetic factors on PG and its complex interaction with other psychiatric disorders and environmental factors. The next step would be to investigate the association and interaction of these variables in larger molecular genetic studies with subphenotypes that underlie PG. Results from family and genetic investigations corroborate further the importance of understanding the biological underpinnings of PG in the development of more specific treatment and prevention strategies.

  1. Genetic complexity underlying hybrid male sterility in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Kyoichi; Roote, John; Wu, Chung-I; Yamamoto, Masa-Toshi

    2004-02-01

    Recent genetic analyses of closely related species of Drosophila have indicated that hybrid male sterility is the consequence of highly complex synergistic effects among multiple genes, both conspecific and heterospecific. On the contrary, much evidence suggests the presence of major genes causing hybrid female sterility and inviability in the less-related species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Does this contrast reflect the genetic distance between species? Or, generally, is the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility more complex than that of hybrid female sterility and inviability? To clarify this point, the D. simulans introgression of the cytological region 34D-36A to the D. melanogaster genome, which causes recessive male sterility, was dissected by recombination, deficiency, and complementation mapping. The 450-kb region between two genes, Suppressor of Hairless and snail, exhibited a strong effect on the sterility. Males are (semi-)sterile if this region of the introgression is made homozygous or hemizygous. But no genes in the region singly cause the sterility; this region has at least two genes, which in combination result in male sterility. Further, the males are less fertile when heterozygous with a larger introgression, which suggests that dominant modifiers enhance the effects of recessive genes of male sterility. Such an epistatic view, even in the less-related species, suggests that the genetic complexity is special to hybrid male sterility.

  2. PM Synchronous Motor Dynamic Modeling with Genetic Algorithm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adel

    This paper proposes dynamic modeling simulation for ac Surface Permanent Magnet Synchronous ... Simulations are implemented using MATLAB with its genetic algorithm toolbox. .... selection, the process that drives biological evolution.

  3. Complex Dynamics in Nonequilibrium Economics and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Kehong

    Complex dynamics provides a new approach in dealing with economic complexity. We study interactively the empirical and theoretical aspects of business cycles. The way of exploring complexity is similar to that in the study of an oscillatory chemical system (BZ system)--a model for modeling complex behavior. We contribute in simulating qualitatively the complex periodic patterns observed from the controlled BZ experiments to narrow the gap between modeling and experiment. The gap between theory and reality is much wider in economics, which involves studies of human expectations and decisions, the essential difference from natural sciences. Our empirical and theoretical studies make substantial progress in closing this gap. With the help from the new development in nonequilibrium physics, i.e., the complex spectral theory, we advance our technique in detecting characteristic time scales from empirical economic data. We obtain correlation resonances, which give oscillating modes with decays for correlation decomposition, from different time series including S&P 500, M2, crude oil spot prices, and GNP. The time scales found are strikingly compatible with business experiences and other studies in business cycles. They reveal the non-Markovian nature of coherent markets. The resonances enhance the evidence of economic chaos obtained by using other tests. The evolving multi-humped distributions produced by the moving-time -window technique reveal the nonequilibrium nature of economic behavior. They reproduce the American economic history of booms and busts. The studies seem to provide a way out of the debate on chaos versus noise and unify the cyclical and stochastic approaches in explaining business fluctuations. Based on these findings and new expectation formulation, we construct a business cycle model which gives qualitatively compatible patterns to those found empirically. The soft-bouncing oscillator model provides a better alternative than the harmonic oscillator

  4. Genetics of simple and complex host-parasite interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, G.S.; Webster, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    In nature a host plant can be viewed as a miniature replica of an ecological system where true and incidental parasites share the same habitat. Consequently, they influence each other's presence directly by interspecific interaction, and indirectly by inducing changes in the host's physiology and so form disease complexes. Since all physiological phenomena have their counterpart in the respective genetic systems of interacting organisms, valuable genetic information can be derived from the analysis of complex parasitic systems. Disease complexes may be classified according to the nature of interaction between various parasites on the same host. One parasite may nullify the host's resistance to another (e.g. Tomato - Meloidogyne incognita + Fusarium oxysporum lycopersici system). Conversely, a parasite may invoke resistance in the host against another parasite (e.g. Tomato - Fusarium oxysporum lycopersici + Verticillium albo atrum system). From the study of simple parasitic systems we know that resistance versus susceptibility against a single parasite is normally monogenically controlled. However, when more than one parasite interacts to invoke or nullify each other's responses on the same host plant, the genetic results suggest epistatic ratios. Nevertheless, epistatic ratios have been obtained also from simple parasitic systems owing to gene interaction. The epistatic ratios obtained from complex and simple parasitic systems are contrasted and compared. It is suggested that epistatic ratios obtained from simple parasitic systems may, in fact, be artifacts resulting from complex parasitic associations that often occur in nature. Polygenic inheritance and the longevity of a cultivar is also discussed briefly in relation to complex parasitic associations. Induced mutations can play a significant role in the study of complex parasitic associations, and thus can be very useful in controlling plant diseases

  5. Chaperone-client complexes: A dynamic liaison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Sebastian; Burmann, Björn M.

    2018-04-01

    Living cells contain molecular chaperones that are organized in intricate networks to surveil protein homeostasis by avoiding polypeptide misfolding, aggregation, and the generation of toxic species. In addition, cellular chaperones also fulfill a multitude of alternative functionalities: transport of clients towards a target location, help them fold, unfold misfolded species, resolve aggregates, or deliver clients towards proteolysis machineries. Until recently, the only available source of atomic resolution information for virtually all chaperones were crystal structures of their client-free, apo-forms. These structures were unable to explain details of the functional mechanisms underlying chaperone-client interactions. The difficulties to crystallize chaperones in complexes with clients arise from their highly dynamic nature, making solution NMR spectroscopy the method of choice for their study. With the advent of advanced solution NMR techniques, in the past few years a substantial number of structural and functional studies on chaperone-client complexes have been resolved, allowing unique insight into the chaperone-client interaction. This review summarizes the recent insights provided by advanced high-resolution NMR-spectroscopy to understand chaperone-client interaction mechanisms at the atomic scale.

  6. Sex differences in genetic architecture of complex phenotypes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Vink

    Full Text Available We examined sex differences in familial resemblance for a broad range of behavioral, psychiatric and health related phenotypes (122 complex traits in children and adults. There is a renewed interest in the importance of genotype by sex interaction in, for example, genome-wide association (GWA studies of complex phenotypes. If different genes play a role across sex, GWA studies should consider the effect of genetic variants separately in men and women, which affects statistical power. Twin and family studies offer an opportunity to compare resemblance between opposite-sex family members to the resemblance between same-sex relatives, thereby presenting a test of quantitative and qualitative sex differences in the genetic architecture of complex traits. We analyzed data on lifestyle, personality, psychiatric disorder, health, growth, development and metabolic traits in dizygotic (DZ same-sex and opposite-sex twins, as these siblings are perfectly matched for age and prenatal exposures. Sample size varied from slightly over 300 subjects for measures of brain function such as EEG power to over 30,000 subjects for childhood psychopathology and birth weight. For most phenotypes, sample sizes were large, with an average sample size of 9027 individuals. By testing whether the resemblance in DZ opposite-sex pairs is the same as in DZ same-sex pairs, we obtain evidence for genetic qualitative sex-differences in the genetic architecture of complex traits for 4% of phenotypes. We conclude that for most traits that were examined, the current evidence is that same the genes are operating in men and women.

  7. Local Genetic Correlation Gives Insights into the Shared Genetic Architecture of Complex Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huwenbo; Mancuso, Nicholas; Spendlove, Sarah; Pasaniuc, Bogdan

    2017-11-02

    Although genetic correlations between complex traits provide valuable insights into epidemiological and etiological studies, a precise quantification of which genomic regions disproportionately contribute to the genome-wide correlation is currently lacking. Here, we introduce ρ-HESS, a technique to quantify the correlation between pairs of traits due to genetic variation at a small region in the genome. Our approach requires GWAS summary data only and makes no distributional assumption on the causal variant effect sizes while accounting for linkage disequilibrium (LD) and overlapping GWAS samples. We analyzed large-scale GWAS summary data across 36 quantitative traits, and identified 25 genomic regions that contribute significantly to the genetic correlation among these traits. Notably, we find 6 genomic regions that contribute to the genetic correlation of 10 pairs of traits that show negligible genome-wide correlation, further showcasing the power of local genetic correlation analyses. Finally, we report the distribution of local genetic correlations across the genome for 55 pairs of traits that show putative causal relationships. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic and phenotypic characterization of complex hereditary spastic paraplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Eleanna; Tucci, Arianna; Manzoni, Claudia; Lynch, David S.; Elpidorou, Marilena; Bettencourt, Conceicao; Chelban, Viorica; Manole, Andreea; Hamed, Sherifa A.; Haridy, Nourelhoda A.; Federoff, Monica; Preza, Elisavet; Hughes, Deborah; Pittman, Alan; Jaunmuktane, Zane; Brandner, Sebastian; Xiromerisiou, Georgia; Wiethoff, Sarah; Schottlaender, Lucia; Proukakis, Christos; Morris, Huw; Warner, Tom; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Korlipara, L.V. Prasad; Singleton, Andrew B.; Hardy, John; Wood, Nicholas W.; Lewis, Patrick A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The hereditary spastic paraplegias are a heterogeneous group of degenerative disorders that are clinically classified as either pure with predominant lower limb spasticity, or complex where spastic paraplegia is complicated with additional neurological features, and are inherited in autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X-linked patterns. Genetic defects have been identified in over 40 different genes, with more than 70 loci in total. Complex recessive spastic paraplegias have in the past been frequently associated with mutations in SPG11 (spatacsin), ZFYVE26/SPG15 , SPG7 (paraplegin) and a handful of other rare genes, but many cases remain genetically undefined. The overlap with other neurodegenerative disorders has been implied in a small number of reports, but not in larger disease series. This deficiency has been largely due to the lack of suitable high throughput techniques to investigate the genetic basis of disease, but the recent availability of next generation sequencing can facilitate the identification of disease-causing mutations even in extremely heterogeneous disorders. We investigated a series of 97 index cases with complex spastic paraplegia referred to a tertiary referral neurology centre in London for diagnosis or management. The mean age of onset was 16 years (range 3 to 39). The SPG11 gene was first analysed, revealing homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in 30/97 (30.9%) of probands, the largest SPG11 series reported to date, and by far the most common cause of complex spastic paraplegia in the UK, with severe and progressive clinical features and other neurological manifestations, linked with magnetic resonance imaging defects. Given the high frequency of SPG11 mutations, we studied the autophagic response to starvation in eight affected SPG11 cases and control fibroblast cell lines, but in our restricted study we did not observe correlations between disease status and autophagic or lysosomal markers. In the remaining

  9. Advances in dynamic network modeling in complex transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ukkusuri, Satish V

    2013-01-01

    This book focuses on the latest in dynamic network modeling, including route guidance and traffic control in transportation systems and other complex infrastructure networks. Covers dynamic traffic assignment, flow modeling, mobile sensor deployment and more.

  10. Impact of the mitochondrial genetic background in complex III deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Carmen Gil Borlado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent years clinical evidence has emphasized the importance of the mtDNA genetic background that hosts a primary pathogenic mutation in the clinical expression of mitochondrial disorders, but little experimental confirmation has been provided. We have analyzed the pathogenic role of a novel homoplasmic mutation (m.15533 A>G in the cytochrome b (MT-CYB gene in a patient presenting with lactic acidosis, seizures, mild mental delay, and behaviour abnormalities. METHODOLOGY: Spectrophotometric analyses of the respiratory chain enzyme activities were performed in different tissues, the whole muscle mitochondrial DNA of the patient was sequenced, and the novel mutation was confirmed by PCR-RFLP. Transmitochondrial cybrids were constructed to confirm the pathogenicity of the mutation, and assembly/stability studies were carried out in fibroblasts and cybrids by means of mitochondrial translation inhibition in combination with blue native gel electrophoresis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Biochemical analyses revealed a decrease in respiratory chain complex III activity in patient's skeletal muscle, and a combined enzyme defect of complexes III and IV in fibroblasts. Mutant transmitochondrial cybrids restored normal enzyme activities and steady-state protein levels, the mutation was mildly conserved along evolution, and the proband's mother and maternal aunt, both clinically unaffected, also harboured the homoplasmic mutation. These data suggested a nuclear genetic origin of the disease. However, by forcing the de novo functioning of the OXPHOS system, a severe delay in the biogenesis of the respiratory chain complexes was observed in the mutants, which demonstrated a direct functional effect of the mitochondrial genetic background. CONCLUSIONS: Our results point to possible pitfalls in the detection of pathogenic mitochondrial mutations, and highlight the role of the genetic mtDNA background in the development of mitochondrial disorders.

  11. Complex chloroplast RNA metabolism: just debugging the genetic programme?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz-Linneweber Christian

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gene expression system of chloroplasts is far more complex than that of their cyanobacterial progenitor. This gain in complexity affects in particular RNA metabolism, specifically the transcription and maturation of RNA. Mature chloroplast RNA is generated by a plethora of nuclear-encoded proteins acquired or recruited during plant evolution, comprising additional RNA polymerases and sigma factors, and sequence-specific RNA maturation factors promoting RNA splicing, editing, end formation and translatability. Despite years of intensive research, we still lack a comprehensive explanation for this complexity. Results We inspected the available literature and genome databases for information on components of RNA metabolism in land plant chloroplasts. In particular, new inventions of chloroplast-specific mechanisms and the expansion of some gene/protein families detected in land plants lead us to suggest that the primary function of the additional nuclear-encoded components found in chloroplasts is the transgenomic suppression of point mutations, fixation of which occurred due to an enhanced genetic drift exhibited by chloroplast genomes. We further speculate that a fast evolution of transgenomic suppressors occurred after the water-to-land transition of plants. Conclusion Our inspections indicate that several chloroplast-specific mechanisms evolved in land plants to remedy point mutations that occurred after the water-to-land transition. Thus, the complexity of chloroplast gene expression evolved to guarantee the functionality of chloroplast genetic information and may not, with some exceptions, be involved in regulatory functions.

  12. System dynamics in complex psychiatric treatment organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheck, R

    1988-05-01

    One of the major challenges facing contemporary psychiatry is the coordination of diverse services through organizational integration. With increasing frequency, psychiatric treatment takes place in complex treatment systems composed of multiple inpatient and outpatient programs. Particularly in public health care systems serving the chronically ill, contemporary practice demands a broad spectrum of programs, often geographically dispersed, that include crisis intervention teams, day treatment programs, substance abuse units, social rehabilitation programs and halfway houses (Bachrach 1983; Turner and TenHoor 1978). Individualized treatment planning often requires that a particular patient participate in two or more specialized programs either simultaneously or in a specified sequence. As a consequence of this specialization, treatment fragmentation has emerged as a significant clinical problem, and continuity of care has been highlighted as a valuable but elusive ingredient of optimal treatment. This paper will describe the dynamic interactions that result when several such programs are united under a common organizational roof. Using a large VA Psychiatry Service as an example, I will outline the hierarchical structure characteristic of such an organization, as well as the persistent pulls toward both integration and fragmentation that influence its operation.

  13. The Complex Dynamics of Sponsored Search Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robu, Valentin; La Poutré, Han; Bohte, Sander

    This paper provides a comprehensive study of the structure and dynamics of online advertising markets, mostly based on techniques from the emergent discipline of complex systems analysis. First, we look at how the display rank of a URL link influences its click frequency, for both sponsored search and organic search. Second, we study the market structure that emerges from these queries, especially the market share distribution of different advertisers. We show that the sponsored search market is highly concentrated, with less than 5% of all advertisers receiving over 2/3 of the clicks in the market. Furthermore, we show that both the number of ad impressions and the number of clicks follow power law distributions of approximately the same coefficient. However, we find this result does not hold when studying the same distribution of clicks per rank position, which shows considerable variance, most likely due to the way advertisers divide their budget on different keywords. Finally, we turn our attention to how such sponsored search data could be used to provide decision support tools for bidding for combinations of keywords. We provide a method to visualize keywords of interest in graphical form, as well as a method to partition these graphs to obtain desirable subsets of search terms.

  14. Intraspecific Genetic dynamics under Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Florez Rodriguez, Alexander

    Climate change has a deep influence on the maintenance and generation of global biodiversity. Past contractions, expansions and shifts in species’ ranges drove to changes in species genetic diversity. Noteworthy, the interaction among: climate change, range, population size and extinction is often...

  15. Genome complexity, robustness and genetic interactions in digital organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Richard E.; Ofria, Charles; Collier, Travis C.; Adami, Christoph

    1999-08-01

    Digital organisms are computer programs that self-replicate, mutate and adapt by natural selection. They offer an opportunity to test generalizations about living systems that may extend beyond the organic life that biologists usually study. Here we have generated two classes of digital organism: simple programs selected solely for rapid replication, and complex programs selected to perform mathematical operations that accelerate replication through a set of defined `metabolic' rewards. To examine the differences in their genetic architecture, we introduced millions of single and multiple mutations into each organism and measured the effects on the organism's fitness. The complex organisms are more robust than the simple ones with respect to the average effects of single mutations. Interactions among mutations are common and usually yield higher fitness than predicted from the component mutations assuming multiplicative effects; such interactions are especially important in the complex organisms. Frequent interactions among mutations have also been seen in bacteria, fungi and fruitflies. Our findings support the view that interactions are a general feature of genetic systems.

  16. Genomic and Genetic Diversity within the Pseudomonas fluorescens Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Garrido-Sanz

    Full Text Available The Pseudomonas fluorescens complex includes Pseudomonas strains that have been taxonomically assigned to more than fifty different species, many of which have been described as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR with potential applications in biocontrol and biofertilization. So far the phylogeny of this complex has been analyzed according to phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA, MLSA and inferred by whole-genome analysis. However, since most of the type strains have not been fully sequenced and new species are frequently described, correlation between taxonomy and phylogenomic analysis is missing. In recent years, the genomes of a large number of strains have been sequenced, showing important genomic heterogeneity and providing information suitable for genomic studies that are important to understand the genomic and genetic diversity shown by strains of this complex. Based on MLSA and several whole-genome sequence-based analyses of 93 sequenced strains, we have divided the P. fluorescens complex into eight phylogenomic groups that agree with previous works based on type strains. Digital DDH (dDDH identified 69 species and 75 subspecies within the 93 genomes. The eight groups corresponded to clustering with a threshold of 31.8% dDDH, in full agreement with our MLSA. The Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI approach showed inconsistencies regarding the assignment to species and to the eight groups. The small core genome of 1,334 CDSs and the large pan-genome of 30,848 CDSs, show the large diversity and genetic heterogeneity of the P. fluorescens complex. However, a low number of strains were enough to explain most of the CDSs diversity at core and strain-specific genomic fractions. Finally, the identification and analysis of group-specific genome and the screening for distinctive characters revealed a phylogenomic distribution of traits among the groups that provided insights into biocontrol and bioremediation applications as well as their role as

  17. Dynamics in electron transfer protein complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bashir, Qamar

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have provided experimental evidence for the existence of an encounter complex, a transient intermediate in the formation of protein complexes. We have used paramagnetic relaxation enhancement NMR spectroscopy in combination with Monte Carlo simulations to characterize and visualize

  18. Hamiltonian dynamics for complex food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Vladimir; Vakulenko, Sergey; Wennergren, Uno

    2016-03-01

    We investigate stability and dynamics of large ecological networks by introducing classical methods of dynamical system theory from physics, including Hamiltonian and averaging methods. Our analysis exploits the topological structure of the network, namely the existence of strongly connected nodes (hubs) in the networks. We reveal new relations between topology, interaction structure, and network dynamics. We describe mechanisms of catastrophic phenomena leading to sharp changes of dynamics and hence completely altering the ecosystem. We also show how these phenomena depend on the structure of interaction between species. We can conclude that a Hamiltonian structure of biological interactions leads to stability and large biodiversity.

  19. Fractional dynamics of globally slow transcription and its impact on deterministic genetic oscillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Wei

    Full Text Available In dynamical systems theory, a system which can be described by differential equations is called a continuous dynamical system. In studies on genetic oscillation, most deterministic models at early stage are usually built on ordinary differential equations (ODE. Therefore, gene transcription which is a vital part in genetic oscillation is presupposed to be a continuous dynamical system by default. However, recent studies argued that discontinuous transcription might be more common than continuous transcription. In this paper, by appending the inserted silent interval lying between two neighboring transcriptional events to the end of the preceding event, we established that the running time for an intact transcriptional event increases and gene transcription thus shows slow dynamics. By globally replacing the original time increment for each state increment by a larger one, we introduced fractional differential equations (FDE to describe such globally slow transcription. The impact of fractionization on genetic oscillation was then studied in two early stage models--the Goodwin oscillator and the Rössler oscillator. By constructing a "dual memory" oscillator--the fractional delay Goodwin oscillator, we suggested that four general requirements for generating genetic oscillation should be revised to be negative feedback, sufficient nonlinearity, sufficient memory and proper balancing of timescale. The numerical study of the fractional Rössler oscillator implied that the globally slow transcription tends to lower the chance of a coupled or more complex nonlinear genetic oscillatory system behaving chaotically.

  20. Fractional dynamics of globally slow transcription and its impact on deterministic genetic oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kun; Gao, Shilong; Zhong, Suchuan; Ma, Hong

    2012-01-01

    In dynamical systems theory, a system which can be described by differential equations is called a continuous dynamical system. In studies on genetic oscillation, most deterministic models at early stage are usually built on ordinary differential equations (ODE). Therefore, gene transcription which is a vital part in genetic oscillation is presupposed to be a continuous dynamical system by default. However, recent studies argued that discontinuous transcription might be more common than continuous transcription. In this paper, by appending the inserted silent interval lying between two neighboring transcriptional events to the end of the preceding event, we established that the running time for an intact transcriptional event increases and gene transcription thus shows slow dynamics. By globally replacing the original time increment for each state increment by a larger one, we introduced fractional differential equations (FDE) to describe such globally slow transcription. The impact of fractionization on genetic oscillation was then studied in two early stage models--the Goodwin oscillator and the Rössler oscillator. By constructing a "dual memory" oscillator--the fractional delay Goodwin oscillator, we suggested that four general requirements for generating genetic oscillation should be revised to be negative feedback, sufficient nonlinearity, sufficient memory and proper balancing of timescale. The numerical study of the fractional Rössler oscillator implied that the globally slow transcription tends to lower the chance of a coupled or more complex nonlinear genetic oscillatory system behaving chaotically.

  1. Genetic Divergence of the Rhesus Macaque Major Histocompatibility Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza-Vamenta, Riza; Glusman, Gustavo; Rowen, Lee; Guthrie, Brandon; Geraghty, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is comprised of the class I, class II, and class III regions, including the MHC class I and class II genes that play a primary role in the immune response and serve as an important model in studies of primate evolution. Although nonhuman primates contribute significantly to comparative human studies, relatively little is known about the genetic diversity and genomics underlying nonhuman primate immunity. To address this issue, we sequenced a complete rhesus macaque MHC spanning over 5.3 Mb, and obtained an additional 2.3 Mb from a second haplotype, including class II and portions of class I and class III. A major expansion of from six class I genes in humans to as many as 22 active MHC class I genes in rhesus and levels of sequence divergence some 10-fold higher than a similar human comparison were found, averaging from 2% to 6% throughout extended portions of class I and class II. These data pose new interpretations of the evolutionary constraints operating between MHC diversity and T-cell selection by contrasting with models predicting an optimal number of antigen presenting genes. For the clinical model, these data and derivative genetic tools can be implemented in ongoing genetic and disease studies that involve the rhesus macaque. PMID:15289473

  2. Imaging complex nutrient dynamics in mycelial networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, M D; Lee, J A; Bebber, D P; Tlalka, M; Hynes, J; Darrah, P R; Watkinson, S C; Boddy, L

    2008-08-01

    Transport networks are vital components of multi-cellular organisms, distributing nutrients and removing waste products. Animal cardiovascular and respiratory systems, and plant vasculature, are branching trees whose architecture is thought to determine universal scaling laws in these organisms. In contrast, the transport systems of many multi-cellular fungi do not fit into this conceptual framework, as they have evolved to explore a patchy environment in search of new resources, rather than ramify through a three-dimensional organism. These fungi grow as a foraging mycelium, formed by the branching and fusion of threadlike hyphae, that gives rise to a complex network. To function efficiently, the mycelial network must both transport nutrients between spatially separated source and sink regions and also maintain its integrity in the face of continuous attack by mycophagous insects or random damage. Here we review the development of novel imaging approaches and software tools that we have used to characterise nutrient transport and network formation in foraging mycelia over a range of spatial scales. On a millimetre scale, we have used a combination of time-lapse confocal imaging and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching to quantify the rate of diffusive transport through the unique vacuole system in individual hyphae. These data then form the basis of a simulation model to predict the impact of such diffusion-based movement on a scale of several millimetres. On a centimetre scale, we have used novel photon-counting scintillation imaging techniques to visualize radiolabel movement in small microcosms. This approach has revealed novel N-transport phenomena, including rapid, preferential N-resource allocation to C-rich sinks, induction of simultaneous bi-directional transport, abrupt switching between different pre-existing transport routes, and a strong pulsatile component to transport in some species. Analysis of the pulsatile transport component using Fourier

  3. Dynamic complexities in a parasitoid-host-parasitoid ecological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hengguo; Zhao Min; Lv Songjuan; Zhu Lili

    2009-01-01

    Chaotic dynamics have been observed in a wide range of population models. In this study, the complex dynamics in a discrete-time ecological model of parasitoid-host-parasitoid are presented. The model shows that the superiority coefficient not only stabilizes the dynamics, but may strongly destabilize them as well. Many forms of complex dynamics were observed, including pitchfork bifurcation with quasi-periodicity, period-doubling cascade, chaotic crisis, chaotic bands with narrow or wide periodic window, intermittent chaos, and supertransient behavior. Furthermore, computation of the largest Lyapunov exponent demonstrated the chaotic dynamic behavior of the model

  4. Dynamic complexities in a parasitoid-host-parasitoid ecological model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Hengguo [School of Mathematic and Information Science, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325035 (China); Zhao Min [School of Life and Environmental Science, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325027 (China)], E-mail: zmcn@tom.com; Lv Songjuan; Zhu Lili [School of Mathematic and Information Science, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325035 (China)

    2009-01-15

    Chaotic dynamics have been observed in a wide range of population models. In this study, the complex dynamics in a discrete-time ecological model of parasitoid-host-parasitoid are presented. The model shows that the superiority coefficient not only stabilizes the dynamics, but may strongly destabilize them as well. Many forms of complex dynamics were observed, including pitchfork bifurcation with quasi-periodicity, period-doubling cascade, chaotic crisis, chaotic bands with narrow or wide periodic window, intermittent chaos, and supertransient behavior. Furthermore, computation of the largest Lyapunov exponent demonstrated the chaotic dynamic behavior of the model.

  5. Contribution of Large Region Joint Associations to Complex Traits Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, Guillaume; Asma, Senay; Deng, Wei Q.

    2015-01-01

    A polygenic model of inheritance, whereby hundreds or thousands of weakly associated variants contribute to a trait’s heritability, has been proposed to underlie the genetic architecture of complex traits. However, relatively few genetic variants have been positively identified so far and they collectively explain only a small fraction of the predicted heritability. We hypothesized that joint association of multiple weakly associated variants over large chromosomal regions contributes to complex traits variance. Confirmation of such regional associations can help identify new loci and lead to a better understanding of known ones. To test this hypothesis, we first characterized the ability of commonly used genetic association models to identify large region joint associations. Through theoretical derivation and simulation, we showed that multivariate linear models where multiple SNPs are included as independent predictors have the most favorable association profile. Based on these results, we tested for large region association with height in 3,740 European participants from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) study. Adjusting for SNPs with known association with height, we demonstrated clustering of weak associations (p = 2x10-4) in regions extending up to 433.0 Kb from known height loci. The contribution of regional associations to phenotypic variance was estimated at 0.172 (95% CI 0.063-0.279; p < 0.001), which compared favorably to 0.129 explained by known height variants. Conversely, we showed that suggestively associated regions are enriched for known height loci. To extend our findings to other traits, we also tested BMI, HDLc and CRP for large region associations, with consistent results for CRP. Our results demonstrate the presence of large region joint associations and suggest these can be used to pinpoint weakly associated SNPs. PMID:25856144

  6. Sync in Complex Dynamical Networks: Stability, Evolution, Control, and Application

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiang

    2005-01-01

    In the past few years, the discoveries of small-world and scale-free properties of many natural and artificial complex networks have stimulated significant advances in better understanding the relationship between the topology and the collective dynamics of complex networks. This paper reports recent progresses in the literature of synchronization of complex dynamical networks including stability criteria, network synchronizability and uniform synchronous criticality in different topologies, ...

  7. Dynamical systems examples of complex behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    Our aim is to introduce, explain, and discuss the fundamental problems, ideas, concepts, results, and methods of the theory of dynamical systems and to show how they can be used in speci?c examples. We do not intend to give a comprehensive overview of the present state of research in the theory of dynamical systems, nor a detailed historical account of its development. We try to explain the important results, often neglecting technical re?nements 1 and, usually, we do not provide proofs. One of the basic questions in studying dynamical systems, i.e. systems that evolve in time, is the construction of invariants that allow us to classify qualitative types of dynamical evolution, to distinguish between qualitatively di?erent dynamics, and to studytransitions between di?erent types. Itis also important to ?nd out when a certain dynamic behavior is stable under small perturbations, as well as to understand the various scenarios of instability. Finally, an essential aspect of a dynamic evolution is the transformat...

  8. Dynamical baryogenesis through complex hybrid inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delepine, D; MartInez, C; Urena-Lopez, L A

    2008-01-01

    We propose a hybrid inflation model with a complex waterfall field which contains an interaction term that breaks the U (1) global symmetry associated to the waterfall field charge. We show that the asymmetric evolution of the real and imaginary parts of the complex field during the phase transition at the end of inflation translates into a charge asymmetry [1

  9. Dynamical baryogenesis through complex hybrid inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delepine, D; MartInez, C; Urena-Lopez, L A [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato, C.P. 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)], E-mail: delepine@fisica.ugto.mx, E-mail: crmtz@fisica.ugto.mx, E-mail: lurena@fisica.ugto.mx

    2008-06-01

    We propose a hybrid inflation model with a complex waterfall field which contains an interaction term that breaks the U (1) global symmetry associated to the waterfall field charge. We show that the asymmetric evolution of the real and imaginary parts of the complex field during the phase transition at the end of inflation translates into a charge asymmetry [1].

  10. Charge-Transfer Complexes Studied by Dynamic Force Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurriaan Huskens

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the strength and kinetics of two charge-transfer complexes, naphthol-methylviologen and pyrene-methylviologen, are studied using dynamic force spectroscopy. The dissociation rates indicate an enhanced stability of the pyrene-methylviologen complex, which agrees with its higher thermodynamic stability compared to naphthol-methylviologen complex.

  11. Nonlinear and Complex Dynamics in Real Systems

    OpenAIRE

    William Barnett; Apostolos Serletis; Demitre Serletis

    2005-01-01

    This paper was produced for the El-Naschie Symposium on Nonlinear Dynamics in Shanghai in December 2005. In this paper we provide a review of the literature with respect to fluctuations in real systems and chaos. In doing so, we contrast the order and organization hypothesis of real systems with nonlinear chaotic dynamics and discuss some techniques used in distinguishing between stochastic and deterministic behavior. Moreover, we look at the issue of where and when the ideas of chaos could p...

  12. Complex dynamics in double-diffusive convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meca, Esteban; Ramirez-Piscina, Laureano [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Barcelona (Spain); Mercader, Isabel; Batiste, Oriol [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Barcelona (Spain)

    2004-11-01

    The dynamics of a small Prandtl number binary mixture in a laterally heated cavity is studied numerically. By combining temporal integration, steady state solving and linear stability analysis of the full PDE equations, we have been able to locate and characterize a codimension-three degenerate Takens-Bogdanov point whose unfolding describes the dynamics of the system for a certain range of Rayleigh numbers and separation ratios near S=-1. (orig.)

  13. Exponential rise of dynamical complexity in quantum computing through projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgarth, Daniel Klaus; Facchi, Paolo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Nakazato, Hiromichi; Pascazio, Saverio; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2014-10-10

    The ability of quantum systems to host exponentially complex dynamics has the potential to revolutionize science and technology. Therefore, much effort has been devoted to developing of protocols for computation, communication and metrology, which exploit this scaling, despite formidable technical difficulties. Here we show that the mere frequent observation of a small part of a quantum system can turn its dynamics from a very simple one into an exponentially complex one, capable of universal quantum computation. After discussing examples, we go on to show that this effect is generally to be expected: almost any quantum dynamics becomes universal once 'observed' as outlined above. Conversely, we show that any complex quantum dynamics can be 'purified' into a simpler one in larger dimensions. We conclude by demonstrating that even local noise can lead to an exponentially complex dynamics.

  14. Intertidal population genetic dynamics at a microgeographic seascape scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zi-Min

    2013-06-01

    The intertidal community is among the most physically harsh niches on earth, with highly heterogeneous environmental and biological factors that impose strong habitat selection on population abundance, genetic connectivity and ecological adaptation of organisms in nature. However, most genetic studies to date have concentrated on the influence of basin-wide or regional marine environments (e.g. habitat discontinuities, oceanic currents and fronts, and geographic barriers) on spatiotemporal distribution and composition of intertidal invertebrates having planktonic stages or long-distance dispersal capability. Little is known about sessile marine organisms (e.g. seaweeds) in the context of topographic tidal gradients and reproductive traits at the microgeographic scale. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Krueger-Hadfield et al. () implemented an elaborate sampling strategy with red seaweed (Chondrus crispus) from a 90-m transect stand near Roscoff and comprehensively detected genome-scale genetic differentiation and biases in ploidy level. This study not only revealed that tidal height resulted in genetic differentiation between high- and low-shore stands and restricted the genetic exchange within the high-shore habitat, but also demonstrated that intergametophytic nonrandom fertilization in C. crispus can cause significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Such new genetic insights highlight the importance of microgeographic genetic dynamics and life history characteristics for better understanding the evolutionary processes of speciation and diversification of intertidal marine organisms. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Dynamical Baryogenesis in Complex Hybrid Inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delepine, David; Martinez, Carlos; Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo

    2008-01-01

    We propose a hybrid inflation model with a complex waterfall field which contains an interaction term that breaks the U (1) global symmetry associated to the waterfall field charge. We show that the asymmetric evolution of the real and imaginary parts of the complex field during the phase transition at the end of inflation translates into a charge asymmetry. The latter strongly depends on the vev of the waterfall field, which is well constrained by diverse cosmological observations

  16. Dynamical complexity changes during two forms of meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Yinhong; Zhang, Xiaofeng

    2011-06-01

    Detection of dynamical complexity changes in natural and man-made systems has deep scientific and practical meaning. We use the base-scale entropy method to analyze dynamical complexity changes for heart rate variability (HRV) series during specific traditional forms of Chinese Chi and Kundalini Yoga meditation techniques in healthy young adults. The results show that dynamical complexity decreases in meditation states for two forms of meditation. Meanwhile, we detected changes in probability distribution of m-words during meditation and explained this changes using probability distribution of sine function. The base-scale entropy method may be used on a wider range of physiologic signals.

  17. Empirical complexities in the genetic foundations of lethal mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, James J; Joyce, Paul; Gladstone, Eric; Molineux, Ian J

    2013-10-01

    From population genetics theory, elevating the mutation rate of a large population should progressively reduce average fitness. If the fitness decline is large enough, the population will go extinct in a process known as lethal mutagenesis. Lethal mutagenesis has been endorsed in the virology literature as a promising approach to viral treatment, and several in vitro studies have forced viral extinction with high doses of mutagenic drugs. Yet only one empirical study has tested the genetic models underlying lethal mutagenesis, and the theory failed on even a qualitative level. Here we provide a new level of analysis of lethal mutagenesis by developing and evaluating models specifically tailored to empirical systems that may be used to test the theory. We first quantify a bias in the estimation of a critical parameter and consider whether that bias underlies the previously observed lack of concordance between theory and experiment. We then consider a seemingly ideal protocol that avoids this bias-mutagenesis of virions-but find that it is hampered by other problems. Finally, results that reveal difficulties in the mere interpretation of mutations assayed from double-strand genomes are derived. Our analyses expose unanticipated complexities in testing the theory. Nevertheless, the previous failure of the theory to predict experimental outcomes appears to reside in evolutionary mechanisms neglected by the theory (e.g., beneficial mutations) rather than from a mismatch between the empirical setup and model assumptions. This interpretation raises the specter that naive attempts at lethal mutagenesis may augment adaptation rather than retard it.

  18. Holism and Emergence: Dynamical Complexity Defeats Laplace's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ideal for scientific theories whose cogency is often not questioned. Laplace's demon is an idealization of mechanistic scientific method. Its principles together imply reducibility, and rule out holism and emergence. I will argue that Laplacean determinism fails even in the realm of planetary dynamics, and that it does not give ...

  19. Tetralogy of Fallot and Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome – Complex Clinical Phenotypes Meet Complex Genetic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahm, Harald; Schön, Patric; Doppler, Stefanie; Dreßen, Martina; Cleuziou, Julie; Deutsch, Marcus-André; Ewert, Peter; Lange, Rüdiger; Krane, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In many cases congenital heart disease (CHD) is represented by a complex phenotype and an array of several functional and morphological cardiac disorders. These malformations will be briefly summarized in the first part focusing on two severe CHD phenotypes, hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). In most cases of CHD the genetic origin remains largely unknown, though the complexity of the clinical picture strongly argues against a dysregulation which can be attributed to a single candidate gene but rather suggests a multifaceted polygenetic origin with elaborate interactions. Consistent with this idea, genome-wide approaches using whole exome sequencing, comparative sequence analysis of multiplex families to identify de novo mutations and global technologies to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms, copy number variants, dysregulation of the transcriptome and epigenetic variations have been conducted to obtain information about genetic alterations and potential predispositions possibly linked to the occurrence of a CHD phenotype. In the second part of this review we will summarize and discuss the available literature on identified genetic alterations linked to TOF and HLHS. PMID:26069455

  20. Applications of Nonlinear Dynamics Model and Design of Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    In, Visarath; Palacios, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    This edited book is aimed at interdisciplinary, device-oriented, applications of nonlinear science theory and methods in complex systems. In particular, applications directed to nonlinear phenomena with space and time characteristics. Examples include: complex networks of magnetic sensor systems, coupled nano-mechanical oscillators, nano-detectors, microscale devices, stochastic resonance in multi-dimensional chaotic systems, biosensors, and stochastic signal quantization. "applications of nonlinear dynamics: model and design of complex systems" brings together the work of scientists and engineers that are applying ideas and methods from nonlinear dynamics to design and fabricate complex systems.

  1. Growth-rate-dependent dynamics of a bacterial genetic oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osella, Matteo; Lagomarsino, Marco Cosentino

    2013-01-01

    Gene networks exhibiting oscillatory dynamics are widespread in biology. The minimal regulatory designs giving rise to oscillations have been implemented synthetically and studied by mathematical modeling. However, most of the available analyses generally neglect the coupling of regulatory circuits with the cellular “chassis” in which the circuits are embedded. For example, the intracellular macromolecular composition of fast-growing bacteria changes with growth rate. As a consequence, important parameters of gene expression, such as ribosome concentration or cell volume, are growth-rate dependent, ultimately coupling the dynamics of genetic circuits with cell physiology. This work addresses the effects of growth rate on the dynamics of a paradigmatic example of genetic oscillator, the repressilator. Making use of empirical growth-rate dependencies of parameters in bacteria, we show that the repressilator dynamics can switch between oscillations and convergence to a fixed point depending on the cellular state of growth, and thus on the nutrients it is fed. The physical support of the circuit (type of plasmid or gene positions on the chromosome) also plays an important role in determining the oscillation stability and the growth-rate dependence of period and amplitude. This analysis has potential application in the field of synthetic biology, and suggests that the coupling between endogenous genetic oscillators and cell physiology can have substantial consequences for their functionality.

  2. Ab initio lattice dynamics of complex structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, density functional theory is applied in a study of thermodynamic properties of so-called complex metal hydrides, which are promising materials for hydrogen storage applications. Since the unit cells of these crystals can be relatively large with many symmetrically inequivalent ato...

  3. Complex phase dynamics in coupled bursters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D E; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Malova, S Y

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of phase multistability in the synchronization of two coupled oscillatory systems typically arises when the systems individually display complex wave forms associated, for instance, with the presence of subharmonic components. Alternatively, phase multistability can be caused...... the number of spikes per train and the proximity of a neighboring equilibrium point can influence the formation of coexisting regimes....

  4. Amodified probabilistic genetic algorithm for the solution of complex constrained optimization problems

    OpenAIRE

    Vorozheikin, A.; Gonchar, T.; Panfilov, I.; Sopov, E.; Sopov, S.

    2009-01-01

    A new algorithm for the solution of complex constrained optimization problems based on the probabilistic genetic algorithm with optimal solution prediction is proposed. The efficiency investigation results in comparison with standard genetic algorithm are presented.

  5. Complex dynamics in supervised work groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Forno, Arianna; Merlone, Ugo

    2013-07-01

    In supervised work groups many factors concur to determine productivity. Some of them may be economical and some psychological. According to the literature, the heterogeneity in terms of individual capacity seems to be one of the principal causes for chaotic dynamics in a work group. May sorting groups of people with same capacity for effort be a solution? In the organizational psychology literature an important factor is the engagement in the task, while expectations are central in the economics literature. Therefore, we propose a dynamical model which takes into account both engagement in the task and expectations. An important lesson emerges. The intolerance deriving from the exposure to inequity may not be only caused by differences in individual capacities, but also by these factors combined. Consequently, solutions have to be found in this new direction.

  6. The Heterogeneous Dynamics of Economic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristelli, Matthieu; Tacchella, Andrea; Pietronero, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    What will be the growth of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or the competitiveness of China, United States, and Vietnam in the next 3, 5 or 10 years? Despite this kind of questions has a large societal impact and an extreme value for economic policy making, providing a scientific basis for economic predictability is still a very challenging problem. Recent results of a new branch—Economic Complexity—have set the basis for a framework to approach such a challenge and to provide new perspectives to cast economic prediction into the conceptual scheme of forecasting the evolution of a dynamical system as in the case of weather dynamics. We argue that a recently introduced non-monetary metrics for country competitiveness (fitness) allows for quantifying the hidden growth potential of countries by the means of the comparison of this measure for intangible assets with monetary figures, such as GDP per capita. This comparison defines the fitness-income plane where we observe that country dynamics presents strongly heterogeneous patterns of evolution. The flow in some zones is found to be laminar while in others a chaotic behavior is instead observed. These two regimes correspond to very different predictability features for the evolution of countries: in the former regime, we find strong predictable pattern while the latter scenario exhibits a very low predictability. In such a framework, regressions, the usual tool used in economics, are no more the appropriate strategy to deal with such a heterogeneous scenario and new concepts, borrowed from dynamical systems theory, are mandatory. We therefore propose a data-driven method—the selective predictability scheme—in which we adopt a strategy similar to the methods of analogues, firstly introduced by Lorenz, to assess future evolution of countries. PMID:25671312

  7. Parameters in dynamic models of complex traits are containers of missing heritability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Wang

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of human traits rarely explain more than a small proportion of the heritable variation, and improving this situation within the current paradigm appears daunting. Given a well-validated dynamic model of a complex physiological trait, a substantial part of the underlying genetic variation must manifest as variation in model parameters. These parameters are themselves phenotypic traits. By linking whole-cell phenotypic variation to genetic variation in a computational model of a single heart cell, incorporating genotype-to-parameter maps, we show that genome-wide association studies on parameters reveal much more genetic variation than when using higher-level cellular phenotypes. The results suggest that letting such studies be guided by computational physiology may facilitate a causal understanding of the genotype-to-phenotype map of complex traits, with strong implications for the development of phenomics technology.

  8. Complex systems and networks dynamics, controls and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xinghuo; Chen, Guanrong; Yu, Wenwu

    2016-01-01

    This elementary book provides some state-of-the-art research results on broad disciplinary sciences on complex networks. It presents an in-depth study with detailed description of dynamics, controls and applications of complex networks. The contents of this book can be summarized as follows. First, the dynamics of complex networks, for example, the cluster dynamic analysis by using kernel spectral methods, community detection algorithms in bipartite networks, epidemiological modeling with demographics and epidemic spreading on multi-layer networks, are studied. Second, the controls of complex networks are investigated including topics like distributed finite-time cooperative control of multi-agent systems by applying homogenous-degree and Lyapunov methods, composite finite-time containment control for disturbed second-order multi-agent systems, fractional-order observer design of multi-agent systems, chaos control and anticontrol of complex systems via Parrondos game and many more. Third, the applications of ...

  9. Sparse dynamical Boltzmann machine for reconstructing complex networks with binary dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Zhong; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Revealing the structure and dynamics of complex networked systems from observed data is a problem of current interest. Is it possible to develop a completely data-driven framework to decipher the network structure and different types of dynamical processes on complex networks? We develop a model named sparse dynamical Boltzmann machine (SDBM) as a structural estimator for complex networks that host binary dynamical processes. The SDBM attains its topology according to that of the original system and is capable of simulating the original binary dynamical process. We develop a fully automated method based on compressive sensing and a clustering algorithm to construct the SDBM. We demonstrate, for a variety of representative dynamical processes on model and real world complex networks, that the equivalent SDBM can recover the network structure of the original system and simulates its dynamical behavior with high precision.

  10. Emergence of dynamical order synchronization phenomena in complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Manrubia, Susanna C; Zanette, Damián H

    2004-01-01

    Synchronization processes bring about dynamical order and lead tospontaneous development of structural organization in complex systemsof various origins, from chemical oscillators and biological cells tohuman societies and the brain. This book provides a review and adetailed theoretical analysis of synchronization phenomena in complexsystems with different architectures, composed of elements withperiodic or chaotic individual dynamics. Special attention is paid tostatistical concepts, such as nonequilibrium phase transitions, orderparameters and dynamical glasses.

  11. Bistable responses in bacterial genetic networks: Designs and dynamical consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Abhinav; Ray, J. Christian J.; Narula, Jatin; Igoshin, Oleg A.

    2011-01-01

    A key property of living cells is their ability to react to stimuli with specific biochemical responses. These responses can be understood through the dynamics of underlying biochemical and genetic networks. Evolutionary design principles have been well studied in networks that display graded responses, with a continuous relationship between input signal and system output. Alternatively, biochemical networks can exhibit bistable responses so that over a range of signals the network possesses two stable steady states. In this review, we discuss several conceptual examples illustrating network designs that can result in a bistable response of the biochemical network. Next, we examine manifestations of these designs in bacterial master-regulatory genetic circuits. In particular, we discuss mechanisms and dynamic consequences of bistability in three circuits: two-component systems, sigma-factor networks, and a multistep phosphorelay. Analyzing these examples allows us to expand our knowledge of evolutionary design principles for networks with bistable responses. PMID:21385588

  12. Understanding Learner Agency as a Complex Dynamic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to contribute to a fuller understanding of the nature of language learner agency by considering it as a complex dynamic system. The purpose of the study was to explore detailed situated data to examine to what extent it is feasible to view learner agency through the lens of complexity theory. Data were generated through a…

  13. Note on transmitted complexity for quantum dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Noboru; Muto, Masahiro

    2017-10-01

    Transmitted complexity (mutual entropy) is one of the important measures for quantum information theory developed recently in several ways. We will review the fundamental concepts of the Kossakowski, Ohya and Watanabe entropy and define a transmitted complexity for quantum dynamical systems. This article is part of the themed issue `Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'.

  14. The Leadership Game : Experiencing Dynamic Complexity under Deep Uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.; Segers, J.; Oruc, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this ever more complex, interconnected, and uncertain world, leadership is needed more than ever. But the literature and most leaders largely ignore dynamic complexity and deep uncertainty: only futures characterized by ever faster change, ever more (required) flexibility, and ever more scarcity

  15. Complex, Dynamic Systems: A New Transdisciplinary Theme for Applied Linguistics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2012-01-01

    In this plenary address, I suggest that Complexity Theory has the potential to contribute a transdisciplinary theme to applied linguistics. Transdisciplinary themes supersede disciplines and spur new kinds of creative activity (Halliday 2001 [1990]). Investigating complex systems requires researchers to pay attention to system dynamics. Since…

  16. Spatial price dynamics: From complex network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. L.; Bi, J. T.; Sun, H. J.

    2008-10-01

    The spatial price problem means that if the supply price plus the transportation cost is less than the demand price, there exists a trade. Thus, after an amount of exchange, the demand price will decrease. This process is continuous until an equilibrium state is obtained. However, how the trade network structure affects this process has received little attention. In this paper, we give a evolving model to describe the levels of spatial price on different complex network structures. The simulation results show that the network with shorter path length is sensitive to the variation of prices.

  17. Ethical and legal issues arising from complex genetic disorders. DOE final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Lori

    2002-10-09

    The project analyzed the challenges raised by complex genetic disorders in genetic counselling, for clinical practice, for public health, for quality assurance, and for protection against discrimination. The research found that, in some settings, solutions created in the context of single gene disorders are more difficult to apply to complex disorders. In other settings, the single gene solutions actually backfired and created additional problems when applied to complex genetic disorders. The literature of five common, complex genetic disorders--Alzheimer's, asthma, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and psychiatric illnesses--was evaluated in depth.

  18. Chaotic, fractional, and complex dynamics new insights and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Macau, Elbert; Sanjuan, Miguel

    2018-01-01

    The book presents nonlinear, chaotic and fractional dynamics, complex systems and networks, together with cutting-edge research on related topics. The fifteen chapters – written by leading scientists working in the areas of nonlinear, chaotic and fractional dynamics, as well as complex systems and networks – offer an extensive overview of cutting-edge research on a range of topics, including fundamental and applied research. These include but are not limited to aspects of synchronization in complex dynamical systems, universality features in systems with specific fractional dynamics, and chaotic scattering. As such, the book provides an excellent and timely snapshot of the current state of research, blending the insights and experiences of many prominent researchers.

  19. Using Genetic Algorithms for Navigation Planning in Dynamic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Uçan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Navigation planning can be considered as a combination of searching and executing the most convenient flight path from an initial waypoint to a destination waypoint. Generally the aim is to follow the flight path, which provides minimum fuel consumption for the air vehicle. For dynamic environments, constraints change dynamically during flight. This is a special case of dynamic path planning. As the main concern of this paper is flight planning, the conditions and objectives that are most probable to be used in navigation problem are considered. In this paper, the genetic algorithm solution of the dynamic flight planning problem is explained. The evolutionary dynamic navigation planning algorithm is developed for compensating the existing deficiencies of the other approaches. The existing fully dynamic algorithms process unit changes to topology one modification at a time, but when there are several such operations occurring in the environment simultaneously, the algorithms are quite inefficient. The proposed algorithm may respond to the concurrent constraint updates in a shorter time for dynamic environment. The most secure navigation of the air vehicle is planned and executed so that the fuel consumption is minimum.

  20. Advances in dynamics, patterns, cognition challenges in complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Pikovsky, Arkady; Rulkov, Nikolai; Tsimring, Lev

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on recent progress in complexity research based on the fundamental nonlinear dynamical and statistical theory of oscillations, waves, chaos, and structures far from equilibrium. Celebrating seminal contributions to the field by Prof. M. I. Rabinovich of the University of California at San Diego, this volume brings together perspectives on both the fundamental aspects of complexity studies, as well as in applications in different fields ranging from granular patterns to understanding of the cognitive brain and mind dynamics. The slate of world-class authors review recent achievements that together present a broad and coherent coverage of modern research in complexity greater than the sum of its parts. Presents the most up-to-date developments in the studies of complexity Combines basic and applied aspects Links background nonlinear theory of oscillations and waves with modern approaches Allows readers to recognize general dynamical principles across the applications fields.

  1. The topology and dynamics of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezso, Zoltan

    We start with a brief introduction about the topological properties of real networks. Most real networks are scale-free, being characterized by a power-law degree distribution. The scale-free nature of real networks leads to unexpected properties such as the vanishing epidemic threshold. Traditional methods aiming to reduce the spreading rate of viruses cannot succeed on eradicating the epidemic on a scale-free network. We demonstrate that policies that discriminate between the nodes, curing mostly the highly connected nodes, can restore a finite epidemic threshold and potentially eradicate the virus. We find that the more biased a policy is towards the hubs, the more chance it has to bring the epidemic threshold above the virus' spreading rate. We continue by studying a large Web portal as a model system for a rapidly evolving network. We find that the visitation pattern of a news document decays as a power law, in contrast with the exponential prediction provided by simple models of site visitation. This is rooted in the inhomogeneous nature of the browsing pattern characterizing individual users: the time interval between consecutive visits by the same user to the site follows a power law distribution, in contrast with the exponential expected for Poisson processes. We show that the exponent characterizing the individual user's browsing patterns determines the power-law decay in a document's visitation. Finally, we turn our attention to biological networks and demonstrate quantitatively that protein complexes in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are comprised of a core in which subunits are highly coexpressed, display the same deletion phenotype (essential or non-essential) and share identical functional classification and cellular localization. The results allow us to define the deletion phenotype and cellular task of most known complexes, and to identify with high confidence the biochemical role of hundreds of proteins with yet unassigned functionality.

  2. Implementation and Characterization of Dynamic Genetic Networks in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Niederholtmeyer, Henrike Marie

    2015-01-01

    Transcription and translation (TX-TL) can be performed in vitro, outside of cells, allowing the assembly and analysis of genetic networks. This approach to engineering biological networks in a less complex and more controllable environment could one day allow rapid prototyping of network designs before implementing them in living cells. Furthermore, the in vitro approach provides insight into how natural biological systems are built and is instructive to define the rules for engineering biolo...

  3. Micro-Level Affect Dynamics in Psychopathology Viewed From Complex Dynamical System Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichers, M.; Wigman, J. T. W.; Myin-Germeys, I.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the role of moment-to-moment affect dynamics in mental disorder and aims to integrate recent literature on this topic in the context of complex dynamical system theory. First, we will review the relevance of temporal and contextual aspects of affect dynamics in relation to

  4. Conceptualizing Teacher Identity as a Complex Dynamic System: The Inner Dynamics of Transformations during a Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Alastair

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the inner dynamics of teacher identity transformations remain a "black box." Conceptualizing preservice teacher identity as a complex dynamic system, and the notion of "being someone who teaches" in dialogical terms as involving shifts between different teacher voices, the study investigates the dynamical processes…

  5. New Algorithm of Automatic Complex Password Generator Employing Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sura Jasim Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the occurred increasing in information sharing, internet popularization, E-commerce transactions, and data transferring, security and authenticity become an important and necessary subject. In this paper an automated schema was proposed to generate a strong and complex password which is based on entering initial data such as text (meaningful and simple information or not, with the concept of encoding it, then employing the Genetic Algorithm by using its operations crossover and mutation to generated different data from the entered one. The generated password is non-guessable and can be used in many and different applications and internet services like social networks, secured system, distributed systems, and online services. The proposed password generator achieved diffusion, randomness, and confusions, which are very necessary, required and targeted in the resulted password, in addition to the notice that the length of the generated password differs from the length of initial data, and any simple changing and modification in the initial data produces more and clear modification in the generated password. The proposed work was done using visual basic programing language.

  6. Adapting APSIM to model the physiology and genetics of complex adaptive traits in field crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Graeme L; van Oosterom, Erik; McLean, Greg; Chapman, Scott C; Broad, Ian; Harland, Peter; Muchow, Russell C

    2010-05-01

    Progress in molecular plant breeding is limited by the ability to predict plant phenotype based on its genotype, especially for complex adaptive traits. Suitably constructed crop growth and development models have the potential to bridge this predictability gap. A generic cereal crop growth and development model is outlined here. It is designed to exhibit reliable predictive skill at the crop level while also introducing sufficient physiological rigour for complex phenotypic responses to become emergent properties of the model dynamics. The approach quantifies capture and use of radiation, water, and nitrogen within a framework that predicts the realized growth of major organs based on their potential and whether the supply of carbohydrate and nitrogen can satisfy that potential. The model builds on existing approaches within the APSIM software platform. Experiments on diverse genotypes of sorghum that underpin the development and testing of the adapted crop model are detailed. Genotypes differing in height were found to differ in biomass partitioning among organs and a tall hybrid had significantly increased radiation use efficiency: a novel finding in sorghum. Introducing these genetic effects associated with plant height into the model generated emergent simulated phenotypic differences in green leaf area retention during grain filling via effects associated with nitrogen dynamics. The relevance to plant breeding of this capability in complex trait dissection and simulation is discussed.

  7. Early days in complex dynamics a history of complex dynamics in one variable during 1906-1942

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Daniel S; Rosa, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    The theory of complex dynamics, whose roots lie in 19th-century studies of the iteration of complex function conducted by Kœnigs, Schröder, and others, flourished remarkably during the first half of the 20th century, when many of the central ideas and techniques of the subject developed. This book by Alexander, Iavernaro, and Rosa paints a robust picture of the field of complex dynamics between 1906 and 1942 through detailed discussions of the work of Fatou, Julia, Siegel, and several others. A recurrent theme of the authors' treatment is the center problem in complex dynamics. They present its complete history during this period and, in so doing, bring out analogies between complex dynamics and the study of differential equations, in particular, the problem of stability in Hamiltonian systems. Among these analogies are the use of iteration and problems involving small divisors which the authors examine in the work of Poincaré and others, linking them to complex dynamics, principally via the work of Samuel...

  8. Dynamic modeling of genetic networks using genetic algorithm and S-system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Shinichi; Tominaga, Daisuke; Arita, Masanori; Takahashi, Katsutoshi; Tomita, Masaru

    2003-03-22

    The modeling of system dynamics of genetic networks, metabolic networks or signal transduction cascades from time-course data is formulated as a reverse-problem. Previous studies focused on the estimation of only network structures, and they were ineffective in inferring a network structure with feedback loops. We previously proposed a method to predict not only the network structure but also its dynamics using a Genetic Algorithm (GA) and an S-system formalism. However, it could predict only a small number of parameters and could rarely obtain essential structures. In this work, we propose a unified extension of the basic method. Notable improvements are as follows: (1) an additional term in its evaluation function that aims at eliminating futile parameters; (2) a crossover method called Simplex Crossover (SPX) to improve its optimization ability; and (3) a gradual optimization strategy to increase the number of predictable parameters. The proposed method is implemented as a C program called PEACE1 (Predictor by Evolutionary Algorithms and Canonical Equations 1). Its performance was compared with the basic method. The comparison showed that: (1) the convergence rate increased about 5-fold; (2) the optimization speed was raised about 1.5-fold; and (3) the number of predictable parameters was increased about 5-fold. Moreover, we successfully inferred the dynamics of a small genetic network constructed with 60 parameters for 5 network variables and feedback loops using only time-course data of gene expression.

  9. Complexity: Outline of the NWO strategic theme Dynamics of complex systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, G.; Doelman, A.; Frenken, K.; Hogeweg, P.; Hommes, C.; van der Maas, H.; Mulder, B.; Stam, K.; van Steen, M.; Zandee, L.

    2008-01-01

    Dynamics of complex systems is one of the program 5 themes in the NWO (Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research) strategy for the years 2007-2011. The ambition of the current proposal is to initiate integrated activities in the field of complex systems within the Netherlands, to provide

  10. Complexity : outline of the NWO strategic theme dynamics of complex systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, G.; Doelman, A.; Frenken, K.; Hogeweg, P.; Hommes, C.; Maas, van der H.; Mulder, B.; Stam, K.; Steen, van M.; Zandee, L.

    2008-01-01

    Dynamics of complex systems is one of the program 5 themes in the NWO (Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research) strategy for the years 2007-2011. The ambition of the current proposal is to initiate integrated activities in the field of complex systems within the Netherlands, to provide

  11. Complex-Dynamic Cosmology and Emergent World Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Kirilyuk, Andrei P.

    2004-01-01

    Universe structure emerges in the unreduced, complex-dynamic interaction process with the simplest initial configuration (two attracting homogeneous fields, quant-ph/9902015). The unreduced interaction analysis gives intrinsically creative cosmology, describing the real, explicitly emerging world structure with dynamic randomness on each scale. Without imposing any postulates or entities, we obtain physically real space, time, elementary particles with their detailed structure and intrinsic p...

  12. Complex economic dynamics: Chaotic saddle, crisis and intermittency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chian, Abraham C.-L.; Rempel, Erico L.; Rogers, Colin

    2006-01-01

    Complex economic dynamics is studied by a forced oscillator model of business cycles. The technique of numerical modeling is applied to characterize the fundamental properties of complex economic systems which exhibit multiscale and multistability behaviors, as well as coexistence of order and chaos. In particular, we focus on the dynamics and structure of unstable periodic orbits and chaotic saddles within a periodic window of the bifurcation diagram, at the onset of a saddle-node bifurcation and of an attractor merging crisis, and in the chaotic regions associated with type-I intermittency and crisis-induced intermittency, in non-linear economic cycles. Inside a periodic window, chaotic saddles are responsible for the transient motion preceding convergence to a periodic or a chaotic attractor. The links between chaotic saddles, crisis and intermittency in complex economic dynamics are discussed. We show that a chaotic attractor is composed of chaotic saddles and unstable periodic orbits located in the gap regions of chaotic saddles. Non-linear modeling of economic chaotic saddle, crisis and intermittency can improve our understanding of the dynamics of financial intermittency observed in stock market and foreign exchange market. Characterization of the complex dynamics of economic systems is a powerful tool for pattern recognition and forecasting of business and financial cycles, as well as for optimization of management strategy and decision technology

  13. Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Andrews, Michael A.; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Wang, Lin; Bauch, Chris T.

    2015-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that a key component of successful infection control efforts is understanding the complex, two-way interaction between disease dynamics and human behavioral and social dynamics. Human behavior such as contact precautions and social distancing clearly influence disease prevalence, but disease prevalence can in turn alter human behavior, forming a coupled, nonlinear system. Moreover, in many cases, the spatial structure of the population cannot be ignored, such that social and behavioral processes and/or transmission of infection must be represented with complex networks. Research on studying coupled disease-behavior dynamics in complex networks in particular is growing rapidly, and frequently makes use of analysis methods and concepts from statistical physics. Here, we review some of the growing literature in this area. We contrast network-based approaches to homogeneous-mixing approaches, point out how their predictions differ, and describe the rich and often surprising behavior of disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks, and compare them to processes in statistical physics. We discuss how these models can capture the dynamics that characterize many real-world scenarios, thereby suggesting ways that policy makers can better design effective prevention strategies. We also describe the growing sources of digital data that are facilitating research in this area. Finally, we suggest pitfalls which might be faced by researchers in the field, and we suggest several ways in which the field could move forward in the coming years.

  14. Considerations for subgroups and phenocopies in complex disease genetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Ramanujam

    Full Text Available The number of identified genetic variants associated to complex disease cannot fully explain heritability. This may be partially due to more complicated patterns of predisposition than previously suspected. Diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS may consist of multiple disease causing mechanisms, each comprised of several elements. We describe how the effect of subgroups can be calculated using the standard association measurement odds ratio, which is then manipulated to provide a formula for the true underlying association present within the subgroup. This is sensitive to the initial minor allele frequencies present in both cases and the subgroup of patients. The methodology is then extended to the χ(2 statistic, for two related scenarios. First, to determine the true χ(2 when phenocopies or disease subtypes reduce association and are reclassified as controls when calculating statistics. Here, the χ(2 is given by (1 + σ * (a + b/(c + d/(1 - σ, or (1 + σ/(1 - σ for equal numbers of cases and controls. Second, when subgroups corresponding to heterogeneity mask the true effect size, but no reclassification is made. Here, the proportion increase in total sample size required to attain the same χ(2 statistic as the subgroup is given as γ = (1 - σ/2/((1 - σ(1 - σc/(a + c(1 - σd/(b + d, and a python script to calculate and plot this value is provided at kirc.se. Practical examples show how in a study of modest size (1000 cases and 1000 controls, a non-significant SNP may exceed genome-wide significance when corresponding to a subgroup of 20% of cases, and may occur in heterozygous form in all cases. This methodology may explain the modest association found in diseases such as MS wherein heterogeneity confounds straightforward measurement of association.

  15. The Impact of Evolutionary Driving Forces on Human Complex Diseases: A Population Genetics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr T. M. Saeb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the molecular evolution of human genome has paved the way to understand genetic adaptation of humans to the environmental changes and corresponding complex diseases. In this review, we discussed the historical origin of genetic diversity among human populations, the evolutionary driving forces that can affect genetic diversity among populations, and the effects of human movement into new environments and gene flow on population genetic diversity. Furthermore, we presented the role of natural selection on genetic diversity and complex diseases. Then we reviewed the disadvantageous consequences of historical selection events in modern time and their relation to the development of complex diseases. In addition, we discussed the effect of consanguinity on the incidence of complex diseases in human populations. Finally, we presented the latest information about the role of ancient genes acquired from interbreeding with ancient hominids in the development of complex diseases.

  16. Investigating dynamical complexity in the magnetosphere using various entropy measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasis, Georgios; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Kalimeri, Maria; Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Eftaxias, Konstantinos

    2009-09-01

    The complex system of the Earth's magnetosphere corresponds to an open spatially extended nonequilibrium (input-output) dynamical system. The nonextensive Tsallis entropy has been recently introduced as an appropriate information measure to investigate dynamical complexity in the magnetosphere. The method has been employed for analyzing Dst time series and gave promising results, detecting the complexity dissimilarity among different physiological and pathological magnetospheric states (i.e., prestorm activity and intense magnetic storms, respectively). This paper explores the applicability and effectiveness of a variety of computable entropy measures (e.g., block entropy, Kolmogorov entropy, T complexity, and approximate entropy) to the investigation of dynamical complexity in the magnetosphere. We show that as the magnetic storm approaches there is clear evidence of significant lower complexity in the magnetosphere. The observed higher degree of organization of the system agrees with that inferred previously, from an independent linear fractal spectral analysis based on wavelet transforms. This convergence between nonlinear and linear analyses provides a more reliable detection of the transition from the quiet time to the storm time magnetosphere, thus showing evidence that the occurrence of an intense magnetic storm is imminent. More precisely, we claim that our results suggest an important principle: significant complexity decrease and accession of persistency in Dst time series can be confirmed as the magnetic storm approaches, which can be used as diagnostic tools for the magnetospheric injury (global instability). Overall, approximate entropy and Tsallis entropy yield superior results for detecting dynamical complexity changes in the magnetosphere in comparison to the other entropy measures presented herein. Ultimately, the analysis tools developed in the course of this study for the treatment of Dst index can provide convenience for space weather

  17. Genetic variability for tuber yield, quality, and virus disease complex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some cultivars e.g. Munyeera, New Kawogo, Silk and Sowola which showed high flowering ability failed to fertilise and set seed when crossed to specific cultivars. Preliminary genetic analysis for yield and quality following crossing elite 7 female and 6 male cultivars in a North Carolina 2 mating design showed wide genetic ...

  18. Exponential Synchronization of Uncertain Complex Dynamical Networks with Delay Coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lifu; Kong Zhi; Jing Yuanwei

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the global exponential synchronization of uncertain complex delayed dynamical networks. The network model considered is general dynamical delay networks with unknown network structure and unknown coupling functions but bounded. Novel delay-dependent linear controllers are designed via the Lyapunov stability theory. Especially, it is shown that the controlled networks are globally exponentially synchronized with a given convergence rate. An example of typical dynamical network of this class, having the Lorenz system at each node, has been used to demonstrate and verify the novel design proposed. And, the numerical simulation results show the effectiveness of proposed synchronization approaches. (general)

  19. Translating conservation genetics into management: Pan-European minimum requirements for dynamic conservation units of forest tree genetic diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Koskela, Jarkko; Lefèvre, François; Schueler, Silvio; Kraigher, Hojka; Olrik, Ditte C.; Hubert, Jason; Longauer, Roman; Bozzano, Michele; Yrjänä, Leena; Alizoti, Paraskevi; Rotach, Peter; Vietto, Lorenzo; Bordács, Sándor; Myking, Tor; Eysteinsson, Thröstur

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a review of theoretical and practical aspects related to genetic management of forest trees. The implementation of international commitments on forest genetic diversity has been slow and partly neglected. Conservation of forest genetic diversity is still riddled with problems, and complexities of national legal and administrative structures. Europe is an example of a complex region where the dis- tribution ranges of tree species extend across large geographical areas with ...

  20. Complex fluid network optimization and control integrative design based on nonlinear dynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, Jinxue; Yang, Li; Hu, Yunan

    2016-01-01

    In view of distribution according to complex fluid network’s needs, this paper proposed one optimization computation method of the nonlinear programming mathematical model based on genetic algorithm. The simulation result shows that the overall energy consumption of the optimized fluid network has a decrease obviously. The control model of the fluid network is established based on nonlinear dynamics. We design the control law based on feedback linearization, take the optimal value by genetic algorithm as the simulation data, can also solve the branch resistance under the optimal value. These resistances can provide technical support and reference for fluid network design and construction, so can realize complex fluid network optimization and control integration design.

  1. Synchronization in Complex Networks of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chai Wah

    2007-01-01

    This book brings together two emerging research areas: synchronization in coupled nonlinear systems and complex networks, and study conditions under which a complex network of dynamical systems synchronizes. While there are many texts that study synchronization in chaotic systems or properties of complex networks, there are few texts that consider the intersection of these two very active and interdisciplinary research areas. The main theme of this book is that synchronization conditions can be related to graph theoretical properties of the underlying coupling topology. The book introduces ide

  2. The dynamic complexity of a three species food chain model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Songjuan; Zhao Min

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a three-species food chain model is analytically investigated on theories of ecology and using numerical simulation. Bifurcation diagrams are obtained for biologically feasible parameters. The results show that the system exhibits rich complexity features such as stable, periodic and chaotic dynamics

  3. Effective control of complex turbulent dynamical systems through statistical functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majda, Andrew J; Qi, Di

    2017-05-30

    Turbulent dynamical systems characterized by both a high-dimensional phase space and a large number of instabilities are ubiquitous among complex systems in science and engineering, including climate, material, and neural science. Control of these complex systems is a grand challenge, for example, in mitigating the effects of climate change or safe design of technology with fully developed shear turbulence. Control of flows in the transition to turbulence, where there is a small dimension of instabilities about a basic mean state, is an important and successful discipline. In complex turbulent dynamical systems, it is impossible to track and control the large dimension of instabilities, which strongly interact and exchange energy, and new control strategies are needed. The goal of this paper is to propose an effective statistical control strategy for complex turbulent dynamical systems based on a recent statistical energy principle and statistical linear response theory. We illustrate the potential practical efficiency and verify this effective statistical control strategy on the 40D Lorenz 1996 model in forcing regimes with various types of fully turbulent dynamics with nearly one-half of the phase space unstable.

  4. Entropy for the Complexity of Physiological Signal Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohua Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the rapid development of large data storage technologies, mobile network technology, and portable medical devices makes it possible to measure, record, store, and track analysis of biological dynamics. Portable noninvasive medical devices are crucial to capture individual characteristics of biological dynamics. The wearable noninvasive medical devices and the analysis/management of related digital medical data will revolutionize the management and treatment of diseases, subsequently resulting in the establishment of a new healthcare system. One of the key features that can be extracted from the data obtained by wearable noninvasive medical device is the complexity of physiological signals, which can be represented by entropy of biological dynamics contained in the physiological signals measured by these continuous monitoring medical devices. Thus, in this chapter I present the major concepts of entropy that are commonly used to measure the complexity of biological dynamics. The concepts include Shannon entropy, Kolmogorov entropy, Renyi entropy, approximate entropy, sample entropy, and multiscale entropy. I also demonstrate an example of using entropy for the complexity of glucose dynamics.

  5. Genetic algorithm enhanced by machine learning in dynamic aperture optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongjun; Cheng, Weixing; Yu, Li Hua; Rainer, Robert

    2018-05-01

    With the aid of machine learning techniques, the genetic algorithm has been enhanced and applied to the multi-objective optimization problem presented by the dynamic aperture of the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) Storage Ring. During the evolution processes employed by the genetic algorithm, the population is classified into different clusters in the search space. The clusters with top average fitness are given "elite" status. Intervention on the population is implemented by repopulating some potentially competitive candidates based on the experience learned from the accumulated data. These candidates replace randomly selected candidates among the original data pool. The average fitness of the population is therefore improved while diversity is not lost. Maintaining diversity ensures that the optimization is global rather than local. The quality of the population increases and produces more competitive descendants accelerating the evolution process significantly. When identifying the distribution of optimal candidates, they appear to be located in isolated islands within the search space. Some of these optimal candidates have been experimentally confirmed at the NSLS-II storage ring. The machine learning techniques that exploit the genetic algorithm can also be used in other population-based optimization problems such as particle swarm algorithm.

  6. Imaging dynamic redox processes with genetically encoded probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeriņa, Daria; Morgan, Bruce; Dick, Tobias P

    2014-08-01

    Redox signalling plays an important role in many aspects of physiology, including that of the cardiovascular system. Perturbed redox regulation has been associated with numerous pathological conditions; nevertheless, the causal relationships between redox changes and pathology often remain unclear. Redox signalling involves the production of specific redox species at specific times in specific locations. However, until recently, the study of these processes has been impeded by a lack of appropriate tools and methodologies that afford the necessary redox species specificity and spatiotemporal resolution. Recently developed genetically encoded fluorescent redox probes now allow dynamic real-time measurements, of defined redox species, with subcellular compartment resolution, in intact living cells. Here we discuss the available genetically encoded redox probes in terms of their sensitivity and specificity and highlight where uncertainties or controversies currently exist. Furthermore, we outline major goals for future probe development and describe how progress in imaging methodologies will improve our ability to employ genetically encoded redox probes in a wide range of situations. This article is part of a special issue entitled "Redox Signalling in the Cardiovascular System." Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamic properties of epidemic spreading on finite size complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Liu, Yang; Shan, Xiu-Ming; Ren, Yong; Jiao, Jian; Qiu, Ben

    2005-11-01

    The Internet presents a complex topological structure, on which computer viruses can easily spread. By using theoretical analysis and computer simulation methods, the dynamic process of disease spreading on finite size networks with complex topological structure is investigated. On the finite size networks, the spreading process of SIS (susceptible-infected-susceptible) model is a finite Markov chain with an absorbing state. Two parameters, the survival probability and the conditional infecting probability, are introduced to describe the dynamic properties of disease spreading on finite size networks. Our results can help understanding computer virus epidemics and other spreading phenomena on communication and social networks. Also, knowledge about the dynamic character of virus spreading is helpful for adopting immunity policy.

  8. Spreading dynamics on complex networks: a general stochastic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Pierre-André; Allard, Antoine; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Marceau, Vincent; Dubé, Louis J

    2014-12-01

    Dynamics on networks is considered from the perspective of Markov stochastic processes. We partially describe the state of the system through network motifs and infer any missing data using the available information. This versatile approach is especially well adapted for modelling spreading processes and/or population dynamics. In particular, the generality of our framework and the fact that its assumptions are explicitly stated suggests that it could be used as a common ground for comparing existing epidemics models too complex for direct comparison, such as agent-based computer simulations. We provide many examples for the special cases of susceptible-infectious-susceptible and susceptible-infectious-removed dynamics (e.g., epidemics propagation) and we observe multiple situations where accurate results may be obtained at low computational cost. Our perspective reveals a subtle balance between the complex requirements of a realistic model and its basic assumptions.

  9. On the Organizational Dynamics of the Genetic Code

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhang

    2011-06-07

    The organization of the canonical genetic code needs to be thoroughly illuminated. Here we reorder the four nucleotides—adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine—according to their emergence in evolution, and apply the organizational rules to devising an algebraic representation for the canonical genetic code. Under a framework of the devised code, we quantify codon and amino acid usages from a large collection of 917 prokaryotic genome sequences, and associate the usages with its intrinsic structure and classification schemes as well as amino acid physicochemical properties. Our results show that the algebraic representation of the code is structurally equivalent to a content-centric organization of the code and that codon and amino acid usages under different classification schemes were correlated closely with GC content, implying a set of rules governing composition dynamics across a wide variety of prokaryotic genome sequences. These results also indicate that codons and amino acids are not randomly allocated in the code, where the six-fold degenerate codons and their amino acids have important balancing roles for error minimization. Therefore, the content-centric code is of great usefulness in deciphering its hitherto unknown regularities as well as the dynamics of nucleotide, codon, and amino acid compositions.

  10. On the Organizational Dynamics of the Genetic Code

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhang; Yu, Jun

    2011-01-01

    The organization of the canonical genetic code needs to be thoroughly illuminated. Here we reorder the four nucleotides—adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine—according to their emergence in evolution, and apply the organizational rules to devising an algebraic representation for the canonical genetic code. Under a framework of the devised code, we quantify codon and amino acid usages from a large collection of 917 prokaryotic genome sequences, and associate the usages with its intrinsic structure and classification schemes as well as amino acid physicochemical properties. Our results show that the algebraic representation of the code is structurally equivalent to a content-centric organization of the code and that codon and amino acid usages under different classification schemes were correlated closely with GC content, implying a set of rules governing composition dynamics across a wide variety of prokaryotic genome sequences. These results also indicate that codons and amino acids are not randomly allocated in the code, where the six-fold degenerate codons and their amino acids have important balancing roles for error minimization. Therefore, the content-centric code is of great usefulness in deciphering its hitherto unknown regularities as well as the dynamics of nucleotide, codon, and amino acid compositions.

  11. Polyacrylic acids–bovine serum albumin complexation: Structure and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Mohamed; Aschi, Adel; Gharbi, Abdelhafidh

    2016-01-01

    The study of the mixture of BSA with polyacrylic acids at different masses versus pH allowed highlighting the existence of two regimes of weak and strong complexation. These complexes were studied in diluted regime concentration, by turbidimetry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta-potential measurements and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). We have followed the pH effect on the structure and properties of the complex. This allowed refining the interpretation of the phase diagram and understanding the observed phenomena. The NMR measurements allowed probing the dynamics of the constituents versus the pH. The computational method was used to precisely determine the electrostatic potential of BSA and how the polyelectrolyte binds to it at different pH. - Highlights: • Influence of physico-chemical parameters on the electrostatic interactions in the complex system (polyelectrolyte/protein). • Stabilization and encapsulation of biological macromolecules solution by mean of polyelectrolyte. • Properties and structure of mixture obtained by screening the charges of globular protein and at different masses of polyacrylic acids. • Dynamic of the constituents formed by complexes particles. • Evaluation of the electrostatic properties of bovine serum albumin versus pH through solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation.

  12. Complex systems dynamics in aging: new evidence, continuing questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alan A

    2016-02-01

    There have long been suggestions that aging is tightly linked to the complex dynamics of the physiological systems that maintain homeostasis, and in particular to dysregulation of regulatory networks of molecules. This review synthesizes recent work that is starting to provide evidence for the importance of such complex systems dynamics in aging. There is now clear evidence that physiological dysregulation--the gradual breakdown in the capacity of complex regulatory networks to maintain homeostasis--is an emergent property of these regulatory networks, and that it plays an important role in aging. It can be measured simply using small numbers of biomarkers. Additionally, there are indications of the importance during aging of emergent physiological processes, functional processes that cannot be easily understood through clear metabolic pathways, but can nonetheless be precisely quantified and studied. The overall role of such complex systems dynamics in aging remains an important open question, and to understand it future studies will need to distinguish and integrate related aspects of aging research, including multi-factorial theories of aging, systems biology, bioinformatics, network approaches, robustness, and loss of complexity.

  13. Dynamics of Fos-Jun-NFAT1 complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Carrozzi, V R; Kerppola, T K

    2001-04-24

    Transcription initiation in eukaryotes is controlled by nucleoprotein complexes formed through cooperative interactions among multiple transcription regulatory proteins. These complexes may be assembled via stochastic collisions or defined pathways. We investigated the dynamics of Fos-Jun-NFAT1 complexes by using a multicolor fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay. Fos-Jun heterodimers can bind to AP-1 sites in two opposite orientations, only one of which is populated in mature Fos-Jun-NFAT1 complexes. We studied the reversal of Fos-Jun binding orientation in response to NFAT1 by measuring the efficiencies of energy transfer from donor fluorophores linked to opposite ends of an oligonucleotide to an acceptor fluorophore linked to one subunit of the heterodimer. The reorientation of Fos-Jun by NFAT1 was not inhibited by competitor oligonucleotides or heterodimers. The rate of Fos-Jun reorientation was faster than the rate of heterodimer dissociation at some binding sites. The facilitated reorientation of Fos-Jun heterodimers therefore can enhance the efficiency of Fos-Jun-NFAT1 complex formation. We also examined the influence of the preferred orientation of Fos-Jun binding on the stability and transcriptional activity of Fos-Jun-NFAT1 complexes. Complexes formed at sites where Fos-Jun favored the same binding orientation in the presence and absence of NFAT1 exhibited an 8-fold slower dissociation rate than complexes formed at sites where Fos-Jun favored the opposite binding orientation. Fos-Jun-NFAT1 complexes also exhibited greater transcription activation at promoter elements that favored the same orientation of Fos-Jun binding in the presence and absence of NFAT1. Thus, the orientation of heterodimer binding can influence both the dynamics and promoter selectivity of multiprotein transcription regulatory complexes.

  14. Lyapunov exponents a tool to explore complex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pikovsky, Arkady

    2016-01-01

    Lyapunov exponents lie at the heart of chaos theory, and are widely used in studies of complex dynamics. Utilising a pragmatic, physical approach, this self-contained book provides a comprehensive description of the concept. Beginning with the basic properties and numerical methods, it then guides readers through to the most recent advances in applications to complex systems. Practical algorithms are thoroughly reviewed and their performance is discussed, while a broad set of examples illustrate the wide range of potential applications. The description of various numerical and analytical techniques for the computation of Lyapunov exponents offers an extensive array of tools for the characterization of phenomena such as synchronization, weak and global chaos in low and high-dimensional set-ups, and localization. This text equips readers with all the investigative expertise needed to fully explore the dynamical properties of complex systems, making it ideal for both graduate students and experienced researchers...

  15. Robustness of pinning a general complex dynamical network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lei; Sun Youxian

    2010-01-01

    This Letter studies the robustness problem of pinning a general complex dynamical network toward an assigned synchronous evolution. Several synchronization criteria are presented to guarantee the convergence of the pinning process locally and globally by construction of Lyapunov functions. In particular, if a pinning strategy has been designed for synchronization of a given complex dynamical network, then no matter what uncertainties occur among the pinned nodes, synchronization can still be guaranteed through the pinning. The analytical results show that pinning control has a certain robustness against perturbations on network architecture: adding, deleting and changing the weights of edges. Numerical simulations illustrated by scale-free complex networks verify the theoretical results above-acquired.

  16. Dynamic coherence in excitonic molecular complexes under various excitation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenu, Aurélia; Malý, Pavel; Mančal, Tomáš, E-mail: mancal@karlov.mff.cuni.cz

    2014-08-17

    Highlights: • Dynamic coherence does not improve energy transfer efficiency in natural conditions. • Photo-induced quantum jumps are discussed in classical context. • Natural time scale of a light excitation event is identified. • Coherence in FMO complex averages out under excitation by neighboring antenna. • This result is valid even in absence of dissipation. - Abstract: We investigate the relevance of dynamic quantum coherence in the energy transfer efficiency of molecular aggregates. We derive the time evolution of the density matrix for an open quantum system excited by light or by a neighboring antenna. Unlike in the classical case, the quantum description does not allow for a formal decomposition of the dynamics into sudden jumps in an observable quantity – an expectation value. Rather, there is a natural finite time-scale associated with the excitation process. We propose a simple experiment to test the influence of this time scale on the yield of photosynthesis. We demonstrate, using typical parameters of the Fenna–Matthews–Olson (FMO) complex and a typical energy transfer rate from the chlorosome baseplate, that dynamic coherences are averaged out in the complex even when the FMO model is completely free of all dissipation and dephasing.

  17. Green turtle (Chelonia mydas genetic diversity at Paranaguá Estuarine Complex feeding grounds in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Costa Jordão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea turtles are marine reptiles that undertake long migrations through their life, with limited information regarding juvenile stages. Feeding grounds (FGs, where they spend most of their lives, are composed by individuals from different natal origins, known as mixed stock populations. The aim of this study was to assess genetic composition, natal origins and demographic history of juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas at the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC, Brazil, considered a Natural World Heritage site. Tissue samples of stranded animals were collected (n = 60, and 700 bp mitochondrial DNA sequences were generated and compared to shorter sequences from previously published studies. Global exact tests of differentiation revealed significant differences among PEC and the other FGs, except those at the South Atlantic Ocean. Green turtles at PEC present genetic signatures similar to those of nesting females from Ascension Island, Guinea Bissau and Aves Island/Surinam. Population expansion was evidenced to have occurred 20–25 kYA, reinforcing the hypothesis of recovery from Southern Atlantic refugia after the last Glacial Maximum. These results contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of green turtle populations at a protected area by providing knowledge on the dispersion patterns and reinforcing the importance of the interconnectivity between nesting and foraging populations.

  18. Dynamic organization of genetic recombination proteins and chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essers, J.; Van Cappellen, G.; Van Drunen, E.; Theil, A.; Jaspers, N.N.G.J.; Houtsmuller, A.B.; Vermeulen, W.; Kanaar, R.

    2003-01-01

    Homologous recombination requires the co-ordinated action of the RAD52 group proteins, including Rad51, Rad52 and Rad54. Upon treatment of mammalian cells with ionizing radiation, these proteins accumulate into foci at sites of DSB induction. We probed the nature of the DNA damage-induced foci in living cells with the use of photobleaching techniques. These foci are not static assemblies of DNA repair proteins. Instead, they are dynamic structures of which Rad51 is a stable core component, while Rad52 and Rad54 reversibly interact with the structure. Furthermore, even though the RAD52 group proteins colocalize in the DNA damage-induced foci, the majority of the proteins are not part of the same multi-protein complex in the absence of DNA damage. Executing DNA transactions through dynamic multi-protein complexes, rather than stable holo-complexes, allows greater flexibility during the transaction. In case of DNA repair, for example, it allows cross talk between different DNA repair pathways and coupling to other DNA transactions, such as replication. In addition to the behavior of proteins in living cells, we have tracked chromosomes during cell division. Our results suggest that the relative position of chromosomes in the mother cell is conserved in its daughter cells

  19. Systems genetics of complex diseases using RNA-sequencing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzoni, Gianluca; Kogelman, Lisette; Suravajhala, Prashanth

    2015-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies have enabled the generation of huge quantities of biological data, and nowadays extensive datasets at different ‘omics levels have been generated. Systems genetics is a powerful approach that allows to integrate different ‘omics level and understand the bio...

  20. genetic variability for tuber yield, quality, and virus disease complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    have not been fully exploited due to limited breeding efforts and poor ... Flowering ability was low in some cultivars and a few did not flower at all. ... tion with other genes in different genetic backgrounds that can modify flesh ... sweetpotato production and utilisation, thus .... expressed as a percentage of diseased plants.

  1. Genetic algorithm optimization for dynamic construction site layout planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmakis Panagiotis M.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic construction site layout planning (DCSLP problem refers to the efficient placement and relocation of temporary construction facilities within a dynamically changing construction site environment considering the characteristics of facilities and work interrelationships, the shape and topography of the construction site, and the time-varying project needs. A multi-objective dynamic optimization model is developed for this problem that considers construction and relocation costs of facilities, transportation costs of resources moving from one facility to another or to workplaces, as well as safety and environmental considerations resulting from facilities’ operations and interconnections. The latter considerations are taken into account in the form of preferences or constraints regarding the proximity or remoteness of particular facilities to other facilities or work areas. The analysis of multiple project phases and the dynamic facility relocation from phase to phase highly increases the problem size, which, even in its static form, falls within the NP (for Nondeterministic Polynomial time- hard class of combinatorial optimization problems. For this reason, a genetic algorithm has been implemented for the solution due to its capability to robustly search within a large solution space. Several case studies and operational scenarios have been implemented through the Palisade’s Evolver software for model testing and evaluation. The results indi­cate satisfactory model response to time-varying input data in terms of solution quality and computation time. The model can provide decision support to site managers, allowing them to examine alternative scenarios and fine-tune optimal solutions according to their experience by introducing desirable preferences or constraints in the decision process.

  2. Practical synchronization on complex dynamical networks via optimal pinning control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kezan; Sun, Weigang; Small, Michael; Fu, Xinchu

    2015-07-01

    We consider practical synchronization on complex dynamical networks under linear feedback control designed by optimal control theory. The control goal is to minimize global synchronization error and control strength over a given finite time interval, and synchronization error at terminal time. By utilizing the Pontryagin's minimum principle, and based on a general complex dynamical network, we obtain an optimal system to achieve the control goal. The result is verified by performing some numerical simulations on Star networks, Watts-Strogatz networks, and Barabási-Albert networks. Moreover, by combining optimal control and traditional pinning control, we propose an optimal pinning control strategy which depends on the network's topological structure. Obtained results show that optimal pinning control is very effective for synchronization control in real applications.

  3. Genetic HLA Associations in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome With and Without Dystonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, D.E.; Roelen, D.L.; Verduijn, W.; Haasnoot, G.W.; Huygen, F.J.P.M.; Perez, R.S.G.M.; Claas, F.H.J.; Marinus, J.; van Hilten, J.J.; van den Maagdenberg, A.M.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    We previously showed evidence for a genetic association of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) with dystonia. Involvement of the HLA system suggests that CRPS has a genetic component with perturbed regulation of inflammation and neuroplasticity as

  4. Genetic Simulation Tools for Post-Genome Wide Association Studies of Complex Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Christopher I.; Bafna, Vineet; Hauser, Elizabeth R.; Hernandez, Ryan D.; Li, Chun; Liberles, David A.; McAllister, Kimberly; Moore, Jason H.; Paltoo, Dina N.; Papanicolaou, George J.; Peng, Bo; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Rosenfeld, Gabriel; Witte, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic simulation programs are used to model data under specified assumptions to facilitate the understanding and study of complex genetic systems. Standardized data sets generated using genetic simulation are essential for the development and application of novel analytical tools in genetic epidemiology studies. With continuing advances in high-throughput genomic technologies and generation and analysis of larger, more complex data sets, there is a need for updating current approaches in genetic simulation modeling. To provide a forum to address current and emerging challenges in this area, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a workshop, entitled “Genetic Simulation Tools for Post-Genome Wide Association Studies of Complex Diseases” at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland on March 11-12, 2014. The goals of the workshop were to: (i) identify opportunities, challenges and resource needs for the development and application of genetic simulation models; (ii) improve the integration of tools for modeling and analysis of simulated data; and (iii) foster collaborations to facilitate development and applications of genetic simulation. During the course of the meeting the group identified challenges and opportunities for the science of simulation, software and methods development, and collaboration. This paper summarizes key discussions at the meeting, and highlights important challenges and opportunities to advance the field of genetic simulation. PMID:25371374

  5. The dynamic behavior of the exohedral transition metal complexes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 129; Issue 7. The dynamic behavior of the exohedral transition metal complexes of B₄₀ : η⁶- and η⁷-B₄₀Cr(CO) ₃ and Cr(CO) ₃η⁷-B₄η₀-Cr(CO) ₃. NAIWRIT KARMODAK ELUVATHINGAL D JEMMIS. REGULAR ARTICLE Volume 129 Issue 7 July 2017 pp ...

  6. Epidemic dynamics and endemic states in complex networks

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2001-01-01

    We study by analytical methods and large scale simulations a dynamical model for the spreading of epidemics in complex networks. In networks with exponentially bounded connectivity we recover the usual epidemic behavior with a threshold defining a critical point below which the infection prevalence is null. On the contrary, on a wide range of scale-free networks we observe the absence of an epidemic threshold and its associated critical behavior. This implies that scale-free networks are pron...

  7. Complexity and network dynamics in physiological adaptation: An integrated view

    OpenAIRE

    Baffy, Gyorgy; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Living organisms constantly interact with their surroundings and sustain internal stability against perturbations. This dynamic process follows three fundamental strategies (restore, explore, and abandon) articulated in historical concepts of physiological adaptation such as homeostasis, allostasis, and the general adaptation syndrome. These strategies correspond to elementary forms of behavior (ordered, chaotic, and static) in complex adaptive systems and invite a network-based analysis of t...

  8. Extending and expanding the Darwinian synthesis: the role of complex systems dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bruce H

    2011-03-01

    Darwinism is defined here as an evolving research tradition based upon the concepts of natural selection acting upon heritable variation articulated via background assumptions about systems dynamics. Darwin's theory of evolution was developed within a context of the background assumptions of Newtonian systems dynamics. The Modern Evolutionary Synthesis, or neo-Darwinism, successfully joined Darwinian selection and Mendelian genetics by developing population genetics informed by background assumptions of Boltzmannian systems dynamics. Currently the Darwinian Research Tradition is changing as it incorporates new information and ideas from molecular biology, paleontology, developmental biology, and systems ecology. This putative expanded and extended synthesis is most perspicuously deployed using background assumptions from complex systems dynamics. Such attempts seek to not only broaden the range of phenomena encompassed by the Darwinian Research Tradition, such as neutral molecular evolution, punctuated equilibrium, as well as developmental biology, and systems ecology more generally, but to also address issues of the emergence of evolutionary novelties as well as of life itself. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Topics in Complexity: Dynamical Patterns in the Cyberworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hong

    Quantitative understanding of mechanism in complex systems is a common "difficult" problem across many fields such as physical, biological, social and economic sciences. Investigation on underlying dynamics of complex systems and building individual-based models have recently been fueled by big data resulted from advancing information technology. This thesis investigates complex systems in social science, focusing on civil unrests on streets and relevant activities online. Investigation consists of collecting data of unrests from open digital source, featuring dynamical patterns underlying, making predictions and constructing models. A simple law governing the progress of two-sided confrontations is proposed with data of activities at micro-level. Unraveling the connections between activity of organizing online and outburst of unrests on streets gives rise to a further meso-level pattern of human behavior, through which adversarial groups evolve online and hyper-escalate ahead of real-world uprisings. Based on the patterns found, noticeable improvement of prediction of civil unrests is achieved. Meanwhile, novel model created from combination of mobility dynamics in the cyberworld and a traditional contagion model can better capture the characteristics of modern civil unrests and other contagion-like phenomena than the original one.

  10. An enhanced dynamic model of battery using genetic algorithm suitable for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaifi, S.; Moulahoum, S.; Colak, I.; Merrouche, W.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We proposed a developed dynamic battery model suitable for photovoltaic systems. • We used genetic algorithm optimization method to find parameters that gives minimized error. • The validation was carried out with real measurements from stand-alone photovoltaic string. - Abstract: Modeling of batteries in photovoltaic systems has been a major issue related to the random dynamic regime imposed by the changes of solar irradiation and ambient temperature added to the complexity of battery electrochemical and electrical behaviors. However, various approaches have been proposed to model the battery behavior by predicting from detailed electrochemical, electrical or analytical models to high-level stochastic models. In this paper, an improvement of dynamic electrical battery model is proposed by automatic parameter extraction using genetic algorithm in order to give usefulness and future implementation for practical application. It is highlighted that the enhancement of 21 values of the parameters of CEIMAT model presents a good agreement with real measurements for different modes like charge or discharge and various conditions.

  11. Inverse relationship between genetic diversity and epigenetic complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Shi Huang

    2008-01-01

    Early studies of molecular evolution revealed a correlation between genetic distance and time of species divergence. This observation provoked the molecular clock hypothesis and in turn the ‘Neutral Theory’, which however remains an incomplete explanation since it predicts a constant mutation rate per generation whereas empirical evidence suggests a constant rate per year. Data inconsistent with the molecular clock hypothesis have steadily accumulated in recent years that show...

  12. An introduction to complex systems society, ecology, and nonlinear dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fieguth, Paul

    2017-01-01

    This undergraduate text explores a variety of large-scale phenomena - global warming, ice ages, water, poverty - and uses these case studies as a motivation to explore nonlinear dynamics, power-law statistics, and complex systems. Although the detailed mathematical descriptions of these topics can be challenging, the consequences of a system being nonlinear, power-law, or complex are in fact quite accessible. This book blends a tutorial approach to the mathematical aspects of complex systems together with a complementary narrative on the global/ecological/societal implications of such systems. Nearly all engineering undergraduate courses focus on mathematics and systems which are small scale, linear, and Gaussian. Unfortunately there is not a single large-scale ecological or social phenomenon that is scalar, linear, and Gaussian. This book offers students insights to better understand the large-scale problems facing the world and to realize that these cannot be solved by a single, narrow academic field or per...

  13. Complexity and network dynamics in physiological adaptation: an integrated view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffy, György; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2014-05-28

    Living organisms constantly interact with their surroundings and sustain internal stability against perturbations. This dynamic process follows three fundamental strategies (restore, explore, and abandon) articulated in historical concepts of physiological adaptation such as homeostasis, allostasis, and the general adaptation syndrome. These strategies correspond to elementary forms of behavior (ordered, chaotic, and static) in complex adaptive systems and invite a network-based analysis of the operational characteristics, allowing us to propose an integrated framework of physiological adaptation from a complex network perspective. Applicability of this concept is illustrated by analyzing molecular and cellular mechanisms of adaptation in response to the pervasive challenge of obesity, a chronic condition resulting from sustained nutrient excess that prompts chaotic exploration for system stability associated with tradeoffs and a risk of adverse outcomes such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Deconstruction of this complexity holds the promise of gaining novel insights into physiological adaptation in health and disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Modularity and the spread of perturbations in complex dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolchinsky, Artemy; Gates, Alexander J; Rocha, Luis M

    2015-12-01

    We propose a method to decompose dynamical systems based on the idea that modules constrain the spread of perturbations. We find partitions of system variables that maximize "perturbation modularity," defined as the autocovariance of coarse-grained perturbed trajectories. The measure effectively separates the fast intramodular from the slow intermodular dynamics of perturbation spreading (in this respect, it is a generalization of the "Markov stability" method of network community detection). Our approach captures variation of modular organization across different system states, time scales, and in response to different kinds of perturbations: aspects of modularity which are all relevant to real-world dynamical systems. It offers a principled alternative to detecting communities in networks of statistical dependencies between system variables (e.g., "relevance networks" or "functional networks"). Using coupled logistic maps, we demonstrate that the method uncovers hierarchical modular organization planted in a system's coupling matrix. Additionally, in homogeneously coupled map lattices, it identifies the presence of self-organized modularity that depends on the initial state, dynamical parameters, and type of perturbations. Our approach offers a powerful tool for exploring the modular organization of complex dynamical systems.

  15. The Complexity of Dynamics in Small Neural Circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fasoli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mean-field approximations are a powerful tool for studying large neural networks. However, they do not describe well the behavior of networks composed of a small number of neurons. In this case, major differences between the mean-field approximation and the real behavior of the network can arise. Yet, many interesting problems in neuroscience involve the study of mesoscopic networks composed of a few tens of neurons. Nonetheless, mathematical methods that correctly describe networks of small size are still rare, and this prevents us to make progress in understanding neural dynamics at these intermediate scales. Here we develop a novel systematic analysis of the dynamics of arbitrarily small networks composed of homogeneous populations of excitatory and inhibitory firing-rate neurons. We study the local bifurcations of their neural activity with an approach that is largely analytically tractable, and we numerically determine the global bifurcations. We find that for strong inhibition these networks give rise to very complex dynamics, caused by the formation of multiple branching solutions of the neural dynamics equations that emerge through spontaneous symmetry-breaking. This qualitative change of the neural dynamics is a finite-size effect of the network, that reveals qualitative and previously unexplored differences between mesoscopic cortical circuits and their mean-field approximation. The most important consequence of spontaneous symmetry-breaking is the ability of mesoscopic networks to regulate their degree of functional heterogeneity, which is thought to help reducing the detrimental effect of noise correlations on cortical information processing.

  16. Recovery time after localized perturbations in complex dynamical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Chiranjit; Kittel, Tim; Choudhary, Anshul; Kurths, Jürgen; Donner, Reik V.

    2017-10-01

    Maintaining the synchronous motion of dynamical systems interacting on complex networks is often critical to their functionality. However, real-world networked dynamical systems operating synchronously are prone to random perturbations driving the system to arbitrary states within the corresponding basin of attraction, thereby leading to epochs of desynchronized dynamics with a priori unknown durations. Thus, it is highly relevant to have an estimate of the duration of such transient phases before the system returns to synchrony, following a random perturbation to the dynamical state of any particular node of the network. We address this issue here by proposing the framework of single-node recovery time (SNRT) which provides an estimate of the relative time scales underlying the transient dynamics of the nodes of a network during its restoration to synchrony. We utilize this in differentiating the particularly slow nodes of the network from the relatively fast nodes, thus identifying the critical nodes which when perturbed lead to significantly enlarged recovery time of the system before resuming synchronized operation. Further, we reveal explicit relationships between the SNRT values of a network, and its global relaxation time when starting all the nodes from random initial conditions. Earlier work on relaxation time generally focused on investigating its dependence on macroscopic topological properties of the respective network. However, we employ the proposed concept for deducing microscopic relationships between topological features of nodes and their respective SNRT values. The framework of SNRT is further extended to a measure of resilience of the different nodes of a networked dynamical system. We demonstrate the potential of SNRT in networks of Rössler oscillators on paradigmatic topologies and a model of the power grid of the United Kingdom with second-order Kuramoto-type nodal dynamics illustrating the conceivable practical applicability of the proposed

  17. Recovery time after localized perturbations in complex dynamical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Chiranjit; Kittel, Tim; Kurths, Jürgen; Donner, Reik V; Choudhary, Anshul

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining the synchronous motion of dynamical systems interacting on complex networks is often critical to their functionality. However, real-world networked dynamical systems operating synchronously are prone to random perturbations driving the system to arbitrary states within the corresponding basin of attraction, thereby leading to epochs of desynchronized dynamics with a priori unknown durations. Thus, it is highly relevant to have an estimate of the duration of such transient phases before the system returns to synchrony, following a random perturbation to the dynamical state of any particular node of the network. We address this issue here by proposing the framework of single-node recovery time (SNRT) which provides an estimate of the relative time scales underlying the transient dynamics of the nodes of a network during its restoration to synchrony. We utilize this in differentiating the particularly slow nodes of the network from the relatively fast nodes, thus identifying the critical nodes which when perturbed lead to significantly enlarged recovery time of the system before resuming synchronized operation. Further, we reveal explicit relationships between the SNRT values of a network, and its global relaxation time when starting all the nodes from random initial conditions. Earlier work on relaxation time generally focused on investigating its dependence on macroscopic topological properties of the respective network. However, we employ the proposed concept for deducing microscopic relationships between topological features of nodes and their respective SNRT values. The framework of SNRT is further extended to a measure of resilience of the different nodes of a networked dynamical system. We demonstrate the potential of SNRT in networks of Rössler oscillators on paradigmatic topologies and a model of the power grid of the United Kingdom with second-order Kuramoto-type nodal dynamics illustrating the conceivable practical applicability of the proposed

  18. Thinking in complexity the complex dynamics of matter, mind, and mankind

    CERN Document Server

    Mainzer, Klaus

    1994-01-01

    The theory of nonlinear complex systems has become a successful and widely used problem-solving approach in the natural sciences - from laser physics, quantum chaos and meteorology to molecular modeling in chemistry and computer simulations of cell growth in biology In recent times it has been recognized that many of the social, ecological and political problems of mankind are also of a global, complex and nonlinear nature And one of the most exciting topics of present scientific and public interest is the idea that even the human mind is governed largely by the nonlinear dynamics of complex systems In this wide-ranging but concise treatment Prof Mainzer discusses, in nontechnical language, the common framework behind these endeavours Special emphasis is given to the evolution of new structures in natural and cultural systems and it is seen clearly how the new integrative approach of complexity theory can give new insights that were not available using traditional reductionistic methods

  19. Complex genetic interactions govern the temporal effects of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ies have documented dynamic changes in dose response of individual structures ... activation pathway in which Antp participates has given us a paradigm for the .... tachi KP-250 digital camera connected to an Olympus BX-. 60 microscope .... 2005, for details) on apple juice – agar media supplemented with yeast paste.

  20. Outlier-resilient complexity analysis of heartbeat dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Men-Tzung; Chang, Yi-Chung; Lin, Chen; Young, Hsu-Wen Vincent; Lin, Yen-Hung; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Peng, Chung-Kang; Hu, Kun

    2015-03-01

    Complexity in physiological outputs is believed to be a hallmark of healthy physiological control. How to accurately quantify the degree of complexity in physiological signals with outliers remains a major barrier for translating this novel concept of nonlinear dynamic theory to clinical practice. Here we propose a new approach to estimate the complexity in a signal by analyzing the irregularity of the sign time series of its coarse-grained time series at different time scales. Using surrogate data, we show that the method can reliably assess the complexity in noisy data while being highly resilient to outliers. We further apply this method to the analysis of human heartbeat recordings. Without removing any outliers due to ectopic beats, the method is able to detect a degradation of cardiac control in patients with congestive heart failure and a more degradation in critically ill patients whose life continuation relies on extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO). Moreover, the derived complexity measures can predict the mortality of ECMO patients. These results indicate that the proposed method may serve as a promising tool for monitoring cardiac function of patients in clinical settings.

  1. Precise regulation of gene expression dynamics favors complex promoter architectures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Müller

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Promoters process signals through recruitment of transcription factors and RNA polymerase, and dynamic changes in promoter activity constitute a major noise source in gene expression. However, it is barely understood how complex promoter architectures determine key features of promoter dynamics. Here, we employ prototypical promoters of yeast ribosomal protein genes as well as simplified versions thereof to analyze the relations among promoter design, complexity, and function. These promoters combine the action of a general regulatory factor with that of specific transcription factors, a common motif of many eukaryotic promoters. By comprehensively analyzing stationary and dynamic promoter properties, this model-based approach enables us to pinpoint the structural characteristics underlying the observed behavior. Functional tradeoffs impose constraints on the promoter architecture of ribosomal protein genes. We find that a stable scaffold in the natural design results in low transcriptional noise and strong co-regulation of target genes in the presence of gene silencing. This configuration also exhibits superior shut-off properties, and it can serve as a tunable switch in living cells. Model validation with independent experimental data suggests that the models are sufficiently realistic. When combined, our results offer a mechanistic explanation for why specific factors are associated with low protein noise in vivo. Many of these findings hold for a broad range of model parameters and likely apply to other eukaryotic promoters of similar structure.

  2. Sex Differences in Genetic Architecture of Complex Phenotypes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.M.; Bartels, M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; van Dongen, J.; van Beek, J.H.D.A.; Distel, M.A.; de Moor, M.H.M.; Smit, D.J.A.; Minica, C.C.; Ligthart, R.S.L.; Geels, L.M.; Abdellaoui, A.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Hottenga, J.J.; Willemsen, G.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2012-01-01

    We examined sex differences in familial resemblance for a broad range of behavioral, psychiatric and health related phenotypes (122 complex traits) in children and adults. There is a renewed interest in the importance of genotype by sex interaction in, for example, genome-wide association (GWA)

  3. Young Children's Knowledge About the Moon: A Complex Dynamic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venville, Grady J.; Louisell, Robert D.; Wilhelm, Jennifer A.

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to use a multidimensional theoretical framework to examine young children's knowledge about the Moon. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and the design was a multiple case study of ten children between the ages of three and eight from the USA and Australia. A detailed, semi-structured interview was conducted with each child. In addition, each child's parents were interviewed to determine possible social and cultural influences on the child's knowledge. We sought evidence about how the social and cultural experiences of the children might have influenced the development of their ideas. From a cognitive perspective we were interested in whether the children's ideas were constructed in a theory like form or whether the knowledge was the result of gradual accumulation of fragments of isolated cultural information. Findings reflected the strong and complex relationship between individual children, their social and cultural milieu, and the way they construct ideas about the Moon and astronomy. Findings are presented around four themes including ontology, creatures and artefacts, animism, and permanence. The findings support a complex dynamic system view of students' knowledge that integrates the framework theory perspective and the knowledge in fragments perspective. An initial model of a complex dynamic system of young children's knowledge about the Moon is presented.

  4. Absorption dynamics and delay time in complex potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, Jorge; Romo, Roberto; Hernández-Maldonado, Alberto

    2018-05-01

    The dynamics of absorption is analyzed by using an exactly solvable model that deals with an analytical solution to Schrödinger’s equation for cutoff initial plane waves incident on a complex absorbing potential. A dynamical absorption coefficient which allows us to explore the dynamical loss of particles from the transient to the stationary regime is derived. We find that the absorption process is characterized by the emission of a series of damped periodic pulses in time domain, associated with damped Rabi-type oscillations with a characteristic frequency, ω = (E + ε)/ℏ, where E is the energy of the incident waves and ‑ε is energy of the quasidiscrete state of the system induced by the absorptive part of the Hamiltonian; the width γ of this resonance governs the amplitude of the pulses. The resemblance of the time-dependent absorption coefficient with a real decay process is discussed, in particular the transition from exponential to nonexponential regimes, a well-known feature of quantum decay. We have also analyzed the effect of the absorptive part of the potential on the dynamical delay time, which behaves differently from the one observed in attractive real delta potentials, exhibiting two regimes: time advance and time delay.

  5. Without bounds a scientific canvas of nonlinearity and complex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ryazantsev, Yuri; Starov, Victor; Huang, Guo-Xiang; Chetverikov, Alexander; Arena, Paolo; Nepomnyashchy, Alex; Ferrus, Alberto; Morozov, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Bringing together over fifty contributions on all aspects of nonlinear and complex dynamics, this impressive topical collection is both a scientific and personal tribute, on the occasion of his 70th birthday, by many outstanding colleagues in the broad fields of research pursued by Prof. Manuel G Velarde. The topics selected reflect the research areas covered by the famous Instituto Pluridisciplinar at the Universidad Complutense of Madrid, which he co-founded over two decades ago, and include: fluid physics and related nonlinear phenomena at interfaces and in other geometries, wetting and spreading dynamics, geophysical and astrophysical flows, and novel aspects of electronic transport in anharmonic lattices, as well as topics in neurodynamics and robotics.

  6. Kinetics of the Dynamical Information Shannon Entropy for Complex Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yulmetyev, R.M.; Yulmetyeva, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    Kinetic behaviour of dynamical information Shannon entropy is discussed for complex systems: physical systems with non-Markovian property and memory in correlation approximation, and biological and physiological systems with sequences of the Markovian and non-Markovian random noises. For the stochastic processes, a description of the information entropy in terms of normalized time correlation functions is given. The influence and important role of two mutually dependent channels of the entropy change, correlation (creation or generation of correlations) and anti-correlation (decay or annihilation of correlation) is discussed. The method developed here is also used in analysis of the density fluctuations in liquid cesium obtained from slow neutron scattering data, fractal kinetics of the long-range fluctuation in the short-time human memory and chaotic dynamics of R-R intervals of human ECG. (author)

  7. Hash function construction using weighted complex dynamical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yu-Rong; Jiang Guo-Ping

    2013-01-01

    A novel scheme to construct a hash function based on a weighted complex dynamical network (WCDN) generated from an original message is proposed in this paper. First, the original message is divided into blocks. Then, each block is divided into components, and the nodes and weighted edges are well defined from these components and their relations. Namely, the WCDN closely related to the original message is established. Furthermore, the node dynamics of the WCDN are chosen as a chaotic map. After chaotic iterations, quantization and exclusive-or operations, the fixed-length hash value is obtained. This scheme has the property that any tiny change in message can be diffused rapidly through the WCDN, leading to very different hash values. Analysis and simulation show that the scheme possesses good statistical properties, excellent confusion and diffusion, strong collision resistance and high efficiency. (general)

  8. The dynamical complexity of optically injected semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieczorek, S.; Krauskopf, B.; Simpson, T.B.; Lenstra, D.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a modern approach to the theoretical and experimental study of complex nonlinear behavior of a semiconductor laser with optical injection-an example of a widely applied and technologically relevant forced nonlinear oscillator. We show that the careful bifurcation analysis of a rate equation model yields (i) a deeper understanding of already studied physical phenomena, and (ii) the discovery of new dynamical effects, such as multipulse excitability. Different instabilities, cascades of bifurcations, multistability, and sudden chaotic transitions, which are often viewed as independent, are in fact logically connected into a consistent web of bifurcations via special points called organizing centers. This theoretical bifurcation analysis has predictive power, which manifests itself in good agreement with experimental measurements over a wide range of parameters and diversity of dynamics. While it is dealing with the specific system of an optically injected laser, our work constitutes the state-of-the-art in the understanding and modeling of a nonlinear physical system in general

  9. Dynamic polarizability of a complex atom in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapoport, L.P.; Klinskikh, A.F.; Mordvinov, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    An asymptotic expansion of the dynamic polarizability of a complex atom in a strong circularly polarized light field is found for the case of high frequencies. The self-consistent approximation of the Hartree-Fock type for the ''atom+field'' system is developed, within the framework of which a numerical calculation of the dynamic polarizability of Ne, Kr, and Ar atoms in a strong radiation field is performed. The strong field effect is shown to manifest itself not only in a change of the energy spectrum and the character of behavior of the wave functions of atomic electrons, but also in a modification of the one-electron self-consistent potential for the atom in the field

  10. Synchronization of complex delayed dynamical networks with nonlinearly coupled nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tao; Zhao Jun; Hill, David J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study the global synchronization of nonlinearly coupled complex delayed dynamical networks with both directed and undirected graphs. Via Lyapunov-Krasovskii stability theory and the network topology, we investigate the global synchronization of such networks. Under the assumption that coupling coefficients are known, a family of delay-independent decentralized nonlinear feedback controllers are designed to globally synchronize the networks. When coupling coefficients are unavailable, an adaptive mechanism is introduced to synthesize a family of delay-independent decentralized adaptive controllers which guarantee the global synchronization of the uncertain networks. Two numerical examples of directed and undirected delayed dynamical network are given, respectively, using the Lorenz system as the nodes of the networks, which demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed results.

  11. Possible Genetic Origin of Limb-Body Wall Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajzer, David C; Hirzel, Alicia Cristina; Saigal, Gaurav; Rojas, Claudia Patricia; Rodriguez, Maria Matilde

    2015-01-01

    Limb body wall complex (LBWC) is characterized by multiple severe congenital malformations including an abdominal and/or thoracic wall defect covered by amnion, a short or absent umbilical cord with the placenta almost attached to the anterior fetal wall, intestinal malrotation, scoliosis, and lower extremity anomalies. There is no consensus about the etiology of LBWC and many cases with abnormal facial cleft do not meet the requirements for the true complex. We describe a series of four patients with LBWC and other malformations in an attempt to explain their etiology. There are several reports of fetuses with LBWC and absent gallbladder and one of our patients also had polysplenia. Absent gallbladder and polysplenia are associated with laterality genes including HOX, bFGF, transforming growth factor beta/activins/BMP4, WNT 1-8, and SHH. We postulate that this severe malformation may be due to abnormal genes involved in laterality and caudal development.

  12. Integrating Nonadditive Genomic Relationship Matrices into the Study of Genetic Architecture of Complex Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarian, Alireza; Gezan, Salvador A

    2016-03-01

    The study of genetic architecture of complex traits has been dramatically influenced by implementing genome-wide analytical approaches during recent years. Of particular interest are genomic prediction strategies which make use of genomic information for predicting phenotypic responses instead of detecting trait-associated loci. In this work, we present the results of a simulation study to improve our understanding of the statistical properties of estimation of genetic variance components of complex traits, and of additive, dominance, and genetic effects through best linear unbiased prediction methodology. Simulated dense marker information was used to construct genomic additive and dominance matrices, and multiple alternative pedigree- and marker-based models were compared to determine if including a dominance term into the analysis may improve the genetic analysis of complex traits. Our results showed that a model containing a pedigree- or marker-based additive relationship matrix along with a pedigree-based dominance matrix provided the best partitioning of genetic variance into its components, especially when some degree of true dominance effects was expected to exist. Also, we noted that the use of a marker-based additive relationship matrix along with a pedigree-based dominance matrix had the best performance in terms of accuracy of correlations between true and estimated additive, dominance, and genetic effects. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Research on application of complex-genetic algorithm in nuclear component optimal design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shijing; Yan Changqi; Wang Jianjun; Wang Meng

    2010-01-01

    Complex algorithm is one of the most commonly used methods in the mechanical design optimization, such as the optimization of nuclear component. An improved method,complex-genetic algorithm(CGA), is developed based on traditional complex algorithm(TCA), in which the disadvantages of TCA have been overcome. An optimal calculation,which represents the pressurizer, is carried out in order to analyze the optimization capability of CGA. The results show that CGA has better optimizing performance than TCA. (authors)

  14. Epidemic dynamics and endemic states in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2001-06-01

    We study by analytical methods and large scale simulations a dynamical model for the spreading of epidemics in complex networks. In networks with exponentially bounded connectivity we recover the usual epidemic behavior with a threshold defining a critical point below that the infection prevalence is null. On the contrary, on a wide range of scale-free networks we observe the absence of an epidemic threshold and its associated critical behavior. This implies that scale-free networks are prone to the spreading and the persistence of infections whatever spreading rate the epidemic agents might possess. These results can help understanding computer virus epidemics and other spreading phenomena on communication and social networks.

  15. Epidemic dynamics and endemic states in complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2001-01-01

    We study by analytical methods and large scale simulations a dynamical model for the spreading of epidemics in complex networks. In networks with exponentially bounded connectivity we recover the usual epidemic behavior with a threshold defining a critical point below that the infection prevalence is null. On the contrary, on a wide range of scale-free networks we observe the absence of an epidemic threshold and its associated critical behavior. This implies that scale-free networks are prone to the spreading and the persistence of infections whatever spreading rate the epidemic agents might possess. These results can help understanding computer virus epidemics and other spreading phenomena on communication and social networks

  16. Complex scattering dynamics and the quantum Hall effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trugman, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    We review both classical and quantum potential scattering in two dimensions in a magnetic field, with applications to the quantum Hall effect. Classical scattering is complex, due to the approach of scattering states to an infinite number of dynamically bound states. Quantum scattering follows the classical behavior rather closely, exhibiting sharp resonances in place of the classical bound states. Extended scatterers provide a quantitative explanation for the breakdown of the QHE at a comparatively small Hall voltage as seen by Kawaji et al., and possibly for noise effects

  17. Complex Dynamics of an Adnascent-Type Game Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baogui Xin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a nonlinear discrete game model for two oligopolistic firms whose products are adnascent. (In biology, the term adnascent has only one sense, “growing to or on something else,” e.g., “moss is an adnascent plant.” See Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary published in 1913 by C. & G. Merriam Co., edited by Noah Porter. The bifurcation of its Nash equilibrium is analyzed with Schwarzian derivative and normal form theory. Its complex dynamics is demonstrated by means of the largest Lyapunov exponents, fractal dimensions, bifurcation diagrams, and phase portraits. At last, bifurcation and chaos anticontrol of this system are studied.

  18. Dynamics of a Simple Quantum System in a Complex Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Bulgac, A; Kusnezov, D; Bulgac, Aurel; Dang, Gui Do; Kusnezov, Dimitri

    1998-01-01

    We present a theory for the dynamical evolution of a quantum system coupled to a complex many-body intrinsic system/environment. By modelling the intrinsic many-body system with parametric random matrices, we study the types of effective stochastic models which emerge from random matrix theory. Using the Feynman-Vernon path integral formalism, we derive the influence functional and obtain either analytical or numerical solutions for the time evolution of the entire quantum system. We discuss thoroughly the structure of the solutions for some representative cases and make connections to well known limiting results, particularly to Brownian motion, Kramers classical limit and the Caldeira-Leggett approach.

  19. Complex analysis and dynamical systems new trends and open problems

    CERN Document Server

    Golberg, Anatoly; Jacobzon, Fiana; Shoikhet, David; Zalcman, Lawrence

    2018-01-01

    This book focuses on developments in complex dynamical systems and geometric function theory over the past decade, showing strong links with other areas of mathematics and the natural sciences. Traditional methods and approaches surface in physics and in the life and engineering sciences with increasing frequency – the Schramm‐Loewner evolution, Laplacian growth, and quadratic differentials are just a few typical examples. This book provides a representative overview of these processes and collects open problems in the various areas, while at the same time showing where and how each particular topic evolves. This volume is dedicated to the memory of Alexander Vasiliev.

  20. Nonlinear complex dynamics and Keynesian rigidity: A short introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovero, Edgardo

    2005-09-01

    The topic of this paper is to show that the greater acceptance and intense use of complex nonlinear dynamics in macroeconomics makes sense only within the neoKeynesian tradition. An example is presented regarding the behavior of an open-economy two-sector growth model endowed with Keynesian rigidity. The Keynesian view that structural instability globally exists in the aggregate economy is put forward, and therefore the need arises for policy to alleviate this instability in the form of dampened fluctuations is presented as an alternative view for macroeconomic theorizing.

  1. A paradox for traffic dynamics in complex networks with ATIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jianfeng; Gao Ziyou

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we study the statistical properties of traffic (e.g., vehicles) dynamics in complex networks, by introducing advanced transportation information systems (ATIS). The ATIS can provide the information of traffic flow pattern throughout the network and have an obvious effect on path routing strategy for such vehicles equipped with ATIS. The ATIS can be described by the understanding of link cost functions. Different indices such as efficiency and system total cost are discussed in depth. It is found that, for random networks (scale-free networks), the efficiency is effectively improved (decreased) if ATIS is properly equipped; however the system total cost is largely increased (decreased). It indicates that there exists a paradox between the efficiency and system total cost in complex networks. Furthermore, we report the simulation results by considering different kinds of link cost functions, and the paradox is recovered. Finally, we extend our traffic model, and also find the existence of the paradox

  2. Control of complex dynamics and chaos in distributed parameter systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakravarti, S.; Marek, M.; Ray, W.H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses a methodology for controlling complex dynamics and chaos in distributed parameter systems. The reaction-diffusion system with Brusselator kinetics, where the torus-doubling or quasi-periodic (two characteristic incommensurate frequencies) route to chaos exists in a defined range of parameter values, is used as an example. Poincare maps are used for characterization of quasi-periodic and chaotic attractors. The dominant modes or topos, which are inherent properties of the system, are identified by means of the Singular Value Decomposition. Tested modal feedback control schemas based on identified dominant spatial modes confirm the possibility of stabilization of simple quasi-periodic trajectories in the complex quasi-periodic or chaotic spatiotemporal patterns.

  3. Drosophila growth cones: a genetically tractable platform for the analysis of axonal growth dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Soriano, Natalia; Gonçalves-Pimentel, Catarina; Beaven, Robin; Haessler, Ulrike; Ofner-Ziegenfuss, Lisa; Ballestrem, Christoph; Prokop, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The formation of neuronal networks, during development and regeneration, requires outgrowth of axons along reproducible paths toward their appropriate postsynaptic target cells. Axonal extension occurs at growth cones (GCs) at the tips of axons. GC advance and navigation requires the activity of their cytoskeletal networks, comprising filamentous actin (F-actin) in lamellipodia and filopodia as well as dynamic microtubules (MTs) emanating from bundles of the axonal core. The molecular mechanisms governing these two cytoskeletal networks, their cross-talk, and their response to extracellular signaling cues are only partially understood, hindering our conceptual understanding of how regulated changes in GC behavior are controlled. Here, we introduce Drosophila GCs as a suitable model to address these mechanisms. Morphological and cytoskeletal readouts of Drosophila GCs are similar to those of other models, including mammals, as demonstrated here for MT and F-actin dynamics, axonal growth rates, filopodial structure and motility, organizational principles of MT networks, and subcellular marker localization. Therefore, we expect fundamental insights gained in Drosophila to be translatable into vertebrate biology. The advantage of the Drosophila model over others is its enormous amenability to combinatorial genetics as a powerful strategy to address the complexity of regulatory networks governing axonal growth. Thus, using pharmacological and genetic manipulations, we demonstrate a role of the actin cytoskeleton in a specific form of MT organization (loop formation), known to regulate GC pausing behavior. We demonstrate these events to be mediated by the actin-MT linking factor Short stop, thus identifying an essential molecular player in this context.

  4. Genetic diversity and population genetic structure analysis of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto complex based on mitochondrial DNA signature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sharma

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity and population genetics of the Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto complex were investigated based on sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. Total 81 isolates of hydatid cyst collected from ungulate animals from different geographical areas of North India were identified by sequencing of cytochrome c oxidase subunit1 (coxi gene. Three genotypes belonging to E. granulosus sensu stricto complex were identified (G1, G2 and G3 genotypes. Further the nucleotide sequences (retrieved from GenBank for the coxi gene from seven populations of E. granulosus sensu stricto complex covering 6 continents, were compared with sequences of isolates analysed in this study. Molecular diversity indices represent overall high mitochondrial DNA diversity for these populations, but low nucleotide diversity between haplotypes. The neutrality tests were used to analyze signatures of historical demographic events. The Tajima's D test and Fu's FS test showed negative value, indicating deviations from neutrality and both suggested recent population expansion for the populations. Pairwise fixation index was significant for pairwise comparison of different populations (except between South America and East Asia, Middle East and Europe, South America and Europe, Africa and Australia, indicating genetic differentiation among populations. Based on the findings of the present study and those from earlier studies, we hypothesize that demographic expansion occurred in E. granulosus after the introduction of founder haplotype particular by anthropogenic movements.

  5. Genetic Complexity of Episodic Memory: A Twin Approach to Studies of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremen, William S.; Spoon, Kelly M.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Franz, Carol E.; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Xian, Hong; Rana, Brinda K.; Toomey, Rosemary; McKenzie, Ruth; Lyons, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memory change is a central issue in cognitive aging, and understanding that process will require elucidation of its genetic underpinnings. A key limiting factor in genetically informed research on memory has been lack of attention to genetic and phenotypic complexity, as if “memory is memory” and all well-validated assessments are essentially equivalent. Here we applied multivariate twin models to data from late-middle-aged participants in the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging to examine the genetic architecture of 6 measures from 3 standard neuropsychological tests: the California Verbal Learning Test-2, and Wechsler Memory Scale-III Logical Memory (LM) and Visual Reproductions (VR). An advantage of the twin method is that it can estimate the extent to which latent genetic influences are shared or independent across different measures before knowing which specific genes are involved. The best-fitting model was a higher order common pathways model with a heritable higher order general episodic memory factor and three test-specific subfactors. More importantly, substantial genetic variance was accounted for by genetic influences that were specific to the latent LM and VR subfactors (28% and 30%, respectively) and independent of the general factor. Such unique genetic influences could partially account for replication failures. Moreover, if different genes influence different memory phenotypes, they could well have different age-related trajectories. This approach represents an important step toward providing critical information for all types of genetically informative studies of aging and memory. PMID:24956007

  6. Predictors for reproductive isolation in a ring species complex following genetic and ecological divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ricardo J; Monahan, William B; Wake, David B

    2011-07-06

    Reproductive isolation (RI) is widely accepted as an important "check point" in the diversification process, since it defines irreversible evolutionary trajectories. Much less consensus exists about the processes that might drive RI. Here, we employ a formal quantitative analysis of genetic interactions at several stages of divergence within the ring species complex Ensatina eschscholtzii in order to assess the relative contribution of genetic and ecological divergence for the development of RI. By augmenting previous genetic datasets and adding new ecological data, we quantify levels of genetic and ecological divergence between populations and test how they correlate with a restriction of genetic admixture upon secondary contact. Our results indicate that the isolated effect of ecological divergence between parental populations does not result in reproductively isolated taxa, even when genetic transitions between parental taxa are narrow. Instead, processes associated with overall genetic divergence are the best predictors of reproductive isolation, and when parental taxa diverge in nuclear markers we observe a complete cessation of hybridization, even to sympatric occurrence of distinct evolutionary lineages. Although every parental population has diverged in mitochondrial DNA, its degree of divergence does not predict the extent of RI. These results show that in Ensatina, the evolutionary outcomes of ecological divergence differ from those of genetic divergence. While evident properties of taxa may emerge via ecological divergence, such as adaptation to local environment, RI is likely to be a byproduct of processes that contribute to overall genetic divergence, such as time in geographic isolation, rather than being a direct outcome of local adaptation.

  7. Complexity, Sustainability, Justice, and Meaning: Chronological Versus Dynamical Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Velasco

    2009-11-01

    ="font-size: small; font-family: Times New Roman;"> 

    When nonlinear dynamics came to be complemented with semiotic modulation through the implement of symbol-mediated language (a complementation subsequently termed semantic closure as first instantiated through the communicating (as opposed  to merely dynamically interacting molecular complexes of the cell, what can be termed semiotic hysteresis was born. The paper attempts to show that indefinitely evolving complexity, sustainability, justice, and meaning are indissolubly bound with chronological time in the sense of semiotic hysteresis (as afforded initially by non-cognitive semantic closure and subsequently, at least one hopes, by cognitive semantic closure: This semiotic hysteresis yields the indefinite evolutionary time of the living condition—including culture.

     

  8. Statistical power to detect genetic (covariance of complex traits using SNP data in unrelated samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Visscher

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We have recently developed analysis methods (GREML to estimate the genetic variance of a complex trait/disease and the genetic correlation between two complex traits/diseases using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP data in unrelated individuals. Here we use analytical derivations and simulations to quantify the sampling variance of the estimate of the proportion of phenotypic variance captured by all SNPs for quantitative traits and case-control studies. We also derive the approximate sampling variance of the estimate of a genetic correlation in a bivariate analysis, when two complex traits are either measured on the same or different individuals. We show that the sampling variance is inversely proportional to the number of pairwise contrasts in the analysis and to the variance in SNP-derived genetic relationships. For bivariate analysis, the sampling variance of the genetic correlation additionally depends on the harmonic mean of the proportion of variance explained by the SNPs for the two traits and the genetic correlation between the traits, and depends on the phenotypic correlation when the traits are measured on the same individuals. We provide an online tool for calculating the power of detecting genetic (covariation using genome-wide SNP data. The new theory and online tool will be helpful to plan experimental designs to estimate the missing heritability that has not yet been fully revealed through genome-wide association studies, and to estimate the genetic overlap between complex traits (diseases in particular when the traits (diseases are not measured on the same samples.

  9. Complex dynamics and multistability with increasing rationality in market games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalli, Fausto; Naimzada, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study oligopoly models in which firms adopt decision mechanisms based on best response techniques with different rationality degrees. Firms are also assumed to face resource or financial constraints in adjusting their production levels, so that, from time to time, they can only increase or decrease their strategy by a bounded quantity. We consider different families of oligopolies of generic sizes, characterized by heterogeneous compositions with respect to the rationality degrees of firms. We analytically study the local stability of the equilibrium depending on the oligopoly size and composition and through numerical simulations we investigate the possible dynamics arising when trajectories do not converge toward the equilibrium. We show that in this case complex dynamics can arise, and this is due to both the loss of stability of the equilibrium and to the emergence of multiple attractors, with the stable steady state coexisting with a different, periodic or chaotic, attractor. In particular, we show that multistability phenomena occur when the overall degree of rationality of the oligopoly is increased. Finally, we investigate the effect of non-convergent dynamics on the realized profits.

  10. Complex dynamics in Duffing system with two external forcings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Zhujun; Wang Ruiqi

    2005-01-01

    Duffing's equation with two external forcing terms have been discussed. The threshold values of chaotic motion under the periodic and quasi-periodic perturbations are obtained by using second-order averaging method and Melnikov's method. Numerical simulations not only show the consistence with the theoretical analysis but also exhibit the interesting bifurcation diagrams and the more new complex dynamical behaviors, including period-n (n=2,3,6,8) orbits, cascades of period-doubling and reverse period doubling bifurcations, quasi-periodic orbit, period windows, bubble from period-one to period-two, onset of chaos, hopping behavior of chaos, transient chaos, chaotic attractors and strange non-chaotic attractor, crisis which depends on the frequencies, amplitudes and damping. In particular, the second frequency plays a very important role for dynamics of the system, and the system can leave chaotic region to periodic motions by adjusting some parameter which can be considered as an control strategy of chaos. The computation of Lyapunov exponents confirm the dynamical behaviors

  11. Inferring genetic architecture of complex traits using Bayesian integrative analysis of genome and transcriptiome data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehsani, Alireza; Sørensen, Peter; Pomp, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Background To understand the genetic architecture of complex traits and bridge the genotype-phenotype gap, it is useful to study intermediate -omics data, e.g. the transcriptome. The present study introduces a method for simultaneous quantification of the contributions from single nucleotide......-modal distribution of genomic values collapses, when gene expressions are added to the model Conclusions With increased availability of various -omics data, integrative approaches are promising tools for understanding the genetic architecture of complex traits. Partitioning of explained variances at the chromosome...

  12. Ecological dynamics and complex interactions of Agrobacterium megaplasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Thomas G; Morton, Elise R; Barton, Ian S; Bever, James D; Fuqua, Clay

    2014-01-01

    As with many pathogenic bacteria, agrobacterial plant pathogens carry most of their virulence functions on a horizontally transmissible genetic element. The tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid encodes the majority of virulence functions for the crown gall agent Agrobacterium tumefaciens. This includes the vir genes which drive genetic transformation of host cells and the catabolic genes needed to utilize the opines produced by infected plants. The Ti plasmid also encodes, an opine-dependent quorum sensing system that tightly regulates Ti plasmid copy number and its conjugal transfer to other agrobacteria. Many natural agrobacteria are avirulent, lacking the Ti plasmid. The burden of harboring the Ti plasmid depends on the environmental context. Away from diseased hosts, plasmid costs are low but the benefit of the plasmid is also absent. Consequently, plasmidless genotypes are favored. On infected plants the costs of the Ti plasmid can be very high, but balanced by the opine benefits, locally favoring plasmid bearing cells. Cheating derivatives which do not incur virulence costs but can benefit from opines are favored on infected plants and in most other environments, and these are frequently isolated from nature. Many agrobacteria also harbor an At plasmid which can stably coexist with a Ti plasmid. At plasmid genes are less well characterized but in general facilitate metabolic activities in the rhizosphere and bulk soil, such as the ability to breakdown plant exudates. Examination of A. tumefaciens C58, revealed that harboring its At plasmid is much more costly than harboring it's Ti plasmid, but conversely the At plasmid is extremely difficult to cure. The interactions between these co-resident plasmids are complex, and depend on environmental context. However, the presence of a Ti plasmid appears to mitigate At plasmid costs, consistent with the high frequency with which they are found together.

  13. A dissipative particle dynamics method for arbitrarily complex geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Bian, Xin; Tang, Yu-Hang; Karniadakis, George Em

    2018-02-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) is an effective Lagrangian method for modeling complex fluids in the mesoscale regime but so far it has been limited to relatively simple geometries. Here, we formulate a local detection method for DPD involving arbitrarily shaped geometric three-dimensional domains. By introducing an indicator variable of boundary volume fraction (BVF) for each fluid particle, the boundary of arbitrary-shape objects is detected on-the-fly for the moving fluid particles using only the local particle configuration. Therefore, this approach eliminates the need of an analytical description of the boundary and geometry of objects in DPD simulations and makes it possible to load the geometry of a system directly from experimental images or computer-aided designs/drawings. More specifically, the BVF of a fluid particle is defined by the weighted summation over its neighboring particles within a cutoff distance. Wall penetration is inferred from the value of the BVF and prevented by a predictor-corrector algorithm. The no-slip boundary condition is achieved by employing effective dissipative coefficients for liquid-solid interactions. Quantitative evaluations of the new method are performed for the plane Poiseuille flow, the plane Couette flow and the Wannier flow in a cylindrical domain and compared with their corresponding analytical solutions and (high-order) spectral element solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. We verify that the proposed method yields correct no-slip boundary conditions for velocity and generates negligible fluctuations of density and temperature in the vicinity of the wall surface. Moreover, we construct a very complex 3D geometry - the "Brown Pacman" microfluidic device - to explicitly demonstrate how to construct a DPD system with complex geometry directly from loading a graphical image. Subsequently, we simulate the flow of a surfactant solution through this complex microfluidic device using the new method. Its

  14. Adaptive control of structural balance for complex dynamical networks based on dynamic coupling of nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zilin; Wang, Yinhe; Zhang, Lili

    2018-02-01

    In the existing research results of the complex dynamical networks controlled, the controllers are mainly used to guarantee the synchronization or stabilization of the nodes’ state, and the terms coupled with connection relationships may affect the behaviors of nodes, this obviously ignores the dynamic common behavior of the connection relationships between the nodes. In fact, from the point of view of large-scale system, a complex dynamical network can be regarded to be composed of two time-varying dynamic subsystems, which can be called the nodes subsystem and the connection relationships subsystem, respectively. Similar to the synchronization or stabilization of the nodes subsystem, some characteristic phenomena can be also emerged in the connection relationships subsystem. For example, the structural balance in the social networks and the synaptic facilitation in the biological neural networks. This paper focuses on the structural balance in dynamic complex networks. Generally speaking, the state of the connection relationships subsystem is difficult to be measured accurately in practical applications, and thus it is not easy to implant the controller directly into the connection relationships subsystem. It is noted that the nodes subsystem and the relationships subsystem are mutually coupled, which implies that the state of the connection relationships subsystem can be affected by the controllable state of nodes subsystem. Inspired by this observation, by using the structural balance theory of triad, the controller with the parameter adaptive law is proposed for the nodes subsystem in this paper, which may ensure the connection relationship matrix to approximate a given structural balance matrix in the sense of the uniformly ultimately bounded (UUB). That is, the structural balance may be obtained by employing the controlling state of the nodes subsystem. Finally, the simulations are used to show the validity of the method in this paper.

  15. Global genetic response in a cancer cell: self-organized coherent expression dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masa Tsuchiya

    Full Text Available Understanding the basic mechanism of the spatio-temporal self-control of genome-wide gene expression engaged with the complex epigenetic molecular assembly is one of major challenges in current biological science. In this study, the genome-wide dynamical profile of gene expression was analyzed for MCF-7 breast cancer cells induced by two distinct ErbB receptor ligands: epidermal growth factor (EGF and heregulin (HRG, which drive cell proliferation and differentiation, respectively. We focused our attention to elucidate how global genetic responses emerge and to decipher what is an underlying principle for dynamic self-control of genome-wide gene expression. The whole mRNA expression was classified into about a hundred groups according to the root mean square fluctuation (rmsf. These expression groups showed characteristic time-dependent correlations, indicating the existence of collective behaviors on the ensemble of genes with respect to mRNA expression and also to temporal changes in expression. All-or-none responses were observed for HRG and EGF (biphasic statistics at around 10-20 min. The emergence of time-dependent collective behaviors of expression occurred through bifurcation of a coherent expression state (CES. In the ensemble of mRNA expression, the self-organized CESs reveals distinct characteristic expression domains for biphasic statistics, which exhibits notably the presence of criticality in the expression profile as a route for genomic transition. In time-dependent changes in the expression domains, the dynamics of CES reveals that the temporal development of the characteristic domains is characterized as autonomous bistable switch, which exhibits dynamic criticality (the temporal development of criticality in the genome-wide coherent expression dynamics. It is expected that elucidation of the biophysical origin for such critical behavior sheds light on the underlying mechanism of the control of whole genome.

  16. Neonatal Feeding Behavior as a Complex Dynamical System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Eugene C; Perez, Jennifer; Engstler, Katherine

    2017-04-01

    The requirements of evidence-based practice in 2017 are motivating new theoretical foundations and methodological tools for characterizing neonatal feeding behavior. Toward that end, this article offers a complex dynamical systems perspective. A set of critical concepts from this perspective frames challenges faced by speech-language pathologists and allied professionals: when to initiate oral feeds, how to determine the robustness of neonatal breathing during feeding and appropriate levels of respiratory support, what instrumental assessments of swallow function to use with preterm neonates, and whether or not to introduce thickened liquids. In the near future, we can expect vast amounts of new data to guide evidence-based practice. But unless practitioners are able to frame these issues in a systems context larger than the individual child, the availability of "big data" will not be effectively translated to clinical practice. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Dynamics of functional failures and recovery in complex road networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xianyuan; Ukkusuri, Satish V.; Rao, P. Suresh C.

    2017-11-01

    We propose a new framework for modeling the evolution of functional failures and recoveries in complex networks, with traffic congestion on road networks as the case study. Differently from conventional approaches, we transform the evolution of functional states into an equivalent dynamic structural process: dual-vertex splitting and coalescing embedded within the original network structure. The proposed model successfully explains traffic congestion and recovery patterns at the city scale based on high-resolution data from two megacities. Numerical analysis shows that certain network structural attributes can amplify or suppress cascading functional failures. Our approach represents a new general framework to model functional failures and recoveries in flow-based networks and allows understanding of the interplay between structure and function for flow-induced failure propagation and recovery.

  18. Computational complexity of symbolic dynamics at the onset of chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakdawala, Porus

    1996-05-01

    In a variety of studies of dynamical systems, the edge of order and chaos has been singled out as a region of complexity. It was suggested by Wolfram, on the basis of qualitative behavior of cellular automata, that the computational basis for modeling this region is the universal Turing machine. In this paper, following a suggestion of Crutchfield, we try to show that the Turing machine model may often be too powerful as a computational model to describe the boundary of order and chaos. In particular we study the region of the first accumulation of period doubling in unimodal and bimodal maps of the interval, from the point of view of language theory. We show that in relation to the ``extended'' Chomsky hierarchy, the relevant computational model in the unimodal case is the nested stack automaton or the related indexed languages, while the bimodal case is modeled by the linear bounded automaton or the related context-sensitive languages.

  19. Complex dynamics in Josephson system with two external forcing terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jianping; Feng Wei; Jing Zhujun

    2006-01-01

    Josephson system with two external forcing terms is investigated. By applying Melnikov method, we prove that criterion of existence of chaos under periodic perturbation. By second-order averaging method and Melnikov method, we obtain the criterion of existence of chaos in averaged system under quasi-periodic perturbation for ω 2 =ω 1 +εν, and cannot prove the criterion of existence of chaos in averaged system under quasi-periodic perturbation for ω 2 =nω 1 +εν (n>=2 and n-bar N), where ν is not rational to ω 1 . We also study the effects of the parameters of system on dynamical behaviors by using numerical simulation. The numerical simulations, including bifurcation diagram of fixed points, bifurcation diagram of system in three- and two-dimensional space, homoclinic and heteroclinic bifurcation surface, Maximum Lyapunov exponent, phase portraits, Poincare map, are also plotted to illustrate theoretical analysis, and to expose the complex dynamical behaviors, including the period-n (n=1,2,5,7) orbits in different chaotic regions, cascades of period-doubling bifurcation from period-1, 2 and 5 orbits, reverse period-doubling bifurcation, onset of chaos which occurs more than once for two given external frequencies and chaos suddenly converting to periodic orbits, transient chaos with complex periodic windows and crisis, reverse period-5 bubble, non-attracting chaotic set and nice attracting chaotic set. In particular, we observe that the system can leave chaotic region to periodic motion by adjusting damping α, amplitude f 1 and frequency ω 2 of external forcing which can be considered as a control strategy

  20. PREFACE: Complex dynamics of fluids in disordered and crowded environments Complex dynamics of fluids in disordered and crowded environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coslovich, Daniele; Kahl, Gerhard; Krakoviack, Vincent

    2011-06-01

    Over the past two decades, the dynamics of fluids under nanoscale confinement has attracted much attention. Motivation for this rapidly increasing interest is based on both practical and fundamental reasons. On the practical and rather applied side, problems in a wide range of scientific topics, such as polymer and colloidal sciences, rheology, geology, or biophysics, benefit from a profound understanding of the dynamical behaviour of confined fluids. Further, effects similar to those observed in confinement are expected in fluids whose constituents have strong size or mass asymmetry, and in biological systems where crowding and obstruction phenomena in the cytosol are responsible for clear separations of time scales for macromolecular transport in the cell. In fundamental research, on the other hand, the interest focuses on the complex interplay between confinement and structural relaxation, which is responsible for the emergence of new phenomena in the dynamics of the system: in confinement, geometric constraints associated with the pore shape are imposed to the adsorbed fluids and an additional characteristic length scale, i.e. the pore size, comes into play. For many years, the topic has been mostly experimentally driven. Indeed, a broad spectrum of systems has been investigated by sophisticated experimental techniques, while theoretical and simulation studies were rather scarce due to conceptual and computational issues. In the past few years, however, theory and simulations could largely catch up with experiments. On one side, new theories have been put forward that duly take into account the porosity, the connectivity, and the randomness of the confinement. On the other side, the ever increasing available computational power now allows investigations that were far out of reach a few years ago. Nowadays, instead of isolated state points, systematic investigations on the dynamics of confined fluids, covering a wide range of system parameters, can be realized

  1. Genetic basis of haloperidol resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is complex and dose dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The genetic basis of most heritable traits is complex. Inhibitory compounds and their effects in model organisms have been used in many studies to gain insights into the genetic architecture underlying quantitative traits. However, the differential effect of compound concentration has not been studied in detail. In this study, we used a large segregant panel from a cross between two genetically divergent yeast strains, BY4724 (a laboratory strain and RM11_1a (a vineyard strain, to study the genetic basis of variation in response to different doses of a drug. Linkage analysis revealed that the genetic architecture of resistance to the small-molecule therapeutic drug haloperidol is highly dose-dependent. Some of the loci identified had effects only at low doses of haloperidol, while other loci had effects primarily at higher concentrations of the drug. We show that a major QTL affecting resistance across all concentrations of haloperidol is caused by polymorphisms in SWH1, a homologue of human oxysterol binding protein. We identify a complex set of interactions among the alleles of the genes SWH1, MKT1, and IRA2 that are most pronounced at a haloperidol dose of 200 µM and are only observed when the remainder of the genome is of the RM background. Our results provide further insight into the genetic basis of drug resistance.

  2. Genetic Basis of Haloperidol Resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Complex and Dose Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Kruglyak, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    The genetic basis of most heritable traits is complex. Inhibitory compounds and their effects in model organisms have been used in many studies to gain insights into the genetic architecture underlying quantitative traits. However, the differential effect of compound concentration has not been studied in detail. In this study, we used a large segregant panel from a cross between two genetically divergent yeast strains, BY4724 (a laboratory strain) and RM11_1a (a vineyard strain), to study the genetic basis of variation in response to different doses of a drug. Linkage analysis revealed that the genetic architecture of resistance to the small-molecule therapeutic drug haloperidol is highly dose-dependent. Some of the loci identified had effects only at low doses of haloperidol, while other loci had effects primarily at higher concentrations of the drug. We show that a major QTL affecting resistance across all concentrations of haloperidol is caused by polymorphisms in SWH1, a homologue of human oxysterol binding protein. We identify a complex set of interactions among the alleles of the genes SWH1, MKT1, and IRA2 that are most pronounced at a haloperidol dose of 200 µM and are only observed when the remainder of the genome is of the RM background. Our results provide further insight into the genetic basis of drug resistance. PMID:25521586

  3. Equation-free model reduction for complex dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Maitre, O. P.; Mathelin, L.; Le Maitre, O. P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a reduced model strategy for simulation of complex physical systems. A classical reduced basis is first constructed relying on proper orthogonal decomposition of the system. Then, unlike the alternative approaches, such as Galerkin projection schemes for instance, an equation-free reduced model is constructed. It consists in the determination of an explicit transformation, or mapping, for the evolution over a coarse time-step of the projection coefficients of the system state on the reduced basis. The mapping is expressed as an explicit polynomial transformation of the projection coefficients and is computed once and for all in a pre-processing stage using the detailed model equation of the system. The reduced system can then be advanced in time by successive applications of the mapping. The CPU cost of the method lies essentially in the mapping approximation which is performed offline, in a parallel fashion, and only once. Subsequent application of the mapping to perform a time-integration is carried out at a low cost thanks to its explicit character. Application of the method is considered for the 2-D flow around a circular cylinder. We investigate the effectiveness of the reduced model in rendering the dynamics for both asymptotic state and transient stages. It is shown that the method leads to a stable and accurate time-integration for only a fraction of the cost of a detailed simulation, provided that the mapping is properly approximated and the reduced basis remains relevant for the dynamics investigated. (authors)

  4. The geometry of chaotic dynamics — a complex network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, R. V.; Heitzig, J.; Donges, J. F.; Zou, Y.; Marwan, N.; Kurths, J.

    2011-12-01

    Recently, several complex network approaches to time series analysis have been developed and applied to study a wide range of model systems as well as real-world data, e.g., geophysical or financial time series. Among these techniques, recurrence-based concepts and prominently ɛ-recurrence networks, most faithfully represent the geometrical fine structure of the attractors underlying chaotic (and less interestingly non-chaotic) time series. In this paper we demonstrate that the well known graph theoretical properties local clustering coefficient and global (network) transitivity can meaningfully be exploited to define two new local and two new global measures of dimension in phase space: local upper and lower clustering dimension as well as global upper and lower transitivity dimension. Rigorous analytical as well as numerical results for self-similar sets and simple chaotic model systems suggest that these measures are well-behaved in most non-pathological situations and that they can be estimated reasonably well using ɛ-recurrence networks constructed from relatively short time series. Moreover, we study the relationship between clustering and transitivity dimensions on the one hand, and traditional measures like pointwise dimension or local Lyapunov dimension on the other hand. We also provide further evidence that the local clustering coefficients, or equivalently the local clustering dimensions, are useful for identifying unstable periodic orbits and other dynamically invariant objects from time series. Our results demonstrate that ɛ-recurrence networks exhibit an important link between dynamical systems and graph theory.

  5. Complex dynamics of semantic memory access in reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Giosué; Fonseca, André

    2012-02-07

    Understanding a word in context relies on a cascade of perceptual and conceptual processes, starting with modality-specific input decoding, and leading to the unification of the word's meaning into a discourse model. One critical cognitive event, turning a sensory stimulus into a meaningful linguistic sign, is the access of a semantic representation from memory. Little is known about the changes that activating a word's meaning brings about in cortical dynamics. We recorded the electroencephalogram (EEG) while participants read sentences that could contain a contextually unexpected word, such as 'cold' in 'In July it is very cold outside'. We reconstructed trajectories in phase space from single-trial EEG time series, and we applied three nonlinear measures of predictability and complexity to each side of the semantic access boundary, estimated as the onset time of the N400 effect evoked by critical words. Relative to controls, unexpected words were associated with larger prediction errors preceding the onset of the N400. Accessing the meaning of such words produced a phase transition to lower entropy states, in which cortical processing becomes more predictable and more regular. Our study sheds new light on the dynamics of information flow through interfaces between sensory and memory systems during language processing.

  6. Proceedings of "Optical Probes of Dynamics in Complex Environments"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sension, R; Tokmakoff, A

    2008-04-01

    This document contains the proceedings from the symposium on Optical Probes of Dynamics in Complex Environments, which organized as part of the 235th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society in New Orleans, LA from April 6 to 10, 2008. The study of molecular dynamics in chemical reaction and biological processes using time ƒresolved spectroscopy plays an important role in our understanding of energy conversion, storage, and utilization problems. Fundamental studies of chemical reactivity, molecular rearrangements, and charge transport are broadly supported by the DOE Office of Science because of their role in the development of alternative energy sources, the understanding of biological energy conversion processes, the efficient utilization of existing energy resources, and the mitigation of reactive intermediates in radiation chemistry. In addition, time resolved spectroscopy is central to all of DOEs grand challenges for fundamental energy science. This symposium brought together leaders in the field of ultrafast spectroscopy, including experimentalists, theoretical chemists, and simulators, to discuss the most recent scientific and technological advances. DOE support for this conference was used to help young US and international scientists travel to the meeting. The latest technology in ultrafast infrared, optical, and xray spectroscopy and the scientific advances that these methods enable were covered. Particular emphasis was placed on new experimental methods used to probe molecular dynamics in liquids, solids, interfaces, nanostructured materials, and biomolecules.

  7. Genetic algorithms with memory- and elitism-based immigrants in dynamic environments

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, S

    2008-01-01

    Copyright @ 2008 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology In recent years the genetic algorithm community has shown a growing interest in studying dynamic optimization problems. Several approaches have been devised. The random immigrants and memory schemes are two major ones. The random immigrants scheme addresses dynamic environments by maintaining the population diversity while the memory scheme aims to adapt genetic algorithms quickly to new environments by reusing historical inform...

  8. Genetic algorithms with memory- and elitism-based immigrants in dynamic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengxiang

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the genetic algorithm community has shown a growing interest in studying dynamic optimization problems. Several approaches have been devised. The random immigrants and memory schemes are two major ones. The random immigrants scheme addresses dynamic environments by maintaining the population diversity while the memory scheme aims to adapt genetic algorithms quickly to new environments by reusing historical information. This paper investigates a hybrid memory and random immigrants scheme, called memory-based immigrants, and a hybrid elitism and random immigrants scheme, called elitism-based immigrants, for genetic algorithms in dynamic environments. In these schemes, the best individual from memory or the elite from the previous generation is retrieved as the base to create immigrants into the population by mutation. This way, not only can diversity be maintained but it is done more efficiently to adapt genetic algorithms to the current environment. Based on a series of systematically constructed dynamic problems, experiments are carried out to compare genetic algorithms with the memory-based and elitism-based immigrants schemes against genetic algorithms with traditional memory and random immigrants schemes and a hybrid memory and multi-population scheme. The sensitivity analysis regarding some key parameters is also carried out. Experimental results show that the memory-based and elitism-based immigrants schemes efficiently improve the performance of genetic algorithms in dynamic environments.

  9. Global Stability of Complex-Valued Genetic Regulatory Networks with Delays on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yajing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the global exponential stability of complex-valued genetic regulatory networks with delays is investigated. Besides presenting conditions guaranteeing the existence of a unique equilibrium pattern, its global exponential stability is discussed. Some numerical examples for different time scales.

  10. Dynamics of vortices in complex wakes: Modeling, analysis, and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Saikat

    The thesis develops singly-periodic mathematical models for complex laminar wakes which are formed behind vortex-shedding bluff bodies. These wake structures exhibit a variety of patterns as the bodies oscillate or are in close proximity of one another. The most well-known formation comprises two counter-rotating vortices in each shedding cycle and is popularly known as the von Karman vortex street. Of the more complex configurations, as a specific example, this thesis investigates one of the most commonly occurring wake arrangements, which consists of two pairs of vortices in each shedding period. The paired vortices are, in general, counter-rotating and belong to a more general definition of the 2P mode, which involves periodic release of four vortices into the flow. The 2P arrangement can, primarily, be sub-classed into two types: one with a symmetric orientation of the two vortex pairs about the streamwise direction in a periodic domain and the other in which the two vortex pairs per period are placed in a staggered geometry about the wake centerline. The thesis explores the governing dynamics of such wakes and characterizes the corresponding relative vortex motion. In general, for both the symmetric as well as the staggered four vortex periodic arrangements, the thesis develops two-dimensional potential flow models (consisting of an integrable Hamiltonian system of point vortices) that consider spatially periodic arrays of four vortices with their strengths being +/-Gamma1 and +/-Gamma2. Vortex formations observed in the experiments inspire the assumed spatial symmetry. The models demonstrate a number of dynamic modes that are classified using a bifurcation analysis of the phase space topology, consisting of level curves of the Hamiltonian. Despite the vortex strengths in each pair being unequal in magnitude, some initial conditions lead to relative equilibrium when the vortex configuration moves with invariant size and shape. The scaled comparisons of the

  11. Complex systems approach to fire dynamics and climate change impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo, S.

    2012-04-01

    I present some recent advances in complex systems theory as a contribution to understanding fire regimes and forecasting their response to a changing climate, qualitatively and quantitatively. In many regions of the world, fire sizes have been found to follow, approximately, a power-law frequency distribution. As noted by several authors, this distribution also arises in the "forest fire" model used by physicists to study mechanisms that give rise to scale invariance (the power law is a scale-invariant distribution). However, this model does not give and does not pretend to give a realistic description of fire dynamics. For example, it gives no role to weather and climate. Pueyo (2007) developed a variant of the "forest fire" model that is also simple but attempts to be more realistic. It also results into a power law, but the parameters of this distribution change through time as a function of weather and climate. Pueyo (2007) observed similar patterns of response to weather in data from boreal forest fires, and used the fitted response functions to forecast fire size distributions in a possible climate change scenario, including the upper extreme of the distribution. For some parameter values, the model in Pueyo (2007) displays a qualitatively different behavior, consisting of simple percolation. In this case, fire is virtually absent, but megafires sweep through the ecosystem a soon as environmental forcings exceed a critical threshold. Evidence gathered by Pueyo et al. (2010) suggests that this is realistic for tropical rainforests (specifically, well-conserved upland rainforests). Some climate models suggest that major tropical rainforest regions are going to become hotter and drier if climate change goes ahead unchecked, which could cause such abrupt shifts. Not all fire regimes are well described by this model. Using data from a tropical savanna region, Pueyo et al. (2010) found that the dynamics in this area do not match its assumptions, even though fire

  12. The dynamic behavior of the exohedral transition metal complexes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NAIWRIT KARMODAK

    Special Issue on THEORETICAL CHEMISTRY/CHEMICAL DYNAMICS. The dynamic behavior ... The ab initio molecular dynamic simulations were performed at. 1200 K to ... boron clusters and the nature of polyhedral boranes suggested that ...

  13. Quantum coherence spectroscopy reveals complex dynamics in bacterial light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Elad; Engel, Gregory S

    2012-01-17

    Light-harvesting antenna complexes transfer energy from sunlight to photosynthetic reaction centers where charge separation drives cellular metabolism. The process through which pigments transfer excitation energy involves a complex choreography of coherent and incoherent processes mediated by the surrounding protein and solvent environment. The recent discovery of coherent dynamics in photosynthetic light-harvesting antennae has motivated many theoretical models exploring effects of interference in energy transfer phenomena. In this work, we provide experimental evidence of long-lived quantum coherence between the spectrally separated B800 and B850 rings of the light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2) of purple bacteria. Spectrally resolved maps of the detuning, dephasing, and the amplitude of electronic coupling between excitons reveal that different relaxation pathways act in concert for optimal transfer efficiency. Furthermore, maps of the phase of the signal suggest that quantum mechanical interference between different energy transfer pathways may be important even at ambient temperature. Such interference at a product state has already been shown to enhance the quantum efficiency of transfer in theoretical models of closed loop systems such as LH2.

  14. Identifying Complex Dynamics in Social Systems: A New Methodological Approach Applied to Study School Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaiser, Viktoria; Hedström, Peter; Ranganathan, Shyam; Jansson, Kim; Nordvik, Monica K.; Sumpter, David J. T.

    2018-01-01

    It is widely recognized that segregation processes are often the result of complex nonlinear dynamics. Empirical analyses of complex dynamics are however rare, because there is a lack of appropriate empirical modeling techniques that are capable of capturing complex patterns and nonlinearities. At the same time, we know that many social phenomena…

  15. Evolving hard problems: Generating human genetics datasets with a complex etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himmelstein Daniel S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A goal of human genetics is to discover genetic factors that influence individuals' susceptibility to common diseases. Most common diseases are thought to result from the joint failure of two or more interacting components instead of single component failures. This greatly complicates both the task of selecting informative genetic variants and the task of modeling interactions between them. We and others have previously developed algorithms to detect and model the relationships between these genetic factors and disease. Previously these methods have been evaluated with datasets simulated according to pre-defined genetic models. Results Here we develop and evaluate a model free evolution strategy to generate datasets which display a complex relationship between individual genotype and disease susceptibility. We show that this model free approach is capable of generating a diverse array of datasets with distinct gene-disease relationships for an arbitrary interaction order and sample size. We specifically generate eight-hundred Pareto fronts; one for each independent run of our algorithm. In each run the predictiveness of single genetic variation and pairs of genetic variants have been minimized, while the predictiveness of third, fourth, or fifth-order combinations is maximized. Two hundred runs of the algorithm are further dedicated to creating datasets with predictive four or five order interactions and minimized lower-level effects. Conclusions This method and the resulting datasets will allow the capabilities of novel methods to be tested without pre-specified genetic models. This allows researchers to evaluate which methods will succeed on human genetics problems where the model is not known in advance. We further make freely available to the community the entire Pareto-optimal front of datasets from each run so that novel methods may be rigorously evaluated. These 76,600 datasets are available from http://discovery.dartmouth.edu/model_free_data/.

  16. Bayesian state space models for dynamic genetic network construction across multiple tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yulan; Kelemen, Arpad

    2016-08-01

    Construction of gene-gene interaction networks and potential pathways is a challenging and important problem in genomic research for complex diseases while estimating the dynamic changes of the temporal correlations and non-stationarity are the keys in this process. In this paper, we develop dynamic state space models with hierarchical Bayesian settings to tackle this challenge for inferring the dynamic profiles and genetic networks associated with disease treatments. We treat both the stochastic transition matrix and the observation matrix time-variant and include temporal correlation structures in the covariance matrix estimations in the multivariate Bayesian state space models. The unevenly spaced short time courses with unseen time points are treated as hidden state variables. Hierarchical Bayesian approaches with various prior and hyper-prior models with Monte Carlo Markov Chain and Gibbs sampling algorithms are used to estimate the model parameters and the hidden state variables. We apply the proposed Hierarchical Bayesian state space models to multiple tissues (liver, skeletal muscle, and kidney) Affymetrix time course data sets following corticosteroid (CS) drug administration. Both simulation and real data analysis results show that the genomic changes over time and gene-gene interaction in response to CS treatment can be well captured by the proposed models. The proposed dynamic Hierarchical Bayesian state space modeling approaches could be expanded and applied to other large scale genomic data, such as next generation sequence (NGS) combined with real time and time varying electronic health record (EHR) for more comprehensive and robust systematic and network based analysis in order to transform big biomedical data into predictions and diagnostics for precision medicine and personalized healthcare with better decision making and patient outcomes.

  17. The challenge for genetic epidemiologists: how to analyze large numbers of SNPs in relation to complex diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidema, A.G.; Boer, J.M.A.; Nagelkerke, N.; Mariman, E.C.M.; A, van der D.L.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Genetic epidemiologists have taken the challenge to identify genetic polymorphisms involved in the development of diseases. Many have collected data on large numbers of genetic markers but are not familiar with available methods to assess their association with complex diseases. Statistical methods

  18. Quantum Dynamical Behaviour in Complex Systems - A Semiclassical Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananth, Nandini [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in Chemical Dynamics is describing the behavior of complex systems accurately. Classical MD simulations have evolved to a point where calculations involving thousands of atoms are routinely carried out. Capturing coherence, tunneling and other such quantum effects for these systems, however, has proven considerably harder. Semiclassical methods such as the Initial Value Representation (SC-IVR) provide a practical way to include quantum effects while still utilizing only classical trajectory information. For smaller systems, this method has been proven to be most effective, encouraging the hope that it can be extended to deal with a large number of degrees of freedom. Several variations upon the original idea of the SCIVR have been developed to help make these larger calculations more tractable; these range from the simplest, classical limit form, the Linearized IVR (LSC-IVR) to the quantum limit form, the Exact Forward-Backward version (EFB-IVR). In this thesis a method to tune between these limits is described which allows us to choose exactly which degrees of freedom we wish to treat in a more quantum mechanical fashion and to what extent. This formulation is called the Tuning IVR (TIVR). We further describe methodology being developed to evaluate the prefactor term that appears in the IVR formalism. The regular prefactor is composed of the Monodromy matrices (jacobians of the transformation from initial to finial coordinates and momenta) which are time evolved using the Hessian. Standard MD simulations require the potential surfaces and their gradients, but very rarely is there any information on the second derivative. We would like to be able to carry out the SC-IVR calculation without this information too. With this in mind a finite difference scheme to obtain the Hessian on-the-fly is proposed. Wealso apply the IVR formalism to a few problems of current interest. A method to obtain energy eigenvalues accurately for complex

  19. COMBINED DELAY AND GRAPH EMBEDDING OF EPILEPTIC DISCHARGES IN EEG REVEALS COMPLEX AND RECURRENT NONLINEAR DYNAMICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erem, B; Hyde, D E; Peters, J M; Duffy, F H; Brooks, D H; Warfield, S K

    2015-04-01

    The dynamical structure of the brain's electrical signals contains valuable information about its physiology. Here we combine techniques for nonlinear dynamical analysis and manifold identification to reveal complex and recurrent dynamics in interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs). Our results suggest that recurrent IEDs exhibit some consistent dynamics, which may only last briefly, and so individual IED dynamics may need to be considered in order to understand their genesis. This could potentially serve to constrain the dynamics of the inverse source localization problem.

  20. Integrated health management and control of complex dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolani, Devendra K.

    2005-11-01

    A comprehensive control and health management strategy for human-engineered complex dynamical systems is formulated for achieving high performance and reliability over a wide range of operation. Results from diverse research areas such as Probabilistic Robust Control (PRC), Damage Mitigating/Life Extending Control (DMC), Discrete Event Supervisory (DES) Control, Symbolic Time Series Analysis (STSA) and Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) have been employed to achieve this goal. Continuous-domain control modules at the lower level are synthesized by PRC and DMC theories, whereas the upper-level supervision is based on DES control theory. In the PRC approach, by allowing different levels of risk under different flight conditions, the control system can achieve the desired trade off between stability robustness and nominal performance. In the DMC approach, component damage is incorporated in the control law to reduce the damage rate for enhanced structural durability. The DES controller monitors the system performance and, based on the mission requirements (e.g., performance metrics and level of damage mitigation), switches among various lower-level controllers. The core idea is to design a framework where the DES controller at the upper-level, mimics human intelligence and makes appropriate decisions to satisfy mission requirements, enhance system performance and structural durability. Recently developed tools in STSA have been used for anomaly detection and failure prognosis. The DMC deals with the usage monitoring or operational control part of health management, where as the issue of health monitoring is addressed by the anomaly detection tools. The proposed decision and control architecture has been validated on two test-beds, simulating the operations of rotorcraft dynamics and aircraft propulsion.

  1. Dynamics of Symmetric Conserved Mass Aggregation Model on Complex Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUA Da-Yin

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the dynamical behaviour of the aggregation process in the symmetric conserved mass aggregation model under three different topological structures. The dispersion σ(t, L) = (∑i(mi - ρ0)2/L)1/2 is defined to describe the dynamical behaviour where ρ0 is the density of particle and mi is the particle number on a site. It is found numerically that for a regular lattice and a scale-free network, σ(t, L) follows a power-law scaling σ(t, L) ~ tδ1 and σ(t, L) ~ tδ4 from a random initial condition to the stationary states, respectively. However, for a small-world network, there are two power-law scaling regimes, σ(t, L) ~ tδ2 when t<T and a(t, L) ~ tδ3 when tT. Moreover, it is found numerically that δ2 is near to δ1 for small rewiring probability q, and δ3 hardly changes with varying q and it is almost the same as δ4. We speculate that the aggregation of the connection degree accelerates the mass aggregation in the initial relaxation stage and the existence of the long-distance interactions in the complex networks results in the acceleration of the mass aggregation when tT for the small-world networks. We also show that the relaxation time T follows a power-law scaling τ Lz and σ(t, L) in the stationary state follows a power-law σs(L) ~ Lσ for three different structures.

  2. Complex dynamics in Duffing-Van der Pol equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Zhujun; Yang, Zhiyan; Jiang Tao

    2006-01-01

    Duffing-Van der Pol equation with fifth nonlinear-restoring force and two external forcing terms is investigated. The threshold values of existence of chaotic motion are obtained under the periodic perturbation. By second-order averaging method and Melnikov method, we prove the criterion of existence of chaos in averaged system under quasi-periodic perturbation for ω 2 nω 1 + εσ, n = 1, 3, 5, and cannot prove the criterion of existence of chaos in second-order averaged system under quasi-periodic perturbation for ω 2 = nω 1 + εσ, n = 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, where σ is not rational to ω 1 , but can show the occurrence of chaos in original system by numerical simulation. Numerical simulations including heteroclinic and homoclinic bifurcation surfaces, bifurcation diagrams, Lyapunov exponent, phase portraits and Poincare map, not only show the consistence with the theoretical analysis but also exhibit the more new complex dynamical behaviors. We show that cascades of interlocking period-doubling and reverse period-doubling bifurcations from period-2 to -4 and -6 orbits, interleaving occurrence of chaotic behaviors and quasi-periodic orbits, transient chaos with a great abundance of period windows, symmetry-breaking of periodic orbits in chaotic regions, onset of chaos which occurs more than one, chaos suddenly disappearing to period orbits, interior crisis, strange non-chaotic attractor, non-attracting chaotic set and nice chaotic attractors. Our results show many dynamical behaviors and some of them are strictly departure from the behaviors of Duffing-Van der Pol equation with a cubic nonlinear-restoring force and one external forcing

  3. Dynamical versus diffraction spectrum for structures with finite local complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baake, Michael; Lenz, Daniel; van Enter, Aernout

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the dynamical spectrum of an ergodic measure dynamical system is related to the diffraction measure of a typical element of the system. This situation includes ergodic subshifts from symbolic dynamics as well as ergodic Delone dynamical systems, both via suitable embeddings.

  4. Molecular Dynamic Studies of the Complex Polyethylenimine and Glucose Oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szefler, Beata; Diudea, Mircea V; Putz, Mihai V; Grudzinski, Ireneusz P

    2016-10-27

    Glucose oxidase (GOx) is an enzyme produced by Aspergillus, Penicillium and other fungi species. It catalyzes the oxidation of β-d-glucose (by the molecular oxygen or other molecules, like quinones, in a higher oxidation state) to form d-glucono-1,5-lactone, which hydrolyses spontaneously to produce gluconic acid. A coproduct of this enzymatic reaction is hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). GOx has found several commercial applications in chemical and pharmaceutical industries including novel biosensors that use the immobilized enzyme on different nanomaterials and/or polymers such as polyethylenimine (PEI). The problem of GOx immobilization on PEI is retaining the enzyme native activity despite its immobilization onto the polymer surface. Therefore, the molecular dynamic (MD) study of the PEI ligand (C14N8_07_B22) and the GOx enzyme (3QVR) was performed to examine the final complex PEI-GOx stabilization and the affinity of the PEI ligand to the docking sites of the GOx enzyme. The docking procedure showed two places/regions of major interaction of the protein with the polymer PEI: (LIG1) of -5.8 kcal/mol and (LIG2) of -4.5 kcal/mol located inside the enzyme and on its surface, respectively. The values of enthalpy for the PEI-enzyme complex, located inside of the protein (LIG1) and on its surface (LIG2) were computed. Docking also discovered domains of the GOx protein that exhibit no interactions with the ligand or have even repulsive characteristics. The structural data clearly indicate some differences in the ligand PEI behavior bound at the two places/regions of glucose oxidase.

  5. Molecular Dynamic Studies of the Complex Polyethylenimine and Glucose Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Szefler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Glucose oxidase (GOx is an enzyme produced by Aspergillus, Penicillium and other fungi species. It catalyzes the oxidation of β-d-glucose (by the molecular oxygen or other molecules, like quinones, in a higher oxidation state to form d-glucono-1,5-lactone, which hydrolyses spontaneously to produce gluconic acid. A coproduct of this enzymatic reaction is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. GOx has found several commercial applications in chemical and pharmaceutical industries including novel biosensors that use the immobilized enzyme on different nanomaterials and/or polymers such as polyethylenimine (PEI. The problem of GOx immobilization on PEI is retaining the enzyme native activity despite its immobilization onto the polymer surface. Therefore, the molecular dynamic (MD study of the PEI ligand (C14N8_07_B22 and the GOx enzyme (3QVR was performed to examine the final complex PEI-GOx stabilization and the affinity of the PEI ligand to the docking sites of the GOx enzyme. The docking procedure showed two places/regions of major interaction of the protein with the polymer PEI: (LIG1 of −5.8 kcal/mol and (LIG2 of −4.5 kcal/mol located inside the enzyme and on its surface, respectively. The values of enthalpy for the PEI-enzyme complex, located inside of the protein (LIG1 and on its surface (LIG2 were computed. Docking also discovered domains of the GOx protein that exhibit no interactions with the ligand or have even repulsive characteristics. The structural data clearly indicate some differences in the ligand PEI behavior bound at the two places/regions of glucose oxidase.

  6. No evidence for a genetic blueprint: The case of the "complex" mammalian photoreceptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Kumaramanickavel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the intensity of the search for genes causing inherited retinal degenerations over the past 3 decades, of the approximately 200 disease genes identified to date, all appear to be ordinary housekeeping genes specifying proteins playing basic structural and functional roles in the mature photoreceptor cells. No genes or genetic elements have been identified which can be construed as having a specific morphogenic role, directing the development of the cytoarchitecture of any particular retinal cell. The evidence suggests that the cytoarchitecture of the retinal photoreceptors, although enormously complex, arises from the self-organization of the cells constituents without any regulation or direction from an external genetic blueprint.

  7. Stochastic dynamics of complex systems: from glasses to evolution (series on complexity science)

    CERN Document Server

    Sibani, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Dynamical evolution over long time scales is a prominent feature of all the systems we intuitively think of as complex - for example, ecosystems, the brain or the economy. In physics, the term ageing is used for this type of slow change, occurring over time scales much longer than the patience, or indeed the lifetime, of the observer. The main focus of this book is on the stochastic processes which cause ageing, and the surprising fact that the ageing dynamics of systems which are very different at the microscopic level can be treated in similar ways. The first part of this book provides the necessary mathematical and computational tools and the second part describes the intuition needed to deal with these systems. Some of the first few chapters have been covered in several other books, but the emphasis and selection of the topics reflect both the authors' interests and the overall theme of the book. The second part contains an introduction to the scientific literature and deals in some detail with the desc...

  8. Searching for Appropriate Ways to Face the Challenges of Complexity and Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Sommerfeld, Peter; Hollenstein, Lea

    2017-01-01

    People, as bio-psychological systems, are just as dynamic and complex as the social systems that they create. Social work intervenes in the interplay of these two complex, dynamic systems. How can we capture these complexities and dynamics in social work research and practice? The paper introduces the theoretical grounds on which a mixed-methods design has been developed combining a longitudinal quantitative method called Real Time Monitoring that produces dense time series data with qualitat...

  9. Temporal dynamics of genetic variability in a mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortego, Joaquín; Yannic, Glenn; Shafer, Aaron B A; Mainguy, Julien; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Coltman, David W; Côté, Steeve D

    2011-04-01

    The association between population dynamics and genetic variability is of fundamental importance for both evolutionary and conservation biology. We combined long-term population monitoring and molecular genetic data from 123 offspring and their parents at 28 microsatellite loci to investigate changes in genetic diversity over 14 cohorts in a small and relatively isolated population of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) during a period of demographic increase. Offspring heterozygosity decreased while parental genetic similarity and inbreeding coefficients (F(IS) ) increased over the study period (1995-2008). Immigrants introduced three novel alleles into the population and matings between residents and immigrants produced more heterozygous offspring than local crosses, suggesting that immigration can increase population genetic variability. The population experienced genetic drift over the study period, reflected by a reduced allelic richness over time and an 'isolation-by-time' pattern of genetic structure. The temporal decline of individual genetic diversity despite increasing population size probably resulted from a combination of genetic drift due to small effective population size, inbreeding and insufficient counterbalancing by immigration. This study highlights the importance of long-term genetic monitoring to understand how demographic processes influence temporal changes of genetic diversity in long-lived organisms. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. A Comprehensive Genomic Analysis Reveals the Genetic Landscape of Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex Deficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu Kohda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial disorders have the highest incidence among congenital metabolic disorders characterized by biochemical respiratory chain complex deficiencies. It occurs at a rate of 1 in 5,000 births, and has phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. Mutations in about 1,500 nuclear encoded mitochondrial proteins may cause mitochondrial dysfunction of energy production and mitochondrial disorders. More than 250 genes that cause mitochondrial disorders have been reported to date. However exact genetic diagnosis for patients still remained largely unknown. To reveal this heterogeneity, we performed comprehensive genomic analyses for 142 patients with childhood-onset mitochondrial respiratory chain complex deficiencies. The approach includes whole mtDNA and exome analyses using high-throughput sequencing, and chromosomal aberration analyses using high-density oligonucleotide arrays. We identified 37 novel mutations in known mitochondrial disease genes and 3 mitochondria-related genes (MRPS23, QRSL1, and PNPLA4 as novel causative genes. We also identified 2 genes known to cause monogenic diseases (MECP2 and TNNI3 and 3 chromosomal aberrations (6q24.3-q25.1, 17p12, and 22q11.21 as causes in this cohort. Our approaches enhance the ability to identify pathogenic gene mutations in patients with biochemically defined mitochondrial respiratory chain complex deficiencies in clinical settings. They also underscore clinical and genetic heterogeneity and will improve patient care of this complex disorder.

  11. MOLECULAR DYNAMICS STUDY OF CYTOCHROME C – LIPID COMPLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Trusova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between a mitochondrial hemoprotein cytochrome c (cyt c and the model lipid membranes composed of zwitterionic lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC and anionic lipids phosphatidylglycerol (PG, phosphatidylserine (PS or cardiolipin (CL were studied using the method of molecular dynamics. It was found that cyt c structure remains virtually unchanged in the protein complexes with PC/PG or PC/PS bilayers. In turn, protein binding to PC/CL bilayer is followed by the rise in cyt c radius of gyration and root-mean-square fluctuations. The magnitude of these changes was demonstrated to increase with the anionic lipid content. The revealed effect was interpreted in terms of the partial unfolding of polypeptide chain in the region Ala15-Leu32, widening of the heme crevice and enhancement of the conformational fluctuations in the region Pro76-Asp93 upon increasing the CL molar fraction from 5 to 25%. The results obtained seem to be of utmost importance in the context of amyloidogenic propensity of cyt c.

  12. Warehouse stocking optimization based on dynamic ant colony genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaoxu

    2018-04-01

    In view of the various orders of FAW (First Automotive Works) International Logistics Co., Ltd., the SLP method is used to optimize the layout of the warehousing units in the enterprise, thus the warehouse logistics is optimized and the external processing speed of the order is improved. In addition, the relevant intelligent algorithms for optimizing the stocking route problem are analyzed. The ant colony algorithm and genetic algorithm which have good applicability are emphatically studied. The parameters of ant colony algorithm are optimized by genetic algorithm, which improves the performance of ant colony algorithm. A typical path optimization problem model is taken as an example to prove the effectiveness of parameter optimization.

  13. Dynamics of major histocompatibility complex class I association with the human peptide-loading complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter, Michaela S; Jain, Ankur; Leonhardt, Ralf M; Ha, Taekjip; Cresswell, Peter

    2012-09-07

    Although the human peptide-loading complex (PLC) is required for optimal major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) antigen presentation, its composition is still incompletely understood. The ratio of the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) and MHC I to tapasin, which is responsible for MHC I recruitment and peptide binding optimization, is particularly critical for modeling of the PLC. Here, we characterized the stoichiometry of the human PLC using both biophysical and biochemical approaches. By means of single-molecule pulldown (SiMPull), we determined a TAP/tapasin ratio of 1:2, consistent with previous studies of insect-cell microsomes, rat-human chimeric cells, and HeLa cells expressing truncated TAP subunits. We also report that the tapasin/MHC I ratio varies, with the PLC population comprising both 2:1 and 2:2 complexes, based on mutational and co-precipitation studies. The MHC I-saturated PLC may be particularly prevalent among peptide-selective alleles, such as HLA-C4. Additionally, MHC I association with the PLC increases when its peptide supply is reduced by inhibiting the proteasome or by blocking TAP-mediated peptide transport using viral inhibitors. Taken together, our results indicate that the composition of the human PLC varies under normal conditions and dynamically adapts to alterations in peptide supply that may arise during viral infection. These findings improve our understanding of the quality control of MHC I peptide loading and may aid the structural and functional modeling of the human PLC.

  14. Using a system of differential equations that models cattle growth to uncover the genetic basis of complex traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freua, Mateus Castelani; Santana, Miguel Henrique de Almeida; Ventura, Ricardo Vieira; Tedeschi, Luis Orlindo; Ferraz, José Bento Sterman

    2017-08-01

    The interplay between dynamic models of biological systems and genomics is based on the assumption that genetic variation of the complex trait (i.e., outcome of model behavior) arises from component traits (i.e., model parameters) in lower hierarchical levels. In order to provide a proof of concept of this statement for a cattle growth model, we ask whether model parameters map genomic regions that harbor quantitative trait loci (QTLs) already described for the complex trait. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with a Bayesian hierarchical LASSO method in two parameters of the Davis Growth Model, a system of three ordinary differential equations describing DNA accretion, protein synthesis and degradation, and fat synthesis. Phenotypic and genotypic data were available for 893 Nellore (Bos indicus) cattle. Computed values for parameter k 1 (DNA accretion rate) ranged from 0.005 ± 0.003 and for α (constant for energy for maintenance requirement) 0.134 ± 0.024. The expected biological interpretation of the parameters is confirmed by QTLs mapped for k 1 and α. QTLs within genomic regions mapped for k 1 are expected to be correlated with the DNA pool: body size and weight. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which were significant for α mapped QTLs that had already been associated with residual feed intake, feed conversion ratio, average daily gain (ADG), body weight, and also dry matter intake. SNPs identified for k 1 were able to additionally explain 2.2% of the phenotypic variability of the complex ADG, even when SNPs for k 1 did not match the genomic regions associated with ADG. Although improvements are needed, our findings suggest that genomic analysis on component traits may help to uncover the genetic basis of more complex traits, particularly when lower biological hierarchies are mechanistically described by mathematical simulation models.

  15. Complex Genetics of Behavior: BXDs in the Automated Home-Cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Maarten; Verhage, Matthijs; Spijker, Sabine; Smit, August B

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes a use case for the genetic dissection and automated analysis of complex behavioral traits using the genetically diverse panel of BXD mouse recombinant inbred strains. Strains of the BXD resource differ widely in terms of gene and protein expression in the brain, as well as in their behavioral repertoire. A large mouse resource opens the possibility for gene finding studies underlying distinct behavioral phenotypes, however, such a resource poses a challenge in behavioral phenotyping. To address the specifics of large-scale screening we describe how to investigate: (1) how to assess mouse behavior systematically in addressing a large genetic cohort, (2) how to dissect automation-derived longitudinal mouse behavior into quantitative parameters, and (3) how to map these quantitative traits to the genome, deriving loci underlying aspects of behavior.

  16. Resolving the Complex Genetic Basis of Phenotypic Variation and Variability of Cellular Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Naomi; Shuster, Bentley M; Siegal, Mark L; Gresham, David

    2017-07-01

    In all organisms, the majority of traits vary continuously between individuals. Explaining the genetic basis of quantitative trait variation requires comprehensively accounting for genetic and nongenetic factors as well as their interactions. The growth of microbial cells can be characterized by a lag duration, an exponential growth phase, and a stationary phase. Parameters that characterize these growth phases can vary among genotypes (phenotypic variation), environmental conditions (phenotypic plasticity), and among isogenic cells in a given environment (phenotypic variability). We used a high-throughput microscopy assay to map genetic loci determining variation in lag duration and exponential growth rate in growth rate-limiting and nonlimiting glucose concentrations, using segregants from a cross of two natural isolates of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae We find that some quantitative trait loci (QTL) are common between traits and environments whereas some are unique, exhibiting gene-by-environment interactions. Furthermore, whereas variation in the central tendency of growth rate or lag duration is explained by many additive loci, differences in phenotypic variability are primarily the result of genetic interactions. We used bulk segregant mapping to increase QTL resolution by performing whole-genome sequencing of complex mixtures of an advanced intercross mapping population grown in selective conditions using glucose-limited chemostats. We find that sequence variation in the high-affinity glucose transporter HXT7 contributes to variation in growth rate and lag duration. Allele replacements of the entire locus, as well as of a single polymorphic amino acid, reveal that the effect of variation in HXT7 depends on genetic, and allelic, background. Amplifications of HXT7 are frequently selected in experimental evolution in glucose-limited environments, but we find that HXT7 amplifications result in antagonistic pleiotropy that is absent in naturally

  17. Symposium on Short-Term Genetic Bioassays in the Evaluation of Complex Environmental Mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Sandhu, Shahbeg; Lewtas, Joellen; Claxton, Larry; Strauss, Gary; Nesnow, Stephen

    1985-01-01

    With this proceedings of the fourth symposium on complex mixtures, we continue to revise and extend our knowledge of genetic methods for the evaluation of chemical mixtures in the environment. The early chapters of this volume are devoted to new bioassay techniques that are directly applicable to the monitoring of environments contaminated with genotoxic chemicals. Microbiological methods have been further refined to meet the special needs of atmospheric monitoring so that very small samples may now be efficiently tested. New in situ methods utilizing green plants actually avoid many of the usual difficulties of sample collection and preparation and offer special advantages in monitoring wastewater, sludges, and hazardous wastes. Insects also are being employed very effectively in the evaluation of gaseous air pollutants in controlled laboratory investigations. Increased emphasis has been placed on a comprehensive assessment of the potential of complex mixtures t9 cause various kinds of genetic damage. New as...

  18. Identification and assembly of genomes and genetic elements in complex metagenomic samples without using reference genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, H Bjørn; Almeida, Mathieu; Juncker, Agnieszka Sierakowska; Rasmussen, Simon; Li, Junhua; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Plichta, Damian R; Gautier, Laurent; Pedersen, Anders G; Le Chatelier, Emmanuelle; Pelletier, Eric; Bonde, Ida; Nielsen, Trine; Manichanh, Chaysavanh; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Batto, Jean-Michel; Quintanilha Dos Santos, Marcelo B; Blom, Nikolaj; Borruel, Natalia; Burgdorf, Kristoffer S; Boumezbeur, Fouad; Casellas, Francesc; Doré, Joël; Dworzynski, Piotr; Guarner, Francisco; Hansen, Torben; Hildebrand, Falk; Kaas, Rolf S; Kennedy, Sean; Kristiansen, Karsten; Kultima, Jens Roat; Léonard, Pierre; Levenez, Florence; Lund, Ole; Moumen, Bouziane; Le Paslier, Denis; Pons, Nicolas; Pedersen, Oluf; Prifti, Edi; Qin, Junjie; Raes, Jeroen; Sørensen, Søren; Tap, Julien; Tims, Sebastian; Ussery, David W; Yamada, Takuji; Renault, Pierre; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Bork, Peer; Wang, Jun; Brunak, Søren; Ehrlich, S Dusko

    2014-08-01

    Most current approaches for analyzing metagenomic data rely on comparisons to reference genomes, but the microbial diversity of many environments extends far beyond what is covered by reference databases. De novo segregation of complex metagenomic data into specific biological entities, such as particular bacterial strains or viruses, remains a largely unsolved problem. Here we present a method, based on binning co-abundant genes across a series of metagenomic samples, that enables comprehensive discovery of new microbial organisms, viruses and co-inherited genetic entities and aids assembly of microbial genomes without the need for reference sequences. We demonstrate the method on data from 396 human gut microbiome samples and identify 7,381 co-abundance gene groups (CAGs), including 741 metagenomic species (MGS). We use these to assemble 238 high-quality microbial genomes and identify affiliations between MGS and hundreds of viruses or genetic entities. Our method provides the means for comprehensive profiling of the diversity within complex metagenomic samples.

  19. A complex scenario of tuberculosis transmission is revealed through genetic and epidemiological surveys in Porto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rito, Teresa; Matos, Carlos; Carvalho, Carlos; Machado, Henrique; Rodrigues, Gabriela; Oliveira, Olena; Ferreira, Eduarda; Gonçalves, Jorge; Maio, Lurdes; Morais, Clara; Ramos, Helena; Guimarães, João Tiago; Santos, Catarina L; Duarte, Raquel; Correia-Neves, Margarida

    2018-01-25

    Tuberculosis (TB) incidence is decreasing worldwide and eradication is becoming plausible. In low-incidence countries, intervention on migrant populations is considered one of the most important strategies for elimination. However, such measures are inappropriate in European areas where TB is largely endemic, such as Porto in Portugal. We aim to understand transmission chains in Porto through a genetic characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and through a detailed epidemiological evaluation of cases. We genotyped the M. tuberculosis strains using the MIRU-VNTR system. We performed an evolutionary reconstruction of the genotypes with median networks, used in this context for the first time. TB cases from a period of two years were evaluated combining genetic, epidemiological and georeferencing information. The data reveal a unique complex scenario in Porto where the autochthonous population acts as a genetic reservoir of M. tuberculosis diversity with discreet episodes of transmission, mostly undetected using classical epidemiology alone. Although control policies have been successful in decreasing incidence in Porto, the discerned complexity suggests that, for elimination to be a realistic goal, strategies need to be adjusted and coupled with a continuous genetic characterization of strains and detailed epidemiological evaluation, in order to successfully identify and interrupt transmission chains.

  20. Presence of voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibody in a case of genetic prion disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammoul, Adham; Lederman, Richard J; Tavee, Jinny; Li, Yuebing

    2014-06-05

    Voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody-mediated encephalitis is a recently recognised entity which has been reported to mimic the clinical presentation of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Testing for the presence of this neuronal surface autoantibody in patients presenting with subacute encephalopathy is therefore crucial as it may both revoke the bleak diagnosis of prion disease and allow institution of potentially life-saving immunotherapy. Tempering this optimistic view is the rare instance when a positive VGKC complex antibody titre occurs in a definite case of prion disease. We present a pathologically and genetically confirmed case of CJD with elevated serum VGKC complex antibody titres. This case highlights the importance of interpreting the result of a positive VGKC complex antibody with caution and in the context of the overall clinical manifestation. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. Dynamic Load Balanced Clustering using Elitism based Random Immigrant Genetic Approach for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohaideen Pitchai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN consists of a large number of small sensors with restricted energy. Prolonged network lifespan, scalability, node mobility and load balancing are important needs for several WSN applications. Clustering the sensor nodes is an efficient technique to reach these goals. WSN have the characteristics of topology dynamics because of factors like energy conservation and node movement that leads to Dynamic Load Balanced Clustering Problem (DLBCP. In this paper, Elitism based Random Immigrant Genetic Approach (ERIGA is proposed to solve DLBCP which adapts to topology dynamics. ERIGA uses the dynamic Genetic Algorithm (GA components for solving the DLBCP. The performance of load balanced clustering process is enhanced with the help of this dynamic GA. As a result, the ERIGA achieves to elect suitable cluster heads which balances the network load and increases the lifespan of the network.

  2. Sinks without borders: Snowshoe hare dynamics in a complex landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Paul C.; Mills, L. Scott

    2009-01-01

    A full understanding of population dynamics of wide-ranging animals should account for the effects that movement and habitat use have on individual contributions to population growth or decline. Quantifying the per-capita, habitat-specific contribution to population growth can clarify the value of different patch types, and help to differentiate population sources from population sinks. Snowshoe hares, Lepus americanus, routinely use various habitat types in the landscapes they inhabit in the contiguous US, where managing forests for high snowshoe hare density is a priority for conservation of Canada lynx, Lynx canadensis. We estimated density and demographic rates via mark–recapture live trapping and radio-telemetry within four forest stand structure (FSS) types at three study areas within heterogeneous managed forests in western Montana. We found support for known fate survival models with time-varying individual covariates representing the proportion of locations in each of the FSS types, with survival rates decreasing as use of open young and open mature FSS types increased. The per-capita contribution to overall population growth increased with use of the dense mature or dense young FSS types and decreased with use of the open young or open mature FSS types, and relatively high levels of immigration appear to be necessary to sustain hares in the open FSS types. Our results support a conceptual model for snowshoe hares in the southern range in which sink habitats (open areas) prevent the buildup of high hare densities. More broadly, we use this system to develop a novel approach to quantify demographic sources and sinks for animals making routine movements through complex fragmented landscapes.

  3. Classification of time series patterns from complex dynamic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schryver, J.C.; Rao, N.

    1998-07-01

    An increasing availability of high-performance computing and data storage media at decreasing cost is making possible the proliferation of large-scale numerical databases and data warehouses. Numeric warehousing enterprises on the order of hundreds of gigabytes to terabytes are a reality in many fields such as finance, retail sales, process systems monitoring, biomedical monitoring, surveillance and transportation. Large-scale databases are becoming more accessible to larger user communities through the internet, web-based applications and database connectivity. Consequently, most researchers now have access to a variety of massive datasets. This trend will probably only continue to grow over the next several years. Unfortunately, the availability of integrated tools to explore, analyze and understand the data warehoused in these archives is lagging far behind the ability to gain access to the same data. In particular, locating and identifying patterns of interest in numerical time series data is an increasingly important problem for which there are few available techniques. Temporal pattern recognition poses many interesting problems in classification, segmentation, prediction, diagnosis and anomaly detection. This research focuses on the problem of classification or characterization of numerical time series data. Highway vehicles and their drivers are examples of complex dynamic systems (CDS) which are being used by transportation agencies for field testing to generate large-scale time series datasets. Tools for effective analysis of numerical time series in databases generated by highway vehicle systems are not yet available, or have not been adapted to the target problem domain. However, analysis tools from similar domains may be adapted to the problem of classification of numerical time series data.

  4. Investigation of Plasmas Having Complex, Dynamic Evolving Morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellan, Paul M.

    2017-01-01

    Three different types of plasmas have been investigated using both experimental and theoretical methods. The first type of plasma is dense, highly ionized, governed by magnetohydrodynamics, and highly dynamic. This plasma is relevant to solar coronal loops, astrophysical jets, and other situations where strong magnetic forces act on the plasma. A well-diagnosed laboratory experiment creates a magnetohydrodynamically driven highly collimated plasma jet. This jet undergoes a kink instability such that it rapidly develops a corkscrew shape. The kink causes lateral acceleration of the jet, and this lateral acceleration drives a Rayleigh-Taylor instability that in turn chokes the current flowing in the jet and causes a magnetic reconnection. The magnetic reconnection causes electron and ion heating as well as emission of whistler waves. This entire sequence of events has been observed, measured in detail, and related to theoretical models. The second type of plasma is a transient rf-produced plasma used as a seed plasma for the magnetohydrodynamic experiments described above. Detailed atomic physics ionization processes have been investigated and modeled. The third type of plasma that has been studied is a dusty plasma where the dust particles are spontaneously growing ice grains. The rapid growth of the ice grains to large size and their highly ordered alignment has been investigated as well as collective motion of the ice grains, including well-defined flows on the surface of nested toroids. In addition to the experimental work described above, several related theoretical models have been developed, most notably a model showing how a complex interaction between gravity and magnetic fields on extremely weakly ionized plasma in an accretion disk provides an electric power source that can drive astrophysical jets associated with the accretion disk. Eighteen papers reporting this work have been published in a wide variety of journals.

  5. Investigation of Plasmas Having Complex, Dynamic Evolving Morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellan, Paul M. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2017-01-03

    Three different types of plasmas have been investigated using both experimental and theoretical methods. The first type of plasma is dense, highly ionized, governed by magnetohydrodynamics, and highly dynamic. This plasma is relevant to solar coronal loops, astrophysical jets, and other situations where strong magnetic forces act on the plasma. A well-diagnosed laboratory experiment creates a magnetohydrodynamically driven highly collimated plasma jet. This jet undergoes a kink instability such that it rapidly develops a corkscrew shape. The kink causes lateral acceleration of the jet, and this lateral acceleration drives a Rayleigh-Taylor instability that in turn chokes the current flowing in the jet and causes a magnetic reconnection. The magnetic reconnection causes electron and ion heating as well as emission of whistler waves. This entire sequence of events has been observed, measured in detail, and related to theoretical models. The second type of plasma is a transient rf-produced plasma used as a seed plasma for the magnetohydrodynamic experiments described above. Detailed atomic physics ionization processes have been investigated and modeled. The third type of plasma that has been studied is a dusty plasma where the dust particles are spontaneously growing ice grains. The rapid growth of the ice grains to large size and their highly ordered alignment has been investigated as well as collective motion of the ice grains, including well-defined flows on the surface of nested toroids. In addition to the experimental work described above, several related theoretical models have been developed, most notably a model showing how a complex interaction between gravity and magnetic fields on extremely weakly ionized plasma in an accretion disk provides an electric power source that can drive astrophysical jets associated with the accretion disk. Eighteen papers reporting this work have been published in a wide variety of journals.

  6. Fractional Dynamics of Genetic Algorithms Using Hexagonal Space Tessellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tenreiro Machado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper formulates a genetic algorithm that evolves two types of objects in a plane. The fitness function promotes a relationship between the objects that is optimal when some kind of interface between them occurs. Furthermore, the algorithm adopts an hexagonal tessellation of the two-dimensional space for promoting an efficient method of the neighbour modelling. The genetic algorithm produces special patterns with resemblances to those revealed in percolation phenomena or in the symbiosis found in lichens. Besides the analysis of the spacial layout, a modelling of the time evolution is performed by adopting a distance measure and the modelling in the Fourier domain in the perspective of fractional calculus. The results reveal a consistent, and easy to interpret, set of model parameters for distinct operating conditions.

  7. Modelling the complex dynamics of vegetation, livestock and rainfall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... In this paper, we present mathematical models that incorporate ideas from complex systems theory to integrate several strands of rangeland theory in a hierarchical framework. ... Keywords: catastrophe theory; complexity theory; disequilibrium; hysteresis; moving attractors

  8. A Hypothesis for Using Pathway Genetic Load Analysis for Understanding Complex Outcomes in Bilirubin Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Sean M.; Bittel, Douglas C.; Le Pichon, Jean-Baptiste; Gazzin, Silvia; Tiribelli, Claudio; Watchko, Jon F.; Wennberg, Richard P.; Shapiro, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic-based susceptibility to bilirubin neurotoxicity and chronic bilirubin encephalopathy (kernicterus) is still poorly understood. Neonatal jaundice affects 60–80% of newborns, and considerable effort goes into preventing this relatively benign condition from escalating into the development of kernicterus making the incidence of this potentially devastating condition very rare in more developed countries. The current understanding of the genetic background of kernicterus is largely comprised of mutations related to alterations of bilirubin production, elimination, or both. Less is known about mutations that may predispose or protect against CNS bilirubin neurotoxicity. The lack of a monogenetic source for this risk of bilirubin neurotoxicity suggests that disease progression is dependent upon an overall decrease in the functionality of one or more essential genetically controlled metabolic pathways. In other words, a “load” is placed on key pathways in the form of multiple genetic variants that combine to create a vulnerable phenotype. The idea of epistatic interactions creating a pathway genetic load (PGL) that affects the response to a specific insult has been previously reported as a PGL score. We hypothesize that the PGL score can be used to investigate whether increased susceptibility to bilirubin-induced CNS damage in neonates is due to a mutational load being placed on key genetic pathways important to the central nervous system's response to bilirubin neurotoxicity. We propose a modification of the PGL score method that replaces the use of a canonical pathway with custom gene lists organized into three tiers with descending levels of evidence combined with the utilization of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) causality prediction methods. The PGL score has the potential to explain the genetic background of complex bilirubin induced neurological disorders (BIND) such as kernicterus and could be the key to understanding ranges of outcome severity

  9. Synthetic multicellular oscillatory systems: controlling protein dynamics with genetic circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseska, Aneta; Volkov, Evgenii; Kurths, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a relatively new research discipline that combines standard biology approaches with the constructive nature of engineering. Thus, recent efforts in the field of synthetic biology have given a perspective to consider cells as 'programmable matter'. Here, we address the possibility of using synthetic circuits to control protein dynamics. In particular, we show how intercellular communication and stochasticity can be used to manipulate the dynamical behavior of a population of coupled synthetic units and, in this manner, finely tune the expression of specific proteins of interest, e.g. in large bioreactors.

  10. The collective biology of the gene: Towards genetic dynamics engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.

    1985-11-01

    Chromatin dynamics is studied in terms of coupled vibrations (phonon pairing); this is shown to lead to a collective variable Δ, interpreted as a gene inhibition factor, which behaves as a biological switch turned off, not only by enzymatic action or metabolic energy, but also by means of an external probe:irradiation. We discuss the inactivation of the X chromosome and puffing. The relevance of being able to modulate Δ is emphasized, since it is equivalent to controlling chromatin dynamics without interfering with chromatin structure, unlike in the usual recombinant DNA techniques. (author)

  11. Genetic population structure of sympatric and allopatric populations of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula complex, Teleostei, Coregonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehner, Thomas; Pohlmann, Kirsten; Elkin, Che; Monaghan, Michael T; Nitz, Barbara; Freyhof, Jörg

    2010-03-29

    Teleost fishes of the Coregonidae are good model systems for studying postglacial evolution, adaptive radiation and ecological speciation. Of particular interest is whether the repeated occurrence of sympatric species pairs results from in-situ divergence from a single lineage or from multiple invasions of one or more different lineages. Here, we analysed the genetic structure of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula complex), examining 271 individuals from 8 lakes in northern Germany using 1244 polymorphic AFLP loci. Six lakes had only one population of C. albula while the remaining two lakes had C. albula as well as a sympatric species (C. lucinensis or C. fontanae). AFLP demonstrated a significant population structure (Bayesian thetaB = 0.22). Lower differentiation between allopatric (thetaB = 0.028) than sympatric (0.063-0.083) populations contradicts the hypothesis of a sympatric origin of taxa, and there was little evidence for stocking or ongoing hybridization. Genome scans found only three loci that appeared to be under selection in both sympatric population pairs, suggesting a low probability of similar mechanisms of ecological segregation. However, removal of all non-neutral loci decreased the genetic distance between sympatric pairs, suggesting recent adaptive divergence at a few loci. Sympatric pairs in the two lakes were genetically distinct from the six other C. albula populations, suggesting introgression from another lineage may have influenced these two lakes. This was supported by an analysis of isolation-by-distance, where the drift-gene flow equilibrium observed among allopatric populations was disrupted when the sympatric pairs were included. While the population genetic data alone can not unambiguously uncover the mode of speciation, our data indicate that multiple lineages may be responsible for the complex patterns typically observed in Coregonus. Relative differences within and among lakes raises the possibility that multiple lineages may be

  12. Characterizing source-sink dynamics with genetic parentage assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peery, M. Zachariah; Beissinger, Steven R.; House, Roger F.; Berube, Martine; Hall, Laurie A.; Sellas, Anna; Palsboll, Per J.

    2008-01-01

    Source-sink dynamics have been suggested to characterize the population structure of many species, but the prevalence of source-sink systems in nature is uncertain because of inherent challenges in estimating migration rates among populations. Migration rates are often difficult to estimate directly

  13. Understanding the Complexity of Temperature Dynamics in Xinjiang, China, from Multitemporal Scale and Spatial Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the observed data from 51 meteorological stations during the period from 1958 to 2012 in Xinjiang, China, we investigated the complexity of temperature dynamics from the temporal and spatial perspectives by using a comprehensive approach including the correlation dimension (CD, classical statistics, and geostatistics. The main conclusions are as follows (1 The integer CD values indicate that the temperature dynamics are a complex and chaotic system, which is sensitive to the initial conditions. (2 The complexity of temperature dynamics decreases along with the increase of temporal scale. To describe the temperature dynamics, at least 3 independent variables are needed at daily scale, whereas at least 2 independent variables are needed at monthly, seasonal, and annual scales. (3 The spatial patterns of CD values at different temporal scales indicate that the complex temperature dynamics are derived from the complex landform.

  14. Nonlinear dynamics optimization with particle swarm and genetic algorithms for SPEAR3 emittance upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xiaobiao; Safranek, James

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics optimization is carried out for a low emittance upgrade lattice of SPEAR3 in order to improve its dynamic aperture and Touschek lifetime. Two multi-objective optimization algorithms, a genetic algorithm and a particle swarm algorithm, are used for this study. The performance of the two algorithms are compared. The result shows that the particle swarm algorithm converges significantly faster to similar or better solutions than the genetic algorithm and it does not require seeding of good solutions in the initial population. These advantages of the particle swarm algorithm may make it more suitable for many accelerator optimization applications

  15. Nonlinear dynamics optimization with particle swarm and genetic algorithms for SPEAR3 emittance upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiaobiao, E-mail: xiahuang@slac.stanford.edu; Safranek, James

    2014-09-01

    Nonlinear dynamics optimization is carried out for a low emittance upgrade lattice of SPEAR3 in order to improve its dynamic aperture and Touschek lifetime. Two multi-objective optimization algorithms, a genetic algorithm and a particle swarm algorithm, are used for this study. The performance of the two algorithms are compared. The result shows that the particle swarm algorithm converges significantly faster to similar or better solutions than the genetic algorithm and it does not require seeding of good solutions in the initial population. These advantages of the particle swarm algorithm may make it more suitable for many accelerator optimization applications.

  16. On Impact Dynamics under Complex or Extreme Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Kouraytem, Nadia

    2016-11-01

    The impact of a spherical object onto a surface of a liquid, solid or granular material, is a configuration which occurs in numerous industrial and natural phenomena. The resulting dynamics can produce complex outcomes and often occur on very short time-scales. Their study thereby requires high-speed video imaging, as is done herein. This three-part dissertation investigates widely disparate but kindred impact configurations, where the impacting object is a solid steel sphere, or a molten metal droplet. The substrate, on the other hand, is either granular material, a liquid, or solid ice. Therefore both fluid mechanics and thermodynamics play a key role in some of these dynamics. Part I, investigates the penetration depth of a steel sphere which impacts onto a granular bed containing a mixture of grains of two different sizes. The addition of smaller grains within a bed of larger grains can promote a “lubrication” effect and deeper penetration of the sphere. However, there needs to be enough mass fraction of the smaller grains so that they get lodged between the larger grains and are not simply like isolated rattlers inside the voids between the larger grains. This lubrication occurs even though the addition of the small grains increases the overall packing fraction of the bed. We compare the enhanced penetration for the mixtures to a simple interpolative model based on the results for monodispersed media of the constitutive sizes. The strongest lubrication is observed for large irregular shaped Ottawa sand grains, which are seeded with small spherical glass beads. Part II, tackles the topic of a molten metal drop impacting onto a pool of water. When the drop temperature is far above the boiling temperature of water, a continuous vapor layer can form at the interface between the metal and water, in what is called the Leidenfrost phenomenon. This vapor layer can become unstable forming what is called a vapor explosion, which can break up the molten metal drop

  17. Complex dynamics in planar two-electron quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeter, Sebastian Josef Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Quantum dots play an important role in a wide range of recent experimental and technological developments. In particular they are promising candidates for realisations of quantum bits and further applications in quantum information theory. The harmonically confined Hooke's atom model is experimentally verified and separates in centre-of-mass and relative coordinates. Findings that are contradictory to this separability call for an extension of the model, in particular changing the confinement potential. In order to study effects of an anharmonic confinement potential on spectral properties of planar two-electron quantum dots a sophisticated numerical approach is developed. Comparison between the Helium atom, Hooke's atom and an anharmonic potential model are undertaken in order to improve the description of quantum dots. Classical and quantum features of complexity and chaos are investigated and used to characterise the dynamics of the system to be mixed regular-chaotic. Influence of decoherence can be described by quantum fidelity, which measures the effect of a perturbation on the time evolution. The quantum fidelity of eigenstates of the system depends strongly on the properties of the perturbation. Several methods for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation are implemented and a high level of accuracy for long time evolutions is achieved. The concept of offset entanglement, the entanglement of harmonic models in the noninteracting limit, is introduced. This concept explains different questions raised in the literature for harmonic quantum dot models, recently. It shows that only in the groundstate the electrons are not entangled in the fermionic sense. The applicability, validity, and origin of Hund's first rule in general quantum dot models is further addressed. In fact Hund's first rule is only applicable, and in this case also valid, for one pair of singlet and triplet states in Hooke's atom. For more realistic models of two-electron quantum dots an

  18. Complex dynamics in diatomic molecules. Part II: Quantum trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.-D.; Weng, H.-J.

    2008-01-01

    The second part of this paper deals with quantum trajectories in diatomic molecules, which has not been considered before in the literature. Morse potential serves as a more accurate function than a simple harmonic oscillator for illustrating a realistic picture about the vibration of diatomic molecules. However, if we determine molecular dynamics by integrating the classical force equations derived from a Morse potential, we will find that the resulting trajectories do not consist with the probabilistic prediction of quantum mechanics. On the other hand, the quantum trajectory determined by Bohmian mechanics [Bohm D. A suggested interpretation of the quantum theory in terms of hidden variable. Phys. Rev. 1952;85:166-179] leads to the conclusion that a diatomic molecule is motionless in all its vibrational eigen-states, which also contradicts probabilistic prediction of quantum mechanics. In this paper, we point out that the quantum trajectory of a diatomic molecule completely consistent with quantum mechanics does exist and can be solved from the quantum Hamilton equations of motion derived in Part I, which is based on a complex-space formulation of fractal spacetime [El Naschie MS. A review of E-Infinity theory and the mass spectrum of high energy particle physics. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;19:209-36; El Naschie MS. E-Infinity theory - some recent results and new interpretations. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2006;29:845-853; El Naschie MS. The concepts of E-infinity. An elementary introduction to the cantorian-fractal theory of quantum physics. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;22:495-511; El Naschie MS. SU(5) grand unification in a transfinite form. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2007;32:370-374; Nottale L. Fractal space-time and microphysics: towards a theory of scale relativity. Singapore: World Scientific; 1993; Ord G. Fractal space time and the statistical mechanics of random works. Chaos, Soiltons and Fractals 1996;7:821-843] approach to quantum

  19. Complex dynamics in planar two-electron quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeter, Sebastian Josef Arthur

    2013-06-25

    Quantum dots play an important role in a wide range of recent experimental and technological developments. In particular they are promising candidates for realisations of quantum bits and further applications in quantum information theory. The harmonically confined Hooke's atom model is experimentally verified and separates in centre-of-mass and relative coordinates. Findings that are contradictory to this separability call for an extension of the model, in particular changing the confinement potential. In order to study effects of an anharmonic confinement potential on spectral properties of planar two-electron quantum dots a sophisticated numerical approach is developed. Comparison between the Helium atom, Hooke's atom and an anharmonic potential model are undertaken in order to improve the description of quantum dots. Classical and quantum features of complexity and chaos are investigated and used to characterise the dynamics of the system to be mixed regular-chaotic. Influence of decoherence can be described by quantum fidelity, which measures the effect of a perturbation on the time evolution. The quantum fidelity of eigenstates of the system depends strongly on the properties of the perturbation. Several methods for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation are implemented and a high level of accuracy for long time evolutions is achieved. The concept of offset entanglement, the entanglement of harmonic models in the noninteracting limit, is introduced. This concept explains different questions raised in the literature for harmonic quantum dot models, recently. It shows that only in the groundstate the electrons are not entangled in the fermionic sense. The applicability, validity, and origin of Hund's first rule in general quantum dot models is further addressed. In fact Hund's first rule is only applicable, and in this case also valid, for one pair of singlet and triplet states in Hooke's atom. For more realistic models of two

  20. Architecture and dynamics of proteins and aqueous solvation complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotze, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    For this thesis, the molecular dynamics of water and biological (model) systems have been studied with advanced nonlinear optical techniques. In chapters 4-5, the technique of femtosecond mid-infrared pump probe spectroscopy has been used to study the energy transfer and the reorientational dynamics

  1. Self-organization of complex networks as a dynamical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Takaaki; Yawata, Koichiro; Aoyagi, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    To understand the dynamics of real-world networks, we investigate a mathematical model of the interplay between the dynamics of random walkers on a weighted network and the link weights driven by a resource carried by the walkers. Our numerical studies reveal that, under suitable conditions, the co-evolving dynamics lead to the emergence of stationary power-law distributions of the resource and link weights, while the resource quantity at each node ceaselessly changes with time. We analyze the network organization as a deterministic dynamical system and find that the system exhibits multistability, with numerous fixed points, limit cycles, and chaotic states. The chaotic behavior of the system leads to the continual changes in the microscopic network dynamics in the absence of any external random noises. We conclude that the intrinsic interplay between the states of the nodes and network reformation constitutes a major factor in the vicissitudes of real-world networks.

  2. Antitumor Cell-Complex Vaccines Employing Genetically Modified Tumor Cells and Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Miguel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the immune response mediated by vaccination with cell complexes composed of irradiated B16 tumor cells and mouse fibroblasts genetically modified to produce GM-CSF. The animals were vaccinated with free B16 cells or cell complexes. We employed two gene plasmid constructions: one high producer (pMok and a low producer (p2F. Tumor transplant was performed by injection of B16 tumor cells. Plasma levels of total IgG and its subtypes were measured by ELISA. Tumor volumes were measured and survival curves were obtained. The study resulted in a cell complex vaccine able to stimulate the immune system to produce specific anti-tumor membrane proteins (TMP IgG. In the groups vaccinated with cells transfected with the low producer plasmid, IgG production was higher when we used free B16 cell rather than cell complexes. Nonspecific autoimmune response caused by cell complex was not greater than that induced by the tumor cells alone. Groups vaccinated with B16 transfected with low producer plasmid reached a tumor growth delay of 92% (p ≤ 0.01. When vaccinated with cell complex, the best group was that transfected with high producer plasmid, reaching a tumor growth inhibition of 56% (p ≤ 0.05. Significant survival (40% was only observed in the groups vaccinated with free transfected B16 cells.

  3. Optimal interdependence enhances the dynamical robustness of complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rishu Kumar; Sinha, Sitabhra

    2017-08-01

    Although interdependent systems have usually been associated with increased fragility, we show that strengthening the interdependence between dynamical processes on different networks can make them more likely to survive over long times. By coupling the dynamics of networks that in isolation exhibit catastrophic collapse with extinction of nodal activity, we demonstrate system-wide persistence of activity for an optimal range of interdependence between the networks. This is related to the appearance of attractors of the global dynamics comprising disjoint sets ("islands") of stable activity.

  4. Complex genetics of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and related pediatric retinal detachments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a hereditary vitreoretinal disorder that can cause various types of retinal detachments. The abnormalities in eyes with FEVR are caused by poor vascularization in the peripheral retina. The genetics of FEVR is highly heterogeneous, and mutations in the genes for Wnt signaling and a transcription factor have been reported to be responsible for FEVR. These factors have been shown to be the regulators of the pathophysiological pathways of retinal vascular development. Studies conducted to identify the causative genes of FEVR have uncovered a diverse and complex relationship between FEVR and other diseases; for example, Norrie disease, a Mendelian-inherited disease; retinopathy of prematurity, a multifactorial genetic disease; and Coats disease, a nongenetic disease, associated with pediatric retinal detachments. PMID:29018668

  5. Complexity, Chaos, and Nonlinear Dynamics: A New Perspective on Career Development Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Deborah P.

    2005-01-01

    The author presents a theory of career development drawing on nonlinear dynamics and chaos and complexity theories. Career is presented as a complex adaptive entity, a fractal of the human entity. Characteristics of complex adaptive entities, including (a) autopiesis, or self-regeneration; (b) open exchange; (c) participation in networks; (d)…

  6. Structure-based control of complex networks with nonlinear dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zañudo, Jorge Gomez Tejeda; Yang, Gang; Albert, Réka

    2017-07-11

    What can we learn about controlling a system solely from its underlying network structure? Here we adapt a recently developed framework for control of networks governed by a broad class of nonlinear dynamics that includes the major dynamic models of biological, technological, and social processes. This feedback-based framework provides realizable node overrides that steer a system toward any of its natural long-term dynamic behaviors, regardless of the specific functional forms and system parameters. We use this framework on several real networks, identify the topological characteristics that underlie the predicted node overrides, and compare its predictions to those of structural controllability in control theory. Finally, we demonstrate this framework's applicability in dynamic models of gene regulatory networks and identify nodes whose override is necessary for control in the general case but not in specific model instances.

  7. Complex approach of beam dynamic investigation in SC LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samoshin, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Beam dynamic investigation is difficult for superconducting linac consisting from periodic sequences of independently phased accelerating cavities and focusing solenoids. The matrix calculation was preferably used for previous estimate of accelerating structure parameters. The matrix calculation does not allow properly investigate the longitudinal motion. The smooth approximation can be used to investigate the nonlinear ion beam dynamics in such accelerating structure and to calculate the longitudinal and transverse acceptances. The potential function and equation of motion in the Hamiltonian form are devised by the smooth approximation. The advantages and disadvantages of each method will describe, the results of investigation will compare. Application package for ion beam dynamic analysis will create. A numerical simulation of beam dynamics in the full field will carry out for the different variants of the accelerator structure based on analytically obtained results.

  8. Homologous genetic recombination in the yellow head complex of nidoviruses infecting Penaeus monodon shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijegoonawardane, Priyanjalie K M; Sittidilokratna, Nusra; Petchampai, Natthida; Cowley, Jeff A; Gudkovs, Nicholas; Walker, Peter J

    2009-07-20

    Yellow head virus (YHV) is a highly virulent pathogen of Penaeus monodon shrimp. It is one of six known genotypes in the yellow head complex of nidoviruses which also includes mildly pathogenic gill-associated virus (GAV, genotype 2) and four other genotypes (genotypes 3-6) that have been detected only in healthy shrimp. In this study, comparative phylogenetic analyses conducted on replicase- (ORF1b) and glycoprotein- (ORF3) gene amplicons identified 10 putative natural recombinants amongst 28 viruses representing all six genotypes from across the Indo-Pacific region. The approximately 4.6 kb genomic region spanning the two amplicons was sequenced for three putative recombinant viruses from Vietnam (genotype 3/5), the Philippines (genotype 5/2) and Indonesia (genotype 3/2). SimPlot analysis using these and representative parental virus sequences confirmed that each was a recombinant genotype and identified a recombination hotspot in a region just upstream of the ORF1b C-terminus. Maximum-likelihood breakpoint analysis predicted identical crossover positions in the Vietnamese and Indonesian recombinants, and a crossover position 12 nt upstream in the Philippine recombinant. Homologous genetic recombination in the same genome region was also demonstrated in recombinants generated experimentally in shrimp co-infected with YHV and GAV. The high frequency with which natural recombinants were identified indicates that genetic exchange amongst genotypes is occurring commonly in Asia and playing a significant role in expanding the genetic diversity in the yellow head complex. This is the first evidence of genetic recombination in viruses infecting crustaceans and has significant implications for the pathogenesis of infection and diagnosis of these newly emerging invertebrate pathogens.

  9. Complex Price Dynamics in the Modified Kaldorian Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodera, Jan; Van Tran, Q.; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2013), s. 358-384 ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Priice dynamics, * numerical examples * two-equation model * four-equation model * nonlinear time series analysis Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.208, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/kodera-model of price dynamics and chaos.pdf

  10. Dynamic genetic linkage of intermediate blood pressure phenotypes during postural adaptations in a founder population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, I. A.; Tremblay, J.; Deslauriers, B.; Sandoval, J.; Šeda, O.; Gaudet, D.; Merlo, E.; Kotchen, T.; Cowley, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is a dynamic phenotype that varies rapidly to adjust to changing environmental conditions. Standing upright is a recent evolutionary trait, and genetic factors that influence postural adaptations may contribute to BP variability. We studied the effect of posture on the genetics of BP and intermediate BP phenotypes. We included 384 sib-pairs in 64 sib-ships from families ascertained by early-onset hypertension and dyslipidemia. Blood pressure, three hemodynamic and seven neuroendocrine intermediate BP phenotypes were measured with subjects lying supine and standing upright. The effect of posture on estimates of heritability and genetic covariance was investigated in full pedigrees. Linkage was conducted on 196 candidate genes by sib-pair analyses, and empirical estimates of significance were obtained. A permutation algorithm was implemented to study the postural effect on linkage. ADRA1A, APO, CAST, CORIN, CRHR1, EDNRB, FGF2, GC, GJA1, KCNB2, MMP3, NPY, NR3C2, PLN, TGFBR2, TNFRSF6, and TRHR showed evidence of linkage with any phenotype in the supine position and not upon standing, whereas AKR1B1, CD36, EDNRA, F5, MMP9, PKD2, PON1, PPARG, PPARGC1A, PRKCA, and RET were specifically linked to standing phenotypes. Genetic profiling was undertaken to show genetic interactions among intermediate BP phenotypes and genes specific to each posture. When investigators perform genetic studies exclusively on a single posture, important genetic components of BP are missed. Supine and standing BPs have distinct genetic signatures. Standardized maneuvers influence the results of genetic investigations into BP, thus reflecting its dynamic regulation. PMID:23269701

  11. Complex Dynamical Network Control for Trajectory Tracking Using Delayed Recurrent Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose P. Perez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of trajectory tracking is studied. Based on the V-stability and Lyapunov theory, a control law that achieves the global asymptotic stability of the tracking error between a delayed recurrent neural network and a complex dynamical network is obtained. To illustrate the analytic results, we present a tracking simulation of a dynamical network with each node being just one Lorenz’s dynamical system and three identical Chen’s dynamical systems.

  12. Cross-Disorder Genome-Wide Analyses Suggest a Complex Genetic Relationship Between Tourette's Syndrome and OCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Davis, Lea K.; Gamazon, Eric R.; Derks, Eske M.; Evans, Patrick; Edlund, Christopher K.; Crane, Jacquelyn; Osiecki, Lisa; Gallagher, Patience; Gerber, Gloria; Haddad, Stephen; Illmann, Cornelia; McGrath, Lauren M.; Mayerfeld, Catherine; Arepalli, Sampath; Barlassina, Cristina; Barr, Cathy L.; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Berrio, Gabriel Bedoya; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Black, Donald W.; Bloch, Michael H.; Brentani, Helena; Bruun, Ruth D.; Budman, Cathy L.; Camarena, Beatriz; Campbell, Desmond D.; Cappi, Carolina; Silgado, Julio C. Cardona; Cavallini, Maria C.; Chavira, Denise A.; Chouinard, Sylvain; Cook, Edwin H.; Cookson, M. R.; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Cusi, Daniete; Delorme, Richard; Denys, Damiaan; Dion, Yves; Eapen, Valsama; Egberts, Karin; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas; Fournier, Eduardo; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Gilbert, Donald L.; Girard, Simon L.; Grabe, Hans J.; Grados, Marco A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Gruenblatt, Edna; Hardy, John; Heiman, Gary A.; Hemmings, Sian M. J.; Herrera, Luis D.; Hezel, Dianne M.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L.; King, Robert A.; Konkashbaev, Anuar I.; Kremeyer, Barbara; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F.; Lennertz, Leonhard; Liu, Chunyu; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L.; Lupoli, Sara; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; Manunta, Paolo; Marconi, Maurizio; McCracken, James T.; Restrepo, Sandra C. Mesa; Moessner, Rainald; Moorjani, Priya; Morgan, Jubel; Muller, Heike; Murphy, Dennis L.; Naarden, Allan L.; Nurmi, Erika; Ochoa, William Cornejo; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Pato, Michele T.; Pato, Carlo N.; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Rauch, Scott L.; Renner, Tobias; Reus, Victor I.; Richter, Margaret A.; Riddle, Mark A.; Robertson, Mary M.; Romero, Roxana; Rosario, Maria C.; Rosenberg, David; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sabatti, Chiara; Salvi, Erika; Sampaio, Aline S.; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Service, Susan K.; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S.; Smit, Jan H.; Stein, Dan J.; Strengman, Eric; Tischfield, Jay A.; Turiel, Maurizio; Duarte, Ana V. Valencia; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Weale, Mike; Weiss, Robert; Wendland, Jens R.; Westenberg, Herman G. M.; Shugart, Yin Yao; Hounie, Ana G.; Miguel, Euripedes C.; Nicolini, Humberto; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Cath, Danielle C.; McMahon, William; Posthuma, Danielle; Oostra, Ben A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Routeau, Guy A.; Purcell, Shaun; Jenike, Michael A.; Heutink, Peter; Hanna, Gregory L.; Conti, David V.; Arnold, Paul D.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Stewart, Evelyn; Knowles, James A.; Cox, Nancy J.; Pauls, David L.

    Objective: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identification of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. The

  13. Cross-disorder genome-wide analyses suggest a complex genetic relationship between Tourette's syndrome and OCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Davis, Lea K.; Gamazon, Eric R.; Derks, Eske M.; Evans, Patrick; Edlund, Christopher K.; Crane, Jacquelyn; Fagerness, Jesen A.; Osiecki, Lisa; Gallagher, Patience; Gerber, Gloria; Haddad, Stephen; Illmann, Cornelia; McGrath, Lauren M.; Mayerfeld, Catherine; Arepalli, Sampath; Barlassina, Cristina; Barr, Cathy L.; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Berrió, Gabriel Bedoya; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Black, Donald W.; Bloch, Michael H.; Brentani, Helena; Bruun, Ruth D.; Budman, Cathy L.; Camarena, Beatriz; Campbell, Desmond D.; Cappi, Carolina; Silgado, Julio C. Cardona; Cavallini, Maria C.; Chavira, Denise A.; Chouinard, Sylvain; Cook, Edwin H.; Cookson, M. R.; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Cusi, Daniele; Delorme, Richard; Denys, Damiaan; Dion, Yves; Eapen, Valsama; Egberts, Karin; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas; Fournier, Eduardo; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Gilbert, Donald L.; Girard, Simon L.; Grabe, Hans J.; Grados, Marco A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Grünblatt, Edna; Hardy, John; Heiman, Gary A.; Hemmings, Sian M. J.; Herrera, Luis D.; Hezel, Dianne M.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L.; King, Robert A.; Konkashbaev, Anuar I.; Kremeyer, Barbara; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F.; Lennertz, Leonhard; Liu, Chunyu; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L.; Lupoli, Sara; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; Manunta, Paolo; Marconi, Maurizio; McCracken, James T.; Mesa Restrepo, Sandra C.; Moessner, Rainald; Moorjani, Priya; Morgan, Jubel; Muller, Heike; Murphy, Dennis L.; Naarden, Allan L.; Nurmi, Erika; Ochoa, William Cornejo; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Pato, Michele T.; Pato, Carlos N.; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Rauch, Scott L.; Renner, Tobias; Reus, Victor I.; Richter, Margaret A.; Riddle, Mark A.; Robertson, Mary M.; Romero, Roxana; Rosário, Maria C.; Rosenberg, David; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sabatti, Chiara; Salvi, Erika; Sampaio, Aline S.; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Service, Susan K.; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S.; Smit, Jan H.; Stein, Dan J.; Strengman, Eric; Tischfield, Jay A.; Turiel, Maurizio; Valencia Duarte, Ana V.; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Weale, Mike; Weiss, Robert; Wendland, Jens R.; Westenberg, Herman G. M.; Shugart, Yin Yao; Hounie, Ana G.; Miguel, Euripedes C.; Nicolini, Humberto; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Cath, Danielle C.; McMahon, William; Posthuma, Danielle; Oostra, Ben A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Rouleau, Guy A.; Purcell, Shaun; Jenike, Michael A.; Heutink, Peter; Hanna, Gregory L.; Conti, David V.; Arnold, Paul D.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Knowles, James A.; Cox, Nancy J.; Pauls, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identification of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. The authors report a

  14. Cross-Disorder Genome-Wide Analyses Suggest a Complex Genetic Relationship Between Tourette's Syndrome and OCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Neale, Benjamin M; Davis, Lea K; Gamazon, Eric R; Derks, Eske M; Evans, Patrick; Edlund, Christopher K; Crane, Jacquelyn; Fagerness, Jesen A; Osiecki, Lisa; Gallagher, Patience; Gerber, Gloria; Haddad, Stephen; Illmann, Cornelia; McGrath, Lauren M; Mayerfeld, Catherine; Arepalli, Sampath; Barlassina, Cristina; Barr, Cathy L; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Berrió, Gabriel Bedoya; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Black, Donald W; Bloch, Michael H; Brentani, Helena; Bruun, Ruth D; Budman, Cathy L; Camarena, Beatriz; Campbell, Desmond D; Cappi, Carolina; Silgado, Julio C Cardona; Cavallini, Maria C; Chavira, Denise A; Chouinard, Sylvain; Cook, Edwin H; Cookson, M R; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Cusi, Daniele; Delorme, Richard; Denys, Damiaan; Dion, Yves; Eapen, Valsama; Egberts, Karin; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas; Fournier, Eduardo; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Gilbert, Donald L; Girard, Simon L; Grabe, Hans J; Grados, Marco A; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Grünblatt, Edna; Hardy, John; Heiman, Gary A; Hemmings, Sian M J; Herrera, Luis D; Hezel, Dianne M; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L; King, Robert A; Konkashbaev, Anuar I; Kremeyer, Barbara; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F; Lennertz, Leonhard; Liu, Chunyu; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L; Lupoli, Sara; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; Manunta, Paolo; Marconi, Maurizio; McCracken, James T; Mesa Restrepo, Sandra C; Moessner, Rainald; Moorjani, Priya; Morgan, Jubel; Muller, Heike; Murphy, Dennis L; Naarden, Allan L; Nurmi, Erika; Ochoa, William Cornejo; Ophoff, Roel A; Pakstis, Andrew J; Pato, Michele T; Pato, Carlos N; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Rauch, Scott L; Renner, Tobias; Reus, Victor I; Richter, Margaret A; Riddle, Mark A; Robertson, Mary M; Romero, Roxana; Rosário, Maria C; Rosenberg, David; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sabatti, Chiara; Salvi, Erika; Sampaio, Aline S; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Service, Susan K; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S; Smit, Jan H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113700644; Stein, Dan J; Strengman, Eric; Tischfield, Jay A; Turiel, Maurizio; Valencia Duarte, Ana V; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Weale, Mike; Weiss, Robert; Wendland, Jens R; Westenberg, Herman G M; Shugart, Yin Yao; Hounie, Ana G; Miguel, Euripedes C; Nicolini, Humberto; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Cath, Danielle C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/194111423; McMahon, William; Posthuma, Danielle; Oostra, Ben A; Nestadt, Gerald; Rouleau, Guy A; Purcell, Shaun; Jenike, Michael A; Heutink, Peter; Hanna, Gregory L; Conti, David V; Arnold, Paul D; Freimer, Nelson B; Stewart, S Evelyn; Knowles, James A; Cox, Nancy J; Pauls, David L

    OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identification of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. The

  15. Cross-Disorder Genome-Wide Analyses Suggest a Complex Genetic Relationship Between Tourette's Syndrome and OCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, D.M.; Mathews, C.A.; Scharf, J.M.; Neale, B.M.; Davis, L.K.; Gamazon, E.R.; Derks, E.M.; Evans, P.; Edlund, C.K.; Crane, J.; Osiecki, L.; Gallagher, P.; Gerber, G.; Haddad, S.; Illmann, C.; McGrath, L.M.; Mayerfeld, C.; Arepalli, S.; Barlassina, C.; Barr, C.L.; Bellodi, L.; Benarroch, F.; Berrio, G.B.; Bienvenu, O.J.; Black, D.W.; Bloch, M.H.; Brentani, H.; Bruun, R.D.; Budman, C.L.; Camarena, B.; Campbell, D.D.; Cappi, C.; Silgado, J.C.C.; Cavallini, M.C.; Chavira, D.A.; Chouinard, S.; Cook, E.H.; Cookson, M.R.; Coric, V.; Cullen, B.; Cusi, D.; Delorme, R.; Denys, D.; Dion, Y.; Eapen, V.; Egberts, K.; Falkai, P.; Fernandez, T.; Fournier, E.; Garrido, H.; Geller, D.; Gilbert, D.L.; Girard, S.L.; Grabe, H.J.; Grados, M.A.; Greenberg, B.D.; Gross-Tsur, V.; Grunblatt, E.; Hardy, J.; Heiman, G.A.; Hemmings, S.M.J.; Herrera, L.D.; Hezel, D.M.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Jankovic, J.; Kennedy, J.L.; King, R.A.; Konkashbaev, A.I.; Kremeyer, B.; Kurlan, R.; Lanzagorta, N.; Leboyer, M.; Leckman, J.F.; Lennertz, L.; Liu, C.Y.; Lochner, C.; Lowe, T.L.; Lupoli, S.; Macciardi, F.; Maier, W.; Manunta, P.; Marconi, M.; McCracken, J.T.; Restrepo, S.C.M.; Moessner, R.; Moorjani, P.; Morgan, J.; Muller, H.; Murphy, D.L.; Naarden, A.L.; Nurmi, E.; Ochoa, W.C.; Ophoff, R. A.; Pakstis, A.J.; Pato, M.T.; Pato, C.N.; Piacentini, J.; Pittenger, C.; Pollak, Y.; Smit, J.H.; Posthuma, D.; Cox, N.J.; Pauls, D.L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identi fication of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. The

  16. Cross-disorder genome-wide analyses suggest a complex genetic relationship between Tourette's syndrome and OCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Dongmei; Cusi, Daniele; Delorme, Richard; Denys, D.; Dion, Yves; Eapen, Valsama; Heutink, Peter; Cox, Nancy J; Pauls, David L

    OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identification of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. The

  17. Adaptive control for a class of nonlinear complex dynamical systems with uncertain complex parameters and perturbations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    Full Text Available In this paper, adaptive control is extended from real space to complex space, resulting in a new control scheme for a class of n-dimensional time-dependent strict-feedback complex-variable chaotic (hyperchaotic systems (CVCSs in the presence of uncertain complex parameters and perturbations, which has not been previously reported in the literature. In detail, we have developed a unified framework for designing the adaptive complex scalar controller to ensure this type of CVCSs asymptotically stable and for selecting complex update laws to estimate unknown complex parameters. In particular, combining Lyapunov functions dependent on complex-valued vectors and back-stepping technique, sufficient criteria on stabilization of CVCSs are derived in the sense of Wirtinger calculus in complex space. Finally, numerical simulation is presented to validate our theoretical results.

  18. Adaptive control for a class of nonlinear complex dynamical systems with uncertain complex parameters and perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Liu, Kexin; Liu, Shutang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, adaptive control is extended from real space to complex space, resulting in a new control scheme for a class of n-dimensional time-dependent strict-feedback complex-variable chaotic (hyperchaotic) systems (CVCSs) in the presence of uncertain complex parameters and perturbations, which has not been previously reported in the literature. In detail, we have developed a unified framework for designing the adaptive complex scalar controller to ensure this type of CVCSs asymptotically stable and for selecting complex update laws to estimate unknown complex parameters. In particular, combining Lyapunov functions dependent on complex-valued vectors and back-stepping technique, sufficient criteria on stabilization of CVCSs are derived in the sense of Wirtinger calculus in complex space. Finally, numerical simulation is presented to validate our theoretical results.

  19. Phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity of the Polypedates leucomystax complex in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittisak Buddhachat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic uncertainty of the Asian tree frog Polypedates leucomystax complex presents the challenging task of inferring its biogeographical history. Here, we describe its dispersion and the genetic relationships among different populations in Thailand, where we connect the population of the P. leucomystax complex of the Sunda Islands to the Indochina (mainland population based on analyses of 266 sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene. Our maternal genealogy implies that there are four well-supported lineages in Thailand, consisting of Northern A (clade A: Polypedates sp., Nan (clade B: P. cf. impresus, Southern (clade C: P. cf. leucomystax and Northern D (clade D: P. cf. megacephalus, with Bayesian posterior probability >0.9. Phylogeny and haplotype networks indicate that clades A, B and D are sympatric. In contrast, clade C (P. cf. leucomystax and clade D (P. cf. megacephalus are genetically divergent due to the geographical barrier of the Isthmus of Kra, resulting in an allopatric distribution. Climatic conditions, in particular differences in rainfall on each side of the Isthmus of Kra, may play an important role in limiting the immigration of both clades. For the within-populations of either clades C or D, there was no significant correlation between geographic and genetic distance by the isolation-by-distance test, indicating intraspecific-dispersal of each clade. Population expansion occurred in clade C, whereas clade D showed a constant population. Taken together, the P. leucomystax complex in South East Asia may have diversified under climatic pressure, leading to allopatric and/or sympatric speciation.

  20. Foundations of Complex Systems Nonlinear Dynamics, Statistical Physics, and Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolis, Gregoire

    2007-01-01

    Complexity is emerging as a post-Newtonian paradigm for approaching a large body of phenomena of concern at the crossroads of physical, engineering, environmental, life and human sciences from a unifying point of view. This book outlines the foundations of modern complexity research as it arose from the cross-fertilization of ideas and tools from nonlinear science, statistical physics and numerical simulation. It is shown how these developments lead to an understanding, both qualitative and quantitative, of the complex systems encountered in nature and in everyday experience and, conversely, h

  1. Transferability of MCR-1/2 Polymyxin Resistance: Complex Dissemination and Genetic Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Youjun

    2018-03-09

    Polymyxins, a group of cationic antimicrobial polypeptides, act as a last-resort defense against lethal infections by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. Recent emergence and fast spread of mobilized colistin resistance determinant mcr-1 argue the renewed interest of colistin in clinical therapies, threatening global public health and agriculture production. This mini-review aims to present an updated overview of mcr-1, covering its global dissemination, the diversity of its hosts/plasmid reservoirs, the complexity in the genetic environment adjacent to mcr-1, the appearance of new mcr-like genes, and the molecular mechanisms for mobilized colistin resistance determinant 1/2 (MCR-1/2).

  2. YouGenMap: a web platform for dynamic multi-comparative mapping and visualization of genetic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Batesole; Kokulapalan Wimalanathan; Lin Liu; Fan Zhang; Craig S. Echt; Chun Liang

    2014-01-01

    Comparative genetic maps are used in examination of genome organization, detection of conserved gene order, and exploration of marker order variations. YouGenMap is an open-source web tool that offers dynamic comparative mapping capability of users' own genetic mapping between 2 or more map sets. Users' genetic map data and optional gene annotations are...

  3. Early signatures of regime shifts in complex dynamical systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-05

    Feb 5, 2015 ... journal of. February 2015 ... populations, financial markets, complex diseases and gene circuits. ... A recent exhaustive analysis of recorded ecosystem shifts points to an approach- .... The quantitative estimation of these.

  4. Impulsive generalized function synchronization of complex dynamical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qunjiao; Chen, Juan; Wan, Li

    2013-01-01

    This Letter investigates generalized function synchronization of continuous and discrete complex networks by impulsive control. By constructing the reasonable corresponding impulsively controlled response networks, some criteria and corollaries are derived for the generalized function synchronization between the impulsively controlled complex networks, continuous and discrete networks are both included. Furthermore, the generalized linear synchronization and nonlinear synchronization are respectively illustrated by several examples. All the numerical simulations demonstrate the correctness of the theoretical results

  5. Introduction to turbulent dynamical systems in complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Majda, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    This volume is a research expository article on the applied mathematics of turbulent dynamical systems through the paradigm of modern applied mathematics. It involves the blending of rigorous mathematical theory, qualitative and quantitative modeling, and novel numerical procedures driven by the goal of understanding physical phenomena which are of central importance to the field. The contents cover general framework, concrete examples, and instructive qualitative models. Accessible open problems are mentioned throughout. Topics covered include: · Geophysical flows with rotation, topography, deterministic and random forcing · New statistical energy principles for general turbulent dynamical systems, with applications · Linear statistical response theory combined with information theory to cope with model errors · Reduced low order models · Recent mathematical strategies for online data assimilation of turbulent dynamical systems as well as rigorous results for finite ensemble Kalman filters The volume wi...

  6. Optimizing Technology-Oriented Constructional Paramour's of complex dynamic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Creating optimal vibro systems requires sequential solving of a few problems: selecting the basic pattern of dynamic actions, synthesizing the dynamic active systems, optimizing technological, technical, economic and design parameters. This approach is illustrated by an example of a high-efficiency vibro system synthesized for forming building structure components. When using only one single source to excite oscillations, resonance oscillations are imparted to the product to be formed in the horizontal and vertical planes. In order to obtain versatile and dynamically optimized parameters, a factor is introduced into the differential equations of the motion, accounting for the relationship between the parameters, which determine the frequency characteristics of the system and the parameter variation range. This results in obtaining non-sophisticated mathematical models of the system under investigation, convenient for optimization and for engineering design and calculations as well

  7. Asymmetrically interacting spreading dynamics on complex layered networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Tang, Ming; Yang, Hui; Younghae Do; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Lee, GyuWon

    2014-05-29

    The spread of disease through a physical-contact network and the spread of information about the disease on a communication network are two intimately related dynamical processes. We investigate the asymmetrical interplay between the two types of spreading dynamics, each occurring on its own layer, by focusing on the two fundamental quantities underlying any spreading process: epidemic threshold and the final infection ratio. We find that an epidemic outbreak on the contact layer can induce an outbreak on the communication layer, and information spreading can effectively raise the epidemic threshold. When structural correlation exists between the two layers, the information threshold remains unchanged but the epidemic threshold can be enhanced, making the contact layer more resilient to epidemic outbreak. We develop a physical theory to understand the intricate interplay between the two types of spreading dynamics.

  8. Topology Detection for Output-Coupling Weighted Complex Dynamical Networks with Coupling and Transmission Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Topology detection for output-coupling weighted complex dynamical networks with two types of time delays is investigated in this paper. Different from existing literatures, coupling delay and transmission delay are simultaneously taken into account in the output-coupling network. Based on the idea of the state observer, we build the drive-response system and apply LaSalle’s invariance principle to the error dynamical system of the drive-response system. Several convergent criteria are deduced in the form of algebraic inequalities. Some numerical simulations for the complex dynamical network, with node dynamics being chaotic, are given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  9. Landscape genetics highlights the role of bank vole metapopulation dynamics in the epidemiology of Puumala hantavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guivier, E; Galan, M; Chaval, Y; Xuéreb, A; Ribas Salvador, A; Poulle, M-L; Voutilainen, L; Henttonen, H; Charbonnel, N; Cosson, J F

    2011-09-01

    Rodent host dynamics and dispersal are thought to be critical for hantavirus epidemiology as they determine pathogen persistence and transmission within and between host populations. We used landscape genetics to investigate how the population dynamics of the bank vole Myodes glareolus, the host of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV), vary with forest fragmentation and influence PUUV epidemiology. We sampled vole populations within the Ardennes, a French PUUV endemic area. We inferred demographic features such as population size, isolation and migration with regard to landscape configuration. We next analysed the influence of M. glareolus population dynamics on PUUV spatial distribution. Our results revealed that the global metapopulation dynamics of bank voles were strongly shaped by landscape features, including suitable patch size and connectivity. Large effective size in forest might therefore contribute to the higher observed levels of PUUV prevalence. By contrast, populations from hedge networks highly suffered from genetic drift and appeared strongly isolated from all other populations. This might result in high probabilities of local extinction for both M. glareolus and PUUV. Besides, we detected signatures of asymmetric bank vole migration from forests to hedges. These movements were likely to sustain PUUV in fragmented landscapes. In conclusion, our study provided arguments in favour of source-sink dynamics shaping PUUV persistence and spread in heterogeneous, Western European temperate landscapes. It illustrated the potential contribution of landscape genetics to the understanding of the epidemiological processes occurring at this local scale. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Transition Manifolds of Complex Metastable Systems: Theory and Data-Driven Computation of Effective Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittracher, Andreas; Koltai, Péter; Klus, Stefan; Banisch, Ralf; Dellnitz, Michael; Schütte, Christof

    2018-01-01

    We consider complex dynamical systems showing metastable behavior, but no local separation of fast and slow time scales. The article raises the question of whether such systems exhibit a low-dimensional manifold supporting its effective dynamics. For answering this question, we aim at finding nonlinear coordinates, called reaction coordinates, such that the projection of the dynamics onto these coordinates preserves the dominant time scales of the dynamics. We show that, based on a specific reducibility property, the existence of good low-dimensional reaction coordinates preserving the dominant time scales is guaranteed. Based on this theoretical framework, we develop and test a novel numerical approach for computing good reaction coordinates. The proposed algorithmic approach is fully local and thus not prone to the curse of dimension with respect to the state space of the dynamics. Hence, it is a promising method for data-based model reduction of complex dynamical systems such as molecular dynamics.

  11. The Influence of Information Acquisition on the Complex Dynamics of Market Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhanbing; Ma, Junhai

    In this paper, we build a dynamical game model with three bounded rational players (firms) to study the influence of information on the complex dynamics of market competition, where useful information is about rival’s real decision. In this dynamical game model, one information-sharing team is composed of two firms, they acquire and share the information about their common competitor, however, they make their own decisions separately, where the amount of information acquired by this information-sharing team will determine the estimation accuracy about the rival’s real decision. Based on this dynamical game model and some creative 3D diagrams, the influence of the amount of information on the complex dynamics of market competition such as local dynamics, global dynamics and profits is studied. These results have significant theoretical and practical values to realize the influence of information.

  12. Portuguese crypto-Jews: the genetic heritage of a complex history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueiro, Inês; Teixeira, João C.; Amorim, António; Gusmão, Leonor; Alvarez, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The first documents mentioning Jewish people in Iberia are from the Visigothic period. It was also in this period that the first documented anti-Judaic persecution took place. Other episodes of persecution would happen again and again during the long troubled history of the Jewish people in Iberia and culminated with the Decrees of Expulsion and the establishment of the Inquisition: some Jews converted to Catholicism while others resisted and were forcedly baptized, becoming the first Iberian Crypto-Jews. In the 18th century the official discrimination and persecution carried out by the Inquisition ended and several Jewish communities emerged in Portugal. From a populational genetics point of view, the worldwide Diaspora of contemporary Jewish communities has been intensely studied. Nevertheless, very little information is available concerning Sephardic and Iberian Crypto-Jewish descendants. Data from the Iberian Peninsula, the original geographic source of Sephardic Jews, is limited to two populations in Portugal, Belmonte, and Bragança district, and the Chueta community from Mallorca. Belmonte was the first Jewish community studied for uniparental markers. The construction of a reference model for the history of the Portuguese Jewish communities, in which the genetic and classical historical data interplay dynamically, is still ongoing. Recently an enlarged sample covering a wide region in the Northeast Portugal was undertaken, allowing the genetic profiling of male and female lineages. A Jewish specific shared female lineage (HV0b) was detected between the community of Belmonte and Bragança. In contrast to what was previously described as a hallmark of the Portuguese Jews, an unexpectedly high polymorphism of lineages was found in Bragança, showing a surprising resistance to the erosion of genetic diversity typical of small-sized isolate populations, as well as signs of admixture with the Portuguese host population. PMID:25699075

  13. Portuguese crypto-Jews: the genetic heritage of a complex history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueiro, Inês; Teixeira, João C; Amorim, António; Gusmão, Leonor; Alvarez, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The first documents mentioning Jewish people in Iberia are from the Visigothic period. It was also in this period that the first documented anti-Judaic persecution took place. Other episodes of persecution would happen again and again during the long troubled history of the Jewish people in Iberia and culminated with the Decrees of Expulsion and the establishment of the Inquisition: some Jews converted to Catholicism while others resisted and were forcedly baptized, becoming the first Iberian Crypto-Jews. In the 18th century the official discrimination and persecution carried out by the Inquisition ended and several Jewish communities emerged in Portugal. From a populational genetics point of view, the worldwide Diaspora of contemporary Jewish communities has been intensely studied. Nevertheless, very little information is available concerning Sephardic and Iberian Crypto-Jewish descendants. Data from the Iberian Peninsula, the original geographic source of Sephardic Jews, is limited to two populations in Portugal, Belmonte, and Bragança district, and the Chueta community from Mallorca. Belmonte was the first Jewish community studied for uniparental markers. The construction of a reference model for the history of the Portuguese Jewish communities, in which the genetic and classical historical data interplay dynamically, is still ongoing. Recently an enlarged sample covering a wide region in the Northeast Portugal was undertaken, allowing the genetic profiling of male and female lineages. A Jewish specific shared female lineage (HV0b) was detected between the community of Belmonte and Bragança. In contrast to what was previously described as a hallmark of the Portuguese Jews, an unexpectedly high polymorphism of lineages was found in Bragança, showing a surprising resistance to the erosion of genetic diversity typical of small-sized isolate populations, as well as signs of admixture with the Portuguese host population.

  14. PORTUGUESE CRYPTO-JEWS: THE GENETIC HERITAGE OF A COMPLEX HISTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Pires Nogueiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The first documents mentioning Jewish people in Iberia are from the Visigothic period. It was also in this period that the first documented anti-Judaic persecution took place. Other episodes of persecution would happen again and again during the long troubled history of the Jewish people in Iberia and culminated with the Decrees of Expulsion and the establishment of the Inquisition: some Jews converted to Catholicism while others resisted and were forcedly baptized, becoming the first Iberian Crypto-Jews. In the 18th century the official discrimination and persecution carried out by the Inquisition ended and several Jewish communities emerged in Portugal. From a populational genetics point of view, the worldwide Diaspora of contemporary Jewish communities has been intensely studied. Nevertheless, very little information is available concerning Sephardic and Iberian Crypto-Jewish descendants. Data from the Iberian Peninsula, the original geographic source of Sephardic Jews, is limited to two populations in Portugal, Belmonte and Bragança district, and the Chueta community from Mallorca. Belmonte was the first Jewish community studied for uniparental markers. The construction of a reference model for the history of the Portuguese Jewish communities, in which the genetic and classical historical data interplay dynamically, is still ongoing. Recently an enlarged sample covering a wide region in the Northeast Portugal was undertaken, allowing the genetic profiling of male and female lineages. A Jewish specific shared female lineage (HV0b was detected between the community of Belmonte and Bragança. In contrast to what was previously described as a hallmark of the Portuguese Jews, an unexpectedly high polymorphism of lineages’ was found in Bragança, showing a surprising resistance to the erosion of genetic diversity typical of small-sized isolate populations, as well as signs of admixture with the Portuguese host population.

  15. Lack of genetic association of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huehne, Kathrin; Schaal, Ute; Leis, Stefan; Uebe, Steffen; Gosso, M Florencia; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Maihöfner, Christian; Birklein, Frank; Rautenstrauss, Bernd; Winterpacht, Andreas

    2010-03-12

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a condition that is characterized by severe pain and exaggerated neurogenic inflammation, which may develop after injury or surgery. Neurogenic inflammation is mediated by neuropeptides, such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) that are released from nociceptors. Genetic factors may play a role in CRPS as was suggested by the occurrence of familial cases and several genetic association studies investigating mainly the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system. Here we investigated the role of neutral endopeptidase (NEP), a key enzyme in neuropeptide catabolism. NEP dysfunction resulting in reduced inactivation of neuropeptides may be a possible pathomechanism in CRPS. To this end, we tested a GT-repeat polymorphism in the NEP promoter region as well as 18 tag-SNPs in six linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks in the NEP gene region in 320 CRPS patients and 376 controls. No significant genetic association was observed. Thus, we conclude that the NEP gene does not seem to be a major risk factor for CRPS. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Planning using dynamic epistemic logic: Correspondence and complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Holm

    2013-01-01

    A growing community investigates planning using dynamic epistemic logic. Another framework based on similar ideas is knowledge-based programs as plans. Here we show how actions correspond in the two frameworks. We finally discuss fragments of DEL planning obtained by the restriction of event models...

  17. Holomorphic Dynamical Systems in the Complex Plane: An Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Bodil

    1995-01-01

    The paper reviews some basic properties of Julia sets of polynomials and the Mandelbrot set. In particular we emphasize the concept of normal families, the importance of repelling periodic points. The paper is the first one in a series of three papers about Holomorphic Dynamics in the Proceedings...

  18. Positive Affect and the Complex Dynamics of Human Flourishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.; Losada, Marcial F.

    2005-01-01

    Extending B. L. Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions and M. Losada's (1999) nonlinear dynamics model of team performance, the authors predict that a ratio of positive to negative affect at or above 2.9 will characterize individuals in flourishing mental health. Participants (N=188) completed an initial survey to…

  19. Borrowing constraints and complex dynamics in an OLG framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assenza, Tiziana; Agliari, Anna; Delli Gatti, Domenico

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we model an OLG economy à la Kiyotaki and Moore whose novel feature is the role of money as a store of value and of bequest as a source of funds to be "invested" in landholding. The dynamics generated by the model are generally characterized by irregular cyclical trajectories and...

  20. Complexity of gold nanoparticle formation disclosed by dynamics study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrekt, Christian; Jensen, Palle Skovhus; Sørensen, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    from redox potential, pH, conductivity, and turbidity of the solution enables distinct observation of reduction and nucleation/growth of AuNPs phases. The dynamics of the electrochemical potential shows that reduction of gold salt (HAuCl 4 and its hydrolyzed forms) occurs via intermediate [AuCl 2...

  1. Identifying protein complex by integrating characteristic of core-attachment into dynamic PPI network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianjun Shen

    Full Text Available How to identify protein complex is an important and challenging task in proteomics. It would make great contribution to our knowledge of molecular mechanism in cell life activities. However, the inherent organization and dynamic characteristic of cell system have rarely been incorporated into the existing algorithms for detecting protein complexes because of the limitation of protein-protein interaction (PPI data produced by high throughput techniques. The availability of time course gene expression profile enables us to uncover the dynamics of molecular networks and improve the detection of protein complexes. In order to achieve this goal, this paper proposes a novel algorithm DCA (Dynamic Core-Attachment. It detects protein-complex core comprising of continually expressed and highly connected proteins in dynamic PPI network, and then the protein complex is formed by including the attachments with high adhesion into the core. The integration of core-attachment feature into the dynamic PPI network is responsible for the superiority of our algorithm. DCA has been applied on two different yeast dynamic PPI networks and the experimental results show that it performs significantly better than the state-of-the-art techniques in terms of prediction accuracy, hF-measure and statistical significance in biology. In addition, the identified complexes with strong biological significance provide potential candidate complexes for biologists to validate.

  2. Genetic complexity in a Drosophila model of diabetes-associated misfolded human proinsulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Young; Ludwig, Michael Z; Tamarina, Natalia A; He, Bin Z; Carl, Sarah H; Dickerson, Desiree A; Barse, Levi; Arun, Bharath; Williams, Calvin L; Miles, Cecelia M; Philipson, Louis H; Steiner, Donald F; Bell, Graeme I; Kreitman, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has been widely used as a model of human Mendelian disease, but its value in modeling complex disease has received little attention. Fly models of complex disease would enable high-resolution mapping of disease-modifying loci and the identification of novel targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we describe a fly model of permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus and explore the complexity of this model. The approach involves the transgenic expression of a misfolded mutant of human preproinsulin, hINS(C96Y), which is a cause of permanent neonatal diabetes. When expressed in fly imaginal discs, hINS(C96Y) causes a reduction of adult structures, including the eye, wing, and notum. Eye imaginal discs exhibit defects in both the structure and the arrangement of ommatidia. In the wing, expression of hINS(C96Y) leads to ectopic expression of veins and mechano-sensory organs, indicating disruption of wild-type signaling processes regulating cell fates. These readily measurable "disease" phenotypes are sensitive to temperature, gene dose, and sex. Mutant (but not wild-type) proinsulin expression in the eye imaginal disc induces IRE1-mediated XBP1 alternative splicing, a signal for endoplasmic reticulum stress response activation, and produces global change in gene expression. Mutant hINS transgene tester strains, when crossed to stocks from the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel, produce F1 adults with a continuous range of disease phenotypes and large broad-sense heritability. Surprisingly, the severity of mutant hINS-induced disease in the eye is not correlated with that in the notum in these crosses, nor with eye reduction phenotypes caused by the expression of two dominant eye mutants acting in two different eye development pathways, Drop (Dr) or Lobe (L), when crossed into the same genetic backgrounds. The tissue specificity of genetic variability for mutant hINS-induced disease has, therefore, its own distinct signature. The genetic dominance

  3. Higher Complexity of Infection and Genetic Diversity of Plasmodium vivax Than Plasmodium falciparum across all Malaria Transmission Zones of Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fola, Abebe A.; Harrison, G. L. Abby; Hazairin, Mita Hapsari; Barnadas, Céline; Hetzel, Manuel W.; Iga, Jonah; Siba, Peter M.; Mueller, Ivo; Barry, Alyssa E.

    2017-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax have varying transmission dynamics that are informed by molecular epidemiology. This study aimed to determine the complexity of infection and genetic diversity of P. vivax and P. falciparum throughout Papua New Guinea (PNG) to evaluate transmission dynamics across the country. In 2008–2009, a nationwide malaria indicator survey collected 8,936 samples from all 16 endemic provinces of PNG. Of these, 892 positive P. vivax samples were genotyped at PvMS16 and PvmspF3, and 758 positive P. falciparum samples were genotyped at Pfmsp2. The data were analyzed for multiplicity of infection (MOI) and genetic diversity. Overall, P. vivax had higher polyclonality (71%) and mean MOI (2.32) than P. falciparum (20%, 1.39). These measures were significantly associated with prevalence for P. falciparum but not for P. vivax. The genetic diversity of P. vivax (PvMS16: expected heterozygosity = 0.95, 0.85–0.98; PvMsp1F3: 0.78, 0.66–0.89) was higher and less variable than that of P. falciparum (Pfmsp2: 0.89, 0.65–0.97). Significant associations of MOI with allelic richness (rho = 0.69, P = 0.009) and expected heterozygosity (rho = 0.87, P < 0.001) were observed for P. falciparum. Conversely, genetic diversity was not correlated with polyclonality nor mean MOI for P. vivax. The results demonstrate higher complexity of infection and genetic diversity of P. vivax across the country. Although P. falciparum shows a strong association of these parameters with prevalence, a lack of association was observed for P. vivax and is consistent with higher potential for outcrossing of this species. PMID:28070005

  4. Integrating a Genetic Algorithm Into a Knowledge-Based System for Ordering Complex Design Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, James L.; McCulley, Collin M.; Bloebaum, Christina L.

    1996-01-01

    The design cycle associated with large engineering systems requires an initial decomposition of the complex system into design processes which are coupled through the transference of output data. Some of these design processes may be grouped into iterative subcycles. In analyzing or optimizing such a coupled system, it is essential to be able to determine the best ordering of the processes within these subcycles to reduce design cycle time and cost. Many decomposition approaches assume the capability is available to determine what design processes and couplings exist and what order of execution will be imposed during the design cycle. Unfortunately, this is often a complex problem and beyond the capabilities of a human design manager. A new feature, a genetic algorithm, has been added to DeMAID (Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition) to allow the design manager to rapidly examine many different combinations of ordering processes in an iterative subcycle and to optimize the ordering based on cost, time, and iteration requirements. Two sample test cases are presented to show the effects of optimizing the ordering with a genetic algorithm.

  5. eQTL Networks Reveal Complex Genetic Architecture in the Immature Soybean Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Tsi Bolon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The complex network of regulatory factors and interactions involved in transcriptional regulation within the seed is not well understood. To evaluate gene expression regulation in the immature seed, we utilized a genetical genomics approach on a soybean [ (L. Merr.] recombinant inbred line (RIL population and produced a genome-wide expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL dataset. The validity of the dataset was confirmed by mapping the eQTL hotspot for flavonoid biosynthesis-related genes to a region containing repeats of chalcone synthase (CHS genes known to correspond to the soybean inhibitor locus that regulates seed color. We then identified eQTL for genes with seed-specific expression and discovered striking eQTL hotspots at distinct genomic intervals on chromosomes (Chr 20, 7, and 13. The main eQTL hotspot for transcriptional regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis genes also coincided with regulation of oleosin genes. Transcriptional upregulation of genesets from eQTL with opposite allelic effects were also found. Gene–eQTL networks were constructed and candidate regulatory genes were identified from these three key loci specific to seed expression and enriched in genes involved in seed oil accumulation. Our data provides new insight into the complex nature of gene networks in the immature soybean seed and the genetic architecture that contributes to seed development.

  6. Complex genetic architecture of cardiac disease in a wild type inbred strain of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zhang

    Full Text Available Natural populations of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, segregate genetic variation that leads to cardiac disease phenotypes. One nearly isogenic line from a North Carolina peach orchard, WE70, is shown to harbor two genetically distinct heart phenotypes: elevated incidence of arrhythmias, and a dramatically constricted heart diameter in both diastole and systole, with resemblance to restrictive cardiomyopathy in humans. Assuming the source to be rare variants of large effect, we performed Bulked Segregant Analysis using genomic DNA hybridization to Affymetrix chips to detect single feature polymorphisms, but found that the mutant phenotypes are more likely to have a polygenic basis. Further mapping efforts revealed a complex architecture wherein the constricted cardiomyopathy phenotype was observed in individual whole chromosome substitution lines, implying that variants on both major autosomes are sufficient to produce the phenotype. A panel of 170 Recombinant Inbred Lines (RIL was generated, and a small subset of mutant lines selected, but these each complemented both whole chromosome substitutions, implying a non-additive (epistatic contribution to the "disease" phenotype. Low coverage whole genome sequencing was also used to attempt to map chromosomal regions contributing to both the cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia, but a polygenic architecture had to be again inferred to be most likely. These results show that an apparently simple rare phenotype can have a complex genetic basis that would be refractory to mapping by deep sequencing in pedigrees. We present this as a cautionary tale regarding assumptions related to attempts to map new disease mutations on the assumption that probands carry a single causal mutation.

  7. Plasmodium falciparum: genetic diversity and complexity of infections in an isolated village in western Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Kazuyuki; Zollner, Gabriela; Vaughan, Jefferson A; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Khuntirat, Benjawan; Honma, Hajime; Mita, Toshihiro; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Coleman, Russell

    2015-06-01

    Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum is intimately associated with morbidity, mortality and malaria control strategies. It is therefore imperative to study genetic makeup and population structure of this parasite in endemic areas. In Kong Mong Tha, an isolated village in western Thailand, the majority of P. falciparum infections are asymptomatic. In this study we investigated complexity of infections and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the P. falciparum population of Kong Mong Tha, and compared results with those previously obtained from Mae Sod, in northwestern Thailand, where the majority of infections were symptomatic. Using PCR-based determination of the 5' merozoite surface protein 1 gene (msp1) recombinant types, we found that 39% of 59 P. falciparum isolates from Kong Mong Tha had multiple 5' recombinant types with a mean number of 1.54. These values were much lower than those obtained from Mae Sod: 96% for multiple infections and with a mean number of 3.61. Analysis of full-length sequences of two housekeeping genes, the P-type Ca(2+)-transporting ATPase gene (n=33) plus adenylosuccinate lyase gene (n=33), and three vaccine candidate antigen genes, msp1 (n=26), the circumsporozoite protein gene, csp (n=30) and the apical membrane antigen 1 gene, ama 1 (n=32), revealed that in all of these genes within-population SNP diversity was at similar levels between Kong Mong Tha and Mae Sod, suggesting that the extent of MOI and clinical manifestations of malaria are not strongly associated with genetic diversity. Additionally, we did not detect significant genetic differentiation between the two parasite populations, as estimated by the Wright's fixation index of inter-population variance in allele frequencies, suggesting that gene flow prevented the formation of population structuring. Thus, this study highlights unique features of P. falciparum populations in Thailand. The implications of these finding are discussed. © 2013.

  8. Robust dynamical pattern formation from a multifunctional minimal genetic circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrera Javier

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A practical problem during the analysis of natural networks is their complexity, thus the use of synthetic circuits would allow to unveil the natural mechanisms of operation. Autocatalytic gene regulatory networks play an important role in shaping the development of multicellular organisms, whereas oscillatory circuits are used to control gene expression under variable environments such as the light-dark cycle. Results We propose a new mechanism to generate developmental patterns and oscillations using a minimal number of genes. For this, we design a synthetic gene circuit with an antagonistic self-regulation to study the spatio-temporal control of protein expression. Here, we show that our minimal system can behave as a biological clock or memory, and it exhibites an inherent robustness due to a quorum sensing mechanism. We analyze this property by accounting for molecular noise in an heterogeneous population. We also show how the period of the oscillations is tunable by environmental signals, and we study the bifurcations of the system by constructing different phase diagrams. Conclusions As this minimal circuit is based on a single transcriptional unit, it provides a new mechanism based on post-translational interactions to generate targeted spatio-temporal behavior.

  9. The dynamics of maternal-effect selfish genetic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, N G

    1998-03-21

    Maternal-effect selfish genes such as Medea or Scat act to kill progeny that do not bear a copy of the selfish gene present in the mother. Previous models of this system allowed for two types of allele, the selfish (killer) type and the sensitive (susceptible) wild-type. These models predict that the invasion conditions of the selfish allele are quite broad and that if invasion is possible a high frequency equilibrium is to be expected. The selfish element is therefore predicted to persist. Here a hypothetical third allele that neither kills nor is killed (i.e. insensitive) is considered. Such an allele could enter a population by recombination, mutation or migration. The incorporation of this third allele profoundly affects the dynamics of the system and, under some parameter values, it is possible for the spread of the insensitive allele to lead, eventually, to the fixation of the wild-type allele (reversible evolution). This is most likely if the death of progeny provides no direct benefit to the surviving sibs (i.e. in the absence of fitness compensation), as in insects without gregarious broods. Under these circumstances the selfish element cannot spread when infinitely rare, only after having risen to some finite frequency. A fitness cost to bearing the killer allele then causes its loss. However, if fitness compensation is found (e.g. in placental mammals) the invasion of the selfish element from an infinitely low level is possible for a wide range of costs and both stable coexistences of all three alleles and limit cycles of all three are then found. It is therefore to be expected that in mammals selfish maternal-effect genes are more likely both to spread and to persist than in insects, due to their different levels of fitness compensation.

  10. Ultrafast Dynamics of Dansylated POPAM Dendrimers and Energy Transfer in their Dye Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumanen, J.; Kesti, T.; Sundström, V.; Vögtle, F.; Korppi-Tommola, J.

    We have studied internal dynamics of dansylated poly(propyleneamine) dendrimers of different generations in solution and excitation energy transfer from dansyl chromophores to xanthene dyes that form van der Waals complexes with the dendrimers

  11. Replication, refinement & reachability: complexity in dynamic condition-response graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas T.; Slaats, Tijs

    2017-01-01

    We explore the complexity of reachability and run-time refinement under safety and liveness constraints in event-based process models. Our study is framed in the DCR? process language, which supports modular specification through a compositional operational semantics. DCR? encompasses the “Dynami...

  12. Construction of exact complex dynamical invariant of a two ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    system possesses a complex invariant, namely u = ln(p + imωx) − iωt [6]. ... gaining importance for explaining several phenomena [10] such as the resonance .... then H1 and H2 satisfy the Cauchy–Riemann conditions [18] and after employing.

  13. Microbial bebop: creating music from complex dynamics in microbial ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Larsen

    Full Text Available In order for society to make effective policy decisions on complex and far-reaching subjects, such as appropriate responses to global climate change, scientists must effectively communicate complex results to the non-scientifically specialized public. However, there are few ways however to transform highly complicated scientific data into formats that are engaging to the general community. Taking inspiration from patterns observed in nature and from some of the principles of jazz bebop improvisation, we have generated Microbial Bebop, a method by which microbial environmental data are transformed into music. Microbial Bebop uses meter, pitch, duration, and harmony to highlight the relationships between multiple data types in complex biological datasets. We use a comprehensive microbial ecology, time course dataset collected at the L4 marine monitoring station in the Western English Channel as an example of microbial ecological data that can be transformed into music. Four compositions were generated (www.bio.anl.gov/MicrobialBebop.htm. from L4 Station data using Microbial Bebop. Each composition, though deriving from the same dataset, is created to highlight different relationships between environmental conditions and microbial community structure. The approach presented here can be applied to a wide variety of complex biological datasets.

  14. Microbial bebop: creating music from complex dynamics in microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Peter; Gilbert, Jack

    2013-01-01

    In order for society to make effective policy decisions on complex and far-reaching subjects, such as appropriate responses to global climate change, scientists must effectively communicate complex results to the non-scientifically specialized public. However, there are few ways however to transform highly complicated scientific data into formats that are engaging to the general community. Taking inspiration from patterns observed in nature and from some of the principles of jazz bebop improvisation, we have generated Microbial Bebop, a method by which microbial environmental data are transformed into music. Microbial Bebop uses meter, pitch, duration, and harmony to highlight the relationships between multiple data types in complex biological datasets. We use a comprehensive microbial ecology, time course dataset collected at the L4 marine monitoring station in the Western English Channel as an example of microbial ecological data that can be transformed into music. Four compositions were generated (www.bio.anl.gov/MicrobialBebop.htm.) from L4 Station data using Microbial Bebop. Each composition, though deriving from the same dataset, is created to highlight different relationships between environmental conditions and microbial community structure. The approach presented here can be applied to a wide variety of complex biological datasets.

  15. Managing complexity in process digitalisation with dynamic condition response graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Debois, Søren; Slaats, Tijs

    2017-01-01

    . Sadly, it is also witnessed by a number of expensive failed digitalisation projects. In this paper we point to two key problems in state-of-The art BPM technologies: 1) the use of rigid flow diagrams as the "source code" of process digitalisation is not suitable for managing the complexity of knowledge...

  16. Dynamics in photosynthetic transient complexes studied by paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scanu, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    This PhD thesis focuses on fundamental aspects of protein-protein interactions. A multidisciplinary methodology for the detection and visualization of transient, lowly-populated encounter protein complexes is described. The new methodology combined paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy with computational

  17. Complex Dynamics in Physiological Systems: From Heart to Brain

    CERN Document Server

    Dana, Syamal K; Kurths, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics has become an important field of research in recent years in many areas of the natural sciences. In particular, it has potential applications in biology and medicine; nonlinear data analysis has helped to detect the progress of cardiac disease, physiological disorders, for example episodes of epilepsy, and others. This book focuses on the current trends of research concerning the prediction of sudden cardiac death and the onset of epileptic seizures, using the nonlinear analysis based on ECG and EEG data. Topics covered include the analysis of cardiac models and neural models. The book is a collection of recent research papers by leading physicists, mathematicians, cardiologists and neurobiologists who are actively involved in using the concepts of nonlinear dynamics to explore the functional behaviours of heart and brain under normal and pathological conditions. This collection is intended for students in physics, mathematics and medical sciences, and researchers in interdisciplinary areas...

  18. Complex networks: when random walk dynamics equals synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriener, Birgit; Anand, Lishma; Timme, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Synchrony prevalently emerges from the interactions of coupled dynamical units. For simple systems such as networks of phase oscillators, the asymptotic synchronization process is assumed to be equivalent to a Markov process that models standard diffusion or random walks on the same network topology. In this paper, we analytically derive the conditions for such equivalence for networks of pulse-coupled oscillators, which serve as models for neurons and pacemaker cells interacting by exchanging electric pulses or fireflies interacting via light flashes. We find that the pulse synchronization process is less simple, but there are classes of, e.g., network topologies that ensure equivalence. In particular, local dynamical operators are required to be doubly stochastic. These results provide a natural link between stochastic processes and deterministic synchronization on networks. Tools for analyzing diffusion (or, more generally, Markov processes) may now be transferred to pin down features of synchronization in networks of pulse-coupled units such as neural circuits. (paper)

  19. The complex dynamics of wishful thinking: the critical positivity ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicholas J L; Sokal, Alan D; Friedman, Harris L

    2013-12-01

    We examine critically the claims made by Fredrickson and Losada (2005) concerning the construct known as the "positivity ratio." We find no theoretical or empirical justification for the use of differential equations drawn from fluid dynamics, a subfield of physics, to describe changes in human emotions over time; furthermore, we demonstrate that the purported application of these equations contains numerous fundamental conceptual and mathematical errors. The lack of relevance of these equations and their incorrect application lead us to conclude that Fredrickson and Losada's claim to have demonstrated the existence of a critical minimum positivity ratio of 2.9013 is entirely unfounded. More generally, we urge future researchers to exercise caution in the use of advanced mathematical tools, such as nonlinear dynamics, and in particular to verify that the elementary conditions for their valid application have been met. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. RG-Whitham dynamics and complex Hamiltonian systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gorsky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the Seiberg–Witten exact solution, we consider some aspects of the Hamiltonian dynamics with the complexified phase space focusing at the renormalization group (RG-like Whitham behavior. We show that at the Argyres–Douglas (AD point the number of degrees of freedom in Hamiltonian system effectively reduces and argue that anomalous dimensions at AD point coincide with the Berry indexes in classical mechanics. In the framework of Whitham dynamics AD point turns out to be a fixed point. We demonstrate that recently discovered Dunne–Ünsal relation in quantum mechanics relevant for the exact quantization condition exactly coincides with the Whitham equation of motion in the Ω-deformed theory.

  1. Protein complexes and cholesterol in the control of late endosomal dynamicsCholesterol and multi-protein complexes in the control of late endosomal dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, Rik Henricus Nicolaas van der

    2013-01-01

    Late endosomal transport is disrupted in several diseases such as Niemann-Pick type C, ARC syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease. This thesis describes the regulation of late endosomal dynamics by cholesterol and multi-protein complexes. We find that cholesterol acts as a cellular tomtom that steers the

  2. Positive Affect and the Complex Dynamics of Human Flourishing

    OpenAIRE

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.; Losada, Marcial F.

    2005-01-01

    Extending B. L. Fredrickson’s (1998) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions and M. Losada’s (1999) nonlinear dynamics model of team performance, the authors predict that a ratio of positive to negative affect at or above 2.9 will characterize individuals in flourishing mental health. Participants (N = 188) completed an initial survey to identify flourishing mental health and then provided daily reports of experienced positive and negative emotions over 28 days. Results showed that the ...

  3. The Effects of Different Types of Text and Individual Differences on View Complexity about Genetically Modified Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, Daniel L.; Zoellner, Brian P.; Parkinson, Meghan M.; Rossi, Anthony M.; Monk, Mary J.; Vinnachi, Jenelle

    2017-01-01

    View change about socio-scientific issues has been well studied in the literature, but the change in the complexity of those views has not. In the current study, the change in the complexity of views about a specific scientific topic (i.e. genetically modified organisms; GMOs) and use of evidence in explaining those views was examined in relation…

  4. The B73 maize genome: complexity, diversity, and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnable, Patrick S; Ware, Doreen; Fulton, Robert S; Stein, Joshua C; Wei, Fusheng; Pasternak, Shiran; Liang, Chengzhi; Zhang, Jianwei; Fulton, Lucinda; Graves, Tina A; Minx, Patrick; Reily, Amy Denise; Courtney, Laura; Kruchowski, Scott S; Tomlinson, Chad; Strong, Cindy; Delehaunty, Kim; Fronick, Catrina; Courtney, Bill; Rock, Susan M; Belter, Eddie; Du, Feiyu; Kim, Kyung; Abbott, Rachel M; Cotton, Marc; Levy, Andy; Marchetto, Pamela; Ochoa, Kerri; Jackson, Stephanie M; Gillam, Barbara; Chen, Weizu; Yan, Le; Higginbotham, Jamey; Cardenas, Marco; Waligorski, Jason; Applebaum, Elizabeth; Phelps, Lindsey; Falcone, Jason; Kanchi, Krishna; Thane, Thynn; Scimone, Adam; Thane, Nay; Henke, Jessica; Wang, Tom; Ruppert, Jessica; Shah, Neha; Rotter, Kelsi; Hodges, Jennifer; Ingenthron, Elizabeth; Cordes, Matt; Kohlberg, Sara; Sgro, Jennifer; Delgado, Brandon; Mead, Kelly; Chinwalla, Asif; Leonard, Shawn; Crouse, Kevin; Collura, Kristi; Kudrna, Dave; Currie, Jennifer; He, Ruifeng; Angelova, Angelina; Rajasekar, Shanmugam; Mueller, Teri; Lomeli, Rene; Scara, Gabriel; Ko, Ara; Delaney, Krista; Wissotski, Marina; Lopez, Georgina; Campos, David; Braidotti, Michele; Ashley, Elizabeth; Golser, Wolfgang; Kim, HyeRan; Lee, Seunghee; Lin, Jinke; Dujmic, Zeljko; Kim, Woojin; Talag, Jayson; Zuccolo, Andrea; Fan, Chuanzhu; Sebastian, Aswathy; Kramer, Melissa; Spiegel, Lori; Nascimento, Lidia; Zutavern, Theresa; Miller, Beth; Ambroise, Claude; Muller, Stephanie; Spooner, Will; Narechania, Apurva; Ren, Liya; Wei, Sharon; Kumari, Sunita; Faga, Ben; Levy, Michael J; McMahan, Linda; Van Buren, Peter; Vaughn, Matthew W; Ying, Kai; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Emrich, Scott J; Jia, Yi; Kalyanaraman, Ananth; Hsia, An-Ping; Barbazuk, W Brad; Baucom, Regina S; Brutnell, Thomas P; Carpita, Nicholas C; Chaparro, Cristian; Chia, Jer-Ming; Deragon, Jean-Marc; Estill, James C; Fu, Yan; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A; Han, Yujun; Lee, Hyeran; Li, Pinghua; Lisch, Damon R; Liu, Sanzhen; Liu, Zhijie; Nagel, Dawn Holligan; McCann, Maureen C; SanMiguel, Phillip; Myers, Alan M; Nettleton, Dan; Nguyen, John; Penning, Bryan W; Ponnala, Lalit; Schneider, Kevin L; Schwartz, David C; Sharma, Anupma; Soderlund, Carol; Springer, Nathan M; Sun, Qi; Wang, Hao; Waterman, Michael; Westerman, Richard; Wolfgruber, Thomas K; Yang, Lixing; Yu, Yeisoo; Zhang, Lifang; Zhou, Shiguo; Zhu, Qihui; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Dawe, R Kelly; Jiang, Jiming; Jiang, Ning; Presting, Gernot G; Wessler, Susan R; Aluru, Srinivas; Martienssen, Robert A; Clifton, Sandra W; McCombie, W Richard; Wing, Rod A; Wilson, Richard K

    2009-11-20

    We report an improved draft nucleotide sequence of the 2.3-gigabase genome of maize, an important crop plant and model for biological research. Over 32,000 genes were predicted, of which 99.8% were placed on reference chromosomes. Nearly 85% of the genome is composed of hundreds of families of transposable elements, dispersed nonuniformly across the genome. These were responsible for the capture and amplification of numerous gene fragments and affect the composition, sizes, and positions of centromeres. We also report on the correlation of methylation-poor regions with Mu transposon insertions and recombination, and copy number variants with insertions and/or deletions, as well as how uneven gene losses between duplicated regions were involved in returning an ancient allotetraploid to a genetically diploid state. These analyses inform and set the stage for further investigations to improve our understanding of the domestication and agricultural improvements of maize.

  5. Network dynamics and its relationships to topology and coupling structure in excitable complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li-Sheng; Mi Yuan-Yuan; Gu Wei-Feng; Hu Gang

    2014-01-01

    All dynamic complex networks have two important aspects, pattern dynamics and network topology. Discovering different types of pattern dynamics and exploring how these dynamics depend on network topologies are tasks of both great theoretical importance and broad practical significance. In this paper we study the oscillatory behaviors of excitable complex networks (ECNs) and find some interesting dynamic behaviors of ECNs in oscillatory probability, the multiplicity of oscillatory attractors, period distribution, and different types of oscillatory patterns (e.g., periodic, quasiperiodic, and chaotic). In these aspects, we further explore strikingly sharp differences among network dynamics induced by different topologies (random or scale-free topologies) and different interaction structures (symmetric or asymmetric couplings). The mechanisms behind these differences are explained physically. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  6. Complex dynamics and morphogenesis an introduction to nonlinear science

    CERN Document Server

    Misbah, Chaouqi

    2017-01-01

    This book offers an introduction to the physics of nonlinear phenomena through two complementary approaches: bifurcation theory and catastrophe theory. Readers will be gradually introduced to the language and formalisms of nonlinear sciences, which constitute the framework to describe complex systems. The difficulty with complex systems is that their evolution cannot be fully predicted because of the interdependence and interactions between their different components. Starting with simple examples and working toward an increasing level of universalization, the work explores diverse scenarios of bifurcations and elementary catastrophes which characterize the qualitative behavior of nonlinear systems. The study of temporal evolution is undertaken using the equations that characterize stationary or oscillatory solutions, while spatial analysis introduces the fascinating problem of morphogenesis. Accessible to undergraduate university students in any discipline concerned with nonlinear phenomena (physics, mathema...

  7. Modelling the dynamics of the health-production complex in livestock herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.T.; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews how the dynamics of the health-production complex in livestock herds is mimicked by livestock herd simulation models. Twelve models simulating the dynamics of dairy, beef, sheep and sow herds were examined. All models basically included options to alter input and output...

  8. Probing the dynamics of complexed local anesthetics via neutron scattering spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longo Martins, Murillo; Eckert, Juergen; Jacobsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Since potential changes in the dynamics and mobility of drugs upon complexation for delivery may affect their ultimate efficacy, we have investigated the dynamics of two local anesthetic molecules, bupivacaine (BVC, C18H28N2O) and ropivacaine (RVC, C17H26N2O), in both their crystalline forms...

  9. Exploring the dynamic and complex integration of sustainability performance measurement into product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Vinicius Picanco; Morioka, S.; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi

    2016-01-01

    In order to deal with the complex and dynamic nature of sustainability integration into the product development process, this research explore the use of a qualitative System Dynamics approach by using the causal loop diagram (CLD) tool. A literature analysis was followed by a case study, aiming ...

  10. Small System dynamics models for big issues : Triple jump towards real-world complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.

    2013-01-01

    System Dynamics (SD) is a method to describe, model, simulate and analyze dynamically complex issues and/or systems in terms of the processes, information, organizational boundaries and strategies. Quantitative SD modeling, simulation and analysis facilitates the (re)design of systems and design of

  11. Complex projection of unitary dynamics of quaternionic pure states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asorey, M.; Scolarici, G.; Solombrino, L.

    2007-01-01

    Quaternionic quantum mechanics has been revealed to be a very useful framework to describe quantum phenomena. In the case of two qubit compound systems we show that the complex projection of quaternionic pure states and quaternionic unitary maps permits the description of interesting phenomena such as decoherence and optimal entanglement generation. The approach, however, presents severe limitations for the case of multipartite or higher dimensional bipartite quantum systems as we point out

  12. Nonlinear dynamics of the complex multi-scale network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Vladimir V.; Kirsanov, Daniil; Goremyko, Mikhail; Andreev, Andrey; Hramov, Alexander E.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we study the complex multi-scale network of nonlocally coupled oscillators for the appearance of chimera states. Chimera is a special state in which, in addition to the asynchronous cluster, there are also completely synchronous parts in the system. We show that the increase of nodes in subgroups leads to the destruction of the synchronous interaction within the common ring and to the narrowing of the chimera region.

  13. Fundamentals of complex networks models, structures and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Guanrong; Li, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Complex networks such as the Internet, WWW, transportationnetworks, power grids, biological neural networks, and scientificcooperation networks of all kinds provide challenges for futuretechnological development. In particular, advanced societies havebecome dependent on large infrastructural networks to an extentbeyond our capability to plan (modeling) and to operate (control).The recent spate of collapses in power grids and ongoing virusattacks on the Internet illustrate the need for knowledge aboutmodeling, analysis of behaviors, optimized planning and performancecontrol in such networks. F

  14. Perceived price complexity of dynamic energy tariffs: An investigation of antecedents and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layer, Patrick; Feurer, Sven; Jochem, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic tariffs have the potential to contribute to a successful shift from conventional to renewable energies, but tapping this potential in Europe ultimately depends on residential consumers selecting them. This study proposes and finds that consumer reactions to dynamic tariffs depend on the level of perceived price complexity that represents the cognitive effort consumers must engage in to compute the overall bill amount. An online experiment conducted with a representative sample of 664 German residential energy consumers examines how salient characteristics of dynamic tariffs contribute to perceived price complexity. Subsequently, a structural equation model (SEM) reveals that the depth of information processing is central to understand how price complexity relates to consumers’ behavioral intentions. The results suggest that it will be challenging to convince European consumers to select complex dynamic tariffs under the current legal framework. Policymakers will need to find ways to make these tariffs more attractive. - Highlights: • Little is known about the processes by which consumers evaluate dynamic tariffs. • In this evaluation process perceived price complexity plays a central role. • Tariff type, price endings, and discount presentation format drive price complexity. • Perceived price complexity decreases the depth of information processing. • A decreased depth of information processing ultimately leads to lower behavioral intentions.

  15. Dynamic analysis of complex tube systems in heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouba, J.; Dvorak, P.

    1985-01-01

    Using a computation model, a dynamic analysis was made of tube assemblies of heat exchanger bundles by the finite element method. The algorithm is presented for determining the frequency mode properties, based on the Sturm sequences combined with inverse vector iteration. The results obtained using the method are compared with those obtained by analytical solution and by the transfer matrix method, this for the cases of both eigenvibrations and resonance vibrations. The results are in very good agreement. For the first four eigenfrequencies, the calculation error is less than 1.5% as against the analytical solution. (J.B.). 4 tabs., 8 figs., 5 refs

  16. The Graph Laplacian and the Dynamics of Complex Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thulasidasan, Sunil [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-11

    In this talk, we explore the structure of networks from a spectral graph-theoretic perspective by analyzing the properties of the Laplacian matrix associated with the graph induced by a network. We will see how the eigenvalues of the graph Laplacian relate to the underlying network structure and dynamics and provides insight into a phenomenon frequently observed in real world networks - the emergence of collective behavior from purely local interactions seen in the coordinated motion of animals and phase transitions in biological networks, to name a few.

  17. Complex Dynamics of Delay-Coupled Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaochen

    2016-09-01

    This paper reveals the complicated dynamics of a delay-coupled system that consists of a pair of sub-networks and multiple bidirectional couplings. Time delays are introduced into the internal connections and network-couplings, respectively. The stability and instability of the coupled network are discussed. The sufficient conditions for the existence of oscillations are given. Case studies of numerical simulations are given to validate the analytical results. Interesting and complicated neuronal activities are observed numerically, such as rest states, periodic oscillations, multiple switches of rest states and oscillations, and the coexistence of different types of oscillations.

  18. Environmental coupling and population dynamics in the PE545 light-harvesting complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghtar, Mortaza; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich, E-mail: u.kleinekathoefer@jacobs-university.de

    2016-01-15

    Long-lived quantum coherences have been shown experimentally in the Fenna–Matthews–Olson (FMO) complex of green sulfur bacteria as well as in the phycoerythrin 545 (PE545) photosynthetic antenna system of marine algae. A combination of classical molecular dynamics simulations, quantum chemistry and quantum dynamical calculations is employed to determine the excitation transfer dynamics in PE545. One key property of the light-harvesting system concerning the excitation transfer and dephasing phenomena is the spectral density. This quantity is determined from time series of the vertical excitation energies of the aggregate. In the present study we focus on the quantum dynamical simulations using the earlier QM/MM calculations as input. Employing an ensemble-averaged classical path-based wave packet dynamics, the excitation transfer dynamics between the different bilins in the PE545 complex is determined and analyzed. Furthermore, the nature of the environmental fluctuations determining the transfer dynamics is discussed. - Highlights: • Modeling of excitation energy transfer in the light-harvesting system PE545. • Combination of molecular dynamics simulations, quantum chemistry and quantum dynamics. • Spectral densities for bilins in the PE545 complex.

  19. Thermodynamic aspects of information transfer in complex dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafaro, Carlo; Ali, Sean Alan; Giffin, Adom

    2016-02-01

    From the Horowitz-Esposito stochastic thermodynamical description of information flows in dynamical systems [J. M. Horowitz and M. Esposito, Phys. Rev. X 4, 031015 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevX.4.031015], it is known that while the second law of thermodynamics is satisfied by a joint system, the entropic balance for the subsystems is adjusted by a term related to the mutual information exchange rate between the two subsystems. In this article, we present a quantitative discussion of the conceptual link between the Horowitz-Esposito analysis and the Liang-Kleeman work on information transfer between dynamical system components [X. S. Liang and R. Kleeman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 244101 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.244101]. In particular, the entropic balance arguments employed in the two approaches are compared. Notwithstanding all differences between the two formalisms, our work strengthens the Liang-Kleeman heuristic balance reasoning by showing its formal analogy with the recent Horowitz-Esposito thermodynamic balance arguments.

  20. Dynamics of Research Team Formation in Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Caihong; Wan, Yuzi; Chen, Yu

    Most organizations encourage the formation of teams to accomplish complicated tasks, and vice verse, effective teams could bring lots benefits and profits for organizations. Network structure plays an important role in forming teams. In this paper, we specifically study the dynamics of team formation in large research communities in which knowledge of individuals plays an important role on team performance and individual utility. An agent-based model is proposed, in which heterogeneous agents from research communities are described and empirically tested. Each agent has a knowledge endowment and a preference for both income and leisure. Agents provide a variable input (‘effort’) and their knowledge endowments to production. They could learn from others in their team and those who are not in their team but have private connections in community to adjust their own knowledge endowment. They are allowed to join other teams or work alone when it is welfare maximizing to do so. Various simulation experiments are conducted to examine the impacts of network topology, knowledge diffusion among community network, and team output sharing mechanisms on the dynamics of team formation.

  1. Dynamic behavior and chaos control in a complex Riccati-type map ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is devoted to analyze the dynamic behavior of a Riccati- type map with complex variables and complex parameters. Fixed points and their asymptotic stability are studied. Lyapunov exponent is computed to indicate chaos. Bifurcation and chaos are discussed. Chaotic behavior of the map has been controlled by ...

  2. Dynamics of complexation of a charged dendrimer by linear polyelectrolyte: Computer modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyulin, S.V.; Darinskii, A.A.; Lyulin, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    Brownian-dynamics simulations have been performed for complexes formed by a charged dendrimer and a long oppositely charged linear polyelectrolyte when overcharging phenomenon is always observed. After a complex formation the orientational mobility of the individual dendrimer bonds, the fluctuations

  3. On the representation of contextual probabilistic dynamics in the complex Hilbert space: Linear and nonlinear evolutions, Schrodinger dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrennikov, A.

    2005-01-01

    We constructed the representation of contextual probabilistic dynamics in the complex Hilbert space. Thus dynamics of the wave function can be considered as Hilbert space projection of realistic dynamics in a pre space. The basic condition for representing the pre space-dynamics is the law of statistical conservation of energy-conservation of probabilities. The construction of the dynamical representation is an important step in the development of contextual statistical viewpoint of quantum processes. But the contextual statistical model is essentially more general than the quantum one. Therefore in general the Hilbert space projection of the pre space dynamics can be nonlinear and even irreversible (but it is always unitary). There were found conditions of linearity and reversibility of the Hilbert space dynamical projection. We also found conditions for the conventional Schrodinger dynamics (including time-dependent Hamiltonians). We remark that in general even the Schrodinger dynamics is based just on the statistical conservation of energy; for individual systems the law of conservation of energy can be violated (at least in our theoretical model)

  4. Pinning synchronization of delayed complex dynamical networks with nonlinear coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ranran; Peng, Mingshu; Yu, Weibin

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we find that complex networks with the Watts-Strogatz or scale-free BA random topological architecture can be synchronized more easily by pin-controlling fewer nodes than regular systems. Theoretical analysis is included by means of Lyapunov functions and linear matrix inequalities (LMI) to make all nodes reach complete synchronization. Numerical examples are also provided to illustrate the importance of our theoretical analysis, which implies that there exists a gap between the theoretical prediction and numerical results about the minimum number of pinning controlled nodes.

  5. Complex scattering dynamics and the integer quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trugman, S.A.; Waugh, F.R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of a magnetic field on potential scattering is investigated microscopically. A magnetic field renders the scattering of a classical charged particle far more complex than previously suspected. Consequences include possible 1/f noise and an explanation of the observed breakdown of the quantum Hall effect at large currents. A particular scatterer is described by a discontinuous one dimensional Hamiltonian map, a class of maps that has not previously been studied. A renormalization group analysis indicates that singular behavior arises from the interplay of electron orbits that are periodic and orbits that are quasiperiodic

  6. Study of Complexities in Bouncing Ball Dynamical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Mohan SAHA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary motions in a bouncing ball system consisting of a ball having a free fall in the Earth’s gravitational field have been studied systematically. Because of nonlinear form of the equations of motion, evolutions show chaos for certain set of parameters for certain initial conditions. Bifurcation diagram has been drawn to study regular and chaotic behavior. Numerical calculations have been performed to calculate Lyapunov exponents, topological entropies and correlation dimension as measures of complexity. Numerical results are shown through interesting graphics.

  7. Complex dynamics of the integer quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trugman, S.A.; Nicopoulos, V.N.; Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL

    1991-01-01

    We investigate both classical and quantum potential scattering in two dimensions in a magnetic field, with applications to the integer quantum Hall effect. Classical scattering is complex, due in one case to the approach of scattering states to an infinite number of bound states. We show that bound states are generic, and occur for all but extremely smooth scattering potentials (|rvec ∇| → 0). Quantum scattering follows the classical behavior rather closely, exhibiting sharp resonances rather than classical bound states. Extended scatterers provide an explanation for the breakdown of the QHE at a comparatively small Hall voltage. 16 refs., 14 figs

  8. Safety assessment document for the dynamic test complex (Building 836)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 836 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (H) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire

  9. On synchronized regions of discrete-time complex dynamical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Zhisheng; Chen Guanrong

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the local synchronization of discrete-time complex networks is studied. First, it is shown that for any natural number n, there exists a discrete-time network which has at least left floor n/2 right floor +1 disconnected synchronized regions for local synchronization, which implies the possibility of intermittent synchronization behaviors. Different from the continuous-time networks, the existence of an unbounded synchronized region is impossible for discrete-time networks. The convexity of the synchronized regions is also characterized based on the stability of a class of matrix pencils, which is useful for enlarging the stability region so as to improve the network synchronizability.

  10. Safety assessment document for the dynamic test complex (Building 836)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

    1981-11-24

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 836 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (H) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire.

  11. Dynamics of genetic processes in chronically irradiated populations of small mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabokon', N.I.; Goncharova, R.I.; Smolich, I.I.; Kapitanova, N.P.; Nikitchenko, N.V.

    2000-01-01

    The distinctive features of dynamics of mutagenesis in mammalian populations under chronic low-intensive irradiation were first revealed. The main of them is gradual increase in mutability in somatic cells and embryonal lethality during series of irradiated generations of animals (bank vole - Clethrionomys glareolus). The data obtained strongly suggest that there are oppositely directed processes in natural populations after irradiation of more than 20 generations of animals: on the one hand, accumulation of mutations (genetic load of populations) and pre-mutation events which increase genome instability of germ and somatic cells in consecutive generations of animals, and on the other, formation of genetic radio adaptation through better functioning protection systems. In this period of micro evolution in chronically irradiated populations, the frequencies of genetic damages could be higher if the radiation adaptation doesn't form. (authors)

  12. Diversification in the South American Pampas: the genetic and morphological variation of the widespread Petunia axillaris complex (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetto, Caroline; Fagundes, Nelson J R; Segatto, Ana L A; Kuhlemeier, Cris; Solís Neffa, Viviana G; Speranza, Pablo R; Bonatto, Sandro L; Freitas, Loreta B

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the spatiotemporal distribution of genetic variation and the ways in which this distribution is connected to the ecological context of natural populations is fundamental for understanding the nature and mode of intraspecific and, ultimately, interspecific differentiation. The Petunia axillaris complex is endemic to the grasslands of southern South America and includes three subspecies: P. a. axillaris, P. a. parodii and P. a. subandina. These subspecies are traditionally delimited based on both geography and floral morphology, although the latter is highly variable. Here, we determined the patterns of genetic (nuclear and cpDNA), morphological and ecological (bioclimatic) variation of a large number of P. axillaris populations and found that they are mostly coincident with subspecies delimitation. The nuclear data suggest that the subspecies are likely independent evolutionary units, and their morphological differences may be associated with local adaptations to diverse climatic and/or edaphic conditions and population isolation. The demographic dynamics over time estimated by skyline plot analyses showed different patterns for each subspecies in the last 100 000 years, which is compatible with a divergence time between 35 000 and 107 000 years ago between P. a. axillaris and P. a. parodii, as estimated with the IMa program. Coalescent simulation tests using Approximate Bayesian Computation do not support previous suggestions of extensive gene flow between P. a. axillaris and P. a. parodii in their contact zone. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Multiagent model and mean field theory of complex auction dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qinghua; Huang, Zi-Gang; Wang, Yougui; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in analyzing a variety of socio-economic phenomena using methods from statistical and nonlinear physics. We study a class of complex systems arising from economics, the lowest unique bid auction (LUBA) systems, which is a recently emerged class of online auction game systems. Through analyzing large, empirical data sets of LUBA, we identify a general feature of the bid price distribution: an inverted J-shaped function with exponential decay in the large bid price region. To account for the distribution, we propose a multi-agent model in which each agent bids stochastically in the field of winner’s attractiveness, and develop a theoretical framework to obtain analytic solutions of the model based on mean field analysis. The theory produces bid-price distributions that are in excellent agreement with those from the real data. Our model and theory capture the essential features of human behaviors in the competitive environment as exemplified by LUBA, and may provide significant quantitative insights into complex socio-economic phenomena.

  14. Multiagent model and mean field theory of complex auction dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qinghua; Wang, Yougui; Huang, Zi-Gang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in analyzing a variety of socio-economic phenomena using methods from statistical and nonlinear physics. We study a class of complex systems arising from economics, the lowest unique bid auction (LUBA) systems, which is a recently emerged class of online auction game systems. Through analyzing large, empirical data sets of LUBA, we identify a general feature of the bid price distribution: an inverted J-shaped function with exponential decay in the large bid price region. To account for the distribution, we propose a multi-agent model in which each agent bids stochastically in the field of winner’s attractiveness, and develop a theoretical framework to obtain analytic solutions of the model based on mean field analysis. The theory produces bid-price distributions that are in excellent agreement with those from the real data. Our model and theory capture the essential features of human behaviors in the competitive environment as exemplified by LUBA, and may provide significant quantitative insights into complex socio-economic phenomena. (paper)

  15. Kernel methods and flexible inference for complex stochastic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco, Enrico

    2008-07-01

    Approximation theory suggests that series expansions and projections represent standard tools for random process applications from both numerical and statistical standpoints. Such instruments emphasize the role of both sparsity and smoothness for compression purposes, the decorrelation power achieved in the expansion coefficients space compared to the signal space, and the reproducing kernel property when some special conditions are met. We consider these three aspects central to the discussion in this paper, and attempt to analyze the characteristics of some known approximation instruments employed in a complex application domain such as financial market time series. Volatility models are often built ad hoc, parametrically and through very sophisticated methodologies. But they can hardly deal with stochastic processes with regard to non-Gaussianity, covariance non-stationarity or complex dependence without paying a big price in terms of either model mis-specification or computational efficiency. It is thus a good idea to look at other more flexible inference tools; hence the strategy of combining greedy approximation and space dimensionality reduction techniques, which are less dependent on distributional assumptions and more targeted to achieve computationally efficient performances. Advantages and limitations of their use will be evaluated by looking at algorithmic and model building strategies, and by reporting statistical diagnostics.

  16. Scientific foundations of addressing risk in complex and dynamic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotan, T.O.; Storseth, F.; Albrechtsen, E.

    2011-01-01

    Development, deployment and application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and digital infrastructure continue with unabated intensity in the petroleum-related activity on the Norwegian shelf. This development towards what is denoted Integrated Operations (IO) creates new ways of organizing work, new work processes and increased automation, e.g. closer collaboration offshore-onshore, cooperation across organizational and geographical borders. This creates new challenges for managing risk. Although there are different versions of IO today, we argue that it is possible to identify and study generic properties within such IO manifestations. The current paper focus on the potential complexity of IO in the generic sense, and some scientific implications in terms of addressing risk. The paper uses the century-old metaphor of 'wildness in wait' to engage the wide field of complexity theory in a productive way to address systemic properties of risk. The paper further uses the Cynefin sensemaking framework in order to identify and address the crucial distinction between directed (resultant) and un-directed (emergent) order. The paper finally discusses the importance of seeing risk assessment as a social knowledge practice.

  17. On modulated complex non-linear dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, G.M.; Mohamed, A.A.; Rauh, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of an approximate analytical method to investigate periodic solutions and their stability in the case of modulated non-linear dynamical systems whose equation of motion is describe. Such differential equations appear, for example, in problems of colliding particle beams in high-energy accelerators or one-mass systems with two or more degrees of freedom, e.g. rotors. The significance of periodic solutions lies on the fact that all non-periodic responses, if convergent, would approach to periodic solutions at the steady-state conditions. The example shows a good agreement between numerical and analytical results for small values of ε. The effect of the periodic modulation on the stability of the 2π-periodic solutions is discussed

  18. [Origination of Pareto distribution in complex dynamic systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernavskiĭ, D S; Nikitin, A P; Chernavskaia, O D

    2008-01-01

    The Pareto distribution, whose probability density function can be approximated at sufficiently great chi as rho(chi) - chi(-alpha), where alpha > or = 2, is of crucial importance from both the theoretical and practical point of view. The main reason is its qualitative distinction from the normal (Gaussian) distribution. Namely, the probability of high deviations appears to be significantly higher. The conception of the universal applicability of the Gauss law remains to be widely distributed despite the lack of objective confirmation of this notion in a variety of application areas. The origin of the Pareto distribution in dynamic systems located in the gaussian noise field is considered. A simple one-dimensional model is discussed where the system response in a rather wide interval of the variable can be quite precisely approximated by this distribution.

  19. Complexity multiscale asynchrony measure and behavior for interacting financial dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ge; Wang, Jun; Niu, Hongli

    2016-08-01

    A stochastic financial price process is proposed and investigated by the finite-range multitype contact dynamical system, in an attempt to study the nonlinear behaviors of real asset markets. The viruses spreading process in a finite-range multitype system is used to imitate the interacting behaviors of diverse investment attitudes in a financial market, and the empirical research on descriptive statistics and autocorrelation behaviors of return time series is performed for different values of propagation rates. Then the multiscale entropy analysis is adopted to study several different shuffled return series, including the original return series, the corresponding reversal series, the random shuffled series, the volatility shuffled series and the Zipf-type shuffled series. Furthermore, we propose and compare the multiscale cross-sample entropy and its modification algorithm called composite multiscale cross-sample entropy. We apply them to study the asynchrony of pairs of time series under different time scales.

  20. Multistability and complex dynamics in a simple discrete economic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Mingshu; Jiang Zhonghao; Jiang Xiaoxia; Hu Jiping; Qu Youli

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we will propose a generalized Cournot duopoly model with Z 2 symmetry. We demonstrate that cost functions incorporating an interfirm externality lead to a system of couple one-dimensional maps. In the situation where agents take turns, we find in an analytic way that there coexist multiple unstable/stable period-2 cycles or synchronized/asynchronized periodic orbits. Coupling one-dimension chaos can be observed. In a more general situation, where agents move simultaneously, a closer analysis reveals some well-known local bifurcations and global bifurcations which typically occur in two-parameter families of two-dimensional discrete time dynamical systems, including codimension-one (fold-, flip-, Neimark-Sacker-) bifurcations, codimension-two (fold/flip, 1:2 resonance, 1:3 resonance and 1:4 resonance) bifurcations, and hetero-clinic, homo-clinic bifurcations, etc. Multistability, including the coexistence of synchronized/asynchronized solutions are also discussed.

  1. Spectroscopy and reaction dynamics of collision complexes containing hydroxyl radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester, M.I. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The DOE supported work in this laboratory has focused on the spectroscopic characterization of the interaction potential between an argon atom and a hydroxyl radical in the ground X{sup 2}II and excited A {sup 2}{summation}{sup +} electronic states. The OH-Ar system has proven to be a test case for examining the interaction potential in an open-shell system since it is amenable to experimental investigation and theoretically tractable from first principles. Experimental identification of the bound states supported by the Ar + OH (X {sup 2}II) and Ar + OH(A {sup 2}{summation}{sup +}) potentials makes it feasible to derive realistic potential energy surfaces for these systems. The experimentally derived intermolecular potentials provide a rigorous test of ab initio theory and a basis for understanding the dramatically different collision dynamics taking place on the ground and excited electronic state surfaces.

  2. Structure identification and adaptive synchronization of uncertain general complex dynamical networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yuhua, E-mail: yuhuaxu2004@163.co [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China) and Department of Maths, Yunyang Teacher' s College, Hubei 442000 (China); Zhou Wuneng, E-mail: wnzhou@163.co [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Fang Jian' an [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Lu Hongqian [Shandong Institute of Light Industry, Shandong Jinan 250353 (China)

    2009-12-28

    This Letter proposes an approach to identify the topological structure and unknown parameters for uncertain general complex networks simultaneously. By designing effective adaptive controllers, we achieve synchronization between two complex networks. The unknown network topological structure and system parameters of uncertain general complex dynamical networks are identified simultaneously in the process of synchronization. Several useful criteria for synchronization are given. Finally, an illustrative example is presented to demonstrate the application of the theoretical results.

  3. Structure identification and adaptive synchronization of uncertain general complex dynamical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yuhua; Zhou Wuneng; Fang Jian'an; Lu Hongqian

    2009-01-01

    This Letter proposes an approach to identify the topological structure and unknown parameters for uncertain general complex networks simultaneously. By designing effective adaptive controllers, we achieve synchronization between two complex networks. The unknown network topological structure and system parameters of uncertain general complex dynamical networks are identified simultaneously in the process of synchronization. Several useful criteria for synchronization are given. Finally, an illustrative example is presented to demonstrate the application of the theoretical results.

  4. Software complex for developing dynamically packed program system for experiment automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baluka, G.; Salamatin, I.M.

    1985-01-01

    Software complex for developing dynamically packed program system for experiment automation is considered. The complex includes general-purpose programming systems represented as the RT-11 standard operating system and specially developed problem-oriented moduli providing execution of certain jobs. The described complex is realized in the PASKAL' and MAKRO-2 languages and it is rather flexible to variations of the technique of the experiment

  5. Genetic Marker Discovery in Complex Traits: A Field Example on Fat Content and Composition in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Natacha Pena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the large number of attributes that define pork quality, fat content and composition have attracted the attention of breeders in the recent years due to their interaction with human health and technological and sensorial properties of meat. In livestock species, fat accumulates in different depots following a temporal pattern that is also recognized in humans. Intramuscular fat deposition rate and fatty acid composition change with life. Despite indication that it might be possible to select for intramuscular fat without affecting other fat depots, to date only one depot-specific genetic marker (PCK1 c.2456C>A has been reported. In contrast, identification of polymorphisms related to fat composition has been more successful. For instance, our group has described a variant in the stearoyl-coA desaturase (SCD gene that improves the desaturation index of fat without affecting overall fatness or growth. Identification of mutations in candidate genes can be a tedious and costly process. Genome-wide association studies can help in narrowing down the number of candidate genes by highlighting those which contribute most to the genetic variation of the trait. Results from our group and others indicate that fat content and composition are highly polygenic and that very few genes explain more than 5% of the variance of the trait. Moreover, as the complexity of the genome emerges, the role of non-coding genes and regulatory elements cannot be disregarded. Prediction of breeding values from genomic data is discussed in comparison with conventional best linear predictors of breeding values. An example based on real data is given, and the implications in phenotype prediction are discussed in detail. The benefits and limitations of using large SNP sets versus a few very informative markers as predictors of genetic merit of breeding candidates are evaluated using field data as an example.

  6. Dynamics on and of complex networks applications to biology, computer science, and the social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Ganguly, Niloy; Mukherjee, Animesh

    2009-01-01

    This self-contained book systematically explores the statistical dynamics on and of complex networks having relevance across a large number of scientific disciplines. The theories related to complex networks are increasingly being used by researchers for their usefulness in harnessing the most difficult problems of a particular discipline. The book is a collection of surveys and cutting-edge research contributions exploring the interdisciplinary relationship of dynamics on and of complex networks. Towards this goal, the work is thematically organized into three main sections: Part I studies th

  7. Complexity and Control: Towards a Rigorous Behavioral Theory of Complex Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.; Reid, Darryn J.

    We introduce our motive for writing this book on complexity and control with a popular "complexity myth," which seems to be quite wide spread among chaos and complexity theory fashionistas: quote>Low-dimensional systems usually exhibit complex behaviours (which we know fromMay's studies of the Logisticmap), while high-dimensional systems usually exhibit simple behaviours (which we know from synchronisation studies of the Kuramoto model)...quote> We admit that this naive view on complex (e.g., human) systems versus simple (e.g., physical) systems might seem compelling to various technocratic managers and politicians; indeed, the idea makes for appealing sound-bites. However, it is enough to see both in the equations and computer simulations of pendula of various degree - (i) a single pendulum, (ii) a double pendulum, and (iii) a triple pendulum - that this popular myth is plain nonsense. The only thing that we can learn from it is what every tyrant already knows: by using force as a strong means of control, it is possible to effectively synchronise even hundreds of millions of people, at least for a while.

  8. A Statistical Physics Characterization of the Complex Systems Dynamics: Quantifying Complexity from Spatio-Temporal Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koorehdavoudi, Hana; Bogdan, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Biological systems are frequently categorized as complex systems due to their capabilities of generating spatio-temporal structures from apparent random decisions. In spite of research on analyzing biological systems, we lack a quantifiable framework for measuring their complexity. To fill this gap, in this paper, we develop a new paradigm to study a collective group of N agents moving and interacting in a three-dimensional space. Our paradigm helps to identify the spatio-temporal states of the motion of the group and their associated transition probabilities. This framework enables the estimation of the free energy landscape corresponding to the identified states. Based on the energy landscape, we quantify missing information, emergence, self-organization and complexity for a collective motion. We show that the collective motion of the group of agents evolves to reach the most probable state with relatively lowest energy level and lowest missing information compared to other possible states. Our analysis demonstrates that the natural group of animals exhibit a higher degree of emergence, self-organization and complexity over time. Consequently, this algorithm can be integrated into new frameworks to engineer collective motions to achieve certain degrees of emergence, self-organization and complexity.

  9. Tracking excited-state charge and spin dynamics in iron coordination complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenkai; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Bergmann, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    to spin state, can elucidate the spin crossover dynamics of [Fe(2,2'-bipyridine)(3)](2+) on photoinduced metal-to-ligand charge transfer excitation. We are able to track the charge and spin dynamics, and establish the critical role of intermediate spin states in the crossover mechanism. We anticipate......Crucial to many light-driven processes in transition metal complexes is the absorption and dissipation of energy by 3d electrons(1-4). But a detailed understanding of such non-equilibrium excited-state dynamics and their interplay with structural changes is challenging: a multitude of excited...... states and possible transitions result in phenomena too complex to unravel when faced with the indirect sensitivity of optical spectroscopy to spin dynamics(5) and the flux limitations of ultrafast X-ray sources(6,7). Such a situation exists for archetypal poly-pyridyl iron complexes, such as [Fe(2...

  10. An Adaptive Genetic Algorithm with Dynamic Population Size for Optimizing Join Queries

    OpenAIRE

    Vellev, Stoyan

    2008-01-01

    The problem of finding the optimal join ordering executing a query to a relational database management system is a combinatorial optimization problem, which makes deterministic exhaustive solution search unacceptable for queries with a great number of joined relations. In this work an adaptive genetic algorithm with dynamic population size is proposed for optimizing large join queries. The performance of the algorithm is compared with that of several classical non-determinis...

  11. Volterra representation enables modeling of complex synaptic nonlinear dynamics in large-scale simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Eric Y; Bouteiller, Jean-Marie C; Song, Dong; Baudry, Michel; Berger, Theodore W

    2015-01-01

    Chemical synapses are comprised of a wide collection of intricate signaling pathways involving complex dynamics. These mechanisms are often reduced to simple spikes or exponential representations in order to enable computer simulations at higher spatial levels of complexity. However, these representations cannot capture important nonlinear dynamics found in synaptic transmission. Here, we propose an input-output (IO) synapse model capable of generating complex nonlinear dynamics while maintaining low computational complexity. This IO synapse model is an extension of a detailed mechanistic glutamatergic synapse model capable of capturing the input-output relationships of the mechanistic model using the Volterra functional power series. We demonstrate that the IO synapse model is able to successfully track the nonlinear dynamics of the synapse up to the third order with high accuracy. We also evaluate the accuracy of the IO synapse model at different input frequencies and compared its performance with that of kinetic models in compartmental neuron models. Our results demonstrate that the IO synapse model is capable of efficiently replicating complex nonlinear dynamics that were represented in the original mechanistic model and provide a method to replicate complex and diverse synaptic transmission within neuron network simulations.

  12. Methodology for Simulation and Analysis of Complex Adaptive Supply Network Structure and Dynamics Using Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Rodewald

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Supply networks existing today in many industries can behave as complex adaptive systems making them more difficult to analyze and assess. Being able to fully understand both the complex static and dynamic structures of a complex adaptive supply network (CASN are key to being able to make more informed management decisions and prioritize resources and production throughout the network. Previous efforts to model and analyze CASN have been impeded by the complex, dynamic nature of the systems. However, drawing from other complex adaptive systems sciences, information theory provides a model-free methodology removing many of those barriers, especially concerning complex network structure and dynamics. With minimal information about the network nodes, transfer entropy can be used to reverse engineer the network structure while local transfer entropy can be used to analyze the network structure’s dynamics. Both simulated and real-world networks were analyzed using this methodology. Applying the methodology to CASNs allows the practitioner to capitalize on observations from the highly multidisciplinary field of information theory which provides insights into CASN’s self-organization, emergence, stability/instability, and distributed computation. This not only provides managers with a more thorough understanding of a system’s structure and dynamics for management purposes, but also opens up research opportunities into eventual strategies to monitor and manage emergence and adaption within the environment.

  13. Reducing the Complexity of Genetic Fuzzy Classifiers in Highly-Dimensional Classification Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DimitrisG. Stavrakoudis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the Fast Iterative Rule-based Linguistic Classifier (FaIRLiC, a Genetic Fuzzy Rule-Based Classification System (GFRBCS which targets at reducing the structural complexity of the resulting rule base, as well as its learning algorithm's computational requirements, especially when dealing with high-dimensional feature spaces. The proposed methodology follows the principles of the iterative rule learning (IRL approach, whereby a rule extraction algorithm (REA is invoked in an iterative fashion, producing one fuzzy rule at a time. The REA is performed in two successive steps: the first one selects the relevant features of the currently extracted rule, whereas the second one decides the antecedent part of the fuzzy rule, using the previously selected subset of features. The performance of the classifier is finally optimized through a genetic tuning post-processing stage. Comparative results in a hyperspectral remote sensing classification as well as in 12 real-world classification datasets indicate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in generating high-performing and compact fuzzy rule-based classifiers, even for very high-dimensional feature spaces.

  14. The Effects of Predator Evolution and Genetic Variation on Predator-Prey Population-Level Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Michael H; Patel, Swati

    2017-07-01

    This paper explores how predator evolution and the magnitude of predator genetic variation alter the population-level dynamics of predator-prey systems. We do this by analyzing a general eco-evolutionary predator-prey model using four methods: Method 1 identifies how eco-evolutionary feedbacks alter system stability in the fast and slow evolution limits; Method 2 identifies how the amount of standing predator genetic variation alters system stability; Method 3 identifies how the phase lags in predator-prey cycles depend on the amount of genetic variation; and Method 4 determines conditions for different cycle shapes in the fast and slow evolution limits using geometric singular perturbation theory. With these four methods, we identify the conditions under which predator evolution alters system stability and shapes of predator-prey cycles, and how those effect depend on the amount of genetic variation in the predator population. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method and the relations between the four methods. This work shows how the four methods can be used in tandem to make general predictions about eco-evolutionary dynamics and feedbacks.

  15. Analysis and design of a genetic circuit for dynamic metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anesiadis, Nikolaos; Kobayashi, Hideki; Cluett, William R; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan

    2013-08-16

    Recent advances in synthetic biology have equipped us with new tools for bioprocess optimization at the genetic level. Previously, we have presented an integrated in silico design for the dynamic control of gene expression based on a density-sensing unit and a genetic toggle switch. In the present paper, analysis of a serine-producing Escherichia coli mutant shows that an instantaneous ON-OFF switch leads to a maximum theoretical productivity improvement of 29.6% compared to the mutant. To further the design, global sensitivity analysis is applied here to a mathematical model of serine production in E. coli coupled with a genetic circuit. The model of the quorum sensing and the toggle switch involves 13 parameters of which 3 are identified as having a significant effect on serine concentration. Simulations conducted in this reduced parameter space further identified the optimal ranges for these 3 key parameters to achieve productivity values close to the maximum theoretical values. This analysis can now be used to guide the experimental implementation of a dynamic metabolic engineering strategy and reduce the time required to design the genetic circuit components.

  16. Cilium transition zone proteome reveals compartmentalization and differential dynamics of ciliopathy complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dean, S.; Moreira-Leite, F.; Varga, Vladimír; Gull, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 35 (2016), E5135-E5143 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : transition zone * cilium/flagellum * BBSome * MKS/B9 complex * trypanosome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.661, year: 2016

  17. Molecular dynamics study of thermodynamic stability and dynamics of [Li(glyme)]+ complex in lithium-glyme solvate ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Wataru; Hatanaka, Yuta; Hirakawa, Masashi; Okazaki, Susumu; Tsuzuki, Seiji; Ueno, Kazuhide; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2018-05-01

    Equimolar mixtures of glymes and organic lithium salts are known to produce solvate ionic liquids, in which the stability of the [Li(glyme)]+ complex plays an important role in determining the ionic dynamics. Since these mixtures have attractive physicochemical properties for application as electrolytes, it is important to understand the dependence of the stability of the [Li(glyme)]+ complex on the ion dynamics. A series of microsecond molecular dynamics simulations has been conducted to investigate the dynamic properties of these solvate ionic liquids. Successful solvate ionic liquids with high stability of the [Li(glyme)]+ complex have been shown to have enhanced ion dynamics. Li-glyme pair exchange rarely occurs: its characteristic time is longer than that of ion diffusion by one or two orders of magnitude. Li-glyme pair exchange most likely occurs through cluster formation involving multiple [Li(glyme)]+ pairs. In this process, multiple exchanges likely take place in a concerted manner without the production of energetically unfavorable free glyme or free Li+ ions.

  18. A cat's tale: the impact of genetic restoration on Florida panther population dynamics and persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Onorato, David P; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K

    2013-05-01

    1. Genetic restoration has been suggested as a management tool for mitigating detrimental effects of inbreeding depression in small, inbred populations, but the demographic mechanisms underlying population-level responses to genetic restoration remain poorly understood. 2. We studied the dynamics and persistence of the endangered Florida panther Puma concolor coryi population and evaluated the potential influence of genetic restoration on population growth and persistence parameters. As part of the genetic restoration programme, eight female Texas pumas P. c. stanleyana were released into Florida panther habitat in southern Florida in 1995. 3. The overall asymptotic population growth rate (λ) was 1.04 (5th and 95th percentiles: 0.95-1.14), suggesting an increase in the panther population of approximately 4% per year. Considering the effects of environmental and demographic stochasticities and density-dependence, the probability that the population will fall below 10 panthers within 100 years was 0.072 (0-0.606). 4. Our results suggest that the population would have declined at 5% per year (λ = 0.95; 0.83-1.08) in the absence of genetic restoration. Retrospective life table response experiment analysis revealed that the positive effect of genetic restoration on survival of kittens was primarily responsible for the substantial growth of the panther population that would otherwise have been declining. 5. For comparative purposes, we also estimated probability of quasi-extinction under two scenarios - implementation of genetic restoration and no genetic restoration initiative - using the estimated abundance of panthers in 1995, the year genetic restoration was initiated. Assuming no density-dependence, the probability that the panther population would fall below 10 panthers by 2010 was 0.098 (0.002-0.332) for the restoration scenario and 0.445 (0.032-0.944) for the no restoration scenario, providing further evidence that the panther population would have faced a

  19. Automated sensitivity analysis: New tools for modeling complex dynamic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, F.G.

    1987-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis is an established methodology used by researchers in almost every field to gain essential insight in design and modeling studies and in performance assessments of complex systems. Conventional sensitivity analysis methodologies, however, have not enjoyed the widespread use they deserve considering the wealth of information they can provide, partly because of their prohibitive cost or the large initial analytical investment they require. Automated systems have recently been developed at ORNL to eliminate these drawbacks. Compilers such as GRESS and EXAP now allow automatic and cost effective calculation of sensitivities in FORTRAN computer codes. In this paper, these and other related tools are described and their impact and applicability in the general areas of modeling, performance assessment and decision making for radioactive waste isolation problems are discussed

  20. Complex emergent dynamics of anisotropic swarms: Convergence vs oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Tianguang; Wang Long; Chen Tongwen; Mu Shumei

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers an anisotropic swarm model with a simple attraction and repulsion function. It is shown that the members of a reciprocal swarm will aggregate and eventually form a cohesive cluster of finite size around the swarm center. Moreover, the swarm system is also completely stable, i.e., every solution converges to the set of equilibrium points of the system. These results are also valid for a class of non-reciprocal swarms under the detailed balance condition on coupling weights. For general non-reciprocal swarms, numerical simulations are worked out to demonstrate more complex oscillatory motions in the systems. The study provides further insight into the effect of the interaction pattern on the collective behavior of a swarm system

  1. Lectures in Supercomputational Neurosciences Dynamics in Complex Brain Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Graben, Peter beim; Thiel, Marco; Kurths, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Computational Neuroscience is a burgeoning field of research where only the combined effort of neuroscientists, biologists, psychologists, physicists, mathematicians, computer scientists, engineers and other specialists, e.g. from linguistics and medicine, seem to be able to expand the limits of our knowledge. The present volume is an introduction, largely from the physicists' perspective, to the subject matter with in-depth contributions by system neuroscientists. A conceptual model for complex networks of neurons is introduced that incorporates many important features of the real brain, such as various types of neurons, various brain areas, inhibitory and excitatory coupling and the plasticity of the network. The computational implementation on supercomputers, which is introduced and discussed in detail in this book, will enable the readers to modify and adapt the algortihm for their own research. Worked-out examples of applications are presented for networks of Morris-Lecar neurons to model the cortical co...

  2. Genetic networking of the Bemisia tabaci cryptic species complex reveals pattern of biological invasions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul De Barro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A challenge within the context of cryptic species is the delimitation of individual species within the complex. Statistical parsimony network analytics offers the opportunity to explore limits in situations where there are insufficient species-specific morphological characters to separate taxa. The results also enable us to explore the spread in taxa that have invaded globally. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a 657 bp portion of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 from 352 unique haplotypes belonging to the Bemisia tabaci cryptic species complex, the analysis revealed 28 networks plus 7 unconnected individual haplotypes. Of the networks, 24 corresponded to the putative species identified using the rule set devised by Dinsdale et al. (2010. Only two species proposed in Dinsdale et al. (2010 departed substantially from the structure suggested by the analysis. The analysis of the two invasive members of the complex, Mediterranean (MED and Middle East - Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1, showed that in both cases only a small number of haplotypes represent the majority that have spread beyond the home range; one MEAM1 and three MED haplotypes account for >80% of the GenBank records. Israel is a possible source of the globally invasive MEAM1 whereas MED has two possible sources. The first is the eastern Mediterranean which has invaded only the USA, primarily Florida and to a lesser extent California. The second are western Mediterranean haplotypes that have spread to the USA, Asia and South America. The structure for MED supports two home range distributions, a Sub-Saharan range and a Mediterranean range. The MEAM1 network supports the Middle East - Asia Minor region. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The network analyses show a high level of congruence with the species identified in a previous phylogenetic analysis. The analysis of the two globally invasive members of the complex support the view that global invasion often involve very small portions of

  3. A Variable Interval Rescheduling Strategy for Dynamic Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem by Improved Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In real-world manufacturing systems, production scheduling systems are often implemented under random or dynamic events like machine failure, unexpected processing times, stochastic arrival of the urgent orders, cancellation of the orders, and so on. These dynamic events will lead the initial scheduling scheme to be nonoptimal and/or infeasible. Hence, appropriate dynamic rescheduling approaches are needed to overcome the dynamic events. In this paper, we propose a dynamic rescheduling method based on variable interval rescheduling strategy (VIRS to deal with the dynamic flexible job shop scheduling problem considering machine failure, urgent job arrival, and job damage as disruptions. On the other hand, an improved genetic algorithm (GA is proposed for minimizing makespan. In our improved GA, a mix of random initialization population by combining initialization machine and initialization operation with random initialization is designed for generating high-quality initial population. In addition, the elitist strategy (ES and improved population diversity strategy (IPDS are used to avoid falling into the local optimal solution. Experimental results for static and several dynamic events in the FJSP show that our method is feasible and effective.

  4. Planning and complexity : Engaging with temporal dynamics, uncertainty and complex adaptive systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengupta, Ulysses; Rauws, Ward S.; de Roo, Gert

    2016-01-01

    The nature of complex systems as a transdisciplinary collection of concepts from physics and economics to sociology and ecology provides an evolving field of inquiry (Laszlo and Krippner, 1998) for urban planning and urban design. As a result, planning theory has assimilated multiple concepts from

  5. Planning and complexity : Engaging with temporal dynamics, uncertainty and complex adaptive systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengupta, Ulysses; Rauws, Ward S.; de Roo, Gert

    The nature of complex systems as a transdisciplinary collection of concepts from physics and economics to sociology and ecology provides an evolving field of inquiry (Laszlo and Krippner, 1998) for urban planning and urban design. As a result, planning theory has assimilated multiple concepts from

  6. Complexity Science Applications to Dynamic Trajectory Management: Research Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhill, Bruce; Herriot, James; Holmes, Bruce J.; Alexandrov, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    The promise of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is strongly tied to the concept of trajectory-based operations in the national airspace system. Existing efforts to develop trajectory management concepts are largely focused on individual trajectories, optimized independently, then de-conflicted among each other, and individually re-optimized, as possible. The benefits in capacity, fuel, and time are valuable, though perhaps could be greater through alternative strategies. The concept of agent-based trajectories offers a strategy for automation of simultaneous multiple trajectory management. The anticipated result of the strategy would be dynamic management of multiple trajectories with interacting and interdependent outcomes that satisfy multiple, conflicting constraints. These constraints would include the business case for operators, the capacity case for the Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP), and the environmental case for noise and emissions. The benefits in capacity, fuel, and time might be improved over those possible under individual trajectory management approaches. The proposed approach relies on computational agent-based modeling (ABM), combinatorial mathematics, as well as application of "traffic physics" concepts to the challenge, and modeling and simulation capabilities. The proposed strategy could support transforming air traffic control from managing individual aircraft behaviors to managing systemic behavior of air traffic in the NAS. A system built on the approach could provide the ability to know when regions of airspace approach being "full," that is, having non-viable local solution space for optimizing trajectories in advance.

  7. Stabilizing simulations of complex stochastic representations for quantum dynamical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perret, C; Petersen, W P, E-mail: wpp@math.ethz.ch [Seminar for Applied Mathematics, ETH, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-03-04

    Path integral representations of quantum dynamics can often be formulated as stochastic differential equations (SDEs). In a series of papers, Corney and Drummond (2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 260401), Deuar and Drummond (2001 Comput. Phys. Commun. 142 442-5), Drummond and Gardnier (1980 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 13 2353-68), Gardiner and Zoller (2004 Quantum Noise: A Handbook of Markovian and Non-Markovian Quantum Stochastic Methods with Applications to Quantum Optics (Springer Series in Synergetics) 3rd edn (Berlin: Springer)) and Gilchrist et al (1997 Phys. Rev. A 55 3014-32) and their collaborators have derived SDEs from coherent states representations for density matrices. Computationally, these SDEs are attractive because they seem simple to simulate. They can be quite unstable, however. In this paper, we consider some of the instabilities and propose a few remedies. Particularly, because the variances of the simulated paths typically grow exponentially, the processes become de-localized in relatively short times. Hence, the issues of boundary conditions and stable integration methods become important. We use the Bose-Einstein Hamiltonian as an example. Our results reveal that it is possible to significantly extend integration times and show the periodic structure of certain functionals.

  8. Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction: Models, Complexity, and Algorithms in Complex Dynamic and Evolving Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Gholamreza, and Ester, Martin. “Modeling the Temporal Dynamics of Social Rating Networks Using Bidirectional Effects of Social Relations and Rating...1.1.2 β-disruptor Problems Besides the homogeneous network model consisting of uniform nodes and bidirectional links, the heterogeneous network model... neural and metabolic networks .” Biological Cybernetics 90 (2004): 311–317. 10.1007/s00422-004-0479-1. URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00422-004-0479-1 [51

  9. Genetic variation in foundation species governs the dynamics of trophic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Cuevas, Leticia; Mussali-Galante, Patricia; Cano-Santana, Zenón; Pujade-Villar, Juli; Equihua-Martínez, Armando

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Various studies have demonstrated that the foundation species genetic diversity can have direct effects that extend beyond the individual or population level, affecting the dependent communities. Additionally, these effects may be indirectly extended to higher trophic levels throughout the entire community. Quercus castanea is an oak species with characteristics of foundation species beyond presenting a wide geographical distribution and being a dominant element of Mexican temperate forests. In this study, we analyzed the influence of population (He) and individual (HL) genetic diversity of Q. castanea on its canopy endophagous insect community and associated parasitoids. Specifically, we studied the composition, richness (S) and density of leaf-mining moths (Lepidoptera: Tischeridae, Citheraniidae), gall-forming wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), and canopy parasitoids of Q. castanea. We sampled 120 trees belonging to six populations (20/site) through the previously recognized gradient of genetic diversity. In total, 22 endophagous insect species belonging to three orders (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera) and 20 parasitoid species belonging to 13 families were identified. In general, we observed that the individual genetic diversity of the host plant (HL) has a significant positive effect on the S and density of the canopy endophagous insect communities. In contrast, He has a significant negative effect on the S of endophagous insects. Additionally, indirect effects of HL were observed, affecting the S and density of parasitoid insects. Our results suggest that genetic variation in foundation species can be one of the most important factors governing the dynamics of tritrophic interactions that involve oaks, herbivores, and parasitoids. PMID:29492034

  10. Catalytic properties and dynamic behaviour of uranium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Marechal, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The catalytic properties of organometallic uranium III and IV compounds in solution as well as reaction mechanisms are studied. The structure in solution of CpUCl 3 L 2 (L=THF, HMPA, OPPh 3 , OP(OR) 3 ) is investigated. When L=HMPA, the complex exists in two isomers in equilibrium with the L ligands either in trans or mer-cis configuration. The isomerization (Ea=92 kJ mol -1 ) as well as the bimolecular exchange with an outer sphere ligand L are observable in 1 H and 31 P NMR, and quantified with the spin saturation transfer technique in several solvents and at different temperatures between 230 and 330 K. This property is extended to other ligands. The compound U(AlH 4 ) 3 is synthetized. This compound catalyses the hydroalumination of olefins by LiAlH 4 with a very good anti-Markovnikov regioselectivity. A simple mechanism for this reaction is suggested. The reactions of the organoaluminates products with several reactants (D 2 O, I 2 , CH 2 O, Allyl-Br...) has been shown to be a powerful synthetic tool. Some specific alkenes and alkynes exhibit an interesting behaviour as dimerization or β-alkyl elimination which is easily interpreted by our mechanism [fr

  11. Genetic recombination within the human T-cell receptor α-chain gene complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.A.; Kindt, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    Genetic analyses of the human T-cell receptor (TCR) α-chain genes indicate that recombination events may occur frequently within this gene complex. Examination of the inheritance of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) detected by using probes for constant or variable region gene segments made it possible to assign TCRα haplotypes to the 16 parents and 43 offspring of eight families studied. A total of six RFLP, three for the constant region and three for variable region segments, were examined in the present studies. Most enzyme and probe combinations tested revealed no polymorphism and those finally selected for the study showed limited polymorphism in that only two or, in one case, three allelic forms of the gene were seen. In spite of limited variability at this level, extensive heterogeneity was observed for the combinations of markers present in haplotypes, suggesting that frequent recombination events have occurred. Most strikingly, multiple combinations of RFLP occurring in close proximity of the TCRα constant region gene were observed in this study. A high recombination frequency for the TCRα gene complex is further supported by the observation that two children, one in each of two families, inherited recombinant TCRα haplotypes

  12. Genetic interactions underlying hybrid male sterility in the Drosophila bipectinata species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Paras Kumar; Singh, Bashisth Narayan

    2006-06-01

    Understanding genetic mechanisms underlying hybrid male sterility is one of the most challenging problems in evolutionary biology especially speciation. By using the interspecific hybridization method roles of Y chromosome, Major Hybrid Sterility (MHS) genes and cytoplasm in sterility of hybrid males have been investigated in a promising group, the Drosophila bipectinata species complex that consists of four closely related species: D. pseudoananassae, D. bipectinata, D. parabipectinata and D. malerkotliana. The interspecific introgression analyses show that neither cytoplasm nor MHS genes are involved but X-Y interactions may be playing major role in hybrid male sterility between D. pseudoananassae and the other three species. The results of interspecific introgression analyses also show considerable decrease in the number of males in the backcross offspring and all males have atrophied testes. There is a significant positive correlation between sex - ratio distortion and severity of sterility in backcross males. These findings provide evidence that D. pseudoananassae is remotely related with other three species of the D. bipectinata species complex.

  13. Extraction of Static and Dynamic Reservoir Operation Rules by Genetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Akbari Alashti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the necessity of desirable operation of limited water resources and assuming the significant role of dams in controlling and consuming the surface waters, highlights the advantageous of suitable operation rules for optimal and sustainable operation of dams. This study investigates the hydroelectric supply of a one-reservoir system of Karoon3 using nonlinear programming (NLP, genetic algorithm (GA, genetic programming (GP and fixed length gen GP (FLGGP in real-time operation of dam considering two approaches of static and dynamic operation rules. In static operation rule, only one rule curve is extracted for all months in a year whereas in dynamic operation rule, monthly rule curves (12 rules are extracted for each month of a year. In addition, nonlinear decision rule (NLDR curves are considered, and the total deficiency function as the target (objective function have been used for evaluating the performance of each method and approach. Results show appropriate efficiency of GP and FLGGP methods in extracting operation rules in both approaches. Superiority of these methods to operation methods yielded by GA and NLP is 5%. Moreover, according to the results, it can be remarked that, FLGGP method is an alternative for GP method, whereas the GP method cannot be used due to its limitations. Comparison of two approaches of static and dynamic operation rules demonstrated the superiority of dynamic operation rule to static operation rule (about 10% and therefore this method has more capabilities in real-time operation of the reservoirs systems.

  14. Safety assessment document for the Dynamic Test Complex B854

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 854 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (HE) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire. Seismic and extreme wind (including missiles) analyses indicate that the buildings are basically sound. The lightning protection system is in the process of being upgraded to meet AMCR 385-100. These buildings are located high above the dry creek bed so that a flood is improbable. The probability of high explosive detonation involving plutonium is very remote since the radioactive materials are encased and plutonium and HE are not permitted concurrently in the same area at Site 300. (The exception to this policy is that explosive actuating devices are sometimes located in assemblies containing fissile materials. However, an accidental actuation will not affect the safe containment of the plutonium within the assembly.) There is a remote possibility of an HE explosion involving uranium and beryllium since these are permitted in the same area.The possibility of a criticality accident is very remote since the fissile materials are doubly encased in stout metal containers. All operations involving these materials are independently reviewed and inspected by the Criticality Safety Office. It was determined that a fire was unlikely due to the low fire loading and the absence of ignition sources. It was also determined that the consequences of any accidents were reduced by the remote location of these facilities, their design, and by administrative controls

  15. Molecular organization and dynamics of micellar phase of polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes: ESR spin probe study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, A. M.; Kasaikin, V. A.; Zakharova, Yu. A.; Aliev, I. I.; Baranovsky, V. Yu.; Doseva, V.; Yasina, L. L.

    2002-04-01

    Molecular dynamics and organization of the micellar phase of complexes of linear polyelectrolytes with ionogenic and non-ionogenic surfactants was studied by the ESR spin probe method. Complexes of polyacrylic acid (PAA) and sodium polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) with alkyltrimethylammonium bromides (ATAB), as well as complexes of poly- N, N'-dimethyldiallylammonium chloride (PDACL) with sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) were studied. The micellar phase of such complexes is highly organized molecular system, molecular ordering of which near the polymeric chain is much higher than in the 'center' of the micelle, it depends on the polymer-detergent interaction, flexibility of polymeric chain and length of carbonic part of the detergent molecule. Complexes of polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) with non-ionic detergent (dodecyl-substituted polyethyleneglycol), show that the local mobility of surfactant in such complexes is significantly lower than in 'free' micelles and depends on the number of micellar particles participating in formation of complexes.

  16. Complex dynamic and static structures in interconnected particle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, Kai de Lange

    2004-01-01

    Observations in the magnetic hole system under different conditions have generated many different patterns and dynamical phenomena which have generated even more ideas on how to attack and analyze them on a firm physical basis. Some of these problems are described in paper 4. In this thesis we have studied the dynamics of the few body system. The braid theory provides a compact description of this motion and enables a better real-time analysis with a minimum of information needed for computation. Also the amount of data to store on disks can then be reduced. Another aspect is that braid theory provides new topological invariants which can bring new light on the phenomena under study. The world lines from the few body system can also be closed into a knot. In knot theory several invariant quantities have been developed the last two decades, where the Jones polynomial is one powerful invariant, as pointed out in Appendix B. The diffusive processes of a few body systems can take super diffusive behaviour, as shown in paper 3. Apparently intermittent states of the same system display a large variety of different modes. By analyzing these modes using rank-ordering statistics, we find that they obey the so-called Zipf-Mandelbrot relation, as discussed in papers 1, 2, 3 and 4. Numerical calculations based on Stokes' drag and magnetic dipole-dipole interactions resemble the behaviour of the experiments well. In sections 3.2 and A.1 we presented a possible derivation of the exponent γ in the Zipf-Mandelbrot relation. The derived values of γ are within the same order of magnitude as the values of γ obtained in the experiments. However, the derived values of γ have high uncertainties. These uncertainties may be reduced with a more refined definition of the work of a mode. This refinement has to take into account the correlation between the modes. The physical meaning behind the exponent γ and the correction term ζ in the Zipf-Mandelbrot relation is not fully understood

  17. Complex dynamic and static structures in interconnected particle systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristiansen, Kai de Lange

    2004-07-01

    Observations in the magnetic hole system under different conditions have generated many different patterns and dynamical phenomena which have generated even more ideas on how to attack and analyze them on a firm physical basis. Some of these problems are described in paper 4. In this thesis we have studied the dynamics of the few body system. The braid theory provides a compact description of this motion and enables a better real-time analysis with a minimum of information needed for computation. Also the amount of data to store on disks can then be reduced. Another aspect is that braid theory provides new topological invariants which can bring new light on the phenomena under study. The world lines from the few body system can also be closed into a knot. In knot theory several invariant quantities have been developed the last two decades, where the Jones polynomial is one powerful invariant, as pointed out in Appendix B. The diffusive processes of a few body systems can take super diffusive behaviour, as shown in paper 3. Apparently intermittent states of the same system display a large variety of different modes. By analyzing these modes using rank-ordering statistics, we find that they obey the so-called Zipf-Mandelbrot relation, as discussed in papers 1, 2, 3 and 4. Numerical calculations based on Stokes' drag and magnetic dipole-dipole interactions resemble the behaviour of the experiments well. In sections 3.2 and A.1 we presented a possible derivation of the exponent {gamma} in the Zipf-Mandelbrot relation. The derived values of {gamma} are within the same order of magnitude as the values of {gamma} obtained in the experiments. However, the derived values of {gamma} have high uncertainties. These uncertainties may be reduced with a more refined definition of the work of a mode. This refinement has to take into account the correlation between the modes. The physical meaning behind the exponent {gamma} and the correction term {zeta} in the Zipf

  18. Investigating the structural impacts of I64T and P311S mutations in APE1-DNA complex: a molecular dynamics approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C George Priya Doss

    Full Text Available Elucidating the molecular dynamic behavior of Protein-DNA complex upon mutation is crucial in current genomics. Molecular dynamics approach reveals the changes on incorporation of variants that dictate the structure and function of Protein-DNA complexes. Deleterious mutations in APE1 protein modify the physicochemical property of amino acids that affect the protein stability and dynamic behavior. Further, these mutations disrupt the binding sites and prohibit the protein to form complexes with its interacting DNA.In this study, we developed a rapid and cost-effective method to analyze variants in APE1 gene that are associated with disease susceptibility and evaluated their impacts on APE1-DNA complex dynamic behavior. Initially, two different in silico approaches were used to identify deleterious variants in APE1 gene. Deleterious scores that overlap in these approaches were taken in concern and based on it, two nsSNPs with IDs rs61730854 (I64T and rs1803120 (P311S were taken further for structural analysis.Different parameters such as RMSD, RMSF, salt bridge, H-bonds and SASA applied in Molecular dynamic study reveals that predicted deleterious variants I64T and P311S alters the structure as well as affect the stability of APE1-DNA interacting functions. This study addresses such new methods for validating functional polymorphisms of human APE1 which is critically involved in causing deficit in repair capacity, which in turn leads to genetic instability and carcinogenesis.

  19. Genetic complexity and multiple infections with more Parvovirus species in naturally infected cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battilani Mara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parvoviruses of carnivores include three closely related autonomous parvoviruses: canine parvovirus (CPV, feline panleukopenia virus (FPV and mink enteritis virus (MEV. These viruses cause a variety of serious diseases, especially in young patients, since they have a remarkable predilection for replication in rapidly dividing cells. FPV is not the only parvovirus species which infects cats; in addition to MEV, the new variants of canine parvovirus, CPV-2a, 2b and 2c have also penetrated the feline host-range, and they are able to infect and replicate in cats, causing diseases indistinguishable from feline panleukopenia. Furthermore, as cats are susceptible to both CPV-2 and FPV viruses, superinfection and co-infection with multiple parvovirus strains may occur, potentially facilitating recombination and high genetic heterogeneity. In the light of the importance of cats as a potential source of genetic diversity for parvoviruses and, since feline panleukopenia virus has re-emerged as a major cause of mortality in felines, the present study has explored the molecular characteristics of parvovirus strains circulating in cat populations. The most significant findings reported in this study were (a the detection of mixed infection FPV/CPV with the presence of one parvovirus variant which is a true intermediate between FPV/CPV and (b the quasispecies cloud size of one CPV sample variant 2c. In conclusion, this study provides new important results about the evolutionary dynamics of CPV infections in cats, showing that CPV has presumably started a new process of readaptation in feline hosts.

  20. Understanding Life : The Evolutionary Dynamics of Complexity and Semiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeckenhoff, Helmut K.

    2010-11-01

    Post-Renaissance sciences created different cultures. To establish an epistemological base, Physics were separated from the Mental domain. Consciousness was excluded from science. Life Sciences were left in between e.g. LaMettrie's `man—machine' (1748) and 'vitalism' [e.g. Bergson 4]. Causative thinking versus intuitive arguing limited strictly comprehensive concepts. First ethology established a potential shared base for science, proclaiming the `biology paradigm' in the middle of the 20th century. Initially procured by Cybernetics and Systems sciences, `constructivist' models prepared a new view on human perception and thus also of scientific `objectivity when introducing the `observer'. In sequel Computer sciences triggered the ICT revolution. In turn ICT helped to develop Chaos and Complexity sciences, Non-linear Mathematics and its spin-offs in the formal sciences [Spencer-Brown 49] as e.g. (proto-)logics. Models of life systems, as e.g. Anticipatory Systems, integrated epistemology with mathematics and Anticipatory Computing [Dubois 11, 12, 13, 14] connecting them with Semiotics. Seminal ideas laid in the turn of the 19th to the 20th century [J. v. Uexküll 53] detected the co-action and co-evolvement of environments and life systems. Bio-Semiotics ascribed purpose, intent and meaning as essential qualities of life. The concepts of Systems Biology and Qualitative Research enriched and develop also anthropologies and humanities. Brain research added models of (higher) consciousness. An avant-garde is contemplating a science including consciousness as one additional base. New insights from the extended qualitative approach led to re-conciliation of basic assumptions of scientific inquiry, creating the `epistemological turn'. Paradigmatically, resting on macro- micro- and recently on nano-biology, evolution biology sired fresh scripts of evolution [W. Wieser 60,61]. Its results tie to hypotheses describing the emergence of language, of the human mind and of

  1. A New Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm for Community Detection in Dynamic Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Community detection in dynamic networks is an important research topic and has received an enormous amount of attention in recent years. Modularity is selected as a measure to quantify the quality of the community partition in previous detection methods. But, the modularity has been exposed to resolution limits. In this paper, we propose a novel multiobjective evolutionary algorithm for dynamic networks community detection based on the framework of nondominated sorting genetic algorithm. Modularity density which can address the limitations of modularity function is adopted to measure the snapshot cost, and normalized mutual information is selected to measure temporal cost, respectively. The characteristics knowledge of the problem is used in designing the genetic operators. Furthermore, a local search operator was designed, which can improve the effectiveness and efficiency of community detection. Experimental studies based on synthetic datasets show that the proposed algorithm can obtain better performance than the compared algorithms.

  2. Synchronization criterion for Lur'e type complex dynamical networks with time-varying delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, D.H.; Park, Ju H.; Yoo, W.J.; Won, S.C.; Lee, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, the synchronization problem for a class of complex dynamical networks in which every identical node is a Lur'e system with time-varying delay is considered. A delay-dependent synchronization criterion is derived for the synchronization of complex dynamical network that represented by Lur'e system with sector restricted nonlinearities. The derived criterion is a sufficient condition for absolute stability of error dynamics between the each nodes and the isolated node. Using a convex representation of the nonlinearity for error dynamics, the stability condition based on the discretized Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional is obtained via LMI formulation. The proposed delay-dependent synchronization criterion is less conservative than the existing ones. The effectiveness of our work is verified through numerical examples.

  3. A Genome-wide Combinatorial Strategy Dissects Complex Genetic Architecture of Seed Coat Color in Chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Deepak; Das, Shouvik; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Ranjan, Rajeev; Badoni, Saurabh; Kumar, Vinod; Tripathi, Shailesh; Gowda, C L Laxmipathi; Sharma, Shivali; Singh, Sube; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Parida, Swarup K

    2015-01-01

    The study identified 9045 high-quality SNPs employing both genome-wide GBS- and candidate gene-based SNP genotyping assays in 172, including 93 cultivated (desi and kabuli) and 79 wild chickpea accessions. The GWAS in a structured population of 93 sequenced accessions detected 15 major genomic loci exhibiting significant association with seed coat color. Five seed color-associated major genomic loci underlying robust QTLs mapped on a high-density intra-specific genetic linkage map were validated by QTL mapping. The integration of association and QTL mapping with gene haplotype-specific LD mapping and transcript profiling identified novel allelic variants (non-synonymous SNPs) and haplotypes in a MATE secondary transporter gene regulating light/yellow brown and beige seed coat color differentiation in chickpea. The down-regulation and decreased transcript expression of beige seed coat color-associated MATE gene haplotype was correlated with reduced proanthocyanidins accumulation in the mature seed coats of beige than light/yellow brown seed colored desi and kabuli accessions for their coloration/pigmentation. This seed color-regulating MATE gene revealed strong purifying selection pressure primarily in LB/YB seed colored desi and wild Cicer reticulatum accessions compared with the BE seed colored kabuli accessions. The functionally relevant molecular tags identified have potential to decipher the complex transcriptional regulatory gene function of seed coat coloration and for understanding the selective sweep-based seed color trait evolutionary pattern in cultivated and wild accessions during chickpea domestication. The genome-wide integrated approach employed will expedite marker-assisted genetic enhancement for developing cultivars with desirable seed coat color types in chickpea.

  4. Genetics of reproductive isolation in the Drosophila simulans clade: complex epistasis underlying hybrid male sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabot, E L; Davis, A W; Johnson, N A; Wu, C I

    1994-05-01

    We have analyzed the sterility associated with introgressions of the distal one-fourth of the X chromosome from either Drosophila mauritiana or Drosophila sechellia into the genome of Drosophila simulans using a series of visible and DNA markers. Because in Drosophila hybrids, male sterility is usually complete and is often tightly linked with each of several markers used in crosses, a simple genetic basis has generally been assumed. In our low resolution mapping experiment, we were not able to reject the null hypothesis that a single gene, introgressed from either D. mauritiana or D. sechellia, is the cause of male sterility. High resolution mapping, however, reveals a much more complex picture. At least three distinct factors from D. mauritiana, or two from D. sechellia, were identified that need to be jointly present to confer full sterility. Each individual factor by itself is relatively ineffective in causing sterility, or even a partial spermatogenic defect. Moreover, there appear to be more sterility factors on comparable introgressions from D. mauritiana than from D. sechellia. On the basis of these observations, we propose a model which suggests that multilocus weak allele interactions are a very common cause of reproductive incompatibility between closely related species. We also present theoretical argument and empirical evidence against extrapolating the results of within-species analysis to interpret the genetic basis of species differences. The implications of this model on the theories of evolution of species differences and the attempt to understand the mechanisms of hybrid sterility/inviability at the molecular level are discussed.

  5. Spatial and temporal dynamics of the genetic organization of small mammal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.H.; Manlove, M.N.; Joule, J.

    1978-01-01

    A functional population is a group of organisms and their offspring that contributes to a common gene pool within a certain area and time period. It is also the unit of evolution and should be viewed both in quantitative and qualitative terms. Selection, drift, dispersal, and mutation can alter the composition of populations. Spatial heterogeneity in allele frequencies argues for a conceptual model that has a series of relatively small populations semi-isolated from one another. Because of the relatively high levels of genetic variability characteristic of most mammalian species, significant amounts of gene flow between these spatially subdivided populations must occur when longer time periods are considered. Fluctuations in the genetic structure of populations seem to be important in altering the fitness of the individuals within the populations. The interaction of populations through gene flow is important in changing the levels of intrapopulational genetic variability. Populations can be characterized as existing on a continuum from relatively stable to unstable numbers and by other associated changes in their characteristics. Temporal changes in allele frequency occur in a variety of mammals. Conceptually, a species can be viewed as a series of dynamic populations that vary in numbers and quality in both a spatial and temporal context even over short distances and time periods. Short term changes in the quality of individuals in a population can be important in altering the short term dynamics of a population

  6. Data based identification and prediction of nonlinear and complex dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-07-01

    The problem of reconstructing nonlinear and complex dynamical systems from measured data or time series is central to many scientific disciplines including physical, biological, computer, and social sciences, as well as engineering and economics. The classic approach to phase-space reconstruction through the methodology of delay-coordinate embedding has been practiced for more than three decades, but the paradigm is effective mostly for low-dimensional dynamical systems. Often, the methodology yields only a topological correspondence of the original system. There are situations in various fields of science and engineering where the systems of interest are complex and high dimensional with many interacting components. A complex system typically exhibits a rich variety of collective dynamics, and it is of great interest to be able to detect, classify, understand, predict, and control the dynamics using data that are becoming increasingly accessible due to the advances of modern information technology. To accomplish these goals, especially prediction and control, an accurate reconstruction of the original system is required. Nonlinear and complex systems identification aims at inferring, from data, the mathematical equations that govern the dynamical evolution and the complex interaction patterns, or topology, among the various components of the system. With successful reconstruction of the system equations and the connecting topology, it may be possible to address challenging and significant problems such as identification of causal relations among the interacting components and detection of hidden nodes. The "inverse" problem thus presents a grand challenge, requiring new paradigms beyond the traditional delay-coordinate embedding methodology. The past fifteen years have witnessed rapid development of contemporary complex graph theory with broad applications in interdisciplinary science and engineering. The combination of graph, information, and nonlinear dynamical

  7. Data based identification and prediction of nonlinear and complex dynamical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wen-Xu [School of Systems Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875 (China); Business School, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Lai, Ying-Cheng, E-mail: Ying-Cheng.Lai@asu.edu [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Institute for Complex Systems and Mathematical Biology, King’s College, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Grebogi, Celso [Institute for Complex Systems and Mathematical Biology, King’s College, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-12

    The problem of reconstructing nonlinear and complex dynamical systems from measured data or time series is central to many scientific disciplines including physical, biological, computer, and social sciences, as well as engineering and economics. The classic approach to phase-space reconstruction through the methodology of delay-coordinate embedding has been practiced for more than three decades, but the paradigm is effective mostly for low-dimensional dynamical systems. Often, the methodology yields only a topological correspondence of the original system. There are situations in various fields of science and engineering where the systems of interest are complex and high dimensional with many interacting components. A complex system typically exhibits a rich variety of collective dynamics, and it is of great interest to be able to detect, classify, understand, predict, and control the dynamics using data that are becoming increasingly accessible due to the advances of modern information technology. To accomplish these goals, especially prediction and control, an accurate reconstruction of the original system is required. Nonlinear and complex systems identification aims at inferring, from data, the mathematical equations that govern the dynamical evolution and the complex interaction patterns, or topology, among the various components of the system. With successful reconstruction of the system equations and the connecting topology, it may be possible to address challenging and significant problems such as identification of causal relations among the interacting components and detection of hidden nodes. The “inverse” problem thus presents a grand challenge, requiring new paradigms beyond the traditional delay-coordinate embedding methodology. The past fifteen years have witnessed rapid development of contemporary complex graph theory with broad applications in interdisciplinary science and engineering. The combination of graph, information, and nonlinear

  8. Data based identification and prediction of nonlinear and complex dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-01-01

    The problem of reconstructing nonlinear and complex dynamical systems from measured data or time series is central to many scientific disciplines including physical, biological, computer, and social sciences, as well as engineering and economics. The classic approach to phase-space reconstruction through the methodology of delay-coordinate embedding has been practiced for more than three decades, but the paradigm is effective mostly for low-dimensional dynamical systems. Often, the methodology yields only a topological correspondence of the original system. There are situations in various fields of science and engineering where the systems of interest are complex and high dimensional with many interacting components. A complex system typically exhibits a rich variety of collective dynamics, and it is of great interest to be able to detect, classify, understand, predict, and control the dynamics using data that are becoming increasingly accessible due to the advances of modern information technology. To accomplish these goals, especially prediction and control, an accurate reconstruction of the original system is required. Nonlinear and complex systems identification aims at inferring, from data, the mathematical equations that govern the dynamical evolution and the complex interaction patterns, or topology, among the various components of the system. With successful reconstruction of the system equations and the connecting topology, it may be possible to address challenging and significant problems such as identification of causal relations among the interacting components and detection of hidden nodes. The “inverse” problem thus presents a grand challenge, requiring new paradigms beyond the traditional delay-coordinate embedding methodology. The past fifteen years have witnessed rapid development of contemporary complex graph theory with broad applications in interdisciplinary science and engineering. The combination of graph, information, and nonlinear

  9. New Approach for Nuclear Safety and Regulation - Application of Complexity Theory and System Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Sung; Han, Kyu Hyun; Kim, Do Hyoung

    2007-01-01

    The methodology being used today for assuring nuclear safety is based on analytic approaches. In the 21st century, holistic approaches are increasingly used over traditional analytic method that is based on reductionism. Presently, it leads to interest in complexity theory or system dynamics. In this paper, we review global academic trends, social environments, concept of nuclear safety and regulatory frameworks for nuclear safety. We propose a new safety paradigm and also regulatory approach using holistic approach and system dynamics now in fashion

  10. Analysis of Social Network Dynamics with Models from the Theory of Complex Adaptive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lymperopoulos , Ilias; Lekakos , George

    2013-01-01

    Part 4: Protocols, Regulation and Social Networking; International audience; The understanding and modeling of social dynamics in a complex and unpredictable world, emerges as a research target of particular importance. Success in this direction can yield valuable knowledge as to how social phenomena form and evolve in varying socioeconomic contexts comprising economic crises, societal disasters, cultural differences and security threats among others. The study of social dynamics occurring in...

  11. Patterns and processes in the genetic differentiation of the Brachionus calyciflorus complex, a passively dispersing freshwater zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xian-ling; Xi, Yi-long; Wen, Xin-li; Zhang, Gen; Wang, Jin-xia; Hu, Ke

    2011-05-01

    Elucidating the evolutionary patterns and processes of extant species is an important objective of any research program that seeks to understand population divergence and, ultimately, speciation. The island-like nature and temporal fluctuation of limnetic habitats create opportunities for genetic differentiation in rotifers through space and time. To gain further understanding of spatio-temporal patterns of genetic differentiation in rotifers other than the well-studied Brachionus plicatilis complex in brackish water, a total of 318 nrDNA ITS sequences from the B. calyciflorus complex in freshwater were analysed using phylogenetic and phylogeographic methods. DNA taxonomy conducted by both the sequence divergence and the GMYC model suggested the occurrence of six potential cryptic species, supported also by reproductive isolation among the tested lineages. The significant genetic differentiation and non-significant correlation between geographic and genetic distances existed in the most abundant cryptic species, BcI-W and Bc-SW. The large proportion of genetic variability for cryptic species Bc-SW was due to differences between sampling localities within seasons, rather than between different seasons. Nested Clade Analysis suggested allopatric or past fragmentation, contiguous range expansion and long-distance colonization possibly coupled with subsequent fragmentation as the probable main forces shaping the present-day phylogeographic structure of the B. calyciflorus species complex. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Adaptive synchronization of the complex dynamical network with non-derivative and derivative coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yuhua, E-mail: yuhuaxu2004@163.co [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China) and Department of Maths, Yunyang Teachers' College, Hubei 442000 (China); Zhou Wuneng, E-mail: wnzhou@163.co [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Fang Jian' an [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Sun Wen [School of Mathematics and Information, Yangtze University, Hubei Jingzhou 434023 (China)

    2010-04-05

    This Letter investigates the synchronization of a general complex dynamical network with non-derivative and derivative coupling. Based on LaSalle's invariance principle, adaptive synchronization criteria are obtained. Analytical result shows that under the designed adaptive controllers, a general complex dynamical network with non-derivative and derivative coupling can asymptotically synchronize to a given trajectory, and several useful criteria for synchronization are given. What is more, the coupling matrix is not assumed to be symmetric or irreducible. Finally, simulations results show the method is effective.

  13. Complex dynamics in the development of the first tarsal segment of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Nicolas Malagon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gene, protein and cell interactions are vital for the development of a multicellular organism. As a result, complexity theory can be a fundamental tool to understand how diverse developmental and evolutionary processes occur. However, in most scientific programs these two fields are separated. In an effort to create a connection between the Evo-devo and complexity science, this article shows how the cell dynamics of epithelia can display behaviours with similar features to complex systems. Here, I propose that these cell dynamics, in addition to control cell density in epithelia, can provide high evolvability to this type of tissue. To achieve this goal, I used a as a systems the development of Drosophila melanogaster front legs. First, I provide an example in which order at the tissue level emerge from apparently random cell dynamics. Then, I show that small modifications in epithelial cellular components can produce highly organized or the opposite random cell dynamics. Therefore, this work shows that a developing epithelium displays signs of complex behaviours and I propose that the feedback between tension and cellular processes are key for understanding how multicellular organisms development and evolve. Such studies may reveal the mechanistic basis of complex processes that bridge several levels of organization.

  14. Adaptive Synchronization of Fractional Order Complex-Variable Dynamical Networks via Pinning Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Da-Wei; Yan, Jie; Wang, Nian; Liang, Dong

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the synchronization of fractional order complex-variable dynamical networks is studied using an adaptive pinning control strategy based on close center degree. Some effective criteria for global synchronization of fractional order complex-variable dynamical networks are derived based on the Lyapunov stability theory. From the theoretical analysis, one concludes that under appropriate conditions, the complex-variable dynamical networks can realize the global synchronization by using the proper adaptive pinning control method. Meanwhile, we succeed in solving the problem about how much coupling strength should be applied to ensure the synchronization of the fractional order complex networks. Therefore, compared with the existing results, the synchronization method in this paper is more general and convenient. This result extends the synchronization condition of the real-variable dynamical networks to the complex-valued field, which makes our research more practical. Finally, two simulation examples show that the derived theoretical results are valid and the proposed adaptive pinning method is effective. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61201227, National Natural Science Foundation of China Guangdong Joint Fund under Grant No. U1201255, the Natural Science Foundation of Anhui Province under Grant No. 1208085MF93, 211 Innovation Team of Anhui University under Grant Nos. KJTD007A and KJTD001B, and also supported by Chinese Scholarship Council

  15. The genetic basis of alcoholism: multiple phenotypes, many genes, complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholism is a significant public health problem. A picture of the genetic architecture underlying alcohol-related phenotypes is emerging from genome-wide association studies and work on genetically tractable model organisms. PMID:22348705

  16. The genetic architecture of a complex ecological trait: host plant use in the specialist moth, HELIOTHIS SUBFLEXA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of the genetic basis of ecological adaptation remains in its infancy, and most studies have focused on phenotypically simple traits. Host plant use by herbivorous insects is phenotypically complex. While research has illuminated the evolutionary determinants of host use, knowledge of its...

  17. Lexical Complexity Development from Dynamic Systems Theory Perspective: Lexical Density, Diversity, and Sophistication

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Kalantari; Javad Gholami

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal case study explored Iranian EFL learners’ lexical complexity (LC) through the lenses of Dynamic Systems Theory (DST). Fifty independent essays written by five intermediate to advanced female EFL learners in a TOEFL iBT preparation course over six months constituted the corpus of this study. Three Coh-Metrix indices (Graesser, McNamara, Louwerse, & Cai, 2004; McNamara & Graesser, 2012), three Lexical Complexity Analyzer indices (Lu, 2010, 2012; Lu & Ai, 2011...

  18. Unpacking complexities of managerial subjectivity: An analytic fixation on constitutive dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie

    2012-01-01

    , and the analytic challenges of discourse/Discourse-distinctions and avoiding agency-structure-dualism. This paper proposes an integral conceptualization of subjectification that directs analytic attention to the complex constitutive dynamics of organizational discourses and agency normative to organizational...... is discussed with a case-study of public managers in collaborative governance processes in the Danish day-care sector. With complex-sensitive analytics the paper contributes to the ‘plurivocal’ debate on advancing organizational discourse approaches....

  19. Protein dynamics during presynaptic complex assembly on individual ssDNA molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Gibb, Bryan; Ye, Ling F.; Kwon, YoungHo; Niu, Hengyao; Sung, Patrick; Greene, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a conserved pathway for repairing double?stranded breaks, which are processed to yield single?stranded DNA overhangs that serve as platforms for presynaptic complex assembly. Here we use single?molecule imaging to reveal the interplay between Saccharomyce cerevisiae RPA, Rad52, and Rad51 during presynaptic complex assembly. We show that Rad52 binds RPA?ssDNA and suppresses RPA turnover, highlighting an unanticipated regulatory influence on protein dynamics. Rad51 b...

  20. Automated x-ray television complex for inspecting standard-size dynamic objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, E.A.; Luk'yanenko, E.A.; Chelnokov, V.B.; Kuleshov, V.K.; Alkhimov, Yu.V.

    1993-01-01

    An automated x-ray television complex based on a matrix gas-discharge converter having a large area (2.1 x 1.0 m) for inspecting standard-size freight and containers and for diagnosing industrial articles is presented. The pulsed operating mode of the complex with a 512K digital television storage makes it possible to inspect dynamic objects with a minimum dose load (20--100 μR). 6 refs., 5 figs

  1. Return-to-Work Within a Complex and Dynamic Organizational Work Disability System

    OpenAIRE

    Jetha, Arif; Pransky, Glenn; Fish, Jon; Hettinger, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Return-to-work (RTW) within a complex organizational system can be associated with suboptimal outcomes. Purpose To apply a sociotechnical systems perspective to investigate complexity in RTW; to utilize system dynamics modeling (SDM) to examine how feedback relationships between individual, psychosocial, and organizational factors make up the work disability system and influence RTW. Methods SDMs were developed within two companies. Thirty stakeholders including senior managers, an...

  2. Automated X-ray television complex for testing large dynamic objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, E.A.; Luk'yanenko, Eh.A.; Chelnokov, V.B.; Kuleshov, V.K.; Alkhimov, Yu.V.

    1992-01-01

    An automated X-ray television complex on the base of matrix gas-dischage large-area (2.1x1.0 m) converter for testing large cargoes and containers, as well as for inductrial article diagnostics is described. The complex pulsed operation with the 512 kbytes television digital memory unit provides for testing dynamic objects under minimal doses (20-100 μR)

  3. Simple, standardized incorporation of genetic risk into non-genetic risk prediction tools for complex traits: coronary heart disease as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Goldstein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Genetic risk assessment is becoming an important component of clinical decision-making. Genetic Risk Scores (GRSs allow the composite assessment of genetic risk in complex traits. A technically and clinically pertinent question is how to most easily and effectively combine a GRS with an assessment of clinical risk derived from established non-genetic risk factors as well as to clearly present this information to patient and health care providers. Materials & Methods: We illustrate a means to combine a GRS with an independent assessment of clinical risk using a log-link function. We apply the method to the prediction of coronary heart disease (CHD in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC cohort. We evaluate different constructions based on metrics of effect change, discrimination, and calibration.Results: The addition of a GRS to a clinical risk score (CRS improves both discrimination and calibration for CHD in ARIC. Results are similar regardless of whether external vs. internal coefficients are used for the CRS, risk factor SNPs are included in the GRS, or subjects with diabetes at baseline are excluded. We outline how to report the construction and the performance of a GRS using our method and illustrate a means to present genetic risk information to subjects and/or their health care provider. Conclusion: The proposed method facilitates the standardized incorporation of a GRS in risk assessment.

  4. Genetics, mental illness, and complex disease: development and distribution of an interactive CD-ROM for genetic counselors. Final report for period 15 August 2000 - 31 December 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, Joseph D.

    2003-03-31

    "Genetics and Major Psychiatric Disorders: A Program for Genetic Counselors" provides an introduction to psychiatric genetics, with a focus on the genetics of common complex disease, for genetics professionals. The program is available as a CD-ROM and an online educational resource. The on-line version requires a direct internet connection. Each educational module begins with an interactive case study that raises significant issues addressed in each module. In addition, case studies provided throughout the educational materials support teaching of major concepts. Incorporated throughout the content are expert video clips, video clips from individuals affected by psychiatric illness, and optional "learn more" materials that offer greater depth about a particular topic. The structure of the CD-ROM permits self-navigation, but we have suggested a sequence that allows materials to build upon each other. At any point in the materials, users may pause and look up terms in the glossary or review the DSM-IV criteria for selected psychiatric disorders. A detailed site map is available for those who choose to self navigate through the content.

  5. Phase dynamics of complex-valued neural networks and its application to traffic signal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Ikuko; Iritani, Takeshi; Sakakibara, Kazutoshi; Kuroe, Yasuaki

    2005-01-01

    Complex-valued Hopfield networks which possess the energy function are analyzed. The dynamics of the network with certain forms of an activation function is de-composable into the dynamics of the amplitude and phase of each neuron. Then the phase dynamics is described as a coupled system of phase oscillators with a pair-wise sinusoidal interaction. Therefore its phase synchronization mechanism is useful for the area-wide offset control of the traffic signals. The computer simulations show the effectiveness under the various traffic conditions.

  6. Complexity analyses show two distinct types of nonlinear dynamics in short heart period variability recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Alberto; Bari, Vlasta; Marchi, Andrea; De Maria, Beatrice; Cysarz, Dirk; Van Leeuwen, Peter; Takahashi, Anielle C. M.; Catai, Aparecida M.; Gnecchi-Ruscone, Tomaso

    2015-01-01

    Two diverse complexity metrics quantifying time irreversibility and local prediction, in connection with a surrogate data approach, were utilized to detect nonlinear dynamics in short heart period (HP) variability series recorded in fetuses, as a function of the gestational period, and in healthy humans, as a function of the magnitude of the orthostatic challenge. The metrics indicated the presence of two distinct types of nonlinear HP dynamics characterized by diverse ranges of time scales. These findings stress the need to render more specific the analysis of nonlinear components of HP dynamics by accounting for different temporal scales. PMID:25806002

  7. Modeling and complexity of stochastic interacting Lévy type financial price dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiduan; Zheng, Shenzhou; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jun; Wang, Guochao

    2018-06-01

    In attempt to reproduce and investigate nonlinear dynamics of security markets, a novel nonlinear random interacting price dynamics, which is considered as a Lévy type process, is developed and investigated by the combination of lattice oriented percolation and Potts dynamics, which concerns with the instinctive random fluctuation and the fluctuation caused by the spread of the investors' trading attitudes, respectively. To better understand the fluctuation complexity properties of the proposed model, the complexity analyses of random logarithmic price return and corresponding volatility series are preformed, including power-law distribution, Lempel-Ziv complexity and fractional sample entropy. In order to verify the rationality of the proposed model, the corresponding studies of actual security market datasets are also implemented for comparison. The empirical results reveal that this financial price model can reproduce some important complexity features of actual security markets to some extent. The complexity of returns decreases with the increase of parameters γ1 and β respectively, furthermore, the volatility series exhibit lower complexity than the return series

  8. Nonlinear stochastic interacting dynamics and complexity of financial gasket fractal-like lattice percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jun

    2018-05-01

    A novel nonlinear stochastic interacting price dynamics is proposed and investigated by the bond percolation on Sierpinski gasket fractal-like lattice, aim to make a new approach to reproduce and study the complexity dynamics of real security markets. Fractal-like lattices correspond to finite graphs with vertices and edges, which are similar to fractals, and Sierpinski gasket is a well-known example of fractals. Fractional ordinal array entropy and fractional ordinal array complexity are introduced to analyze the complexity behaviors of financial signals. To deeper comprehend the fluctuation characteristics of the stochastic price evolution, the complexity analysis of random logarithmic returns and volatility are preformed, including power-law distribution, fractional sample entropy and fractional ordinal array complexity. For further verifying the rationality and validity of the developed stochastic price evolution, the actual security market dataset are also studied with the same statistical methods for comparison. The empirical results show that this stochastic price dynamics can reconstruct complexity behaviors of the actual security markets to some extent.

  9. Bifurcation and complex dynamics of a discrete-time predator-prey system involving group defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sohel Rana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a discrete-time predator-prey system involving group defense. The existence and local stability of positive fixed point of the discrete dynamical system is analyzed algebraically. It is shown that the system undergoes a flip bifurcation and a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the interior of R+2 by using bifurcation theory. Numerical simulation results not only show the consistence with the theoretical analysis but also display the new and interesting dynamical behaviors, including phase portraits, period-7, 20-orbits, attracting invariant circle, cascade of period-doubling bifurcation from period-20 leading to chaos, quasi-periodic orbits, and sudden disappearance of the chaotic dynamics and attracting chaotic set. The Lyapunov exponents are numerically computed to characterize the complexity of the dynamical behaviors.

  10. Drosophila Protein Kinase CK2: Genetics, Regulatory Complexity and Emerging Roles during Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohna Bandyopadhyay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available CK2 is a Ser/Thr protein kinase that is highly conserved amongst all eukaryotes. It is a well-known oncogenic kinase that regulates vital cell autonomous functions and animal development. Genetic studies in the fruit fly Drosophila are providing unique insights into the roles of CK2 in cell signaling, embryogenesis, organogenesis, neurogenesis, and the circadian clock, and are revealing hitherto unknown complexities in CK2 functions and regulation. Here, we review Drosophila CK2 with respect to its structure, subunit diversity, potential mechanisms of regulation, developmental abnormalities linked to mutations in the gene encoding CK2 subunits, and emerging roles in multiple aspects of eye development. We examine the Drosophila CK2 “interaction map” and the eye-specific “transcriptome” databases, which raise the prospect that this protein kinase has many additional targets in the developing eye. We discuss the possibility that CK2 functions during early retinal neurogenesis in Drosophila and mammals bear greater similarity than has been recognized, and that this conservation may extend to other developmental programs. Together, these studies underscore the immense power of the Drosophila model organism to provide new insights and avenues to further investigate developmentally relevant targets of this protein kinase.

  11. Impacts of large dams on the complexity of suspended sediment dynamics in the Yangtze River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuankun; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Wang, Dong; Wu, Jichun; Zhang, Xiao

    2018-03-01

    The Yangtze River is one of the largest and most important rivers in the world. Over the past several decades, the natural sediment regime of the Yangtze River has been altered by the construction of dams. This paper uses multi-scale entropy analysis to ascertain the impacts of large dams on the complexity of high-frequency suspended sediment dynamics in the Yangtze River system, especially after impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD). In this study, the complexity of sediment dynamics is quantified by framing it within the context of entropy analysis of time series. Data on daily sediment loads for four stations located in the mainstem are analyzed for the past 60 years. The results indicate that dam construction has reduced the complexity of short-term (1-30 days) variation in sediment dynamics near the structures, but that complexity has actually increased farther downstream. This spatial pattern seems to reflect a filtering effect of the dams on the on the temporal pattern of sediment loads as well as decreased longitudinal connectivity of sediment transfer through the river system, resulting in downstream enhancement of the influence of local sediment inputs by tributaries on sediment dynamics. The TGD has had a substantial impact on the complexity of sediment series in the mainstem of the Yangtze River, especially after it became fully operational. This enhanced impact is attributed to the high trapping efficiency of this dam and its associated large reservoir. The sediment dynamics "signal" becomes more spatially variable after dam construction. This study demonstrates the spatial influence of dams on the high-frequency temporal complexity of sediment regimes and provides valuable information that can be used to guide environmental conservation of the Yangtze River.

  12. EXAFS study on dynamic structural property of porous morph-genetic SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, J.; Sun, B.H.; Fan, T.X.; Zhang, D.; Kamada, M.; Ogawa, H.; Guo, Q.X.

    2005-01-01

    Novel porous morph-genetic silicon carbide has been fabricated through sintering treatment, after infiltrating the methyl organic silicone resin to the bio-template. Its dynamic transition of structure during sintering process is investigated by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) for the first time. By analyzing Si K-edge EXAFS, it is found that the coordination number of the nearest C shell remains almost unchanged while that of the nearest Si shell dramatically changes when the structure is transformed from amorphous into crystalline state

  13. Using genetic algorithms for calibrating simplified models of nuclear reactor dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marseguerra, Marzio; Zio, Enrico; Canetta, Raffaele

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the use of genetic algorithms for the estimation of the effective parameters of a model of nuclear reactor dynamics is investigated. The calibration of the effective parameters is achieved by best fitting the model responses of the quantities of interest (e.g., reactor power, average fuel and coolant temperatures) to the actual evolution profiles, here simulated by the Quandry based reactor kinetics (Quark) code available from the Nuclear Energy Agency. Alternative schemes of single- and multi-objective optimization are investigated. The efficiency of convergence of the algorithm with respect to the different effective parameters to be calibrated is studied with reference to the physical relationships involved

  14. Using genetic algorithms for calibrating simplified models of nuclear reactor dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marseguerra, Marzio E-mail: marzio.marseguerra@polimi.it; Zio, Enrico E-mail: enrico.zio@polimi.it; Canetta, Raffaele

    2004-07-01

    In this paper the use of genetic algorithms for the estimation of the effective parameters of a model of nuclear reactor dynamics is investigated. The calibration of the effective parameters is achieved by best fitting the model responses of the quantities of interest (e.g., reactor power, average fuel and coolant temperatures) to the actual evolution profiles, here simulated by the Quandry based reactor kinetics (Quark) code available from the Nuclear Energy Agency. Alternative schemes of single- and multi-objective optimization are investigated. The efficiency of convergence of the algorithm with respect to the different effective parameters to be calibrated is studied with reference to the physical relationships involved.

  15. Extracting quantum dynamics from genetic learning algorithms through principal control analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J L; Pearson, B J; Bucksbaum, P H

    2004-01-01

    Genetic learning algorithms are widely used to control ultrafast optical pulse shapes for photo-induced quantum control of atoms and molecules. An unresolved issue is how to use the solutions found by these algorithms to learn about the system's quantum dynamics. We propose a simple method based on covariance analysis of the control space, which can reveal the degrees of freedom in the effective control Hamiltonian. We have applied this technique to stimulated Raman scattering in liquid methanol. A simple model of two-mode stimulated Raman scattering is consistent with the results. (letter to the editor)

  16. Controlling Uncertainty: A Review of Human Behavior in Complex Dynamic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Complex dynamic control (CDC) tasks are a type of problem-solving environment used for examining many cognitive activities (e.g., attention, control, decision making, hypothesis testing, implicit learning, memory, monitoring, planning, and problem solving). Because of their popularity, there have been many findings from diverse domains of research…

  17. The relationship between gallbladder dynamics and the migrating motor complex in fasting healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Rasmussen, L

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between gallbladder dynamics and the interdigestive migrating motor complex (MMC) was investigated in 10 healthy male volunteers by a hepatobiliary scintigraphy and gastroduodenal pressure recordings. Filling of the gallbladder commenced in late phase II or in phase III of the MM...

  18. Environmental Factors Affecting Computer Assisted Language Learning Success: A Complex Dynamic Systems Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Michael W.; Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian

    2014-01-01

    This conceptual, interdisciplinary inquiry explores Complex Dynamic Systems as the concept relates to the internal and external environmental factors affecting computer assisted language learning (CALL). Based on the results obtained by de Rosnay ["World Futures: The Journal of General Evolution", 67(4/5), 304-315 (2011)], who observed…

  19. Dynamics of multiphase systems with complex microstructure. I. Development of the governing equations through nonequilibrium thermodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.; Öttinger, H.C.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a general model for the dynamic behavior of multiphase systems in which the bulk phases and interfaces have a complex microstructure (for example, immiscible polymer blends with added compatibilizers, or polymer stabilized emulsions with thickening agents dispersed in the

  20. Autonomous Collision-Free Navigation of Microvehicles in Complex and Dynamically Changing Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianlong; Chang, Xiaocong; Wu, Zhiguang; Li, Jinxing; Shao, Guangbin; Deng, Xinghong; Qiu, Jianbin; Guo, Bin; Zhang, Guangyu; He, Qiang; Li, Longqiu; Wang, Joseph

    2017-09-26

    Self-propelled micro- and nanoscale robots represent a rapidly emerging and fascinating robotics research area. However, designing autonomous and adaptive control systems for operating micro/nanorobotics in complex and dynamically changing environments, which is a highly demanding feature, is still an unmet challenge. Here we describe a smart microvehicle for precise autonomous navigation in complicated environments and traffic scenarios. The fully autonomous navigation system of the smart microvehicle is composed of a microscope-coupled CCD camera, an artificial intelligence planner, and a magnetic field generator. The microscope-coupled CCD camera provides real-time localization of the chemically powered Janus microsphere vehicle and environmental detection for path planning to generate optimal collision-free routes, while the moving direction of the microrobot toward a reference position is determined by the external electromagnetic torque. Real-time object detection offers adaptive path planning in response to dynamically changing environments. We demonstrate that the autonomous navigation system can guide the vehicle movement in complex patterns, in the presence of dynamically changing obstacles, and in complex biological environments. Such a navigation system for micro/nanoscale vehicles, relying on vision-based close-loop control and path planning, is highly promising for their autonomous operation in complex dynamic settings and unpredictable scenarios expected in a variety of realistic nanoscale scenarios.