WorldWideScience

Sample records for dynamically coated c18

  1. The hydrophobic and omnidirectional antireflection coating of SiO2 nanospheres with C18-TEOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Lan, Wen-Lin; Chen, Nien-Po; Wu, Chyan-Chyi

    2014-06-01

    This paper demonstrates the antireflection coating of SiO2 nanospheres applied to cover glass by using the optimal spin-coating method. Because of the hydrolysis and condensation reactions between the SiO2 nanosphere antireflection (AR) coating and n-octadecyltriethoxysilane solution (C18-TEOS), the contact angle of the AR coating with hydrophobic treatment is improved approximately 38%, and the moisture-resistance remains unchanged, which preserved similar transmittance for six weeks. Furthermore, the AR coating with hydrophobic treatment exhibits approximately 3% and 7% improvement in the transmittance at normal and oblique incidence, respectively. The hydrophobic and omnidirectional AR coating with nanoscale SiO2 particles can be fabricated using the proposed simple and economical method.

  2. C18-coated stir bar sorptive extraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of sulfonamides in milk and milk powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunhe; Hu, Bin

    2012-02-15

    A simple, rapid, sensitive, inexpensive and less sample consuming method of C(18)-stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was proposed for the determination of six sulfonamides in milk and milk powder samples. C(18) silica particles coated stir bar was prepared by adhesion method, and two kinds of adhesive glue, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sol and epoxy glue were tried. It was found that the C(18)-coated stir bar prepared by PDMS sol as adhesive glue is more robust than that prepared by epoxy glue when liquid desorption was employed, in terms of both lifetime and organic solvent tolerance. The preparation of C(18) stir bar was simple with good mechanic strength and the stir bar could be reused for more than 20 times. Granular coating has relatively high specific surface area and is propitious to sorptive extraction based process. Compared to conventional PDMS SBSE coating, C(18) coating shows good affinity to the target polar/weak polar sulfonamides. To achieve optimum SBSE extraction performance, several parameters including extraction and desorption time, ionic strength, sample pH and stirring speed were investigated. The detection limits of the proposed method for six sulfonamides were in the range of 0.9-10.5 μg/L for milk and 2.7-31.5 μg/kg for milk powder. Good linearities were obtained for sulfonamides with the correlation coefficients (R) above 0.9922. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of sulfonamides in milk and milk powder samples and satisfied recoveries of spiked target compounds in real samples were obtained. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Extraction and Determination of Pb(II by Organic Functionalisation of Graphenes Adsorbed on Surfactant Coated C18 in Environmental Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moghimi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel, simple, sensitive and effective method has been developed for preconcentration of lead. This solid-phase extraction adsorbent was synthesized by functionalization of graphenes with covalently linked N-methyl-glycine and 3, 4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde onto the surfaces of graphite. The method is based on selective chelation of Pb (II on surfactant coated C18, modified with functionalization of graphenes (graphene-f-OH. The adsorbed ions were then eluted with 4 ml of 4 M nitric acid and determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS at 283.3 for Pb. The influence of flow rates of sample and eluent solutions, pH, breakthrough volume, effect of foreign ions were investigated on chelation and recovery. 1.5 g of surfactant coated C18 adsorbs 40 mg of the functionalization of graphenes (graphene-f-OH base which in turn can retain15.2±0.8mg of each of the two ions. The limit of detection (3σ for Pb(II was found to be 3.20 ng l -1. The enrichment factor for both ions is 100. The mentioned method was successfully applied on the determination of Pb in different water samples.

  4. Extraction and Determination of Pb(II by Organic Functionalisation of Graphenes Adsorbed on Surfactant Coated C18 in Environmental Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moghimi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel, simple, sensitive and effective method has been developed for preconcentration of lead. This solidphase extraction adsorbent was synthesized by functionalization of graphenes with covalently linked N-methyl-glycine and 3, 4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde onto the surfaces of graphite. The method is based on selective chelation of Pb (II on surfactant coated C18, modified with functionalization of graphenes (graphene-f-OH. The adsorbed ions were then eluted with 4 ml of 4 M nitric acid and determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS at 283.3 for Pb. The influence of flow rates of sample and eluent solutions, pH, breakthrough volume, effect of foreign ions were investigated on chelation and recovery. 1.5 g of surfactant coated C18 adsorbs 40 mg of the functionalization of graphenes (graphene-f-OH base which in turn can retain15.2±0.8mg of each of the two ions. The limit of detection (3σ for Pb(II was found to be 3.20 ng l -1. The enrichment factor for both ions is 100. The mentioned method was successfully applied on the determination of Pb in different water samples

  5. Determination of Organophosphorous Pesticides in Environmental Water Samples Using Surface-Engineered C18 Functionalized Silica-Coated Core-Shell Magnetic Nanoparticles-Based Extraction Coupled with GC-MS/MS Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Neha; Kumari, Supriya; Nair, Kishore; Alam, Samsul; Raza, Syed K

    2017-05-01

    The present paper depicts a novel method based on magnetic SPE (MSPE) for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) such as phorate, malathion, and chlorpyrifos in environmental water samples. In this study, C18 functionalized silica-coated core-shell iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were used as a surface-engineered magnetic sorbent for the selective extraction of pesticides from aqueous samples, followed by GC-MS and GC-tandem MS analysis for confirmative determination of the analytes. Various important method parameters, including quantity of MNP adsorbent, volume of sample, effective time for extraction, nature of the desorbing solvent, and pH of the aqueous sample, were investigated and optimized to obtain maximum method performance. Under the optimized instrumental analysis conditions, good linearity (r2 value ≥0.994) was achieved at the concentration range of 0.5-500 μg/L. Recoveries were in the range of 79.2-96.3 and 80.4-97.5% in selective-ion monitoring and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) modes, respectively, at the spiking concentrations of 1, 5, and 10 μg/L. MRM mode showed better sensitivity, selectivity, and low-level detection (0.5 μg/L) of analytes. The novel MSPE method is a simple, cheap, rapid, and eco-friendly method for the determination of OPs in environmental water samples.

  6. Dynamics of Spore Coat Morphogenesis in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Peter T.; Eichenberger, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Spores of Bacillus subtilis are encased in a protective coat made up of at least 70 proteins. The structure of the spore coat has been examined using a variety of genetic, imaging and biochemical techniques, however, the majority of these studies have focused on mature spores. In this study we use a library of 41 spore coat proteins fused to the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) to examine spore coat morphogenesis over the time-course of sporulation. We found considerable diversity in the localization dynamics of coat proteins and were able to establish 6 classes based on localization kinetics. Localization dynamics correlate well with the known transcriptional regulators of coat gene expression. Previously, we described the existence of multiple layers in the mature spore coat. Here, we find that the spore coat initially assembles a scaffold that is organized into multiple layers on one pole of the spore. The coat then encases the spore in multiple coordinated waves. Encasement is driven, at least partially, by transcription of coat genes and deletion of sporulation transcription factors arrests encasement. We also identify the trans-compartment SpoIIIAH-SpoIIQ channel as necessary for encasement. This is the first demonstration of a forespore contribution to spore coat morphogenesis. PMID:22171814

  7. Dynamic coating of mf/uf membranes for fouling mitigation

    KAUST Repository

    Tabatabai, S. Assiyeh Alizadeh

    2017-01-19

    A membrane system including an anti-fouling layer and a method of applying an anti-fouling layer to a membrane surface are provided. In an embodiment, the surface is a microfiltration (MF) or an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane surface. The anti-fouling layer can include a stimuli responsive layer and a dynamic protective layer applied over the stimuli responsive layer that can be a coating on a surface of the membrane. The stimuli responsive polymer layer can act as an adhesive prior to coating with the dynamic protective layer to aid in adhering the dynamic protective layer to the membrane surface. The dynamic protective layer can be formed by suitable nanoparticles that can prevent adhesion of foulants directly to the membrane surface. The stimuli responsive layer can be responsive to physio- chemical stimuli to cause a release of the stimuli responsive layer and the dynamic protective layer including foulants from the membrane.

  8. Dynamic-speckle profilometer for online measurements of coating thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamshilin, A A [Laboratory of Optical Sensor Technology, Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Semenov, D V [Laboratory of Optical Sensor Technology, Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Nippolainen, E [Laboratory of Optical Sensor Technology, Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Miridonov, S [Optics Department, CICESE, Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada km 107, C.P. 22860, A.P. 360, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    Online control of thickness of as-deposited coatings is of great importance because it directly affects the quality of protective coatings. We present a novel approach that enables online, real-time and non-contact measurements thickness of thermally sprayed coatings. The proposed technique uses dynamic speckles generated by rapidly deflecting laser beam. Within 10 ms the system can scan 500 times a small area of the deposited layer thus resulting in measurement accuracy of 5 microns irrespectively of the layer roughness. In comparison with traditional optical triangulation technique of distance measurements, our system has following advantages: (i) much simpler optical scheme that includes conventional photodiode to measure the scattered light, (ii) much simpler electronics for real-time data processing, (iii) much higher speed of measurements.

  9. Dynamic-speckle profilometer for online measurements of coating thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamshilin, A A; Semenov, D V; Nippolainen, E; Miridonov, S

    2007-01-01

    Online control of thickness of as-deposited coatings is of great importance because it directly affects the quality of protective coatings. We present a novel approach that enables online, real-time and non-contact measurements thickness of thermally sprayed coatings. The proposed technique uses dynamic speckles generated by rapidly deflecting laser beam. Within 10 ms the system can scan 500 times a small area of the deposited layer thus resulting in measurement accuracy of 5 microns irrespectively of the layer roughness. In comparison with traditional optical triangulation technique of distance measurements, our system has following advantages: (i) much simpler optical scheme that includes conventional photodiode to measure the scattered light, (ii) much simpler electronics for real-time data processing, (iii) much higher speed of measurements

  10. Characterizing Suspension Plasma Spray Coating Formation Dynamics through Curvature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram Seshadri, Ramachandran; Dwivedi, Gopal; Viswanathan, Vaishak; Sampath, Sanjay

    2016-12-01

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) enables the production of variety of microstructures with unique mechanical and thermal properties. In SPS, a liquid carrier (ethanol/water) is used to transport the sub-micrometric feedstock into the plasma jet. Considering complex deposition dynamics of SPS technique, there is a need to better understand the relationships among spray conditions, ensuing particle behavior, deposition stress evolution and resultant properties. In this study, submicron yttria-stabilized zirconia particles suspended in ethanol were sprayed using a cascaded arc plasma torch. The stresses generated during the deposition of the layers (termed evolving stress) were monitored via the change in curvature of the substrate measured using an in situ measurement apparatus. Depending on the deposition conditions, coating microstructures ranged from feathery porous to dense/cracked deposits. The evolving stresses and modulus were correlated with the observed microstructures and visualized via process maps. Post-deposition bi-layer curvature measurement via low temperature thermal cycling was carried out to quantify the thermo-elastic response of different coatings. Lastly, preliminary data on furnace cycle durability of different coating microstructures were evaluated. This integrated study involving in situ diagnostics and ex situ characterization along with process maps provides a framework to describe coating formation mechanisms, process parametrics and microstructure description.

  11. Damping capacity and dynamic mechanical characteristics of the plasma-sprayed coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Liming; Ma Yue; Zhou Chungen; Xu Huibin

    2005-01-01

    The damping properties and dynamic mechanical performance of NiCrAlY coating, FeCrMo ferromagnetic coating, AlCuFeCr quasicrystalline coating and nanostructured ZrO 2 ceramic coating, which were prepared by plasma-spray method, were investigated. The measuring results of the dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer (DMTA) and the flexural resonance testing method show that the damping capacity (Q -1 ) of the coated sample has a notable improvement compared to the substrate, while the dynamic modulus has a dramatic decrease. The resonance frequency of the coated cantilever beam structure shifted to high-frequency, and the resonance amplitude, especially high mode resonance, was dramatically attenuated. The internal friction peaks were observed in the Q -1 -temperature spectrogram and a normal amplitude effects were shown in the coated samples damping characteristics. The damping mechanism based on the interaction between substrate and coating layer, and the microstructure of the coated sample were also discussed in this paper

  12. Domain-wall dynamics in glass-coated magnetic microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, R.; Zhukov, A.; Usov, N.; Blanco, J.M.; Gonzalez, J.; Zhukova, V.; Vojtanik, P.

    2007-01-01

    Glass-coated magnetic microwires with positive magnetostriction show peculiar domain structure that consists mostly of one large domain with magnetization-oriented axially. It was shown that small closure domains appear at the end of the microwire in order to decrease the stray fields. As a result of such domain structure, the magnetization reversal in axial direction runs through the depinning of one of such closure domains and subsequent propagation of the corresponding domain wall. Quite unusual domain-wall (DW) dynamics of the DW propagation predicted previously from the theory has been found in such amorphous microwires. In this paper, we are dealing with the DW dynamics of glass-coated microwires with small positive magnetostriction. The DW damping coming from the structural relaxation dominates at low temperatures as a result of the decrease of the mobility of the structural atomic-level defects. Negative critical propagation field points to the possible DW propagation without applied magnetic field. Probable explanation could be in terms of the effective mass of the DW

  13. Formation Dynamics of Oral Oil Coatings and Their Effect on Subsequent Sweetness Perception of Liquid Stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho, S.; Eck, van Arianne; De Velde, Van Fred; Stieger, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the formation of oral coatings and their influence on subsequent taste perception is necessary to understand possible taste-masking effects by oil coatings. This study investigated (a) the dynamics of the formation of oral oil coatings formed by o/w emulsions and (b) the effect of oral

  14. Membrane tension regulates clathrin-coated pit dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Allen

    2014-03-01

    Intracellular organization depends on close communication between the extracellular environment and a network of cytoskeleton filaments. The interactions between cytoskeletal filaments and the plasma membrane lead to changes in membrane tension that in turns help regulate biological processes. Endocytosis is thought to be stimulated by low membrane tension and the removal of membrane increases membrane tension. While it is appreciated that the opposing effects of exocytosis and endocytosis have on keeping plasma membrane tension to a set point, it is not clear how membrane tension affects the dynamics of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs), the individual functional units of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, although it was recently shown that actin dynamics counteracts membrane tension during CCP formation, it is not clear what roles plasma membrane tension plays during CCP initiation. Based on the notion that plasma membrane tension is increased when the membrane area increases during cell spreading, we designed micro-patterned surfaces of different sizes to control the cell spreading sizes. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of living cells and high content image analysis were used to quantify the dynamics of CCPs. We found that there is an increased proportion of CCPs with short (<20s) lifetime for cells on larger patterns. Interestingly, cells on larger patterns have higher CCP initiation density, an effect unexpected based on the conventional view of decreasing endocytosis with increasing membrane tension. Furthermore, by analyzing the intensity profiles of CCPs that were longer-lived, we found CCP intensity decreases with increasing cell size, indicating that the CCPs are smaller with increasing membrane tension. Finally, disruption of actin dynamics significantly increased the number of short-lived CCPs, but also decreased CCP initiation rate. Together, our study reveals new mechanistic insights into how plasma membrane tension regulates

  15. Interaction between a high purity magnesium surface and PCL and PLA coatings during dynamic degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ying; Song Yang; Zhang Shaoxiang; Li Jianan; Zhao Changli; Zhang Xiaonong

    2011-01-01

    In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL) and polylactic acid (PLA) coatings were prepared on the surface of high purity magnesium (HPMs), respectively, and electrochemical and dynamic degradation tests were used to investigate the degradation behaviors of these polymer-coated HPMs. The experimental results indicated that two uniform and smooth polymer films with thicknesses between 15 and 20 μm were successfully prepared on the HPMs. Electrochemical tests showed that both PCL-coated and PLA-coated HPMs had higher free corrosion potentials (E corr ) and smaller corrosion currents (I corr ) in the modified simulated body fluid (m-SBF) at 37 0 C, compared to those of the uncoated HPMs. Dynamic degradation tests simulating the flow conditions in coronary arteries were carried out on a specific test platform. The weight of the specimens and the pH over the tests were recorded to characterize the corrosion performance of those samples. The surfaces of the specimens after the dynamic degradation tests were also examined. The data implied that there was a special interaction between HPM and its polymer coatings during the dynamic degradation tests, which undermined the corrosion resistance of the coated HPMs. A model was proposed to illustrate the interaction between the polymer coatings and HPM. This study also suggested that this reciprocity may also exist on the implanted magnesium stents coated with biodegradable polymers, which is a potential obstacle for the further development of drug-eluting magnesium stents.

  16. Probing Lipid Coating Dynamics of Quantum Dot Core Micelles via Forster Resonance Energy Transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yiming; Schapotschnikow, Philipp; Skajaa, Torjus; Vlugt, Thijs J. H.; Mulder, Willem J. M.; de Mello Donegá, Celso; Meijerink, Andries

    2014-01-01

    Lipid coated nanocrystal assemblies are among the most extensively investigated nanoparticle platforms for biomedical imaging and therapeutic purposes. However, very few efforts have been addressed to the lipid coating exchange dynamics in such systems, which is key to our understanding of the

  17. Interaction between a high purity magnesium surface and PCL and PLA coatings during dynamic degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Ying; Song Yang; Zhang Shaoxiang; Li Jianan; Zhao Changli; Zhang Xiaonong, E-mail: xnzhang@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2011-04-15

    In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL) and polylactic acid (PLA) coatings were prepared on the surface of high purity magnesium (HPMs), respectively, and electrochemical and dynamic degradation tests were used to investigate the degradation behaviors of these polymer-coated HPMs. The experimental results indicated that two uniform and smooth polymer films with thicknesses between 15 and 20 {mu}m were successfully prepared on the HPMs. Electrochemical tests showed that both PCL-coated and PLA-coated HPMs had higher free corrosion potentials (E{sub corr}) and smaller corrosion currents (I{sub corr}) in the modified simulated body fluid (m-SBF) at 37 {sup 0}C, compared to those of the uncoated HPMs. Dynamic degradation tests simulating the flow conditions in coronary arteries were carried out on a specific test platform. The weight of the specimens and the pH over the tests were recorded to characterize the corrosion performance of those samples. The surfaces of the specimens after the dynamic degradation tests were also examined. The data implied that there was a special interaction between HPM and its polymer coatings during the dynamic degradation tests, which undermined the corrosion resistance of the coated HPMs. A model was proposed to illustrate the interaction between the polymer coatings and HPM. This study also suggested that this reciprocity may also exist on the implanted magnesium stents coated with biodegradable polymers, which is a potential obstacle for the further development of drug-eluting magnesium stents.

  18. SEC16 in COPII coat dynamics at ER exit sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, Joep; Rabouille, Catherine

    Protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the first step in protein transport through the secretory pathway, is mediated by coatomer protein II (COPII)-coated vesicles at ER exit sites. COPII coat assembly on the ER is well understood and the conserved large hydrophilic protein Sec16

  19. Surface dynamics and mechanics in liquid crystal polymer coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, D.; Broer, D.J.; Chien, L.-C.; Coles, H.J.; Kikuchi, H.; Smalyukh, I.I.

    2015-01-01

    Based on liquid crystal networks we developed 'smart' coatings with responsive surface topographies. Either by prepatterning or by the formation of self-organized structures they can be switched on and off in a pre-designed manner. Here we provide an overview of our methods to generate coatings that

  20. Evaluation of thermal control coatings for use on solar dynamic radiators in low earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Rodriguez, Elvin; Slemp, Wayne S.; Stoyack, Joseph E.

    1991-01-01

    Thermal control coatings with high thermal emittance and low solar absorptance are needed for Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar dynamic power module radiator (SDR) surfaces for efficient heat rejection. Additionally, these coatings must be durable to low earth orbital (LEO) environmental effects of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation and deep thermal cycles which occur as a result of start-up and shut-down of the solar dynamic power system. Eleven candidate coatings were characterized for their solar absorptance and emittance before and after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation (200 to 400 nm), vacuum UV (VUV) radiation (100 to 200 nm) and atomic oxygen. Results indicated that the most durable and best performing coatings were white paint thermal control coatings Z-93, zinc oxide pigment in potassium silicate binder, and YB-71, zinc orthotitanate pigment in potassium silicate binder. Optical micrographs of these materials exposed to the individual environmental effects of atomic oxygen and vacuum thermal cycling showed that no surface cracking occurred.

  1. Experimental Research on the Dynamic Response of Floating Structures with Coatings Subjected to Underwater Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation into the dynamic response of three free floating stiffened metal boxes with protective coatings subjected to underwater explosion (UNDEX. One box was kept intact while the other two were, respectively, covered with monolithic coatings and chiral honeycomb coatings. Three groups of live fire tests with different attack angles and stand-off distances were conducted. The acceleration on the stiffener and strain peak on the bottom hull were selected as the major comparative criterions. Test results show that the impulse transmitted to the structure at the initial stage can be reduced, owing to the coating flexibility and fluid-structure interaction mechanism. Consequently, the acceleration peaks induced by both shock wave and bubble pulse were reduced. The shock environment can be more effectively improved by honeycomb coating when compared with monolithic coating. Most of the strain peaks decreased to a certain extent, but some of them were notably manifested, especially for honeycomb coating. The test affirms the fact that soft coating can cause stress concentration on the shell that is in direct contact with the coating due to the impedance mismatch between the interfaces of materials. A softer rubber coating induces a greater magnitude of strain.

  2. Experimental Investigation of Polyurethane Camouflage Coating Using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crawford, Dawn

    1999-01-01

    .... The current polyurethane solvent-based (SOL) formulation, used as a chemical-agent-resistant camouflage top coat on all military tactical vehicles, was investigated, along with newly developed water-reducible (WR...

  3. Static vs dynamic settlement and adhesion of diatoms to ship hull coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargiel, Kelli A; Swain, Geoffrey W

    2014-01-01

    Many experiments utilize static immersion tests to evaluate the performance of ship hull coatings. These provide valuable data; however, they do not accurately represent the conditions both the hull and fouling organisms encounter while a ship is underway. This study investigated the effect of static and dynamic immersion on the adhesion and settlement of diatoms to one antifouling coating (BRA 640), four fouling-release coatings (Intersleek(®) 700, Intersleek(®) 900, Hempasil X3, and Dow Corning 3140) and one standard surface (Intergard(®) 240 Epoxy). Differences in community composition were observed between the static and dynamic treatments. Achnanthes longipes was present on all coatings under static immersion, but was not present under dynamic immersion. This was also found for diatoms in the genera Bacillaria and Gyrosigma. Melosira moniformis was the only diatom present under dynamic conditions, but not static conditions. Several common fouling diatom genera were present on panels regardless of treatment: Amphora, Cocconeis, Entomoneis Cylindrotheca, Licmophora, Navicula, Nitzschia, Plagiotropis, and Synedra. Biofilm adhesion, diatom abundance and diatom diversity were found to be significantly different between static and dynamic treatments; however, the difference was dependent on coating and sampling date. Several coatings (Epoxy, DC 3140 and IS 700) had significantly higher biofilm adhesion on dynamically treated panels on at least one of the four sampling dates, while all coatings had significantly higher diatom abundance on at least one sampling date. Diversity was significantly greater on static panels than dynamic panels for Epoxy, IS 700 and HX3 at least once during the sampling period. The results demonstrate how hydrodynamic stress will significantly influence the microfouling community. Dynamic immersion testing is required to fully understand how antifouling surfaces will respond to biofilm formation when subjected to the stresses experienced

  4. Surface dynamics and mechanics in liquid crystal polymer coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Danqing; Broer, Dirk J.

    2015-03-01

    Based on liquid crystal networks we developed `smart' coatings with responsive surface topographies. Either by prepatterning or by the formation of self-organized structures they can be switched on and off in a pre-designed manner. Here we provide an overview of our methods to generate coatings that form surface structures upon the actuation by light. The coating oscillates between a flat surface and a surface with pre-designed 3D micro-patterns by modulating a light source. With recent developments in solid state lighting, light is an attractive trigger medium as it can be integrated in a device for local control or can be used remotely for flood or localized exposure. The basic principle of formation of surface topographies is based on the change of molecular organization in ordered liquid crystal polymer networks. The change in order leads to anisotropic dimensional changes with contraction along the director and expansion to the two perpendicular directions and an increase in volume by the formation of free volume. These two effects work in concert to provide local expansion and contraction in the coating steered by the local direction of molecular orientation. The surface deformation, expressed as the height difference between the activated regions and the non-activated regions divided by the initial film thickness, is of the order of 20%. Switching occurs immediately when the light is switched `on' and `off' and takes several tens of seconds.

  5. Oxidative stability of structured lipids containing C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 or CLA in sn 2-position - as bulk lipids and in milk drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Xu, Xuebing

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we compared the oxidative stability of a specific structured lipid (SL) containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the sn2-position with SL containing other C18 fatty acids of different degree of unsaturation (stearic, oleic, linoleic or linolenic acid). SL was produced...... by enzymatic interesterification with caprylic acid. Oxidative stability was compared in the five lipids themselves and in milk drinks containing 5% of the different SL. During storage, samples were taken for chemical and physical analyses. Moreover, sensory assessments were performed on milk drinks....... The oxidative stability of our SL was very different when comparing (a) bulk lipids and milk drink and (b) the five different batches of each product. SL based on oleic acid was the most unstable as bulk lipid, while SL based on linoleic acid was the most unstable in milk drink. SL based on CLA was the second...

  6. Isothermal and dynamic oxidation behaviour of Mo-W doped carbon-based coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Paranjayee; Ehiasarian, Arutiun P.; Hovsepian, Papken Eh.

    2015-10-01

    The oxidation behaviour of Mo-W doped carbon-based coating (Mo-W-C) is investigated in elevated temperature (400-1000 °C). Strong metallurgical bond between Mo-W-C coating and substrate prevents any sort of delamination during heat-treatment. Isothermal oxidation tests show initial growth of metal oxides at 500 °C, however graphitic nature of the as-deposited coating is preserved. The oxidation progresses with further rise in temperature and the substrate is eventually exposed at 700 °C. The performance of Mo-W-C coating is compared with a state-of-the-art DLC(Cr/Cr-WC/W:C-H/a:C-H) coating, which shows preliminary oxidation at 400 °C and local delamination of the coating at 500 °C leading to substrate exposure. The graphitisation starts at 400 °C and the diamond-like structure is completely converted into the graphite-like structure at 500 °C. Dynamic oxidation behaviour of both the coatings is investigated using Thermo-gravimetric analysis carried out with a slow heating rate of 1 °C/min from ambient temperature to 1000 °C. Mo-W-C coating resists oxidation up to ˜800 °C whereas delamination of DLC(Cr/Cr-WC/W:C-H/a:C-H) coating is observed beyond ˜380 °C. In summary, Mo-W-C coating provides improved oxidation resistance at elevated temperature compared to DLC(Cr/Cr-WC/W:C-H/a:C-H) coating.

  7. Anisotropic biodegradable lipid coated particles for spatially dynamic protein presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Randall A; Mathew, Mohit P; Ben-Akiva, Elana; Sunshine, Joel C; Shmueli, Ron B; Ren, Qiuyin; Yarema, Kevin J; Green, Jordan J

    2018-05-01

    There has been growing interest in the use of particles coated with lipids for applications ranging from drug delivery, gene delivery, and diagnostic imaging to immunoengineering. To date, almost all particles with lipid coatings have been spherical despite emerging evidence that non-spherical shapes can provide important advantages including reduced non-specific elimination and increased target-specific binding. We combine control of core particle geometry with control of particle surface functionality by developing anisotropic, biodegradable ellipsoidal particles with lipid coatings. We demonstrate that these lipid coated ellipsoidal particles maintain advantageous properties of lipid polymer hybrid particles, such as the ability for modular protein conjugation to the particle surface using versatile bioorthogonal ligation reactions. In addition, they exhibit biomimetic membrane fluidity and demonstrate lateral diffusive properties characteristic of natural membrane proteins. These ellipsoidal particles simultaneously provide benefits of non-spherical particles in terms of stability and resistance to non-specific phagocytosis by macrophages as well as enhanced targeted binding. These biomaterials provide a novel and flexible platform for numerous biomedical applications. The research reported here documents the ability of non-spherical polymeric particles to be coated with lipids to form anisotropic biomimetic particles. In addition, we demonstrate that these lipid-coated biodegradable polymeric particles can be conjugated to a wide variety of biological molecules in a "click-like" fashion. This is of interest due to the multiple types of cellular mimicry enabled by this biomaterial based technology. These features include mimicry of the highly anisotropic shape exhibited by cells, surface presentation of membrane bound protein mimetics, and lateral diffusivity of membrane bound substrates comparable to that of a plasma membrane. This platform is demonstrated to

  8. Determination of the coefficient of dynamic friction between coatings of alumina and metallic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A.; Córdoba, E.; Ramírez, Z.; Sierra, C.; Ortega, Y.

    2017-12-01

    This project aims to determine the coefficient of dynamic friction between micrometric size coatings of alumina and metallic materials (Steel and aluminium); the methodology used to achieve the proposed objective consisted of 4 phases, in the first one was developed a procedure that allowed, from a Pin on Disk machine built based on the specifications given by the ASTM G99-05 standard (Standard test method for wear tests with a Pin on Disk machine), to determine the coefficient of dynamic friction between two materials in contact; subsequently the methodology was verified through tests between steel-steel and steel-aluminium, due to these values are widely reported in the literature; as a third step, deposits of alumina particles of micrometric size were made on a steel substrate through thermal spraying by flame; finally, the tests were carried out between pins of steel of aluminium and alumina coating to determine the coefficients of dynamic friction between these two surfaces. The results of the project allowed to verify that the developed methodology is valid to obtain coefficients of dynamic friction between surfaces in contact since the percentages of error were of 3.5% and 2.1% for steel-steel and aluminium-steel, respectively; additionally, it was found that the coefficient of friction between steel-alumina coatings is 0.36 and aluminium-alumina coating is 0.25.

  9. Static and dynamic oxidation of Ti-14Al-21Nb and coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, K.E.; Sankaran, S.N.; Clark, R.K.; Wallace, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports the oxidation of Ti-14Al-21Nb (wt.%) studied under static conditions at 649 to 1093 degrees C for as long as 120 hr. and under simulated hypersonic flight (dynamic oxidation) conditions at 982 degrees C for as many as 16 half-hour cycles. Under simulated hypersonic flight conditions heavy oxidation and spalling of the oxide was observed. It was concluded that titanium aluminides used in hypersonic applications must have oxidation protective coatings. In this preliminary study coatings about one micrometer thick were applied by sputter deposition, form solutions, and from sol-gels. The materials applied by sputter deposition were oxides or fluorides thought to be stable against the metal and the materials applied from solutions and sol-gels were generally glass-formers and were intended for use in the final coating formulation as topcoats to the sputter-deposited coatings. Form weight gain and cross-sectional microscopy of the coated materials after oxidation exposure for 1 hr at 982 degrees C, it was found that because of cracks and porosity the sputter-deposited coatings did not have sufficient film integrity to shield the alloy

  10. Evidence from lateral mobility studies for dynamic interactions of a mutant influenza hemagglutinin with coated pits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire, E; Zwart, D E; Roth, M G; Henis, Y I

    1991-12-01

    with coated pits are dynamic, involving multiple entries of Tyr 543 molecules into and out of coated pits. (c) Alterations in the clathrin lattice structure can modulate the above interactions.

  11. To Investigate the Absorption, Dynamic Contact Angle and Printability Effects of Synthetic Zeolite Pigments in an Inkjet Receptive Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalindre, Swaraj Sunil

    Ink absorption performance in inkjet receptive coatings containing synthetic zeolite pigments was studied. Coating pigment pore and particle size distribution are the key parameters that influence in modifying media surface properties, thus affecting the rate of ink penetration and drying time (Scholkopf, et al. 2004). The primary objective of this study was: (1) to investigate the synthetic zeolite pigment effects on inkjet ink absorption, dynamic contact angle and printability, and (2) to evaluate these novel synthetic zeolite pigments in replacing the fumed silica pigments in conventional inkjet receptive coatings. In this research study, single pigment coating formulations (in equal P:B ratio) were prepared using microporous synthetic zeolite pigments (5A, Organophilic and 13X) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) binder. The laboratory-coated samples were characterized for absorption, air permeance, roughness, drying time, wettability and print fidelity. Based on the rheological data, it was found that the synthetic zeolite formulated coatings depicted a Newtonian flow behavior at low shear; while the industry accepted fumed silica based coatings displayed a characteristically high pseudoplastic flow behavior. Our coated samples generated using microporous synthetic zeolite pigments produced low absorption, reduced wettability and accelerated ink drying characteristics. These characteristics were caused due to the synthetic zeolite pigments, which resulted in relatively closed surface structure coated samples. The research suggested that no single selected synthetic zeolite coating performed better than the conventional fumed silica based coatings. Experimental data also showed that there was no apparent relationship between synthetic zeolite pigment pore sizes and inkjet ink absorption. For future research, above coated samples should be evaluated for pore size distribution using Mercury Porosimeter, which quantifies surface porosity of coated samples. This presented

  12. Probing lipid coating dynamics of quantum dot core micelles via förster resonance energy transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yiming; Schapotschnikow, Philipp; Skajaa, Torjus; Vlugt, Thijs J H; Mulder, Willem J M; De Mello Donegá, Celso; Meijerink, A

    2014-01-01

    Lipid coated nanocrystal assemblies are among the most extensively investigated nanoparticle platforms for biomedical imaging and therapeutic purposes. However, very few efforts have been addressed to the lipid coating exchange dynamics in such systems, which is key to our understanding of the

  13. Separation of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer generations by dynamic coating capillary electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláková, Pavla; Svobodová, Jana; Mikšík, Ivan; Tomás, H.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 841, č. 1-2 (2006), s. 135-139 ISSN 1570-0232 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/03/0716; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/2539; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Grant - others:GA-(PT) GRICES Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : PAMAM dendrimer s * dynamic coating Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.647, year: 2006

  14. A comparative study of homemade C18 and commercial C18 sorbents for preconcentration of lead by minicolumn solid phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltez, H.F.; Curtius, A.J.; Carasek, E.; Melo, L.F.C.; Sales Fontes Jardim, I.C.; Nascimento de Queiroz do, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative study of commercial C 18 chemically immobilized on silica and homemade C 18 , as sorbents for Pb complexed with 0,0-diethyl-dithiophosphate (DDTP) in a flow injection preconcentration system is reported. The homemade C 18 sorbent was obtained by sorption of poly(methyloctadecylsiloxane) (PMODS) on the silica support followed by immobilization using thermal treatment. The method follows the concept of green chemistry, since there are no toxic residues after synthesis. The complexed Pb was formed in 1.0 mol L -1 HCI medium and retained on the minicolumn filled with the sorbents. The elution was carried out using ethanol, and the richest 210 μL fraction was collected and analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Chemical and flow variables were optimized for each sorbent. The results demonstrated that the performance of the proposed homemade C 18 sorbent for preconcentration of Pb complexed with DDTP is very similar to commercial C 18 chemically bonded on silica. By processing 25 mL, the enrichment factors were 129 and 125 for commercial C 18 and homemade C 18 , respectively. The limit of detection for commercial and homemade C 18 was 0.2 μg L -1 and 0.6 μg L -1 , respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was lower than 1.2 % for both sorbents for a Pb concentration of 100 μg L -1 . The method was also applied successfully to the analysis of water samples, and the accuracy was tested by recovery measurements on spiked samples and biological reference material. (author)

  15. Dynamics of Gradient Bioceramic Composite Coating on Surface of Titanium Alloy by Wide-Band Laser Cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qi-bin; ZOU Long-jiang; ZHU Wei-dong; LI Hai-tao; DONG Chuang

    2004-01-01

    The gradient bioceramic coating was prepared on the surface of titanium alloy using wide-band laser cladding. The dynamics of gradient bioceramic composite coating containing hydroxyapatite (HA) prepared with mixture of CaHPO4*2H2O and CaCO3 under the condition of wide-band laser was studied theoretically. The corresponding mathematical model and its numerical solution were presented. The examination experiment showed that HA bioceramic composite coatings can be obtained by appropriately choosing wide-band laser cladding parameters. The microstructure and surface morphology of HA bioceramic coating were observed by SEM and X-ray diffraction. The experimental results showed that the bioceramic coating is composed of HA, β-TCP, CaO, CaTiO3 and TiO2. The surface of bioceramic coating takes coral-shaped structure or short-rod piled structure, which helps osteoblast grow into bioceramic and improves the biocompatibility.

  16. Assessment of polyelectrolyte coating stability under dynamic buffer conditions in CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swords, Kyleen E; Bartline, Peter B; Roguski, Katherine M; Bashaw, Sarah A; Frederick, Kimberley A

    2011-09-01

    Dynamic buffer conditions are present in many electrophoretically driven separations. Polyelectrolyte multilayer coatings have been employed in CE because of their chemical and physical stability as well as their ease of application. The goal of this study is to measure the effect of dynamic changes in buffer pH on flow using a real-time method for measuring EOF. Polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) were composed of pairs of strong or completely ionized polyelectrolytes including poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride and poly(styrene sulfonate) and weak or ionizable polyelectrolytes including poly(allylamine) and poly(methacrylic acid). Polyelectrolyte multilayers of varying thicknesses (3, 4, 7, 8, 15, or 16 layers) were also studied. While the magnitude of the EOF was monitored every 2 s, the buffer pH was exchanged from a relatively basic pH (7.1) to increasingly acidic pHs (6.6, 6.1, 5.5, and 5.1). Strong polyelectrolytes responded minimally to changes in buffer pH (10%) and sometimes irreversible changes were measured with weak polyelectrolytes. Thicker coatings resulted in a similar magnitude of response but were more likely to degrade in response to buffer pH changes. The most stable coatings were formed from thinner layers of strong polyelectrolytes. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(18)-1 - Certain funded pension trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... qualification. A trust described in section 501(c)(18) must meet the following requirements: (1) Local law. The trust must be a valid, existing trust under local law, and must be evidenced by an executed written... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certain funded pension trusts. 1.501(c)(18)-1...

  18. Synthesis of the C(18)-C(34) fragment of amphidinolide C and the C(18)-C(29) fragment of amphidinolide F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sudeshna; Spilling, Christopher D

    2010-11-19

    A convergent synthesis of the C(18)-C(34) fragment of amphidinolide C and the C(18)-C(29) fragment of amphidinolide F is reported. The approach involves the synthesis of the common intermediate tetrahydrofuranyl-β-ketophosphonate via cross metathesis, Pd(0)-catalyzed cyclization, and hydroboration-oxidation. The β-ketophosphonate was coupled to three side chain aldehydes using a Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) olefination reaction to give dienones, which were reduced with l-selectride to give the fragments of amphidinolide C and F.

  19. Synthesis of the C(18)–C(34) Fragment of Amphidinolide C and the C(18)–C(29) Fragment of Amphidinolide F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sudeshna; Spilling, Christopher D.

    2010-01-01

    A convergent synthesis of the C(18)–C(34) fragment of amphidinolide C and the C(18)–C(29) fragment of amphidinolide F is reported. The approach involves the synthesis of the common intermediate tetrahydrofuranyl-β-ketophosphonate via cross metathesis, Pd(0)-catalyzed cyclization and hydroboration-oxidation. The β-ketophosphonate was coupled to three side chain aldehydes using a Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) olefination reaction to give dienones, which were reduced with L-selectride to give the fragments of amphidinolide C and F. PMID:21028791

  20. Dynamic densification of metal matrix-coated fibre composites: modelling and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, H.X.; Dunne, F.P.E.; Grant, P.S.; Cantor, B.

    2005-01-01

    The consolidation processing of Ti-6Al-4V matrix-coated fibre (MCF) composite under vacuum hot pressing (VHP) has been investigated. A new test methodology has been developed for the determination of in situ matrix coating creep properties. In using the methodology, only a single, simple test is required, together with finite element modelling of the single fibre compression test. The creep coefficient and stress index have been determined for electron beam evaporated physical vapour deposited Ti-6Al-4V at 900 deg. C to be 1.23 x 10 -5 and 1.3, respectively. Consolidation experiments have been carried out on multi-ply MCF arrays under vacuum hot pressing. Finite element models have been developed for the dynamic consolidation of both square and hexagonal fibre packings. The creep constants for the Ti-6Al-4V, determined using the single fibre test, were assigned to the coating in the finite element models. Excellent agreement between predicted and experimental results was achieved, providing verification of the single fibre test methodology for the determination of creep constants

  1. Computer simulation and SERR detection of cytochrome c dynamics at SAM-coated electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paggi, Damian Alvarez; Martin, Diego F.; Kranich, Anja; Hildebrandt, Peter; Marti, Marcelo A.; Murgida, Daniel H.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a combined experimental and theoretical study of the heterogeneous electron transfer reaction of cytochrome c electrostatically adsorbed on metal electrodes coated with monolayers of 6-mercaptohexanoic acid. Molecular dynamics simulations and pathways calculations show that adsorption of the protein leads to a broad distribution of orientations and, thus, to a correspondingly broad distribution of electron transfer rate constants due to the orientation-dependence of the electronic coupling parameter. The adsorbed protein exhibits significant mobility and, therefore, the measured reaction rate is predicted to be a convolution of protein dynamics and tunnelling probabilities for each orientation. This prediction is confirmed by time-resolved surface enhanced resonance Raman which allows for the direct monitoring of protein (re-)orientation and electron transfer of the immobilised cytochrome c. The results provide a consistent explanation for the non-exponential distance-independence of electron transfer rates usually observed for proteins immobilized on electrodes.

  2. Computer simulation and SERR detection of cytochrome c dynamics at SAM-coated electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paggi, Damian Alvarez; Martin, Diego F. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. 2, piso 1, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kranich, Anja; Hildebrandt, Peter [Institut fuer Chemie, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Str. des 17, Juni 135, Sekr. PC14, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Marti, Marcelo A. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. 2, piso 1, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: marcelo@qi.fcen.uba.ar; Murgida, Daniel H. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. 2, piso 1, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: dhmurgida@qi.fcen.uba.ar

    2009-09-01

    In this paper we present a combined experimental and theoretical study of the heterogeneous electron transfer reaction of cytochrome c electrostatically adsorbed on metal electrodes coated with monolayers of 6-mercaptohexanoic acid. Molecular dynamics simulations and pathways calculations show that adsorption of the protein leads to a broad distribution of orientations and, thus, to a correspondingly broad distribution of electron transfer rate constants due to the orientation-dependence of the electronic coupling parameter. The adsorbed protein exhibits significant mobility and, therefore, the measured reaction rate is predicted to be a convolution of protein dynamics and tunnelling probabilities for each orientation. This prediction is confirmed by time-resolved surface enhanced resonance Raman which allows for the direct monitoring of protein (re-)orientation and electron transfer of the immobilised cytochrome c. The results provide a consistent explanation for the non-exponential distance-independence of electron transfer rates usually observed for proteins immobilized on electrodes.

  3. Preparation of magnetic core mesoporous shell microspheres with C18-modified interior pore-walls for fast extraction and analysis of phthalates in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongbo; Huang, Danni; Fu, Chinfai; Wei, Biwen; Yu, Wenjia; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2011-09-16

    In this study, core-shell magnetic mesoporous microspheres with C18-functionalized interior pore-walls were synthesized through coating Fe(3)O(4) microspheres with a mesoporous inorganic-organic hybrid layer with a n-octadecyltriethoxysilane (C18TES) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as the silica source and cetyltrimethylammonia bromide (CTAB) as a template. The obtained C18-functionalized Fe(3)O(4)@mSiO(2) microspheres possess numerous C18 groups anchored in the interior pore-walls, large surface area (274.7 m(2)/g, high magnetization (40.8 emu/g) and superparamagnetism, uniform mesopores (4.1 nm), which makes them ideal absorbents for simple, fast, and efficient extraction and enrichment of hydrophobic organic compounds in water samples. Several kinds of phthalates were used as the model hydrophobic organic compounds to systematically evaluate the performance of the C18-functionalized Fe(3)O(4)@mSiO(2) microspheres in extracting hydrophobic molecules by using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Various parameters, including eluting solvent, the amounts of absorbents, extraction time and elution time were optimized. Hydrophobic extraction was performed in the interior pore of magnetic mesoporous microspheres, and the materials had the anti-interference ability to macromolecular proteins, which was also investigated in the work. Under the optimized conditions, C18-functionalized Fe(3)O(4)@mSiO(2) microspheres were successfully used to analyze the real water samples. The results indicated that this novel method was fast, convenient and efficient for the target compounds and could avoid being interfered by macromolecules. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Enantioseparation of dansyl amino acids by HPLC on a monolithic column dynamically coated with a vancomycin derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittler, Elfriede; Schmid, Martin G

    2010-11-01

    In this work a chiral stationary phase was prepared by dynamically coating a monolithic reversed-phase HPLC column with a vancomycin-derivative as chiral selector. A hydrophobic alkyl-chain was attached to the vancomycin molecule, providing the immobilization of the chiral selector on the reversed-phase material. Dansyl amino acids were chosen as model analytes for testing the separation power of the dynamically coated phase. All investigated compounds were separated into their enantiomers. Compared with a conventionally packed vancomycin-CSP, a reversal of the enantiomer elution order was obtained. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Separation of selenium compounds by CE-ICP-MS in dynamically coated capillaries applied to selenized yeast samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendahl, Lars; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2004-01-01

    The selenium species in nutritional supplement tablets, based on selenized yeast, were separated by capillary zone electrophoresis using capillaries coated dynamically with poly(vinyl sulfonate) and detected by ICP-MS. Sample pre-treatment consisted of cold-water extraction by sonication and subs......The selenium species in nutritional supplement tablets, based on selenized yeast, were separated by capillary zone electrophoresis using capillaries coated dynamically with poly(vinyl sulfonate) and detected by ICP-MS. Sample pre-treatment consisted of cold-water extraction by sonication...

  6. Improved tensile and buckling behavior of defected carbon nanotubes utilizing boron nitride coating – A molecular dynamic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badjian, H.; Setoodeh, A.R., E-mail: setoodeh@sutech.ac.ir

    2017-02-15

    Synthesizing inorganic nanostructures such as boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) have led to immense studies due to their many interesting functional features such as piezoelectricity, high temperature resistance to oxygen, electrical insulation, high thermal conductivity and very long lengths as physical features. In order to utilize the superior properties of pristine and defected carbon nanotubes (CNTs), a hybrid nanotube is proposed in this study by forming BNNTs surface coating on the CNTs. The benefits of such coating on the tensile and buckling behavior of single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) are illustrated through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the resulted nanostructures during the deformation. The AIREBO and Tersoff-Brenner potentials are employed to model the interatomic forces between the carbon and boron nitride atoms, respectively. The effects of chiral indices, aspect ratio, presence of mono-vacancy defects and coating dimension on coated/non-coated CNTs are examined. It is demonstrated that the coated defective CNTs exhibit remarkably enhanced ultimate strength, buckling load capacity and Young's modulus. The proposed coating not only enhances the mechanical properties of the resulted nanostructure, but also conceals it from few external factors impacting the behavior of the CNT such as humidity and high temperature.

  7. Experimental and numerical analysis concerning the behaviour of OL50 steel grade specimens coated with polyurea layer under dynamics loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bucur Florina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study refers to an experimental and numerical evaluation of a polyurea coating layer influence on the dynamic behaviour of OL50 specimens. Mechanical quasi-static and dynamic tensile tests were performed in axial loading conditions, for 2 mm steel plate specimens. Several metallic specimens have been previously coated with 1.5 mm and 3 mm respectively thickness polyurea layer and tested in traction. The findings results indicate that the presence of polyurea changes the loading pattern of metallic material in the necking area. In terms of polyurea coated metal specimens fracture, there was clearly observed a change of fracture limit. One possible explanation of this phenomenon is the modification of triaxiality state in the necking zone, fact proven by the numerical simulations. Test results indicate that the presence of polyurea layer delays the necking onset phenomenon which precedes the OL50 metallic specimen fracture.

  8. Emission and Dynamics of Charge Carriers in Uncoated and Organic/Metal Coated Semiconductor Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveh Baghbadorani, Masoud

    In this dissertation, the dynamics of excitons in hybrid metal/organic/nanowire structures possessing nanometer thick deposited molecular and metal films on top of InP and GaAs nanowire (NW) surfaces were investigated. Optical characterizations were carried out as a function of the semiconductor NW material, design, NW size and the type and thickness of the organic material and metal used. Hybrid organic and plasmonic semiconductor nanowire heterostructures were fabricated using organic molecular beam deposition technique. I investigated the photon emission of excitons in 150 nm diameter polytype wurtzite/zincblende InP NWs and the influence of a few ten nanometer thick organic and metal films on the emission using intensity- and temperature-dependent time-integrated and time resolved (TR) photoluminescence (PL). The plasmonic NWs were coated with an Aluminum quinoline (Alq3) interlayer and magnesium-silver (Mg0.9:Ag0.1) top layer. In addition, the nonlinear optical technique of heterodyne four-wave mixing was used (in collaboration with Prof. Wolfgang Langbein, University of Cardiff) to study incoherent and coherent carrier relaxation processes on bare nanowires on a 100 femtosecond time-scale. Alq3 covered NWs reveal a stronger emission and a longer decay time of exciton transitions indicating surface state passivation at the Alq3/NW interface. Alq3/Mg:Ag NWs reveal a strong quenching of the exciton emission which is predominantly attributed to Forster energy-transfer from excitons to plasmon oscillations in the metal cluster film. Changing the Mg:Ag to gold and the organic Alq3 spacer layer to PTCDA leads to a similar behavior, but the PL quenching is strongly increased. The observed behavior is attributed to a more continuous gold deposition leading to an increased Forster energy transfer and to a metal induced band-bending. I also investigated ensembles of bare and gold/Alq3 coated GaAs-AlGaAs-GaAs core shell NWs of 130 nm diameter. Plasmonic NWs with Au

  9. Dynamic behaviors of a Ca–P coated AZ31B magnesium alloy during in vitro and in vivo degradations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiang; Tan Lili; Xu Wenli; Zhang Bingchun; Yang Ke

    2011-01-01

    Surface modification can be an effective way to control the biodegradation behavior of magnesium alloys and even improve their biological properties. Much attention has been paid to the initial protection ability and biological properties of magnesium alloys coating. In this work, the dynamic behaviors of a Ca–P coated AZ31B magnesium alloy during the degradations in vitro and in vivo, including hemolysis, mechanical loading capability and implantation in animals, were investigated. The hemolytic rates of the alloy with and without coating were all declined to be lower than 5% after more than 20 days immersion in PBS, though an increase happened to the alloy at the early immersion of 3–7 days. Reduction of the mechanical loading capacity was gradually evolved for the coated alloy and the peak load retention of 85% was still maintained after 120 days degradation. The in vivo implantation indicated that the Ca–P coated AZ31B alloy showed a more suitable time dependent degradation behavior which was favorable for growth of the new tissue and the healing dynamics of bones, making it a promising choice for medical application.

  10. C18, C8, and perfluoro reversed phases on diamond for solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Gaurav; Wiest, Landon A; Herbert, David; Biggs, Katherine N; Dadson, Andrew; Vail, Michael A; Linford, Matthew R

    2009-04-17

    In spite of advances in solid-phase extraction (SPE) technology there are certain disadvantages to current SPE silica-based, column packings. The pH range over which extraction can occur is limited and each column is generally only used once. New diamond-based reversed SPE phases (C(18), C(8), and perfluorinated) were developed in our laboratories. Studies were done which show that these phases do not have the same limitations as traditional silica-based stationary phases. The synthesis and properties of these diamond-based phases are presented, and the stability, percent recovery, and column capacity are given for the C(18) phase.

  11. The erosion performance of particle reinforced metal matrix composite coatings produced by co-deposition cold gas dynamic spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Tom; Galloway, Alexander; Toumpis, Athanasios; McNutt, Philip; Iqbal, Naveed

    2017-02-01

    This work reports on the erosion performance of three particle reinforced metal matrix composite coatings, co-deposited with an aluminium binder via cold-gas dynamic spraying. The deposition of ceramic particles is difficult to achieve with typical cold spray techniques due to the absence of particle deformation. This issue has been overcome in the present study by simultaneously spraying the reinforcing particles with a ductile metallic binder which has led to an increased level of ceramic/cermet particles deposited on the substrate with thick (>400 μm) coatings produced. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the erosion performance of the co-deposited coatings within a slurry environment. The study also incorporated standard metallographic characterisation techniques to evaluate the distribution of reinforcing particles within the aluminium matrix. All coatings exhibited poorer erosion performance than the uncoated material, both in terms of volume loss and mass loss. The Al2O3 reinforced coating sustained the greatest amount of damage following exposure to the slurry and recorded the greatest volume loss (approx. 2.8 mm3) out of all of the examined coatings. Despite the poor erosion performance, the WC-CoCr reinforced coating demonstrated a considerable hardness increase over the as-received AA5083 (approx. 400%) and also exhibited the smallest free space length between adjacent particles. The findings of this study reveal that the removal of the AA5083 matrix by the impinging silicon carbide particles acts as the primary wear mechanism leading to the degradation of the coating. Analysis of the wear scar has demonstrated that the damage to the soft matrix alloy takes the form of ploughing and scoring which subsequently exposes carbide/oxide particles to the impinging slurry.

  12. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(18)-1 - Services of certain nonresident aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services of certain nonresident aliens. 31.3306...) § 31.3306(c)(18)-1 Services of certain nonresident aliens. (a) (1) Services performed after 1961 by a nonresident alien individual who is temporarily present in the United States as a nonimmigrant under...

  13. Dynamic manipulation of the subharmonic scattering of phospholipid-coated microbubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faez, Telli; Renaud, Guillaume; De Jong, Nico [Biomedical Engineering Thoraxcenter, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam (Netherlands); Defontaine, Marielle; Calle, Samuel, E-mail: t.faez@erasmusmc.nl [INSERM U930-CNRS ERL3106, Universite Francois Rabelais, UFR Medecine, 10 bd Tonnelle, 37000 Tours (France)

    2011-10-07

    In this paper, the influence of a dynamic variation in the ambient pressure on the subharmonic response of phospholipid-coated microbubbles was investigated. The ambient pressure in water was modulated by a 2.5 kHz acoustic wave with a peak amplitude of 15 kPa. We investigated the fundamental and subharmonic emissions at two driving frequencies: 5 and 10 MHz. The modulation of the bubble radius induced by the dynamic variation in the liquid ambient pressure subsequently causes modulations of the scattered acoustic pressure at the fundamental and subharmonic frequencies (half the fundamental frequency). As a first result, we measured that the variation in the ambient pressure of 15 kPa can modulate the subharmonic amplitude up to 10 dB as compared to the static atmospheric pressure condition. As a second result, we noticed that the relative subharmonic amplitude modulation as a function of the LF acoustic pressure was symmetrical for the 5 MHz driving frequency but asymmetric for 10 MHz. In the latter case, the subharmonic amplitude was more enhanced for an ambient overpressure than reduced for an ambient depression of the same amplitude likely due to the buckling of the lipid shell. However, the fundamental amplitude was symmetrically modulated during bubble compression and expansion. Moreover, subharmonic and fundamental amplitude modulations were found to be either in phase or out of phase with the low-frequency acoustic pressure. Numerical simulations showed that this behavior can be obtained depending on the bubbles' diameter. The highest subharmonic amplitude was measured when microbubbles were insonified at 10 MHz. This fact together with the asymmetry observed in the subharmonic modulation suggests that smaller bubbles with a buckling shell are excited at 10 MHz compared to 5 MHz. These results present new potentials for in vitro characterization of contrast agent microbubbles and possibly a new imaging modality.

  14. Influence of kaolin addition on the dynamics of oxygen mass transport in polyvinyl alcohol dispersion coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Nyflött, Åsa; Axrup, Lars; Gunilla, Carlsson; Järnström, Lars; Lestelius, Magnus; Moons, Ellen; Wahlström, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    The permeability of dispersion barriers produced from polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) and kaolin clay blends coated onto polymeric supports has been studied by employing two different measurement methods: the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) and the ambient oxygen ingress rate (AOIR). Coatings with different thicknesses and kaolin contents were studied. Structural information of the dispersion-barrier coatings was obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning ele...

  15. Moessbauer study of C18N/Fe Langmuir-Blodgett layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmann, Erno [Institute of Chemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University (Hungary); Telegdi, Judit [Institute of Nanochemistry and Catalysis, Chemical Research Center, HAS (Hungary); Nemeth, Zoltan, E-mail: hentes@chem.elte.hu; Vertes, Attila [Institute of Chemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University (Hungary); Nyikos, Lajos [Institute of Nanochemistry and Catalysis, Chemical Research Center, HAS (Hungary)

    2012-03-15

    Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of octadecanoyl hydroxamic acid (C18N) complexed with Fe{sup 3 + } ions have been prepared at various subphase pH values. The LB films consisting of different number of layers were investigated by {sup 57}Fe conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEM) at room temperature. The CEM detector contained a piece of {alpha}-iron, enriched with {sup 57}Fe, using as an internal standard. The Moessbauer pattern of the C18N/Fe LB films is a doublet with parameters {delta} = 0.35 mm/s and {Delta} = 0.74 mm/s. A gradual increase of the relative occurrence of the doublet compared to the sextet of the internal standard was observed with the increasing number of layers, indicating the nearly uniform distribution of Fe among the LB layers.

  16. An interior needle electropolymerized pyrrole-based coating for headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagheri, Habib [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Av., P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: bagheri@sharif.edu; Babanezhad, Esmaeil; Khalilian, Faezeh [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Av., P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-02-23

    A headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction (HS-SPDE) technique was developed by the use of polypyrrole (PPy) sorbent, electropolymerized inside the surface of a needle, as a possible alternative to solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Thermal desorption was subsequently, employed to transfer the extracted analytes into the injection port of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The PPy sorbent including polypyrrole-dodecyl sulfate (PPy-DS) was deposited on the interior surface of a stainless steel needle from the corresponding aqueous electrolyte by applying a constant deposition potential. The homogeneity and the porous surface structure of the coating were examined using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The developed method was applied to the trace level extraction of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from aqueous sample. In order to enhance the extraction efficiency and increase the partition coefficient of analytes, the stainless steel needle was cooled at 5 deg. C, while the sample solution was kept at 80 deg. C. Optimization of influential experimental conditions including the voltage of power supply, the time of PPy electrodeposition, the extraction temperature, the ionic strength and the extraction time were also investigated. The detection limits of the method under optimized conditions were in the range of 0.002-0.01 ng mL{sup -1}. The relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) at a concentration level of 0.1 ng mL{sup -1} were obtained between 7.54 and 11.4% (n = 6). The calibration curves of PAHs showed linearity in the range of 0.01-10 ng mL{sup -1}. The proposed method was successfully applied to the extraction of some selected PAHs from real-life water samples and the relative recoveries were higher than 90% for all the analytes.

  17. Studies on the cross-magnetron effect in the reactive indium tin oxide deposition. Effects of an inhomogeneous plasma distribution on the coating properties in dynamic and static coating by means of a pulsed dual magnetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinhempel, Ronny

    2008-01-01

    In the present thesis the reactive ITO deposition process under application of metallic In:Sn targets is intensively studied. The coating deposition pursues at a symmetric bipolarly pulsed dual magnetron both on resting and moving substrates. The thesis comprehends two partial fields. On the one hand the dynamic deposition process was comprehensively characterized at an near-industry test facility and successfully transformed by means of its physical parameters to an industrial coating facility. On the other hand static depositions were performed. These allow the analysis of the lateral distribution of the functional coating properties. By this a correlation to the lateral distributions of the measured plasma parameters could be elaborated [de

  18. Separation analysis of macrolide antibiotics with good performance on a positively charged C18HCE column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Shen, Aijin; Yan, Jingyu; Jin, Gaowa; Yang, Bingcheng; Guo, Zhimou; Zhang, Feifang; Liang, Xinmiao

    2016-03-01

    The separation of basic macrolide antibiotics suffers from peak tailing and poor efficiency on traditional silica-based reversed-phase liquid chromatography columns. In this work, a C18HCE column with positively charged surface was applied to the separation of macrolides. Compared with an Acquity BEH C18 column, the C18HCE column exhibited superior performance in the aspect of peak shape and separation efficiency. The screening of mobile phase additives including formic acid, acetic acid and ammonium formate indicated that formic acid was preferable for providing symmetrical peak shapes. Moreover, the influence of formic acid content was investigated. Analysis speed and mass spectrometry compatibility were also taken into account when optimizing the separation conditions for liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The developed method was successfully utilized for the determination of macrolide residues in a honey sample. Azithromycin was chosen as the internal standard for the quantitation of spiramycin and tilmicosin, while roxithromycin was used for erythromycin, tylosin, clarithromycin, josamycin and acetylisovaleryltylosin. Good correlation coefficients (r(2) > 0.9938) for all macrolides were obtained. The intra-day and inter-day recoveries were 73.7-134.7% and 80.7-119.7% with relative standard deviations of 2.5-8.0% and 3.9-16.1%, respectively. Outstanding sensitivity with limits of quantitation (S/N ≥ 10) of 0.02-1 μg/kg and limits of detection (S/N ≥ 3) of 0.01-0.5 μg/kg were achieved. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Evaluation of the phase ratio for three C18 high performance liquid chromatographic columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiali, Edvin; David, Victor; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y; Moldoveanu, Serban C

    2016-02-26

    For a chromatographic column, phase ratio Φ is defined as the ratio between the volume of the stationary phase Vst and the void volume of the column V0, and it is an important parameter characterizing the HPLC process. Although apparently simple, the evaluation of Φ presents difficulties because there is no sharp boundary between the mobile phase and the stationary phase. In addition, the boundary depends not only on the nature of the stationary phase, but also on the composition of the mobile phase. In spite of its importance, phase ratio is seldom reported for commercially available HPLC columns and the data typically provided by the vendors about the columns do not provide key information that would allow the calculation of Φ based on Vst and V0 values. A different procedure for the evaluation of Φ is based on the following formula: log k'j=a log Kow,j+log Φ, where k'j is the retention factor for a compound j that must be a hydrocarbon, Kow,j is the octanol/water partition coefficient, and a is a proportionality constant. Present study describes the experimental evaluation of Φ based on the measurement of k'j for the compounds in the homologous series between benzene and butylbenzene for three C18 columns: Gemini C18, Luna C18 both with 5 μm particles, and a Chromolith Performance RP-18. The evaluation was performed for two mobile phase systems at different proportions of methanol/water and acetonitrile/water. The octanol/water partition coefficients were obtained from the literature. The results obtained in the study provide further support for the new procedure for the evaluation of phase ratio. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Microscopy analysis of reconstituted COPII coat polymerization and Sec16 dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Hirohiko; Yorimitsu, Tomohiro; Sato, Ken

    2017-09-01

    The COPII coat and the small GTPase Sar1 mediate protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via specialized domains known as the ER exit sites. The peripheral ER protein Sec16 has been proposed to organize ER exit sites. However, it remains unclear how these molecules drive COPII coat polymerization. Here, we characterized the spatiotemporal relationships between the Saccharomyces cerevisiae COPII components during their polymerization by performing fluorescence microscopy of an artificial planar membrane. We demonstrated that Sar1 dissociates from the membrane shortly after the COPII coat recruitment, and Sar1 is then no longer required for the COPII coat to bind to the membrane. Furthermore, we found that Sec16 is incorporated within the COPII-cargo clusters, and that this is dependent on the Sar1 GTPase cycle. These data show how Sar1 drives the polymerization of COPII coat and how Sec16 is spatially distributed during COPII coat polymerization. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF THE TOOL POINT ANGLE AND FEED RATE ON THE DYNAMIC PARAMETERS AT DRILLING COATED PARTICLEBOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai ISPAS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pre-laminated (coated particleboards (PB are wood-based composites intensively used in the furniture industry. In order to prepare the PB for joining, drilling is the most commonly applied machining process. The surface quality and the dynamic parameters (thrust force and torque are significantly influenced by the tools characteristics and the machining parameters. The point/tip angle of the drill bit and the feed speed during drilling play a major role in gaining a good surface quality and minimizing the dynamic parameters. The objective of this study was to measure and analyze the influence of both the geometric and cinematic parameters on the dynamic parameters at drilling with twist (helical drills. The experiments were performed based on a factorial design. The results show that, a low feed rate generally minimizes both the drilling torque and the thrust force, while a small tip angle increases the drilling torque and minimizes the thrust force.

  2. Dynamic interactions of the asialoglycoprotein receptor subunits with coated pits. Enhanced interactions of H2 following association with H1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzir, Z; Nardi, N; Geffen, I; Fuhrer, C; Henis, Y I

    1994-08-26

    Lateral mobility studies comparing native and mutated membrane proteins, combined with treatments that alter clathrin lattice structure, can measure membrane protein-coated pit interactions in intact cells (Fire, E., Zwart, D., Roth, M. G., and Henis, Y. I. (1991) J. Cell Biol. 115, 1585-1594). We applied this approach to study the interactions of the H1 and H2 human asialoglycoprotein receptor subunits with coated pits. The lateral mobilities of singly expressed and coexpressed H1 and H2B (the H2 species that reaches the cell surface) were measured by fluorescence photobleaching recovery. They were compared with mutant proteins, H1(5A) (Tyr-5 replaced by Ala) and H2(5A) (Phe-5 replaced by Ala). While the mobile fractions of H1, H2B, and their mutants were similar, the lateral diffusion rate (measured by D, the lateral diffusion coefficient) was significantly slower for H1, whether expressed alone or with H2B. Coexpression with H1 reduced D of H2B to that of H1. Disruption of the clathrin lattices by hypertonic medium elevated D of H1, H1(5A), H2B, and H2(5A) to the same final level, without affecting their mobile fractions. Cytosol acidification, which retains altered clathrin lattices attached to the membrane and prevents coated vesicle formation, immobilized part of the H1 molecules, reflecting stable entrapment in "frozen" coated pits. H1(5A), H2B, and H2(5A) were not affected; however, coexpression of H2B with H1 conferred the sensitivity to cytosol acidification on H2B. Our results suggest that H1 lateral mobility is inhibited by dynamic interactions with coated pits in which Tyr-5 is involved. H2B resembles H1(5A) rather than H1, and its interactions with coated pits are weaker; efficient interaction of H2B with coated pits depends on complex formation with H1.

  3. Pulmonary NO and C18O2 uptake during pressure-induced lung expansion in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Hartmut; Schuster, Klaus-Dieter

    2007-01-01

    In artificially ventilated animals we investigated the dependence of the pulmonary diffusing capacities of nitric oxide (NO) and doubly 18O-labeled carbon dioxide (DLNO, DLC18O2) on lung expansion with respect to ventilator-driven increases in intrapulmonary pressure. For this purpose we applied computerized single-breath experiments to 11 anesthetized paralyzed rabbits (weight 2.8-3.8 kg) at various alveolar volumes (45-72 ml) by studying the almost entire inspiratory limb of the respective pressure/volume curves (intrapulmonary pressure: 6-27 cmH2O). The animals were ventilated with room air, employing a computerized ventilatory servo-system that we designed to maintain mechanical ventilation and to execute the particular lung function tests automatically. Each single-breath maneuver was started from residual volume (13.5+/-2 ml, mean+/-SD) by inflating the rabbit lungs with 35-55 ml indicator gas mixture containing 0.05% NO in N2 or 0.9% C18O2 in N2. Alveolar partial pressures of NO and C18O2 were measured by respiratory mass spectrometry. Values of DLNO and DLC18O2 ranged between 1.55 and 2.49 ml/(mmHg min) and 11.7 and 16.6 ml/(mmHg min), respectively. Linear regression analyses yielded a significant increase in DLNO with simultaneous increase in alveolar volume (Pvolume on DLC18O2 values.

  4. Laser Spectroscopy Monitoring of 13C18O16O and 12C17O16O of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, J. H.; Nelson, D. D.; Ono, S.; McManus, J. B.; Zahniser, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    One of the main challenges to making accurate predictions of future changes in CO2 concentration is the capability to determine what fraction of human produced CO2 remains in the atmosphere. We present our progress in the application of Tunable Infrared Laser Direct Absorption Spectroscopy (TILDAS) to the measurement of the primary clumped (13C18O16O) as well as 17O (12C17O16O) isotopologues of atmospheric CO2, as a tracer of its sources and sinks. We expect unique isotopologue signals in CO2 from high-temperature combustion sources, plants, soils, and air-sea exchange processes. High sampling frequency (a few minutes for each sample vs. reference cycle) achieved by a TILDAS instrument is expected to enable us to document local heterogeneous sources and temporal variations. The TILDAS is equipped with a newly developed 400-meter absorption cell. We designed a dual pressure measurement technique in which the clumped isotopologue, 13C18O16O, and 13C16O16O are first measured at 30 torr cell pressure. This is followed by measurement of 12C17O16O, 12C18O16O and 12C16O16O at lower ( 5 torr) cell pressure. Isotopologue ratios are compared between reference and sample gases. Preliminary tests demonstrated a precision approaching 0.03 ‰ for the ratio 13C18O16O/13C16O16O and 0.08‰ for Δ13C18O16O value (1σ repeatability for 4 min sample vs. reference cycle). Sample size for a single analysis is approximately 100 mL of air (1.6μmol of CO2). Given the previously observed range of variations for Δ13C18O16O and Δ17O values as large as 0.6 to 0.3 ‰, respectively, TILDAS offers a novel approach for real time monitoring of atmospheric CO2 isotopologues. It was found that achieving better than 0.1‰ requires careful matching of CO2 mixing ratios between reference and sample air. A primary cause of pressure and mixing ratio dependence is inaccurate baseline fitting (analogous to abundance sensitivity or pressure baseline for IRMS). Given that mixing ratios of atmospheric

  5. Sol-gel titania-coated needles for solid phase dynamic extraction-GC/MS analysis of desomorphine and desocodeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chi-Ju; Srimurugan, Sankarewaran; Chen, Chinpiao; Shu, Hun-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Novel sol-gel titania film coated needles for solid-phase dynamic extraction (SPDE)-GC/MS analysis of desomorphine and desocodeine are described. The high thermal stability of titania film permits efficient extraction and analysis of poorly volatile opiate drugs. The influences of sol-gel reaction time, coating layer, extraction and desorption time and temperature on the SPDE needle performance were investigated. The deuterium labeled internal standard was introduced either during the extraction of analyte or directly injected to GC after the extraction process. The latter method was shown to be more sensitive for the analysis of water and urine samples containing opiate drugs. The proposed conditions provided a wide linear range (from 5-5000 ppb), and satisfactory linearity, with R(2) values from 0.9958 to 0.9999, and prominent sensitivity, LOQs (1.0-5.0 ng/g). The sol-gel titania film coated needle with SPDE-GC/MS will be a promising technique for desomorphine and desocodeine analysis in urine.

  6. Results of breeding for modified C18-fatty acid composition in Linum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, M.; Nichterlein, K.; Friedt, W.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The oil of cultivated linseed (Linum usitatissimum) is characterised by a high level (55-65%) of linolenic acid (C18:3) with comparatively little genetic variability. However, among wild Linum species there are large differences in fatty acid composition. Therefore, interspecific hybridisation between cultivated linseed and wild species may provide material segregating for oil quality. Alternatively, induced mutagenesis may be used for broadening genetic variation. Seeds of 32 Linum species were obtained from botanical gardens and institutes. Plant habitus, flower colour, oil content, fatty acid pattern, 1000-seed weight and seed colour were determined. Crosses between Linum usitatissimum cultivars and wild species were attempted. Where capsule development was not obtained, pollen tube growth was studied by fluorescence microscopy. It was tried to circumvent incompatibility barriers by applying the embryo rescue technique. For that purpose, 'heart-shaped' immature embryos of Linum usitatissimum plants were cultured on MONNIER-medium. In a mutation breeding programme, M 5 lines with reduced C18:3-content (35-40%) derived from the cultivars 'Bionda' and 'Raulinus' by EMS-mutagenesis were intercrossed and the progeny analysed. Variation in fatty acid composition amongst wild species was 3.5-68.2% for linolenic and 9.2-83.4% for linoleic acid. Variation of oil content was 22.5-46.0% and of 1000-seed weight 0.1-4.4g. Interspecific crosses of cultivated linseed with wild species of low linolenic and high linoleic acid content (especially L. flavum, L. catharticum, and L. campanulatum), were not successful because of pre-fertilisation barriers. Crosses between M 5 -lines selected for reduced linolenic acid content (35-40%) were analysed for segregation in the F 2 . Here, new recombinant types with only 11-13% linolenic, but nearly 50% oleic and 25-30% linoleic acid content could be identified. Previously, GREEN selected a mutant with very low C18:3-content (2

  7. Overexpression of ceramide synthase 1 increases C18-ceramide and leads to lethal autophagy in human glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Wen, Lijun; Zhu, Fei; Wang, Yanping; Xie, Qing; Chen, Zijun; Li, Yunsen

    2017-01-01

    Ceramide synthase 1 (CERS1) is the most highly expressed CERS in the central nervous system, and ceramide with an 18-carbon–containing fatty acid chain (C18-ceramide) in the brain plays important roles in signaling and sphingolipid development. However, the roles of CERS1 and C18-ceramide in glioma are largely unknown. In the present study, measured by electrospray ionization linear ion trap mass spectrometry, C18-ceramide was significantly lower in glioma tumor tissues compared with controls (P overexpression of CERS1, which has been shown to specifically induce the generation of C18-ceramide. Overexpression of CERS1 or adding exogenous C18-ceramide inhibited cell viability and induced cell death by activating endoplasmic reticulum stress, which induced lethal autophagy and inhibited PI3K/AKT signal pathway in U251 and A172 glioma cells. Moreover, overexpression of CERS1 or adding exogenous C18-ceramide increased the sensitivity of U251 and A172 glioma cells to teniposide (VM-26). Thus, the combined therapy of CERS1/C18-ceramide and VM-26 may be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of human glioma. PMID:29262618

  8. Representativeness in corpora of literary texts: introducing the C18P project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemeinböck, Iris

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are very few specialised corpora of literary texts that are tailored to the needs of literary critics who are interested in corpus stylistic analyses of prose fiction. Many existing corpora including literary texts were compiled for linguistic research interests and are often unsuitable for corpus stylistic purposes. The paper addresses three of the main problems: the absence of labelling of the texts for literary genre, the use of extracts, and the prevalence of linguistic periodisation schemes. C18P is a corpus of prose fiction designed specifically to address these issues. It traces the early development of the novel from 1700 up until the Victorian era. It can, for instance, be used for an analysis of the characteristic linguistic features of individual literary genres and forms. The following paper introduces the design of the corpus as well as some of its potential uses.

  9. Retention behavior of resorcinarene-based cavitands on C8 and C18 stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartó, Endre; Prauda, Ibolya; Kilár, Ferenc; Kiss, Ibolya; Felinger, Attila

    2015-09-01

    The understanding of the retention behavior of large molecules is an area of interest in liquid chromatography. Resorcinarene-based cavitands are cavity-shaped cyclic oligomers that can create host-guest interactions. We have investigated the chromatographic behavior of two types of cyclic tetramers as analytes in high-performance liquid chromatography. The experiments were performed at four different temperatures (15, 25, 35, 45°C) on two types of reversed stationary phases (C8 and C18 ) from two different manufacturers. We have found a huge difference between the retention of resorcinarenes and cavitands. In some cases, the retention factor of cavitands was even a hundred times larger than the retention factor of resorcinarenes. The retention of methylated derivates was two to four times larger compared to that of demethylated compounds on every column. The opposite retention behavior of the resorcinarenes and cavitands on the two types of stationary phases showed well the difference of the selectivity of the XTerra and BDS Hypersil columns. The retention mechanism was studied by the thermodynamic parameters calculated from the van't Hoff equation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Preparation, isolation and identification of non-conjugated C18:2 fatty acid isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardin-Kia, Ali Reza

    2016-12-01

    Non-conjugated geometric/positional isomers of linoleic acid (c9,c12-18:2) are often present in processed foods and oils. The following work presents a simple addition/elimination reaction for preparation of non-conjugated 18:2 fatty acid isomers. A mixture containing positional and geometric isomers of C18:2 fatty acids was produced by addition of hydrobromic acid to the fatty acid double bonds, followed by its elimination with a strong sterically hindered base. Pure 8,12-, 8,13-, 9,12-, and 9,13-18:2 fatty acid methyl esters were isolated from the synthetic mixture by a combination of sub-ambient RP-HPLC and Ag + -HPLC. The determination of the double bond position was achieved by GC-MS using picolinyl esters derivatives. The determination of the fatty acid double bond geometric configuration was obtained by partial hydrogenation of the isolated isomer with hydrazine, followed by the GC-FID analysis. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Oxygen exchange between C18O2 and ''acidic'' oxide and zeolite catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peri, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    The exchange of oxygen between C 18 O 2 and several high-area oxides, including silica, γ-alumina, silica--alumina, and zeolite catalysts, was studied. Infrared spectra of adsorbed CO 2 and of surface ''carbonates'' were used to follow the rate of oxygen exchange and investigate the nature of unusually exchangeable surface oxide ions, present at low concentrations. Interaction of CO 2 with the surface typically produced initial exchange of one oxygen atom, as expected from interaction with a single oxide ion (CO 2 + O 2- reversible CO 3 2- ), and the number of exchangeable ions increased with increasing temperature. The rate of oxygen exchange did not correlate with chemisorption to form stable surface carbonates or with the extent of strong physical adsorption of CO 2 . With dry silica, exchange was insignificant below 600 0 ; with catalytically active zeolites and dry γ-alumina, it was detectable at 200 0 and fairly rapid at 300--400 0 . Silica--alumina required 100--150 0 higher temperature for exchange than did an active zeolite. Activity for cracking and other hydrocarbon reactions may be related to the ease of exchange of some surface oxide ions with CO 2 . Active zeolites have reactive oxide sites resembling those on dry γ-alumina, but such sites on zeolites are probably less-readily eliminated by chemisorption of H 2 O or other compounds. (U.S.)

  12. Cheap C18-modified silica monolith particles as HPLC stationary phase of good separation efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ashraf; Ali, Faiz; Cheong, Woo Jo [Dept. of of Chemistry, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The columns packed with particles have a high efficiency but they are accompanied with a high column back pressure due to lower permeability, while the monolithic columns have a high permeability but they result in inferior separation efficiency for the analysis of small molecules in HPLC. In our laboratory,we have been using the pseudo-monolithic silica particles with C-18 ligand or polystyrene film. The column to column reproducibility was evaluated based on three columns made of three different batches of silica monolith particles, and better than 4.5% in N, and 1.6% in retention time were observed. The day to day reproducibility of a single column for three consecutive days was found better than 1.5% both in N and retention time. The van Deemter plots were derived for awide range of flow rates. The trends of van Deemter plots were similar to those of common patterns and the optimal flow rate was found to be 25 μL/min.

  13. Characterisation of bioaccumulation dynamics of three differently coated silver nanoparticles and aqueous silver in a simple freshwater food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalman, Judit; Paul, Kai B.; Khan, Farhan R.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the bioaccumulation dynamics of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with different coatings (polyvinyl pyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol and citrate), in comparison with aqueous Ag (added as AgNO3), in a simplified freshwater food chain comprising the green alga Chlorella vulgaris...... and the crustacean Daphnia magna. Algal uptake rate constants (ku) and membrane transport characteristics (binding site density, transporter affinity and strength of binding) were determined after exposing algae to a range of either aqueous Ag or Ag NP concentrations. In general, higher ku values were related......). Ag NPs were only visualised in algal cells exposed to high Ag NP concentrations. To establish D. magna biodynamic model constants, organisms were fed Ag-contaminated algae and depurated for 96 h. Assimilation efficiencies ranged from 10 to 25 % and the elimination of accumulated Ag followed a two...

  14. Dynamic resistance of a high-T c coated conductor wire in a perpendicular magnetic field at 77 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenan; Toyomoto, Ryuki; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Zhang, Xingyou; Bumby, Chris W.

    2017-03-01

    Superconducting high-T c coated conductor (CC) wires comprise a ceramic thin film with a large aspect ratio. This geometry can lead to significant dissipative losses when exposed to an alternating magnetic field. Here we report experimental measurements of the ‘dynamic resistance’ of commercially available SuperPower and Fujikura CC wires in an AC perpendicular field. The onset of dynamic resistance occurs at a threshold field amplitude, which is determined by the total DC transport current and the penetration field of the conductor. We show that the field-dependence of the normalised magnetisation loss provides an unambiguous value for this threshold field at zero transport current. From this insight we then obtain an expression for the dynamic resistance in perpendicular field. This approach implies a linear relationship between dynamic resistance and applied field amplitude, and also between threshold field and transport current and this is consistent with our experimental data. The analytical expression obtained yields values that closely agree with measurements obtained across a wide range of frequencies and transport currents, and for multiple CC wires produced by different wire manufacturers and with significantly differing dimensions and critical currents. We further show that at high transport currents, the measured DC resistance includes an additional nonlinear term which is due to flux-flow resistance incurred by the DC transport current. This occurs once the field-dependent critical current of the wire falls below the DC transport current for part of each field cycle. Our results provide an effective and simple approach to calculating the dynamic resistance of a CC wire, at current and field magnitudes consistent with those expected in superconducting machines.

  15. Bi axially textured YBCO coated tape prepared using dynamic magnetic grain alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genoud, Jean-Yves; Quinton, William

    1999-01-01

    A new magnetic grain alignment technique has been applied to produce bi axially aligned YBCO coated tapes. A bi axially aligned dispersion of orthorhombic Y 2 Ba 4 Cu 7 O 15 (Y-247) powder was settled on un textured silver substrates. The Y-247 tapes were then melt processed to achieve high critical current YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (Y-123) tapes with CuO as a secondary phase. The biaxial alignment is preserved after the densification process and a clear enhancement of J c relative to identically prepared un textured or uniaxially textured samples is obtained. Critical current densities of up to 5000 A cm -2 at 77 K in self-field and 1500 A cm -2 in 0.5 T magnetic field at 65 K were obtained in films from 20 to 40 μm thick. Problems were experienced in achieving fully densified thick films while retaining biaxial texture. The initial grain size distribution was found to have a major influence on the final microstructure. Provided significant improvements in J c can be obtained this method offers an alternative to coated tape processes based on epitaxial growth which has the advantage that it does not require textured substrates. The biaxial alignment technique described here intrinsically acts on the bulk material rather than at surfaces. This offers the possibility of texturing without thickness limitations. (author)

  16. Ab initio molecular dynamics studies on effect of Zr on oxidation resistance of TiAlN coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pi, Jingwu [State Key Lab of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha,Hunan 410083 (China); Kong, Yi, E-mail: yikong@csu.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha,Hunan 410083 (China); Chen, Li [State Key Lab of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha,Hunan 410083 (China); Zhuzhou Cemented Carbide Cutting Tools Co., Ltd., Zhuzhou, Hunan 412007 (China); Du, Yong [State Key Lab of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha,Hunan 410083 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • The lowest bonding energy sequence for dimers in the vacuum: Zr−O < Ti−O < Al−O. • The lowest bonding energy sequence for oxygen above the surface: Ti−O < Zr−O < Al−O. • At 300 K, the addition of Zr benefitting the formation of vacancy and TiO{sub 2}. • At 1123 K, the addition of Zr leading to a more stable surface. • Our findings explain that the oxidation resistance of TiAlZrN superior to TiAlN at 1123 K as well as TiAlZrN at 300 K. - Abstract: It was demonstrated experimentally that doping Zr into TiAlN coatings at room temperature will detriment its oxidation resistance. On the other hand, there are evidences that doping Zr into TiAlN at high temperature will improve coating's oxidation resistance. In the present work, we address the effect of Zr on the oxidation resistance of TiAlN by means of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The TiAlN and TiAlZrN (1 Zr atom replacing 1 Ti atom) surfaces covered with 4 oxygen atoms at 300 K and 1123 K were simulated. Based on the analysis of the atomic motion, bond formation after relaxation, and the charge density difference maps we find that at 300 K, the addition of Zr induces escape of Ti atoms from the surface, resulting in formation of surface vacancies and subsequently TiO{sub 2}. Comparison of metal-oxygen dimers in the vacuum and above the TiAlZrN surface further shows that the addition of Zr in the TiAlN surface will change the lowest bonding energy sequence from Zr−O < Ti−O < Al−O in the vacuum to Ti−O < Zr−O < Al−O above the TiAlZrN surface. From Molecular Dynamics simulations at 1123 K, it is find that no Ti vacancies were generated in the surface. Moreover, less charge is transferred from metal to N atoms and the bond lengths between Ti and O atoms become shorter at 1123 K as compared with 300 K, suggesting that the addition of Zr atom promotes the interaction of Ti and O at TiAlZrN surface at 1123 K, leading to a more stable surface. Our simulation

  17. Are extracted materials truly representative of original samples? Impact of C18 extraction on CDOM optical and chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea A Andrew

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM can be easily measured directly on whole waters, while others require sample concentration and removal of natural salts. To increase CDOM content and eliminate salts, solid phase extraction is often employed. Biases following extraction and elution are inevitable, thus raising the question of how truly representative the extracted material is of the original. In this context, we investigated the wavelength dependence of extraction efficiency for C18 cartridges with respect to CDOM optical properties using samples obtained from the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB and the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean (EAO. Further, we compared the optical changes of C18 extracts and the corresponding whole water following chemical reduction with sodium borohydride (NaBH4.C18 cartridges preferentially extracted long-wavelength absorbing/emitting material for samples impacted by riverine input. Extraction efficiency overall decreased with offshore distance away from riverine input. Spectral slopes of C18-OM samples were also almost always lower than those of their corresponding CDOM samples supporting the preferential extraction of higher molecular weight absorbing material. The wavelength dependence of the optical properties (absorption, fluorescence emission and quantum yield of the original water samples and their corresponding extracted material were very similar. C18 extracts and corresponding water samples further exhibited comparable optical changes following NaBH4 reduction, thus suggesting a similarity in nature (structure of the optically active extracted material, independent of geographical locale. Altogether, these data suggested a strong similarity between C18 extracts and corresponding whole waters, thus indicating that extracts are representative of the CDOM content of original waters.

  18. Are extracted materials truly representative of original samples? Impact of C18 extraction on CDOM optical and chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Andrea; Del Vecchio, Rossana; Zhang, Yi; Subramaniam, Ajit; Blough, Neil

    2016-02-01

    Some properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) can be easily measured directly on whole waters, while others require sample concentration and removal of natural salts. To increase CDOM content and eliminate salts, solid phase extraction is often employed. Biases following extraction and elution are inevitable, thus raising the question of how truly representative the extracted material is of the original. In this context, we investigated the wavelength dependence of extraction efficiency for C18 cartridges with respect to CDOM optical properties using samples obtained from the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) and the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean (EAO). Further, we compared the optical changes of C18 extracts and the corresponding whole water following chemical reduction with sodium borohydride (NaBH4). C18 cartridges preferentially extracted long-wavelength absorbing/emitting material for samples impacted by riverine input. Extraction efficiency overall decreased with offshore distance away from riverine input. Spectral slopes of C18-OM samples were also almost always lower than those of their corresponding CDOM samples supporting the preferential extraction of higher molecular weight absorbing material. The wavelength dependence of the optical properties (absorption, fluorescence emission and quantum yield) of the original water samples and their corresponding extracted material were very similar. C18 extracts and corresponding water samples further exhibited comparable optical changes following NaBH4 reduction, thus suggesting a similarity in nature (structure) of the optically active extracted material, independent of geographical locale. Altogether, these data suggested a strong similarity between C18 extracts and corresponding whole waters, thus indicating that extracts are representative of the CDOM content of original waters.

  19. Are Extracted Materials Truly Representative of Original Samples? Impact of C18 Extraction on CDOM Optical and Chemical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Andrea A; Del Vecchio, Rossana; Zhang, Yi; Subramaniam, Ajit; Blough, Neil V

    2016-01-01

    Some properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) can be easily measured directly on whole waters, while others require sample concentration and removal of natural salts. To increase CDOM content and eliminate salts, solid phase extraction (SPE) is often employed. Biases following extraction and elution are inevitable, thus raising the question of how truly representative the extracted material is of the original. In this context, we investigated the wavelength dependence of extraction efficiency for C18 cartridges with respect to CDOM optical properties using samples obtained from the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) and the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean (EAO). Further, we compared the optical changes of C18 extracts and the corresponding whole water following chemical reduction with sodium borohydride (NaBH4). C18 cartridges preferentially extracted long-wavelength absorbing/emitting material for samples impacted by riverine input. Extraction efficiency overall decreased with offshore distance away from riverine input. Spectral slopes of C18-OM samples were also almost always lower than those of their corresponding CDOM samples supporting the preferential extraction of higher molecular weight absorbing material. The wavelength dependence of the optical properties (absorption, fluorescence emission, and quantum yield) of the original water samples and their corresponding extracted material were very similar. C18 extracts and corresponding water samples further exhibited comparable optical changes following NaBH4 reduction, thus suggesting a similarity in nature (structure) of the optically active extracted material, independent of geographical locale. Altogether, these data suggested a strong similarity between C18 extracts and corresponding whole waters, thus indicating that extracts are representative of the CDOM content of original waters.

  20. Exploring the 13CO/C18O abundance ratio towards Galactic young stellar objects and HII regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areal, M. B.; Paron, S.; Celis Peña, M.; Ortega, M. E.

    2018-05-01

    Aims: Determining molecular abundance ratios is important not only for the study of Galactic chemistry, but also because they are useful to estimate physical parameters in a large variety of interstellar medium environments. One of the most important molecules for tracing the molecular gas in the interstellar medium is CO, and the 13CO/C18O abundance ratio is usually used to estimate molecular masses and densities of regions with moderate to high densities. Nowadays isotope ratios are in general indirectly derived from elemental abundances ratios. We present the first 13CO/C18O abundance ratio study performed from CO isotope observations towards a large sample of Galactic sources of different natures at different locations. Methods: To study the 13CO/C18O abundance ratio, we used 12CO J = 3 - 2 data obtained from the CO High-Resolution Survey, 13CO and C18O J = 3 - 2 data from the 13CO/C18O (J = 3 - 2) Heterodyne Inner Milky Way Plane Survey, and some complementary data extracted from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope database. We analyzed a sample of 198 sources composed of young stellar objects (YSOs), and HII and diffuse HII regions as catalogued in the Red MSX Source Survey in 27.°5 ≤ l ≤ 46.°5 and |b|0.°5. Results: Most of the analyzed sources are located in the galactocentric distance range 4.0-6.5 kpc. We found that YSOs have, on average, lower 13CO/C18O abundance ratios than HII and diffuse HII regions. Taking into account that the gas associated with YSOs should be less affected by the radiation than in the case of the others sources, selective far-UV photodissociation of C18O is confirmed. The 13CO/C18O abundance ratios obtained in this work are systematically lower than those predicted from the known elemental abundance relations. These results will be useful in future studies of molecular gas related to YSOs and HII regions based on the observation of these isotopes.

  1. SINTESIS SENYAWA C18H26O9 DARI HIPTOLIDA HASIL ISOLASI DAUN HYPTIS PECTINATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiny Suzery

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available SYNTHESIS OF C18H26O9 COMPOUNDS FROM HYPTOLIDE ISOLATED FROM HYPTIS PECTINATA LEAVES. Isolation of hyptolide has been done from Hyptis pectinata, and alkene group transformation through oxidation reactions using H3B: OEt2 to the isolated compound was also conducted. Product analyses were carried out using TLC, UV spectrometry, IR, and LC-MS. Pure crystal with melting point of 86-87oC was isolated. The yield was 1.75% (w/w. After analysing and compilating of spectroscopic data it was confirmed as hyptolide compound. Hydroboration of this compound (followed by hydrolysis using H2O2 under alkaline conditions produce its alcohol derivatives, with 28.9% the percentage of transformation, it was demonstrated by LCMS data. IR spectrum at 3600cm-1, confirming the replacement of hydroxyl bond by alkene. Regioselectivity of addition reaction is proposed through simulation with Chem Office. The reaction product was suspected as 6-hydroxy-7-(6-oxo-3,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-yl heptane-2,3,5-tryil triacetate. Extension of reaction time to 24 hours, has increase hydroboration product to 78.3%. This research has opened other studies of natural materials in accordance to the roadmap set.  Telah dilakukan isolasi hiptolida dari bahan alam Hyptis pectinata, dan transformasinya melalui reaksi oksidasi menggunakan H3B:OEt2 terhadap gugus alkena pada senyawa hasil isolasi. Analisis produk dilakukan menggunakan KLT, spektrometri UV, IR, dan LC-MS. Kristal murni dengan titik leleh 86-87oC berhasil diisolasi dengan rendemen 1,75 % (b/b, dirujuk sebagai senyawa hiptolida setelah melalui analisis dan kompilasi data-data spektroskopi. Hidroborasi terhadap senyawa hiptolida (yang diikuti hidrolisis menggunakan H2O2 dalam suasana basa menghasilkan senyawa alkohol turunannya, dengan persentase transformasi sebesar 28,9%, dapat ditunjukkan melalui data LCMS. Data spectrum IR menunjukkan adanya puncak pada 3600cm-1, memperkuat dugaan  adanya ikatan hidroksil menggantikan gugus

  2. Dynamic Self-Assembly of Homogenous Microcyclic Structures Controlled by a Silver-Coated Nanopore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Rui; Lin, Yao; Ying, Yi-Lun; Liu, Xiao-Yuan; Shi, Xin; Hu, Yong-Xu; Long, Yi-Tao; Tian, He

    2017-07-01

    The self-assembly of nanoparticles is a challenging process for organizing precise structures with complicated and ingenious structures. In the past decades, a simple, high-efficiency, and reproducible self-assembly method from nanoscale to microscale has been pursued because of the promising and extensive application prospects in bioanalysis, catalysis, photonics, and energy storage. However, microscale self-assembly still faces big challenges including improving the stability and homogeneity as well as pursuing new assembly methods and templates for the uniform self-assembly. To address these obstacles, here, a novel silver-coated nanopore is developed which serves as a template for electrochemically generating microcyclic structures of gold nanoparticles at micrometers with highly homogenous size and remarkable reproducibility. Nanopore-induced microcyclic structures are further applied to visualize the diffusion profile of ionic flux. Based on this novel strategy, a nanopore could potentially facilitate the delivery of assembled structures for many practical applications including drug delivery, cellular detection, catalysis, and plasmonic sensing. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Corrosion And Thermal Processing In Cold Gas Dynamic Spray Deposited Austenitic Stainless Steel Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Champagne have demonstrated this use of the cold spray technique in the repair of helicopter mast supports in U.S. Army aircraft, with over 50...Process: Fundamentals and Applications, Champagne , V. K., Ed., Woodhead, Boca Raton, FL Chap. 3. [3] Schiel, J. F., 2014, “The cold gas-dynamic spray... Champagne , V. K., Ed., Woodhead, Boca Raton, FL Chap. 2. [15] Han, W., Meng, X. M., Zhang, J. B., and Zhao, J., 2012, “Elastic modulus of 304 stainless

  4. Ligand receptor dynamics at streptavidin-coated particle surfaces: A flow cytometric and spectrofluorimetric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buranda, T. [Univ. of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, G.M. [Univ. of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nolan, J.P.; Keij, J. [Los Alamos National Labs., NM (United States); Lopez, G.P. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sklar, L.A. [Univ. of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1999-04-29

    The authors have studied the binding of 5-((N-(5-(N-(6-(biotinoyl)amino)hexanoyl)amino)pentyl)thioureidyl)fluorescein (fluorescein biotin) to 6.2 {micro}m diameter, streptavidin-coated polystyrene beads using a combination of fluorimetric and flow cytometric methods. They have determined the average number of binding sites per bead, the extent of fluorescein quenching upon binding to the bead, and the association and dissociation kinetics. The authors estimate the site number to be {approx}1 million per bead. The binding of the fluorescein biotin ligand occurs in steps where the insertion of the biotin moiety into one receptor pocket is followed immediately by the capture of the fluorescein moiety by a neighboring binding pocket; fluorescence quenching is a consequence of this secondary binding. At high surface coverage, the dominant mechanism of quenching appears to be via the formation of nonfluorescent nearest-neighbor aggregates. At early times, the binding process is characterized by biphasic association and dissociation kinetics which are remarkably dependent on the initial concentration of the ligand. The rate constant for binding to the first receptor pocket of a streptavidin molecule is {approx}(1.3 {+-} 0.3) {times} 10{sup 7} 1{sup {minus}1} S{sup {minus}1}. The rate of binding of a second biotin may be reduced due to steric interference. The early time dissociative behavior is in sharp contrast to the typical stability associated with this system. The early time dissociative behavior is in sharp contrast to the typical stability associated with this system. The dissociation rate constant is as high as 0.05 s{sup {minus}1} shortly after binding, but decreases by 3 orders of magnitude after 3 h of binding. Potential sources for the time dependence of the dissociation rate constant are discussed.

  5. Evaporation dynamics of a sessile droplet on glass surfaces with fluoropolymer coatings: focusing on the final stage of thin droplet evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatapova, Elizaveta Ya; Shonina, Anna M; Safonov, Alexey I; Sulyaeva, Veronica S; Kabov, Oleg A

    2018-03-07

    The evaporation dynamics of a water droplet with an initial volume of 2 μl from glass surfaces with fluoropolymer coatings are investigated using the shadow technique and an optical microscope. The droplet profile for a contact angle of less than 5° is constructed using an image-analyzing interference technique, and evaporation dynamics are investigated at the final stage. We coated the glass slides with a thin film of a fluoropolymer by the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition method at different deposition modes depending on the deposition pressure and the temperature of the activating wire. The resulting surfaces have different structures affecting the wetting properties. Droplet evaporation from a constant contact radius mode in the early stage of evaporation was found followed by the mode where both contact angle and contact radius simultaneously vary in time (final stage) regardless of wettability of the coated surfaces. We found that depinning occurs at small contact angles of 2.2-4.7° for all samples, which are smaller than the measured receding contact angles. This is explained by imbibition of the liquid into the developed surface of the "soft" coating that leads to formation of thin droplets completely wetting the surface. The final stage, which is little discussed in the literature, is also recorded. We have singled out a substage where the contact line velocity is abruptly increasing for all coated and uncoated surfaces. The critical droplet height corresponding to the transition to this substage is about 2 μm with R/h = 107. The duration of this substage is the same for all coated and uncoated surfaces. Droplets observed at this substage for all the tested surfaces are axisymmetric. The specific evaporation rate clearly demonstrates an abrupt increase at the final substage of the droplet evaporation. The classical R 2 law is justified for the complete wetting situation where the droplet is disappearing in an axisymmetric manner.

  6. An experimental study of dynamic behaviour of graphite-polycarbonatediol polyurethane composites for protective coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, C. M.; Culebras, M.; Cantarero, A.; Redondo-Foj, B.; Ortiz-Serna, P.; Carsí, M.; Sanchis, M. J.

    2013-06-01

    Segmented polycarbonatediol polyurethane (PUPH) has been synthesized and modified with different amounts of graphite conductive filler (from 0 to 50 wt%). Thermal and dynamical thermal analysis of the composites clearly indicates changes in the polyurethane relaxations upon addition of graphite. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy has been used to study the dielectric properties of the (PUPH) and one composite in the frequency range from 10-2 to 107 Hz and in the temperature window of -140 to 170 °C. Relaxation processes associated with different molecular motions and conductivity phenomena (Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars and electrode polarization) are discussed and related to the graphite content.

  7. Excellent improvement in the static and dynamic magnetic properties of carbon coated iron nanoparticles for microwave absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khani, Omid, E-mail: omidkhani@mut-es.ac.ir; Shoushtari, Morteza Zargar; Farbod, Mansoor

    2015-11-15

    Carbon coated iron nanoparticles were synthesized, using a simple arc-discharge method. The morphology and the internal structure of the core/shell nanoparticles were studied, using field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that both magnetic α-Fe and nonmagnetic γ-Fe phases existed in the as-prepared particles. In order to improve the static and dynamic magnetic properties of the core/shell nanoparticles, the produced nanocapsules were annealed in argon atmosphere at two different temperatures. Hysteresis loops revealed that the value of the saturation magnetization (M{sub S}) increased more than 4.1 times of its original value by annealing and this led to 70% increase in the imaginary part of the permeability. Phase analysis showed that heat treatment eliminated the nonmagnetic γ-Fe phase completely. The reflection loss plots were studied for composite layers containing 20 vol% of the annealed and not annealed nanocapsules. One of the absorber layers which contained annealed nanocapsules showed at least −10 dB loss in the whole G, C, X and Ku frequency bands and the optimal absorption exceeded −37 dB at 5.8 GHz for the as-prepared sample with a thickness of 3.2 mm. The results revealed that the magnetic properties of the arc-made Fe/C core/shell nanoparticle can be improved significantly by annealing in argon.

  8. Kinetic and dynamic kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols with ionic-surfactant-coated Burkholderia cepacia lipase: substrate scope and enantioselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheolwoo; Lee, Jusuk; Cho, Jeonghun; Oh, Yeonock; Choi, Yoon Kyung; Choi, Eunjeong; Park, Jaiwook; Kim, Mahn-Joo

    2013-03-15

    Forty-four different secondary alcohols, which can be classified into several types (II-IX), were tested as the substrates of ionic surfactant-coated Burkholderia cepacia lipase (ISCBCL) to see its substrate scope and enantioselectivity in kinetic and dynamic kinetic resolution (KR and DKR). They include 6 boron-containing alcohols, 24 chiral propargyl alcohols, and 14 diarylmethanols. The results from the studies on KR indicate that ISCBCL accepted most of them with high enantioselectivity at ambient temperature and with useful to high enantioselectivity at elevated temperatures. In particular, ISCBCL displayed high enantioselectivity toward sterically demanding secondary alcohols (types VIII and IX) which have two bulky substituents at the hydroxymethine center. DKR reactions were performed by the combination of ISCBCL with a ruthenium-based racemization catalyst at 25-60 °C. Forty-one secondary alcohols were tested for DKR. About half of them were transformed into their acetates of high enantiopurity (>90% ee) with good yields (>80%). It is concluded that ISCBCL appears to be a superb enzyme for the KR and DKR of secondary alcohols.

  9. Plasma sprayed thermoregulating coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, V.V.; Puzanov, A.A.; Zambrzhitskij, A.P.; Soboleva, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Shown is the possibility of plasma spraying application for thermoregulating coating formation. Given are test results of service properties of BeO, Al 2 O 2 plasma coatings on the substrates of the MA2-1 magnesium alloy. Described is a device for studying durability of coating optical parameters under ultraviolet irradiation in deep vacuum. Dynamics of absorption coefficient, growth caused by an increase in absorption centers amount under such irradiation is investigated

  10. Preparation of Magnetic Sorbent with Surface Modified by C18for Removal of Selected Organic Pollutants from Aqueous Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuráň, Pavel; Pilnaj, Dominik; Ciencialová, Lucie; Pšenička, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic sorbents have great potential in environmental applications due to their simple synthesis and separation in magnetic field, usability in heterogeneous systems and low toxicity. Possible syntheses, surface modifications and characteristics were described by Li et al 2013. This type of solid-phase extraction is being successfully used in various fields as health care, microbiology, biotechnologies or sample preconcentration in analytical chemistry. In this preliminary study we report on the preparation and application of magnetically separable sorbent with surface modified by C18 alkyl chain for purification of water contaminated by environmentally hazardous organic compounds. Magnetic cores were co-precipitated from Fe2+ and Fe3+ chlorides in alkalic aqueous solution. Surface of synthetized Fe3O4 was modified with SiO2 by tetraethylorthosilicate to assure physico-chemical stability. Furthermore, Fe3O4/SiO2 complex has been treated by C18 functional group, which provides good affinity towards hydrophobic substances in water. Efficiency of sorption under various conditions has been examined on benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX), compounds found in petroleum products which contaminate air, soil and groundwater near of store tanks. Sorption kinetics was followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. The preliminary sorption kinetics data and efficiency of BTEX removal point at the possible application of prepared magnetic sorbent for BTEX removal, especially for ethylbenzene and xylenes.

  11. Analysis of survival of C-18 cells after irradiation in suspension with chelated and ionic bismuth-212 using microdosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinchcomb, T.G.; Roeske, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    A previous analysis of non-stochastic dose based on data obtained during irradiations of C-18 cells in suspension by α particles emitted from two forms (chelated and ionic) of 212 Bi was made using survival curves. No appreciable difference in slope (1/D o ) was found between the two forms. Such non-stochastic analyses do not account for the large differences in specific energies deposited in the individual cell nuclei. This microdosimetric (1/z o ) of the individual C-18 cells using the distribution of specific energies deposited in the individual cell nuclei. The resulting sensitivity is greater for the α particles emitted from the chelated 212 Bi than from the ionic 212 Bi. An attempt to account for this greater sensitivity in terms of greater LET of α particles passing through the cell nuclei from the chelated 212 Bi is unsuccessful. Instead the greater sensitivity disappears if the microdosimetric analysis uses average values for the radii of the cell and of its nucleus rather than the values (from the peak in the cell size distribution) used by the non-stochastic dose analysis. 13 refs., 7 figs

  12. Vantagens e desvantagens das colunas C18 e C30 para a separação de carotenóides por CLAE Advantages and disadvantages of C18 and C30 columns for HPLC separation of carotenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itaciara Larroza Nunes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos têm demonstrado uma alta associação entre ingestão ou nível plasmático de carotenóides e a diminuição do risco ou proteção contra algumas doenças. Estes fatos, bem como a elevada suscetibilidade destes compostos à luz e calor, com formação de isômeros cis, os quais apresentam menor atividade biológica, torna importante o desenvolvimento de sistemas que permitam a separação destes carotenóides em alimentos. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a separação de isômeros geométricos de licopeno, e dos isômeros de posição luteína e zeaxantina, por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE, utilizando colunas C18 (monomérica, 4 mm, 300 x 3,9 mm e C30 (polimérica, 3 mm, 250 x 4,6 mm e diferentes fases móveis, tanto com eluição isocrática como com gradiente. Os carotenóides foram identificados através das características espectrais e co-cromatografia com padrões. As melhores condições cromatográficas foram obtidas em coluna C30 com temperatura de 33 ºC, eluição isocrática a 1 mL/min e fase móvel com metanol (0,1% trietilamina/éter metil-terc-butílico (50:50 para separar isômeros de licopeno e (95:5 para luteína e zeaxantina. Entretanto, para análise quantitativa, é necessário verificar a repetibilidade da área dos picos na coluna C30. Além disso, a coluna C18 monomérica pode ser empregada para separar luteína e zeaxantina.Several studies have demonstrated a high association between dietary intake or plasma levels of carotenoids and the decrease of risk or the protection against some diseases. Taking this into consideration, as well as the high susceptibility of these compounds to light and heat, leading to the formation of cis isomers with lower biological activity, it is important to develop systems that allow the separation of such compounds in foods. This work evaluated the separation of the geometric isomers of lycopene and of the position isomers, lutein and zeaxanthin, by high

  13. Fingerprinting of traditional Chinese medicines on the C18-Diol mixed-mode column in online or offline two-dimensional liquid chromatography on the single column modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Tong, Ling; Yao, Lin; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Li

    2016-06-05

    In the present study, a mixed-mode stationary phase, C18-Diol, was applied for fingerprint analysis of traditional Chinese medicines. Hydrophobic, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions were demonstrated to contribute the retention separately or jointly, which endowed the C18-Diol stationary phase with distinct selectivity compared to the bare C18 one. The separation of total alkaloids extracted from Fritillaria hupehensis was compared on the C18-Diol and conventional C18 column with the greater resolving power and better symmetry responses on the former one. Besides, a novel two-dimensional liquid chromatography on the single column (2D-LC-1C) was realized on C18-Diol with the offline mode for the alcohol extract of Fritillaria hupehensis and online mode for Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. The early co-eluted extracted components with great polarity on the first dimension were reinjected on the same column and well separated on the second dimension. The results exhibited that the two complementary RPLC and HILIC modes on C18-Diol stationary phase enhanced the separation capacity and revealed more abundant chemical information of the sample, which was a powerful tool in analyzing complex herbal medicines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Batch top-spray fluid bed coating: Scale-up insight using dynamic heat- and mass-transfer modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Peter Dybdahl; Bach, P.; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2009-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed for batch top-spray fluid bed coating processes based on Ronsse et al. [2007a.b. Combined population balance and thermodynamic modelling of the batch top-spray fluidised bed coating process. Part I-model development and validation. journal of Food Engineering 78......, 296-307; Combined population balance and thermodynamic modelling of the batch top-spray fluidised bed coating process. Part II-model and process analysis. journal of Food Engineering 78, 308-322]. The model is based on one-dimensional discretisation of the fluid bed into a number of well-mixed control......-up principles by comparing simulation results with experimental temperature and humidity data obtained from inorganic salt coating of placebo cores in three pilot fluid bed scales being a 0.5kg small-scale (GEA Aeromatic-Fielder Strea-1), 4kg medium-scale (GEA Niro MP-1) and 24kg large-scale (GEA MP-2...

  15. Reversed-phase HPLC analysis of levetiracetam in tablets using monolithic and conventional C18 silica columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Nafiz O; Arli, Goksel

    2010-01-01

    Development and validation of an RP-HPLC method for determination of levetiracetam in pharmaceutical tablets is described. The separation and quantification of levetiracetam and caffeine (internal standard) were performed using a single analytical procedure with two different types of stationary phases, conventional Phenomenex Gemini C18 (100 x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) and Merck Chromolith Performance RP18e (100 x 4.6 mm, macropore size 2 mm, micropore size 13 nm) monolithic silica. Five-microliter aliquots of samples were injected into the system and eluted using water-acetonitrile (90 + 10, v/v) mobile phase pumped at the rate of 1 mL/min. The analyte peaks were detected at 200 nm using a diode array detector with adequate resolution. Validation studies were performed using the method recommended by the International Conference on Harmonization, the U.S. Pharmacopeia, and AOAC INTERNATIONAL, which includes accuracy, precision, range, limits, robustness, and system suitability parameters. Levetiracetam and caffeine were detected in about 7 min using the conventional column, whereas less than 5 min was required when the monolithic column was used. Calibration plots had r values close to unity in the range of 0.8-8.0 microg/mL. Assay of levetiracetam in a tablet formulation was demonstrated as an application to real samples.

  16. The effect of cobalt and molybdenum on the creep strength of low C-18Cr-10Ni steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomono, Yutaka; Ueda, Jitsuhiko

    1982-01-01

    The improvement of creep strength through the addition of cobalt and molybdenum to low C-18Cr-10Ni steel was studied at a temperature range of between 700 and 800 0 C. Changes in mechanical and physical properties such as lattice parameter and stacking fault energy, related to the additional elements were investigated to estimate the strengthening effect. Dislocation structures corresponding to the various creep stages were observed through a transmission electron microscope to distinguish the solution hardening effect of the added elements from the precipitation hardening effects of carbide. The results obtained are summarized as follows: (1) Addition of cobalt of up to 20% by weight improved the creep strength of austenitic steel. Addition of molybdenum of up to 5% by weight remarkably improved the creep strength of austenitic steel having a cobalt content of 20% by weight. (2) The trend for creep strength to improve with the addition of these elements was closely coincident with increases in lattice parameter and did not necessarily coincide with changes in the stacking fault energy. (author)

  17. Stereochemistry of C18 monounsaturated cork suberin acids determined by spectroscopic techniques including (1) H-NMR multiplet analysis of olefinic protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara; Graça, José

    2014-01-01

    Suberin is a biopolyester responsible for the protection of secondary plant tissues, and yet its molecular structure remains unknown. The C18:1 ω-hydroxyacid and the C18:1 α,ω-diacid are major monomers in the suberin structure, but the configuration of the double bond remains to be elucidated. To unequivocally define the configuration of the C18:1 suberin acids. Pure C18:1 ω-hydroxyacid and C18:1 α,ω-diacid, isolated from cork suberin, and two structurally very close C18:1 model compounds of known stereochemistry, methyl oleate and methyl elaidate, were analysed by NMR spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, and GC-MS. The GC-MS analysis showed that both acids were present in cork suberin as only one geometric isomer. The analysis of dimethyloxazoline (DMOX) and picolinyl derivatives proved the double bond position to be at C-9. The FTIR spectra were concordant with a cis-configuration for both suberin acids, but their unambiguous stereochemical assignment came from the NMR analysis: (i) the chemical shifts of the allylic (13) C carbons were shielded comparatively to the trans model compound, and (ii) the complex multiplets of the olefinic protons could be simulated only with (3) JHH and long-range (4) JHH coupling constants typical of a cis geometry. The two C18:1 suberin acids in cork are (Z)-18-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid and (Z)-octadec-9-enedoic acid. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Using in situ nanocellulose-coating technology based on dynamic bacterial cultures for upgrading conventional biomedical materials and reinforcing nanocellulose hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Qingsong; Jönsson, Leif J; Hong, Feng F

    2016-07-08

    Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) is a microbial nanofibrillar hydrogel with many potential applications. Its use is largely restricted by insufficient strength when in a highly swollen state and by inefficient production using static cultivation. In this study, an in situ nanocellulose-coating technology created a fabric-frame reinforced nanocomposite of BNC hydrogel with superior strength but retained BNC native attributes. By using the proposed technology, production time could be reduced from 10 to 3 days to obtain a desirable hydrogel sheet with approximately the same thickness. This novel technology is easier to scale up and is more suitable for industrial-scale manufacture. The mechanical properties (tensile strength, suture retention strength) and gel characteristics (water holding, absorption and wicking ability) of the fabric-reinforced BNC hydrogel were investigated and compared with those of ordinary BNC hydrogel sheets. The results reveal that the fabric-reinforced BNC hydrogel was equivalent with regard to gel characteristics, and exhibited a qualitative improvement with regard to its mechanical properties. For more advanced applications, coating technology via dynamic bacterial cultures could be used to upgrade conventional biomedical fabrics, i.e. medical cotton gauze or other mesh materials, with nanocellulose. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1077-1084, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. Preparation, characterization and application of a reversed phase liquid chromatography/hydrophilic interaction chromatography mixed-mode C18-DTT stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Long, Yao; Yao, Lin; Xu, Li; Shi, Zhi-Guo; Xu, Lanying

    2016-01-01

    A mixed-mode chromatographic stationary phase, C18-DTT (dithiothreitol) silica (SiO2) was prepared through "thiol-ene" click chemistry. The obtained material was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscope, nitrogen adsorption analysis and contact angle analysis. Chromatographic performance of the C18-DTT was systemically evaluated by studying the effect of acetonitrile content, pH, buffer concentration of the mobile phase and column temperature. It was demonstrated that the novel stationary phase possessed reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC)/hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mixed-mode property. The stop-flow test revealed that C18-DTT exhibited excellent compatibility with 100% aqueous mobile phase. Additionally, the stability and column-to-column reproducibility of the C18-DTT material were satisfactory, with relative standard deviations of retention factor of the tested analytes (verapamil, fenbufen, guanine, tetrandrine and nicotinic acid) in the range of 1.82-3.72% and 0.85-1.93%, respectively. Finally, the application of C18-DTT column was demonstrated in the separation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aromatic carboxylic acids, alkaloids, nucleo-analytes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. It had great resolving power in the analysis of various compounds in HILIC and RPLC chromatographic conditions and was a promising RPLC/HILIC mixed-mode stationary phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Interference of a synthetic C18 juvenile hormone with mammalian cells in vitro, I. Effects on growth and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Z M; Laskowska-Bozek, H; Jastreboff, P

    1978-01-01

    Some of structural and functional analogs of juvenile hormones are now under field examinations as growth inhibitors of some pest-insect populations. So far however very little is known about the possible interference of these compounds with mammalian cells or organisms. In this research the interference of a synthetic preparation of the insect C18 juvenile hormone with mouse embryo fibroblasts (ME-cells) and mouse cells of an established line (L-cells) was studied. Aliquots of juvenile hormone solution or those of the solvent (DMSO plus ethanol, 9:1) were included into the culture medium and after defined times of contact the cells were tested for their morphology, pattern of growth, proliferation rate and viability. The data for the parameters under examination were evaluated by means of the analysis of variance and checked by the Tuckey test. The sensitivity of ME-cells and L-cells to the agent tested was compared by means of the analysis of variance of the data for mitotic indices of these cells and by evaluation of the number of dead cells in cultures under the particular conditions of the experiments. The main findings can be summarized as follows: 1. Cells of both types are evidently more sensitive to juvenile hormone than to the solvent. 2. ME-cells are more sensitive to both agents than are L-cells. 3. The concentrations of the hormone in the medium required to evoked the cytocidal effect on the mouse cells similarly as those affecting some insect non-target cells were far above concentrations found in insect blood, but they were of the same order of magnitude as those used in physiological experiments with insect organs in vitro.

  1. Identification of a potential biomarker panel for the intake of the common dietary trans fat elaidic acid (trans∆9-C18:1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroager, Toke Peter; Nielsen, Lone Vendel; Bak, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    system, and the cells were maintained for seven days in serum-free medium containing 100 μM elaidic acid (trans∆9-C18:1), oleic acid (cis∆9-C18:1) or stearic acid (C18:0). The secretomes were analyzed by stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), difference in gel electrophoresis......Trans fatty acid intake has been correlated to an unfavorable plasma lipoprotein profile and an increased cardiovascular disease risk. The present study aimed to identify a plasma protein biomarker panel related to human intake of elaidic acid. The human liver cell line HepG2-SF was used as a model...

  2. Thermal annealing dynamics of carbon-coated LiFePO{sub 4} nanoparticles studied by in-situ analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumeich, Frank, E-mail: krumeich@inorg.chem.ethz.ch [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 1, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Waser, Oliver; Pratsinis, Sotiris E. [Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-10-15

    The thermal behavior of core-shell carbon-coated lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO{sub 4}-C) nanoparticles made by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) during annealing was investigated by in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in-situ X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) as well as ex-situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Crystallization of the initially glassy LiFePO{sub 4}-C nanoparticles starts at quite low temperatures (T=400 °C), forming single crystals inside the confinement of the carbon shell. Upon increasing the temperature to T≥700 °C, LiFePO{sub 4} starts to diffuse through the carbon shell resulting in cavities inside the mostly intact carbon shell. By increasing the temperature further to T≥800 °C, the initial core-shell morphology converts into open carbon shells (flakes and cenospheres) and bulky LiFePO{sub 4} particles (diameter in the range 300–400 nm), in agreement with ex-situ experiments. - Graphical abstract: TEM images of a typical sample area recorded at room temperature and after heating in-situ heating reveal the growth of particles and the formation of empty carbon cages. - Highlights: • LiFePO{sub 4} coated by a carbon shell is produced by flame spray pyrolysis. • The amorphous LiFePO{sub 4} starts to crystallize at 400 °C as revealed by in-situ XRD. • Crystal growth was visualized by TEM heating experiments. • The formation of empty carbon cages starts at 700 °C.

  3. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(18)-1 - Depletion on extraction of ores or minerals from the waste or residue of prior mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Depletion on extraction of ores or minerals from... Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(18)-1 Depletion on extraction of ores or minerals from the waste or residue of prior... transfer, to an allowance for depletion under section 611 in respect of ores or minerals extracted from...

  4. Solid phase extraction for multiresidue analysis of anabolic steroids and related substances from calf urine using C18 and alumina columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, A; Franke, JP; de Zeeuw, RA

    1999-01-01

    A solid phase extraction method for anabolic steroids and related substances in calf urine is reported, that is suitable as a screening method for illegal growth promoters. Two types of sorbent were used: a reversed phase C18 material and a polar alumina material. After overnight enzymatic

  5. Simultaneous quantification of poly-dispersed anionic, amphoteric and nonionic surfactants in simulated wastewater samples using C18 high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Lanfang H.; Garland, Jay L.; Johnson, Jodie V.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a guantitative method for direct and simultaneous determination of three frequently encountered surfactants, amphoteric (cocoamphoacetate, CAA), anionic (sodium laureth sulfate, SLES), and nonionic (alcohol ethoxylate, AE) using a reversed-phase C18 HPLC coupled with an ESI ion-trap mass spectrometer (MS). Chemical composition, ionization characteristics and fragmentation pathways of the surfactants are presented. Positive ESI was effective for all three surfactants in agueous methanol buffered with ammonium acetate. The method enables rapid determinations in small sample volumes containing inorganic salts (up to 3.5 g L(-1)) and multiple classes of surfactants with high specificity by applying surfactant specific tandem mass spectrometric strategies. It has dynamic linear ranges of 2-60, 1.5-40, 0.8-56 mg L(-1) with R2 egual or greater than 0.999, 0.98 and 0.999 (10 microL injection) for CAA, SLES, and AE, respectively.

  6. Dynamic magneto-optical imaging of transport current redistribution and normal zone propagation in YBa2Cu3O7-δ coated conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Honghai; Schwartz, Justin; Davidson, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) coated conductors carry high critical current density with the potential for low cost and thus have a broad range of potential applications. An unresolved issue that could inhibit implementation, however, is a lack of understanding of the current redistribution and normal zone propagation behavior in the event of a thermal disturbance (quench). In this work, we for the first time present the real-time, dynamic observation of magnetic field redistribution during a thermal disturbance via magneto-optical imaging with a high speed, high resolution CCD (charge coupled device) camera. The optical images are converted to a two-dimensional, time-dependent data set that is then analyzed quantitatively. It is found that the normal zone propagates non-uniformly in two dimensions within the YBCO layer. Two stages of normal zone propagation are observed. During the first stage, the normal zone propagates along the conductor length as the current and magnetic field redistribute within the YBCO layer. During the second stage, current sharing with the Cu begins and the magneto-optical image becomes constant. The normal zone propagation velocity at 45 K, I = 50 A (∼50% I c ), is determined as 22.7 mm s -1 using the time-dependent optical light intensity data. (rapid communication)

  7. Transfer of fissile material through shielding coatings in emergency heating of HTGR coated particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudkov, A.N.; Zhuravkov, S.G.; Koptev, M.A.; Kurepin, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement results of leakage dynamics of fissile material from the coated particles within a temperature range of 1200 + 2000 deg. C are given. The methods of carrying out the experiments are briefly described. The relation of the leakage rate of uranium-235 from CP (coated particles) with the pyrocarbonic coatings has been obtained. (author)

  8. Use of the isotope flux ratio approach to investigate the C18O16O and 13CO2 exchange near the floor of a temperate deciduous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bartlett

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotopologues of CO2, such as 13CO2 and C18OO, have been used to study the CO2 exchange between land and atmosphere. The advent of new measuring techniques has allowed near-continuous measurements of stable isotopes in the air. These measurements can be used with micrometeorological techniques, providing new tools to investigate the isotope exchange in ecosystems. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of the isotope flux ratio method (IFR near the forest floor of a temperate deciduous forest and to study the temporal dynamics of δ18O of CO2 flux near the forest floor by comparing IFR estimates with estimates of δ18O of net soil CO2 flux provided by an analytical model. Mixing ratios of 12C16O2, 13CO2 and C16O18O were measured within and above a temperate deciduous forest, using the tunable diode laser spectroscopy technique. The half-hourly compositions of the CO2 flux near the forest floor (δ13CF and δ18OF were calculated by IFR and compared with estimates provided by a modified Keeling plot technique (mKP and by a Lagrangian dispersion analysis (WT analysis. The mKP and IFR δ18OF estimates showed good agreement (slope = 1.03 and correlation, R2 = 0.80. The δ13CF estimates from the two methods varied in a narrow range of −32.7 and −23‰; the mean (± SE mKP and IFR δ13CF values were −27.5‰ (±0.2 and −27.3‰ (±0.1, respectively, and were statistically identical (p>0.05. WT analysis and IFR δ18OF estimates showed better correlation (R2 = 0.37 when only turbulent periods (u*>0.6 m s−1 were included in the analysis. The large amount of data captured (~95 % of half-hour periods evaluated for the IFR in comparison with mKP (27 % shows that the former provides new opportunities for studying δ18OF dynamics within forest canopies. Values of δ18OF showed large temporal variation, with values ranging from −31.4‰ (DOY 208 to −11.2‰ (DOY 221. Precipitation events caused substantial variation (~8

  9. Effect of silage type and concentrate level on conjugated linoleic acids, trans-C18 : 1 isomers and fat content in milk from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Skov; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Jungersen, Mogens Vestergaard

    2006-01-01

    to one of four diets in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments and a six week experimental period. Treatments were total mixed rations with maize (M) or grass (G) silage differing in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) profile and starch content, combined with a high (H) or a low (L) level......:1 and reduced cis9, trans11-CLA and trans11-C18:1 when maize but not grass silage was provided. The results suggest that high levels of concentrate (grain) do not significantly alter the pattern of PUFA biohydrogenation in the rumen, the concentration of CLA and trans-C18:1 isomers in milk or cause milk fat...

  10. Study of complex formation between C18H36N2O6 and UO22+ cation in some binary mixed non-aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Rounaghi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The complexation reaction between UO22+ cation and the macrobicyclic ligand C18H36N2O6 was studied in acetonitrile–dimethylformamide (AN–DMF, acetonitrile–tetrahydrofuran (AN–THF, acetonitrile–dichloromethane (AN–DCM binary solvent solutions at different temperatures using the coductometric method. In most cases, C18H36N2O6 forms a 1:1 [M:L] complex with the UO22+ cation. But in some of the studied solvent systems, in addition to formation of a 1:1 complex, a 1:2 [M:L2] complex is formed in solution. A non-linear behavior was observed for changes of logKf of the (C18H36N2O6·UO22+ complex versus the composition of the binary mixed solvents. The sequence of the stability of the (C18H36N2O6·UO22+ complex in pure solvent systems at 25 °C decreases in the order: AN > THF > DMF. In the case of binary solvent solutions, the stability constant of the complex at 25 °C was found to be: AN–DCM > AN–THF > AN–DMF. The values of thermodynamic quantities (ΔSc°,ΔHc°, for the formation of the complex were obtained from temperature dependence of the stability constant of the complex using the van't Hoff plots. The results show that in all cases, the complex is both entropy and enthalpy stabilized and both of these parameters are affected by the nature and composition of the mixed solvent systems.

  11. 40 CFR 721.10175 - 1-Propanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-2-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyl-3-sulfo-, N-(C12-18 and C18-unsatd...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1-Propanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-2... 1-Propanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-2-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyl-3-sulfo-, N-(C12-18 and C18-unsatd. acyl... chemical substance identified as 1-Propanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-2-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyl-3-sulfo-, N-(C12...

  12. Steroids in porcine follicular fluid: analysis by HPLC, capillary CG and capillary CG/MS after purification on SEP-PAK C18 and ion exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M W; Lawson, V

    1983-04-01

    Steroids in porcine follicular fluid have been concentrated by reverse phase chromatography in SEP-PAK C18 and purified further on the cation exchanger SP-Sephadex C-25. Fractionation into unconjugated neutral and phenolic steroids, glucuronides and sulfates was carried out on triethylaminohydroxypropyl Sephadex LH-20 (TEAP-LH-20). The unconjugated neutral fraction was analysed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a C18 radial cartridge 5 mm I.D.; 10 mu, or on a C18 5 mu RESOLVE column, and by capillary gas chromatography (GC) on a 12 M OV-1 cross linked fused silica column. Testosterone, progesterone and androstenedione were the major steroids detected by HPLC monitored at 254 nm, although 17- hydroxy-, 20 alpha-dihydro- and 20 beta-dihydroprogesterone were also present. Pregnenolone, pregnanediol, dehydroepiandrosterone, 17-hydroxypregnenolone and androsterone were detected by capillary CG as their 0-methyloxime trimethylsilyether derivatives. Further confirmation of structure was provided by complete mass spectral data or by selective ion monitoring (SIM).

  13. Rapid trace level determination of sulfonamide residues in honey with online extraction using short C-18 column by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad; Na, Na; Safdar, Muhammad; Lu, Xin; Ma, Lin; He, Lan; Ouyang, Jin

    2013-11-01

    A sensitive and inexpensive quantification method with online extraction using a short C-18 column for sulfonamide residues in honey by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector was developed and validated. In sample preparation, acid hydrolysis was used to break the N-glycoside bond between the honey sugar and sulfonamide drugs and derivatization of sulfonamide residues with fluorescamine was conducted at pH 3.5 using a citrate buffer (0.5M) in the honey matrix. The chromatography was carried out on Zorbax Extended C-18 (250mm×4.6mm; 5μm) column, using a mixture of acetonitrile and an acetate buffer (pH 4.50, 20mM) as a mobile phase. A Zorbax Extended C-18 (12mm×4.6mm; 5μm) column was used for online extraction of fifteen sulfonamide residues from honey sample with the help of a two position valve. The limit of quantification of sulfonamide residues in honey was less than 3ngg(-1), and the percentage recovery of study compounds in spiked honey sample was from 80% for sulfacetamide to 100% of sulfachloropyridazine. The developed method has excellent linearity for all studied sulfonamides with a correlation coefficient 0.993. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxidation protection of austenite steels by heat-resisting glass-and-enamel coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobzhanidze, V.N.; Korchagin, V.S.

    1977-01-01

    The use of glass-enamel coatings for corrosion protection of austenitic steels during heat treatment has been investigated. When working out the composition of the protective coating, the method of mathematical planning of experiments has been used. It is shown that the coating under investigation can best be used in heat treatment of items with a prolonged time of heating to 1050 deg C (18-20 hr). The savings resulting from the introduction of the heat-resistant glass-enamel coating exceed 30000 roubles

  15. Levitation, coating, and transport of particulate materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    Several processes in various fields require uniformly thick coatings and layers on small particles. The particles may be used as carriers of catalytic materials (platinum or other coatings), as laser fusion targets (various polymer or metallic coatings), or for biological or other tracer or interactive processes. We have devised both molecular beam and electro-dynamic techniques for levitation of the particles during coating and electrodynamic methods of controlling and transporting the particles between coating steps and to final use locations. Both molecular beam and electrodynamic techniques are described and several advantages and limitations of each will be discussed. A short movie of an operating electrodynamic levitation and transport apparatus will be shown

  16. SU-C-18A-02: Image-Based Camera Tracking: Towards Registration of Endoscopic Video to CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingram, S; Rao, A; Wendt, R; Castillo, R; Court, L; Yang, J; Beadle, B

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Endoscopic examinations are routinely performed on head and neck and esophageal cancer patients. However, these images are underutilized for radiation therapy because there is currently no way to register them to a CT of the patient. The purpose of this work is to develop a method to track the motion of an endoscope within a structure using images from standard clinical equipment. This method will be incorporated into a broader endoscopy/CT registration framework. Methods: We developed a software algorithm to track the motion of an endoscope within an arbitrary structure. We computed frame-to-frame rotation and translation of the camera by tracking surface points across the video sequence and utilizing two-camera epipolar geometry. The resulting 3D camera path was used to recover the surrounding structure via triangulation methods. We tested this algorithm on a rigid cylindrical phantom with a pattern spray-painted on the inside. We did not constrain the motion of the endoscope while recording, and we did not constrain our measurements using the known structure of the phantom. Results: Our software algorithm can successfully track the general motion of the endoscope as it moves through the phantom. However, our preliminary data do not show a high degree of accuracy in the triangulation of 3D point locations. More rigorous data will be presented at the annual meeting. Conclusion: Image-based camera tracking is a promising method for endoscopy/CT image registration, and it requires only standard clinical equipment. It is one of two major components needed to achieve endoscopy/CT registration, the second of which is tying the camera path to absolute patient geometry. In addition to this second component, future work will focus on validating our camera tracking algorithm in the presence of clinical imaging features such as patient motion, erratic camera motion, and dynamic scene illumination

  17. Hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, J.P.; Boving, H.J.; Hintermann, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Hard, wear resistant and low friction coatings are presently produced on a world-wide basis, by different processes such as electrochemical or electroless methods, spray technologies, thermochemical, CVD and PVD. Some of the most advanced processes, especially those dedicated to thin film depositions, basically belong to CVD or PVD technologies, and will be looked at in more detail. The hard coatings mainly consist of oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides or carbon. Over the years, many processes have been developed which are variations and/or combinations of the basic CVD and PVD methods. The main difference between these two families of deposition techniques is that the CVD is an elevated temperature process (≥ 700 C), while the PVD on the contrary, is rather a low temperature process (≤ 500 C); this of course influences the choice of substrates and properties of the coating/substrate systems. Fundamental aspects of the vapor phase deposition techniques and some of their influences on coating properties will be discussed, as well as the very important interactions between deposit and substrate: diffusions, internal stress, etc. Advantages and limitations of CVD and PVD respectively will briefly be reviewed and examples of applications of the layers will be given. Parallel to the development and permanent updating of surface modification technologies, an effort was made to create novel characterisation methods. A close look will be given to the coating adherence control by means of the scratch test, at the coating hardness measurement by means of nanoindentation, at the coating wear resistance by means of a pin-on-disc tribometer, and at the surface quality evaluation by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finally, main important trends will be highlighted. (orig.)

  18. Explanation of the photocurrent quantum efficiency (Φ) enhancements through the CAN's model equation for the p-CuI sensitized methylviolet-C18 LB films in the photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) and Cu/n-Cu2O/M-C18/p-CuI solid-state photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernando, C A N; Liyanaarachchi, U S; AARajapaksha, R D

    2013-01-01

    Photocurrent enhancements in a dye sensitized photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) with a Cu/p-CuI/M-C 18 photoelectrode and a dye sensitized solid state photovoltaic cell (DSSC) with Cu/n-Cu 2 O/M-C 18 /p-CuI are studied by controlling the formation of dye aggregates of M-C 18 Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films on the p-CuI layer. LB films of M-C 18 are deposited under biasing conditions during the LB deposition process on Cu/p-CuI, Cu/n-Cu 2 O/p-CuI and conductive glass plates with the three-electrode configuration setup coupling to the LB trough. LB films prepared under positive biasing conditions enhance the photocurrent quantum efficiencies for both PECs and DSSCs controlling and minimizing the formation of dye aggregates. The electrolyte used for LB deposition and photocurrent measurements is (10 −2 M) Fe 2+ + Fe 3+ (10 −2 M) and (10 −2 M) NaH 2 PO 4 –Na 2 HPO 4 , pH = 6 buffer solution. Maximum photocurrent quantum efficiencies (φmax%) obtained are ≈22% for PEC and ≈20% for DSSCs, where the M-C 18 LB film deposition applied potentials +0.3 V versus Ag/AgCl. The mechanism of the photocurrent enhancement is discussed through the CAN's model equation, φ = AD 0 –BD 0 2 , where A = k 1 k 2 /F, B = I k 1 2 k 2 [2k 6 /F 3 + k 2 k 4 /k 3 2 X 2 F 2 ], F = k 2 + k 5 Y + k 7 + k 1 I [1 + k 2 /k 3 X], presented from our previous study [1]. Experimental evidence for the formation of the aggregates of M-C 18 LB films for the negative applied potentials and suppression of the aggregates with positive applied potentials are presented from absorption spectra, AFM pictures and fluorescence measurements of the samples. Conversion efficiency obtained is ≈2.5%, V oc ≈750 mV and I sc ≈ 5.8 mA cm −2 for DSSC fabricated with +0.3 V versus Ag/AgCl applied deposition potential of M-C 18 LB films. (paper)

  19. Explanation of the photocurrent quantum efficiency (Φ) enhancements through the CAN's model equation for the p-CuI sensitized methylviolet-C18 LB films in the photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) and Cu/n-Cu2O/M-C18/p-CuI solid-state photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, C. A. N.; Liyanaarachchi, U. S.; AARajapaksha, R. D.

    2013-04-01

    Photocurrent enhancements in a dye sensitized photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) with a Cu/p-CuI/M-C18 photoelectrode and a dye sensitized solid state photovoltaic cell (DSSC) with Cu/n-Cu2O/M-C18/p-CuI are studied by controlling the formation of dye aggregates of M-C18 Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films on the p-CuI layer. LB films of M-C18 are deposited under biasing conditions during the LB deposition process on Cu/p-CuI, Cu/n-Cu2O/p-CuI and conductive glass plates with the three-electrode configuration setup coupling to the LB trough. LB films prepared under positive biasing conditions enhance the photocurrent quantum efficiencies for both PECs and DSSCs controlling and minimizing the formation of dye aggregates. The electrolyte used for LB deposition and photocurrent measurements is (10-2 M) Fe2+ + Fe3+ (10-2 M) and (10-2 M) NaH2PO4-Na2HPO4, pH = 6 buffer solution. Maximum photocurrent quantum efficiencies (Фmax%) obtained are ≈22% for PEC and ≈20% for DSSCs, where the M-C18 LB film deposition applied potentials +0.3 V versus Ag/AgCl. The mechanism of the photocurrent enhancement is discussed through the CAN's model equation, Ф = AD0-BD02, where A = k1k2/F, B = I k12 k2[2k6/F3 + k2k4/k32 X2F2], F = k2 + k5Y + k7 + k1 I [1 + k2/k3 X], presented from our previous study [1]. Experimental evidence for the formation of the aggregates of M-C18 LB films for the negative applied potentials and suppression of the aggregates with positive applied potentials are presented from absorption spectra, AFM pictures and fluorescence measurements of the samples. Conversion efficiency obtained is ≈2.5%, Voc ≈750 mV and Isc ≈ 5.8 mA cm-2 for DSSC fabricated with +0.3 V versus Ag/AgCl applied deposition potential of M-C18 LB films.

  20. Current status of PET imaging of neuroendocrine tumours ([18F]FDOPA, [68Ga]traces, [11C/[18F]-HTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, A.; Morgini, J.J.; Nanni, C.; Castellucci, P.; Fanti, S.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) functional imaging is an evolving field that witnessed major advances in the past two decades. The routine use of PET/CT with an array of new radiotracers to specifically study NEN resulted in an increase in lesions detection. Currently, PET radiopharmaceuticals for NEN imaging include both metabolic ([18F]DOPA, [18F]FDG, [11C]/[18F]-HTP) and receptor-mediated compounds ([68Ga]DOTA-peptides). Discussion is still on-going regarding the clinical setting that may benefit the most from the use of one tracer over the other. [68Ga]DOTA-peptides are accurate for the detection of well differentiated NEN and are increasingly employed. Moreover, providing data on somatostatin receptors expression on NEN cells, they represent a fundamental procedure to be performed before starting therapy, as well as to guide treatment, with either hot or cold somatostatin analogues. The easy and economic synthesis process also favours their clinical employment even in centres without an on-site cyclotron. [18F]DOPA is accurate for studying well differentiated tumours however the difficult and expensive synthesis have limited its clinical employment. It currently can be successfully used for imaging tumours with variable to low expression of SSR (medullary thyroid carcinoma, neuroblastoma, pheocromocytoma), that cannot be accurately studied with [68Ga]DOTA-peptides. [11C]/[18F]-HTP has also been proposed to image well differentiated NEN, on the basis of serotonin pathway activity, for which [11C]/[18F]-HTP can be used as precursor. However, although preliminary data are encouraging, the feasibility of its widespread clinical use is still under discussion, mainly limited by a complex synthesis process and more proven advantages over other currently employed compounds. This review aims to provide an overview of the current status and clinical application of PET tracers to image well differentiated NEN and to focus on the still open-issues of debate

  1. Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  2. Gradient HPLC of antibiotics in urine, ground water, chicken muscle, hospital wastewater, and pharmaceutical samples using C-18 and RP-amide columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwini; Kumar Malik, Ashok; Kumar Tewary, Dhananjay; Singh, Baldev

    2008-02-01

    A simple and highly sensitive high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC-UV) method has been developed for the determination of ofloxacin, lomefloxacin, cinoxacin, and nalidixic acid, in mobile phase citrate buffer (0.001 M) of pH 4.5 prepared in water (X), methanol (Y), and ACN (Z) using gradient at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min by direct UV absorbance detection at lambda = 280 nm. Separation of analytes was studied on the C-18 and RP-amide columns and best results were observed on the RP-amide column with LODs (3.3 x S/m) 0.89, 0.55, 0.67, and 1.41 ng/mL for ofloxacin, lomefloxacin, cinoxacin, and nalidixic acid, respectively, and better RSD than the C-18 column. The recovery of Fluoroquinolones (FQs) in urine, ground water, hospital wastewater, and chicken muscle using this method is more than 90%. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of ofloxacin, lomefloxacin, cinoxacin, and nalidixic acid in urine, ground water, pharmaceutical dosage forms, hospital wastewater, and chicken muscle.

  3. Fragment-based approach to calculate hydrophobicity of anionic and nonionic surfactants derived from chromatographic retention on a C18 stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Jort; Haftka, Joris J-H; Scherpenisse, Peter; Hermens, Joop L M; de Voogt, Pim W P

    2017-02-01

    To predict the fate and potential effects of organic contaminants, information about their hydrophobicity is required. However, common parameters to describe the hydrophobicity of organic compounds (e.g., octanol-water partition constant [K OW ]) proved to be inadequate for ionic and nonionic surfactants because of their surface-active properties. As an alternative approach to determine their hydrophobicity, the aim of the present study was therefore to measure the retention of a wide range of surfactants on a C 18 stationary phase. Capacity factors in pure water (k' 0 ) increased linearly with increasing number of carbon atoms in the surfactant structure. Fragment contribution values were determined for each structural unit with multilinear regression, and the results were consistent with the expected influence of these fragments on the hydrophobicity of surfactants. Capacity factors of reference compounds and log K OW values from the literature were used to estimate log K OW values for surfactants (log KOWHPLC). These log KOWHPLC values were also compared to log K OW values calculated with 4 computational programs: KOWWIN, Marvin calculator, SPARC, and COSMOThermX. In conclusion, capacity factors from a C 18 stationary phase are found to better reflect hydrophobicity of surfactants than their K OW values. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:329-336. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  4. Effect of Surface Coatings on Cylinders Exposed to Underwater Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.W. Kwon

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of a coated cylinder (metallic cylinder coated with a rubber material subjected to an underwater explosion is analyzed numerically. The dynamic response of the coated cylinder appears to be adversely affected when impacted by an underwater shock wave under certain conditions of geometry and material properties of the coating. When adversely affected, significant deviations in values of axial stress, hoop stress, and strain are observed. The coated cylinder exhibits a larger deformation and higher internal energy in the metallic material. Rubber coatings appeared to inhibit energy dissipation from the metallic material to the surrounding water medium. A parametric study of various coatings was performed on both aluminum and steel cylinders. The adverse effect of the coating decreased when the stiffness of the rubber layer increased, indicating the existence of a threshold value. The results of this study indicate that the stiffness of the coating is a critical factor to the shock hardening of the coated cylinder.

  5. Preconcentration of trace manganese from natural waters by complexation with dithiocarbamate and adsorption onto C18-solid phase extraction column for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmani, S.B.; Abdullah, M.P.; Bobaker, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    A method was developed for the preconcentration and separation of trace manganese from natural water samples by complexation with dithiocarbamate followed by adsorption onto C 18 -solid phase extraction column prior to irradiation. The Mn recovery was better than 99.8% without interference from iron(III) at 5 mg x l -1 , copper(II), zinc(II), aluminum(III) and cobalt(II) at 0.5 mg x l -1 and sodium(I), potassium(I), magnesium(II) and calcium(II) at 1 mg x l -1 . The separation factor was 100 and the detection limit was 0.01 μg x l -1 with good precision and accuracy with a relative error lower than 3%. The method was applied to the determination of Mn in tap, well, river and treated water samples. (author)

  6. Application of a Fast Separation Method for Anti-diabetics in Pharmaceuticals Using Monolithic Column: Comparative Study With Silica Based C-18 Particle Packed Column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemdan, A; Abdel-Aziz, Omar

    2018-04-01

    Run time is a predominant factor in HPLC for quality control laboratories especially if there is large number of samples have to be analyzed. Working at high flow rates cannot be attained with silica based particle packed column due to elevated backpressure issues. The use of monolithic column as an alternative to traditional C-18 column was tested for fast separation of pharmaceuticals, where the results were very competitive. The performance comparison of both columns was tested for separation of anti-diabetic combination containing Metformin, Pioglitazone and Glimepiride using Gliclazide as an internal standard. Working at high flow rates with less significant backpressure was obtained with the monolithic column where the run time was reduced from 6 min in traditional column to only 1 min in monolithic column with accepted resolution. The structure of the monolith contains many pores which can adapt the high flow rate of the mobile phase. Moreover, peak symmetry and equilibration time were more efficient with monolithic column.

  7. Confocal Raman Microscopy for in Situ Measurement of Octanol-Water Partitioning within the Pores of Individual C18-Functionalized Chromatographic Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitt, Jay P; Harris, Joel M

    2015-05-19

    Octanol-water partitioning is one of the most widely used predictors of hydrophobicity and lipophilicity. Traditional methods for measuring octanol-water partition coefficients (K(ow)), including shake-flasks and generator columns, require hours for equilibration and milliliter quantities of sample solution. These challenges have led to development of smaller-scale methods for measuring K(ow). Recent advances in microfluidics have produced faster and smaller-volume approaches to measuring K(ow). As flowing volumes are reduced, however, separation of water and octanol prior to measurement and detection in small volumes of octanol phase are especially challenging. In this work, we reduce the receiver volume of octanol-water partitioning measurements from current practice by six-orders-of-magnitude, to the femtoliter scale, by using a single octanol-filled reversed-phase, octadecylsilane-modified (C18-silica) chromatographic particle as a collector. The fluid-handling challenges of working in such small volumes are circumvented by eliminating postequilibration phase separation. Partitioning is measured in situ within the pore-confined octanol phase using confocal Raman microscopy, which is capable of detecting and quantifying a wide variety of molecular structures. Equilibration times are fast (less than a minute) because molecular diffusion is efficient over distance scales of micrometers. The demonstrated amount of analyte needed to carry out a measurement is very small, less than 50 fmol, which would be a useful attribute for drug screening applications or testing of small quantities of environmentally sensitive compounds. The method is tested for measurements of pH-dependent octanol-water partitioning of naphthoic acid, and the results are compared to both traditional shake-flask measurements and sorption onto C18-modified silica without octanol present within the pores.

  8. Sorption of structurally different ionized pharmaceutical and illicit drugs to a mixed-mode coated microsampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltenburg, Hester; Timmer, Niels; Bosman, Ingrid J; Hermens, Joop L M; Droge, Steven T J

    2016-05-20

    The mixed-mode (C18/strong cation exchange-SCX) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber has recently been shown to have increased sensitivity for ionic compounds compared to more conventional sampler coatings such as polyacrylate and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). However, data for structurally diverse compounds to this (prototype) sampler coating are too limited to define its structural limitations. We determined C18/SCX fiber partitioning coefficients of nineteen cationic structures without hydrogen bonding capacity besides the charged group, stretching over a wide hydrophobicity range (including amphetamine, amitriptyline, promazine, chlorpromazine, triflupromazine, difenzoquat), and eight basic pharmaceutical and illicit drugs (pKa>8.86) with additional hydrogen bonding moieties (MDMA, atenolol, alprenolol, metoprolol, morphine, nicotine, tramadol, verapamil). In addition, sorption data for three neutral benzodiazepines (diazepam, temazepam, and oxazepam) and the anionic NSAID diclofenac were collected to determine the efficiency to sample non-basic drugs. All tested compounds showed nonlinear isotherms above 1mmol/L coating, and linear isotherms below 1mmol/L. The affinity for C18/SCX-SPME for tested organic cations without Hbond capacities increased with longer alkyl chains, ranging from logarithmic fiber-water distribution coefficients (log Dfw) of 1.8 (benzylamine) to 5.8 (triflupromazine). Amines smaller than benzylamine may thus have limited detection levels, while cationic surfactants with alkyl chain lengths >12 carbon atoms may sorb too strong to the C18/SCX sampler which hampers calibration of the fiber-water relationship in the linear range. The log Dfw for these simple cation structures closely correlates with the octanol-water partition coefficient of the neutral form (Kow,N), and decreases with increased branching and presence of multiple aromatic rings. Oxygen moieties in organic cations decreased the affinity for C18/SCX-SPME. Log Dfw values of

  9. Dynamic nanomechanical properties of novel Si-rich intermetallic coatings growth on a medical 316 LVM steel by hot dipping in a hypereutectic Al-25Si alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, E; González-Carrasco, J L

    2015-06-01

    This aim of this study is to determine the elastoplastic properties of Ni-free Al3FeSi2 intermetallic coatings grown on medical stainless steel under different experimental conditions. Elastoplastic properties are defined by the plasticity index (PI), which correlates the hardness and the Young's modulus. Special emphasis is devoted to correlate the PI with the wear resistance under sliding contact, determined by scratch testing, and fracture toughness, determined by using a novel method based on successive impacts with small loads. With regard to the substrate, the developed coatings are harder and exhibit a lower Young's reduced modulus, irrespective of the experimental conditions. It has been shown that preheating of the samples prior to hot dipping and immersion influences the type and volume fraction of precipitates, which in turn also affect the nanomechanical properties. The higher the preheating temperature is, the greater the Young's reduced modulus is. For a given preheating condition, an increase of the immersion time yields a decrease in hardness. Although apparent friction coefficients of coated specimens are smaller than those obtained on AISI 316 LVM, they increase when using preheating or higher immersion times during processing, which correlates with the PI. The presence of precipitates produces an increase in fracture toughness, with values greater than those presented by samples processed on melted AlSi alloys with lower Si content (12 wt%). Therefore, these intermetallic coatings could be considered "hard but tough", suitable to enhance the wear resistance, especially when using short periods of immersion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition having properties as good as thermosetting acrylic or amino alkid resins is provided by employing active energy irradiation, particularly electron beams, using a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A) (hereafter called an oligomer) containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. This oligomer is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acids or their anhydrides. The composition (I) contains 10% - 100% of this oligomer. In embodiments, an oligomer having a fiberous trivinyl construction is produced by reacting 180 parts by weight of glycidyl methacrylate ester with 130 parts of itaconic acid in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and an addition reaction catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours. In practice, the coating material compositions (1), consist of the whole oligomer [I-1]; (2), consist of 10-90% of (A) component and 90%-10% of vinyl monomers containing at least 30% (meth) acrylic monomer [I-2]; (3), 10%-90% of component (A) and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals [I-3]; (4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3), [I-4]; and (5), consist of 50% or less unsaturated polyester of 500-5,000 molecular weight range or drying oil, or alkyd resin of 500-5,000 molecular weight range modified by drying oil, [I-5]. As a catalyst a tertiary amino vinyl compound is preferred. Five examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  11. Investigation into the effects of temperature and stirring rate on the solid-phase extraction of diuron from water using a C18 extraction disk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C E; Abraham, M H

    2000-07-14

    A novel experimental method for determining the equilibrium constant, Keq, and the uptake rate constant, kup, for the solid-phase extraction (SPE) of diuron from water using a C18 Empore extraction disk is reported. Log Keq and log kup are determined at 7.0, 11.0, 18.0 and 23.0 degrees C and for stirring rates of 100, 200 and 400 rpm. From a Van 't Hoff plot of log Keq versus T-1 the enthalpy of sorption, delta H0, is shown to be negative which indicates that the thermodynamic process of uptake is exothermic. The rate of stirring has no effect on log Keq over the temperature range 7.0-23.0 degrees C. The enthalpy of activation, delta H0, calculated from Arrhenius plots of log kup versus T-1 at 100, 200 and 400 rpm show that the kinetic process of uptake is endothermic. At 100 rpm the rate of uptake is limited by the aqueous diffusion of diuron. At 200 rpm or greater the aqueous diffusion layer around the disk is sufficiently small to prevent diffusion from being a limiting factor. The method described in this paper is limited to the analysis of analytes that contain a significant UV chromophore and are relatively soluble in water, but it can also be used to investigate pH and salinity effects on the SPE of diuron from water.

  12. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  13. Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Lawrence E

    2001-01-01

    Beginning text presents complete theoretical treatment of mechanical model systems and deals with technological applications. Topics include introduction to calculus of vectors, particle motion, dynamics of particle systems and plane rigid bodies, technical applications in plane motions, theory of mechanical vibrations, and more. Exercises and answers appear in each chapter.

  14. Graphene Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoot, Adam Carsten; Camilli, Luca; Bøggild, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Owing to its remarkable electrical and mechanical properties, graphene has been attracting tremendous interest in materials science. In particular, its chemical stability and impermeability make it a promising protective membrane. However, recent investigations reveal that single layer graphene...... cannot be used as a barrier in the long run, due to galvanic corrosion phenomena arising when oxygen or water penetrate through graphene cracks or domain boundaries. Here, we overcome this issue by using a multilayered (ML) graphene coating. Our lab- as well as industrial-scale tests demonstrate that ML...... graphene can effectively protect Ni in harsh environments, even after long term exposure. This is made possible by the presence of a high number of graphene layers, which can efficiently mask the cracks and domain boundaries defects found in individual layers of graphene. Our findings thus show...

  15. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition is provided which can be hardened by irradiation with active energy, particularly electron beams, using a composition which contains 10%-100% of a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A), (hereafter called an oligomer), having at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. These compositions have a high degree of polymerization and characteristics equivalent to thermosetting acrylic or amino alkyd resin. The oligomer (A) is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with saturated polycarboxylic acids or anhydrides. In one embodiment, 146 parts by weight of adipic acid and 280 parts of glycidyl methacrylate ester undergo addition reaction in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and a catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours to produce an oligomer having a fiberous divinyl construction. The coating composition utilizes this oligomer in the forms of (I-1), a whole oligomer; (I-2), 0%-90% of this oligomer and 90%-10% of a vinyl monomer containing at least 30% of (meth) acrylic monomer; (I-3), 10%-90% of such oligomer and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule; (I-4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3) in proportion of 1/9 to 9/1, and (I-5), above four compositions each containing 50% or less unsaturated polyester or drying oil having 500-5,000 molecules or a drying oil-modified alkyd resin having 500-5,000 molecules. Four examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  16. Optimization of transesterification conditions for the production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Chinese tallow kernel oil with surfactant-coated lipase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yin-yu; Liu, Yuhuan; Lin, Xiangyang [Key Laboratory of Food Science, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Chen, Wen-wei [College of Life Science, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Lei, Hanwu [Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Ruan, Roger [Key Laboratory of Food Science, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China)]|[Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108-6005 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Surfactant-coated lipase was used as a catalyst in preparing fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Chinese tallow kernel oil from Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. syn. Triadica sebifera (L.) small. FAME transesterification was analyzed using response surface methodology to find out the effect of the process variables on the esterification rate and to establish prediction models. Reaction temperature and time were found to be the main factors affecting the esterification rate with the presence of surfactant-coated lipase. Developed prediction models satisfactorily described the esterification rate as a function of reaction temperature, time, dosage of surfactant-coated lipase, ratio of methanol to oil, and water content. The FAME mainly contained fatty acid esters of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3, determined by a gas chromatograph. The optimal esterification rate was 93.86%. The optimal conditions for the above esterification ratio were found to be a reaction time of 9.2 h, a reaction temperature of 49 C, dosage of surfactant-coated lipase of 18.5%, a ratio of methanol to oil of 3:1, and water content of 15.6%. Thus, by using the central composite design, it is possible to determine accurate values of the transesterification parameters where maximum production of FAME occurs using the surfactant-coated lipase as a transesterification catalyst. (author)

  17. Estimation of long-term drag performance of fouling control coatings using an ocean-placed raft with multiple dynamic rotors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholdt, Asger; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Yebra, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental setup was designed and built to estimate changes in the skin friction of fouling control coatings (FCC) over an extended period of time in conditions simulating the vast majority of ship profiles (regarding speed and activity) in the present market. The setup consisted of two sepa...... within the range of experimental uncertainty. The average surface roughness of the FCCs in the newly applied and mechanically cleaned condition, determined as the Rt(50) and R z parameters, was evaluated as poor predictors of skin friction....

  18. The effect of microstructure at interface between coating and substrate on damping capacity of coating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xueqin; Pei, Yanling; Ma, Yue

    2013-01-01

    Samples with various interface microstructures between the coating and the substrate were designed and fabricated in this paper. Dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer (DMTA) was utilized to investigate the dynamic mechanical properties of the samples and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the interface microstructure between the substrate and coating. The effect of the interface microstructure on damping was studied, and results indicated that the larger the coating/substrate interface thickness was and the more interface defects were, the higher interface system damping was. When the micro-hardness ratio of substrate to coating was increased, the damping of coating system was enhanced. The effect of the APS and EB-PVD coating on damping capacity was investigated. There was a dramatic increase in the damping value of the APS coating when the strain was higher than 20 ppm, while the damping amplitude effect of the EB-PVD coating was not so obvious, which could mainly be caused by the different energy dissipation mechanisms of the two coatings.

  19. Electrocurtain coating process for coating solar mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Boyd, Donald W.; Buchanan, Michael J.; Kelly, Patrick; Kutilek, Luke A.; McCamy, James W.; McPheron, Douglas A.; Orosz, Gary R.; Limbacher, Raymond D.

    2013-10-15

    An electrically conductive protective coating or film is provided over the surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by flowing or directing a cation containing liquid and an anion containing liquid onto the conductive surface. The cation and the anion containing liquids are spaced from, and preferably out of contact with one another on the surface of the reflective coating as an electric current is moved through the anion containing liquid, the conductive surface between the liquids and the cation containing liquid to coat the conductive surface with the electrically conductive coating.

  20. Low Temperature Powder Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) • Legacy primers contain hexavalent chrome • Conventional powder coatings...coatings both in laboratory and field service evaluations • LTCPC allows environmental cost reductions through VOC/HAP elimination and hexavalent ... chrome reduction. • The LTCPC process greatly shortens the coating operation (LTCPC cures much more rapidly then conventional wet coatings) resulting in

  1. Analytical Modeling of Hard-Coating Cantilever Composite Plate considering the Material Nonlinearity of Hard Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the material nonlinearity of hard coating, the coated structure produces the nonlinear dynamical behaviors of variable stiffness and damping, which make the modeling of hard-coating composite structure become a challenging task. In this study, the polynomial was adopted to characterize this material nonlinearity and an analytical modeling method was developed for the hard-coating composite plate. Firstly, to relate the hard-coating material parameters obtained by test and the analytical model, the expression of equivalent strain of composite plate was derived. Then, the analytical model of hard-coating composite plate was created by energy method considering the material nonlinearity of hard coating. Next, using the Newton-Raphson method to solve the vibration response and resonant frequencies of composite plate and a specific calculation procedure was also proposed. Finally, a cantilever plate coated with MgO + Al2O3 hard coating was chosen as study case; the vibration response and resonant frequencies of composite plate were calculated using the proposed method. The calculation results were compared with the experiment and general linear calculation, and the correctness of the created model was verified. The study shows the proposed method can still maintain an acceptable precision when the material nonlinearity of hard coating is stronger.

  2. Analysis of lipophilic compounds of tea coated on the surface of clay teapots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tse-Yu Chung

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The surface of a clay teapot tends to be coated with a waterproof film after constant use for tea preparation. The waterproof films of two kinds of teapots (zisha and zhuni used for preparing oolong tea and old oolong tea were extracted and subjected to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. The results showed that comparable constituents were detected in these films; they were primarily fatty acids and linear hydrocarbons that were particularly rich in palmitic acid and stearic acid. To explore the source of these two abundant fatty acids, the fatty acid compositions of fresh tea leaves, granules, infusion, and vapor of infusion were analyzed by gas chromatography. Fresh tea leaves were rich in palmitic acid (C-16:0, unsaturated linolenic acid (C-18:3, linoleic acid (C-18:2, and oleic acid (C-18:1, which were presumably from the phospholipid membrane. During the process of manufacturing oolong tea, the three unsaturated fatty acids may be substantially degraded or oxidized to stearic acid (C-18:0, which was enriched with palmitic acid in the tea granules and in the infusion. The vapor of the tea infusion is primarily composed of palmitic acid and stearic acid. Thus, the coated films of teapots mostly originated from the lipophilic compounds of the tea infusions.

  3. Flow coating apparatus and method of coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumanthu, Ramasubrahmaniam; Neyman, Patrick; MacDonald, Niles; Brophy, Brenor; Kopczynski, Kevin; Nair, Wood

    2014-03-11

    Disclosed is a flow coating apparatus, comprising a slot that can dispense a coating material in an approximately uniform manner along a distribution blade that increases uniformity by means of surface tension and transfers the uniform flow of coating material onto an inclined substrate such as for example glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed is a method of flow coating a substrate using the apparatus such that the substrate is positioned correctly relative to the distribution blade, a pre-wetting step is completed where both the blade and substrate are completed wetted with a pre-wet solution prior to dispensing of the coating material onto the distribution blade from the slot and hence onto the substrate. Thereafter the substrate is removed from the distribution blade and allowed to dry, thereby forming a coating.

  4. The Fatty Acid Profile Analysis of Cyperus laxus Used for Phytoremediation of Soils from Aged Oil Spill-Impacted Sites Revealed That This Is a C18:3 Plant Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí Araceli Rivera Casado

    Full Text Available The effect of recalcitrant hydrocarbons on the fatty acid profile from leaf, basal corm, and roots of Cyperus laxus plants cultivated in greenhouse phytoremediation systems of soils from aged oil spill-impacted sites containing from 16 to 340 g/Kg total hydrocarbons (THC was assessed to investigate if this is a C18:3 species and if the hydrocarbon removal during the phytoremediation process has a relationship with the fatty acid profile of this plant. The fatty acid profile was specific to each vegetative organ and was strongly affected by the hydrocarbons level in the impacted sites. Leaf extracts of plants from uncontaminated soil produced palmitic acid (C16, octadecanoic acid (C18:0, unsaturated oleic acids (C18:1-C18:3, and unsaturated eichosanoic (C20:2-C20:3 acids with a noticeable absence of the unsaturated hexadecatrienoic acid (C16:3; this finding demonstrates, for the first time, that C. laxus is a C18:3 plant. In plants from the phytoremediation systems, the total fatty acid contents in the leaf and the corm were negatively affected by the hydrocarbons presence; however, the effect was positive in root. Interestingly, under contaminated conditions, unusual fatty acids such as odd numbered carbons (C15, C17, C21, and C23 and uncommon unsaturated chains (C20:3n6 and C20:4 were produced together with a remarkable quantity of C22:2 and C24:0 chains in the corm and the leaf. These results demonstrate that weathered hydrocarbons may drastically affect the lipidic composition of C. laxus at the fatty acid level, suggesting that this species adjusts the cover lipid composition in its vegetative organs, mainly in roots, in response to the weathered hydrocarbon presence and uptake during the phytoremediation process.

  5. The Fatty Acid Profile Analysis of Cyperus laxus Used for Phytoremediation of Soils from Aged Oil Spill-Impacted Sites Revealed That This Is a C18:3 Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Horcasitas, María del Carmen; Rodríguez Vázquez, Refugio; Esparza García, Fernando José; Pérez Vargas, Josefina; Ariza Castolo, Armando; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Gómez Guzmán, Octavio

    2015-01-01

    The effect of recalcitrant hydrocarbons on the fatty acid profile from leaf, basal corm, and roots of Cyperus laxus plants cultivated in greenhouse phytoremediation systems of soils from aged oil spill-impacted sites containing from 16 to 340 g/Kg total hydrocarbons (THC) was assessed to investigate if this is a C18:3 species and if the hydrocarbon removal during the phytoremediation process has a relationship with the fatty acid profile of this plant. The fatty acid profile was specific to each vegetative organ and was strongly affected by the hydrocarbons level in the impacted sites. Leaf extracts of plants from uncontaminated soil produced palmitic acid (C16), octadecanoic acid (C18:0), unsaturated oleic acids (C18:1-C18:3), and unsaturated eichosanoic (C20:2-C20:3) acids with a noticeable absence of the unsaturated hexadecatrienoic acid (C16:3); this finding demonstrates, for the first time, that C. laxus is a C18:3 plant. In plants from the phytoremediation systems, the total fatty acid contents in the leaf and the corm were negatively affected by the hydrocarbons presence; however, the effect was positive in root. Interestingly, under contaminated conditions, unusual fatty acids such as odd numbered carbons (C15, C17, C21, and C23) and uncommon unsaturated chains (C20:3n6 and C20:4) were produced together with a remarkable quantity of C22:2 and C24:0 chains in the corm and the leaf. These results demonstrate that weathered hydrocarbons may drastically affect the lipidic composition of C. laxus at the fatty acid level, suggesting that this species adjusts the cover lipid composition in its vegetative organs, mainly in roots, in response to the weathered hydrocarbon presence and uptake during the phytoremediation process. PMID:26473488

  6. The Fatty Acid Profile Analysis of Cyperus laxus Used for Phytoremediation of Soils from Aged Oil Spill-Impacted Sites Revealed That This Is a C18:3 Plant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Casado, Noemí Araceli; Montes Horcasitas, María del Carmen; Rodríguez Vázquez, Refugio; Esparza García, Fernando José; Pérez Vargas, Josefina; Ariza Castolo, Armando; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Gómez Guzmán, Octavio; Calva Calva, Graciano

    2015-01-01

    The effect of recalcitrant hydrocarbons on the fatty acid profile from leaf, basal corm, and roots of Cyperus laxus plants cultivated in greenhouse phytoremediation systems of soils from aged oil spill-impacted sites containing from 16 to 340 g/Kg total hydrocarbons (THC) was assessed to investigate if this is a C18:3 species and if the hydrocarbon removal during the phytoremediation process has a relationship with the fatty acid profile of this plant. The fatty acid profile was specific to each vegetative organ and was strongly affected by the hydrocarbons level in the impacted sites. Leaf extracts of plants from uncontaminated soil produced palmitic acid (C16), octadecanoic acid (C18:0), unsaturated oleic acids (C18:1-C18:3), and unsaturated eichosanoic (C20:2-C20:3) acids with a noticeable absence of the unsaturated hexadecatrienoic acid (C16:3); this finding demonstrates, for the first time, that C. laxus is a C18:3 plant. In plants from the phytoremediation systems, the total fatty acid contents in the leaf and the corm were negatively affected by the hydrocarbons presence; however, the effect was positive in root. Interestingly, under contaminated conditions, unusual fatty acids such as odd numbered carbons (C15, C17, C21, and C23) and uncommon unsaturated chains (C20:3n6 and C20:4) were produced together with a remarkable quantity of C22:2 and C24:0 chains in the corm and the leaf. These results demonstrate that weathered hydrocarbons may drastically affect the lipidic composition of C. laxus at the fatty acid level, suggesting that this species adjusts the cover lipid composition in its vegetative organs, mainly in roots, in response to the weathered hydrocarbon presence and uptake during the phytoremediation process.

  7. European coatings conference - Marine coatings. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This volume contains 13 lectures (manuscripts or powerpoint foils) with the following topics: 1. Impact of containerization on polyurethane and polyurea in marine and protective coatings (Malte Homann); 2. The application of combinatorial/high-throughput methods to the development of marine coatings (Bret Chisholm); 3. Progress and perspectives in the AMBIO (advanced nanostructured surfaces for the control of biofouling) Project (James Callow); 4. Release behaviour due to shear and pull-off of silicone coatings with a thickness gradient (James G. Kohl); 5. New liquid rheology additives for high build marine coatings (Andreas Freytag); 6. Effective corrosion protection with polyaniline, polpyrrole and polythiophene as anticorrosice additives for marine paints (Carlos Aleman); 7. Potential applications of sol gel technology for marine applications (Robert Akid); 8: Performance of biocide-free Antifouling Coatings for leisure boats (Bernd Daehne); 9. Novel biocidefree nanostructured antifouling coatings - can nano do the job? (Corne Rentrop); 10. One component high solids, VOC compliant high durability finish technology (Adrian Andrews); 11. High solid coatings - the hybrid solution (Luca Prezzi); 12. Unique organofunctional silicone resins for environmentally friendly high-performance coatings (Dieter Heldmann); 13. Silicone-alkyd paints for marine applications: from battleship-grey to green (Thomas Easton).

  8. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products

  9. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  10. Coatings for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    Optical coatings are used in lasers systems for fusion research to control beam propagation and reduce surface reflection losses. The performance of coatings is important in the design, reliability, energy output, and cost of the laser systems. Significant developments in coating technology are required for future lasers for fusion research and eventual power reactors

  11. Fuel particle coating data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollabaugh, C.M.; Wagner, P.; Wahman, L.A.; White, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    Development of coating on nuclear fuel particles for the High-Temperature Fuels Technology program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory included process studies for low-density porous and high-density isotropic carbon coats, and for ZrC and ''alloy'' C/ZrC coats. This report documents the data generated by these studies

  12. Development of a dynamic in vitro model of a stented blood vessel to evaluate the effects of stent strut material selection and surface coating on smooth muscle cell response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Bradley Huegh

    formation of this new tissue, primarily consisting of VSMCs of the synthetic phenotype and their subsequent extracellular matrix, is the sole causation of in-stent restenosis since the stent serves to prevent elastic recoil and negative remodeling. This doctoral research program is focused on endovascular stent biomaterials science and engineering. Overall, this doctoral project is founded on the hypothesis that smooth muscle cell hyperplasia, as an important causative factor for vascular restenosis following endovascular stent deployment, is triggered by the various effects of stent strut contact on the vessel wall including contact forces and material biocompatibility. In this program, a dynamic in vitro model of a stented blood vessel aimed at evaluating the effect of stent strut material selection, and surface coating on smooth muscle cell response was developed. The in vitro stented artery model was validated through the proliferation of VSMC in contact with stent struts. Additionally, it was demonstrated that, with respect to known biocompatible materials such as Nitinol and 316L stainless steel, DNA synthesis and alpha-actin expression, as indicators of VSMC phenotype, are independent of stent material composition. Furthermore, hydroxyapatite was shown to be a biocompatible stent surface coating with acceptable post-strain integrity. This coating was shown in a feasibility study to be capable of serving as a favorable drug delivery platform able to reliably deliver locally therapeutic doses of bisphosphonates, such as alendronate, to control VSMC proliferation in an in vitro model of a stented blood vessel. This stent coating/drug combination may be effective for reducing restenosis as a result of VSMC hyperplasia in vivo.

  13. Hierarchical Micro-Nano Coatings by Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirveslahti, Anna; Korhonen, Tuulia; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the wettability properties of coatings with hierarchical surface structures and low surface energy were studied. Hierarchically structured coatings were produced by using hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) microparticles as additives in polyester (PES) and polyvinyldifluoride (PVDF). These particles created hierarchical micro-nano structures on the paint surfaces and lowered or supported the already low surface energy of the paint. Two standard application techniques for paint application were employed and the presented coatings are suitable for mass production and use in large surface areas. By regulating the particle concentrations, it was possible to modify wettability properties gradually. Highly hydrophobic surfaces were achieved with the highest contact angle of 165∘. Dynamic contact angle measurements were carried out for a set of selected samples and low hysteresis was obtained. Produced coatings possessed long lasting durability in the air and in underwater conditions.

  14. Flexible diamond-like carbon film coated on rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Bui, X.L.; Pal, J.P. van der; Martinez-Martinez, D.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic rubber seals are major sources of friction of lubrication systems and bearings, which may take up to 70% of the total friction. The solution we present is to coat rubbers with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films by which the coefficient of friction is reduced to less than one tenth. Coating

  15. ATHENA optimized coating design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of coating design for the ATHENA mission si described and the possibility of increasing the telescope effective area in the range between 0.1 and 10 keV is investigated. An independent computation of the on-axis effective area based on the mirror design of ATHENA is performed...... in order to review the current coating baseline. The performance of several material combinations, considering a simple bi-layer, simple multilayer and linear graded multilayer coatings are tested and simulation of the mirror performance considering both the optimized coating design and the coating...

  16. Metallic coating of microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, S.F.

    1980-01-01

    Extremely smooth, uniform metal coatings of micrometer thicknesses on microscopic glass spheres (microspheres) are often needed as targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The first part of this paper reviews those methods used successfully to provide metal coated microspheres for ICF targets, including magnetron sputtering, electro- and electroless plating, and chemical vapor pyrolysis. The second part of this paper discusses some of the critical aspects of magnetron sputter coating of microspheres, including substrate requirements, the sticking of microspheres during coating (preventing a uniform coating), and the difficulties in growing the desired dense, smooth, uniform microstructure on continuously moving spherical substrates

  17. Antibacterial polymer coatings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Allen, Ashley N.; Barnhart, Meghan; Tucker, Mark David; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2009-09-01

    A series of poly(sulfone)s with quaternary ammonium groups and another series with aldehyde groups are synthesized and tested for biocidal activity against vegetative bacteria and spores, respectively. The polymers are sprayed onto substrates as coatings which are then exposed to aqueous suspensions of organisms. The coatings are inherently biocidal and do not release any agents into the environment. The coatings adhere well to both glass and CARC-coated coupons and they exhibit significant biotoxicity. The most effective quaternary ammonium polymers kills 99.9% of both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and the best aldehyde coating kills 81% of the spores on its surface.

  18. Thermophysical and Thermomechanical Properties of Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings have been developed for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications to improve engine reliability and fuel efficiency. However, the issue of coating durability under high temperature cyclic conditions is still of major concern. The coating failure is closely related to thermal stresses and oxidation in the coating systems. Coating shrinkage cracking resulting from ceramic sintering and creep at high temperatures can further accelerate the coating failure process. The purpose of this paper is to address critical issues such as ceramic sintering and creep, thermal fatigue and their relevance to coating life prediction. Novel test approaches have been established to obtain critical thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of the coating systems under near-realistic temperature and stress gradients encountered in advanced engine systems. Emphasis is placed on the dynamic changes of the coating thermal conductivity and elastic modulus, fatigue and creep interactions, and resulting failure mechanisms during the simulated engine tests. Detailed experimental and modeling results describing processes occurring in the thermal barrier coating systems provide a framework for developing strategies to manage ceramic coating architecture, microstructure and properties.

  19. Coated Aerogel Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  20. Anticorrosive coatings: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have caused significant changes in the anticorrosive coating industry. The requirement for new VOC-compliant coating technologies means that coating manufacturers can no longer rely on the extensive track record of their time-served products to convince consumers...... of their suitability for use. An important aspect in the development of new VOC-compliant, high-performance anticorrosive coating systems is a thorough knowledge of the components in anticorrosive coatings, their interactions, their advantages and limitations, as well as a detailed knowledge on the failure modes......, and inhibitive coatings are outlined. In the past decades, several alternatives to organic solvent-borne coatings have reached the commercial market. This review also presents some of these technologies and discusses some of their advantages and limitations. Finally, some of the mechanisms leading to degradation...

  1. Pixelated coatings and advanced IR coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradal, Fabien; Portier, Benjamin; Oussalah, Meihdi; Leplan, Hervé

    2017-09-01

    Reosc developed pixelated infrared coatings on detector. Reosc manufactured thick pixelated multilayer stacks on IR-focal plane arrays for bi-spectral imaging systems, demonstrating high filter performance, low crosstalk, and no deterioration of the device sensitivities. More recently, a 5-pixel filter matrix was designed and fabricated. Recent developments in pixelated coatings, shows that high performance infrared filters can be coated directly on detector for multispectral imaging. Next generation space instrument can benefit from this technology to reduce their weight and consumptions.

  2. Dynamic filtration and static adsorption of lead ions in aqueous solution by use of blended polysulfone membranes with nano size MCM-41 particles coated by polyaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toosi, Mohammad Reza; Emami, Mohammad Reza Sarmasti; Hajian, Sudeh

    2018-05-11

    MCM-41 mesopore was prepared by hydrothermal method and used for synthesis of polyaniline/MCM-41 nanocomposite via in situ polymerization. The nanocomposite was blended with polysulfone to prepare mixed matrix membrane in different content of nanocomposite by phase inversion method. Structural and surface properties of the samples were characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, AFM, TGA, BET, and zeta potential measurements. Effect of the nanocomposite content on the hydrophilicity, porosity, and permeability of the membrane was determined. Membrane performance was evaluated for removal of lead ions in dynamic filtration and static adsorption. The membranes were found as effective adsorptive filters for removal of lead ions via interactions between active sites of nanocomposite in membrane structure and lead ions during filtration. Results of batch experiments proved adsorptive mechanism of membranes for removal of lead ions with the maximum adsorption capacity of 19.6 mg/g.

  3. Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

  4. Método colorimétrico para determinação de dióxido de nitrogênio atmosférico com preconcentração em coluna de c-18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugucione Cássia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative analytical method for nitrogen dioxide (NO2 in atmosphere was developed. The collection of NO2 is performed by a Sep-Pack C-18 cartridge impregnated with 11% (v/v of triethanolamine plus 3,6 % (v/v of ethylene glycol plus 25 % (v/v of acetone combined solution. When the impregnating is used, NO2 is collected with good repeatibility (CV = 3,3 %. The NO2 absorbed in the sampler was stripped from the sorbent with a methanol 5% (v/v aqueous solution and was determined by colorimetry as nitrite by using the Griess-Saltzman reagent. The detection limit of 1,4 ppb for 60 min sampling at 0,5 L min-1 flow rate was obtained. Preparation and conditioning procedures for TEA-C-18 cartridge, sampling flow rate, absorption capacity and interference of other species are discussed.

  5. Olbaltumvielu un peptīdu sorbcijas īpašību izpēte AEŠH apstākļos uz dažādām C18 kolonnām

    OpenAIRE

    Marduseviča, Aļona

    2014-01-01

    Olbaltumvielu un peptīdu sorbcijas īpašību izpēte AEŠH apstākļos uz dažādām C18 kolonnām. A. Marduseviča, darba vadītāji Dr. Chem. Asoc. Prof. P. Mekšs, O. Rotkāja. Maģistra darbs, 51 lappuses, 3 tabulas, 37 attēli, 42 literatūras avoti. Latviešu valodā. Atslēgas vārdi: OLBALUMVIELAS, PEPTĪDI, AEŠH, C18 KOLONNAS, IZDALĪŠANAS FAKTORS, GRADIENTA SLĪPUMS. Darbā apskatīti olbaltumvielu un peptīdu atdalīšanas mehānismi, gradients, organisko šķīdinātāju, kolonnas un temperatūras ietekme uz ol...

  6. Mickey Leland Energy Fellowship Report: Development of Advanced Window Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, Ladena A.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.

    2014-08-05

    Advanced fenestration technologies for light and thermal management in building applications are of great recent research interest for improvements in energy efficiency. Of these technologies, there is specific interest in advanced window coating technologies that have tailored control over the visible and infrared (IR) scattering into a room for both static and dynamic applications. Recently, PNNL has investigated novel subwavelength nanostructured coatings for both daylighting, and IR thermal management applications. Such coatings rese still in the early stages and additional research is needed in terms of scalable manufacturing. This project investigates aspects of a potential new methodology for low-cost scalable manufacture of said subwavelength coatings.

  7. Boron nitride nanosheets as oxygen-atom corrosion protective coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Min; Shen, Zhigang; Zhao, Xiaohu; Liang, Shuaishuai; Liu, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The research of two-dimensional nanomaterials for anticorrosion applications is just recently burgeoning. Herein, we demonstrate the boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) coatings for protecting polymer from oxygen-atom corrosion. High-quality BNNSs, which are produced by an effective fluid dynamics method with multiple exfoliation mechanisms, can be assembled into coatings with controlled thickness by vacuum filtration. After exposed in atom oxygen, the naked polymer is severely corroded with remarkable mass loss, while the BNNSs-coated polymer remains intact. Barrier and bonding effects of the BNNSs are responsible for the coating's protective performance. These preliminary yet reproducible results pave a way for resisting oxygen-atom corrosion

  8. Light controlled friction at a liquid crystal polymer coating with switchable patterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, D.; Broer, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new methodology that enables dynamically control of motion through modulating friction at coating surfaces by exposing with UV light. The principle is based on reversibly switching the surface topographies of the coating by light. The coating surface transfers from flat in the dark to

  9. Preliminary coating design and coating developments for ATHENA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders Clemen; Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2011-01-01

    We present initial novel coating design for ATHENA. We make use of both simple bilayer coatings of Ir and B4C and more complex constant period multilayer coatings to enhance the effective area and cover the energy range from 0.1 to 10 keV. We also present the coating technology used...... for these designs and present test results from coatings....

  10. Preparation and Properties of Polyester-Based Nanocomposite Gel Coat System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jawahar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite gel coat system is prepared using unsaturated polyester resin with aerosil powder, CaCO3, and organoclay. The influence of organoclay addition on mechanical and water barrier properties of gel coat system is studied for different amount (1, 2, and 3 wt % of organoclay. The nanolevel incorporation of organoclay improves the mechanical and water barrier properties of nanocomposite gel coat system. The nanocomposite gel coat system exhibits 55% improvement in tensile modulus and 25% improvement in flexural modulus. There is a 30% improvement in impact property of nanocomposite gel coat system. The dynamic mechanical analysis shows a slight increase in glass transition temperature for nanocomposite gel coat system.

  11. Material Science Smart Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, A. I. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Sabirianov, R. F. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Namavar, Fereydoon [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The contribution of electrostatic interactions to the free energy of binding between model protein and a ceramic implant surface in the aqueous solvent, considered in the framework of the nonlocal electrostatic model, is calculated as a function of the implant low-frequency dielectric constant. We show that the existence of a dynamically ordered (low-dielectric) interfacial solvent layer at the protein-solvent and ceramic-solvent interface markedly increases charging energy of the protein and ceramic implant, and consequently makes the electrostatic contribution to the protein-ceramic binding energy more favorable (attractive). Our analysis shows that the corresponding electrostatic energy between protein and oxide ceramics depends nonmonotonically on the dielectric constant of ceramic, εC. Obtained results indicate that protein can attract electrostatically to the surface if ceramic material has a moderate εC below or about 35 (in particularly ZrO2 or Ta2O5). This is in contrast to classical (local) consideration of the solvent, which demonstrates an unfavorable electrostatic interaction of protein with typical metal oxide ceramic materials (εC>10). Thus, a solid implant coated by combining oxide ceramic with a reduced dielectric constant can be beneficial to strengthen the electrostatic binding of the protein-implant complex.

  12. HIGH-PRECISION C17O, C18O, AND C16O MEASUREMENTS IN YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS: ANALOGUES FOR CO SELF-SHIELDING IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Rachel L.; Young, Edward D.; Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Morris, Mark R.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    2009-01-01

    Using very high resolution (λ/Δλ ∼ 95 000) 4.7 μm fundamental and 2.3 μm overtone rovibrational CO absorption spectra obtained with the Cryogenic Infrared Echelle Spectrograph infrared spectrometer on the Very Large Telescope (VLT), we report detections of four CO isotopologues-C 16 O, 13 CO, C 18 O, and the rare species, C 17 O-in the circumstellar environment of two young protostars: VV CrA, a binary T Tauri star in the Corona Australis molecular cloud, and Reipurth 50, an intermediate-mass FU Ori star in the Orion Molecular Cloud. We argue that the observed CO absorption lines probe a protoplanetary disk in VV CrA, and a protostellar envelope in Reipurth 50. All CO line profiles are spectrally resolved, with intrinsic line widths of ∼3-4 km s -1 (FWHM), permitting direct calculation of CO oxygen isotopologue ratios with 5%-10% accuracy. The rovibrational level populations for all species can be reproduced by assuming that CO absorption arises in two temperature regimes. In the higher temperature regime, in which the column densities are best determined, the derived oxygen isotope ratios in VV CrA are: [C 16 O]/[C 18 O] =690 ± 30; [C 16 O]/[C 17 O] =2800 ± 300, and [C 18 O]/[C 17 O]=4.1 ± 0.4. For Reipurth 50, we find [C 16 O]/[C 18 O] =490 ± 30; [C 16 O]/[C 17 O] =2200 ± 150, [C 18 O]/[C 17 O] = 4.4 ± 0.2. For both objects, 12 C/ 13 C are on the order of 100, nearly twice the expected interstellar medium (ISM) ratio. The derived oxygen abundance ratios for the VV CrA disk show a significant mass-independent deficit of C 17 O and C 18 O relative to C 16 O compared to ISM baseline abundances. The Reipurth 50 envelope shows no clear differences in oxygen CO isotopologue ratios compared with the local ISM. A mass-independent fractionation can be interpreted as being due to selective photodissociation of CO in the disk surface due to self-shielding. The deficits in C 17 O and C 18 O in the VV CrA protoplanetary disk are consistent with an analogous

  13. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  14. Silica coatings on clarithromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Marjan; Dmitrasinovic, Dorde; Planinsek, Odon; Salobir, Mateja; Srcic, Stane; Gaberscek, Miran; Jamnik, Janko

    2005-03-03

    Pre-crystallized clarithromycin (6-O-methylerythromycin A) particles were coated with silica from the tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)-ethanol-aqueous ammonia system. The coatings had a typical thickness of 100-150 nm and presented about 15 wt.% of the silica-drug composite material. The properties of the coatings depended on reactant concentration, temperature and mixing rate and, in particular, on the presence of a cationic surfactant (cetylpyridinium chloride). In the presence of cetylpyridinium chloride the silica coatings slightly decreased the rate of pure clarithromycin dissolution.

  15. Side-chain dynamics of a detergent-solubilized membrane protein: Measurement of tryptophan and glutamine hydrogen-exchange rates in M13 coat protein by 1H NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, J.D.J.; Sykes, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    M13 coat protein is a small (50 amino acids) lipid-soluble protein that becomes an integral membrane protein during the infection stage of the life cycle of the M13 phage and is therefore used as a model membrane protein. To study side-chain dynamics in the protein, the authors have measured individual hydrogen-exchange rates for a primary amide in the side chain of glutamine-15 and for the indole amine of tryptophan-26. The protein was solubilized with the use of perdeuteriated sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and hydrogen-exchange rates were measured by using 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The glutamine-15 syn proton exchanged at a rate identical with that in glutamine model peptides except that the pH corresponding to minimum exchange was elevated by about 1.5 pH units. The tryptophan-26 indole amine proton exchange was biphasic, suggesting that two populations of tryptophan-26 exist. It is suggested that the two populations may reflect protein dimerization or aggregation in the SDS micelles. The pH values of minimum exchange for tryptophan-26 in both environments were also elevated by 1.3-1.9 pH units. This phenomenon is reproduced when small tryptophan- and glutamine-containing hydrophobic peptides are dissolved in the presence of SDS micelles. The electrostatic nature of this phenomenon is proven by showing that the minimum pH for exchange can be reduced by dissolving the hydrophobic peptides in the positively charged detergent micelle dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide

  16. Superhydrophobic silica coating by dip coating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadik, Satish A.; Parale, Vinayak; Vhatkara, Rajiv S.; Mahadik, Dinesh B.; Kavale, Mahendra S.; Wagh, Pratap B.; Gupta, Satish; Gurav, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we report a simple and low cost method for the fabrication of superhydrophobic coating surface on quartz substrates via sol-gel dip coating method at room temperature. Desired surface chemistry and texture growth for superhydrophobicity developed under double step sol–gel process at room temperature. The resultant superhydrophobic surfaces were characterized by Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), water contact angle (WCA) measurement, differential thermal gravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA) calorimetry and optical spectrometer. Coating shows the ultra high water contact angle about 168 ± 2° and water sliding angle 3 ± 1° and superoleophilic with petroleum oils. This approach allows a simple strategy for the fabrication process of superhydrophilic–superhydrophobic on same surfaces with high thermal stability of superhydrophobicity up to 560 °C. Thus, durability, special wettability and thermal stability of superhydrophobicity expand their application fields.

  17. Coated electroactive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali

    2016-08-30

    A process includes suspending an electroactive material in a solvent, suspending or dissolving a carbon precursor in the solvent; and depositing the carbon precursor on the electroactive material to form a carbon-coated electroactive material. Compositions include a graphene-coated electroactive material prepared from a solution phase mixture or suspension of an electroactive material and graphene, graphene oxide, or a mixture thereof.

  18. Rock-hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has signed an agreement with a number of parties to investigate this material further.

  19. Metallurgical coating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, L.C.; Whittaker, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel metallurgical coating system which provides corrosion resistance and non-stick properties to metallic components which are subjected to unusually severe operating conditions. The coating system comprises a first layer comprising tantalum which is deposited upon a substrate and a second layer comprising molybdenum disilicide which is deposited upon the first layer

  20. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has

  1. Unobtrusive graphene coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2012-01-01

    The contact angle of water drops on substrates for which the wettability is dominated by van der Waals forces remains unchanged when the substrates are coated with a monolayer of graphene. Such 'wetting transparency' could lead to superior conducting and hydrophobic graphene-coated surfaces with

  2. Coating thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    The standard specifies measurements of the coating thickness, which make use of beta backscattering and/or x-ray fluorescence. For commonly used combinations of coating material and base material the appropriate measuring ranges and radionuclides to be used are given for continuous as well as for discontinuous measurements

  3. Duplex aluminized coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedwill, M. A.; Grisaffe, S. J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    The surface of a metallic base system is initially coated with a metallic alloy layer that is ductile and oxidation resistant. An aluminide coating is then applied to the metallic alloy layer. The chemistry of the metallic alloy layer is such that the oxidation resistance of the subsequently aluminized outermost layer is not seriously degraded.

  4. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-01-01

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  5. Radiation curable coating compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkinson, R.D.; Carder, C.H.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention provides a low-toxicity diluent component for radiation curable coating compositions that contain an acrylyl or methacryly oligomer or resin component such as an acrylyl urethane oligomer. The low-toxicity diluent component of this invention is chosen from the group consisting of tetraethlorthosilicate and tetraethoxyethylorthosilicate. When the diluent component is used as described, benefits in addition to viscosity reduction, may be realized. Application characteristics of the uncured coatings composition, such as flowability, leveling, and smoothness are notably improved. Upon curing by exposure to actinic radiation, the coating composition forms a solid, non-tacky surface free of pits, fissures or other irregularities. While there is no readily apparent reactive mechanism by which the orthosilicate becomes chemically bonded to the cured coating, the presence of silicon in the cured coating has been confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. 12 drawing

  6. Charged-particle coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.L.; Crane, J.K.; Hendricks, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    Advanced target designs require thicker (approx. 300 μm) coatings and better surface finishes that can be produced with current coating techniques. An advanced coating technique is proposed to provide maximum control of the coating flux and optimum manipulation of the shell during processing. In this scheme a small beam of ions or particles of known incident energy are collided with a levitated spherical mandrel. Precise control of the incident energy and angle of the deposition flux optimizes the control of the coating morphology while controlled rotation and noncontact support of the shell minimizes the possibility of particulate or damage generated defects. Almost infinite variability of the incident energy and material in this process provides increased flexibility of the target designs which can be physically realized

  7. Coating thickness measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffe, B.B.; Sawyer, B.E.; Spongr, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    A device especially adapted for measuring the thickness of coatings on small, complexly-shaped parts, such as, for example, electronic connectors, electronic contacts, or the like. The device includes a source of beta radiation and a radiation detector whereby backscatter of the radiation from the coated part can be detected and the thickness of the coating ascertained. The radiation source and detector are positioned in overlying relationship to the coated part and a microscope is provided to accurately position the device with respect to the part. Means are provided to control the rate of descent of the radiation source and radiation detector from its suspended position to its operating position and the resulting impact it makes with the coated part to thereby promote uniformity of readings from operator to operator, and also to avoid excessive impact with the part, thereby improving accuracy of measurement and eliminating damage to the parts

  8. Effect of pressure on the selectivity of polymeric C18 and C30 stationary phases in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Increased separation of isomeric fatty acid methyl esters, triacylglycerols, and tocopherols at high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okusa, Kensuke; Iwasaki, Yuki; Kuroda, Ikuma; Miwa, Shohei; Ohira, Masayoshi; Nagai, Toshiharu; Mizobe, Hoyo; Gotoh, Naohiro; Ikegami, Tohru; McCalley, David V; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2014-04-25

    A high-density, polymeric C18 stationary phase (Inertsil ODS-P) or a polymeric C30 phase (Inertsil C30) provided improved resolution of the isomeric fatty acids (FAs), FA methyl esters (FAMEs), triacylglycerols (TAGs), and tocopherols with an increase in pressure of 20-70MPa in reversed-phase HPLC. With respect to isomeric C18 FAMEs with one cis-double bond, ODS-P phase was effective for recognizing the position of a double bond among petroselinic (methyl 6Z-octadecenoate), oleic (methyl 9Z-octadecenoate), and cis-vaccenic (methyl 11Z-octadecenoate), especially at high pressure, but the differentiation between oleic and cis-vaccenic was not achieved by C30 phase regardless of the pressure. A monomeric C18 phase (InertSustain C18) was not effective for recognizing the position of the double bond in monounsaturated FAME, while the separation of cis- and trans-isomers was achieved by any of the stationary phases. The ODS-P and C30 phases provided increased separation for TAGs and β- and γ-tocopherols at high pressure. The transfer of FA, FAME, or TAG molecules from the mobile phase to the ODS-P stationary phase was accompanied by large volume reduction (-30∼-90mL/mol) resulting in a large increase in retention (up to 100% for an increase of 50MPa) and improved isomer separation at high pressure. For some isomer pairs, the ODS-P and C30 provided the opposite elution order, and in each case higher pressure improved the separation. The two stationary phases showed selectivity for the isomers having rigid structures, but only the ODS-P was effective for differentiating the position of a double bond in monounsaturated FAMEs. The results indicate that the improved isomer separation was provided by the increased dispersion interactions between the solute and the binding site of the stationary phase at high pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fluorine Based Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Denis Brassard

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic coatings, inspired by nature, are an emerging technology. These water repellent coatings can be used as solutions for corrosion, biofouling and even water and air drag reduction applications. In this work, synthesis of monodispersive silica nanoparticles of ~120 nm diameter has been realized via Stöber process and further functionalized using fluoroalkylsilane (FAS-17 molecules to incorporate the fluorinated groups with the silica nanoparticles in an ethanolic solution. The synthesized fluorinated silica nanoparticles have been spin coated on flat aluminum alloy, silicon and glass substrates. Functionalization of silica nanoparticles with fluorinated groups has been confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR by showing the presence of C-F and Si-O-Si bonds. The water contact angles and surface roughness increase with the number of spin-coated thin films layers. The critical size of ~119 nm renders aluminum surface superhydrophobic with three layers of coating using as-prepared nanoparticle suspended solution. On the other hand, seven layers are required for a 50 vol.% diluted solution to achieve superhydrophobicity. In both the cases, water contact angles were more than 150°, contact angle hysteresis was less than 2° having a critical roughness value of ~0.700 µm. The fluorinated silica nanoparticle coated surfaces are also transparent and can be used as paint additives to obtain transparent coatings.

  10. Coatings to prevent frost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusada, Ricardo; Holberg, Stefan; Bennedsen, Jeanette Marianne Dalgaard

    2016-01-01

    The ability of hydrophobic, organic–inorganic hybrid coatings to decelerate frost propagation was investigated. Compared to a bare aluminum surface, the coatings do not significantly reduce the freezing probability of supercooled water drops. On both surfaces, the probability for ice nucleation...... at temperatures just below 0°C, for example at −4°C, is low. Freezing of a single drop on aluminum leads, however, to instant freezing of the complete surface. On hydrophobic coatings, such a freezing drop is isolated; the frozen area grows slowly. At −4°C surface temperature in a +12°C/90% relative humidity...

  11. NEG coating of the non-standard LSS vacuum chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Costa-Pinto, P

    2005-01-01

    The vacuum chambers of nearly all the warm magnets of the LHC (MBXW, MQW, MSI, MSD, etc…) will be coated with a Ti-Zr-V thin film by magnetron sputtering. The NEG coating is necessary to provide uniform pumping speed along the chambers and to suppress electron cloud instabilities and dynamic outgassing. The about 300 chambers will be coated using the existing facility, developed for the production of the standard LSS chambers, after minor modifications mainly due to the different cross sections. In order to cope with the present installation schedule, the production planning will allow processing of different families of chambers in parallel by using two or three coating systems simultaneously. After a brief introduction to the Ti-Zr-V characteristics and performances, the coating facility and strategy will be illustrated as well as the possible conflicts due to uncertainties in the planning of the experimental beam pipes and the standard LSS chambers.

  12. Thermally joining and/or coating or thermally separating the workpieces having heat-sensitive coating, comprises restoring coating by thermally coating the coating material after thermally joining and/or coating or thermally separating

    OpenAIRE

    Riedel, Frank; Winkelmann, Ralf; Puschmann, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The method for thermally joining and/or coating or thermally separating the workpieces (1), which have a heat-sensitive coating (2), comprises restoring the coating by thermally coating a coating material (3) after thermally joining and/or coating or thermally separating the workpieces. A part of the thermal energy introduced in the workpiece for joining and/or coating or separating or in the workpieces is used for thermally coating the coating material. Two workpieces are welded or soldered ...

  13. Molecularly imprinted layer-coated silica nanoparticles for selective solid-phase extraction of bisphenol A from chemical cleansing and cosmetics samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Rong; Zhao Wenhui; Zhai Meijuan; Wei Fangdi; Cai Zheng; Sheng Na; Hu Qin

    2010-01-01

    Highly selective molecularly imprinted layer-coated silica nanoparticles for bisphenol A (BPA) were synthesized by molecular imprinting technique with a sol-gel process on the supporter of silica nanoparticles. The BPA-imprinted silica nanoparticles were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectrometer, transmission electron microscope, dynamic adsorption and static adsorption tests. The equilibrium association constant, K a , and the apparent maximum number of binding sites, Q max , were estimated to be 1.25 x 10 5 mL μmol -1 and 16.4 μmol g -1 , respectively. The BPA-imprinted silica nanoparticles solid-phase extraction (SPE) column had higher selectivity for BPA than the commercial C18-SPE column. The results of the study indicated that the prepared BPA-imprinted silica nanoparticles exhibited high adsorption capacity and selectivity, and offered a fast kinetics for the rebinding of BPA. The BPA-imprinted silica nanoparticles were successfully used in SPE to selectively enrich and determine BPA from shampoo, bath lotion and cosmetic cream samples.

  14. Molecularly imprinted layer-coated silica nanoparticles for selective solid-phase extraction of bisphenol A from chemical cleansing and cosmetics samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Rong; Zhao Wenhui; Zhai Meijuan; Wei Fangdi; Cai Zheng; Sheng Na [School of Pharmacy, Nanjing Medical University, Hanzhong Road 140, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029 (China); Hu Qin, E-mail: huqin@njmu.edu.cn [School of Pharmacy, Nanjing Medical University, Hanzhong Road 140, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029 (China)

    2010-01-25

    Highly selective molecularly imprinted layer-coated silica nanoparticles for bisphenol A (BPA) were synthesized by molecular imprinting technique with a sol-gel process on the supporter of silica nanoparticles. The BPA-imprinted silica nanoparticles were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectrometer, transmission electron microscope, dynamic adsorption and static adsorption tests. The equilibrium association constant, K{sub a}, and the apparent maximum number of binding sites, Q{sub max}, were estimated to be 1.25 x 10{sup 5} mL {mu}mol{sup -1} and 16.4 {mu}mol g{sup -1}, respectively. The BPA-imprinted silica nanoparticles solid-phase extraction (SPE) column had higher selectivity for BPA than the commercial C18-SPE column. The results of the study indicated that the prepared BPA-imprinted silica nanoparticles exhibited high adsorption capacity and selectivity, and offered a fast kinetics for the rebinding of BPA. The BPA-imprinted silica nanoparticles were successfully used in SPE to selectively enrich and determine BPA from shampoo, bath lotion and cosmetic cream samples.

  15. POWDER COAT APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses an investigation of critical factors that affect the use of powder coatings on the environment, cost, quality, and production. The investigation involved a small business representative working with the National Defense Center for Environmental Excellence (ND...

  16. Inorganic Coatings Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The inorganic Coatings Lab provides expertise to Navy and Joint Service platforms acquisition IPTs to aid in materials and processing choices which balance up-front...

  17. Robust Fiber Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goettler, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The highly desired ceramic matrix composite is the one in which the high strength and strain-to-failure is achieved through judicious selection of a fiber coating that can survive the high-temperature...

  18. Coating of substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, J.A.; Nelson, R.L.; Woodhead, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    The process is concerned with providing substrates with coatings obtainable from sols, for example to protect the substrate (such as in nuclear reactors or hydrocarbon cracking plant) or to provide a carrier for catalytically active material. Hitherto, coatings obtained from sols have had a high porosity and high surface area so that they have not been entirely satisfactory for the above applications. In the process described, dense, low-porosity coatings are provided by contacting the substrate with a sol of refractory material (e.g. CeO 2 or SiO 2 ) convertible to a gel of density at least 40% of the theoretical density of the refractory material, and converting the sol to the gel. Optionally, the gel may be converted to a ceramic coating by firing. (author)

  19. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R.; Rafi, H. Khalid; Ram, G.D. Janaki; Reddy, G. Madhusudhan; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2012-01-01

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: ► Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. ► Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. ► Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. ► Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  20. Radiation hardening coating material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, W.H.; Prucnal, P.J.; DeMajistre, Robert.

    1977-01-01

    This invention concerns a radiation hardening coating material. First a resin is prepared by reaction of bisphenol diglycidylic ether with acrylic or methacrylic acids. Then the reactive solvent is prepared by reaction of acrylic or methacrylic acids with epichlorhydrine or epibromhydrine. Then a solution consisting of the resin dissolved in the reactive solvent is prepared. A substrate (wood, paper, polyesters, polyamines etc.) is coated with this composition and exposed to ionizing radiations (electron beams) or ultraviolet radiations [fr

  1. Hydroxyapatite coatings for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings are of great importance in the biological and biomedical coatings fields, especially in the current era of nanotechnology and bioapplications. With a bonelike structure that promotes osseointegration, hydroxyapatite coating can be applied to otherwise bioinactive implants to make their surface bioactive, thus achieving faster healing and recovery. In addition to applications in orthopedic and dental implants, this coating can also be used in drug delivery. Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Applications explores developments in the processing and property characteri

  2. Biocompatibility of Niobium Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Olivares-Navarrete

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Niobium coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering were evaluated as a possible surface modification for stainless steel (SS substrates in biomedical implants. The Nb coatings were deposited on 15 mm diameter stainless steel substrates having an average surface roughness of 2 mm. To evaluate the biocompatibility of the coatings three different in vitro tests, using human alveolar bone derived cells, were performed: cellular adhesion, proliferation and viability. Stainless steel substrates and tissue culture plastic were also studied, in order to give comparative information. No toxic response was observed for any of the surfaces, indicating that the Nb coatings act as a biocompatible, bioinert material. Cell morphology was also studied by immune-fluorescence and the results confirmed the healthy state of the cells on the Nb surface. X-ray diffraction analysis of the coating shows that the film is polycrystalline with a body centered cubic structure. The surface composition and corrosion resistance of both the substrate and the Nb coating were also studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and potentiodynamic tests. Water contact angle measurements showed that the Nb surface is more hydrophobic than the SS substrate.

  3. Coated particle waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Chick, L.A.

    1981-12-01

    Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes

  4. [Formation of microbial populations on the surface of protective coatings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopteva, Zh P; Zanina, V V; Piliashenko-Novokhatnyĭ, A I; Kopteva, A E; Kozlova, I A

    2001-01-01

    Formation of microbial cenosis on the surface of polyethylene-, polyurethane- and oil-bitumen-based protective coatings was studied in dynamics during 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. It has been shown that the biofilm was formed on the protective materials during 14 days and consisted of ammonifying, denitrifying, hydrocarbon-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing bacteria referred to Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Kesulfovibrio genera. The bacteria which form the biofilm on coatings possess high denitrifying and sulphate-reducing activities. Corrosion inhibitors-biocydes, introduced in composition of oil-bitumen coatings suppressed growth and metabolic activity of corrosion-active bacteria.

  5. Launch Pad Coatings for Smart Corrosion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Bucherl, Cori N.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Curran, Jerome P.; Whitten, Mary C.

    2010-01-01

    . Researchers at NASA's Corrosion Technology Laboratory at KSC are developing a smart, environmentally friendly coating system for early corrosion detection, inhibition, and self healing of mechanical damage without external intervention. This smart coating will detect and respond actively to corrosion and mechanical damage such as abrasion and scratches, in a functional and predictable manner, and will be capable of adapting its properties dynamically. This coating is being developed using corrosion sensitive microcapsules that deliver the contents of their core (corrosion inhibiting compounds, corrosion indicators, and self healing agents) on demand when corrosion or mechanical damage to the coating occurs.

  6. A Lipidomics Approach to Assess the Association Between Plasma Sphingolipids and Verbal Memory Performance in Coronary Artery Disease Patients Undertaking Cardiac Rehabilitation: A C18:0 Signature for Cognitive Response to Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Mahwesh; Herrmann, Nathan; Dinoff, Adam; Mielke, Michelle M; Oh, Paul I; Shammi, Prathiba; Cao, Xingshan; Venkata, Swarajya Lakshmi Vattem; Haughey, Norman J; Lanctôt, Krista L

    2017-01-01

    Early subtle deficits in verbal memory, which may indicate early neural risk, are common in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). While exercise can improve cognition, cognitive response to exercise is heterogeneous. Sphingolipids have been associated with the development and progression of CAD, and impairments in sphingolipid metabolism may play roles in neurodegeneration and in the neural adaptation response to exercise. In this study, change in plasma concentrations of sphingolipids was assessed in relation to change in verbal memory performance and in other cognitive domains among CAD subjects undertaking a 6-month cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program. Patients with CAD (n = 120, mean age = 64±6 y, 84% male, years of education = 16±3) underwent CR with neuropsychological assessments and blood collected at baseline, 3-, and 6-months. Z-scores based on age, gender, and education were combined for verbal memory, visuospatial memory, processing speed, executive function, and global cognition tasks to calculate cognitive domain Z-scores. Plasma sphingolipid concentrations were measured from fasting blood samples using high performance liquid chromatography coupled electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Mixed models were used to identify sphingolipids significantly associated with performance in verbal memory and other cognitive domains, adjusting for potential confounders. A decrease in ceramide C18:0 concentration was significantly associated with improvement in verbal memory performance (b[SE] = -0.51 [0.25], p = 0.04), visuospatial memory (b[SE] = -0.44 [0.22], p = 0.05), processing speed (b[SE] = -0.89 [0.32], p = 0.007), and global cognition (b[SE] = -1.47 [0.59], p = 0.01) over 6 months of CR. Plasma ceramide C18:0 concentrations may be a sensitive marker of cognitive response to exercise in patients with CAD.

  7. Novel phytoceramides containing fatty acids of diverse chain lengths are better than a single C18-ceramide N-stearoyl phytosphingosine to improve the physiological properties of human stratum corneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh MJ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Myoung Jin Oh,1 Young Hoon Cho,1 So Yoon Cha,1 Eun Ok Lee,2 Jin Wook Kim,2 Sun Ki Kim,2 Chang Seo Park1 1Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Dongguk University, Chung-gu, Seoul, 2LCS Biotech, Gwonseon-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea Abstract: Ceramides in the human stratum corneum (SC are a mixture of diverse N-acylated fatty acids (FAs with different chain lengths. C24 is the major class of FAs of ceramides. However, there are also other classes of ceramides with diverse chain lengths of FAs, and these lengths generally range from C16 to C26. This study aimed to prepare several types of phytoceramide containing diverse chain lengths of N-acylated FAs and compare them with C18-ceramide N-stearoyl phytosphingosine (NP in terms of their effects on the physiological properties of the SC. We chose natural oils, such as horse fat oil, shea butter, sunflower oil, and a mixture of macadamia nut, shea butter, moringa, and meadowfoam seed oil, as sources of FAs and phytosphingosine as a sphingoid backbone to synthesize diverse phytoceramides. Each phytoceramide exhibited a distinctive formation of the lamellar structure, and their FA profiles were similar to those of their respective natural oil. The skin barrier properties, as analyzed in human skin, clearly demonstrated that all the phytoceramides improved the recovery rate of the damaged SC and enhanced hydration better than C18-ceramide NP did. In conclusion, natural oil-derived phytoceramides could represent a novel class of ceramides for cosmetic applications in the development of an ideal skin barrier moisturizer. Keywords: fatty acid, chain length, phytoceramide, skin barrier, natural oil

  8. Coatings for directional eutectics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rairden, J. R.; Jackson, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Coatings developed to provide oxidation protection for the directionally-solidified eutectic alloy NiTaC-B (4.4 weight percent Cr) were evaluated. Of seven Co-, Fe- and Ni-base coatings that were initially investigated, best resistance to cyclic oxidation was demonstrated by duplex coatings fabricated by depositing a layer of NiCrAl(Y) by vacuum evaporation from an electron beam source followed by deposition of an Al overlayer using the pack cementation process. It was found that addition of carbon to the coating alloy substantially eliminated the problem of fiber denudation in TaC-type eutectic alloys. Burner rig cycled NiTaC-B samples coated with Ni-20Cr-5Al-0.1C-0.1Y+Al and rupture-tested at 1100 deg C performed as well as or better than uncoated, vacuum cycled and air-tested NiTaC-13; however, a slight degradation with respect to uncoated material was noted in air-stress rupture tests at 870 deg C for both cycled and uncycled samples.

  9. METHOD OF PROTECTIVELY COATING URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubank, L.D.; Boller, E.R.

    1959-02-01

    A method is described for protectively coating uranium with zine comprising cleaning the U for coating by pickling in concentrated HNO/sub 3/, dipping the cleaned U into a bath of molten zinc between 430 to 600 C and containing less than 0 01% each of Fe and Pb, and withdrawing and cooling to solidify the coating. The zinccoated uranium may be given a; econd coating with another metal niore resistant to the corrosive influences particularly concerned. A coating of Pb containing small proportions of Ag or Sn, or Al containing small proportions of Si may be applied over the zinc coatings by dipping in molten baths of these metals.

  10. An in vitro biomechanical comparison of hydroxyapatite coated and uncoated ao cortical bone screws for a limited contact: dynamic compression plate fixation of osteotomized equine 3rd metacarpal bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Myra E; Sod, Gary A; Riggs, Laura M; Mitchell, Colin F

    2015-02-01

    To compare the monotonic biomechanical properties of a broad 4.5 mm limited contact-dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP) fixation secured with hydroxyapatite (HA) coated cortical bone screws (HA-LC-DCP) versus uncoated cortical bone screws (AO-LC-DCP) to repair osteotomized equine 3rd metacarpal (MC3) bones. Experimental. Adult equine cadaveric MC3 bones (n = 12 pair). Twelve pairs of equine MC3 were divided into 3 test groups (4 pairs each) for: (1) 4 point bending single cycle to failure testing; (2) 4 point bending cyclic fatigue testing; and (3) torsional single cycle to failure testing. For the HA-LC-DCP-MC3 construct, an 8-hole broad LC-DCP (Synthes Ltd, Paoli, PA) was secured on the dorsal surface of each randomly selected MC3 bone with a combination of four 5.5 mm and four 4.5 mm HA-coated cortical screws. For the AO-LC-DCP-MC3 construct, an 8-hole 4.5 mm broad LC-DCP was secured on the dorsal surface of the contralateral MC3 bone with a combination of four 5.5 mm and four 4.5 mm uncoated cortical screws. All MC3 bones had mid-diaphyseal osteotomies. Mean test variable values for each method were compared using a paired t-test within each group. Significance was set at P < .05. Mean yield load, yield bending moment, composite rigidity, failure load, and failure bending moment, under 4 point bending, single cycle to failure, of the HA-LC-DCP fixation were significantly greater than those of the AO-LC-DCP fixation. Mean ± SD values for the HA-LC-DCP and the AO-LC-DCP fixation techniques, respectively, in single cycle to failure under 4 point bending were: yield load, 26.7 ± 2.15 and 16.3 ± 1.38 kN; yield bending moment, 527.4 ± 42.4 and 322.9 ± 27.2 N-m; composite rigidity, 5306 ± 399 and 3003 ± 300 N-m/rad; failure load, 40.6 ± 3.94 and 26.5 ± 2.52 kN; and failure bending moment, 801.9 ± 77.9 and 522.9 ± 52.2 N-m. Mean cycles to failure in 4 point bending of the HA

  11. Zirconium nitride hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Daiane; Amorim, Cintia Lugnani Gomes de; Soares, Gabriel Vieira; Figueroa, Carlos Alejandro; Baumvol, Israel Jacob Rabin; Basso, Rodrigo Leonardo de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) nanometric films were deposited onto different substrates, in order to study the surface crystalline microstructure and also to investigate the electrochemical behavior to obtain a better composition that minimizes corrosion reactions. The coatings were produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The influence of the nitrogen partial pressure, deposition time and temperature over the surface properties was studied. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and corrosion experiments were performed to characterize the ZrN hard coatings. The ZrN films properties and microstructure changes according to the deposition parameters. The corrosion resistance increases with temperature used in the films deposition. Corrosion tests show that ZrN coating deposited by PVD onto titanium substrate can improve the corrosion resistance. (author)

  12. Electrochemical behavior of polypyrrole/chitosan composite coating on Ti metal for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikhari, Bhavana; Pugal Mani, S; Rajendran, N

    2018-06-01

    In the present work, the corrosion resistance performance and biocompatibility of polypyrrole/chitosan (PPy/CHI) composite coated Ti was studied. The deposition of composite coating was carried out by electropolymerization method. The deposited PPy/CHI composite coatings were different in morphology, structural, surface roughness and wettability compared PPy coated Ti. The presence of composite coating was confirmed by solid 13 C NMR. The PPy/CHI composite coating showed enhanced microhardness and adhesion strength compared to the PPy coating. The corrosion protection ability of PPy/CHI composite coatings at various applied potentials was analyzed by dynamic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (DEIS), exhibited higher impedance in all the potentials compared to uncoated and PPy coated Ti. The lower corrosion current density obtained for PPy/CHI-2 composite coating from polarization studies revealed increased corrosion protection ability in SBF solution. The stability of composite coating was confirmed by immersion studies. PPy/CHI-2 composite coating immersed in SBF solution enhances hydroxyapatite (HAp) formation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nanophase hardfaced coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisgen, U.; Stein, L.; Balashov, B.; Geffers, C. [RWTH Aachen University (Germany). ISF - Welding and Joining Institute

    2009-08-15

    This paper demonstrates the possibility of producing iron or chromium-based nanophase hardfaced coatings by means of common arc welding methods (TIG, PTA). The appropriate composition of the alloys to be deposited allows to control the structural properties and thus also the coating properties of the weld metal. Specific variations of the alloying elements allow also the realisation of a nanostructured solidification of the carbides and borides with cooling rates that are common for arc surfacing processes. The hardfaced coatings, which had been thus produced, showed phase dimensions of approximately 100-300 nm. Based on the results it is established that the influence of the surfacing parameters and of the coating thickness and thus the influence of the heat control on the nanostructuring process is, compared with the influence of the alloy composition, of secondary importance. The generation of nanoscale structures in hardfaced coatings allows the improvement of mechanical properties, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. Potential applications for these types of hardfaced coatings lie, in particular, in the field of cutting tools that are exposed to corrosion and wear. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Diese Arbeit demonstriert die Moeglichkeit zur Herstellung Eisen- und Chrom-basierter nanophasiger Hartauftragschweissschichten mithilfe ueblicher Lichtbogenschweissverfahren (WIG-, Plasma-Pulver-Auftragschweissen - PPA). Eine geeignete Zusammensetzung der aufzutragenden Legierungen ermoeglicht es, die Gefuegeeigenschaften und damit die Schichteigenschaften des Schweissgutes zu kontrollieren. Gezielte Variationen der Legierungselemente erlauben die Realisierung einer nanostrukturierten Erstarrung der Karbide und Boride bei fuer Lichtbogen-Auftragschweissprozessen ueblichen Abkuehlgeschwindigkeiten. In den so erzeugten Hartschichten werden Phasengroessen von ca. 100-300 nm erreicht. Auf Basis der gewonnenen Ergebnisse kann

  14. Stochastic Computer Simulation of Cermet Coatings Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg P. Solonenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach to the modeling of the process of the formation of thermal coatings lamellar structure, including plasma coatings, at the spraying of cermet powders is proposed. The approach based on the theoretical fundamentals developed which could be used for rapid and sufficiently accurate prediction of thickness and diameter of cermet splats as well as temperature at interface “flattening quasi-liquid cermet particle-substrate” depending on the key physical parameters (KPPs: temperature, velocity and size of particle, substrate temperature, and concentration of finely dispersed solid inclusions uniformly distributed in liquid metal binder. The results are presented, which concern the development of the computational algorithm and the program complex for modeling the process of laying the splats in the coating with regard to the topology of its surface, which varies dynamically at the spraying, as well as the formation of lamellar structure and porosity of the coating. The results of numerical experiments are presented through the example of thermal spraying the cermet TiC-30 vol.% NiCr powder, illustrating the performance of the developed computational technology.

  15. Tribology and coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The future use of fuel-efficient, low-emission, advanced transportation systems (for example, those using low-heat-rejection diesel engines or advanced gas turbines) presents new challenges to tribologists and materials scientists. High service temperatures, corrosive environments, and extreme contact pressures are among the concerns that make necessary new tribological designs, novel materials, and effective lubrication concepts. Argonne is working on methods to reduce friction, wear and corrosion, such as soft metal coatings on ceramics, layered compounds, diamond coatings, and hard surfaces.

  16. Active Packaging Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Bastarrachea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Active food packaging involves the packaging of foods with materials that provide an enhanced functionality, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant or biocatalytic functions. This can be achieved through the incorporation of active compounds into the matrix of the commonly used packaging materials, or by the application of coatings with the corresponding functionality through surface modification. The latter option offers the advantage of preserving the packaging materials’ bulk properties nearly intact. Herein, different coating technologies like embedding for controlled release, immobilization, layer-by-layer deposition, and photografting are explained and their potential application for active food packaging is explored and discussed.

  17. Mechanically Invisible Polymer Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    phase comprises particles, said particles comprising a filler material and an encapsulating coating of a second polymeric material, wherein the backbones of the first and second polymeric materials are the same. The composition may be used in electroactive polymers (EAPs) in order to obtain mechanically......The present invention relates to a composition comprising encapsulated particles in a polymeric material. The composition comprises a continuous phase and a discontinuous phase incorporated therein, wherein the continuous phase comprises a first polymeric material and wherein the discontinuous...... invisible polymer coatings....

  18. Methods and means for coating paper by film coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maarel, Marc; Ter Veer, Arend Berend Cornelis; Vrieling-Smit, Annet; Delnoye, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This invention relates to the field of paper coating, more in particular to means and methods for providing paper with at least one layer of pigment using film coating to obtain a well printable surface. Provided is a method for preparing coated paper comprising the steps of: a) providing a

  19. An Integrated Study of a Novel Thermal Coating for Nb-Based High Temperature Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shizhong [Southern Univ. and A & M College, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This report summarizes our recent works of ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation on the interfaces between niobium substrate and coatings at atomic level. Potential oxidation barrier bond coat, Nb₂AlC and high entropy alloys, and top coat candidates were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated in our labs. The simulation methods, experimental validation techniques, achievements already reached, students and postdoc training, and future improvement are briefly introduced.

  20. AntiReflection Coating D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIKEN, DANIEL J.

    1999-01-01

    Analytical expressions used to optimize AR coatings for single junction solar cells are extended for use in monolithic, series interconnected multi-junction solar cell AR coating design. The result is an analytical expression which relates the solar cell performance (through J(sub sc)) directly to the AR coating design through the device reflectance. It is also illustrated how AR coating design be used to provide an additional degree of freedom for current matching multi-junction devices

  1. UV-curable polyurethane coatings derived from cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, M. M.; Patel, K. I.; Patel, H. B.; Parmar, J. S.

    2009-01-01

    At the present time coating industry is devoting much research in the direction of low volatile organic compounds to make eco-friendly coating material. In this study, such materials are developed from cellulose derived from bagasse, a sugar industry waste. Cellulose is converted to cellulose glyco glycoside by acid hydrolysis of cellulose under heterogeneous condition. Cellulose glyco glycoside is treated with polyethylene glycol having different molecular weights to give glyco glycosides which in turn are reacted with various diisocyanates to obtain polyurethane having free NCO groups. These materials are then reacted with hydroxyethylmethacrylate to give polyurethane acrylates. The acrylates are characterized for specific gravity, viscosity, colour and molecular weight as well as by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The UV-curable coating composition was prepared by blending PU-acrylate, reactive diluents and photoinitiator. Coating compositions were cured under UV-light and characterized for adhesion, flexibility, impact resistance, solvent resistance and for dynamic mechanical analysis as well as by thermal gravimetric analysis for thermal stability. The cured films give thickness of 23-24 microns and cure time required is less than 1.5-2.0 min. There is no liberation of any volatiles during curing and films have good adhesion to mild steel substrate. The cured coatings give excellent dynamic, mechanical and chemical properties. The scratch resistance was found to be satisfactory. The application was made in unpigmented form but it is found that various pigments can be used to give coloured UV-curable coatings.

  2. UV Coatings, Polarization, and Coronagraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Quijada, Manuel; West, Garrett; Balasubramanian, Bala; Krist, John; Martin, Stefan; Sabatke, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Presenation for the Large UltraViolet Optical Infrared (LUVOIR) and Habitable Exoplanet Imager (HabEx) Science and Technology Definition Teams (STDT) on technical considerations regarding ultraviolet coatings, polarization, and coronagraphy. The presentations review the state-of-the-art in ultraviolet coatings, how those coatings generate polarization aberrations, and recent study results from both the LUVOIR and HabEx teams.

  3. Backbone dynamics of a model membrane protein: measurement of individual amide hydrogen-exchange rates in detergent-solubilized M13 coat protein using 13C NMR hydrogen/deuterium isotope shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, G.D.; Weiner, J.H.; Sykes, B.D.

    1987-01-01

    Hydrogen-exchange rates have been measured for individual assigned amide protons in M13 coat protein, a 50-residue integral membrane protein, using a 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) equilibrium isotope shift technique. The locations of the more rapidly exchanging amides have been determined. In D 2 O solutions, a peptide carbonyl resonance undergoes a small upfield isotope shift (0.08-0.09 ppm) from its position in H 2 O solutions; in 1:1 H 2 O/D 2 O mixtures, the carbonyl line shape is determined by the exchange rate at the adjacent nitrogen atom. M13 coat protein was labeled biosynthetically with 13 C at the peptide carbonyls of alanine, glycine, phenylalanine, proline, and lysine, and the exchange rates of 12 assigned amide protons in the hydrophilic regions were measured as a function of pH by using the isotope shift method. This equilibrium technique is sensitive to the more rapidly exchanging protons which are difficult to measure by classical exchange-out experiments. In proteins, structural factors, notably H bonding, can decrease the exchange rate of an amide proton by many orders of magnitude from that observed in the freely exposed amides of model peptides such as poly(DL-alanine). With corrections for sequence-related inductive effects, the retardation of amide exchange in sodium dodecyl sulfate solubilized coat protein has been calculated with respect to poly(DL-alanine). The most rapidly exchanging protons, which are retarded very little or not at all, are shown to occur at the N- and C-termini of the molecule. A model of the detergent-solubilized coat protein is constructed from these H-exchange data which is consistent with circular dichroism and other NMR results

  4. Coatings for transport industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof LUKASZKOWICZ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigations concerned structural analysis, as well as mechanical properties and wear resistant of MeN/DLC double-layer coating deposited by hybrid PVD/PACVD method. In sliding dry friction conditions, after the break-in time, the friction coefficient for the investigated elements is set in the range between 0.03-0.06.

  5. Ion Deposited Carbon Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    PAGE ("’hen Dita t,,I,, efl TABLE OF CONTENTS Section No. Title Page No. 1.0 OBJECTIVE 1 2.0 SCOPE 2 3.0 BACKGROUND 3 4.0 COATINGS DEPOSITION 4 4.1...scientific, ards of measure. The Committee, and Confer- technical, practical, and teaching purposes.ence voting members, are leading professional On the

  6. Polydopamine-coated capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Scott R.; Sottos, Nancy R.; Kang, Sen; Baginska, Marta B.

    2018-04-17

    One aspect of the invention is a polymer material comprising a capsule coated with PDA. In certain embodiments, the capsule encapsulates a functional agent. The encapsulated functional agent may be an indicating agent, healing agent, protecting agent, pharmaceutical drug, food additive, or a combination thereof.

  7. Biodegradable, elastomeric coatings with controlled anti-proliferative agent release for magnesium-based cardiovascular stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xinzhu; Mao, Zhongwei; Ye, Sang-Ho; Koo, Youngmi; Yun, Yeoheung; Tiasha, Tarannum R; Shanov, Vesselin; Wagner, William R

    2016-08-01

    Vascular stent design continues to evolve to further improve the efficacy and minimize the risks associated with these devices. Drug-eluting coatings have been widely adopted and, more recently, biodegradable stents have been the focus of extensive evaluation. In this report, biodegradable elastomeric polyurethanes were synthesized and applied as drug-eluting coatings for a relatively new class of degradable vascular stents based on Mg. The dynamic degradation behavior, hemocompatibility and drug release were investigated for poly(carbonate urethane) urea (PCUU) and poly(ester urethane) urea (PEUU) coated magnesium alloy (AZ31) stents. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) coated and bare stents were employed as control groups. The PCUU coating effectively slowed the Mg alloy corrosion in dynamic degradation testing compared to PEUU-coated, PLGA-coated and bare Mg alloy stents. This was confirmed by electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and magnesium ion release experiments. PCUU-coating of AZ31 was also associated with significantly reduced platelet adhesion in acute blood contact testing. Rat vascular smooth muscle cell (rSMC) proliferation was successfully inhibited when paclitaxel was released from pre-loaded PCUU coatings. The corrosion retardation, low thrombogenicity, drug loading capacity, and high elasticity make PCUU an attractive option for drug eluting coating on biodegradable metallic cardiovascular stents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Probing the dynamics of complexed local anesthetics via neutron scattering spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longo Martins, Murillo; Eckert, Juergen; Jacobsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Since potential changes in the dynamics and mobility of drugs upon complexation for delivery may affect their ultimate efficacy, we have investigated the dynamics of two local anesthetic molecules, bupivacaine (BVC, C18H28N2O) and ropivacaine (RVC, C17H26N2O), in both their crystalline forms...

  9. Active coatings technologies for tailorable military coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunino, J. L., III

    2007-04-01

    The main objective of the U.S. Army's Active Coatings Technologies Program is to develop technologies that can be used in combination to tailor coatings for utilization on Army Materiel. The Active Coatings Technologies Program, ACT, is divided into several thrusts, including the Smart Coatings Materiel Program, Munitions Coatings Technologies, Active Sensor packages, Systems Health Monitoring, Novel Technology Development, as well as other advanced technologies. The goal of the ACT Program is to conduct research leading to the development of multiple coatings systems for use on various military platforms, incorporating unique properties such as self repair, selective removal, corrosion resistance, sensing, ability to modify coatings' physical properties, colorizing, and alerting logistics staff when tanks or weaponry require more extensive repair. A partnership between the U.S. Army Corrosion Office at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ along with researchers at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, NJ, Clemson University, SC, University of New Hampshire, NH, and University of Massachusetts (Lowell), MA, are developing the next generation of Smart Coatings Materiel via novel technologies such as nanotechnology, Micro-electromechanical Systems (MEMS), meta-materials, flexible electronics, electrochromics, electroluminescence, etc. This paper will provide the reader with an overview of the Active Coatings Technologies Program, including an update of the on-going Smart Coatings Materiel Program, its progress thus far, description of the prototype Smart Coatings Systems and research tasks as well as future nanotechnology concepts, and applications for the Department of Defense.

  10. Development and Application of Coating Weight Control Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Hyoung [Dongbu Steel, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Precise coating weight control is very important issue on quality and minimizing operating costs on continuous galvanizing line. These days, many steel making companies are having a new understanding of cost importance by rise raw material prices and customers requirement for cost reduction. Dongbu steel also meets these situations and decided to develop the technologies. Dongbu Steel developed Integrated coating weight control system jointly with Objective Control Ltd. and installed 2CGL and 4CGL. Several technological functions were developed and realized to achieve true hands-off operation and maximum cost benefit by combining model-based preset and dynamic prediction models. We also installed it on 1 CGL on April, 2008. This paper will present the interface, functions and application result of the integrated coating weight control system including Zn saving and coating weight uniformity.

  11. Flexible diamond-like carbon thin film coated rubbers: fundamentals and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic rubber seals are major sources of friction of lubrication systems and bearings, which may take up to 75% of the total friction. The solution we present is to coat rubbers with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film, by which the coefficient of friction is reduced to less than one tenth. Coating

  12. Modern fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinstreuer, Clement

    2018-01-01

    Modern Fluid Dynamics, Second Edition provides up-to-date coverage of intermediate and advanced fluids topics. The text emphasizes fundamentals and applications, supported by worked examples and case studies. Scale analysis, non-Newtonian fluid flow, surface coating, convection heat transfer, lubrication, fluid-particle dynamics, microfluidics, entropy generation, and fluid-structure interactions are among the topics covered. Part A presents fluids principles, and prepares readers for the applications of fluid dynamics covered in Part B, which includes computer simulations and project writing. A review of the engineering math needed for fluid dynamics is included in an appendix.

  13. Mechanical matching and microstructural evolution at the coating/substrate interfaces of cold-sprayed Ni, Al coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.; Lee, S.; Shin, H.; Ko, K.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of mechanical hard/soft matching of raw powder and substrate in the cold gas dynamic spraying process (CDSP) on the formation of intermetallic compounds was examined. Instead of pre-alloyed materials, pure Al and Ni were selected as a soft and a hard material, respectively, and post-annealing was used for compound formation. Most of the aluminide layers were observed in the coated layer, but not in the substrate, along with the entire original interface for both Al coating on a Ni substrate and vice versa. Thickening of the compound layer depended mainly on the creation of defects during spraying and intrinsic diffusivity of atoms moving toward the coating side. When Ni was coated, the compound layer was made thicker by fast diffusion of Al, while the thickness was limited in soft Al coating on hard Ni substrate. However, the composition of the compound can be affected by relative transfer of diffusing atoms toward both the coating and the substrate. So, for Ni coating on an Al substrate, most of the intermetallic compound formed was Ni-rich and conversion of the Al-rich compound was observed after post-annealing above 500 deg. C.

  14. New temperable solar coatings: Tempsol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya

    2001-11-01

    This paper deals with the large area deposition and coating properties of the thermo-stable (temperable/bendable) solar coating material, CuO, and some new optical coating systems comprising CuO films for architectural and automotive/transportation applications. The CuO solar coating is combined with other coating layers, for example, an anti-reflection film, a reflection film, a coloration coating layer, etc., which are also thermo-stable. The film systems are developed at the research laboratory by D.C. Magnetron reactive sputtering process. The new developed technologies then transferred to the production line. Product performances are compared before and after heat treatment of the coating systems. Performance tables and other physical properties, including optical parameters, mechanical and environmental stability, storage properties, etc., are also presented for this new product series.

  15. Flow accelerated organic coating degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qixin

    Applying organic coatings is a common and the most cost effective way to protect metallic objects and structures from corrosion. Water entry into coating-metal interface is usually the main cause for the deterioration of organic coatings, which leads to coating delamination and underfilm corrosion. Recently, flowing fluids over sample surface have received attention due to their capability to accelerate material degradation. A plethora of works has focused on the flow induced metal corrosion, while few studies have investigated the flow accelerated organic coating degradation. Flowing fluids above coating surface affect corrosion by enhancing the water transport and abrading the surface due to fluid shear. Hence, it is of great importance to understand the influence of flowing fluids on the degradation of corrosion protective organic coatings. In this study, a pigmented marine coating and several clear coatings were exposed to the laminar flow and stationary immersion. The laminar flow was pressure driven and confined in a flow channel. A 3.5 wt% sodium chloride solution and pure water was employed as the working fluid with a variety of flow rates. The corrosion protective properties of organic coatings were monitored inline by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurement. Equivalent circuit models were employed to interpret the EIS spectra. The time evolution of coating resistance and capacitance obtained from the model was studied to demonstrate the coating degradation. Thickness, gloss, and other topography characterizations were conducted to facilitate the assessment of the corrosion. The working fluids were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) and conductivity measurement. The influence of flow rate, fluid shear, fluid composition, and other effects in the coating degradation were investigated. We conclude that flowing fluid on the coating surface accelerates the transport of water, oxygen, and ions into the coating, as

  16. Coating of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for coating the surface of an article of Ti, Zr or Ta, or an alloy thereof, with a tinning metal or alloy, the article having a shape other than that of a sheet. The method comprises contacting the surface of the article at an elevated temperature with the molten tinning metal and moving an ultrasonically excited probe over the surface to be coated, the probe being in contact with the surface of the article and with the tinning metal. The tinning metal may be Sn or Zn or a binary alloy of Sn with Zn, Cd or Bi at a temperature of 300 0 to 450 0 C. The head of the probe may be shaped to conform with the surface of the article. The method may be used to form composite articles, and may be applied to a pre-tinned steel article. (U.K.)

  17. Conformal ZnO nanocomposite coatings on micro-patterned surfaces for superhydrophobicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, Adam; Bayer, Ilker; Moran, Stephen; Cannon, Andrew; King, William P.; Loth, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A conformal coating process is presented to transform surfaces with inherent micro-morphology into superhydrophobic surfaces with hierarchical surface structure using wet chemical spray casting. Nanocomposite coatings composed of zinc oxide nanoparticles and organosilane quaternary nitrogen compound are dispersed in solution for application. The coating is applied to a micro-patterned polydimethylsiloxane substrate with a regular array of cylindrical microposts as well as a surface with random micro-structure for the purpose of demonstrating improved non-wettability and a superhydrophobic state for water droplets. Coating surface morphology is investigated with an environmental scanning electron microscope and surface wettability performance is characterized by static and dynamic contact angle measurements.

  18. Generation of drugs coated iron nanoparticles through high energy ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhika Devi, A.; Murty, B. S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Chelvane, J. A. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Prabhakar, P. K.; Padma Priya, P. V.; Doble, Mukesh [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2014-03-28

    The iron nanoparticles coated with oleic acid and drugs such as folic acid/Amoxicillin were synthesized by high energy ball milling and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscope, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering, Fourier Transform Infra red (FT-IR) measurements, and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). FT-IR and TGA measurements show good adsorption of drugs on oleic acid coated nanoparticles. Magnetic measurements indicate that saturation magnetization is larger for amoxicillin coated particles compared to folic acid coated particles. The biocompatibility of the magnetic nanoparticles prepared was evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity assay using L929 cells as model cells.

  19. Coat of Arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryan

    1998-01-01

    Describes an activity, the "coat of arms," that can serve as an ice-breaker or warm-up for the first day of an English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language class, as a motivating start to the week, or act as an innovative segue between skill lessons. The technique can be adapted for students ranging from elementary school to adult language learners of all…

  20. Scientific coats of arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, Patricia

    2005-09-01

    With their mythical creatures and arcane symbolism, coats of arms seem to have little connection with modern science. Yet despite its chivalric origins, the ancient language of heraldry has long fascinated famous scientists. Although this idiosyncratic tradition was parodied by Victorian geologists, who laughingly replaced unicorns and griffins with images of dinosaurs that they had recently discovered, it has been perpetuated since by Ernest Rutherford, who liked to present himself as a new alchemist.

  1. Anti-Corrosion Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    SuperSpan RM 8000 is an anti-corrosion coating which effectively counteracts acid degradation, abrasive wear, and cracking in power industry facilities. It was developed by RM Industrial Products Company, Inc. with NERAC assistance. It had previously been necessary to shut down plants to repair or replace corroded duct-work in coal burning utilities. NASA-developed technology was especially useful in areas relating to thermoconductivity of carbon steel and the bonding characteristics of polymers. The product has sold well.

  2. Investigating the Use of a Protective Coating Material as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petroleum wax is known to provide ozone protection to natural rubber under static deformation while a combination of chemical antiozonant and wax is normally used for ozone protection under dynamic conditions. The work described in this paper, aims at investigating the effectiveness of a coating material in protecting a ...

  3. for zeolite coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Rambo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotemplating is the processing of microcellular ceramics by reproduction of natural morphologies, where the microstructural features of the biotemplate are maintained in the biomorphic ceramic. Different biotemplates with distinct pore anatomies were used to produce biomorphic supports for the zeolite coating: wood, cardboard, sea-sponge and sisal. The biomorphic ceramics were produced by distinguished processing routes: Al-gas infiltration-reaction, liquid-metal infiltration, dip-coating and sol-gel synthesis, in order to produce nitrides, carbides and oxides, depending on the processing conditions. The zeolite coating was performed by hydrothermal growth of MFI-type (Silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 zeolite crystals onto the internal pore walls of the biomorphic templates. The final biomorphic ceramic-zeolite composites were physically characterized, evaluated in terms of their gas adsorption capabilities and correlated to their microstructure and specific pore anatomy. The combination of the properties of the biomorphic ceramics with the adsorption properties of zeolites results in materials with distinct properties as potential candidates for adsorption and catalytic applications due to their characteristic porosity, molecular sieving capabilities and high thermo-mechanical strength.

  4. Coating and curing apparatus and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Brenor L; Maghsoodi, Sina; Neyman, Patrick J; Gonsalves, Peter R; Hirsch, Jeffrey G; Yang, Yu S

    2015-02-24

    Disclosed are coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly systems and methods for skin curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using a high temperature air-knife are disclosed.

  5. Lotus Dust Mitigation Coating and Molecular Adsorber Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kenneth M.; Abraham, Nithin S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed two unique coating formulations that will keep surfaces clean and sanitary and contain contaminants.The Lotus Dust Mitigation Coating, modeled after the self-cleaning, water-repellant lotus leaf, disallows buildup of dust, dirt, water, and more on surfaces. This coating, has been successfully tested on painted, aluminum, glass, silica, and some composite surfaces, could aid in keeping medical assets clean.The Molecular Adsorber Coating is a zeolite-based, sprayable molecular adsorber coating, designed to prevent outgassing in materials in vacuums. The coating works well to adsorb volatiles and contaminates in manufacturing and processing, such as in pharmaceutical production. The addition of a biocide would also aid in controlling bacteria levels.

  6. Composition superconductive plumbous coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volodin, V.N.; Tuleushev, A.Zh.; Tuleushev, Yu.Zh.; Lisizin, V.N.

    2002-01-01

    Independent dispersion of two or more targets, precipitation of pulverized material on substrate and possibility of composition change in wide range of component concentrations made possible ion-plasma forming of film composition materials from materials with different chemical and physical qualities, particularly in lead-aluminum, lead-beryllium and lead-graphite systems. Named systems are characterized in wide sphere of immiscibility in solid and liquid state and absence of intermediate compounds. It is impossible to receive materials from them in traditional method in conditions of gravitational field. In lead-aluminum system there was received a number of film coatings with aluminum content up to 95 at. % at coating thickness up to 2 μm. Owing to X-ray investigations it is fixed that lead and aluminum have been performed by separate phases. Lead in sprayed layer represents well-crystallized phase with grain size more than 100 nm; texturing is not found. Study of physical qualities has shown that materials with lead base 21.6 at. % Al) have enough high crystalline current in comparison with compact lead, which reaches (2.5-3.0)·10 5 A)·cm 2 , while materials with aluminum base (21.6 at. % Al) loose this effect and critical temperature of transition is reduced from 7.1 to 5.8 K. It was impossible to carry out X-rayed analysis for lead-beryllium film because of weak intensity of beryllium lines against a background of lead owing to a quite large difference of atomic balance. Cryogen tests have shown the increase of critical current strength up to (3.1-3.6)·10 4 A)·cm 2 or composition coating of lead-beryllium (56.99 at. % or 5,45 mas. % Be), at that the critical temperature of transition does not differ from lead temperature. Samples of lead edge of state diagram have been received in the lead-graphite system. X-ray investigation subjected coating contained 6.81 at. % (55.82 mas. %) of lead. Choice of the composition is conditioned on possibilities of

  7. Nanostructured self-assembly materials from neat and aqueous solutions of C18 lipid pro-drug analogues of Capecitabine—a chemotherapy agent. Focus on nanoparticulate cubosomes™ of the oleyl analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Xiaojuan; Moghaddam, Minoo J.; Sagnella, Sharon M.; Conn, Charlotte E.; Mulet, Xavier; Danon, Stephen J.; Waddington, Lynne J.; Drummond, Calum J.

    2014-09-24

    A series of prodrug analogues based on the established chemotherapy agent, 5-fluorouracil, have been prepared and characterized. C18 alkyl and alkenyl chains with increasing degree of unsaturation were attached to the N4 position of the 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) base via a carbamate bond. Physicochemical characterization of the prodrug analogues was carried out using a combination of differential scanning calorimetry, cross-polarized optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and small-angle X-ray scattering. The presence of a monounsaturated oleyl chain was found to promote lyotropic liquid crystalline phase formation in excess water with a fluid lamellar phase observed at room temperature and one or more bicontinuous cubic phases at 37 °C. The bulk phase was successfully dispersed into liposomes or cubosomes at room and physiological temperature respectively. In vitro toxicity of the nanoparticulate 5-FCOle dispersions was evaluated against several normal and cancer cell types over a 48 h period and exhibited an IC50 of -100 μM against all cell types. The in vivo efficacy of 5-FCOle cubosomes was assessed against the highly aggressive mouse 4T1 breast cancer model and compared to Capecitabine (a water-soluble commercially available 5-FU prodrug) delivered at the same dosages. After 21 days of treatment, the 0.5 mmol 5-FCOle treatment group exhibited a significantly smaller average tumour volume than all other treatment groups including Capecitabine at similar dosage. These results exemplify the potential of self-assembled amphiphile prodrugs for delivery of bioactives in vivo.

  8. Distinction of synthetic dl-α-tocopherol from natural vitamin E (d-α-tocopherol) by reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Enhanced selectivity of a polymeric C18 stationary phase at low temperature and/or at high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yui, Yuko; Miyazaki, Shota; Ma, Yan; Ohira, Masayoshi; Fiehn, Oliver; Ikegami, Tohru; McCalley, David V; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2016-06-10

    Separation of diastereomers of dl-α-tocopherol was studied by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using three types of stationary phases, polymeric ODS, polymeric C30, and monomeric ODS. Polymeric ODS stationary phase (Inertsil ODS-P, 3mmID, 20cm) was effective for the separation of the isomers created by the presence of three chiral centers on the alkyl chain of synthetic dl-α-tocopherol. Considerable improvement of the separation of isomers was observed on ODS-P phase at high pressure and at low temperature. Complete separation of four pairs of diastereomers was achieved at 12.0°C, 536bar, while three peaks were observed when the separation was carried out either at 12.0°C at low pressure or at 20°C at 488bar. Higher temperature (30.0°C) with the ODS-P phase resulted in only partial separation of the diastereomers even at high pressure. Only slight resolution was observed for the mixture of diastereomers with the C30 stationary phase (Inertsil C30) at 12.0°C and 441bar, although the stationary phase afforded greater resolution for β- and γ-tocopherol than ODS-P. A monomeric C18 stationary phase did not show any separation at 12.0°C and 463bar. The results suggest that the binding site of the polymeric ODS-P phase is selective for flexible alkyl chains that provided the longest retention for the natural form, (R,R,R) form, and the enantiomer, (S,S,S) form, of dl-α-tocopherol. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Nanoparticle/Polymer Nanocomposite Bond Coat or Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.

    2011-01-01

    This innovation addresses the problem of coatings (meant to reduce gas permeation) applied to polymer matrix composites spalling off in service due to incompatibility with the polymer matrix. A bond coat/coating has been created that uses chemically functionalized nanoparticles (either clay or graphene) to create a barrier film that bonds well to the matrix resin, and provides an outstanding barrier to gas permeation. There is interest in applying clay nanoparticles as a coating/bond coat to a polymer matrix composite. Often, nanoclays are chemically functionalized with an organic compound intended to facilitate dispersion of the clay in a matrix. That organic modifier generally degrades at the processing temperature of many high-temperature polymers, rendering the clay useless as a nano-additive to high-temperature polymers. However, this innovation includes the use of organic compounds compatible with hightemperature polymer matrix, and is suitable for nanoclay functionalization, the preparation of that clay into a coating/bondcoat for high-temperature polymers, the use of the clay as a coating for composites that do not have a hightemperature requirement, and a comparable approach to the preparation of graphene coatings/bond coats for polymer matrix composites.

  10. High temperature oxidation behavior of SiC coating in TRISO coated particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Rongzheng; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Kaihong; Liu, Malin; Shao, Youlin; Tang, Chunhe

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High temperature oxidation tests of SiC coating in TRISO particles were carried out. • The dynamic oxidation process was established. • Oxidation mechanisms were proposed. • The existence of silicon oxycarbides at the SiO 2 /SiC interface was demonstrated. • Carbon was detected at the interface at high temperatures and long oxidation time. - Abstract: High temperature oxidation behavior of SiC coatings in tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated particles is crucial to the in-pile safety of fuel particles for a high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). The postulated accident condition of air ingress was taken into account in evaluating the reliability of the SiC layer. Oxidation tests of SiC coatings were carried out in the ranges of temperature between 800 and 1600 °C and time between 1 and 48 h in air atmosphere. Based on the microstructure evolution of the oxide layer, the mechanisms and kinetics of the oxidation process were proposed. The existence of silicon oxycarbides (SiO x C y ) at the SiO 2 /SiC interface was demonstrated by X-ray photospectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Carbon was detected by Raman spectroscopy at the interface under conditions of very high temperatures and long oxidation time. From oxidation kinetics calculation, activation energies were 145 kJ/mol and 352 kJ/mol for the temperature ranges of 1200–1500 °C and 1550–1600 °C, respectively

  11. Modeling of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, B. L.; Petrus, G. J.; Krauss, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    The project examined the effectiveness of studying the creep behavior of thermal barrier coating system through the use of a general purpose, large strain finite element program, NIKE2D. Constitutive models implemented in this code were applied to simulate thermal-elastic and creep behavior. Four separate ceramic-bond coat interface geometries were examined in combination with a variety of constitutive models and material properties. The reason for focusing attention on the ceramic-bond coat interface is that prior studies have shown that cracking occurs in the ceramic near interface features which act as stress concentration points. The model conditions examined include: (1) two bond coat coefficient of thermal expansion curves; (2) the creep coefficient and creep exponent of the bond coat for steady state creep; (3) the interface geometry; and (4) the material model employed to represent the bond coat, ceramic, and superalloy base.

  12. Tablet coating by injection molding technology - Optimization of coating formulation attributes and coating process parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Parind M; Puri, Vibha; Brancazio, David; Halkude, Bhakti S; Hartman, Jeremy E; Wahane, Aniket V; Martinez, Alexander R; Jensen, Keith D; Harinath, Eranda; Braatz, Richard D; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2018-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a solvent-free injection molding (IM) coating technology that could be suitable for continuous manufacturing via incorporation with IM tableting. Coating formulations (coating polymers and plasticizers) were prepared using hot-melt extrusion and screened via stress-strain analysis employing a universal testing machine. Selected coating formulations were studied for their melt flow characteristics. Tablets were coated using a vertical injection molding unit. Process parameters like softening temperature, injection pressure, and cooling temperature played a very important role in IM coating processing. IM coating employing polyethylene oxide (PEO) based formulations required sufficient room humidity (>30% RH) to avoid immediate cracks, whereas other formulations were insensitive to the room humidity. Tested formulations based on Eudrajit E PO and Kollicoat IR had unsuitable mechanical properties. Three coating formulations based on hydroxypropyl pea starch, PEO 1,000,000 and Opadry had favorable mechanical (35% elongation, >95×10 4 J/m 3 toughness) and melt flow (>0.4g/min) characteristics, that rendered acceptable IM coats. These three formulations increased the dissolution time by 10, 15 and 35min, respectively (75% drug release), compared to the uncoated tablets (15min). Coated tablets stored in several environmental conditions remained stable to cracking for the evaluated 8-week time period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ni-Flash-Coated Galvannealed Steel Sheet with Improved Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, D.; Dutta, M.; Venugopalan, T.

    2016-11-01

    In the last several years, automobile industries have increasingly focused on galvannealed (GA) steel sheet due to their superior properties such as weldability, paintability and corrosion protection. To improve the properties further, different coatings on GA have been reported. In this context, an electroplating process (flash coating) of bright and adherent Ni plating was developed on GA steel sheet for covering the GA defects and enhancing the performances such as weldability, frictional behavior, corrosion resistance and phosphatability. For better illustration, a comparative study with bare GA steel sheet has also been carried out. The maximum electroplating current density of 700 A/m2 yielded higher cathode current efficiency of 95-98%. The performances showed that Ni-coated (coating time 5-7 s) GA steel sheet has better spot weldability, lower dynamic coefficient of friction (0.07 in lubrication) and three times more corrosion resistance compared to bare GA steel sheet. Plate-like crystal of phosphate coating with size of 10-25 µm was obtained on the Ni-coated GA. The main phase in the phosphate compound was identified as hopeite (63.4 wt.%) along with other phases such as spencerite (28.3 wt.%) and phosphophyllite (8.3 wt.%).

  14. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  15. Determinação de fósforo orgânico em águas de produção petrolífera por ICP- AES e ICP- MS após pré-concentração em coluna de sílica-C18 Determination of organic phosphorus in oil production waters by ICP-AES and ICP-MS after preconcentration on silica immobilized C18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Araújo Rocha

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Results on the optimization of analytical methods for the determination of phosphorus in phosphino-polycarboxylate (PPCA, used frequently as scale inhibitor during oil production, by ICP-AES and ICP-MS are presented. Due to the complex matrix of production waters (brines and their high concentration in inorganic phosphorus, the separation of organic phosphorus prior to its determination is necessary. In this work, minicolumns of silica immobilized C18 were used. Optimization of the separation step resulted in the following working conditions: (1 prewashing of the column with methanol (80% v/v; (2 use of a flow rate of 5 mL/min and 10 mL/min, respectively, for the preconditioning step and for percolation of the water sample; (3 final elution of organic phosphorus with 7 mL of buffer of H3BO3/NaOH (0.05 M, pH 9 with a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Sample detection limits (3s for different combinations of nebulizers and spectrometric methods, based on 10 mL water aliquots, are: ICP-AES -Cross flow (47 mg/L and Ultrasonic (18 mug/L; ICP-MS -Cross flow (1.2 mug/L, Cyclonic (0.7 mug/L and Ultrasonic (0.5 mug/L. Typical recoveries of organic phosphorus are between 90 and 95% and the repeatability of the whole procedure is better than 10%. The developed methodology was applied successfully to samples from the oil-well NA 46, platform PNA 2, Campos basin, Brazil. Assessment of the PPCA inhibitor was possible at lower concentrations than achieved by current analytical methods, resulting in benefits such as reduced cost of chemicals, postponed oil production and lower environmental impacts.

  16. Superhydrophobic ceramic coating: Fabrication by solution precursor plasma spray and investigation of wetting behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengyun; Coyle, Thomas W; Pershin, Larry; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2018-03-16

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are often created by fabricating suitable surface structures from low-surface-energy organic materials using processes that are not suitable for large-scale fabrication. Rare earth oxides (REO) exhibit hydrophobic behavior that is unusual among oxides. Solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) deposition is a rapid, one-step process that can produce ceramic coatings with fine scale columnar structures. Manipulation of the structure of REO coatings through variation in deposition conditions may allow the wetting behavior to be controlled. Yb 2 O 3 coatings were fabricated via SPPS. Coating structure was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, digital optical microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The static water contact angle and roll-off angle were measured, and the dynamic impact of water droplets on the coating surface recorded. Superhydrophobic behavior was observed; the best coating exhibited a water contact angle of ∼163°, a roll-off angle of ∼6°, and complete droplet rebound behavior. All coatings were crystalline Yb 2 O 3 , with a nano-scale roughness superimposed on a micron-scale columnar structure. The wetting behaviors of coatings deposited at different standoff distances were correlated with the coating microstructures and surface topographies. The self-cleaning, water flushing and water jetting tests were conducted and further demonstrated the excellent and durable hydrophobicity of the coatings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ultrasonic guided wave sensing characteristics of large area thin piezo coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, V. T.; Jeyaseelan, A. Antony; Dutta, Soma; Mahapatra, D. Roy

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports on the characterization method and performance enhancement of thin piezo coating for ultrasonic guided wave sensing applications. We deposited the coatings by an in situ slurry coating method and studied their guided wave sensing properties on a one-dimensional metallic beam as a substrate waveguide. The developed piezo coatings show good sensitivity to the longitudinal and flexural modes of guided waves. Sensing voltage due to the guided waves at various different ultrasonic frequencies shows a linear dependence on the thickness of the coating. The coatings also exhibit linear sensor output voltage with respect to the induced dynamic strain magnitude. Diameter/size of the piezo coatings strongly influences the voltage response in relation to the wavelength. The proposed method used a characterization set-up involving coated sensors, reference transducers and an analytical model to estimate the piezoelectric coefficient of the piezo coating. The method eliminates the size dependent effect on the piezo property accurately and gives further insight to design better sensors/filters with respect to frequency/wavelength of interest. The developed coatings will have interesting applications in structural health monitoring (SHM) and internet of things (IOT).

  18. Coatings for fusion reactor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The internal surfaces of a tokamak fusion reactor control the impurity injection and gas recycling into the fusion plasma. Coating of internal surfaces may provide a desirable and possibly necessary design flexibility for achieving the temperatures, ion densities and containment times necessary for net energy production from fusion reactions to take place. In this paper the reactor environments seen by various componentare reviewed along with possible materials responses. Characteristics of coating-substrate systems, important to fusion applications, are delineated and the present status of coating development for fusion applications is reviewed. Coating development for fusion applications is just beginning and poses a unique and important challenge for materials development

  19. Properties of radiation cured coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, E.G.; Spencer, D.S.; Boettcher, T.E.; Melbauer, M.A.; Skarjune, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    Coatings were prepared from acrylate or methacrylate functionalized resins to study the effect of end group functionality on the physical properties of u.v. and electron beam cured coatings. Cure response was measured by solid state NMR and gel extraction, as expected, methacrylate resins cured much slower. Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) revealed acrylate coatings have greater thermal stability. Properties such as tensile strength and hardness showed little effect of end group functionality or curing method. The O 2 and H 2 O permeabilities of the coating were correlated with the processing conditions. (author)

  20. Decontamination and coating of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.; Bush, S.P.; Lyon, C.E.; Walker, V.

    1988-01-01

    Technology is being developed to decontaminate lead used in shielding applications in contaminated environments for recycle as shieldings. Technology is also being developed to coat either decontaminated lead or new lead before it is used in contaminated environments. The surface of the coating is expected to be much easier to decontaminate than the original lead surface. If contamination becomes severely embedded in the coating and cannot be removed, it can be easily cut with a knife and removed from the lead. The used coating can be disposed of as radioactive (hot hazardous) waste. The lead can then be recoated for further use as a shielding material

  1. Coatings Technology Integration Office (CTIO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CTIO serves as the Air Force's central resource for aircraft coating systems and their applications. CTIO's primary objectives are pollution prevention and improved...

  2. An investigation into the mechanical and tribological properties of plasma electrolytic oxidation and hard-anodized coatings on 6082 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malayoglu, Ugur; Tekin, Kadir C.; Malayoglu, Ufuk; Shrestha, Suman

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Mechanical properties of PEO and anodised coatings were studied using ultra-micro hardness tester. → Elastic modulus and hardness of the PEO coating were found much higher than those of the anodised coating. → Improved sliding wear of PEO coating is due to presence of hard α and γ-Al 2 O 3 phases. - Abstract: A ceramic coating on AA6082 aluminum alloy prepared by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) has been studied and compared against a sulphuric acid hard-anodized coating on the same alloy. Surface morphology and microstructures of the coatings have been examined by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction is used to determine the phase composition of the coatings. The adhesion strength of the coatings has been evaluated using a scratch test method. The coating's mechanical properties such elastic modulus and hardness data have been generated using a dynamic ultra-microhardness tester. Sliding wear tests with different loading rates are performed on the coatings in order to assess their wear resistance. Test results show that the PEO treated samples exhibit significantly better mechanical properties compared to hard anodized samples. The elastic modulus and hardness of the PEO coating are 2-3 times greater than of the hard anodized coating and subsequently, an improved wear resistance of the PEO coating has been achieved. The mechanical properties of the coatings and their relations to their tribological performance are discussed.

  3. Coating material composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Tadashi; Ozeki, Takao; Kobayashi, Juichi; Nakamoto, Hideo; Maeda, Yutaka.

    1969-01-01

    A coating material composition is provided which can easily be cross-linked by irradiation with active energy, particularly electron beams and ultraviolet light, using a mixture of a prepolymer (a) with an addition reaction product (b). Such compositions have coating properties as good as thermosetting acrylic or amino alkyd resins. The prepolymer (a) is produced by primarily reacting at least 0.1 mol of saturated cyclocarboxylic acid anhydrides and/or alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acid anhydrides by addition reaction with one mol of hydroxyl radicals of a basic polymer having a molecular weight of 1,000 to 100,000, the basic polymer being obtained from 1%-40% of a hydroxyl radical containing vinyl monomer and at least 30% of (meth)acrylate monomer. One mol of the sum of hydroxyl radicals and carboxyl radicals of the primary reaction product undergoes a secondary addition reaction with at least 0.1 mol of an epoxy radical-containing vinyl monomer to form the prepolymer(a). The addition reaction product(b) is produced by reacting an epoxy radical-containing vinyl monomer with alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acids or their anhydrides. The coating material composition contains a majority of a mixture consisting of 10%-90% of (a) and 90%-10% of (b) above by weight. Four examples of the production of basic polymers, seven examples of the production of prepolymers, seven examples of the production of oligomers, and five examples of applications are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  4. Microplasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    ""This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the

  5. SPS: scrubbing or coating ?

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, J M

    2012-01-01

    The operation of the SPS with high intensity bunched beams is limited by the electron cloud building-up in both the arcs and long straight sections. Two consolidation options have been considered: mitigation of the electron cloud using coatings or relying, as before, on the scrubbing runs. A status report on both options will be given with a particular emphasis on measurements plans for 2012 and pending issues. The testing needs, corresponding beam parameters and MD time in 2012 will be addressed. The criteria for the decision making and the corresponding schedule will be discussed.

  6. SPS: scrubbing or coating?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The operation of the SPS with high intensity bunched beams is limited by the electron cloud building-up in both the arcs and long straight sections. Two consolidation options have been considered: suppression of the electron cloud build-up using coatings or relying, as before, on the scrubbing mitigation. A status report on both options will be given with a particular emphasis on measurements plans for 2012 and pending issues. The testing needs, corresponding beam parameters and MD time in 2012 will be addressed. The criteria for the decision making and the corresponding schedule will be discussed. (author)

  7. Radiation hardenable coating mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, D.D.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to coatings that harden under radiation and to their compositions. Specifically, this invention concerns unsaturated urethane resins polymerisable by addition and to compositions, hardening under the effect of radiation, containing these resins. These resins feature the presence of at least one unsaturated ethylenic terminal group of structure CH 2 =C and containing the product of the reaction of an organic isocyanate compound with at least two isocyanate groups and one polyester polyol with at least two hydroxyl groups, and one unsaturated monomer compound polymerisable by addition having a single active hydrogen group reacting with the isocyanate [fr

  8. Deposition of antimicrobial coatings on microstereolithography-fabricated microneedles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittard, Shaun D.; Miller, Philip R.; Jin, Chunming; Martin, Timothy N.; Boehm, Ryan D.; Chisholm, Bret J.; Stafslien, Shane J.; Daniels, Justin W.; Cilz, Nicholas; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Nasir, Adnan; Narayan, Roger J.

    2011-06-01

    Microneedles are small-scale needle-like projections that may be used for transdermal delivery of pharmacologic agents, including protein-containing and nucleic acid-containing agents. Commercial translation of polymeric microneedles would benefit from the use of facile and cost effective fabrication methods. In this study, visible light dynamic mask microstereolithography, a rapid prototyping technique that utilizes digital light projection for selective polymerization of a liquid resin, was used for fabrication of solid microneedle array structures out of an acrylate-based polymer. Pulsed laser deposition was used to deposit silver and zinc oxide coatings on the surfaces of the visible light dynamic mask microstereolithography-fabricated microneedle array structures. Agar diffusion studies were used to demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of the coated microneedle array structures. This study indicates that light-based technologies, including visible light dynamic mask microstereolithography and pulsed laser deposition, may be used to fabricate microneedles with antimicrobial properties for treatment of local skin infections.

  9. Federal Highway Administration 100-year coating study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The Federal Highway Administration 100-Year Coating Study was initiated in August 2009 to search for durable : coating systems at a reasonable cost. The objective of the study was to identify and evaluate coating materials that can : provide 100 year...

  10. Decoding white coat hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Dennis A; Park, Alex

    2017-01-01

    There is arguably no less understood or more intriguing problem in hypertension that the “white coat” condition, the standard concept of which is significantly blood pressure reading obtained by medical personnel of authoritative standing than that obtained by more junior and less authoritative personnel and by the patients themselves. Using hospital-initiated ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, the while effect manifests as initial and ending pressure elevations, and, in treated patients, a low daytime profile. The effect is essentially systolic. Pure diastolic white coat hypertension appears to be exceedingly rare. On the basis of the studies, we believe that the white coat phenomenon is a common, periodic, neuro-endocrine reflex conditioned by anticipation of having the blood pressure taken and the fear of what this measurement may indicate concerning future illness. It does not change with time, or with prolonged association with the physician, particularly with advancing years, it may be superimposed upon essential hypertension, and in patients receiving hypertensive medication, blunting of the nighttime dip, which occurs in about half the patients, may be a compensatory mechanisms, rather than an indication of cardiovascular risk. Rather than the blunted dip, the morning surge or the widened pulse pressure, cardiovascular risk appears to be related to elevation of the average night time pressure. PMID:28352632

  11. Ceramic protective coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbach, F.; Nicoll, A.

    1987-01-01

    The basic material of the above-mentioned layer consists of pure aluminium oxide or essentially aluminium oxide. To improve this protective layer metal oxides from the groups IIA, IIIA, IIIB, VB, VIB, VIIB or VIII of the periodic system are added to its basic material before the said protective coating is applied. In this way a corundum structure is formed in the case of aluminium oxide. Gallium oxide, vanadium oxide, chromium oxide or iron oxide are particularly suited for the correlation of such a corundum structure. The formation of the corundum structure increases the resistance of the protective coating to the corrosive effects of vanadium pentoxide and sodium sulfate. By the addition of a specific quantity of magnesium oxide it is possible not only to stimulate the formation of corundum but also to reduce the increase in grain size in the case of the aluminium oxide. The other metallic oxides are especially favorable to the formation of the corundum structure, so that preferably magnesium oxide is to be added to these metallic oxides in order to reduce the increase in grain size. (author)

  12. Effects of biofouling development on drag forces of hull coatings for ocean-going ships: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholdt, Asger; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Olsen, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents a systematic overview of the literature and describes the experimental methods used to quantify the drag of hull coatings. It also summarizes the findings of hull coating's drag performance and identifies the main parameters impacting it. The advantages and disadvantages...... of the reported methods listed in this review provide an assessment of the most efficient methods to quantify the drag performance of hull coatings. This review determines that drag performance of hull coating technology varies depending on whether the coating condition is newly applied, after dynamic or static...... seawater exposure. The summarized data reveal that, while several methods have attempted to quantify drag performance of hull coatings, other methods must be explored in order to accurately measure the long-term drag performance of hull coatings in conditions mimicking those that ship hulls encounter...

  13. Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Mark P.; Anderson, Lawrence G.; Post, Gordon L.

    2018-01-16

    Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings are applied to substrates. The electrically conductive clear coating includes to clear layer having a resinous binder with ultrafine non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide particles dispersed therein. The clear coating may be rapidly cured by subjecting the coating to infrared radiation that heats the tungsten oxide particles and surrounding resinous binder. Localized heating increases the temperature of the coating to thereby thermally cure the coating, while avoiding unwanted heating of the underlying substrate.

  14. White coat hypertension in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurko, Alexander; Minarik, Milan; Jurko, Tomas; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid

    2016-01-15

    The article summarizes current information on blood pressure changes in children during clinic visit. White coat as a general dressing of physicians and health care personnel has been widely accepted at the end of the 19th century. Two problems can be associated with the use of white coat: white coat phenomenon and white coat hypertension. Children often attribute pain and other unpleasant experience to the white coat and refuse afterwards cooperation with examinations. Definition of white coat hypertension in the literature is not uniform. It has been defined as elevated blood pressure in the hospital or clinic with normal blood pressure at home measured during the day by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring system. White coat effect is defined as temporary increase in blood pressure before and during visit in the clinic, regardless what the average daily ambulatory blood pressure values are. Clinical importance of white coat hypertension is mainly because of higher risk for cardiovascular accidents that are dependent on end organ damage (heart, vessels, kidney). Current data do not allow any clear recommendations for the treatment. Pharmacological therapy is usually started in the presence of hypertrophic left ventricle, changes in intimal/medial wall thickness of carotic arteries, microalbuminuria and other cardiovascular risk factors. Nonpharmacological therapy is less controversial and certainly more appropriate. Patients have to change their life style, need to eliminate as much cardiovascular risk factors as possible and sustain a regular blood pressure monitoring.

  15. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  16. Moisture transport in coated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meel, P.A. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Kopinga, K.; Jong, J. DE; Adan, O.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture accumulation inside wood causes favorable conditions for decay. Application of a coating alters the moisture sorption of wood and prevents accumulation of moisture. This paper presents the results of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the influence of a coating on the moisture

  17. Electroless alloy/composite coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The market for these coatings is expanding fast as the potential applications are on the rise. In the present article, an attempt has been made to review different electroless alloy/composite coatings with respect to bath types and their composition, properties and applications. Different characterisation studies have been ...

  18. Lignin based controlled release coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Eastham, D.

    2011-01-01

    Urea is a commonly used fertilizer. Due to its high water-solubility, misuse easily leads to excess nitrogen levels in the soil. The aim of this research was to develop an economically feasible and biodegradable slow-release coating for urea. For this purpose, lignin was selected as coating

  19. Foundry Coating Technology: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2011-01-01

    is important. In this review, a detailed description of these topics and examples are provided where necessary. A potential area of research in foundry coating development, using sol-gel process is suggested. The application of sol-gel technology in the development of foundry coatings is a novel approach....

  20. Intumescent coatings under fast heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Kristian Petersen; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Català, Pere

    2012-01-01

    Intumescent coatings are widely used to delay or minimise the destructive effects of fire. They are usually tested under conditions that simulate the relatively slow build-up of heat in a normal fire. Here, the effects of damage during a fire causing sudden heating of the coating were studied....

  1. Steam initiated hydrotalcite conversion coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Roefzaad, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    A facile process of exploiting high-temperature steam to deposit nvironmentally friendly hydrotalcite (HT) coatings on Al alloy 6060 was developed in a spray system. Scanning electron microscopy showed the formationf a continuous and conformal coating comprised of a compact mass of crystallites. ...

  2. Evanescent wave assisted nanomaterial coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Samir K; Pal, Sudipta Sarkar; Kumbhakar, Dharmadas; Tiwari, Umesh; Bhatnagar, Randhir

    2013-08-01

    In this work we present a novel nanomaterial coating technique using evanescent wave (EW). The gradient force in the EW is used as an optical tweezer for tweezing and self-assembling nanoparticles on the source of EW. As a proof of the concept, we have used a laser coupled etched multimode optical fiber, which generates EW for the EW assisted coating. The section-wise etched multimode optical fiber is horizontally and superficially dipped into a silver/gold nanoparticles solution while the laser is switched on. The fiber is left until the solution recedes due to evaporation leaving the fiber in air. The coating time usually takes 40-50 min at room temperature. The scanning electron microscope image shows uniform and thin coating of self-assembled nanoparticles due to EW around the etched section. A coating thickness optical fiber probes and other plasmonic circuits.

  3. Functional Plasma-Deposited Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykhaylo Pashechko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the problem of low adhesion of plasma sprayed coatings to the substrate. The subsequent laser treatment modes and their influence on the coating-substrate interface were studied. This allows to decrease the level of metstability of the coating, thus decreasing its hardness down to 11-12 GPa on the surface and to about 9 GPa on depth of 400 µm. The redistribution of alloying elements through solid and liquid diffusion improves mechanical properties and rises the adhesion up to 450 MPa after remelting and up to 90-110 MPa after laser-aided thermal cycling. At he same time, remelting of coating helps to decrease its porosity down to 1%. Obtained complex of properties also allows to improve wear resistance of coatings and to decrease friction factor.

  4. Self-Healing anticorrosive coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesterova, Tatyana

    %. The number is lower than anticipated and needs to be confirmed. Finally, a 3-D model, based on Monte-Carlo simulations, has been developed for prediction of healing efficiency of a microcapsule-based anticorrosive coating. Two kinds of cracks were considered: cracks accommodated within the bulk coating...... associated with development and testing of this type of coating. A laboratory investigation, to identify the most suitable method for production of mechanically stable (filled with industrially relevant core materials) and forming a free-flowing powder upon drying microcapsules, has been performed. Four...... reduces the intensity of crack formation (both in number and length) compared to filler-containing coatings and prevents the coating from flaking upon damage. Based on specular gloss measurements, a preliminary critical pigment (microcapsule) concentration (CPVC) value was estimated to about 30 vol...

  5. Understanding particulate coating microstructure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christine Cardinal

    How a dispersion of particulates suspended in a solvent dries into a solid coating often is more important to the final coating quality than even its composition. Essential properties like porosity, strength, gloss, particulate order, and concentration gradients are all determined by the way the particles come together as the coating dries. Cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryoSEM) is one of the most effective methods to directly visualize a drying coating during film formation. Using this method, the coating is frozen, arresting particulate motion and solidifying the sample so that it be imaged in an SEM. In this thesis, the microstructure development of particulate coatings was explored with several case studies. First, the effect of drying conditions was determined on the collapse of hollow latex particles, which are inexpensive whiteners for paint. Using cryoSEM, it was found that collapse occurs during the last stages of drying and is most likely to occur at high drying temperatures, humidity, and with low binder concentration. From these results, a theoretical model was proposed for the collapse of a hollow latex particle. CryoSEM was also used to verify a theoretical model for the particulate concentration gradients that may develop in a coating during drying for various evaporation, sedimentation and particulate diffusion rates. This work created a simple drying map that will allow others to predict the character of a drying coating based on easily calculable parameters. Finally, the effect of temperature on the coalescence and cracking of latex coatings was explored. A new drying regime for latex coatings was identified, where partial coalescence of particles does not prevent cracking. Silica was shown to be an environmentally friendly additive for preventing crack formation in this regime.

  6. Microstructures of friction surfaced coatings. A TEM study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, Javed; Kalvala, Prasad Rao; Misra, Mano

    2016-01-01

    The microstructures of dissimilar metal welds between 9Cr-1Mo (Modified) (P91) and austenitic stainless steel (AISI 304) with Ni-based alloy interlayers (Inconel 625, Inconel 600 and Inconel 800H) are reported. These interlayers were deposited by the friction surfacing method one over the other on P91 alloy, which was finally friction welded to AISI 304. In this paper, the results of microstructural evolution in the friction surfaced coated interlayers (Inconel 625, 600, 800H) are reported. For comparative purposes, the microstructures of consumable rods (Inconel 625, 600, 800H) and dissimilar metal base metals (P91 and AISI 304) were also reported. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited dynamic recrystallization. In friction surfaced coatings, the carbide particles were found to be finer and distributed uniformly throughout the matrix, compared to their rod counterparts.

  7. Optical coating preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belleville, P.; Sabary, F.; Marcel, C.

    2003-01-01

    In order to optimize the properties of optical components, thin film deposition with controlled thickness and refractive index is often needed. Two different deposition techniques are proposed in this article and illustrated with examples: physical vapor deposition (PVD) and liquid sol-gel process (LSG). PVD and LSG techniques are equivalent as far as the following topics are concerned: elaboration of oxide or composite coated material, optical performance, mechanical performance, and laser performance. PVD is better for the elaboration of metallic films, the design of multi-layers or complex pile-up of layers. LSG is better for the treatment of large surfaces, for substrates with complicated shapes and for its low cost. PVD technique has been widely used so it benefited from an industrial maturity and a clean technology concerning wastes and effluents. On the contrary LSG is a new technique not yet widely used in industrial processes but that looks promising. (A.C.)

  8. Effect of H2O and Y(O on Oxidation Behavior of NiCoCrAl Coating Within Thermal Barrier Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yi-qun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available NiCoCrAl coatings containing Y and Y oxide were made using vacuum plasma deposition and high-velocity oxygen fuel respectively, high temperature oxidation dynamics and cross-section microstructures of NiCoCrAl+Y and NiCoCrAl+Y(O coatings in Ar-16.7%O2, Ar-3.3%H2O and Ar-0.2%H2-0.9%H2O at 1100℃ were investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA and optical and electron microscope. The influencing mechanism of Y oxide on the oxidation of coatings at different atmosphere was compared by computation using First-Principles. The results show that Al2O3 layer on NiCoCrAl+Y coatings has more holes for internal oxidation on account of the element Y diffusion and enrichment on the interface. In addition, steam can promote the internal oxidation. While a thinner and uniform alumina form on NiCoCrAl+Y(O coatings because element Y is pinned by oxygen atoms during the preparation of coatings. Water vapor has less influence on protective alumina formation on the NiCoCrAl+Y(O coating. Therefore, oxidation behavior of NiCoCrAl coatings vary in composition and structure in different oxidizing atmosphere. Besides, Y and Y-enrichment oxides have key influences on the microstructure and the growth rate.

  9. Novel coating compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    An acrylic coating composition rapidly hardenable by irradiating with ionizing radiations or light beams is given using hydroxyl group-containing vinyl monomers, polycarboxylic acid anhydrides, epoxy group-containing vinyl monomers and an organic solvent having a boiling point of at least 120 0 C. The process comprises the steps of first and second reactions. The first reaction takes place between one mol of a hydroxyl group of a basic polymer and at least 0.1 mol of polycarboxylic acid anhydride, wherein the basic polymer has a molecular weight ranging from 5,000 to 100,000 and consists of 1-40% by weight of vinyl monomer containing hydroxyl group, at least 30% of (meth)acrylic monomer and other vinyl monomers if required. The second reaction takes place between one mol of hydroxyl plus a carboxyl group of the thus obtained basic polymer and at least 0.1 mol of an epoxy group-containing vinyl monomer to produce a prepolymer. The prepolymer is mixed with a solvent such as ethyl benzene to produce the coating material. The electron beam accelerator energy level may be 0.1-2.0 MeV. In light beam polymerization, benzoin is particularly utilized as an intensifying substance. In one example, a basic polymer is produced by reacting 39 parts of styrene, 37 parts of ethyl acrylate, 24 parts of 2-hydroxyl ethyl acrylate, 4 parts of dimethyl amino ethyl methacrylate and others. A prepolymer is produced by reacting this basic polymer with 30 parts of glycidyl acrylate and others. (Iwakiri, K.)

  10. How PE tape performs under concrete coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dritt, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    The program objectives were to evaluate the performance of polyethylene tape plant coating and fusion bonded epoxy powder systems with particular respect to the following: 1. Concrete coating application procedures; 2. The shear resistance during laying and retrieving operations of the coating at the various interfaces (a) Pipe and anti-corrosion coating; (b) Anti-corrosion coating and outerwrap; (c) Overlap areas of the anti-corrosion and outerwrap layers; (d) Between concrete and the various corrosion coatings during laying and retrieving operations. 3. Resistance to damage of the coating as a consequence of cracking or slippage of the concrete weight coating. 4. Ability of various coatings to withstand the damage during concrete application by both impact and compression methods; 5. Evaluation of tape and shrink sleeve joint coatings at the cut-back area as well as performance of tape under hot asphalt coating

  11. Avian Egg and Egg Coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    An ovulated egg of vertebrates is surrounded by unique extracellular matrix, the egg coat or zona pellucida, playing important roles in fertilization and early development. The vertebrate egg coat is composed of two to six zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins that are characterized by the evolutionarily conserved ZP-domain module and classified into six subfamilies based on phylogenetic analyses. Interestingly, investigations of biochemical and functional features of the ZP glycoproteins show that the roles of each ZP-glycoprotein family member in the egg-coat formation and the egg-sperm interactions seemingly vary across vertebrates. This might be one reason why comprehensive understandings of the molecular basis of either architecture or physiological functions of egg coat still remain elusive despite more than 3 decades of intensive investigations. In this chapter, an overview of avian egg focusing on the oogenesis are provided in the first section, and unique features of avian egg coat, i.e., perivitelline layer, including the morphology, biogenesis pathway, and physiological functions are discussed mainly on chicken and quail in terms of the characteristics of ZP glycoproteins in the following sections. In addition, these features of avian egg coat are compared to mammalian zona pellucida, from the viewpoint that the structural and functional varieties of ZP glycoproteins might be associated with the evolutionary adaptation to their reproductive strategies. By comparing the egg coat of birds and mammals whose reproductive strategies are largely different, new insights into the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate egg-sperm interactions might be provided.

  12. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. A.; Fohlen, G. M.; Sawko, P. M.; Fish, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    The development of fire-retardant coatings to protect surfaces which may be exposed to fire or extreme heat is a subject of intense interest to many industries. A fire-retardant paint has been developed which represents a new chemical approach for preparing intumescent coatings, and potentially, is very important to fire-prevention authorities. The requirements for a superior coating include ease of application, suitability to a wide variety of surfaces and finishes, and stability over an extended period of time within a broad range of ambient temperature and humidity conditions. These innovative coatings, when activated by the heat of a fire, react to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction. Two fire-protection mechanisms thus become available: (1) the char layer retards the flow of heat, due to the extremely low thermal conductivity; and (2) water vapor and sulfur dioxide are released, providing fire quenching properties. Still another mechanism functions in cases where the char, by virtue of its high oxidation resistance and low thermal conductivity, reaches a sufficiently high temperature to re-radiate much of the incident heat load. The coatings consist of dispersions of selective salts of a nitro-amino-arornatic compound. Specifically, para-nitroaniline bisulfate and the ammonium salt of para-nitroaniline-ortho sulphuric acid (2-amino-5-nitrobenzenesulphuric acid) are used. Suitable vehicles are cellulose nitrate of lacquer grade, a nitrite-phenolic modified rubber, or epoxy-polysulfide copolymer. Three separate formulations have been developed. A solvent is usually employed, such as methylethyl ketone, butyl acetate, or toluene, which renders the coatings suitably thin and which evaporates after the coatings are applied. Generally, the intumescent material is treated as insoluble in the vehicle, and is ground and dispersed in the vehicle and solvent like an

  13. Integrated Glass Coating Manufacturing Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, Brenor [Enki Technology Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This project aims to enable US module manufacturers to coat glass with Enki’s state of the art tunable functionalized AR coatings at the lowest possible cost and highest possible performance by encapsulating Enki’s coating process in an integrated tool that facilitates effective process improvement through metrology and data analysis for greater quality and performance while reducing footprint, operating and capital costs. The Phase 1 objective was a fully designed manufacturing line, including fully specified equipment ready for issue of purchase requisitions; a detailed economic justification based on market prices at the end of Phase 1 and projected manufacturing costs and a detailed deployment plan for the equipment.

  14. Laser-based coatings removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Over the years as building and equipment surfaces became contaminated with low levels of uranium or plutonium dust, coats of paint were applied to stabilize the contaminants in place. Most of the earlier paint used was lead-based paint. More recently, various non-lead-based paints, such as two-part epoxy, are used. For D ampersand D (decontamination and decommissioning), it is desirable to remove the paints or other coatings rather than having to tear down and dispose of the entire building. This report describes the use of pulse-repetetion laser systems for the removal of paints and coatings

  15. Hydrogen permeation resistant phosphate coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    A method for reducing hydrogen diffusion through metal wherein the metal is coated with a phosphate-radical-containing, phosphate-glass-forming material on at least one surface thereof. The coating is then heated to at least 350 0 C to form a phosphate glass. This method is especially applicable to nuclear reactors to minimize tritium diffusion. The coating is preferably formed with a solution of phosphoric acid which may also contain compounds such as MnSO 4 , SiO 2 and Na 2 Cr 2 0 7 . (author)

  16. Hydrogen permeation resistant phosphate coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    A method for reducing hydrogen diffusion through metal is described. The metal is coated with a phosphate-radical-containing, phosphate-glass-forming material on at least one surface. The coating is then heated to at least 350 0 C to form a phosphate glass. This method is especially applicable to nuclear reactors to minimize tritium diffusion. The coating is preferably formed with a solution of phosphoric acid which may also contain compounds such as MnSO 4 , SiO 2 and Na 2 Cr 2 O 7 . (author)

  17. Laser-based coatings removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.A. [F2 Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Over the years as building and equipment surfaces became contaminated with low levels of uranium or plutonium dust, coats of paint were applied to stabilize the contaminants in place. Most of the earlier paint used was lead-based paint. More recently, various non-lead-based paints, such as two-part epoxy, are used. For D&D (decontamination and decommissioning), it is desirable to remove the paints or other coatings rather than having to tear down and dispose of the entire building. This report describes the use of pulse-repetetion laser systems for the removal of paints and coatings.

  18. Experimental evaluation of coating delamination in vinyl coated metal forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Young Ki; Lee, Chan Joo; Kim, Byung Min; Lee, Jung Min; Byoen, Sang Doek; Lee, Soen Bong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new evaluation and prediction method for coating delamination during sheet metal forming is presented. On the basis of the forming limit diagram (FLD), the current study evaluates the delamination of PET coating by using a cross cut specimen, dome test, and rectangular cup drawing test. Dome test specimens were subjected to biaxial, plane strain, and uniaxial deformation modes. Rectangular cup drawing test specimens were subjected to the deep drawing deformation mode, and compression deformation mode. A vinyl coated metal (VCM) sheet consists of three layers of polymer on the sheet metals: a protective film, a PET layer and a PVC layer. The areas with coating delamination were identified, and the results of the evaluation were plotted according to major and minor strain values, depicting coating delamination. The constructed delamination limit diagram (DLD) can be used to determine the forming limit of VCM during the complex press forming process. ARGUS (GOM) was employed to identify the strain value and deformation mode of the delaminated surface after the press forming. After identifying the areas of delamination, the DLD of the PET coating can be constructed in a format similar to that of the FLD. The forming limit of the VCM sheet can be evaluated using the superimposition of the delamination limit strain of the coating onto the FLD of VCM sheet. The experimental results showed that the proposed test method will support the sheet metal forming process design for VCM sheets. The assessment method presented in this study can be used to determine the delamination limit strain under plastic deformation of other polymer coated metals. The experimental results suggested that the proposed testing method is effective in evaluating delamination for specific applications

  19. Experimental evaluation of coating delamination in vinyl coated metal forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Young Ki; Lee, Chan Joo; Kim, Byung Min [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Min [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Byoen, Sang Doek [HA Digital Engineering Gr., Seongsan Gu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soen Bong [Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    In this paper, a new evaluation and prediction method for coating delamination during sheet metal forming is presented. On the basis of the forming limit diagram (FLD), the current study evaluates the delamination of PET coating by using a cross cut specimen, dome test, and rectangular cup drawing test. Dome test specimens were subjected to biaxial, plane strain, and uniaxial deformation modes. Rectangular cup drawing test specimens were subjected to the deep drawing deformation mode, and compression deformation mode. A vinyl coated metal (VCM) sheet consists of three layers of polymer on the sheet metals: a protective film, a PET layer and a PVC layer. The areas with coating delamination were identified, and the results of the evaluation were plotted according to major and minor strain values, depicting coating delamination. The constructed delamination limit diagram (DLD) can be used to determine the forming limit of VCM during the complex press forming process. ARGUS (GOM) was employed to identify the strain value and deformation mode of the delaminated surface after the press forming. After identifying the areas of delamination, the DLD of the PET coating can be constructed in a format similar to that of the FLD. The forming limit of the VCM sheet can be evaluated using the superimposition of the delamination limit strain of the coating onto the FLD of VCM sheet. The experimental results showed that the proposed test method will support the sheet metal forming process design for VCM sheets. The assessment method presented in this study can be used to determine the delamination limit strain under plastic deformation of other polymer coated metals. The experimental results suggested that the proposed testing method is effective in evaluating delamination for specific applications.

  20. Dynamics of deforming drops

    OpenAIRE

    Bouwhuis, W.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid drops play a dominant role in numerous industrial applications, such as spray coating, spray painting, inkjet printing, lithography processes, and spraying/sprinkling in agriculture or gardening. In all of these examples, the generation, flight, impact, and spreading of drops are separate stages of the corresponding industrial processes, which are all thoroughly studied for many years. This thesis focuses on drop dynamics, impact phenomena, Leidenfrost drops, and pouring flows. Based o...

  1. Water permeability of pigmented waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, P.A.J.; Huinink, H.P.; Erich, S.J.F.; Reuvers, N.J.W.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Coatings are used in a variety of applications. Last decades more and more coating systems are transforming from solvent to waterborne coating systems. In this study the influence of pigments on the water permeability of a waterborne coating system is studied, with special interest in the possible

  2. Radiation cured coatings for fiber optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketley, A.D.; Morgan, C.R.

    1978-01-01

    A continuous protective coating is formed on a fiber optic by coating the fiber optic in a bath of a liquid radiation curable composition at a temperature up to 90 0 C and exposing the coated conductor to ultraviolet or high energy ionizing radiation to cure the coating

  3. Hex Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of the Hex Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics project is to evaluate and test pretreatment coating systems not containing hexavalent chrome in avionics and electronics housing applications. This objective will be accomplished by testing strong performing coating systems from prior NASA and DoD testing or new coating systems as determined by the stakeholders.

  4. Numerical Prediction of the Impact of Non-Uniform Leading Edge Coatings On the Aerodynamic Performance of Compressor Airfoils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elmstrom, Michael

    2004-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) investigation is presented that provides predictions of the aerodynamic impact of uniform and non-uniform coatings applied to the leading edge of a compressor airfoil in a cascade. Using a NACA 65(12...

  5. Programmed cell death during development of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seed coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Nathália Bastos; Trindade, Fernanda Gomes; da Cunha, Maura; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Topping, Jennifer; Lindsey, Keith; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales

    2015-04-01

    The seed coat develops primarily from maternal tissues and comprises multiple cell layers at maturity, providing a metabolically dynamic interface between the developing embryo and the environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination of seeds. Seed coat development involves dramatic cellular changes, and the aim of this research was to investigate the role of programmed cell death (PCD) events during the development of seed coats of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. We demonstrate that cells of the developing cowpea seed coats undergo a programme of autolytic cell death, detected as cellular morphological changes in nuclei, mitochondria, chloroplasts and vacuoles, DNA fragmentation and oligonucleosome accumulation in the cytoplasm, and loss of membrane viability. We show for the first time that classes 6 and 8 caspase-like enzymes are active during seed coat development, and that these activities may be compartmentalized by translocation between vacuoles and cytoplasm during PCD events. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Comparison of additive amount used in spin-coated and roll-coated organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Pei; Lin, Yuze; Zawacka, Natalia Klaudia

    2014-01-01

    All-polymer and polymer/fullerene inverted solar cells were fabricated by spin-coating and roll-coating processes. The spin-coated small-area (0.04 cm(2)) devices were fabricated on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates in nitrogen. The roll-coated large-area (1.0 cm(2)) devices were...

  7. Overlay metallic-cermet alloy coating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedwill, M.A.; Glasgow, T.K.; Levine, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    A substrate, such as a turbine blade, vane, or the like, which is subjected to high temperature use is coated with a base coating of an oxide dispersed, metallic alloy (cermet). A top coating of an oxidation, hot corrosion, erosion resistant alloy of nickel, cobalt, or iron is then deposited on the base coating. A heat treatment is used to improve the bonding. The base coating serves as an inhibitor to interdiffusion between the protective top coating and the substrate. Otherwise, the protective top coating would rapidly interact detrimentally with the substrate and degrade by spalling of the protective oxides formed on the outer surface at elevated temperatures

  8. Overlay metallic-cermet alloy coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedwill, M. A.; Levine, S. R.; Glasgow, T. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A substrate, such as a turbine blade, vane, or the like, which is subjected to high temperature use is coated with a base coating of an oxide dispersed, metallic alloy (cermet). A top coating of an oxidation, hot corrosion, erosion resistant alloy of nickel, cobalt, or iron is then deposited on the base coating. A heat treatment is used to improve the bonding. The base coating serves as an inhibitor to interdiffusion between the protective top coating and the substrate. Otherwise, the protective top coating would rapidly interact detrimentally with the substrate and degrade by spalling of the protective oxides formed on the outer surface at elevated temperatures.

  9. Seal coat binder performance specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Need to improve seal coat binder specs: replace empirical tests (penetration, ductility) with : performance-related tests applicable to both : unmodified and modified binders; consider temperatures that cover entire in service : range that are tied t...

  10. Protective coatings for commercial particulates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindl, B.; Teng, Y.H.; Liu, Y.L.

    1994-01-01

    SiC/Al composites are in large-scale production with Al-Si alloy matrices. The same composites with pure Al or low Si matrices need diffusion barriers on the SiC reinforcement to control the interfacial reaction. The present paper describes various approaches taken to obtain protective coatings...... of alumina and zirconia on SiC particulates by sol-gel techniques. Aqueous and organic precursors have been used. The extent of the reaction, i.e., the Si and Al4C3 content in the matrix, was determined by differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The reaction rates of some coated particulates...... in liquid Al are decreased by as much as one order of magnitude during the first 15 min of immersion. Pretreatments of the SiC surface, the composition and thickness of the coating interphase and heat treatments of the coated materials have been studied, and are discussed in relation to their effect...

  11. Cementless Hydroxyapatite Coated Hip Prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil-Albarova, Jorge; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Ibarz, Elena; Gabarre, Sergio; Más, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA), calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality. PMID:25802848

  12. Black Sprayable Molecular Adsorber Coating

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of this technology project is to develop, optimize, and flight qualify a black version of the molecular adsorber coating and a conductive version...

  13. Self-stratifying antimicrobial coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yagci, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Today, antimicrobial polymers/coatings are widely used in various areas, such as biomedical devices, pharmaceuticals, hospital buildings, textiles, food processing, and contact lenses, where sanitation is needed. Such wide application facilities have made antimicrobial materials very attractive for

  14. Smart Coatings for Corrosion Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Li, Wendy; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Johnsey, Marissa N.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. It is essential to detect corrosion when it occurs, and preferably at its early stage, so that action can be taken to avoid structural damage or loss of function. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it.

  15. Dielectric coatings on metal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaros, S.S.; Baker, P.; Milam, D.

    1976-01-01

    Large aperture, beryllium substrate-based mirrors have been used to focus high intensity pulsed laser beams. Finished surfaces have high reflectivity, low wavefront distortion, and high laser damage thresholds. This paper describes the development of a series of metallic coatings, surface finishing techniques, and dielectric overcoatings to meet specified performance requirements. Beryllium substrates were coated with copper, diamond-machined to within 5 micro-inches to final contour, nickel plated, and abrasively figured to final contour. Bond strengths for several bonding processes are presented. Dielectric overcoatings were deposited on finished multimetallic substrates to increase both reflectivity and the damage thresholds. Coatings were deposited using both high and low temperature processes which induce varying stresses in the finished coating substrate system. Data are presented to show the evolution of wavefront distortion, reflectivity, and damage thresholds throughout the many steps involved in fabrication

  16. Cementless Hydroxyapatite Coated Hip Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA, calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality.

  17. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Jack J.; Elling, David; Reams, Walter

    1990-01-01

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  18. Nanocrystalline diamond coatings for machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, M.; Breidt, D.; Cremer, R. [CemeCon AG, Wuerselen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    This history of CVD diamond synthesis goes back to the fifties of the last century. However, the scientific and economical potential was only gradually recognized. In the eighties, intensive worldwide research on CVD diamond synthesis and applications was launched. Industrial products, especially diamond-coated cutting tools, were introduced to the market in the middle of the nineties. This article shows the latest developments in this area, which comprises nanocrystalline diamond coating structures. (orig.)

  19. Dry and coating of powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, M.; Alguacil, F. J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a review on the mixing and coating of powders by dry processes. The reviews surveys fundamental works on mixture characterization (mixing index definitions and sampling techniques), mixing mechanisms and models, segregation with especial emphasis on free-surface segregation, mixing of cohesive powders and interparticle forces, ordered mixing (dry coating) including mechanism, model and applications and mixing equipment selection. (Author) 180 refs

  20. Silicone nanocomposite coatings for fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberts, Kenneth (Inventor); Lee, Stein S. (Inventor); Singhal, Amit (Inventor); Ou, Runqing (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A silicone based coating for fabrics utilizing dual nanocomposite fillers providing enhanced mechanical and thermal properties to the silicone base. The first filler includes nanoclusters of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and a metal oxide and a second filler of exfoliated clay nanoparticles. The coating is particularly suitable for inflatable fabrics used in several space, military, and consumer applications, including airbags, parachutes, rafts, boat sails, and inflatable shelters.

  1. Coating of silicon pore optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Ackermann, M.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2009-01-01

    For the International X-ray observatory (IXO), a mirror module with an effective area of 3 m2 at 1.25 keV and at least 0.65 m2 at 6 keV has to be realized. To achieve this goal, coated silicon pore optics has been developed over the last years. One of the challenges is to coat the Si plates...

  2. Damage-resistant brittle coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawn, B.R.; Lee, K.S. [National Inst. of Stand. and Technol., Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Mater. Sci. and Eng. Lab.; Chai, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Faculty of Engineering; Pajares, A. [Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Kim, D.K. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technolgy, Taejon (Korea). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Wuttiphan, S. [National Metal and Materials Technology Center, Bangkok (Thailand); Peterson, I.M. [Corning Inc., NY (United States); Hu Xiaozhi [Western Australia Univ., Nedlands, WA (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

    2000-11-01

    Laminate structures consisting of hard, brittle coatings and soft, tough substrates are important in a wide variety of engineering applications, biological structures, and traditional pottery. In this study the authors introduce a new approach to the design of damage-resistant brittle coatings, based on a combination of new and existing relations for crack initiation in well-defined contact-induced stress fields. (orig.)

  3. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jor-Shan [El Cerrito, CA; Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Lee, Chuck K [Hayward, CA; Walker, Jeffrey [Gaithersburg, MD; Russell, Paige [Las Vegas, NV; Kirkwood, Jon [Saint Leonard, MD; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Champagne, Victor [Oxford, PA

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  4. Urea functionalized surface-bonded sol-gel coating for on-line hyphenation of capillary microextraction with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jillani, Shehzada Muhammad Sajid; Alhooshani, Khalid

    2018-03-30

    Sol-gel urea functionalized-[bis(hydroxyethyl)amine] terminated polydimethylsiloxane coating was developed for capillary microextraction-high performance liquid chromatographic analysis from aqueous samples. A fused silica capillary is coated from the inside with surface bonded coating material and is created through in-situ sol-gel reaction. The urea-functionalized coating was immobilized to the inner surface of the capillary by the condensation reaction of silanol groups of capillary and sol-solution. The characterization of the coating material was successfully done by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, field emission scanning electron microscope, and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. To make a setup of online capillary microextraction-high performance liquid chromatography, the urea functionalized capillary was installed in the HPLC manual injection port. The analytes of interest were pre-concentrated in the coated sampling loop, desorbed by the mobile phase, chromatographically separated on C-18 column, and analyzed by UV detector. Sol-gel coated capillaries were used for online extraction and high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of phenols, ketones, aldehydes, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. This newly developed coating showed excellent extraction for a variety of analytes ranging from highly polar to non-polar in nature. The analysis using sol-gel coating showed excellent overall sensitivity in terms of lower detection limits (S/N = 3) for the analytes (0.10 ng mL -1 -14.29 ng mL -1 ) with acceptable reproducibility that is less than 12.0%RSD (n = 3). Moreover, the capillary to capillary reproducibility of the analysis was also tested by changing the capillary of the same size. This provided excellent%RSD of less than 10.0% (n = 3). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Silane based coating of aluminium mold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    having at least one closed cavity is provided, at least one surface of the at least one cavity being an aluminium surface coated with a silane based coating layer. The silane based anti-stiction coating improves the anti-stiction properties of the mold which may allow for molding and demolding...... of structures which would otherwise be difficult to mold. The resistance of the coated aluminium mold is significantly improved by applying a silane-based coating layer....

  6. Switchable antifouling coatings and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Michele L. Baca; Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross Stefan

    2017-02-28

    The present invention relates to antifouling coatings capable of being switched by using heat or ultraviolet light. Prior to switching, the coating includes an onium cation component having antimicrobial and antibacterial properties. Upon switching, the coating is converted to a conjugated polymer state, and the cationic component is released with any adsorbed biofilm layer. Thus, the coatings herein have switchable and releasable properties. Methods of making and using such coatings are also described.

  7. Graphene: corrosion-inhibiting coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasai, Dhiraj; Tuberquia, Juan Carlos; Harl, Robert R; Jennings, G Kane; Rogers, Bridget R; Bolotin, Kirill I

    2012-02-28

    We report the use of atomically thin layers of graphene as a protective coating that inhibits corrosion of underlying metals. Here, we employ electrochemical methods to study the corrosion inhibition of copper and nickel by either growing graphene on these metals, or by mechanically transferring multilayer graphene onto them. Cyclic voltammetry measurements reveal that the graphene coating effectively suppresses metal oxidation and oxygen reduction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements suggest that while graphene itself is not damaged, the metal under it is corroded at cracks in the graphene film. Finally, we use Tafel analysis to quantify the corrosion rates of samples with and without graphene coatings. These results indicate that copper films coated with graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition are corroded 7 times slower in an aerated Na(2)SO(4) solution as compared to the corrosion rate of bare copper. Tafel analysis reveals that nickel with a multilayer graphene film grown on it corrodes 20 times slower while nickel surfaces coated with four layers of mechanically transferred graphene corrode 4 times slower than bare nickel. These findings establish graphene as the thinnest known corrosion-protecting coating.

  8. Polymeric Coatings for Combating Biocorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Yuan, Shaojun; Jiang, Wei; Lv, Li; Liang, Bin; Pehkonen, Simo O.

    2018-03-01

    Biocorrosion has been considered as big trouble in many industries and marine environments due to causing great economic loss. The main disadvantages of present approaches to prevent corrosion include being limited by environmental factors, being expensive, inapplicable to field, and sometimes inefficient. Studies show that polymer coatings with anti-corrosion and anti-microbial properties have been widely accepted as a novel and effective approach to preventbiocorrosion. The main purpose of this review is to summarize up the progressive status of polymer coatings used for combating microbially-induced corrosion. Polymers used to synthesize protective coatings are generally divided into three categories: i) traditional polymers incorporated with biocides, ii) antibacterial polymers containing quaternary ammonium compounds, and iii) conductive polymers. The strategies to synthesize polymer coatings resort mainly to grafting anti-bacterial polymers from the metal substrate surface using novel surface-functionalization approaches, such as free radical polymerization, chemically oxidative polymerization and surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization, as opposed to the traditional approaches of dip coating or spin coating.

  9. Electron beam-cured coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Naoyuki

    1976-01-01

    The method for hardening coatings by the irradiation with electron beams is reviewed. The report is divided into seven parts, namely 1) general description and characteristics of electron beam-cured coating, 2) radiation sources of curing, 3) hardening conditions and reaction behaviour, 4) uses and advantages, 5) latest trends of the industry, 6) practice in the field of construction materials, and 7) economy. The primary characteristics of the electron beam hardening is that graft reaction takes place between base resin and coating to produce strong adhesive coating without any pretreatment. A variety of base resins are developed. High class esters of acrylic acid monomers and methacrylic acid monomers are mainly used as dilutants recently. At present, scanning type accelerators are used, but the practical application of the system producing electron beam of curtain type is expected. The dose rate dependence, the repetitive irradiation and the irradiation atmosphere are briefly described. The filed patent applications on the electron beam hardening were analyzed by the officer of Japan Patent Agency. The production lines for coatings by the electron beam hardening in the world are listed. In the electron beam-cured coating, fifty percent of given energy is consumed effectively for the electron beam hardening, and the solvents discharged from ovens and polluting atmosphere are not used, because the paints of high solid type is used. The running costs of the electron beam process are one sixth of the thermal oven process. (Iwakiri, K.)

  10. Thin film coatings for space electrical power system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulino, Daniel A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines some of the ways in which thin film coatings can play a role in aerospace applications. Space systems discussed include photovoltaic and solar dynamic electric power generation systems, including applications in environmental protection, thermal energy storage, and radiator emittance enhancement. Potential applications of diamondlike films to both atmospheric and space based systems are examined. Also, potential uses of thin films of the recently discovered high-temperature superconductive materials are discussed.

  11. Coatings and Tints of Spectacle Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zeki Büyükyıldız

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spectacle lenses are made of mineral or organic (plastic materials. Various coatings and tints are applied to the spectacle lenses according to the characteristic of the lens material, and for the personal needs and cosmetic purpose. The coatings may be classified in seven groups: 1 Anti-reflection coatings, 2 Hard coatings, 3 Clean coat, 4 Mirror coatings, 5 Color tint coating (one of coloring processes, 6 Photochromic coating (one of photochromic processes, and 7 Anti-fog coatings. Anti-reflection coatings reduce unwanted reflections from the lens surfaces and increase light transmission. Hard coatings are applied for preventing the plastic lens surface from scratches and abrasion. Hard coatings are not required for the mineral lenses due to their hardness. Clean coat makes the lens surface smooth and hydrophobic. Thus, it prevents the adherence of dust, tarnish, and dirt particles on the lens surface. Mirror coatings are applied onto the sunglasses for cosmetic purpose. Color tinted and photochromic lenses are used for sun protection and absorption of the harmful UV radiations. Anti-fog coatings make the lens surface hydrophilic and prevent the coalescence of tiny water droplets on the lens surface that reduces light transmission. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 359-69

  12. Mechanics of couple-stress fluid coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    The formal development of a theory of viscoelastic surface fluids with bending resistance - their kinematics, dynamics, and rheology are discussed. It is relevant to the mechanics of fluid drops and jets coated by a thin layer of immiscible fluid with rather general rheology. This approach unifies the hydrodynamics of two-dimensional fluids with the mechanics of an elastic shell in the spirit of a Cosserat continuum. There are three distinct facets to the formulation of surface continuum mechanics. Outlined are the important ideas and results associated with each: the kinematics of evolving surface geometries, the conservation laws governing the mechanics of surface continua, and the rheological equations of state governing the surface stress and moment tensors.

  13. Combination of Tung oil and Natural Rubber Latex in PVA as Water Based Coatings for Paperboard Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianprasert Apichaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on the preparation of the PVA/TO/NRL coatings for paperboard by using poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA as substance and blending with Tung oil (TO and/or natural rubber latex (NRL in order to enhance water resistance and dynamic mechanical properties. The effects of TO: NRL ratios on the structures were investigated by water resistance property and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMA. The results showed that the water resistance property was improved by crosslinking of TO and film forming of NRL. The PVA/TO/NRL coating containing both TO and NRL gave better thermal behavior than those with only TO or NRL. For paperboard application, the PVA/TO/NRL coatings were applied on the paperboard to study water affinity and absorption rate on the coated surface. The rate of contact angle change of water on coated paperboards decreased depending on the ratios of TO and NRL.

  14. Plum coatings of lemongrass oil-incorporating carnauba wax-based nanoemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Hah; Lee, Hanna; Kim, Jung Eun; Song, Kyung Bin; Lee, Youn Suk; Chung, Dae Sung; Min, Sea C

    2013-10-01

    Nanoemulsions containing lemongrass oil (LO) were developed for coating plums and the effects of the nanoemulsion coatings on the microbial safety and physicochemical storage qualities of plums during storage at 4 and 25 °C were investigated. The emulsions used for coating were produced by mixing a carnauba wax-based solution (18%, w/w) with LO at various concentrations (0.5% to 4.0%, w/w) using dynamic high pressure processing at 172 MPa. The coatings were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and their ability to preserve various physicochemical qualities of plums. Uniform and continuous coatings on plums, formed with stable emulsions, initially inhibited S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 by 0.2 to 2.8 and 0.8 to 2.7 log CFU/g, respectively, depending on the concentration of LO and the sequence of coating. The coatings did not significantly alter the flavor, fracturability, or glossiness of the plums. The antimicrobial effects of the coatings against S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 were demonstrated during storage at 4 and 25 °C. The coatings reduced weight loss and ethylene production by approximately 2 to 3 and 1.4 to 4.0 fold, respectively, and also retarded the changes in lightness and the concentration of phenolic compounds in plums during storage. The firmness of coated plums was generally higher than uncoated plums when stored at 4 °C and plum respiration rates were reduced during storage. Coatings containing nanoemulsions of LO have the potential to inhibit Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 contamination of plums and may extend plum shelf life. Journal of Food Science © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  15. Titania-coated manganite nanoparticles: Synthesis of the shell, characterization and MRI properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirák, Zdeněk; Kuličková, Jarmila [Institute of Physics, AS CR, Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Herynek, Vít [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Vídeňská 1958/9, 140 21 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Maryško, Miroslav [Institute of Physics, AS CR, Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Koktan, Jakub [Institute of Physics, AS CR, Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Kaman, Ondřej, E-mail: kamano@seznam.cz [Institute of Physics, AS CR, Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Praha 6 (Czech Republic)

    2017-04-01

    Novel procedure for coating of oxide nanoparticles with titania, employing hydrolysis and polycondensation of titanium alkoxides under high-dilution conditions and cationic surfactants, is developed and applied to magnetic cores of perovskite manganite. Bare particles of the ferromagnetic La{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.35}MnO{sub 3} phase, possessing high magnetization, M{sub 10} {sub kOe}(4.5 K) = 63.5 emu g{sup −1}, and Curie temperature, T{sub C} = 355 K, are synthesized by sol-gel procedure and subsequently coated with titania. Further, a comparative silica-coated product is prepared. In order to analyse the morphology, colloidal stability, and surface properties of these two types of coated particles, a detailed study by means of transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, zeta-potential measurements, and IR spectroscopy is carried out. The experiments on the titania-coated sample reveal a continuous though porous character of the TiO{sub 2} shell, the nature of which is amorphous but can be transformed to anatase at higher temperatures. Finally, the relaxometric study at the magnetic field of 0.5 T, performed to quantity the transverse relaxivity and its temperature dependence, reveals important differences between the titania-coated and silica-coated nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Magnetic nanoparticles of perovskite La{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.35}MnO{sub 3} phase are coated with TiO{sub 2}. • The titania forms a continuous and amorphous shell and provides colloidal stability. • Morphology and surface properties are compared to a silica-coated product. • MRI properties of both the titania- and silica-coated particles are studied at 0.5 T. • The temperature dependence of r{sub 2} is strongly affected by the type of coating.

  16. The oxidation behavior of classical thermal barrier coatings exposed to extreme temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina DRAGOMIRESCU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermal barrier coatings (TBC are designed to protect metal surfaces from extreme temperatures and improve their resistance to oxidation during service. Currently, the most commonly used systems are those that have the TBC structure bond coat (BC / top coat (TC layers. The top coat layer is a ceramic layer. Oxidation tests are designed to identify the dynamics of the thermally oxide layer (TGO growth at the interface of bond coat / top coat layers, delamination mechanism and the TBC structural changes induced by thermal conditions. This paper is a short study on the evolution of aluminum oxide protective layer along with prolonged exposure to the testing temperature. There have been tested rectangular specimens of metal super alloy with four surfaces coated with a duplex thermal barrier coating system. The specimens were microscopically and EDAX analyzed before and after the tests. In order to determine the oxide type, the samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction. The results of the investigation are encouraging for future studies. The results show a direct relationship between the development of the oxide layer and long exposure to the test temperature. Future research will focus on changing the testing temperature to compare the results.

  17. Large area IBAD deposition of Zn-alloys in the coil coating mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, G.K.; Preiss, G.; Muenz, R.; Guzman, L.

    2001-01-01

    In the last years many studies on IBAD coatings on metals and insulators for wear reduction and corrosion protection have been published. However the IBAD deposition of larger areas (>10 x 10 cm) is still a major problem. Therefore we have developed a coil coater running inside the IBAD deposition chamber and allowing very flexible deposition modes. Single layers, multilayers and alloys can be deposited under ion bombardment on substrates up to 30 by 40 cm or on metal and polymer strips 30 cm wide. A number of examples dealing with Zn-alloy coatings on low alloy steel are reported: pure Zn-coatings were compared with Zn/Ti-alloys Zn/Cr-alloys and Zn/Mn-alloys. In some cases also multilayers of the different metals were studied in the static and dynamic operation mode. The coatings had a thickness of 2-8 μm and their corrosion behaviour was investigated by salt spray tests. The microstructure of the coatings was studied by electron microscopy and EDX-depth profiling. The behaviour of the coating/substrate system is discussed in comparison with 'state-of-the-art' Zn-coatings produced by electrogalvanizing. Generally speaking the performance of the optimized coatings was as good as or better than the electrogalvanized standard

  18. Analysis of Capillary Coating Die Flow in an Optical Fiber Coating Applicator

    OpenAIRE

    Kyoungjin Kim

    2011-01-01

    Viscous heating becomes significant in the high speed resin coating process of glass fibers for optical fiber manufacturing. This study focuses on the coating resin flows inside the capillary coating die of optical fiber coating applicator and they are numerically simulated to examine the effects of viscous heating and subsequent temperature increase in coating resin. Resin flows are driven by fast moving glass fiber and the pressurization at the coating die inlet, while ...

  19. Sectorial oscillation of acoustically levitated nanoparticle-coated droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Duyang; Chen, Zhen; Geng, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the dynamics of a third mode sectorial oscillation of nanoparticle-coated droplets using acoustic levitation in combination with active modulation. The presence of nanoparticles at the droplet surface changes its oscillation amplitude and frequency. A model linking the interfacial rheology and oscillation dynamics has been proposed in which the compression modulus ɛ of the particle layer is introduced into the analysis. The ɛ obtained with the model is in good agreement with that obtained by the Wilhelmy plate approach, highlighting the important role of interfacial rheological properties in the sectorial oscillation of droplets.

  20. Pin Wire Coating Trip Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spellman, G P

    2004-01-01

    A meeting to discuss the current pin wire coating problems was held at the Reynolds plant in Los Angeles on 2MAR04. The attendance list for Reynolds personnel is attached. there was an initial presentation which gave a brief history and the current status of pin wire coating at Reynolds. There was a presentation by Lori Primus on the requirements and issues for the coating. There was a presentation by Jim Smith of LANL on the chemistry and to some extent process development done to date. There was a long session covering what steps should be taken in the short term and, to a lesser extent, the long term. The coating currently being used is a blend of two polymers, polyethersulfone and polyparabanic acid (PPA) and some TiO2 filler. This system was accepted and put into production when the pin wire coating was outsourced to another company in 1974. When that company no longer was interested, the wire coating was brought in-house to Reynolds. At that time polyparabanic acid was actually a commercial product available from Exxon under the trade name Tradlon. However, it appears that the material used at Reynolds was synthesized locally. Also, it appears that a single large batch was synthesized in that time period and used up to 1997 when the supply ran out. The reason for the inclusion of TiO2 is not known although it does act as a rheological thickener. However, a more controlled thickening can be obtained with materials such as fumed silica. This material would have less likelihood of causing point imperfections in the coatings. Also, the mixing technique being used for all stages of the process is a relatively low shear ball mill process and the author recommends a high shear process such as a three roll paint mill, at least for the final mixing. Since solvent is added to the powder at Reynolds, it may be that they need to have the paint mill there

  1. Advanced Marine Coatings for Naval Vessels - Phase 1. Antifouling and Fouling Release Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    ... in combinatorial materials chemistry high-throughput discovery and evaluation methodology. The protective coatings application being addressed is environmentally compliant antifouling and fouling release coating for Navy ships...

  2. Estudio de la efectividad de las columnas de extracción de octadecilo C18 en la evaluación del amargor (K225 del aceite de oliva virgen. Error y esquema analítico del método de evaluación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perdiguero Camacho, S.

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study developed two objetives: 1 to study the possibility of repeatedly using disposable C18 columns 2 to determine an appropriate analytical scheme and the inherent systematic error in the method to evaluate bitter substances in virgin olive oil. The results confirmed that we were able to recover the principles of olive oil without reducing the effectiveness of the C18 a columns with repeated uses at least ten times. The evaluation method errors of the bitter taste have been determined, in order to determine it precision. The confidence limits calculated for defined work schemes have given sufficient precision.El presente trabajo ha perseguido dos objetivos fundamentales: 1 estudiar la posibilidad de utilizar repetidamente las columnas "disposable" (de un sólo uso C18 y 2 determinar el error y esquema analítico apropiado del método de evaluación del amargor del aceite de oliva virgen. Los resultados obtenidos nos permiten afirmar que las recuperaciones de los productos responsables del amargor del aceite no disminuyen al reutilizarse las columnas al menos durante las diez utilizaciones probadas. Se han determinado los errores del método de evaluación del amargor para determinar su precisión. Los límites de confianza calculados para definir los esquemas de trabajo han dado suficiente precisión.

  3. Process for preparing coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryoke, Hideyasu; Kobayashi, Juichi; Kobayashi, Kei.

    1972-01-01

    A coating material curable with ionizing radiations or ultraviolet radiation can be prepared by reacting a compound (A) having one OH group and at least one α,β-ethylenic or allyl group with a polyisocyanate. (A) is a diester of a dicarboxylic acid. One of the ester groups may have a terminal α,β-ethylenic or allyl group and the other contains one OH and one α,β-ethylenic or allyl group. (A) is reacted with a polyisocyanate to yield an urethane. The latter may be diluted with a vinyl monomer. When exposed to a radiation, the coating material cures to give a film excellent in adhesion, impact strength and resistances to pollution, water and solvents. Dose of the ionizing radiation (α-, β-, γ-rays, electron beams) is 0.2-20 Mrad. In one example, 116 parts of 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate was reacted with 148 parts of phthalic anhydride and 142 parts of glycidyl methacrylate to give (A). (A) was reacted with 87 parts of tolylenediisocyanate. A metallic panel was coated with the coating material and cured with electron beams (5 Mrad). Pencil hardness was H, and gel fraction measured in acetone was above 97%. The coating was excellent in resistances to solvent and chemicals, impact strength and adhesion. (Kaichi, S.)

  4. Chromate conversion coatings and their current application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes formation, composition and possible production technologies of application chromate coatings. Summation of common examples of applications of these coatings in corrosion protection of metals and alloys is provided. Individual chromate coatings are divided by their dominant anions either with CrVI or CrIII. Restrictions of chromate coatings with dominantly CrVI and related toxicity of hexavalent chromium is discussed in detail. In conclusion, examples of both chromium and other, alternative coatings are summed up. Application of these coatings as a protection for concrete hot-dip galvanized reinforcement is also reviewed.

  5. Radiation curable compositions useful as transfer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarty, W.H.; Nagy, F.A.; Guarino, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The invention is on a method for applying a coating to a thin porous substrate and reducing absorption of the coating into the substrate by applying a radiation-curable composition to a carrying web; the radiation-curable coating composition having a crosslink density of 0.02 to about 1.0 determined by calculation of the gram moles of branch points per 100 grams of uncured coating, and a glass transition temperature of the radiation cured coating within the approximate range of -80 degrees to +100 degrees C. The carrying web being of a nature such that the coating composition, when cured, will not adhere to its surface

  6. Mixed zirconia calcium phosphate coatings for dental implants: Tailoring coating stability and bioactivity potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardun, Karoline; Treccani, Laura; Volkmann, Eike; Streckbein, Philipp; Heiss, Christian; Destri, Giovanni Li; Marletta, Giovanni; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced coating stability and adhesion are essential for long-term success of orthopedic and dental implants. In this study, the effect of coating composition on mechanical, physico-chemical and biological properties of coated zirconia specimens is investigated. Zirconia discs and dental screw implants are coated using the wet powder spraying (WPS) technique. The coatings are obtained by mixing yttria-stabilized zirconia (TZ) and hydroxyapatite (HA) in various ratios while a pure HA coating served as reference material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical profilometer analysis confirm a similar coating morphology and roughness for all studied coatings, whereas the coating stability can be tailored with composition and is probed by insertion and dissections experiments in bovine bone with coated zirconia screw implants. An increasing content of calcium phosphate (CP) resulted in a decrease of mechanical and chemical stability, while the bioactivity increased in simulated body fluid (SBF). In vitro experiments with human osteoblast cells (HOB) revealed that the cells grew well on all samples but are affected by dissolution behavior of the studied coatings. This work demonstrates the overall good mechanical strength, the excellent interfacial bonding and the bioactivity potential of coatings with higher TZ contents, which provide a highly interesting coating for dental implants. - Highlights: • Different ratios of zirconia (TZ) and calcium phosphate (CP) were deposited on zirconia substrates. • Enhancement of TZ content in mixed coatings increased coating stability. • Enhancement of CP content in mixed coatings increased bioactivity. • All tested coating compositions were non-toxic

  7. Mixed zirconia calcium phosphate coatings for dental implants: Tailoring coating stability and bioactivity potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardun, Karoline [University of Bremen, Advanced Ceramics, Am Biologischen Garten 2, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Treccani, Laura, E-mail: treccani@uni-bremen.de [University of Bremen, Advanced Ceramics, Am Biologischen Garten 2, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Volkmann, Eike [University of Bremen, Advanced Ceramics, Am Biologischen Garten 2, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Streckbein, Philipp [University Hospital, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Department of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Klinikstrasse 33, 35385 Giessen (Germany); Heiss, Christian [University Hospital of Giessen-Marburg, Department of Trauma Surgery, Rudolf-Buchheim-Strasse 7, 35385 Giessen, Germany, (Germany); Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Kerkraderstrasse 9, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Destri, Giovanni Li; Marletta, Giovanni [Laboratory for Molecular Surfaces and Nanotechnology (LAMSUN), Department of Chemistry, University of Catania and CSGI, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Rezwan, Kurosch [University of Bremen, Advanced Ceramics, Am Biologischen Garten 2, 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2015-03-01

    Enhanced coating stability and adhesion are essential for long-term success of orthopedic and dental implants. In this study, the effect of coating composition on mechanical, physico-chemical and biological properties of coated zirconia specimens is investigated. Zirconia discs and dental screw implants are coated using the wet powder spraying (WPS) technique. The coatings are obtained by mixing yttria-stabilized zirconia (TZ) and hydroxyapatite (HA) in various ratios while a pure HA coating served as reference material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical profilometer analysis confirm a similar coating morphology and roughness for all studied coatings, whereas the coating stability can be tailored with composition and is probed by insertion and dissections experiments in bovine bone with coated zirconia screw implants. An increasing content of calcium phosphate (CP) resulted in a decrease of mechanical and chemical stability, while the bioactivity increased in simulated body fluid (SBF). In vitro experiments with human osteoblast cells (HOB) revealed that the cells grew well on all samples but are affected by dissolution behavior of the studied coatings. This work demonstrates the overall good mechanical strength, the excellent interfacial bonding and the bioactivity potential of coatings with higher TZ contents, which provide a highly interesting coating for dental implants. - Highlights: • Different ratios of zirconia (TZ) and calcium phosphate (CP) were deposited on zirconia substrates. • Enhancement of TZ content in mixed coatings increased coating stability. • Enhancement of CP content in mixed coatings increased bioactivity. • All tested coating compositions were non-toxic.

  8. Optical characterization of antirelaxation coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, S.; Gateva, S.; Cartaleva, S.; Mariotti, E.; Nasyrov, K.

    2018-03-01

    Antirelaxation coatings (ARC) are used in optical cells containing alkali metal vapor to reduce the depolarization of alkali atoms after collisions with the cell walls. The long-lived ground state polarization is a basis for development of atomic clocks, magnetometers, quantum memory, slow light experiments, precision measurements of fundamental symmetries etc. In this work, a simple method for measuring the number of collisions of the alkali atoms with the cell walls without atomic spin randomization (Nasyrov et al., Proc. SPIE (2015)) was applied to characterize the AR properties of two PDMS coatings prepared from different solutions in ether (PDMS 2% and PDMS 5%). We observed influence of the light-induced atomic desorption (LIAD) on the AR properties of coatings.

  9. Radiation-curable coating composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mibae, Jiro; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masao.

    1970-01-01

    A radiation-curable coating composition, suitable for metal precoating, is provided. The composition is prepared by mixing 50 to 90 parts of a long chain fatty acid ester (A) with 10 to 50 parts of monomer (B) which is copolymerizable with (A). (A) is prepared by reacting a dimer acid (particularly the dimer of linolenic acid) with hydroxyalkyl methacrylate or glycidyl methacrylate. Upon irradiation with electron beams (0.1 to 3 MeV) the composition cures to yield a coating of high adhesion, impact resistance and bending resistance. In one example, 100 g of dimer acid (Versadime 216, manufactured by General Mills) was esterified with 50 g of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. A zinc plated iron plate was coated with the product and irradiated with electron beams (2 Mrad). Pencil hardness was F; adhesion 0: impact resistance (Du Pont) 1 kg x 30 cm; bending resistance 2T. (Kaichi, S.)

  10. Evaluation of End Mill Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. J. Lazarus; R. L. Hester,

    2005-08-01

    Milling tests were run on families of High Speed Steel (HSS) end mills to determine their lives while machining 304 Stainless Steel. The end mills tested were made from M7, M42 and T15-CPM High Speed Steels. The end mills were also evaluated with no coatings as well as with Titanium Nitride (TiN) and Titanium Carbo-Nitride (TiCN) coatings to determine which combination of HSS and coating provided the highest increase in end mill life while increasing the cost of the tool the least. We found end mill made from M42 gave us the largest increase in tool life with the least increase in cost. The results of this study will be used by Cutting Tool Engineering in determining which end mill descriptions will be dropped from our tool catalog.

  11. Studies on soft centered coated snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavithra, A S; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Babylatha, R; Archana, S N; Bhat, K K

    2013-04-01

    Roasted groundnut seeds, amaranth and dates pulp formed the center filling which was coated with sugar, breadings, desiccated coconut and roasted Bengalgram flour (BGF) to get 4 coated snacks. Physicochemical characteristics, microbiological profile, sorption behaviour and sensory quality of 4 coated snacks were determined. Centre filling to coating ratio of the products were in the range of 3:2-7:1, the product having BGF coating had the thinnest coating. Center filling had soft texture and the moisture content was 10.2-16.2% coating had lower moisture content (4.4-8.6%) except for Bengal gram coating, which had 11.1% moisture. Sugar coated snack has lowest fat (11.6%) and protein (7.2%) contents. Desiccated coconut coated snack has highest fat (25.4%) and Bengal gram flour coated snack had highest protein content (15.4%). Sorption studies showed that the coated snack had critical moisture content of 11.2-13.5%. The products were moisture sensitive and hence require packaging in films having higher moisture barrier property. In freshly prepared snacks coliforms, yeast and mold were absent. Mesophillic aerobes count did not show significant change during 90 days of storage at 27 °C and 37 °C. Sensory analysis showed that products had a unique texture due to combined effect of fairly hard coating and soft center. Flavour and overall quality of all the products were rated as very good.

  12. Nano-Ceramic Coated Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    Plastic products, due to their durability, safety, and low manufacturing cost, are now rapidly replacing cookware items traditionally made of glass and ceramics. Despite this trend, some still prefer relatively expensive and more fragile ceramic/glassware because plastics can deteriorate over time after exposure to foods, which can generate odors, bad appearance, and/or color change. Nano-ceramic coatings can eliminate these drawbacks while still retaining the advantages of the plastic, since the coating only alters the surface of the plastic. The surface coating adds functionality to the plastics such as self-cleaning and disinfectant capabilities that result from a photocatalytic effect of certain ceramic systems. These ceramic coatings can also provide non-stick surfaces and higher temperature capabilities for the base plastics without resorting to ceramic or glass materials. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are the candidates for a nano-ceramic coating to deposit on the plastics or plastic films used in cookware and kitchenware. Both are wide-bandgap semiconductors (3.0 to 3.2 eV for TiO2 and 3.2 to 3.3 eV for ZnO), so they exhibit a photocatalytic property under ultraviolet (UV) light. This will lead to decomposition of organic compounds. Decomposed products can be easily washed off by water, so the use of detergents will be minimal. High-crystalline film with large surface area for the reaction is essential to guarantee good photocatalytic performance of these oxides. Low-temperature processing (nano-ceramic coatings (TiO2, ZnO) on plastic materials (silicone, Teflon, PET, etc.) that can possess both photocatalytic oxide properties and flexible plastic properties. Processing cost is low and it does not require any expensive equipment investment. Processing can be scalable to current manufacturing infrastructure.

  13. Chitosan coating as an antibacterial surface for biomedical applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie D'Almeida

    Full Text Available A current public health issue is preventing post-surgical complications by designing antibacterial implants. To achieve this goal, in this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of an animal-free chitosan grafted onto a titanium alloy.Animal-free chitosan binding on the substrate was performed by covalent link via a two-step process using TriEthoxySilylPropyl Succinic Anhydride (TESPSA as the coupling agent. All grafting steps were studied and validated by means of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, Time-of-Flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS analyses and Dynamic-mode Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (DSIMS. The antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus strains of the developed coating was assessed using the number of colony forming units (CFU.XPS showed a significant increase in the C and N atomic percentages assigned to the presence of chitosan. A thick layer of polymer deposit was detected by ToF-SIMS and the results obtained by DSIMS measurements are in agreement with ToF-SIMS and XPS analyses and confirms that the coating synthesis was a success. The developed coating was active against both gram negative and gram positive tested bacteria.The success of the chitosan immobilization was proven using the surface characterization techniques applied in this study. The coating was found to be effective against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus strains.

  14. Structurally Integrated, Damage-Tolerant, Thermal Spray Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vackel, Andrew; Dwivedi, Gopal; Sampath, Sanjay

    2015-07-01

    Thermal spray coatings are used extensively for the protection and life extension of engineering components exposed to harsh wear and/or corrosion during service in aerospace, energy, and heavy machinery sectors. Cermet coatings applied via high-velocity thermal spray are used in aggressive wear situations almost always coupled with corrosive environments. In several instances (e.g., landing gear), coatings are considered as part of the structure requiring system-level considerations. Despite their widespread use, the technology has lacked generalized scientific principles for robust coating design, manufacturing, and performance analysis. Advances in process and in situ diagnostics have provided significant insights into the process-structure-property-performance correlations providing a framework-enhanced design. In this overview, critical aspects of materials, process, parametrics, and performance are discussed through exemplary studies on relevant compositions. The underlying connective theme is understanding and controlling residual stresses generation, which not only addresses process dynamics but also provides linkage for process-property relationship for both the system (e.g., fatigue) and the surface (wear and corrosion). The anisotropic microstructure also invokes the need for damage-tolerant material design to meet future goals.

  15. On niobium sputter coated cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnolds-Mayer, G.; Kaufmann, U.; Downar, H.

    1988-01-01

    To coat copper cavities with a thin film of niobium, facilities for electropolishing and sputter deposition have been installed at Dornier. Experiments have been performed on samples to optimize electropolishing and deposition parameters. In this paper, characteristics concerning surface properties, adhesion of the niobium film to the copper substrate, and film properties were studied on planar samples. A 1.5 GHz single cell cavity made from oxygen free high conductivity (OFHC) copper was sputter coated twice. First rf measurements were performed in the temperature range from 300 K to 2 K

  16. Corrosion-resistant coating development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, D.P.; Kupp, D.M.; Martin, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    SiC-based heat exchangers have been identified as the prime candidate material for use as heat exchangers in advanced combined cycle power plants. Unfortunately, hot corrosion of the SiC-based materials created by alkali metal salts present in the combustion gases dictates the need for corrosion-resistant coatings. The well-documented corrosion resistance of CS-50 combined with its low (and tailorable) coefficient of thermal expansion and low modulus makes CS-50 an ideal candidate for this application. Coatings produced by gelcasting and traditional particulate processing have been evaluated.

  17. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian [Newton, MA; Chen, Jinghua [Chestnut Hill, MA; Huang, Zhongping [Belmont, MA; Wang, Dezhi [Wellesley, MA

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  18. Laser-based coatings removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.

    1995-01-01

    Over the years as building and equipment surfaces became contaminated with low levels of uranium or plutonium dust, coats of paint were applied to stabilize the contaminants in place. Most of the earlier paint used was lead-based paint. More recently, various non-lead-based paints, such as two-part epoxy, are used. For D ampersand D (decontamination and decommissioning), it is desirable to remove the paints or other coatings rather than having to tear down and dispose of the entire building

  19. Aesthetic coatings for concrete bridge components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriha, Brent R.

    This thesis evaluated the durability and aesthetic performance of coating systems for utilization in concrete bridge applications. The principle objectives of this thesis were: 1) Identify aesthetic coating systems appropriate for concrete bridge applications; 2) Evaluate the performance of the selected systems through a laboratory testing regimen; 3) Develop guidelines for coating selection, surface preparation, and application. A series of site visits to various bridges throughout the State of Wisconsin provided insight into the performance of common coating systems and allowed problematic structural details to be identified. To aid in the selection of appropriate coating systems, questionnaires were distributed to coating manufacturers, bridge contractors, and various DOT offices to identify high performing coating systems and best practices for surface preparation and application. These efforts supplemented a literature review investigating recent publications related to formulation, selection, surface preparation, application, and performance evaluation of coating materials.

  20. Coated foams, preparation, uses and articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchane, D.V.; Barthell, B.L.

    1982-10-21

    Hydrophobic cellular material is coated with a thin hydrophilic polymer skin which stretches tightly over the foam but which does not fill the cells of the foam, thus resulting in a polymer-coated foam structure having a smoothness which was not possible in the prior art. In particular, when the hydrophobic cellular material is a specially chosen hydrophobic polymer foam and is formed into arbitrarily chosen shapes prior to the coating with hydrophilic polymer, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets of arbitrary shapes can be produced by subsequently coating the shapes with metal or with any other suitable material. New articles of manufacture are produced, including improved ICF targets, improved integrated circuits, and improved solar reflectors and solar collectors. In the coating method, the cell size of the hydrophobic cellular material, the viscosity of the polymer solution used to coat, and the surface tension of the polymer solution used to coat are all very important to the coating.

  1. Revealing Amphiphilic Nanodornains of Anti-Biofouling Polymer Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amadei, CA; Yang, R; Chiesa, M; Gleason, KK; Santos, S

    2014-04-09

    Undesired bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on wetted surfaces leads to significant economic and environmental costs in various industries. Amphiphilic coatings with molecular hydrophilic and hydrophobic patches can mitigate such biofouling effectively in an environmentally friendly manner. The coatings are synthesized by copolymerizing (Hydroxyethyl)methacrylate and perfluorodecylacrylate via initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD). In previous studies, the size of the patches was estimated to be similar to 1.4-1.75 nm by fitting protein adsorption data to a theoretical model. However, no direct observations of the molecular heterogeneity exist and therefore the origin of the fouling resistance of amphiphilic coatings remains unclear. Here, the amphiphilic nature is investigated by amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy (AM-AFM). High-resolution images obtained by penetrating and oscillating the AFM tip under the naturally present water layer with sub-nanometer amplitudes reveal, for the first time, the existence of amphiphilic nanodomains (1-2 nm(2)). Compositional heterogeneity at the nanoscale is further corroborated by a statistical analysis on the data obtained with dynamic AM-AFM force spectroscopy. Variations in the long range attractive forces, responsible for water affinity, are also identified. These nanoscopic results on the polymers wettability are also confirmed by contact angle measurements (i.e., static and dynamic). The unprecedented ability to visualize the amphiphilic nanodomains as well as sub-nanometer crystalline structures provides strong evidence for the existence of previously postulated nanostructures, and sheds light on the underlying antifouling mechanism of amphiphilic chemistry.

  2. Deformation and fatigue behavior of hot dip galvanized coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camurri, Carlos P.; Benavente, Raul G.; Roa, Isidoro S.; Carrasco, Claudia C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a study of the effect of static and dynamic stresses on hot dip galvanized coatings on SAE 1020 steel substrates. Galvanizing was performed using baths maintained at 450 deg. C, the zinc containing 0.16% Ti and 0.02% Fe and with Al and Ni in the ranges 0-0.20% and 0-0.30%, respectively. Static three-point bend tests were conducted with applied stresses in the range 428-790 MPa. Dynamic bend-fatigue tests involved stresses in the range 228-578 MPa at a cyclic frequency of 0.25 Hz for up to 700 cycles. The total crack density in the coatings was measured before and after the tests using light optical and electron microscopy. The results showed that the crack density increased as the applied stress increased and crack propagation was promoted perpendicular to the substrate. The number of cycles had no effect on the crack density and propagation at stresses lower than 386 MPa. At higher stresses the number of applied cycles contributed only to crack propagation. It was concluded that the best bath composition for preventing fatigue crack propagation is one that minimized the formation of thinner brittle layers in the galvanized coatings

  3. Keyhole behaviour during laser welding of zinc-coated steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Y; Richardson, I M

    2011-01-01

    The production of consistent, high-quality laser welds on zinc-coated steels for the automotive industry remains a challenge. A simple overlap joint geometry is desirable in these applications but has been shown to be extremely detrimental to laser welding because the zinc vapour formed at the interface between the two sheets expands into the keyhole and disrupts fluid flow in the melt pool, which often leads to metal ejection. In this work, laser welding on sheets with various coating thicknesses has been performed and it is observed that the sheets with thick coatings (∼20 μm) show surprisingly good weldability. High speed video camera visualizations of the keyhole provide insight into the keyhole dynamics during the process. It appears that the dynamic pressure of zinc vapour can effectively elongate the keyhole and the process can reach a stable state when an elongated keyhole is continuously present. A simple analytical model has been developed to describe the influence of zinc vapour on keyhole elongation.

  4. Friction- and wear-reducing coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong [Farmington Hills, MI; Milner, Robert [Warren, MI; Elmoursi, Alaa AbdelAzim [Troy, MI

    2011-10-18

    A coating includes a first layer of a ceramic alloy and a second layer disposed on the first layer and including carbon. The coating has a hardness of from 10 to 20 GPa and a coefficient of friction of less than or equal to 0.12. A method of coating a substrate includes cleaning the substrate, forming the first layer on the substrate, and depositing the second layer onto the first layer to thereby coat the substrate.

  5. Functional coatings: the sol-gel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belleville, Ph.

    2010-01-01

    CEA's sol-gel laboratory is specialized in the development of innovative sol-gel optical coatings and has extended its application field to membrane materials and coatings for energy conversion, to electric coatings for microelectronics devices and to thin films for gas sensing. This article describes, by way of examples, the laboratory's research on sol-gel functional coatings, including nano-material synthesis, organic-inorganic hybrid-based solution preparation as well as deposition process development and prototyping. (author)

  6. Sputter coating of microspherical substrates by levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, A.T.; Hosford, C.D.

    Microspheres are substantially uniformly coated with metals or nonmetals by simltaneously levitating them and sputter coating them at total chamber pressures less than 1 torr. A collimated hole structure comprising a parallel array of upwardly projecting individual gas outlets is machined out to form a dimple. Glass microballoons,, which are particularly useful in laser fusion applications, can be substantially uniformly coated using the coating method and apparatus.

  7. Laser reflector with an interference coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vol'pyan, O D; Semenov, A A; Yakovlev, P P

    1998-01-01

    An analysis was made of the reflectivity of interference coatings intended for the use in optical pumping of solid-state lasers. Ruby and Nd 3+ :YAG lasers were used as models in comparative pumping efficiency measurements, carried out employing reflectors with interference and silver coatings. Estimates of the service life of reflectors with interference coatings were obtained. The power of a thermo-optical lens was reduced by the use of such coatings in cw lasers. (laser system components)

  8. Hierarchical adaptive nanostructured PVD coatings for extreme tribological applications: the quest for nonequilibrium states and emergent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German S Fox-Rabinovich, Kenji Yamamoto, Ben D Beake, Iosif S Gershman, Anatoly I Kovalev, Stephen C Veldhuis, Myram H Aguirre, Goulnara Dosbaeva and Jose L Endrino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive wear-resistant coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD are a relatively new generation of coatings which are attracting attention in the development of nanostructured materials for extreme tribological applications. An excellent example of such extreme operating conditions is high performance machining of hard-to-cut materials. The adaptive characteristics of such coatings develop fully during interaction with the severe environment. Modern adaptive coatings could be regarded as hierarchical surface-engineered nanostructural materials. They exhibit dynamic hierarchy on two major structural scales: (a nanoscale surface layers of protective tribofilms generated during friction and (b an underlying nano/microscaled layer. The tribofilms are responsible for some critical nanoscale effects that strongly impact the wear resistance of adaptive coatings. A new direction in nanomaterial research is discussed: compositional and microstructural optimization of the dynamically regenerating nanoscaled tribofilms on the surface of the adaptive coatings during friction. In this review we demonstrate the correlation between the microstructure, physical, chemical and micromechanical properties of hard coatings in their dynamic interaction (adaptation with environment and the involvement of complex natural processes associated with self-organization during friction. Major physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics of the adaptive coating, which play a significant role in its operating properties, such as enhanced mass transfer, and the ability of the layer to provide dissipation and accumulation of frictional energy during operation are presented as well. Strategies for adaptive nanostructural coating design that enhance beneficial natural processes are outlined. The coatings exhibit emergent behavior during operation when their improved features work as a whole. In this way, as higher-ordered systems, they achieve multifunctionality

  9. Hierarchical adaptive nanostructured PVD coatings for extreme tribological applications: the quest for nonequilibrium states and emergent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Rabinovich, German S; Yamamoto, Kenji; Beake, Ben D; Gershman, Iosif S; Kovalev, Anatoly I; Veldhuis, Stephen C; Aguirre, Myriam H; Dosbaeva, Goulnara; Endrino, Jose L

    2012-08-01

    Adaptive wear-resistant coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) are a relatively new generation of coatings which are attracting attention in the development of nanostructured materials for extreme tribological applications. An excellent example of such extreme operating conditions is high performance machining of hard-to-cut materials. The adaptive characteristics of such coatings develop fully during interaction with the severe environment. Modern adaptive coatings could be regarded as hierarchical surface-engineered nanostructural materials. They exhibit dynamic hierarchy on two major structural scales: (a) nanoscale surface layers of protective tribofilms generated during friction and (b) an underlying nano/microscaled layer. The tribofilms are responsible for some critical nanoscale effects that strongly impact the wear resistance of adaptive coatings. A new direction in nanomaterial research is discussed: compositional and microstructural optimization of the dynamically regenerating nanoscaled tribofilms on the surface of the adaptive coatings during friction. In this review we demonstrate the correlation between the microstructure, physical, chemical and micromechanical properties of hard coatings in their dynamic interaction (adaptation) with environment and the involvement of complex natural processes associated with self-organization during friction. Major physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics of the adaptive coating, which play a significant role in its operating properties, such as enhanced mass transfer, and the ability of the layer to provide dissipation and accumulation of frictional energy during operation are presented as well. Strategies for adaptive nanostructural coating design that enhance beneficial natural processes are outlined. The coatings exhibit emergent behavior during operation when their improved features work as a whole. In this way, as higher-ordered systems, they achieve multifunctionality and high wear

  10. Failure mechanism of coated biomaterials under high impact-sliding contact stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying

    This study uses a newly developed testing method--- inclined cyclic impact-sliding test to investigate the failure behaviors of different types of biomaterials, (SS316L, Ti6Al4V and CoCr) coated by different coatings (TiN, DLC and PEO), under extremely high dynamic contact stress conditions. This test method can simulate the combined impact and sliding/rolling loading conditions, which is very practical in many aspects of commercial usages. During the tests, fatigue cracking, chipping, peeling and material transferring were observed in damaged area. This research is mainly focused on the failure behaviors of load-bearing materials which cyclic impacting and sliding are always involved. This purpose was accomplished in the three stages: First, impact-sliding test was carried out on TiN coated unhardened M2. It was found that soft substrate can cause early failure of coating due to the considerable plastic deformation in the substrate. In this case, stronger substrate is required to support coating better when tested under high contact stresses. Second, PEO coated Ti-6Al-4V was tested under pure sliding and impact-sliding wear conditions. PEO coating was found not strong enough to afford the high contact pressure under cyclic impact-sliding wear test due to its porous surface structure. However, the wear performance of PEO coating was enhanced due to the sub-stoichiometric oxide. To sum up, for load-bearing biomedical implants involved in high impacting movement, PEO coating may not be a promising surface protection. Third, the dense, smooth PVD/CVD bio-inert coatings were reconsidered. DLC and TiN coatings, combined by different substrates together with different interface materials were tested under the cyclic impact-sliding test using a set of proper loading. The results show that to choose a proper combination of coating, interface and substrate based on their mechanical properties is of great importance under the test condition. Hard substrates provide support

  11. Chaotic dynamics in accelerator physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cary, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Substantial progress was in several areas of accelerator dynamics. For developing understanding of longitudinal adiabatic dynamics, and for creating efficiency enhancements of recirculating free-electron lasers, was substantially completed. A computer code for analyzing the critical KAM tori that bound the dynamic aperture in circular machines was developed. Studies of modes that arise due to the interaction of coating beams with a narrow-spectrum impedance have begun. During this research educational and research ties with the accelerator community at large have been strengthened

  12. Absorptive coating for aluminum solar panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, D.; Jason, A.; Parr, A.

    1979-01-01

    Method for coating forming coating of copper oxide from copper component of sheet aluminum/copper alloy provides strong durable solar heat collector panels. Copper oxide coating has solar absorption characteristics similar to black chrome and is much simpler and less costly to produce.

  13. Multispectral Image Analysis for Astaxanthin Coating Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2012-01-01

    Industrial quality inspection using image analysis on astaxanthin coating in aquaculture feed pellets is of great importance for automatic production control. The pellets were divided into two groups: one with pellets coated using synthetic astaxanthin in fish oil and the other with pellets coated...

  14. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553™ (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Material and Technology (CIGMAT) Laboratory at the University of Houston. Testing was conducted over a period of six months to evaluate the coating’s (1) chemical resistance and (2) bonding strength for infrastructure applications. For chemical resistance, coated concrete and clay bricks with holidays (holes created in the coating) were used to evaluate the chemical resistance of the coating/substrate bond under a corrosive environment. Twenty coated concrete (dry and wet) and 20 coated clay brick (dry and wet) specimens were exposed to DI water and sulfuric acid solution (pH=1), and the specimens were visually inspected and weight changes measured. Evaluation of the coating-to-substrate bonding strength was determined using two modified ASTM test methods – one to determine bond strength of the coating with two specimens sandwiched together using the coating, and the second to determine the bond strength by applying a tensile load to the coating applied to specimens of each substrate. Forty-eight bonding tests were performed over the six month evaluation. The tests resulted in the following conclusions about Standard Cement’s SEC 4553 coating: • After the six-month chemi

  15. Study on nano-coating on uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongbin; Xian Xiaobin; Lu Xuechao; Lang Dingmu; Li Kexue; Tang Kai

    2002-01-01

    The SiO 2 , TiO 2 coatings on uranium have been prepared by sol-gel method under different processes. By evaluating the coating quality with SEM, the optimal process parameters have been determined. Corrosion test shows that the coatings have anticorrosion property

  16. Latest Developments in PVD Coatings for Tooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Strnad

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the recent developments in the field of PVD coating for manufacturing tools. A review of monoblock, multilayer, nanocomposite, DLC and oxinitride coatings is discussed, with the emphasis on coatings which enables the manufacturers to implement high productivity processes such as high speed cutting and dry speed machining.

  17. Method for coating substrates and mask holder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijkerk, Frederik; Yakshin, Andrey; Louis, Eric; Kessels, M.J.H.; Maas, Edward Lambertus Gerardus; Bruineman, Caspar

    2004-01-01

    When coating substrates it is frequently desired that the layer thickness should be a certain function of the position on the substrate to be coated. To control the layer thickness a mask is conventionally arranged between the coating particle source and the substrate. This leads to undesirable

  18. Sonochemical coating of magnetite nanoparticles with silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Feng; Enomoto, Naoya; Hojo, Junichi; Enpuku, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles were coated with silica through the hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) under ultrasonic irradiation. The ultrasonic irradiation was used to prevent the agglomeration of the magnetite particles and accelerate the hydrolysis and condensation of TEOS. TEM, DLS, XRF, VSM, TG and sedimentation test were used to characterize the silica-coated magnetite particles. The dispersibility of silica-coated magnetite particles in aqueous solution was improved significantly and the agglomerate particle size was decreased to 110 nm. It was found that the agglomerate particle size of silica-coated magnetite particles was mainly decided by the coating temperature and the pH value in the silica-coating process. The weight ratio of silica in silica-coated magnetite particles was mainly decided by the pH value in the silica-coating process. The dispersibility of silica-coated magnetite particles was mainly decided by the agglomerate particle size of the suspension. The oxidation of magnetite particles in air was limited through the coated silica. The magnetism of silica-coated magnetite particles decreased slightly after silica-coating.

  19. Amphiphilic copolymers for fouling-release coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noguer, Albert Camós; Olsen, Stefan Møller; Hvilsted, Søren

    of the coatings [9,10,11]. This work shows the effect of an amphiphilic copolymer that induces hydrophilicity on the surface of the silicone-based fouling release coatings. The behaviour of these copolymers within the coating upon immersion and the interaction of these surface-active additives with other...

  20. Modifications of optical properties with ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besmann, T.M.; Abdel-Latif, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Coatings of ceramic materials that exhibited high thermal absorptivities and emissivities were chemical vapor deposited on graphite and refractory metals. In this paper the coatings prepared were SiC and B 4 C, and the substrates used were graphite, molybdenum, titanium, and Nb-1Zr. The coatings are characterized with regard to adherence, optical properties, and response to potential harsh environments

  1. Coat Hangers across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Bob

    2012-01-01

    There are many ways in which wire coat hangers can be used other than for suspending clothes. The author has been making use of them in his teaching for many years--copying ideas from colleagues and creating some for himself. In this article, he shares five examples that can enrich learning about science. (Contains 6 figures.)

  2. Electron curing of surface coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nablo, S.V.

    1974-01-01

    The technical development of electron curing of surface coatings has received great impetus since 1970 from dramatic changes in the economics of the conventional thermal process. The most important of these changes are reviewed, including: the Clear Air Act, increasing cost and restrictive allocation of energy, decreased availability and increased costs of solvents, competitive pressure for higher line productivity. The principles of free-radical initiated curing as they pertain to industrial coatings are reviewed. Although such electron initiated processes have been under active development for at least two decades, high volume production applications on an industrial scale have only recently appeared. These installations are surveyed with emphasis on the developments in machinery and coatings which have made this possible. The most significant economic advantages of electron curing are presented. In particular, the ability of electron curing to eliminate substrate damage and to eliminate the curing station (oven) as the pacing element for most industrial surface coating curing applications is discussed. Examples of several new processes of particular interest in the textile industry are reviewed, including the curing of transfer cast urethane films, flock adhesives, and graftable surface finishes

  3. Polymer-coated quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomczak, N.; Liu, Rongrong; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals with distinct photophysical properties finding applications in biology, biosensing, and optoelectronics. Polymeric coatings of QDs are used primarily to provide long-term colloidal stability to QDs dispersed in solutions and also as a source of

  4. Industrial Coatings at Extreme Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subramanian, Srinath; Pérez Hornero, Clara; Pedersen, Lars Thorslund

    With the gradual depletion of oil wells operable at relatively lower temperatures and pressures, the upstream oil industry relies on High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT) wells to source crude oil and gas. HPHT well extraction and processing require anticorrosive coatings applied on substrates...

  5. Water transport in multilayer coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baukh, V.

    2012-01-01

    Coatings form the interface between structures and the environment in many application domains. They play a crucial role in providing protection, e.g. against corrosion, they form a barrier against an aggressive environment and they create the aesthetic appearance. To fulfill such functionalities,

  6. Dynamics in geometrical confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Kremer, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the dynamics of low molecular weight and polymeric molecules when they are constrained under conditions of geometrical confinement. It covers geometrical confinement in different dimensionalities: (i) in nanometer thin layers or self supporting films (1-dimensional confinement) (ii) in pores or tubes with nanometric diameters (2-dimensional confinement) (iii) as micelles embedded in matrices (3-dimensional) or as nanodroplets.The dynamics under such conditions have been a much discussed and central topic in the focus of intense worldwide research activities within the last two decades. The present book discusses how the resulting molecular mobility is influenced by the subtle counterbalance between surface effects (typically slowing down molecular dynamics through attractive guest/host interactions) and confinement effects (typically increasing the mobility). It also explains how these influences can be modified and tuned, e.g. through appropriate surface coatings, film thicknesses or pore...

  7. New non-stick expoxy-silicone water-based coatings part 1: Physical and surface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garti, N. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel); Smith, J. [Decora Manufacturing, Fort Edward, NY (United States)

    1995-06-01

    In search for tomorrow`s technology for water-based coating, Decora Manufacturing and The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, have initiated an intensive research program for designing, developing and manufacturing new coatings based on cross-linked, room temperature-cured silicone-expoxy resins. The new water-borne coatings have most exciting characteristics such as: non-stick properties, effective release, high lubricity, corrosion protection and abrasion resistance. The coatings are environmentally-friendly and easy to use. These coatings are ideal for marine, agricultural, industrial and maintenance applications. This paper brings quantitative measurements related to the dispersion technology (particle size, stability, shelf-life), to the non-stick properties (deicing, low surface energy, easy-release and non-stick), lubricity, adhesion to substrates, viscosity, dynamic and static friction coefficients and environmental impact (low VOC, non-toxicity, low-leaching). The coating was tested in various industrial coating systems and was found to exhibit excellent non-stick and release properties. Special attention was given to Zebra Mussels, Quagga Mussels and other bacterial and algeal bioforms. The coating proved to be efficient as foul-release coating with very low biofouling adhesion. The low adhesion applied to many other substances in which foul-release means easy-clean and low-wear.

  8. UNDERWATER COATINGS FOR CONTAMINATION CONTROL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell

    2004-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) deactivated several aging nuclear fuel storage basins. Planners for this effort were greatly concerned that radioactive contamination present on the basin walls could become airborne as the sides of the basins became exposed during deactivation and allowed to dry after water removal. One way to control this airborne contamination was to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls were still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market for marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives were easily applied and adhered well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INL fuel pools. Lab-scale experiments were conducted by applying fourteen different commercial underwater coatings to four substrate materials representative of the storage basin construction materials, and evaluating their performance. The coupons included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The evaluation criteria included ease of application, adherence to the four surfaces of interest, no change on water clarity or chemistry, non-hazardous in final applied form and be proven in underwater applications. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates was selected from the underwater coatings tested for application to all four pools. Divers scrubbed loose contamination off the basin walls and floors using a ship hull scrubber and vacuumed up the sludge. The divers then applied the coating using a special powered roller with two separate heated hoses that allowed the epoxy to mix at the roller surface was used to eliminate pot time concerns. The walls were successfully coated and water was removed from the pools with no detectable airborne contamination releases

  9. Atomically Bonded Transparent Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aytug, Tolga [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    Maintaining clarity and avoiding the accumulation of water and dirt on optically transparent surfaces such as US military vehicle windshields, viewports, periscope optical head windows, and electronic equipment cover glasses are critical to providing a high level of visibility, improved survivability, and much-needed safety for warfighters in the field. Through a combination of physical vapor deposition techniques and the exploitation of metastable phase separation in low-alkali borosilicate, a novel technology was developed for the fabrication of optically transparent, porous nanostructured silica thin film coatings that are strongly bonded to glass platforms. The nanotextured films, initially structurally superhydrophilic, exhibit superior superhydrophobicity, hence antisoiling ability, following a simple but robust modification in surface chemistry. The surfaces yield water droplet contact angles as high as 172°. Moreover, the nanostructured nature of these coatings provides increased light scattering in the UV regime and reduced reflectivity (i.e., enhanced transmission) over a broad range of the visible spectrum. In addition to these functionalities, the coatings exhibit superior mechanical resistance to abrasion and are thermally stable to temperatures approaching 500°C. The overall process technology relies on industry standard equipment and inherently scalable manufacturing processes and demands only nontoxic, naturally abundant, and inexpensive base materials. Such coatings, applied to the optical components of current and future combat equipment and military vehicles will provide a significant strategic advantage for warfighters. The inherent self-cleaning properties of such superhydrophobic coatings will also mitigate biofouling of optical windows exposed to high-humidity conditions and can help decrease repair/replacement costs, reduce maintenance, and increase readiness by limiting equipment downtime.

  10. Si-coated single-walled carbon nanotubes under axial loads: An atomistic simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Haiyang; Zha Xinwei

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the Si-coated imperfect (5, 5) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), the imperfect (5, 5) SWCNT and several perfect armchair SWCNTs under axial loads were investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. The interactions between atoms were modeled using the empirical Tersoff potential and the Tersoff-Brenner potential coupled with the Lennard-Jones potential. We get Young's modulus of the defective (5, 5) nanotube with and without the Si coating under axial tension 1107.92 and 1076.02 GPa, respectively. The results also show that the structure failure of the Si-coated imperfect (5, 5) SWCNT under axial compression occurs at a slightly higher strain than for the perfect (5, 5) SWCNT. Therefore, we can confirm the protective effect of Si as a coating material for defective SWCNTs. We also obtain the critical buckling strains of perfect SWCNTs

  11. Composition, morphology and mechanical properties of sputtered TiAlN coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budi, Esmar, E-mail: esmarbudi@unj.ac.id [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Jl. Pemuda No. 10, Jakarta 13220 (Indonesia); Razali, M. Mohd. [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Karung Berkunci No. 1752 Pejabat Pos Durian Tunggal 76109 Melaka (Malaysia); Nizam, A. R. Md. [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, UniversitiTeknikal Malaysia Melaka, Karung Berkunci No. 1752 Pejabat Pos Durian Tunggal 76109 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2014-03-24

    TiAlN coating was deposited on the tungsten carbide cutting tool by using DC magnetron sputtering system to study the influence of substrate bias and nitrogen flow rate on the composition, morphology and mechanical properties. The negatively substrate bias and nitrogen flow rate was varied from about −79 to −221 V and 30 sccm to 72 sccm, respectively. The coating composition and roughness were characterized by using SEM/EDX and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), respectively. The dynamic ultra micro hardness tester was used to measure the mechanical properties. The coating hardness increases to about 10-12 GPa with an increase of the negatively substrate bias up to − 200 V and it tend to decrease with an increase in nitrogen flow rate up to 70 sccm. The increase of hardness follows the increase of Ti and N content and rms coating roughness.

  12. Ultrasonic tests on materials with protective coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, H.L.

    1977-01-01

    Protective coatings are applied to some nuclear components such as reactor vessels to inhibit surface corrosion. Since in-service ultrasonic inspection is required for such components, a study was performed to determine whether the use of protective coatings can affect ultrasonic tests. Two 2 in. thick steel plates were uniformly machined, sandblasted, and used as bases for two types of protective coatings. The type and thickness of the coating and the presence of contamination, such as fingerprints or mild oxidation under the paint, were the independent variables associated with the coating. Tests were run to determine the effects of the protective coatings on ultrasonic tests conducted on the steel plates. Significant variations in ultrasonic test sensitivity occurred as a function of the type and thickness of protective coating, couplant (material that conducts the ultrasound from the transducer into the test part, normally water or some type of oil), transducer wear plate, and ultrasonic test frequency. Ultrasonic tests can be strongly affected by a protective coating on the component to be inspected. As compared to the test sensitivity for an uncoated reference sample, the sensitivity may be dramatically shifted up or down on the coated surface. In certain coating thickness ranges, the sensitivity can fluctuate widely with small changes in coating thickness. If a coating is chosen properly, however, components with protective coatings can be tested ultrasonically with valid results. These results are for the case of ultrasonic input on the coated surface. It is not expected that an ultrasonic test conducted from the front surface would be appreciably affected by a coating on the rear surface

  13. Preparation of sustained release capsules by electrostatic dry powder coating, using traditional dip coating as reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Shen, Lian; Yuan, Feng; Fu, Hui; Shan, Weiguang

    2018-05-30

    Lately, a great deal of attention is being paid to capsule coating, since the coat protects active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) from damage, as is in the case of tablet and pellet. However, moisture and heat sensitivity of gelatin shells make it challenging to coat capsules using the conventional aqueous coating techniques. In an effort to overcome this challenge, the present study aims to coat capsules using two different coating techniques: electrostatic dry powder coating (EDPC) and dip coating (DC). Both capsule coatings and free films were prepared by these two coating techniques, and the effects of coating formulations and processing conditions on the film quality were investigated. The corresponding drug in vitro release and mechanisms were characterized and compared. The results of dissolution tests demonstrated that the drug release behavior of both EDPC and DC coated capsules could be optimized to a sustained release of 24 h, following the Fick's diffusion law. The results of this study suggest that EDPC method is better than DC method for coating capsules, with respect to the higher production efficiency and better stability, indicating that this dry coating technology has promised in gelatin capsule coating applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Drastically Enhanced High-Rate Performance of Carbon-Coated LiFePO4 Nanorods Using a Green Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Method for Lithium Ion Battery: A Selective Carbon Coating Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ruiyuan; Liu, Haiqiang; Jiang, Yi; Chen, Jiankun; Tan, Xinghua; Liu, Guangyao; Zhang, Lina; Gu, Xiaohua; Guo, Yanjun; Wang, Hanfu; Sun, Lianfeng; Chu, Weiguo

    2015-06-03

    Application of LiFePO4 (LFP) to large current power supplies is greatly hindered by its poor electrical conductivity (10(-9) S cm(-1)) and sluggish Li+ transport. Carbon coating is considered to be necessary for improving its interparticle electronic conductivity and thus electrochemical performance. Here, we proposed a novel, green, low cost and controllable CVD approach using solid glucose as carbon source which can be extended to most cathode and anode materials in need of carbon coating. Hydrothermally synthesized LFP nanorods with optimized thickness of carbon coated by this recipe are shown to have superb high-rate performance, high energy, and power densities, as well as long high-rate cycle lifetime. For 200 C (18s) charge and discharge, the discharge capacity and voltage are 89.69 mAh g(-1) and 3.030 V, respectively, and the energy and power densities are 271.80 Wh kg(-1) and 54.36 kW kg(-1), respectively. The capacity retention of 93.0%, and the energy and power density retention of 93.6% after 500 cycles at 100 C were achieved. Compared to the conventional carbon coating through direct mixing with glucose (or other organic substances) followed by annealing (DMGA), the carbon phase coated using this CVD recipe is of higher quality and better uniformity. Undoubtedly, this approach enhances significantly the electrochemical performance of high power LFP and thus broadens greatly the prospect of its applications to large current power supplies such as electric and hybrid electric vehicles.

  15. Coatings for fast breeder reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.N.

    1984-04-01

    Several types of metallurgical coatings are used in the unique environments of the fast breeder reactor. Most of the coatings have been developed for tribological applications, but some also serve as corrosion barriers, diffusion barriers, or radionuclide traps. The materials that have consistently given the best performance as tribological coatings in the breeder reactor environments have been coatings based on chromium carbide, nickel aluminide, or Tribaloy 700 (a nickel-base hard-facing alloy). Other coatings that have been qualified for limited applications include chromium plating for low temperature galling protection and nickel plating for radionuclide trapping

  16. Transparent nanocrystalline diamond coatings and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Khan, Adam

    2017-08-22

    A method for coating a substrate comprises producing a plasma ball using a microwave plasma source in the presence of a mixture of gases. The plasma ball has a diameter. The plasma ball is disposed at a first distance from the substrate and the substrate is maintained at a first temperature. The plasma ball is maintained at the first distance from the substrate, and a diamond coating is deposited on the substrate. The diamond coating has a thickness. Furthermore, the diamond coating has an optical transparency of greater than about 80%. The diamond coating can include nanocrystalline diamond. The microwave plasma source can have a frequency of about 915 MHz.

  17. Evaluation of irradiated coating material specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Jin; Nam, Seok Woo; Cho, Lee Moon

    2007-12-01

    Evaluation result of irradiated coating material specimens - Coating material specimens radiated Gamma Energy(Co 60) in air condition. - Evaluation conditions was above 1 X 10 4 Gy/hr, and radiated TID 2.0 X 10 6 Gy. - The radiated coating material specimens, No Checking, Cracking, Flaking, Delamination, Peeling and Blistering. - Coating system at the Kori no. 1 and APR 1400 Nuclear power plant, evaluation of irradiated coating materials is in accordance with owner's requirement(2.0 X 10 6 Gy)

  18. Statistical experimental design for refractory coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinnon, J.A.; Standard, O.C.

    2000-01-01

    The production of refractory coatings on metal casting moulds is critically dependent on the development of suitable rheological characteristics, such as viscosity and thixotropy, in the initial coating slurry. In this paper, the basic concepts of mixture design and analysis are applied to the formulation of a refractory coating, with illustration by a worked example. Experimental data of coating viscosity versus composition are fitted to a statistical model to obtain a reliable method of predicting the optimal formulation of the coating. Copyright (2000) The Australian Ceramic Society

  19. Multiscale modeling, simulations, and experiments of coating growth on nanofibers. Part II. Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buldum, A.; Clemons, C.B.; Dill, L.H.; Kreider, K.L.; Young, G.W.; Zheng, X.; Evans, E.A.; Zhang, G.; Hariharan, S.I.

    2005-01-01

    This work is Part II of an integrated experimental/modeling investigation of a procedure to coat nanofibers and core-clad nanostructures with thin-film materials using plasma-enhanced physical vapor deposition. In the experimental effort, electrospun polymer nanofibers are coated with aluminum materials under different operating conditions to observe changes in the coating morphology. This procedure begins with the sputtering of the coating material from a target. Part I [J. Appl. Phys. 98, 044303 (2005)] focused on the sputtering aspect and transport of the sputtered material through the reactor. That reactor level model determines the concentration field of the coating material. This field serves as input into the present species transport and deposition model for the region surrounding an individual nanofiber. The interrelationships among processing factors for the transport and deposition are investigated here from a detailed modeling approach that includes the salient physical and chemical phenomena. Solution strategies that couple continuum and atomistic models are used. At the continuum scale, transport dynamics near the nanofiber are described. At the atomic level, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to study the deposition and sputtering mechanisms at the coating surface. Ion kinetic energies and fluxes are passed from the continuum sheath model to the MD simulations. These simulations calculate sputtering and sticking probabilities that in turn are used to calculate parameters for the continuum transport model. The continuum transport model leads to the definition of an evolution equation for the coating-free surface. This equation is solved using boundary perturbation and level set methods to determine the coating morphology as a function of operating conditions

  20. A Multifunctional Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott t.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it. The multi-functionality of the coating is based on microencapsulation technology specifically designed for corrosion control applications. This design has, in addition to all the advantages of existing microcapsulation designs, the corrosion controlled release function that triggers the delivery of corrosion indicators and inhibitors on demand, only when and where needed. Microencapsulation of self-healing agents for autonomous repair of mechanical damage to the coating is also being pursued. Corrosion indicators, corrosion inhibitors, as well as self-healing agents, have been encapsulated and dispersed into several paint systems to test the corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing properties of the coating. Key words: Corrosion, coating, autonomous corrosion control, corrosion indication, corrosion inhibition, self-healing coating, smart coating, multifunctional coating, microencapsulation.

  1. Black molecular adsorber coatings for spaceflight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin S.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Straka, Sharon A.

    2014-09-01

    The molecular adsorber coating is a new technology that was developed to mitigate the risk of on-orbit molecular contamination on spaceflight missions. The application of this coating would be ideal near highly sensitive, interior surfaces and instruments that are negatively impacted by outgassed molecules from materials, such as plastics, adhesives, lubricants, epoxies, and other similar compounds. This current, sprayable paint technology is comprised of inorganic white materials made from highly porous zeolite. In addition to good adhesion performance, thermal stability, and adsorptive capability, the molecular adsorber coating offers favorable thermal control characteristics. However, low reflectivity properties, which are typically offered by black thermal control coatings, are desired for some spaceflight applications. For example, black coatings are used on interior surfaces, in particular, on instrument baffles for optical stray light control. Similarly, they are also used within light paths between optical systems, such as telescopes, to absorb light. Recent efforts have been made to transform the white molecular adsorber coating into a black coating with similar adsorptive properties. This result is achieved by optimizing the current formulation with black pigments, while still maintaining its adsorption capability for outgassing control. Different binder to pigment ratios, coating thicknesses, and spray application techniques were explored to develop a black version of the molecular adsorber coating. During the development process, coating performance and adsorption characteristics were studied. The preliminary work performed on black molecular adsorber coatings thus far is very promising. Continued development and testing is necessary for its use on future contamination sensitive spaceflight missions.

  2. Solar Absorptance of Cermet Coatings Evaluated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.

    2004-01-01

    Cermet coatings, molecular mixtures of metal and ceramic, are being considered for the heat inlet surface of solar Stirling convertors. In this application, the key role of the cermet coating is to absorb as much of the incident solar energy as possible. To achieve this objective, the cermet coating has a high solar absorptance value. Cermet coatings are manufactured utilizing sputter deposition, and many different metal and ceramic combinations can be created. The ability to mix metal and ceramic at the atomic level offers the opportunity to tailor the composition, and hence, the optical properties of these coatings. The NASA Glenn Research Center has prepared and characterized a wide variety of cermet coatings utilizing different metals deposited in an aluminum oxide ceramic matrix. In addition, the atomic oxygen durability of these coatings has been evaluated.

  3. Armor systems including coated core materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Henry S [Idaho Falls, ID; Lillo, Thomas M [Idaho Falls, ID; McHugh, Kevin M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-31

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  4. Electrical contact arrangement for a coating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; McCamy, James W; Boyd, Donald W

    2013-09-17

    A protective coating is applied to the electrically conductive surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by biasing a conductive member having a layer of a malleable electrically conductive material, e.g. a paste, against a portion of the conductive surface while moving an electrodepositable coating composition over the conductive surface. The moving of the electrodepositable coating composition over the conductive surface includes moving the solar mirror through a flow curtain of the electrodepositable coating composition and submerging the solar mirror in a pool of the electrodepositable coating composition. The use of the layer of a malleable electrically conductive material between the conductive member and the conductive surface compensates for irregularities in the conductive surface being contacted during the coating process thereby reducing the current density at the electrical contact area.

  5. Electrostatic coating technologies for food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Sheryl A; Sumonsiri, Nutsuda

    2015-01-01

    The application of electrostatics in both powder and liquid coating can improve the quality of food, such as its appearance, aroma, taste, and shelf life. Coatings can be found most commonly in the snack food industry, as well as in confectionery, bakery, meat and cheese processing. In electrostatic powder coating, the most important factors influencing coating quality are powder particle size, density, flowability, charge, and resistivity, as well as the surface properties and characteristics of the target. The most important factors during electrostatic liquid coating, also known as electrohydrodynamic coating, include applied voltage and electrical resistivity and viscosity of the liquid. A good understanding of these factors is needed for the design of optimal coating systems for food processing.

  6. Nanocomposite Coatings: Preparation, Characterization, Properties, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Nguyen-Tri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of nanofillers into the organic coatings might enhance their barrier performance, by decreasing the porosity and zigzagging the diffusion path for deleterious species. Thus, the coatings containing nanofillers are expected to have significant barrier properties for corrosion protection and reduce the trend for the coating to blister or delaminate. On the other hand, high hardness could be obtained for metallic coatings by producing the hard nanocrystalline phases within a metallic matrix. This article presents a review on recent development of nanocomposite coatings, providing an overview of nanocomposite coatings in various aspects dealing with the classification, preparative method, the nanocomposite coating properties, and characterization methods. It covers potential applications in areas such as the anticorrosion, antiwear, superhydrophobic area, self-cleaning, antifouling/antibacterial area, and electronics. Finally, conclusion and future trends will be also reported.

  7. Nanostructured thin films and coatings mechanical properties

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    The first volume in "The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings" set, this book concentrates on the mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, and adhesion, of thin films and coatings. It discusses processing, properties, and performance and provides a detailed analysis of theories and size effects. The book presents the fundamentals of hard and superhard nanocomposites and heterostructures, assesses fracture toughness and interfacial adhesion strength of thin films and hard nanocomposite coatings, and covers the processing and mechanical properties of hybrid sol-gel-derived nanocomposite coatings. It also uses nanomechanics to optimize coatings for cutting tools and explores various other coatings, such as diamond, metal-containing amorphous carbon nanostructured, and transition metal nitride-based nanolayered multilayer coatings.

  8. ANTIREFLECTION MULTILAYER COATINGS WITH THIN METAL LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Gubanova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The design of anti-reflective coatings for metal surfaces of Al, Ti, N,i Cr is proposed. The coatings have the form of alternating layers of dielectric/metal/dielectric with the number of cells up to15. The method of calculation of such coatings is proposed. We have calculated the coatings of the type [HfO2/Cr/HfO2]15, [ZrO2/Ti/Al2O3]15, [ZrO2/Cr/ZrO2]15. It is shown that the proposed interference coatings provide reduction of the residual reflectance of the metal several times (from 3.5 to 6.0 in a wide spectral range (300-1000 nm. The proposed coatings can be recommended as anti-reflective coatings for energy saving solar systems and batteries, and photovoltaic cells.

  9. Wear performance of laser processed tantalum coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrick, Stanley; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit, E-mail: amitband@wsu.edu

    2011-12-01

    This first generation investigation evaluates the in vitro tribological performance of laser-processed Ta coatings on Ti for load-bearing implant applications. Linear reciprocating wear tests in simulated body fluid showed one order of magnitude less wear rate, of the order of 10{sup -4} mm{sup 3}(N.m){sup -1}, for Ta coatings compared to Ti. Our results demonstrate that Ta coatings can potentially minimize the early-stage bone-implant interface micro-motion induced wear debris generation due to their excellent bioactivity comparable to that of hydroxyapatite (HA), high wear resistance and toughness compared to popular HA coatings. Highlights: {yields} In vitro wear performance of laser processed Ta coatings on Ti was evaluated. {yields} Wear tests in SBF showed one order of magnitude less wear for Ta coatings than Ti. {yields} Ta coatings can minimize early-stage micro-motion induced wear debris generation.

  10. An ultrathin polymer coating of carboxylate self-assembled monolayer adsorbed on passivated iron to prevent iron corrosion in 0.1 M Na2SO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramaki, Kunitsugu; Shimura, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    For preparing an ultrathin two-dimensional polymer coating adsorbed on passivated iron, a 16-hydroxyhexadecanoate ion HO(CH 2 ) 15 CO 2 - self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was modified with 1,2-bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (C 2 H 5 O) 3 Si(CH 2 ) 2 Si(OC 2 H 5 ) 3 and octadecyltriethoxysilane C 18 H 37 Si(OC 2 H 5 ) 3 . Protection of passivated iron against passive film breakdown and corrosion of iron was investigated by monitoring of the open-circuit potential and repeated polarization measurements in an aerated 0.1 M Na 2 SO 4 solution during immersion for many hours. The time required for passive film breakdown of the polymer-coated electrode was markedly higher in this solution than that of the passivated one, indicating protection of the passive film from breakdown by coverage with the polymer coating. The protective efficiencies of the passive film covered with the coating were extremely high, more than 99.9% in 0.1 M Na 2 SO 4 before the passive film was broken down, showing prominent cooperative suppression of iron corrosion in the solution by coverage with the passive film and polymer coating. The polymer-coated surface was characterized by contact angle measurement and electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA). Prevention of passive film breakdown and iron corrosion for the polymer-coated electrode healed in 0.1 M NaNO 3 was also examined in 0.1 M Na 2 SO 4 .

  11. Cytoskeleton dynamics: Fluctuations within the network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursac, Predrag; Fabry, Ben; Trepat, Xavier; Lenormand, Guillaume; Butler, James P.; Wang, Ning; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; An, Steven S.

    2007-01-01

    Out-of-equilibrium systems, such as the dynamics of a living cytoskeleton (CSK), are inherently noisy with fluctuations arising from the stochastic nature of the underlying biochemical and molecular events. Recently, such fluctuations within the cell were characterized by observing spontaneous nano-scale motions of an RGD-coated microbead bound to the cell surface [Bursac et al., Nat. Mater. 4 (2005) 557-561]. While these reported anomalous bead motions represent a molecular level reorganization (remodeling) of microstructures in contact with the bead, a precise nature of these cytoskeletal constituents and forces that drive their remodeling dynamics are largely unclear. Here, we focused upon spontaneous motions of an RGD-coated bead and, in particular, assessed to what extent these motions are attributable to (i) bulk cell movement (cell crawling), (ii) dynamics of focal adhesions, (iii) dynamics of lipid membrane, and/or (iv) dynamics of the underlying actin CSK driven by myosin motors

  12. High efficiency turbine blade coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youchison, Dennis L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gallis, Michail A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The development of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that exhibit lower thermal conductivity through better control of electron beam - physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processing is of prime interest to both the aerospace and power industries. This report summarizes the work performed under a two-year Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project (38664) to produce lower thermal conductivity, graded-layer thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades in an effort to increase the efficiency of high temperature gas turbines. This project was sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Investment Area. Therefore, particular importance was given to the processing of the large blades required for industrial gas turbines proposed for use in the Brayton cycle of nuclear plants powered by high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). During this modest (~1 full-time equivalent (FTE)) project, the processing technology was developed to create graded TBCs by coupling ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with substrate pivoting in the alumina-YSZ system. The Electron Beam - 1200 kW (EB-1200) PVD system was used to deposit a variety of TBC coatings with micron layered microstructures and reduced thermal conductivity below 1.5 W/m.K. The use of IBAD produced fully stoichiometric coatings at a reduced substrate temperature of 600°C and a reduced oxygen background pressure of 0.1 Pa. IBAD was also used to successfully demonstrate the transitioning of amorphous PVD-deposited alumina to the -phase alumina required as an oxygen diffusion barrier and for good adhesion to the substrate Ni2Al3 bondcoat. This process replaces the time consuming thermally grown oxide formation required before the YSZ deposition. In addition to the process technology, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo plume modeling and spectroscopic characterization of the PVD plumes were performed. The project consisted of five tasks. These included the

  13. Wrinkling of solidifying polymeric coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Soumendra Kumar

    2005-07-01

    In coatings, wrinkles are viewed as defects or as desired features for low gloss, and texture. In either case, discovering the origin of wrinkles and the conditions that lead to their formation is important. This research examines what wrinkling requires and proposes a mechanism to explain the observations. All curing wrinkling coatings contain multi-functional reactants. Upon curing, all develop a depth-wise gradient in solidification that result in a cross-linked elastic skin atop a viscous bottom layer. It is hypothesized that compressive stress develops in the skin when liquid below diffuses up into the skin. High enough compressive stress buckles the skin to produce wrinkles. The hypothesis is substantiated by experimental and theoretical evidences. Effects of various application and compositional parameters on wrinkle size in a liquid-applied acrylic coating and a powder-applied epoxy coating were examined. All three components, namely resin, cross-linker and catalyst blocked with at least equimolar volatile blocker, proved to be required for wrinkling. The wrinkling phenomenon was modeled with a theory that accounts for gradient generation, cross-linking reaction and skinning; predictions compared well with observations. Two-layer non-curing coatings that have a stiff elastic layer atop a complaint elastic bottom layer wrinkled when the top layer is compressed. The top layer was compressed by either moisture absorption or differential thermal expansion. Experimental observations compared well with predictions from a theory based on force balance in multilayer systems subjected to differential contraction or expansion. A model based on the Flory-Rehner free energy of a constrained cross-linked gel was constructed that predicts the compressive stress generated in a coating when it absorbs solvent. Linear stability analysis predicts that when a compressed elastic layer is attached atop a viscous layer, it is always unstable to buckles whose wavelength exceeds a

  14. Discrepancy between different estimates of the hydrodynamic diameter of polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regmi, R.; Gumber, V.; Subba Rao, V.; Kohli, I.; Black, C.; Sudakar, C.; Vaishnava, P.; Naik, V.; Naik, R.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Lawes, G.

    2011-01-01

    We have synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles coated with a monolayer of dextran, with molecular weights of the polymer between 5 and 670 kDa. Transmission electron microscopy images confirm that the hard core has a crystalline diameter of approximately 12 nm. The hydrodynamic diameters of these coated nanoparticles in solution measured using dynamical light scattering and estimated from magnetic susceptibility studies vary from near 90 nm for the lightest polymer to 140 nm for the heaviest polymer. Conversely, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy measurements yield a diameter of approximately 55 nm for the 15–20 kDa dextran coated nanoparticles, which is consistent with the expected value estimated from the sum of the hard-core diameter and monolayer dextran coating. We discuss the implications of this discrepancy for applications involving polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles.

  15. Impact of structure and morphology of nanostructured ceria coating on AISI 304 oxidation kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aadhavan, R.; Suresh Babu, K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ceria coating reduced the oxidation kinetics of AISI304 by 3–4 orders. • Lower deposition rate (0.1 Å/s) resulted in dense and uniform coating. • Substrate temperature of 100 °C provided coating with smaller crystallite size. • Surface morphology of the coating has strong influence in oxidation protection. - Abstract: Nanostructured ceria-based coatings are shown to be protective against high-temperature oxidation of AISI 304 due to the dynamics of oxidation state and associated defects. However, the processing parameters of deposition have a strong influence in determining the structural and morphological aspects of ceria. The present work focuses on the effect of variation in substrate temperature (50–300 °C) and deposition rate (0.1–50 Å/s) of ceria in electron beam physical vapour evaporation method and correlates the changes in structure and morphology to high-temperature oxidation protection. Unlike deposition rate, substrate temperature exhibited a profound influence on crystallite size (7–18 nm) and oxygen vacancy concentration. Upon isothermal oxidation at 1243 K for 24 h, bare AISI 304 exhibited a linear mass gain with a rate constant of 3.0 ± 0.03 × 10"−"3 kg"2 m"−"4 s"−"1 while ceria coating lowered the kinetics by 3–4 orders. Though the thickness of the coating was kept constant at 2 μm, higher deposition rate offered one order lower protection due to the porous nature of the coating. Variation in the substrate temperature modulated the porosity as well as oxygen vacancy concentration and displayed the best protection for coatings deposited at moderate substrate temperature. The present work demonstrates the significance of selecting appropriate processing parameters to obtain the required morphology for efficient high-temperature oxidation protection.

  16. Impact of structure and morphology of nanostructured ceria coating on AISI 304 oxidation kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aadhavan, R.; Suresh Babu, K., E-mail: sureshbabu.nst@pondiuni.edu.in

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Ceria coating reduced the oxidation kinetics of AISI304 by 3–4 orders. • Lower deposition rate (0.1 Å/s) resulted in dense and uniform coating. • Substrate temperature of 100 °C provided coating with smaller crystallite size. • Surface morphology of the coating has strong influence in oxidation protection. - Abstract: Nanostructured ceria-based coatings are shown to be protective against high-temperature oxidation of AISI 304 due to the dynamics of oxidation state and associated defects. However, the processing parameters of deposition have a strong influence in determining the structural and morphological aspects of ceria. The present work focuses on the effect of variation in substrate temperature (50–300 °C) and deposition rate (0.1–50 Å/s) of ceria in electron beam physical vapour evaporation method and correlates the changes in structure and morphology to high-temperature oxidation protection. Unlike deposition rate, substrate temperature exhibited a profound influence on crystallite size (7–18 nm) and oxygen vacancy concentration. Upon isothermal oxidation at 1243 K for 24 h, bare AISI 304 exhibited a linear mass gain with a rate constant of 3.0 ± 0.03 × 10{sup −3} kg{sup 2} m{sup −4} s{sup −1} while ceria coating lowered the kinetics by 3–4 orders. Though the thickness of the coating was kept constant at 2 μm, higher deposition rate offered one order lower protection due to the porous nature of the coating. Variation in the substrate temperature modulated the porosity as well as oxygen vacancy concentration and displayed the best protection for coatings deposited at moderate substrate temperature. The present work demonstrates the significance of selecting appropriate processing parameters to obtain the required morphology for efficient high-temperature oxidation protection.

  17. Development and electrochemical characterization of Ni‐P coated tungsten incorporated electroless nickel coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibli, S.M.A., E-mail: smashibli@yahoo.com; Chinchu, K.S.

    2016-08-01

    Ni‐P-W alloy and composite coatings were prepared by incorporation of sodium tungstate/tungsten and Ni‐P coated tungsten into electroless nickel bath respectively. Good inter-particle interactions among the depositing elements i.e. Ni and P with the incorporating tungsten particles were achieved by means of pre-coated tungsten particle by electroless nickel covering prior to its addition into the electroless bath. The pre-coated tungsten particles got incorporated uniformly into the Ni-P matrix of the coating. The particles and the coatings were characterized at different stages by different techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The electroless Ni-P coating incorporated with pre-coated tungsten exhibited considerably high hardness, thickness and deposition rate. The performance and corrosion resistance characteristics of the composite coating incorporated with the nickel coated tungsten were found to be superior over other conventional Ni-P-W ternary alloy coatings currently reported. - Highlights: • An amorphous Ni-P coating was effectively formed on tungsten particles. • Electroless ternary Ni-P-W composite coatings were successfully prepared. • Enhancement in the inter-particle interaction in the Ni-P composite matrix was achieved. • Efficient and uniform incorporation of the composite in the internal layer was evident. • The tungsten incorporated coating possessed effective barrier protection.

  18. The evaluation of hierarchical structured superhydrophobic coatings for the alleviation of insect residue to aircraft laminar flow surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, Mariana [Department of Mechanical, Aeronautical and Biomedical Engineering, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Young, Trevor M., E-mail: Trevor.Young@ul.ie [Department of Mechanical, Aeronautical and Biomedical Engineering, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland)

    2014-09-30

    Surface contamination caused by insects on laminar flow wing surfaces causes a disruption of the flow, resulting in an increase in drag and fuel consumption. Consequently, the use of superhydrophobic coatings to mitigate insect residue adhesion was investigated. A range of hierarchical superhydrophobic coatings with different surface chemistry and topography was examined. Candidate coatings were characterized in terms of their morphology and hydrophobic properties by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and static and dynamic contact angle measurements, respectively. Arithmetic mean surface roughness (R{sub a}) values were measured using profilometry. Only superhydrophobic coatings with a specific topography showed complete mitigation against insect residue adhesion. A surface which exhibited a specific microstructure (R{sub a} = 5.26 μm) combined with a low sliding angle (SA = 7.6°) showed the best anti-contamination properties. The dynamics of an insect impact event and its influence on the wetting and adhesion mechanisms of insect residue to a surface were discussed.

  19. Multiphase-Multifunctional Ceramic Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-30

    systems for high temperatura applications” “ Estudios de Ferroelasticidad en Sistemas Cerámicos Multifásicos para Aplicaciones en Alta Temperatura ...Ceramic Coatings Performing Organization names: Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional – Unidad Queretaro...materials, Cinvestav. Thesis: “Ferroelasticity studies in multiphase ceramic systems for high temperatura applications”. Her work mainly focused in the

  20. Beryllium coating on Inconel tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailescu, V.; Burcea, G.; Lungu, C.P.; Mustata, I.; Lungu, A.M.; Rubel, M.; Coad, J.P.; Matthews, G.; Pedrick, L.; Handley, R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The Joint European Torus (JET) is a large experimental nuclear fusion device. Its aim is to confine and study the behaviour of plasma in conditions and dimensions approaching those required for a fusion reactor. The plasma is created in the toroidal shaped vacuum vessel of the machine in which it is confined by magnetic fields. In preparation for ITER a new ITER-like Wall (ILW) will be installed on Joint European Torus (JET), a wall not having any carbon facing the plasma [1]. In places Inconel tiles are to be installed, these tiles shall be coated with Beryllium. MEdC represented by the National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest and in direct cooperation with Nuclear Fuel Plant Pitesti started to coat Inconel tiles with 8 μm of Beryllium in accordance with the requirements of technical specification and fit for installation in the JET machine. This contribution provides an overview of the principles of manufacturing processes using thermal evaporation method in vacuum and the properties of the prepared coatings. The optimization of the manufacturing process (layer thickness, structure and purity) has been carried out on Inconel substrates (polished and sand blasted) The results of the optimization process and analysis (SEM, TEM, XRD, Auger, RBS, AFM) of the coatings will be presented. Reference [1] Takeshi Hirai, H. Maier, M. Rubel, Ph. Mertens, R. Neu, O. Neubauer, E. Gauthier, J. Likonen, C. Lungu, G. Maddaluno, G. F. Matthews, R. Mitteau, G. Piazza, V. Philipps, B. Riccardi, C. Ruset, I. Uytdenhouwen, R and D on full tungsten divertor and beryllium wall for JET TIER-like Wall Project, 24. Symposium on Fusion Technology - 11-15 September 2006 -Warsaw, Poland. (authors)

  1. Chrome - Free Aluminum Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, John H.; Gugel, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation concerns the program to qualify a chrome free coating for aluminum. The program was required due to findings by OSHA and EPA, that hexavalent chromium, used to mitigate corrosion in aerospace aluminum alloys, poses hazards for personnel. This qualification consisted of over 4,000 tests. The tests revealed that a move away from Cr+6, required a system rather than individual components and that the maximum corrosion protection required pretreatment, primer and topcoat.

  2. High temperature solar selective coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Cheryl E

    2014-11-25

    Improved solar collectors (40) comprising glass tubing (42) attached to bellows (44) by airtight seals (56) enclose solar absorber tubes (50) inside an annular evacuated space (54. The exterior surfaces of the solar absorber tubes (50) are coated with improved solar selective coatings {48} which provide higher absorbance, lower emittance and resistance to atmospheric oxidation at elevated temperatures. The coatings are multilayered structures comprising solar absorbent layers (26) applied to the meta surface of the absorber tubes (50), typically stainless steel, topped with antireflective Savers (28) comprising at least two layers 30, 32) of refractory metal or metalloid oxides (such as titania and silica) with substantially differing indices of refraction in adjacent layers. Optionally, at least one layer of a noble metal such as platinum can be included between some of the layers. The absorbent layers cars include cermet materials comprising particles of metal compounds is a matrix, which can contain oxides of refractory metals or metalloids such as silicon. Reflective layers within the coating layers can comprise refractory metal silicides and related compounds characterized by the formulas TiSi. Ti.sub.3SiC.sub.2, TiAlSi, TiAN and similar compounds for Zr and Hf. The titania can be characterized by the formulas TiO.sub.2, Ti.sub.3O.sub.5. TiOx or TiO.sub.xN.sub.1-x with x 0 to 1. The silica can be at least one of SiO.sub.2, SiO.sub.2x or SiO.sub.2xN.sub.1-x with x=0 to 1.

  3. Chemical Processing of Nanostructured Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    in the literature ranging from IR imaging to anti-scratch to smart windows and waveguides. Uhlmann and Towee have taken a survey of the sol-gel...Proteins and enzymes can be encapsulated in silica glass (12), while still retaining their activity. Sol-gel coatings (13,14) of hydroxyapatite should also...Technology, 13, 261-65. 14. Lolpatin, C. M. Pizziloni, V., Alford, T. L., and Lawsaon, T (1998) Hydroxyapatite powders ad thin films prepared by sol

  4. Diamond coating in accelerator structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, X.E.

    1998-08-01

    The future accelerators with 1 GeV/m gradient will give rise to hundreds of degrees instantaneous temperature rise on the copper surface. Due to its extraordinary thermal and electric properties, diamond coating on the surface is suggested to remedy this problem. Multi-layer structure, with the promise of even more temperature reduction, is also discussed, and a proof of principle experiment is being carried out

  5. Wear mechanisms of coated hardmetals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, V.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper several aspects of the wear mechanisms of coated hardmetals, ceramics and super-hard materials (CBN) in machining cast iron are discussed, with particular attention being given to high-speed machining of different cast iron grades. The influence of machining parameters, microstructure, composition and mechanical and chemical properties of the cutting tool and the work-piece material on wear are considered. (author)

  6. Coated Conductors under Tensile Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonevici, Anca; Villaume, Alain; Villard, Catherine; Sulpice, Andre; Maron, Pierre Brosse; Bourgault, Daniel; Porcar, Laureline

    2006-01-01

    Critical current dependence versus strain is obtained for in-situ axial stress experiments on ISD YBCO and DyBCO coated conductors. The drop of critical current due to the apparition of first cracks in the superconducting ceramics is related to the passage in the plastic region of the substrate for a strain of about 0.3% and a stress higher then 500MPa. The superconductivity is preserved between the cracks

  7. Flexible diamond-like carbon thin film coated on rubbers: fundamentals and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Yutao

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic rubber seals are the major source of friction in lubrication systems and bearings, which may take up to 70% of the total friction. Our solution is to coat rubbers with flexible diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film by which the coefficient of friction is reduced from above 1.5 to below 0.15.

  8. Electron beam curing of coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujioka, S.; Fujikawa, Z.

    1974-01-01

    Electron beam curing (EBC) method, by which hardened coating film is obtained by polymerizing and cross-linking paint with electron beam, has finally reached industrialized stage. While about seven items such as short curing time, high efficiency of energy consumption, and homogeneous curing are enumerated as the advantages of EBC method, it has limitations of the isolation requirement from air needing the injection of inert gas, and considerable amount of initial investment. In the electron accelerators employed in EBC method, the accelerating voltage is 250 to 750 kV, and the tube current is several tens of mA to 200 mA. As an example of EBC applications, EBC ''Erio'' steel sheet was developed by the cooperative research of Nippon Steel Corp., Dai-Nippon Printing Co. and Toray Industries, Inc. It is a high-class pre-coated metal product made from galvanized steel sheets, and the flat sheets with cured coating are sold, and final products are fabricated by being worked in various shapes in users. It seems necessary to develop the paint which enables to raise added value by adopting the EBC method. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  9. High Critical Current Coated Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranthaman, M. P.; Selvamanickam, V. (SuperPower, Inc.)

    2011-12-27

    One of the important critical needs that came out of the DOE’s coated conductor workshop was to develop a high throughput and economic deposition process for YBCO. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, the most critical steps in high technical micro fabrications, has been widely employed in semiconductor industry for various thin film growth. SuperPower has demonstrated that (Y,Gd)BCO films can be deposited rapid with world record performance. In addition to high critical current density with increased film thickness, flux pinning properties of REBCO films needs to be improved to meet the DOE requirements for various electric-power equipments. We have shown that doping with Zr can result in BZO nanocolumns, but at substantially reduced deposition rate. The primary purpose of this subtask is to develop high current density MOCVD-REBCO coated conductors based on the ion-beam assisted (IBAD)-MgO deposition process. Another purpose of this subtask is to investigate HTS conductor design optimization (maximize Je) with emphasis on stability and protection issues, and ac loss for REBCO coated conductors.

  10. ALARA trademark 1146 strippable coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, V.

    1999-01-01

    Strippable or temporary coatings are innovative technologies for decontamination that effectively reduce loose contamination at low cost. These coatings have become a viable option during the deactivation and decommissioning of both US Department of Energy (DOE) and commercial nuclear facilities to remove or fix loose contamination on both vertical and horizontal surfaces. The ALARA trademark 1146 strippable coating was demonstrated as part of the Savannah River Site LSDDP and successfully removed transferable (surface) contamination from multiple surfaces (metal and concrete) with an average decontamination factor for alpha contamination of 6.68 and an average percentage of alpha contamination removed of 85.0%. Beta contamination removed was an average DF of 5.55 and an average percentage removed of 82.0%. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users. This Innovative Technology offers a 35% cost savings over the Baseline Technology

  11. Dynamics of membrane nanotubes coated with I-BAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farhangibarooji, Younes; Rørvig-Lund, Andreas; Semsey, Szabolcs

    2016-01-01

    Membrane deformation is a necessary step in a number of cellular processes such as filopodia and invadopodia formation and has been shown to involve membrane shaping proteins containing membrane binding domains from the IRSp53-MIM protein family. In reconstituted membranes the membrane shaping...

  12. Dynamics of membrane nanotubes coated with I-BAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barooji, Younes F.; Rørvig-Lund, Andreas; Semsey, Szabolcs; Reihani, S. Nader S.; Bendix, Poul M.

    2016-07-01

    Membrane deformation is a necessary step in a number of cellular processes such as filopodia and invadopodia formation and has been shown to involve membrane shaping proteins containing membrane binding domains from the IRSp53-MIM protein family. In reconstituted membranes the membrane shaping domains can efficiently deform negatively charged membranes into tubules without any other proteins present. Here, we show that the IM domain (also called I-BAR domain) from the protein ABBA, forms semi-flexible nanotubes protruding into Giant Unilamellar lipid Vesicles (GUVs). By simultaneous quantification of tube intensity and tubular shape we find both the diameter and stiffness of the nanotubes. I-BAR decorated tubes were quantified to have a diameter of ~50 nm and exhibit no stiffening relative to protein free tubes of the same diameter. At high protein density the tubes are immobile whereas at lower density the tubes diffuse freely on the surface of the GUV. Bleaching experiments of the fluorescently tagged I-BAR confirmed that the mobility of the tubes correlates with the mobility of the I-BAR on the GUV membrane. Finally, at low density of I-BAR the protein upconcentrates within tubes protruding into the GUVs. This implies that I-BAR exhibits strong preference for negatively curved membranes.

  13. Dynamic coating of mf/uf membranes for fouling mitigation

    KAUST Repository

    Tabatabai, S. Assiyeh Alizadeh; Leiknes, TorOve

    2017-01-01

    A membrane system including an anti-fouling layer and a method of applying an anti-fouling layer to a membrane surface are provided. In an embodiment, the surface is a microfiltration (MF) or an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane surface. The anti

  14. Carbon-Based Wear Coatings: Properties and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2003-01-01

    The technical function of numerous engineering systems - such as vehicles, machines, and instruments - depends on the processes of motion and on the surface systems. Many processes in nature and technology depend on the motion and dynamic behavior of solids, liquids, and gases. Smart surface systems are essential because of the recent technological push toward higher speeds, loads, and operating temperatures; longer life; lighter weight and smaller size (including nanotechnology); and harsh environments in mechanical, mechatronic, and biomechanical systems. If proper attention is not given to surface systems, then vehicles, machines, instruments, and other technical systems could have short lives, consume excessive energy, experience breakdowns, result in liabilities, and fail to accomplish their missions. Surface systems strongly affect our national economy and our lifestyles. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, we believe that proper attention to surface systems, especially in education, research, and application, could lead to economic savings of between 1.3 and 1.6 percent of the gross domestic product. Wear coatings and surface systems continue to experience rapid growth as new coating and surface engineering technologies are discovered, more cost-effective coating and surface engineering solutions are developed, and marketers aggressively pursue, uncover, and exploit new applications for engineered surface systems in cutting tools and wear components. Wear coatings and smart surface systems have been used widely in industrial, consumer, automotive, aerospace, and biomedical applications. This presentation expresses the author's views of and insights into smart surface systems in wear coatings. A revolution is taking place in carbon science and technology. Diamond, an allotrope of carbon, joins graphite, fullerenes, and nanotubes as its major pure carbon structures. It has a unique combination of extreme properties: hardness and abrasion resistance; adhesion

  15. Oxidation study of Ta–Zr coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yung-I, E-mail: yichen@mail.ntou.edu.tw; Chen, Sin-Min

    2013-02-01

    Refractory metal alloy coatings, such as Mo–Ru and Ta–Ru coatings, have been developed to protect glass molding dies. Forming intermetallic compounds in the coatings inhibits grain growth in high temperature environments when mass producing optical components. After annealing in oxygen containing atmospheres, a surface roughening of the Mo–Ru coatings and a soft oxide layer on the Ta–Ru coatings have been observed in our previous works. Oxidation resistance becomes critical in high-temperature applications. In this study, Ta–Zr coatings were deposited with a Ti interlayer on silicon wafers using direct current magnetron sputtering at 400 °C. The as-deposited Ta–Zr coatings possessed nanocrystallite or amorphous states, depending on the chemical compositions. The annealing treatments were conducted at 600 °C under atmospheres of 50 ppm O{sub 2}–N{sub 2} or 1% O{sub 2}–Ar, respectively. After the annealing treatment, this study investigated variations in crystalline structure, hardness, surface roughness, and chemical composition profiles. Preferential oxidation of Zr in the Ta–Zr coatings was verified using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the microstructure was observed using transmission electron microscopy. - Highlights: ►The as-deposited Ta-rich Ta–Zr coatings revealed an amorphous structure. ►The Zr-rich coatings presented a crystalline β-Zr phase and an amorphous matrix. ►Zr oxidized preferentially as Ta–Zr coatings annealed at 600 °C. ►The hardness of coatings revealed a parabolic relationship with the oxygen content. ►A protective oxide scale formed on the surface of the crystallized Zr-rich coatings.

  16. Characterization and fabrication of fully metal-coated scanning near-field optical microscopy SiO2 tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschimann, L; Akiyama, T; Staufer, U; De Rooij, N F; Thiery, L; Eckert, R; Heinzelmann, H

    2003-03-01

    The fabrication of silicon cantilever-based scanning near-field optical microscope probes with fully aluminium-coated quartz tips was optimized to increase production yield. Different cantilever designs for dynamic- and contact-mode force feedback were implemented. Light transmission through the tips was investigated experimentally in terms of the metal coating and the tip cone-angle. We found that transmittance varies with the skin depth of the metal coating and is inverse to the cone angle, meaning that slender tips showed higher transmission. Near-field optical images of individual fluorescing molecules showed a resolution thermocouple showed no evidence of mechanical defect or orifice formation by thermal effects.

  17. Predictive Model for the Meniscus-Guided Coating of High-Quality Organic Single-Crystalline Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janneck, Robby; Vercesi, Federico; Heremans, Paul; Genoe, Jan; Rolin, Cedric

    2016-09-01

    A model that describes solvent evaporation dynamics in meniscus-guided coating techniques is developed. In combination with a single fitting parameter, it is shown that this formula can accurately predict a processing window for various coating conditions. Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), fabricated by a zone-casting setup, indeed show the best performance at the predicted coating speeds with mobilities reaching 7 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Silver coated aluminium microrods as highly colloidal stable SERS platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos-Perez, Nicolas; Borke, Tina; Andreeva, Daria V; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon A

    2011-08-01

    We report on the fabrication of a novel material with the ability to remain in solution even under the very demanding conditions required for structural and dynamic characterization of biomacromolecule assays. This stability is provided by the increase in surface area of a low density material (aluminium) natively coated with a very hydrophilic surface composed of aluminium oxide (Al(2)O(3)) and metallic silver nanoparticles. Additionally, due to the dense collection of active hot spots on their surface, this material offers higher levels of SERS intensity as compared with the same free and aggregated silver nanoparticles. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  19. Electrochemical Behavior and Hydrophobic Properties of CrN and CrNiN Coatings in Simulated Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIN Jie

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The CrN and CrNiN coatings were prepared on the surface of 304 stainless steel by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering.X ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the coatings.The electrochemical corrosion properties under the simulated proton exchange membrane fuel cell(PEMFC environment, interfacial contact resistance and hydrophobic properties of the two kinds of different coatings were investigated by electrochemical methods,contact resistance test and hydrophobic test,respectively.The results indicate that CrN coating mainly consists of CrN and Cr2N phase,CrN and Cr2N phases in the CrNiN coating are less compared to CrN film, and Ni exist as element in CrNiN coating; dynamic polarization tests show the coating is of better corrosion resistance,whereas the corrosion resistance of CrNiN coating is worse than that of CrN coating,constant potential polarization test shows the corrosion current density of CrN and CrNiN coatings are equivalent; CrN and CrNiN coatings significantly reduce the interfacial contact resistance of the 304 stainless steel,among which CrN coating has the smallest contact resistance; and CrNiN coating which has better hydrophobicity than that of CrN coating is more beneficial for the water management in proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

  20. Experimental study of nucleate pool boiling heat transfer of water on silicon oxide nanoparticle coated copper heating surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sudev; Kumar, D.S.; Bhaumik, Swapan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • EBPVD approach was employed for fabrication of well-ordered nanoparticle coated micro/nanostructure on metal surface. • Nucleate boiling heat transfer performance on nanoparticle coated micro/nanostructure surface was experimentally studied. • Stability of nanoparticle coated surface under boiling environment was systematically studied. • 58% enhancement of boiling heat transfer coefficient was found. • Present experimental results are validated with well known boiling correlations. - Abstract: Electron beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) coating approach was employed for fabrication of well-ordered of nanoparticle coated micronanostructures on metal surfaces. This paper reports the experimental study of augmentation of pool boiling heat transfer performance and stabilities of silicon oxide nanoparticle coated surfaces with water at atmospheric pressure. The surfaces were characterized with respect to dynamic contact angle, surface roughness, topography, and morphology. The results were found that there is a reduction of about 36% in the incipience superheat and 58% enhancement in heat transfer coefficient for silicon oxide coated surface over the untreated surface. This enhancement might be the reason of enhanced wettability, enhanced surface roughness and increased number of a small artificial cavity on a heating surface. The performance and stability of nanoparticle coated micro/nanostructure surfaces were examined and found that after three runs of experiment the heat transfer coefficient with heat flux almost remain constant.

  1. Improved methods for testing bond and intrinsic strength and fatigue of thermally sprayed metallic and ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, K.K.; Ziehl, M.H.; Schwaminger, C.

    1991-01-01

    Conventional bond strength tests for thermally sprayed coatings represent only a rough means of obtaining overall strength values, with no differentiation between adhesion at the interface and intrinsic coating properties. In order to obtain information about the influence of substrate surface preparation on the adhesion of a Tribaloy T700 coating, tensile bond strength and modified crack-opening displacement (COD) specimens were tested by deliberate crack initiation at the interface. Crack initiation was achieved by weakening of the interface at the outer diameter in the case of bond strength specimens or at the notch root in the case of COD specimens. This made it possible to look at the influence of surface roughness and grit contamination on the coating adhesion separately. Modified COD specimens with the notch in the centre of the coating were used to determine crack-opening energies and critical stress intensity factors of atmospheric plasma-sprayed NiAl and low pressure plasma-sprayed CoNiCrAlY bond coatings and a ZrO 2 7Y 2 O 3 thermal barrier coating (TBC). Additionally, bond strength specimens were stressed dynamically, and it could be demonstrated that Woehler (S/N) diagrams can be established for a metallic NiAl bond coating and even for a ceramic ZrO 2 7Y 2 O 3 TBC. (orig.)

  2. TH-C-18C-01: MRI Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pooley, R [Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Bernstein, M; Shu, Y; Gorny, K; Felmlee, J [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Panda, A [Mayo Clinic, Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Clinical diagnostic medical physicists may be responsible for implementing and maintaining a comprehensive MR safety program. Accrediting bodies including the ACR, IAC, Radsite and The Joint Commission each include aspects of MR Safety into their imaging accreditation programs; MIPPA regulations further raise the significance of non-compliance. In addition, The Joint Commission recently announced New and Revised Diagnostic Imaging Standards for accredited health care organizations which include aspects of MR Safety. Hospitals and clinics look to the physicist to understand guidelines, regulations and accreditation requirements related to MR safety. The clinical medical physicist plays a significant role in a clinical practice by understanding the physical basis for the risks and acting as a facilitator to successfully implement a safety program that provides well-planned siting, allows for the safe scanning of certain implanted devices, and helps radiologists manage specific patient exams. The MRI scanning of specific devices will be discussed including cardiac pacemakers and neurostimulators such as deep brain stimulators. Furthermore for sites involved in MR guided interventional procedures, the MR physicist plays an essential role to establish safe practices. Creating a framework for a safe MRI practice includes the review of actual safety incidents or close calls to determine methods for prevention in the future. Learning Objectives: Understand the requirements and recommendations related to MR safety from accrediting bodies and federal regulations. Understand the Medical Physicist's roles to ensure MR Safety. Identify best practices for dealing with implanted devices, including pacemakers and deep brain stimulators. Review aspects of MR safety involved in an MR guided interventional environment. Understand the important MR safety aspects in actual safety incidents or near misses.

  3. Saturation behaviour of the LHC NEG coated beam pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Porcelli, T; Lanza, G; Baglin, V; Jimenez, J M

    2012-01-01

    In the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), about 6 km of the UHV beam pipe are at room temperature and serve as experimental or utility insertions. TiZrV non-evaporable getter (NEG) coating is used to maintain the design pressure during beam operation. Molecular desorption due to dynamic effects is stimulated during protons operation at high intensity. This phenomenon produces an important gas load from the vacuum chamber walls, which could lead to a partial or total saturation of the NEG coating. To keep the design vacuum performances and to schedule technical interventions for NEG reactivation, it is necessary to take into account all these aspects and to regularly evaluate the saturation level of the NEG coating. Experimental studies of a typical LHC vacuum sector were conducted in the laboratory in order to identify the best method to assess the saturation level of the beam pipe. Partial saturation of the NEG was performed and the effective pumping speed, transmission and capture probability are analysed.

  4. Three-dimensional blade coating of complex fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vachitar; Grimaldi, Emma; Sauret, Alban; Dressaire, Emilie

    2015-11-01

    The application of a layer of non-newtonian fluid on a solid substrate is an important industrial problem involved in polymer or paint coatings, and an everyday life challenge when it comes to spreading peanut butter on a toast. Most experimental and theoretical work has focused on the two-dimensional situation, i.e. the scraping of a fixed blade on a moving substrate to turn a thick layer of liquid into a thin coat. However the spreading of a finite volume of non-newtonian fluid using a blade has received less attention, despite significant practical and fundamental implications. In this study, we investigate experimentally the spreading of a finite volume of a model non-newtonian fluid, carbopol, initially deposited against the fixed blade. As the substrate is translated at constant speed, we characterize the dynamics of spreading and the final shape of the coated layer. We measure and rationalize the influence of the liquid volume, the height and orientation of the blade, and the speed of the substrate on the spreading.

  5. Effect of cathodic polarization on coating doxycycline on titanium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geißler, Sebastian; Tiainen, Hanna; Haugen, Håvard J., E-mail: h.j.haugen@odont.uio.no

    2016-06-01

    Cathodic polarization has been reported to enhance the ability of titanium based implant materials to interact with biomolecules by forming titanium hydride at the outermost surface layer. Although this hydride layer has recently been suggested to allow the immobilization of the broad spectrum antibiotic doxycycline on titanium surfaces, the involvement of hydride in binding the biomolecule onto titanium remains poorly understood. To gain better understanding of the influence this immobilization process has on titanium surfaces, mirror-polished commercially pure titanium surfaces were cathodically polarized in the presence of doxycycline and the modified surfaces were thoroughly characterized using atomic force microscopy, electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and angle-resolved X-ray spectroscopy. We demonstrated that no hydride was created during the polarization process. Doxycycline was found to be attached to an oxide layer that was modified during the electrochemical process. A bacterial assay using bioluminescent Staphylococcus epidermidis Xen43 showed the ability of the coating to reduce bacterial colonization and planktonic bacterial growth. - Highlights: • Titanium hydride was found not to be involved in immobilization of doxycycline. • Doxycycline coating was strongly bound to a modified surface oxide layer. • Effect of coatings tested using a dynamic bacteria assay based on bioluminescence. • Topmost layer of adsorbed doxycycline was shown to have strong antibacterial effect.

  6. Electron beam treatments of electrophoretic ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Riccardis, M.F.; Carbone, D.; Piscopiello, E.; Antisari, M. Vittori

    2008-01-01

    In this work a method to densify ceramic coating obtained by electrophoresis and to improve its adhesion to the substrate is proposed. It consists in irradiating the coating surface by electron beam (EB). Alumina and alumina-zirconia coatings were deposited on stainless steel substrates and treated by low power EB. SEM, XRD and TEM characterizations demonstrated that the sintering occurred. Moreover, it is shown that on alumina-zirconia coating the EB irradiation produced a composite material consisting principally of tetragonal zirconia particles immersed in an amorphous alumina matrix. The adhesion stress of EB treated coating was estimated by stud pull test and it was found to be comparable to that of plasma-sprayed coatings

  7. Laser cladding of bioactive glass coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesaña, R; Quintero, F; Lusquiños, F; Pascual, M J; Boutinguiza, M; Durán, A; Pou, J

    2010-03-01

    Laser cladding by powder injection has been used to produce bioactive glass coatings on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) substrates. Bioactive glass compositions alternative to 45S5 Bioglass were demonstrated to exhibit a gradual wetting angle-temperature evolution and therefore a more homogeneous deposition of the coating over the substrate was achieved. Among the different compositions studied, the S520 bioactive glass showed smoother wetting angle-temperature behavior and was successfully used as precursor material to produce bioactive coatings. Coatings processed using a Nd:YAG laser presented calcium silicate crystallization at the surface, with a uniform composition along the coating cross-section, and no significant dilution of the titanium alloy was observed. These coatings maintain similar bioactivity to that of the precursor material as demonstrated by immersion in simulated body fluid. Copyright 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Crystallization of DNA-coated colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Yufeng; Zheng, Xiaolong; Ducrot, Étienne; Yodh, Jeremy S.; Weck, Marcus; Pine, David J.

    2015-01-01

    DNA-coated colloids hold great promise for self-assembly of programmed heterogeneous microstructures, provided they not only bind when cooled below their melting temperature, but also rearrange so that aggregated particles can anneal into the structure that minimizes the free energy. Unfortunately, DNA-coated colloids generally collide and stick forming kinetically arrested random aggregates when the thickness of the DNA coating is much smaller than the particles. Here we report DNA-coated colloids that can rearrange and anneal, thus enabling the growth of large colloidal crystals from a wide range of micrometre-sized DNA-coated colloids for the first time. The kinetics of aggregation, crystallization and defect formation are followed in real time. The crystallization rate exhibits the familiar maximum for intermediate temperature quenches observed in metallic alloys, but over a temperature range smaller by two orders of magnitude, owing to the highly temperature-sensitive diffusion between aggregated DNA-coated colloids. PMID:26078020

  9. Thin low Z coatings for plasma devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norem, J.; Bowers, D.A.

    1978-05-01

    Coating the walls of the vacuum chamber with beryllium or some other low Z material has been proposed as a possible means of solving the problems of high Z influx into plasmas. We attempt to demonstrate that very thin, low Z coatings are compatible with the operation of plasma devices and beneficial to plasma performance. We determine that the thickness of coating material required is only about 10 monolayers. In a radiation environment, radiation-induced solute segregation should help to maintain the integrity of such thin coatings against diffusion and other processes. We discuss the properties of these thin coatings and possible means of in situ application and maintenance. Since deposition of plasma impurities on the walls will occur anyway, we discuss injection of solid pellets into the plasma as a direct way of introducing impurities which would ultimately serve as coating material

  10. Tungsten thick coatings for plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccardi, B.; Pizzuto, A.; Orsini, A.; Libera, S.; Visca, E.; Bertamini, L.; Casadei, F.; Severini, E.; Montanari, R.; Litunovsky, N.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the R and D activity was to realize thick W coatings on CuCrZr hollow bars and to test the mock ups with respect to thermal fatigue. Eight mock ups provided of 4 mm thick W coating were finally manufactured. The bonding integrity between coating and substrate was checked by means of an Ultrasonic apparatus. Characterisation of coatings was performed in order to assess microstructure, impurity content, density, tensile strength, adhesion strength, thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient. Macroscopic residual strain measurements were performed by means of 'hole drilling' technique. The activities performed demonstrated the feasibility of thick Tungsten coatings on geometries with more complex residual strain distribution. These coatings are reliable armour of medium heat flux plasma facing component. (author)

  11. Simulation to coating weight control for galvanizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junsheng; Yan, Zhang; Wu, Kunkui; Song, Lei

    2013-05-01

    Zinc coating weight control is one of the most critical issues for continuous galvanizing line. The process has the characteristic of variable-time large time delay, nonlinear, multivariable. It can result in seriously coating weight error and non-uniform coating. We develop a control system, which can automatically control the air knives pressure and its position to give a constant and uniform zinc coating, in accordance with customer-order specification through an auto-adaptive empirical model-based feed forward adaptive controller, and two model-free adaptive feedback controllers . The proposed models with controller were applied to continuous galvanizing line (CGL) at Angang Steel Works. By the production results, the precise and stability of the control model reduces over-coating weight and improves coating uniform. The product for this hot dip galvanizing line does not only satisfy the customers' quality requirement but also save the zinc consumption.

  12. Cermet coatings for solar Stirling space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Raack, Taylor

    2004-01-01

    Cermet coatings, molecular mixtures of metal and ceramic, are being considered for the heat inlet surface of a solar Stirling space power convertor. The role of the cermet coating is to absorb as much of the incident solar energy as possible. The ability to mix metal and ceramic at the atomic level offers the opportunity to tailor the composition and the solar absorptance of these coatings. Several candidate cermet coatings were created and their solar absorptance was characterized as-manufactured and after exposure to elevated temperatures. Coating composition was purposely varied through the thickness of the coating. As a consequence of changing composition, islands of metal are thought to form in the ceramic matrix. Computer modeling indicated that diffusion of the metal atoms played an important role in island formation while the ceramic was important in locking the islands in place. Much of the solar spectrum is absorbed as it passes through this labyrinth

  13. Microneedle Coating Techniques for Transdermal Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Haj-Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Drug administration via the transdermal route is an evolving field that provides an alternative to oral and parenteral routes of therapy. Several microneedle (MN based approaches have been developed. Among these, coated MNs (typically where drug is deposited on MN tips are a minimally invasive method to deliver drugs and vaccines through the skin. In this review, we describe several processes to coat MNs. These include dip coating, gas jet drying, spray coating, electrohydrodynamic atomisation (EHDA based processes and piezoelectric inkjet printing. Examples of process mechanisms, conditions and tested formulations are provided. As these processes are independent techniques, modifications to facilitate MN coatings are elucidated. In summary, the outcomes and potential value for each technique provides opportunities to overcome formulation or dosage form limitations. While there are significant developments in solid degradable MNs, coated MNs (through the various techniques described have potential to be utilized in personalized drug delivery via controlled deposition onto MN templates.

  14. The application of epoxy resin coating in grounding grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Chen, Z. R.; Xi, L. J.; Wang, X. Y.; Wang, H. F.

    2018-01-01

    Epoxy resin anticorrosion coating is widely used in grounding grid corrosion protection because of its wide range of materials, good antiseptic effect and convenient processing. Based on the latest research progress, four kinds of epoxy anticorrosive coatings are introduced, which are structural modified epoxy coating, inorganic modified epoxy coating, organic modified epoxy coating and polyaniline / epoxy resin composite coating. In this paper, the current research progress of epoxy base coating is analyzed, and prospected the possible development direction of the anti-corrosion coating in the grounding grid, which provides a reference for coating corrosion prevention of grounding materials.

  15. Thermal properties and flame retardancy of an ether-type UV-cured polyurethane coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A new UV-reactive monomer piperazine-N,N′-bis(acryloxyethylaryl-phosphoramidate (N-PBAAP containing phosphorus and nitrogen was synthesized and used as flame retardant for an ether-type UV-cured polyurethane acrylate (PUA coating. The thermal properties of the PUA films were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA in air and nitrogen atmosphere. The TGA results showed that the incorporation of N-PBAAP can obviously enhance the char residue of the PUA coatings. From the TGA and real time Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (RT-FTIR results, different degradation behaviors were observed in the PUA coatings with different N-PBAAP content. The combustibility of the PUA coatings was evaluated by microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC. The MCC results revealed that the addition of NPBAAP in the coatings can significantly reduce the peak Heat Release Rate (pHRR, Heat Release Capacity (HRC and the Total Heat Release (THR of the samples. Furthermore, dynamical mechanical thermal analysis (DMA was employed to examine the viscoelastic properties of the PUA films. It was found that the incorporation of N-PBAAP in the formulation can bring in more functional groups to the coatings, which results in an increase of the glass transition temperature (Tg and cross linking density (XLD of the films.

  16. Origin of Shear Stability and Compressive Ductility Enhancement of Metallic Glasses by Metal Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, B. A.; Chen, S. H.; Lu, Y. M.; Zhu, Z. G.; Zhao, Y. L.; Yang, Y.; Chan, K. C.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    Metallic glasses (MGs) are notorious for the poor macroscopic ductility and to overcome the weakness various intrinsic and extrinsic strategies have been proposed in past decades. Among them, the metal coating is regarded as a flexible and facile approach, yet the physical origin is poorly understood due to the complex nature of shear banding process. Here, we studied the origin of ductile enhancement in the Cu-coating both experimentally and theoretically. By examining serrated shear events and their stability of MGs, we revealed that the thin coating layer plays a key role in stopping the final catastrophic failure of MGs by slowing down shear band dynamics and thus retarding its attainment to a critical instable state. The mechanical analysis on interplay between the coating layer and shear banding process showed the enhanced shear stability mainly comes from the lateral tension of coating layer induced by the surface shear step and the bonding between the coating layer and MGs rather than the layer thickness is found to play a key role in contributing to the shear stability. PMID:27271435

  17. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Standard Cement Materials, Epoxy Coating 4553

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553™ (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Ma...

  18. Cermet Coatings for Solar Stirling Space Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Raack, Taylor

    2004-01-01

    Cermet coatings, molecular mixtures of metal and ceramic are being considered for the heat inlet surface of a solar Stirling space power converter. This paper will discuss the solar absorption characteristics of as-deposited cermet coatings as well as the solar absorption characteristics of the coatings after heating. The role of diffusion and island formation, during the deposition process and during heating will also be discussed.

  19. Biomarkers in white-coat hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Catherine Ann

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in the 1960s provided new insights into the nature of high blood pressure disorders. Blood pressure is now categorised into four quadrants:normotension, masked hypertension, hypertension and white-coat hypertension. In white-coat hypertension blood pressure is elevated when taken at the doctor’s office but normal if taken outside the doctor’s office. Several controversies are associated with white-coat hypertension, which are discuss...

  20. Method to produce catalytically active nanocomposite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent; Urgen, Mustafa; Kazmanli, Kursat

    2016-02-09

    A nanocomposite coating and method of making and using the coating. The nanocomposite coating is disposed on a base material, such as a metal or ceramic; and the nanocomposite consists essentially of a matrix of an alloy selected from the group of Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt and Re which are catalytically active for cracking of carbon bonds in oils and greases and a grain structure selected from the group of borides, carbides and nitrides.

  1. Study of chromate coatings by radioisotope tracing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozda, T.; Maleczki, E.; Farkas, G.

    1984-01-01

    New radioactive tracer methods were developed to determine chromium(III) and total chromium [chromium(III)+chromium(VI)] content simultaneously. They are capable of investigating solutions and the conversion coating itself in the solid phase, respectively. The increase of chromium(III) concentration in the yellow chromate coating, and the chromium(III) to total chromium ratio in the conversion coating were determined as a function of the treating period. (author)

  2. New PVD Technologies for New Ordnance Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    characteristics using a Tantalum and a Chrome target; 4) Deposition of Ta coatings and reactive deposition of CrN; 5) Deposition parameters affecting film...Vapor Deposition (PVD); High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS); Modulated Pulsed Power (MPP); Tantalum; Chrome ; Ta coatings; CrN; coating...The pre-production chemicals and acids are hazardous and hexavalent Cr is a known carcinogen. Significant annual expenditures are necessary to

  3. Testing of coatings for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, G.

    1977-01-01

    Commercial scale nuclear power generating plant coatings must be able to withstand simultaneous exposure both to high humidity, and to cumulative radiation dosage, at elevated temperatures, for the design life of the plant. The coatings must be decontaminable by means other than by stripping, that is, actual physical removal, and must be of sufficient durability to withstand projected conditions of a loss of coolant accident. Tests to show that coatings are expected to do more than retard corrosion and erosion are described

  4. Heat-resistant hydrophobic-oleophobic coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Uyanik, Mehmet; Arpac, Ertugrul; Schmidt, Helmut K.; Akarsu, Murat; Sayilkan, Funda; Sayilkan, Hikmet

    2006-01-01

    Thermally and chemically durable hydrophobic oleophobic coatings, containing different ceramic particles such as SiO2, SiC, Al 2O3, which can be alternative instead of Teflon, have been developed and applied on the aluminum substrates by spin-coating method. Polyimides, which are high-thermal resistant heteroaromatic polymers, were synthesized, and fluor oligomers were added to these polymers to obtain hydrophobic-oleophobic properties. After coating, Al surface was subjected to Taber-abrasio...

  5. Surface coatings deposited by CVD and PVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, H.M.

    1982-01-01

    The demand for wear and corrosion protective coatings is increasing due to economic facts. Deposition processes in gas atmospheres like the CVD and PVD processes attained a tremendous importance especially in the field of the deposition of thin hard refractory and ceramic coatings. CVD and PVD processes are reviewed in detail. Some examples of coating installations are shown and numerous applications are given to demonstrate the present state of the art. (orig.) [de

  6. Method to produce catalytically active nanocomposite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdemir, Ali; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent; Urgen, Mustafa; Kazmanli, Kursat

    2017-12-19

    A nanocomposite coating and method of making and using the coating. The nanocomposite coating is disposed on a base material, such as a metal or ceramic; and the nanocomposite consists essentially of a matrix of an alloy selected from the group of Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt and Re which are catalytically active for cracking of carbon bonds in oils and greases and a grain structure selected from the group of borides, carbides and nitrides.

  7. Cold-Sprayed AZ91D Coating and SiC/AZ91D Composite Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As an emerging coating building technique, cold spraying has many advantages to elaborate Mg alloy workpieces. In this study, AZ91D coatings and AZ91D-based composite coatings were deposited using cold spraying. Coatings were prepared using different gas temperatures to obtain the available main gas temperature. Compressed air was used as the accelerating gas, and although magnesium alloy is oxidation-sensitive, AZ91D coatings with good performance were obtained. The results show that dense coatings can be fabricated until the gas temperature is higher than 500 °C. The deposition efficiency increases greatly with the gas temperature, but it is lower than 10% for all coating specimens. To analyze the effects of compressed air on AZ91D powder particles and the effects of gas temperature on coatings, the phase composition, porosity, cross-sectional microstructure, and microhardness of coatings were characterized. X-ray diffraction and oxygen content analysis clarified that no phase transformation or oxidation occurred on AZ91D powder particles during cold spraying processes with compressed air. The porosity of AZ91D coatings remained between 3.6% and 3.9%. Impact melting was found on deformed AZ91D particles when the gas temperature increased to 550 °C. As-sprayed coatings exhibit much higher microhardness than as-casted bulk magnesium, demonstrating the dense structure of cold-sprayed coatings. To study the effects of ceramic particles on cold-sprayed AZ91D coatings, 15 vol % SiC powder particles were added into the feedstock powder. Lower SiC content in the coating than in the feedstock powder means that the deposition efficiency of the SiC powder particles is lower than the deposition efficiency of AZ91D particles. The addition of SiC particles reduces the porosity and increases the microhardness of cold-sprayed AZ91D coatings. The corrosion behavior of AZ91D coating and SiC reinforced AZ91D composite coating were examined. The Si

  8. ANALISIS STRUKTUR MIKRO LAPISAN BOND COAT NIAL THERMAL BARRIER COATING (TBC PADA PADUAN LOGAM BERBASIS CO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toto Sudiro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kehandalan dan umur pakai sistem Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC ditentukan oleh kestabilan lapisan bond coat dan thermal grown oxide (TGO. Sehingga sangatlah penting untuk memahami mekanisme pembentukan dan degradasi lapisan ini. Pada makalah ini akan dibahas analisis struktur mikro lapisan bond coat NiAl yang dideposisikan pada substrat CoCrNi dengan menggunakan gabungan metoda electroplating dan pack-cementation. Pada makalah ini juga dibahas mekanisme pembentukan void disepanjang interface bond coat¬-substrat setelah tes oksidasi.

  9. Comparison of TiC coating and TD coating in actual application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.K.; Yoo, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Large blocks of SKD-11 were treated by CVD-TiC coating process, TD coating process, TD coating process after vacuum heat treating, and vacuum heat treating. Amount of deformation was measured and compared to find the process which gives the least deformation. Wear tests were carried out for specimens treated by each process. Application of CVD-TiC and TD coating to the automotive press mold was studied

  10. Coatings for the NuSTAR mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen; Brejnholt, Nicolai

    2011-01-01

    The NuSTAR mission will be the first mission to carry a hard X-ray(5-80 keV) focusing telescope to orbit. The optics are based on the use of multilayer coated thin slumped glass. Two different material combinations were used for the flight optics, namely W/Si and Pt/C. In this paper we describe...... the entire coating effort including the final coating design that was used for the two flight optics. We also present data on the performance verification of the coatings both on Si witness samples as well as on individual flight mirrors....

  11. Localized plasmons in graphene-coated nanospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Wubs, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    We present an analytical derivation of the electromagnetic response of a spherical object coated by a conductive film, here exemplified by a graphene coating. Applying the framework of Mie-Lorenz theory augmented to account for a conductive boundary condition, we derive the multipole scattering...... for the localized plasmons. We consider graphene coatings of both dielectric and conducting spheres, where the graphene coating in the former case introduces the plasmons and in the latter case modifies in interesting ways the existing ones. Finally, we discuss our analytical results in the context of extinction...

  12. Induction surface hardening of hard coated steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Kessler, Olaf; Hoffmann, Franz

    1999-01-01

    The deposition of hard coatings with CVD-processes is commonly used to improve the wear resistance e.g. of tool steels in forming. The advantages of CVD are undisputed (high deposition rates with simple equipment, excellent coating properties). Nevertheless, the disadvantage of the CVD-process is......The deposition of hard coatings with CVD-processes is commonly used to improve the wear resistance e.g. of tool steels in forming. The advantages of CVD are undisputed (high deposition rates with simple equipment, excellent coating properties). Nevertheless, the disadvantage of the CVD...

  13. High speed PVD thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beele, W. [Sulzer Metco Coatings BV (Netherlands); Eschendorff, G. [Sulzer Metco Coatings BV (Netherlands); Eldim BV (Netherlands)

    2006-07-15

    The high speed PVD process (HS-PVD) combines gas phase coating synthesis with high deposition rates. The process has been demonstrated for high purity YSZ deposited as a chemically bonded top thermal barrier with columnar structure of EB-PVD features. The process can manufacture EB-PVD like coatings that match in regards to their TGO-formation and columnar structure. Coatings with a columnar structure formed by individual columns of 1/4 of the diameter of a classical EB-PVD type TBC have been deposited. These coatings have the potential to prove a significant reduction in thermal conductivity and in erosion performance. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Inorganic precursor peroxides for antifouling coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.M.; Pedersen, L.T.; Hermann, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Modern antifouling coatings are generally based on cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and organic biocides as active ingredients. Cu2O is prone to bioaccumulation, and should therefore be replaced by more environmentally benign compounds when technically possible. However, cuprous oxide does not only provide...... antifouling properties, it is also a vital ingredient for the antifouling coating to obtain its polishing and leaching mechanism. In this paper, peroxides of strontium, calcium, magnesium, and zinc are tested as pigments in antifouling coatings. The peroxides react with seawater to create hydrogen peroxide...... matrix provides antifouling properties exceeding those of a similar coating based entirely on zinc oxide....

  15. Silica-Coated Liposomes for Insulin Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Dwivedi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Liposomes coated with silica were explored as protein delivery vehicles for their enhanced stability and improved encapsulation efficiency. Insulin was encapsulated within the fluidic phosphatidylcholine lipid vesicles by thin film hydration at pH 2.5, and layer of silica was formed above lipid bilayer by acid catalysis. The presence of silica coating and encapsulated insulin was identified using confocal and electron microscopy. The native state of insulin present in the formulation was evident from Confocal Micro-Raman spectroscopy. Silica coat enhances the stability of insulin-loaded delivery vehicles. In vivo study shows that these silica coated formulations were biologically active in reducing glucose levels.

  16. Coated particles for lithium battery cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Pratt, Russell Clayton; Mullin, Scott Allen; Wang, Xiao-Liang

    2017-07-18

    Particles of cathodic materials are coated with polymer to prevent direct contact between the particles and the surrounding electrolyte. The polymers are held in place either by a) growing the polymers from initiators covalently bound to the particle, b) attachment of the already-formed polymers by covalently linking to functional groups attached to the particle, or c) electrostatic interactions resulting from incorporation of cationic or anionic groups in the polymer chain. Carbon or ceramic coatings may first be formed on the surfaces of the particles before the particles are coated with polymer. The polymer coating is both electronically and ionically conductive.

  17. Cermet coatings for magnetic fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.F.; Whitley, J.B.; McDonald, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Cermet coatings consisting of SiC particles in an aluminum matrix were produced by a low pressure chamber plasma spray process. Properties of these coatings are being investigated to evaluate their suitability for use in the next generation of magnetic confinement fusion reactors. Although this preliminary study has focused primarily upon SiC-Al cermets, the deposition process can be adapted to other ceramic-metal combinations. Potential applications for cermet coatings in magnetic fusion devices are presented along with experimental results from thermal tests of candidate coatings. (Auth.)

  18. Biomedical coatings on magnesium alloys - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, H; Virtanen, S; Boccaccini, A R

    2012-07-01

    This review comprehensively covers research carried out in the field of degradable coatings on Mg and Mg alloys for biomedical applications. Several coating methods are discussed, which can be divided, based on the specific processing techniques used, into conversion and deposition coatings. The literature review revealed that in most cases coatings increase the corrosion resistance of Mg and Mg alloys. The critical factors determining coating performance, such as corrosion rate, surface chemistry, adhesion and coating morphology, are identified and discussed. The analysis of the literature showed that many studies have focused on calcium phosphate coatings produced either using conversion or deposition methods which were developed for orthopaedic applications. However, the control of phases and the formation of cracks still appear unsatisfactory. More research and development is needed in the case of biodegradable organic based coatings to generate reproducible and relevant data. In addition to biocompatibility, the mechanical properties of the coatings are also relevant, and the development of appropriate methods to study the corrosion process in detail and in the long term remains an important area of research. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optical coatings for laser fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.; Milam, D.; Rainer, F.

    1980-01-01

    Lasers for fusion experiments use thin-film dielectric coatings for reflecting, antireflecting and polarizing surface elements. Coatings are most important to the Nd:glass laser application. The most important requirements of these coatings are accuracy of the average value of reflectance and transmission, uniformity of amplitude and phase front of the reflected or transmitted light, and laser damage threshold. Damage resistance strongly affects the laser's design and performance. The success of advanced lasers for future experiments and for reactor applications requires significant developments in damage resistant coatings for ultraviolet laser radiation

  20. Adhesion of Zinc Hot-dip Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is focused on verification of quality adhesion of zinc coating. It describes elements which affect quality and adhesive solidity within the coating. For assessment itself it will be neccessary to get know the basic elements which can affect adhesion of hot-dip coating which will be essential for choosing suitable samples for verification itself. These elements characterise acoustic responses during delamination coating. They affect elements influencing progress of signal. In research there is also a summary of existing methods for testing adhesion of coatings. As a result a new proposal of a new method comes out for purpose of quality testing of adhesion zinc hot-dip coating. The results of verification of this method are put to scientific analysis and findings lead to assessment of proposed method and its application in technical practise.The goal of this contribution is also include to proposed methodology testing adhesion zinc coating by nondestructive diagnostic method of acoustic emission (AE, which would monitor characterise progress of coating delamination of hot-dip zinc from basic material in way to adhesion tests would be practicable in situ. It can be enabled by analysis and assessment of results acquired by method AE and its application within verification of new method of adhesion anti-corrosive zinc coating.

  1. Development of High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhattacharya, Rabi

    1999-01-01

    ... environment. To test this approach, UES and Cleveland State University have conducted experiments to form cesium oxythiotungstate, a high temperature lubricant, on Inconel 718 surface from composite coatings...

  2. Degradation Mechanisms of Military Coating Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keene, L. T; Halada, G. P; Clayton, C. R; Kosik, W. E; McKnight, S. H

    2004-01-01

    This work describes the development and application of specialized characterization techniques used to study the environmental degradation mechanisms of organic coating systems employed by the United...

  3. Nanostructured diamond coatings for orthopaedic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    CATLEDGE, S.A.; THOMAS, V.; VOHRA, Y.K.

    2013-01-01

    With increasing numbers of orthopaedic devices being implanted, greater emphasis is being placed on ceramic coating technology to reduce friction and wear in mating total joint replacement components, in order to improve implant function and increase device lifespan. In this chapter, we consider ultra-hard carbon coatings, with emphasis on nanostructured diamond, as alternative bearing surfaces for metallic components. Such coatings have great potential for use in biomedical implants as a result of their extreme hardness, wear resistance, low friction and biocompatibility. These ultra-hard carbon coatings can be deposited by several techniques resulting in a wide variety of structures and properties. PMID:25285213

  4. Electrodeposited zinc/nickel coatings. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoeib, Madiha A. [Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan, Cairo (Egypt). Surface Coating Dept.

    2011-10-15

    In recent years, the use of electrodeposited zinc-nickel coatings has significantly increased, mainly because of their superior corrosion resistance as compared with zinc. An additional strength of the process is that the proportion of the two metals, and thus the coating properties, can be varied. Initially, these alloy deposits were relatively brittle, with a tendency to crack-formation. More recently, ductile coatings have been developed. Now, as in the past, the emphasis has been on the cathodic corrosion protection which these coatings provide. Their properties can be further enhanced by post-treatment where additional developments have taken place. (orig.)

  5. High speed PVD thermal barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beele, W.; Eschendorff, G.

    2006-01-01

    The high speed PVD process (HS-PVD) combines gas phase coating synthesis with high deposition rates. The process has been demonstrated for high purity YSZ deposited as a chemically bonded top thermal barrier with columnar structure of EB-PVD features. The process can manufacture EB-PVD like coatings that match in regards to their TGO-formation and columnar structure. Coatings with a columnar structure formed by individual columns of 1/4 of the diameter of a classical EB-PVD type TBC have been deposited. These coatings have the potential to prove a significant reduction in thermal conductivity and in erosion performance. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Fluidization control in the wurster coating process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    el Mafadi Samira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Paniculate coating process in a fluidized bed involves different sub processes including particle wetting, spreading and also consolidation or drying of the coating applied. These sub processes are done simultaneously to particle fluidization and motion. All the parameters of fluidization are known to affect the coating quality. That is why the motion of particles in the Wurster coating process has been observed and described step by step. These observations have achieved a general understanding of phenomena which take place inside the bed during fluidization and have allowed the development of an easy method for optimizing all the parameters affecting this operation.

  7. Hydroxyapatite/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) double coating on magnesium for enhanced corrosion resistance and coating flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Ji-Hoon; Li, Yuanlong; Kim, Sae-Mi; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Koh, Young-Hag

    2013-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite was deposited on pure magnesium (Mg) with a flexible poly(ε-caprolactone) interlayer to reduce the corrosion rate of Mg and enhance coating flexibility. The poly(ε-caprolactone) interlayer was uniformly coated on Mg by a spraying method, followed by hydroxyapatite deposition on the poly(ε-caprolactone) using an aerosol deposition method. In scanning electron microscopy observations, inorganic/organic composite-like structure was observed between the hydroxyapatite and poly(ε-caprolactone) layers, resulting from the collisions of hydroxyapatite particles into the poly(ε-caprolactone) matrix at the initial stage of the aerosol deposition. The corrosion resistance of the coated Mg was examined using potentiodynamic polarization tests. The hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) double coating remarkably improved the corrosion resistance of Mg in Hank's solution. In the in vitro cell tests, the coated Mg showed better cell adhesion compared with the bare Mg due to the reduced corrosion rate and enhanced biocompatibility. The stability and flexibility of hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) double coating was investigated by scanning electron microscopy inspections after the coated Mg was deformed. The hydroxyapatite coating on the poly(ε-caprolactone) interlayer revealed enhanced coating stability and flexibility without cracking or delamination during bending and stretching compared with the hydroxyapatite single coating. These results demonstrated that the hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) double coating significantly improved the surface corrosion resistance of Mg and enhanced coating flexibility for use of Mg as a biodegradable implant.

  8. Quality of Coated Particles : Physical - Mechanical Characterization of Polymeric Film Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perfetti, G.

    2012-01-01

    All coated particle producers, when applying the coating layer(s) would like to know precisely what is the best coating system to use in order to answer customer’s requests. It is, therefore, of very high relevance for many industries, to have a clear understanding of what are the parameters I need

  9. Quantitative Image Analysis for Evaluating the Coating Thickness and Pore Distribution in Coated Small Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laksmana, F.L.; Van Vliet, L.J.; Hartman Kok, P.J.A.; Vromans, H.; Frijlink, H.W.; Van der Voort Maarschalk, K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to develop a characterization method for coating structure based on image analysis, which is particularly promising for the rational design of coated particles in the pharmaceutical industry. Methods The method applies the MATLAB image processing toolbox to images of coated

  10. Quantitative Image Analysis for Evaluating the Coating Thickness and Pore Distribution in Coated Small Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laksmana, F L; Van Vliet, L J; Hartman Kok, P J A; Vromans, H; Frijlink, H W; Van der Voort Maarschalk, K

    This study aims to develop a characterization method for coating structure based on image analysis, which is particularly promising for the rational design of coated particles in the pharmaceutical industry. The method applies the MATLAB image processing toolbox to images of coated particles taken

  11. Mathematical modeling of photoinitiated coating degradation: Effects of coating glass transition temperature and light stabilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; G.de With, R.A.T.M.Van Benthem

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical model, describing coating degradation mechanisms of thermoset coatings exposed to ultraviolet radiation and humidity at constant temperature, was extended to simulate the behavior of a coating with a low glass transition temperature. The effects of adding light stabilizers (a UV...

  12. Effect of coating parameters on the microstructure of cerium oxide conversion coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Benedict Y.; Edington, Joe; O' Keefe, Matthew J

    2003-11-25

    The microstructure and morphology of cerium oxide conversion coatings prepared under different deposition conditions were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The coatings were formed by a spontaneous reaction between a water-based solution containing CeCl{sub 3} and aluminum alloy 7075-T6 substrates. Microstructural characterization was performed to determine the crystallinity of the coatings and to obtain a better understanding of the deposition parameters on coating microstructure. The results of TEM imaging and electron diffraction analysis indicated that the as-deposited coating was composed of nanocrystalline particles of a previously unreported cerium compound. The particles of the coatings produced using glycerol as an additive were found to be much finer than those of the coatings prepared in the absence of glycerol. This indicates that glycerol may act as a grain refiner and/or growth inhibitor during coating deposition. After deposition, the coated panels were treated for 5 min in a phosphate sealing solution. The sealing treatment converted the as-deposited coating into hydrated cerium phosphate. Panels coated from solutions containing no glycerol followed by phosphate sealing performed poorly in salt fog tests. With glycerol addition, the corrosion resistance of the coatings that were phosphate sealed improved considerably, achieving an average passing rate of 85%.

  13. Demonstration and Validation of Two Coat High Performance Coating System for Steel Structures in Corrosive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Many of these steel buildings and equipment are tradi- tionally painted with an alkyd enamel or waterborne coating for a top coat. These paint systems...bridging minor cracks or for surfaces that have vi- bration and/or movement. These qualities are necessary in a barrier coat- ing primer for it to remain

  14. Tuning roughness and gloss of powder coating paint by encapsulating the coating particles with thin Al

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valdesueiro, David; Hettinga, Hans; Drijfhout, Jan Pieter; Lips, Priscilla; Meesters, G.M.H.; Kreutzer, M.T.; van Ommen, J.R.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we report a method to change the surface finish of a standard polyester-based powder coating paint, from gloss to matt, by depositing ultrathin films of Al2O3 on the powder coating particles. The coating experiments were performed in a fluidized bed reactor at

  15. Fuel particle coating data. [Detailed information on coating runs at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollabaugh, C.M.; Wagner, P.; Wahman, L.A.; White, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    Development of coating on nuclear fuel particles for the High-Temperature Fuels Technology program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory included process studies for low-density porous and high-density isotropic carbon coats, and for ZrC and ''alloy'' C/ZrC coats. This report documents the data generated by these studies.

  16. Microstructural evolution of cold-sprayed Inconel 625 superalloy coatings on low alloy steel substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Atanu; Raghupathy, Y.; Srinivasan, Dheepa; Suwas, Satyam; Srivastava, Chandan

    2017-01-01

    This study illustrates microstructural evolution of INCONEL 625 superalloy coatings cold-sprayed on a 4130 chrome alloy steel with medium carbon content. INCONEL 625 powder (5–25 μm) were successfully cold sprayed without any oxidation. The comprehensive microstructure analysis of the as-sprayed coatings and of the substrate-coating interface was carried out using EBSD, TEM, and XRD. The coating microstructure at the substrate-coating interface was markedly different from the microstructure away from the interface. The coating microstructure at steel-coating interface consisted of a fine layer of small grains. The microstructure beyond this fine layer can be divided into splats, inter splat and intra splat boundaries. Both splat and splat boundaries exhibited deformation induced dislocations. Dynamic recovery of dislocations-ridden regions inside the splat was responsible for the development of sub grain structure inside a splat with both low and high angle grain boundaries. Splat-splat (inter splat) boundary consisted of a relatively high density of dislocations and shear bands as a result of adiabatic shear flow localisation. This flow instability is believed to enhance the microstructural integrity by eliminating porosity at splat-splat boundaries. Based on the microstructural analysis using electron microscopy, a plausible mechanism for the development of microstructure has been proposed in this work. Cold spray technique can thus be deployed to develop high quality coatings of commercial importance. - Graphical abstract: Schematics of the evolution of microstructure at the 4130 steel substrate close to interface. i) initial deformation close to interface. ii) Accumulation of dislocation in the substrate. iii) Formation of cell structure due to dislocation tangling and arrangement. iv) Dislocation rearrangement and subgrain formation. v.a) Formation HAGB from dislocation accumulation into LAGB. v.b) HAGB formation through DRX by progressive lattice rotation

  17. Interaction of phosphorylcholine with fibronectin coatings: Surface characterization and biological performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montaño-Machado, Vanessa, E-mail: vanessa.montano-machado.1@ulaval.ca [Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Dept. of Min-Met-Materials Eng., & University Hospital Research Center, Laval University, University Campus, PLT-1745G, Québec, Québec, G1 V 0A6 (Canada); ERRMECe, University of Cergy-Pontoise, Site Saint-Martin, 2 Avenue Adolphe Chauvin, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Noël, Céline, E-mail: celine.noel@unamur.be [Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Université de Namur, 61 rue de Bruxelles, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Chevallier, Pascale, E-mail: pascale.chevallier@crchudequebec.ulaval.ca [Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Dept. of Min-Met-Materials Eng., & University Hospital Research Center, Laval University, University Campus, PLT-1745G, Québec, Québec, G1 V 0A6 (Canada); Turgeon, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.turgeon@crchudequebec.ulaval.ca [Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Dept. of Min-Met-Materials Eng., & University Hospital Research Center, Laval University, University Campus, PLT-1745G, Québec, Québec, G1 V 0A6 (Canada); Houssiau, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.houssiau@unamur.be [Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Université de Namur, 61 rue de Bruxelles, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Pauthe, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.pauthe@u-cergy.fr [ERRMECe, University of Cergy-Pontoise, Site Saint-Martin, 2 Avenue Adolphe Chauvin, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); and others

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Fibronectin/phosphorylcholine coatings on plasma deposited fluorocarbon films were created. • The effect of several coating techniques on the surface biological performances was evaluated. • XPS, DWCA, immunostaining and ToF-SIMS (imaging and depth profiling) techniques were applied. • Potential for cardiovascular applications was showed by endothelial cell and blood interactions. - Abstract: Coating medical devices with several bioactive molecules is an interesting approach to achieve specific biological targets upon the interaction of the biomaterial with the living environment. In this work, a fluorocarbon polymer (CF{sub x}) was first deposited by plasma treatment on stainless steel (SS) substrate and thereafter, coatings containing fibronectin (FN) and phosphorylcholine (PRC) were created for cardiovascular applications. These two biomolecules were chosen to promote endothelialization and to avoid thrombus formation, respectively. Adsorption and grafting techniques were applied – and combined – to accomplish 4 different coatings containing both molecules. However, big challenge was found to characterize a small molecule (PRC: 184 g/mol) interacting with a protein (FN: 450 kD). For the first time XPS, dynamic water contact angle, immunostaining and ToF-SIMS (imaging and depth profiling) analyses were combined to accomplish the characterization of such a coating. The most encouraging biological performances were obtained for samples where FN was grafted to the CF{sub x} film followed by the adsorption of PRC: proliferation of endothelial cells and hemocompatibility properties were observed. Promising coatings for cardiovascular applications were developed. The relevance of characterizing the coatings with high sensitive techniques and the further correlation with their biological performances were evidenced.

  18. Topology optimization for coated structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Andreassen, Erik; Sigmund, Ole

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents new results within the design of three-dimensional (3D) coated structures using topology optimization.The work is an extension of a recently published two-dimensional (2D) method for including coatedstructures into the minimum compliance topology optimization problem. The high...... level of control over key parameters demonstrated for the 2D model can likewise be achieved in 3D. The effectiveness of the approach isdemonstrated with numerical examples, which for the 3D problems have been solved using a parallel topology optimization implementation based on the PETSc toolkit....

  19. Testing Cadmium-Free Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    Secretary of Defense Directive • “Approve the use of alternatives [to hexavalent chromium (Cr6+)] where they can perform adequately for the intended...Effect of corrosion on breakaway torque 12 OPSEC approved for public release Fastener Finish Study FINISH POST-TREATMENT LUBRICANT Cadmium Hexavalent ...Past Testing Electrical Connectors Coatings Al / TCP ZnNi / TCP ZnNi / Non- Chrome Passivation (NCP) Ni-PTFE 1 Ni-PTFE 2 Note: SnZn tested on flat

  20. Underwater Coatings for Contamination Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann-Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell

    2004-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is deactivating several fuel storage basins. Airborne contamination is a concern when the sides of the basins are exposed and allowed to dry during water removal. One way of controlling this airborne contamination is to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls are still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market that are used in marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives are easily applied and adhere well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INEEL fuel pools. The four pools considered included (1) Test Area North (TAN-607) with epoxy painted concrete walls; (2) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (CPP-603) with bare concrete walls; (3) Materials Test Reactor (MTR) Canal with stainless steel lined concrete walls; and (4) Power Burst Facility (PBF-620) with stainless steel lined concrete walls on the bottom and epoxy painted carbon steel lined walls on the upper portions. Therefore, the four materials chosen for testing included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The typical water temperature of the pools varies from 55 F to 80 F dependent on the pool and the season. These tests were done at room temperature. The following criteria were used during this evaluation. The underwater coating must: (1) Be easy to apply; (2) Adhere well to the four surfaces of interest; (3) Not change or have a negative impact on water chemistry or clarity; (4) Not be hazardous in final applied form; and (5) Be proven in other underwater applications. In addition, it is desirable for the coating to have a high pigment or high cross-link density to prevent radiation from penetrating. This paper will detail the testing completed and the test results. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates