Dynamics of driven flow with exclusion in graphenelike structures
Stinchcombe, R. B.; de Queiroz, S. L. A.
2015-05-01
We present a mean-field theory for the dynamics of driven flow with exclusion in graphenelike structures, and numerically check its predictions. We treat first a specific combination of bond transmissivity rates, where mean field predicts, and numerics to a large extent confirms, that the sublattice structure characteristic of honeycomb networks becomes irrelevant. Dynamics, in the various regions of the phase diagram set by open boundary injection and ejection rates, is then in general identical to that of one-dimensional systems, although some discrepancies remain between mean-field theory and numerical results, in similar ways for both geometries. However, at the critical point for which the characteristic exponent is z =3 /2 in one dimension, the mean-field value z =2 is approached for very large systems with constant (finite) aspect ratio. We also treat a second combination of bond (and boundary) rates where, more typically, sublattice distinction persists. For the two rate combinations, in continuum or late-time limits, respectively, the coupled sets of mean-field dynamical equations become tractable with various techniques and give a two-band spectrum, gapless in the critical phase. While for the second rate combination quantitative discrepancies between mean-field theory and simulations increase for most properties and boundary rates investigated, theory still is qualitatively correct in general, and gives a fairly good quantitative account of features such as the late-time evolution of density profile differences from their steady-state values.
Degeneracy-driven self-structuring dynamics in selective repertoires.
Atamas, Sergei P; Bell, Jonathan
2009-08-01
Numerous biological interactions, such as interactions between T cell receptors or antibodies with antigens, interactions between enzymes and substrates, or interactions between predators and prey are often not strictly specific. In such less specific, or "sloppy," systems, referred to here as degenerate systems, a given unit of a diverse resource (antigens, enzymatic substrates, prey) is at risk of being recognized and consumed by multiple consumers (lymphocytes, enzymes, predators). In this study, we model generalized degenerate consumer-resource systems of Lotka-Volterra and Verhulst types. In the degenerate systems of Lotka-Volterra, there is a continuum of types of consumer and resource based on variation of a single trait (characteristic, or preference). The consumers experience competition for a continuum of resource types. This non-local interaction system is modeled with partial differential-integral equations and shows spontaneous self-structuring of the consumer population that depends on the degree of interaction degeneracy between resource and consumer, but does not mirror the distribution of resource. We also show that the classical Verhulst (i.e. logistic) single population model can be generalized to a degenerate model, which shows qualitative behavior similar to that in the degenerate Lotka-Volterra model. These results provide better insight into the dynamics of selective systems in biology, suggesting that adaptation of degenerate repertoires is not a simple "mirroring" of the environment by the "fittest" elements of population.
Barbu, Viorel; Bonaccorsi, Stefano; Tubaro, Luciano
2015-01-01
This work is concerned with existence of weak solutions to discon- tinuous stochastic differential equations driven by multiplicative Gaus- sian noise and sliding mode control dynamics generated by stochastic differential equations with variable structure, that is with jump nonlin- earity. The treatment covers the finite dimensional stochastic systems and the stochastic diffusion equation with multiplicative noise.
Structure and dynamics of plasma interfaces in laser-driven hohlraums
Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Birkel, A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Wilks, S. C.; Amendt, P. A.; Remington, B. A.; Masson-Laborde, P.-E.; Laffite, S.; Tassin, V.; Betti, R.; Sanster, T. C.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Farrell, M.
2016-10-01
Understanding the structure and dynamics of plasma interfaces in laser-driven hohlraums is important because of their potential effects on capsule implosion dynamics. To that end, a series of experiments was performed to explore critical aspects of the hohlraum environment, with particular emphasis on the role of self-generated spontaneous electric and magnetic fields at plasma interfaces, including the interface between fill-gas and Au-blowoff. The charged fusion products (3-MeV DD protons and 14.7-MeV D3He protons generated in shock-driven, D3He filled backlighter capsule) pass through the subject hohlraum and form images on CR-39 nuclear track detectors, providing critical information. Important physics topics, including ion diffusive mix and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, will be studied to illuminate ion kinetic dynamics and hydrodynamic instability at plasma interfaces in laser-driven hohlraums. This work was supported in part by LLE, the U.S. DoE (NNSA, NLUF) and LLNL.
Vollmayr-Lee, Katharina; Zippelius, Annette; Aspelmeier, Timo
2011-03-01
We study the dynamic structure factor of a granular fluid of hard spheres, driven into a stationary nonequilibrium state by balancing the energy loss due to inelastic collisions with the energy input due to driving. The driving is chosen to conserve momentum, so that fluctuating hydrodynamics predicts the existence of sound modes. We present results of computer simulations which are based on an event driven algorithm. The dynamic structure factor F (q , ω) is determined for volume fractions 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 and coefficients of normal restitution 0.8 and 0.9. We observe sound waves, and compare our results for F (q , ω) with the predictions of generalized fluctuating hydrodynamics which takes into account that temperature fluctuations decay either diffusively or with a finite relaxation rate, depending on wave number and inelasticity. We determine the speed of sound and the transport coefficients and compare them to the results of kinetic theory. K.V.L. thanks the Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Goettingen, for financial support and hospitality.
The structure of approximate two electron wavefunctions in intense laser driven ionization dynamics
Sato, Takeshi
2014-01-01
The structure of approximate two electron wavefunction is deeply investigated, both theoretically and numerically, in the strong-field driven ionization dynamics. Theoretical analyses clarify that for two electron singlet systems, the previously proposed time-dependent extended Hartree-Fock (TD-EHF) method [Phys. Rev. A 51, 3999 (1995)] is equivalent to the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock method with two occupied orbitals. The latter wavefunction is further transformed into the natural expansion form, enabling the direct propagation of the natural orbitals (NOs). These methods, as well as the conventional time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) method, are numerically assessed for the description of ionization dynamics of one-dimensional helium atom model. This numerical analysis (i) explains the reason behind the well-known failure of TDHF method to describe tunneling ionization, (ii) demonstrates the interpretive power of the TD-EHF wavefunction both in the original nonorthogonal and the NO-based ...
Dynamic structures of bubble-driven liquid flows in a cylindrical tank
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Ju Sang [Pusan National University, School of Mechanical Engineering, Busan (Korea, Republic of); LG Electronics Co., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Moon [Doosan Heavy Industry and Construction, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Dong; Ji, Ho Seong; Kim, Kyung Chun [Pusan National University, School of Mechanical Engineering, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2012-07-15
The spatial and temporal structures of turbulent water flows driven by air bubbles in a cylindrical tank were investigated. The time-resolved particle image velocimetry technique was adopted for quantitative visualization. Flow rates of compressed air were changed from 1 to 5 L/min at 0.5 MPa, and the corresponding range of bubble-based Reynolds number (Re) ranged from 8,300 to 21,100. The dynamics of flow structures was further investigated by the time-resolved proper orthogonal decomposition analysis technique. With increasing Re, mean velocity fields driven by the rising bubbles are almost same, but turbulence is dramatically enhanced. Both spatial and temporal modes were quite different with respect to the air flow rates. Three most dominant spatial structures are recirculating flow, bubble-induced motion, and sloshing of free surface, the bigger the latter the higher Re. We found the frequency of sloshing motion from flow visualization and the FFT analysis of temporal modes. (orig.)
Dynamic model reduction using data-driven Loewner-framework applied to thermally morphing structures
Phoenix, Austin A.; Tarazaga, Pablo A.
2017-05-01
The work herein proposes the use of the data-driven Loewner-framework for reduced order modeling as applied to dynamic Finite Element Models (FEM) of thermally morphing structures. The Loewner-based modeling approach is computationally efficient and accurately constructs reduced models using analytical output data from a FEM. This paper details the two-step process proposed in the Loewner approach. First, a random vibration FEM simulation is used as the input for the development of a Single Input Single Output (SISO) data-based dynamic Loewner state space model. Second, an SVD-based truncation is used on the Loewner state space model, such that the minimal, dynamically representative, state space model is achieved. For this second part, varying levels of reduction are generated and compared. The work herein can be extended to model generation using experimental measurements by replacing the FEM output data in the first step and following the same procedure. This method will be demonstrated on two thermally morphing structures, a rigidly fixed hexapod in multiple geometric configurations and a low mass anisotropic morphing boom. This paper is working to detail the method and identify the benefits of the reduced model methodology.
The dynamics of capillary-driven two-phase flow: the role of nanofluid structural forces.
Nikolov, Alex; Zhang, Hua
2015-07-01
Capillary-driven flows are fundamental phenomena and are involved in many key technological processes, such as oil recovery through porous rocks, ink-jet printing, the bubble dynamics in a capillary, microfluidic devices and labs on chips. Here, we discuss and propose a model for the oil displacement dynamics from the capillary by the nanofluid (which is composed of a liquid suspension of nanoparticles); we elucidate the physics of the novelty of the phenomenon and its application. The oil displacement by the nanofluid flow is a multi-stage phenomenon, first leading to the oil film formation on the capillary wall, its break-up, and retraction over the capillary wall; this lead to the formation of the oil double concave meniscus. With time, the process repeats itself, leading to the formation of a regular "necklace" of oil droplets inside the capillary. Finally, the oil droplets are separated by the nanofluid film from the capillary wall. The light reflected differential interferometry technique is applied to investigate the nanofluid interactions with the glass wall. We find nanoparticles tend to self-structure into multiple layers close to the solid wall, which cause the structural forces to arise that lead to the oil displacement from the capillary. This research is expected to benefit the understanding of nanofluid phenomena in a capillary and promote their use in technological applications.
Multiple high-temperature transitions driven by dynamical structures in NaI
Manley, M. E.; Jeffries, J. R.; Lee, H.; Butch, N. P.; Zabalegui, A.; Abernathy, D. L.
2014-06-01
Multiple, consecutive high-temperature transitions in NaI involving dynamical order and/or localization in the energy-momentum spectrum but not in the average crystal structure are revealed by lattice dynamics, x-ray lattice spacing, and heat-capacity measurements. Distinctive energy-momentum patterns and lattice distortions indicate dynamical structures forming within randomly stacked planes, rather than the isolated point-defect-like intrinsic localized modes predicted. Transition entropies are accounted for by vibrational entropy changes, and the transition enthalpies are explained by the strain energy of forming stacking-fault-like planar distortions deduced from x-ray-diffraction peak shifts. The vibrational entropy of the dynamical structures stabilizes surrounding elastic distortions.
On the impact of radiation pressure on the dynamics and inner structure of dusty wind-driven shells
Martinez-Gonzalez, Sergio; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo
2014-01-01
Massive young stellar clusters are strong sources of radiation and mechanical energy. Their powerful winds and radiation pressure sweep-up interstellar gas into thin expanding shells which trap the ionizing radiation produced by the central clusters affecting the dynamics and the distribution of their ionized gas. Here we continue our comparison of the star cluster winds and radiation pressure effects on the dynamics of shells around young massive clusters. We calculate the impact that radiation pressure has on the distribution of matter and thermal pressure within such shells as well as on the density weighted ionization parameter $U_w$ and put our results on the diagnostic diagram which allows one to discriminate between the wind-dominated and radiation-dominated regimes. We found that model predicted values of the ionization parameter agree well with typical values found in local starburst galaxies. Radiation pressure may affect the inner structure and the dynamics of wind-driven shells only at the earlies...
Magnetization Dynamics in Two Novel Current-Driven Spintronic Memory Cell Structures
Velazquez-Rizo, Martin
2017-07-01
In this work, two new spintronic memory cell structures are proposed. The first cell uses the diffusion of polarized spins into ferromagnets with perpendicular anisotropy to tilt their magnetization followed by their dipolar coupling to a fixed magnet (Bhowmik et al., 2014). The possibility of setting the magnetization to both stable magnetization states in a controlled manner using a similar concept remains unknown, but the proposed structure poses to be a solution to this difficulty. The second cell proposed takes advantage of the multiple stable magnetic states that exist in ferromagnets with configurational anisotropy and also uses spin torques to manipulate its magnetization. It utilizes a square-shaped ferromagnet whose stable magnetization has preferred directions along the diagonals of the square, giving four stable magnetic states allowing to use the structure as a multi-bit memory cell. Both devices use spin currents generated in heavy metals by the Spin Hall effect present in these materials. Among the advantages of the structures proposed are their inherent non-volatility and the fact that there is no need for applying external magnetic fields during their operation, which drastically improves the energy efficiency of the devices. Computational simulations using the Object Oriented Micromagnetic Framework (OOMMF) software package were performed to study the dynamics of the magnetization process in both structures and predict their behavior. Besides, we fabricated a 4-terminal memory cell with configurational anisotropy similar to the device proposed, and found four stable resistive states on the structure, proving the feasibility of this technology for implementation of high-density, non-volatile memory cells.
On the impact of radiation pressure on the dynamics and inner structure of dusty wind-driven shells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martínez-González, Sergio; Silich, Sergiy; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo, E-mail: silich@inaoep.mx [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Óptica y Electrónica, AP 51, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)
2014-04-20
Massive young stellar clusters are strong sources of radiation and mechanical energy. Their powerful winds and radiation pressure sweep up interstellar gas into thin expanding shells that trap the ionizing radiation produced by the central clusters affecting the dynamics and the distribution of their ionized gas. Here we continue our comparison of the star cluster winds and radiation pressure effects on the dynamics of shells around young massive clusters. We calculate the impact that radiation pressure has on the distribution of matter and thermal pressure within such shells, as well as on the density-weighted ionization parameter U{sub w} , and put our results on the diagnostic diagram, which allows one to discriminate between the wind-dominated and radiation-dominated regimes. We found that model-predicted values of the ionization parameter agree well with typical values found in local starburst galaxies. Radiation pressure may affect the inner structure and the dynamics of wind-driven shells, but only during the earliest stages of evolution (before ∼3 Myr) or if a major fraction of the star cluster mechanical luminosity is dissipated or radiated away within the star cluster volume and thus the star cluster mechanical energy output is significantly smaller than star cluster synthetic models predict. However, even in these cases radiation dominates over the wind dynamical pressure only if the exciting cluster is embedded into a high-density ambient medium.
The 3D Dynamical Structure of the Supernova-Driven Interstellar Medium
Avillez, M. A.; Ballesteros-Paredes, J.; Mac Low, M.-M.
2000-05-01
Large scale modelling of the interstellar gas in the disk and halo has been carried out with a three-dimensional hydrodynamical code that uses adapted mesh refinement combined with message passing interface calls. The model includes a gravitational field provided by the stars in the disk, an ideal-gas equation of state, and an approximation for the cooling curve, assuming collisional ionization equilibrium. Supernovae are set up both isolated and in associations, in a manner compatible with observations. Once disrupted by the explosions, the disk never returns to its initial state, regardless of the initial vertical distribution of the disk gas, provided enough supernovae occur. Instead a thin HI disk forms in the Galactic plane, and, above and below, a thick inhomogeneous gas disk forms, with scale heights in HI of 500 pc and in HII of 1 kpc. The upper parts of the thick HII disk form the disk-halo interface, where a large scale fountain is set up by hot ionized gas escaping in a turbulent convective flow. The calculations also show the formation of HI clouds in both the disk and halo. These are dynamical objects with a two-phase structure composed of a cold core surrounded by warmer gas. The disk is populated by worms, bubbles, superbubbles and chimneys. Chimneys in the simulations have widths of approximately 120 pc. They inject high temperature gas directly from the Galactic disk into the halo, breaking through the warm neutral and ionized layers that compose the thick disk. Mushroom-shaped structures are also seen in the simulations, as have recently been observed. We identify them as tracers of buoyant flow in the thick disk
Dynamics of market structure driven by the degree of consumer’s rationality
Yanagita, Tatsuo; Onozaki, Tamotsu
2010-03-01
We study a simple model of market share dynamics with boundedly rational consumers and firms interacting with each other. As the number of consumers is large, we employ a statistical description to represent firms’ distribution of consumer share, which is characterized by a single parameter representing how rationally the mass of consumers pursue higher utility. As the boundedly rational firm does not know the shape of demand function it faces, it revises production and price so as to raise its profit with the aid of a simple reinforcement learning rule. Simulation results show that (1) three phases of market structure, i.e. the uniform share phase, the oligopolistic phase, and the monopolistic phase, appear depending upon how rational consumers are, and (2) in an oligopolistic phase, the market share distribution of firms follows Zipf’s law and the growth-rate distribution of firms follows Gibrat’s law, and (3) an oligopolistic phase is the best state of market in terms of consumers’ utility but brings the minimum profit to the firms because of severe competition based on the moderate rationality of consumers.
Romera, M.; Lacoste, B.; Ebels, U.; Buda-Prejbeanu, L. D.
2016-09-01
The general concepts of spin wave theory are adapted to the spin torque driven dynamics of a self-polarized system based on two layers coupled via interlayer exchange (conservative coupling) and mutual spin torque (dissipative coupling). An analytical description of the nonlinear dynamics is proposed and validated through numerical simulations. In contrast to the single layer model, the phase equation of the coupled system has a contribution coming from the dissipative part of the LLGS equation. It is shown that this is a major contribution to the frequency mandatory to describe well the most basic features of the dynamics of this coupled system. Using the proposed model a specific feature of coupled dynamics is addressed: the redshift to blueshift transition observed in the frequency current dependence of this kind of exchange coupled systems upon increasing the applied field. It is found that the blueshift regime can only occur in a region of field where the two linear eigenmodes contribute equally to the steady state mode (i.e., high mode hybridization). Finally, a general perturbed Hamiltonian equation for the coupled system is proposed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luo, Dehai [Ocean University of China, College of Physical and Environmental Oceanography, Qingdao (China); City University of Hong Kong, CityU-IAP Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences, Department of Physics and Material Sciences, Hong Kong (China); Zhou, Wen [City University of Hong Kong, CityU-IAP Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences, Department of Physics and Material Sciences, Hong Kong (China); Wei, Ke [Chinese Academy of Science, Center for Monsoon System Research, IAP, Beijing (China); City University of Hong Kong, CityU-IAP Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences, Department of Physics and Material Sciences, Hong Kong (China)
2010-01-15
In a weakly nonlinear model how an initial dipole mode develops to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in a localized shifting jet under the prescribed eddy forcing is examined. It is found that the zonal structure of the eddy-driven NAO anomaly is not only dominated by the longitudinal distribution of the preexisting Atlantic storm track, but also by the initial condition of the NAO anomaly itself associated with the interaction between a localized shifting jet and a topographic standing wave over the Atlantic basin. When both the initial NAO anomaly and the eddy vorticity forcing in the prior Atlantic storm track are more zonally localized, the subsequent eddy-driven NAO anomaly can be more zonally isolated and asymmetric. But, it seems that the shape of the initial NAO anomaly associated with the latitudinal shift of a prior Atlantic jet plays a more important role in producing the zonal asymmetry of subsequent NAO patterns. The zonal asymmetry of the NAO anomaly can be enhanced as the height of topography increases. In addition, it is further found that blocking events occur easily over the Europe continent through the decaying of positive-phase NAO events. However, prior to the positive-phase NAO life cycle the variability in each of three factors: the Atlantic jet, the eddy vorticity forcing in the Atlantic storm track and the initial NAO anomaly can result in a variation in the blocking activity over the Europe sector in strength, duration, position and pattern. (orig.)
Strømmen, Einar N
2014-01-01
This book introduces to the theory of structural dynamics, with focus on civil engineering structures that may be described by line-like beam or beam-column type of systems, or by a system of rectangular plates. Throughout this book the mathematical presentation contains a classical analytical description as well as a description in a discrete finite element format, covering the mathematical development from basic assumptions to the final equations ready for practical dynamic response predictions. Solutions are presented in time domain as well as in frequency domain. Structural Dynamics starts off at a basic level and step by step brings the reader up to a level where the necessary safety considerations to wind or horizontal ground motion induced dynamic design problems can be performed. The special theory of the tuned mass damper has been given a comprehensive treatment, as this is a theory not fully covered elsewhere. For the same reason a chapter on the problem of moving loads on beams has been included.
Dynamical Behavior of the Driven Morse Oscillator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郭荣伟; 黄德斌; 张立震
2003-01-01
The dynamics of the driven Morse oscillator describing the photo dissociation of Molecules in theoretical chemistry was qualitatively studied. Firstly the suhharmonic Melnikov method was used to prove the existence of periodic orbits in this model. Further it was rigorously proved that this model has chaotic dynamics in the sense of Smale horseshoes by introducing the famous McGehee transformation and applying the homoclinic Melnikov method. The obtained results give an analytic demonstration of the previous numerical results, that is, the driven Morse oscillator admits stochastic excitation and dissociation associated with the onset of chaos.
Photonic Crystal Laser-Driven Accelerator Structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cowan, Benjamin M.
2007-08-22
Laser-driven acceleration holds great promise for significantly improving accelerating gradient. However, scaling the conventional process of structure-based acceleration in vacuum down to optical wavelengths requires a substantially different kind of structure. We require an optical waveguide that (1) is constructed out of dielectric materials, (2) has transverse size on the order of a wavelength, and (3) supports a mode with speed-of-light phase velocity in vacuum. Photonic crystals---structures whose electromagnetic properties are spatially periodic---can meet these requirements. We discuss simulated photonic crystal accelerator structures and describe their properties. We begin with a class of two-dimensional structures which serves to illustrate the design considerations and trade-offs involved. We then present a three-dimensional structure, and describe its performance in terms of accelerating gradient and efficiency. We discuss particle beam dynamics in this structure, demonstrating a method for keeping a beam confined to the waveguide. We also discuss material and fabrication considerations. Since accelerating gradient is limited by optical damage to the structure, the damage threshold of the dielectric is a critical parameter. We experimentally measure the damage threshold of silicon for picosecond pulses in the infrared, and determine that our structure is capable of sustaining an accelerating gradient of 300 MV/m at 1550 nm. Finally, we discuss possibilities for manufacturing these structures using common microfabrication techniques.
Dynamic signatures of driven vortex motion.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. K.; Lopez, D.; Olsson, R. J.; Paulius, L. M.; Petrean, A. M.; Safar, H.
1999-09-16
We probe the dynamic nature of driven vortex motion in superconductors with a new type of transport experiment. An inhomogeneous Lorentz driving force is applied to the sample, inducing vortex velocity gradients that distinguish the hydrodynamic motion of the vortex liquid from the elastic and-plastic motion of the vortex solid. We observe elastic depinning of the vortex lattice at the critical current, and shear induced plastic slip of the lattice at high Lorentz force gradients.
Network evolution driven by dynamics applied to graph coloring
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wu Jian-She; Li Li-Guang; Wang Xiao-Hua; Yu Xin; Jiao Li-Cheng
2013-01-01
An evolutionary network driven by dynamics is studied and applied to the graph coloring problem.From an initial structure,both the topology and the coupling weights evolve according to the dynamics.On the other hand,the dynamics of the network are determined by the topology and the coupling weights,so an interesting structure-dynamics co-evolutionary scheme appears.By providing two evolutionary strategies,a network described by the complement of a graph will evolve into several clusters of nodes according to their dynamics.The nodes in each cluster can be assigned the same color and nodes in different clusters assigned different colors.In this way,a co-evolution phenomenon is applied to the graph coloring problem.The proposed scheme is tested on several benchmark graphs for graph coloring.
Cyclic game dynamics driven by iterated reasoning
Frey, Seth
2012-01-01
Recent theories from complexity science argue that complex dynamics are ubiquitous in social and economic systems. These claims emerge from the analysis of individually simple agents whose collective behavior is surprisingly complicated. However, game theorists have argued that iterated reasoning-our ability to think through what you think I think you think-will prevent complex dynamics and facilitate convergence to classic equilibria. We report stable and efficient periodic behavior in human groups playing the Mod Game, a multi-player game similar to Rock-Paper-Scissors. The game rewards subjects for thinking exactly one step ahead of others in their group. Groups that play this game exhibit cycles that are inconsistent with any fixed-point equilibrium concept. These cycles are driven by a "hopping" behavior that can only be explained by iterated reasoning. If iterated reasoning can be complicit in complex dynamics, then game cycles and chaos may realistically be driving fluctuations in real-world social and...
Quantum Dynamics of Mesoscopic Driven Duffing Oscillators
Guo, Lingzhen; Li, Xin-Qi
2009-01-01
We investigate the nonlinear dynamics of a mesoscopic driven Duffing oscillator in a quantum regime. In terms of Wigner function, we identify the nature of state near the bifurcation point, and analyze the transient process which reveals two distinct stages of quenching and escape. The rate process in the escape stage allows us to extract the transition rate, which displays perfect scaling behavior with the driving distance to the bifurcation point. We numerically determine the scaling exponent, compare it with existing analytic result, and suggest its possible observation.
Asynchronous networks and event driven dynamics
Bick, Christian; Field, Michael
2017-02-01
Real-world networks in technology, engineering and biology often exhibit dynamics that cannot be adequately reproduced using network models given by smooth dynamical systems and a fixed network topology. Asynchronous networks give a theoretical and conceptual framework for the study of network dynamics where nodes can evolve independently of one another, be constrained, stop, and later restart, and where the interaction between different components of the network may depend on time, state, and stochastic effects. This framework is sufficiently general to encompass a wide range of applications ranging from engineering to neuroscience. Typically, dynamics is piecewise smooth and there are relationships with Filippov systems. In this paper, we give examples of asynchronous networks, and describe the basic formalism and structure. In the following companion paper, we make the notion of a functional asynchronous network rigorous, discuss the phenomenon of dynamical locks, and present a foundational result on the spatiotemporal factorization of the dynamics for a large class of functional asynchronous networks.
Dynamic Data Driven Applications Systems (DDDAS)
2012-05-03
ultrasonic sensor arrays and infrared thermographic imaging and a full-scale wind turbine blade with in-build structural defects ability to dynamically...Multiphase Flow Weather and Climate Structural Mechanics Seismic Processing Aerodynamics Geophysical Fluids Quantum Chemistry Actinide Chemistry
Anomalous Dynamical Responses in a Driven System
Dutta, Suman
2016-01-01
The interplay between structure and dynamics in non-equilibrium steady-state is far from understood. We address this interplay by tracking Brownian Dynamics trajectories of particles in a binary colloid of opposite charges in an external electric field, undergoing cross-over from homogeneous to lane state, a prototype of heterogeneous structure formation in non-equilibrium systems. We show that the length scale of structural correlations controls heterogeneity in diffusion and consequent anomalous dynamic responses, like the exponential tail in probability distributions of particle displacements and stretched exponential structural relaxation. We generalise our observations using equations for steady state density which may aid to understand microscopic basis of heterogeneous diffusion in condensed matter systems.
Computational dynamics of acoustically driven microsphere systems.
Glosser, Connor; Piermarocchi, Carlo; Li, Jie; Dault, Dan; Shanker, B
2016-01-01
We propose a computational framework for the self-consistent dynamics of a microsphere system driven by a pulsed acoustic field in an ideal fluid. Our framework combines a molecular dynamics integrator describing the dynamics of the microsphere system with a time-dependent integral equation solver for the acoustic field that makes use of fields represented as surface expansions in spherical harmonic basis functions. The presented approach allows us to describe the interparticle interaction induced by the field as well as the dynamics of trapping in counter-propagating acoustic pulses. The integral equation formulation leads to equations of motion for the microspheres describing the effect of nondissipative drag forces. We show (1) that the field-induced interactions between the microspheres give rise to effective dipolar interactions, with effective dipoles defined by their velocities and (2) that the dominant effect of an ultrasound pulse through a cloud of microspheres gives rise mainly to a translation of the system, though we also observe both expansion and contraction of the cloud determined by the initial system geometry.
Fundamentals of structural dynamics
Craig, Roy R
2006-01-01
From theory and fundamentals to the latest advances in computational and experimental modal analysis, this is the definitive, updated reference on structural dynamics.This edition updates Professor Craig's classic introduction to structural dynamics, which has been an invaluable resource for practicing engineers and a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in vibrations and/or structural dynamics. Along with comprehensive coverage of structural dynamics fundamentals, finite-element-based computational methods, and dynamic testing methods, this Second Edition includes new and e
Microfabrication of Laser-Driven Accelerator Structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cowan, Benjamin M
2003-04-07
We discuss the potential for using microfabrication techniques for laser-driven accelerator construction. We introduce microfabrication processes in general, and then describe our investigation of a particular trial process. We conclude by considering the issues microfabrication raises for possible future structures.
Spin motive force driven by skyrmion dynamics in magnetic nanodisks
Shimada, Yuhki; Ohe, Jun-ichiro
2015-05-01
The spin motive force driven by the dynamics of the skyrmion structure formed in a nanomagnetic disk is numerically investigated. Due to the existence of the magnetic structure along the disk edge, the collective mode of the magnetization is modified from that of the bulk skyrmion lattice obtained by using the periodic boundary condition. For a single-skyrmion disk, the dynamics of the skyrmion core and the edge magnetization induce the spin motive force, and a measurable AC voltage is obtained by two probes on the disk. For a multi-skyrmions disk, the phase-locked collective mode of skyrmions is found in the lowest resonant frequency where the amplitude of the AC voltage is enhanced by the cascade effect of the spin motive force. We also investigate the effect of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the spin motive force.
Field-driven dynamics of nematic microcapillaries
Khayyatzadeh, Pouya; Fu, Fred; Abukhdeir, Nasser Mohieddin
2015-12-01
Polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (PDLC) composites long have been a focus of study for their unique electro-optical properties which have resulted in various applications such as switchable (transparent or translucent) windows. These composites are manufactured using desirable "bottom-up" techniques, such as phase separation of a liquid-crystal-polymer mixture, which enable production of PDLC films at very large scales. LC domains within PDLCs are typically spheroidal, as opposed to rectangular for an LCD panel, and thus exhibit substantially different behavior in the presence of an external field. The fundamental difference between spheroidal and rectangular nematic domains is that the former results in the presence of nanoscale orientational defects in LC order while the latter does not. Progress in the development and optimization of PDLC electro-optical properties has progressed at a relatively slow pace due to this increased complexity. In this work, continuum simulations are performed in order to capture the complex formation and electric field-driven switching dynamics of approximations of PDLC domains. Using a simplified elliptic cylinder (microcapillary) geometry as an approximation of spheroidal PDLC domains, the effects of geometry (aspect ratio), surface anchoring, and external field strength are studied through the use of the Landau-de Gennes model of the nematic LC phase.
Upper-Mantle Flow Driven Dynamic Topography in Eastern Anatolia
Sengul Uluocak, Ebru; Pysklywec, Russell; Eken, Tuna; Hakan Gogus, Oguz
2016-04-01
Eastern Anatolia is characterized by 2 km plateau uplift -in the last 10 Myrs-, high surface heat flow distribution, shallow Curie-point depth, anomalous gravity field. Seismological observations indicate relatively high Pn and Sn attenuation and significant low seismic velocity anomalies in the region. Moreover, the surface geology is associated predominantly with volcanic rocks in which melt production through mantle upwelling (following lithospheric delamination) has been suggested. It has been long known that the topographic loading in the region cannot be supported by crustal thickness (~45 km) based on the principle of Airy isostasy. Recent global geodynamic studies carried out for evaluating the post-collisional processes imply that there is an explicit dynamic uplift in Eastern Anatolia and its adjacent regions. In this study we investigate the instantaneous dynamic topography driven by 3-D upper-mantle flow in Eastern Anatolia. For this purpose we conducted numerous thermo-mechanical models using a 2-D Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) finite element method. The available P-wave tomography data extracted along 10 profiles were used to obtain depth-dependent density anomalies in the region. We present resulting dynamic topography maps and estimated 3D mantle flow velocity vectors along these 2-D cross sections for each profile. The residual topography based on crustal thickness and observed topography was calculated and compared with other independent datasets concerning geological deformation and dynamic topography predictions. The results indicate an upper mantle driven dynamic uplift correlated with the under-compensated characteristic in Eastern Anatolia. We discuss our results combined with 3D mantle flow by considering seismic anisotropy studies in the region. Initial results indicate that high dynamic uplift and the localized low Pn velocities in concurrence with Pn anisotropy structures show nearly spatial coherence in Eastern Anatolia.
Dynamical transitions of a driven Ising interface.
Sahai, Manish K; Sengupta, Surajit
2008-03-01
We study the structure of an interface in a three-dimensional Ising system created by an external nonuniform field H(r,t) . H changes sign over a two-dimensional plane of arbitrary orientation. When the field is pulled with velocity v(e) , [i.e., H(r,t)=H(r-v(e)t) ], the interface undergoes several dynamical transitions. For low velocities it is pinned by the field profile and moves along with it, the distribution of local slopes undergoing a series of commensurate-incommensurate transitions. For large v(e) the interface depins and grows with Kardar-Parisi-Zhang exponents.
Structural Dynamics Laboratory (SDL)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Structural dynamic testing is performed to verify the survivability of a component or assembly when exposed to vibration stress screening, or a controlled simulation...
The Exploration of Design Driven Innovation as a Dynamic Capability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Philips Kembaren
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Innovation enables companies to attain consistent organic growth that brings benefits to stakeholders. Designthinking approach in innovation has been emergent to be an alternative to technological development path inorder to generate competitive and successful product or service in the market place. Design driven innovationcombines functional and semantic dimensions of products or services in the marketplace. Previous researchhas recently revealed practices of design driven innovation in various industries. However, little is known tothe extent that companies in Indonesia practicing design driven innovation. A theoretical framework withperspective from dynamic capability theoretical lens and guided by Dubin’s theory building methodology isproposed to explain the constructs and role of design in the process of innovation. The research is expected tocontribute a new construct to the existing framework, namely construct that related to how we could assessthe value of the design-driven innovation output, perceived by the costumers.Keywords: design driven innovation, dynamic capabilities, theory building
The Exploration of Design Driven Innovation as a Dynamic Capability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Philips Kembaren
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Innovation enables companies to attain consistent organic growth that brings benefits to stakeholders. Designthinking approach in innovation has been emergent to be an alternative to technological development path inorder to generate competitive and successful product or service in the market place. Design driven innovationcombines functional and semantic dimensions of products or services in the marketplace. Previous researchhas recently revealed practices of design driven innovation in various industries. However, little is known tothe extent that companies in Indonesia practicing design driven innovation. A theoretical framework withperspective from dynamic capability theoretical lens and guided by Dubin’s theory building methodology isproposed to explain the constructs and role of design in the process of innovation. The research is expected tocontribute a new construct to the existing framework, namely construct that related to how we could assessthe value of the design-driven innovation output, perceived by the costumers.Keywords: design driven innovation, dynamic capabilities, theory building
Anderson, James C
2012-01-01
A concise introduction to structural dynamics and earthquake engineering Basic Structural Dynamics serves as a fundamental introduction to the topic of structural dynamics. Covering single and multiple-degree-of-freedom systems while providing an introduction to earthquake engineering, the book keeps the coverage succinct and on topic at a level that is appropriate for undergraduate and graduate students. Through dozens of worked examples based on actual structures, it also introduces readers to MATLAB, a powerful software for solving both simple and complex structural d
The Structural Consequences of Big Data-Driven Education.
Zeide, Elana
2017-06-01
Educators and commenters who evaluate big data-driven learning environments focus on specific questions: whether automated education platforms improve learning outcomes, invade student privacy, and promote equality. This article puts aside separate unresolved-and perhaps unresolvable-issues regarding the concrete effects of specific technologies. It instead examines how big data-driven tools alter the structure of schools' pedagogical decision-making, and, in doing so, change fundamental aspects of America's education enterprise. Technological mediation and data-driven decision-making have a particularly significant impact in learning environments because the education process primarily consists of dynamic information exchange. In this overview, I highlight three significant structural shifts that accompany school reliance on data-driven instructional platforms that perform core school functions: teaching, assessment, and credentialing. First, virtual learning environments create information technology infrastructures featuring constant data collection, continuous algorithmic assessment, and possibly infinite record retention. This undermines the traditional intellectual privacy and safety of classrooms. Second, these systems displace pedagogical decision-making from educators serving public interests to private, often for-profit, technology providers. They constrain teachers' academic autonomy, obscure student evaluation, and reduce parents' and students' ability to participate or challenge education decision-making. Third, big data-driven tools define what "counts" as education by mapping the concepts, creating the content, determining the metrics, and setting desired learning outcomes of instruction. These shifts cede important decision-making to private entities without public scrutiny or pedagogical examination. In contrast to the public and heated debates that accompany textbook choices, schools often adopt education technologies ad hoc. Given education
Nonlinear dynamics of structures
Oller, Sergio
2014-01-01
This book lays the foundation of knowledge that will allow a better understanding of nonlinear phenomena that occur in structural dynamics. This work is intended for graduate engineering students who want to expand their knowledge on the dynamic behavior of structures, specifically in the nonlinear field, by presenting the basis of dynamic balance in non‐linear behavior structures due to the material and kinematics mechanical effects. Particularly, this publication shows the solution of the equation of dynamic equilibrium for structure with nonlinear time‐independent materials (plasticity, damage and frequencies evolution), as well as those time dependent non‐linear behavior materials (viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity). The convergence conditions for the non‐linear dynamic structure solution are studied, and the theoretical concepts and its programming algorithms are presented.
Using Shape Memory Alloys: A Dynamic Data Driven Approach
Douglas, Craig C.
2013-06-01
Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) are capable of changing their crystallographic structure due to changes of either stress or temperature. SMAs are used in a number of aerospace devices and are required in some devices in exotic environments. We are developing dynamic data driven application system (DDDAS) tools to monitor and change SMAs in real time for delivering payloads by aerospace vehicles. We must be able to turn on and off the sensors and heating units, change the stress on the SMA, monitor on-line data streams, change scales based on incoming data, and control what type of data is generated. The application must have the capability to be run and steered remotely as an unmanned feedback control loop.
The Dynamic test of Novel Punch Driven by Linear Motor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The key character of punch is its impulsion. For the novel punch driven by linear motor, the computer-aided test system is used. Its frequency performance is calculated by the identification method according to the dynamic demarcation. This dynamic test system presented here can be applied in the sample machines under development and performance test of finished products.
A User Driven Dynamic Circuit Network Implementation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guok, Chin; Robertson, David; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Thompson, Mary; Johnston, William; Tierney, Brian
2008-10-01
The requirements for network predictability are becoming increasingly critical to the DoE science community where resources are widely distributed and collaborations are world-wide. To accommodate these emerging requirements, the Energy Sciences Network has established a Science Data Network to provide user driven guaranteed bandwidth allocations. In this paper we outline the design, implementation, and secure coordinated use of such a network, as well as some lessons learned.
Dynamic Obfuscation Algorithm based on Demand-Driven Symbolic Execution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yubo Yang
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Dynamic code obfuscation technique increases the difficulty of dynamically reverse by the runtime confusion. Path explosion directly affects the efficiency and accuracy of dynamic symbolic analysis. Because of the defect, this paper presents a novel algorithm DDD (Demand-Driven Dynamic Obfuscation Algorithm by using the demand-driven theory of symbolic analysis. First, create a large number of invalid paths to mislead the result of symbolic analysis. Second, according to the demand-driven theory, create a specific execution path to protect the security of software. The design and implementation of the algorithm is based on the current popular and mature SMT (satisfiability model theory, and the experimental effects are tested by Z3 - the SMT solver and Pex - the symbolic execution test tools. The experimental results prove that the algorithm enhance the security of the program.
Molecular dynamics for irradiation driven chemistry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sushko, Gennady B.; Solov'yov, Ilia A.; Solov'yov, Andrey V.
2016-01-01
technologies such as focused electron beam deposition (FEBID). As an example, the new methodology is applied for studying the irradiation driven chemistry caused by FEBID of tungsten hexacarbonyl W(CO)6 precursor molecules on a hydroxylated SiO2 surface. It is demonstrated that knowing the interaction...... parameters for the fragments of the molecular system arising in the course of irradiation one can reproduce reasonably well experimental observations and make predictions about the morphology and molecular composition of nanostructures that emerge on the surface during the FEBID process....
Dynamic Data-Driven UAV Network for Plume Characterization
2016-05-23
management and response. Data driven operation of a mobile sensor network enables asset allocation to regions with highest impact on the mission success. We...operation of a mobile sensor network enables asset allocation to regions with highest impact on the mission success. We studied a dynamic data driven...investigated a two-dimensional Gaussian puff evolving within a uniform background flow. The standard Kalman filter handles the data assimila- tion; an SPH
Spin dynamics in driven composite multiferroics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Zidong, E-mail: Zidong.Wang@auckland.ac.nz; Grimson, Malcolm J. [Department of Physics, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand)
2015-09-28
A spin dynamics approach has been used to study the behavior of the magnetic spins and the electric pseudo-spins in a 1-D composite multiferroic chain with a linear magneto-electric coupling at the interface. The response is investigated with either external magnetic or electric fields driving the system. The spin dynamics is based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. A Gaussian white noise is later added into the dynamic process to include the thermal effects. The interface requires a closer inspection of the magneto-electric effects. Thus, we construct a 2-D ladder model to describe the behavior of the magnetic spins and the electric pseudo-spins with different magneto-electric couplings.
Data driven innovations in structural health monitoring
Rosales, M. J.; Liyanapathirana, R.
2017-05-01
At present, substantial investments are being allocated to civil infrastructures also considered as valuable assets at a national or global scale. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is an indispensable tool required to ensure the performance and safety of these structures based on measured response parameters. The research to date on damage assessment has tended to focus on the utilization of wireless sensor networks (WSN) as it proves to be the best alternative over the traditional visual inspections and tethered or wired counterparts. Over the last decade, the structural health and behaviour of innumerable infrastructure has been measured and evaluated owing to several successful ventures of implementing these sensor networks. Various monitoring systems have the capability to rapidly transmit, measure, and store large capacities of data. The amount of data collected from these networks have eventually been unmanageable which paved the way to other relevant issues such as data quality, relevance, re-use, and decision support. There is an increasing need to integrate new technologies in order to automate the evaluation processes as well as to enhance the objectivity of data assessment routines. This paper aims to identify feasible methodologies towards the application of time-series analysis techniques to judiciously exploit the vast amount of readily available as well as the upcoming data resources. It continues the momentum of a greater effort to collect and archive SHM approaches that will serve as data-driven innovations for the assessment of damage through efficient algorithms and data analytics.
Dynamic Data Driven Methods for Self-aware Aerospace Vehicles
2015-04-08
AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0127 Dynamic Data Driven Methods for Self-aware Aerospace Vehicles Karen Willcox MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Final...Methods for Self-aware Aerospace Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-11-1-0339 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Karen E...Back (Rev. 8/98) Dynamic Data Driven Methods for Self-aware Aerospace Vehicles Grant # FA9550-11-1-0339 Final Report Participating Institutions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Martin Møller; Meldrum, Andrew
This paper studies whether dynamic term structure models for US nominal bond yields should enforce the zero lower bound by a quadratic policy rate or a shadow rate specification. We address the question by estimating quadratic term structure models (QTSMs) and shadow rate models with at most four...
Chaotic and ballistic dynamics in time-driven quasiperiodic lattices.
Wulf, Thomas; Schmelcher, Peter
2016-04-01
We investigate the nonequilibrium dynamics of classical particles in a driven quasiperiodic lattice based on the Fibonacci sequence. An intricate transient dynamics of extraordinarily long ballistic flights at distinct velocities is found. We argue how these transients are caused and can be understood by a hierarchy of block decompositions of the quasiperiodic lattice. A comparison to the cases of periodic and fully randomized lattices is performed.
Chaotic and ballistic dynamics in time-driven quasiperiodic lattices
Wulf, Thomas
2016-01-01
We investigate the nonequilibrium dynamics of classical particles in a driven quasiperiodic lattice based on the Fibonacci sequence. An intricate transient dynamics of extraordinarily long ballistic flights at distinct velocities is found. We argue how these transients are caused and can be under- stood by a hierarchy of block decompositions of the quasiperiodic lattice. A comparison to the cases of periodic and fully randomized lattices is performed.
Chaotic and ballistic dynamics in time-driven quasiperiodic lattices
Wulf, Thomas; Schmelcher, Peter
2016-04-01
We investigate the nonequilibrium dynamics of classical particles in a driven quasiperiodic lattice based on the Fibonacci sequence. An intricate transient dynamics of extraordinarily long ballistic flights at distinct velocities is found. We argue how these transients are caused and can be understood by a hierarchy of block decompositions of the quasiperiodic lattice. A comparison to the cases of periodic and fully randomized lattices is performed.
Epidemic Dynamics On Information-Driven Adaptive Networks
Zhan, Xiu-Xiu; Sun, Gui-Quan; Zhang, Zi-Ke
2015-01-01
can evolve simultaneously. For the information-driven adaptive process, susceptible (infected) individuals who have abilities to recognize the disease would break the links of their infected (susceptible) neighbors to prevent the epidemic from further spreading. Simulation results and numerical analyses based on the pairwise approach indicate that the information-driven adaptive process can not only slow down the speed of epidemic spreading, but can also diminish the epidemic prevalence at the final state significantly. In addition, the disease spreading and information diffusion pattern on the lattice give a visual representation about how the disease is trapped into an isolated field with the information-driven adaptive process. Furthermore, we perform the local bifurcation analysis on four types of dynamical regions, including healthy, oscillatory, bistable and endemic, to understand the evolution of the observed dynamical behaviors. This work may shed some lights on understanding how information affects h...
Product quality driven design of bakery operations using dynamic optimization
Hadiyanto, M.; Esveld, D.C.; Boom, R.M.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.
2008-01-01
Abstract Quality driven design uses specified product qualities as a starting point for process design. By backward reasoning the required process conditions and processing system were found. In this work dynamic optimization was used as a tool to generate processing solutions for baking processes b
Dynamic quantum tunneling in mesoscopic driven Duffing oscillators.
Guo, Lingzhen; Zheng, Zhigang; Li, Xin-Qi; Yan, Yijing
2011-07-01
We investigate the dynamic quantum tunneling between two attractors of a mesoscopic driven Duffing oscillator. We find that, in addition to inducing a remarkable quantum shift of the bifurcation point, the mesoscopic nature also results in a perfect linear scaling behavior for the tunneling rate with the driving distance to the shifted bifurcation point.
Dynamics of lane formation in driven binary complex plasmas
Sutterlin, K. R.; Wysocki, A.; Ivlev, A. V.; Rath, C.; Thomas, H. M.; Rubin-Zuzic, M.; W. J. Goedheer,; Fortov, V. E.; Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F.; Morfill, G. E.; Lowen, H.
2009-01-01
The dynamical onset of lane formation is studied in experiments with binary complex plasmas under microgravity conditions. Small microparticles are driven and penetrate into a cloud of big particles, revealing a strong tendency towards lane formation. The observed time-resolved lane-formation proces
Product quality driven design of bakery operations using dynamic optimization
Hadiyanto, M.; Esveld, D.C.; Boom, R.M.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.
2008-01-01
Abstract Quality driven design uses specified product qualities as a starting point for process design. By backward reasoning the required process conditions and processing system were found. In this work dynamic optimization was used as a tool to generate processing solutions for baking processes
Driven dynamics of simplified tribological models
Vanossi, A.; Braun, O. M.
2007-08-01
Over the last decade, remarkable developments in nanotechnology, notably the use of atomic and friction force microscopes (AFM/FFM), the surface-force apparatus (SFA) and the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM), have provided the possibility to build experimental devices able to perform analysis on well-characterized materials at the nano- and microscale. Simultaneously, tremendous advances in computing hardware and methodology (molecular dynamics techniques and ab initio calculations) have dramatically increased the ability of theoreticians to simulate tribological processes, supplying very detailed information on the atomic scale for realistic sliding systems. This acceleration in experiments and computations, leading often to very detailed yet complex data, has deeply stimulated the search, rediscovery and implementation of simpler mathematical models such as the generalized Frenkel-Kontorova and Tomlinson models, capable of describing and interpreting, in a more immediate way, the essential physics involved in nonlinear sliding phenomena.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tsakalidis, Konstantinos
We study dynamic data structures for diﬀerent variants of orthogonal range reporting query problems. In particular, we consider (1) the planar orthogonal 3-sided range reporting problem: given a set of points in the plane, report the points that lie within a given 3-sided rectangle with one....... Dynamic problems like the above arise in various applications of network optimization, VLSI layout design, computer graphics and distributed computing. For the ﬁrst problem, we present dynamic data structures for internal and external memory that support planar orthogonal 3-sided range reporting queries......, and insertions and deletions of points eﬃciently over an average case sequence of update operations. The external memory data structures ﬁnd applications in constraint and temporal databases. In particular, we assume that the coordinates of the points are drawn from diﬀerent probabilistic distributions...
Paultre, Patrick
2013-01-01
This book covers structural dynamics from a theoretical and algorithmic approach. It covers systems with both single and multiple degrees-of-freedom. Numerous case studies are given to provide the reader with a deeper insight into the practicalities of the area, and the solutions to these case studies are given in terms of real-time and frequency in both geometric and modal spaces. Emphasis is also given to the subject of seismic loading. The text is based on many lectures on the subject of structural dynamics given at numerous institutions and thus will be an accessible and practical aid to
Housner, J. M.; Anderson, M.; Belvin, W.; Horner, G.
1985-01-01
Dynamic analysis of large space antenna systems must treat the deployment as well as vibration and control of the deployed antenna. Candidate computer programs for deployment dynamics, and issues and needs for future program developments are reviewed. Some results for mast and hoop deployment are also presented. Modeling of complex antenna geometry with conventional finite element methods and with repetitive exact elements is considered. Analytical comparisons with experimental results for a 15 meter hoop/column antenna revealed the importance of accurate structural properties including nonlinear joints. Slackening of cables in this antenna is also a consideration. The technology of designing actively damped structures through analytical optimization is discussed and results are presented.
Feedback-Driven Dynamic Invariant Discovery
Zhang, Lingming; Yang, Guowei; Rungta, Neha S.; Person, Suzette; Khurshid, Sarfraz
2014-01-01
Program invariants can help software developers identify program properties that must be preserved as the software evolves, however, formulating correct invariants can be challenging. In this work, we introduce iDiscovery, a technique which leverages symbolic execution to improve the quality of dynamically discovered invariants computed by Daikon. Candidate invariants generated by Daikon are synthesized into assertions and instrumented onto the program. The instrumented code is executed symbolically to generate new test cases that are fed back to Daikon to help further re ne the set of candidate invariants. This feedback loop is executed until a x-point is reached. To mitigate the cost of symbolic execution, we present optimizations to prune the symbolic state space and to reduce the complexity of the generated path conditions. We also leverage recent advances in constraint solution reuse techniques to avoid computing results for the same constraints across iterations. Experimental results show that iDiscovery converges to a set of higher quality invariants compared to the initial set of candidate invariants in a small number of iterations.
Perez Beaupuits, J.P.; Wada, K.; Spaans, M.
2011-01-01
Several attempts have been made to model the mass distribution and dynamical evolution of the circumnuclear gas in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). However, chemical evolution is not included in detail in three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic simulations. The X-ray radiation from the AGN can drive the g
Pérez-Beaupuits, J. P.; Wada, K.; Spaans, M.
2011-01-01
Several attempts have been made to model the mass distribution and dynamical evolution of the circumnuclear gas in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). However, chemical evolution is not included in detail in three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic simulations. The X-ray radiation from the AGN can drive the g
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tsakalidis, Konstantinos
We study dynamic data structures for diﬀerent variants of orthogonal range reporting query problems. In particular, we consider (1) the planar orthogonal 3-sided range reporting problem: given a set of points in the plane, report the points that lie within a given 3-sided rectangle with one....... Dynamic problems like the above arise in various applications of network optimization, VLSI layout design, computer graphics and distributed computing. For the ﬁrst problem, we present dynamic data structures for internal and external memory that support planar orthogonal 3-sided range reporting queries...... unbounded side, (2) the planar orthogonal range maxima reporting problem: given a set of points in the plane, report the points that lie within a given orthogonal range and are not dominated by any other point in the range, and (3) the problem of designing fully persistent B-trees for external memory...
Thermochemically Driven Gas-Dynamic Fracturing (TDGF)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Michael Goodwin
2008-12-31
This report concerns efforts to increase oil well productivity and efficiency via a method of heating the oil-bearing rock of the well, a technique known as Thermochemical Gas-Dynamic Fracturing (TGDF). The technique uses either a chemical reaction or a combustion event to raise the temperature of the rock of the well, thereby increasing oil velocity, and oil pumping rate. Such technology has shown promise for future application to both older wellheads and also new sites. The need for such technologies in the oil extraction field, along with the merits of the TGDF technology is examined in Chapter 1. The theoretical basis underpinning applications of TGDF is explained in Chapter 2. It is shown that productivity of depleted well can be increased by one order of magnitude after heating a reservoir region of radius 15-20 m around the well by 100 degrees 1-2 times per year. Two variants of thermal stimulation are considered: uniform heating and optimal temperature distribution in the formation region around the perforation zone. It is demonstrated that the well productivity attained by using equal amounts of thermal energy is higher by a factor of 3 to 4 in the case of optimal temperature distribution as compared to uniform distribution. Following this theoretical basis, two practical approaches to applying TDGF are considered. Chapter 3 looks at the use of chemical intiators to raise the rock temperature in the well via an exothermic chemical reaction. The requirements for such a delivery device are discussed, and several novel fuel-oxidizing mixtures (FOM) are investigated in conditions simulating those at oil-extracting depths. Such FOM mixtures, particularly ones containing nitric acid and a chemical initiator, are shown to dramatically increase the temperature of the oil-bearing rock, and thus the productivity of the well. Such tests are substantiated by preliminary fieldwork in Russian oil fields. A second, more cost effective approach to TGDF is considered in
Zonal flow driven by energetic particle during magneto-hydro-dynamic burst in a toroidal plasma
Ohshima, S.; Fujisawa, A.; Shimizu, A.; Nakano, H.; Iguchi, H.; Yoshimura, Y.; Nagaoka, K.; Minami, T.; Isobe, M.; Nishimura, S.; Suzuki, C.; Akiyama, T.; Takahashi, C.; Takeuchi, M.; Ito, T.; Watari, T.; Kumazawa, R.; Itoh, S.-I.; Itoh, K.; Matsuoka, K.; Okamura, S.
2007-11-01
The internal structural measurements of electric field and density using twin heavy ion beam probes have been performed to elucidate the nonlinear evolution of the magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) bursty phenomenon driven by the interaction with high-energy particles in a toroidal plasma. The results have given the finest observation of the internal structure of plasma quantities, such as electric field, density and magnetic field distortion, which nonlinearly develop during the MHD phenomenon. In particular, the finding of a new kind of oscillating zonal flow driven by interaction between energetic particles and MHD modes should be emphasized for burning state plasmas.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kejlberg-Rasmussen, Casper
to a given key? The updates we can do are: inserting a new key or deleting a given key. Our dictionary has the working set property, which means that the running time of a query depends on the query distribution. Specifically the time to search for a key depends on when we last searched for it. Our data...... statements about our data structure, which are based on the structure of the underlying problem, that we are trying to solve. We can rely on the properties of the invariants when performing queries, and in return we need to ensure that the invariants remain true after we perform updates. When designing data......In this thesis I will address three dynamic data structure problems using the concept of invariants. The first problem is maintaining a dynamically changing set of keys – a dictionary – where the queries we can ask are: does it contain a given key? and what is the preceding (or succeeding) key...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kejlberg-Rasmussen, Casper
statements about our data structure, which are based on the structure of the underlying problem, that we are trying to solve. We can rely on the properties of the invariants when performing queries, and in return we need to ensure that the invariants remain true after we perform updates. When designing data......In this thesis I will address three dynamic data structure problems using the concept of invariants. The first problem is maintaining a dynamically changing set of keys – a dictionary – where the queries we can ask are: does it contain a given key? and what is the preceding (or succeeding) key...... to a given key? The updates we can do are: inserting a new key or deleting a given key. Our dictionary has the working set property, which means that the running time of a query depends on the query distribution. Specifically the time to search for a key depends on when we last searched for it. Our data...
Magnetospheric Cavity Modes Driven by Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure Fluctuations
Claudepierre, S G; Elkington, S R; Lotko, W; Hudson, M K; 10.1029/2009GL039045
2010-01-01
We present results from Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction. We use these simulations to investigate the role that solar wind dynamic pressure fluctuations play in the generation of magnetospheric ultra-low frequency (ULF) pulsations. The simulations presented in this study are driven with idealized solar wind input conditions. In four of the simulations, we introduce monochromatic ULF fluctuations in the upstream solar wind dynamic pressure. In the fifth simulation, we introduce a continuum of ULF frequencies in the upstream solar wind dynamic pressure fluctuations. In this numerical experiment, the idealized nature of the solar wind driving conditions allows us to study the magnetospheric response to only a fluctuating upstream dynamic pressure, while holding all other solar wind driving parameters constant. The simulation results suggest that ULF fluctuations in the solar wind dynamic pressure can drive magnet...
Interestingness-Driven Diffusion Process Summarization in Dynamic Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Qu, Qiang; Liu, Siyuan; Jensen, Christian S.
2014-01-01
tool in this regard is data summarization. However, few existing studies aim to summarize graphs/networks for dynamics. Dynamic networks raise new challenges not found in static settings, including time sensitivity and the needs for online interestingness evaluation and summary traceability, which......The widespread use of social networks enables the rapid diffusion of information, e.g., news, among users in very large communities. It is a substantial challenge to be able to observe and understand such diffusion processes, which may be modeled as networks that are both large and dynamic. A key...... render existing techniques inapplicable. We study the topic of dynamic network summarization: how to summarize dynamic networks with millions of nodes by only capturing the few most interesting nodes or edges over time, and we address the problem by finding interestingness-driven diffusion processes...
Dynamical Structure of Baryons
Aleksejevs, A
2013-01-01
Compton scattering offers a unique opportunity to study the dynamical structure of hadrons over a wide kinematic range, with polarizabilities characterizing the hadron active internal degrees of freedom. We present calculations and detailed analysis of electric and magnetic and the spin-dependent dynamical polarizabilities for the lowest in mass SU(3) octet of baryons. These extensive calculations are made possible by the recent implementation of semi-automatized calculations in chiral perturbation theory which allows evaluating polarizabilities from Compton scattering up to next-to-the-leading order. The dependencies for the range of photon energies covering the majority of the meson photoproduction channels are analyzed.
Depict noise-driven nonlinear dynamic networks from output data by using high-order correlations
Chen, Yang; Chen, Tianyu; Wang, Shihong; Hu, Gang
2016-01-01
Many practical systems can be described by dynamic networks, for which modern technique can measure their output signals, and accumulate extremely rich data. Nevertheless, the network structures producing these data are often deeply hidden in these data. Depicting network structures by analysing the available data turns to be significant inverse problems. On one hand, dynamics are often driven by various unknown facts, called noises. On the other hand, network structures of practical systems are commonly nonlinear, and different nonlinearities can provide rich dynamic features and meaningful functions of realistic networks. So far, no method, both theoretically or numerically, has been found to systematically treat the both difficulties together. Here we propose to use high-order correlation computations (HOCC) to treat nonlinear dynamics; use two-time correlations to treat noise effects; and use suitable basis and correlator vectors to unifiedly depict all dynamic nonlinearities and topological interaction l...
Quantum Dynamics of Mesoscopic Driven Duffing Oscillators in Rotating Frame
Guo, Lingzhen; Li, Xin-Qi
2010-01-01
We investigate the nonlinear dynamics of a mesoscopic driven Duffing oscillator in a quantum regime. We construct a bifurcation equation applicable in quantum regime. The predictions of our bifurcation equation agree with numerical results perfectly. In terms ofWigner function, we identify the nature of state near the bifurcation point, and extract the transition rate, which displays perfect scaling behavior with the driving distance to the bifurcation point.
Dynamic Weighted Data Structures.
1982-06-01
and Bonnie Hampton, who taught me much more than how to play the cello . Finally, for hours of artistic satisfaction, I thank Johannes Brahms, Ludwig...van "j Beethoven, Igor Stravinsky, Glan-Carlo Menotti, and Johann Sebastian Bach . Dynamic Weighted Data Structures Samuel W. Bent This thesis discusses...34I find It a matter of some difficulty to arrange these cards In a manner suited to my needs.’ I glanced at the cards and noticed each was labelled
Computational dynamics of acoustically-driven microsphere systems
Glosser, Connor A; Dault, Daniel L; Piermarocchi, Carlo; Shanker, Balasubramaniam
2015-01-01
We propose a computational framework for the self-consistent dynamics of a microsphere system driven by a pulsed acoustic field in an ideal fluid. Our framework combines a molecular dynamics integrator describing the dynamics of the microsphere system with a time-dependent integral equation solver for the acoustic field that makes use of fields represented as surface expansions in spherical harmonic basis functions. The presented approach allows us to describe the inter-particle interaction induced by the field as well as the dynamics of trapping in counter-propagating acoustic pulses. The integral equation formulation leads to equations of motion for the microspheres describing the effect of non-dissipative drag forces. We show (1) that the field-induced interactions between the microspheres give rise to effective dipolar interactions, with effective dipoles defined by their velocities, and (2) that the dominant effect of an ultrasound pulse through a cloud of microspheres gives rise mainly to a translation ...
Structural dynamic modification
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A Sestieri
2000-06-01
Vibration and acoustic requirements are becoming increasingly important in the design of mechanical structures, but they are not usually of primary concern in the design process. So the need to vary the structural behaviour to solve noise and vibration problems often occurs at the prototype stage, giving rise to the so-called structural modification problem. In this paper, the direct problem of determing the new response of a system, after some modifications are introduced into the sestem, is analysed using two different databases: the modal database and the frequency response function database. The limitaions of the modal database are discussed. Structural modifications that can be accounted for are lumped masses, springs, dampers and dynamic absorbers.
Spatiotemporal dynamics of calcium-driven cardiac alternans.
Skardal, Per Sebastian; Karma, Alain; Restrepo, Juan G
2014-05-01
We investigate the dynamics of spatially discordant alternans (SDA) driven by an instability of intracellular calcium cycling using both amplitude equations [P. S. Skardal, A. Karma, and J. G. Restrepo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 108103 (2012)] and ionic model simulations. We focus on the common case where the bidirectional coupling of intracellular calcium concentration and membrane voltage dynamics produces calcium and voltage alternans that are temporally in phase. We find that, close to the alternans bifurcation, SDA is manifested as a smooth wavy modulation of the amplitudes of both repolarization and calcium transient (CaT) alternans, similarly to the well-studied case of voltage-driven alternans. In contrast, further away from the bifurcation, the amplitude of CaT alternans jumps discontinuously at the nodes separating out-of-phase regions, while the amplitude of repolarization alternans remains smooth. We identify universal dynamical features of SDA pattern formation and evolution in the presence of those jumps. We show that node motion of discontinuous SDA patterns is strongly hysteretic even in homogeneous tissue due to the novel phenomenon of "unidirectional pinning": node movement can only be induced towards, but not away from, the pacing site in response to a change of pacing rate or physiological parameter. In addition, we show that the wavelength of discontinuous SDA patterns scales linearly with the conduction velocity restitution length scale, in contrast to the wavelength of smooth patterns that scales sublinearly with this length scale. Those results are also shown to be robust against cell-to-cell fluctuations due to the property that unidirectional node motion collapses multiple jumps accumulating in nodal regions into a single jump. Amplitude equation predictions are in good overall agreement with ionic model simulations. Finally, we briefly discuss physiological implications of our findings. In particular, we suggest that due to the tendency of
A data driven nonlinear stochastic model for blood glucose dynamics.
Zhang, Yan; Holt, Tim A; Khovanova, Natalia
2016-03-01
The development of adequate mathematical models for blood glucose dynamics may improve early diagnosis and control of diabetes mellitus (DM). We have developed a stochastic nonlinear second order differential equation to describe the response of blood glucose concentration to food intake using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data. A variational Bayesian learning scheme was applied to define the number and values of the system's parameters by iterative optimisation of free energy. The model has the minimal order and number of parameters to successfully describe blood glucose dynamics in people with and without DM. The model accounts for the nonlinearity and stochasticity of the underlying glucose-insulin dynamic process. Being data-driven, it takes full advantage of available CGM data and, at the same time, reflects the intrinsic characteristics of the glucose-insulin system without detailed knowledge of the physiological mechanisms. We have shown that the dynamics of some postprandial blood glucose excursions can be described by a reduced (linear) model, previously seen in the literature. A comprehensive analysis demonstrates that deterministic system parameters belong to different ranges for diabetes and controls. Implications for clinical practice are discussed. This is the first study introducing a continuous data-driven nonlinear stochastic model capable of describing both DM and non-DM profiles.
Stable Event-Driven Particle Dynamics: Spherically Symmetric Potentials
Bannerman, Marcus N
2012-01-01
Event-Driven Particle Dynamics is a fast and precise method to simulate particulate systems of all scales. These advantages arise from the analytical solution of the dynamics required by the discrete-potential models used. Despite the high precision solution, the finite calculation-precision of computers will still cause the simulation to enter invalid states which, if left unchecked, can lead to unresolvable errors. In this work, the treatment of these marginal invalid-states is discussed and a general event-detection algorithm is proposed which stably handles these situations. This requires a definition of the dynamics of invalid states and leads to improved algorithms for event-detection in spherically symmetric systems, including the well-established hard-sphere and square-well models. Finally, the Event-Driven Particle Dynamics technique is extended to allow the study of systems with complex spherical-mesh boundary conditions and distance constraints as a demonstration of the generality of the proposed a...
Quantum dynamics of a strongly driven Josephson Junction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gosner, Jennifer; Kubala, Bjoern; Ankerhold, Joachim [Institute for Complex Quantum Systems, University of Ulm (Germany)
2015-07-01
A Josephson Junction embedded in a dissipative circuit can be driven to exhibit non-linear oscillations. Classically the non-linear oscillator shows under sufficient strong driving and weak damping dynamical bifurcations and a bistable region similar to the conventional Duffing-oscillator. These features depend sensitively on initial conditions and parameters. The sensitivity of this circuit, called Josephson Bifurcation Amplifier, can be used to amplify an incoming signal, to form a sensing device or even for measuring a quantum system. The quantum dynamics can be described by a dissipative Lindblad master equation. Signatures of the classical bifurcation phenomena appear in the Wigner representation, used to characterize and visualize the resulting behaviour. In order to compare this quantum dynamics to that of the conventional Duffing-oscillator, the complete cosine-nonlinearity of the Josephson Junction is kept for the quantum description while going into a rotating frame.
Field-driven magnetization dynamics of nanoparticles and nanowires
Lu, Jie
This thesis is about micromagnetism in confined magnetic microstructures. The field-driven magnetization dynamics of nanoparticles and nanowires is systematically discussed following a clear thread of thought: from "macrospin" to "microspin". At the same time, four topics are raised and investigated. First, inspired by the traditional ferromagnetic resonance technique, two strategies for measuring the Gilbert damping coefficient using the magnetic circular dichroism effect are presented and discussed. The investigation is performed within a framework of the linear response of the macrospin in 2-D magnetic films to external time-dependent fields. The object of the study then turns to Stoner particles, which are single-domain magnetic nanoparticles, that are quasi 0-D systems and still assumed to be macrospins. The field-driven magnetization reversal in multi-axial Stoner particles is investigated and the corresponding Eular equations are presented. The Eular equations provide a unified framework for research of this kind. After that, the macrospin assumption itself is examined. The study of when and how it fails results in the famous "nucleation problem" in micromagnetism, thus the discussion then moves into the microspin category. The nucleation problem of single-domain cuboid permalloy nanowires, which are quasi 1-D systems, is investigated and a magnetization reversal mode named "domain formation and domain wall propagation" is revealed. Field-driven magnetic domain wall propagation is an excellent example of microspin behavior, and has been a hot issue in recent spintronic research. The effects of transverse magnetic anisotropies on field-driven transverse wall propagation in narrow magnetic nanowires are systematically investigated. These results should not only deepen the understanding of the domain wall dynamics in magnetic nanowires, but also offer inspiration for further developments of ultrafast nano-devices with higher integration levels.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuwahara, Tomotaka, E-mail: tomotaka.phys@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); WPI, Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Mori, Takashi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Saito, Keiji [Department of Physics, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, 223-8522 (Japan)
2016-04-15
This work explores a fundamental dynamical structure for a wide range of many-body quantum systems under periodic driving. Generically, in the thermodynamic limit, such systems are known to heat up to infinite temperature states in the long-time limit irrespective of dynamical details, which kills all the specific properties of the system. In the present study, instead of considering infinitely long-time scale, we aim to provide a general framework to understand the long but finite time behavior, namely the transient dynamics. In our analysis, we focus on the Floquet–Magnus (FM) expansion that gives a formal expression of the effective Hamiltonian on the system. Although in general the full series expansion is not convergent in the thermodynamics limit, we give a clear relationship between the FM expansion and the transient dynamics. More precisely, we rigorously show that a truncated version of the FM expansion accurately describes the exact dynamics for a certain time-scale. Our theory reveals an experimental time-scale for which non-trivial dynamical phenomena can be reliably observed. We discuss several dynamical phenomena, such as the effect of small integrability breaking, efficient numerical simulation of periodically driven systems, dynamical localization and thermalization. Especially on thermalization, we discuss a generic scenario on the prethermalization phenomenon in periodically driven systems. -- Highlights: •A general framework to describe transient dynamics for periodically driven systems. •The theory is applicable to generic quantum many-body systems including long-range interacting systems. •Physical meaning of the truncation of the Floquet–Magnus expansion is rigorously established. •New mechanism of the prethermalization is proposed. •Revealing an experimental time-scale for which non-trivial dynamical phenomena can be reliably observed.
Fluctuation-Driven Neural Dynamics Reproduce Drosophila Locomotor Patterns.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Maesani
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The neural mechanisms determining the timing of even simple actions, such as when to walk or rest, are largely mysterious. One intriguing, but untested, hypothesis posits a role for ongoing activity fluctuations in neurons of central action selection circuits that drive animal behavior from moment to moment. To examine how fluctuating activity can contribute to action timing, we paired high-resolution measurements of freely walking Drosophila melanogaster with data-driven neural network modeling and dynamical systems analysis. We generated fluctuation-driven network models whose outputs-locomotor bouts-matched those measured from sensory-deprived Drosophila. From these models, we identified those that could also reproduce a second, unrelated dataset: the complex time-course of odor-evoked walking for genetically diverse Drosophila strains. Dynamical models that best reproduced both Drosophila basal and odor-evoked locomotor patterns exhibited specific characteristics. First, ongoing fluctuations were required. In a stochastic resonance-like manner, these fluctuations allowed neural activity to escape stable equilibria and to exceed a threshold for locomotion. Second, odor-induced shifts of equilibria in these models caused a depression in locomotor frequency following olfactory stimulation. Our models predict that activity fluctuations in action selection circuits cause behavioral output to more closely match sensory drive and may therefore enhance navigation in complex sensory environments. Together these data reveal how simple neural dynamics, when coupled with activity fluctuations, can give rise to complex patterns of animal behavior.
Structural dynamic modifications via models
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
T K Kundra
2000-06-01
Structural dynamic modification techniques attempt to reduce dynamic design time and can be implemented beginning with spatial models of structures, dynamic test data or updated models. The models assumed in this discussion are mathematical models, namely mass, stiffness, and damping matrices of the equations of motion of a structure. These models are identified/extracted from dynamic test data viz. frequency response functions (FRFs). Alternatively these models could have been obtained by adjusting or updating the finite element model of the structure in the light of the test data. The methods of structural modification for getting desired dynamic characteristics by using modifiers namely mass, beams and tuned absorbers are discussed.
Kuwahara, Tomotaka; Mori, Takashi; Saito, Keiji
2016-04-01
This work explores a fundamental dynamical structure for a wide range of many-body quantum systems under periodic driving. Generically, in the thermodynamic limit, such systems are known to heat up to infinite temperature states in the long-time limit irrespective of dynamical details, which kills all the specific properties of the system. In the present study, instead of considering infinitely long-time scale, we aim to provide a general framework to understand the long but finite time behavior, namely the transient dynamics. In our analysis, we focus on the Floquet-Magnus (FM) expansion that gives a formal expression of the effective Hamiltonian on the system. Although in general the full series expansion is not convergent in the thermodynamics limit, we give a clear relationship between the FM expansion and the transient dynamics. More precisely, we rigorously show that a truncated version of the FM expansion accurately describes the exact dynamics for a certain time-scale. Our theory reveals an experimental time-scale for which non-trivial dynamical phenomena can be reliably observed. We discuss several dynamical phenomena, such as the effect of small integrability breaking, efficient numerical simulation of periodically driven systems, dynamical localization and thermalization. Especially on thermalization, we discuss a generic scenario on the prethermalization phenomenon in periodically driven systems.
On the classical dynamics of strongly driven anharmonic oscillators
Breuer, H. P.; Dietz, K.; Holthaus, M.
1990-12-01
We investigate the dynamics of periodically driven anharmonic oscillators. In particular, we consider values of the coupling strength which are orders of magnitude higher than those required for the overlap of primary resonances. We observe a division of phase space into a regular and a stochastic region. Both regions are separated by a sharp chaos border which sets an upper limit to the stochastic heating of particles; its dependence on the coupling strength is studied. We construct perpetual adiabatic invariants governing regular motion. A bifurcation mechanism leading to the annihilation of resonances is explained.
Entanglement dynamics of a strongly driven trapped atom
Roghani, Maryam; Breuer, Heinz-Peter
2011-01-01
We study the entanglement between the internal electronic and the external vibrational degrees of freedom of a trapped atom which is driven by two lasers into electromagnetically-induced transparency. It is shown that basic features of the intricate entanglement dynamics can be traced to Landau-Zener splittings (avoided crossings) in the spectrum of the atom-laser field Hamiltonian. We further construct an effective Hamiltonian that describes the behavior of entanglement under dissipation induced by spontaneous emission processes. The proposed approach is applicable to a broad range of scenarios for the control of entanglement between electronic and translational degrees of freedom of trapped atoms through suitable laser fields.
Calculating gravitationally self-consistent sea level changes driven by dynamic topography
Austermann, J.; Mitrovica, J. X.
2015-12-01
We present a generalized formalism for computing gravitationally self-consistent sea level changes driven by the combined effects of dynamic topography, geoid perturbations due to mantle convection, ice mass fluctuations and sediment redistribution on a deforming Earth. Our mathematical treatment conserves mass of the surface (ice plus ocean) load and the solid Earth. Moreover, it takes precise account of shoreline migration and the associated ocean loading. The new formalism avoids a variety of approximations adopted in previous models of sea level change driven by dynamic topography, including the assumption that a spatially fixed isostatic amplification of `air-loaded' dynamic topography accurately accounts for ocean loading effects. While our approach is valid for Earth models of arbitrary complexity, we present numerical results for a set of simple cases in which a pattern of dynamic topography is imposed, the response to surface mass loading assumes that Earth structure varies only with depth and that isostatic equilibrium is maintained at all times. These calculations, involving fluid Love number theory, indicate that the largest errors in previous predictions of sea level change driven by dynamic topography occur in regions of shoreline migration, and thus in the vicinity of most geological markers of ancient sea level. We conclude that a gravitationally self-consistent treatment of long-term sea level change is necessary in any effort to use such geological markers to estimate ancient ice volumes.
Dynamic object management for distributed data structures
Totty, Brian K.; Reed, Daniel A.
1992-01-01
In distributed-memory multiprocessors, remote memory accesses incur larger delays than local accesses. Hence, insightful allocation and access of distributed data can yield substantial performance gains. The authors argue for the use of dynamic data management policies encapsulated within individual distributed data structures. Distributed data structures offer performance, flexibility, abstraction, and system independence. This approach is supported by data from a trace-driven simulation study of parallel scientific benchmarks. Experimental data on memory locality, message count, message volume, and communication delay suggest that data-structure-specific data management is superior to a single, system-imposed policy.
Data-based virtual unmodeled dynamics driven multivariable nonlinear adaptive switching control.
Chai, Tianyou; Zhang, Yajun; Wang, Hong; Su, Chun-Yi; Sun, Jing
2011-12-01
For a complex industrial system, its multivariable and nonlinear nature generally make it very difficult, if not impossible, to obtain an accurate model, especially when the model structure is unknown. The control of this class of complex systems is difficult to handle by the traditional controller designs around their operating points. This paper, however, explores the concepts of controller-driven model and virtual unmodeled dynamics to propose a new design framework. The design consists of two controllers with distinct functions. First, using input and output data, a self-tuning controller is constructed based on a linear controller-driven model. Then the output signals of the controller-driven model are compared with the true outputs of the system to produce so-called virtual unmodeled dynamics. Based on the compensator of the virtual unmodeled dynamics, the second controller based on a nonlinear controller-driven model is proposed. Those two controllers are integrated by an adaptive switching control algorithm to take advantage of their complementary features: one offers stabilization function and another provides improved performance. The conditions on the stability and convergence of the closed-loop system are analyzed. Both simulation and experimental tests on a heavily coupled nonlinear twin-tank system are carried out to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.
A dynamic, climate-driven model of Rift Valley fever.
Leedale, Joseph; Jones, Anne E; Caminade, Cyril; Morse, Andrew P
2016-03-31
Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in eastern Africa have previously occurred following specific rainfall dynamics and flooding events that appear to support the emergence of large numbers of mosquito vectors. As such, transmission of the virus is considered to be sensitive to environmental conditions and therefore changes in climate can impact the spatiotemporal dynamics of epizootic vulnerability. Epidemiological information describing the methods and parameters of RVF transmission and its dependence on climatic factors are used to develop a new spatio-temporal mathematical model that simulates these dynamics and can predict the impact of changes in climate. The Liverpool RVF (LRVF) model is a new dynamic, process-based model driven by climate data that provides a predictive output of geographical changes in RVF outbreak susceptibility as a result of the climate and local livestock immunity. This description of the multi-disciplinary process of model development is accessible to mathematicians, epidemiological modellers and climate scientists, uniting dynamic mathematical modelling, empirical parameterisation and state-of-the-art climate information.
A dynamic, climate-driven model of Rift Valley fever
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joseph Leedale
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF in eastern Africa have previously occurred following specific rainfall dynamics and flooding events that appear to support the emergence of large numbers of mosquito vectors. As such, transmission of the virus is considered to be sensitive to environmental conditions and therefore changes in climate can impact the spatiotemporal dynamics of epizootic vulnerability. Epidemiological information describing the methods and parameters of RVF transmission and its dependence on climatic factors are used to develop a new spatio-temporal mathematical model that simulates these dynamics and can predict the impact of changes in climate. The Liverpool RVF (LRVF model is a new dynamic, process-based model driven by climate data that provides a predictive output of geographical changes in RVF outbreak susceptibility as a result of the climate and local livestock immunity. This description of the multi-disciplinary process of model development is accessible to mathematicians, epidemiological modellers and climate scientists, uniting dynamic mathematical modelling, empirical parameterisation and state-of-the-art climate information.
Driven Open Quantum Systems and Floquet Stroboscopic Dynamics
Restrepo, S.; Cerrillo, J.; Bastidas, V. M.; Angelakis, D. G.; Brandes, T.
2016-12-01
We provide an analytic solution to the problem of system-bath dynamics under the effect of high-frequency driving that has applications in a large class of settings, such as driven-dissipative many-body systems. Our method relies on discrete symmetries of the system-bath Hamiltonian and provides the time evolution operator of the full system, including bath degrees of freedom, without weak-coupling or Markovian assumptions. An interpretation of the solution in terms of the stroboscopic evolution of a family of observables under the influence of an effective static Hamiltonian is proposed, which constitutes a flexible simulation procedure of nontrivial Hamiltonians. We instantiate the result with the study of the spin-boson model with time-dependent tunneling amplitude. We analyze the class of Hamiltonians that may be stroboscopically accessed for this example and illustrate the dynamics of system and bath degrees of freedom.
An opinion-driven behavioral dynamics model for addictive behaviors
Moore, Thomas W.; Finley, Patrick D.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Brodsky, Nancy S.; Brown, Theresa J.; Husten, Corinne; Glass, Robert J.
2015-04-01
We present a model of behavioral dynamics that combines a social network-based opinion dynamics model with behavioral mapping. The behavioral component is discrete and history-dependent to represent situations in which an individual's behavior is initially driven by opinion and later constrained by physiological or psychological conditions that serve to maintain the behavior. Individuals are modeled as nodes in a social network connected by directed edges. Parameter sweeps illustrate model behavior and the effects of individual parameters and parameter interactions on model results. Mapping a continuous opinion variable into a discrete behavioral space induces clustering on directed networks. Clusters provide targets of opportunity for influencing the network state; however, the smaller the network the greater the stochasticity and potential variability in outcomes. This has implications both for behaviors that are influenced by close relationships verses those influenced by societal norms and for the effectiveness of strategies for influencing those behaviors.
Surface hopping in laser-driven molecular dynamics
Fiedlschuster, T.; Handt, J.; Gross, E. K. U.; Schmidt, R.
2017-06-01
A theoretical justification of the empirical surface hopping method for the laser-driven molecular dynamics is given by utilizing the formalism of the exact factorization of the molecular wave function [Abedi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 123002 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.123002] in its quantum-classical limit. Employing an exactly solvable H2+-like model system, it is shown that the deterministic classical nuclear motion on a single time-dependent surface in this approach describes the same physics as stochastic (hopping-induced) motion on several surfaces, provided Floquet surfaces are applied. Both quantum-classical methods do describe reasonably well the exact nuclear wave-packet dynamics for extremely different dissociation scenarios. Hopping schemes using Born-Oppenheimer surfaces or instantaneous Born-Oppenheimer surfaces fail completely.
Surface hopping methodology in laser-driven molecular dynamics
Fiedlschuster, T; Gross, E K U; Schmidt, R
2016-01-01
A theoretical justification of the empirical surface hopping method for the laser-driven molecular dynamics is given utilizing the formalism of the exact factorization of the molecular wavefunction [Abedi et al., PRL $\\textbf{105}$, 123002 (2010)] in its quantum-classical limit. Employing an exactly solvable $\\textrm H_2^{\\;+}$-like model system, it is shown that the deterministic classical nuclear motion on a single time-dependent surface in this approach describes the same physics as stochastic (hopping-induced) motion on several surfaces, provided Floquet surfaces are applied. Both quantum-classical methods do describe reasonably well the exact nuclear wavepacket dynamics for extremely different dissociation scenarios. Hopping schemes using Born-Oppenheimer surfaces or instantaneous Born-Oppenheimer surfaces fail completely.
Flexibility of Data-driven Process Structures
Muller, D.; Reichert, M.U.; Herbst, J.; Eder, J.; Dustdar, S.
2006-01-01
The coordination of complex process structures is a fundamental task for enterprises, such as in the automotive industry. Usually, such process structures consist of several (sub-)processes whose execution must be coordinated and synchronized. Effecting this manually is both ineffective and
Flexibility of Data-driven Process Structures
Müller, D.; Reichert, M.U.; Herbst, J.; Eder, J.; Dustdar, S.
2006-01-01
The coordination of complex process structures is a fundamental task for enterprises, such as in the automotive industry. Usually, such process structures consist of several (sub-)processes whose execution must be coordinated and synchronized. Effecting this manually is both ineffective and error-pr
The dynamics of radiation driven, optically thick winds
Shen, Rong-Feng; Piran, Tsvi
2016-01-01
Recent observation of some luminous transient sources with low color temperatures suggests that the emission is dominated by optically thick winds driven by super-Eddington accretion. We present a general analytical theory of the dynamics of radiation pressure-driven, optically thick winds. Unlike the classical adiabatic stellar wind solution whose dynamics are solely determined by the sonic radius, here the loss of the radiation pressure due to photon diffusion also plays an important role. We identify two high mass loss rate regimes ($\\dot{M} > L_{\\rm Edd\\,}/c^2$). In the large total luminosity regime the solution resembles an adiabatic wind solution. Both the radiative luminosity, $L$, and the kinetic luminosity, $L_k$, are super-Eddington with $L < L_k$ and $L \\propto L_k^{1/3}$. In the lower total luminosity regime most of the energy is carried out by the radiation with $L_k < L \\approx L_{\\rm Edd\\,}$. In a third, low mass loss regime ($\\dot{M} < L_{\\rm Edd\\,}/c^2$), the wind becomes optically t...
Classical and quantum dynamics of driven elliptical billiards
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lenz, Florian
2009-12-09
Subject of this thesis is the investigation of the classical dynamics of the driven elliptical billiard and the development of a numerical method allowing the propagation of arbitrary initial states in the quantum version of the system. In the classical case, we demonstrate that there is Fermi acceleration in the driven billiard. The corresponding transport process in momentum space shows a surprising crossover from sub- to normal diffusion. This crossover is not parameter induced, but rather occurs dynamically in the evolution of the ensemble. The four-dimensional phase space is analyzed in depth, especially how its composition changes in different velocity regimes. We show that the stickiness properties, which eventually determine the diffusion, are intimately connected with this change of the composition of the phase space with respect to velocity. In the course of the evolution, the accelerating ensemble thus explores regions of varying stickiness, leading to the mentioned crossover in the diffusion. In the quantum case, a series of transformations tailored to the elliptical billiard is applied to circumvent the time-dependent Dirichlet boundary conditions. By means of an expansion ansatz, this eventually yields a large system of coupled ordinary differential equations, which can be solved by standard techniques. (orig.)
Evolutionary programming for goal-driven dynamic planning
Vaccaro, James M.; Guest, Clark C.; Ross, David O.
2002-03-01
Many complex artificial intelligence (IA) problems are goal- driven in nature and the opportunity exists to realize the benefits of a goal-oriented solution. In many cases, such as in command and control, a goal-oriented approach may be the only option. One of many appropriate applications for such an approach is War Gaming. War Gaming is an important tool for command and control because it provides a set of alternative courses of actions so that military leaders can contemplate their next move in the battlefield. For instance, when making decisions that save lives, it is necessary to completely understand the consequences of a given order. A goal-oriented approach provides a slowly evolving tractably reasoned solution that inherently follows one of the principles of war: namely concentration on the objective. Future decision-making will depend not only on the battlefield, but also on a virtual world where military leaders can wage wars and determine their options by playing computer war games much like the real world. The problem with these games is that the built-in AI does not learn nor adapt and many times cheats, because the intelligent player has access to all the information, while the user has access to limited information provided on a display. These games are written for the purpose of entertainment and actions are calculated a priori and off-line, and are made prior or during their development. With these games getting more sophisticated in structure and less domain specific in scope, there needs to be a more general intelligent player that can adapt and learn in case the battlefield situations or the rules of engagement change. One such war game that might be considered is Risk. Risk incorporates the principles of war, is a top-down scalable model, and provides a good application for testing a variety of goal- oriented AI approaches. By integrating a goal-oriented hybrid approach, one can develop a program that plays the Risk game effectively and move
Figliozzi, Patrick; Sule, Nishant; Yan, Zijie; Bao, Ying; Burov, Stanislav; Gray, Stephen K.; Rice, Stuart A.; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan; Scherer, Norbert F.
2017-02-01
To date investigations of the dynamics of driven colloidal systems have focused on hydrodynamic interactions and often employ optical (laser) tweezers for manipulation. However, the optical fields that provide confinement and drive also result in electrodynamic interactions that are generally neglected. We address this issue with a detailed study of interparticle dynamics in an optical ring vortex trap using 150-nm diameter Ag nanoparticles. We term the resultant electrodynamically interacting nanoparticles a driven optical matter system. We also show that a superior trap is created by using a Au nanoplate mirror in a retroreflection geometry, which increases the electric field intensity, the optical drive force, and spatial confinement. Using nanoparticles versus micron sized colloids significantly reduces the surface hydrodynamic friction allowing us to access small values of optical topological charge and drive force. We quantify a further 50% reduction of hydrodynamic friction when the nanoparticles are driven over the Au nanoplate mirrors versus over a mildly electrostatically repulsive glass surface. Further, we demonstrate through experiments and electrodynamics-Langevin dynamics simulations that the optical drive force and the interparticle interactions are not constant around the ring for linearly polarized light, resulting in a strong position-dependent variation in the nanoparticle velocity. The nonuniformity in the optical drive force is also manifest as an increase in fluctuations of interparticle separation, or effective temperature, as the optical driving force is increased. Finally, we resolve an open issue in the literature on periodic modulation of interparticle separation with comparative measurements of driven 300-nm-diameter polystyrene beads that also clearly reveal the significance of electrodynamic forces and interactions in optically driven colloidal systems. Therefore, the modulations in the optical forces and electrodynamic interactions
Sánchez-Tejerina, L.; Alejos, Ó.; Martínez, E.; Muñoz, J. M.
2016-07-01
The dynamics of domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic strips with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is studied from both numerical and analytical micromagnetics. The influence of a moderate interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction associated to a bi-layer strip arrangement has been considered, giving rise to the formation of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls. Such walls possess under equilibrium conditions an inner magnetization structure defined by a certain orientation angle that make them to be considered as intermediate configurations between Bloch and Néel walls. Two different dynamics are considered, a field-driven and a current-driven dynamics, in particular, the one promoted by the spin torque due to the spin-Hall effect. Results show an inherent asymmetry associated with the rotation of the domain wall magnetization orientation before reaching the stationary regime, characterized by a constant terminal speed. For a certain initial DW magnetization orientation at rest, the rotation determines whether the reorientation of the DW magnetization prior to reach stationary motion is smooth or abrupt. This asymmetry affects the DW motion, which can even reverse for a short period of time. Additionally, it is found that the terminal speed in the case of the current-driven dynamics may depend on either the initial DW magnetization orientation at rest or the sign of the longitudinally injected current.
Noisy scattering dynamics in the randomly driven Hénon-Heiles oscillator
Gan, Chunbiao; Yang, Shixi; Lei, Hua
2010-12-01
Noisy scattering dynamics in the randomly driven Hénon-Heiles oscillator is investigated when the energy is above the threshold to permit particles to escape from the scattering region. First, some basic simulation procedures are briefly introduced and the fractal exit basins appear to be robust when the bounded noisy excitation is imposed on the oscillator. Second, several key fractal characteristics of the sample basin boundaries, such as the delay-time function and the uncertainty dimension, are estimated from which this oscillator is found to be structurally unstable against the bounded noisy excitation. Moreover, the stable and unstable manifolds of some sample chaotic invariant sets are estimated and illustrated in a special two-dimensional Poincaré section. Lastly, several previous methods are developed to identify three arbitrarily chosen noisy scattering time series of the randomly driven Hénon-Heiles oscillator, from which the quasiperiodic-dominant and the chaotic-dominant dynamical behaviors are distinguished.
Hamiltonian-Driven Adaptive Dynamic Programming for Continuous Nonlinear Dynamical Systems.
Yang, Yongliang; Wunsch, Donald; Yin, Yixin
2017-02-01
This paper presents a Hamiltonian-driven framework of adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) for continuous time nonlinear systems, which consists of evaluation of an admissible control, comparison between two different admissible policies with respect to the corresponding the performance function, and the performance improvement of an admissible control. It is showed that the Hamiltonian can serve as the temporal difference for continuous-time systems. In the Hamiltonian-driven ADP, the critic network is trained to output the value gradient. Then, the inner product between the critic and the system dynamics produces the value derivative. Under some conditions, the minimization of the Hamiltonian functional is equivalent to the value function approximation. An iterative algorithm starting from an arbitrary admissible control is presented for the optimal control approximation with its convergence proof. The implementation is accomplished by a neural network approximation. Two simulation studies demonstrate the effectiveness of Hamiltonian-driven ADP.
Large scale dynamics in flux driven gyrokinetic turbulence
Sarazin, Y.; Grandgirard, V.; Abiteboul, J.; Allfrey, S.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Latu, G.; Strugarek, A.; Dif-Pradalier, G.
2010-05-01
The turbulent transport governed by the toroidal ion temperature gradient driven instability is analysed with the full-f global gyrokinetic code GYSELA (Grandgirard et al 2007 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 49 B173) when the system is driven by a prescribed heat source. Weak, yet finite, collisionality governs a neoclassical ion heat flux that can compete with the turbulent driven transport. In turn, the ratio of turbulent to neoclassical transport increases with the source magnitude, resulting in the degradation of confinement with additional power. The turbulent flux exhibits avalanche-like events, characterized by intermittent outbursts which propagate ballistically roughly at the diamagnetic velocity. Locally, the temperature gradient can drop well below the linear stability threshold. Large outbursts are found to correlate with streamer-like structures of the convection cells albeit their Fourier spectrum departs significantly from that of the most unstable linear modes. Last, the poloidal rotation of turbulent eddies is essentially governed by the radial electric field at moderate density gradient.
Structural Dynamics of Maneuvering Aircraft.
1987-09-01
AD-RI92 376 STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF MANEUVERING RIRCRAFT(U) CONRAD I TECHNOLOGIES INC KING OF PRUSSIA PR M M REDDI SEP 97 CTI-8601 NRDC-88014-69...REPORT NO. NADC-8014-60 STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF MANEUVERING AIRCRAFT M. Mahadeva Reddi .4 Conrad Technologies, Inc. 650 S. Henderson Rd. D T IQ King of...NO A0 CCESSION NO. R02303001 107601 11. TITLE (Include Security Classfication) (u) STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF MANEUVERING AIRCRAFT 12. PERSONAL AUTHORS) M
Current-driven dynamics of chiral ferromagnetic domain walls.
Emori, Satoru; Bauer, Uwe; Ahn, Sung-Min; Martinez, Eduardo; Beach, Geoffrey S D
2013-07-01
In most ferromagnets the magnetization rotates from one domain to the next with no preferred handedness. However, broken inversion symmetry can lift the chiral degeneracy, leading to topologically rich spin textures such as spin spirals and skyrmions through the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). Here we show that in ultrathin metallic ferromagnets sandwiched between a heavy metal and an oxide, the DMI stabilizes chiral domain walls (DWs) whose spin texture enables extremely efficient current-driven motion. We show that spin torque from the spin Hall effect drives DWs in opposite directions in Pt/CoFe/MgO and Ta/CoFe/MgO, which can be explained only if the DWs assume a Néel configuration with left-handed chirality. We directly confirm the DW chirality and rigidity by examining current-driven DW dynamics with magnetic fields applied perpendicular and parallel to the spin spiral. This work resolves the origin of controversial experimental results and highlights a new path towards interfacial design of spintronic devices.
Econophysics and Data Driven Modelling of Market Dynamics
Aoyama, Hideaki; Chakrabarti, Bikas; Chakraborti, Anirban; Ghosh, Asim; Econophysics and Data Driven Modelling of Market Dynamics
2015-01-01
This book presents the works and research findings of physicists, economists, mathematicians, statisticians, and financial engineers who have undertaken data-driven modelling of market dynamics and other empirical studies in the field of Econophysics. During recent decades, the financial market landscape has changed dramatically with the deregulation of markets and the growing complexity of products. The ever-increasing speed and decreasing costs of computational power and networks have led to the emergence of huge databases. The availability of these data should permit the development of models that are better founded empirically, and econophysicists have accordingly been advocating that one should rely primarily on the empirical observations in order to construct models and validate them. The recent turmoil in financial markets and the 2008 crash appear to offer a strong rationale for new models and approaches. The Econophysics community accordingly has an important future role to play in market modelling....
Delay driven spatiotemporal chaos in single species population dynamics models.
Jankovic, Masha; Petrovskii, Sergei; Banerjee, Malay
2016-08-01
Questions surrounding the prevalence of complex population dynamics form one of the central themes in ecology. Limit cycles and spatiotemporal chaos are examples that have been widely recognised theoretically, although their importance and applicability to natural populations remains debatable. The ecological processes underlying such dynamics are thought to be numerous, though there seems to be consent as to delayed density dependence being one of the main driving forces. Indeed, time delay is a common feature of many ecological systems and can significantly influence population dynamics. In general, time delays may arise from inter- and intra-specific trophic interactions or population structure, however in the context of single species populations they are linked to more intrinsic biological phenomena such as gestation or resource regeneration. In this paper, we consider theoretically the spatiotemporal dynamics of a single species population using two different mathematical formulations. Firstly, we revisit the diffusive logistic equation in which the per capita growth is a function of some specified delayed argument. We then modify the model by incorporating a spatial convolution which results in a biologically more viable integro-differential model. Using the combination of analytical and numerical techniques, we investigate the effect of time delay on pattern formation. In particular, we show that for sufficiently large values of time delay the system's dynamics are indicative to spatiotemporal chaos. The chaotic dynamics arising in the wake of a travelling population front can be preceded by either a plateau corresponding to dynamical stabilisation of the unstable equilibrium or by periodic oscillations.
ON THE ANALYSIS OF IMPEDANCE-DRIVEN REVERSE FLOW DYNAMICS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LEE V. C.-C.
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Impedance pump is a simple valve-less pumping mechanism, where an elastic tube is joined to a more rigid tube, at both ends. By inducing a periodic asymmetrical compression on the elastic tube will produce a unidirectional flow within the system. This pumping concept offers a low energy, low noise alternative, which makes it an effective driving mechanism, especially for micro-fluidic systems. In addition, the wave-based mechanism through which pumping occurs infers many benefits in terms of simplicity of design and manufacturing. Adjustment of simple parameters such as the excitation frequencies or compression locations will reverse the direction of flow, providing a very versatile range of flow outputs. This paper describes the experimental analysis of such impedance-driven flow with emphasis on the dynamical study of the reverse flow in open-loop environment. In this study, tapered section with converging steps is introduced at both ends of the elastic tube to amplify the magnitude of reverse flow. Study conducted shows that the reverse peak flow is rather significant with estimate of 23% lower than the forward peak flow. The flow dynamics on the other hand has shown to exhibit different characteristics as per the forward peak flow. The flow characteristics is then studied and showed that the tapered sections altered the impedance within the system and hence induce a higher flow in the reverse direction.
Dynamic testing of cable structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Caetano Elsa
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of dynamic testing in the study of cable structures. In this context, the identification of cable force based on vibration measurements is discussed. Vibration and damping assessment are then introduced as the focus of dynamic monitoring systems, and particular aspects of the structural behaviour under environmental loads are analysed. Diverse application results are presented to support the discussion centred on cable-stayed bridges, roof structures, a guyed mast and a transmission line.
Jafri, Haider Hasan; Singh, Thounaojam Umeshkanta; Ramaswamy, Ramakrishna
2012-09-01
We study the robustness of dynamical phenomena in adiabatically driven nonlinear mappings with skew-product structure. Deviations from true orbits are observed when computations are performed with inadequate numerical precision for monotone, periodic, or quasiperiodic driving. The effect of slow modulation is to "freeze" orbits in long intervals of purely contracting or purely expanding dynamics in the phase space. When computations are carried out with low precision, numerical errors build up phantom instabilities which ultimately force trajectories to depart from the true motion. Thus, the dynamics observed with finite precision computation shows sensitivity to numerical precision: the minimum accuracy required to obtain "true" trajectories is proportional to an internal timescale that can be defined for the adiabatic system.
Szolc, Tomasz; Konowrocki, Robert; Michajłow, Maciej; Pręgowska, Agnieszka
2014-12-01
In the paper dynamic electromechanical interaction between the rotating machine drive system and the electric driving motor is considered. The investigations are performed by means of the circuit model of the asynchronous motor as well as using an advanced structural hybrid model of the drive system. Using the analytical solutions applied for the electrical and the mechanical systems the electromagnetic stiffness and coefficient of damping, both generated by the electric motor rotationally interacting with the mechanical system of the given dynamic properties, were determined. By means of experimentally validated computational responses obtained for torsional harmonic excitation induced by the driven machine working tool, a modification of dynamic properties of the mechanical system by the electromagnetic flux between the stator and the rotor has been studied.
DynamO: a free O(N) general event-driven molecular dynamics simulator.
Bannerman, M N; Sargant, R; Lue, L
2011-11-30
Molecular dynamics algorithms for systems of particles interacting through discrete or "hard" potentials are fundamentally different to the methods for continuous or "soft" potential systems. Although many software packages have been developed for continuous potential systems, software for discrete potential systems based on event-driven algorithms are relatively scarce and specialized. We present DynamO, a general event-driven simulation package, which displays the optimal O(N) asymptotic scaling of the computational cost with the number of particles N, rather than the O(N) scaling found in most standard algorithms. DynamO provides reference implementations of the best available event-driven algorithms. These techniques allow the rapid simulation of both complex and large (>10(6) particles) systems for long times. The performance of the program is benchmarked for elastic hard sphere systems, homogeneous cooling and sheared inelastic hard spheres, and equilibrium Lennard-Jones fluids. This software and its documentation are distributed under the GNU General Public license and can be freely downloaded from http://marcusbannerman.co.uk/dynamo.
Optical Absorption Spectra and Intraband Dynamics in Terahertz-Driven Semiconductor Superlattice
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MI Xian-Wu
2004-01-01
@@ We have theoretically investigated the optical absorption spectrum and intraband dynamics by subjecting a superlattice to both a terahertz (THz)-frequency driving field and an optical pulse by using an excitonic basis.In the presence of a THz dc field, the satellite structures in the absorption spectra are presented. The satellite structure is a result from the THz nonlinear dynamics of Wannier-Stark ladder excitons. On the other hand, the coherent intraband polarization is investigated. We find that the excitonic Bloch oscillation is driven by the THz field and yields an intraband polarization that continues to oscillate at times much longer than the intraband dephasing time. The temporal evolution of the slowly varying components of the intraband polarization is dependent on the THz frequency.
Universal structural estimator and dynamics approximator for complex networks
Chen, Yu-Zhong
2016-01-01
Revealing the structure and dynamics of complex networked systems from observed data is of fundamental importance to science, engineering, and society. Is it possible to develop a universal, completely data driven framework to decipher the network structure and different types of dynamical processes on complex networks, regardless of their details? We develop a Markov network based model, sparse dynamical Boltzmann machine (SDBM), as a universal network structural estimator and dynamics approximator. The SDBM attains its topology according to that of the original system and is capable of simulating the original dynamical process. We develop a fully automated method based on compressive sensing and machine learning to find the SDBM. We demonstrate, for a large variety of representative dynamical processes on model and real world complex networks, that the equivalent SDBM can recover the network structure of the original system and predicts its dynamical behavior with high precision.
Dynamic Data-Driven Event Reconstruction for Atmospheric Releases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kosovic, B; Belles, R; Chow, F K; Monache, L D; Dyer, K; Glascoe, L; Hanley, W; Johannesson, G; Larsen, S; Loosmore, G; Lundquist, J K; Mirin, A; Neuman, S; Nitao, J; Serban, R; Sugiyama, G; Aines, R
2007-02-22
Accidental or terrorist releases of hazardous materials into the atmosphere can impact large populations and cause significant loss of life or property damage. Plume predictions have been shown to be extremely valuable in guiding an effective and timely response. The two greatest sources of uncertainty in the prediction of the consequences of hazardous atmospheric releases result from poorly characterized source terms and lack of knowledge about the state of the atmosphere as reflected in the available meteorological data. In this report, we discuss the development of a new event reconstruction methodology that provides probabilistic source term estimates from field measurement data for both accidental and clandestine releases. Accurate plume dispersion prediction requires the following questions to be answered: What was released? When was it released? How much material was released? Where was it released? We have developed a dynamic data-driven event reconstruction capability which couples data and predictive models through Bayesian inference to obtain a solution to this inverse problem. The solution consists of a probability distribution of unknown source term parameters. For consequence assessment, we then use this probability distribution to construct a ''''composite'' forward plume prediction which accounts for the uncertainties in the source term. Since in most cases of practical significance it is impossible to find a closed form solution, Bayesian inference is accomplished by utilizing stochastic sampling methods. This approach takes into consideration both measurement and forward model errors and thus incorporates all the sources of uncertainty in the solution to the inverse problem. Stochastic sampling methods have the additional advantage of being suitable for problems characterized by a non-Gaussian distribution of source term parameters and for cases in which the underlying dynamical system is non-linear. We initially
Separation of nanocolloids driven by dielectrophoresis: A molecular dynamics simulation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
NI ZhongHua; ZHANG XinJie; YI Hong
2009-01-01
The nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) method was used to model the nanocolloids and the solvent particles. By introducing a non-uniform electric field, colloids were polarized to have opposite polarities. Separation of colloids driven by dielectrophoresis (DEP) could be seen clearly under a strong electric field at low temperatures. Analyzing the ratio of DEP velocities of colloids to thermal velocities of neutral solvent particles showed that when the ratio was correspondingly big, collision between colloids and solvent particles would be intense, making the DEP velocity of colloids fluctuate frequently. By changing the electric field strength, it was found that the enhancement of electric field strength would quicken the separation of colloids. But when the electric field strength increased to a certain degree, the separation motion would be slow because of the strong friction resistance of the solvent particles to the colloids. Moreover, studying the separation reason of colloids based on the potential energy showed that after colloids were polarized, the attractive potential energy among the colloids would be weaker than before, while the increase of temperature would reduce the attractive potential energy and increase the repulsive potential energy, which accorded with the DLVO theory.
Data-driven optimization of dynamic reconfigurable systems of systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tucker, Conrad S.; Eddy, John P.
2010-11-01
This report documents the results of a Strategic Partnership (aka University Collaboration) LDRD program between Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champagne. The project is titled 'Data-Driven Optimization of Dynamic Reconfigurable Systems of Systems' and was conducted during FY 2009 and FY 2010. The purpose of this study was to determine and implement ways to incorporate real-time data mining and information discovery into existing Systems of Systems (SoS) modeling capabilities. Current SoS modeling is typically conducted in an iterative manner in which replications are carried out in order to quantify variation in the simulation results. The expense of many replications for large simulations, especially when considering the need for optimization, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty quantification, can be prohibitive. In addition, extracting useful information from the resulting large datasets is a challenging task. This work demonstrates methods of identifying trends and other forms of information in datasets that can be used on a wide range of applications such as quantifying the strength of various inputs on outputs, identifying the sources of variation in the simulation, and potentially steering an optimization process for improved efficiency.
Structural dynamics in rotating systems
Kiraly, Louis J.
1993-01-01
Major issues and recent advances in the structural dynamics of rotating systems are summarized. The objectives and benefits of such systems are briefly discussed. Directions for future research are suggested.
Chaotic dynamics of flexible beams driven by external white noise
Awrejcewicz, J.; Krysko, A. V.; Papkova, I. V.; Zakharov, V. M.; Erofeev, N. P.; Krylova, E. Yu.; Mrozowski, J.; Krysko, V. A.
2016-10-01
Mathematical models of continuous structural members (beams, plates and shells) subjected to an external additive white noise are studied. The structural members are considered as systems with infinite number of degrees of freedom. We show that in mechanical structural systems external noise can not only lead to quantitative changes in the system dynamics (that is obvious), but also cause the qualitative, and sometimes surprising changes in the vibration regimes. Furthermore, we show that scenarios of the transition from regular to chaotic regimes quantified by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) can lead to erroneous conclusions, and a support of the wavelet analysis is needed. We have detected and illustrated the modifications of classical three scenarios of transition from regular vibrations to deterministic chaos. The carried out numerical experiment shows that the white noise lowers the threshold for transition into spatio-temporal chaotic dynamics. A transition into chaos via the proposed modified scenarios developed in this work is sensitive to small noise and significantly reduces occurrence of periodic vibrations. Increase of noise intensity yields decrease of the duration of the laminar signal range, i.e., time between two successive turbulent bursts decreases. Scenario of transition into chaos of the studied mechanical structures essentially depends on the control parameters, and it can be different in different zones of the constructed charts (control parameter planes). Furthermore, we found an interesting phenomenon, when increase of the noise intensity yields surprisingly the vibrational characteristics with a lack of noisy effect (chaos is destroyed by noise and windows of periodicity appear).
Hiebeler, David E; Hill, Jack L
2016-10-21
We examine a spatially explicit population model on a dynamic landscape with suitable and unsuitable habitat driven by voter or contagion dynamics. We consider four cases, consisting of all combinations of local and global interactions for both population dispersal and habitat dynamics. For both local and global population dispersal, using local habitat dynamics always increases population density relative to the case with global habitat dynamics, due to the resulting segregation of habitat turnover, decrease in effective habitat turnover rate, and presence of stable habitat corridors. With global habitat dynamics, a population using local dispersal exhibits lower density than one with global dispersal due to local crowding as well as frequent disturbance due to habitat transitions. On the other hand, with local habitat dynamics, a population using local dispersal can exploit suitable habitat patches and use dynamic corridors to colonize new regions. The latter effect is not seen with static landscapes, where clustered habitat can lead to the isolation of suitable patches due to surrounding unsuitable habitat.
Hysteresis in structural dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ivanyi, A., E-mail: aivanyi@morpheus.pte.hu [Pollack Mihaly Faculty of Engineering, University of Pecs, Boszorkany u. 2, H-7624 Pecs (Hungary); Ivanyi, P., E-mail: peteri@morpheus.pte.hu [Pollack Mihaly Faculty of Engineering, University of Pecs, Boszorkany u. 2, H-7624 Pecs (Hungary); Ivanyi, M.M., E-mail: ivanyi@uvaterv.hu [Pollack Mihaly Faculty of Engineering, University of Pecs, Boszorkany u. 2, H-7624 Pecs (Hungary); UVATERV Ltd, Budapest, 1117, Dombovari ut 17, Budapest (Hungary); Ivanyi, M., E-mail: drivanyi@pmmk.pte.hu [Pollack Mihaly Faculty of Engineering, University of Pecs, Boszorkany u. 2, H-7624 Pecs (Hungary)
2012-05-01
In this paper the Preisach hysteresis model is applied to determine the dynamic behavior of a steel column with mass on the top and loaded by an impulse force. The column is considered as a rigid element, while the fixed end of the column is modeled with a rotational spring of hysterestic characteristic. In the solution of the non-linear dynamical equation of motion the fix-point technique is inserted to the time marching iteration. In the investigation the non-linearity of the rotation spring is modeled with the Preisach hysteresis model. The variation of amplitude and the action time interval of force are changing. The results are plotted in figures.
A Data-Driven Diagnostic Framework for Wind Turbine Structures: A Holistic Approach.
Bogoevska, Simona; Spiridonakos, Minas; Chatzi, Eleni; Dumova-Jovanoska, Elena; Höffer, Rudiger
2017-03-30
The complex dynamics of operational wind turbine (WT) structures challenges the applicability of existing structural health monitoring (SHM) strategies for condition assessment. At the center of Europe's renewable energy strategic planning, WT systems call for implementation of strategies that may describe the WT behavior in its complete operational spectrum. The framework proposed in this paper relies on the symbiotic treatment of acting environmental/operational variables and the monitored vibration response of the structure. The approach aims at accurate simulation of the temporal variability characterizing the WT dynamics, and subsequently at the tracking of the evolution of this variability in a longer-term horizon. The bi-component analysis tool is applied on long-term data, collected as part of continuous monitoring campaigns on two actual operating WT structures located in different sites in Germany. The obtained data-driven structural models verify the potential of the proposed strategy for development of an automated SHM diagnostic tool.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sánchez-Tejerina, L. [Dpto. Electricidad y Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Alejos, Ó., E-mail: oscaral@ee.uva.es [Dpto. Electricidad y Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Martínez, E. [Dpto. Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37011 Salamanca (Spain); Muñoz, J.M. [Dpto. Electricidad y Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)
2016-07-01
The dynamics of domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic strips with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is studied from both numerical and analytical micromagnetics. The influence of a moderate interfacial Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction associated to a bi-layer strip arrangement has been considered, giving rise to the formation of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls. Such walls possess under equilibrium conditions an inner magnetization structure defined by a certain orientation angle that make them to be considered as intermediate configurations between Bloch and Néel walls. Two different dynamics are considered, a field-driven and a current-driven dynamics, in particular, the one promoted by the spin torque due to the spin-Hall effect. Results show an inherent asymmetry associated with the rotation of the domain wall magnetization orientation before reaching the stationary regime, characterized by a constant terminal speed. For a certain initial DW magnetization orientation at rest, the rotation determines whether the reorientation of the DW magnetization prior to reach stationary motion is smooth or abrupt. This asymmetry affects the DW motion, which can even reverse for a short period of time. Additionally, it is found that the terminal speed in the case of the current-driven dynamics may depend on either the initial DW magnetization orientation at rest or the sign of the longitudinally injected current. - Highlights: • The asymmetric response of domain walls in bilayer strips with PMA is studied. • Out-of-plane fields and SHE longitudinal currents are applied. • The response is associated to the rotation of the domain wall inner magnetization. • Clockwise and counter-clockwise magnetization rotations are not equivalent. • The asymmetry results in different travelled distances and/or terminal speeds.
Energy Efficiency of Laser Driven, Structure Based Accelerators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Siemann, R
2004-04-21
The acceleration efficiency of a laser driven linear accelerator is analyzed. The laser power, loss factor and impedances determine the maximum charge that can be accelerated and the efficiency of that acceleration. The accelerator structure can be incorporated into a laser cavity. The equation for the resultant laser pulse is derived and analyzed. A specific example is presented, and the steady-state laser pulse shapes, acceleration efficiency, and average unloaded gradient are calculated.
Design, Dynamics, and Workspace of a Hybrid-Driven-Based Cable Parallel Manipulator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bin Zi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The design, dynamics, and workspace of a hybrid-driven-based cable parallel manipulator (HDCPM are presented. The HDCPM is able to perform high efficiency, heavy load, and high-performance motion due to the advantages of both the cable parallel manipulator and the hybrid-driven planar five-bar mechanism. The design is performed according to theories of mechanism structure synthesis for cable parallel manipulators. The dynamic formulation of the HDCPM is established on the basis of Newton-Euler method. The workspace of the manipulator is analyzed additionally. As an example, a completely restrained HDCPM with 3 degrees of freedom is studied in simulation in order to verify the validity of the proposed design, workspace, and dynamic analysis. The simulation results, compared with the theoretical analysis, and the case study previously performed show that the manipulator design is reasonable and the mathematical models are correct, which provides the theoretical basis for future physical prototype and control system design.
Dynamic Systems Driven by Non-Poissonian Impulses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Iwankiewicz, R.
is developed for modelling it, via suitable choice of parameters, with the help of a Poisson driven process. The theory is illustrated for a Duffing oscillator under the impulses driven by the generalized Erlang process of the order k=2approximating an original renewal process with a lognormally distributed...
Shock-driven fluid-structure interaction for civil design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wood, Stephen L [ORNL; Deiterding, Ralf [ORNL
2011-11-01
The multiphysics fluid-structure interaction simulation of shock-loaded structures requires the dynamic coupling of a shock-capturing flow solver to a solid mechanics solver for large deformations. The Virtual Test Facility combines a Cartesian embedded boundary approach with dynamic mesh adaptation in a generic software framework of flow solvers using hydrodynamic finite volume upwind schemes that are coupled to various explicit finite element solid dynamics solvers (Deiterding et al., 2006). This paper gives a brief overview of the computational approach and presents first simulations that utilize the general purpose solid dynamics code DYNA3D for complex 3D structures of interest in civil engineering. Results from simulations of a reinforced column, highway bridge, multistory building, and nuclear reactor building are presented.
Sandpile Dynamics Driven by Degree on Scale-Free Networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YIN Yan-Ping; ZHANG Duan-Ming; PAN Gui-Jun; HE Min-Hua
2007-01-01
@@ We introduce a sandpile model driven by degree on scale-free networks, where the perturbation is triggered at nodes with the same degree. We numerically investigate the avalanche behaviour of sandpile driven by different degrees on scale-free networks. It is observed that the avalanche area has the same behaviour with avalanche size. When the sandpile is driven at nodes with the minimal degree, the avalanches of our model behave similarly to those of the original Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) model on scale-free networks. As the degree of driven nodes increases from the minimal value to the maximal value, the avalanche distribution gradually changes from a clean power law, then a mixture of Poissonian and power laws, finally to a Poisson-like distribution. The average avalanche area is found to increase with the degree of driven nodes so that perturbation triggered on higher-degree nodes will result in broader spreading of avalanche propagation.
The dynamics of information-driven coordination phenomena: A transfer entropy analysis.
Borge-Holthoefer, Javier; Perra, Nicola; Gonçalves, Bruno; González-Bailón, Sandra; Arenas, Alex; Moreno, Yamir; Vespignani, Alessandro
2016-04-01
Data from social media provide unprecedented opportunities to investigate the processes that govern the dynamics of collective social phenomena. We consider an information theoretical approach to define and measure the temporal and structural signatures typical of collective social events as they arise and gain prominence. We use the symbolic transfer entropy analysis of microblogging time series to extract directed networks of influence among geolocalized subunits in social systems. This methodology captures the emergence of system-level dynamics close to the onset of socially relevant collective phenomena. The framework is validated against a detailed empirical analysis of five case studies. In particular, we identify a change in the characteristic time scale of the information transfer that flags the onset of information-driven collective phenomena. Furthermore, our approach identifies an order-disorder transition in the directed network of influence between social subunits. In the absence of clear exogenous driving, social collective phenomena can be represented as endogenously driven structural transitions of the information transfer network. This study provides results that can help define models and predictive algorithms for the analysis of societal events based on open source data.
The dynamic of information-driven coordination phenomena: a transfer entropy analysis
Borge-Holthoefer, Javier; Gonçalves, Bruno; González-Bailón, Sandra; Arenas, Alex; Moreno, Yamir; Vespignani, Alessandro
2015-01-01
Data from social media are providing unprecedented opportunities to investigate the processes that rule the dynamics of collective social phenomena. Here, we consider an information theoretical approach to define and measure the temporal and structural signatures typical of collective social events as they arise and gain prominence. We use the symbolic transfer entropy analysis of micro-blogging time series to extract directed networks of influence among geolocalized sub-units in social systems. This methodology captures the emergence of system-level dynamics close to the onset of socially relevant collective phenomena. The framework is validated against a detailed empirical analysis of five case studies. In particular, we identify a change in the characteristic time-scale of the information transfer that flags the onset of information-driven collective phenomena. Furthermore, our approach identifies an order-disorder transition in the directed network of influence between social sub-units. In the absence of ...
Lymphotactin structural dynamics
Volkman, Brian F.; Liu, Tina Y.; Peterson, Francis C.
2009-01-01
Lymphotactin/XCL1, the defining member of the C class of chemokines, undergoes a conformational change that involves the complete restructuring of all stabilizing interactions. Other chemokines are restricted to a single conformation by a pair of conserved disulfide crosslinks, one of which is absent in lymphotactin. This structural interconversion is entirely reversible, and the two-state equilibrium is sensitive to changes in temperature and ionic strength. One species adopts the conserved ...
Cantat, Isabelle; Graner, François; Pitois, Olivier; Höhler, Reinard; Elias, Florence; Saint-Jalmes, Arnaud; Rouyer, Florence
2013-01-01
This book is the first to provide a thorough description of all aspects of the physico-chemical properties of foams. It sets out what is known about their structure, their stability, and their rheology. Engineers, researchers and students will find descriptions of all the key concepts, illustrated by numerous applications, as well as experiments and exercises for the reader. A solutions manual for lecturers is available via the publisher's web site.
Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch
Stefko, George
2003-01-01
The 2002 annual report of the Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch reflects the majority of the work performed by the branch staff during the 2002 calendar year. Its purpose is to give a brief review of the branch s technical accomplishments. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch develops innovative computational tools, benchmark experimental data, and solutions to long-term barrier problems in the areas of propulsion aeroelasticity, active and passive damping, engine vibration control, rotor dynamics, magnetic suspension, structural mechanics, probabilistics, smart structures, engine system dynamics, and engine containment. Furthermore, the branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future "more electric" aircraft. An ultra-high-power-density machine that can generate projected power densities of 50 hp/lb or more, in comparison to conventional electric machines, which generate usually 0.2 hp/lb, is under development for application to electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers. In the future, propulsion and power systems will need to be lighter, to operate at higher temperatures, and to be more reliable in order to achieve higher performance and economic viability. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to achieve these complex, challenging goals.
Three-dimensional Dielectric Photonic Crystal Structures for Laser-driven Acceleration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cowan, Benjamin M.; /Tech-X, Boulder /SLAC
2007-12-14
We present the design and simulation of a three-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide for linear laser-driven acceleration in vacuum. The structure confines a synchronous speed-of-light accelerating mode in both transverse dimensions. We report the properties of this mode, including sustainable gradient and optical-to-beam efficiency. We present a novel method for confining a particle beam using optical fields as focusing elements. This technique, combined with careful structure design, is shown to have a large dynamic aperture and minimal emittance growth, even over millions of optical wavelengths.
Dynamic posturography using a new movable multidirectional platform driven by gravity.
Commissaris, D.A.C.M.; Nieuwenhuijzen, P.H.J.A.; Overeem, S.; Vos, A. de; Duysens, J.E.J.; Bloem, B.R.
2002-01-01
Human upright balance control can be quantified using movable platforms driven by servo-controlled torque motors (dynamic posturography). We introduce a new movable platform driven by the force of gravity acting upon the platform and the subject standing on it. The platform consists of a 1 m2 metal
Dynamic Soil-Structure-Interaction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kellezi, Lindita
1998-01-01
The aim of this thesis is to investigate and develop alternative methods of analyzing problems in dynamic soil-structure-interaction. The main focus is the major difficulty posed by such an analysis - the phenomenon of waves which radiate outward from the excited structures towards infinity...... transmitting boundary at the edges of the computational mesh. To start with, an investigation of the main effects of the interaction phenomena is carried out employing a widely used model, considering dynamic stiffness of the unbounded soil as frequency independent. Then a complete description...... represents an attempt to construct a local stiffness for the unbounded soil domain....
Relating structure and dynamics in organisation models
Jonkers, C.M.; Treur, J.
To understand how an organisational structure relates to dynamics is an interesting fundamental challenge in the area of social modelling. Specifications of organisational structure usually have a diagrammatic form that abstracts from more detailed dynamics. Dynamic properties of agent systems,
An Event-Driven Hybrid Molecular Dynamics and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Algorithm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Donev, A; Garcia, A L; Alder, B J
2007-07-30
A novel algorithm is developed for the simulation of polymer chains suspended in a solvent. The polymers are represented as chains of hard spheres tethered by square wells and interact with the solvent particles with hard core potentials. The algorithm uses event-driven molecular dynamics (MD) for the simulation of the polymer chain and the interactions between the chain beads and the surrounding solvent particles. The interactions between the solvent particles themselves are not treated deterministically as in event-driven algorithms, rather, the momentum and energy exchange in the solvent is determined stochastically using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. The coupling between the solvent and the solute is consistently represented at the particle level, however, unlike full MD simulations of both the solvent and the solute, the spatial structure of the solvent is ignored. The algorithm is described in detail and applied to the study of the dynamics of a polymer chain tethered to a hard wall subjected to uniform shear. The algorithm closely reproduces full MD simulations with two orders of magnitude greater efficiency. Results do not confirm the existence of periodic (cycling) motion of the polymer chain.
Algebraic Structure of Dynamical Systems
2017-05-22
Scholar project report; no. 461 (2017) ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURE OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS by MIDN 1/C James P. Talisse United States Naval Academy Annapolis, MD...based on the structure of algebraic objects associated with it. In this project we study two algebraic objects, centralizers and topological full groups...group completely defines the system up to time reversal. We apply numerical estimates to draw conclusions about the algebraic properties of this group
Structural system identification: Structural dynamics model validation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Red-Horse, J.R.
1997-04-01
Structural system identification is concerned with the development of systematic procedures and tools for developing predictive analytical models based on a physical structure`s dynamic response characteristics. It is a multidisciplinary process that involves the ability (1) to define high fidelity physics-based analysis models, (2) to acquire accurate test-derived information for physical specimens using diagnostic experiments, (3) to validate the numerical simulation model by reconciling differences that inevitably exist between the analysis model and the experimental data, and (4) to quantify uncertainties in the final system models and subsequent numerical simulations. The goal of this project was to develop structural system identification techniques and software suitable for both research and production applications in code and model validation.
Weibel Instability Driven by Spatially Anisotropic Density Structures
Tomita, Sara; Ohira, Yutaka
2016-07-01
Observations of afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) suggest that post-shock magnetic fields are strongly amplified to about 100 times the shock-compressed value. The Weibel instability appears to play an important role in generating the magnetic field. However, recent simulations of collisionless shocks in homogeneous plasmas show that the magnetic field generated by the Weibel instability rapidly decays. There must be some density fluctuations in interstellar and circumstellar media. The density fluctuations are anisotropically compressed in the downstream region of relativistic shocks. In this paper, we study the Weibel instability in electron-positron plasmas with spatially anisotropic density distributions by means of two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. We find that large magnetic fields are maintained for a longer time by the Weibel instability driven by spatially anisotropic density structure. Particles anisotropically escape from the high density region, so that a temperature anisotropy is generated and the Weibel instability becomes unstable. Our simulation results suggest that the Weibel instability driven by an anisotropic density structure can generate sufficiently large magnetic fields and they can cover sufficiently large regions to explain the afterglow emission of GRBs.
Ikeda, Kosuke; Kim, Kang
2017-04-01
We examined the lane formation dynamics of oppositely self-driven binary particles by molecular dynamics simulations of a two-dimensional system. Our study comprehensively revealed the effects of the density and system size on the lane formation. The phase diagram distinguishing the no-lane and lane states was systematically determined for various combinations of the anisotropic friction coefficient and the desired velocity. A peculiar clustered structure was observed when the lane was destroyed by considerably increasing the desired velocity. A strong system size effect was demonstrated by the relationship between the temporal and spatial scales of the lane structure. This system size effect can be attributed to an analogy with the driven lattice gas. The transport efficiency was characterized from the scaling relation in terms of the degree of lane formation and the interface thickness between different lanes.
Light and phospholipid driven structural transitions in nematic microdroplets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dubtsov, A. V., E-mail: alexanderdubtsov@gmail.com; Pasechnik, S. V.; Shmeliova, D. V. [Moscow State University of Instrument Engineering and Computer Science, Stromynka 20, Moscow 107996 (Russian Federation); Kralj, Samo [Condensed Matter Physics Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); FNM, University of Maribor, Koroska 160, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia)
2014-10-13
We studied the UV-irradiation and phospholipid driven bipolar-radial structural transitions within azoxybenzene nematic liquid crystal (LC) droplets dispersed in water. It was found that the UV-irradiation induced trans-cis isomerisation of LC molecules could enable structural transitions into radial-type configurations at a critical UV-irradiation time t{sub c}. In particular, we show that under appropriate conditions, a value of t{sub c} could sensitively fingerprint the concentration of phospholipid molecules present in LC-water dispersions. This demonstrated proof-of-principle mechanism could be exploited for development of sensitive detectors for specific nanoparticles (NPs), where value of t{sub c} reveals concentration of NPs.
Distributed Dynamic Condition Response Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao
We present distributed dynamic condition response structures as a declarative process model inspired by the workflow language employed by our industrial partner and conservatively generalizing labelled event structures. The model adds to event structures the possibility to 1) finitely specify...... repeated, possibly infinite behavior, 2) finitely specify fine-grained acceptance conditions for (possibly infinite) runs based on the notion of responses and 3) distribute events via roles. We give a graphical notation inspired by related work by van der Aalst et al and formalize the execution semantics...
Nonlinear dynamics of a parametrically driven sine-Gordon system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm
1993-01-01
We consider a sine-Gordon system, driven by an ac parametric force in the presence of loss. It is demonstrated that a breather can be maintained in a steady state at half of the external frequency. In the small-amplitude limit the effect is described by an effective nonlinear Schrodinger equation...
Structural Dynamics of the Ribosome
Korostelev, Andrei; Ermolenko, Dmitri N.; Noller, Harry F.
2008-01-01
Protein synthesis is inherently a dynamic process, requiring both small- and large-scale movements of tRNA and mRNA. It has long been suspected that these movements might be coupled to conformational changes in the ribosome, and in its RNA moieties in particular. Recently, the nature of ribosome structural dynamics has begun to emerge from a combination of approaches, most notably cryo-EM, X-ray crystallography and FRET. Ribosome movement occurs both on a grand scale, as in the intersubunit r...
Primary structural dynamics in graphite
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schaefer, Sascha; Liang Wenxi; Zewail, Ahmed H, E-mail: zewail@caltech.edu [Physical Biology Center for Ultrafast Science and Technology, Arthur Amos Noyes Laboratory of Chemical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
2011-06-15
The structural dynamics of graphite and graphene are unique, because of the selective coupling between electron and lattice motions and hence the limit on electric and electro-optic properties. Here, we report on the femtosecond probing of graphite films (1-3 nm) using ultrafast electron crystallography in the transmission mode. Two time scales are observed for the dynamics: a 700 fs initial decrease in diffraction intensity due to lattice phonons in optically dark regions of the Brillouin zone, followed by a 12 ps decrease due to phonon thermalization near the {Gamma} and K regions. These results indicate the non-equilibrium distortion of the unit cells at early time and the subsequent role of long-wavelength atomic motions in the thermalization process. Theory and experiment are now in agreement regarding the nature of nuclear motions, but the results suggest that potential change plays a role in the lateral dynamics of the lattice.
Structurally Dynamic Spin Market Networks
Horváth, Denis; Kuscsik, Zoltán
The agent-based model of stock price dynamics on a directed evolving complex network is suggested and studied by direct simulation. The stationary regime is maintained as a result of the balance between the extremal dynamics, adaptivity of strategic variables and reconnection rules. The inherent structure of node agent "brain" is modeled by a recursive neural network with local and global inputs and feedback connections. For specific parametric combination the complex network displays small-world phenomenon combined with scale-free behavior. The identification of a local leader (network hub, agent whose strategies are frequently adapted by its neighbors) is carried out by repeated random walk process through network. The simulations show empirically relevant dynamics of price returns and volatility clustering. The additional emerging aspects of stylized market statistics are Zipfian distributions of fitness.
Molecular Dynamics Simulations of a Linear Nanomotor Driven by Thermophoretic Forces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zambrano, Harvey A; Walther, Jens Honore; Jaffe, Richard L.
,7,8,9 Nanomotors are an attractive goal for nanotechnology.9-13 Such nano-scale structures capable of converting thermal energy into work will be needed in many types of nanodevices, including nanoconveyors14, memory devices15 and nano-encapsulated material delivery systems16,17. Moreover to design and manufacture...... future molecular machines a complete understanding of the friction forces involved on the transport process at the molecular level have to be addressed.18 In this work we perform Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations using the MD package FASTTUBE19 to study a molecular linear motor consisting of coaxial...... of the capsule is driven by thermophoresis we perform additional simulations in order to study the friction and thermophoretic forces acting on the inner CNT. In these simulations, we constrain the velocity of center of mass of the inner CNT and extract from the simulations the external forces required to drive...
Lattice gas dynamics: application to driven vortices in two dimensional superconductors.
Gotcheva, Violeta; Wang, Albert T J; Teitel, S
2004-06-18
A continuous time Monte Carlo lattice gas dynamics is developed to model driven steady states of vortices in two dimensional superconducting networks. Dramatic differences are found when compared to a simpler Metropolis dynamics. Subtle finite size effects are found at low temperature, with a moving smectic that becomes unstable to an anisotropic liquid on sufficiently large length scales.
Farfan, Jonathan; Valentim, Fabio J
2009-01-01
We prove the dynamical large deviations for a particle system in which particles may have different velocities. We assume that we have two infinite reservoirs of particles at the boundary: this is the so-called boundary driven process. The dynamics we considered consists of a weakly asymmetric simple exclusion process with collision among particles having different velocities.
Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics Driven by Large-Amplitude Whistlers
Khazanov, G. V.; Tel'nikhin, A. A.; Kronberg, T. K.
2013-01-01
Acceleration of radiation belt electrons driven by oblique large-amplitude whistler waves is studied. We show analytically and numerically that this is a stochastic process; the intensity of which depends on the wave power modified by Bessel functions. The type of this dependence is determined by the character of the nonlinear interaction due to coupling between action and phase. The results show that physically significant quantities have a relatively weak dependence on the wave power.
Dynamic molecular graphs: "hopping" structures.
Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando; Rocha-Rinza, Tomas; Guevara-Vela, José Manuel; Cuevas, Gabriel; Gómez, Rosa María
2014-05-05
This work aims to contribute to the discussion about the suitability of bond paths and bond-critical points as indicators of chemical bonding defined within the theoretical framework of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules. For this purpose, we consider the temporal evolution of the molecular structure of [Fe{C(CH2 )3 }(CO)3 ] throughout Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD), which illustrates the changing behaviour of the molecular graph (MG) of an electronic system. Several MGs with significant lifespans are observed across the BOMD simulations. The bond paths between the trimethylenemethane and the metallic core are uninterruptedly formed and broken. This situation is reminiscent of a "hopping" ligand over the iron atom. The molecular graph wherein the bonding between trimethylenemethane and the iron atom takes place only by means of the tertiary carbon atom has the longest lifespan of all the considered structures, which is consistent with the MG found by X-ray diffraction experiments and quantum chemical calculations. In contrast, the η(4) complex predicted by molecular-orbital theory has an extremely brief lifetime. The lifespan of different molecular structures is related to bond descriptors on the basis of the topology of the electron density such as the ellipticities at the FeCH2 bond-critical points and electron delocalisation indices. This work also proposes the concept of a dynamic molecular graph composed of the different structures found throughout the BOMD trajectories in analogy to a resonance hybrid of Lewis structures. It is our hope that the notion of dynamic molecular graphs will prove useful in the discussion of electronic systems, in particular for those in which analysis on the basis of static structures leads to controversial conclusions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Dynamics of antiferromagnetic skyrmion driven by the spin Hall effect
Jin, Chendong; Song, Chengkun; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang
2016-10-01
Magnetic skyrmion moved by the spin-Hall effect is promising for the application of the generation racetrack memories. However, the Magnus force causes a deflected motion of skyrmion, which limits its application. Here, we create an antiferromagnetic skyrmion by injecting a spin-polarized pulse in the nanostripe and investigate the spin Hall effect-induced motion of antiferromagnetic skyrmion by micromagnetic simulations. In contrast to ferromagnetic skyrmion, we find that the antiferromagnetic skyrmion has three evident advantages: (i) the minimum driving current density of antiferromagnetic skyrmion is about two orders smaller than the ferromagnetic skyrmion; (ii) the velocity of the antiferromagnetic skyrmion is about 57 times larger than the ferromagnetic skyrmion driven by the same value of current density; (iii) antiferromagnetic skyrmion can be driven by the spin Hall effect without the influence of Magnus force. In addition, antiferromagnetic skyrmion can move around the pinning sites due to its property of topological protection. Our results present the understanding of antiferromagnetic skyrmion motion driven by the spin Hall effect and may also contribute to the development of antiferromagnetic skyrmion-based racetrack memories.
Modelling and Simulation of System Dynamics of Hybrid-Driven Precision Press
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Yonggang; ZHANG Ce; MENG Caifang; SONG Yimin
2005-01-01
Different from conventional mechanical systems with single degree of freedom (DOF), the main idea of the system of hybrid-driven precision press is to combine the motion of a constant speed motor with a servomotor via a two-DOF mechanism to provide flexible output. In order to make the feasibility clear, this paper studies theoretically the dynamic characteristics of this hybrid-driven mechanical system.Firstly,the dynamics model of the whole electromechanical system is set up by combining dynamic equations of DC motors with those of two-DOF nine-bar mechanism deduced by the Lagrange′s formula. Secondly through the numerical solution with the fourth Runge-Kutta, computer simulation about the dynamics is done, which shows that the designed and optimized hybrid-driven precision press is feasible in theory. These provide theoretical basis for later experimental research.
Dynamic Range Majority Data Structures
Elmasry, Amr; HE, MENG; Munro, J. Ian; Nicholson, Patrick K.
2011-01-01
Given a set $P$ of coloured points on the real line, we study the problem of answering range $\\alpha$-majority (or "heavy hitter") queries on $P$. More specifically, for a query range $Q$, we want to return each colour that is assigned to more than an $\\alpha$-fraction of the points contained in $Q$. We present a new data structure for answering range $\\alpha$-majority queries on a dynamic set of points, where $\\alpha \\in (0,1)$. Our data structure uses O(n) space, supports queries in $O((\\lg...
Information-driven structural modelling of protein-protein interactions.
Rodrigues, João P G L M; Karaca, Ezgi; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J
2015-01-01
Protein-protein docking aims at predicting the three-dimensional structure of a protein complex starting from the free forms of the individual partners. As assessed in the CAPRI community-wide experiment, the most successful docking algorithms combine pure laws of physics with information derived from various experimental or bioinformatics sources. Of these so-called "information-driven" approaches, HADDOCK stands out as one of the most successful representatives. In this chapter, we briefly summarize which experimental information can be used to drive the docking prediction in HADDOCK, and then focus on the docking protocol itself. We discuss and illustrate with a tutorial example a "classical" protein-protein docking prediction, as well as more recent developments for modelling multi-body systems and large conformational changes.
Weibel instability driven by spatially anisotropic density structures
Tomita, Sara
2016-01-01
Observations of afterglows of gamma-ray bursts suggest (GRBs) that post-shock magnetic fields are strongly amplified to about 100 times the shock-compressed value. The Weibel instability appears to play an important role in generating of the magnetic field. However, recent simulations of collisionless shocks in homogeneous plasmas show that the magnetic field generated by the Weibel instability rapidly decays. There must be some density fluctuations in interstellar and circumstellar media. The density fluctuations are anisotropically compressed in the downstream region of relativistic shocks. In this paper, we study the Weibel instability in electron--positron plasmas with the spatially anisotropic density distributions by means of two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. We find that large magnetic fields are maintained for a longer time by the Weibel instability driven by the spatially anisotropic density structure. Particles anisotropically escape from the high density region, so that the temperature ...
Managing Relationship-driven Competence Dynamics in Professional Service Organisations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skaates, Maria Anne; Seppänen, Veikko
2002-01-01
Client relations play a major role in the competence development of professional service providers. However mutuality and particularity are also key concerns in providers' client relationships. Therefore four inter-linked frameworks for classifying relationship-related competence dynamics...... by managers of professional service organisations to develop an increased understanding of their own client relationship-specific competence dynamics....
Managing Relationship-driven Competence Dynamics in Professional Service Organisations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skaates, Maria Anne; Seppänen, Veikko
2002-01-01
Client relations play a major role in the competence development of professional service providers. However mutuality and particularity are also key concerns in providers' client relationships. Therefore four inter-linked frameworks for classifying relationship-related competence dynamics...... by managers of professional service organisations to develop an increased understanding of their own client relationship-specific competence dynamics....
Magnus-induced dynamics of driven skyrmions on a quasi-one-dimensional periodic substrate
Reichhardt, C.; Reichhardt, C. J. Olson
2016-09-01
We numerically examine driven skyrmions interacting with a periodic quasi-one-dimensional substrate where the driving force is applied either parallel or perpendicular to the substrate periodicity direction. For perpendicular driving, the particles in a purely overdamped system simply slide along the substrate minima; however, for skyrmions where the Magnus force is relevant, we find that a rich variety of dynamics can arise. In the single skyrmion limit, the skyrmion motion is locked along the driving or longitudinal direction for low drives, while at higher drives a transition occurs to a state in which the skyrmion moves both transverse and longitudinal to the driving direction. Within the longitudinally locked phase we find a pronounced speedup effect that occurs when the Magnus force aligns with the external driving force, while at the transition to transverse and longitudinal motion, the skyrmion velocity drops, producing negative differential conductivity. For collectively interacting skyrmion assemblies, the speedup effect is still present and we observe a number of distinct dynamical phases, including a sliding smectic phase, a disordered or moving liquid phase, a moving hexatic phase, and a moving crystal phase. The transitions between the dynamic phases produce distinct features in the structure of the skyrmion lattice and in the velocity-force curves. We map these different phases as a function of the ratio of the Magnus term to the dissipative term, the substrate strength, the commensurability ratio, and the magnitude of the driving force.
Capillary dynamics driven by molecular self-layering.
Wu, Pingkeng; Nikolov, Alex; Wasan, Darsh
2017-02-10
Capillary dynamics is a ubiquitous everyday phenomenon. It has practical applications in diverse fields, including ink-jet printing, lab-on-a-chip, biotechnology, and coating. Understanding capillary dynamics requires essential knowledge on the molecular level of how fluid molecules interact with a solid substrate (the wall). Recent studies conducted with the surface force apparatus (SFA), atomic force microscope (AFM), and statistical mechanics simulation revealed that molecules/nanoparticles confined into the film/wall surfaces tend to self-layer into 2D layer/s and even 2D in-layer with increased confinement and fluid volume fraction. Here, the capillary rise dynamics of simple molecular fluids in cylindrical capillary is explained by the molecular self-layering model. The proposed model considers the role of the molecular shape on self-layering and its effect on the molecularly thin film viscosity in regards to the advancing (dynamic) contact angle. The model was tested to explain the capillary rise dynamics of fluids of spherical, cylindrical, and disk shape molecules in borosilicate glass capillaries. The good agreement between the capillary rise data and SFA data from the literature for simple fluid self-layering shows the validity of the present model. The present model provides new insights into the design of many applications where dynamic wetting is important because it reveals the significant impact of molecular self-layering close to the wall on dynamic wetting.
Dynamic Range Majority Data Structures
He, Meng; Nicholson, Patrick K
2011-01-01
Given a set $P$ of coloured points on the real line, we study the problem of answering range $\\alpha$-majority (or "heavy hitter") queries on $P$. More specifically, for a query range $Q$, we want to return each colour that is assigned to more than an $\\alpha$-fraction of the points contained in $Q$. We present a new data structure for answering range $\\alpha$-majority queries on a dynamic set of points, where $\\alpha \\in (0,1)$. Our data structure uses O(n) space, supports queries in $O((\\lg n) / \\alpha)$ time, and updates in $O((\\lg n) / \\alpha)$ amortized time. If the coordinates of the points are integers, then the query time can be improved to $O(\\lg n / (\\alpha \\lg \\lg n) + (\\lg(1/\\alpha))/\\alpha))$. For constant values of $\\alpha$, this improved query time matches an existing lower bound, for any data structure with polylogarithmic update time. We also generalize our data structure to handle sets of points in d-dimensions, for $d \\ge 2$, as well as dynamic arrays, in which each entry is a colour.
Twelve lectures on structural dynamics
Preumont, André
2013-01-01
This text addresses the modeling of vibrating systems with the perspective of finding the model of minimum complexity which accounts for the physics of the phenomena at play. The first half of the book (Ch.1-6) deals with the dynamics of discrete and continuous mechanical systems; the classical approach emphasizes the use of Lagrange's equations. The second half of the book (Ch.7-12) deals with more advanced topics, rarely encountered in the existing literature: seismic excitation, random vibration (including fatigue), rotor dynamics, vibration isolation and dynamic vibration absorbers; the final chapter is an introduction to active control of vibrations. The first part of this text may be used as a one semester course for 3rd year students in Mechanical, Aerospace or Civil Engineering. The second part of the text is intended for graduate classes. A set of problems is provided at the end of every chapter. The author has a 35 years experience in various aspects of Structural dynamics, both in industry (nuclea...
RESEARCH ON NONLINEAR PROBLEMS IN STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS.
Research on nonlinear problems structural dynamics is briefly summarized. Panel flutter was investigated to make a critical comparison between theory...panel flutter in aerospace vehicles, plausible simplifying assumptions are examined in the light of experimental results. Structural dynamics research
Dynamical bistability in driven Josephson circuits - the WKB limit and beyond.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peano, Vittorio; Thorwart, Michael [FRIAS Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet, Freiburg (Germany)
2010-07-01
Driven and dissipative nonlinear quantum oscillators can be operated in a regime where a bistability is induced dynamically. Prominent examples are the Josephson bifurcation amplifier and the driven circuit QED set-up of the superconducting transmon qubit. Josephson circuits with their large quality factors and scalable nonlinearities are the perfect playground to explore this phenomenon from the classical limit down to the quantum scale. We show that the WKB approximation is an excellent tool in all these regimes. We explore its limit of validity, focusing thereby on the quantum Duffing oscillator and the driven circuit QED.
Structural dynamic modification using additive damping
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
B C Nakra
2000-06-01
In order to control dynamic response in structures and machines, modofications using additive viscoelastic damping materials are highlighted. The techniques described for analysis include analytical methods for structural elements, FEM and perturbation methods for reanalysis or structural dynamic modifications for complex structures. Optimisation techniques are used for damping effectiveness include multi-parameter optimisatoin techniques and a technique using dynamic sensitivity analysis and structural dynamic modification. These have been applied for optimum dynamic design of structures incorporating viscoelastic damping. Some current trends for vibraton control are also discussed.
Global structure of ionospheric TEC anomalies driven by geomagnetic storms
Pancheva, D.; Mukhtarov, P.; Andonov, B.
2016-07-01
This study examines the structure and variability of the ionospheric TEC anomalies driven by geomagnetic storms. For this purpose the CODE global ionospheric TEC data from four geomagnetically disturbed periods (29 October-1 November 2003, 7-10 November 2004, 14-15 December 2006, and 5-6 August 2011) have been considered. By applying the tidal analysis to the geomagnetically forced TEC anomalies we made an attempt to identify the tidal or stationary planetary wave (SPW) signatures that may contribute to the generation of these anomalies. It has been found that three types of positive anomalies with different origin and different latitudinal appearance are observed. These are: (i) anomalies located near latitudes of ±40° and related to the enhancement and poleward moving of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) crests; (ii) anomalies located near latitudes of ±60° and seen predominantly in the night-side ionosphere, and (iii) very high latitude anomalies having mainly zonally symmetric structure and related to the auroral heating and thermospheric expansion. The decomposition analysis revealed that these anomalies can be reconstructed as a result of superposition of the following components: zonal mean (ZM), diurnal migrating (DW1), zonally symmetric diurnal (D0), and stationary planetary wave 1 (SPW1).
Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps
Hunter, Maria O.; Keller, Michael; Morton, Douglas; Cook, Bruce; Lefsky, Michael; Ducey, Mark; Saleska, Scott; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Schietti, Juliana
2015-01-01
Gap phase dynamics are the dominant mode of forest turnover in tropical forests. However, gap processes are infrequently studied at the landscape scale. Airborne lidar data offer detailed information on three-dimensional forest structure, providing a means to characterize fine-scale (1 m) processes in tropical forests over large areas. Lidar-based estimates of forest structure (top down) differ from traditional field measurements (bottom up), and necessitate clear-cut definitions unencumbered by the wisdom of a field observer. We offer a new definition of a forest gap that is driven by forest dynamics and consistent with precise ranging measurements from airborne lidar data and tall, multi-layered tropical forest structure. We used 1000 ha of multi-temporal lidar data (2008, 2012) at two sites, the Tapajos National Forest and Ducke Reserve, to study gap dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon. Here, we identified dynamic gaps as contiguous areas of significant growth, that correspond to areas > 10 m2, with height <10 m. Applying the dynamic definition at both sites, we found over twice as much area in gap at Tapajos National Forest (4.8 %) as compared to Ducke Reserve (2.0 %). On average, gaps were smaller at Ducke Reserve and closed slightly more rapidly, with estimated height gains of 1.2 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1 at Tapajos. At the Tapajos site, height growth in gap centers was greater than the average height gain in gaps (1.3 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1). Rates of height growth between lidar acquisitions reflect the interplay between gap edge mortality, horizontal ingrowth and gap size at the two sites. We estimated that approximately 10 % of gap area closed via horizontal ingrowth at Ducke Reserve as opposed to 6 % at Tapajos National Forest. Height loss (interpreted as repeat damage and/or mortality) and horizontal ingrowth accounted for similar proportions of gap area at Ducke Reserve (13 % and 10 %, respectively). At Tapajos, height loss had a much stronger signal (23
Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria O Hunter
Full Text Available Gap phase dynamics are the dominant mode of forest turnover in tropical forests. However, gap processes are infrequently studied at the landscape scale. Airborne lidar data offer detailed information on three-dimensional forest structure, providing a means to characterize fine-scale (1 m processes in tropical forests over large areas. Lidar-based estimates of forest structure (top down differ from traditional field measurements (bottom up, and necessitate clear-cut definitions unencumbered by the wisdom of a field observer. We offer a new definition of a forest gap that is driven by forest dynamics and consistent with precise ranging measurements from airborne lidar data and tall, multi-layered tropical forest structure. We used 1000 ha of multi-temporal lidar data (2008, 2012 at two sites, the Tapajos National Forest and Ducke Reserve, to study gap dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon. Here, we identified dynamic gaps as contiguous areas of significant growth, that correspond to areas > 10 m2, with height <10 m. Applying the dynamic definition at both sites, we found over twice as much area in gap at Tapajos National Forest (4.8% as compared to Ducke Reserve (2.0%. On average, gaps were smaller at Ducke Reserve and closed slightly more rapidly, with estimated height gains of 1.2 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1 at Tapajos. At the Tapajos site, height growth in gap centers was greater than the average height gain in gaps (1.3 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1. Rates of height growth between lidar acquisitions reflect the interplay between gap edge mortality, horizontal ingrowth and gap size at the two sites. We estimated that approximately 10% of gap area closed via horizontal ingrowth at Ducke Reserve as opposed to 6% at Tapajos National Forest. Height loss (interpreted as repeat damage and/or mortality and horizontal ingrowth accounted for similar proportions of gap area at Ducke Reserve (13% and 10%, respectively. At Tapajos, height loss had a much stronger signal
Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps.
Hunter, Maria O; Keller, Michael; Morton, Douglas; Cook, Bruce; Lefsky, Michael; Ducey, Mark; Saleska, Scott; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Schietti, Juliana
2015-01-01
Gap phase dynamics are the dominant mode of forest turnover in tropical forests. However, gap processes are infrequently studied at the landscape scale. Airborne lidar data offer detailed information on three-dimensional forest structure, providing a means to characterize fine-scale (1 m) processes in tropical forests over large areas. Lidar-based estimates of forest structure (top down) differ from traditional field measurements (bottom up), and necessitate clear-cut definitions unencumbered by the wisdom of a field observer. We offer a new definition of a forest gap that is driven by forest dynamics and consistent with precise ranging measurements from airborne lidar data and tall, multi-layered tropical forest structure. We used 1000 ha of multi-temporal lidar data (2008, 2012) at two sites, the Tapajos National Forest and Ducke Reserve, to study gap dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon. Here, we identified dynamic gaps as contiguous areas of significant growth, that correspond to areas > 10 m2, with height <10 m. Applying the dynamic definition at both sites, we found over twice as much area in gap at Tapajos National Forest (4.8%) as compared to Ducke Reserve (2.0%). On average, gaps were smaller at Ducke Reserve and closed slightly more rapidly, with estimated height gains of 1.2 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1 at Tapajos. At the Tapajos site, height growth in gap centers was greater than the average height gain in gaps (1.3 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1). Rates of height growth between lidar acquisitions reflect the interplay between gap edge mortality, horizontal ingrowth and gap size at the two sites. We estimated that approximately 10% of gap area closed via horizontal ingrowth at Ducke Reserve as opposed to 6% at Tapajos National Forest. Height loss (interpreted as repeat damage and/or mortality) and horizontal ingrowth accounted for similar proportions of gap area at Ducke Reserve (13% and 10%, respectively). At Tapajos, height loss had a much stronger signal (23% versus 6
Soliton driven relaxation dynamics and universality in protein collapse
Krokhotin, Andrey; Niemi, Antti J
2011-01-01
Protein collapse can be viewed as a dynamical phase transition, during which new scales and collective variables become excited while the old ones recede and fade away. This causes formidable computational bottle-necks in approaches that are based on atomic scale scrutiny. Here we consider an effective dynamical Landau theory to model the folding process at biologically relevant time and distance scales. We reach both a substantial decrease in the execution time and improvement in the accuracy of the final configuration, in comparison to more conventional approaches. As an example we inspect the collapse of HP35 chicken villin headpiece subdomain, where there are detailed molecular dynamics simulations to compare with. We start from a structureless, unbend and untwisted initial configuration. In less than one second of wall-clock time on a single processor personal computer we consistently reach the native state with 0.5 Angstrom root mean square distance (RMSD) precision. We confirm that our folding pathways...
Structure and dynamics of solutions
Ohtaki, H
2013-01-01
Recent advances in the study of structural and dynamic properties of solutions have provided a molecular picture of solute-solvent interactions. Although the study of thermodynamic as well as electronic properties of solutions have played a role in the development of research on the rate and mechanism of chemical reactions, such macroscopic and microscopic properties are insufficient for a deeper understanding of fast chemical and biological reactions. In order to fill the gap between the two extremes, it is necessary to know how molecules are arranged in solution and how they change their pos
Random Dynamics of the Stochastic Boussinesq Equations Driven by Lévy Noises
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianhua Huang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the investigation of random dynamics of the stochastic Boussinesq equations driven by Lévy noise. Some fundamental properties of a subordinator Lévy process and the stochastic integral with respect to a Lévy process are discussed, and then the existence, uniqueness, regularity, and the random dynamical system generated by the stochastic Boussinesq equations are established. Finally, some discussions on the global weak solution of the stochastic Boussinesq equations driven by general Lévy noise are also presented.
Dynamics driven by the trace anomaly in FLRW universes
Koksma, J.F.
2009-01-01
By means of a semiclassical analysis we show that the trace anomaly does not affect the cosmological constant. We calculate the evolution of the Hubble parameter in quasi de Sitter spacetime, where the Hubble parameter varies slowly in time, and in FLRW spacetimes. We show dynamically that a Univers
Thermally driven molecular linear motors - A molecular dynamics study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zambrano, Harvey A; Walther, Jens Honore; Jaffe, Richard Lawrence
2009-01-01
We conduct molecular dynamics simulations of a molecular linear motor consisting of coaxial carbon nanotubes with a long outer carbon nanotube confining and guiding the motion of an inner short, capsule-like nanotube. The simulations indicate that the motion of the capsule can be controlled...
Dynamic range majority data structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; He, Meng; Munro, J. Ian
2011-01-01
Given a set P of n coloured points on the real line, we study the problem of answering range α-majority (or "heavy hitter") queries on P. More specifically, for a query range Q, we want to return each colour that is assigned to more than an α-fraction of the points contained in Q. We present a new...... data structure for answering range α-majority queries on a dynamic set of points, where α ε (0,1). Our data structure uses O(n) space, supports queries in O((lg n)/α) time, and updates in O((lg n)/α) amortized time. If the coordinates of the points are integers, then the query time can be improved to O...
Sierra Structural Dynamics Theory Manual
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reese, Garth M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-10-19
Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Sierra/SD. For a more detailed description of how to use Sierra/SD , we refer the reader to Sierra/SD, User's Notes . Many of the constructs in Sierra/SD are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Sierra/SD are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature. This page intentionally left blank.
Structural Dynamics of Electronic Systems
Suhir, E.
2013-03-01
The published work on analytical ("mathematical") and computer-aided, primarily finite-element-analysis (FEA) based, predictive modeling of the dynamic response of electronic systems to shocks and vibrations is reviewed. While understanding the physics of and the ability to predict the response of an electronic structure to dynamic loading has been always of significant importance in military, avionic, aeronautic, automotive and maritime electronics, during the last decade this problem has become especially important also in commercial, and, particularly, in portable electronics in connection with accelerated testing of various surface mount technology (SMT) systems on the board level. The emphasis of the review is on the nonlinear shock-excited vibrations of flexible printed circuit boards (PCBs) experiencing shock loading applied to their support contours during drop tests. At the end of the review we provide, as a suitable and useful illustration, the exact solution to a highly nonlinear problem of the dynamic response of a "flexible-and-heavy" PCB to an impact load applied to its support contour during drop testing.
A Data-Driven Diagnostic Framework for Wind Turbine Structures: A Holistic Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simona Bogoevska
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The complex dynamics of operational wind turbine (WT structures challenges the applicability of existing structural health monitoring (SHM strategies for condition assessment. At the center of Europe’s renewable energy strategic planning, WT systems call for implementation of strategies that may describe the WT behavior in its complete operational spectrum. The framework proposed in this paper relies on the symbiotic treatment of acting environmental/operational variables and the monitored vibration response of the structure. The approach aims at accurate simulation of the temporal variability characterizing the WT dynamics, and subsequently at the tracking of the evolution of this variability in a longer-term horizon. The bi-component analysis tool is applied on long-term data, collected as part of continuous monitoring campaigns on two actual operating WT structures located in different sites in Germany. The obtained data-driven structural models verify the potential of the proposed strategy for development of an automated SHM diagnostic tool.
Driven-dissipative dynamics of a strongly interacting Rydberg gas
Glaetzle, A W; Zhao, B; Pupillo, G; Zoller, P
2012-01-01
We study the non-equilibrium many-body dynamics of a cold gas of ground state alkali atoms weakly admixed by Rydberg states with laser light. On a timescale shorter than the lifetime of the dressed states, effective dipole-dipole or van der Waals interactions between atoms can lead to the formation of strongly correlated phases, such as atomic crystals. Using a semiclassical approach, we study the long-time dynamics where decoherence and dissipative processes due to spontaneous emission and blackbody radiation dominate, leading to heating and melting of atomic crystals as well as particle losses. These effects can be substantially mitigated by performing active laser cooling in the presence of atomic dressing.
Gravity-driven soap film dynamics in subcritical regimes
Auliel, M. I.; Castro, F.; Sosa, R.; Artana, G.
2015-10-01
We undertake the analysis of soap-film dynamics with the classical approach of asymptotic expansions. We focus our analysis in vertical soap film tunnels operating in subcritical regimes with elastic Mach numbers Me=O(10-1) . Considering the associated set of nondimensional numbers that characterize this flow, we show that the flow behaves as a two-dimensional (2D) divergence free flow with variable mass density. When the soap film dynamics agrees with that of a 2D and almost constant mass density flow, the regions where the second invariant of the velocity gradient is non-null correspond to regions where the rate of change of film thickness is non-negligible.
Dynamics of the driven Goodwin business cycle equation
Antonova, A. O.; Reznik, S. N.; Todorov, M. D.
2015-10-01
We study dynamics of the Goodwin nonlinear accelerator business cycle model with periodic forced autonomous investment Ia(t) = a(1 - cos ωt), where a and ω are the amplitude and the frequency of investment. We give examples of the parameters a and ω when the chaotic oscillations of income are possible. We find the critical values of amplitude acr (ω): if a > acr (ω) the period of the income equals to the driving period T=2π/ω.
Dynamical Logic Driven by Classified Inferences Including Abduction
Sawa, Koji; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio
2010-11-01
We propose a dynamical model of formal logic which realizes a representation of logical inferences, deduction and induction. In addition, it also represents abduction which is classified by Peirce as the third inference following deduction and induction. The three types of inference are represented as transformations of a directed graph. The state of a relation between objects of the model fluctuates between the collective and the distinctive. In addition, the location of the relation in the sequence of the relation influences its state.
Dynamic and data-driven classification for polarimetric SAR images
Uhlmann, S.; Kiranyaz, S.; Ince, T.; Gabbouj, M.
2011-11-01
In this paper, we introduce dynamic and scalable Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) terrain classification based on the Collective Network of Binary Classifiers (CNBC). The CNBC framework is primarily adapted to maximize the SAR classification accuracy on dynamically varying databases where variations do occur in any time in terms of (new) images, classes, features and users' relevance feedback. Whenever a "change" occurs, the CNBC dynamically and "optimally" adapts itself to the change by means of its topology and the underlying evolutionary method MD PSO. Thanks to its "Divide and Conquer" type approach, the CNBC can also support varying and large set of (PolSAR) features among which it optimally selects, weighs and fuses the most discriminative ones for a particular class. Each SAR terrain class is discriminated by a dedicated Network of Binary Classifiers (NBC), which encapsulates a set of evolutionary Binary Classifiers (BCs) discriminating the class with a distinctive feature set. Moreover, with each incremental evolution session, new classes/features can be introduced which signals the CNBC to create new corresponding NBCs and BCs within to adapt and scale dynamically to the change. This can in turn be a significant advantage when the current CNBC is used to classify multiple SAR images with similar terrain classes since no or only minimal (incremental) evolution sessions are needed to adapt it to a new classification problem while using the previously acquired knowledge. We demonstrate our proposed classification approach over several medium and highresolution NASA/JPL AIRSAR images applying various polarimetric decompositions. We evaluate and compare the computational complexity and classification accuracy against static Neural Network classifiers. As CNBC classification accuracy can compete and even surpass them, the computational complexity of CNBC is significantly lower as the CNBC body supports high parallelization making it applicable to grid
Dynamic steady-state of periodically-driven quantum systems
Yudin, V I; Basalaev, M Yu; Kovalenko, D
2015-01-01
Using the density matrix formalism, we prove an existence theorem of the periodic steady-state for an arbitrary periodically-driven system. This state has the same period as the modulated external influence, and it is realized as an asymptotic solution ($t$$\\to$$+\\infty$) due to relaxation processes. The presented derivation simultaneously contains a simple computational algorithm non-using both Floquet and Fourier theories, i.e. our method automatically guarantees a full account of all frequency components. The description is accompanied by the examples demonstrating a simplicity and high efficiency of our method. In particular, for three-level $\\Lambda$-system we calculate the lineshape and field-induced shift of the dark resonance formed by the field with periodically modulated phase. For two-level atom we obtain the analytical expressions for signal of the direct frequency comb spectroscopy with rectangular light pulses. In this case it was shown the radical dependence of the spectroscopy lineshape on pul...
Dynamic scaling of migration-driven aggregate growth
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ke Jian-Hong; Wang Xiang-Hong; Lin Zhen-Quan; Zhuang You-Yi
2004-01-01
We study the kinetic behaviour of the growth of aggregates driven by reversible migration between any two aggregates. For a simple model with the migration rate K(i; j) = K'(i; j)∝ iujv at which the monomers migrate from the aggregates of size i to those of size j, we find that the aggregate size distribution in the system with u + v ≤ 3and u ＜ 2 approaches a conventional scaling form, which reduces to the Smoluchovski form in the u = 1 case. On the other hand, for the system with u ＜ 2, the average aggregate size S(t) grows exponentially in the u + v = 3 case and as(t lnt)1/(5-2u) in another special case of v = u - 2. Moreover, this typical size S(t) grows as t1/(3 ) in the general u -- 2 ＜ v ＜ 3 - u case; while it always grows as t1/(5-2u) in the v ＜ u - 2 case.
Structure and variability of dynamo driven accretion discs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pudritz, R.E. (Cambridge Univ. (UK). Inst. of Astronomy); Fahlman, G.G. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). Dept. of Geophysics and Astronomy)
1982-02-01
A turbulent dynamo operating in an accretion disc around a black hole can produce fields strong enough so that the Maxwell stress due to the fluctuations dominates. In this dynamo driven limit, enormous localized fluctuations can be expected because the Kepler flow energy density is efficiently tapped. The detailed radial structure of this model is calculated, which for Cyg X-1, predicts a cool (Tsub(max) approximately < 10/sup 8/ K), dense, thin (z/sub 0//r approximately < 10/sup -2/), and optically thick disc. A mean field B approximately < 10/sup 8/ G can be generated. Fluctuations of order b approximately 10/sup 12/ G at the inner accretion disc radius (rsub(*) approximately 1), falling to b approximately 10/sup 10/ G at rsub(*) approximately 30, provide an explanation for the Cyg X-1 millisecond bursts and shot noise in terms of flares on the disc surface. This is established by means of model independent, scaled reconnection experiments. The optical variability of 3C 273 could be explained as arising from flares on an accretion disc around a 10/sup 9/ solar masses black hole, with flare fields of b approximately 10/sup 7/ G at rsub(*) approximately 1.
Dynamics of cluster formation in driven magnetic colloids dispersed on a monolayer.
Jäger, Sebastian; Stark, Holger; Klapp, Sabine H L
2013-05-15
We report computer simulation results on the cluster formation of dipolar colloidal particles driven by a rotating external field in a quasi-two-dimensional setup. We focus on the interplay between permanent dipolar and hydrodynamic interactions and its influence on the dynamic behavior of the particles. This includes their individual as well as their collective motion. To investigate these characteristics, we employ Brownian dynamics simulations of a finite system with and without hydrodynamic interactions. Our results indicate that hydrodynamic interactions have a profound impact on the dynamic behavior of the clusters and the dynamics of the clustering process.
The event-driven constant volume method for particle coagulation dynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Monte Carlo (MC) method, which tracks small numbers of the dispersed simulation parti- cles and then describes the dynamic evolution of large numbers of real particles, consti- tutes an important class of methods for the numerical solution of population balance modeling. Particle coagulation dynamics is a complex task for MC. Event-driven MC ex- hibits higher accuracy and efficiency than time-driven MC on the whole. However, these available event-driven MCs track the "equally weighted simulation particle population" and maintain the number of simulated particles within bounds at the cost of "regulating" com- putational domain, which results in some constraints and drawbacks. This study designed the procedure of "differently weighted fictitious particle population" and the corresponding coagulation rule for differently weighted fictitious particles. And then, a new event-driven MC method was promoted to describe the coagulation dynamics between differently weighted fictitious particles, where "constant number scheme" and "stepwise constant number scheme" were developed to maintain the number of fictitious particles within bounds as well as the constant computational domain. The MC is named event-driven constant volume (EDCV) method. The quantitative comparison among several popular MCs shows that the EDCV method has the advantages of computational precision and computational efficiency over other available MCs.
The event-driven constant volume method for particle coagulation dynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO HaiBo; ZHENG ChuGuang
2008-01-01
Monte Carlo (MC) method, which tracks small numbers of the dispersed simulation parti-cles and then describes the dynamic evolution of large numbers of real particles, consti-tutes an important class of methods for the numerical solution of population balance modeling. Particle coagulation dynamics is a complex task for MC. Event-driven MC ex-hibits higher accuracy and efficiency than time-driven MC on the whole. However, these available event-driven MCs track the "equally weighted simulation particle population" and maintain the number of simulated particles within bounds at the cost of "regulating" com-putational domain, which results in some constraints and drawbacks. This study designed the procedure of "differently weighted fictitious particle population" and the corresponding coagulation rule for differently weighted fictitious particles. And then, a new event-driven MC method was promoted to describe the coagulation dynamics between differently weighted fictitious particles, where "constant number scheme" and "stepwise constant number scheme" were developed to maintain the number of fictitious particles within bounds as well as the constant computational domain. The MC is named event-driven constant volume (EDCV) method. The quantitative comparison among several popular MCs shows that the EDCV method has the advantages of computational precision and computational efficiency over other available MCs.
Dynamics of the driven Goodwin business cycle equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Antonova, A. O., E-mail: anna-antonova-08@mail.ru [National Aviation University, 1Kosmonauvta Komarova Ave., 03058 Kyiv (Ukraine); Reznik, S. N., E-mail: s.reznik@voliacable.com [Institute for Nuclear Research, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 47 Prospekt Nauky, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Todorov, M. D., E-mail: mtod@tu-sofia.bg [Faculty of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Sofia, 8 Kliment Ohridski Blvd., 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria)
2015-10-28
We study dynamics of the Goodwin nonlinear accelerator business cycle model with periodic forced autonomous investment I{sub a}(t) = a(1 – cos ωt), where a and ω are the amplitude and the frequency of investment. We give examples of the parameters a and ω when the chaotic oscillations of income are possible. We find the critical values of amplitude a{sub cr} (ω): if a > a{sub cr} (ω) the period of the income equals to the driving period T=2π/ω.
Transmission Dynamics of a Driven Two-Level System Dissipated by Leads
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Ping; FAN Wen-Bin; ZHAO Xian-Geng
2001-01-01
We study the transmission dynamics of a driven two-level system dissipated by the two leads. Using the nonequilibrium Green function, we derive an analytical transmission formula for an electron incident from the left lead,through the double quantum dots, to the right lead. The Landauer-type conductance and current are also given.A discussion of the internal tunnelling dynamics reveals crucial effects of the localization and delocalization on the transport of the system.
Probabilistic density function method for nonlinear dynamical systems driven by colored noise
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barajas-Solano, David A.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.
2016-05-01
We present a probability density function (PDF) method for a system of nonlinear stochastic ordinary differential equations driven by colored noise. The method provides an integro-differential equation for the temporal evolution of the joint PDF of the system's state, which we close by means of a modified Large-Eddy-Diffusivity-type closure. Additionally, we introduce the generalized local linearization (LL) approximation for deriving a computable PDF equation in the form of the second-order partial differential equation (PDE). We demonstrate the proposed closure and localization accurately describe the dynamics of the PDF in phase space for systems driven by noise with arbitrary auto-correlation time. We apply the proposed PDF method to the analysis of a set of Kramers equations driven by exponentially auto-correlated Gaussian colored noise to study the dynamics and stability of a power grid.
Dynamic scene stitching driven by visual cognition model.
Zou, Li-hui; Zhang, Dezheng; Wulamu, Aziguli
2014-01-01
Dynamic scene stitching still has a great challenge in maintaining the global key information without missing or deforming if multiple motion interferences exist in the image acquisition system. Object clips, motion blurs, or other synthetic defects easily occur in the final stitching image. In our research work, we proceed from human visual cognitive mechanism and construct a hybrid-saliency-based cognitive model to automatically guide the video volume stitching. The model consists of three elements of different visual stimuli, that is, intensity, edge contour, and scene depth saliencies. Combined with the manifold-based mosaicing framework, dynamic scene stitching is formulated as a cut path optimization problem in a constructed space-time graph. The cutting energy function for column width selections is defined according to the proposed visual cognition model. The optimum cut path can minimize the cognitive saliency difference throughout the whole video volume. The experimental results show that it can effectively avoid synthetic defects caused by different motion interferences and summarize the key contents of the scene without loss. The proposed method gives full play to the role of human visual cognitive mechanism for the stitching. It is of high practical value to environmental surveillance and other applications.
Dynamic Scene Stitching Driven by Visual Cognition Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li-hui Zou
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Dynamic scene stitching still has a great challenge in maintaining the global key information without missing or deforming if multiple motion interferences exist in the image acquisition system. Object clips, motion blurs, or other synthetic defects easily occur in the final stitching image. In our research work, we proceed from human visual cognitive mechanism and construct a hybrid-saliency-based cognitive model to automatically guide the video volume stitching. The model consists of three elements of different visual stimuli, that is, intensity, edge contour, and scene depth saliencies. Combined with the manifold-based mosaicing framework, dynamic scene stitching is formulated as a cut path optimization problem in a constructed space-time graph. The cutting energy function for column width selections is defined according to the proposed visual cognition model. The optimum cut path can minimize the cognitive saliency difference throughout the whole video volume. The experimental results show that it can effectively avoid synthetic defects caused by different motion interferences and summarize the key contents of the scene without loss. The proposed method gives full play to the role of human visual cognitive mechanism for the stitching. It is of high practical value to environmental surveillance and other applications.
Relating structure and dynamics in organisation models
Jonkers, C.M.; Treur, J.
2008-01-01
To understand how an organisational structure relates to dynamics is an interesting fundamental challenge in the area of social modelling. Specifications of organisational structure usually have a diagrammatic form that abstracts from more detailed dynamics. Dynamic properties of agent systems, on t
Multiscale Dynamics of Solar Magnetic Structures
Uritsky, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.
2012-01-01
Multiscale topological complexity of the solar magnetic field is among the primary factors controlling energy release in the corona, including associated processes in the photospheric and chromospheric boundaries.We present a new approach for analyzing multiscale behavior of the photospheric magnetic flux underlying these dynamics as depicted by a sequence of high-resolution solar magnetograms. The approach involves two basic processing steps: (1) identification of timing and location of magnetic flux origin and demise events (as defined by DeForest et al.) by tracking spatiotemporal evolution of unipolar and bipolar photospheric regions, and (2) analysis of collective behavior of the detected magnetic events using a generalized version of the Grassberger-Procaccia correlation integral algorithm. The scale-free nature of the developed algorithms makes it possible to characterize the dynamics of the photospheric network across a wide range of distances and relaxation times. Three types of photospheric conditions are considered to test the method: a quiet photosphere, a solar active region (NOAA 10365) in a quiescent non-flaring state, and the same active region during a period of M-class flares. The results obtained show (1) the presence of a topologically complex asymmetrically fragmented magnetic network in the quiet photosphere driven by meso- and supergranulation, (2) the formation of non-potential magnetic structures with complex polarity separation lines inside the active region, and (3) statistical signatures of canceling bipolar magnetic structures coinciding with flaring activity in the active region. Each of these effects can represent an unstable magnetic configuration acting as an energy source for coronal dissipation and heating.
Anisotropic relaxation dynamics in a dipolar Fermi gas driven out of equilibrium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aikawa, K.; Frisch, A.; Mark, M.;
2014-01-01
We report on the observation of a large anisotropy in the rethermalization dynamics of an ultracold dipolar Fermi gas driven out of equilibrium. Our system consists of an ultracold sample of strongly magnetic $^{167}$Er fermions, spin-polarized in the lowest Zeeman sublevel. In this system, elastic...
Electromagnetically Driven Plasma-Field Dynamics in Modified Ionosphere
Kochetov, Andrey; Terina, Galina
Under sounding of an artificial ionospheric turbulence by short probing radio pulses of ordinary polarization the two types of scattered signals were observed: a "caviton" signal (CS) and a "plasma" signal (PS), which appeared with the heating transmitter switching on and disap-peared after its switching off (G.I. Terina J. Atm. Terr. Phys, 57, 1995, 273, Izv. VUZov, Radiofizika, 39, 1998, 203). The scattered signal of PS type was revealed also after the heating switching off. It was called an "aftereffect plasma signal" (AEPS) (G.I. Terina Izv .VUZov, Radiofizika, 43, 2000, 958). This signal had large time and spatial delays and appeared mostly when corresponding PS had envelope fluctuations. The aftereffect phenomenon was expressed at time on CS by amplitude increasing at once after the heating transmitter turning off. The theoretical model of this phenomenon is proposed in and some peculiarities of the aftereffect phenomena of the scattered signals in modified ionospheric plasma are considered and discussed. For theoretical interpretation of the characteristics of CS and AEPS the numerical solution of nonlinear Shrüdinger equation (NSE) with driven extension were carried out in inhomogeneous plasma layer with linear electron density profile (A.V. Kochetov, V.A. Mironov, G.I. Terina, Adv. Space Reseacrh, 29, 2002, 1369) and for the one with prescribed density depletion (and A.V. Kochetov, G.I. Terina, Adv. Space Reseacrh, 38, 2006, 2490). The simulation results obtained for linear inhomogeneous plasma layer and for plasma one with density depletion al-low us to interpret the aftereffect of CS and PS qualitatively. The field amplitude increase at relaxation stage displayed at calculations allows us to interpret of CS aftereffect. The large time delays of AEPS can be explained as a result of powerful radio waves trapping in the forming at the plasma resonance regions density depletions (E. Mjøhus, J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1998, 14711; B. Eliasson and L. Stenflo, J
Carrier density driven lasing dynamics in ZnO nanowires
Wille, Marcel; Michalsky, Tom; Röder, Robert; Ronning, Carsten; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger; Grundmann, Marius
2016-01-01
We report on the temporal lasing dynamics of high quality ZnO nanowires using time-resolved micro-photoluminescence technique. The temperature dependence of the lasing characteristics and of the corresponding decay constants demonstrate the formation of an electron-hole plasma to be the underlying gain mechanism in the considered temperature range from 10 K to 300 K. We found that the temperature dependent emission onset-time ($t_{\\text{on}}$) strongly depends on the excitation power and becomes smallest in the lasing regime, with values below 5 ps. Furthermore, the observed red shift of the dominating lasing modes in time is qualitatively discussed in terms of the carrier density induced change of the refractive index dispersion after the excitation laser pulse. This theory is supported by extending an existing model for the calculation of the carrier density dependent complex refractive index for different temperatures. This model coincides with the experimental observations and reliably describes the evolu...
Adsorption-driven self-sorting of dynamic imine libraries.
Hsu, Chia-Wei; Miljanić, Ognjen Š
2015-02-09
Differences in adsorption among the components of complex mixtures play a role in separations, surface-based sensing, and heterogeneous catalysis, and have been implicated in theories of the origin of life. Herein, we consider mixtures of imines and we show that if such complex mixtures are also dynamic-that is, if their components equilibrate among themselves-then they can dramatically simplify in composition during the course of column chromatography. As they travel down the column, imines continuously trade their aldehyde and amine constituents, favoring the formation of molecules with extremes of polarity at the expense of species with intermediate polarities. Iterative application of this principle leads to simplification of imine libraries containing up to 16 members into 4 major products. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Dynamics of surfactant-driven fracture of particle rafts.
Vella, Dominic; Kim, Ho-Young; Aussillous, Pascale; Mahadevan, L
2006-05-05
We investigate the dynamic fracture of a close-packed monolayer of particles, or particle raft, floating at a liquid-gas interface induced by the localized addition of surfactant. Unusually for a two-dimensional solid, our experiments show that the speed of crack propagation here is not affected by the elastic properties of the raft. Instead it is controlled by the rate at which surfactant is advected to the crack tip by means of the induced Marangoni flows. Further, the velocity of propagation is not constant in time and the length of the crack scales as t(3/4). More broadly, this surfactant-induced rupture of interfacial rafts suggests ways to manipulate them for applications.
Resolution of structural heterogeneity in dynamic crystallography.
Ren, Zhong; Chan, Peter W Y; Moffat, Keith; Pai, Emil F; Royer, William E; Šrajer, Vukica; Yang, Xiaojing
2013-06-01
Dynamic behavior of proteins is critical to their function. X-ray crystallography, a powerful yet mostly static technique, faces inherent challenges in acquiring dynamic information despite decades of effort. Dynamic `structural changes' are often indirectly inferred from `structural differences' by comparing related static structures. In contrast, the direct observation of dynamic structural changes requires the initiation of a biochemical reaction or process in a crystal. Both the direct and the indirect approaches share a common challenge in analysis: how to interpret the structural heterogeneity intrinsic to all dynamic processes. This paper presents a real-space approach to this challenge, in which a suite of analytical methods and tools to identify and refine the mixed structural species present in multiple crystallographic data sets have been developed. These methods have been applied to representative scenarios in dynamic crystallography, and reveal structural information that is otherwise difficult to interpret or inaccessible using conventional methods.
Dynamics of two coupled chaotic systems driven by external signals
Mancini, H.L. (Héctor Luis); Vidal, G.
2011-01-01
Setting-up a controlled or synchronized state in a space-time chaotic structure targeting an unstable periodic orbit is a key feature of many problems in high dimensional physical, electronics, biological and ecological systems (among others). Formerly, we have shown numerically and experimentally that phase synchronization [M.G. Rosenblum, A.S. Pikovsky, J. Kurths, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4193 (1997)] can be achieved in time dependent hydrodynamic flows [D. Maza, A. Vallone, H.L. Mancini, S....
Capsule implosions driven by dynamic hohlraum x-rays
Bailey, James
2005-10-01
Dynamic hohlraum experiments at the Z facility already implode capsules with up to 80 kJ absorbed x-ray energy. However, many challenging issues remain for ICF. The present experiments use diagnostic capsules to address two of these issues: symmetry measurement and control and building understanding of the capsule/hohlraum implosion system. A suite of x-ray spectrometers record time and space resolved spectra emitted by Ar tracer atoms in the implosion core, simultaneously from up to three different quasi-orthogonal directions. Comparing the results with simulation predictions provide severe tests of understanding. These data also can used to produce a tomographic reconstruction of the time resolved core temperature and density profiles. X-ray and neutron diagnostics are used to examine how the implosion conditions change as the capsule design changes. The capsule design changes include variations in CH wall thickness and diameter, Ge-doped CH shells, and SiO2 shells. In addition, a new campaign investigating Be capsule implosions is beginning. Be capsules may offer superior performance for dynamic hohlraum research and it may be possible to investigate NIF-relevant Be implosion issues such as the fill tube effects, sensitivity to columnar growth associated with sputtered Be capsule fabrication, and the effect of Cu dopants on implosion conditions. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy under contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000. * In collaboration with G.A. Rochau, G.A. Chandler, S.A. Slutz, P.W. Lake, G. Cooper, G.S. Dunham, R.J. Leeper, R. Lemke, T.A. Mehlhorn, T.J. Nash, D.S. Nielsen, K. Peterson, C.L. Ruiz, D.B. Sinars, J. Torres, W. Varnum, Sandia; R.C. Mancini, T.J. Buris-Mog, UNR; I. Golovkin, J.J. MacFarlane, PRISM; A. Nikro, D. Steinman, J.D. Kilkenny, H. Xu, General Atomics; M. Bump, T.C. Moore, K-tech; D.G. Schroen, Schafer
A Six Degrees of Freedom Dynamic Wire-Driven Traverse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2016-04-01
Full Text Available A novel support mechanism for a wind tunnel model is designed, built, and demonstrated on an aerodynamic platform undergoing dynamic maneuvers, tested with periodic motions up to 20 Hz. The platform is supported by a 6-DOF (six degrees of freedom traverse that utilizes eight thin wires, each mounted to a servo motor with an in-line load cell to accurately monitor or control the platform motion and force responses. The system is designed such that simultaneous control of the servo motors effects motion within ±50 mm translations, ±15° pitch, ±9° yaw, and ±8° roll at lower frequencies. The traverse tracks a desired trajectory and resolves the induced forces on the platform at 1 kHz. The effected motion of the platform is measured at 0.6 kHz with a motion capture system, which utilizes six near-infrared (NIR cameras for full spatial and temporal resolution of the platform motion, which is used for feedback control. The traverse allows different platform model geometries to be tested, and the present work demonstrates its capabilities on an axisymmetric bluff body. Programmable timed outputs are synchronized relative to the model motion and can be used for triggering external systems and processes. In the present study, particle image velocimetry (PIV is used to characterize the realized wakes of the platform undergoing canonical motions that are effected by this new wind tunnel traverse.
Dynamic flow-driven erosion - An improved approximate solution
Yu, Bofu; Guo, Dawei; Rose, Calvin W.
2017-09-01
Rose et al. (2007) published an approximate solution of dynamic sediment concentration for steady and uniform flows, and this approximate solution shows a peak sediment concentration at the early stage of a runoff event, which can be used to describe and explain the first flush effect, a commonly observed phenomenon, especially in the urban environment. However the approximate solution does not converge to the steady state solution that is known exactly. The purpose of the note is to improve the approximate solution of Rose et al. (2007) by maintaining its functional form while forcing its steady state behaviour for sediment concentration to converge to the known steady state solution. The quality of the new approximate solution was assessed by comparing the new approximate solution with an exact solution for the single size class case, and with the numerical solution for the multiple size classes. It was found that 1) the relative error, or discrepancy, decreases as the stream power increases for all three soils considered; 2) the largest discrepancy occurs for the peak sediment concentration, and the average discrepancy in the peak concentration is less than 10% for the three soils considered; 3) for the majority of the 27 slope-flow combinations and for the three soils considered, the new approximate solution modestly underestimates the peak sediment concentration.
Carrier density driven lasing dynamics in ZnO nanowires.
Wille, Marcel; Sturm, Chris; Michalsky, Tom; Röder, Robert; Ronning, Carsten; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger; Grundmann, Marius
2016-06-01
We report on the temporal lasing dynamics of high quality ZnO nanowires using the time-resolved micro-photoluminescence technique. The temperature dependence of the lasing characteristics and of the corresponding decay constants demonstrate the formation of an electron-hole plasma to be the underlying gain mechanism in the considered temperature range from 10 K to 300 K. We found that the temperature-dependent emission onset-time ([Formula: see text]) strongly depends on the excitation power and becomes smallest in the lasing regime, with values below 5 ps. Furthermore, the observed red shift of the dominating lasing modes in time is qualitatively discussed in terms of the carrier density induced change of the refractive index dispersion after the excitation laser pulse. This theory is supported by extending an existing model for the calculation of the carrier density dependent complex refractive index for different temperatures. This model coincides with the experimental observations and reliably describes the evolution of the refractive index after the excitation laser pulse.
Dynamic Axle Load of an Automotive Vehicle When Driven on a Mobile Measurement Platform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jagiełowicz-Ryznar C.
2014-08-01
Full Text Available An analysis of the dynamic axle load of an automotive vehicle (AV when it is driven on a mobile measurement platform is presented in this paper. During the ride, the time characteristic of the dynamic force N(t, acting on the axle, was recorded. The effect of the vehicle axle mass on the maximum dynamic force value and the dynamic coefficient were studied. On this basis it was attempted to calculate the total vehicle’s weight. Conclusions concerning the dynamic loads of the vehicle axles in relation to the reduced axle mass, were drawn. The optimal axle mass value, for which the dynamic coefficient reaches a minimum, was calculated
Dynamic Data Driven Applications Systems (DDDAS) modeling for automatic target recognition
Blasch, Erik; Seetharaman, Guna; Darema, Frederica
2013-05-01
The Dynamic Data Driven Applications System (DDDAS) concept uses applications modeling, mathematical algorithms, and measurement systems to work with dynamic systems. A dynamic systems such as Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) is subject to sensor, target, and the environment variations over space and time. We use the DDDAS concept to develop an ATR methodology for multiscale-multimodal analysis that seeks to integrated sensing, processing, and exploitation. In the analysis, we use computer vision techniques to explore the capabilities and analogies that DDDAS has with information fusion. The key attribute of coordination is the use of sensor management as a data driven techniques to improve performance. In addition, DDDAS supports the need for modeling from which uncertainty and variations are used within the dynamic models for advanced performance. As an example, we use a Wide-Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) application to draw parallels and contrasts between ATR and DDDAS systems that warrants an integrated perspective. This elementary work is aimed at triggering a sequence of deeper insightful research towards exploiting sparsely sampled piecewise dense WAMI measurements - an application where the challenges of big-data with regards to mathematical fusion relationships and high-performance computations remain significant and will persist. Dynamic data-driven adaptive computations are required to effectively handle the challenges with exponentially increasing data volume for advanced information fusion systems solutions such as simultaneous target tracking and ATR.
Analysis of dynamic behavior of multiple-stage planetary gear train used in wind driven generator.
Wang, Jungang; Wang, Yong; Huo, Zhipu
2014-01-01
A dynamic model of multiple-stage planetary gear train composed of a two-stage planetary gear train and a one-stage parallel axis gear is proposed to be used in wind driven generator to analyze the influence of revolution speed and mesh error on dynamic load sharing characteristic based on the lumped parameter theory. Dynamic equation of the model is solved using numerical method to analyze the uniform load distribution of the system. It is shown that the load sharing property of the system is significantly affected by mesh error and rotational speed; load sharing coefficient and change rate of internal and external meshing of the system are of obvious difference from each other. The study provides useful theoretical guideline for the design of the multiple-stage planetary gear train of wind driven generator.
Analysis of Dynamic Behavior of Multiple-Stage Planetary Gear Train Used in Wind Driven Generator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jungang Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A dynamic model of multiple-stage planetary gear train composed of a two-stage planetary gear train and a one-stage parallel axis gear is proposed to be used in wind driven generator to analyze the influence of revolution speed and mesh error on dynamic load sharing characteristic based on the lumped parameter theory. Dynamic equation of the model is solved using numerical method to analyze the uniform load distribution of the system. It is shown that the load sharing property of the system is significantly affected by mesh error and rotational speed; load sharing coefficient and change rate of internal and external meshing of the system are of obvious difference from each other. The study provides useful theoretical guideline for the design of the multiple-stage planetary gear train of wind driven generator.
Dual-Beam Atom Laser Driven by Spinor Dynamics
Thompson, Robert; Lundblad, Nathan; Maleki, Lute; Aveline, David
2007-01-01
An atom laser now undergoing development simultaneously generates two pulsed beams of correlated Rb-87 atoms. (An atom laser is a source of atoms in beams characterized by coherent matter waves, analogous to a conventional laser, which is a source of coherent light waves.) The pumping mechanism of this atom laser is based on spinor dynamics in a Bose-Einstein condensate. By virtue of the angular-momentum conserving collisions that generate the two beams, the number of atoms in one beam is correlated with the number of atoms in the other beam. Such correlations are intimately linked to entanglement and squeezing in atomic ensembles, and atom lasers like this one could be used in exploring related aspects of Bose-Einstein condensates, and as components of future sensors relying on atom interferometry. In this atom-laser apparatus, a Bose-Einstein condensate of about 2 x 10(exp 6) Rb-87 atoms at a temperature of about 120 micro-K is first formed through all-optical means in a relatively weak singlebeam running-wave dipole trap that has been formed by focusing of a CO2-laser beam. By a technique that is established in the art, the trap is loaded from an ultrahigh-vacuum magnetooptical trap that is, itself, loaded via a cold atomic beam from an upstream two-dimensional magneto-optical trap that resides in a rubidium-vapor cell that is differentially pumped from an adjoining vacuum chamber, wherein are performed scientific observations of the beams ultimately generated by the atom laser.
Dynamic Pulse-Driven Flowering Phenology in a Semiarid Shrubland
Krell, N.; Papuga, S. A.; Kipnis, E. L.; Nelson, K.
2014-12-01
Elevated springtime temperature has been convincingly linked to an increasingly earlier onset of phenological activity. Studies highlighting this phenomenon have generally been conducted in ecosystems where energy is the primary limiting factor. Importantly, phenological studies in semiarid ecosystems where water is the major limiting factor are rare. In semiarid ecosystems, the timing of phenological activity is also highly sensitive to discrete moisture pulses from infrequent precipitation events. The objective of this study is to identify the triggers of flowering phenology in a semiarid creosotebush-dominated ecosystem. Creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) is a repeat-flowering evergreen shrub that is the dominant species in three of the North American deserts. We present results from six years of daily meteorological and phenological data collected within the Santa Rita Experimental Range in southern Arizona. Our site is equipped with an eddy covariance tower providing estimates of water and carbon fluxes and associated meteorological variables including precipitation and soil moisture at multiple depths. Additionally, three digital cameras distributed within the footprint of the eddy provide daily images of phenological activity. Our results highlight substantial interannual variability in flowering phenology, both in spring and summer flowering. We show that spring flowering activity tends to be associated with energy triggers (e.g. temperature, growing degree days), whereas summer flowering activity tends to be associated with moisture triggers (e.g. large precipitation events, deep soil moisture). Our study suggests that changes in frequency and duration of precipitation events will impact timing of phenological activity resulting in important consequences for vegetation dynamics and pollinator behavior.
Tang, Hao; Dubayah, Ralph
2017-03-07
Light-regime variability is an important limiting factor constraining tree growth in tropical forests. However, there is considerable debate about whether radiation-induced green-up during the dry season is real, or an apparent artifact of the remote-sensing techniques used to infer seasonal changes in canopy leaf area. Direct and widespread observations of vertical canopy structures that drive radiation regimes have been largely absent. Here we analyze seasonal dynamic patterns between the canopy and understory layers in Amazon evergreen forests using observations of vertical canopy structure from a spaceborne lidar. We discovered that net leaf flushing of the canopy layer mainly occurs in early dry season, and is followed by net abscission in late dry season that coincides with increasing leaf area of the understory layer. Our observations of understory development from lidar either weakly respond to or are not correlated to seasonal variations in precipitation or insolation, but are strongly related to the seasonal structural dynamics of the canopy layer. We hypothesize that understory growth is driven by increased light gaps caused by seasonal variations of the canopy. This light-regime variability that exists in both spatial and temporal domains can better reveal the drought-induced green-up phenomenon, which appears less obvious when treating the Amazon forests as a whole.
Quantum dynamics of a microwave driven superconducting phase qubit coupled to a two-level system
Sun, Guozhu; Wen, Xueda; Mao, Bo; Zhou, Zhongyuan; Yu, Yang; Wu, Peiheng; Han, Siyuan
2010-10-01
We present an analytical and comprehensive description of the quantum dynamics of a microwave resonantly driven superconducting phase qubit coupled to a microscopic two-level system (TLS), covering a wide range of the external microwave field strength. Our model predicts several interesting phenomena in such an ac driven four-level bipartite system including anomalous Rabi oscillations, high-contrast beatings of Rabi oscillations, and extraordinary two-photon transitions. Our experimental results in a coupled qubit-TLS system agree quantitatively very well with the predictions of the theoretical model.
El Baidouri, Moaine; Panaud, Olivier
2013-01-01
Long terminal repeat-retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) are the most abundant class of transposable elements (TEs) in plants. They strongly impact the structure, function, and evolution of their host genome, and, in particular, their role in genome size variation has been clearly established. However, the dynamics of the process through which LTR-RTs have differentially shaped plant genomes is still poorly understood because of a lack of comparative studies. Using a new robust and automated family classification procedure, we exhaustively characterized the LTR-RTs in eight plant genomes for which a high-quality sequence is available (i.e., Arabidopsis thaliana, A. lyrata, grapevine, soybean, rice, Brachypodium dystachion, sorghum, and maize). This allowed us to perform a comparative genome-wide study of the retrotranspositional landscape in these eight plant lineages from both monocots and dicots. We show that retrotransposition has recurrently occurred in all plant genomes investigated, regardless their size, and through bursts, rather than a continuous process. Moreover, in each genome, only one or few LTR-RT families have been active in the recent past, and the difference in genome size among the species studied could thus mostly be accounted for by the extent of the latest transpositional burst(s). Following these bursts, LTR-RTs are efficiently eliminated from their host genomes through recombination and deletion, but we show that the removal rate is not lineage specific. These new findings lead us to propose a new model of TE-driven genome evolution in plants.
Complex dynamics of an archetypal self-excited SD oscillator driven by moving belt friction
Zhi-Xin, Li; Qing-Jie, Cao; Léger, Alain
2016-01-01
We propose an archetypal self-excited system driven by moving belt friction, which is constructed with the smooth and discontinuous (SD) oscillator proposed by the Cao et al. and the classical moving belt. The moving belt friction is modeled as the Coulomb friction to formulate the mathematical model of the proposed self-excited SD oscillator. The equilibrium states of the unperturbed system are obtained to show the complex equilibrium bifurcations. Phase portraits are depicted to present the hyperbolic structure transition, the multiple stick regions, and the friction-induced asymmetry phenomena. The numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the friction-induced vibration of multiple stick-slip phenomena and the stick-slip chaos in the perturbed self-excited system. The results presented here provide an opportunity for us to get insight into the mechanism of the complex friction-induced nonlinear dynamics in mechanical engineering and geography. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11372082 and 11572096) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB057405).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Aburjania
2014-08-01
Full Text Available This work is devoted to investigation of nonlinear dynamics of planetary electromagnetic (EM ultra-low-frequency wave (ULFW structures in the rotating dissipative ionosphere in the presence of inhomogeneous zonal wind (shear flow. Planetary EM ULFW appears as a result of interaction of the ionospheric medium with the spatially inhomogeneous geomagnetic field. The shear flow driven wave perturbations effectively extract energy of the shear flow increasing own amplitude and energy. These perturbations undergo self organization in the form of the nonlinear solitary vortex structures due to nonlinear twisting of the perturbation's front. Depending on the features of the velocity profiles of the shear flows the nonlinear vortex structures can be either monopole vortices, or dipole vortex, or vortex streets and vortex chains. From analytical calculation and plots we note that the formation of stationary nonlinear vortex structure requires some threshold value of translation velocity for both non-dissipation and dissipation complex ionospheric plasma. The space and time attenuation specification of the vortices is studied. The characteristic time of vortex longevity in dissipative ionosphere is estimated. The long-lived vortices transfer the trapped medium particles, energy and heat. Thus they represent structural elements of turbulence in the ionosphere.
Structure, dynamics, assembly, and evolution of protein complexes.
Marsh, Joseph A; Teichmann, Sarah A
2015-01-01
The assembly of individual proteins into functional complexes is fundamental to nearly all biological processes. In recent decades, many thousands of homomeric and heteromeric protein complex structures have been determined, greatly improving our understanding of the fundamental principles that control symmetric and asymmetric quaternary structure organization. Furthermore, our conception of protein complexes has moved beyond static representations to include dynamic aspects of quaternary structure, including conformational changes upon binding, multistep ordered assembly pathways, and structural fluctuations occurring within fully assembled complexes. Finally, major advances have been made in our understanding of protein complex evolution, both in reconstructing evolutionary histories of specific complexes and in elucidating general mechanisms that explain how quaternary structure tends to evolve. The evolution of quaternary structure occurs via changes in self-assembly state or through the gain or loss of protein subunits, and these processes can be driven by both adaptive and nonadaptive influences.
Proton-driven spin diffusion in rotating solids via reversible and irreversible quantum dynamics.
Veshtort, Mikhail; Griffin, Robert G
2011-10-07
Proton-driven spin diffusion (PDSD) experiments in rotating solids have received a great deal of attention as a potential source of distance constraints in large biomolecules. However, the quantitative relationship between the molecular structure and observed spin diffusion has remained obscure due to the lack of an accurate theoretical description of the spin dynamics in these experiments. We start with presenting a detailed relaxation theory of PDSD in rotating solids that provides such a description. The theory applies to both conventional and radio-frequency-assisted PDSD experiments and extends to the non-Markovian regime to include such phenomena as rotational resonance (R(2)). The basic kinetic equation of the theory in the non-Markovian regime has the form of a memory function equation, with the role of the memory function played by the correlation function. The key assumption used in the derivation of this equation expresses the intuitive notion of the irreversible dissipation of coherences in macroscopic systems. Accurate expressions for the correlation functions and for the spin diffusion constants are given. The theory predicts that the spin diffusion constants governing the multi-site PDSD can be approximated by the constants observed in the two-site diffusion. Direct numerical simulations of PDSD dynamics via reversible Liouville-von Neumann equation are presented to support and compliment the theory. Remarkably, an exponential decay of the difference magnetization can be observed in such simulations in systems consisting of only 12 spins. This is a unique example of a real physical system whose typically macroscopic and apparently irreversible behavior can be traced via reversible microscopic dynamics. An accurate value for the spin diffusion constant can be usually obtained through direct simulations of PDSD in systems consisting of two (13)C nuclei and about ten (1)H nuclei from their nearest environment. Spin diffusion constants computed by this
Data and Dynamics Driven Approaches for Modelling and Forecasting the Red Sea Chlorophyll
Dreano, Denis
2017-05-31
Phytoplankton is at the basis of the marine food chain and therefore play a fundamental role in the ocean ecosystem. However, the large-scale phytoplankton dynamics of the Red Sea are not well understood yet, mainly due to the lack of historical in situ measurements. As a result, our knowledge in this area relies mostly on remotely-sensed observations and large-scale numerical marine ecosystem models. Models are very useful to identify the mechanisms driving the variations in chlorophyll concentration and have practical applications for fisheries operation and harmful algae blooms monitoring. Modelling approaches can be divided between physics- driven (dynamical) approaches, and data-driven (statistical) approaches. Dynamical models are based on a set of differential equations representing the transfer of energy and matter between different subsets of the biota, whereas statistical models identify relationships between variables based on statistical relations within the available data. The goal of this thesis is to develop, implement and test novel dynamical and statistical modelling approaches for studying and forecasting the variability of chlorophyll concentration in the Red Sea. These new models are evaluated in term of their ability to efficiently forecast and explain the regional chlorophyll variability. We also propose innovative synergistic strategies to combine data- and physics-driven approaches to further enhance chlorophyll forecasting capabilities and efficiency.
Interplay of interfacial noise and curvature-driven dynamics in two dimensions
Roy, Parna; Sen, Parongama
2017-02-01
We explore the effect of interplay of interfacial noise and curvature-driven dynamics in a binary spin system. An appropriate model is the generalized two-dimensional voter model proposed earlier [M. J. de Oliveira, J. F. F. Mendes, and M. A. Santos, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 26, 2317 (1993), 10.1088/0305-4470/26/10/006], where the flipping probability of a spin depends on the state of its neighbors and is given in terms of two parameters, x and y . x =0.5 andy =1 correspond to the conventional voter model which is purely interfacial noise driven, while x =1 and y =1 correspond to the Ising model, where coarsening is fully curvature driven. The coarsening phenomena for 0.5 universal exponent for any value of x >0.5 ; the effect of x appears in altering the value of the parameter occurring in the scaling function only.
Dynamic analysis and design of offshore structures
Chandrasekaran, Srinivasan
2015-01-01
This book attempts to provide readers with an overall idea of various types of offshore platform geometries. It covers the various environmental loads encountered by these structures, a detailed description of the fundamentals of structural dynamics in a class-room style, estimate of damping in offshore structures and their applications in the preliminary analysis and design. Basic concepts of structural dynamics are emphasized through simple illustrative examples and exercises. Design methodologies and guidelines, which are FORM based concepts are explained through a few applied example structures. Each chapter also has tutorials and exercises for self-learning. A dedicated chapter on stochastic dynamics will help the students to extend the basic concepts of structural dynamics to this advanced domain of research. Hydrodynamic response of offshore structures with perforated members is one of the recent research applications, which is found to be one of the effective manner of retrofitting offshore structur...
An Open Framework for Dynamic Big-data-driven Application Systems (DBDDAS) Development
Douglas, Craig C.
2014-06-06
In this paper, we outline key features that dynamic data-driven application systems (DDDAS) have. A DDDAS is an application that has data assimilation that can change the models and/or scales of the computation and that the application controls the data collection based on the computational results. The term Big Data (BD) has come into being in recent years that is highly applicable to most DDDAS since most applications use networks of sensors that generate an overwhelming amount of data in the lifespan of the application runs. We describe what a dynamic big-data-driven application system (DBDDAS) toolkit must have in order to provide all of the essential building blocks that are necessary to easily create new DDDAS without re-inventing the building blocks.
Dynamics in Two Periodically Driven and Weakly Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈付广; 黄德斌; 郭荣伟
2005-01-01
In this paper, dynamics in the oscillations of the relative atomic population in two periodically driven and weakly coupled Bose-Einstein eondensates (BECs) was qualitatively studied. Using the well-known Melnikov method, the conditions of existence of the periodic and chaotic coherent atomic tunnellings were given in the model. Our results indicate the typical route from bifurcation of the limited circles to chaos, and are in agreement with the previous numerical results.
Transforming Static Data Structures to Dynamic Structures.
1979-09-03
2C*(N))) f?, (Ps(N)) n (N). The last two Inequalities both follow from the fact that PS grows at least linearly. QED. Maurer and Ottmann [1979...Maurer, H. A. and T. Ottmann C1979]. "Dynamic solutions of decomposable searching problems," Report 33, Institut fur Informationsverabeltung
Karthik, T.; Asthana, Saket
2017-09-01
The electric field amplitude (E o) dependent dynamic ferroelectric hysteresis and polarization current density curves measured at room temperature for Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT), showed three different stages of polarization reversal mechanism. The scaling relationship confirmed the dominance of domain wall motion at Stage I (i.e. upto E o < 35 kV cm-1), followed by domain switching at Stage II (35 kV cm-1 < E o < 60 kV cm-1). Interestingly, a unique behaviour with two sub stages was observed in Stage III (60 kV cm-1 < E o < 90 kV cm-1), with two distinct switching mechanisms viz., polarization rotation at Stage III-A and polarization extension at Stage III-B. X-ray diffraction analysis based on the Rietveld refined atomic positional co-ordinates, in electrically poled system strongly favors the polarization extension mechanism proposed at Stage III-B. The measured E o-dependent longitudinal piezoelectric response (d 33 and g33) values match closely with our proposed polarization reversal mechanism.
Oliveira, Micael
The CECAM Electronic Structure Library (ESL) is a community-driven effort to segregate shared pieces of software as libraries that could be contributed and used by the community. Besides allowing to share the burden of developing and maintaining complex pieces of software, these can also become a target for re-coding by software engineers as hardware evolves, ensuring that electronic structure codes remain at the forefront of HPC trends. In a series of workshops hosted at the CECAM HQ in Lausanne, the tools and infrastructure for the project were prepared, and the first contributions were included and made available online (http://esl.cecam.org). In this talk I will present the different aspects and aims of the ESL and how these can be useful for the electronic structure community.
Martinez-Pedrero, Fernando; Tierno, Pietro; Johansen, Tom H; Straube, Arthur V
2016-02-03
The emergence of wave fronts in dissipative driven systems is a fascinating phenomenon which can be found in a broad range of physical and biological disciplines. Here we report the direct experimental observation of discrete fronts propagating along chains of paramagnetic colloidal particles, the latter propelled above a traveling wave potential generated by a structured magnetic substrate. We develop a rigorously reduced theoretical framework and describe the dynamics of the system in terms of a generalized one-dimensional dissipative Frenkel-Kontorova model. The front dynamics is explored in a wide range of field parameters close to and far from depinning, where the discrete and continuum limits apply. We show how symmetry breaking and finite size of chains are used to control the direction of front propagation, a universal feature relevant to different systems and important for real applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Liu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper takes the electric off-road vehicle with separated driven axles as the research object. To solve the longitudinal dynamics driving control problems, vehicle dynamics model, and control strategies were studied and the corresponding simulation was carried out. An 8-DOF vehicle dynamics model with separated driven axles was built. The driving control strategies on the typical roads were put forward. The recognition algorithm of the typical road surfaces based on the wheels’ slip rates was proposed. And the two control systems were designed including the pedal opening degree adjustment control system based on PI algorithm and the interaxle torque distribution control system based on sliding mode control algorithm. The driving control flow of the proposed vehicle combining the pedal adjustment control system with the interaxle torque distribution control system was developed. And the driven control strategies for the typical roads were simulated. Simulation results show that the proposed drive control strategies can adapt to different typical road surfaces, limit the slip rates of the driving wheels within the stable zone, and ensure the vehicle driving safely and stably in accordance with the driver's intention.
The Prospects for High-Yield ICF with a Z-Pinch Driven Dynamic Hohlraum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
CHANDLER, GORDON A.; CHRIEN, R.; COOPER, GARY WAYNE; DERZON, MARK S.; DOUGLAS, MELISSA R.; HEBRON, DAVID E.; LASH, JOEL S.; LEEPER, RAMON J.; MATZEN, M. KEITH; MEHLHORN, THOMAS A.; NASH, THOMAS J.; OLSON, RICHARD E.; PETERSON, D.L.; RUIZ, CARLOS L.; SANFORD, THOMAS W. L.; SLUTZ, STEPHEN A.
1999-09-07
Recent success with the Sandia Z machine has renewed interest in utilizing fast z-pinenes for ICF. One promising concept places the ICF capsule internal to the imploding z-pinch. At machine parameters relevant to achieving high yield, the imploding z-pinch mass has sufficient opacity to trap radiation giving rise to a dynamic hohlraum. The concept utilizes a 12 MJ, 54 MA z-pinch driver producing a capsule drive temperature exceeding 300 eV to realize a 550 MJ thermonuclear yield. They present the current high-yield design and its development that supports high-yield ICF with a z-pinch driven dynamic hohlraum.
Mourragui, Mustapha
2011-01-01
We consider a boundary driven exclusion process associated to particles evolving under Kawasaki (conservative) dynamics and long range interaction in a regime in which at equilibrium phase separation might occur. We show that the empirical density under the diffusive scaling solves a non linear integro differential evolution equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions and we prove the associated dynamical large deviations principle. Further, tuning suitable the intensity of the interaction, in the uniqueness phase regime, we show that under the stationary measure the empirical density solves a non local, stationary, transport equation.
Quantum system driven by incoherent a.c fields: Multi-crossing Landau Zener dynamics
Jipdi, M. N.; Fai, L. C.; Tchoffo, M.
2016-10-01
The paper investigates the multi-crossing dynamics of a Landau-Zener (LZ) system driven by two sinusoidal a.c fields applying the Dynamic Matrix approach (DMA). The system is shown to follow one-crossing and multi-crossing dynamics for low and high frequency regime respectively. It is shown that in low frequency regime, the resonance phenomenon occurs and leads to the decoupling of basis states; the effective gap vanishes and then the complete blockage of the system. For high frequency, the system achieves multi-crossing dynamics with two fictitious crossings; the system models a Landau-Zener-Stückelberg (LZS) interferometer with critical parameters that tailor probabilities. The system is then shown to depend only on the phase that permits the easiest control with possible application in implementing logic gates.
Molecular dynamics on nonequilibrium motion of a colloidal particle driven by an external torque
Yoo, Donghwan; Jung, Youngkyun; Kwon, Chulan
2017-03-01
We investigate the motion of a colloidal particle driven out of equilibrium by an external torque. We use molecular dynamics simulation as an alternative to the Langevin dynamics. We prepare a heat bath composed of thousands of particles interacting with each other through the Lennard–Jones potential and impose the Langevin thermostat to maintain the heat bath in equilibrium. We consider a single colloidal particle interacting with with the particles of the heat bath also by the Lennard–Jones potential, without applying any types of dissipative or fluctuating forces used in Langevin dynamics. We set up simulation protocol fit for the overdamped limit as in real experiments, by increasing the size and mass of the colloidal particle. We study nonequilibrium fluctuations for work and heat produced incessantly in time and compare the results with those obtained from the previous studies via the overdamped Langevin dynamics. We confirm the Gallavotti–Cohen symmetry and the fluctuation theorem.
Dynamical localization effect in a coupled quantum dot array driven by an AC magnetic field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xia Jun-Jie; Nie Yi-Hang
2011-01-01
We have studied the transport properties of a ring-coupled quantum dot array driven by an AC magnetic field,which is connected to two leads,and we give the response of the transport current to the dynamical localization. We found that when the ratio of the magnetic flux to the total quantum dots number is a root of the zeroth order Bessel function,dynamical localization and collapse of quasi-energy occurs and importantly,the transport current displays a dip which is the signal of dynamical localization. The dynamical localization effect is strengthened as a result of the increase of the quantum dot number,and it is weakened on account of the increase of the dots-lead hopping rate.
Predicting protein dynamics from structural ensembles
Copperman, J
2015-01-01
The biological properties of proteins are uniquely determined by their structure and dynamics. A protein in solution populates a structural ensemble of metastable configurations around the global fold. From overall rotation to local fluctuations, the dynamics of proteins can cover several orders of magnitude in time scales. We propose a simulation-free coarse-grained approach which utilizes knowledge of the important metastable folded states of the protein to predict the protein dynamics. This approach is based upon the Langevin Equation for Protein Dynamics (LE4PD), a Langevin formalism in the coordinates of the protein backbone. The linear modes of this Langevin formalism organize the fluctuations of the protein, so that more extended dynamical cooperativity relates to increasing energy barriers to mode diffusion. The accuracy of the LE4PD is verified by analyzing the predicted dynamics across a set of seven different proteins for which both relaxation data and NMR solution structures are available. Using e...
Consumer-driven nutrient dynamics in freshwater ecosystems: from individuals to ecosystems.
Atkinson, Carla L; Capps, Krista A; Rugenski, Amanda T; Vanni, Michael J
2016-12-23
The role of animals in modulating nutrient cycling [hereafter, consumer-driven nutrient dynamics (CND)] has been accepted as an important influence on both community structure and ecosystem function in aquatic systems. Yet there is great variability in the influence of CND across species and ecosystems, and the causes of this variation are not well understood. Here, we review and synthesize the mechanisms behind CND in fresh waters. We reviewed 131 articles on CND published between 1973 and 1 June 2015. The rate of new publications in CND has increased from 1.4 papers per year during 1973-2002 to 7.3 per year during 2003-2015. The majority of investigations are in North America with many concentrating on fish. More recent studies have focused on animal-mediated nutrient excretion rates relative to nutrient demand and indirect impacts (e.g. decomposition). We identified several mechanisms that influence CND across levels of biological organization. Factors affecting the stoichiometric plasticity of consumers, including body size, feeding history and ontogeny, play an important role in determining the impact of individual consumers on nutrient dynamics and underlie the stoichiometry of CND across time and space. The abiotic characteristics of an ecosystem affect the net impact of consumers on ecosystem processes by influencing consumer metabolic processes (e.g. consumption and excretion/egestion rates), non-CND supply of nutrients and ecosystem nutrient demand. Furthermore, the transformation and transport of elements by populations and communities of consumers also influences the flow of energy and nutrients across ecosystem boundaries. This review highlights that shifts in community composition or biomass of consumers and eco-evolutionary underpinnings can have strong effects on the functional role of consumers in ecosystem processes, yet these are relatively unexplored aspects of CND. Future research should evaluate the value of using species traits and abiotic
Molecular dynamics for irradiation driven chemistry: application to the FEBID process*
Sushko, Gennady B.; Solov'yov, Ilia A.; Solov'yov, Andrey V.
2016-10-01
A new molecular dynamics (MD) approach for computer simulations of irradiation driven chemical transformations of complex molecular systems is suggested. The approach is based on the fact that irradiation induced quantum transformations can often be treated as random, fast and local processes involving small molecules or molecular fragments. We advocate that the quantum transformations, such as molecular bond breaks, creation and annihilation of dangling bonds, electronic charge redistributions, changes in molecular topologies, etc., could be incorporated locally into the molecular force fields that describe the classical MD of complex molecular systems under irradiation. The proposed irradiation driven molecular dynamics (IDMD) methodology is designed for the molecular level description of the irradiation driven chemistry. The IDMD approach is implemented into the MBN Explorer software package capable to operate with a large library of classical potentials, many-body force fields and their combinations. IDMD opens a broad range of possibilities for modelling of irradiation driven modifications and chemistry of complex molecular systems ranging from radiotherapy cancer treatments to the modern technologies such as focused electron beam deposition (FEBID). As an example, the new methodology is applied for studying the irradiation driven chemistry caused by FEBID of tungsten hexacarbonyl W(CO)6 precursor molecules on a hydroxylated SiO2 surface. It is demonstrated that knowing the interaction parameters for the fragments of the molecular system arising in the course of irradiation one can reproduce reasonably well experimental observations and make predictions about the morphology and molecular composition of nanostructures that emerge on the surface during the FEBID process.
An Integrated Model of Market-Driven Dynamics of Carbon in Exurban Landscapes
Brown, D. G.; Sun, S.; Currie, W.; Nassauer, J. I.; Page, S. E.; Parker, D. C.; Riolo, R. L.; Robinson, D. T.
2012-12-01
As coupled human-environment system, exurban land-use systems and their ecological and social outcomes are driven by interactions between the human actors and natural processes at play. Carbon storage in exurban land-use systems is driven by interactions among market forces driving land-use change, developer and resident decisions about land cover and land management, and ecosystem processes affecting ecosystem function. Whether or not vegetation in these landscapes contribute to carbon sinks that mitigate global change, and their future trajectory, depends on dynamics in both human and biophysical processes. Understanding these interactions in a coupled human and natural system might best be advanced by iterating between data collection efforts on various aspects of the system (including the states and changes in the social and natural aspects of the system) and modeling in ways that explicitly represents social and natural processes and their interactions. A challenge is to build models that are both explicable based on existing process knowledge and supportable by existing or newly collected data. We coupled an agent-based model of developer and resident decision making about landscape structure and management with a biogeochemical model of carbon flux and storage to evaluate the drivers of and possible mechanisms to achieve increased carbon storage. Model-based experiments demonstrate the (a) effects of various residential land management strategies on carbon storage, suggesting that removals of litter have a larger effect on overall carbon storage than additions of fertilizer and irrigation; (b) effects of subsidies or payments for increased carbon storage paid to developers can result in choices about development types that result in increased carbon storage, but that the effects are highly sensitive to the price of carbon and the basis for calculating payments. The experiments highlight the need for integrated modeling, but also point to specific needs for
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Zeqing
2013-07-01
Full Text Available In order to design the feed system of high speed Computer Numerical Control (CNC lathe, the static and dynamic characteristics of feed system driven by linear motor in high speed CNC lathe were analyzed. The slide board was taking as the main moving part of the feed system, and the guide rail was the main support component of the linear motor feed system. The mechanical structure static stiffness of feed system is researched through the slide board statics analysis. The simulation results show that the maximum deformation of the slide board occurs in the middle of the slide board where the linear motor is placed. The linear motor feed system control model was established based on analysis of high-speed linear feed system control principle, and the linear motor feed system transfer function was established, and servo dynamic stiffness factors were analyzed. The control parameters of the servo system and actuating mechanism parameters of feed system on the effect of the linear motor servo dynamic stiffness were analyzed using MATLAB software. The simulation results show that the position loop proportional gain, speed loop proportional gain and speed loop integral response time are the biggest influence factors on servo dynamic stiffness. The displacement response is reduced under the cutting interference force step inputting, the servo dynamic stiffness is increased, the number of system oscillation is also reduced, and the system tends to be stable.
Dynamic Changes in Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Structure in Ventricular Myocytes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amanda L. Vega
2011-01-01
sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR and the sarcolemma where Ca2+ release is activated. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the SR is a structurally inert organelle in ventricular myocytes. Our data suggest that rather than being static, the SR undergoes frequent dynamic structural changes. SR boutons expressing functional ryanodine receptors moved throughout the cell, approaching or moving away from the sarcolemma of ventricular myocytes. These changes in SR structure occurred in the absence of changes in [Ca2+] during EC coupling. Microtubules and the molecular motors dynein and kinesin 1(Kif5b were important regulators of SR motility. These findings support a model in which the SR is a motile organelle capable of molecular motor protein-driven structural changes.
Structural Dynamics Model of a Cartesian Robot
1985-10-01
34 D FILE COPY AD-A198 053 *.CC Technical Report 1009 Structural Dynamics Model of a Cartesian Robot "DTIC SELEC T E 0 Alfonso Garcia Reynoso MIT...COVERED Structural Dynamics Model of a Cartesian Robot technical report G. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUM9ER 7. AUTHO0R(@) S. CONTRACT On GRANT NUMSER...8217 %S S Structural Dynamics Model of a Cartesian Robot by Alfonso Garcia Reynoso BSME Instituto Tecnol6gico de Veracruz (1967) MSME Instituto Tecnol6gico
Client-Driven Joint Cache Management and Rate Adaptation for Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chenghao Liu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Due to the fact that proxy-driven proxy cache management and the client-driven streaming solution of Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH are two independent processes, some difficulties and challenges arise in media data management at the proxy cache and rate adaptation at the DASH client. This paper presents a novel client-driven joint proxy cache management and DASH rate adaptation method, named CLICRA, which moves prefetching intelligence from the proxy cache to the client. Based on the philosophy of CLICRA, this paper proposes a rate adaptation algorithm, which selects bitrates for the next media segments to be requested by using the predicted buffered media time in the client. CLICRA is realized by conveying information on the segments that are likely to be fetched subsequently to the proxy cache so that it can use the information for prefetching. Simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms the conventional segment-fetch-time-based rate adaptation and the proxy-driven proxy cache management significantly not only in streaming quality at the client but also in bandwidth and storage usage in proxy caches.
Structurally dynamic spin market networks
Horváth, D
2007-01-01
The agent-based model of price dynamics on a directed evolving complex network is suggested and studied by direct simulation. The resulting stationary regime is maintained as a result of the balance between the extremal dynamics, adaptivity of strategic variables and reconnection rules. For some properly selected parametric combination the network displays small-world phenomenon with high mean clustering coefficient and power-law node degree distribution. The mechanism of repeated random walk through network combined with a fitness recognition is proposed and tested to generate modular multi-leader market. The simulations suggest that dynamics of fitness is the slowest process that manifests itself in the volatility clustering of the log-price returns.
Probabilistic density function method for nonlinear dynamical systems driven by colored noise.
Barajas-Solano, David A; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M
2016-05-01
We present a probability density function (PDF) method for a system of nonlinear stochastic ordinary differential equations driven by colored noise. The method provides an integrodifferential equation for the temporal evolution of the joint PDF of the system's state, which we close by means of a modified large-eddy-diffusivity (LED) closure. In contrast to the classical LED closure, the proposed closure accounts for advective transport of the PDF in the approximate temporal deconvolution of the integrodifferential equation. In addition, we introduce the generalized local linearization approximation for deriving a computable PDF equation in the form of a second-order partial differential equation. We demonstrate that the proposed closure and localization accurately describe the dynamics of the PDF in phase space for systems driven by noise with arbitrary autocorrelation time. We apply the proposed PDF method to analyze a set of Kramers equations driven by exponentially autocorrelated Gaussian colored noise to study nonlinear oscillators and the dynamics and stability of a power grid. Numerical experiments show the PDF method is accurate when the noise autocorrelation time is either much shorter or longer than the system's relaxation time, while the accuracy decreases as the ratio of the two timescales approaches unity. Similarly, the PDF method accuracy decreases with increasing standard deviation of the noise.
Dynamic simulation of storm-driven barrier island morphology under future sea level rise
Passeri, D. L.; Long, J.; Plant, N. G.; Bilskie, M. V.; Hagen, S. C.
2016-12-01
The impacts of short-term processes such as tropical and extratropical storms have the potential to alter barrier island morphology. On the event scale, the effects of storm-driven morphology may result in damage or loss of property, infrastructure and habitat. On the decadal scale, the combination of storms and sea level rise (SLR) will evolve barrier islands. The effects of SLR on hydrodynamics and coastal morphology are dynamic and inter-related; nonlinearities in SLR can cause larger peak surges, lengthier inundation times and additional inundated land, which may result in increased erosion, overwash or breaching along barrier islands. This study uses a two-dimensional morphodynamic model (XBeach) to examine the response of Dauphin Island, AL to storm surge under future SLR. The model is forced with water levels and waves provided by a large-domain hydrodynamic model. A historic validation of hurricanes Ivan and Katrina indicates the model is capable of predicting morphologic response with high skill (0.5). The validated model is used to simulate storm surge driven by Ivan and Katrina under four future SLR scenarios, ranging from 20 cm to 2 m. Each SLR scenario is implemented using a static or "bathtub" approach (in which water levels are increased linearly by the amount of SLR) versus a dynamic approach (in which SLR is applied at the open ocean boundary of the hydrodynamic model and allowed to propagate through the domain as guided by the governing equations). Results illustrate that higher amounts of SLR result in additional shoreline change, dune erosion, overwash and breaching. Compared to the dynamic approach, the static approach over-predicts inundation, dune erosion, overwash and breaching of the island. Overall, results provide a better understanding of the effects of SLR on storm-driven barrier island morphology and support a paradigm shift away from the "bathtub" approach, towards considering the integrated, dynamic effects of SLR.
Nonlinear dynamics of three-magnon process driven by ferromagnetic resonance in yttrium iron garnet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cunha, R. O. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Centro Interdisciplinar de Ciências da Natureza, Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana, 85867-970 Foz do Iguaçu, PR (Brazil); Holanda, J.; Azevedo, A.; Rezende, S. M., E-mail: rezende@df.ufpe.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Vilela-Leão, L. H. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Centro Acadêmico do Agreste, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 55002-970 Caruaru, PE (Brazil); Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L. [Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago (Chile)
2015-05-11
We report an investigation of the dynamics of the three-magnon splitting process associated with the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) in films of the insulating ferrimagnet yttrium iron garnet (YIG). The experiments are performed with a 6 μm thick YIG film close to a microstrip line fed by a microwave generator operating in the 2–6 GHz range. The magnetization precession is driven by the microwave rf magnetic field perpendicular to the static magnetic field, and its dynamics is observed by monitoring the amplitude of the FMR absorption peak. The time evolution of the amplitude reveals that if the frequency is lowered below a critical value of 3.3 GHz, the FMR mode pumps two magnons with opposite wave vectors that react back on the FMR, resulting in a nonlinear dynamics of the magnetization. The results are explained by a model with coupled nonlinear equations describing the time evolution of the magnon modes.
Nieves, Juan Carlos; Padget, Julian; Vasconcelos, Wamberto; Staikopoulos, Athanasios; Cliffe, Owen; Dignum, Frank; Vázquez-Salceda, Javier; Clarke, Siobhán; Reed, Chris
Enterprise systems are increasingly composed of (and even functioning as) components in a dynamic, digital ecosystem. On the one hand, this new situation requires flexible, spontaneous and opportunistic collaboration activities to be identified and established among (electronic) business parties. On the other, it demands engineering methods that are able to integrate new functionalities and behaviours into running systems composed by active, distributed, interdependent processes. Here we present a multi-level architecture that combines organisational and coordination theories with model driven development, for the implementation, deployment and management of dynamic, flexible and robust service-oriented business applications, combined with a service layer that accommodates semantic service description, fine-grained semantic service discovery and the dynamic adaptation of services to meet changing circumstances.
Long-Range Coulomb Effect in Intense Laser-Driven Photoelectron Dynamics
Quan, Wei; Hao, Xiaolei; Chen, Yongju; Yu, Shaogang; Xu, Songpo; Wang, Yanlan; Sun, Renping; Lai, Xuanyang; Wu, Chengyin; Gong, Qihuang; He, Xiantu; Liu, Xiaojun; Chen, Jing
2016-06-01
In strong field atomic physics community, long-range Coulomb interaction has for a long time been overlooked and its significant role in intense laser-driven photoelectron dynamics eluded experimental observations. Here we report an experimental investigation of the effect of long-range Coulomb potential on the dynamics of near-zero-momentum photoelectrons produced in photo-ionization process of noble gas atoms in intense midinfrared laser pulses. By exploring the dependence of photoelectron distributions near zero momentum on laser intensity and wavelength, we unambiguously demonstrate that the long-range tail of the Coulomb potential (i.e., up to several hundreds atomic units) plays an important role in determining the photoelectron dynamics after the pulse ends.
Pelissetto, Andrea; Vicari, Ettore
2017-01-01
We study the off-equilibrium behavior of systems with short-range interactions, slowly driven across a thermal first-order transition, where the equilibrium dynamics is exponentially slow. We consider a dynamics that starts in the high-T phase at time t =ti0 in the low-T phase, with a time-dependent temperature T (t )/Tc≈1 -t /ts, where ts is the protocol time scale. A general off-equilibrium scaling (OS) behavior emerges in the limit of large ts. We check it at the first-order transition of the two-dimensional q -state Potts model with q =20 and 10. The numerical results show evidence of a dynamic transition, where the OS functions show a spinodal-like singularity. Therefore, the general mean-field picture valid for systems with long-range interactions is qualitatively recovered, provided the time dependence is appropriately (logarithmically) rescaled.
Visualizing structural dynamics of thylakoid membranes
Iwai, Masakazu; Yokono, Makio; Nakano, Akihiko
2014-01-01
To optimize photosynthesis, light-harvesting antenna proteins regulate light energy dissipation and redistribution in chloroplast thylakoid membranes, which involve dynamic protein reorganization of photosystems I and II. However, direct evidence for such protein reorganization has not been visualized in live cells. Here we demonstrate structural dynamics of thylakoid membranes by live cell imaging in combination with deconvolution. We observed chlorophyll fluorescence in the antibiotics-induced macrochloroplast in the moss Physcomitrella patens. The three-dimensional reconstruction uncovered the fine thylakoid membrane structure in live cells. The time-lapse imaging shows that the entire thylakoid membrane network is structurally stable, but the individual thylakoid membrane structure is flexible in vivo. Our observation indicates that grana serve as a framework to maintain structural integrity of the entire thylakoid membrane network. Both the structural stability and flexibility of thylakoid membranes would be essential for dynamic protein reorganization under fluctuating light environments. PMID:24442007
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jingli Du
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Cable-driven parallel manipulators are one of the best solutions to achieving large workspace since flexible cables can be easily stored on reels. However, due to the negligible flexural stiffness of cables, long cables will unavoidably vibrate during operation for large workspace applications. In this paper a finite element model for cable-driven parallel manipulators is proposed to mimic small amplitude vibration of cables around their desired position. Output feedback of the cable tension variation at the end of the end-effector is utilized to design the vibration attenuation controller which aims at attenuating the vibration of cables by slightly varying the cable length, thus decreasing its effect on the end-effector. When cable vibration is attenuated, motion controller could be designed for implementing precise large motion to track given trajectories. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the dynamic model and the control algorithm.
Data Driven Modelling of the Dynamic Wake Between Two Wind Turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas
2012-01-01
. This paper is the first where modern commercial mega watt turbines are used for data driven modelling including the upwind turbine loading by changing power reference. Obtaining the necessary data is difficult and data is therefore limited. A simple dynamic extension to the Jensen wake model is tested...... without much success. The best model turns out to be non linear with upwind turbine loading and wind speed as inputs. Using a transformation of these inputs it is possible to obtain a linear model and use well proven system identification methods. Finally it is shown that including the upwind wind...... turbine. This paper establishes flow models relating the wind speeds at turbines in a farm. So far, research in this area has been mainly based on first principles static models and the data driven modelling done has not included the loading of the upwind turbine and its impact on the wind speed downwind...
Prop erties and Data-driven Design of Perceptual Reasoning Metho d Based Linguistic Dynamic Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Cheng-Dong; ZHANG Gui-Qing; WANG Hui-Dong; REN Wei-Na
2014-01-01
The linguistic dynamic systems (LDSs) based on type-1 fuzzy sets can provide a powerful tool for modeling, analysis, evaluation and control of complex systems. However, as pointed out in earlier studies, it is much more reasonable to take type-2 fuzzy sets to model the existing uncertainties of linguistic words. In this paper, the LDS based on type-2 fuzzy sets is studied, and its reasoning process is realized through the perceptual reasoning method. The properties of the perceptual reasoning method based LDS (PR-LDS) are explored. These properties demonstrated that the output of PR-LDS is intuitive and the computation complexity can be reduced when the consequent type-2 fuzzy numbers in the rule base satisfy some conditions. Further, a data driven method for the design of the PR-LDS is provided. At last, the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed data-driven method are verified by an example.
Simultaneous determination of protein structure and dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Best, Robert B.; DePristo, M. A.
2005-01-01
We present a protocol for the experimental determination of ensembles of protein conformations that represent simultaneously the native structure and its associated dynamics. The procedure combines the strengths of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-for obtaining experimental information at ...
Dynamic and spatial behavior of a corrugated interface in the driven lattice gas model
Saracco, Gustavo P.; Albano, Ezequiel V.
2010-09-01
The spatiotemporal behavior of an initially corrugated interface in the two-dimensional driven lattice gas (DLG) model with attractive nearest-neighbors interactions is investigated via Monte Carlo simulations. By setting the system in the ordered phase, with periodic boundary conditions along the external field axis. i.e. horizontal, and open along the vertical directions respectively, an initial interface was imposed, that consists in a series of sinusoidal profiles with amplitude A0 and wavelength λ set parallel to the applied driving field axis. We studied the dynamic behavior of its statistical width or roughness W(t), defined as the root mean square of the interface position. We found that W(t) decays exponentially for all λ and lattice longitudinal sizes Lx, i.e., the lattice side that runs along the axis of the external field. We determined its relaxation time τ, and found that depends on λ as a power law τ∝λp, where p depends on the temperature and Lx. At low T’s ( T≪Tc(E)) and large Lx, p approaches to p=3/2. At intermediate T’s ( T
Data-Driven CFD Modeling of Turbulent Flows Through Complex Structures
Wang, Jian-Xun
2016-01-01
The growth of computational resources in the past decades has expanded the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) from the traditional fields of aerodynamics and hydrodynamics to a number of new areas. Examples range from the heat and fluid flows in nuclear reactor vessels and in data centers to the turbulence flows through wind turbine farms and coastal vegetation plants. However, in these new applications complex structures are often exist (e.g., rod bundles in reactor vessels and turbines in wind farms), which makes fully resolved, first-principle based CFD modeling prohibitively expensive. This obstacle seriously impairs the predictive capability of CFD models in these applications. On the other hand, a limited amount of measurement data is often available in the systems in the above-mentioned applications. In this work we propose a data-driven, physics-based approach to perform full field inversion on the effects of the complex structures on the flow. This is achieved by assimilating observati...
Understanding Microbial Communities: Function, Structure and Dynamics
2015-02-11
microbial communities: Function, structure and dynamics’, at the Isaac Newton Institute, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, from August to...dynamics’, at the Isaac Newton Institute, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, from August to December 2014. The programme involved over 150...Communities: Function, Structure and Dynamics’, at the Isaac Newton Institute, Cambridge University, UK, from 19th August 2014 – 19th December 2014
Structural Dynamic Behavior of Wind Turbines
Thresher, Robert W.; Mirandy, Louis P.; Carne, Thomas G.; Lobitz, Donald W.; James, George H. III
2009-01-01
The structural dynamicist s areas of responsibility require interaction with most other members of the wind turbine project team. These responsibilities are to predict structural loads and deflections that will occur over the lifetime of the machine, ensure favorable dynamic responses through appropriate design and operational procedures, evaluate potential design improvements for their impact on dynamic loads and stability, and correlate load and control test data with design predictions. Load prediction has been a major concern in wind turbine designs to date, and it is perhaps the single most important task faced by the structural dynamics engineer. However, even if we were able to predict all loads perfectly, this in itself would not lead to an economic system. Reduction of dynamic loads, not merely a "design to loads" policy, is required to achieve a cost-effective design. The two processes of load prediction and structural design are highly interactive: loads and deflections must be known before designers and stress analysts can perform structural sizing, which in turn influences the loads through changes in stiffness and mass. Structural design identifies "hot spots" (local areas of high stress) that would benefit most from dynamic load alleviation. Convergence of this cycle leads to a turbine structure that is neither under-designed (which may result in structural failure), nor over-designed (which will lead to excessive weight and cost).
Dynamic Response of Embedded Structures.
1991-07-15
1 (202) 767-6963 AFOSR/Nh 00 FORM 1473, 83 APR EDITION OF I JAN 73 IS OBSOLETE. Uwc A ____________ SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE...4. Baker W. E., Westine P. S., Dodge F. T., "Similarity Methods in Engineering Dynamics", Hayden Book Company, Inc., New Jerset, 1978. 5. Bazant , Z...P., "Size Effect in Blunt Fracture: Concrete, Rock, Metal", ASCE, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 110, No. 4, April 1984. 6. Bazant , Z. P
Data-Driven Engineering of Social Dynamics: Pattern Matching and Profit Maximization.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huan-Kai Peng
Full Text Available In this paper, we define a new problem related to social media, namely, the data-driven engineering of social dynamics. More precisely, given a set of observations from the past, we aim at finding the best short-term intervention that can lead to predefined long-term outcomes. Toward this end, we propose a general formulation that covers two useful engineering tasks as special cases, namely, pattern matching and profit maximization. By incorporating a deep learning model, we derive a solution using convex relaxation and quadratic-programming transformation. Moreover, we propose a data-driven evaluation method in place of the expensive field experiments. Using a Twitter dataset, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our dynamics engineering approach for both pattern matching and profit maximization, and study the multifaceted interplay among several important factors of dynamics engineering, such as solution validity, pattern-matching accuracy, and intervention cost. Finally, the method we propose is general enough to work with multi-dimensional time series, so it can potentially be used in many other applications.
Data-Driven Engineering of Social Dynamics: Pattern Matching and Profit Maximization.
Peng, Huan-Kai; Lee, Hao-Chih; Pan, Jia-Yu; Marculescu, Radu
2016-01-01
In this paper, we define a new problem related to social media, namely, the data-driven engineering of social dynamics. More precisely, given a set of observations from the past, we aim at finding the best short-term intervention that can lead to predefined long-term outcomes. Toward this end, we propose a general formulation that covers two useful engineering tasks as special cases, namely, pattern matching and profit maximization. By incorporating a deep learning model, we derive a solution using convex relaxation and quadratic-programming transformation. Moreover, we propose a data-driven evaluation method in place of the expensive field experiments. Using a Twitter dataset, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our dynamics engineering approach for both pattern matching and profit maximization, and study the multifaceted interplay among several important factors of dynamics engineering, such as solution validity, pattern-matching accuracy, and intervention cost. Finally, the method we propose is general enough to work with multi-dimensional time series, so it can potentially be used in many other applications.
Current driven magnetization dynamics of a self-polarised synthetic ferrimagnet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jenkins, A. S.; Lacoste, B.; Geranton, G.; Gusakova, D.; Dieny, B.; Ebels, U.; Buda-Prejbeanu, L. D. [SPINTEC, UMR-8191, CNRS/CEA-INAC/UJF-Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)
2014-02-28
Spin torque driven excitations in spin valves and tunnel junctions are often investigated for a two magnetic layer system for which a polarizer (fixed magnetization) and a free layer can be distinguished. In the search for improved microwave properties and to understand the role of different coupling mechanisms between the magnetic layers, here, the excitation spectrum of an exchange coupled two layer synthetic ferrimagnet (SyF) system is investigated numerically with spin momentum transfer acting on both layers simultaneously. This self-polarised two layer system does not contain an external polarizer, and excitation of coupled modes arises due to the mutual spin transfer torque and the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interlayer exchange coupling. The current-field state diagrams of static and dynamic states are reported as a function of the interlayer exchange coupling strength. The numerically determined critical boundaries are well reproduced by an analytical stability analysis. The dynamic steady states reveal an optic-like mode at low magnetic fields, which becomes progressively acoustic-like for increased magnetic fields and currents. The frequency of these modes can be tuned by the film thickness and the strength of the interlayer exchange interaction. The results presented here will provide an important guide for designing spin torque oscillators that exploit the dynamic coupling between layers and, furthermore, they will provide a basis to test analytical models of spin torque driven coupled excitations.
31st IMAC Conference on Structural Dynamics
Adams, Douglas; Carrella, Alex; Mayes, Randy; Rixen, Daniel; Allen, Matt; Cunha, Alvaro; Catbas, Fikret; Pakzad, Shamim; Racic, Vitomir; Pavic, Aleksandar; Reynolds, Paul; Simmermacher, Todd; Cogan, Scott; Moaveni, Babak; Papadimitriou, Costas; Allemang, Randall; Clerck, James; Niezrecki, Christopher; Wicks, Alfred
2013-01-01
Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics, Volume 1: Proceedings of the 31st IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2013, the first volume of seven from the Conference, brings together contributions to this important area of research and engineering. The collection presents early findings and case studies on fundamental and applied aspects of Structural Dynamics, including papers on: Nonlinear Oscillations Nonlinearities In Practice Nonlinear System Identification: Methods Nonlinear System Identification: Friction & Contact Nonlinear Modal Analysis Nonlinear Modeling & Simulation Nonlinear Vibration Absorbers Constructive Utilization of Nonlinearity.
Network Structure and Biased Variance Estimation in Respondent Driven Sampling.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ashton M Verdery
Full Text Available This paper explores bias in the estimation of sampling variance in Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS. Prior methodological work on RDS has focused on its problematic assumptions and the biases and inefficiencies of its estimators of the population mean. Nonetheless, researchers have given only slight attention to the topic of estimating sampling variance in RDS, despite the importance of variance estimation for the construction of confidence intervals and hypothesis tests. In this paper, we show that the estimators of RDS sampling variance rely on a critical assumption that the network is First Order Markov (FOM with respect to the dependent variable of interest. We demonstrate, through intuitive examples, mathematical generalizations, and computational experiments that current RDS variance estimators will always underestimate the population sampling variance of RDS in empirical networks that do not conform to the FOM assumption. Analysis of 215 observed university and school networks from Facebook and Add Health indicates that the FOM assumption is violated in every empirical network we analyze, and that these violations lead to substantially biased RDS estimators of sampling variance. We propose and test two alternative variance estimators that show some promise for reducing biases, but which also illustrate the limits of estimating sampling variance with only partial information on the underlying population social network.
Dynamical Flow Arrest in Confined Gravity Driven Flows of Soft Jammed Particles
Chaudhuri, Pinaki; Mansard, Vincent; Colin, Annie; Bocquet, Lyderic
2012-07-01
Using numerical simulations, we study the gravity driven flow of jammed soft disks in confined channels. We demonstrate that confinement results in increasing the yield threshold for the Poiseuille flow, in contrast to the planar Couette flow. By solving a nonlocal flow model for such systems, we show that this effect is due to the correlated dynamics responsible for flow, coupled with the stress heterogeneity imposed for the Poiseuille flow. We also observe that with increasing confinement, the cooperative nature of the flow results in increasing intermittent behavior. Our studies indicate that such features are generic properties of a wide variety of jammed materials.
Dynamics and predictability of a low-order wind-driven ocean - atmosphere model
Vannitsem, Stéphane
2013-04-01
The dynamics of a low order coupled wind-driven Ocean-Atmosphere (OA) system is investigated with emphasis on its predictability properties. The low-order coupled deterministic system is composed of a baroclinic atmosphere for which 12 dominant dynamical modes are only retained (Charney and Straus, 1980) and a wind-driven, quasi-geostrophic and reduced-gravity shallow ocean whose field is truncated to four dominant modes able to reproduce the large scale oceanic gyres (Pierini, 2011). The two models are coupled through mechanical forcings only. The analysis of its dynamics reveals first that under aperiodic atmospheric forcings only dominant single gyres (clockwise or counterclockwise) appear. This feature is expected to be related with the specific domain choice over which the coupled system is defined. Second the dynamical quantities characterizing the short-term predictability (Lyapunov exponents, Lyapunov dimension, Kolmogorov-Sinaï (KS) entropy) displays a complex dependence as a function of the key parameters of the system, namely the coupling strength and the external thermal forcing. In particular, the KS-entropy is increasing as a function of the coupling in most of the experiments, implying an increase of the rate of loss of information about the localization of the system on his attractor. Finally the dynamics of the error is explored and indicates, in particular, a rich variety of short term behaviors of the error in the atmosphere depending on the (relative) amplitude of the initial error affecting the ocean, from polynomial (at2 + bt3 + ct4) up to purely exponential evolutions. These features are explained and analyzed in the light of the recent findings on error growth (Nicolis et al, 2009). References Charney J G, Straus DM (1980) Form-Drag Instability, Multiple Equilibria and Propagating Planetary Waves in Baroclinic, Orographically Forced, Planetary Wave Systems. J Atmos Sci 37: 1157-1176. Nicolis C, Perdigao RAP, Vannitsem S (2009) Dynamics of
Dynamic Analysis of Structures Using Neural Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Ahmadi
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In the recent years, neural networks are considered as the best candidate for fast approximation with arbitrary accuracy in the time consuming problems. Dynamic analysis of structures against earthquake has the time consuming process. We employed two kinds of neural networks: Generalized Regression neural network (GR and Back-Propagation Wavenet neural network (BPW, for approximating of dynamic time history response of frame structures. GR is a traditional radial basis function neural network while BPW categorized as a wavelet neural network. In BPW, sigmoid activation functions of hidden layer neurons are substituted with wavelets and weights training are achieved using Scaled Conjugate Gradient (SCG algorithm. Comparison the results of BPW with those of GR in the dynamic analysis of eight story steel frame indicates that accuracy of the properly trained BPW was better than that of GR and therefore, BPW can be efficiently used for approximate dynamic analysis of structures.
Midfrequency band dynamics of large space structures
Coppolino, Robert N.; Adams, Douglas S.; Levine, Marie B.
2004-09-01
High and low intensity dynamic environments experienced by a spacecraft during launch and on-orbit operations, respectively, induce structural loads and motions, which are difficult to reliably predict. Structural dynamics in low- and mid-frequency bands are sensitive to component interface uncertainty and non-linearity as evidenced in laboratory testing and flight operations. Analytical tools for prediction of linear system response are not necessarily adequate for reliable prediction of mid-frequency band dynamics and analysis of measured laboratory and flight data. A new MATLAB toolbox, designed to address the key challenges of mid-frequency band dynamics, is introduced in this paper. Finite-element models of major subassemblies are defined following rational frequency-wavelength guidelines. For computational efficiency, these subassemblies are described as linear, component mode models. The complete structural system model is composed of component mode subassemblies and linear or non-linear joint descriptions. Computation and display of structural dynamic responses are accomplished employing well-established, stable numerical methods, modern signal processing procedures and descriptive graphical tools. Parametric sensitivity and Monte-Carlo based system identification tools are used to reconcile models with experimental data and investigate the effects of uncertainties. Models and dynamic responses are exported for employment in applications, such as detailed structural integrity and mechanical-optical-control performance analyses.
Dynamics of a vertical cavity quantum cascade phonon laser structure
Maryam, W.; Akimov, A. V.; Campion, R. P.; Kent, A. J.
2013-07-01
Driven primarily by scientific curiosity, but also by the potential applications of intense sources of coherent sound, researchers have targeted the phonon laser (saser) since the invention of the optical laser over 50 years ago. Here we fabricate a vertical cavity structure designed to operate as a saser oscillator device at a frequency of 325 GHz. It is based on a semiconductor superlattice gain medium, inside a multimode cavity between two acoustic Bragg reflectors. We measure the acoustic output of the device as a function of time after applying electrical pumping. The emission builds in intensity reaching a steady state on a timescale of order 0.1 μs. We show that the results are consistent with a model of the dynamics of a saser cavity exactly analogous to the models used for describing laser dynamics. We also obtain estimates for the gain coefficient, steady-state acoustic power output and efficiency of the device.
Damping mechanisms and models in structural dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen
2002-01-01
Several aspects of damping models for dynamic analysis of structures are investigated. First the causality condition for structural response is used to identify rules for the use of complex-valued frequency dependent material models, illustrated by the shortcomings of the elastic hysteretic model...
Droplet spreading driven by van der Waals force: a molecular dynamics study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu Congmin [Department of Mathematics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Qian Tiezheng [Department of Mathematics and Joint KAUST-HKUST Micro/Nanofluidics Laboratory, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Sheng Ping, E-mail: maqian@ust.h [Department of Physics and William Mong Institute of Nano Science and Technology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)
2010-08-18
The dynamics of droplet spreading is investigated by molecular dynamics simulations for two immiscible fluids of equal density and viscosity. All the molecular interactions are modeled by truncated Lennard-Jones potentials and a long-range van der Waals force is introduced to act on the wetting fluid. By gradually increasing the coupling constant in the attractive van der Waals interaction between the wetting fluid and the substrate, we observe a transition in the initial stage of spreading. There exists a critical value of the coupling constant, above which the spreading is pioneered by a precursor film. In particular, the dynamically determined critical value quantitatively agrees with that determined by the energy criterion that the spreading coefficient equals zero. The latter separates partial wetting from complete wetting. In the regime of complete wetting, the radius of the spreading droplet varies with time as R(t){approx}{radical}t, a behavior also found in molecular dynamics simulations where the wetting dynamics is driven by the short-range Lennard-Jones interaction between liquid and solid.
Droplet spreading driven by van der Waals force: a molecular dynamics study
Wu, Congmin
2010-07-07
The dynamics of droplet spreading is investigated by molecular dynamics simulations for two immiscible fluids of equal density and viscosity. All the molecular interactions are modeled by truncated Lennard-Jones potentials and a long-range van der Waals force is introduced to act on the wetting fluid. By gradually increasing the coupling constant in the attractive van der Waals interaction between the wetting fluid and the substrate, we observe a transition in the initial stage of spreading. There exists a critical value of the coupling constant, above which the spreading is pioneered by a precursor film. In particular, the dynamically determined critical value quantitatively agrees with that determined by the energy criterion that the spreading coefficient equals zero. The latter separates partial wetting from complete wetting. In the regime of complete wetting, the radius of the spreading droplet varies with time as R(t) ∼ √t, a behavior also found in molecular dynamics simulations where the wetting dynamics is driven by the short-range Lennard-Jones interaction between liquid and solid. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Differentiation driven changes in the dynamic organization of Basal transcription initiation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giuseppina Giglia-Mari
2009-10-01
Full Text Available Studies based on cell-free systems and on in vitro-cultured living cells support the concept that many cellular processes, such as transcription initiation, are highly dynamic: individual proteins stochastically bind to their substrates and disassemble after reaction completion. This dynamic nature allows quick adaptation of transcription to changing conditions. However, it is unknown to what extent this dynamic transcription organization holds for postmitotic cells embedded in mammalian tissue. To allow analysis of transcription initiation dynamics directly into living mammalian tissues, we created a knock-in mouse model expressing fluorescently tagged TFIIH. Surprisingly and in contrast to what has been observed in cultured and proliferating cells, postmitotic murine cells embedded in their tissue exhibit a strong and long-lasting transcription-dependent immobilization of TFIIH. This immobilization is both differentiation driven and development dependent. Furthermore, although very statically bound, TFIIH can be remobilized to respond to new transcriptional needs. This divergent spatiotemporal transcriptional organization in different cells of the soma revisits the generally accepted highly dynamic concept of the kinetic framework of transcription and shows how basic processes, such as transcription, can be organized in a fundamentally different fashion in intact organisms as previously deduced from in vitro studies.
The Structure and Dynamics of GRB Jets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Granot, Jonathan; /KIPAC, Menlo Park
2006-10-25
There are several lines of evidence which suggest that the relativistic outflows in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are collimated into narrow jets. The jet structure has important implications for the true energy release and the event rate of GRBs, and can constrain the mechanism responsible for the acceleration and collimation of the jet. Nevertheless, the jet structure and its dynamics as it sweeps up the external medium and decelerates, are not well understood. In this review I discuss our current understanding of GRB jets, stressing their structure and dynamics.
Centrifugal photovoltaic and photogalvanic effects driven by structured light
Wätzel, Jonas
2016-01-01
Much efforts are devoted to material structuring in a quest to enhance the photovoltaic effect. We show that structuring light in a way it transfers orbital angular momentum to semiconductor-based rings results in a steady charge accumulation at the outer boundaries that be utilized for the generation of an open circuit voltage or a photogalvanic (bulk photovoltaic) type current. This effect which stems both from structuring light and matter (confinement potentials), can be magnified even at fixed moderate intensities, by increasing the orbital angular momentum of light which strengthens the effective centrifugal potential that repels the charge outwards. Based on a full numerical time propagation of the carriers wave functions in the presence of light pulses we demonstrate how the charge buildup leads to a useable voltage or directed photocurrent whose amplitudes and directions are controllable by the light pulse parameters.
Intelligent Interface Architectures for Folksonomy Driven Structure Network
Mas, Massimiliano Dal
2012-01-01
The folksonomy is the result of free personal information or assignment of tags to an object (determined by the URI) in order to find them. The practice of tagging is done in a collective environment. Folksonomies are self constructed, based on co-occurrence of definitions, rather than a hierarchical structure of the data. The downside of this was that a few sites and applications are able to successfully exploit the sharing of bookmarks. The need for tools that are able to resolve the ambiguity of the definitions is becoming urgent as the need of simple instruments for their visualization, editing and exploitation in web applications still hinders their diffusion and wide adoption. An intelligent interactive interface design for folksonomies should consider the contextual design and inquiry based on a concurrent interaction for a perceptual user interfaces. To represent folksonomies a new concept structure called "Folksodriven" is used in this paper. While it is presented the Folksodriven Structure Network (...
Centrifugal photovoltaic and photogalvanic effects driven by structured light.
Wätzel, J; Berakdar, J
2016-02-22
Much efforts are devoted to material structuring in a quest to enhance the photovoltaic effect. We show that structuring light in a way it transfers orbital angular momentum to semiconductor-based rings results in a steady charge accumulation at the outer boundaries that can be utilized for the generation of an open circuit voltage or a photogalvanic (bulk photovoltaic) type current. This effect which stems both from structuring light and matter confinement potentials, can be magnified even at fixed moderate intensities, by increasing the orbital angular momentum of light which strengthens the effective centrifugal potential that repels the charge outwards. Based on a full numerical time propagation of the carriers wave functions in the presence of light pulses we demonstrate how the charge buildup leads to a useable voltage or directed photocurrent whose amplitudes and directions are controllable by the light pulse parameters.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAI Gan-wei; WANG Xiang; WANG Ru-gui; LI Zhao-jun; ZHANG Xiao-bin; CANG Ping-ping
2005-01-01
A motor-driven linkage system with links fabricated from 3-dimensional braided composite materials was studied. A group of coupling dynamic equations of the system, including composite materials parameters, electromagnetism parameters of the motor and structural parameters of the link mechanism, were established by finite element method. Based on the air-gap field of non-uniform airspace of three-phase alternating current motor caused by the vibration eccentricity of rotor, the relation of electromechanical coupling at the actual running state was analyzed. And the motor element, which defines the transverse vibration and torsional vibration of the motor as its nodal displacement, was established. Then, based on the damping element model and the expression of energy dissipation of the 3-dimentional braided composite materials, the damping matrix of the system was established by calculating each order modal damping of the mechanism.
Structure, dynamics, and ion conductance of the phospholamban pentamer.
Maffeo, Christopher; Aksimentiev, Aleksei
2009-06-17
A 52-residue membrane protein, phospholamban (PLN) is an inhibitor of an adenosine-5'-triphosphate-driven calcium pump, the Ca2+-ATPase. Although the inhibition of Ca2+-ATPase involves PLN monomers, in a lipid bilayer membrane, PLN monomers form stable pentamers of unknown biological function. The recent NMR structure of a PLN pentamer depicts cytoplasmic helices extending normal to the bilayer in what is known as the bellflower conformation. The structure shows transmembrane helices forming a hydrophobic pore 4 A in diameter, which is reminiscent of earlier reports of possible ion conductance through PLN pentamers. However, recent FRET measurements suggested an alternative structure for the PLN pentamer, known as the pinwheel model, which features a narrower transmembrane pore and cytoplasmic helices that lie against the bilayer. Here, we report on structural dynamics and conductance properties of the PLN pentamers from all-atom (AA) and coarse-grained (CG) molecular dynamics simulations. Our AA simulations of the bellflower model demonstrate that in a lipid bilayer membrane or a detergent micelle, the cytoplasmic helices undergo large structural fluctuations, whereas the transmembrane pore shrinks and becomes asymmetric. Similar asymmetry of the transmembrane region was observed in the AA simulations of the pinwheel model; the cytoplasmic helices remained in contact with the bilayer. Using the CG approach, structural dynamics of both models were investigated on a microsecond timescale. The cytoplasmic helices of the CG bellflower model were observed to fall against the bilayer, whereas in the CG pinwheel model the conformation of the cytoplasmic helices remained stable. Using steered molecular dynamics simulations, we investigated the feasibility of ion conductance through the pore of the bellflower model. The resulting approximate potentials of mean force indicate that the PLN pentamer is unlikely to function as an ion channel.
Ionization and bound-state relativistic quantum dynamics in laser-driven multiply charged ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hetzheim, Henrik
2009-01-14
The interaction of ultra-strong laser fields with multiply charged hydrogen-like ions can be distinguished in an ionization and a bound dynamics regime. Both are investigated by means of numerically solving the Dirac equation in two dimensions and by a classical relativistic Monte-Carlo simulation. For a better understanding of highly nonlinear physical processes the development of a well characterized ultra-intense relativistic laser field strength has been driven forward, capable of studying e.g. the magnetic field effects of the laser resulting in an additional electron motion in the laser propagation direction. A novel method to sensitively measure these ultra-strong laser intensities is developed and employed from the optical via the UV towards the XUV frequency regime. In the bound dynamics field, the determination of multiphoton transition matrixelements has been investigated between different bound states via Rabi oscillations. (orig.)
The demography of climate-driven and density-regulated population dynamics in a perennial plant
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahlgren, Johan; Bengstsson, Karin; Ehrlén, Johan
2016-01-01
Identifying the internal and external drivers of population dynamics is a key objective in ecology, currently accentuated by the need to forecast the effects of climate change on species distributions and abundances. The interplay between environmental and density effects is one particularly...... to be driven solely by the environment can overestimate extinction risks if there is density dependence. We conclude that density regulation can dampen effects of climate change on Fumana population size, and discuss the need to quantify density dependence in predictions of population responses...... important aspect of such forecasts. We examined the simultaneous impact of climate and intraspecific density on vital rates of the dwarf shrub Fumana procumbens over 20 yr, using generalized additive mixed models. We then analyzed effects on population dynamics using integral projection models...
Synchronized assembly of gold nanoparticles driven by a dynamic DNA-fueled molecular machine.
Song, Tingjie; Liang, Haojun
2012-07-04
A strategy for gold nanoparticle (AuNP) assembly driven by a dynamic DNA-fueled molecular machine is revealed here. In this machine, the aggregation of DNA-functionalized AuNPs is regulated by a series of toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions of DNA. The aggregation rate of the AuNPs can be regulated by controlling the amount of oligonucleotide catalyst. The versatility of the dynamic DNA-fueled molecular machine in the construction of two-component "OR" and "AND" logic gates has been demonstrated. This newly established strategy may find broad potential applications in terms of building up an "interface" that allows the combination of the strand displacement-based characteristic of DNA with the distinct assembly properties of inorganic nanoparticles, ultimately leading to the fabrication of a wide range of complex multicomponent devices and architectures.
Yang, Jing; Tan, Hua; Huang, Shanqian; Cui, Yujun; Dong, Lu; Ma, Chaofeng; Ma, Changan; Zhou, Sen; Wu, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Yanyun; Wang, Jingjun; Yang, Ruifu; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Xu, Bing
2017-01-01
Zoonoses are increasingly recognized as an important burden on global public health in the 21st century. High-resolution, long-term field studies are critical for assessing both the baseline and future risk scenarios in a world of rapid changes. We have used a three-decade-long field study on hantavirus, a rodent-borne zoonotic pathogen distributed worldwide, coupled with epidemiological data from an endemic area of China, and show that the shift in the ecological dynamics of Hantaan virus was closely linked to environmental fluctuations at the human-wildlife interface. We reveal that environmental forcing, especially rainfall and resource availability, exert important cascading effects on intra-annual variability in the wildlife reservoir dynamics, leading to epidemics that shift between stable and chaotic regimes. Our models demonstrate that bimodal seasonal epidemics result from a powerful seasonality in transmission, generated from interlocking cycles of agricultural phenology and rodent behavior driven by the rainy seasons. PMID:28141833
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yong-Hua Zhang; Jian-Hui He; Jie Yang; Shi-Wu Zhang; Kin Huat Low
2006-01-01
Many fishes use undulatory fin to propel themselves in the underwater environment. These locomotor mechanisms have a popular interest to many researchers. In the present study, we perform a three-dimensional unsteady computation of an undulatory mechanical fin that is driven by Shape Memory Alloy (SMA). The objective of the computation is to investigate the fluid dynamics of force production associated with the undulatory mechanical fin. An unstructured,grid-based, unsteady Navier-Stokes solver with automatic adaptive remeshing is used to compute the unsteady flow around the fin through five complete cycles. The pressure distribution on fin surface is computed and integrated to provide fin forces which are decomposed into lift and thrust. The velocity field is also computed throughout the swimming cycle. Finally, a comparison is conducted to reveal the dynamics of force generation according to the kinematic parameters of the undulatory fin (amplitude, frequency and wavelength).
Structural dynamics of liganded myoglobin.
Frauenfelder, H; Petsko, G A
1980-01-01
X-ray crystallography can reveal the magnitudes and principal directions of the mean-square displacements of every atom in a protein. This structural information is complementary to the temporal information obtainable by spectroscopic techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance. Determination of the temperature dependence of the mean-square displacements makes it possible to separate large conformational motions from simple thermal vibrations. The contribution of crystal lattice disorder to...
On Dynamics of Spinning Structures
Gupta, K. K.; Ibrahim, A.
2012-01-01
This paper provides details of developments pertaining to vibration analysis of gyroscopic systems, that involves a finite element structural discretization followed by the solution of the resulting matrix eigenvalue problem by a progressive, accelerated simultaneous iteration technique. Thus Coriolis, centrifugal and geometrical stiffness matrices are derived for shell and line elements, followed by the eigensolution details as well as solution of representative problems that demonstrates the efficacy of the currently developed numerical procedures and tools.
Creemers, B.P.M.; Kyriakides, L.
2010-01-01
This paper refers to a dynamic perspective of educational effectiveness and improvement stressing the importance of using an evidence-based and theory-driven approach. Specifically, an approach to school improvement based on the dynamic model of educational effectiveness is offered. The recommended
Sapsis, T.; Dijkstra, H.A.
2013-01-01
In this paper the authors study the interactions of additive noise and nonlinear dynamics in a quasi-geostrophicmodel of the double-gyre wind-driven ocean circulation. The recently developed framework of dynamically orthogonal field theory is used to determine the statistics of the flows that arise
Reichhardt, C.; Olson Reichhardt, C. J.
2017-02-01
We review the depinning and nonequilibrium phases of collectively interacting particle systems driven over random or periodic substrates. This type of system is relevant to vortices in type-II superconductors, sliding charge density waves, electron crystals, colloids, stripe and pattern forming systems, and skyrmions, and could also have connections to jamming, glassy behaviors, and active matter. These systems are also ideal for exploring the broader issues of characterizing transient and steady state nonequilibrium flow phases as well as nonequilibrium phase transitions between distinct dynamical phases, analogous to phase transitions between different equilibrium states. We discuss the differences between elastic and plastic depinning on random substrates and the different types of nonequilibrium phases which are associated with specific features in the velocity-force curves, fluctuation spectra, scaling relations, and local or global particle ordering. We describe how these quantities can change depending on the dimension, anisotropy, disorder strength, and the presence of hysteresis. Within the moving phase we discuss how there can be a transition from a liquid-like state to dynamically ordered moving crystal, smectic, or nematic states. Systems with periodic or quasiperiodic substrates can have multiple nonequilibrium second or first order transitions in the moving state between chaotic and coherent phases, and can exhibit hysteresis. We also discuss systems with competing repulsive and attractive interactions, which undergo dynamical transitions into stripes and other complex morphologies when driven over random substrates. Throughout this work we highlight open issues and future directions such as absorbing phase transitions, nonequilibrium work relations, inertia, the role of non-dissipative dynamics such as Magnus effects, and how these results could be extended to the broader issues of plasticity in crystals, amorphous solids, and jamming phenomena.
Sen, Arnab; Nandy, Sourav; Sengupta, K.
2016-12-01
We study a class of periodically driven d -dimensional integrable models and show that after n drive cycles with frequency ω , pure states with non-area-law entanglement entropy Sn(l ) ˜lα (n ,ω ) are generated, where l is the linear dimension of the subsystem, and d -1 ≤α (n ,ω )≤d . The exponent α (n ,ω ) eventually approaches d (volume law) for large enough l when n →∞ . We identify and analyze the crossover phenomenon from an area (S ˜ld -1 for d ≥1 ) to a volume (S ˜ld ) law and provide a criterion for their occurrence which constitutes a generalization of Hastings's theorem to driven integrable systems in one dimension. We also find that Sn generically decays to S∞ as (ω/n ) (d +2 )/2 for fast and (ω/n ) d /2 for slow periodic drives; these two dynamical phases are separated by a topological transition in the eigenspectrum of the Floquet Hamiltonian. This dynamical transition manifests itself in the temporal behavior of all local correlation functions and does not require a critical point crossing during the drive. We find that these dynamical phases show a rich re-entrant behavior as a function of ω for d =1 models and also discuss the dynamical transition for d >1 models. Finally, we study entanglement properties of the steady state and show that singular features (cusps and kinks in d =1 ) appear in S∞ as a function of ω whenever there is a crossing of the Floquet bands. We discuss experiments which can test our theory.
Dynamic Study of Bicycle Frame Structure
Sani, M. S. M.; Nazri, N. A.; Zahari, S. N.; Abdullah, N. A. Z.; Priyandoko, G.
2016-11-01
Bicycle frames have to bear variety of loads and it is needed to ensure the frame can withstand dynamic loads to move. This paper focusing on dynamic study for bicycle frame structure with a purpose to avoid the problem regarding loads on the structure and to ensure the structure is safe when multiple loads are applied on it. The main objectives of dynamic study are to find the modal properties using two method; finite element analysis (FEA) and experimental modal analysis (EMA). The correlation between two studies will be obtained using percentage error. Firstly, 3D model of mountain bike frame structure has been draw using computer-aided design (CAD) software and normal mode analysis using MSC Nastran Patran was executed for numerical method meanwhile modal testing using impact hammer was performed for experimental counterpart. From the correlation result, it show that percentage error between FEA and EMA were below 10% due to noise, imperfect experiment setup during perform EMA and imperfect modeling of mountain bike frame structure in CAD software. Small percentage error differences makes both of the method can be applied to obtain the dynamic characteristic of structure. It is essential to determine whether the structure is safe or not. In conclusion, model updating method is required to reduce more percentage error between two results.
Structural Equation Modeling of Travel Choice Dynamics
Golob, Thomas F.
1988-01-01
This research has two objectives. The first objective is to explore the use of the modeling tool called "latent structural equations" (structural equations with latent variables) in the general field of travel behavior analysis and the more specific field of dynamic analysis of travel behavior. The second objective is to apply a latent structural equation model in order to determine the causal relationships between income, car ownership, and mobility. Many transportation researchers ...
Structural Dynamics of Overcrowded Alkene-Based Molecular Motors during Thermal Isomerization
Cnossen, Arjen; Kistemaker, Jos C. M.; Kojima, Tatsuo; Feringa, Ben L.
2014-01-01
Synthetic light-driven rotary molecular motors show complicated structural dynamics during the rotation process. A combination of DFT calculations and various spectroscopic techniques is employed to study the effect of the bridging group in the lower half of the molecule on the conformational dynami
Photoassociation dynamics driven by second- and third-order phase-modulated laser fields
Wang, Meng; Chen, Mao-Du; Hu, Xue-Jin; Li, Jing-Lun; Cong, Shu-Lin
2016-05-01
We investigate theoretically the photoassociation dynamics of ultracold 85Rb atoms driven by second- and third-order phase-modulated laser fields. The interplay between the second-order and third-order terms of the phase-modulated pulse has an obvious influence on photoassociation dynamics. The different combinations of the second-order and third-order phase coefficients lead to different pulse shapes. Most of the molecular population in the excited electronic state driven only by the third-order phase pulses can be distributed in a single vibrational level. The second-order term of the phase-modulated pulse can change the instantaneous frequency, and therefore the final population is distributed on several resonant vibrational levels, instead of concentrating on a single level. Although the second- and third-order phase-modulated pulse covers more resonant vibrational levels, the total population on the resonant vibrational levels is much smaller than that controlled only by the third-order phase pulse. In particular, the third-order term of the phase-modulated pulse can weaken the ‘multiple interaction’ to some degree.
Sahoo, Avimanyu; Jagannathan, Sarangapani
2017-02-01
In this paper, an event-driven stochastic adaptive dynamic programming (ADP)-based technique is introduced for nonlinear systems with a communication network within its feedback loop. A near optimal control policy is designed using an actor-critic framework and ADP with event sampled state vector. First, the system dynamics are approximated by using a novel neural network (NN) identifier with event sampled state vector. The optimal control policy is generated via an actor NN by using the NN identifier and value function approximated by a critic NN through ADP. The stochastic NN identifier, actor, and critic NN weights are tuned at the event sampled instants leading to aperiodic weight tuning laws. Above all, an adaptive event sampling condition based on estimated NN weights is designed by using the Lyapunov technique to ensure ultimate boundedness of all the closed-loop signals along with the approximation accuracy. The net result is event-driven stochastic ADP technique that can significantly reduce the computation and network transmissions. Finally, the analytical design is substantiated with simulation results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Atsushi Fujimura
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Microenvironmental conditions such as hypoxia potentiate the local invasion of malignant tumors including glioblastomas by modulating signal transduction and protein modification, yet the mechanism by which hypoxia controls cytoskeletal dynamics to promote the local invasion is not well defined. Here, we show that cyclin G2 plays pivotal roles in the cytoskeletal dynamics in hypoxia-driven invasion by glioblastoma cells. Cyclin G2 is a hypoxia-induced and cytoskeleton-associated protein and is required for glioblastoma expansion. Mechanistically, cyclin G2 recruits cortactin to the juxtamembrane through its SH3 domain-binding motif and consequently promotes the restricted tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin in concert with src. Moreover, cyclin G2 interacts with filamentous actin to facilitate the formation of membrane ruffles. In primary glioblastoma, cyclin G2 is abundantly expressed in severely hypoxic regions such as pseudopalisades, which consist of actively migrating glioma cells. Furthermore, we show the effectiveness of dasatinib against hypoxia-driven, cyclin G2-involved invasion in vitro and in vivo. Our findings elucidate the mechanism of cytoskeletal regulation by which severe hypoxia promotes the local invasion and may provide a therapeutic target in glioblastoma.
Data-driven modelling of structured populations a practical guide to the integral projection model
Ellner, Stephen P; Rees, Mark
2016-01-01
This book is a “How To” guide for modeling population dynamics using Integral Projection Models (IPM) starting from observational data. It is written by a leading research team in this area and includes code in the R language (in the text and online) to carry out all computations. The intended audience are ecologists, evolutionary biologists, and mathematical biologists interested in developing data-driven models for animal and plant populations. IPMs may seem hard as they involve integrals. The aim of this book is to demystify IPMs, so they become the model of choice for populations structured by size or other continuously varying traits. The book uses real examples of increasing complexity to show how the life-cycle of the study organism naturally leads to the appropriate statistical analysis, which leads directly to the IPM itself. A wide range of model types and analyses are presented, including model construction, computational methods, and the underlying theory, with the more technical material in B...
Microstructure and velocity of field-driven Ising interfaces moving under a soft stochastic dynamic.
Rikvold, Per Arne; Kolesik, M
2003-06-01
We present theoretical and dynamic Monte Carlo simulation results for the mobility and microscopic structure of (1+1)-dimensional Ising interfaces moving far from equilibrium in an applied field under a single-spin-flip "soft" stochastic dynamic. The soft dynamic is characterized by the property that the effects of changes in field energy and interaction energy factorize in the transition rate, in contrast to the nonfactorizing nature of the traditional Glauber and Metropolis rates "hard" dynamics). This work extends our previous studies of the Ising model with a hard dynamic and the unrestricted solid-on-solid (SOS) model with soft and hard dynamics. [P. A. Rikvold and M. Kolesik, J. Stat. Phys. 100, 377 (2000); J. Phys. A 35, L117 (2002); Phys. Rev. E 66, 066116 (2002).] The Ising model with soft dynamics is found to have closely similar properties to the SOS model with the same dynamic. In particular, the local interface width does not diverge with increasing field as it does for hard dynamics. The skewness of the interface at nonzero field is very weak and has the opposite sign of that obtained with hard dynamics.
[Oligoglycine surface structures: molecular dynamics simulation].
Gus'kova, O A; Khalatur, P G; Khokhlov, A R; Chinarev, A A; Tsygankova, S V; Bovin, N V
2010-01-01
The full-atomic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of adsorption mode for diantennary oligoglycines [H-Gly4-NH(CH2)5]2 onto graphite and mica surface is described. The resulting structure of adsorption layers is analyzed. The peptide second structure motives have been studied by both STRIDE (structural identification) and DSSP (dictionary of secondary structure of proteins) methods. The obtained results confirm the possibility of polyglycine II (PGII) structure formation in diantennary oligoglycine (DAOG) monolayers deposited onto graphite surface, which was earlier estimated based on atomic-force microscopy measurements.
SPS driven lithium differential diffusion in NASICON-like structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marta Perez-Estébanez
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Samples of nominal composition Li1.3Fe0.3Ti1.7(PO43 with a NASICON-type crystal structure, can be sintered up to 95% of the theoretical density at only 600 °C using spark plasma sintering, SPS. The final pellets however show different colouration in their upper and lower faces, being the upper face white and the lower one pink. The analysis of both surfaces by XPS shows a higher concentration of lithium on the white upper face, as a consequence of the polar diffusion of ions from the positive to the negative rams during SPS. On the other hand the study by XRD and SEM shows the formation of an extra phase in the upper face with nominal composition LiOPO4. A change in the cell parameters of the original NASICON structure is also observed, confirming the diffusion of lithium ions.
Dynamics of localized structures in vector waves
Hernández-García, E; Colet, P; San Miguel, M; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio; Hoyuelos, Miguel; Colet, Pere; Miguel, Maxi San
1999-01-01
Dynamical properties of topological defects in a twodimensional complex vector field are considered. These objects naturally arise in the study of polarized transverse light waves. Dynamics is modeled by a Vector Complex Ginzburg-Landau Equation with parameter values appropriate for linearly polarized laser emission. Creation and annihilation processes, and selforganization of defects in lattice structures, are described. We find "glassy" configurations dominated by vectorial defects and a melting process associated to topological-charge unbinding.
Spin Dynamics in Confined Magnetic Structures III
Hillebrands, Burkard
2006-01-01
This third volume of Spin Dynamics in Confined Magnetic Structures addresses central aspects of spin-dynamic phenomena, including recent new developments, on a tutorial level. Researchers will find a comprehensive compilation of the current work in the field. Introductory chapters help newcomers to understand the basic concepts. The more advanced chapters give the current state of the art of spin dynamic issues ranging from the femtosecond to the microsecond regime. This volume concentrates on new experimental techniques such as ferromagnetic-resonance-force microscopy and two-photon photoemission, as well as on aspects of precessional switching, spin-wave excitation, vortex dynamics, spin relaxation, domain-wall dynamics in nanowires and their applications to magnetic logic devices. An important chapter is devoted to the presently very hot subject of the spin-transfer torque, combining the physics of electronic transport and micromagnetics. The comprehensive presentation of these developments makes this volu...
Quasar Evolution Driven by Galaxy Encounters in Hierarchical Structures
Menci, N; Fontana, A; Giallongo, E; Poli, F; Vittorini, V
2003-01-01
We link the evolution of the galaxies in the hierarchical clustering scenario with the changing accretion rates of cold gas onto the central massive black holes that power the quasars. We base on galaxy interactions as main triggers of accretion; the related scaling laws are taken up from Cavaliere & Vittorini (2000), and grafted to a semi-analytic code for galaxy formation. As a result, at high $z$ the protogalaxies grow rapidly by hierarchical merging; meanwhile, much fresh gas is imported and also destabilized, so the holes are fueled at their full Eddington rates. At lower $z$ the galactic dynamical events are mostly encounters in hierarchically growing groups; now the refueling peters out, as the residual gas is exhausted while the destabilizing encounters dwindle. So, with no parameter tuning other than needed for stellar observables, our model uniquely produces at $z>3$ a rise, and at $z\\lesssim 2.5 $ a decline of the bright quasar population as steep as observed. In addition, our results closely f...
Strength of concrete structures under dynamic loading
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumpyak, O. G., E-mail: ogkumpyak@yandex.ru; Galyautdinov, Z. R., E-mail: gazr@yandex.ru; Kokorin, D. N., E-mail: kokorindenn@yandex.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation)
2016-01-15
The use of elastic supports is one the efficient methods of decreasing the dynamic loading. The paper describes the influence of elastic supports on the stress-strain state of steel concrete structures exposed to one-time dynamic loading resulting in failure. Oblique bending beams on elastic supports and their elastic, elastoplastic, and elastoplastic consolidation behavior are considered in this paper. For numerical calculations the developed computer program is used based on the finite element method. Research findings prove high efficiency of elastic supports under dynamic loading conditions. The most effective behavior of elastic supports is demonstrated at the elastoplastic stage. A good agreement is observed between the theoretical and experimental results.
A Dynamic Remote Sensing Data-Driven Approach for Oil Spill Simulation in the Sea
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jining Yan
2015-05-01
Full Text Available In view of the fact that oil spill remote sensing could only generate the oil slick information at a specific time and that traditional oil spill simulation models were not designed to deal with dynamic conditions, a dynamic data-driven application system (DDDAS was introduced. The DDDAS entails both the ability to incorporate additional data into an executing application and, in reverse, the ability of applications to dynamically steer the measurement process. Based on the DDDAS, combing a remote sensor system that detects oil spills with a numerical simulation, an integrated data processing, analysis, forecasting and emergency response system was established. Once an oil spill accident occurs, the DDDAS-based oil spill model receives information about the oil slick extracted from the dynamic remote sensor data in the simulation. Through comparison, information fusion and feedback updates, continuous and more precise oil spill simulation results can be obtained. Then, the simulation results can provide help for disaster control and clean-up. The Penglai, Xingang and Suizhong oil spill results showed our simulation model could increase the prediction accuracy and reduce the error caused by empirical parameters in existing simulation systems. Therefore, the DDDAS-based detection and simulation system can effectively improve oil spill simulation and diffusion forecasting, as well as provide decision-making information and technical support for emergency responses to oil spills.
Selection-driven extinction dynamics for group II introns in Enterobacteriales.
Leclercq, Sébastien; Cordaux, Richard
2012-01-01
Transposable elements (TEs) are one of the major driving forces of genome evolution, raising the question of the long-term dynamics underlying their evolutionary success. Some TEs were proposed to evolve under a pattern of periodic extinctions-recolonizations, in which elements recurrently invade and quickly proliferate within their host genomes, then start to disappear until total extinction. Depending on the model, TE extinction is assumed to be driven by purifying selection against colonized host genomes (Sel-DE model) or by saturation of host genomes (Sat-DE model). Bacterial group II introns are suspected to follow an extinction-recolonization model of evolution, but whether they follow Sel-DE or Sat-DE dynamics is not known. Our analysis of almost 200 group II intron copies from 90 sequenced Enterobacteriales genomes confirms their extinction-recolonization dynamics: patchy element distributions among genera and even among strains within genera, acquisition of new group II introns through plasmids or other mobile genetic elements, and evidence for recent proliferations in some genomes. Distributions of recent and past proliferations and of their respective homing sites further provide strong support for the Sel-DE model, suggesting that group II introns are deleterious to their hosts. Overall, our observations emphasize the critical impact of host properties on TE dynamics.
Selection-driven extinction dynamics for group II introns in Enterobacteriales.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sébastien Leclercq
Full Text Available Transposable elements (TEs are one of the major driving forces of genome evolution, raising the question of the long-term dynamics underlying their evolutionary success. Some TEs were proposed to evolve under a pattern of periodic extinctions-recolonizations, in which elements recurrently invade and quickly proliferate within their host genomes, then start to disappear until total extinction. Depending on the model, TE extinction is assumed to be driven by purifying selection against colonized host genomes (Sel-DE model or by saturation of host genomes (Sat-DE model. Bacterial group II introns are suspected to follow an extinction-recolonization model of evolution, but whether they follow Sel-DE or Sat-DE dynamics is not known. Our analysis of almost 200 group II intron copies from 90 sequenced Enterobacteriales genomes confirms their extinction-recolonization dynamics: patchy element distributions among genera and even among strains within genera, acquisition of new group II introns through plasmids or other mobile genetic elements, and evidence for recent proliferations in some genomes. Distributions of recent and past proliferations and of their respective homing sites further provide strong support for the Sel-DE model, suggesting that group II introns are deleterious to their hosts. Overall, our observations emphasize the critical impact of host properties on TE dynamics.
Dynamic Modeling and Motion Simulation for A Winged Hybrid-Driven Underwater Glider
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Shu-xin; SUN Xiu-jun; WANG Yan-hui; WU Jian-guo; WANG Xiao-ming
2011-01-01
PETREL,a winged hybrid-driven underwater glider is a novel and practical marine survey platform which combines the features of legacy underwater glider and conventional AUV(autonomous underwater vehicle).It can be treated as a multi-rigid-body system with a floating base and a particular hydrodynamic profile.In this paper,theorems on linear and angular momentum are used to establish the dynamic equations of motion of each rigid body and the effect of translational and rotational motion of internal masses on the attitude control are taken into consideration.In addition,due to the unique external shape with fixed wings and deflectable rudders and the dual-drive operation in thrust and glide modes,the approaches of building dynamic model of conventional AUV and hydrodynamic model of submarine are introduced,and the tailored dynamic equations of the hybrid glider are formulated.Moreover,the behaviors of motion in glide and thrust operation are analyzed based on the simulation and the feasibility of the dynamic model is validated by data from lake field trials.
Nonlinear Dynamics of Structures with Material Degradation
Soltani, P.; Wagg, D. J.; Pinna, C.; Whear, R.; Briody, C.
2016-09-01
Structures usually experience deterioration during their working life. Oxidation, corrosion, UV exposure, and thermo-mechanical fatigue are some of the most well-known mechanisms that cause degradation. The phenomenon gradually changes structural properties and dynamic behaviour over their lifetime, and can be more problematic and challenging in the presence of nonlinearity. In this paper, we study how the dynamic behaviour of a nonlinear system changes as the thermal environment causes certain parameters to vary. To this end, a nonlinear lumped mass modal model is considered and defined under harmonic external force. Temperature dependent material functions, formulated from empirical test data, are added into the model. Using these functions, bifurcation parameters are defined and the corresponding nonlinear responses are observed by numerical continuation. A comparison between the results gives a preliminary insight into how temperature induced properties affects the dynamic response and highlights changes in stability conditions of the structure.
A Dynamic Model for Energy Structure Analysis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Energy structure is a complicated system concerning economic development, natural resources, technological innovation, ecological balance, social progress and many other elements. It is not easy to explain clearly the developmental mechanism of an energy system and the mutual relations between the energy system and its related environments by the traditional methods. It is necessary to develop a suitable dynamic model, which can reflect the dynamic characteristics and the mutual relations of the energy system and its related environments. In this paper, the historical development of China's energy structure was analyzed. A new quantitative analysis model was developed based on system dynamics principles through analysis of energy resources, and the production and consumption of energy in China and comparison with the world. Finally, this model was used to predict China's future energy structures under different conditions.
Simultaneous determination of protein structure and dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Best, Robert B.; DePristo, M. A.
2005-01-01
We present a protocol for the experimental determination of ensembles of protein conformations that represent simultaneously the native structure and its associated dynamics. The procedure combines the strengths of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-for obtaining experimental information...... at the atomic level about the structural and dynamical features of proteins-with the ability of molecular dynamics simulations to explore a wide range of protein conformations. We illustrate the method for human ubiquitin in solution and find that there is considerable conformational heterogeneity throughout...... the protein structure. The interior atoms of the protein are tightly packed in each individual conformation that contributes to the ensemble but their overall behaviour can be described as having a significant degree of liquid-like character. The protocol is completely general and should lead to significant...
Unifying dynamical and structural stability of equilibria
Arnoldi, Jean-François; Haegeman, Bart
2016-09-01
We exhibit a fundamental relationship between measures of dynamical and structural stability of linear dynamical systems-e.g. linearized models in the vicinity of equilibria. We show that dynamical stability, quantified via the response to external perturbations (i.e. perturbation of dynamical variables), coincides with the minimal internal perturbation (i.e. perturbations of interactions between variables) able to render the system unstable. First, by reformulating a result of control theory, we explain that harmonic external perturbations reflect the spectral sensitivity of the Jacobian matrix at the equilibrium, with respect to constant changes of its coefficients. However, for this equivalence to hold, imaginary changes of the Jacobian's coefficients have to be allowed. The connection with dynamical stability is thus lost for real dynamical systems. We show that this issue can be avoided, thus recovering the fundamental link between dynamical and structural stability, by considering stochastic noise as external and internal perturbations. More precisely, we demonstrate that a linear system's response to white-noise perturbations directly reflects the intensity of internal white-noise disturbance that it can accommodate before becoming stochastically unstable.
Structure removal: An argument for feature-driven Merge
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gereon Müller
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Assuming that it needs to be decided at some point whether a given Merge('α','β' operation is legitimate, there are two basic options. The first possibility is that one of the two categories is equipped with an intrinsic formal property (typically encoded as a feature requiring the other one to combine with it. The second possibility is that Merge applies freely throughout, and that filters check the output representation and decide about the legitimacy of the operation. The two approaches are often extensionally equivalent. In this paper, I provide an argument for the first view that is based on the hypothesis that in addition to the Merge operation that 'builds 'structure, there is also a mirror image operation Remove that 'removes 'structure: If such an operation exists, the legitimacy of the original Merge operation cannot be checked by output filters anymore. Empirical evidence for an elementary syntactic operation Remove is drawn from four domains of German syntax: passive, applicative, restructuring, and complex prefields. This article is part of the special collection: What drives syntactic computation?
SPS driven lithium differential diffusion in NASICON-like structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perez-Estebanez, M.; Peiteado, M.; Caballero, A. C.; Palomares, F. J.; Nygren, M.; Isasi Marin, J.
2016-05-01
Samples of nominal composition Li{sub 1}.3Fe{sub 0}.3Ti{sub 1}.7(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} with a NASICON-type crystal structure, can be sintered up to 95% of the theoretical density at only 600 degree centigrade using spark plasma sintering, SPS. The final pellets however show different colouration in their upper and lower faces, being the upper face white and the lower one pink. The analysis of both surfaces by XPS shows a higher concentration of lithium on the white upper face, as a consequence of the polar diffusion of ions from the positive to the negative rams during SPS. On the other hand the study by XRD and SEM shows the formation of an extra phase in the upper face with nominal composition LiOPO{sub 4}. A change in the cell parameters of the original NASICON structure is also observed, confirming the diffusion of lithium ions. (Author)
Dynamics of Capillary-Driven Flow in 3D Printed Open Microchannels.
Lade, Robert K; Hippchen, Erik J; Macosko, Christopher W; Francis, Lorraine F
2017-03-28
Microchannels have applications in microfluidic devices, patterns for micromolding, and even flexible electronic devices. Three-dimensional (3D) printing presents a promising alternative manufacturing route for these microchannels due to the technology's relative speed and the design freedom it affords its users. However, the roughness of 3D printed surfaces can significantly influence flow dynamics inside of a microchannel. In this work, open microchannels are fabricated using four different 3D printing techniques: fused deposition modeling (FDM), stereolithography (SLA), selective laser sintering, and multi jet modeling. Microchannels printed with each technology are evaluated with respect to their surface roughness, morphology, and how conducive they are to spontaneous capillary filling. Based on this initial assessment, microchannels printed with FDM and SLA are chosen as models to study spontaneous, capillary-driven flow dynamics in 3D printed microchannels. Flow dynamics are investigated over short (∼10(-3) s), intermediate (∼1 s), and long (∼10(2) s) time scales. Surface roughness causes a start-stop motion down the channel due to contact line pinning, while the cross-sectional shape imparted onto the channels during the printing process is shown to reduce the expected filling velocity. A significant delay in the onset of Lucas-Washburn dynamics (a long-time equilibrium state where meniscus position advances proportionally to the square root of time) is also observed. Flow dynamics are assessed as a function of printing technology, print orientation, channel dimensions, and liquid properties. This study provides the first in-depth investigation of the effect of 3D printing on microchannel flow dynamics as well as a set of rules on how to account for these effects in practice. The extension of these effects to closed microchannels and microchannels fabricated with other 3D printing technologies is also discussed.
Structural dynamics of electronic and photonic systems
Suhir, Ephraim; Steinberg, David S
2011-01-01
The proposed book will offer comprehensive and versatile methodologies and recommendations on how to determine dynamic characteristics of typical micro- and opto-electronic structural elements (printed circuit boards, solder joints, heavy devices, etc.) and how to design a viable and reliable structure that would be able to withstand high-level dynamic loading. Particular attention will be given to portable devices and systems designed for operation in harsh environments (such as automotive, aerospace, military, etc.) In-depth discussion from a mechanical engineer's viewpoint will be conducte
Time Variation of the Fine Structure Constant Driven by Quintessence
Anchordoqui, L A; Anchordoqui, Luis; Goldberg, Haim
2003-01-01
There are indications from the study of quasar absorption spectra that the fine structure constant $\\alpha$ may have been measurably smaller for redshifts $z>2.$ Analyses of other data ($^{149}$Sm fission rate for the Oklo natural reactor, variation of $^{187}$Re $\\beta$-decay rate in meteorite studies, atomic clock measurements) which probe variations of $\\alpha$ in the more recent past imply much smaller deviations from its present value. In this work we tie the variation of $\\alpha$ to the evolution of the quintessence field proposed by Albrecht and Skordis, and show that agreement with all these data, as well as consistency with WMAP observations, can be achieved for a range of parameters. Some definite predictions follow for upcoming space missions searching for violations of the equivalence principle.
Time variation of the fine structure constant driven by quintessence
Anchordoqui, Luis; Goldberg, Haim
2003-10-01
There are indications from the study of quasar absorption spectra that the fine structure constant α may have been measurably smaller for redshifts z>2. Analyses of other data (149Sm fission rate for the Oklo natural reactor, variation of 187Re β-decay rate in meteorite studies, atomic clock measurements) which probe variations of α in the more recent past imply much smaller deviations from its present value. In this work we tie the variation of α to the evolution of the quintessence field proposed by Albrecht and Skordis, and show that agreement with all these data, as well as consistency with Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations, can be achieved for a range of parameters. Some definite predictions follow for upcoming space missions searching for violations of the equivalence principle.
Intergyre transport in a wind-driven, quasigeostrophic double gyre: An application of lobe dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Coulliette
2001-01-01
Full Text Available We study the flow obtained from a three-layer, eddy-resolving quasigeostrophic ocean circulation model subject to an applied wind stress curl. For this model we will consider transport between the northern and southern gyres separated by an eastward jet. We will focus on the use of techniques from dynamical systems theory, particularly lobe dynamics, in the forming of geometric structures that govern transport. By "govern", we mean they can be used to compute Lagrangian transport quantities, such as the flux across the jet. We will consider periodic, quasiperiodic, and chaotic velocity fields, and thus assess the effectiveness of dynamical systems techniques in flows with progressively more spatio-temporal complexity. The numerical methods necessary to implement the dynamical systems techniques and the significance of lobe dynamics as a signature of specific "events", such as rings pinching off from a meandering jet, are also discussed.
Intergyre transport in a wind-driven, quasigeostrophic double gyre: An application of lobe dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Coulliette
2000-01-01
Full Text Available We study the flow obtained from a three-layer, eddy-resolving quasigeostrophic ocean circulation model subject to an applied wind stress curl. For this model we will consider transport between the northern and southern gyres separated by an eastward jet. We will focus on the use of techniques from dynamical systems theory, particularly lobe dynamics, in the forming of geometric structures that govern transport. By "govern", we mean they can be used to compute Lagrangian transport quantities, such as the flux across the jet. We will consider periodic, quasiperiodic, and chaotic velocity fields, and thus assess the effectiveness of dynamical systems techniques in flows with progressively more spatio-temporal complexity. The numerical methods necessary to implement the dynamical systems techniques and the significance of lobe dynamics as a signature of specific "events", such as rings pinching off from a meandering jet, are also discussed.
Chemical structure and dynamics: Annual report 1993
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Colson, S.D.
1994-07-01
The Chemical Structure and Dynamics program responds to the need for a fundamental, molecular-level understanding of chemistry at the wide variety of environmentally-important interfaces. The research program is built around the established relationship between structure, thermodynamics, and kinetics. This research effort continues to evolve into a program of rigorous studies of fundamental molecular processes in model systems (e.g., well-characterized surfaces, single-component solutions, clusters, and biological molecules), and studies of complex systems found in the environment. Experimental studies of molecular and supramolecular structures and thermodynamics are key to understanding the nature of matter, and lead to direct comparison with computational results. Kinetic and mechanistic measurements, combined with real-time dynamics measurements of atomic and molecular motions during chemical reactions, provide for a molecular-level description of chemical reactions. The anticipated results of this work are the achievement of a quantitative understanding of chemical processes at complex interfaces, the development of new techniques for the detection and measurement of species at such interfaces, and the interpretation and extrapolation of the observations in terms of models of interfacial chemistry. The Chemical Structure and Dynamics research program includes five areas described in detail in this report: Reaction mechanisms at solid interfaces; Solution and solution interfaces; Structure and dynamics of biological systems; Analytical methods development; and atmospheric chemistry. Extended abstracts are presented for 23 studies.
Multiscale structure in eco-evolutionary dynamics
Stacey, Blake C.
In a complex system, the individual components are neither so tightly coupled or correlated that they can all be treated as a single unit, nor so uncorrelated that they can be approximated as independent entities. Instead, patterns of interdependency lead to structure at multiple scales of organization. Evolution excels at producing such complex structures. In turn, the existence of these complex interrelationships within a biological system affects the evolutionary dynamics of that system. I present a mathematical formalism for multiscale structure, grounded in information theory, which makes these intuitions quantitative, and I show how dynamics defined in terms of population genetics or evolutionary game theory can lead to multiscale organization. For complex systems, "more is different," and I address this from several perspectives. Spatial host--consumer models demonstrate the importance of the structures which can arise due to dynamical pattern formation. Evolutionary game theory reveals the novel effects which can result from multiplayer games, nonlinear payoffs and ecological stochasticity. Replicator dynamics in an environment with mesoscale structure relates to generalized conditionalization rules in probability theory. The idea of natural selection "acting at multiple levels" has been mathematized in a variety of ways, not all of which are equivalent. We will face down the confusion, using the experience developed over the course of this thesis to clarify the situation.
The Intense Arctic Cyclone of Early August 2012: A Dynamically Driven Cyclogenesis Event
Bosart, L. F.; Turchioe, A.; Adamchcik, E.
2013-12-01
A series of surface cyclones formed along an anomalously strong northeast-southwest oriented baroclinic zone over north-central Russia on 1-3 August 2012. These cyclones moved northeastward, intensified slowly, and crossed the coast of Russia by 4 August. The last cyclone in the series strengthened rapidly as it moved poleward over the Arctic Ocean on 5-6 August, achieved a minimum sea level pressure of impact the Arctic Ocean in the modern data record going back to the International Geophysical Year in 1957-1958. The purpose of this presentation is to illustrate the structure and life cycle of this Arctic Ocean cyclone from a multiscale perspective. Anticyclonic wave breaking in the upper troposphere across Russia in late July and very early August 2012 created an anomalously strong baroclinic zone across northern Asia between 60-80°N. During 1-5 August, negative 850 hPa temperature anomalies between -2° and -4°C were found poleward of 70-75°N between 90°E and the Dateline over the Arctic Ocean while positive 850 hPa temperature anomalies of 8-9°C were found over eastern Russia near 60°N. The associated anomalously strong 850 hPa meridional temperature gradient of ~10°C (2000 km)-1 helped to sustain an anomalously strong (20-30 m s-1) 250 hPa jet along the coast of northeastern Russia. A local wind speed maximum (~50 m s-1 ) embedded in this 250 hPa jet corridor contributed to the extreme intensity of the trailing (last) surface cyclone in the series. Although the dominant surface cyclone in the series of surface cyclones intensified most rapidly over the relatively ice free Arctic Ocean, the impact of surface heat and moisture fluxes appeared to be secondary to jet-driven dynamical processes in the deepening process. Anomalously high observed 1000-500 hPa thickness values between 564-570 dam, precipitable water values between 30-40 mm, and CAPE values between 500-1000 J kg-1 in the warm sector of the developing cyclone over north-central Russia were
Charge and spin dynamics driven by ultrashort extreme broadband pulses: A theory perspective
Moskalenko, Andrey S.; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Berakdar, Jamal
2017-02-01
This article gives an overview on recent theoretical progress in controlling the charge and spin dynamics in low-dimensional electronic systems by means of ultrashort and ultrabroadband electromagnetic pulses. A particular focus is put on sub-cycle and single-cycle pulses and their utilization for coherent control. The discussion is mostly limited to cases where the pulse duration is shorter than the characteristic time scales associated with the involved spectral features of the excitations. The relevant current theoretical knowledge is presented in a coherent, pedagogic manner. We work out that the pulse action amounts in essence to a quantum map between the quantum states of the system at an appropriately chosen time moment during the pulse. The influence of a particular pulse shape on the post-pulse dynamics is reduced to several integral parameters entering the expression for the quantum map. The validity range of this reduction scheme for different strengths of the driving fields is established and discussed for particular nanostructures. Acting with a periodic pulse sequence, it is shown how the system can be steered to and largely maintained in predefined states. The conditions for this nonequilibrium sustainability are worked out by means of geometric phases, which are identified as the appropriate quantities to indicate quasistationarity of periodically driven quantum systems. Demonstrations are presented for the control of the charge, spin, and valley degrees of freedom in nanostructures on picosecond and subpicosecond time scales. The theory is illustrated with several applications to one-dimensional semiconductor quantum wires and superlattices, double quantum dots, semiconductor and graphene quantum rings. In the case of a periodic pulsed driving the influence of the relaxation and decoherence processes is included by utilizing the density matrix approach. The integrated and time-dependent spectra of the light emitted from the driven system deliver
Dynamic behaviors of pretensioned cable AERORail structure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李方元; 吴培峰
2015-01-01
The AERORail, a new aerial transport platform, was chosen as the object of this work. Following a review of the literature on static behaviors, model tests on the basic dynamic mechanical characteristics were conducted. A series of 90 tests were completed with different factors, including tension force, vehicle load and vehicle speed. With regard to the proper tension and vehicle load, at a certain speed range, the tension increments of the rail’s cable were proved relatively small. It can be assumed that the change of tension is small and can be reasonably ignored when the tension of an entire span is under a dynamic load. When the tension reaches a certain range, the calculation of the cable track structure using classical cable theory is acceptable. The tests prove that the average maximum dynamic amplification factor of the deflection is small, generally no more than 1.2. However, when the vehicle speed reaches a certain value, the amplified factor will reach 2.0. If the moving loads increase, the dynamic amplification factor of dynamic deflection will also increase. The tension will change the rigidity of the structure and the vibration frequency; furthermore, the resonance speed will change at a certain tension. The vibration is noticeable when vehicles pass through at the resonance speed, and this negative impact on driving comfort requires the right velocity to avoid the resonance. The results demonstrate that more design details are required for the AERORail structure.
Vicario, J; Walko, M; Meetsma, A; Feringa, Ben L.
2006-01-01
The introduction of bulky substituents at the stereogenic center of light-driven second-generation molecular motors results in an acceleration of the speed of rotation. This is due to a more strained structure with elongated C=C bonds and a higher energy level of the ground state relative to the tra
Branco, António Horta; Costa, Francisco
2005-01-01
This technical report collects the extended abstracts selected for presentation at HPSG 2005 - The 12th International Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (University of Lisbon, August 23-24, 2005 - http://hpsg2005.di.fc.ul.pt/) by the corresponding program committee
Complex Spectra Structure of an Attosecond Pulse Train Driven by Sub-5-fs Laser Pulses
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YUN Chen-Xia; TENG Hao; ZHANG Wei; WANG Li-Feng; ZHAN Min-Jie; HE Xin-Kui; WANG Bing-Bing; WEI Zhi-Yi
2011-01-01
We present the observation of the additional spectral components between the odd order harmonics in the harmonic spectrum generated from argon gas driven by sub-5-fs laser pulses.The theoretical analysis shows that the asymmetric laser field in both spatial and temporal domains leads to this complicated spectrum structure of high order harmonics.
Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps
Hunter, Maria O.; Michael Keller; Douglas Morton; Bruce Cook; Michael Lefsky; Mark Ducey; Scott Saleska; Raimundo Cosme de Oliveira; Juliana Schietti
2015-01-01
Gap phase dynamics are the dominant mode of forest turnover in tropical forests. However, gap processes are infrequently studied at the landscape scale. Airborne lidar data offer detailed information on three-dimensional forest structure, providing a means to characterize fine-scale (1 m) processes in tropical forests over large areas. Lidar-based estimates of forest structure (top down) differ from traditional field measurements (bottom up), and necessitate clear-cut definitions unencumbered...
Protein Secondary Structure Prediction Using Dynamic Programming
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jing ZHAO; Pei-Ming SONG; Qing FANG; Jian-Hua LUO
2005-01-01
In the present paper, we describe how a directed graph was constructed and then searched for the optimum path using a dynamic programming approach, based on the secondary structure propensity of the protein short sequence derived from a training data set. The protein secondary structure was thus predicted in this way. The average three-state accuracy of the algorithm used was 76.70%.
Dynamics and predictability of a low-order wind-driven ocean-atmosphere coupled model
Vannitsem, Stéphane
2014-04-01
The dynamics of a low-order coupled wind-driven ocean-atmosphere system is investigated with emphasis on its predictability properties. The low-order coupled deterministic system is composed of a baroclinic atmosphere for which 12 dominant dynamical modes are only retained (Charney and Straus in J Atmos Sci 37:1157-1176, 1980) and a wind-driven, quasi-geostrophic and reduced-gravity shallow ocean whose field is truncated to four dominant modes able to reproduce the large scale oceanic gyres (Pierini in J Phys Oceanogr 41:1585-1604, 2011). The two models are coupled through mechanical forcings only. The analysis of its dynamics reveals first that under aperiodic atmospheric forcings only dominant single gyres (clockwise or counterclockwise) appear, while for periodic atmospheric solutions the double gyres emerge. In the present model domain setting context, this feature is related to the level of truncation of the atmospheric fields, as indicated by a preliminary analysis of the impact of higher wavenumber ("synoptic" scale) modes on the development of oceanic gyres. In the latter case, double gyres appear in the presence of a chaotic atmosphere. Second the dynamical quantities characterizing the short-term predictability (Lyapunov exponents, Lyapunov dimension, Kolmogorov-Sinaï (KS) entropy) displays a complex dependence as a function of the key parameters of the system, namely the coupling strength and the external thermal forcing. In particular, the KS-entropy is increasing as a function of the coupling in most of the experiments, implying an increase of the rate of loss of information about the localization of the system on its attractor. Finally the dynamics of the error is explored and indicates, in particular, a rich variety of short term behaviors of the error in the atmosphere depending on the (relative) amplitude of the initial error affecting the ocean, from polynomial ( at 2 + bt 3 + ct 4) up to exponential-like evolutions. These features are explained
Langhammer, Jakub; Miřijovský, Jakub; Hartvich, Filip; Kaiglová, Jana
2014-05-01
Current progress in hydrology and fluvial geomorphology is largely based on new field survey and analysis techniques, employing advanced technologies for monitoring the dynamics of the runoff process, field surveying and for remote monitoring of changes in riverbeds and of fluvial dynamics. Application of these techniques allows researchers to obtain information on a significantly higher qualitative level than using traditional methods of field survey and measurement, either in terms of spatial accuracy and resolution, frequency of sampling or qualitative characteristics of acquired data. The contribution demonstrates the potential of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) for analysis of fluvial dynamics of montane stream, driven by flood in combination with other survey techniques, namely the ground LiDAR scanning, digital granulometry and automated water level monitoring. The UAS photogrammetry is employed in the study to acquire high precision DTMs, enabling reconstruction of riverbed and quantitative analysis of volumetric changes related to initial flood events. The hexacopter UAS platform has been used to acquire the data for photogrammetric analysis of complex stretch of stream with historically elevated fluvial dynamics. The photogrammetric reconstruction enabled to build accurate DTM of riverbed and floodplain before and after the initial event and to calculate the extent of volumetric changes. The potential of UAS photogrammetry for fluvio morphological study is in combination with other monitoring and survey techniques, enabling complex analysis of fluvial dynamics. The magnitude, duration and hydrological properties of initial flood event were derived from automated high frequency water level monitoring. The digital granulometry enabled to analyze the structure of sedimentary material in floodplain. The terrestrial LiDAR scanning allows construction of very detailed 3D models of selected fluvial forms, enabling deeper insight into the effects of fluvial
Identifying Community Structures in Dynamic Networks
Alvari, Hamidreza; Sukthankar, Gita; Lakkaraju, Kiran
2016-01-01
Most real-world social networks are inherently dynamic, composed of communities that are constantly changing in membership. To track these evolving communities, we need dynamic community detection techniques. This article evaluates the performance of a set of game theoretic approaches for identifying communities in dynamic networks. Our method, D-GT (Dynamic Game Theoretic community detection), models each network node as a rational agent who periodically plays a community membership game with its neighbors. During game play, nodes seek to maximize their local utility by joining or leaving the communities of network neighbors. The community structure emerges after the game reaches a Nash equilibrium. Compared to the benchmark community detection methods, D-GT more accurately predicts the number of communities and finds community assignments with a higher normalized mutual information, while retaining a good modularity.
Probing the dynamics of identified neurons with a data-driven modeling approach.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas Nowotny
Full Text Available In controlling animal behavior the nervous system has to perform within the operational limits set by the requirements of each specific behavior. The implications for the corresponding range of suitable network, single neuron, and ion channel properties have remained elusive. In this article we approach the question of how well-constrained properties of neuronal systems may be on the neuronal level. We used large data sets of the activity of isolated invertebrate identified cells and built an accurate conductance-based model for this cell type using customized automated parameter estimation techniques. By direct inspection of the data we found that the variability of the neurons is larger when they are isolated from the circuit than when in the intact system. Furthermore, the responses of the neurons to perturbations appear to be more consistent than their autonomous behavior under stationary conditions. In the developed model, the constraints on different parameters that enforce appropriate model dynamics vary widely from some very tightly controlled parameters to others that are almost arbitrary. The model also allows predictions for the effect of blocking selected ionic currents and to prove that the origin of irregular dynamics in the neuron model is proper chaoticity and that this chaoticity is typical in an appropriate sense. Our results indicate that data driven models are useful tools for the in-depth analysis of neuronal dynamics. The better consistency of responses to perturbations, in the real neurons as well as in the model, suggests a paradigm shift away from measuring autonomous dynamics alone towards protocols of controlled perturbations. Our predictions for the impact of channel blockers on the neuronal dynamics and the proof of chaoticity underscore the wide scope of our approach.
How much does weather-driven vegetation dynamics matter in land surface modelling?
Ingwersen, Joachim; Streck, Thilo
2016-04-01
Land surface models (LSM) are an essential part of weather and climate models as they provide the lower boundary condition for the atmospheric models. In state-of-the-art LSMs the seasonal vegetation dynamics is "frozen". The seasonal variation of vegetation state variables, such as leaf area index or green vegetation fraction, are prescribed in lookup tables. Hence, a year-by-year variation in the development of vegetation due to changing weather conditions cannot be considered. For climate simulations, this is obviously a severe drawback. The objective of the present study was to quantify the potential error in the simulation of land surface exchange processes resulting from "frozen" vegetation dynamics. For this purpose we simulated energy and water fluxes from a winter wheat stand and a maize stand in Southwest Germany. In a first set of simulations, six years (2010 to 2015) were simulated considering weather-driven vegetation dynamics. For this purpose, we coupled the generic crop growth model GECROS with the NOAH-MP model (NOAHMP-GECROS). In a second set of simulations all vegetation-related state variables of the 2010 simulation were written to an external file and were used to overwrite the vegetation-related state variables of the simulations of the years 2011-2015. The difference between both sets was taken as a measure for the potential error introduced to the LSM due to the assumption of a "frozen" vegetation dynamics. We will present first results and discuss the impact of "frozen" vegetation dynamics on climate change simulations.
Ultrafast structural dynamics of perovskite superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Woerner, M.; Korff Schmising, C. von; Zhavoronkov, N.; Elsaesser, T. [Max-Born-Institut fuer Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie, Berlin (Germany); Bargheer, M. [Universitaet Potsdam, Institut fuer Physik und Astronomie, Potsdam (Germany); Vrejoiu, I.; Hesse, D.; Alexe, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Halle (Germany)
2009-07-15
Femtosecond X-ray diffraction provides direct insight into the ultrafast reversible lattice dynamics of materials with a perovskite structure. Superlattice (SL) structures consisting of a sequence of nanometer-thick layer pairs allow for optically inducing a tailored stress profile that drives the lattice motions and for limiting the influence of strain propagation on the observed dynamics. We demonstrate this concept in a series of diffraction experiments with femtosecond time resolution, giving detailed information on the ultrafast lattice dynamics of ferroelectric and ferromagnetic superlattices. Anharmonically coupled lattice motions in a SrRuO{sub 3}/PbZr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} (SRO/PZT) SL lead to a switch-off of the electric polarizations on a time scale of the order of 1 ps. Ultrafast magnetostriction of photoexcited SRO layers is demonstrated in a SRO/SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) SL. (orig.)
An action potential-driven model of soleus muscle activation dynamics for locomotor-like movements
Kim, Hojeong; Sandercock, Thomas G.; Heckman, C. J.
2015-08-01
Objective. The goal of this study was to develop a physiologically plausible, computationally robust model for muscle activation dynamics (A(t)) under physiologically relevant excitation and movement. Approach. The interaction of excitation and movement on A(t) was investigated comparing the force production between a cat soleus muscle and its Hill-type model. For capturing A(t) under excitation and movement variation, a modular modeling framework was proposed comprising of three compartments: (1) spikes-to-[Ca2+]; (2) [Ca2+]-to-A; and (3) A-to-force transformation. The individual signal transformations were modeled based on physiological factors so that the parameter values could be separately determined for individual modules directly based on experimental data. Main results. The strong dependency of A(t) on excitation frequency and muscle length was found during both isometric and dynamically-moving contractions. The identified dependencies of A(t) under the static and dynamic conditions could be incorporated in the modular modeling framework by modulating the model parameters as a function of movement input. The new modeling approach was also applicable to cat soleus muscles producing waveforms independent of those used to set the model parameters. Significance. This study provides a modeling framework for spike-driven muscle responses during movement, that is suitable not only for insights into molecular mechanisms underlying muscle behaviors but also for large scale simulations.
Translocation dynamics of a short polymer driven by an oscillating force.
Pizzolato, Nicola; Fiasconaro, Alessandro; Adorno, Dominique Persano; Spagnolo, Bernardo
2013-02-07
We study the translocation dynamics of a short polymer moving in a noisy environment and driven by an oscillating force. The dynamics is numerically investigated by solving a Langevin equation in a two-dimensional domain. We consider a phenomenological cubic potential with a metastable state to model the polymer-pore interaction and the entropic free energy barrier characterizing the translocation process. The mean first translocation time of the center of inertia of polymers shows a nonmonotonic behavior, with a minimum, as a function of the number of the monomers. The dependence of the mean translocation time on the polymer chain length shows a monotonically increasing behavior for high values of the number of monomers. Moreover, the translocation time shows a minimum as a function of the frequency of the oscillating forcing field for all the polymer lengths investigated. This finding represents the evidence of the resonant activation phenomenon in the dynamics of polymer translocation, whose occurrence is maintained for different values of the noise intensity.
Structure and dynamics of the solar chromosphere
Krijger, Johannes Mattheus
2002-01-01
The thesis "Structure and dynamics of the solar chromosphere" of J.M. Krijger is a study on the behavior of the solar chromosphere, the thin layer just above the solar surface (photosphere) visible in purple red light during a total solar eclipse. The most important result of this thesis is that the
Structure and dynamics of the solar chromosphere
Krijger, Johannes Mattheus
2003-01-01
The thesis "Structure and dynamics of the solar chromosphere" of J.M. Krijger is a study on the behavior of the solar chromosphere, the thin layer just above the solar surface (photosphere) visible in purple red light during a total solar eclipse. The most important result of this thesis is that the
Wang, Luying; Dumont, Randall S.; Dickson, James M.
2013-03-01
Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations are presented to investigate the effect of water-membrane interactions on the transport properties of pressure-driven water flow passing through carbon nanotube (CNT) membranes. The CNT membrane is modified with different physical properties to alter the van der Waals interactions or the electrostatic interactions between water molecules and the CNT membranes. The unmodified and modified CNT membranes are models of simplified nanofiltration (NF) membranes at operating conditions consistent with real NF systems. All NEMD simulations are run with constant pressure difference (8.0 MPa) temperature (300 K), constant pore size (0.643 nm radius for CNT (12, 12)), and membrane thickness (6.0 nm). The water flow rate, density, and velocity (in flow direction) distributions are obtained by analyzing the NEMD simulation results to compare transport through the modified and unmodified CNT membranes. The pressure-driven water flow through CNT membranes is from 11 to 21 times faster than predicted by the Navier-Stokes equations. For water passing through the modified membrane with stronger van der Waals or electrostatic interactions, the fast flow is reduced giving lower flow rates and velocities. These investigations show the effect of water-CNT membrane interactions on water transport under NF operating conditions. This work can help provide and improve the understanding of how these membrane characteristics affect membrane performance for real NF processes.
Dynamic evolution of a flow to localized, kinetics-driven ablation or coagulation
Hagan, Daniel; Crocker, Ryan; Dubief, Yves
2012-11-01
This research focuses on the numerical simulation of the ablative creation of a cavity or a coagulative formation at a wall in a flow. The fluid-solid interface is defined by a level set (LS) variable, whose transport equation is driven by the mass-loss or growth process. The boundary conditions at the fluid-solid interface are enforced by a mass and energy-conserving immersed boundary method (IBM) using the ghost-fluid node approach for the latter and for the transport of chemical species. The first application of the LS/IBM algorithm is a channel flow in which both walls are cavity-free, but one wall contains a section made of ablatable material, which could correspond to a hole or gap in a spacecraft thermal protection shield. The second application is a pipe flow in which the wall is capable of accumulating material, which could describe the coagulation of blood at a vessel wall. The solid mass loss or growth is driven by one step kinetics. For both flows, the dynamical interplay between the ablative or coagulative patch is investigated through statistics and flow topology. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of NASA, grant No. NNX11AM07A, and NIH, grant No. P01HL46703, and the computational support of the Vermont Advanced Computing Core.
Wang, Luying; Dumont, Randall S; Dickson, James M
2013-03-28
Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations are presented to investigate the effect of water-membrane interactions on the transport properties of pressure-driven water flow passing through carbon nanotube (CNT) membranes. The CNT membrane is modified with different physical properties to alter the van der Waals interactions or the electrostatic interactions between water molecules and the CNT membranes. The unmodified and modified CNT membranes are models of simplified nanofiltration (NF) membranes at operating conditions consistent with real NF systems. All NEMD simulations are run with constant pressure difference (8.0 MPa) temperature (300 K), constant pore size (0.643 nm radius for CNT (12, 12)), and membrane thickness (6.0 nm). The water flow rate, density, and velocity (in flow direction) distributions are obtained by analyzing the NEMD simulation results to compare transport through the modified and unmodified CNT membranes. The pressure-driven water flow through CNT membranes is from 11 to 21 times faster than predicted by the Navier-Stokes equations. For water passing through the modified membrane with stronger van der Waals or electrostatic interactions, the fast flow is reduced giving lower flow rates and velocities. These investigations show the effect of water-CNT membrane interactions on water transport under NF operating conditions. This work can help provide and improve the understanding of how these membrane characteristics affect membrane performance for real NF processes.
Huang, Weidong; Li, Kun; Wang, Gan; Wang, Yingzhe
2013-11-01
In this article, we present a newly designed inverse umbrella surface aerator, and tested its performance in driving flow of an oxidation ditch. Results show that it has a better performance in driving the oxidation ditch than the original one with higher average velocity and more uniform flow field. We also present a computational fluid dynamics model for predicting the flow field in an oxidation ditch driven by a surface aerator. The improved momentum source term approach to simulate the flow field of the oxidation ditch driven by an inverse umbrella surface aerator was developed and validated through experiments. Four kinds of turbulent models were investigated with the approach, including the standard k-ɛ model, RNG k-ɛ model, realizable k-ɛ model, and Reynolds stress model, and the predicted data were compared with those calculated with the multiple rotating reference frame approach (MRF) and sliding mesh approach (SM). Results of the momentum source term approach are in good agreement with the experimental data, and its prediction accuracy is better than MRF, close to SM. It is also found that the momentum source term approach has lower computational expenses, is simpler to preprocess, and is easier to use.
Time-driven activity-based costing: A dynamic value assessment model in pediatric appendicitis.
Yu, Yangyang R; Abbas, Paulette I; Smith, Carolyn M; Carberry, Kathleen E; Ren, Hui; Patel, Binita; Nuchtern, Jed G; Lopez, Monica E
2017-06-01
Healthcare reform policies are emphasizing value-based healthcare delivery. We hypothesize that time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) can be used to appraise healthcare interventions in pediatric appendicitis. Triage-based standing delegation orders, surgical advanced practice providers, and a same-day discharge protocol were implemented to target deficiencies identified in our initial TDABC model. Post-intervention process maps for a hospital episode were created using electronic time stamp data for simple appendicitis cases during February to March 2016. Total personnel and consumable costs were determined using TDABC methodology. The post-intervention TDABC model featured 6 phases of care, 33 processes, and 19 personnel types. Our interventions reduced duration and costs in the emergency department (-41min, -$23) and pre-operative floor (-57min, -$18). While post-anesthesia care unit duration and costs increased (+224min, +$41), the same-day discharge protocol eliminated post-operative floor costs (-$306). Our model incorporating all three interventions reduced total direct costs by 11% ($2753.39 to $2447.68) and duration of hospitalization by 51% (1984min to 966min). Time-driven activity-based costing can dynamically model changes in our healthcare delivery as a result of process improvement interventions. It is an effective tool to continuously assess the impact of these interventions on the value of appendicitis care. II, Type of study: Economic Analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Proteins with Novel Structure, Function and Dynamics
Pohorille, Andrew
2014-01-01
Recently, a small enzyme that ligates two RNA fragments with the rate of 10(exp 6) above background was evolved in vitro (Seelig and Szostak, Nature 448:828-831, 2007). This enzyme does not resemble any contemporary protein (Chao et al., Nature Chem. Biol. 9:81-83, 2013). It consists of a dynamic, catalytic loop, a small, rigid core containing two zinc ions coordinated by neighboring amino acids, and two highly flexible tails that might be unimportant for protein function. In contrast to other proteins, this enzyme does not contain ordered secondary structure elements, such as alpha-helix or beta-sheet. The loop is kept together by just two interactions of a charged residue and a histidine with a zinc ion, which they coordinate on the opposite side of the loop. Such structure appears to be very fragile. Surprisingly, computer simulations indicate otherwise. As the coordinating, charged residue is mutated to alanine, another, nearby charged residue takes its place, thus keeping the structure nearly intact. If this residue is also substituted by alanine a salt bridge involving two other, charged residues on the opposite sides of the loop keeps the loop in place. These adjustments are facilitated by high flexibility of the protein. Computational predictions have been confirmed experimentally, as both mutants retain full activity and overall structure. These results challenge our notions about what is required for protein activity and about the relationship between protein dynamics, stability and robustness. We hypothesize that small, highly dynamic proteins could be both active and fault tolerant in ways that many other proteins are not, i.e. they can adjust to retain their structure and activity even if subjected to mutations in structurally critical regions. This opens the doors for designing proteins with novel functions, structures and dynamics that have not been yet considered.
Pulse-driven near-resonant quantum adiabatic dynamics: lifting of quasi-degeneracy
Yatsenko, L P; Jauslin, H R
2003-01-01
We study the quantum dynamics of a two-level system driven by a pulse that starts near-resonant for small amplitudes, yielding nonadiabatic evolution, and induces an adiabatic evolution for larger amplitudes. This problem is analyzed in terms of lifting of degeneracy for rising amplitudes. It is solved exactly for the case of linear and exponential rising. Approximate solutions are given in the case of power law rising. This allows us to determine approximative formulas for the lineshape of resonant excitation by various forms of pulses such as truncated trig-pulses. We also analyze and explain the various superpositions of states that can be obtained by the Half Stark Chirped Rapid Adiabatic Passage (Half-SCRAP) process.
Dynamical Properties of a Single-Mode Laser Driven by Quadratic Pump Noise
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Li; CAO Li
2007-01-01
We propose a single-mode laser model driven by quadratic pump noise with cross correlation between the real and imaginary parts of the pump noise. The effect of the cross-correlation coefficient λp between the real and imaginary parts of the pump noise on dynamical properties is studied by using of the linear approximation. The theoretical expressions of intensity correlation function λ(t), normalized intensity fluctuation λ(0) are calculated.It is found that the most conspicuous effects of λp on both the intensity correlation function and the normalized intensity fluctuation appear at |λp| = √0.5, but not at |λp| = 1.
Lee, P.; Maynard, G.; Audet, T. L.; Cros, B.; Lehe, R.; Vay, J.-L.
2016-11-01
The dynamics of electron acceleration driven by laser wakefield is studied in detail using the particle-in-cell code WARP with the objective to generate high-quality electron bunches with narrow energy spread and small emittance, relevant for the electron injector of a multistage accelerator. Simulation results, using experimentally achievable parameters, show that electron bunches with an energy spread of ˜11 % can be obtained by using an ionization-induced injection mechanism in a mm-scale length plasma. By controlling the focusing of a moderate laser power and tailoring the longitudinal plasma density profile, the electron injection beginning and end positions can be adjusted, while the electron energy can be finely tuned in the last acceleration section.
Coherent dynamical recoupling of diffusion-driven decoherence in magnetic resonance
Alvarez, Gonzalo A; Frydman, Lucio
2013-01-01
During recent years, dynamical decoupling (DD) has gained relevance as a tool for manipulating quantum systems and extracting information from them. This is particularly relevant for spins involved in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), where DD sequences can be used to prolong quantum coherences, or for selectively couple/decouple the effects imposed by random environmental fluctuations. In this Letter, we show that one can exploit these concepts in order to selectively recouple diffusion processes in restricted spaces. The ensuing method provides a novel tool to measure restriction lengths in confined systems such as capillaries, pores or cells. The principles of this method for selectively recoupling diffusion-driven decoherence, its standing within the context of diffusion NMR, and corroborating experiments, are presented.
Dynamic evolution of outer radiation belt electrons driven by superluminous R-X mode waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
We present initial results on the temporal evolution of the phase space density (PSD) of the outer radiation belt energetic electrons driven by the superluminous R-X mode waves. We calculate diffusion rates in pitch angle and momentum assuming the standard Gaussian distributions in both wave frequency and wave normal angle at the location L=6.5. We solve a 2D momentum-pitch-angle Fokker-Planck equation using those diffusion rates as inputs. Numerical results show that R-X mode can produce significant acceleration of relativistic electrons around geostationary orbit,supporting previous findings that superluminous waves potentially contribute to dramatic variation in the outer radiation belt electron dynamics.
Deng, Ming-Xun; Zhong, Ming; Zheng, Shi-Han; Qiu, Jian-Ming; Yang, Mou; Wang, Rui-Qiang
2016-02-01
We theoretically study thermally driven transport of the Dirac fermions on the surface of a topological insulator capped with a ferromagnet strip. The generation and manipulation of anomalous Hall and Nernst effects are analyzed, in which the in-plane magnetization of the ferromagnet film is found to take a decisive role. This scenario is distinct from that modulated by Berry phase where the in-plane magnetization is independent. We further discuss the thermal spin-transfer torque as a backaction of the thermoelectric transports on the magnetization and calculate the dynamics of the anomalous Hall and Nernst effects self-consistently. It is found that the magnitude of the long-time steady Hall and Nernst conductance is determined by competition between the magnetic anisotropy and current-induced effective anisotropy. These results open up a possibility of magnetically controlling the transverse thermoelectric transports or thermally manipulating the magnet switching.
Effects of Detunings on Dynamically Induced Irreversibility in Coherently Driven Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU Xiang-Ming; PENG Jin-Sheng
2000-01-01
Effects of detunings on dynamically induced irreversibilityis studied for coherently driven V systems in which there is no conventional source of irreversible population pumping. For atomic barium (γ1/γ2 = 400 》 1, where γ1 and γ2 are the rates of the spontaneous decay from the excited states 6s6p 1P1 and 6s6p 3p1 to the ground state 6s2 1So, espectively), the strong irreversibility is found to lead to a maximum inversion of 0.77 [only 0.1 in Phys. Rev. Lett. 71 (1993) 4311]. The maximum population inversion requires relatively strong fields coupled respectively to two transitions, a disparity in two atomic decay rates, and the atom-field detunings of opposite signs. However, it is also shown that even in the cases where two detunings have the same sign, or where two decay rates are equal, population inversion takes place.
Picosecond dynamics of a shock-driven displacive phase transformation in Zr
Swinburne, T. D.; Glavicic, M. G.; Rahman, K. M.; Jones, N. G.; Coakley, J.; Eakins, D. E.; White, T. G.; Tong, V.; Milathianaki, D.; Williams, G. J.; Rugg, D.; Sutton, A. P.; Dye, D.
2016-04-01
High-pressure solid-state transformations at high strain rates are usually observed after the fact, either during static holding or after unloading, or inferred from interferometry measurements of the sample surface. The emergence of femtosecond x-ray diffraction techniques provides insight into the dynamics of short-time-scale events such as shocks. We report laser pump-probe experiments of the response of Zr to laser-driven shocks over the first few nanoseconds of the shock event, enabling the α →ω transition and orientation relationship to be observed in real time with picosecond resolution. A clear orientation relationship of (101 ¯0 ) α|| (101 ¯1 ) ω is found, in conflict with ω →α annealing experiments in zirconium and the two α →ω pathways proposed for titanium.
A SOI-Based Low Noise and Wide Dynamic Range Event-Driven Detector for X-Ray Imaging
Shrestha, Sumeet; Kawahito, Shoji; Yasutomi, Keita; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Takeda, Ayaki; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Arai, Yasuo
2015-01-01
A low noise and wide dynamic range event driven detector for the detection of X-Ray energy is realized using 0.2 [um] Silicon on insulator (SOI) technology. Pixel circuits are divided into two parts; signal sensing circuit and event detection circuit. Event detection circuit is activated when X-Ray energy falls into the detector. In-pixel gain selection is implemented for the detection of a small signal and wide band of energy particle. Adaptive gain and capability of correlated double sampling (CDS) technique for the kTC noise canceling of charge detector realizes the low noise and high dynamic range event driven detector.
Development of High-Gradient Dielectric Laser-Driven Particle Accelerator Structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Byer, Robert L.
2013-11-07
The thrust of Stanford's program is to conduct research on high-gradient dielectric accelerator structures driven with high repetition-rate, tabletop infrared lasers. The close collaboration between Stanford and SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) is critical to the success of this project, because it provides a unique environment where prototype dielectric accelerator structures can be rapidly fabricated and tested with a relativistic electron beam.
Turgman-Cohen, Salomon
2013-10-08
We consider an atomistic model to investigate the flux of water through thin Linde type A (LTA) zeolite membranes with differing surface chemistries. Using molecular dynamics, we have studied the flow of water under hydrostatic pressure through a fully hydrated LTA zeolite film (∼2.5 nm thick) capped with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties. Pressure drops in the 50-400 MPa range were applied across the membrane, and the flux of water was monitored for at least 15 ns of simulation time. For hydrophilic membranes, water molecules adsorb at the zeolite surface, creating a highly structured fluid layer. For hydrophobic membranes, a depletion of water molecules occurs near the water/zeolite interface. For both types of membranes, the water structure is independent of the pressure drop established in the system and the flux through the membranes is lower than that observed for the bulk zeolitic material; the latter allows an estimation of surface barrier effects to pressure-driven water transport. Mechanistically, it is observed that (i) bottlenecks form at the windows of the zeolite structure, preventing the free flow of water through the porous membrane, (ii) water molecules do not move through a cage in a single-file fashion but rather exhibit a broad range of residence times and pronounced mixing, and (iii) a periodic buildup of a pressure difference between inlet and outlet cages takes place which leads to the preferential flow of water molecules toward the low-pressure cages. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Study of the critical behavior of the driven lattice gas model with limited nonequilibrium dynamics
Saracco, Gustavo P.; Rubio Puzzo, M. Leticia; Bab, Marisa A.
2017-02-01
In this paper the nonequilibrium critical behavior is investigated using a variant of the well-known two-dimensional driven lattice gas (DLG) model, called modified driven lattice gas (MDLG). In this model, the application of the external field is regulated by a parameter p ɛ [ 0 , 1 ] in such a way that if p = 0, the field is not applied, and it becomes the Ising model, while if p = 1, the DLG model is recovered. The behavior of the model is investigated for several values of p by studying the dynamic evolution of the system within the short-time regime in the neighborhood of a phase transition. It is found that the system experiences second-order phase transitions in all the interval of p for the density of particles ρ = 0.5. The determined critical temperatures Tc(p) are greater than the critical temperature of the Ising model TcI, and increase with p up to the critical temperature of the DLG model in the limit of infinite driving fields. The dependence of Tc(p) on p is compatible with a power-law behavior whose exponent is ψ = 0.27(3) . Furthermore, the complete set of the critical and the anisotropic exponents is estimated. For the smallest value of p, the dynamics and β exponents are close to that calculated for the Ising model, and the anisotropic exponent Δ is near zero. As p is increased, the exponents and Δ change, meaning that the anisotropy effects increase. For the largest value investigated, the set of exponents approaches to that reported by the most recent theoretical framework developed for the DLG model.
Temperature dynamics and velocity scaling laws for interchange driven, warm ion plasma filaments
Olsen, Jeppe; Madsen, Jens; Nielsen, Anders Henry; Rasmussen, Jens Juul; Naulin, Volker
2016-04-01
The influence of electron and ion temperature dynamics on the radial convection of isolated structures in magnetically confined plasmas is investigated by means of numerical simulations. It is demonstrated that the maximum radial velocity of these plasma blobs roughly follows the inertial velocity scaling, which is proportional to the ion acoustic speed times the square root of the filament particle density times the sum of the electron and ion temperature perturbations. Only for small blobs the cross field convection does not follow this scaling. The influence of finite Larmor radius effects on the cross-field blob convection is shown not to depend strongly on the dynamical ion temperature field. The blob dynamics of constant finite and dynamical ion temperature blobs is similar. When the blob size is on the order of 10 times the ion Larmor radius the blobs stay coherent and decelerate slowly compared to larger blobs which dissipate faster due to fragmentation and turbulent mixing.
Ariel, Federico; Jegu, Teddy; Latrasse, David; Romero-Barrios, Natali; Christ, Aurélie; Benhamed, Moussa; Crespi, Martin
2014-08-07
The eukaryotic epigenome is shaped by the genome topology in three-dimensional space. Dynamic reversible variations in this epigenome structure directly influence the transcriptional responses to developmental cues. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) APOLO is transcribed by RNA polymerases II and V in response to auxin, a phytohormone controlling numerous facets of plant development. This dual APOLO transcription regulates the formation of a chromatin loop encompassing the promoter of its neighboring gene PID, a key regulator of polar auxin transport. Altering APOLO expression affects chromatin loop formation, whereas RNA-dependent DNA methylation, active DNA demethylation, and Polycomb complexes control loop dynamics. This dynamic chromatin topology determines PID expression patterns. Hence, the dual transcription of a lincRNA influences local chromatin topology and directs dynamic auxin-controlled developmental outputs on neighboring genes. This mechanism likely underscores the adaptive success of plants in diverse environments and may be widespread in eukaryotes.
Exploiting Dynamically Propositional Logic Structures in SAT
Chen, Jingchao
2011-01-01
The 32-bit hwb (hwb-n32 for short) problem is from equivalence checking that arises in combining two circuits computing the hidden weighted bit function. Since 2002, it remains still unsolvable in every SAT competition. This paper focuses on solving problems such as hwb-n32. Generally speaking, modern solvers can detect only XOR, AND, OR and ITE gates. Other non-clausal formulas (propositional logic structures) cannot be detected. To solve the hwb-n32 problem, we extract dynamically some special propositional logic structures, and then use a variant of DPLL-based solvers to solve the subproblem simplified by the extracted structure information. Using the dynamic extraction technique, we solved efficiently the hwb-n32 problem, even some of which were solved within 3000 seconds.
Correlation Measure Equivalence in Dynamic Causal Structures
Gyongyosi, Laszlo
2016-01-01
We prove an equivalence transformation between the correlation measure functions of the causally-unbiased quantum gravity space and the causally-biased standard space. The theory of quantum gravity fuses the dynamic (nonfixed) causal structure of general relativity and the quantum uncertainty of quantum mechanics. In a quantum gravity space, the events are causally nonseparable and all time bias vanishes, which makes it no possible to use the standard causally-biased entropy and the correlation measure functions. Since a corrected causally-unbiased entropy function leads to an undefined, obscure mathematical structure, in our approach the correction is made in the data representation of the causally-unbiased space. We prove that the standard causally-biased entropy function with a data correction can be used to identify correlations in dynamic causal structures. As a corollary, all mathematical properties of the causally-biased correlation measure functions are preserved in the causally-unbiased space. The eq...
Temperature dynamics and velocity scaling laws for interchange driven, warm ion plasma filaments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Jeppe Miki Busk; Madsen, Jens; Nielsen, Anders Henry
2016-01-01
The influence of electron and ion temperature dynamics on the radial convection of isolated structures in magnetically confined plasmas is investigated by means of numerical simulations. It is demonstrated that the maximum radial velocity of these plasma blobs roughly follows the inertial velocit...
Mostafavi, S.; Morales Beltran, M.G.; Biloria, N.M.
2013-01-01
This paper presents a performance driven computational design methodology through introducing a case on parametric structural design. The paper describes the process of design technology development and frames a design methodology through which engineering, -in this case structural- aspects of
The fundamental structures of dynamic social networks
Sekara, Vedran; Lehmann, Sune
2015-01-01
Networks provide a powerful mathematical framework for analyzing the structure and dynamics of complex systems (1-3). The study of group behavior has deep roots in the social science literature (4,5) and community detection is a central part of modern network science. Network communities have been found to be highly overlapping and organized in a hierarchical structure (6-9). Recent technological advances have provided a toolset for measuring the detailed social dynamics at scale (10,11). In spite of great progress, a quantitative description of the complex temporal behavior of social groups-with dynamics spanning from minute-by-minute changes to patterns expressed on the timescale of years-is still absent. Here we uncover a class of fundamental structures embedded within highly dynamic social networks. On the shortest time-scale, we find that social gatherings are fluid, with members coming and going, but organized via a stable core of individuals. We show that cores represent social contexts (9), with recur...
Soliton structure dynamics in inhomogeneous media
Guerrero, L E; González, J A
1998-01-01
We show that soliton interaction with finite-width inhomogeneities can activate a great number of soliton internal modes. We obtain the exact stationary soliton solution in the presence of inhomogeneities and solve exactly the stability problem. We present a Karhunen-Loeve analysis of the soliton structure dynamics as a time-dependent force pumps energy into the traslational mode of the kink. We show the importance of the internal modes of the soliton as they can generate shape chaos for the soliton as well as cases in which the first shape mode leads the dynamics.
Carey, Ryan M; Sherwood, William Erik; Shipley, Michael T; Borisyuk, Alla; Wachowiak, Matt
2015-05-01
Olfaction in mammals is a dynamic process driven by the inhalation of air through the nasal cavity. Inhalation determines the temporal structure of sensory neuron responses and shapes the neural dynamics underlying central olfactory processing. Inhalation-linked bursts of activity among olfactory bulb (OB) output neurons [mitral/tufted cells (MCs)] are temporally transformed relative to those of sensory neurons. We investigated how OB circuits shape inhalation-driven dynamics in MCs using a modeling approach that was highly constrained by experimental results. First, we constructed models of canonical OB circuits that included mono- and disynaptic feedforward excitation, recurrent inhibition and feedforward inhibition of the MC. We then used experimental data to drive inputs to the models and to tune parameters; inputs were derived from sensory neuron responses during natural odorant sampling (sniffing) in awake rats, and model output was compared with recordings of MC responses to odorants sampled with the same sniff waveforms. This approach allowed us to identify OB circuit features underlying the temporal transformation of sensory inputs into inhalation-linked patterns of MC spike output. We found that realistic input-output transformations can be achieved independently by multiple circuits, including feedforward inhibition with slow onset and decay kinetics and parallel feedforward MC excitation mediated by external tufted cells. We also found that recurrent and feedforward inhibition had differential impacts on MC firing rates and on inhalation-linked response dynamics. These results highlight the importance of investigating neural circuits in a naturalistic context and provide a framework for further explorations of signal processing by OB networks.
Optimal Control Strategy for Traffic Driven Epidemic Spreading Based on Community Structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fei Shao
2013-01-01
Full Text Available It is shown that community structure has a great impact on traffic transportation and epidemic spreading. The density of infected nodes and the epidemic threshold have been proven to have significant relationship with the node betweenness in traffic driven epidemic spreading method. In this paper, considering the impact of community structure on traffic driven epidemic spreading, an effective and novel strategy to control epidemic spreading in scale-free networks is proposed. Theoretical analysis shows that the new control strategy will obviously increase the ratio between the first and the second moments of the node betweenness distribution in scale-free networks. It is also found that the more accurate the community is identified, the stronger community structure the network has and the more efficient the control strategy is. Simulations on both computer-generated and real-world networks have confirmed the theoretical results.
Dynamics and structure of stretched flames
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Law, C.K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)
1993-12-01
This program aims to gain fundamental understanding on the structure, geometry, and dynamics of laminar premixed flames, and relate these understanding to the practical issues of flame extinction and stabilization. The underlying fundamental interest here is the recent recognition that the response of premixed flames can be profoundly affected by flame stretch, as manifested by flow nonuniformity, flame curvature, and flame/flow unsteadiness. As such, many of the existing understanding on the behavior of premixed flames need to be qualitatively revised. The research program consists of three major thrusts: (1) detailed experimental and computational mapping of the structure of aerodynamically-strained planar flames, with emphasis on the effects of heat loss, nonequidiffusion, and finite residence time on the flame thickness, extent of incomplete reaction, and the state of extinction. (2) Analytical study of the geometry and dynamics of stretch-affected wrinkled flame sheets in simple configurations, as exemplified by the Bunsen flame and the spatially-periodic flame, with emphasis on the effects of nonlinear stretch, the phenomena of flame cusping, smoothing, and tip opening, and their implications on the structure and burning rate of turbulent flames. (3) Stabilization and blowoff of two-dimensional inverted premixed and stabilization and determining the criteria governing flame blowoff. The research is synergistically conducted through the use of laser-based diagnostics, computational simulation of the flame structure with detailed chemistry and transport, and mathematical analysis of the flame dynamics.
Ren, Jiaping; Wang, Xinjie; Jin, Xiaogang; Manocha, Dinesh
2016-01-01
We present a biologically plausible dynamics model to simulate swarms of flying insects. Our formulation, which is based on biological conclusions and experimental observations, is designed to simulate large insect swarms of varying densities. We use a force-based model that captures different interactions between the insects and the environment and computes collision-free trajectories for each individual insect. Furthermore, we model the noise as a constructive force at the collective level and present a technique to generate noise-induced insect movements in a large swarm that are similar to those observed in real-world trajectories. We use a data-driven formulation that is based on pre-recorded insect trajectories. We also present a novel evaluation metric and a statistical validation approach that takes into account various characteristics of insect motions. In practice, the combination of Curl noise function with our dynamics model is used to generate realistic swarm simulations and emergent behaviors. We highlight its performance for simulating large flying swarms of midges, fruit fly, locusts and moths and demonstrate many collective behaviors, including aggregation, migration, phase transition, and escape responses.
Bassett, Will P.; Dlott, Dana D.
2016-10-01
An emission spectrometer (450-850 nm) using a high-throughput, high numerical aperture (N.A. = 0.3) prism spectrograph with stepped fiberoptic coupling, 32 fast photomultipliers and thirty-two 1.25 GHz digitizers is described. The spectrometer can capture single-shot events with a high dynamic range in amplitude and time (nanoseconds to milliseconds or longer). Methods to calibrate the spectrometer and verify its performance and accuracy are described. When a reference thermal source is used for calibration, the spectrometer can function as a fast optical pyrometer. Applications of the spectrometer are illustrated by using it to capture single-shot emission transients from energetic materials or reactive materials initiated by kmṡs-1 impacts with laser-driven flyer plates. A log (time) data analysis method is used to visualize multiple kinetic processes resulting from impact initiation of HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) or a Zr/CuO nanolaminate thermite. Using a gray body algorithm to interpret the spectral radiance from shocked HMX, a time history of temperature and emissivity was obtained, which could be used to investigate HMX hot spot dynamics. Finally, two examples are presented showing how the spectrometer can avoid temperature determination errors in systems where thermal emission is accompanied by atomic or molecular emission lines.
Particle dynamics in a symmetrically driven underdamped inhomogeneous periodic potential system
Kharkongor, D.; Reenbohn, W. L.; Mahato, Mangal C.
2016-08-01
We numerically solve the underdamped Langevin equation to obtain the trajectories of a particle in a sinusoidal potential driven by a temporally sinusoidal force in a medium with coefficient of friction periodic in space as the potential but with a phase difference. With the appropriate choice of system parameters, like the mean friction coefficient and the period of the applied field, only two kinds of periodic trajectories are obtained for all possible initial conditions at low noise strengths: one with a large amplitude and a large phase lag with respect to the applied field and the other with a small amplitude and a small phase lag. Thus, the periodic potential system is effectively mapped dynamically into a bistable system. Though the directional asymmetry, brought about only by the frictional inhomogeneity, is weak we find both the phenomena of stochastic resonance, with ready explanation in terms of the two dynamical states of trajectories, and ratchet effect simultaneously in the same parameter space. We analyze the results in detail attempting to find plausible explanations for each.
Transition to complex dynamics in the cubic lid-driven cavity
Lopez, Juan M.; Welfert, Bruno D.; Wu, Ke; Yalim, Jason
2017-07-01
The onset of time dependence in the cubic lid-driven cavity is surprisingly complicated, given the simplicity of the geometry and the modest value of the Reynolds number at which it occurs. The onset is characterized by finite-amplitude oscillations that appear to be stable for long times, but are subjected to intermittent bursts at irregular times during which the reflection symmetry about the spanwise midplane is broken. The complex dynamics are shown to be intimately related to the subcritical nature of the instability of the steady basic state. We use a spectral collocation numerical technique, solving both in the full three-dimensional space and in the symmetric subspace, and use selective frequency damping and Arnoldi iterations about the unstable basic state to determine its bifurcations. Edge tracking is also used to investigate a number of time-dependent saddle states. Putting all this together, we show that the complex dynamics are organized by two successive Hopf bifurcations, the first of which is shown to be subcritical. All local states are unstable in the full space at higher Reynolds numbers, leading to the intermittent bursting behavior.
Quantum dynamics of a driven two-level molecule with variable dephasing
Grandi, Samuele; Major, Kyle D.; Polisseni, Claudio; Boissier, Sebastien; Clark, Alex S.; Hinds, E. A.
2016-12-01
The longitudinal (Γ1) and transverse (Γ2) decay rates of a two-level quantum system have a profound influence on its evolution. Atomic systems with Γ2=1/2 Γ1 have been studied extensively, but with the rise of solid-state quantum devices it is also important to consider the effect of stronger transverse relaxation due to interactions with the solid environment. Here we study the quantum dynamics of a single organic dye molecule driven by a laser. We measure the variation of Γ2 with temperature and determine the activation energy for thermal dephasing of the optical dipole. Then we measure the second-order correlation function g(2 )(τ ) of the light emitted by the molecule for various ratios Γ2/Γ1 and saturation parameters S . We show that the general solution to the optical Bloch equations accurately describes the observed quantum dynamics over a wide range of these parameters, and we discuss the limitations of the various approximate expressions for g(2 )(τ ) that appear in the literature.
Haghshenas-Jaryani, Mahdi; Bowling, Alan; Mohanty, Samarendra
2013-03-01
Since the invention of optical tweezers, several biological and engineering applications, especially in micro-nanofluid, have been developed. For example, development of optically driven micromotors, which has an important role in microfluidic applications, has vastly been considered. Despite extensive experimental studies in this field, there is a lack of theoretical work that can verify and analyze these observations. This work develops a dynamic model to simulate trapping and controlled rotation of a microscale rod under influence of the optical trapping forces. The laser beam, used in line optical tweezers with a varying trap's length, was modeled based on a ray-optics approach. Herein, the effects of viscosity of the surrounding fluid (water), gravity, and buoyancy were included in the proposed model. The predicted results are in overall agreement with the experimental observation, which make the theoretical model be a viable tool for investigating the dynamic behavior of small size objects manipulated by optical tweezers in fluid environments. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. MCB-1148541.
Altintas, I.; Block, J.; Braun, H.; de Callafon, R. A.; Gollner, M. J.; Smarr, L.; Trouve, A.
2013-12-01
Recent studies confirm that climate change will cause wildfires to increase in frequency and severity in the coming decades especially for California and in much of the North American West. The most critical sustainability issue in the midst of these ever-changing dynamics is how to achieve a new social-ecological equilibrium of this fire ecology. Wildfire wind speeds and directions change in an instant, and first responders can only be effective when they take action as quickly as the conditions change. To deliver information needed for sustainable policy and management in this dynamically changing fire regime, we must capture these details to understand the environmental processes. We are building an end-to-end cyberinfrastructure (CI), called WIFIRE, for real-time and data-driven simulation, prediction and visualization of wildfire behavior. The WIFIRE integrated CI system supports social-ecological resilience to the changing fire ecology regime in the face of urban dynamics and climate change. Networked observations, e.g., heterogeneous satellite data and real-time remote sensor data is integrated with computational techniques in signal processing, visualization, modeling and data assimilation to provide a scalable, technological, and educational solution to monitor weather patterns to predict a wildfire's Rate of Spread. Our collaborative WIFIRE team of scientists, engineers, technologists, government policy managers, private industry, and firefighters architects implement CI pathways that enable joint innovation for wildfire management. Scientific workflows are used as an integrative distributed programming model and simplify the implementation of engineering modules for data-driven simulation, prediction and visualization while allowing integration with large-scale computing facilities. WIFIRE will be scalable to users with different skill-levels via specialized web interfaces and user-specified alerts for environmental events broadcasted to receivers before
Guided post-acceleration of laser-driven ions by a miniature modular structure
Kar, Satyabrata; Ahmed, Hamad; Prasad, Rajendra; Cerchez, Mirela; Brauckmann, Stephanie; Aurand, Bastian; Cantono, Giada; Hadjisolomou, Prokopis; Lewis, Ciaran L. S.; Macchi, Andrea; Nersisyan, Gagik; Robinson, Alexander P. L.; Schroer, Anna M.; Swantusch, Marco; Zepf, Matt; Willi, Oswald; Borghesi, Marco
2016-04-01
All-optical approaches to particle acceleration are currently attracting a significant research effort internationally. Although characterized by exceptional transverse and longitudinal emittance, laser-driven ion beams currently have limitations in terms of peak ion energy, bandwidth of the energy spectrum and beam divergence. Here we introduce the concept of a versatile, miniature linear accelerating module, which, by employing laser-excited electromagnetic pulses directed along a helical path surrounding the laser-accelerated ion beams, addresses these shortcomings simultaneously. In a proof-of-principle experiment on a university-scale system, we demonstrate post-acceleration of laser-driven protons from a flat foil at a rate of 0.5 GeV m-1, already beyond what can be sustained by conventional accelerator technologies, with dynamic beam collimation and energy selection. These results open up new opportunities for the development of extremely compact and cost-effective ion accelerators for both established and innovative applications.
Time Collocation Method for Structural Dynamic Problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TANG Chen; LUO Tao; YAN Haiqing; GU Xiaohui
2005-01-01
In order to achieve highly accurate and efficient numerical calculations of structural dynamics, time collocation method is presented. For a given time interval, the numerical solution of the method is approximated by a polynomial. The polynomial coefficients are evaluated by solving algebraic equation. Once the polynomial coefficients are evaluated, the numerical solutions at any time in the interval can be easily calculated. New formulae are derived for the polynomial coefficients,which are more practical and succinct than those previously given. Two structural dynamic equations are calculated by the proposed method. The numerical solutions are compared with the traditional fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The results show that the method proposed is highly accurate and computationally efficient. In addition, an important advantage of the method is the simplicity in software programming.
Chemical structure and dynamics. Annual report 1995
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Colson, S.D.; McDowell, R.S.
1996-05-01
The Chemical Structure and Dynamics program is a major component of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), providing a state-of-the-art collaborative facility for studies of chemical structure and dynamics. We respond to the need for a fundamental, molecular-level understanding of chemistry at a wide variety of environmentally important interfaces by (1) extending the experimental characterization and theoretical description of chemical reactions to encompass the effects of condensed media and interfaces; (2) developing a multidisciplinary capability for describing interfacial chemical processes within which the new knowledge generated can be brought to bear on complex phenomena in environmental chemistry and in nuclear waste processing and storage; and (3) developing state-of-the-art analytical methods for the characterization of waste tanks and pollutant distributions, and for detection and monitoring of trace atmospheric species.
Chemical structure and dynamics: Annual report 1996
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Colson, S.D.; McDowell, R.S.
1997-03-01
The Chemical Structure and Dynamics (CS&D) program is a major component of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide a state-of-the-art collaborative facility for studies of chemical structure and dynamics. We respond to the need for a fundamental, molecular-level understanding of chemistry at a wide variety of environmentally important interfaces by (1) extending the experimental characterization and theoretical description of chemical reactions to encompass the effects of condensed media and interfaces; (2) developing a multidisciplinary capability for describing interfacial chemical processes within which the new knowledge generated can be brought to bear on complex phenomena in environmental chemistry and in nuclear waste processing and storage; and (3) developing state-of-the-art analytical methods for characterizing waste tanks and pollutant distributions, and for detecting and monitoring trace atmospheric species.
Annual Report 2000. Chemical Structure and Dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Colson, Steven D.; McDowell, Robin S.
2001-04-15
This annual report describes the research and accomplishments of the Chemical Structure and Dynamics Program in the year 2000, one of six research programs at the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) - a multidisciplinary, national scientific user facility and research organization. The Chemical Structure and Dynamics (CS&D) program is meeting the need for a fundamental, molecular-level understanding by 1) extending the experimental characterization and theoretical description of chemical reactions to encompass the effects of condensed media and interfaces; 2) developing a multidisciplinary capability for describing interfacial chemical processes relevant to environmental chemistry; and 3) developing state-of-the-art research and analytical methods for characterizing complex materials of the types found in natural and contaminated systems.
Flantua, S.G.A.; Hooghiemstra, H.; van Boxel, J.H.; Cabrera, M.; González-Carranza, Z.; González-Arango, C.; Stevens, W.D.; Montiel, O.M.; Raven, P.H.
2014-01-01
We provide an innovative pollen-driven connectivity framework of the dynamic altitudinal distribution of North Andean biomes since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Altitudinally changing biome distributions reconstructed from a pollen record from Lake La Cocha (2780 m) are assessed in terms of their
Dynamic active earth pressure on retaining structures
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Deepankar Choudhury; Santiram Chatterjee
2006-12-01
Earth-retaining structures constitute an important topic of research in civil engineering, more so under earthquake conditions. For the analysis and design of retaining walls in earthquake-prone zones, accurate estimation of dynamic earth pressures is very important. Conventional methods either use pseudo-static approaches of analysis even for dynamic cases or a simple single-degree of freedom model for the retaining wall–soil system. In this paper, a simpliﬁed two-degree of freedom mass–spring–dashpot (2-DOF) dynamic model has been proposed to estimate the active earth pressure at the back of the retaining walls for translation modes of wall movement under seismic conditions. The horizontal zone of inﬂuence on dynamic earth force on the wall is estimated. Results in terms of displacement, velocity and acceleration-time history are presented for some typical cases, which show the ﬁnal movement of the wall in terms of wall height, which is required for the design. The non-dimensional design chart proposed in the present study can be used to compute the total dynamic earth force on the wall under different input ground motion and backﬁll conditions. Finally, the results obtained have been compared with those of the available Scott model and the merits of the present results have been discussed.
The power stroke driven by ATP binding in CFTR as studied by molecular dynamics simulations.
Furukawa-Hagiya, Tomoka; Furuta, Tadaomi; Chiba, Shuntaro; Sohma, Yoshiro; Sakurai, Minoru
2013-01-10
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a chloride channel belonging to the ATP binding cassette (ABC) protein superfamily. Currently, it remains unclear how ATP binding causes the opening of the channel gate at the molecular level. To clarify this mechanism, we first constructed an atomic model of the inward-facing CFTR using the X-ray structures of other ABC proteins. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were then performed to explore the structure and dynamics of the inward-facing CFTR in a membrane environment. In the MgATP-bound state, two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) formed a head-to-tail type of dimer, in which the ATP molecules were sandwiched between the Walker A and signature motifs. Alternatively, one of the final MD structures in the apo state was similar to that of a "closed-apo" conformation found in the X-ray analysis of ATP-free MsbA. Principal component analysis for the MD trajectory indicated that NBD dimerization causes significant structural and dynamical changes in the transmembrane domains (TMDs), which is likely indicative of the formation of a chloride ion access path. This study suggests that the free energy gain from ATP binding acts as a driving force not only for NBD dimerization but also for NBD-TMD concerted motions.
On R factors for dynamic structure crystallography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Coppens, Philip; Kaminski, Radoslaw; Schmøkel, Mette Stokkebro
2010-01-01
In studies of dynamic changes in crystals in which induced metastable species may have lifetimes of microseconds or less, refinements are most sensitive if based on the changes induced in the measured intensities. Agreement factors appropriate for such refinements, based on the ratios of the inte...... of the intensities before and after the external perturbation is applied, are discussed and compared with R factors commonly applied in static structure crystallography....
Dynamical Structure of Nuclear Excitation in Continuum
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Chun-Lei; ZHANG Huan-Qiao; ZHANG Xi-Zhen
2005-01-01
@@ Dynamical structures of collective excitation in continuum are studied by calculating the isoscalar and isovector strength as well as transition density of nuclei near the drip-line such as 28O and 34Ca. It is found that for some excited states in continuum the proton and neutron transition density calculated from isoscalar and isovector excitation at some given energies may be different, which will affect the calculation of the polarization for nuclei with N ≠ Z.
Nonlinear Dynamics and Control of Flexible Structures
1991-03-01
Freedom," Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Cornell University, in preparation. 5I I URI Reorts Islam , Saiful and Mircea...Theoretical and Applied Mechanics I S. Islam Civil and Environmental Engineering I 2! I 3 URI Accomplishments 3 -Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos in Flexible...Structures with Symmetry," 31 (1991) 265-285. Islam , S. and M. Grigoriu, "Nonlinear Random Vibration of Pin-Jointed Trusses with Imperfections," in
Flexible joints in structural and multibody dynamics
O. A. Bauchau; Han, S.
2013-01-01
Flexible joints, sometimes called bushing elements or force elements, are found in all structural and multibody dynamics codes. In their simplest form, flexible joints simply consist of sets of three linear and three torsional springs placed between two nodes of the model. For infinitesimal deformations, the selection of the lumped spring constants is an easy task, which can be based on a numerical simulation of the joint or on experimental measurements. If the joint undergoes finite deformat...
Feature Extraction for Structural Dynamics Model Validation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nishio, Mayuko [Yokohama University; Hemez, Francois [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stull, Chris [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Chonnam Univesity; Cornwell, Phil [Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology; Figueiredo, Eloi [Universidade Lusófona; Luscher, D. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Worden, Keith [University of Sheffield
2016-01-13
As structural dynamics becomes increasingly non-modal, stochastic and nonlinear, finite element model-updating technology must adopt the broader notions of model validation and uncertainty quantification. For example, particular re-sampling procedures must be implemented to propagate uncertainty through a forward calculation, and non-modal features must be defined to analyze nonlinear data sets. The latter topic is the focus of this report, but first, some more general comments regarding the concept of model validation will be discussed.
Modal interactions in dynamical and structural systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nayfeh, A.H.; Balachandran, B. (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg (USA))
1989-11-01
The authors review theoretical and experimental studies of the influence of modal interactions on the nonlinear response of harmonically excited structural and dynamical systems. In particular, they discuss the response of pendulums, ships, rings, shells, arches, beam structures, surface waves, and the similarities in the qualitative behavior of these systems. The systems are characterized by quadratic nonlinearities which may lead to two-to-one and combination autoparametric resonances. These resonances give rise to a coupling between the modes involved in the resonance leading to nonlinear periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motions.
Some Modern Problems in Structural Engineering Dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Elishakoff
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This review paper deals with two problems in structural engineering dynamics; one is deterministic, the other is of stochastic nature. One problem is linear, the other is nonlinear. Authors have a biased preferential view on these problems because of their active involvement in the discussed research topics. Still, these two problems reflect, at least in a small manner, some developments in this vast and fascinating field. The first part deals with deterministic linear vibrations of double-walled carbon nanotubes either in classical or refined setting; the second part is devoted to the nonlinear random vibrations of structures.
Dynamic ice loads on conical structures
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2011-01-01
Two series of model tests were performed to observe the dynamic ice loads on conical structures.The variable testing parameters include the water line diameter of the model cone and ice parameters.During small water line diameter tests,two-time breaking is found to be the typical failure of ice on steep conical structure,and also be controlled by other factors,such as ice speed and the cone angle.During big water line diameter tests,the ice sheet failed nonsimultaneously around the cone.Several independe...
Combinatorial optimization using dynamical phase transitions in driven-dissipative systems
Leleu, Timothée; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Utsunomiya, Shoko; Aihara, Kazuyuki
2017-02-01
The dynamics of driven-dissipative systems is shown to be well-fitted for achieving efficient combinatorial optimization. The proposed method can be applied to solve any combinatorial optimization problem that is equivalent to minimizing an Ising Hamiltonian. Moreover, the dynamics considered can be implemented using various physical systems as it is based on generic dynamics—the normal form of the supercritical pitchfork bifurcation. The computational principle of the proposed method relies on an hybrid analog-digital representation of the binary Ising spins by considering the gradient descent of a Lyapunov function that is the sum of an analog Ising Hamiltonian and archetypal single or double-well potentials. By gradually changing the shape of the latter potentials from a single to double well shape, it can be shown that the first nonzero steady states to become stable are associated with global minima of the Ising Hamiltonian, under the approximation that all analog spins have the same amplitude. In the more general case, the heterogeneity in amplitude between analog spins induces the stabilization of local minima, which reduces the quality of solutions to combinatorial optimization problems. However, we show that the heterogeneity in amplitude can be reduced by setting the parameters of the driving signal near a regime, called the dynamic phase transition, where the analog spins' DC components map more accurately the global minima of the Ising Hamiltonian which, in turn, increases the quality of solutions found. Last, we discuss the possibility of a physical implementation of the proposed method using networks of degenerate optical parametric oscillators.
Dynamically driven super C-C intensification of the tropical hydrological cycle
Hakuba, Maria Z.; Stephens, Graeme L.; Kahn, Brian; Yue, Qing; Lebsock, Matthew D.; Hristova-Veleva, Svetla; Rapp, Anita D.; Stubenrauch, Claudia
2017-04-01
Improving our understanding of the hydrological cycle and the way it responds to a warming world represents one of the greatest challenges in current climate research. We expect global mean precipitation to increase by about 2% per degree of surface warming, constrained by the atmospheric energy budget on the one hand and the availability of atmospheric water vapor (Clausius-Clapeyron) on the other. Regional changes in precipitation pattern and intensity are less well known and often described by the 'wet gets wetter and dry gets drier' paradigm. The currently wettest region of our planet is characterized by organized deep tropical convection over the equatorial oceans and referred to as the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). To quantify potential changes of the tropical water cycle in a warmer climate, we have analyzed a great amount of independent observational datasets collected over multiple decades. With this we reveal a strong, positive feedback on tropical convection in the Pacific associated with the short-term climate variations of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This dynamical feedback is in addition to the established Bjerknes (positive) and surface heat flux (negative) feedbacks and is a result of coupled dynamical-radiative-convective processes that produce observed responses in precipitation and cloud amount far beyond those expected from the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) response alone. We have indication that this dynamical feedback is driven by differential atmospheric heating rates in the convective regions (heating) and adjacent regions to the south, north and west (cooling) leading to inflow that feeds the convectively active zones. This evidence is supported by analysis of observed surface wind divergence and vertical motion from reanalysis. While super-CC responses to global warming have been examined with respect to local and short-term weather events, this study provides the first observational evidence of a much larger scale
Occurrence of a bimodal behavior in riparian vegetation dynamics driven by river flow variability
Camporeale, C.; Ridolfi, L.
2006-12-01
The riparian zone is a fluvial ecotone which exhibits very interesting interaction between hydraulics and ecology, with several important implications in the environmental management. Even though random variability is a key characteristic of the river hydrology, which plays a crucial role in the evolution of riparian vegetation, the impact of stochastic hydrologic fluctuations on the dynamics of riparian vegetation ecosystems remains for most part poorly understood. Here we propose a new approach to study the distribution of phreatophyte riparian vegetation, using a stochastic process to model the random forcing exerted by river flow on the dynamics of the overall biomass of vegetation. Growth and decrease of vegetation are modelled through a logistic and an exponential functions, respectively, which switch in a random way, depending on the flooding conditions. The time series of the river flow (described by the pdf and autocorrelation function), determines the corresponding time series of the water levels which in turn drives the statistical characteristics of the switching. In the logistic model, the carrying capacity is taken dependent on the water table depth through a quadratic optimum function with species-dependent parameters. A dimensional analysis shows that the fundamental factors are the autocorrelation function of the flow, the coefficient of variation, the ratio between growth and decrease rate of vegetation and the optimum water table depth. The switching dynamics is shown to be described by a single stochastic differential equation driven by dichotomic noise that is analytically solved herein. The main outcome is the pdf of the vegetation biomass at the steady state which allows the stability of the models and the central moments to be investigated. Bimodality of the solution and peculiar behaviors (e.g., noise-induced stability) are discussed, depending on the river geometry and the hydrological characteristics. The obtained analytical expressions
Hosseini, Mohammad; Jiang, Yu; Wu, Poliang; Berlin, Richard B; Ren, Shangping; Sha, Lui
2016-11-01
There is a great divide between rural and urban areas, particularly in medical emergency care. Although medical best practice guidelines exist and are in hospital handbooks, they are often lengthy and difficult to apply clinically. The challenges are exaggerated for doctors in rural areas and emergency medical technicians (EMT) during patient transport. In this paper, we propose the concept of distributed executable medical best practice guidance systems to assist adherence to best practice from the time that a patient first presents at a rural hospital, through diagnosis and ambulance transfer to arrival and treatment at a regional tertiary hospital center. We codify complex medical knowledge in the form of simplified distributed executable disease automata, from the thin automata at rural hospitals to the rich automata in the regional center hospitals. However, a main challenge is how to efficiently and safely synchronize distributed best practice models as the communication among medical facilities, devices, and professionals generates a large number of messages. This complex problem of patient diagnosis and transport from rural to center facility is also fraught with many uncertainties and changes resulting in a high degree of dynamism. A critically ill patient's medical conditions can change abruptly in addition to changes in the wireless bandwidth during the ambulance transfer. Such dynamics have yet to be addressed in existing literature on telemedicine. To address this situation, we propose a pathophysiological model-driven message exchange communication architecture that ensures the real-time and dynamic requirements of synchronization among distributed emergency best practice models are met in a reliable and safe manner. Taking the signs, symptoms, and progress of stroke patients transported across a geographically distributed healthcare network as the motivating use case, we implement our communication system and apply it to our developed best practice
Dynamic analysis of propulsion mechanism directly driven by wave energy for marine mobile buoy
Yu, Zhenjiang; Zheng, Zhongqiang; Yang, Xiaoguang; Chang, Zongyu
2016-07-01
Marine mobile buoy(MMB) have many potential applications in the maritime industry and ocean science. Great progress has been made, however the technology in this area is far from maturity in theory and faced with many difficulties in application. A dynamic model of the propulsion mechanism is very necessary for optimizing the parameters of the MMB, especially with consideration of hydrodynamic force. The principle of wave-driven propulsion mechanism is briefly introduced. To set a theory foundation for study on the MMB, a dynamic model of the propulsion mechanism of the MMB is obtained. The responses of the motion of the platform and the hydrofoil are obtained by using a numerical integration method to solve the ordinary differential equations. A simplified form of the motion equations is reached by omitting terms with high order small values. The relationship among the heave motion of the buoy, stiffness of the elastic components, and the forward speed can be obtained by using these simplified equations. The dynamic analysis show the following: The angle of displacement of foil is fairly small with the biggest value around 0.3 rad; The speed of mobile buoy and the angle of hydrofoil increased gradually with the increase of heave motion of buoy; The relationship among heaven motion, stiffness and attack angle is that heave motion leads to the angle change of foil whereas the item of speed or push function is determined by vertical velocity and angle, therefore, the heave motion and stiffness can affect the motion of buoy significantly if the size of hydrofoil is kept constant. The proposed model is provided to optimize the parameters of the MMB and a foundation is laid for improving the performance of the MMB.
The Soft Mode Driven Dynamics in Ferroelectric Perovskites at the Nanoscale: An Atomistic Study
McCash, Kevin
. The performance of a ferroelectric device is therefore directly influenced by the dynamics of the soft mode. Interestingly, however, little study has been done on the effect of mechanical boundary conditions on the soft modes of perovskites. Understanding the effect of mechanical forces on the soft modes is critical to device applications as complicated growth structures often are the cause of pressures, stresses and strains. Using classical molecular dynamics we study the effect of hydrostatic pressure, uniaxial stress, biaxial stress and biaxial strain on the soft modes of the ferroelectric PbTiO 3. The results of this study indicate the existence of Curie-Weiss laws for not only hydrostatic pressure, which is well known, but also for uniaxial stress, biaxial stress and biaxial strain. The mode frequencies are also seen to respond very differently to these mechanical forces and lead to a more complete picture of the behavior of nanoscale ferroelectrics. One nanoscale geometry of perovskite ferroelectrics is the pseudo one-dimensional nanowire. These structures have very unique properties that are highly attractive for use as interconnects, nanoscale sensors or more directly in computer memory devices. Perovskite nanowires have only recently been synthesized and the techniques are not well developed. While progress has been made towards consistently fabricating uniform, high quality nanowires experimental investigation of their properties is prohibitively difficult. Of immediate interest is the polarization reversal dynamics of ferroelectric nanowires. The reading and writing of bits of information stored in a wire's polarization state is done by switching the polarization. Again using classical molecular dynamics we study the polarization reversal dynamics in ferroelectric nanowires made of Pb(Ti1-xZrx)O 3 disordered alloy. We find that there are two competing mechanisms for polarization reversal and that the interplay of these mechanisms is dependent on electric
Feature extraction for structural dynamics model validation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hemez, Francois [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nishio, Mayuko [UNIV OF TOKYO; Worden, Keith [UNIV OF SHEFFIELD; Takeda, Nobuo [UNIV OF TOKYO
2010-11-08
This study focuses on defining and comparing response features that can be used for structural dynamics model validation studies. Features extracted from dynamic responses obtained analytically or experimentally, such as basic signal statistics, frequency spectra, and estimated time-series models, can be used to compare characteristics of structural system dynamics. By comparing those response features extracted from experimental data and numerical outputs, validation and uncertainty quantification of numerical model containing uncertain parameters can be realized. In this study, the applicability of some response features to model validation is first discussed using measured data from a simple test-bed structure and the associated numerical simulations of these experiments. issues that must be considered were sensitivity, dimensionality, type of response, and presence or absence of measurement noise in the response. Furthermore, we illustrate a comparison method of multivariate feature vectors for statistical model validation. Results show that the outlier detection technique using the Mahalanobis distance metric can be used as an effective and quantifiable technique for selecting appropriate model parameters. However, in this process, one must not only consider the sensitivity of the features being used, but also correlation of the parameters being compared.
Structural dynamic analysis of composite beams
Suresh, J. K.; Venkatesan, C.; Ramamurti, V.
1990-12-01
In the treatment of the structural dynamic problem of composite materials, two alternate types of formulations, based on the elastic modulus and compliance quantities, exist in the literature. The definitions of the various rigidities are observed to differ in these two approaches. Following these two types of formulation, the structural dynamic characteristics of a composite beam are analyzed. The results of the analysis are compared with those available in the literature. Based on the comparison, the influence of the warping function in defining the coupling terms in the modulus approach and also on the natural frequencies of the beam has been identified. It is found from the analysis that, in certain cases, the difference between the results of the two approaches is appreciable. These differences may be attributed to the constraints imposed on the deformation and flexibility of the beam by the choice of the description of the warping behaviour. Finally, the influence of material properties on the structural dynamic characteristics of the beam is studied for different composites for various angles of orthotropy.
Handbook on dynamics of jointed structures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ames, Nicoli M.; Lauffer, James P.; Jew, Michael D.; Segalman, Daniel Joseph; Gregory, Danny Lynn; Starr, Michael James; Resor, Brian Ray
2009-07-01
The problem of understanding and modeling the complicated physics underlying the action and response of the interfaces in typical structures under dynamic loading conditions has occupied researchers for many decades. This handbook presents an integrated approach to the goal of dynamic modeling of typical jointed structures, beginning with a mathematical assessment of experimental or simulation data, development of constitutive models to account for load histories to deformation, establishment of kinematic models coupling to the continuum models, and application of finite element analysis leading to dynamic structural simulation. In addition, formulations are discussed to mitigate the very short simulation time steps that appear to be required in numerical simulation for problems such as this. This handbook satisfies the commitment to DOE that Sandia will develop the technical content and write a Joints Handbook. The content will include: (1) Methods for characterizing the nonlinear stiffness and energy dissipation for typical joints used in mechanical systems and components. (2) The methodology will include practical guidance on experiments, and reduced order models that can be used to characterize joint behavior. (3) Examples for typical bolted and screw joints will be provided.
Bohrer, Gil; Beck, Pieter Sa; Ngene, Shadrack M; Skidmore, Andrew K; Douglas-Hamilton, Ian
2014-01-01
This study investigates the ranging behavior of elephants in relation to precipitation-driven dynamics of vegetation. Movement data were acquired for five bachelors and five female family herds during three years in the Marsabit protected area in Kenya and changes in vegetation were mapped using MODIS normalized difference vegetation index time series (NDVI). In the study area, elevations of 650 to 1100 m.a.s.l experience two growth periods per year, while above 1100 m.a.s.l. growth periods last a year or longer. We find that elephants respond quickly to changes in forage and water availability, making migrations in response to both large and small rainfall events. The elevational migration of individual elephants closely matched the patterns of greening and senescing of vegetation in their home range. Elephants occupied lower elevations when vegetation activity was high, whereas they retreated to the evergreen forest at higher elevations while vegetation senesced. Elephant home ranges decreased in size, and overlapped less with increasing elevation. A recent hypothesis that ungulate migrations in savannas result from countervailing seasonally driven rainfall and fertility gradients is demonstrated, and extended to shorter-distance migrations. In other words, the trade-off between the poor forage quality and accessibility in the forest with its year-round water sources on the one hand and the higher quality forage in the low-elevation scrubland with its seasonal availability of water on the other hand, drives the relatively short migrations (the two main corridors are 20 and 90 km) of the elephants. In addition, increased intra-specific competition appears to influence the animals' habitat use during the dry season indicating that the human encroachment on the forest is affecting the elephant population.
Controlling Proton Delivery through Catalyst Structural Dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cardenas, Allan Jay P. [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57 Richland WA 99352 USA; 221 Science Center, State University of New York at Fredonia, Fredonia NY 14063 USA; Ginovska, Bojana [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57 Richland WA 99352 USA; Kumar, Neeraj [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57 Richland WA 99352 USA; Hou, Jianbo [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57 Richland WA 99352 USA; Raugei, Simone [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57 Richland WA 99352 USA; Helm, Monte L. [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57 Richland WA 99352 USA; Appel, Aaron M. [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57 Richland WA 99352 USA; Bullock, R. Morris [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57 Richland WA 99352 USA; O' Hagan, Molly [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57 Richland WA 99352 USA
2016-09-27
The fastest synthetic molecular catalysts for production and oxidation of H2 emulate components of the active site of natural hydrogenases. The role of controlled structural dynamics is recognized as a critical component in the catalytic performance of many enzymes, including hydrogenases, but is largely neglected in the design of synthetic molecular cata-lysts. In this work, the impact of controlling structural dynamics on the rate of production of H2 was studied for a series of [Ni(PPh2NC6H4-R2)2]2+ catalysts including R = n-hexyl, n-decyl, n-tetradecyl, n-octadecyl, phenyl, or cyclohexyl. A strong correlation was observed between the ligand structural dynamics and the rates of electrocatalytic hydrogen production in acetonitrile, acetonitrile-water, and protic ionic liquid-water mixtures. Specifically, the turnover frequencies correlate inversely with the rates of ring inversion of the amine-containing ligand, as this dynamic process dictates the positioning of the proton relay in the second coordination sphere and therefore governs protonation at either catalytically productive or non-productive sites. This study demonstrates that the dynamic processes involved in proton delivery can be controlled through modifications of the outer coordination sphere of the catalyst, similar to the role of the protein architecture in many enzymes. The present work provides new mechanistic insight into the large rate enhancements observed in aqueous protic ionic liquid media for the [Ni(PPh2NR2)]2+ family of catalysts. The incorporation of controlled structural dynamics as a design parameter to modulate proton delivery in molecular catalysts has enabled H2 production rates that are up to three orders of magnitude faster than the [Ni(PPh2NPh2)]2+complex. The observed turnover frequencies are up to 106 s-1 in acetonitrile-water, and over 107 s-1 in protic ionic liquid-water mixtures, with a minimal increase in overpotential. This material is based upon work supported as part of
Lifescience Database Archive (English)
Full Text Available 18178131 Is HIV infection a TNF receptor signalling-driven disease? Herbein G, Khan... KA. Trends Immunol. 2008 Feb;29(2):61-7. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Is HIV infection a TNF receptor sig...nalling-driven disease? PubmedID 18178131 Title Is HIV infection a TNF receptor signalling-driven diseas
Langevin dynamics for vector variables driven by multiplicative white noise: A functional formalism.
Moreno, Miguel Vera; Arenas, Zochil González; Barci, Daniel G
2015-04-01
We discuss general multidimensional stochastic processes driven by a system of Langevin equations with multiplicative white noise. In particular, we address the problem of how time reversal diffusion processes are affected by the variety of conventions available to deal with stochastic integrals. We present a functional formalism to build up the generating functional of correlation functions without any type of discretization of the Langevin equations at any intermediate step. The generating functional is characterized by a functional integration over two sets of commuting variables, as well as Grassmann variables. In this representation, time reversal transformation became a linear transformation in the extended variables, simplifying in this way the complexity introduced by the mixture of prescriptions and the associated calculus rules. The stochastic calculus is codified in our formalism in the structure of the Grassmann algebra. We study some examples such as higher order derivative Langevin equations and the functional representation of the micromagnetic stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation.
DYNAMIC CINEMATIC TO A STRUCTURE 2R
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Flat structures 2R can solve all the problems posed by all the robotic anthropomorphic structures. The study of the anthropomorphic robots by the use of a flat structure 2R is a much easier method than classical used spatial methods. The paper outlines a method for the determination of dynamic to a robotic structure 2R balanced. 2R plane structures are used in practice only in the form balanced, for which in this paper will be made, initial, the total balance, and then the study cinematico-dynamic will only develop on the model already balanced. Dynamic relations presented then briefly without deduction will be explained and discussed with regard to their application. On the basis of the model presented and following calculations performed can be chosen correctly the two electric motors in the actuator. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}
Meier, D. L.
1982-01-01
A general analytic theory is presented of winds driven by super-Eddington luminosities. The relevant parameters are the mass of the central object, the radius at which the luminosity and matter are injected, the ratio of the free-fall time to the heating time at this radius, and the total luminosity injected at the radius. Several different regimes of dynamical wind structure are identified, and the analytic expressions are shown to agree with the numerical results in Meier (1979) in the appropriate case. It is noted that, in its general form, the theory is the optically thick (to electron scattering) counterpart to optically thin radiation pressure-driven stellar winds.
Bifurcation structure of two coupled periodically driven double-well Duffing oscillators
Kenfack, Anatole
2003-01-01
International audience; The bifurcation structure of coupled periodically driven double-well Duffing oscillators is investigated as a function of the strength of the driving force $f$ and its frequency $\\Omega$. We first examine the stability of the steady-state in linear response, and classify the different types of bifurcation likely to occur in this model. We then explore the complex behavior associated with these bifurcations numerically. Our results show many striking departures from the...
The Blast-Wave-Driven Instability as a Vehicle for Understanding Supernova Explosion Structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miles, A R
2008-05-27
Blast-wave-driven instabilities play a rich and varied role throughout the evolution of supernovae from explosion to remnant, but interpreting their role is difficult due to the enormous complexity of the stellar systems. We consider the simpler and fundamental hydrodynamic instability problem of a material interface between two constant-density fluids perturbed from spherical and driven by a divergent central Taylor-Sedov blast wave. The existence of unified solutions at high Mach number and small density ratio suggests that general conclusions can be drawn about the likely asymptotic structure of the mixing zone. To this end we apply buoyancy-drag and bubble merger models modified to include the effects of divergence and radial velocity gradients. In general, these effects preclude the true self-similar evolution of classical Raleigh-Taylor, but can be incorporated into a quasi-self-similar growth picture. Loss of memory of initial conditions can occur in the quasi-self-similar model, but requires initial mode numbers higher than those predicted for pre-explosion interfaces in Type II SNe, suggesting that their late-time structure is likely strongly influenced by details of the initial perturbations. Where low-modes are dominant, as in the Type Ia Tycho remnant, they result from initial perturbations rather than generation from smaller scales. Therefore, structure observed now contains direct information about the explosion process. When large-amplitude modes are present in the initial conditions, the contribution to the perturbation growth from the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is significant or dominant compared to Rayleigh-Taylor. Such Richtmyer-Meshkov growth can yield proximity of the forward shock to the growing spikes and structure that strongly resembles that observed in the Tycho. Laser-driven high-energy-density laboratory experiments offer a promising avenue for testing model and simulation descriptions of blast-wave-driven instabilities and making
A structural dynamic factor model for the effects of monetary policy estimated by the EM algorithm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bork, Lasse
This paper applies the maximum likelihood based EM algorithm to a large-dimensional factor analysis of US monetary policy. Specifically, economy-wide effects of shocks to the US federal funds rate are estimated in a structural dynamic factor model in which 100+ US macroeconomic and financial time...... series are driven by the joint dynamics of the federal funds rate and a few correlated dynamic factors. This paper contains a number of methodological contributions to the existing literature on data-rich monetary policy analysis. Firstly, the identification scheme allows for correlated factor dynamics...... as opposed to the orthogonal factors resulting from the popular principal component approach to structural factor models. Correlated factors are economically more sensible and important for a richer monetary policy transmission mechanism. Secondly, I consider both static factor loadings as well as dynamic...
A structural dynamic factor model for the effects of monetary policy estimated by the EM algorithm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bork, Lasse
This paper applies the maximum likelihood based EM algorithm to a large-dimensional factor analysis of US monetary policy. Specifically, economy-wide effects of shocks to the US federal funds rate are estimated in a structural dynamic factor model in which 100+ US macroeconomic and financial time...... series are driven by the joint dynamics of the federal funds rate and a few correlated dynamic factors. This paper contains a number of methodological contributions to the existing literature on data-rich monetary policy analysis. Firstly, the identification scheme allows for correlated factor dynamics...... as opposed to the orthogonal factors resulting from the popular principal component approach to structural factor models. Correlated factors are economically more sensible and important for a richer monetary policy transmission mechanism. Secondly, I consider both static factor loadings as well as dynamic...
Van de Wiele, Ben; Leliaert, Jonathan; Franke, Kévin; van Dijken, Sebastiaan
2016-01-01
Strong coupling of magnetic domain walls onto straight ferroelastic boundaries of a ferroelectric layer enables full and reversible electric-field control of magnetic domain wall motion. In this paper, the dynamics of this new driving mechanism is analyzed using micromagnetic simulations. We show that transverse domain walls with a near-180° spin structure are stabilized in magnetic nanowires and that electric fields can move these walls with high velocities. Above a critical velocity, which ...
30th IMAC, A Conference on Structural Dynamics
Catbas, FN; Mayes, R; Rixen, D; Griffith, DT; Allemang, R; Clerck, J; Klerk, D; Simmermacher, T; Cogan, S; Chauhan, S; Cunha, A; Racic, V; Reynolds, P; Salyards, K; Adams, D; Kerschen, G; Carrella, A; Voormeeren, SN; Allen, MS; Horta, LG; Barthorpe, R; Niezrecki, C; Blough, JR; Vol.1 Topics on the Dynamics of Civil Structures; Vol.2 Topics in Experimental Dynamics Substructuring and Wind Turbine Dynamics; Vol.3 Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics; Vol.4 Topics in Model Validation and Uncertainty Quantification; Vol.5 Topics in Modal Analysis I; Vol.6 Topics in Modal Analysis II
2012-01-01
Topics on the Dynamics of Civil Structures, Volume 1, Proceedings of the 30th IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2012, the first volume of six from the Conference, brings together 45 contributions to this important area of research and engineering. The collection presents early findings and case studies on fundamental and applied aspects of Structural Dynamics, including papers on: Human Induced Vibrations Bridge Dynamics Operational Modal Analysis Experimental Techniques and Modeling for Civil Structures System Identification for Civil Structures Method and Technologies for Bridge Monitoring Damage Detection for Civil Structures Structural Modeling Vibration Control Method and Approaches for Civil Structures Modal Testing of Civil Structures.
A Lagrangian model for soil water dynamics during rainfall-driven conditions
Zehe, Erwin; Jackisch, Conrad
2016-09-01
Within this study we propose a stochastic approach to simulate soil water dynamics in the unsaturated zone by using a non-linear, space domain random walk of water particles. Soil water is represented by particles of constant mass, which travel according to the Itô form of the Fokker-Planck equation. The model concept builds on established soil physics by estimating the drift velocity and the diffusion term based on the soil water characteristics. A naive random walk, which assumes all water particles to move at the same drift velocity and diffusivity, overestimated depletion of soil moisture gradients compared to a Richards solver. This is because soil water and hence the corresponding water particles in smaller pore size fractions are, due to the non-linear decrease in soil hydraulic conductivity with decreasing soil moisture, much less mobile. After accounting for this subscale variability in particle mobility, the particle model and a Richards solver performed highly similarly during simulated wetting and drying circles in three distinctly different soils. Both models were in very good accordance during rainfall-driven conditions, regardless of the intensity and type of the rainfall forcing and the shape of the initial state. Within subsequent drying cycles the particle model was typically slightly slower in depleting soil moisture gradients than the Richards model. Within a real-world benchmark, the particle model and the Richards solver showed the same deficiencies in matching observed reactions of topsoil moisture to a natural rainfall event. The particle model performance, however, clearly improved after a straightforward implementation of rapid non-equilibrium infiltration, which treats event water as different types of particles, which travel initially in the largest pore fraction at maximum velocity and experience a slow diffusive mixing with the pre-event water particles. The proposed Lagrangian approach is hence a promising, easy
Temporal structure of attosecond pulses from laser-driven coherent synchrotron emission
Cousens, S; Dromey, B; Zepf, M
2016-01-01
The microscopic dynamics of laser-driven coherent synchrotron emission transmitted through thin foils are investigated using particle-in-cell simulations. For normal incidence interactions, we identify the formation of two distinct electron nanobunches from which emission takes place each half-cycle of the driving laser pulse. These emissions are separated temporally by 130 attoseconds and are dominant in different frequency ranges, which is a direct consequence of the distinct characteristics of each electron nanobunch. This may be exploited through spectral filtering to isolate these emissions, generating electromagnetic pulses of duration ~70 as.
Pradhan, Punyabrata; Amann, Christian P; Seifert, Udo
2010-10-08
We explore driven lattice gases for the existence of an intensive thermodynamic variable which could determine "equilibration" between two nonequilibrium steady-state systems kept in weak contact. In simulations, we find that these systems satisfy surprisingly simple thermodynamic laws, such as the zeroth law and the fluctuation-response relation between the particle-number fluctuation and the corresponding susceptibility remarkably well. However, at higher densities, small but observable deviations from these laws occur due to nontrivial contact dynamics and the presence of long-range spatial correlations.
Dynamic Failure of Composite and Sandwich Structures
Abrate, Serge; Rajapakse, Yapa D S
2013-01-01
This book presents a broad view of the current state of the art regarding the dynamic response of composite and sandwich structures subjected to impacts and explosions. Each chapter combines a thorough assessment of the literature with original contributions made by the authors. The first section deals with fluid-structure interactions in marine structures. The first chapter focuses on hull slamming and particularly cases in which the deformation of the structure affects the motion of the fluid during the water entry of flexible hulls. Chapter 2 presents an extensive series of tests underwater and in the air to determine the effects of explosions on composite and sandwich structures. Full-scale structures were subjected to significant explosive charges, and such results are extremely rare in the open literature. Chapter 3 describes a simple geometrical theory of diffraction for describing the interaction of an underwater blast wave with submerged structures. The second section addresses the problem of...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李蓓智; 杨建国; 周亚勤; 邵世煌
2003-01-01
Based on the biological immune concept, immune response mechanism and expert system, a dynamic and intelligent scheduling model toward the disturbance of the production such as machine fault,task insert and cancel etc. Is proposed. The antibody generation method based on the sequence constraints and the coding rule of antibody for the machining procedure is also presented. Using the heuristic antibody generation method based on the physiology immune mechanism, the validity of the scheduling optimization is improved, and based on the immune and expert system under the event-driven constraints, not only Job-shop scheduling problem with multi-objective can be solved, but also the disturbance of the production be handled rapidly. A case of the job-shop scheduling is studied and dynamic optimal solutions with multi-objective function for agile manufacturing are obtained in this paper. And the event-driven dynamic rescheduling result is compared with right-shift rescheduling and total rescheduling.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shao Yuan-Zhi; Zhong Wei-Rong; Lin Guang-Ming; Li Jian-Can
2005-01-01
The dynamic response and stochastic resonance of a kinetic Ising spin system (ISS) subject to the joint action of an external field of weak sinusoidal modulation and stochastic white-noise are studied by solving the mean-field equation of motion based on Glauber dynamics. The periodically driven stochastic ISS shows that the characteristic stochastic resonance as well as nonequilibrium dynamic phase transition (NDPT) occurs when the frequency ω and amplitude h0 of driving field, the temperature t of the system and noise intensity D are all specifically in accordance with each other in quantity. There exist in the system two typical dynamic phases, referred to as dynamic disordered paramagnetic and ordered ferromagnetic phases respectively, corresponding to a zero- and a unit-dynamic order parameter. The NDPT boundary surface of the system which separates the dynamic paramagnetic phase from the dynamic ferromagnetic phase in the 3D parameter space of h0-t-D is also investigated. An interesting dynamical ferromagnetic phase with an intermediate order parameter of 0.66 is revealed for the first time in the ISS subject to the perturbation of a joint determinant and stochastic field. The intermediate order dynamical ferromagnetic phase is dynamically metastable in nature and owns a peculiar characteristic in its stability as well as the response to external driving field as compared with a fully order dynamic ferromagnetic phase.
Structural optimization for nonlinear dynamic response
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dou, Suguang; Strachan, B. Scott; Shaw, Steven W.
2015-01-01
condition, thereby providing a means for tailoring its nonlinear response. The method is applied to the fundamental nonlinear resonance of a clamped–clamped beam and to the coupled mode response of a frame structure, and the results show that one can modify essential normal form coefficients by an order...... resonant behaviour is being used for a variety of applications in sensing and signal conditioning. In this work, we describe a computational method that provides a systematic means for manipulating and optimizing features of nonlinear resonant responses of mechanical structures that are described...... by a single vibrating mode, or by a pair of internally resonant modes. The approach combines techniques from nonlinear dynamics, computational mechanics and optimization, and it allows one to relate the geometric and material properties of structural elements to terms in the normal form for a given resonance...
Dynamics of Correlation Structure in Stock Market
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maman Abdurachman Djauhari
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper a correction factor for Jennrich’s statistic is introduced in order to be able not only to test the stability of correlation structure, but also to identify the time windows where the instability occurs. If Jennrich’s statistic is only to test the stability of correlation structure along predetermined non-overlapping time windows, the corrected statistic provides us with the history of correlation structure dynamics from time window to time window. A graphical representation will be provided to visualize that history. This information is necessary to make further analysis about, for example, the change of topological properties of minimal spanning tree. An example using NYSE data will illustrate its advantages.
The structural dynamics of social class.
Kraus, Michael W; Park, Jun Won
2017-08-01
Individual agency accounts of social class persist in society and even in psychological science despite clear evidence for the role of social structures. This article argues that social class is defined by the structural dynamics of society. Specifically, access to powerful networks, groups, and institutions, and inequalities in wealth and other economic resources shape proximal social environments that influence how individuals express their internal states and motivations. An account of social class that highlights the means by which structures shape and are shaped by individuals guides our understanding of how people move up or down in the social class hierarchy, and provides a framework for interpreting neuroscience studies, experimental paradigms, and approaches that attempt to intervene on social class disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dynamic sign structures in visual art and music
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zeller, Jörg
2006-01-01
Seemingly static meaning carriers in visual art are considered as aspects of holistic dynamical sign structures.......Seemingly static meaning carriers in visual art are considered as aspects of holistic dynamical sign structures....
Dynamic sign structures in visual art and music
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zeller, Jörg
2006-01-01
Seemingly static meaning carriers in visual art are considered as aspects of holistic dynamical sign structures.......Seemingly static meaning carriers in visual art are considered as aspects of holistic dynamical sign structures....
Generic dynamical phase transition in one-dimensional bulk-driven lattice gases with exclusion
Lazarescu, Alexandre
2017-06-01
Dynamical phase transitions are crucial features of the fluctuations of statistical systems, corresponding to boundaries between qualitatively different mechanisms of maintaining unlikely values of dynamical observables over long periods of time. They manifest themselves in the form of non-analyticities in the large deviation function of those observables. In this paper, we look at bulk-driven exclusion processes with open boundaries. It is known that the standard asymmetric simple exclusion process exhibits a dynamical phase transition in the large deviations of the current of particles flowing through it. That phase transition has been described thanks to specific calculation methods relying on the model being exactly solvable, but more general methods have also been used to describe the extreme large deviations of that current, far from the phase transition. We extend those methods to a large class of models based on the ASEP, where we add arbitrary spatial inhomogeneities in the rates and short-range potentials between the particles. We show that, as for the regular ASEP, the large deviation function of the current scales differently with the size of the system if one considers very high or very low currents, pointing to the existence of a dynamical phase transition between those two regimes: high current large deviations are extensive in the system size, and the typical states associated to them are Coulomb gases, which are highly correlated; low current large deviations do not depend on the system size, and the typical states associated to them are anti-shocks, consistently with a hydrodynamic behaviour. Finally, we illustrate our results numerically on a simple example, and we interpret the transition in terms of the current pushing beyond its maximal hydrodynamic value, as well as relate it to the appearance of Tracy-Widom distributions in the relaxation statistics of such models. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kamil Erguler
Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a highly invasive vector species. It is a proven vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses, with the potential to host a further 24 arboviruses. It has recently expanded its geographical range, threatening many countries in the Middle East, Mediterranean, Europe and North America. Here, we investigate the theoretical limitations of its range expansion by developing an environmentally-driven mathematical model of its population dynamics. We focus on the temperate strain of Ae. albopictus and compile a comprehensive literature-based database of physiological parameters. As a novel approach, we link its population dynamics to globally-available environmental datasets by performing inference on all parameters. We adopt a Bayesian approach using experimental data as prior knowledge and the surveillance dataset of Emilia-Romagna, Italy, as evidence. The model accounts for temperature, precipitation, human population density and photoperiod as the main environmental drivers, and, in addition, incorporates the mechanism of diapause and a simple breeding site model. The model demonstrates high predictive skill over the reference region and beyond, confirming most of the current reports of vector presence in Europe. One of the main hypotheses derived from the model is the survival of Ae. albopictus populations through harsh winter conditions. The model, constrained by the environmental datasets, requires that either diapausing eggs or adult vectors have increased cold resistance. The model also suggests that temperature and photoperiod control diapause initiation and termination differentially. We demonstrate that it is possible to account for unobserved properties and constraints, such as differences between laboratory and field conditions, to derive reliable inferences on the environmental dependence of Ae. albopictus populations.
Design of a wearable cable-driven upper limb exoskeleton based on epicyclic gear trains structure.
Xiao, Feiyun; Gao, Yongsheng; Wang, Yong; Zhu, Yanhe; Zhao, Jie
2017-07-20
Many countries, including Japan, Italy, and China are experiencing demographic shifts as their populations age. Some basic activities of daily living (ADLs) are difficult for elderly people to complete independently due to declines in motor function. In this paper, a 6-DOF wearable cable-driven upper limb exoskeleton (CABexo) based on epicyclic gear trains structure is proposed. The main structure of the exoskeleton system is composed of three epicyclic gear train sections. This new exoskeleton has a parallel mechanical structure to the traditional serial structure, but is stiffer and has a stronger carrying capacity. The traditional gear transmission structure is replaced with a cable transmission system, which is quieter, and has higher accuracy and smoother transmission. The static workspace of the exoskeleton is large enough to meet the demand of assisting aged and disabled individuals in completing most of their activities of daily living (ADLs).
Dynamic structure of dense krypton gas
Egelstaff, P. A.; Salacuse, J. J.; Schommers, W.; Ram, J.
1984-07-01
We have made molecular-dynamics computer simulations of dense krypton gas (10.6×1027 atoms/m3 and 296 K) using reasonably realistic pair potentials. Comparisons are made with the recent experimental data[P. A. Egelstaff et al., Phys. Rev. A 27, 1106 (1983)] for the dynamic structure factor S(q,ω) over the range 0.4
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schroer, Carsten F. E., E-mail: c.schroer@uni-muenster.de [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Corrensstraße 28/30, 48149 Münster (Germany); NRW Graduate School of Chemistry, Wilhelm-Klemm-Straße 10, 48149 Münster (Germany); Heuer, Andreas, E-mail: andheuer@uni-muenster.de [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Corrensstraße 28/30, 48149 Münster (Germany); Center of Nonlinear Science, Corresstraße 2, 48149 Münster (Germany); Center for Multiscale Theory and Computation, Corrensstraße 40, 48149 Münster (Germany)
2015-12-14
In active microrheology, the mechanical properties of a material are tested by adding probe particles which are pulled by an external force. In case of supercooled liquids, strong forcing leads to a thinning of the host material which becomes more pronounced as the system approaches the glass transition. In this work, we provide a quantitative theoretical description of this thinning behavior based on the properties of the Potential Energy Landscape (PEL) of a model glass-former. A key role plays the trap-like nature of the PEL. We find that the mechanical properties in the strongly driven system behave the same as in a quiescent system at an enhanced temperature, giving rise to a well-characterized effective temperature. Furthermore, this effective temperature turns out to be independent of the chosen observable and individually shows up in the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of the system. Based on this underlying theoretical understanding, we can estimate its dependence on temperature and force by the PEL-properties of the quiescent system. We furthermore critically discuss the relevance of effective temperatures obtained by scaling relations for the description of out-of-equilibrium situations.
Site-disorder driven superconductor-insulator transition: a dynamical mean field study.
Kamar, Naushad Ahmad; Vidhyadhiraja, N S
2014-03-05
We investigate the effect of site disorder on the superconducting state in the attractive Hubbard model within the framework of dynamical mean field theory. For a fixed interaction strength (U), the superconducting order parameter decreases monotonically with increasing disorder (x), while the single-particle spectral gap decreases for small x, reaches a minimum and keeps increasing for larger x. Thus, the system remains gapped beyond the destruction of the superconducting state, indicating a disorder-driven superconductor-insulator transition. We investigate this transition in depth considering the effects of weak and strong disorder for a range of interaction strengths. In the clean case, the order parameter is known to increase monotonically with increasing interaction, saturating at a finite value asymptotically for U→∞. The presence of disorder results in destruction of superconductivity at large U, thus drastically modifying the clean case behaviour. A physical understanding of our findings is obtained by invoking particle-hole asymmetry and the probability distributions of the order parameter and spectral gap.
Tremblay, Jean Christophe; Klamroth, Tillmann; Saalfrank, Peter
2008-08-28
Correlated, multielectron dynamics of "open" electronic systems within the fixed-nuclei approximation are treated here within explicitly time-dependent configuration-interaction schemes. Specifically, we present simulations of laser-pulse driven excitations of selected electronic states of LiCN in the presence of energy and phase relaxation. The evolution of the system is studied using open-system density matrix theory, which embeds naturally in the time-dependent configuration-interaction singles (doubles) formalism. Different models for dissipation based on the Lindblad semigroup formalism are presented. These models give rise to lifetimes for energy relaxation ranging from a few hundreds of femtoseconds to several nanoseconds. Pure dephasing is treated using a Kossakowski-like Gaussian model, proceeding on similar time scales. The pulse lengths employed range from very short (tens of femtoseconds) to very long (several nanoseconds). To make long-time propagations tractable, the quasiresonant approximation is used. The results show that despite the loss of efficiency, selective dipole switching can still be achieved in the presence of dissipation when using appropriately designed laser pulses.
Dynamic behavior of driven interfaces in models with two absorbing states.
Kwon, S; Hwang, W; Park, H
1999-05-01
We study the dynamics of an interface (active domain) between different absorbing regions in models with two absorbing states in one dimension: probabilistic cellular automata models and interacting monomer-dimer models. These models exhibit a continuous transition from an active phase into an absorbing phase, which belongs to the directed Ising (DI) universality class. In the active phase, the interface spreads ballistically into the absorbing regions and the interface width diverges linearly in time. Approaching the critical point, the spreading velocity of the interface vanishes algebraically with a DI critical exponent. Introducing a symmetry-breaking field h that prefers one absorbing state over the other drives the interface to move asymmetrically toward the unpreferred absorbing region. In Monte Carlo simulations, we find that the spreading velocity of this driven interface shows a discontinuous jump at criticality. We explain that this unusual behavior is due to a finite relaxation time in the absorbing phase. The crossover behavior from the symmetric case (DI class) to the asymmetric case (directed percolation class) is also studied. We find the scaling dimension of the symmetry-breaking field y(h)=1.21(5).
Schroer, Carsten F. E.; Heuer, Andreas
2015-12-01
In active microrheology, the mechanical properties of a material are tested by adding probe particles which are pulled by an external force. In case of supercooled liquids, strong forcing leads to a thinning of the host material which becomes more pronounced as the system approaches the glass transition. In this work, we provide a quantitative theoretical description of this thinning behavior based on the properties of the Potential Energy Landscape (PEL) of a model glass-former. A key role plays the trap-like nature of the PEL. We find that the mechanical properties in the strongly driven system behave the same as in a quiescent system at an enhanced temperature, giving rise to a well-characterized effective temperature. Furthermore, this effective temperature turns out to be independent of the chosen observable and individually shows up in the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of the system. Based on this underlying theoretical understanding, we can estimate its dependence on temperature and force by the PEL-properties of the quiescent system. We furthermore critically discuss the relevance of effective temperatures obtained by scaling relations for the description of out-of-equilibrium situations.
Separation of nanocolloids driven by dielectrophoresis:A molecular dynamics simulation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
The nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) method was used to model the nanocolloids and the solvent particles. By introducing a non-uniform electric field, colloids were polarized to have opposite polarities. Separation of colloids driven by dielectrophoresis (DEP) could be seen clearly under a strong electric field at low temperatures. Analyzing the ratio of DEP velocities of colloids to thermal velocities of neutral solvent particles showed that when the ratio was correspondingly big, collision between colloids and solvent particles would be intense, making the DEP velocity of colloids fluctuate frequently. By changing the electric field strength, it was found that the enhancement of electric field strength would quicken the separation of colloids. But when the electric field strength increased to a certain degree, the separation motion would be slow because of the strong friction resistance of the solvent particles to the colloids. Moreover, studying the separation reason of colloids based on the potential energy showed that after colloids were polarized, the attractive potential energy among the colloids would be weaker than before, while the increase of temperature would reduce the attractive potential energy and increase the repulsive potential energy, which accorded with the DLVO theory.
Dodin, Amro; Brumer, Paul
2015-01-01
We present closed-form analytic solutions to non-secular Bloch-Redfield master equations for quantum dynamics of a V-type system driven by weak coupling to a thermal bath. We focus on noise-induced Fano coherences among the excited states induced by incoherent driving of the V-system initially in the ground state. For suddenly turned-on incoherent driving, the time evolution of the coherences is determined by the damping parameter $\\zeta=\\frac{1}{2}(\\gamma_1+\\gamma_2)/\\Delta_p$, where $\\gamma_i$ are the radiative decay rates of the excited levels $i=1,2$, and $\\Delta_p=\\sqrt{\\Delta^2 + (1-p^2)\\gamma_1\\gamma_2}$ depends on the excited-state level splitting $\\Delta>0$ and the angle between the transition dipole moments in the energy basis. The coherences oscillate as a function of time in the underdamped limit ($\\zeta\\gg1$), approach a long-lived quasi-steady state in the overdamped limit ($\\zeta\\ll 1$), and display an intermediate behavior at critical damping ($\\zeta= 1$). The sudden incoherent turn-on generat...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Filippo Pullara
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Standard Molecular Dynamics simulations (MD are usually performed under periodic boundary conditions using the well-established “Ewald summation”. This implies that the distance among each element in a given lattice cell and its corresponding element in another cell, as well as their relative orientations, are constant. Consequently, protein-protein interactions between proteins in different cells—important in many biological activities, such as protein cooperativity and physiological/pathological aggregation—are severely restricted, and features driven by protein-protein interactions are lost. The consequences of these restrictions, although conceptually understood and mentioned in the literature, have not been quantitatively studied before. The effect of protein-protein interactions on the free energy landscape of a model system, dialanine, is presented. This simple system features a free energy diagram with well-separated minima. It is found that, in the case of absence of peptide-peptide (p-p interactions, the ψ = 150° dihedral angle determines the most energetically favored conformation (global free-energy minimum. When strong p-p interactions are induced, the global minimum switches to the ψ = 0° conformation. This shows that the free-energy landscape of an individual molecule is dramatically affected by the presence of other freely interacting molecules of its same type. Results of the study suggest how taking into account p-p interactions in MD allows having a more realistic picture of system activity and functional conformations.
The dynamics and stability of radiatively driven gas clouds. I - Plane-parallel slabs
Haas, M. R.
1979-01-01
A combination of numerical and analytical techniques has been used to investigate the dynamics and stability of optically thin plane-parallel radiatively driven slabs of gas confined by the thermal gas pressure of a high-temperature low-density medium. Scaling laws allow the individual model 'clouds' to be characterized by a single free parameter, chi, a normalized column density which measures the strength of the acceleration due to radiation pressure relative to that due to thermal gas pressure. It is found that these clouds are stable and coherently accelerated only when chi is small. In this regime a simple slab model is constructed which accurately reproduces the more complex gasdynamic results. The low-chi clouds are marginally able to reach the high velocities seen in the atmospheres of quasi-stellar objects, but only if their motion is subsonic with respect to the external confining medium. This implies either that the medium is extremely hot and tenuous or that it is moving outward with the clouds.
Fundamental structures of dynamic social networks.
Sekara, Vedran; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Lehmann, Sune
2016-09-06
Social systems are in a constant state of flux, with dynamics spanning from minute-by-minute changes to patterns present on the timescale of years. Accurate models of social dynamics are important for understanding the spreading of influence or diseases, formation of friendships, and the productivity of teams. Although there has been much progress on understanding complex networks over the past decade, little is known about the regularities governing the microdynamics of social networks. Here, we explore the dynamic social network of a densely-connected population of ∼1,000 individuals and their interactions in the network of real-world person-to-person proximity measured via Bluetooth, as well as their telecommunication networks, online social media contacts, geolocation, and demographic data. These high-resolution data allow us to observe social groups directly, rendering community detection unnecessary. Starting from 5-min time slices, we uncover dynamic social structures expressed on multiple timescales. On the hourly timescale, we find that gatherings are fluid, with members coming and going, but organized via a stable core of individuals. Each core represents a social context. Cores exhibit a pattern of recurring meetings across weeks and months, each with varying degrees of regularity. Taken together, these findings provide a powerful simplification of the social network, where cores represent fundamental structures expressed with strong temporal and spatial regularity. Using this framework, we explore the complex interplay between social and geospatial behavior, documenting how the formation of cores is preceded by coordination behavior in the communication networks and demonstrating that social behavior can be predicted with high precision.
The Hierarchical Structure and Dynamics of Voids
Aragon-Calvo, M A
2012-01-01
Contrary to the common view voids have very complex internal structure and dynamics. Here we show how the hierarchy of structures in the density field inside voids is reflected by a similar hierarchy of structures in the velocity field. Voids defined by dense filaments and clusters can de described as simple expanding domains with coherent flows everywhere except at their boundaries. At scales smaller that the void radius the velocity field breaks into expanding sub-domains corresponding to sub- voids. These sub-domains break into even smaller sub-sub domains at smaller scales resulting in a nesting hierarchy of locally expanding domains. The ratio between the magnitude of the velocity field responsible for the expansion of the void and the velocity field defining the sub voids is approximately one order of magnitude. The small-scale components of the velocity field play a minor role in the shaping of the voids but they define the local dynamics directly affecting the processes of galaxy formation and evoluti...
Data-driven matched field processing for Lamb wave structural health monitoring.
Harley, Joel B; Moura, José M F
2014-03-01
Matched field processing is a model-based framework for localizing targets in complex propagation environments. In underwater acoustics, it has been extensively studied for improving localization performance in multimodal and multipath media. For guided wave structural health monitoring problems, matched field processing has not been widely applied but is an attractive option for damage localization due to equally complex propagation environments. Although effective, matched field processing is often challenging to implement because it requires accurate models of the propagation environment, and the optimization methods used to generate these models are often unreliable and computationally expensive. To address these obstacles, this paper introduces data-driven matched field processing, a framework to build models of multimodal propagation environments directly from measured data, and then use these models for localization. This paper presents the data-driven framework, analyzes its behavior under unmodeled multipath interference, and demonstrates its localization performance by distinguishing two nearby scatterers from experimental measurements of an aluminum plate. Compared with delay-based models that are commonly used in structural health monitoring, the data-driven matched field processing framework is shown to successfully localize two nearby scatterers with significantly smaller localization errors and finer resolutions.
Ariel, Federico D.
2014-08-01
The eukaryotic epigenome is shaped by the genome topology in three-dimensional space. Dynamic reversible variations in this epigenome structure directly influence the transcriptional responses to developmental cues. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) APOLO is transcribed by RNA polymerases II and V in response to auxin, a phytohormone controlling numerous facets of plant development. This dual APOLO transcription regulates the formation of a chromatin loop encompassing the promoter of its neighboring gene PID, a key regulator of polar auxin transport. Altering APOLO expression affects chromatin loop formation, whereas RNA-dependent DNA methylation, active DNA demethylation, and Polycomb complexes control loop dynamics. This dynamic chromatin topology determines PID expression patterns. Hence, the dual transcription of a lincRNA influences local chromatin topology and directs dynamic auxin-controlled developmental outputs on neighboring genes. This mechanism likely underscores the adaptive success of plants in diverse environments and may be widespread in eukaryotes. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Structure of parallel-velocity-shear driven mode in toroidal plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dong, J.Q.; Xu, W.B.; Zhang, Y.Z. [Southwestern Inst. of Physics, Chengdu (China); Horton, W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies
1998-09-15
It is shown that the Fourier-ballooning representation is appropriate for the study of short wavelength drift-like perturbation in toroidal plasmas with a parallel velocity shear (PVS). The radial structure of the mode driven by a PVS is investigated in a torus. The Reynolds stress created by PVS turbulence and proposed as one of the sources for a sheared poloidal plasma rotation is analyzed. It is demonstrated that a finite ion temperature may strongly enhance the Reynolds stress creation ability from PVS driven turbulence. The correlation of this observation with the requirement that ion heating power be higher than a threshold value for the formation of an internal transport barrier is discussed.
Structural and dynamical properties of liquid Al-Au alloys
Peng, H. L.; Voigtmann, Th.; Kolland, G.; Kobatake, H.; Brillo, J.
2015-11-01
We investigate temperature- and composition-dependent structural and dynamical properties of Al-Au melts. Experiments are performed to obtain accurate density and viscosity data. The system shows a strong negative excess volume, similar to other Al-based binary alloys. We develop a molecular-dynamics (MD) model of the melt based on the embedded-atom method (EAM), gauged against the available experimental liquid-state data. A rescaling of previous EAM potentials for solid-state Au and Al improves the quantitative agreement with experimental data in the melt. In the MD simulation, the admixture of Au to Al can be interpreted as causing a local compression of the less dense Al system, driven by less soft Au-Au interactions. This local compression provides a microscopic mechanism explaining the strong negative excess volume of the melt. We further discuss the concentration dependence of self- and interdiffusion and viscosity in the MD model. Al atoms are more mobile than Au, and their increased mobility is linked to a lower viscosity of the melt.
Structural dynamics of turbo-machines
Rangwala, AS
2009-01-01
The book presents a detailed and comprehensive treatment of structural vibration evaluation of turbo-machines. Starting with the fundamentals of the theory of vibration as related to various aspects of rotating machines, the dynamic analysis procedures of a broad spectrum of turbo-machines is covered. An in-depth procedure for analyzing the torsional and flexural oscillations of the components and of the rotor-bearing system is presented. The latest trends in design and analysis are presented, chief among them: Blade and coupled disk-blade mod
The chemical bond structure and dynamics
Zewail, Ahmed
1992-01-01
This inspired book by some of the most influential scientists of our time--including six Nobel laureates--chronicles our emerging understanding of the chemical bond through the last nine decades and into the future. From Pauling's early structural work using x-ray and electron diffraction to Zewail's femtosecond lasers that probe molecular dynamics in real time; from Crick's molecular biology to Rich's molecular recognition, this book explores a rich tradition of scientific heritage and accomplishment. The perspectives given by Pauling, Perutz, Rich, Crick, Porter, Polanyi, Herschbach, Zewail,
Inverse Eigenvalue Problem in Structural Dynamics Design
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Huiqing Xie; Hua Dai
2006-01-01
A kind of inverse eigenvalue problem in structural dynamics design is considered. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem. The properties of this problem are analyzed, and the existence of the optimum solution is proved. The directional derivative of the objective function is obtained and a necessary condition for a point to be a local minimum point is given. Then a numerical algorithm for solving the problem is presented and a plane-truss problem is discussed to show the applications of the theories and the algorithm.
Arscott, Steve
2016-12-06
A chemically driven dewetting effect is demonstrated using sessile droplets of dilute hydrofluoric acid on chemically oxidized silicon wafers. The dewetting occurs as the thin oxide is slowly etched by the droplet and replaced by a hydrogen-terminated surface; the result of this is a gradual increase in the contact angle of the droplet with time. The time-varying work of adhesion is calculated from the time-varying contact angle; this corresponds to the changing chemical nature of the surface during dewetting and can be modeled by the well-known logistic (sigmoid) function often used for the modeling of restricted growth, in this case, the transition from an oxidized surface to a hydrogen-terminated silicon surface. The observation of the time-varying contact angle allows one to both measure the etch rate of the silicon oxide and estimate the hydrogenation rate as a function of HF concentration and wafer type. In addition to this, at a certain HF concentration, a self-running droplet effect is observed. In contrast, on hydrogen-terminated silicon wafers, a chemically induced spreading effect is observed using sessile droplets of nitric acid. The droplet spreading can also be modeled using a logistical function, where the restricted growth is the transition from hydrogen-terminated to a chemically induced oxidized silicon surface. The chemically driven dewetting and spreading observed here add to the methods available to study dynamic wetting (e.g., the moving three-phase contact line) of sessile droplets on surfaces. By slowing down chemical kinetics of the wetting, one is able to record the changing profile of the sessile droplet with time and gather information concerning the time-varying surface chemistry. The data also indicates a chemical interface hysteresis (CIH) that is compared to contact angle hysteresis (CAH). The approach can also be used to study the chemical etching and deposition behavior of thin films using liquids by monitoring the macroscopic
Dynamics of Polymer Translocation: A Short Review with an Introduction of Weakly-Driven Regime
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takahiro Sakaue
2016-12-01
Full Text Available As emphasized in a recent review (by V.V. Palyulin, T. Ala-Nissila, R. Metzler, theoretical understanding of the unbiased polymer translocation lags behind that of the (strongly driven translocation. Here, we suggest the introduction of a weakly-driven regime, as described by the linear response theory to the unbiased regime, which is followed by the strongly-driven regime beyond the onset of nonlinear response. This provides a concise crossover scenario, bridging the unbiased to strongly-driven regimes.
Data-driven modelling of vertical dynamic excitation of bridges induced by people running
Racic, Vitomir; Morin, Jean Benoit
2014-02-01
With increasingly popular marathon events in urban environments, structural designers face a great deal of uncertainty when assessing dynamic performance of bridges occupied and dynamically excited by people running. While the dynamic loads induced by pedestrians walking have been intensively studied since the infamous lateral sway of the London Millennium Bridge in 2000, reliable and practical descriptions of running excitation are still very rare and limited. This interdisciplinary study has addressed the issue by bringing together a database of individual running force signals recorded by two state-of-the-art instrumented treadmills and two attempts to mathematically describe the measurements. The first modelling strategy is adopted from the available design guidelines for human walking excitation of structures, featuring perfectly periodic and deterministic characterisation of pedestrian forces presentable via Fourier series. This modelling approach proved to be inadequate for running loads due to the inherent near-periodic nature of the measured signals, a great inter-personal randomness of the dominant Fourier amplitudes and the lack of strong correlation between the amplitudes and running footfall rate. Hence, utilising the database established and motivated by the existing models of wind and earthquake loading, speech recognition techniques and a method of replicating electrocardiogram signals, this paper finally presents a numerical generator of random near-periodic running force signals which can reliably simulate the measurements. Such a model is an essential prerequisite for future quality models of dynamic loading induced by individuals, groups and crowds running under a wide range of conditions, such as perceptibly vibrating bridges and different combinations of visual, auditory and tactile cues.
Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics.
Skinner, L B; Benmore, C J; Weber, J K R; Williamson, M A; Tamalonis, A; Hebden, A; Wiencek, T; Alderman, O L G; Guthrie, M; Leibowitz, L; Parise, J B
2014-11-21
Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.
Molecular structures and intramolecular dynamics of pentahalides
Ischenko, A. A.
2017-03-01
This paper reviews advances of modern gas electron diffraction (GED) method combined with high-resolution spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations in studies of the impact of intramolecular dynamics in free molecules of pentahalides. Some recently developed approaches to the electron diffraction data interpretation, based on direct incorporation of the adiabatic potential energy surface parameters to the diffraction intensity are described. In this way, complementary data of different experimental and computational methods can be directly combined for solving problems of the molecular structure and its dynamics. The possibility to evaluate some important parameters of the adiabatic potential energy surface - barriers to pseudorotation and saddle point of intermediate configuration from diffraction intensities in solving the inverse GED problem is demonstrated on several examples. With increasing accuracy of the electron diffraction intensities and the development of the theoretical background of electron scattering and data interpretation, it has become possible to investigate complex nuclear dynamics in fluxional systems by the GED method. Results of other research groups are also included in the discussion.
Experimental investigation of the radial structure of energetic particle driven modes
Horvath, L; Lauber, Ph; Por, G; Gude, A; Igochine, V; Geiger, B; Maraschek, M; Guimarais, L; Nikolaeva, V; Pokol, G I
2016-01-01
Alfv\\'en eigenmodes (AEs) and energetic particle modes (EPMs) are often excited by energetic particles (EPs) in tokamak plasmas. One of the main open questions concerning EP driven instabilities is the non-linear evolution of the mode structure. The aim of the present paper is to investigate the properties of beta-induced AEs (BAEs) and EP driven geodesic acoustic modes (EGAMs) observed in the ramp-up phase of off-axis NBI heated ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) discharges. This paper focuses on the changes in the mode structure of BAEs/EGAMs during the non-linear chirping phase. Our investigation has shown that in case of the observed down-chirping BAEs the changes in the radial structure are smaller than the uncertainty of our measurement. This behaviour is most probably the consequence of that BAEs are normal modes, thus their radial structure strongly depends on the background plasma parameters rather than on the EP distribution. In the case of rapidly upward chirping EGAMs the analysis consistently shows shrinkage of...
Transcription-driven twin supercoiling of a DNA loop: A Brownian dynamics study
Mielke, Steven P.; Fink, William H.; Krishnan, V. V.; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Benham, Craig J.
2004-10-01
The torque generated by RNA polymerase as it tracks along double-stranded DNA can potentially induce long-range structural deformations integral to mechanisms of biological significance in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In this paper, we introduce a dynamic computer model for investigating this phenomenon. Duplex DNA is represented as a chain of hydrodynamic beads interacting through potentials of linearly elastic stretching, bending, and twisting, as well as excluded volume. The chain, linear when relaxed, is looped to form two open but topologically constrained subdomains. This permits the dynamic introduction of torsional stress via a centrally applied torque. We simulate by Brownian dynamics the 100 μs response of a 477-base pair B-DNA template to the localized torque generated by the prokaryotic transcription ensemble. Following a sharp rise at early times, the distributed twist assumes a nearly constant value in both subdomains, and a succession of supercoiling deformations occurs as superhelical stress is increasingly partitioned to writhe. The magnitude of writhe surpasses that of twist before also leveling off when the structure reaches mechanical equilibrium with the torsional load. Superhelicity is simultaneously right handed in one subdomain and left handed in the other, as predicted by the "transcription-induced twin-supercoiled-domain" model [L. F. Liu and J. C. Wang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84, 7024 (1987)]. The properties of the chain at the onset of writhing agree well with predictions from theory, and the generated stress is ample for driving secondary structural transitions in physiological DNA.
Chemical Structure and Dynamics annual report 1997
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Colson, S.D.; McDowell, R.S.
1998-03-01
The Chemical Structure and Dynamics (CS and D) program is a major component of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide a state-of-the-art collaborative facility for studies of chemical structure and dynamics. The authors respond to the need for a fundamental, molecular level understanding of chemistry at a wide variety of environmentally important interfaces by: (1) extending the experimental characterization and theoretical description of chemical reactions to encompass the effects of condensed media and interfaces; (2) developing a multidisciplinary capability for describing interfacial chemical processes within which the new knowledge generated can be brought to bear on complex phenomena in environmental chemistry and in nuclear waste processing and storage; and (3) developing state-of-the-art analytical methods for characterizing complex materials of the types found in stored wastes and contaminated soils, and for detecting and monitoring trace atmospheric species. The focus of the research is defined primarily by DOE`s environmental problems: fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface environment, processing and storage of waste materials, cellular effects of chemical and radiological insult, and atmospheric chemistry as it relates to air quality and global change. Twenty-seven projects are described under the following topical sections: Reaction mechanisms at interfaces; High-energy processes at environmental interfaces; Cluster models of the condensed phase; and Miscellaneous.
Sato, M; Imai, S; Fujita, N; Shi, W; Takao, Y; Sada, Y; Hubbard, B E; Ilic, B; Sievers, A J
2013-01-01
An intrinsic localized mode (ILM) represents a localized vibrational excitation in a nonlinear lattice. Such a mode will stay in resonance as the driver frequency is changed adiabatically until a bifurcation point is reached, at which point the ILM switches and disappears. The dynamics behind switching in such a many body system is examined here through experimental measurements and numerical simulations. Linear response spectra of a driven micromechanical array containing an ILM were measured in the frequency region between two fundamentally different kinds of bifurcation points that separate the large amplitude ILM state from the two low amplitude vibrational states. Just as a natural frequency can be associated with a driven harmonic oscillator, a similar natural frequency has been found for a driven ILM via the beat frequency between it and a weak, tunable probe. This finding has been confirmed using numerical simulations. The behavior of this nonlinear natural frequency plays important but different roles as the two bifurcation points are approached. At the upper transition its frequency coalesces with the driver and the resulting bifurcation is very similar to the saddle-node bifurcation of a single driven Duffing oscillator, which is treated in an Appendix. The lower transition occurs when the four-wave mixing partner of the natural frequency of the ILM intersects the topmost extended band mode of the same symmetry. The properties of linear local modes associated with the driven ILM are also identified experimentally for the first time and numerically but play no role in these transitions.
Sato, M.; Imai, S.; Fujita, N.; Shi, W.; Takao, Y.; Sada, Y.; Hubbard, B. E.; Ilic, B.; Sievers, A. J.
2013-01-01
An intrinsic localized mode (ILM) represents a localized vibrational excitation in a nonlinear lattice. Such a mode will stay in resonance as the driver frequency is changed adiabatically until a bifurcation point is reached, at which point the ILM switches and disappears. The dynamics behind switching in such a many body system is examined here through experimental measurements and numerical simulations. Linear response spectra of a driven micromechanical array containing an ILM were measured in the frequency region between two fundamentally different kinds of bifurcation points that separate the large amplitude ILM state from the two low amplitude vibrational states. Just as a natural frequency can be associated with a driven harmonic oscillator, a similar natural frequency has been found for a driven ILM via the beat frequency between it and a weak, tunable probe. This finding has been confirmed using numerical simulations. The behavior of this nonlinear natural frequency plays important but different roles as the two bifurcation points are approached. At the upper transition its frequency coalesces with the driver and the resulting bifurcation is very similar to the saddle-node bifurcation of a single driven Duffing oscillator, which is treated in an Appendix. The lower transition occurs when the four-wave mixing partner of the natural frequency of the ILM intersects the topmost extended band mode of the same symmetry. The properties of linear local modes associated with the driven ILM are also identified experimentally for the first time and numerically but play no role in these transitions.
Structural optimization for nonlinear dynamic response.
Dou, Suguang; Strachan, B Scott; Shaw, Steven W; Jensen, Jakob S
2015-09-28
Much is known about the nonlinear resonant response of mechanical systems, but methods for the systematic design of structures that optimize aspects of these responses have received little attention. Progress in this area is particularly important in the area of micro-systems, where nonlinear resonant behaviour is being used for a variety of applications in sensing and signal conditioning. In this work, we describe a computational method that provides a systematic means for manipulating and optimizing features of nonlinear resonant responses of mechanical structures that are described by a single vibrating mode, or by a pair of internally resonant modes. The approach combines techniques from nonlinear dynamics, computational mechanics and optimization, and it allows one to relate the geometric and material properties of structural elements to terms in the normal form for a given resonance condition, thereby providing a means for tailoring its nonlinear response. The method is applied to the fundamental nonlinear resonance of a clamped-clamped beam and to the coupled mode response of a frame structure, and the results show that one can modify essential normal form coefficients by an order of magnitude by relatively simple changes in the shape of these elements. We expect the proposed approach, and its extensions, to be useful for the design of systems used for fundamental studies of nonlinear behaviour as well as for the development of commercial devices that exploit nonlinear behaviour.
Donev, A; Stillinger, F H; Donev, Aleksandar; Torquato, Salvatore; Stillinger, Frank H.
2004-01-01
In the first part of a series of two papers, we present in considerable detail a collision-driven molecular dynamics algorithm for a system of nonspherical particles, within a parallelepiped simulation domain, under both periodic or hard-wall boundary conditions. The algorithm extends previous event-driven molecular dynamics algorithms for spheres. We present a novel partial-update near-neighbor list (NNL) algorithm that is superior to previous algorithms at high densities, without compromising the correctness of the algorithm. This efficiency of the algorithm is further increased for systems of very aspherical particles by using bounding sphere complexes (BSC). In the second part of this series of papers we apply the algorithm presented in the first part of this series of papers to systems of hard ellipses and ellipsoids. The theoretical machinery needed to treat such particles, including the overlap potentials, is developed in full detail. We describe an algorithm for predicting the time of collision for tw...
Structural and dynamical properties of complex networks
Ghoshal, Gourab
Recent years have witnessed a substantial amount of interest within the physics community in the properties of networks. Techniques from statistical physics coupled with the widespread availability of computing resources have facilitated studies ranging from large scale empirical analysis of the worldwide web, social networks, biological systems, to the development of theoretical models and tools to explore the various properties of these systems. Following these developments, in this dissertation, we present and solve for a diverse set of new problems, investigating the structural and dynamical properties of both model and real world networks. We start by defining a new metric to measure the stability of network structure to disruptions, and then using a combination of theory and simulation study its properties in detail on artificially generated networks; we then compare our results to a selection of networks from the real world and find good agreement in most cases. In the following chapter, we propose a mathematical model that mimics the structure of popular file-sharing websites such as Flickr and CiteULike and demonstrate that many of its properties can solved exactly in the limit of large network size. The remaining part of the dissertation primarily focuses on the dynamical properties of networks. We first formulate a model of a network that evolves under the addition and deletion of vertices and edges, and solve for the equilibrium degree distribution for a variety of cases of interest. We then consider networks whose structure can be manipulated by adjusting the rules by which vertices enter and leave the network. We focus in particular on degree distributions and show that, with some mild constraints, it is possible by a suitable choice of rules to arrange for the network to have any degree distribution we desire. In addition we define a simple local algorithm by which appropriate rules can be implemented in practice. Finally, we conclude our
Spin-charge coupled dynamics driven by a time-dependent magnetization
Tölle, Sebastian; Eckern, Ulrich; Gorini, Cosimo
2017-03-01
The spin-charge coupled dynamics in a thin, magnetized metallic system are investigated. The effective driving force acting on the charge carriers is generated by a dynamical magnetic texture, which can be induced, e.g., by a magnetic material in contact with a normal-metal system. We consider a general inversion-asymmetric substrate/normal-metal/magnet structure, which, by specifying the precise nature of each layer, can mimic various experimentally employed setups. Inversion symmetry breaking gives rise to an effective Rashba spin-orbit interaction. We derive general spin-charge kinetic equations which show that such spin-orbit interaction, together with anisotropic Elliott-Yafet spin relaxation, yields significant corrections to the magnetization-induced dynamics. In particular, we present a consistent treatment of the spin density and spin current contributions to the equations of motion, inter alia, identifying a term in the effective force which appears due to a spin current polarized parallel to the magnetization. This "inverse-spin-filter" contribution depends markedly on the parameter which describes the anisotropy in spin relaxation. To further highlight the physical meaning of the different contributions, the spin-pumping configuration of typical experimental setups is analyzed in detail. In the two-dimensional limit the buildup of dc voltage is dominated by the spin-galvanic (inverse Edelstein) effect. A measuring scheme that could isolate this contribution is discussed.
Finite Element Vibration and Dynamic Response Analysis of Engineering Structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaroslav Mackerle
2000-01-01
Full Text Available This bibliography lists references to papers, conference proceedings, and theses/dissertations dealing with finite element vibration and dynamic response analysis of engineering structures that were published from 1994 to 1998. It contains 539 citations. The following types of structures are included: basic structural systems; ground structures; ocean and coastal structures; mobile structures; and containment structures.
Khalil, Nagi; Garzó, Vicente
2014-04-28
The homogeneous state of a binary mixture of smooth inelastic hard disks or spheres is analyzed. The mixture is driven by a thermostat composed by two terms: a stochastic force and a drag force proportional to the particle velocity. The combined action of both forces attempts to model the interaction of the mixture with a bath or surrounding fluid. The problem is studied by means of two independent and complementary routes. First, the Enskog kinetic equation with a Fokker-Planck term describing interactions of particles with thermostat is derived. Then, a scaling solution to the Enskog kinetic equation is proposed where the dependence of the scaled distributions φi of each species on the granular temperature occurs not only through the dimensionless velocity c = v/v0 (v0 being the thermal velocity) but also through the dimensionless driving force parameters. Approximate forms for φi are constructed by considering the leading order in a Sonine polynomial expansion. The ratio of kinetic temperatures T1/T2 and the fourth-degree velocity moments λ1 and λ2 (which measure non-Gaussian properties of φ1 and φ2, respectively) are explicitly determined as a function of the mass ratio, size ratio, composition, density, and coefficients of restitution. Second, to assess the reliability of the theoretical results, molecular dynamics simulations of a binary granular mixture of spheres are performed for two values of the coefficient of restitution (α = 0.9 and 0.8) and three different solid volume fractions (ϕ = 0.00785, 0.1, and 0.2). Comparison between kinetic theory and computer simulations for the temperature ratio shows excellent agreement, even for moderate densities and strong dissipation. In the case of the cumulants λ1 and λ2, good agreement is found for the lower densities although significant discrepancies between theory and simulation are observed with increasing density.
HIGH-FIDELITY SIMULATION-DRIVEN MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR COARSE-GRAINED COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hanna, Botros N.; Dinh, Nam T.; Bolotnov, Igor A.
2016-06-01
Nuclear reactor safety analysis requires identifying various credible accident scenarios and determining their consequences. For a full-scale nuclear power plant system behavior, it is impossible to obtain sufficient experimental data for a broad range of risk-significant accident scenarios. In single-phase flow convective problems, Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) can provide us with high fidelity results when physical data are unavailable. However, these methods are computationally expensive and cannot be afforded for simulation of long transient scenarios in nuclear accidents despite extraordinary advances in high performance scientific computing over the past decades. The major issue is the inability to make the transient computation parallel, thus making number of time steps required in high-fidelity methods unaffordable for long transients. In this work, we propose to apply a high fidelity simulation-driven approach to model sub-grid scale (SGS) effect in Coarse Grained Computational Fluid Dynamics CG-CFD. This approach aims to develop a statistical surrogate model instead of the deterministic SGS model. We chose to start with a turbulent natural convection case with volumetric heating in a horizontal fluid layer with a rigid, insulated lower boundary and isothermal (cold) upper boundary. This scenario of unstable stratification is relevant to turbulent natural convection in a molten corium pool during a severe nuclear reactor accident, as well as in containment mixing and passive cooling. The presented approach demonstrates how to create a correction for the CG-CFD solution by modifying the energy balance equation. A global correction for the temperature equation proves to achieve a significant improvement to the prediction of steady state temperature distribution through the fluid layer.
Dynamics of arbitrary shaped propellers driven by a rotating magnetic field
Morozov, Konstantin I.; Mirzae, Yoni; Kenneth, Oded; Leshansky, Alexander M.
2017-04-01
Motion in fluids at the micro(nano)metric scale is dominated by viscosity. One efficient propulsion method relies on a weak uniform rotating magnetic field that drives a chiral object. From bacterial flagella to artificial magnetic micro- or nanohelices, rotation of a corkscrew is considered as a universally efficient propulsion gait in viscous environments. However, recent experimental studies have demonstrated that geometrically achiral microscale objects or random-shaped magnetic aggregates can propel similarly to helical micromotors. Although approximate theories concerning dynamics of helical magnetic propellers are available, propulsion of achiral particles or objects with complex shapes is not understood. Here we present a general theory of rotation and propulsion of magnetized object of arbitrary shape driven by a rotating magnetic field. Intrinsic symmetries of the viscous mobility tensors yield compact classification of stable rotational states depending on the orientation of the magnetic moment with respect to principal rotation axes of the object. Propulsion velocity can be written in terms of geometry-dependent chirality matrix Ch , where both the diagonal elements (owing to orientation-dependent handedness) and off-diagonal entries (that do not necessitate handedness) contribute in a similar way. In general, the theory anticipates multiplicity of stable rotational states corresponding to two (complimentary to π ) angles the magnetization forms with the field rotation axis. Thus, two identical magnetic objects may propel with different speeds or even in opposite directions. However, for a class of simple achiral objects, there is a particular magnetization whereas the pair of symmetric rotational states gives rise to a unique chiral-like propulsion gait, closely resembling that of an ideal helical propeller. In other words, a geometrically achiral object can acquire apparent chirality due to its interaction with the external magnetic field. The
Forming-Precision-Driven Structure Design of Hydraulic Press：Methodology and Case Study
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李艳聪; 张连洪; 何柏岩; 陈永亮; 张淳
2015-01-01
The structure stiffness of presses has great effects on the forming precision of workpieces, especially in near-net or net shape forming. Conventionally the stiffness specification of presses is empirically determined, re-sulting in poor designs with insufficient or over sufficient stiffness of press structures. In this paper, an approach for the structure design of hydraulic presses is proposed, which is forming-precision-driven and can make presses cost-effective by lightweight optimization. The approach consists of five steps:(1)the determination of the press stiff-ness specification in terms of the forming precision requirement of workpieces;(2)the conceptual design of the press structures according to the stiffness and workspace specifications, and the structure configuration of the press;(3)the prototype design of the press structures by equivalently converting the conceptual design to proto-types;(4)the selection of key structure parameters by sensitivity analysis of the prototype design; and(5)the opti-mization of the prototype design. The approach is demonstrated and validated through a case study of the structure design of a 100 MN hydraulic press.
Zhang, Huaguang; Cui, Lili; Zhang, Xin; Luo, Yanhong
2011-12-01
In this paper, a novel data-driven robust approximate optimal tracking control scheme is proposed for unknown general nonlinear systems by using the adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) method. In the design of the controller, only available input-output data is required instead of known system dynamics. A data-driven model is established by a recurrent neural network (NN) to reconstruct the unknown system dynamics using available input-output data. By adding a novel adjustable term related to the modeling error, the resultant modeling error is first guaranteed to converge to zero. Then, based on the obtained data-driven model, the ADP method is utilized to design the approximate optimal tracking controller, which consists of the steady-state controller and the optimal feedback controller. Further, a robustifying term is developed to compensate for the NN approximation errors introduced by implementing the ADP method. Based on Lyapunov approach, stability analysis of the closed-loop system is performed to show that the proposed controller guarantees the system state asymptotically tracking the desired trajectory. Additionally, the obtained control input is proven to be close to the optimal control input within a small bound. Finally, two numerical examples are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qiang MENG; Tao ZHANG; Jing-feng HE; Jing-yan SONG; Jun-wei HAN
2010-01-01
For an electrical six-degree-of-freedom Stewart platform,it is difficult to compute the equivalent inertia of each motor in real time,as the inertia is time-varying.In this study,an analysis using Kane's equation is undertaken of the driven torque of the movements of motor systems(including motor friction,movements of motor systems along with the actuators,rotation around axis of rotors and snails),as well as driven torque of the platform and actuators.The electromagnetic torque was calculated according to vector-controlled permanent magnet synchronous motor(PMSM)dynamics.By equalizing the driven torque and electromagnetic torque,a model was established.This method,taking into consideration the influence of counter electromotive force(EMF)and motor friction,could be applied to the real-time dynamic control of the platform,through which the calculation of the time-varying equivalent inertia is avoided.Finally,simulations with typically desired trajectory inputs are presented and the performance of the Stewart platform is determined,With this approach,the multi-body dynamics of the electrical Stewart platform is better understood.
Performance-Driven Robust Identification and Control of Uncertain Dynamical Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Basar, Tamer
2001-10-29
The grant DEFG02-97ER13939 from the Department of Energy has supported our research program on robust identification and control of uncertain dynamical systems, initially for the three-year period June 15, 1997-June 14, 2000, which was then extended on a no-cost basis for another year until June 14, 2001. This final report provides an overview of our research conducted during this period, along with a complete list of publications supported by the Grant. Within the scope of this project, we have studied fundamental issues that arise in modeling, identification, filtering, control, stabilization, control-based model reduction, decomposition and aggregation, and optimization of uncertain systems. The mathematical framework we have worked in has allowed the system dynamics to be only partially known (with the uncertainties being of both parametric or structural nature), and further the dynamics to be perturbed by unknown dynamic disturbances. Our research over these four years has generated a substantial body of new knowledge, and has led to new major developments in theory, applications, and computational algorithms. These have all been documented in various journal articles and book chapters, and have been presented at leading conferences, as to be described. A brief description of the results we have obtained within the scope of this project can be found in Section 3. To set the stage for the material of that section, we first provide in the next section (Section 2) a brief description of the issues that arise in the control of uncertain systems, and introduce several criteria under which optimality will lead to robustness and stability. Section 4 contains a list of references cited in these two sections. A list of our publications supported by the DOE Grant (covering the period June 15, 1997-June 14, 2001) comprises Section 5 of the report.
AC current driven dynamic vortex state in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lucarelli, A.; Frey, A.; Yang, R.; Luepke, G. [The College of William and Mary, Department of Applied Science, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Grilli, F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Superconductivity Technology Center, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Haugan, T.; Levin, G.; Barnes, P. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States)
2007-09-15
Time-resolved magneto-optical imaging measurements show that an ac current enables the vortex matter in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} thin films to reorganize into two coexisting steady states of driven vortex motion with different characteristics: a quasi-static disordered glassy state in the sample interior and a dynamic state of plastic motion near the edges. Finite-element calculations consistent with the critical state model show good agreement with the measured field profiles in the quasi-static state but predict a larger hysteretic behavior in the dynamic state. (orig.)
Majee, Pradip; Goswami, Gurupada; Barik, Debashis; Bag, Bidhan Chandra
In this paper we have studied the dynamics of thermal broadband noise-driven dynamical system in terms of information entropy at both the nonstationary and stationary states. Here, a unified description of fluctuating force is considered in a thermodynamically closed system. Based on the Fokker-Planck description of stochastic processes and the entropy balance equation, we have calculated the time-dependence of the information entropy production and entropy flux in the presence and absence of nonequilibrium constraint. Our calculation considers how the time evolution of these quantities is affected if the characteristic of noise changes from white to red or green and red to green in a unified scheme.
Statistical characteristics of dynamics for population migration driven by the economic interests
Huo, Jie; Wang, Xu-Ming; Zhao, Ning; Hao, Rui
2016-06-01
Population migration typically occurs under some constraints, which can deeply affect the structure of a society and some other related aspects. Therefore, it is critical to investigate the characteristics of population migration. Data from the China Statistical Yearbook indicate that the regional gross domestic product per capita relates to the population size via a linear or power-law relation. In addition, the distribution of population migration sizes or relative migration strength introduced here is dominated by a shifted power-law relation. To reveal the mechanism that creates the aforementioned distributions, a dynamic model is proposed based on the population migration rule that migration is facilitated by higher financial gains and abated by fewer employment opportunities at the destination, considering the migration cost as a function of the migration distance. The calculated results indicate that the distribution of the relative migration strength is governed by a shifted power-law relation, and that the distribution of migration distances is dominated by a truncated power-law relation. These results suggest the use of a power-law to fit a distribution may be not always suitable. Additionally, from the modeling framework, one can infer that it is the randomness and determinacy that jointly create the scaling characteristics of the distributions. The calculation also demonstrates that the network formed by active nodes, representing the immigration and emigration regions, usually evolves from an ordered state with a non-uniform structure to a disordered state with a uniform structure, which is evidenced by the increasing structural entropy.
Nonparametric inference of network structure and dynamics
Peixoto, Tiago P.
The network structure of complex systems determine their function and serve as evidence for the evolutionary mechanisms that lie behind them. Despite considerable effort in recent years, it remains an open challenge to formulate general descriptions of the large-scale structure of network systems, and how to reliably extract such information from data. Although many approaches have been proposed, few methods attempt to gauge the statistical significance of the uncovered structures, and hence the majority cannot reliably separate actual structure from stochastic fluctuations. Due to the sheer size and high-dimensionality of many networks, this represents a major limitation that prevents meaningful interpretations of the results obtained with such nonstatistical methods. In this talk, I will show how these issues can be tackled in a principled and efficient fashion by formulating appropriate generative models of network structure that can have their parameters inferred from data. By employing a Bayesian description of such models, the inference can be performed in a nonparametric fashion, that does not require any a priori knowledge or ad hoc assumptions about the data. I will show how this approach can be used to perform model comparison, and how hierarchical models yield the most appropriate trade-off between model complexity and quality of fit based on the statistical evidence present in the data. I will also show how this general approach can be elegantly extended to networks with edge attributes, that are embedded in latent spaces, and that change in time. The latter is obtained via a fully dynamic generative network model, based on arbitrary-order Markov chains, that can also be inferred in a nonparametric fashion. Throughout the talk I will illustrate the application of the methods with many empirical networks such as the internet at the autonomous systems level, the global airport network, the network of actors and films, social networks, citations among
Effects of bias on dynamics of an AC-driven two-electron quantum-dot molecule
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Li-Min; Duan Su-Qing; Zhao Xian-Geng; Liu Cheng-Shi
2005-01-01
The effects of bias on the dynamical localization of two interacting electrons in a pair of coupled quantum dots driven by external AC fields have been numerically investigated. With an effective two-site model and Floquet formalism,the time-dependent Schrodinger equation is numerically solved and the Pmin, the minimum of the population evolution of the initial state within a certain time period, is used to quantify the degree of the dynamical localization. Results indicate that the bias can change the energy of the initial state and break the dynamical symmetry of the system with a pure AC field. And the amplitude of the AC field with dynamical localization phenomenon changes with bias. All the numerical results are explained by the perturbation theory and two-level approximation.
From Dynamic Condition Response Structures to Büchi Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Hildebrandt, Thomas
2010-01-01
Recently we have presented distributed dynamic condition response structures (DCR structures) as a declarative process model conservatively generalizing labelled event structures to allow for finite specifications of repeated, possibly infinite behavior. The key ideas are to split the causality r...
King, Paul W.; Svedruzic, Drazenka; Cohen, Jordi; Schulten, Klaus; Seibert, Michael; Ghirardi, Maria L.
2006-08-01
Research efforts to develop efficient systems for H II production encompass a variety of biological and chemical approaches. For solar-driven H II production we are investigating an approach that integrates biological catalysts, the [FeFe] hydrogenases, with a photoelectrochemical cell as a novel bio-hybrid system. Structurally the [FeFe] hydrogenases consist of an iron-sulfur catalytic site that in some instances is electronically wired to accessory iron-sulfur clusters proposed to function in electron transfer. The inherent structural complexity of most examples of these enzymes is compensated by characteristics desired for bio-hybrid systems (i.e., low activation energy, high catalytic activity and solubility) with the benefit of utilizing abundant, less costly non-precious metals. Redesign and modification of [FeFe] hydrogenases is being undertaken to reduce complexity and to optimize structural properties for various integration strategies. The least complex examples of [FeFe] hydrogenase are found in the species of photosynthetic green algae and are being studied as design models for investigating the effects of structural minimization on substrate transfer, catalytic activity and oxygen sensitivity. Redesigning hydrogenases for effective use in bio-hybrid systems requires a detailed understanding of the relationship between structure and catalysis. To achieve better mechanistic understanding of [FeFe] hydrogenases both structural and dynamic models are being used to identify potential substrate transfer mechanisms which are tested in an experimental system. Here we report on recent progress of our investigations in the areas of [FeFe] hydrogenase overexpression, minimization and biochemical characterization.
Lagrangian coherent structures and inertial particle dynamics
Sudharsan, M; Riley, James J
2015-01-01
In this work we investigate the dynamics of inertial particles using finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE). In particular, we characterize the attractor and repeller structures underlying preferential concentration of inertial particles in terms of FTLE fields of the underlying carrier fluid. Inertial particles that are heavier than the ambient fluid (aerosols) attract onto ridges of the negative-time fluid FTLE. This negative-time FTLE ridge becomes a repeller for particles that are lighter than the carrier fluid (bubbles). We also examine the inertial FTLE (iFTLE) determined by the trajectories of inertial particles evolved using the Maxey-Riley equations with non-zero Stokes number and density ratio. Finally, we explore the low-pass filtering effect of Stokes number. These ideas are demonstrated on two-dimensional numerical simulations of the unsteady double gyre flow.
Dynamic structural correlation via nonlinear programming techniques
Ting, T.; Ojalvo, I. U.
1988-01-01
A solution to the correlation between structural dynamic test results and finite element analyses of the same components is presented in this paper. Basically, the method can be categorized as a Levenberg-Marquardt type Gauss-Newton method which requires only the differences between FE modal analyses and test results and their first derivatives with respect to preassigned design variables. With proper variable normalization and equation scaling, the method has been made numerically better-conditioned and the inclusion of the Levenberg-Marquardt technique overcomes any remaining difficulty encountered in inverting singular or near-singular matrices. An important feature is that each iteration requires only one function evaluation along with the associated design sensitivity analysis and so the procedure is computationally efficient.
Wheat yield dynamics: a structural econometric analysis.
Sahin, Afsin; Akdi, Yilmaz; Arslan, Fahrettin
2007-10-15
In this study we initially have tried to explore the wheat situation in Turkey, which has a small-open economy and in the member countries of European Union (EU). We have observed that increasing the wheat yield is fundamental to obtain comparative advantage among countries by depressing domestic prices. Also the changing structure of supporting schemes in Turkey makes it necessary to increase its wheat yield level. For this purpose, we have used available data to determine the dynamics of wheat yield by Ordinary Least Square Regression methods. In order to find out whether there is a linear relationship among these series we have checked each series whether they are integrated at the same order or not. Consequently, we have pointed out that fertilizer usage and precipitation level are substantial inputs for producing high wheat yield. Furthermore, in respect for our model, fertilizer usage affects wheat yield more than precipitation level.
Dynamic structure of active nematic shells
Zhang, Rui; Zhou, Ye; Rahimi, Mohammad; de Pablo, Juan J.
2016-11-01
When a thin film of active, nematic microtubules and kinesin motor clusters is confined on the surface of a vesicle, four +1/2 topological defects oscillate in a periodic manner between tetrahedral and planar arrangements. Here a theoretical description of nematics, coupled to the relevant hydrodynamic equations, is presented here to explain the dynamics of active nematic shells. In extensile microtubule systems, the defects repel each other due to elasticity, and their collective motion leads to closed trajectories along the edges of a cube. That motion is accompanied by oscillations of their velocities, and the emergence and annihilation of vortices. When the activity increases, the system enters a chaotic regime. In contrast, for contractile systems, which are representative of some bacterial suspensions, a hitherto unknown static structure is predicted, where pairs of defects attract each other and flows arise spontaneously.
Structure and dynamics of interphase chromosomes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angelo Rosa
Full Text Available During interphase chromosomes decondense, but fluorescent in situ hybridization experiments reveal the existence of distinct territories occupied by individual chromosomes inside the nuclei of most eukaryotic cells. We use computer simulations to show that the existence and stability of territories is a kinetic effect that can be explained without invoking an underlying nuclear scaffold or protein-mediated interactions between DNA sequences. In particular, we show that the experimentally observed territory shapes and spatial distances between marked chromosome sites for human, Drosophila, and budding yeast chromosomes can be reproduced by a parameter-free minimal model of decondensing chromosomes. Our results suggest that the observed interphase structure and dynamics are due to generic polymer effects: confined Brownian motion conserving the local topological state of long chain molecules and segregation of mutually unentangled chains due to topological constraints.
Molecular dynamics study of ice structural evolution
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Yan; Dong Shun-Le
2008-01-01
Molecular dynamics simulation is employed to study the structural evolution of low density amorphous ice during its compression from one atmosphere to 2.5 GPa. Calculated results show that high density amorphous ice is formed at an intermediate pressure of～1.0GPa; the O-O-O bond angle ranges from 83° to 113°, and the O-H...O bond is bent from 112° to 160°. Very high density amorphous ice is obtained by quenching to 80K and decompressing the ice to ambient pressure from 160 K/1.3 GPa or 160 K/1.7 GPa; and the next-nearest O-O length is found to be 0.310 nm, just 0.035 nm beyond the nearest O-O distance of 0.275 nm.
Chemical structure and dynamics. Annual report 1994
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Colson, S.D.
1995-07-01
The Chemical Structure and Dynamics program was organized as a major component of Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a state-of-the-art collaborative facility for studies of chemical structure and dynamics. Our program responds to the need for a fundamental, molecular-level understanding of chemistry at the wide variety of environmentally important interfaces by (1) extending the experimental characterization and theoretical description of chemical reactions to encompass the effects of condensed media and interfaces, and (2) developing a multidisciplinary capability for describing interfacial chemical processes within which the new knowledge generated can be brought to bear on complex phenomena in environmental chemistry and in nuclear waste processing and storage. This research effort was initiated in 1989 and will continue to evolve over the next few years into a program of rigorous studies of fundamental molecular processes in model systems, such as well-characterized surfaces, single-component solutions, clusters, and biological molecules; and studies of complex systems found in the environment (multispecies, multiphase solutions; solid/liquid, liquid/liquid, and gas/surface interfaces; colloidal dispersions; ultrafine aerosols; and functioning biological systems). The success of this program will result in the achievement of a quantitative understanding of chemical reactions at interfaces, and more generally in condensed media, that is comparable to that currently available for gas-phase reactions. This understanding will form the basis for the development of a priori theories for predictions of macroscopic chemical behavior in condensed and heterogeneous media, adding significantly to the value of field-scale environmental models, the prediction of short- and long-term nuclear waste storage stabilities, and other problems related to the primary missions of the DOE.
Annual Report 1998: Chemical Structure and Dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
SD Colson; RS McDowell
1999-05-10
The Chemical Structure and Dynamics (CS&D) program is a major component of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Labo- ratory (EMSL), developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide a state-of- the-art collaborative facility for studies of chemical structure and dynamics. We respond to the need for a fundamental, molecular-level understanding of chemistry at a wide variety of environmentally important interfaces by (1) extending the experimental characterization and theoretical description of chemical reactions to encompass the effects of condensed media and interfaces; (2) developing a multidisciplinary capability for describing interracial chemical processes within which the new knowledge generated can be brought to bear on complex phenomena in envi- ronmental chemistry and in nuclear waste proc- essing and storage; and (3) developing state-of- the-art analytical methods for characterizing com- plex materials of the types found in stored wastes and contaminated soils, and for detecting and monitoring trace atmospheric species. Our program aims at achieving a quantitative understanding of chemical reactions at interfaces and, more generally, in condensed media, compa- rable to that currently available for gas-phase reactions. This understanding will form the basis for the development of a priori theories for pre- dicting macroscopic chemical behavior in con- densed and heterogeneous media, which will add significantly to the value of field-scale envi- ronmental models, predictions of short- and long- term nuclear waste storage stabilities, and other areas related to the primary missions of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).
Kinetics of the water adsorption driven structural transformationof ZnS nanoparticles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goodell, C.M.; Gilbert, B.; Weigand, S.J.; Banfield, J.F.
2007-08-01
Nanoparticles of certain materials can respond structurally to changes in their surface environments. We have previously shown that methanol, water adsorption, and aggregation-disaggregation can change the structure of 3 nm diameter zinc sulfide (ZnS). However, in prior observations of water-driven structure change, aggregation may also have taken place. Therefore, we investigated the structural consequences of water adsorption alone on anhydrous nanoparticles that were dried to minimize changes in aggregation. Using simultaneously collected small- and wide-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) data, we show that water vapor adsorption alone drives a structural transformation in ZnS nanoparticles in the temperature range 22-40 C. The transition kinetics are strongly temperature dependent, with an activation energy of 58.1 {+-} 9.8 kJ/mol, consistent with atom displacement rather than bond breaking. At 50 C, aggregate restructuring occurred, increasing the transition kinetics beyond the rate expected for water adsorption alone. The observation of isosbestic points in the WAXS data suggests that the particles do not transform continuously between the initial and final structural state but rather undergo an abrupt change from a less ordered to a more ordered state.
Multiple seed structure and disconnected networks in respondent-driven sampling
Malmros, Jens
2016-01-01
Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a link-tracing sampling method that is especially suitable for sampling hidden populations. RDS combines an efficient snowball-type sampling scheme with inferential procedures that yield unbiased population estimates under some assumptions about the sampling procedure and population structure. Several seed individuals are typically used to initiate RDS recruitment. However, standard RDS estimation theory assume that all sampled individuals originate from only one seed. We present an estimator, based on a random walk with teleportation, which accounts for the multiple seed structure of RDS. The new estimator can also be used on populations with disconnected social networks. We numerically evaluate our estimator by simulations on artificial and real networks. Our estimator outperforms previous estimators, especially when the proportion of seeds in the sample is large. We recommend our new estimator to be used in RDS studies, in particular when the number of seeds is large or ...
Zheng, Yali; Wang, Wenzhong; Jiang, Dong; Zhang, Ling; Li, Xiaoman; Wang, Zhong
2016-07-21
Different tunnel structured manganese oxides (1*1, 2*2, and 3*3) have been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal strategy. The three catalysts exhibit high photothermal performance, resulting in a considerable increase of temperature above the light-off temperature for VOC oxidation. On this point, aerobic oxidation reactions of propane and propylene under simulated sunlight and infrared light irradiation were selected as probe reactions to explore their light driven thermocatalytic activity. Furthermore, the light-off curves of the manganese oxides for propane and propylene were carefully investigated, which clearly explained the possibility of combining both the efficient photothermal effect and excellent thermocatalytic activity of the manganese oxides. Results show that the catalytic effects follow the order of 1*1 structure and the presence of more Mn(4+). This work suggests new applications for traditional catalysts with intense photoabsorption and provides insights into the overall utilization of solar energy.
Linear and nonlinear dynamics of current-driven waves in dusty plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahmad, Ali [National Centre for Physics (NCP), Shahdara Valley Road, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Islamabad (Pakistan); Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali Shan, S.; Haque, Q. [National Centre for Physics (NCP), Shahdara Valley Road, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Saleem, H. [National Centre for Physics (NCP), Shahdara Valley Road, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Islamabad (Pakistan)
2012-09-15
The linear and nonlinear dynamics of a recently proposed plasma mode of dusty plasma is studied using kappa distribution for electrons. This electrostatic wave can propagate in the plasma due to the sheared flow of electrons and ions parallel to the external magnetic field in the presence of stationary dust. The coupling of this wave with the usual drift wave and ion acoustic wave is investigated. D'Angelo's mode is also modified in the presence of superthermal electrons. In the nonlinear regime, the wave can give rise to dipolar vortex structures if the shear in flow is weaker and tripolar vortices if the flow has steeper gradient. The results have been applied to Saturn's magnetosphere corresponding to negatively charged dust grains. But the theoretical model is applicable for positively charged dust as well. This work will be useful for future observations and studies of dusty environments of planets and comets.
Dynamics of Subauroral Polarization Stream (SAPS) Structures
Sazykin, S. Y.; Coster, A. J.; Huba, J.; Ridley, A. J.; Erickson, P. J.; Foster, J. C.; Baker, J. B. H.; Wolf, R.
2015-12-01
The Subauroral Polarization Stream (SAPS) flow structures are narrow ionospheric channels of fast (in excess of 100 m/s) westward drift just outside the equatorward edge of the diffuse aurora in the dusk-to-midnight local time sector. Other terms for this phenomenon include subauroral Ion Drift (SAID) events and Polarization Jets. SAPS structures represent a striking departure from the commonly-used two-cell convection pattern. They are thought to arise from the displacement of the downward region-2 Birkeland currents on the dusk side equatorward of the low-latitude boundary of the auroral oval during times of changing high-latitude convection. In this paper, we will use several event simulations with the SAMI3-RCM numerical model (a self-consistent ionosphere-inner magnetosphere model) and RCM-GITM (a self-consistent model of the ionosphere-thermosphere-inner magnetosphere) to analyze the relative roles of changes in the IMF Bz component, ionospheric electron density depletions, and thermospheric modifications in controlling the dynamics of SAPS. Simulation results will be compared to multi-instrument ionospheric observations.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHAO Yuanzhi; ZHONG Weirong; HE Zhenhui
2005-01-01
We report the nonequilibrium dynamical phase transition (NDPT) appearing in a kinetic Ising spin system (ISS) subject to the joint application of a deterministic external field and the stochastic mutually correlated noises simultaneously. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau stochastic differential equation, including an oscillating modulation and the correlated multiplicative and additive white noises, was addressed and the numerical solution to the relevant Fokker-Planck equation was presented on the basis of an average-period approach of driven field. The correlated white noises and the deterministic modulation induce a kind of dynamic symmetry-breaking order, analogous to the stochastic resonance in trend, in the kinetic ISS, and the reentrant transition has been observed between the dynamic disorder and order phases when the intensities of multiplicative and additive noises were changing. The dependencies of a dynamic order parameter Q upon the intensities of additive noise A and multiplicative noise M, the correlation λ between two noises, and the amplitude of applied external field h were investigated quantitatively and visualized vividly. Here a brief discussion is given to outline the underlying mechanism of the NDPT in a kinetic ISS driven by an external force and correlated noises.
Shao, Xinxin; Naghdy, Fazel; Du, Haiping
2017-03-01
A fault-tolerant fuzzy H∞ control design approach for active suspension of in-wheel motor driven electric vehicles in the presence of sprung mass variation, actuator faults and control input constraints is proposed. The controller is designed based on the quarter-car active suspension model with a dynamic-damping-in-wheel-motor-driven-system, in which the suspended motor is operated as a dynamic absorber. The Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model is used to model this suspension with possible sprung mass variation. The parallel-distributed compensation (PDC) scheme is deployed to derive a fault-tolerant fuzzy controller for the T-S fuzzy suspension model. In order to reduce the motor wear caused by the dynamic force transmitted to the in-wheel motor, the dynamic force is taken as an additional controlled output besides the traditional optimization objectives such as sprung mass acceleration, suspension deflection and actuator saturation. The H∞ performance of the proposed controller is derived as linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) comprising three equality constraints which are solved efficiently by means of MATLAB LMI Toolbox. The proposed controller is applied to an electric vehicle suspension and its effectiveness is demonstrated through computer simulation.
Electronic structure and dynamics of nitrosyl porphyrins.
Scheidt, W Robert; Barabanschikov, Alexander; Pavlik, Jeffrey W; Silvernail, Nathan J; Sage, J Timothy
2010-07-19
Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule employed to regulate essential physiological processes. Thus, there is great interest in understanding the interaction of NO with heme, which is found at the active site of many proteins that recognize NO, as well as those involved in its creation and elimination. We summarize what we have learned from investigations of the structure, vibrational properties, and conformational dynamics of NO complexes with ferrous porphyrins, as well as computational investigations in support of these experimental studies. Multitemperature crystallographic data reveal variations in the orientational disorder of the nitrosyl ligand. In some cases, equilibria among NO orientations can be analyzed using the van't Hoff relationship and the free energy and enthalpy of the solid-state transitions evaluated experimentally. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations predict that intrinsic barriers to torsional rotation are smaller than thermal energies at physiological temperatures, and the coincidence of observed NO orientations with minima in molecular mechanics potentials indicates that nonbonded interactions with other chemical groups control the conformational freedom of the bound NO. In favorable cases, reduced disorder at low temperatures exposes subtle structural features including off-axis tilting of the Fe-NO bond and anisotropy of the equatorial Fe-N bonds. We also present the results of nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy measurements on oriented single crystals of [Fe(TPP)(NO)] and [Fe(TPP)(1-MeIm)(NO)]. These describe the anisotropic vibrational motion of iron in five- and six-coordinate heme-NO complexes and reveal vibrations of all Fe-ligand bonds as well as low-frequency molecular distortions associated with the doming of the heme upon ligand binding. A quantitative comparison with predicted frequencies, amplitudes, and directions facilitates identification of the vibrational modes but also suggests that commonly used DFT
Evolving nanomaterials using enzyme-driven dynamic peptide libraries (eDPL).
Das, Apurba K; Hirsth, Andrew R; Ulijn, Rein V
2009-01-01
This paper describes the application of dynamic combinatorial libraries (DCL) towards the discovery of self-assembling nanostructures based on aromatic peptide derivatives and the continuous enzymatic exchange of amino acid sequences. Ultimately, the most thermodynamically stable self-assembling structures will dominate the system. In this respect, a library of precursor components, based on N-fluorenyl-9-methoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-amino acids (serine, S and threonine, T) and nucleophiles (leucine, L-; phenylalanine, F-; tyrosine, Y-; valine, V-; glycine, G-; alanine, A-OMe amino-acid esters) were investigated to produce Fmoc-dipeptide esters, denoted Fmoc-XY-OMe. Upon exposure to a protease (thermolysin), which catalyses peptide bond formation and hydrolysis under aqueous conditions at pH 8, dynamic libraries of self-assembling gelator species were generated. Depending on the molecular composition of the precursors present in the library different behaviours were observed. Single components, Fmoc-SF-OMe and Fmoc-TF-OMe, dominated over time in Fmoc-S/(L+F+Y+V+G+A)-OMe and Fmoc-T/ (L+F+Y+V+G+A)-OMe libraries. This represented > 80% of all peptide formed suggesting that a single component molecular structure dominates in these systems. In a competition experiment between Fmoc-(S+T)/F-OMe, conversions to each peptide corresponded directly with ratios of starting materials, implying that a bi-component nanostructure, where Fmoc-TF-OMe and Fmoc-SF-OMe are incorporated equally favourably, was formed. Several techniques including HPLC, LCMS and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to characterize library composition and molecular interactions within the self-selecting libraries. Fluorescence spectroscopy analysis suggests that the most stable peptide nanostructures show significant pi-pi intermolecular electronic communication. Overall, the paper demonstrates a novel evolution-based approach with self-selection and amplification of supramolecular peptide nanostructures from a